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Sample records for str motifs previously

  1. Flanking region variation of ForenSeq™ DNA Signature Prep Kit STR and SNP loci in Yavapai Native Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Frank R; King, Jonathan L; Novroski, Nicole M M; Churchill, Jennifer D; Ng, Jillian; Oldt, Robert F; McCulloh, Kelly L; Weise, Jessica A; Smith, David Glenn; Kanthaswamy, Sreetharan; Budowle, Bruce

    2017-05-01

    Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) offers advantages over current capillary electrophoresis-based analysis of short tandem repeat (STR) loci for human identification testing. In particular STR repeat motif sequence information can be obtained, thereby increasing the discrimination power of some loci. While sequence variation within the repeat region is observed relatively frequently in some of the commonly used STRs, there is an additional degree of variation found in the flanking regions adjacent to the repeat motif. Repeat motif and flanking region sequence variation have been described for major population groups, however, not for more isolated populations. Flanking region sequence variation in STR and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci in the Yavapai population was analyzed using the ForenSeq™ DNA Signature Prep Kit and STRait Razor v2s. Seven and 14 autosomal STRs and identity-informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (iiSNPs), respectively, had some degree of flanking region variation. Three and four of these identity-informative loci, respectively, showed ≥5% increase in expected heterozygosity. The combined length- and sequence-based random match probabilities (RMPs) for 27 autosomal STRs were 6.11×10 -26 and 2.79×10 -29 , respectively. When combined with 94 iiSNPs (a subset of which became microhaplotypes) the combined RMP was 5.49×10 -63 . Analysis of length-based and sequence-based autosomal STRs in STRUCTURE indicated that the Yavapai are most similar to the Hispanic population. While producing minimal increase in X- and Y-STR discrimination potential, access to flanking region data enabled identification of one novel X-STR and three Y-STR alleles relative to previous reports. Five ancestry-informative SNPs (aiSNPs) and two phenotype-informative SNPs (piSNPs) exhibited notable flanking region variation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Antiproton Stråleterapi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassler, Niels

    omkringliggende normalvæv sammenlignet med konventionel strålebehandling eller IMRT. Højenergetiske antiprotoner opfører sig som protoner under nedbremsning i vævet. Når antiprotonen er fuldstændigt nedbremset indfanges den af en kerne og annihilerer med en nucleon herfra. Derved frigives hvilemasseenergien på 2...

  3. Davis Strædet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Råstofdirektoratet planlægger at udbyde flere licensområder med henblik på efterforskning og udvinding af olie og gas i den grønlandske del af Davis Stræde. Som en del af beslutningsgrundlaget har Råstofdirektoratet bedt DCE – Nationalt Center for Miljø og Energi og Grønlands Naturinstitut om at ...

  4. Mutation Rates of STR Systems in Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kim Emil; Bøttcher, Susanne Gammelgaard; Christensen, Susanne

    Danish paternity cases in the period 1999 to 2005 were investigated regarding mutation rates in STR loci. STR-typing was performed by the Applied Biosystems AmplfStr Profiler Plus kit in the period 1999 to early 2005, hereafter named the PP9, and by Applied Biosystems AmplfStr Identifier kit...... for the rest of 2005, hereafter named the IDFL. All cases with one to four genetic inconsistencies were manually inspected by two forensic geneticists and statistically analyzed by five statisticians. We found no significant effect of kits and no interaction of kits and STRA loci, but differences in mutation...... rates on different STR loci. In the cases where mutations had occured, we found no interaction between kits, STRA loci or sexes. However, we found differences in the mutation rates between the sexes, meaning that the differences in male and female mutation rates can be assumed constant over STR loci...

  5. BliStrTune: Hierarchical Invention of Theorem Proving Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Jakubuv, Jan; Urban, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Inventing targeted proof search strategies for specific problem sets is a difficult task. State-of-the-art automated theorem provers (ATPs) such as E allow a large number of user-specified proof search strategies described in a rich domain specific language. Several machine learning methods that invent strategies automatically for ATPs were proposed previously. One of them is the Blind Strategymaker (BliStr), a system for automated invention of ATP strategies. In this paper we introduce BliSt...

  6. Pengembangan Motif Batik Khas Bali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfa'ina Rohana Salma

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAKIndustri batik berkembang pesat di Bali, namun motif-motif batiknya tidak mencerminkan identitas khas daerah. Oleh karena itu perlu diciptakan desain motif batik khas Bali yang sumber inspirasinya digali budaya dan alam Bali. Tujuan penelitian dan penciptaan seni ini adalah untuk menghasilkan motif batik yang mempunyai bentuk  unik dan karakteristik sehingga dapat mencerminkan budaya dan alam Bali. Metode yang digunakan yaitu pengumpulan data, perancangan motif, perwujudan menjadi batik, serta uji estetikanya. Dari penciptaan seni ini berhasil diciptakan 5 motif batik yaitu: (1 Motif Jepun Alit; (2 Motif Jepun Ageng; (3 Motif Sekar Jagad Bali; (4 Motif Teratai Banji; dan (5 Motif Poleng Biru. Berdasarkan hasil penilaian “Selera Estetika” diketahui bahwa motif yang paling banyak disukai adalah Motif Jepun Alit, Motif Sekar Jagad Bali,  dan Motif Teratai Banji. Kata kunci: Motif Jepun Alit, Motif Jepun Ageng, Motif Sekar Jagad Bali, Motif Teratai Banji, Motif Poleng Biru ABSTRACT Batik industry is growing rapidly in Bali, but its batik motifs do not reflect the typical regional identities. Therefore, it is necessary to create a distinctive design motif source of Bali excavated  from the repertoire of traditional Balinese arts and culture. The purpose of this research and its art creation is to produce batik motifs that have a unique shape and characteristics  to reflect the Balinese culture and natural surroundings. The method used by gathering and collecting data, designing motifs to  become the embodiment of batik. From the creation of this art had been created 5 motifs, namely: (1 Motif Jepun Alit; (2 Motif Jepun Ageng; (3 Motif Sekar Jagad Bali; (4 Motif Teratai Banji; and (5 Motif Poleng Biru. Based on the results of aesthetical assessment known that the most preferred motif are  Motif Jepun Alit, Motif Sekar Jagad Bali, and Motif Teratai Banji. Key words: Motif Jepun Alit, Motif Jepun Ageng, Motif Sekar Jagad Bali, Motif

  7. FastMotif: spectral sequence motif discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Nicoló; Vlassis, Nikos

    2015-08-15

    Sequence discovery tools play a central role in several fields of computational biology. In the framework of Transcription Factor binding studies, most of the existing motif finding algorithms are computationally demanding, and they may not be able to support the increasingly large datasets produced by modern high-throughput sequencing technologies. We present FastMotif, a new motif discovery algorithm that is built on a recent machine learning technique referred to as Method of Moments. Based on spectral decompositions, our method is robust to model misspecifications and is not prone to locally optimal solutions. We obtain an algorithm that is extremely fast and designed for the analysis of big sequencing data. On HT-Selex data, FastMotif extracts motif profiles that match those computed by various state-of-the-art algorithms, but one order of magnitude faster. We provide a theoretical and numerical analysis of the algorithm's robustness and discuss its sensitivity with respect to the free parameters. The Matlab code of FastMotif is available from http://lcsb-portal.uni.lu/bioinformatics. vlassis@adobe.com Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Identification of variant alleles at AmpFlSTR SGM Plus STR loci in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-20

    Oct 20, 2008 ... It is therefore important that forensic science community shares information on the occurrence of these variants and reduces complications during STR typing. In this study, we report 5 variant alleles at AmpFlSTR SGM. Plus loci in a sample population of Bangladesh. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Samples ...

  9. Determining Y-STR mutation rates in deep-routing genealogies: Identification of haplogroup differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claerhout, Sofie; Vandenbosch, Michiel; Nivelle, Kelly; Gruyters, Leen; Peeters, Anke; Larmuseau, Maarten H D; Decorte, Ronny

    2018-05-01

    Knowledge of Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat (Y-STR) mutation rates is essential to determine the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) in familial searching or genealogy research. Up to now, locus-specific mutation rates have been extensively examined especially for commercially available forensic Y-STRs, while haplogroup specific mutation rates have not yet been investigated in detail. Through 450 patrilineally related namesakes distributed over 212 deep-rooting genealogies, the individual mutation rates of 42 Y-STR loci were determined, including 27 forensic Y-STR loci from the Yfiler ® Plus kit and 15 additional Y-STR loci (DYS388, DYS426, DYS442, DYS447, DYS454, DYS455, DYS459a/b, DYS549, DYS607, DYS643, DYS724a/b and YCAIIa/b). At least 726 mutations were observed over 148,596 meiosis and individual Y-STR mutation rates varied from 2.83 × 10 -4 to 1.86 × 10 -2 . The mutation rate was significantly correlated with the average allele size, the complexity of the repeat motif sequence and the age of the father. Significant differences in average Y-STR mutations rates were observed when haplogroup 'I & J' (4.03 × 10 -3 mutations/generation) was compared to 'R1b' (5.35 × 10 -3 mutations/generation) and to the overall mutation rate (5.03 × 10 -3 mutations/generation). A difference in allele size distribution was identified as the only cause for these haplogroup specific mutation rates. The haplogroup specific mutation rates were also present within the commercially available Y-STR kits (Yfiler ® , PowerPlex ® Y23 System and Yfiler ® Plus). This observation has consequences for applications where an average Y-STR mutation rate is used, e.g. tMRCA estimations in familial searching and genealogy research. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Cluster analysis of European Y-chromosomal STR haplotypes using the discrete Laplace method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikkel Meyer; Eriksen, Poul Svante; Morling, Niels

    2014-01-01

    method can be used for cluster analysis to further validate the discrete Laplace method. A very important practical fact is that the calculations can be performed on a normal computer. We identified two sub-clusters of the Eastern and Western European Y-STR haplotypes similar to results of previous......The European Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat (STR) haplotype distribution has previously been analysed in various ways. Here, we introduce a new way of analysing population substructure using a new method based on clustering within the discrete Laplace exponential family that models...... the probability distribution of the Y-STR haplotypes. Creating a consistent statistical model of the haplotypes enables us to perform a wide range of analyses. Previously, haplotype frequency estimation using the discrete Laplace method has been validated. In this paper we investigate how the discrete Laplace...

  11. MotifLab: a tools and data integration workbench for motif discovery and regulatory sequence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepper, Kjetil; Drabløs, Finn

    2013-01-16

    Traditional methods for computational motif discovery often suffer from poor performance. In particular, methods that search for sequence matches to known binding motifs tend to predict many non-functional binding sites because they fail to take into consideration the biological state of the cell. In recent years, genome-wide studies have generated a lot of data that has the potential to improve our ability to identify functional motifs and binding sites, such as information about chromatin accessibility and epigenetic states in different cell types. However, it is not always trivial to make use of this data in combination with existing motif discovery tools, especially for researchers who are not skilled in bioinformatics programming. Here we present MotifLab, a general workbench for analysing regulatory sequence regions and discovering transcription factor binding sites and cis-regulatory modules. MotifLab supports comprehensive motif discovery and analysis by allowing users to integrate several popular motif discovery tools as well as different kinds of additional information, including phylogenetic conservation, epigenetic marks, DNase hypersensitive sites, ChIP-Seq data, positional binding preferences of transcription factors, transcription factor interactions and gene expression. MotifLab offers several data-processing operations that can be used to create, manipulate and analyse data objects, and complete analysis workflows can be constructed and automatically executed within MotifLab, including graphical presentation of the results. We have developed MotifLab as a flexible workbench for motif analysis in a genomic context. The flexibility and effectiveness of this workbench has been demonstrated on selected test cases, in particular two previously published benchmark data sets for single motifs and modules, and a realistic example of genes responding to treatment with forskolin. MotifLab is freely available at http://www.motiflab.org.

  12. STRait Razor: a length-based forensic STR allele-calling tool for use with second generation sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warshauer, David H; Lin, David; Hari, Kumar; Jain, Ravi; Davis, Carey; Larue, Bobby; King, Jonathan L; Budowle, Bruce

    2013-07-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the capability of second generation sequencing (SGS) to provide coverage of short tandem repeats (STRs) found within the human genome. However, there are relatively few bioinformatic software packages capable of detecting these markers in the raw sequence data. The extant STR-calling tools are sophisticated, but are not always applicable to the analysis of the STR loci commonly used in forensic analyses. STRait Razor is a newly developed Perl-based software tool that runs on the Linux/Unix operating system and is designed to detect forensically-relevant STR alleles in FASTQ sequence data, based on allelic length. It is capable of analyzing STR loci with repeat motifs ranging from simple to complex without the need for extensive allelic sequence data. STRait Razor is designed to interpret both single-end and paired-end data and relies on intelligent parallel processing to reduce analysis time. Users are presented with a number of customization options, including variable mismatch detection parameters, as well as the ability to easily allow for the detection of alleles at new loci. In its current state, the software detects alleles for 44 autosomal and Y-chromosome STR loci. The study described herein demonstrates that STRait Razor is capable of detecting STR alleles in data generated by multiple library preparation methods and two Illumina(®) sequencing instruments, with 100% concordance. The data also reveal noteworthy concepts related to the effect of different preparation chemistries and sequencing parameters on the bioinformatic detection of STR alleles. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Population data for 15 autosomal STR loci from Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemeljanova, V; Gobrusjonoka, O; Bergere, O; Latisheva, K; Podovšovnik Axelsson, E; Zupanič Pajnič, I

    2015-07-01

    Population data of 15 short tandem repeat (STR) loci were determined from 500 unrelated Latvian individuals. The samples were amplified using the AmpFlSTR® NGM™ PCR Amplification Kit and the PowerPlex® ESX 16 System. No significant deviation from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was detected, except for locus D3S1358. Calculated forensically relevant population statistics show that the investigated loci are very discriminating in the Latvian population, with a combined discrimination power of 0.9999999999999999998. A comparison with previously published allele frequency data from other populations is presented.

  14. Y-STR frequency surveying method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willuweit, Sascha; Caliebe, Amke; Andersen, Mikkel Meyer

    2011-01-01

    Reasonable formalized methods to estimate the frequencies of DNA profiles generated from lineage markers have been proposed in the past years and were discussed in the forensic community. Recently, collections of population data on the frequencies of variations in Y chromosomal STR profiles have ...

  15. Transposon Tn5393e carrying the aphA1-containing transposon Tn6023 upstream of strAB does not confer resistance to streptomycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Amy K; Hall, Ruth M

    2011-09-01

    The simplest form of transposon Tn5393 carries the strA and strB genes that confer resistance to streptomycin, in addition to its transposition determinants. Tn5393e, made up of Tn5393 and a second transposon, Tn6023, was found in an IncHI2 plasmid, pSRC125, recovered from a multiply antibiotic-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium isolate of bovine origin. Tn6023 is made up of the aphA1b gene flanked by two inversely oriented copies of insertion sequence (IS) IS26 and is flanked by an 8 bp duplication. It is related to several other transposons that carry aphA1b in fragments of differing length, also flanked by copies of IS26. Tn6023 is located in the tnpR gene of Tn5393, which lies upstream of the strA and strB genes, and the combined structure was designated Tn5393e. Although neither strA nor strB contain any mutations that would inactivate them, pSRC125 does not confer resistance to streptomycin, indicating that the strA and strB genes are not expressed. In Tn5393, strA and strB are transcribed from the tnpR promoter, and in Tn5393e neither this transcript nor the transcript from the aphA1b promoter in Tn6023 must reach strAB. Tn5393e was previously found in different locations in Corynebacteria, indicating that it can move and suggesting a wide distribution. The structures of several further variants of Tn5393 found in GenBank were analyzed and assigned variant designations Tn5393f-Tn5393i.

  16. Revised Strömgren metallicity calibration for red giants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilker, Michael

    2000-03-01

    A new calibration of the Strömgren (b-y),m_1 diagram in terms of iron abundance of red giants is presented. This calibration is based on a homogeneous sample of giants in the globular clusters omega Centauri, M 22, and M 55 as well as field giants from the list of Anthony-Twarog & Twarog (\\cite{anth98}). Towards high metallicities, the new calibration is connected to a previous calibration by Grebel & Richtler (\\cite{greb92}), which was unsatisfactory for iron abudances lower than -1.0 dex. The revised calibration is valid for CN-weak/normal red giants in the abundance range of -2.0 <[Fe/H]< 0.0 dex, and a color range of 0.5 < (b-y) < 1.1 mag. As shown for red giants in omega Centauri, CN-weak stars with Strömgren metallicities higher than -1.0 dex cannot be distinguished in the (b-y),m_1 diagram from stars with lower iron abundances but higher CN band strengths. Based on data collected at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile

  17. Y chromosome STR typing in crime casework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roewer, Lutz

    2009-01-01

    Since the beginning of the nineties the field of forensic Y chromosome analysis has been successfully developed to become commonplace in laboratories working in crime casework all over the world. The ability to identify male-specific DNA renders highly variable Y-chromosomal polymorphisms, the STR sequences, an invaluable addition to the standard panel of autosomal loci used in forensic genetics. The male-specificity makes the Y chromosome especially useful in cases of male/female cell admixture, namely in sexual assault cases. On the other hand, the haploidy and patrilineal inheritance complicates the interpretation of a Y-STR match, because male relatives share for several generations an identical Y-STR profile. Since paternal relatives tend to live in the geographic and cultural territory of their ancestors, the Y chromosome analysis has a potential to make inferences on the population of origin of a given DNA profile. This review addresses the fields of application of Y chromosome haplotyping, the interpretation of results, databasing efforts and population genetics aspects.

  18. Large-scale discovery of promoter motifs in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas A Down

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A key step in understanding gene regulation is to identify the repertoire of transcription factor binding motifs (TFBMs that form the building blocks of promoters and other regulatory elements. Identifying these experimentally is very laborious, and the number of TFBMs discovered remains relatively small, especially when compared with the hundreds of transcription factor genes predicted in metazoan genomes. We have used a recently developed statistical motif discovery approach, NestedMICA, to detect candidate TFBMs from a large set of Drosophila melanogaster promoter regions. Of the 120 motifs inferred in our initial analysis, 25 were statistically significant matches to previously reported motifs, while 87 appeared to be novel. Analysis of sequence conservation and motif positioning suggested that the great majority of these discovered motifs are predictive of functional elements in the genome. Many motifs showed associations with specific patterns of gene expression in the D. melanogaster embryo, and we were able to obtain confident annotation of expression patterns for 25 of our motifs, including eight of the novel motifs. The motifs are available through Tiffin, a new database of DNA sequence motifs. We have discovered many new motifs that are overrepresented in D. melanogaster promoter regions, and offer several independent lines of evidence that these are novel TFBMs. Our motif dictionary provides a solid foundation for further investigation of regulatory elements in Drosophila, and demonstrates techniques that should be applicable in other species. We suggest that further improvements in computational motif discovery should narrow the gap between the set of known motifs and the total number of transcription factors in metazoan genomes.

  19. A hypervariable STR polymorphism in the CFI gene: southern origin of East Asian-specific group H alleles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuasa, Isao; Jin, Feng; Harihara, Shinji; Matsusue, Aya; Fujihara, Junko; Takeshita, Haruo; Akane, Atsushi; Umetsu, Kazuo; Saitou, Naruya; Chattopadhyay, Prasanta K

    2013-09-01

    Previous studies of four populations revealed that a hypervariable short tandem repeat (iSTR) in intron 7 of the human complement factor I (CFI) gene on chromosome 4q was unique, with 17 possible East Asian-specific group H alleles observed at relatively high frequencies. To develop a deeper anthropological and forensic understanding of iSTR, 1161 additional individuals from 11 Asian populations were investigated. Group H alleles of iSTR and c.1217A allele of a SNP in exon 11 of the CFI gene were associated with each other and were almost entirely confined to East Asian populations. Han Chinese in Changsha, southern China, showed the highest frequency for East Asian-specific group H alleles (0.201) among 15 populations. Group H alleles were observed to decrease gradually from south to north in 11 East Asian populations. This expansion of group H alleles provides evidence that southern China and Southeast Asia are a hotspot of Asian diversity and a genetic reservoir of Asians after they entered East Asia. The expected heterozygosity values of iSTR ranged from 0.927 in Thais to 0.874 in Oroqens, higher than those of an STR in the fibrinogen alpha chain (FGA) gene on chromosome 4q. Thus, iSTR is a useful marker for anthropological and forensic genetics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Personal motif in art].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerevich, József

    2015-01-01

    One of the basic questions of the art psychology is whether a personal motif is to be found behind works of art and if so, how openly or indirectly it appears in the work itself. Analysis of examples and documents from the fine arts and literature allow us to conclude that the personal motif that can be identified by the viewer through symbols, at times easily at others with more difficulty, gives an emotional plus to the artistic product. The personal motif may be found in traumatic experiences, in communication to the model or with other emotionally important persons (mourning, disappointment, revenge, hatred, rivalry, revolt etc.), in self-searching, or self-analysis. The emotions are expressed in artistic activity either directly or indirectly. The intention nourished by the artist's identity (Kunstwollen) may stand in the way of spontaneous self-expression, channelling it into hidden paths. Under the influence of certain circumstances, the artist may arouse in the viewer, consciously or unconsciously, an illusionary, misleading image of himself. An examination of the personal motif is one of the important research areas of art therapy.

  1. Artin t-Motifs

    OpenAIRE

    Taelman, Lenny

    2008-01-01

    We show that analytically trivial t-motifs satisfy a Tannakian duality, without restrictions on the base field, save for that it be of generic characteristic. We show that the group of components of the t-motivic Galois group coincides with the absolute Galois group of the base field.

  2. Diversity study of 12 X-chromosomal STR loci in Hui ethnic from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Hao-Tian; Han, Jun-Tao; Zhang, Yu-Dang; Liu, Wen-Juan; Wang, Tian-Ju; Yan, Jiang-Wei; Huang, Jing-Feng; Du, Wei-An; Guo, Jian-Xin; Wang, Hong-Dan; Zhang, Yu-Hong; Zhou, Ru-Hua; Zhu, Bo-Feng; Wei, Xing

    2014-07-01

    X-chromosomal STRs (X-STRs) have been used as complements of autosomal STR application in recent years. In this work, we present population genetic data of 12 X-STRs including DXS101, DXS10159, DXS10162, DXS10164, DXS6789, DXS7133, DXS7423, DXS7424, DXS8378, DXS981, GATA165B12, and GATA31E08 loci in a sample of 231 unrelated healthy individuals from the Hui ethnic group in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, China. Allelic frequencies of the 12 X-STR loci and haplotypic frequencies of the reported linkage groups (DXS7424-DXS101 and DXS10159-DXS10164-DXS10162) were investigated in the group, respectively. No STR loci showed significant deviations from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibriums and no linkage disequilibriums of pairwise loci were found after Bonferroni correction, respectively. A combined power of discrimination in female individuals was 0.999999999985 and that in male individuals was 0.99999967, respectively. The combined mean exclusion chance in deficiency cases, normal trios and duo cases were 0.999934, 0.995754, and 0.999796, respectively. Significant differences were observed from 0 to 8 loci, when making comparisons between the data of Hui ethnic group and previously reported data from other 16 populations. The results indicated the new panel of 12 X-STR loci might be useful for forensic science application. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. The MHC motif viewer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapin, Nicolas Philippe Jean-Pierre; Hoof, Ilka; Lund, Ole

    2010-01-01

    In vertebrates, the onset of cellular immune reactions is controlled by presentation of peptides in complex with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules to T cell receptors. In humans, MHCs are called human leukocyte antigens (HLAs). Different MHC molecules present different subsets...... of peptides, and knowledge of their binding specificities is important for understanding differences in the immune response between individuals. Algorithms predicting which peptides bind a given MHC molecule have recently been developed with high prediction accuracy. The utility of these algorithms...... is hampered by the lack of tools for browsing and comparing specificity of these molecules. We have developed a Web server, MHC Motif Viewer, which allows the display of the binding motif for MHC class I proteins for human, chimpanzee, rhesus monkey, mouse, and swine, as well as HLA-DR protein sequences...

  4. MHC motif viewer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapin, Nicolas Philippe Jean-Pierre; Hoof, Ilka; Lund, Ole

    2008-01-01

    In vertebrates, the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) presents peptides to the immune system. In humans, MHCs are called human leukocyte antigens (HLAs), and some of the loci encoding them are the most polymorphic in the human genome. Different MHC molecules present different subsets...... of peptides, and knowledge of their binding specificities is important for understanding the differences in the immune response between individuals. Knowledge of motifs may be used to identify epitopes, to understand the MHC restriction of epitopes, and to compare the specificities of different MHC molecules....... Algorithms that predict which peptides MHC molecules bind have recently been developed and cover many different alleles, but the utility of these algorithms is hampered by the lack of tools for browsing and comparing the specificity of these molecules. We have, therefore, developed a web server, MHC motif...

  5. Y-STR frequency surveying method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willuweit, Sascha; Caliebe, Amke; Andersen, Mikkel Meyer

    2011-01-01

    reached a new quality with the establishment of the comprehensive neatly quality-controlled reference database YHRD. Grounded on such unrivalled empirical material from hundreds of populations studies the core assumption of the Haplotype Frequency Surveying Method originally described 10 years ago can...... be tested and improved. Here we provide new approaches to calculate the parameters used in the frequency surveying method: a maximum likelihood estimation of the regression parameters (r1, r2, s1 and s2) and a revised Frequency Surveying framework with variable binning and a database preprocessing to take......Reasonable formalized methods to estimate the frequencies of DNA profiles generated from lineage markers have been proposed in the past years and were discussed in the forensic community. Recently, collections of population data on the frequencies of variations in Y chromosomal STR profiles have...

  6. Motif content comparison between monocot and dicot species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matyas Cserhati

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available While a number of DNA sequence motifs have been functionally characterized, the full repertoire of motifs in an organism (the motifome is yet to be characterized. The present study wishes to widen the scope of motif content analysis in different monocot and dicot species that include both rice species, Brachypodium, corn, wheat as monocots and Arabidopsis, Lotus japonica, Medicago truncatula, and Populus tremula as dicots. All possible existing motifs were analyzed in different regions of genomes such as were found in different sets of sequences in these species: the whole genome, core proximal and distal promoters, 5′ and 3′ UTRs, and the 1st introns. Due to the increased number of species involved in this study compared to previous works, species relationships were analyzed based on the similarity of common motif content. Certain secondary structure elements were inferred in the genomes of these species as well as new unknown motifs. The distribution of 20 motifs common to the studied species were found to have a significantly larger occurrence within the promoters and 3′ UTRs of genes, both being regulatory regions. Motifs common to the promoter regions of japonica rice, Brachypodium, and corn were also found in a number of orthologous and paralogous genes. Some of our motifs were found to be complementary to miRNA elements in Brachypodium distachyon and japonica rice.

  7. Investigation of a Gamma model for mixture STR samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Susanne; Bøttcher, Susanne Gammelgaard; Lauritzen, Steffen L.

    The behaviour of PCR Amplification Kit, when used for mixture STR samples, is investigated. A model based on the Gamma distribution is fitted to the amplifier output for constructed mixtures, and the assumptions of the model is evaluated via residual analysis.......The behaviour of PCR Amplification Kit, when used for mixture STR samples, is investigated. A model based on the Gamma distribution is fitted to the amplifier output for constructed mixtures, and the assumptions of the model is evaluated via residual analysis....

  8. Design and validation of a highly discriminatory 10-locus Y-chromosome STR multiplex system

    KAUST Repository

    D'Amato, María Eugenia

    2011-03-01

    The Y-chromosome STRs (short tandem repeat) markers are routinely utilized in the resolution of forensic casework related to sexual assault. For this, the forensic community has adopted a set of eleven (core) Y-STR that is incorporated in all commercial diagnostic systems. Our previous studies of Y-STR polymorphisms in the South African population identified low levels of diversity and discrimination capacity for many commercial marker sets, determining a limited applicability of these systems to the local population groups. To overcome this shortcoming, we designed a Y-STR 10-plex system that shows higher discriminatory capacity (DC) than available commercial systems. The markers were selected from a population group of 283 individuals with African, European and Asian ancestry genotyped at 45 Y-STRs, applying an optimization based selection procedure to achieve the highest possible DC with the minimal number of markers. The 10-plex was satisfactorily subjected to developmental validation tests following the SWGDAM guidelines and shows potential for its application to genealogical and evolutionary studies. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  9. Optimizing direct amplification of forensic commercial kits for STR determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, M; Bobillo, M C; Sala, A; Corach, D

    2017-04-01

    Direct DNA amplification in forensic genotyping reduces analytical time when large sample sets are being analyzed. The amplification success depends mainly upon two factors: on one hand, the PCR chemistry and, on the other, the type of solid substrate where the samples are deposited. We developed a workflow strategy aiming to optimize times and cost when starting from blood samples spotted onto diverse absorbent substrates. A set of 770 blood samples spotted onto Blood cards, Whatman ® 3 MM paper, FTA™ Classic cards, and Whatman ® Grade 1 was analyzed by a unified working strategy including a low-cost pre-treatment, a PCR amplification volume scale-down, and the use of the 3500 Genetic Analyzer as the analytical platform. Samples were analyzed using three different commercial multiplex STR direct amplification kits. The efficiency of the strategy was evidenced by a higher percentage of high-quality profiles obtained (over 94%), a reduced number of re-injections (average 3.2%), and a reduced amplification failure rate (lower than 5%). Average peak height ratio among different commercial kits was 0.91, and the intra-locus balance showed values ranging from 0.92 to 0.94. A comparison with previously reported results was performed demonstrating the efficiency of the proposed modifications. The protocol described herein showed high performance, producing optimal quality profiles, and being both time and cost effective. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  10. Genetic diversity and haplotype structure of 24 Y-chromosomal STR in Chinese Hui ethnic group and its genetic relationships with other populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bo-Feng; Zhang, Yu-Dang; Liu, Wen-Juan; Meng, Hao-Tian; Yuan, Guo-Lian; Lv, Zhe; Dong, Nan; Li, Qiong; Yang, Chun-Hua; Zhang, Yu-Hong; Hou, Yin-Ling; Qian, Li; Fan, Shuan-Liang; Xu, Peng

    2014-07-01

    In the present study, 24 Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat (Y-STR) loci were analyzed in 115 unrelated Hui male individuals from Haiyuan county or Tongxin county, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, China, to evaluate the forensic application of the 24 STR loci and to analyze interpopulation differentiations by making comparisons between the Hui group data and previously published data of other 13 populations. A total of 115 different haplotypes were observed on these 24 Y-STR loci. The gene diversities ranged from 0.4049 (DYS437) to 0.9729 (DYS385a, b). The overall haplotype diversity was 1 at AGCU 24 Y-STR loci level, while the values were reduced to 0.999237, 0.996949, and 0.996644 at the Y-filer 17 loci, 11 Y-STR loci of extended haplotype and 9 Y-STR loci of minimal haplotype levels, respectively; whereas, haplotype diversity for additional 7 loci (not included in Y-filer 17 loci) was 0.995271. The pairwise FST , multidimensional scaling plot and neighbor-joining tree indicated the Hui group had the closest genetic relationship with Sala in the paternal lineage in the present study. In summary, the results in our study indicated the 24 Y-STRs had a high level of polymorphism in Hui group and hence could be a powerful tool for forensic application and population genetic study. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Choroba Gerstmanna-Sträusslera-Scheinkera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł P. Liberski

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Choroba Gerstmanna-Sträusslera-Scheinkera (GSS jest genetycznie uwarunkowaną chorobą wywoływaną przez priony. Jest ona unikalna, ponieważ udało się przepasażować GSS na naczelne i gryzonie przynajmniej z mózgu obarczonego mutacją kodonu 102. Tym samym jest to jedyne schorzenie jednocześnie genetycznie uwarunkowane i zakaźne, aczkolwiek natura czynnika infekcyjnego (prionu nadal stanowi przedmiot dyskusji. W obrazie klinicznym GSS dominuje postępująca ataksja móżdżkowa z towarzyszącym otępieniem i objawami piramidowo-pozapiramidowymi. Jest to jednak choroba heterogenna, o różnym obrazie klinicznym u nosicieli różnych mutacji, a nawet u nosicieli tej samej mutacji. Obraz neuropatologiczny obejmuje obecność PrPd – immunododatnich złogów amyloidu pod postacią blaszek, zwłaszcza tzw. blaszek wielordzeniowych. Istnieje kilka modeli GSS. U myszy transgenicznych z nadekspresją zmutowanego genu kodującego PrP obserwuje się spontaniczną chorobę zwyrodnieniową, pasażowalną na myszy transgeniczne o niskiej liczbie transgenu. U myszy transgenicznych uzyskanych drogą wzajemnej rekombinacji, a więc bez nadeskpresji, nie występuje choroba spontaniczna, niemniej stają się one wrażliwe na zakażenie GSS.

  12. StrAuto: automation and parallelization of STRUCTURE analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhatre, Vikram E; Emerson, Kevin J

    2017-03-24

    Population structure inference using the software STRUCTURE has become an integral part of population genetic studies covering a broad spectrum of taxa including humans. The ever-expanding size of genetic data sets poses computational challenges for this analysis. Although at least one tool currently implements parallel computing to reduce computational overload of this analysis, it does not fully automate the use of replicate STRUCTURE analysis runs required for downstream inference of optimal K. There is pressing need for a tool that can deploy population structure analysis on high performance computing clusters. We present an updated version of the popular Python program StrAuto, to streamline population structure analysis using parallel computing. StrAuto implements a pipeline that combines STRUCTURE analysis with the Evanno Δ K analysis and visualization of results using STRUCTURE HARVESTER. Using benchmarking tests, we demonstrate that StrAuto significantly reduces the computational time needed to perform iterative STRUCTURE analysis by distributing runs over two or more processors. StrAuto is the first tool to integrate STRUCTURE analysis with post-processing using a pipeline approach in addition to implementing parallel computation - a set up ideal for deployment on computing clusters. StrAuto is distributed under the GNU GPL (General Public License) and available to download from http://strauto.popgen.org .

  13. MotifMark: Finding regulatory motifs in DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanzadeh, Hamid Reza; Kolhe, Pushkar; Isbell, Charles L; Wang, May D

    2017-07-01

    The interaction between proteins and DNA is a key driving force in a significant number of biological processes such as transcriptional regulation, repair, recombination, splicing, and DNA modification. The identification of DNA-binding sites and the specificity of target proteins in binding to these regions are two important steps in understanding the mechanisms of these biological activities. A number of high-throughput technologies have recently emerged that try to quantify the affinity between proteins and DNA motifs. Despite their success, these technologies have their own limitations and fall short in precise characterization of motifs, and as a result, require further downstream analysis to extract useful and interpretable information from a haystack of noisy and inaccurate data. Here we propose MotifMark, a new algorithm based on graph theory and machine learning, that can find binding sites on candidate probes and rank their specificity in regard to the underlying transcription factor. We developed a pipeline to analyze experimental data derived from compact universal protein binding microarrays and benchmarked it against two of the most accurate motif search methods. Our results indicate that MotifMark can be a viable alternative technique for prediction of motif from protein binding microarrays and possibly other related high-throughput techniques.

  14. Computational analyses of synergism in small molecular network motifs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yili Zhang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cellular functions and responses to stimuli are controlled by complex regulatory networks that comprise a large diversity of molecular components and their interactions. However, achieving an intuitive understanding of the dynamical properties and responses to stimuli of these networks is hampered by their large scale and complexity. To address this issue, analyses of regulatory networks often focus on reduced models that depict distinct, reoccurring connectivity patterns referred to as motifs. Previous modeling studies have begun to characterize the dynamics of small motifs, and to describe ways in which variations in parameters affect their responses to stimuli. The present study investigates how variations in pairs of parameters affect responses in a series of ten common network motifs, identifying concurrent variations that act synergistically (or antagonistically to alter the responses of the motifs to stimuli. Synergism (or antagonism was quantified using degrees of nonlinear blending and additive synergism. Simulations identified concurrent variations that maximized synergism, and examined the ways in which it was affected by stimulus protocols and the architecture of a motif. Only a subset of architectures exhibited synergism following paired changes in parameters. The approach was then applied to a model describing interlocked feedback loops governing the synthesis of the CREB1 and CREB2 transcription factors. The effects of motifs on synergism for this biologically realistic model were consistent with those for the abstract models of single motifs. These results have implications for the rational design of combination drug therapies with the potential for synergistic interactions.

  15. Distinct configurations of protein complexes and biochemical pathways revealed by epistatic interaction network motifs

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Casey, Fergal

    2011-08-22

    Abstract Background Gene and protein interactions are commonly represented as networks, with the genes or proteins comprising the nodes and the relationship between them as edges. Motifs, or small local configurations of edges and nodes that arise repeatedly, can be used to simplify the interpretation of networks. Results We examined triplet motifs in a network of quantitative epistatic genetic relationships, and found a non-random distribution of particular motif classes. Individual motif classes were found to be associated with different functional properties, suggestive of an underlying biological significance. These associations were apparent not only for motif classes, but for individual positions within the motifs. As expected, NNN (all negative) motifs were strongly associated with previously reported genetic (i.e. synthetic lethal) interactions, while PPP (all positive) motifs were associated with protein complexes. The two other motif classes (NNP: a positive interaction spanned by two negative interactions, and NPP: a negative spanned by two positives) showed very distinct functional associations, with physical interactions dominating for the former but alternative enrichments, typical of biochemical pathways, dominating for the latter. Conclusion We present a model showing how NNP motifs can be used to recognize supportive relationships between protein complexes, while NPP motifs often identify opposing or regulatory behaviour between a gene and an associated pathway. The ability to use motifs to point toward underlying biological organizational themes is likely to be increasingly important as more extensive epistasis mapping projects in higher organisms begin.

  16. Pilot study for early prognosis of Azoospermia in relation to Y-STR Profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Refaat

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: There was a significant correlation of Y-STR Profiling results and the prevalence of Azoospermia condition, which supports the idea of using Y-STR Profiling in early prognosis of Azoospermia.

  17. [Prediction of Promoter Motifs in Virophages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chaowen; Zhou, Xuewen; Pan, Yingjie; Wang, Yongjie

    2015-07-01

    Virophages have crucial roles in ecosystems and are the transport vectors of genetic materials. To shed light on regulation and control mechanisms in virophage--host systems as well as evolution between virophages and their hosts, the promoter motifs of virophages were predicted on the upstream regions of start codons using an analytical tool for prediction of promoter motifs: Multiple EM for Motif Elicitation. Seventeen potential promoter motifs were identified based on the E-value, location, number and length of promoters in genomes. Sputnik and zamilon motif 2 with AT-rich regions were distributed widely on genomes, suggesting that these motifs may be associated with regulation of the expression of various genes. Motifs containing the TCTA box were predicted to be late promoter motif in mavirus; motifs containing the ATCT box were the potential late promoter motif in the Ace Lake mavirus . AT-rich regions were identified on motif 2 in the Organic Lake virophage, motif 3 in Yellowstone Lake virophage (YSLV)1 and 2, motif 1 in YSLV3, and motif 1 and 2 in YSLV4, respectively. AT-rich regions were distributed widely on the genomes of virophages. All of these motifs may be promoter motifs of virophages. Our results provide insights into further exploration of temporal expression of genes in virophages as well as associations between virophages and giant viruses.

  18. Motif discovery in ranked lists of sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Muhlig; Tataru, Paula; Madsen, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    a growing need for motif analysis methods that can exploit this coupled data structure and be tailored for specific biological questions. Here, we present an exploratory motif analysis tool, Regmex (REGular expression Motif EXplorer), which offers several methods to evaluate the correlation of motifs....... These features make Regmex well suited for a range of biological sequence analysis problems related to motif discovery, exemplified by microRNA seed enrichment, but also including enrichment problems involving complex motifs and combinations of motifs. We demonstrate a number of usage scenarios that take...

  19. A novel Bayesian DNA motif comparison method for clustering and retrieval.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Habib

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Characterizing the DNA-binding specificities of transcription factors is a key problem in computational biology that has been addressed by multiple algorithms. These usually take as input sequences that are putatively bound by the same factor and output one or more DNA motifs. A common practice is to apply several such algorithms simultaneously to improve coverage at the price of redundancy. In interpreting such results, two tasks are crucial: clustering of redundant motifs, and attributing the motifs to transcription factors by retrieval of similar motifs from previously characterized motif libraries. Both tasks inherently involve motif comparison. Here we present a novel method for comparing and merging motifs, based on Bayesian probabilistic principles. This method takes into account both the similarity in positional nucleotide distributions of the two motifs and their dissimilarity to the background distribution. We demonstrate the use of the new comparison method as a basis for motif clustering and retrieval procedures, and compare it to several commonly used alternatives. Our results show that the new method outperforms other available methods in accuracy and sensitivity. We incorporated the resulting motif clustering and retrieval procedures in a large-scale automated pipeline for analyzing DNA motifs. This pipeline integrates the results of various DNA motif discovery algorithms and automatically merges redundant motifs from multiple training sets into a coherent annotated library of motifs. Application of this pipeline to recent genome-wide transcription factor location data in S. cerevisiae successfully identified DNA motifs in a manner that is as good as semi-automated analysis reported in the literature. Moreover, we show how this analysis elucidates the mechanisms of condition-specific preferences of transcription factors.

  20. Short tandem repeat (STR) polymorphisms in Turkish population

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    RESEARCH NOTE. Short tandem repeat (STR) polymorphisms in Turkish population. ÜNER ÜLKÜER 1 * , MELAHAT KURTULU Ş -ÜLKÜER 2 , CÜNEYT ELMA 1 ,. TAHS İ N KES İ C İ 3 and SEVDA MENEV Ş E 4. 1General Directory of Security, Criminal Police Laboratories, Biyoloji Bölümü,. Aniteppe, Ankara, Turkey.

  1. Estimating stutter rates for Y-STR alleles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikkel Meyer; Olofsson, Jill Katharina; Mogensen, Helle Smidt

    2011-01-01

    Stutter peaks are artefacts that arise during PCR amplification of short tandem repeats. Stutter peaks are especially important in forensic case work with DNA mixtures. The aim of the study was primarily to estimate the stutter rates of the AmpFlSTR Yfiler kit. We found that the stutter rates...

  2. Genetic variation of twenty autosomal STR loci and evaluate the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was of twofold. One was to determine the genetic structure of Iraq population and the second objective of the study was to evaluate the importance of these loci for forensic genetic purposes. FTA® Technology (FTA™ paper DNA extraction) utilized to extract DNA. Twenty (20) STR loci and Amelogenin), ...

  3. Fetal gender determination through Y-STR analysis of maternal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hanaa M.H. Aal-Hamdan

    2014-10-01

    Oct 1, 2014 ... Fetal gender determination through Y-STR analysis of maternal plasma during the third trimester of pregnancy. Hanaa M.H. Aal-Hamdan, Ahmed M. Refaat *, Saranya R. Babu,. Abdul Rauf Choudhry. Department of Forensic Biology, College of Forensic Sciences, Naif Arab University for Security Sciences, ...

  4. Serological identification of Streptococcus sanguis and Str mitior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, L C

    1985-04-01

    A total of 165 strains of Streptococcus sanguis and Str mitior were selected on the basis of their biochemical reactions using established identification procedures. These strains were also classified using API Database and were then screened against five candidate grouping sera. Biochemical tests and serological identification were in general complementary, but no regular associations between biotype and serological reaction were observed.

  5. Serological identification of Streptococcus sanguis and Str mitior.

    OpenAIRE

    Ball, L C

    1985-01-01

    A total of 165 strains of Streptococcus sanguis and Str mitior were selected on the basis of their biochemical reactions using established identification procedures. These strains were also classified using API Database and were then screened against five candidate grouping sera. Biochemical tests and serological identification were in general complementary, but no regular associations between biotype and serological reaction were observed.

  6. Dynamics of Fibril Growth and Feedback Motifs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cordsen, Pia

    lumped and long, straight fibrils. Previous results on real time observation of fibrils were successfully reproduced using mixed conditions of both sodium dodecyl sulfate and seeds but not when using only one of the two. The dynamics of a three-species network motif, consisting of a predator and two...... which of the two competitors is better and if one of them will become extinct. Further it is found that in the range of coexistence between the two preys, the better one peaks first....

  7. Unravelling daily human mobility motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Christian M; Belik, Vitaly; Couronné, Thomas; Smoreda, Zbigniew; González, Marta C

    2013-07-06

    Human mobility is differentiated by time scales. While the mechanism for long time scales has been studied, the underlying mechanism on the daily scale is still unrevealed. Here, we uncover the mechanism responsible for the daily mobility patterns by analysing the temporal and spatial trajectories of thousands of persons as individual networks. Using the concept of motifs from network theory, we find only 17 unique networks are present in daily mobility and they follow simple rules. These networks, called here motifs, are sufficient to capture up to 90 per cent of the population in surveys and mobile phone datasets for different countries. Each individual exhibits a characteristic motif, which seems to be stable over several months. Consequently, daily human mobility can be reproduced by an analytically tractable framework for Markov chains by modelling periods of high-frequency trips followed by periods of lower activity as the key ingredient.

  8. Discovering Multidimensional Motifs in Physiological Signals for Personalized Healthcare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Arvind; Wang, Jun; Prabhakaran, Balakrishnan

    2016-01-01

    Personalized diagnosis and therapy requires monitoring patient activity using various body sensors. Sensor data generated during personalized exercises or tasks may be too specific or inadequate to be evaluated using supervised methods such as classification. We propose multidimensional motif (MDM) discovery as a means for patient activity monitoring, since such motifs can capture repeating patterns across multiple dimensions of the data, and can serve as conformance indicators. Previous studies pertaining to mining MDMs have proposed approaches that lack the capability of concurrently processing multiple dimensions, thus limiting their utility in online scenarios. In this paper, we propose an efficient real-time approach to MDM discovery in body sensor generated time series data for monitoring performance of patients during therapy. We present two alternative models for MDMs based on motif co-occurrences and temporal ordering among motifs across multiple dimensions, with detailed formulation of the concepts proposed. The proposed method uses an efficient hashing based record to enable speedy update and retrieval of motif sets, and identification of MDMs. Performance evaluation using synthetic and real body sensor data in unsupervised motif discovery tasks shows that the approach is effective for (a) concurrent processing of multidimensional time series information suitable for real-time applications, (b) finding unknown naturally occurring patterns with minimal delay, and (c) tracking similarities among repetitions, possibly during therapy sessions. PMID:28191269

  9. A forensic perspective on the genetic identification of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) varieties using STR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sara; Oliveira, Manuela; Amorim, António; van Asch, Barbara

    2014-11-01

    The grapevine (Vitis vinifera subsp. vinifera) is one of the most important agricultural crops worldwide. A long interest in the historical origins of ancient and cultivated current grapevines, as well as the need to establish phylogenetic relationships and parentage, solve homonymies and synonymies, fingerprint cultivars and clones, and assess the authenticity of plants and wines has encouraged the development of genetic identification methods. STR analysis is currently the most commonly used method for these purposes. A large dataset of grapevines genotypes for many cultivars worldwide has been produced in the last decade using a common set of recommended dinucleotide nuclear STRs. This type of marker has been replaced by long core-repeat loci in standardized state-of-the-art human forensic genotyping. The first steps toward harmonized grapevine genotyping have already been taken to bring the genetic identification methods closer to human forensic STR standards by previous authors. In this context, we bring forward a set of basic suggestions that reinforce the need to (i) guarantee trueness-to-type of the sample; (ii) use the long core-repeat markers; (iii) verify the specificity and amplification consistency of PCR primers; (iv) sequence frequent alleles and use these standardized allele ladders; (v) consider mutation rates when evaluating results of STR-based parentage and pedigree analysis; (vi) genotype large and representative samples in order to obtain allele frequency databases; (vii) standardize genotype data by establishing allele nomenclature based on repeat number to facilitate information exchange and data compilation. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Small yet effective: The Ethylene-responsive element binding factor-associated Amphiphilic Repression (EAR) motif

    OpenAIRE

    Kagale, Sateesh; Rozwadowski, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    The Ethylene-responsive element binding factor-associated Amphiphilic Repression (EAR) motif is a small yet distinct regulatory motif that is conserved in many plant transcriptional regulator (TR) proteins associated with diverse biological functions. We have previously established a list of high-confidence Arabidopsis EAR repressors, the EAR repressome, comprising 219 TRs belonging to 21 different TR families. This class of proteins and the sequence context of the EAR motif exhibited a high ...

  11. The Dynamic Phenomena of Strékan Music From Colonial to Contemporary Era in Situbondo

    OpenAIRE

    Hidayatullah, Panakajaya

    2017-01-01

    This research is an anthropology of music which discusses the dynamics of strékan music from colonial to contemporary era in Situbondo. In Situbondo, strékan is a term which refers to music for welcoming guests. By ethnography method and postcolonial perspective, this research will discuss social problems and phenomena of strékan music. The result of this research shows that a change of strékan music signifies a change of social condition in Situbondo. In colonial era strékan is assumed by pe...

  12. Strålebehandling af kraeftsygdomme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, Lena

    2010-01-01

    Radiotherapy for cancer previously employed large treatment fields whereby cures were obtained. However, long-term follow-up documented serious long-term complications due to irradiation of normal tissues. Modern technology makes it possible to very accurately shape the high-dose volume. However...

  13. Motif signatures of transcribed enhancers

    KAUST Repository

    Kleftogiannis, Dimitrios

    2017-09-14

    In mammalian cells, transcribed enhancers (TrEn) play important roles in the initiation of gene expression and maintenance of gene expression levels in spatiotemporal manner. One of the most challenging questions in biology today is how the genomic characteristics of enhancers relate to enhancer activities. This is particularly critical, as several recent studies have linked enhancer sequence motifs to specific functional roles. To date, only a limited number of enhancer sequence characteristics have been investigated, leaving space for exploring the enhancers genomic code in a more systematic way. To address this problem, we developed a novel computational method, TELS, aimed at identifying predictive cell type/tissue specific motif signatures. We used TELS to compile a comprehensive catalog of motif signatures for all known TrEn identified by the FANTOM5 consortium across 112 human primary cells and tissues. Our results confirm that distinct cell type/tissue specific motif signatures characterize TrEn. These signatures allow discriminating successfully a) TrEn from random controls, proxy of non-enhancer activity, and b) cell type/tissue specific TrEn from enhancers expressed and transcribed in different cell types/tissues. TELS codes and datasets are publicly available at http://www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/TELS.

  14. [Analysis of genetic diversity of Russian regional populations based on common STR markers used in DNA identification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesik, V Yu; Fedunin, A A; Agdzhoyan, A T; Utevska, O M; Chukhraeva, M I; Evseeva, I V; Churnosov, M I; Lependina, I N; Bogunov, Yu V; Bogunova, A A; Ignashkin, M A; Yankovsky, N K; Balanovska, E V; Orekhov, V A; Balanovsky, O P

    2014-06-01

    We conducted the first genetic analysis of a wide a range of rural Russian populations in European Russia with a panel of common DNA markers commonly used in criminalistics genetic identification. We examined a total of 647 samples from indigenous ethnic Russian populations in Arkhangelsk, Belgorod, Voronezh, Kursk, Rostov, Ryazan, and Orel regions. We employed a multiplex genotyping kit, COrDIS Plus, to genotype Short Tandem Repeat (STR) loci, which included the genetic marker panel officially recommended for DNA identification in the Russian Federation, the United States, and the European Union. In the course of our study, we created a database of allelic frequencies, examined the distribution of alleles and genotypes in seven rural Russian populations, and defined the genetic relationships between these populations. We found that, although multidimensional analysis indicated a difference between the Northern gene pool and the rest of the Russian European populations, a pairwise comparison using 19 STR markers among all populations did not reveal significant differences. This is in concordance with previous studies, which examined up to 12 STR markers of urban Russian populations. Therefore, the database of allelic frequencies created in this study can be applied for forensic examinations and DNA identification among the ethnic Russian population over European Russia. We also noted a decrease in the levels of heterozygosity in the northern Russian population compared to ethnic populations in southern and central Russia, which is consistent with trends identified previously using classical gene markers and analysis of mitochondrial DNA.

  15. Y-STR variation in the Basque diaspora in the Western USA: evolutionary and forensic perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, Laura; Rosique, Melania; Köhnemann, Stephan; Cardoso, Sergio; García, Ainara; Odriozola, Adrián; Aznar, Jose María; Celorrio, David; Schuerenkamp, Marianne; Zubizarreta, Josu; Davis, Michael C; Hampikian, Greg; Pfeiffer, Heidi; de Pancorbo, Marian M

    2012-03-01

    Individuals of Basque origin migrated in large numbers to the Western USA in the second half of the nineteenth century, and the flow continued with less intensity during the last century. The European source population, that of the Basque Country, has long been a cultural and geographical isolate. Previous studies have demonstrated that Y-STR frequencies of Basques are different from those of other Spanish and European populations [1]. The Basque diaspora in the Western USA is a recent migration, but the founder effect and the incorporation of new American Y chromosomes into the paternal genetic pool of the Basque diaspora could have influenced its genetic structure and could thus have practical implications for forensic genetics. To check for genetic substructure among the European source and Basque diaspora populations and determine the most suitable population database for the Basque diaspora in the Western USA, we have analysed the haplotype distribution of 17 Y-STRs in both populations. We have found that the Basque diaspora in the Western USA largely conserve the Y chromosome lineage characteristic of the autochthonous European Basque population with no statistically significant differences. This implies that a common 17 Y-STR Basque population database could be used to calculate identification or kinship parameters regardless of whether the Basque individuals are from the European Basque Country or from the Basque diaspora in the Western USA.

  16. The young open cluster NGC 7067 using Strömgren photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monguió, M.; Negueruela, I.; Marco, A.; González-Fernández, C.; Alonso-Santiago, J.; Costado, M. T.; Casamiquela, L.; López-Corredoira, M.; Molgó, J.; Vilardell, F.; Alfaro, E. J.; Antoja, T.; Figueras, F.; Garcia, M.; Jordi, C.; Romero-Gómez, M.

    2017-04-01

    NGC 7067 is a young open cluster located in the direction between the first and the second Galactic quadrants and close to the Perseus spiral arm. This makes it useful for studies of the nature of the Milky Way spiral arms. Strömgren photometry taken with the Wide Field Camera at the Isaac Newton Telescope allowed us to compute individual physical parameters for the observed stars and hence to derive the cluster's physical parameters. Spectra from the 1.93-m telescope at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence helped to check and improve the results. We obtained photometry for 1233 stars, individual physical parameters for 515 and spectra for 9 of them. The 139 selected cluster members lead to a cluster distance of 4.4 ± 0.4 kpc, with an age below log10(t(yr)) = 7.3 and a present mass of 1260 ± 160 M⊙. The morphology of the data reveals that the centre of the cluster is at (α, δ) = (21: 24: 13.69, +48: 00: 39.2) J2000, with a radius of 6.1 arcmin. Strömgren and spectroscopic data allowed us to improve the previous parameters available for the cluster in the literature.

  17. Hubs with network motifs organize modularity dynamically in the protein-protein interaction network of yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Guangxu; Zhang, Shihua; Zhang, Xiang-Sun; Chen, Luonan

    2007-11-21

    It has been recognized that modular organization pervades biological complexity. Based on network analysis, 'party hubs' and 'date hubs' were proposed to understand the basic principle of module organization of biomolecular networks. However, recent study on hubs has suggested that there is no clear evidence for coexistence of 'party hubs' and 'date hubs'. Thus, an open question has been raised as to whether or not 'party hubs' and 'date hubs' truly exist in yeast interactome. In contrast to previous studies focusing on the partners of a hub or the individual proteins around the hub, our work aims to study the network motifs of a hub or interactions among individual proteins including the hub and its neighbors. Depending on the relationship between a hub's network motifs and protein complexes, we define two new types of hubs, 'motif party hubs' and 'motif date hubs', which have the same characteristics as the original 'party hubs' and 'date hubs' respectively. The network motifs of these two types of hubs display significantly different features in spatial distribution (or cellular localizations), co-expression in microarray data, controlling topological structure of network, and organizing modularity. By virtue of network motifs, we basically solved the open question about 'party hubs' and 'date hubs' which was raised by previous studies. Specifically, at the level of network motifs instead of individual proteins, we found two types of hubs, motif party hubs (mPHs) and motif date hubs (mDHs), whose network motifs display distinct characteristics on biological functions. In addition, in this paper we studied network motifs from a different viewpoint. That is, we show that a network motif should not be merely considered as an interaction pattern but be considered as an essential function unit in organizing modules of networks.

  18. Unravelling daily human mobility motifs

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Christian M.; Belik, Vitaly; Couronné, Thomas; Smoreda, Zbigniew; González, Marta C.

    2013-01-01

    Human mobility is differentiated by time scales. While the mechanism for long time scales has been studied, the underlying mechanism on the daily scale is still unrevealed. Here, we uncover the mechanism responsible for the daily mobility patterns by analysing the temporal and spatial trajectories of thousands of persons as individual networks. Using the concept of motifs from network theory, we find only 17 unique networks are present in daily mobility and they follow simple rules. These net...

  19. Population structure and paternal admixture landscape on present-day Mexican-Mestizos revealed by Y-STR haplotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Flores, J; Dondiego-Aldape, R; Rubi-Castellanos, R; Anaya-Palafox, M; Nuño-Arana, I; Canseco-Avila, L M; Flores-Flores, G; Morales-Vallejo, M E; Barojas-Pérez, N; Muñoz-Valle, J F; Campos-Gutiérrez, R; Rangel-Villalobos, H

    2010-01-01

    Mestizos currently represent most of the Mexican population (>90%); they are defined as individuals born in the country having a Spanish-derived last name, with family antecedents of Mexican ancestors back at least to the third generation. Mestizos are result of 500 years of admixture mainly among Spaniards, Amerindians, and African slaves. Consequently, a complex genetic pattern has been generated throughout the country that has been scarcely studied from the paternal point of view. This fact is important, taking into account that gene flow toward the New World comprised largely males. We analyzed the population structure and paternal admixture of present-day Mexican-Mestizo populations based on Y-STRs. We genotyped at least 12 Y-STRs in DNA samples of 986 males from five states: Aguascalientes (n = 293); Jalisco (n = 185); Guanajuato (n = 168); Chiapas (n = 170); and Yucatán (n = 170). AmpFlSTR Y-filer and Powerplex-Y(R) kits were used. Inclusion of North and Central Y-STR databases in the analyses allowed obtaining a Y-STR variability landscape from Mexico. Results confirmed the population differentiation gradient previously noted in Mestizos with SNPs and autosomal STRs throughout the Mexican territory: European ancestry increments to the Northwest and, correspondingly, Amerindian ancestry increments to the Center and Southeast. In addition, SAMOVA test and Autocorrelation Index for DNA Analysis autocorrelogram plot suggested preferential gene flow of males with neighboring populations in agreement with the isolation-by-distance model. Results are important for disease-risk studies (principally male-related) and for human identification purposes, because Y-STR databases are not available on the majority of Mexican-Mestizo populations.

  20. Aggregation of topological motifs in the Escherichia coli transcriptional regulatory network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barabási Albert-László

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transcriptional regulation of cellular functions is carried out through a complex network of interactions among transcription factors and the promoter regions of genes and operons regulated by them.To better understand the system-level function of such networks simplification of their architecture was previously achieved by identifying the motifs present in the network, which are small, overrepresented, topologically distinct regulatory interaction patterns (subgraphs. However, the interaction of such motifs with each other, and their form of integration into the full network has not been previously examined. Results By studying the transcriptional regulatory network of the bacterium, Escherichia coli, we demonstrate that the two previously identified motif types in the network (i.e., feed-forward loops and bi-fan motifs do not exist in isolation, but rather aggregate into homologous motif clusters that largely overlap with known biological functions. Moreover, these clusters further coalesce into a supercluster, thus establishing distinct topological hierarchies that show global statistical properties similar to the whole network. Targeted removal of motif links disintegrates the network into small, isolated clusters, while random disruptions of equal number of links do not cause such an effect. Conclusion Individual motifs aggregate into homologous motif clusters and a supercluster forming the backbone of the E. coli transcriptional regulatory network and play a central role in defining its global topological organization.

  1. Strålskydd för personal som arbetar inom Interventionell Radiologi

    OpenAIRE

    Lindgren, Johanna; Gustavsson, Erika

    2014-01-01

    Bakgrund: Trots en snabb utveckling av undersökningsmetoderna inom IR har inte strålskydden utvecklats i samma takt. Den joniserande strålning som förekommer på modaliteten kan medföra en hälsorisk för personalen därav finns det stråldosgränser att hålla sig inom för att minimera risken för yrkesrelaterade strålskador. För att förebygga risken för strålningsrelaterade skador är det viktigt att undersöka olika metoder av skydd för att optimera personalens strålsäkerhet.Syfte: Syftet med studie...

  2. Kopi dan Kakao dalam Kreasi Motif Batik Khas Jember

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfa'ina Rohana Salma

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Batik Jember selama ini identik dengan motif daun tembakau. Visualisasi daun tembakau dalam motif Batik Jember cukup lemah, yaitu kurang berkarakter karena motif yang muncul adalah seperti gambar daun pada umumnya. Oleh karena itu perlu diciptakan desain motif batik khas Jember yang sumber inspirasinya digali dari kekayaan alam lainnya dari Jember yang mempunyai bentuk spesifik dan karakteristik sehingga identitas motif bisa didapatkan dengan lebih kuat. Hasil alam khas Jember tersebut adalah kopi dan kakao. Tujuan penciptaan seni ini adalah untuk menghasilkan motif batik  baru yang mempunyai ciri khas Jember. Metode yang digunakan yaitu pengumpulan data, pengamatan mendalam terhadap objek penciptaan, pengkajian sumber inspirasi, pembuatan desain motif, dan perwujudan menjadi batik. Dari penciptaan seni ini berhasil dikreasikan 6 (enam motif batik yaitu: (1 Motif Uwoh Kopi; (2 Motif Godong Kopi;  (3 Motif Ceplok Kakao; (4 Motif Kakao Raja; (5 Motif Kakao Biru; dan (6 Motif Wiji Mukti. Berdasarkan hasil penilaian “Selera Estetika” diketahui bahwa motif yang paling banyak disukai adalah Motif Uwoh Kopi dan Motif Kakao Raja. Kata kunci: Motif Woh Kopi, Motif Godong Kopi, Motif Ceplok Kakao, Motif Kakao Raja, Motif Kakao Biru, Motif Wiji Mukti ABSTRACTBatik Jember is synonymous with tobacco leaf motif. Tobacco leaf shape is quite weak in the visual appearance characterized as that motif emerges like a picture of leaves in general. Therefore, it is necessary to create a distinctive design motif extracted from other natural resources of Jember that have specific shapes and characteristics that can be obtained as the stronger motif identity. The typical natural resources from Jember are coffee and cocoa. The purpose of the creation of this art is to produce the unique, creative and innovative batik and have specific characteristics of Jember. The method used are data collection, observation of the object, reviewing inspiration sources

  3. Purification and functional motifs of the recombinant ATPase of orf virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Fong-Yuan; Chan, Kun-Wei; Wang, Chi-Young; Wong, Min-Liang; Hsu, Wei-Li

    2011-10-01

    Our previous study showed that the recombinant ATPase encoded by the A32L gene of orf virus displayed ATP hydrolysis activity as predicted from its amino acids sequence. This viral ATPase contains four known functional motifs (motifs I-IV) and a novel AYDG motif; they are essential for ATP hydrolysis reaction by binding ATP and magnesium ions. The motifs I and II correspond with the Walker A and B motifs of the typical ATPase, respectively. To examine the biochemical roles of these five conserved motifs, recombinant ATPases of five deletion mutants derived from the Taiping strain were expressed and purified. Their ATPase functions were assayed and compared with those of two wild type strains, Taiping and Nantou isolated in Taiwan. Our results showed that deletions at motifs I-III or IV exhibited lower activity than that of the wild type. Interestingly, deletion of AYDG motif decreased the ATPase activity more significantly than those of motifs I-IV deletions. Divalent ions such as magnesium and calcium were essential for ATPase activity. Moreover, our recombinant proteins of orf virus also demonstrated GTPase activity, though weaker than the original ATPase activity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Analysis of matches and partial-matches in a Danish STR data set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedebrink, Torben; Eriksen, Poul Svante; Curan, James Michael

    2012-01-01

    monozygotic twins (0.09%), 6 redundant STR profiles of unknown cause and 1283 STR profiles from repeated testing of individuals were removed leaving 51,517 complete 10 locus STR profiles for analysis. The number corresponds to approximately 1% of the Danish population. We compared all STR profiles to each....... [3] to compare the observed and expected number of matches and near matches in the data set. We extended the methods by computing the covariance matrix of the summary statistic and used it for the estimation of the identical-by-descent parameter, θ. The analysis demonstrated a number of close...

  5. Introduction of the Python script STRinNGS for analysis of STR regions in FASTQ or BAM files and expansion of the Danish STR sequence database to 11 STRs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Susanne L; Buchard, Anders; Rockenbauer, Eszter

    2016-01-01

    This work introduces the in-house developed Python application STRinNGS for analysis of STR sequence elements in BAM or FASTQ files. STRinNGS identifies sequence reads with STR loci by their flanking sequences, it analyses the STR sequence and the flanking regions, and generates a report with the......This work introduces the in-house developed Python application STRinNGS for analysis of STR sequence elements in BAM or FASTQ files. STRinNGS identifies sequence reads with STR loci by their flanking sequences, it analyses the STR sequence and the flanking regions, and generates a report...

  6. Analysis of transcriptional and upstream regulatory sequence activity of two environmental stress-inducible genes, NBS-Str1 and BLEC-Str8, of rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Swatismita; Kapoor, Sanjay; Tyagi, Akhilesh K

    2012-04-01

    Two abiotic stress-inducible upstream regulatory sequences (URSs) from rice have been identified and functionally characterized in rice. NBS-Str1 and BLEC-Str8 genes have been identified, by analysing the transcriptome data of cold, salt and desiccation stress-treated 7-day-old rice (Oryza sativa L. var. IR64) seedling, to be preferentially responsive to desiccation and salt stress, respectively. NBS-Str1 and BLEC-Str8 genes code for putative NBS (nucleotide binding site)-LRR (leucine rich repeat) and β-lectin domain protein, respectively. NBS-Str1 URS is induced in root tissue, preferentially in vascular bundle, during 3 and 24 h of desiccation stress condition in transgenic 7-day-old rice seedling. In mature transgenic plants, this URS shows induction in root and shoot tissue under desiccation stress as well as under prolonged (1 and 2 day) salt stress. BLEC-Str8 URS shows basal activity under un-stressed condition, however, it is inducible under salt stress condition in both root and leaf tissues in young seedling and mature plants. Activity of BLEC-Str8 URS has been found to be vascular tissue preferential, however, under salt stress condition its activity is also found in the mesophyll tissue. NBS-Str1 and BLEC-Str8 URSs are inducible by heavy metal, copper and manganese. Interestingly, both the URSs have been found to be non responsive to ABA treatment, implying them to be part of ABA-independent abiotic stress response pathway. These URSs could prove useful for expressing a transgene in a stress responsive manner for development of stress tolerant transgenic systems.

  7. rMotifGen: random motif generator for DNA and protein sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardin C Timothy

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Detection of short, subtle conserved motif regions within a set of related DNA or amino acid sequences can lead to discoveries about important regulatory domains such as transcription factor and DNA binding sites as well as conserved protein domains. In order to help assess motif detection algorithms on motifs with varying properties and levels of conservation, we have developed a computational tool, rMotifGen, with the sole purpose of generating a number of random DNA or protein sequences containing short sequence motifs. Each motif consensus can be user-defined, randomly generated, or created from a position-specific scoring matrix (PSSM. Insertions and mutations within these motifs are created according to user-defined parameters and substitution matrices. The resulting sequences can be helpful in mutational simulations and in testing the limits of motif detection algorithms. Results Two implementations of rMotifGen have been created, one providing a graphical user interface (GUI for random motif construction, and the other serving as a command line interface. The second implementation has the added advantages of platform independence and being able to be called in a batch mode. rMotifGen was used to construct sample sets of sequences containing DNA motifs and amino acid motifs that were then tested against the Gibbs sampler and MEME packages. Conclusion rMotifGen provides an efficient and convenient method for creating random DNA or amino acid sequences with a variable number of motifs, where the instance of each motif can be incorporated using a position-specific scoring matrix (PSSM or by creating an instance mutated from its corresponding consensus using an evolutionary model based on substitution matrices. rMotifGen is freely available at: http://bioinformatics.louisville.edu/brg/rMotifGen/.

  8. Fitness for synchronization of network motifs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vega, Y.M.; Vázquez-Prada, M.; Pacheco, A.F.

    2004-01-01

    We study the synchronization of Kuramoto's oscillators in small parts of networks known as motifs. We first report on the system dynamics for the case of a scale-free network and show the existence of a non-trivial critical point. We compute the probability that network motifs synchronize, and fi...... that the fitness for synchronization correlates well with motifs interconnectedness and structural complexity. Possible implications for present debates about network evolution in biological and other systems are discussed....

  9. Cesta tvorbou webových stránek

    OpenAIRE

    Krčál Martin

    2012-01-01

    Článek v první části popisuje proces tvorby webových stránek od stanovení cílů a definování cílové skupiny přes návrh až po samotnou realizaci. Autor zdůrazňuje důležitost dostatečně velkého a nadšeného vývojového týmu a připomíná nezbytnost průběžného uživatelského testování. Zmiňovány jsou i některé nástroje pro testování stránek z pohledu SEO, použitelnosti a přístupnosti, stejně jako vzrůstající význam mobilních technologií. Druhá část článku je věnována uživatelskému testování a analzýze...

  10. Use of BONSAI decision trees for the identification of potential MHC class I peptide epitope motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoie, C J; Kamikawaji, N; Sasazuki, T; Kuhara, S

    1999-01-01

    Recognition of short peptides of 8 to 10 mer bound to MHC class I molecules by cytotoxic T lymphocytes forms the basis of cellular immunity. While the sequence motifs necessary for binding of intracellular peptides to MHC have been well studied, little is known about sequence motifs that may cause preferential affinity to the T cell receptor and/or preferential recognition and response by T cells. Here we demonstrate that computational learning systems can be useful to elucidate sequence motifs that affect T cell activation. Knowledge of T cell activation motifs could be useful for targeted vaccine design or immunotherapy. With the BONSAI computational learning algorithm, using a database of previously reported MHC bound peptides that had positive or negative T cell responses, we were able to identify sequence motif rules that explain 70% of positive T cell responses and 84% of negative T cell responses.

  11. Sequence alignment reveals possible MAPK docking motifs on HIV proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perry Evans

    Full Text Available Over the course of HIV infection, virus replication is facilitated by the phosphorylation of HIV proteins by human ERK1 and ERK2 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs. MAPKs are known to phosphorylate their substrates by first binding with them at a docking site. Docking site interactions could be viable drug targets because the sequences guiding them are more specific than phosphorylation consensus sites. In this study we use multiple bioinformatics tools to discover candidate MAPK docking site motifs on HIV proteins known to be phosphorylated by MAPKs, and we discuss the possibility of targeting docking sites with drugs. Using sequence alignments of HIV proteins of different subtypes, we show that MAPK docking patterns previously described for human proteins appear on the HIV matrix, Tat, and Vif proteins in a strain dependent manner, but are absent from HIV Rev and appear on all HIV Nef strains. We revise the regular expressions of previously annotated MAPK docking patterns in order to provide a subtype independent motif that annotates all HIV proteins. One revision is based on a documented human variant of one of the substrate docking motifs, and the other reduces the number of required basic amino acids in the standard docking motifs from two to one. The proposed patterns are shown to be consistent with in silico docking between ERK1 and the HIV matrix protein. The motif usage on HIV proteins is sufficiently different from human proteins in amino acid sequence similarity to allow for HIV specific targeting using small-molecule drugs.

  12. The dynamic phenomena of strékan music from colonial to contemporary era in Situbondo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panakajaya Hidayatullah

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This research is an anthropology of music which discusses the dynamics of strékan music from colonial to contemporary era in Situbondo. In Situbondo, strékan is a term which refers to music for welcoming guests. By ethnography method and postcolonial perspective, this research will discuss social problems and phenomena of strékan music. The result of this research shows that a change of strékan music signifies a change of social condition in Situbondo. In colonial era strékan is assumed by people like music for elite class. The field data show that there is unequal power relation between colonized and colonizer. In pasca-colonial era the hierarchy relation becomes ambivalent. It appears negotiation space between colonial signs and Madurese culture of Situbondo people, considered to be symbolic resistance. Strékan music is reinterpreted as music for low class. In the contemporary era, strékan music tends to market oriented. Strékan music includes dangdut music, following market taste as a consequence of commercialization of art.

  13. Variation of autosomes and X chromosome STR in breast cancer and gynecological cancer tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou Youxiang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses 1000 cases of patients with breast cancer and 2000 cases of patients with gynecological cancer (1000 cases of malignant tumor, 1000 cases of benign tumors, where breast cancer and malignant tumor patients comprise the observation group, while patients with benign tumors comprise the control group. Through DNA extraction, STR genotyping and variation verification, microdissection, individual STR mutation rate and loci STR mutation rate of the two groups of patients were calculated. Results show that there are no significant (P > 0.05 differences in the STR variation of autosomes and X chromosome between patients in the observation group and those in the reference group. However, significant (P < 0.05 intergroup differences were found for STR variation typing between patients with malignant and benign tumors. Using STR genotyping for autosomes and X chromosomes, gynecological cancer patients were found to be more likely to mutate, with a clear relationship between STR variation and tumor differentiation degrees. The study on the variation analysis of autosomes and X chromosome STR in breast and gynecological cancer tissues is expected to have a high application value when applied to medical research and identification processes.

  14. Evaluation of 12 Y-chromosome STR loci in Western Mediterranean populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez, V.; Tomas, Carmen; Sanchez, Juan J.

    2008-01-01

    With the aim to establish a Y-STR haplotype database, a total of 554 males from seven Western Mediterranean populations were genotyped for the 12 Y-chromosome STR loci (minimal haplotype extended by loci DYS437, DYS438 and DYS439) included in the Powerplex Y System (Promega). Among the 554 males...

  15. Bengt Strömgren: Growing up with astronomy, 1908-1932

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebsdorf, S.O.

    2003-01-01

    Bengt Strömgren's (1908-1987) early career is examined down to 1932, the year of his first landmark article on astrophysics, in which, continuing the numerical tradition at the Copenhagen Observatory, Strömgren applied the still novel quantum mechanics with great faith in its validity. In additio...

  16. Modellering af strømningsforhold og kanaldannelse i fixed bed koksbed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Torben Kvist; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk; Gøbel, Benny

    2003-01-01

    For at kunne undersøge stabiliteten af en koksbed er der blevet udviklet forskellige modeller til beskrivelse af strømningsforholdene i bedden under iltfri forgasning af biomassekoks. Strømningsforholdene er blevet undersøgt på simple modeller og CFD-modeller...

  17. A survey of motif finding Web tools for detecting binding site motifs in ChIP-Seq data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Ngoc Tam L; Huang, Chun-Hsi

    2014-02-20

    ChIP-Seq (chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing) has provided the advantage for finding motifs as ChIP-Seq experiments narrow down the motif finding to binding site locations. Recent motif finding tools facilitate the motif detection by providing user-friendly Web interface. In this work, we reviewed nine motif finding Web tools that are capable for detecting binding site motifs in ChIP-Seq data. We showed each motif finding Web tool has its own advantages for detecting motifs that other tools may not discover. We recommended the users to use multiple motif finding Web tools that implement different algorithms for obtaining significant motifs, overlapping resemble motifs, and non-overlapping motifs. Finally, we provided our suggestions for future development of motif finding Web tool that better assists researchers for finding motifs in ChIP-Seq data.

  18. Identifying the most likely contributors to a Y-STR mixture using the discrete Laplace method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikkel Meyer; Eriksen, Poul Svante; Mogensen, Helle Smidt

    2015-01-01

    demonstrate how the discrete Laplace method can be used to separate a two person Y-STR mixture, where the Y-STR profiles of the true contributors are not present in the reference dataset, which is often the case for Y-STR profiles in real case work. We also briefly discuss how to calculate the weight...... of the number of loci. For each of these datasets, an out of sample simulation study was performed: A total of 550 mixtures were composed by randomly sampling two haplotypes, h1 and h2, from the dataset. We then used the discrete Laplace method on the remaining data (excluding h1 and h2) to rank the contributor...... or less depending on the dataset and how the discrete Laplace model was chosen. Y-STR mixtures with many loci are difficult to separate, but even haplotypes with 21 Y-STR loci can be separated....

  19. A framework for the development of STR genotyping in domestic animal species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Asch, Barbara; Pinheiro, Raquel; Pereira, Rui

    2010-01-01

    This study reports the methodology used to search, select and characterize STR loci on the canine X chromosome using publicly available genome resources and following the current guidelines for human and non-human forensic testing. After several rounds of selection, 12 X-STR markers were optimized...... offspring. Its use may complement the information obtained by autosomal STR analysis and contribute to the resolution of complex cases of kinship in dogs. The presented methodology for the de novo construction of an STR multiplex may also provide a helpful framework for analogous work in other animal...... species. As an increasing number of reference genomes become available, convenient tools for individual identification and parentage testing based on STR loci selected from autosomes or sex chromosomes' sequences may be created following this strategy....

  20. Evolutionary dynamics of a conserved sequence motif in the ribosomal genes of the ciliate Paramecium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynch Michael

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In protozoa, the identification of preserved motifs by comparative genomics is often impeded by difficulties to generate reliable alignments for non-coding sequences. Moreover, the evolutionary dynamics of regulatory elements in 3' untranslated regions (both in protozoa and metazoa remains a virtually unexplored issue. Results By screening Paramecium tetraurelia's 3' untranslated regions for 8-mers that were previously found to be preserved in mammalian 3' UTRs, we detect and characterize a motif that is distinctly conserved in the ribosomal genes of this ciliate. The motif appears to be conserved across Paramecium aurelia species but is absent from the ribosomal genes of four additional non-Paramecium species surveyed, including another ciliate, Tetrahymena thermophila. Motif-free ribosomal genes retain fewer paralogs in the genome and appear to be lost more rapidly relative to motif-containing genes. Features associated with the discovered preserved motif are consistent with this 8-mer playing a role in post-transcriptional regulation. Conclusions Our observations 1 shed light on the evolution of a putative regulatory motif across large phylogenetic distances; 2 are expected to facilitate the understanding of the modulation of ribosomal genes expression in Paramecium; and 3 reveal a largely unexplored--and presumably not restricted to Paramecium--association between the presence/absence of a DNA motif and the evolutionary fate of its host genes.

  1. Evolutionary dynamics of a conserved sequence motif in the ribosomal genes of the ciliate Paramecium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catania, Francesco; Lynch, Michael

    2010-05-04

    In protozoa, the identification of preserved motifs by comparative genomics is often impeded by difficulties to generate reliable alignments for non-coding sequences. Moreover, the evolutionary dynamics of regulatory elements in 3' untranslated regions (both in protozoa and metazoa) remains a virtually unexplored issue. By screening Paramecium tetraurelia's 3' untranslated regions for 8-mers that were previously found to be preserved in mammalian 3' UTRs, we detect and characterize a motif that is distinctly conserved in the ribosomal genes of this ciliate. The motif appears to be conserved across Paramecium aurelia species but is absent from the ribosomal genes of four additional non-Paramecium species surveyed, including another ciliate, Tetrahymena thermophila. Motif-free ribosomal genes retain fewer paralogs in the genome and appear to be lost more rapidly relative to motif-containing genes. Features associated with the discovered preserved motif are consistent with this 8-mer playing a role in post-transcriptional regulation. Our observations 1) shed light on the evolution of a putative regulatory motif across large phylogenetic distances; 2) are expected to facilitate the understanding of the modulation of ribosomal genes expression in Paramecium; and 3) reveal a largely unexplored--and presumably not restricted to Paramecium--association between the presence/absence of a DNA motif and the evolutionary fate of its host genes.

  2. PREVIOUS SECOND TRIMESTER ABORTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PNLC

    PREVIOUS SECOND TRIMESTER ABORTION: A risk factor for third trimester uterine rupture in three ... for accurate diagnosis of uterine rupture. KEY WORDS: Induced second trimester abortion - Previous uterine surgery - Uterine rupture. ..... scarred uterus during second trimester misoprostol- induced labour for a missed ...

  3. Måling på ikke sinusformede AC strømme og spændinger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Arne Hejde

    1998-01-01

    Målinger på en- og trefasede spændinger og strømme i elforsyningen. Specielt gennemgås forholdene ved ikke symetriske systemer med overtoner i spændinger og strømme.......Målinger på en- og trefasede spændinger og strømme i elforsyningen. Specielt gennemgås forholdene ved ikke symetriske systemer med overtoner i spændinger og strømme....

  4. Perception Enhancement using Visual Attributes in Sequence Motif Visualization

    OpenAIRE

    Oon, Yin; Lee, Nung; Kok, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Sequence logo is a well-accepted scientific method to visualize the conservation characteristics of biological sequence motifs. Previous studies found that using sequence logo graphical representation for scientific evidence reports or arguments could seriously cause biases and misinterpretation by users. This study investigates on the visual attributes performance of a sequence logo in helping users to perceive and interpret the information based on preattentive theories and Gestalt principl...

  5. Single promoters as regulatory network motifs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zopf, Christopher; Maheshri, Narendra

    2012-02-01

    At eukaryotic promoters, chromatin can influence the relationship between a gene's expression and transcription factor (TF) activity. This additional complexity might allow single promoters to exhibit dynamical behavior commonly attributed to regulatory motifs involving multiple genes. We investigate the role of promoter chromatin architecture in the kinetics of gene activation using a previously described set of promoter variants based on the phosphate-regulated PHO5 promoter in S. cerevisiae. Accurate quantitative measurement of transcription activation kinetics is facilitated by a controllable and observable TF input to a promoter of interest leading to an observable expression output in single cells. We find the particular architecture of these promoters can result in a significant delay in activation, filtering of noisy TF signals, and a memory of previous activation -- dynamical behaviors reminiscent of a feed-forward loop but only requiring a single promoter. We suggest this is a consequence of chromatin transactions at the promoter, likely passing through a long-lived ``primed'' state between its inactive and competent states. Finally, we show our experimental setup can be generalized as a ``gene oscilloscope'' to probe the kinetics of heterologous promoter architectures.

  6. Event Networks and the Identification of Crime Pattern Motifs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toby Davies

    Full Text Available In this paper we demonstrate the use of network analysis to characterise patterns of clustering in spatio-temporal events. Such clustering is of both theoretical and practical importance in the study of crime, and forms the basis for a number of preventative strategies. However, existing analytical methods show only that clustering is present in data, while offering little insight into the nature of the patterns present. Here, we show how the classification of pairs of events as close in space and time can be used to define a network, thereby generalising previous approaches. The application of graph-theoretic techniques to these networks can then offer significantly deeper insight into the structure of the data than previously possible. In particular, we focus on the identification of network motifs, which have clear interpretation in terms of spatio-temporal behaviour. Statistical analysis is complicated by the nature of the underlying data, and we provide a method by which appropriate randomised graphs can be generated. Two datasets are used as case studies: maritime piracy at the global scale, and residential burglary in an urban area. In both cases, the same significant 3-vertex motif is found; this result suggests that incidents tend to occur not just in pairs, but in fact in larger groups within a restricted spatio-temporal domain. In the 4-vertex case, different motifs are found to be significant in each case, suggesting that this technique is capable of discriminating between clustering patterns at a finer granularity than previously possible.

  7. Event Networks and the Identification of Crime Pattern Motifs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate the use of network analysis to characterise patterns of clustering in spatio-temporal events. Such clustering is of both theoretical and practical importance in the study of crime, and forms the basis for a number of preventative strategies. However, existing analytical methods show only that clustering is present in data, while offering little insight into the nature of the patterns present. Here, we show how the classification of pairs of events as close in space and time can be used to define a network, thereby generalising previous approaches. The application of graph-theoretic techniques to these networks can then offer significantly deeper insight into the structure of the data than previously possible. In particular, we focus on the identification of network motifs, which have clear interpretation in terms of spatio-temporal behaviour. Statistical analysis is complicated by the nature of the underlying data, and we provide a method by which appropriate randomised graphs can be generated. Two datasets are used as case studies: maritime piracy at the global scale, and residential burglary in an urban area. In both cases, the same significant 3-vertex motif is found; this result suggests that incidents tend to occur not just in pairs, but in fact in larger groups within a restricted spatio-temporal domain. In the 4-vertex case, different motifs are found to be significant in each case, suggesting that this technique is capable of discriminating between clustering patterns at a finer granularity than previously possible. PMID:26605544

  8. High-throughput sequencing of core STR loci for forensic genetic investigations using the Roche Genome Sequencer FLX platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fordyce, Sarah Louise; Avila Arcos, Maria del Carmen; Rockenbauer, Eszter

    2011-01-01

    The analysis and profiling of short tandem repeat (STR) loci is routinely used in forensic genetics. Current methods to investigate STR loci, including PCR-based standard fragment analyses and capillary electrophoresis, only provide amplicon lengths that are used to estimate the number of STR rep...

  9. Analysis of the 19 Y-STR and 16 X-STR loci system in the Han population of Shandong province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, H M; Wang, C; Han, S Y; Sun, S H; Xiao, D J; Wang, Y S; Li, C T; Zhang, M X

    2017-03-30

    The sex-linked short tandem repeats (STR), Y-STR and X-STR, are important for autosomal STRs in forensic paternity testing. We evaluated the forensic parameters of 19 Y-STRs and 16 X-STRs in the Han population of Shandong province, China. A Goldeneye 20Y kit (DYS391, DYS389I, DYS390, DYS389II, DYS348, DYS456, Y-GATA-H4, DYS447, DYS19, DYS392, DYS393, DYS388, DYS439, DYS635, DYS448, DYS460, DYS458, DYS437, DYS385 a/b) was used to analyze the forensic parameters of 534 unrelated males. A Goldeneye17X system (DXS6795, DXS9902, DXS8378, HPRTB, GATA165B12, DXS7132, DXS7424, DXS6807, DXS6803, GATA172D05, DXS6800, DXS10134, GATA31E08, DXS10159, DXS6789, DXS6810, amelogenin) was used to analyze 97 unrelated males and 214 females. In addition, we used the kits to examine 5 cases with abnormal amelogenin test results, as well as a male child with agenosomia typed by autosomal STR. We found 203 Y-STR haplotypes with allele frequencies ranging from 0.0019 to 0.7959, and GD ranging from 0.3429 to 0.9667. Expect in DXS6803, the allele frequencies of the other 15 X-STR loci showed no differences between females and males. PD F ranged from 0.5504 to 0.9638, while PD M ranged from 0.3176 to 0.8377. With the exception of DXS6803 and DXS6810, the allele frequencies of other X-STR loci were in accordance with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in females. One amelogenin negative case was characterized as a deletion of Y-DYS458. This paper provided data regarding the genetic polymorphism of Y-STRs and X-STRs in the Han population, and demonstrated the importance of Y-STR and X-STR in forensic autosomal STR analysis.

  10. LA FAMILIA APOCYNACEAE S. STR. (APOCYNOIDEAE, RAUVOLFIOIDEAE EN URUGUAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Francisco Morales

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un tratamiento de las Apocynaceae s. str. (Apocynoideae, Rauvolfioideae de Uruguay. Se reconocen diez especies de un total de siete géneros: Aspidosperma quebracho-blanco, Condylocarpon isthmicum, Forsteronia glabrescens, Mandevilla coccinea, M. emarginata, M. longiflora, M. petraea, Rhabdadenia madida, Tabernaemontana catharinensis, Vinca major. Se incluyen descripciones, claves, datos de distribución y especimenes examinados. Se seleccionan lectotipos para Dipladenia xanthosoma var. major, Echites emarginatus, E. erectus, E. grandiflorus var. minor, E. pinifolius, Laseguea erecta var. guilleminia f. griseo-olivacea , L. erecta var. obliquinervia f. ovata subf. griseofusca y subf. griseo-olivacea, L. guilleminiana, Macrosiphonia verticillata var. intermedia, M. verticillata var. peduncularis, M. pinifolia f. glabrata y M. pinifolia f. setosa Se designa un neotipo para Aspidosperma quebracho-blanco.

  11. MotifNet: a web-server for network motif analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoly, Ilan Y; Lerman, Eugene; Ziv-Ukelson, Michal; Yeger-Lotem, Esti

    2017-06-15

    Network motifs are small topological patterns that recur in a network significantly more often than expected by chance. Their identification emerged as a powerful approach for uncovering the design principles underlying complex networks. However, available tools for network motif analysis typically require download and execution of computationally intensive software on a local computer. We present MotifNet, the first open-access web-server for network motif analysis. MotifNet allows researchers to analyze integrated networks, where nodes and edges may be labeled, and to search for motifs of up to eight nodes. The output motifs are presented graphically and the user can interactively filter them by their significance, number of instances, node and edge labels, and node identities, and view their instances. MotifNet also allows the user to distinguish between motifs that are centered on specific nodes and motifs that recur in distinct parts of the network. MotifNet is freely available at http://netbio.bgu.ac.il/motifnet . The website was implemented using ReactJs and supports all major browsers. The server interface was implemented in Python with data stored on a MySQL database. estiyl@bgu.ac.il or michaluz@cs.bgu.ac.il. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  12. STR analysis of human DNA from maggots fed on decomposing bodies: Assessment of the time period for successful analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Gachuiri Njau

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Frequently, forensic entomology is applied in the use of insect maggots for the identification of specimens or remains of humans. Maggot crop analysis could be valuable in criminal investigations when maggots are found at a crime scene and a corpse is absent. Human short tandem repeat (STR has previously been used to support the association of maggots to a specific corpse but not in the period at which the body has been decomposing. The aim of this research was to assess the time period for successful STR analyses of human DNA from third instar maggots (Protophormia terraenovae obtained from decomposing human corpses as well as to investigate the human DNA turnover and degradation in the maggot crop after they are removed from food and/or are fed on a beef (a new/different food source. Results showed that the amount of human DNA recovered from maggots decreased with time in all cases. For maggots fed on beef, the human DNA could only be recovered up to day two and up to day four for the starved maggots. STR analyses of human DNA from maggots’ crop content using 16 loci generated profiles that matched those of reference samples although some of the alleles were not amplifiable therefore generating partial profiles for the samples starved for 4 days and those fed on beef. This may be due to nuclease activity present in the gut of larvae that may have caused degradation of DNA and consequently reduction in DNA yield. It was possible to identify the decomposing body using STRs as markers.

  13. Characterization of genetic sequence variation of 58 STR loci in four major population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novroski, Nicole M M; King, Jonathan L; Churchill, Jennifer D; Seah, Lay Hong; Budowle, Bruce

    2016-11-01

    Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) can identify sequence variation within short tandem repeat (STR) alleles as well as their nominal allele lengths that traditionally have been obtained by capillary electrophoresis. Using the MiSeq FGx Forensic Genomics System (Illumina), STRait Razor, and in-house excel workbooks, genetic variation was characterized within STR repeat and flanking regions of 27 autosomal, 7 X-chromosome and 24 Y-chromosome STR markers in 777 unrelated individuals from four population groups. Seven hundred and forty six autosomal, 227 X-chromosome, and 324 Y-chromosome STR alleles were identified by sequence compared with 357 autosomal, 107 X-chromosome, and 189 Y-chromosome STR alleles that were identified by length. Within the observed sequence variation, 227 autosomal, 156 X-chromosome, and 112 Y-chromosome novel alleles were identified and described. One hundred and seventy six autosomal, 123 X-chromosome, and 93 Y-chromosome sequence variants resided within STR repeat regions, and 86 autosomal, 39 X-chromosome, and 20 Y-chromosome variants were located in STR flanking regions. Three markers, D18S51, DXS10135, and DYS385a-b had 1, 4, and 1 alleles, respectively, which contained both a novel repeat region variant and a flanking sequence variant in the same nucleotide sequence. There were 50 markers that demonstrated a relative increase in diversity with the variant sequence alleles compared with those of traditional nominal length alleles. These population data illustrate the genetic variation that exists in the commonly used STR markers in the selected population samples and provide allele frequencies for statistical calculations related to STR profiling with MPS data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Hunting Motifs in Situla Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Preložnik

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Situla art developed as an echo of the toreutic style which had spread from the Near East through the Phoenicians, Greeks and Etruscans as far as the Veneti, Raeti, Histri, and their eastern neighbours in the region of Dolenjska (Lower Carniola. An Early Iron Age phenomenon (c. 600—300 BC, it rep- resents the major and most arresting form of the contemporary visual arts in an area stretching from the foot of the Apennines in the south to the Drava and Sava rivers in the east. Indeed, individual pieces have found their way across the Alpine passes and all the way north to the Danube. In the world and art of the situlae, a prominent role is accorded to ani- mals. They are displayed in numerous representations of human activities on artefacts crafted in the classic situla style – that is, between the late 6th  and early 5th centuries BC – as passive participants (e.g. in pageants or in harness or as an active element of the situla narrative. The most typical example of the latter is the hunting scene. Today we know at least four objects decorat- ed exclusively with hunting themes, and a number of situlae and other larger vessels where hunting scenes are embedded in composite narratives. All this suggests a popularity unparallelled by any other genre. Clearly recognisable are various hunting techniques and weapons, each associated with a particu- lar type of game (Fig. 1. The chase of a stag with javelin, horse and hound is depicted on the long- familiar and repeatedly published fibula of Zagorje (Fig. 2. It displays a hound mauling the stag’s back and a hunter on horseback pursuing a hind, her neck already pierced by the javelin. To judge by the (so far unnoticed shaft end un- der the stag’s muzzle, the hunter would have been brandishing a second jave- lin as well, like the warrior of the Vače fibula or the rider of the Nesactium situla, presumably himself a hunter. Many parallels to his motif are known from Greece, Etruria, and

  15. Laparoscopy After Previous Laparotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfo Godinjak

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Following the abdominal surgery, extensive adhesions often occur and they can cause difficulties during laparoscopic operations. However, previous laparotomy is not considered to be a contraindication for laparoscopy. The aim of this study is to present that an insertion of Veres needle in the region of umbilicus is a safe method for creating a pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic operations after previous laparotomy. In the last three years, we have performed 144 laparoscopic operations in patients that previously underwent one or two laparotomies. Pathology of digestive system, genital organs, Cesarean Section or abdominal war injuries were the most common causes of previouslaparotomy. During those operations or during entering into abdominal cavity we have not experienced any complications, while in 7 patients we performed conversion to laparotomy following the diagnostic laparoscopy. In all patients an insertion of Veres needle and trocar insertion in the umbilical region was performed, namely a technique of closed laparoscopy. Not even in one patient adhesions in the region of umbilicus were found, and no abdominal organs were injured.

  16. WSMD: weakly-supervised motif discovery in transcription factor ChIP-seq data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongbo; Zhu, Lin; Huang, De-Shuang

    2017-06-12

    Although discriminative motif discovery (DMD) methods are promising for eliciting motifs from high-throughput experimental data, due to consideration of computational expense, most of existing DMD methods have to choose approximate schemes that greatly restrict the search space, leading to significant loss of predictive accuracy. In this paper, we propose Weakly-Supervised Motif Discovery (WSMD) to discover motifs from ChIP-seq datasets. In contrast to the learning strategies adopted by previous DMD methods, WSMD allows a "global" optimization scheme of the motif parameters in continuous space, thereby reducing the information loss of model representation and improving the quality of resultant motifs. Meanwhile, by exploiting the connection between DMD framework and existing weakly supervised learning (WSL) technologies, we also present highly scalable learning strategies for the proposed method. The experimental results on both real ChIP-seq datasets and synthetic datasets show that WSMD substantially outperforms former DMD methods (including DREME, HOMER, XXmotif, motifRG and DECOD) in terms of predictive accuracy, while also achieving a competitive computational speed.

  17. Bayesian centroid estimation for motif discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Biological sequences may contain patterns that signal important biomolecular functions; a classical example is regulation of gene expression by transcription factors that bind to specific patterns in genomic promoter regions. In motif discovery we are given a set of sequences that share a common motif and aim to identify not only the motif composition, but also the binding sites in each sequence of the set. We propose a new centroid estimator that arises from a refined and meaningful loss function for binding site inference. We discuss the main advantages of centroid estimation for motif discovery, including computational convenience, and how its principled derivation offers further insights about the posterior distribution of binding site configurations. We also illustrate, using simulated and real datasets, that the centroid estimator can differ from the traditional maximum a posteriori or maximum likelihood estimators.

  18. Bayesian centroid estimation for motif discovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Carvalho

    Full Text Available Biological sequences may contain patterns that signal important biomolecular functions; a classical example is regulation of gene expression by transcription factors that bind to specific patterns in genomic promoter regions. In motif discovery we are given a set of sequences that share a common motif and aim to identify not only the motif composition, but also the binding sites in each sequence of the set. We propose a new centroid estimator that arises from a refined and meaningful loss function for binding site inference. We discuss the main advantages of centroid estimation for motif discovery, including computational convenience, and how its principled derivation offers further insights about the posterior distribution of binding site configurations. We also illustrate, using simulated and real datasets, that the centroid estimator can differ from the traditional maximum a posteriori or maximum likelihood estimators.

  19. Genetic analysis of two STR loci (VWA and TPOX in the Iranian province of Khuzestan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohammad Foroughmand

    2014-08-01

    Conclusion: The examined STR loci in this study have proven a relatively high genetic variation in the Iranian population. The data could be used for construction of a forensic genetic database for the Iranian population.

  20. Genetic polymorphisms in 18 autosomal STR loci in the Tibetan population living in Tibet Chamdo, Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenghui; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Hantao; Lin, Ziqing; Ye, Jian

    2018-05-01

    Short tandem repeats (STRs) play a vitally important role in forensics. Population data is needed to improve the field. There is currently no large population data-based data set in Chamdo Tibetan. In our study, the allele frequencies and forensic statistical parameters of 18 autosomal STR loci (D5S818, D21S11, D7S820, CSF1PO, D2S1338, D3S1358, VWA, D8S1179, D16S539, PentaE, TPOX, TH01, D19S433, D18S51, FGA, D6S1043, D13S317, and D12S391) included in the DNATyper™19 kit were investigated in 2249 healthy, unrelated Tibetan subjects living in Tibet Chamdo, Southwest China. The combined power of discrimination and the combined probability of exclusion of all 18 loci were 0.9999999999999999999998174 and 0.99999994704, respectively. Furthermore, the genetic relationship between our Tibetan group and 33 previously published populations was also investigated. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the Chamdo Tibetan population is more closely related genetically with the Lhasa Tibetan group. Our results suggest that these autosomal STR loci are highly polymorphic in the Tibetan population living in Tibet Chamdo and can be used as a powerful tool in forensics, linguistics, and population genetic analyses.

  1. Short tandem repeat (STR) based genetic diversity and relationship of indigenous Niger cattle

    OpenAIRE

    M. Grema; M. Grema; A. Traoré; A. Traoré; M. Issa; M. Hamani; M. Abdou; A. Soudré; M. Sanou; M. Sanou; R. Pichler; H. H. Tamboura; Y. Alhassane; K. Periasamy

    2017-01-01

    The diversity of cattle in Niger is predominantly represented by three indigenous breeds: Zebu Arabe, Zebu Bororo and Kuri. This study aimed at characterizing the genetic diversity and relationship of Niger cattle breeds using short tandem repeat (STR) marker variations. A total of 105 cattle from all three breeds were genotyped at 27 STR loci. High levels of allelic and gene diversity were observed with an overall mean of 8.7 and 0.724 respectively. The mean inbreeding esti...

  2. Genetics analysis of 38 STR loci in Uygur population from Southern Xinjiang of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Li; Liu, Haibo; Liao, Qinxiang; Xu, Xu; Chen, Wen; Hao, Shicheng

    2016-05-01

    The allele frequencies and statistical parameters of 38 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci were analyzed in the Uygur population from Southern Xinjiang of China with 290 unrelated individuals. The results show these 38 STR loci have high or medium power of discrimination and probabilities of exclusion. All loci are in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The genetic distances between the Uygur population and other Chinese populations were also estimated.

  3. Population data on 15 STR loci using AmpF/STR Identifiler kit in a Malay population living in and around Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, S; Minaguchi, K; Takezaki, N; Nambiar, P

    2008-05-01

    Allele frequencies for 15 short tandem repeat (STR) loci D8S1179, D21S11, D7S820, CSF1PO, D3S1358, TH01, D13S317, D16S539, D2S1338, D19S433, vWA, TPOX, D18S51, D5S818 and FGA (AmpF/STR Identifiler PCR Amplification kit, PE Applied Biosystems) were obtained from a sample of 110 unrelated individuals from the Malay population living in and around Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, and the characteristics of the population was compared with other East Asian populations.

  4. ssHMM: extracting intuitive sequence-structure motifs from high-throughput RNA-binding protein data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, David; Krestel, Ralf; Ohler, Uwe; Vingron, Martin; Marsico, Annalisa

    2017-11-02

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) play an important role in RNA post-transcriptional regulation and recognize target RNAs via sequence-structure motifs. The extent to which RNA structure influences protein binding in the presence or absence of a sequence motif is still poorly understood. Existing RNA motif finders either take the structure of the RNA only partially into account, or employ models which are not directly interpretable as sequence-structure motifs. We developed ssHMM, an RNA motif finder based on a hidden Markov model (HMM) and Gibbs sampling which fully captures the relationship between RNA sequence and secondary structure preference of a given RBP. Compared to previous methods which output separate logos for sequence and structure, it directly produces a combined sequence-structure motif when trained on a large set of sequences. ssHMM's model is visualized intuitively as a graph and facilitates biological interpretation. ssHMM can be used to find novel bona fide sequence-structure motifs of uncharacterized RBPs, such as the one presented here for the YY1 protein. ssHMM reaches a high motif recovery rate on synthetic data, it recovers known RBP motifs from CLIP-Seq data, and scales linearly on the input size, being considerably faster than MEMERIS and RNAcontext on large datasets while being on par with GraphProt. It is freely available on Github and as a Docker image. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  5. Improving complex kinship analyses with additional STR loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carboni, Ilaria; Iozzi, Sara; Nutini, Anna Lucia; Torricelli, Francesca; Ricci, Ugo

    2014-11-01

    In a standard paternity testing, mother, child, and alleged father are analyzed with STR markers using commercially available kits. Since Italian civil legislation does not have thresholds to confirm a paternity, paternity is practically proven when likelihood ratio increases prior probability of paternity to posterior, accepted by court as sufficient. However, in some cases the number of markers included in a commercial kit may be insufficient to conclusively prove or disprove a relationship between individuals, especially when complex family scenarios are suspected or indirect analyses are required. Additional genetic information can increase the values of the likelihood ratio regarding the detection of true parental relationships in a pedigree, while reducing the chances of false attributions (e.g. false paternities). In these cases the introduction of a 26Plex amplification system allows to examine 23-26 additional markers depending on the commercial kit used, thus increasing the statistical power of the kinship analysis. The PCR conditions were optimized for a multiplex amplification system and a new generation CE instrument. In order to demonstrate the utility of additional STRs markers, four complex kinship cases are presented. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. FTZ-Factor1 and Fushi tarazu interact via conserved nuclear receptor and coactivator motifs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Carol J.E.; Sampson, Heidi M.; Hlousek, Daniela; Percival-Smith, Anthony; Copeland, John W.R.; Simmonds, Andrew J.; Krause, Henry M.

    2001-01-01

    To activate transcription, most nuclear receptor proteins require coactivators that bind to their ligand-binding domains (LBDs). The Drosophila FTZ-Factor1 (FTZ-F1) protein is a conserved member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, but was previously thought to lack an AF2 motif, a motif that is required for ligand and coactivator binding. Here we show that FTZ-F1 does have an AF2 motif and that it is required to bind a coactivator, the homeodomain-containing protein Fushi tarazu (FTZ). We also show that FTZ contains an AF2-interacting nuclear receptor box, the first to be found in a homeodomain protein. Both interaction motifs are shown to be necessary for physical interactions in vitro and for functional interactions in developing embryos. These unexpected findings have important implications for the conserved homologs of the two proteins. PMID:11157757

  7. Donor verification using Short Tandem Repeat (STR) analysis directly from blood collected in PAXgene RNA tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Victoria R; Jones, Susan P; Sammartino, Holly L; Arocena, Dennis Ian S; Madore, Steven J

    2014-06-01

    Biorepository processing includes nucleic acid extractions in batch mode from a large number of blood samples from many different donors. Handling such a large number of biospecimens presents the challenge of ensuring that samples are not switched or mislabeled during processing. One approach for confirming donor identity from DNA samples is the use of multiplexed fluorescent PCR for detecting Short Tandem Repeat (STR) allelic-size polymorphisms for a set of common autosomal loci. While donor identity of DNA extracted directly from blood collected in standard tubes containing anticoagulants can be easily verified by generating STR profiles, RNA from blood collected in PAXgene Blood RNA tubes (PAXgene RNA tubes) is depleted of DNA and is not amenable to STR fingerprinting for donor identity verification. We investigated the feasibility of isolating DNA directly from blood collected in PAXgene RNA tubes for use as template for STR DNA fingerprinting for blood donor identity verification. We determined that DNA extraction can be performed manually with the QIAamp DNA Blood Minikit or on the QIAxtractor instrument with minimal pre-processing protocol additions, and that DNA isolated from blood collected in PAXgene RNA tubes is of sufficient quantity and quality for successful STR fingerprint analysis. Adaptation of quality assurance methods such as the PAXgene RNA tube DNA extraction/STR fingerprinting assay described here is a good practice that ensures that biobanking collections provide scientists with high quality, donor-verified biomaterial.

  8. Efficient sequential and parallel algorithms for planted motif search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolae, Marius; Rajasekaran, Sanguthevar

    2014-01-31

    Motif searching is an important step in the detection of rare events occurring in a set of DNA or protein sequences. One formulation of the problem is known as (l,d)-motif search or Planted Motif Search (PMS). In PMS we are given two integers l and d and n biological sequences. We want to find all sequences of length l that appear in each of the input sequences with at most d mismatches. The PMS problem is NP-complete. PMS algorithms are typically evaluated on certain instances considered challenging. Despite ample research in the area, a considerable performance gap exists because many state of the art algorithms have large runtimes even for moderately challenging instances. This paper presents a fast exact parallel PMS algorithm called PMS8. PMS8 is the first algorithm to solve the challenging (l,d) instances (25,10) and (26,11). PMS8 is also efficient on instances with larger l and d such as (50,21). We include a comparison of PMS8 with several state of the art algorithms on multiple problem instances. This paper also presents necessary and sufficient conditions for 3 l-mers to have a common d-neighbor. The program is freely available at http://engr.uconn.edu/~man09004/PMS8/. We present PMS8, an efficient exact algorithm for Planted Motif Search. PMS8 introduces novel ideas for generating common neighborhoods. We have also implemented a parallel version for this algorithm. PMS8 can solve instances not solved by any previous algorithms.

  9. Targeting functional motifs of a protein family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadola, Pradeep; Deo, Nivedita

    2016-10-01

    The structural organization of a protein family is investigated by devising a method based on the random matrix theory (RMT), which uses the physiochemical properties of the amino acid with multiple sequence alignment. A graphical method to represent protein sequences using physiochemical properties is devised that gives a fast, easy, and informative way of comparing the evolutionary distances between protein sequences. A correlation matrix associated with each property is calculated, where the noise reduction and information filtering is done using RMT involving an ensemble of Wishart matrices. The analysis of the eigenvalue statistics of the correlation matrix for the β -lactamase family shows the universal features as observed in the Gaussian orthogonal ensemble (GOE). The property-based approach captures the short- as well as the long-range correlation (approximately following GOE) between the eigenvalues, whereas the previous approach (treating amino acids as characters) gives the usual short-range correlations, while the long-range correlations are the same as that of an uncorrelated series. The distribution of the eigenvector components for the eigenvalues outside the bulk (RMT bound) deviates significantly from RMT observations and contains important information about the system. The information content of each eigenvector of the correlation matrix is quantified by introducing an entropic estimate, which shows that for the β -lactamase family the smallest eigenvectors (low eigenmodes) are highly localized as well as informative. These small eigenvectors when processed gives clusters involving positions that have well-defined biological and structural importance matching with experiments. The approach is crucial for the recognition of structural motifs as shown in β -lactamase (and other families) and selectively identifies the important positions for targets to deactivate (activate) the enzymatic actions.

  10. A recurring two-hydrogen-bond motif incorporating a serine or threonine residue is found both at alpha-helical N termini and in other situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, W Y; Milner-White, E J

    1999-03-12

    Side-chain hydroxyl residues in protein crystal structures often form hydrogen bonds with main-chain atoms. The most common bond arrangement is a four to five residue motif in which a serine or threonine is the first residue forming two characteristic hydrogen bonds to residues ahead of it in sequence. We call them ST-motifs, by analogy with the term Asx-motif we suggested for the related motifs with aspartate and asparagine residues. ST-motifs are common, there being just under one and a half in a typical protein subunit. Asx-motifs are even more common, such that 9 % of the residues of an average protein consist of Asx or ST-motifs. Of the ST-motifs, three-quarters are at helical N termini, and the rest occur by themselves or in conjunction with beta-bulge loops. A third of all alpha-helices have either ST-motifs or Asx-motifs at their N termini. Previous work has emphasised the occurrence of the capping box at alpha-helical N termini, but the capping box occurs in only 5 % of alpha-helical N termini; also, we point out that it can be regarded as a subset of the ST-motif (or, occasionally, of the Asx-motif). By comparing related sequences, the rates which amino acid residues at the first position of ST or Asx-motifs interchange during evolution are examined. Serine threonine, and aspartate asparagine, interchange is rapid; inter-pair exchange is slower, but much faster than exchange with other amino acid residues. This is consistent with the general similarity of ST-motifs and Asx-motifs combined with some subtle structural differences between them that are described. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  11. Analisis Unsur Matematika pada Motif Sulam Usus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredi Ganda Putra

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on interviews with researchers sources said that the beginning of the intestine embroidery is an art of genuine crafts. Called the intestine embroidery because this technique is a technique of combining a strand of cloth resembling the intestine formed according to the pattern by means of embroidered using a thread. Intestinal embroidery techniques were originally used to create a cover of the women's customary wardrobe of Lampung or often referred to as bebe. But not many people in Lampung, especially people who live in Lampung are still many who do not know and recognize the intestine embroidery because most only know tapis only characteristic of Lampung, besides that there are other cultural results that is embroidered intestine. There are still many who do not know that the intestine motif there is a knowledge of mathematics. The researcher's problem formulation is whether there are mathematical elements contained in the intestine embroidery motif based on the concept of geometry. The purpose of this study is to determine whether there are elements of mathematics contained in the intestine motif based on the concept of geometry. Subjects in this study consisted of 4 people obtained by purposive sampling technique. From the results of data analysis conducted by using descriptive analysis and discussion as follows: (1 Intestinal embroidery motif contains the meaning of mathematics and culture or often called Etnomatematika. On the meaning of culture there is a link between the embroidery intestine with a culture that has been there before as the existence of cultural linkage between Hindu belief Buddhism and there are similarities of motifs and decorative patterns contained in the motif embroidery intestine with ornamental variety in Indonesia. (2 The relationship between the intestine with mathematical motifs there are elements of mathematics such as geometry elements in the form of geometry of dimension one and dimension two, and the

  12. STR data for the AmpFlSTR Profiler loci from the three main ethnic population groups (Malay, Chinese and Indian) in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, K B; Jeevan, N H; Jaya, P; Othman, M I; Lee, Y H

    2001-06-01

    Allele frequencies for the nine STRs genetic loci included in the AmpFlSTR Profiler kit were obtained from samples of unrelated individuals comprising 139-156 Malays, 149-153 Chinese and 132-135 Indians, residing in Malaysia.

  13. Functional characterization of variations on regulatory motifs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Lapidot

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Transcription factors (TFs regulate gene expression through specific interactions with short promoter elements. The same regulatory protein may recognize a variety of related sequences. Moreover, once they are detected it is hard to predict whether highly similar sequence motifs will be recognized by the same TF and regulate similar gene expression patterns, or serve as binding sites for distinct regulatory factors. We developed computational measures to assess the functional implications of variations on regulatory motifs and to compare the functions of related sites. We have developed computational means for estimating the functional outcome of substituting a single position within a binding site and applied them to a collection of putative regulatory motifs. We predict the effects of nucleotide variations within motifs on gene expression patterns. In cases where such predictions could be compared to suitable published experimental evidence, we found very good agreement. We further accumulated statistics from multiple substitutions across various binding sites in an attempt to deduce general properties that characterize nucleotide substitutions that are more likely to alter expression. We found that substitutions involving Adenine are more likely to retain the expression pattern and that substitutions involving Guanine are more likely to alter expression compared to the rest of the substitutions. Our results should facilitate the prediction of the expression outcomes of binding site variations. One typical important implication is expected to be the ability to predict the phenotypic effect of variation in regulatory motifs in promoters.

  14. WildSpan: mining structured motifs from protein sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chien-Yu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Automatic extraction of motifs from biological sequences is an important research problem in study of molecular biology. For proteins, it is desired to discover sequence motifs containing a large number of wildcard symbols, as the residues associated with functional sites are usually largely separated in sequences. Discovering such patterns is time-consuming because abundant combinations exist when long gaps (a gap consists of one or more successive wildcards are considered. Mining algorithms often employ constraints to narrow down the search space in order to increase efficiency. However, improper constraint models might degrade the sensitivity and specificity of the motifs discovered by computational methods. We previously proposed a new constraint model to handle large wildcard regions for discovering functional motifs of proteins. The patterns that satisfy the proposed constraint model are called W-patterns. A W-pattern is a structured motif that groups motif symbols into pattern blocks interleaved with large irregular gaps. Considering large gaps reflects the fact that functional residues are not always from a single region of protein sequences, and restricting motif symbols into clusters corresponds to the observation that short motifs are frequently present within protein families. To efficiently discover W-patterns for large-scale sequence annotation and function prediction, this paper first formally introduces the problem to solve and proposes an algorithm named WildSpan (sequential pattern mining across large wildcard regions that incorporates several pruning strategies to largely reduce the mining cost. Results WildSpan is shown to efficiently find W-patterns containing conserved residues that are far separated in sequences. We conducted experiments with two mining strategies, protein-based and family-based mining, to evaluate the usefulness of W-patterns and performance of WildSpan. The protein-based mining mode

  15. One motif to bind them: A small-XXX-small motif affects transmembrane domain 1 oligomerization, function, localization, and cross-talk between two yeast GPCRs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, Antonia; Forfar, Rachel; Weston, Cathryn; Bowsher, Leo; Upton, Graham J G; Reynolds, Christopher A; Ladds, Graham; Dixon, Ann M

    2014-12-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the largest family of cell-surface receptors in mammals and facilitate a range of physiological responses triggered by a variety of ligands. GPCRs were thought to function as monomers, however it is now accepted that GPCR homo- and hetero-oligomers also exist and influence receptor properties. The Schizosaccharomyces pombe GPCR Mam2 is a pheromone-sensing receptor involved in mating and has previously been shown to form oligomers in vivo. The first transmembrane domain (TMD) of Mam2 contains a small-XXX-small motif, overrepresented in membrane proteins and well-known for promoting helix-helix interactions. An ortholog of Mam2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Ste2, contains an analogous small-XXX-small motif which has been shown to contribute to receptor homo-oligomerization, localization and function. Here we have used experimental and computational techniques to characterize the role of the small-XXX-small motif in function and assembly of Mam2 for the first time. We find that disruption of the motif via mutagenesis leads to reduction of Mam2 TMD1 homo-oligomerization and pheromone-responsive cellular signaling of the full-length protein. It also impairs correct targeting to the plasma membrane. Mutation of the analogous motif in Ste2 yielded similar results, suggesting a conserved mechanism for assembly. Using co-expression of the two fungal receptors in conjunction with computational models, we demonstrate a functional change in G protein specificity and propose that this is brought about through hetero-dimeric interactions of Mam2 with Ste2 via the complementary small-XXX-small motifs. This highlights the potential of these motifs to affect a range of properties that can be investigated in other GPCRs. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Identification of common motifs in unaligned DNA sequences: application to Escherichia coli Lrp regulon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraenkel, Y M; Mandel, Y; Friedberg, D; Margalit, H

    1995-08-01

    We describe a relatively simple method for the identification of common motifs in DNA sequences that are known to share a common function. The input sequences are unaligned and there is no information regarding the position or orientation of the motif. Often such data exists for protein-binding regions, where genetic or molecular information that defines the binding region is available, but the specific recognition site within it is unknown. The method is based on the principle of 'divide and conquer'; we first search for dominant submotifs and then build full-length motifs around them. This method has several useful features: (i) it screens all submotifs so that the results are independent of the sequence order in the data; (ii) it allows the submotifs to contain spacers; (iii) it identifies an existing motif even if the data contains 'noise'; (iv) its running time depends linearly on the total length of the input. The method is demonstrated on two groups of protein-binding sequences: a well-studied group of known CRP-binding sequences, and a relatively newly identified group of genes known to be regulated by Lrp. The Lrp motif that we identify, based on 23 gene sequences, is similar to a previously identified motif based on a smaller data set, and to a consensus sequence of experimentally defined binding sites. Individual Lrp sites are evaluated and compared in regard to their regulation mode.

  17. Improved i-motif thermal stability by insertion of anthraquinone monomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gouda, Alaa S; Amine, Mahasen S.; Pedersen, Erik Bjerregaard

    2017-01-01

    In order to gain insight into how to improve thermal stability of i-motifs when used in the context of biomedical and nanotechnological applications, novel anthraquinone-modified i-motifs were synthesized by insertion of 1,8-, 1,4-, 1,5- and 2,6-disubstituted anthraquinone monomers into the TAA...... loops of a 22mer cytosine-rich human telomeric DNA sequence. The influence of the four anthraquinone linkers on the i-motif thermal stability was investigated at 295 nm and pH 5.5. Anthraquinone monomers modulate the i-motif stability in a position-depending manner and the modulation also depends...... on the substitution pattern of the anthraquinone. The insertion of anthraquinone was found to stabilize the i-motif structure when replacing any one of the positions of the central TAA loop and the thermal stabilities were typically higher than those previously found for i-motifs containing pyrene-modified uracilyl...

  18. Direct AUC optimization of regulatory motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lin; Zhang, Hong-Bo; Huang, De-Shuang

    2017-07-15

    The discovery of transcription factor binding site (TFBS) motifs is essential for untangling the complex mechanism of genetic variation under different developmental and environmental conditions. Among the huge amount of computational approaches for de novo identification of TFBS motifs, discriminative motif learning (DML) methods have been proven to be promising for harnessing the discovery power of accumulated huge amount of high-throughput binding data. However, they have to sacrifice accuracy for speed and could fail to fully utilize the information of the input sequences. We propose a novel algorithm called CDAUC for optimizing DML-learned motifs based on the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) criterion, which has been widely used in the literature to evaluate the significance of extracted motifs. We show that when the considered AUC loss function is optimized in a coordinate-wise manner, the cost function of each resultant sub-problem is a piece-wise constant function, whose optimal value can be found exactly and efficiently. Further, a key step of each iteration of CDAUC can be efficiently solved as a computational geometry problem. Experimental results on real world high-throughput datasets illustrate that CDAUC outperforms competing methods for refining DML motifs, while being one order of magnitude faster. Meanwhile, preliminary results also show that CDAUC may also be useful for improving the interpretability of convolutional kernels generated by the emerging deep learning approaches for predicting TF sequences specificities. CDAUC is available at: https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/0BxOW5MtIZbJjNFpCeHlBVWJHeW8 . dshuang@tongji.edu.cn. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  19. The Verrucomicrobia LexA-binding Motif: Insights into the Evolutionary Dynamics of the SOS Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Erill

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The SOS response is the primary bacterial mechanism to address DNA damage, coordinating multiple cellular processes that include DNA repair, cell division and translesion synthesis. In contrast to other regulatory systems, the composition of the SOS genetic network and the binding motif of its transcriptional repressor, LexA, have been shown to vary greatly across bacterial clades, making it an ideal system to study the co-evolution of transcription factors and their regulons. Leveraging comparative genomics approaches and prior knowledge on the core SOS regulon, here we define the binding motif of the Verrucomicrobia, a recently described phylum of emerging interest due to its association with eukaryotic hosts. Site directed mutagenesis of the Verrucomicrobium spinosum recA promoter confirms that LexA binds a 14 bp palindromic motif with consensus sequence TGTTC-N4-GAACA. Computational analyses suggest that recognition of this novel motif is determined primarily by changes in base-contacting residues of the third alpha helix of the LexA helix-turn-helix DNA binding motif. In conjunction with comparative genomics analysis of the LexA regulon in the Verrucomicrobia phylum, electrophoretic shift assays reveal that LexA binds to operators in the promoter region of DNA repair genes and a mutagenesis cassette in this organism, and identify previously unreported components of the SOS response. The identification of tandem LexA-binding sites generating instances of other LexA-binding motifs in the lexA gene promoter of Verrucomicrobia species leads us to postulate a novel mechanism for LexA-binding motif evolution. This model, based on gene duplication, successfully addresses outstanding questions in the intricate co-evolution of the LexA protein, its binding motif and the regulatory network it controls.

  20. Y-STR genetic screening by high-resolution melting analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, J Q; Liu, B Q; Wang, Y; Liu, W; Cai, J F; Long, R; Li, W H

    2016-02-05

    Currently, the widely used automated capillary electrophoresis-based short tandem repeat (STR) genotyping method for genetic screening in forensic practice is laborious, time-consuming, expensive, and technically challenging in some cases. Thus, new molecular-based strategies for conclusively identifying forensically relevant biological evidence are required. Here, we used high-resolution melting analysis (HRM) for Y-chromosome STR genotyping for forensic genetic screening. The reproducibility of the melting profile over dilution, sensitivity, discrimination power, and other factors was preliminarily studied in 10 Y-STR loci. The results showed that HRM-based approaches revealed more genotypes (compared to capillary electrophoresis), showed higher uniformity in replicate tests and diluted samples, and enabled successful detection of DNA at concentrations as low as 0.25 ng. For mixed samples, the melting curve profiles discriminated between mixed samples based on reference samples with high efficiency. The triplex Y-chromosome STR HRM assay was performed and provided a foundation for further studies such as a multiplex HRM assay. The HRM approach is a one-step application and the entire procedure can be completed within 2 h at a low cost. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that the HRM-based Y-STR assay is a useful screening tool that can be used in forensic practice.

  1. Population Difference Analysis of Allele Frequencies of 24 Y-STR Loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, R X; Liu, J H; Zhao, Q; Lin, Y; Li, L

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the population genetic polymorphisms of 24 Y-STR loci in unrelated individuals in Eastern Chinese Han population, and to compare the difference of Han group between Eastern China and Guangdong. The population genetics of 24 Y-STR loci in 268 unrelated Han individuals from Eastern China were analyzed by GFS 24 Y-STR amplification kit. The allele frequencies in Eastern Chinese Han population were compared with the data in Guangdong Han population, and the difference analysis between two groups was performed. Among the 24 Y-STR loci of 268 unrelated Han individuals from Eastern China, 235 alleles and 267 haplotypes were observed. GD value ranged from 0.564 9 to 0.966 8. The difference between 12 loci ( DYS622 , DYS552 , DYS443 , et al. ) of Han population in Eastern China and in Guangdong was statistically significance. GFS 24Y STR amplification system shows favorable polymorphisms, which can be used in patrilineal genetic relationship identification. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Forensic Medicine

  2. Allele frequency distribution for 15 autosomal STR loci in Afridi Pathan population of Uttar Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Sabahat; Ali, Shahnaz; Eaaswarkhanth, Muthukrishnan; Haque, Ikramul

    2009-11-01

    Allele frequencies of the 15 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci D8S1179, D21S11, D7S820, CSF1PO D19S433, vWA, TPOX, D18S51, D3S1358, THO1, D13S317, D16S539, D2S1338, D5S818 and FGA were determined in Afridi Pathan population of Uttar Pradesh, India. All the 15 STR loci studied were found to be highly polymorphic with respect to observed heterozygosity values. Adherence to the expectations of the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) was confirmed for all the loci with an exception of TPOX and FGA. The allele 12 in CSF1PO was found to be most frequent. The power of discrimination was found to be high ranging from a minimum of 0.858 for the locus CSFIPO to maximum of 0.962 for the locus FGA, thereby facilitating the validation and efficiency of these STR markers in human identification. Population differentiation test between the studied and neighboring populations revealed significant differences at several loci suggesting the endogamous nature of the studied population. To the best of our knowledge, Afridi Pathan population has not been explored genetically for generating forensic data on STR markers. Therefore, STR allele frequency data of this unique population is a valuable contribution to the existing DNA database on Indian populations.

  3. Online verification of human cell line identity by STR DNA typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirks, Wilhelm G; Drexler, Hans G

    2011-01-01

    The main prerequisition for any research, development, or production programs involving cell lines is whether a cell line is authentic or not. Microsatellites in the human genome harboring short tandem repeat (STR) DNA markers allow the identification of individual cell lines at the DNA level. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of eight highly polymorphic microsatellite STR loci and gender determination have been proven to be the best tools for screening the uniqueness of DNA profiles in an STR database. The main Biological Resource Centers (BRCs), ATCC, DSMZ, JCRB, and RIKEN, have generated large databases of STR cell line profiles for identity control. In cooperation with the Japanese BRCs, DSMZ has piloted the generation of the most comprehensive international reference database, which is linked to a simple search engine for interrogating STR cell line profiles. The tool of online -verification of cell line identities is available on the respective homepages of JCRB and DSMZ ( http://cellbank.nibio.go.jp/cellbank_e.html , http://www.dsmz.de/STRanalysis ). The following sections describe a rapid, practical, inexpensive, and reliable method available to students, technicians, and scientists.

  4. Evaluation of a 13-loci STR multiplex system for Cannabis sativa genetic identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Rachel; Birck, Matthew; Hughes-Stamm, Sheree; Gangitano, David

    2016-05-01

    Marijuana (Cannabis sativa) is the most commonly used illicit substance in the USA. The development of a validated method using Cannabis short tandem repeats (STRs) could aid in the individualization of samples as well as serve as an intelligence tool to link multiple cases. For this purpose, a modified 13-loci STR multiplex method was optimized and evaluated according to ISFG and SWGDAM guidelines. A real-time PCR quantification method for C. sativa was developed and validated, and a sequenced allelic ladder was also designed to accurately genotype 199 C. sativa samples from 11 U.S. Customs and Border Protection seizures. Distinguishable DNA profiles were generated from 127 samples that yielded full STR profiles. Four duplicate genotypes within seizures were found. The combined power of discrimination of this multilocus system is 1 in 70 million. The sensitivity of the multiplex STR system is 0.25 ng of template DNA. None of the 13 STR markers cross-reacted with any of the studied species, except for Humulus lupulus (hops) which generated unspecific peaks. Phylogenetic analysis and case-to-case pairwise comparison of 11 cases using F st as genetic distance revealed the genetic association of four groups of cases. Moreover, due to their genetic similarity, a subset of samples (N = 97) was found to form a homogeneous population in Hardy-Weinberg and linkage equilibrium. The results of this research demonstrate the applicability of this 13-loci STR system in associating Cannabis cases for intelligence purposes.

  5. Enhanced DNA Profiling of the Semen Donor in Late Reported Sexual Assaults: Use of Y-Chromosome-Targeted Pre-amplification and Next Generation Y-STR Amplification Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Erin K; Ballantyne, Jack

    2016-01-01

    In some cases of sexual assault the victim may not report the assault for several days after the incident due to various factors. The ability to obtain an autosomal STR profile of the semen donor from a living victim rapidly diminishes as the post-coital interval is extended due to the presence of only a small amount of male DNA amidst an overwhelming amount of female DNA. Previously, we have utilized various technological tools to overcome the limitations of male DNA profiling in extended interval post-coital samples including the use of Y-chromosome STR profiling, cervical sample, and post-PCR purification permitting the recovery of Y-STR profiles of the male DNA from samples collected 5-6 days after intercourse. Despite this success, the reproductive biology literature reports the presence of spermatozoa in the human cervix up to 7-10 days post-coitus. Therefore, novel and improved methods for recovery of male profiles in extended interval post-coital samples were required. Here, we describe enhanced strategies, including Y-chromosome-targeted pre-amplification and next generation Y-STR amplification kits, that have resulted in the ability to obtain probative male profiles from samples collected 6-9 days after intercourse.

  6. Identifying motifs in folktales using topic models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karsdorp, F.; Bosch, A.P.J. van den

    2013-01-01

    With the undertake of various folktale digitalization initiatives, the need for computational aids to explore these collections is increasing. In this paper we compare Labeled LDA (L-LDA) to a simple retrieval model on the task of identifying motifs in folktales. We show that both methods are well

  7. Highly scalable Ab initio genomic motif identification

    KAUST Repository

    Marchand, Benoit

    2011-01-01

    We present results of scaling an ab initio motif family identification system, Dragon Motif Finder (DMF), to 65,536 processor cores of IBM Blue Gene/P. DMF seeks groups of mutually similar polynucleotide patterns within a set of genomic sequences and builds various motif families from them. Such information is of relevance to many problems in life sciences. Prior attempts to scale such ab initio motif-finding algorithms achieved limited success. We solve the scalability issues using a combination of mixed-mode MPI-OpenMP parallel programming, master-slave work assignment, multi-level workload distribution, multi-level MPI collectives, and serial optimizations. While the scalability of our algorithm was excellent (94% parallel efficiency on 65,536 cores relative to 256 cores on a modest-size problem), the final speedup with respect to the original serial code exceeded 250,000 when serial optimizations are included. This enabled us to carry out many large-scale ab initio motiffinding simulations in a few hours while the original serial code would have needed decades of execution time. Copyright 2011 ACM.

  8. Correlating novel variable and conserved motifs in the Hemagglutinin protein with significant biological functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Mark

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variations in the influenza Hemagglutinin protein contributes to antigenic drift resulting in decreased efficiency of seasonal influenza vaccines and escape from host immune response. We performed an in silico study to determine characteristics of novel variable and conserved motifs in the Hemagglutinin protein from previously reported H3N2 strains isolated from Hong Kong from 1968–1999 to predict viral motifs involved in significant biological functions. Results 14 MEME blocks were generated and comparative analysis of the MEME blocks identified blocks 1, 2, 3 and 7 to correlate with several biological functions. Analysis of the different Hemagglutinin sequences elucidated that the single block 7 has the highest frequency of amino acid substitution and the highest number of co-mutating pairs. MEME 2 showed intermediate variability and MEME 1 was the most conserved. Interestingly, MEME blocks 2 and 7 had the highest incidence of potential post-translational modifications sites including phosphorylation sites, ASN glycosylation motifs and N-myristylation sites. Similarly, these 2 blocks overlap with previously identified antigenic sites and receptor binding sites. Conclusion Our study identifies motifs in the Hemagglutinin protein with different amino acid substitution frequencies over a 31 years period, and derives relevant functional characteristics by correlation of these motifs with potential post-translational modifications sites, antigenic and receptor binding sites.

  9. I-DNASE21 system: development and SWGDAM validation of a new STR 21-plex reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznar, Jose María; Celorrio, David; Odriozola, Adrian; Köhnemann, Stephan; Bravo, María Luisa; Builes, Juan Jose; Pfeiffer, Heidi; Herrera, René J; de Pancorbo, Marian M

    2014-01-01

    I-DNASE21 is a new STR multiplex system that amplifies 21 STR autosomal loci, plus the amelogenin locus in one reaction. This system has been designed to analyze all the STR loci included in the Combined DNA Index System (CODIS), Interpol Standard Set of Loci (ISSL), Extended European Standard Set (ESS-Extended), UK National Criminal Intelligence DNA Database (NDNAD) and German Core loci (GCL). This manuscript presents the validation of the I-DNASE21 system according to the revised guidelines issued by the Scientific Working Group on DNA Analysis Methods (SWGDAM). The results of this validation, added to the extremely high discriminatory power showed, suggest that I-DNASE21 could be a potentially helpful tool for identification and kinship determination even in complex paternity cases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Y-STR analysis of digital and/or penile penetration cases with no detected spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Andrew; Jones, Emma; Lewis, Jennie; O'Rourke, Paula

    2015-03-01

    This forensic casework trial involved Yfiler(®) testing samples from 47 digital and/or penile penetration cases where the medical examination had occurred within 48h of the alleged incident and no spermatozoa had been detected following Sperm Elution(©). 30% of these cases yielded at least one Y-STR profile comprising three or more alleles per profile and 21% yielded at least one Y-STR profile of ten or more alleles per profile. This trial further investigated the persistence of male DNA in different case types, the location of samples submitted for testing and whether samples from different locations benefit from being combined prior to testing. The data supports the use of Y-STR profiling to provide scientific evidence to investigate whether the alleged sexual activity had occurred as well as to obtain probative evidence in spermatozoa negative penetration cases. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The validation of a 15 STR multiplex PCR for Cannabis species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhnemann, Stephan; Nedele, Johanna; Schwotzer, Daniela; Morzfeld, Julia; Pfeiffer, Heidi

    2012-07-01

    Trade and acquisition of Cannabis drugs are illegal in many countries worldwide; nevertheless, crimes related with these drugs are a major problem for the investigative authorities. With this manuscript, we want to introduce a 15 short tandem repeat (STR) Cannabis marker set that can be amplified in one PCR reaction. This multiplex PCR is specific to Cannabis species and combines highly informative STR markers. The 15 STR multiplex is easy to use and was validated according to common laboratory quality standards. Due to the fact that a lot of Cannabis plants are cultivated by clonal propagation and may show aneuploidy, polyploidy or multiple gene loci, it is not possible to apply biostatistics that follow the Hardy-Weinberg law. However, this multiplex will help the police to trace back trade routes of drug syndicates or dealers and it can help to link Cannabis plants to a crime scene.

  12. [Y-STR Poland--a database for evaluation of evidence value in forensic genetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacewicz, Renata; Krajewski, Paweł; Ulewicz, Danuta; Piatek, Jarosław; Jedrzejczyk, Maciej; Babol-Pokora, Katarzyna; Prośniak, Adam; Konarzewska, Magdalena; Ossowski, Andrzej; Parafiniuk, Mirosław; Berent, Jarosław

    2011-01-01

    The "Y-STR Poland" is a multicenter project, the aim of which is the construction of a widely available database of Y chromosome haplotypes determined in the Polish population in a range of sixteen loci in AmpFISTR Y-filer system. The database will be regularly updated and it will be used in assessment of evidence value in forensic genetics. The starting base "Y-STR Poland" contains 1600 Y-STR haplotypes and encompasses data collected in Lodz (two independent centers), Warsaw and Szczecin regions. The present report contains as an attachment the data in an Excel-type file, which serves as a tool in frequency determination of a given Y haplotype in the Polish population. The file will be updated on a regular basis along with updating the database, and will be freely available from www.genetyka-sadowa.pl.

  13. Parallel motif extraction from very long sequences

    KAUST Repository

    Sahli, Majed

    2013-01-01

    Motifs are frequent patterns used to identify biological functionality in genomic sequences, periodicity in time series, or user trends in web logs. In contrast to a lot of existing work that focuses on collections of many short sequences, modern applications require mining of motifs in one very long sequence (i.e., in the order of several gigabytes). For this case, there exist statistical approaches that are fast but inaccurate; or combinatorial methods that are sound and complete. Unfortunately, existing combinatorial methods are serial and very slow. Consequently, they are limited to very short sequences (i.e., a few megabytes), small alphabets (typically 4 symbols for DNA sequences), and restricted types of motifs. This paper presents ACME, a combinatorial method for extracting motifs from a single very long sequence. ACME arranges the search space in contiguous blocks that take advantage of the cache hierarchy in modern architectures, and achieves almost an order of magnitude performance gain in serial execution. It also decomposes the search space in a smart way that allows scalability to thousands of processors with more than 90% speedup. ACME is the only method that: (i) scales to gigabyte-long sequences; (ii) handles large alphabets; (iii) supports interesting types of motifs with minimal additional cost; and (iv) is optimized for a variety of architectures such as multi-core systems, clusters in the cloud, and supercomputers. ACME reduces the extraction time for an exact-length query from 4 hours to 7 minutes on a typical workstation; handles 3 orders of magnitude longer sequences; and scales up to 16, 384 cores on a supercomputer. Copyright is held by the owner/author(s).

  14. DNA motif elucidation using belief propagation

    KAUST Repository

    Wong, Ka-Chun

    2013-06-29

    Protein-binding microarray (PBM) is a high-throughout platform that can measure the DNA-binding preference of a protein in a comprehensive and unbiased manner. A typical PBM experiment can measure binding signal intensities of a protein to all the possible DNA k-mers (k = 8 ?10); such comprehensive binding affinity data usually need to be reduced and represented as motif models before they can be further analyzed and applied. Since proteins can often bind to DNA in multiple modes, one of the major challenges is to decompose the comprehensive affinity data into multimodal motif representations. Here, we describe a new algorithm that uses Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) and can derive precise and multimodal motifs using belief propagations. We describe an HMM-based approach using belief propagations (kmerHMM), which accepts and preprocesses PBM probe raw data into median-binding intensities of individual k-mers. The k-mers are ranked and aligned for training an HMM as the underlying motif representation. Multiple motifs are then extracted from the HMM using belief propagations. Comparisons of kmerHMM with other leading methods on several data sets demonstrated its effectiveness and uniqueness. Especially, it achieved the best performance on more than half of the data sets. In addition, the multiple binding modes derived by kmerHMM are biologically meaningful and will be useful in interpreting other genome-wide data such as those generated from ChIP-seq. The executables and source codes are available at the authors\\' websites: e.g. http://www.cs.toronto.edu/?wkc/kmerHMM. 2013 The Author(s).

  15. Grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Caelifera and crickets (Orthoptera: Ensifera from slopes of Macošská stráň and Vilémovická stráň (Moravský kras Protected landscape area, Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Niedobová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2008 we found 21 species of grasshoppers and crickets on Macošská stráň slope and 18 species on Vilémovická stráň slope. Both slopes are located in the northern part of the Moravský kras Protected landscape area and have xerothermic character. Both slopes are influenced by pasture management. For the most comprehensive picture of Orthoptera we used a standard method (sweeping of vegetation and nonstandard methods (pitfall traps and Möricke yellow cups. Termophilous species of Orthoptera on Macošská stráň (47% were dominating. On Vilémovická stráň mezophilous species (46% were dominating. The most common species were Stenobothrus lineatus (Panzer, 1796 on Macošská stráň slope and Chorthippus parallelus (Zetterstedt, 1821, Stenobothrus lineatus, Chorthippus bigutulus (Linné, 1758 and Chorthippus dorsatus (Zetterstedt, 1821 on Vilémovická stráň slope. Rare species of this assemblage were Stenobothrus nigromaculatus (Herrich-Schaffer, 1840 which was on Macošská stráň slope only and Tetrix bipunctata (Linnaeus, 1758 which has much bigger abundances also on Macošská stráň slope.

  16. Comparison of DNA yield and STR success rates from different tissues in embalmed bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Amanda; Czado, Natalia; Gangitano, David; Turnbough, Meredith; Hughes-Stamm, Sheree

    2017-01-01

    Formalin fixation is commonly used to preserve tissue sections for pathological testing and embalming cadavers for medical dissection or burial. DNA extracted from formalin-fixed tissues may also provide an alternative source of genetic material for medical diagnosis and forensic casework, such as identifying unknown embalmed human remains. Formaldehyde causes DNA damage, chemical modifications, and degradation, thereby reducing the quantity and quality of DNA available for downstream genetic analyses. By comparing the DNA yield, level of DNA degradation, and short tandem repeat (STR) success of various tissue types, this study is the first of its kind to provide some guidance on which samples from embalmed bodies are likely to generate more complete STR profiles. Tissue samples were dissected from three male embalmed cadavers and included bone, cartilage, hair, muscle, internal organs, skin, teeth, and nail clippings. DNA was purified from all samples using the QIAamp® FFPE Tissue Kit (Qiagen), quantified using the QuantiFiler® Trio DNA Quantification kit (Life Technologies), and genotyped using the GlobalFiler® PCR Amplification Kit (Life Technologies). Results of this study showed variation in DNA quantity and STR success between different types of tissues and some variation between cadavers. Overall, bone marrow samples resulted in the highest DNA yields, the least DNA degradation, and greatest STR success. However, several muscle, hair, and nail samples generated higher STR success rates than traditionally harvested bone and tooth samples. A key advantage to preferentially using these tissue samples over bone (and marrow) and teeth is their comparative ease and speed of collection from the cadaver and processing during DNA extraction. Results also indicate that soft tissues affected by lividity (blood pooling) may experience greater exposure to formalin, resulting in more DNA damage and reduced downstream STR success than tissues under compression. Overall

  17. Estimating the probability of allelic drop-out of STR alleles in forensic genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedebrink, Torben; Eriksen, Poul Svante; Mogensen, Helle Smidt

    2009-01-01

    In crime cases with available DNA evidence, the amount of DNA is often sparse due to the setting of the crime. In such cases, allelic drop-out of one or more true alleles in STR typing is possible. We present a statistical model for estimating the per locus and overall probability of allelic drop......-out using the results of all STR loci in the case sample as reference. The methodology of logistic regression is appropriate for this analysis, and we demonstrate how to incorporate this in a forensic genetic framework....

  18. Detection and Characterization of Streptomycin Resistance (strA-strB) in a Honeybee Gut Symbiont (Snodgrassella alvi) and the Associated Risk of Antibiotic Resistance Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludvigsen, Jane; Amdam, Gro V; Rudi, Knut; L'Abée-Lund, Trine M

    2018-03-08

    Use of antibiotics in medicine and farming contributes to increasing numbers of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in diverse environments. The ability of antibiotic resistance genes (ARG) to transfer between bacteria genera contributes to this spread. It is difficult to directly link antibiotic exposure to the spread of ARG in a natural environment where environmental settings and study populations cannot be fully controlled. We used managed honeybees in environments with contrasting streptomycin exposure (USA: high exposure, Norway: low exposure) and mapped the prevalence and spread of transferrable streptomycin resistance genes. We found a high prevalence of strA-strB genes in the USA compared to Norway with 17/90 and 1/90 positive samples, respectively (p resistance genes increases the risk of the spread to new environments as honeybees are moved to new pollination sites.

  19. Sequence-based classification using discriminatory motif feature selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Xiong

    Full Text Available Most existing methods for sequence-based classification use exhaustive feature generation, employing, for example, all k-mer patterns. The motivation behind such (enumerative approaches is to minimize the potential for overlooking important features. However, there are shortcomings to this strategy. First, practical constraints limit the scope of exhaustive feature generation to patterns of length ≤ k, such that potentially important, longer (> k predictors are not considered. Second, features so generated exhibit strong dependencies, which can complicate understanding of derived classification rules. Third, and most importantly, numerous irrelevant features are created. These concerns can compromise prediction and interpretation. While remedies have been proposed, they tend to be problem-specific and not broadly applicable. Here, we develop a generally applicable methodology, and an attendant software pipeline, that is predicated on discriminatory motif finding. In addition to the traditional training and validation partitions, our framework entails a third level of data partitioning, a discovery partition. A discriminatory motif finder is used on sequences and associated class labels in the discovery partition to yield a (small set of features. These features are then used as inputs to a classifier in the training partition. Finally, performance assessment occurs on the validation partition. Important attributes of our approach are its modularity (any discriminatory motif finder and any classifier can be deployed and its universality (all data, including sequences that are unaligned and/or of unequal length, can be accommodated. We illustrate our approach on two nucleosome occupancy datasets and a protein solubility dataset, previously analyzed using enumerative feature generation. Our method achieves excellent performance results, with and without optimization of classifier tuning parameters. A Python pipeline implementing the approach is

  20. Population genetic data for 12 X-STR loci in the Northern Han Chinese and StatsX package as tools for population statistics on X-STR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fei

    2017-01-01

    The X-chromosomal short tandem repeat (X-STR) has the advantage in female traces identification against male contamination and in complex kinship cases. In this study, a total of 516 Northern Han Chinese were genotyped using the Investigator ® Argus X-12 QS Kit and pairwise genetic distances (F ST ) were measured between Northern Han Chinese and 35 published populations using the same 12 X-STR loci in four presumed linkage groups (LG). Meanwhile, the StatsX package was compiled to aid the analysis of population statistics on X-STR. Off-ladder alleles were investigated by Sanger sequencing or next generation sequencing (NGS). The results showed that high combined PD M , PD F , MEC Krüger , MEC Kishida , MEC Desmarais and MEC Desmarais Duo based on allele frequencies were achieved as 0.999999998, >0.999999999, 0.999996425, 0.999999993, 0.999999993 and 0.999998732, respectively, so did they based on haplotype frequencies. Averaged F ST and multidimensional scaling (MDS) plot generally mirrored with the biogeography distribution of the studied populations and their historical relationships. A total of 16 unique off-ladder alleles were observed in this experiment, four of which have not been reported yet. The StatsX package could obtain full concordance with established software. Overall, the Investigator ® Argus X-12 QS Kit may provide high polymorphic information for forensic identification and kinship analysis in the Northern Han Chinese population, and the StatsX package can make the workflow smoother for researchers to do population statistical analysis on X-STR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Y-STR analysis on DNA mixture samples--results of a collaborative project of the ENFSI DNA Working Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parson, Walther; Niederstätter, Harald; Lindinger, Alexandra

    2008-01-01

    The ENFSI (European Network of Forensic Science Institutes) DNA Working Group undertook a collaborative project on Y-STR typing of DNA mixture samples that were centrally prepared and thoroughly tested prior to the shipment. Four commercial Y-STR typing kits (Y-Filer, Applied Biosystems, Foster...

  2. Genetic polymorphism study on 12 X STR loci of investigator Argus X STR kit in Bhil tribal population of Madhya Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Pankaj; Jain, Toshi; Gupta, Umang; Trivedi, Veena Ben

    2015-05-01

    The analysis of 12 X STR loci (DXS10103, DXS8378, DXS7132, DXS10134, DXS10074, DXS10101, DXS10135, DXS7423, DXS10146, DXS10079, HPRTB and DXS10148) belonging to four linkage group was done in 183 (100 males and 83 females) unrelated members of Bhil population. Heterozygosity among the studied 12 X STR loci showed a distribution of from 59.7% to 92.8%. No significant difference was recorded in the allele frequencies of males and females. The loci DXS10135 and DXS10101 were found to be most polymorphic. Haplotype diversity was found to be higher than 0.990 for all the four linkage groups. A total of 86, 69, 71 and 71 haplotypes were observed for linkage group I, II, III and IV, respectively. The results showed departure from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium with respect to three loci DXS10079, DXS10135 and DXS10101. This is first report on these 12 X STR markers from India. All the loci in the Argus X 12 kit were fairly informative in the Bhil population and the population showed significant genetic variation with all the compared populations from other parts of the world. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A Basic Set of Homeostatic Controller Motifs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drengstig, T.; Jolma, I.W.; Ni, X.Y.; Thorsen, K.; Xu, X.M.; Ruoff, P.

    2012-01-01

    Adaptation and homeostasis are essential properties of all living systems. However, our knowledge about the reaction kinetic mechanisms leading to robust homeostatic behavior in the presence of environmental perturbations is still poor. Here, we describe, and provide physiological examples of, a set of two-component controller motifs that show robust homeostasis. This basic set of controller motifs, which can be considered as complete, divides into two operational work modes, termed as inflow and outflow control. We show how controller combinations within a cell can integrate uptake and metabolization of a homeostatic controlled species and how pathways can be activated and lead to the formation of alternative products, as observed, for example, in the change of fermentation products by microorganisms when the supply of the carbon source is altered. The antagonistic character of hormonal control systems can be understood by a combination of inflow and outflow controllers. PMID:23199928

  4. Dynamic motifs in socio-economic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Shao, Shuai; Stanley, H. Eugene; Havlin, Shlomo

    2014-12-01

    Socio-economic networks are of central importance in economic life. We develop a method of identifying and studying motifs in socio-economic networks by focusing on “dynamic motifs,” i.e., evolutionary connection patterns that, because of “node acquaintances” in the network, occur much more frequently than random patterns. We examine two evolving bi-partite networks: i) the world-wide commercial ship chartering market and ii) the ship build-to-order market. We find similar dynamic motifs in both bipartite networks, even though they describe different economic activities. We also find that “influence” and “persistence” are strong factors in the interaction behavior of organizations. When two companies are doing business with the same customer, it is highly probable that another customer who currently only has business relationship with one of these two companies, will become customer of the second in the future. This is the effect of influence. Persistence means that companies with close business ties to customers tend to maintain their relationships over a long period of time.

  5. Annotating RNA motifs in sequences and alignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Paul P; Eldai, Hisham

    2015-01-01

    RNA performs a diverse array of important functions across all cellular life. These functions include important roles in translation, building translational machinery and maturing messenger RNA. More recent discoveries include the miRNAs and bacterial sRNAs that regulate gene expression, the thermosensors, riboswitches and other cis-regulatory elements that help prokaryotes sense their environment and eukaryotic piRNAs that suppress transposition. However, there can be a long period between the initial discovery of a RNA and determining its function. We present a bioinformatic approach to characterize RNA motifs, which are critical components of many RNA structure-function relationships. These motifs can, in some instances, provide researchers with functional hypotheses for uncharacterized RNAs. Moreover, we introduce a new profile-based database of RNA motifs--RMfam--and illustrate some applications for investigating the evolution and functional characterization of RNA. All the data and scripts associated with this work are available from: https://github.com/ppgardne/RMfam. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  6. StrBioLib: a Java library for development of custom computational structural biology applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandonia, John-Marc

    2007-08-01

    StrBioLib is a library of Java classes useful for developing software for computational structural biology research. StrBioLib contains classes to represent and manipulate protein structures, biopolymer sequences, sets of biopolymer sequences, and alignments between biopolymers based on either sequence or structure. Interfaces are provided to interact with commonly used bioinformatics applications, including (psi)-blast, modeller, muscle and Primer3, and tools are provided to read and write many file formats used to represent bioinformatic data. The library includes a general-purpose neural network object with multiple training algorithms, the Hooke and Jeeves non-linear optimization algorithm, and tools for efficient C-style string parsing and formatting. StrBioLib is the basis for the Pred2ary secondary structure prediction program, is used to build the astral compendium for sequence and structure analysis, and has been extensively tested through use in many smaller projects. Examples and documentation are available at the site below. StrBioLib may be obtained under the terms of the GNU LGPL license from http://strbio.sourceforge.net/

  7. Allelic structure and distribution of 103 STR loci in a Southern ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 83; Issue 1. Allelic structure and distribution of 103 STR loci in a Southern Tunisian population. Abdellatif ... This demonstrated that in spite of a high inbreeding level in the population, few markers showed evidence for a different pattern of allelic distribution compared to CEPH.

  8. Diversity of five novel Y-STR loci and their application in studies of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    -STR loci and their application in studies of north Chinese populations. Zhaoyang Xu Haiming Sun Yang Yu Yan Jin Xaingning Meng Donglin Sun Jing Bai Feng Chen Songbin Fu. Research Article Volume 89 Issue 1 April 2010 pp 29-36 ...

  9. The value of Non-CODIS miniSTR genotyping systems in forensic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic identity testing is achieved by examining polymorphic regions of DNA. Currently, STR markers are the most commonly used loci for human identification from which several commercial genotyping systems have been developed based on the 13 core CODIS loci. However, identification of degraded or compromised ...

  10. The value of Non-CODIS miniSTR genotyping systems in forensic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-30

    Dec 30, 2011 ... Genetic identity testing is achieved by examining polymorphic regions of DNA. Currently, STR markers are the most commonly used loci for human identification from which several commercial genotyping systems have been developed based on the 13 core CODIS loci. However, identification of degraded ...

  11. FaSTR DNA: a new expert system for forensic DNA analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Timothy; McCabe, Brendan; Harbison, Sally Ann

    2008-06-01

    The automation of DNA profile analysis of reference and crime samples continues to gain pace driven in part by a realisation by the criminal justice system of the positive impact DNA technology can have in aiding in the solution of crime and the apprehension of suspects. Expert systems to automate the profile analysis component of the process are beginning to be developed. In this paper, we report the validation of a new expert system FaSTR DNA, an expert system suitable for the analysis of DNA profiles from single source reference samples and from crime samples. We compare the performance of FaSTR DNA with that of other equivalent systems, GeneMapper ID v3.2 (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA) and FSS-i(3) v4 (The Forensic Science Service((R)) DNA expert System Suite FSS-i(3), Forensic Science Service, Birmingham, UK) with GeneScan Analysis v3.7/Genotyper v3.7 software (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA) with manual review. We have shown that FaSTR DNA provides an alternative solution to automating DNA profile analysis and is appropriate for implementation into forensic laboratories. The FaSTR DNA system was demonstrated to be comparable in performance to that of GeneMapper ID v3.2 and superior to that of FSS-i(3) v4 for the analysis of DNA profiles from crime samples.

  12. Diversity of five novel Y-STR loci and their application in studies of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1Laboratory of Medical Genetics, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150081, People's Republic of China. 2Bio-Pharmaceutical Key Laboratory of Heilongjiang ... of geographical differentiation, so their polymorphic character makes them especially suited for population genetic studies. In this study, five novel Y-STR loci were ...

  13. Canine-specific STR typing of saliva traces on dog bite wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichmann, Cordula; Berger, Burkhard; Reinhold, Maximilian; Lutz, Martin; Parson, Walther

    2004-12-01

    Forensic investigations in dog attacks usually involve the examination of bite marks and toothprints, the dog's stomach and pathological methods. For identification of the offending dog we evaluated canine STR typing of saliva traces on dog bite marks. The specificity of 15 canine-specific STRs was tested on human-canine DNA mixtures prior to an applied study in which 52 cases of dog bites were investigated. The first-aid wound bandages as well as swab samples from the surrounding area of the wound were used for DNA analyses. Generally, it was possible to obtain a canine-specific STR profile from the dog's saliva left on the wound area, even when high background of human DNA was present (blood). Interestingly, we found canine STR typing to be more successful when the bandages and swabs showed high amounts of human blood, i.e. when the dog bite was severe. Canine saliva was then sometimes visible as white-coloured secretion on the human blood surface. Less severe bite cases, which did not result in bleeding wounds, showed less success in obtaining useful STR results, probably due to the fact that the surface of the wounds may have been treated before the victims consulted medical aid which therefore removed the canine cells.

  14. Forensic molecular genetic diversity analysis of Chinese Hui ethnic group based on a novel STR panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yating; Guo, Yuxin; Xie, Tong; Jin, Xiaoye; Lan, Qiong; Zhou, Yongsong; Zhu, Bofeng

    2018-03-26

    In present study, the genetic polymorphisms of 22 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci were analyzed in 496 unrelated Chinese Xinjiang Hui individuals. These autosomal STR loci were multiplex amplified and genotyped based on a novel STR panel. There were 246 observed alleles with the allele frequencies ranging from 0.0010 to 0.3609. All polymorphic information content values were higher than 0.7. The combined power of discrimination and the combined probability of exclusion were 0.999999999999999999999999999426766 and 0.999999999860491, respectively. Based on analysis of molecular variance method, genetic differentiation analysis between the Xinjiang Hui and other reported groups were conducted at these 22 loci. The results indicated that there were no significant differences in statistics between Hui group and Northern Han group (including Han groups from Hebei, Henan, Shaanxi provinces), and significant deviations with Southern Han group (including those from Guangdong, Guangxi provinces) at 7 loci, and Uygur group at 10 loci. To sum up, these 22 autosomal STR loci were high genetic polymorphic in Xinjiang Hui group.

  15. Allelic structure and distribution of 103 STR loci in a Southern ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    ,Tunisia. 3Dispensaire de Bir ElHfai, Sidi Bouzid, Tunisia. Abstract. Genotypes of 103 short tandem repeat (STR) markers distributed at an average of 40 cM intervals throughout the genome were determined for 40 individuals from the village ...

  16. Pilot study for early prognosis of Azoospermia in relation to Y-STR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ahmed M. Refaat

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE. Pilot study for early prognosis of Azoospermia in relation to Y-STR Profiling. Ahmed M. Refaat *. Department of Forensic Biology, College of Forensic Sciences, Naif Arab University for Security Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Received 7 May 2015; accepted 15 June 2015. Available online 6 July 2015.

  17. Molluscan fauna of the lower Gelingseh Beds s. str., Sangkulirang area, Kalimantan Timur (East Borneo)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beets, C.

    1986-01-01

    A compilation is given of the results of an investigation of all the molluscs collected by L.M.R. Rutten some seventy years ago, at five localities in the type area of the Gelingseh Beds s. str., Late Miocene. Thirteen new species are described, viz, Smaragdia gelingsehensis, Rissoina maduparensis,

  18. Development of a Y-STR 12-plex PCR system and haplotype ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1Department of Biological Science, Kongju National University, 182 Gongju, Chungnam 314-701, Korea. 2Dowgene Research Center ... power and will be suitable for practical forensic uses. Short tandem repeat (STR) loci ..... Education, Science and Technology) (KOSEF Grant no: R01-2008-. 000-20604-0). References.

  19. A global analysis of Y-chromosomal haplotype diversity for 23 STR loci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Purps, Josephine; Siegert, Sabine; Willuweit, Sascha

    2014-01-01

    In a worldwide collaborative effort, 19,630 Y-chromosomes were sampled from 129 different populations in 51 countries. These chromosomes were typed for 23 short-tandem repeat (STR) loci (DYS19, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS385ab, DYS437, DYS438, DYS439, DYS448, DYS456, DY...

  20. Development of a Y-STR 12-plex PCR system and haplotype ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat (Y-STR) dodecaplex. PCR system for 12 loci has been developed, and using this system allele frequencies and haplotypes were determined in a Korean male population. From a study of 320 unre- lated Korean males, 254 different haplotypes were identi- fied. The haplotype diversity ...

  1. Prediction of autosomal STR typing success in ancient and Second World War bone samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupanič Pajnič, Irena; Zupanc, Tomaž; Balažic, Jože; Geršak, Živa Miriam; Stojković, Oliver; Skadrić, Ivan; Črešnar, Matija

    2017-03-01

    Human-specific quantitative PCR (qPCR) has been developed for forensic use in the last 10 years and is the preferred DNA quantification technique since it is very accurate, sensitive, objective, time-effective and automatable. The amount of information that can be gleaned from a single quantification reaction using commercially available quantification kits has increased from the quantity of nuclear DNA to the amount of male DNA, presence of inhibitors and, most recently, to the degree of DNA degradation. In skeletal remains samples from disaster victims, missing persons and war conflict victims, the DNA is usually degraded. Therefore the new commercial qPCR kits able to assess the degree of degradation are potentially able to predict the success of downstream short tandem repeat (STR) typing. The goal of this study was to verify the quantification step using the PowerQuant kit with regard to its suitability as a screening method for autosomal STR typing success on ancient and Second World War (WWII) skeletal remains. We analysed 60 skeletons excavated from five archaeological sites and four WWII mass graves from Slovenia. The bones were cleaned, surface contamination was removed and the bones ground to a powder. Genomic DNA was obtained from 0.5g of bone powder after total demineralization. The DNA was purified using a Biorobot EZ1 device. Following PowerQuant quantification, DNA samples were subjected to autosomal STR amplification using the NGM kit. Up to 2.51ng DNA/g of powder were extracted. No inhibition was detected in any of bones analysed. 82% of the WWII bones gave full profiles while 73% of the ancient bones gave profiles not suitable for interpretation. Four bone extracts yielded no detectable amplification or zero quantification results and no profiles were obtained from any of them. Full or useful partial profiles were produced only from bone extracts where short autosomal (Auto) and long degradation (Deg) PowerQuant targets were detected. It is

  2. Evaluation of reliability on STR typing at leukemic patients used for forensic purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filoglu, G; Bulbul, O; Rayimoglu, G; Yediay, F E; Zorlu, T; Ongoren, S; Altuncul, H

    2014-06-01

    Over the past decades, main advances in the field of molecular biology, coupled with benefits in genomic technologies, have led to detailed molecular investigations in the genetic diversity generated by researchers. Short tandem repeat (STR) loci are polymorphic loci found throughout all eukaryotic genome. DNA profiling identification, parental testing and kinship analysis by analysis of STR loci have been widely used in forensic sciences since 1993. Malignant tissues may sometimes be the source of biological material for forensic analysis, including identification of individuals or paternity testing. There are a number of studies on microsatellite instability in different types of tumors by comparing the STR profiles of malignant and healthy tissues on the same individuals. Defects in DNA repair pathways (non-repair or mis-repair) and metabolism lead to an accumulation of microsatellite alterations in genomic DNA of various cancer types that result genomic instabilities on forensic analyses. Common forms of genomic instability are loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and microsatellite instability (MSI). In this study, the applicability of autosomal STR markers, which are routinely used in forensic analysis, were investigated in order to detect genotypes in blood samples collected from leukemic patients to estimate the reliability of the results when malignant tissues are used as a source of forensic individual identification. Specimens were collected from 90 acute and 10 chronic leukemia volunteers with oral swabs as well as their paired peripheral blood samples from the Oncology Centre of the Department of Hematology at Istanbul University, during the years 2010-2011. Specimens were tested and compared with 16 somatic STR loci (CSFIPO, THO1, TPOX, vWA, D2S1338, D3S1358, D5S818, D7S820, D8S1179, D13S317, D16S539, D18S51, D19S433, D21S11 and FGA) widely used in forensic identification and kinship. Only two STR instabilities were encountered among 100 specimens. An MSI in

  3. The EH1 motif in metazoan transcription factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Copley Richard R

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Engrailed Homology 1 (EH1 motif is a small region, believed to have evolved convergently in homeobox and forkhead containing proteins, that interacts with the Drosophila protein groucho (C. elegans unc-37, Human Transducin-like Enhancers of Split. The small size of the motif makes its reliable identification by computational means difficult. I have systematically searched the predicted proteomes of Drosophila, C. elegans and human for further instances of the motif. Results Using motif identification methods and database searching techniques, I delimit which homeobox and forkhead domain containing proteins also have likely EH1 motifs. I show that despite low database search scores, there is a significant association of the motif with transcription factor function. I further show that likely EH1 motifs are found in combination with T-Box, Zinc Finger and Doublesex domains as well as discussing other plausible candidate associations. I identify strong candidate EH1 motifs in basal metazoan phyla. Conclusion Candidate EH1 motifs exist in combination with a variety of transcription factor domains, suggesting that these proteins have repressor functions. The distribution of the EH1 motif is suggestive of convergent evolution, although in many cases, the motif has been conserved throughout bilaterian orthologs. Groucho mediated repression was established prior to the evolution of bilateria.

  4. RNA structural motif recognition based on least-squares distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ying; Wong, Hau-San; Zhang, Shaohong; Zhang, Lin

    2013-09-01

    RNA structural motifs are recurrent structural elements occurring in RNA molecules. RNA structural motif recognition aims to find RNA substructures that are similar to a query motif, and it is important for RNA structure analysis and RNA function prediction. In view of this, we propose a new method known as RNA Structural Motif Recognition based on Least-Squares distance (LS-RSMR) to effectively recognize RNA structural motifs. A test set consisting of five types of RNA structural motifs occurring in Escherichia coli ribosomal RNA is compiled by us. Experiments are conducted for recognizing these five types of motifs. The experimental results fully reveal the superiority of the proposed LS-RSMR compared with four other state-of-the-art methods.

  5. CONTEMPORARY USAGE OF TRADITIONAL TURKISH MOTIFS IN PRODUCT DESIGNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulay Gumuser

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to identify the traditional Turkish motifs and its relations among present industrial designs. Traditional Turkish motifs played a very important role in 16th century onwards. The arts of the Ottoman Empire were used because of their symbolic meanings and unique styles. When we examine these motifs we encounter; Tiger Stripe, Three Spot (Çintemani, Rumi, Hatayi, Penç, Cloud, Crescent, Star, Crown, Hyacinth, Tulip and Carnation motifs. Nowadays, Turkish designers have begun to use these traditional Turkish motifs in their designs so as to create differences and awareness in the world design. The examples of these industrial designs, using the Turkish motifs, have survived and have Ottoman heritage and historical value. In this study, the Turkish motifs will be examined along with their focus on contemporary Turkish industrial designs used today.

  6. Mosaic composition of ribA and wspB genes flanking the virB8-D4 operon in the Wolbachia supergroup B-strain, wStr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldridge, Gerald D; Li, Yang Grace; Witthuhn, Bruce A; Higgins, LeeAnn; Markowski, Todd W; Baldridge, Abigail S; Fallon, Ann M

    2016-01-01

    The obligate intracellular bacterium, Wolbachia pipientis (Rickettsiales), is a widespread, vertically transmitted endosymbiont of filarial nematodes and arthropods. In insects, Wolbachia modifies reproduction, and in mosquitoes, infection interferes with replication of arboviruses, bacteria and plasmodia. Development of Wolbachia as a tool to control pest insects will be facilitated by an understanding of molecular events that underlie genetic exchange between Wolbachia strains. Here, we used nucleotide sequence, transcriptional and proteomic analyses to evaluate expression levels and establish the mosaic nature of genes flanking the T4SS virB8-D4 operon from wStr, a supergroup B-strain from a planthopper (Hemiptera) that maintains a robust, persistent infection in an Aedes albopictus mosquito cell line. Based on protein abundance, ribA, which contains promoter elements at the 5'-end of the operon, is weakly expressed. The 3'-end of the operon encodes an intact wspB, which encodes an outer membrane protein and is co-transcribed with the vir genes. WspB and vir proteins are expressed at similar, above average abundance levels. In wStr, both ribA and wspB are mosaics of conserved sequence motifs from Wolbachia supergroup A- and B-strains, and wspB is nearly identical to its homolog from wCobU4-2, an A-strain from weevils (Coleoptera). We describe conserved repeated sequence elements that map within or near pseudogene lesions and transitions between A- and B-strain motifs. These studies contribute to ongoing efforts to explore interactions between Wolbachia and its host cell in an in vitro system.

  7. Assessing the Exceptionality of Coloured Motifs in Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacroix Vincent

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Various methods have been recently employed to characterise the structure of biological networks. In particular, the concept of network motif and the related one of coloured motif have proven useful to model the notion of a functional/evolutionary building block. However, algorithms that enumerate all the motifs of a network may produce a very large output, and methods to decide which motifs should be selected for downstream analysis are needed. A widely used method is to assess if the motif is exceptional, that is, over- or under-represented with respect to a null hypothesis. Much effort has been put in the last thirty years to derive -values for the frequencies of topological motifs, that is, fixed subgraphs. They rely either on (compound Poisson and Gaussian approximations for the motif count distribution in Erdös-Rényi random graphs or on simulations in other models. We focus on a different definition of graph motifs that corresponds to coloured motifs. A coloured motif is a connected subgraph with fixed vertex colours but unspecified topology. Our work is the first analytical attempt to assess the exceptionality of coloured motifs in networks without any simulation. We first establish analytical formulae for the mean and the variance of the count of a coloured motif in an Erdös-Rényi random graph model. Using simulations under this model, we further show that a Pólya-Aeppli distribution better approximates the distribution of the motif count compared to Gaussian or Poisson distributions. The Pólya-Aeppli distribution, and more generally the compound Poisson distributions, are indeed well designed to model counts of clumping events. Altogether, these results enable to derive a -value for a coloured motif, without spending time on simulations.

  8. Efficient sequential and parallel algorithms for finding edit distance based motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Soumitra; Xiao, Peng; Rajasekaran, Sanguthevar

    2016-08-18

    Motif search is an important step in extracting meaningful patterns from biological data. The general problem of motif search is intractable and there is a pressing need to develop efficient, exact and approximation algorithms to solve this problem. In this paper, we present several novel, exact, sequential and parallel algorithms for solving the (l,d) Edit-distance-based Motif Search (EMS) problem: given two integers l,d and n biological strings, find all strings of length l that appear in each input string with atmost d errors of types substitution, insertion and deletion. One popular technique to solve the problem is to explore for each input string the set of all possible l-mers that belong to the d-neighborhood of any substring of the input string and output those which are common for all input strings. We introduce a novel and provably efficient neighborhood exploration technique. We show that it is enough to consider the candidates in neighborhood which are at a distance exactly d. We compactly represent these candidate motifs using wildcard characters and efficiently explore them with very few repetitions. Our sequential algorithm uses a trie based data structure to efficiently store and sort the candidate motifs. Our parallel algorithm in a multi-core shared memory setting uses arrays for storing and a novel modification of radix-sort for sorting the candidate motifs. The algorithms for EMS are customarily evaluated on several challenging instances such as (8,1), (12,2), (16,3), (20,4), and so on. The best previously known algorithm, EMS1, is sequential and in estimated 3 days solves up to instance (16,3). Our sequential algorithms are more than 20 times faster on (16,3). On other hard instances such as (9,2), (11,3), (13,4), our algorithms are much faster. Our parallel algorithm has more than 600 % scaling performance while using 16 threads. Our algorithms have pushed up the state-of-the-art of EMS solvers and we believe that the techniques introduced in

  9. SNARE motif: A common motif used by pathogens to manipulate membrane fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesolowski, Jordan

    2010-01-01

    To penetrate host cells through their membranes, pathogens use a variety of molecular components in which the presence of heptad repeat motifs seems to be a prevailing element. Heptad repeats are characterized by a pattern of seven, generally hydrophobic, residues. In order to initiate membrane fusion, viruses use glycoproteins-containing heptad repeats. These proteins are structurally and functionally similar to the SNARE proteins known to be involved in eukaryotic membrane fusion. SNAREs also display a heptad repeat motif called the “SNARE motif”. As bacterial genomes are being sequenced, microorganisms also appear to be carrying membrane proteins resembling eukaryotic SNAREs. This category of SNARE-like proteins might share similar functions and could be used by microorganisms to either promote or block membrane fusion. Such a recurrence across pathogenic organisms suggests that this architectural motif was evolutionarily selected because it most effectively ensures the survival of pathogens within the eukaryotic environment. PMID:21178463

  10. Involvement of BcStr2 in methionine biosynthesis, vegetative differentiation, multiple stress tolerance and virulence in Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Wenyong; Yang, Yalan; Zhang, Yu; Lv, Chiyuan; Ren, Weichao; Chen, Changjun

    2016-04-01

    The Str2 gene encodes a cystathionine γ-synthase that is a key enzyme in methionine (Met) biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Met plays a critical role in protein synthesis and diverse cellular processes in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. In this study, we characterized the Str2 orthologue gene BcStr2 in Botrytis cinerea. The BcStr2 mutant was unable to grow on minimal medium (MM). In addition, conidia of the mutant were unable to germinate in water-agar medium within 15 h of incubation. Supplementation with 1 mm Met or 0.5 mg/mL homocysteine, but not 1 mm cysteine or 0.5 mg/mL glutathione, rescued the defect in mycelial growth of the BcStr2 deletion mutant. These results indicate that the enzyme encoded by BcStr2 is involved in the conversion of cysteine into homocysteine. The mutant exhibited decreased conidiation and impaired sclerotium development. In addition, the BcStr2 mutant exhibited increased sensitivity to osmotic and oxidative stresses, cell wall-damaging agents and thermal stress. The mutant demonstrated dramatically decreased virulence on host plant tissues. All of the defects were restored by genetic complementation of the mutant with wild-type BcStr2. Taken together, the results of this study indicate that BcStr2 plays a critical role in the regulation of various cellular processes in B. cinerea. © 2015 BSPP and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Multilayer motif analysis of brain networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battiston, Federico; Nicosia, Vincenzo; Chavez, Mario; Latora, Vito

    2017-04-01

    In the last decade, network science has shed new light both on the structural (anatomical) and on the functional (correlations in the activity) connectivity among the different areas of the human brain. The analysis of brain networks has made possible to detect the central areas of a neural system and to identify its building blocks by looking at overabundant small subgraphs, known as motifs. However, network analysis of the brain has so far mainly focused on anatomical and functional networks as separate entities. The recently developed mathematical framework of multi-layer networks allows us to perform an analysis of the human brain where the structural and functional layers are considered together. In this work, we describe how to classify the subgraphs of a multiplex network, and we extend the motif analysis to networks with an arbitrary number of layers. We then extract multi-layer motifs in brain networks of healthy subjects by considering networks with two layers, anatomical and functional, respectively, obtained from diffusion and functional magnetic resonance imaging. Results indicate that subgraphs in which the presence of a physical connection between brain areas (links at the structural layer) coexists with a non-trivial positive correlation in their activities are statistically overabundant. Finally, we investigate the existence of a reinforcement mechanism between the two layers by looking at how the probability to find a link in one layer depends on the intensity of the connection in the other one. Showing that functional connectivity is non-trivially constrained by the underlying anatomical network, our work contributes to a better understanding of the interplay between the structure and function in the human brain.

  12. UKIRAN KERAWANG ACEH GAYO SEBAGAI INSPIRASI PENCIPTAAN MOTIF BATIK KHAS GAYO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfa ina Rohana Salma

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Industri batik mulai berkembang di Gayo, tetapi belum memiliki motif batik khas daerah. Oleh karena itu perlu diciptakan motif batik khas Gayo, dengan mengambil inspirasi dari ukiran yang terdapat pada rumah tradisional yang biasa disebut ukiran kerawang Gayo. Tujuan penciptaan seni ini adalah untuk menciptakan motif batik yang memiliki ciri khas Gayo. Metode yang digunakan yaitu eksplorasi ide, perancangan, dan perwujudan menjadi motif batik. Dalam kegiatan ini telah diciptakan enam motif batik khas Gayo yaitu: (1 Motif Ceplok Gayo; (2 Motif Gayo Tegak; (3 Motif Gayo Lurus; (4 Motif Parang Gayo; (5 Motif Gayo Lembut; dan (6 Motif Geometris Gayo. Hasil uji kesukaan terhadap motif kepada lima puluh responden menunjukkan bahwa Motif Ceplok Gayo paling banyak dipilih oleh responden yaitu sebesar 19%, sedangkan Motif Parang Gayo 18%, Motif Gayo Lembut 17%, Motif Geometris Gayo 17%, Motif Gayo Lurus 15% dan Motif Gayo Tegak 14%. Rata-rata motif yang dihasilkan mendapatkan apresiasi yang baik dari responden, sehingga semua motif layak diproduksi sebagai batik khas Gayo.Kata kunci: batik Gayo, Motif Ceplok Gayo, Motif Parang Gayo.ABSTRACTBatik industry began to develop in Gayo, but have not had a typical batik motif itself. Therefore, it is necessary to create batik motifs of Gayo, by taking inspiration from the carvings found in traditional houses commonly called kerawang Gayo. The purpose of this art is to create motifs those have a Gayo characteristic. The method used are the idea exploration, design, and motifs embodiment. In this activity has created six Gayo batik motifs, namely: (1 Motif Ceplok Gayo; (2 Motif Gayo Tegak; (3 Motif GayoLurus; (4 Motif Parang Gayo; (5 Motif Gayo Lembut; dan (6 Motif Geometris Gayo. The test results fondness of the motives to fifty respondents indicated that the Motif Ceplok Gayo most preferred by respondents ie 19%, while Motif Parang Gayo 18%, Motif Gayo Lembut 17%, Motif Geometris Gayo 17%, Motif Gayo

  13. Strålebehandling af kraeftsygdomme--udfordringer og muligheder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, Lena

    2010-01-01

    Radiotherapy for cancer previously employed large treatment fields whereby cures were obtained. However, long-term follow-up documented serious long-term complications due to irradiation of normal tissues. Modern technology makes it possible to very accurately shape the high-dose volume. However...

  14. Bridging of anions by hydrogen bonds in nest motifs and its significance for Schellman loops and other larger motifs within proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, Avid M; Al-Shubailly, Fawzia; Leader, David P; Milner-White, E James

    2014-11-01

    The nest is a protein motif of three consecutive amino acid residues with dihedral angles 1,2-αR αL (RL nests) or 1,2-αL αR (LR nests). Many nests form a depression in which an anion or δ-negative acceptor atom is bound by hydrogen bonds from the main chain NH groups. We have determined the extent and nature of this bridging in a database of protein structures using a computer program written for the purpose. Acceptor anions are bound by a pair of bridging hydrogen bonds in 40% of RL nests and 20% of LR nests. Two thirds of the bridges are between the NH groups at Positions 1 and 3 of the motif (N1N3-bridging)-which confers a concavity to the nest; one third are of the N2N3 type-which does not. In bridged LR nests N2N3-bridging predominates (14% N1N3: 75% N2N3), whereas in bridged RL nests the reverse is true (69% N1N3: 25% N2N3). Most bridged nests occur within larger motifs: 45% in (hexapeptide) Schellman loops with an additional 4 → 0 hydrogen bond (N1N3), 11% in Schellman loops with an additional 5 → 1 hydrogen bond (N2N3), 12% in a composite structure including a type 1β-bulge loop and an asx- or ST- motif (N1N3)-remarkably homologous to the N1N3-bridged Schellman loop-and 3% in a composite structure including a type 2β-bulge loop and an asx-motif (N2N3). A third hydrogen bond is a previously unrecognized feature of Schellman loops as those lacking bridged nests have an additional 4 → 0 hydrogen bond. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. RMOD: a tool for regulatory motif detection in signaling network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinki Kim

    Full Text Available Regulatory motifs are patterns of activation and inhibition that appear repeatedly in various signaling networks and that show specific regulatory properties. However, the network structures of regulatory motifs are highly diverse and complex, rendering their identification difficult. Here, we present a RMOD, a web-based system for the identification of regulatory motifs and their properties in signaling networks. RMOD finds various network structures of regulatory motifs by compressing the signaling network and detecting the compressed forms of regulatory motifs. To apply it into a large-scale signaling network, it adopts a new subgraph search algorithm using a novel data structure called path-tree, which is a tree structure composed of isomorphic graphs of query regulatory motifs. This algorithm was evaluated using various sizes of signaling networks generated from the integration of various human signaling pathways and it showed that the speed and scalability of this algorithm outperforms those of other algorithms. RMOD includes interactive analysis and auxiliary tools that make it possible to manipulate the whole processes from building signaling network and query regulatory motifs to analyzing regulatory motifs with graphical illustration and summarized descriptions. As a result, RMOD provides an integrated view of the regulatory motifs and mechanism underlying their regulatory motif activities within the signaling network. RMOD is freely accessible online at the following URL: http://pks.kaist.ac.kr/rmod.

  16. PhyloGibbs-MP: module prediction and discriminative motif-finding by Gibbs sampling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Siddharthan

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available PhyloGibbs, our recent Gibbs-sampling motif-finder, takes phylogeny into account in detecting binding sites for transcription factors in DNA and assigns posterior probabilities to its predictions obtained by sampling the entire configuration space. Here, in an extension called PhyloGibbs-MP, we widen the scope of the program, addressing two major problems in computational regulatory genomics. First, PhyloGibbs-MP can localise predictions to small, undetermined regions of a large input sequence, thus effectively predicting cis-regulatory modules (CRMs ab initio while simultaneously predicting binding sites in those modules-tasks that are usually done by two separate programs. PhyloGibbs-MP's performance at such ab initio CRM prediction is comparable with or superior to dedicated module-prediction software that use prior knowledge of previously characterised transcription factors. Second, PhyloGibbs-MP can predict motifs that differentiate between two (or more different groups of regulatory regions, that is, motifs that occur preferentially in one group over the others. While other "discriminative motif-finders" have been published in the literature, PhyloGibbs-MP's implementation has some unique features and flexibility. Benchmarks on synthetic and actual genomic data show that this algorithm is successful at enhancing predictions of differentiating sites and suppressing predictions of common sites and compares with or outperforms other discriminative motif-finders on actual genomic data. Additional enhancements include significant performance and speed improvements, the ability to use "informative priors" on known transcription factors, and the ability to output annotations in a format that can be visualised with the Generic Genome Browser. In stand-alone motif-finding, PhyloGibbs-MP remains competitive, outperforming PhyloGibbs-1.0 and other programs on benchmark data.

  17. PhyloGibbs-MP: module prediction and discriminative motif-finding by Gibbs sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddharthan, Rahul

    2008-08-29

    PhyloGibbs, our recent Gibbs-sampling motif-finder, takes phylogeny into account in detecting binding sites for transcription factors in DNA and assigns posterior probabilities to its predictions obtained by sampling the entire configuration space. Here, in an extension called PhyloGibbs-MP, we widen the scope of the program, addressing two major problems in computational regulatory genomics. First, PhyloGibbs-MP can localise predictions to small, undetermined regions of a large input sequence, thus effectively predicting cis-regulatory modules (CRMs) ab initio while simultaneously predicting binding sites in those modules-tasks that are usually done by two separate programs. PhyloGibbs-MP's performance at such ab initio CRM prediction is comparable with or superior to dedicated module-prediction software that use prior knowledge of previously characterised transcription factors. Second, PhyloGibbs-MP can predict motifs that differentiate between two (or more) different groups of regulatory regions, that is, motifs that occur preferentially in one group over the others. While other "discriminative motif-finders" have been published in the literature, PhyloGibbs-MP's implementation has some unique features and flexibility. Benchmarks on synthetic and actual genomic data show that this algorithm is successful at enhancing predictions of differentiating sites and suppressing predictions of common sites and compares with or outperforms other discriminative motif-finders on actual genomic data. Additional enhancements include significant performance and speed improvements, the ability to use "informative priors" on known transcription factors, and the ability to output annotations in a format that can be visualised with the Generic Genome Browser. In stand-alone motif-finding, PhyloGibbs-MP remains competitive, outperforming PhyloGibbs-1.0 and other programs on benchmark data.

  18. Comprehensive human transcription factor binding site map for combinatory binding motifs discovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnoldo J Müller-Molina

    Full Text Available To know the map between transcription factors (TFs and their binding sites is essential to reverse engineer the regulation process. Only about 10%-20% of the transcription factor binding motifs (TFBMs have been reported. This lack of data hinders understanding gene regulation. To address this drawback, we propose a computational method that exploits never used TF properties to discover the missing TFBMs and their sites in all human gene promoters. The method starts by predicting a dictionary of regulatory "DNA words." From this dictionary, it distills 4098 novel predictions. To disclose the crosstalk between motifs, an additional algorithm extracts TF combinatorial binding patterns creating a collection of TF regulatory syntactic rules. Using these rules, we narrowed down a list of 504 novel motifs that appear frequently in syntax patterns. We tested the predictions against 509 known motifs confirming that our system can reliably predict ab initio motifs with an accuracy of 81%-far higher than previous approaches. We found that on average, 90% of the discovered combinatorial binding patterns target at least 10 genes, suggesting that to control in an independent manner smaller gene sets, supplementary regulatory mechanisms are required. Additionally, we discovered that the new TFBMs and their combinatorial patterns convey biological meaning, targeting TFs and genes related to developmental functions. Thus, among all the possible available targets in the genome, the TFs tend to regulate other TFs and genes involved in developmental functions. We provide a comprehensive resource for regulation analysis that includes a dictionary of "DNA words," newly predicted motifs and their corresponding combinatorial patterns. Combinatorial patterns are a useful filter to discover TFBMs that play a major role in orchestrating other factors and thus, are likely to lock/unlock cellular functional clusters.

  19. An Affinity Propagation-Based DNA Motif Discovery Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxiao Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The planted (l,d motif search (PMS is one of the fundamental problems in bioinformatics, which plays an important role in locating transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs in DNA sequences. Nowadays, identifying weak motifs and reducing the effect of local optimum are still important but challenging tasks for motif discovery. To solve the tasks, we propose a new algorithm, APMotif, which first applies the Affinity Propagation (AP clustering in DNA sequences to produce informative and good candidate motifs and then employs Expectation Maximization (EM refinement to obtain the optimal motifs from the candidate motifs. Experimental results both on simulated data sets and real biological data sets show that APMotif usually outperforms four other widely used algorithms in terms of high prediction accuracy.

  20. Second-generation sequencing of forensic STRs using the Ion Torrent™ HID STR 10-plex and the Ion PGM™

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fordyce, Sarah L; Mogensen, Helle Smidt; Børsting, Claus

    2015-01-01

    by Ion Torrent™ software. Hence, the combination of the STR 10-plex and the Ion PGM™ represents the first fully integrated SGS STR typing solution from PCR to data analysis. In this study, four experiments were performed to evaluate the alpha-version of the STR 10-plex: (1) typing of control samples; (2...... drop-out in one of the 100pg dilutions. Mixtures were easily deconvoluted down to 20:1, although alleles from the minor contributor had to be identified manually as some signals were not called by the Ion Torrent™ software. Interestingly, full profiles were obtained for all biological samples from real...... crime and identification cases, in which only partial profiles were obtained with PCR-CE assays. In conclusion, the Ion Torrent™ HID STR 10-plex panel offers an all-in-one solution from amplification of STRs and amelogenin, and sequencing to data analysis....

  1. Fetal gender determination through Y-STR analysis of maternal plasma during the third trimester of pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanaa M.H. Aal-Hamdan

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: It is recommended to use Y-STR profiling as an alternative technique for fetal gender determination during the third trimester of pregnancy, in addition to its significance in forensic casework.

  2. Homozygosity mapping in albinism patients using a novel panel of 13 STR markers inside the nonsyndromic OCA genes: introducing 5 novel mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khordadpoor-Deilamani, Faravareh; Akbari, Mohammad Taghi; Karimipoor, Morteza; Javadi, Gholam Reza

    2016-05-01

    Albinism is a heterogeneous genetic disorder of melanin synthesis that results in hypopigmented hair, skin and eyes. It is associated with decreased visual acuity, nystagmus, strabismus and photophobia. Six genes are known to be involved in nonsyndromic oculocutaneous albinism (OCA). In this study, we aimed to find the disease causing mutations in albinism patients using homozygosity mapping. Twenty three unrelated patients with nonsyndromic OCA or autosomal recessive ocular albinism were recruited in this study. All of the patients' parents had consanguineous marriage and all were screened for TYR mutations previously. At first, we performed homozygosity mapping using fluorescently labeled primers to amplify a novel panel of 13 STR markers inside the OCA genes and then the screened loci in each family were studied using PCR and cycle sequencing methods. We found five mutations including three mutations in OCA2, one mutation in SLC45A2 and one mutation in C10ORF11 genes, all of which were novel. In cases where the disease causing mutations are identical by descent due to a common ancestor, these STR markers can enable us to screen for the responsible genes.

  3. An unusual occurrence of repeated single allele variation on Y-STR locus DYS458

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Shrivastava

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Six brothers were accused of gagging and raping a woman. A single male Y-STR profile was obtained from vaginal smear swab and clothes of the victim, which did not match with the DNA profile of the accused brothers. As a reference point, the blood sample of their father (aged 87 years was also analyzed with the same kit. The Y-STR haplotype of all six brothers was found to be the same as that of their father except at locus DYS458. At this locus, while the eldest, second and fourth siblings share allele 18 with their father, a loss of one repeat (allele 17 instead of 18 is observed in the third son while fifth and sixth siblings have allele 19 representing a gain of one repeat. Thus, two changes viz. a gain (twice and loss of one repeat at this locus in one generation is both interesting and unusual.

  4. The STR/ort mouse model of spontaneous osteoarthritis - an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staines, K A; Poulet, B; Wentworth, D N; Pitsillides, A A

    2017-06-01

    Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disease and a world-wide healthcare burden. Characterized by cartilage degradation, subchondral bone thickening and osteophyte formation, osteoarthritis inflicts much pain and suffering, for which there are currently no disease-modifying treatments available. Mouse models of osteoarthritis are proving critical in advancing our understanding of the underpinning molecular mechanisms. The STR/ort mouse is a well-recognized model which develops a natural form of osteoarthritis very similar to the human disease. In this Review we discuss the use of the STR/ort mouse in understanding this multifactorial disease with an emphasis on recent advances in its genetics and its bone, endochondral and immune phenotypes. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Detecting DNA regulatory motifs by incorporating positional trendsin information content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kechris, Katherina J.; van Zwet, Erik; Bickel, Peter J.; Eisen,Michael B.

    2004-05-04

    On the basis of the observation that conserved positions in transcription factor binding sites are often clustered together, we propose a simple extension to the model-based motif discovery methods. We assign position-specific prior distributions to the frequency parameters of the model, penalizing deviations from a specified conservation profile. Examples with both simulated and real data show that this extension helps discover motifs as the data become noisier or when there is a competing false motif.

  6. Poly(A) motif prediction using spectral latent features from human DNA sequences

    KAUST Repository

    Xie, Bo

    2013-06-21

    Motivation: Polyadenylation is the addition of a poly(A) tail to an RNA molecule. Identifying DNA sequence motifs that signal the addition of poly(A) tails is essential to improved genome annotation and better understanding of the regulatory mechanisms and stability of mRNA.Existing poly(A) motif predictors demonstrate that information extracted from the surrounding nucleotide sequences of candidate poly(A) motifs can differentiate true motifs from the false ones to a great extent. A variety of sophisticated features has been explored, including sequential, structural, statistical, thermodynamic and evolutionary properties. However, most of these methods involve extensive manual feature engineering, which can be time-consuming and can require in-depth domain knowledge.Results: We propose a novel machine-learning method for poly(A) motif prediction by marrying generative learning (hidden Markov models) and discriminative learning (support vector machines). Generative learning provides a rich palette on which the uncertainty and diversity of sequence information can be handled, while discriminative learning allows the performance of the classification task to be directly optimized. Here, we used hidden Markov models for fitting the DNA sequence dynamics, and developed an efficient spectral algorithm for extracting latent variable information from these models. These spectral latent features were then fed into support vector machines to fine-tune the classification performance.We evaluated our proposed method on a comprehensive human poly(A) dataset that consists of 14 740 samples from 12 of the most abundant variants of human poly(A) motifs. Compared with one of the previous state-of-the-art methods in the literature (the random forest model with expert-crafted features), our method reduces the average error rate, false-negative rate and false-positive rate by 26, 15 and 35%, respectively. Meanwhile, our method makes ?30% fewer error predictions relative to the other

  7. A comparison of SNP and STR loci for delineating population structure and performing individual genetic assignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Høyheim Bjørn

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Technological advances have lead to the rapid increase in availability of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in a range of organisms, and there is a general optimism that SNPs will become the marker of choice for a range of evolutionary applications. Here, comparisons between 300 polymorphic SNPs and 14 short tandem repeats (STRs were conducted on a data set consisting of approximately 500 Atlantic salmon arranged in 10 samples/populations. Results Global FST ranged from 0.033-0.115 and -0.002-0.316 for the 14 STR and 300 SNP loci respectively. Global FST was similar among 28 linkage groups when averaging data from mapped SNPs. With the exception of selecting a panel of SNPs taking the locus displaying the highest global FST for each of the 28 linkage groups, which inflated estimation of genetic differentiation among the samples, inferred genetic relationships were highly similar between SNP and STR data sets and variants thereof. The best 15 SNPs (30 alleles gave a similar level of self-assignment to the best 4 STR loci (83 alleles, however, addition of further STR loci did not lead to a notable increase assignment whereas addition of up to 100 SNP loci increased assignment. Conclusion Whilst the optimal combinations of SNPs identified in this study are linked to the samples from which they were selected, this study demonstrates that identification of highly informative SNP loci from larger panels will provide researchers with a powerful approach to delineate genetic relationships at the individual and population levels.

  8. Population genetic data for 15 STR loci (Identifiler kit) in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocabado, Omar; Taboada, Patricia; Inda, Francisco Javier; Yurrebaso, Inaki; García, Oscar

    2009-11-01

    Allele frequencies for 15 STR autosomal loci (D8S1179, D21S11, D7S820, CSF1PO, D3S1358, TH01, D13S317, D16S539, D2S1338, D19S433, VWA, TPOX, D18S51, D5S818 and FGA) were obtained from a sample of 200 unrelated individuals from Bolivia, South America.

  9. Population genetic data for 15 STR loci (Identifiler kit) in Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matamoros, Mireya; Pinto, Yessica; Inda, Francisco Javier; García, Oscar

    2008-09-01

    Allele frequencies for 15 STR autosomal loci (D8S1179, D21S11, D7S820, CSF1PO, D3S1358, TH01, D13S317, D16S539, D2S1338, D19S433, VWA, TPOX, D18S51, D5S818 and FGA) were obtained from a sample of 198 unrelated individuals from Honduras, Central America.

  10. El subgénero Trigona S. Str. Jurine 1808 (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponinae) en Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Édgar Javier Hernández Martínez; Guiomar Nates Parra

    2004-01-01

    Para Colombia se registran 28 de los 29 taxones descritos para el subgénero Trigona s. str. T. (T.) albipennis Almeida, 1992; T. (T.) amalthea Olivier, 1789; T. (T.) hyalinata var. amazonensis Ducke, 1916; T. (T.) hyalinata var. branneri Cockerell, 1912; T. (T.) chanchamayoënsis Schwarz, 1948; T. (T.) cilipes Fabricius, 1804; T. (T.) corvina Cockerell, 1913; T. (T.) crassipes Fabricius, 1793; T. (T.) dallatorreana Friese, 1900; T. (T.) dimidiata var. venezuelana Schwarz, 1948; T. (T.) dimi...

  11. El subgénero Trigona S. Str. Jurine 1808 (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponinae) en Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Martínez Édgar Javier; Nates Parra Guiomar

    2004-01-01

    Para Colombia se registran 28 de los 29 taxones descritos para el subgénero Trigona s. str. T. (T.) albipennis Almeida, 1992; T. (T.) amalthea Olivier, 1789; T. (T.) hyalinata var. amazonensis
    Ducke, 1916; T. (T.) hyalinata var. branneri Cockerell, 1912; T. (T.) chanchamayoënsis Schwarz, 1948; T. (T.) cilipes Fabricius, 1804; T. (T.) corvina Cockerell, 1913; T. (T.) crassipes Fabricius, 1793; T. (T.) dallatorreana Friese, 1900; T. (T.) dimidiata var. venezuelana Schwarz, 1948; T. (...

  12. An integrated system of ABO typing and multiplex STR testing for forensic DNA analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xianhua; He, Juan; Jia, Fei; Shen, Hongying; Zhao, Jinling; Chen, Chuguang; Bai, Liping; Liu, Feng; Hou, Guangwei; Guo, Faye

    2012-12-01

    A new amplification system for ABO and STR genotyping in a single reaction has been successfully developed. Two types of information can be obtained from a biological sample at one time. One is the classical information of ABO blood group typing for screening suspects and the other is STR information for individual identification. The system allows for the simultaneous detection of 15 autosomal STR loci (containing all CODIS STR loci as well as Penta D and Penta E), six ABO genotypes (O/O, B/B, A/A, A/O, A/B, and B/O) and the gender-determining locus Amelogenin. Primers are designed so that the amplicons are distributed ranging from 75bp to 500bp within a four-dye fluorescent design, leaving a fourth dye for the internal size standard. With 30 cycles, the results showed that the optimal amount of DNA template for this multiplex ranges from 250pg to 2ng and the lowest detection threshold is 125pg (as low as 63pg for ABO loci). For the DNA template outside the optimal detection range, we could adjust the number of cycles to obtain the robust profiles. Mixture studies showed that over 83% of minor alleles were detected at 1:9 ratios. The full profiles were still observed when 4ng of degraded DNA was digested by DNase I and 1ng undegraded DNA was added to 40μM haematin. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based conditions including the concentrations of primers, magnesium and the Taq polymerase as well as volume, cycle numbers and annealing temperature were examined and optimised. In addition, the system was validated by 364 bloodstain samples and 32 common casework samples. According to the Chinese National Standards and Scientific Working Group on DNA Analysis Methods (SWGDAM) guidelines, our system demonstrates good detection performance and is an ideal tool for forensic DNA typing with potential application. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. STEME: a robust, accurate motif finder for large data sets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E Reid

    Full Text Available Motif finding is a difficult problem that has been studied for over 20 years. Some older popular motif finders are not suitable for analysis of the large data sets generated by next-generation sequencing. We recently published an efficient approximation (STEME to the EM algorithm that is at the core of many motif finders such as MEME. This approximation allows the EM algorithm to be applied to large data sets. In this work we describe several efficient extensions to STEME that are based on the MEME algorithm. Together with the original STEME EM approximation, these extensions make STEME a fully-fledged motif finder with similar properties to MEME. We discuss the difficulty of objectively comparing motif finders. We show that STEME performs comparably to existing prominent discriminative motif finders, DREME and Trawler, on 13 sets of transcription factor binding data in mouse ES cells. We demonstrate the ability of STEME to find long degenerate motifs which these discriminative motif finders do not find. As part of our method, we extend an earlier method due to Nagarajan et al. for the efficient calculation of motif E-values. STEME's source code is available under an open source license and STEME is available via a web interface.

  14. Discovery of stress responsive DNA regulatory motifs in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shisong; Bachan, Shawn; Porto, Matthew; Bohnert, Hans J; Snyder, Michael; Dinesh-Kumar, Savithramma P

    2012-01-01

    The discovery of DNA regulatory motifs in the sequenced genomes using computational methods remains challenging. Here, we present MotifIndexer--a comprehensive strategy for de novo identification of DNA regulatory motifs at a genome level. Using word-counting methods, we indexed the existence of every 8-mer oligo composed of bases A, C, G, T, r, y, s, w, m, k, n or 12-mer oligo composed of A, C, G, T, n, in the promoters of all predicted genes of Arabidopsis thaliana genome and of selected stress-induced co-expressed genes. From this analysis, we identified number of over-represented motifs. Among these, major critical motifs were identified using a position filter. We used a model based on uniform distribution and the z-scores derived from this model to describe position bias. Interestingly, many motifs showed position bias towards the transcription start site. We extended this model to show biased distribution of motifs in the genomes of both A. thaliana and rice. We also used MotifIndexer to identify conserved motifs in co-expressed gene groups from two Arabidopsis species, A. thaliana and A. lyrata. This new comparative genomics method does not depend on alignments of homologous gene promoter sequences.

  15. Haplotypes for 13 Y-chromosomal STR loci in South Tunisian population (Sfax region).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayadi, Imen; Ammar-Keskes, Leila; Rebai, Ahmed

    2006-12-20

    Nine Y-STR loci from the "minimal haplotype" (DYS19, DYS385a/b, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393) included in Y-STR Haplotype Reference Databases (YHRD) with 4 additional Y-STRs (DYS436, DYS437, DYS438, DYS439) were analyzed by PCR using duplex and Y-PLEX 12 kit, followed by automatic genotyping in a sample of 105 Tunisian males originating from Sfax region (south Tunisia). Allelic frequencies and gene diversities for each Y-STR locus were determined. The high haplotype diversity (0.9932) and discrimination capacity (0.7714) show the usefulness of these loci for human identification in forensic studies and paternity tests in Tunisia. The most common haplotype was shared by 4.7% (5 individuals) of the sample was only found in samples from the Tunisian population reported in YHRD. One private allele for DYS392 (allele 17) was discovered and duplications were observed for five loci (DYS19, DYS389I, DYS393, DYS437 and DYS439).

  16. Reconstructing recent human phylogenies with forensic STR loci: A statistical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Faisal

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Forensic Short Tandem Repeat (STR loci are effective for the purpose of individual identification, and other forensic applications. Most of these markers have high allelic variability and mutation rate because of which they have limited use in the phylogenetic reconstruction. In the present study, we have carried out a meta-analysis to explore the possibility of using only five STR loci (TPOX, FES, vWA, F13A and Tho1 to carry out phylogenetic assessment based on the allele frequency profile of 20 world population and north Indian Hindus analyzed in the present study. Results Phylogenetic analysis based on two different approaches – genetic distance and maximum likelihood along with statistical bootstrapping procedure involving 1000 replicates was carried out. The ensuing tree topologies and PC plots were further compared with those obtained in earlier phylogenetic investigations. The compiled database of 21 populations got segregated and finely resolved into three basal clusters with very high bootstrap values corresponding to three geo-ethnic groups of African, Orientals, and Caucasians. Conclusion Based on this study we conclude that if appropriate and logistic statistical approaches are followed then even lesser number of forensic STR loci are powerful enough to reconstruct the recent human phylogenies despite of their relatively high mutation rates.

  17. Object-oriented Bayesian networks for evaluating DIP-STR profiling results from unbalanced DNA mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cereda, G; Biedermann, A; Hall, D; Taroni, F

    2014-01-01

    The genetic characterization of unbalanced mixed stains remains an important area where improvement is imperative. In fact, with current methods for DNA analysis (Polymerase Chain Reaction with the SGM Plus multiplex kit), it is generally not possible to obtain a conventional autosomal DNA profile of the minor contributor if the ratio between the two contributors in a mixture is smaller than 1:10. This is a consequence of the fact that the major contributor's profile 'masks' that of the minor contributor. Besides known remedies to this problem, such as Y-STR analysis, a new compound genetic marker that consists of a Deletion/Insertion Polymorphism (DIP), linked to a Short Tandem Repeat (STR) polymorphism, has recently been developed and proposed elsewhere in literature. The present paper reports on the derivation of an approach for the probabilistic evaluation of DIP-STR profiling results obtained from unbalanced DNA mixtures. The procedure is based on object-oriented Bayesian networks (OOBNs) and uses the likelihood ratio as an expression of the probative value. OOBNs are retained in this paper because they allow one to provide a clear description of the genotypic configuration observed for the mixed stain as well as for the various potential contributors (e.g., victim and suspect). These models also allow one to depict the assumed relevance relationships and perform the necessary probabilistic computations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Motif-role-fingerprints: the building-blocks of motifs, clustering-coefficients and transitivities in directed networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, Mark D; Yaveroğlu, Ömer Nebil; Schmerl, Brett A; Iannella, Nicolangelo; Ward, Lawrence M

    2014-01-01

    Complex networks are frequently characterized by metrics for which particular subgraphs are counted. One statistic from this category, which we refer to as motif-role fingerprints, differs from global subgraph counts in that the number of subgraphs in which each node participates is counted. As with global subgraph counts, it can be important to distinguish between motif-role fingerprints that are 'structural' (induced subgraphs) and 'functional' (partial subgraphs). Here we show mathematically that a vector of all functional motif-role fingerprints can readily be obtained from an arbitrary directed adjacency matrix, and then converted to structural motif-role fingerprints by multiplying that vector by a specific invertible conversion matrix. This result demonstrates that a unique structural motif-role fingerprint exists for any given functional motif-role fingerprint. We demonstrate a similar result for the cases of functional and structural motif-fingerprints without node roles, and global subgraph counts that form the basis of standard motif analysis. We also explicitly highlight that motif-role fingerprints are elemental to several popular metrics for quantifying the subgraph structure of directed complex networks, including motif distributions, directed clustering coefficient, and transitivity. The relationships between each of these metrics and motif-role fingerprints also suggest new subtypes of directed clustering coefficients and transitivities. Our results have potential utility in analyzing directed synaptic networks constructed from neuronal connectome data, such as in terms of centrality. Other potential applications include anomaly detection in networks, identification of similar networks and identification of similar nodes within networks. Matlab code for calculating all stated metrics following calculation of functional motif-role fingerprints is provided as S1 Matlab File.

  19. Motif-role-fingerprints: the building-blocks of motifs, clustering-coefficients and transitivities in directed networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D McDonnell

    Full Text Available Complex networks are frequently characterized by metrics for which particular subgraphs are counted. One statistic from this category, which we refer to as motif-role fingerprints, differs from global subgraph counts in that the number of subgraphs in which each node participates is counted. As with global subgraph counts, it can be important to distinguish between motif-role fingerprints that are 'structural' (induced subgraphs and 'functional' (partial subgraphs. Here we show mathematically that a vector of all functional motif-role fingerprints can readily be obtained from an arbitrary directed adjacency matrix, and then converted to structural motif-role fingerprints by multiplying that vector by a specific invertible conversion matrix. This result demonstrates that a unique structural motif-role fingerprint exists for any given functional motif-role fingerprint. We demonstrate a similar result for the cases of functional and structural motif-fingerprints without node roles, and global subgraph counts that form the basis of standard motif analysis. We also explicitly highlight that motif-role fingerprints are elemental to several popular metrics for quantifying the subgraph structure of directed complex networks, including motif distributions, directed clustering coefficient, and transitivity. The relationships between each of these metrics and motif-role fingerprints also suggest new subtypes of directed clustering coefficients and transitivities. Our results have potential utility in analyzing directed synaptic networks constructed from neuronal connectome data, such as in terms of centrality. Other potential applications include anomaly detection in networks, identification of similar networks and identification of similar nodes within networks. Matlab code for calculating all stated metrics following calculation of functional motif-role fingerprints is provided as S1 Matlab File.

  20. Transnationalism as a motif in family stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Elizabeth; Gomez, Erica; Hotzoglou, Despina; Lipnitsky, Jane Y

    2005-12-01

    Family stories have long been recognized as a vehicle for assessing components of a family's emotional and social life, including the degree to which an immigrant family has been willing to assimilate. Transnationalism, defined as living in one or more cultures and maintaining connections to both, is now increasingly common. A qualitative study of family stories in the family of those who appear completely "American" suggests that an affiliation with one's home country is nevertheless detectable in the stories via motifs such as (1) positively connotated home remedies, (2) continuing denigration of home country "enemies," (3) extensive knowledge of the home country history and politics, (4) praise of endogamy and negative assessment of exogamy, (5) superiority of home country to America, and (6) beauty of home country. Furthermore, an awareness of which model--assimilationist or transnational--governs a family's experience may help clarify a clinician's understanding of a family's strengths, vulnerabilities, and mode of framing their cultural experiences.

  1. Rekayasa Pengembangan Desain Motif Batik Khas Melayu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eustasia Sri Murwati

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAKPengembangan desain batik melalui rancang bangun perekayasaan desain menurut ragam hias Melayu meliputi pengembangan motif dan proses, termasuk pemilihan komposisi warna. Proses yang sering dilakukan yaitu proses celup, penghilangan lilin dan celup warna tumpangan atau proses colet, celup, penghilangan lilin atau celup kemudian penghilangan lilin yang disebut Batik Kelengan. Setiap pulau di Indonesia mempunyai ciri khas budaya dan kesenian yang dikenal dengan corak/ragam hias khas daerah, juga ornamen yang diminati oleh masyarakat dari daerah tersebut atau dari daerah lain. Kondisi demikian mendorong pertumbuhan industri kerajinan yang memanfaatkan unsur–unsur seni. Adapun motif yang diperoleh adalah: Ayam Berlaga, Bungo Matahari, Kuntum Bersanding, Lancang Kuning, Encong Kerinci, Durian Pecah, Bungo Bintang, Bungo Pauh Kecil, Riang-riang, Bungo Nagaro. Pengembangan desain tersebut dipilih 3 produk terbaik yang dinilai oleh 5 penilai yang ahli di bidang desain batik, yaitu motif Durian Pecah, Ayam Berlaga, dan Bungo Matahari. Rancang bangun diversifikasi desain dengan memanfaatkan unsur–unsur seni dan ketrampilan etnis Melayu yaitu pemilihan ragam hias dan motif batik Melayu untuk diterapkan ke bahan sandang dengan komposisi warna yang menarik, sehingga produk memenuhi selera konsumen. Memperbaiki keberagaman batik dengan meningkatkan desain produk antara lain menuangkan ragam hias Melayu ke dalam proses batik yang menggunakan berbagai macam warna sehingga komposisi warna memadai. Diperoleh hasil produk batik dengan ragam hias Melayu yang berkualitas dan komposisi warna yang sesuai dengan karakter ragam hias Melayu. Rancang bangun desain produk untuk mendapatkan formulasi desain serta kelayakan prosesnya dengan penekanan pada teknologi akrab lingkungan dilaksanakan dengan alternatif pendekatan yaitu penciptaan desain bentuk baru.Kata kunci: desain, batik, rancang bangun, ragam hias, MelayuABSTRACTDevelopment of batik design through

  2. Systematic discovery of cofactor motifs from ChIP-seq data by SIOMICS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jun; Dhillon, Vikram; Li, Xiaoman; Hu, Haiyan

    2015-06-01

    Understanding transcriptional regulatory elements and particularly the transcription factor binding sites represents a significant challenge in computational biology. The chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by massive parallel sequencing (ChIP-seq) experiments provide an unprecedented opportunity to study transcription factor binding sites on the genome-wide scale. Here we describe a recently developed tool, SIOMICS, to systematically discover motifs and binding sites of transcription factors and their cofactors from ChIP-seq data. Unlike other tools, SIOMICS explores the co-binding properties of multiple transcription factors in short regions to predict motifs and binding sites. We have previously shown that the original SIOMICS method predicts motifs and binding sites of more cofactors in more accurate and time-effective ways than two popular methods. In this paper, we present the extended SIOMICS method, SIOMICS_Extension, and demonstrate its usage for systematic discovery of cofactor motifs and binding sites. The SIOMICS tool, including SIOMICS and SIOMICS_Extension, are available at http://hulab.ucf.edu/research/projects/SIOMICS/SIOMICS.html. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Encoded expansion: an efficient algorithm to discover identical string motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Aqil M; Al-Ssulami, Abdulrakeeb

    2014-01-01

    A major task in computational biology is the discovery of short recurring string patterns known as motifs. Most of the schemes to discover motifs are either stochastic or combinatorial in nature. Stochastic approaches do not guarantee finding the correct motifs, while the combinatorial schemes tend to have an exponential time complexity with respect to motif length. To alleviate the cost, the combinatorial approach exploits dynamic data structures such as trees or graphs. Recently (Karci (2009) Efficient automatic exact motif discovery algorithms for biological sequences, Expert Systems with Applications 36:7952-7963) devised a deterministic algorithm that finds all the identical copies of string motifs of all sizes [Formula: see text] in theoretical time complexity of [Formula: see text] and a space complexity of [Formula: see text] where [Formula: see text] is the length of the input sequence and [Formula: see text] is the length of the longest possible string motif. In this paper, we present a significant improvement on Karci's original algorithm. The algorithm that we propose reports all identical string motifs of sizes [Formula: see text] that occur at least [Formula: see text] times. Our algorithm starts with string motifs of size 2, and at each iteration it expands the candidate string motifs by one symbol throwing out those that occur less than [Formula: see text] times in the entire input sequence. We use a simple array and data encoding to achieve theoretical worst-case time complexity of [Formula: see text] and a space complexity of [Formula: see text] Encoding of the substrings can speed up the process of comparison between string motifs. Experimental results on random and real biological sequences confirm that our algorithm has indeed a linear time complexity and it is more scalable in terms of sequence length than the existing algorithms.

  4. The limits of de novo DNA motif discovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Simcha

    Full Text Available A major challenge in molecular biology is reverse-engineering the cis-regulatory logic that plays a major role in the control of gene expression. This program includes searching through DNA sequences to identify "motifs" that serve as the binding sites for transcription factors or, more generally, are predictive of gene expression across cellular conditions. Several approaches have been proposed for de novo motif discovery-searching sequences without prior knowledge of binding sites or nucleotide patterns. However, unbiased validation is not straightforward. We consider two approaches to unbiased validation of discovered motifs: testing the statistical significance of a motif using a DNA "background" sequence model to represent the null hypothesis and measuring performance in predicting membership in gene clusters. We demonstrate that the background models typically used are "too null," resulting in overly optimistic assessments of significance, and argue that performance in predicting TF binding or expression patterns from DNA motifs should be assessed by held-out data, as in predictive learning. Applying this criterion to common motif discovery methods resulted in universally poor performance, although there is a marked improvement when motifs are statistically significant against real background sequences. Moreover, on synthetic data where "ground truth" is known, discriminative performance of all algorithms is far below the theoretical upper bound, with pronounced "over-fitting" in training. A key conclusion from this work is that the failure of de novo discovery approaches to accurately identify motifs is basically due to statistical intractability resulting from the fixed size of co-regulated gene clusters, and thus such failures do not necessarily provide evidence that unfound motifs are not active biologically. Consequently, the use of prior knowledge to enhance motif discovery is not just advantageous but necessary. An implementation of

  5. The MHC motif viewer: a visualization tool for MHC binding motifs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapin, Nicolas; Hoof, Ilka; Lund, Ole

    2010-01-01

    In vertebrates, the onset of cellular immune reactions is controlled by presentation of peptides in complex with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules to T cell receptors. In humans, MHCs are called human leukocyte antigens (HLAs). Different MHC molecules present different subsets...... of peptides, and knowledge of their binding specificities is important for understanding differences in the immune response between individuals. Algorithms predicting which peptides bind a given MHC molecule have recently been developed with high prediction accuracy. The utility of these algorithms...... is hampered by the lack of tools for browsing and comparing specificity of these molecules. We have developed a Web server, MHC Motif Viewer, which allows the display of the binding motif for MHC class I proteins for human, chimpanzee, rhesus monkey, mouse, and swine, as well as HLA-DR protein sequences...

  6. Assessing Local Structure Motifs Using Order Parameters for Motif Recognition, Interstitial Identification, and Diffusion Path Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils E. R. Zimmermann

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Structure–property relationships form the basis of many design rules in materials science, including synthesizability and long-term stability of catalysts, control of electrical and optoelectronic behavior in semiconductors, as well as the capacity of and transport properties in cathode materials for rechargeable batteries. The immediate atomic environments (i.e., the first coordination shells of a few atomic sites are often a key factor in achieving a desired property. Some of the most frequently encountered coordination patterns are tetrahedra, octahedra, body and face-centered cubic as well as hexagonal close packed-like environments. Here, we showcase the usefulness of local order parameters to identify these basic structural motifs in inorganic solid materials by developing classification criteria. We introduce a systematic testing framework, the Einstein crystal test rig, that probes the response of order parameters to distortions in perfect motifs to validate our approach. Subsequently, we highlight three important application cases. First, we map basic crystal structure information of a large materials database in an intuitive manner by screening the Materials Project (MP database (61,422 compounds for element-specific motif distributions. Second, we use the structure-motif recognition capabilities to automatically find interstitials in metals, semiconductor, and insulator materials. Our Interstitialcy Finding Tool (InFiT facilitates high-throughput screenings of defect properties. Third, the order parameters are reliable and compact quantitative structure descriptors for characterizing diffusion hops of intercalants as our example of magnesium in MnO2-spinel indicates. Finally, the tools developed in our work are readily and freely available as software implementations in the pymatgen library, and we expect them to be further applied to machine-learning approaches for emerging applications in materials science.

  7. Fingerprint motifs of phytases | Fan | African Journal of Biotechnology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Among the total of potential 173 phytases gained in 11 plant genomes through MAST, PAPhys are the major phytases, and HAPhys are the minor, and other phytase groups are not found in planta. Keywords: Phytase, fingerprint motif, multiple EM for motif elicitation (MEME), MAST African Journal of Biotechnology Vol.

  8. Functional diversity of CTCFs is encoded in their binding motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Rongxin; Wang, Chengqi; Skogerbo, Geir; Zhang, Zhihua

    2015-08-28

    The CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) has diverse regulatory functions. However, the definitive characteristics of the CTCF binding motif required for its functional diversity still remains elusive. Here, we describe a new motif discovery workflow by which we have identified three CTCF binding motif variations with highly divergent functionalities. Supported by transcriptomic, epigenomic and chromatin-interactomic data, we show that the functional diversity of the CTCF binding motifs is strongly associated with their GC content, CpG dinucleotide coverage and relative DNA methylation level at the 12th position of the motifs. Further analysis suggested that the co-localization of cohesin, the key factor in cohesion of sister chromatids, is negatively correlated with the CpG coverage and the relative DNA methylation level at the 12th position. Finally, we present evidences for a hypothetical model in which chromatin interactions between promoters and distal regulatory regions are likely mediated by CTCFs binding to sequences with high CpG. These results demonstrate the existence of definitive CTCF binding motifs corresponding to CTCF's diverse functions, and that the functional diversity of the motifs is strongly associated with genetic and epigenetic features at the 12th position of the motifs.

  9. An Examination of the Festival Motif in Femi Osofisan's Morountodun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is in this context that we closely look at how Femi Osofisan assertively leans on the aesthetic apparatus of the African traditional theatre to create Morountodun. In Morountodun, the rich elements of the traditional theatre are used as motif(s) to create a vintage and delightful play, which is very aesthetic and scintillating, yet ...

  10. Probing structural changes of self assembled i-motif DNA

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Iljoon

    2015-01-01

    We report an i-motif structural probing system based on Thioflavin T (ThT) as a fluorescent sensor. This probe can discriminate the structural changes of RET and Rb i-motif sequences according to pH change. This journal is

  11. Perceptions of Seshoeshoe fabric, naming and meanings of motifs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was further found that the choice of the fabric has increased in the market due to the wide variety of motifs and colours although the quality of fabric has not improved. There are still problems encountered by dressmakers when handling the fabric. Most participants in the study had a good knowledge of the names of motifs.

  12. Motif Participation by Genes in E. coli Transcriptional Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eMayo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Motifs are patterns of recurring connections among the genes of genetic networks that occur more frequently than would be expected from randomized networks with the same degree sequence. Although the abundance of certain three-node motifs, such as the feed-forward loop, is positively correlated with a networks’ ability to tolerate moderate disruptions to gene expression, little is known regarding the connectivity of individual genes participating in multiple motifs. Using the transcriptional network of the bacterium Escherichia coli, we investigate this feature by reconstructing the distribution of genes participating in feed-forward loop motifs from its largest connected network component. We contrast these motif participation distributions with those obtained from model networks built using the preferential attachment mechanism employed by many biological and man-made networks. We report that, although some of these model networks support a motif participation distribution that appears qualitatively similar to that obtained from the bacterium Escherichia coli, the probability for a node to support a feed-forward loop motif may instead be strongly influenced by only a few master transcriptional regulators within the network. From these analyses we conclude that such master regulators may be a crucial ingredient to describe coupling among feed-forward loop motifs in transcriptional regulatory networks.

  13. Detecting Statistically Significant Communities of Triangle Motifs in Undirected Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-26

    extend the work of Perry et al. [6] by developing a statistical framework that supports the detection of triangle motif- based clusters in complex...priori, the need for triangle motif- based clustering. 2. Developed an algorithm for clustering undirected networks, where the triangle con guration was...13 5 Application to Real Networks 18 5.1 2012 FBS Football Schedule Network

  14. Ancient Writers’ Motifs in Spanish Golden Age Drama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojana Tomc

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In Spanish Golden Age drama we come across all forms of the reception of ancient writers’ motifs: explicit (direct quotation of an ancient author, where the quotation may be more or less complete, or a clear allusion to it, implicit (where there is no explicit mentioning of the ancient source, however certain ancient elements are mentioned such as persons, places, historical circumstances, hidden (where there is no clear hint about a literary intervention in Antiquity or an imitation of the literary excerpt or motif, as well as direct imitation (aemulatio or adaptation (variatio. In the Renaissance and Baroque there are almost no motifs, which could not be taken over from Antiquity without a transformation or innovation. If there is a close correspondence to the ancient motif, it is generally sufficient simply to mention it or employ a side motif as an illustration of a similar situation without elaborating the motif further or weaving it more deeply into the supporting fabric of the dramatic work. The ancient authors who contribute the motifs are numerous and diverse: Vergil, the Roman elegists Propertius in Tibullus, the lyric poet Horace, the comedian Plautus, the stoic philosopher Seneca, the historian Tacitus, the novelist Apuleius, as well as Greek dramatist Aeschylus and stoic philosopher Epictetus. The genres, which are a source for the surviving ancient motifs in the Golden Age in the selected authors, include literary as well as not-literary forms: epic poetry, lyric, dramatics, philosophy and historiography.

  15. The genomic HDV ribozyme utilizes a previously unnoticed U-turn motif to accomplish fast site-specific catalysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šefčíková, J.; Krasovská, Maryna V.; Šponer, Jiří; Walter, N.G.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 6 (2007), s. 1933-1946 ISSN 0305-1048 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/05/0388; GA ČR(CZ) GA203/05/0009; GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS500040581; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA400550701; GA MŠk(CZ) LC512 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040702; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : hepatitis delta virus * molecular dynamics * self-cleavage Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 6.954, year: 2007

  16. Automatic annotation of protein motif function with Gene Ontology terms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopalakrishnan Vanathi

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conserved protein sequence motifs are short stretches of amino acid sequence patterns that potentially encode the function of proteins. Several sequence pattern searching algorithms and programs exist foridentifying candidate protein motifs at the whole genome level. However, amuch needed and importanttask is to determine the functions of the newly identified protein motifs. The Gene Ontology (GO project is an endeavor to annotate the function of genes or protein sequences with terms from a dynamic, controlled vocabulary and these annotations serve well as a knowledge base. Results This paperpresents methods to mine the GO knowledge base and use the association between the GO terms assigned to a sequence and the motifs matched by the same sequence as evidence for predicting the functions of novel protein motifs automatically. The task of assigning GO terms to protein motifsis viewed as both a binary classification and information retrieval problem, where PROSITE motifs are used as samples for mode training and functional prediction. The mutual information of a motif and aGO term association isfound to be a very useful feature. We take advantageof the known motifs to train a logistic regression classifier, which allows us to combine mutual information with other frequency-based features and obtain a probability of correctassociation. The trained logistic regression model has intuitively meaningful and logically plausible parameter values, and performs very well empirically according to our evaluation criteria. Conclusions In this research, different methods for automatic annotation of protein motifs have been investigated. Empirical result demonstrated that the methods have a great potential for detecting and augmenting information about thefunctions of newly discovered candidate protein motifs.

  17. Evaluation of the MeltPro TB/STR assay for rapid detection of streptomycin resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting; Hu, Siyu; Li, Guoli; Li, Hui; Liu, Xiaoli; Niu, Jianjun; Wang, Feng; Wen, Huixin; Xu, Ye; Li, Qingge

    2015-03-01

    Rapid and comprehensive detection of drug-resistance is essential for the control of tuberculosis, which has facilitated the development of molecular assays for the detection of drug-resistant mutations in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We hereby assessed the analytical and clinical performance of an assay for streptomycin-resistant mutations. MeltPro TB/STR is a closed-tube, dual-color, melting curve analysis-based, real-time PCR test designed to detect 15 streptomycin-resistant mutations in rpsL 43, rpsL 88, rrs 513, rrs 514, rrs 517, and rrs 905-908 of M. tuberculosis. Analytical studies showed that the accuracy was 100%, the limit of detection was 50-500 bacilli per reaction, the reproducibility in the form of Tm variation was within 1.0 °C, and we could detect 20% STR resistance in mixed bacterial samples. The cross-platform study demonstrated that the assay could be performed on six models of real-time PCR instruments. A multicenter clinical study was conducted using 1056 clinical isolates, which were collected from three geographically different healthcare units, including 709 STR-susceptible and 347 STR-resistant isolates characterized on Löwenstein-Jensen solid medium by traditional drug susceptibility testing. The results showed that the clinical sensitivity and specificity of the MeltPro TB/STR was 88.8% and 95.8%, respectively. Sequencing analysis confirmed the accuracy of the mutation types. Among all the 8 mutation types detected, rpsL K43R (AAG → AGG), rpsL K88R (AAG → AGG) and rrs 514 A → C accounted for more than 90%. We concluded that MeltPro TB/STR represents a rapid and reliable assay for the detection of STR resistance in clinical isolates. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. CD3 gamma contains a phosphoserine-dependent di-leucine motif involved in down-regulation of the T cell receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrich, J; Hou, X; Wegener, A M

    1994-01-01

    -regulation of the TCR. Furthermore, analysis of a series of CD3 gamma truncation mutants indicated that in addition to S126 phosphorylation a motif C-terminal of S126 was required for TCR down-regulation. Point mutation analyses confirmed this observation and demonstrated that a membrane-proximal di-leucine motif (L131......, indicating that the TCR was down-regulated by endocytosis via clathrin coated pits. Based on the present results and previously published observations on intracellular receptor sorting, a general model for intracellular sorting of receptors containing di-leucine- or tyrosine-based motifs is proposed....

  19. Allele and haplotype distribution for 16 Y-STRs (AmpFlSTR Y-filer kit) in the state of Chihuahua at North Center of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Alarcón, A B; Moguel-Torres, M; León-Jiménez, A K; Cuéllar-Nevárez, G E; Rangel-Villalobos, H

    2007-05-01

    The AmpFlSTR Y-filer kit, including 16 Y-STRs was analyzed in 326 males from Chihuahua, at North Central, Mexico. Allele frequencies and gene diversity for each locus were estimated. Four allele duplications, namely DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391 and DYS439; and one allele null at DYS448 were observed in the sample. The haplotype diversity was 99.97+/-0.3%. The AMOVA results, including a previous report from West of Mexico (Jalisco), showed that most of the genetic variability between these Mexican populations is attributable to intrapopulational differences (99.87%). This result supports a low-genetic differentiation between males from North and West regions of Mexico.

  20. Strömgren photometry in globular clusters: M55 & M22

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, P.; Hilker, M.; Richtler, T.

    1999-10-01

    We present Strömgren CCD photometry for the two galactic globular clusters M55 (NGC 6809) and M22 (NGC 6656). We find average Strömgren metallicities of -1.71+/- 0.04 dex for M55 and -1.62+/- 0.08 dex for M22. The determination of metal abundances in cluster giants with the Strömgren m_1 index in comparison with spectroscopic data from Briley et al. (1993) and Norris & Freeman (1982, 1983) shows that M55 and M22 have different distributions of cyanogen strengths. In M55, no CN abundance variations are visible among the giant-branch stars. In striking contrast, a large dispersion of cyanogen strengths is seen in M22. For M22 we find patchily distributed variations in the foreground reddening of Delta E(B-V) ~ 0.07, which explain the colour dispersion among the giant-branch stars. There is no evidence for a spread in iron within M22 since the variations in m_1 are dominated by the large range in CN abundances, as already found by Anthony-Twarog et al. (1995). The difference between M55 and M22 may resemble the difference in integral CN band strength between M31 globular clusters and the galactic system. The colour-magnitude diagram of M55 shows the presence of a population of 56 blue-straggler stars that are more centrally concentrated than the red giant-branch stars. Based on data collected at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile

  1. Short tandem repeat (STR based genetic diversity and relationship of indigenous Niger cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Grema

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of cattle in Niger is predominantly represented by three indigenous breeds: Zebu Arabe, Zebu Bororo and Kuri. This study aimed at characterizing the genetic diversity and relationship of Niger cattle breeds using short tandem repeat (STR marker variations. A total of 105 cattle from all three breeds were genotyped at 27 STR loci. High levels of allelic and gene diversity were observed with an overall mean of 8.7 and 0.724 respectively. The mean inbreeding estimate within breeds was found to be moderate with 0.024, 0.043 and 0.044 in Zebu Arabe, Zebu Bororo and Kuri cattle respectively. The global F statistics showed low genetic differentiation among Niger cattle with about 2.6 % of total variation being attributed to between-breed differences. Neighbor-joining tree derived from pairwise allele sharing distance revealed Zebu Arabe and Kuri clustering together while Zebu Bororo appeared to be relatively distinct from the other two breeds. High levels of admixture were evident from the distribution of pairwise inter-individual allele sharing distances that showed individuals across populations being more related than individuals within populations. Individuals were assigned to their respective source populations based on STR genotypes, and the percent correct assignment of Zebu Bororo (87.5 to 93.8 % was consistently higher than Zebu Arabe (59.3 to 70.4 % and Kuri (80.0 to 83.3 % cattle. The qualitative and quantitative tests for mutation drift equilibrium revealed absence of genetic bottleneck events in Niger cattle in the recent past. High genetic diversity and poor genetic structure among indigenous cattle breeds of Niger might be due to historic zebu–taurine admixture and ongoing breeding practices in the region. The results of the present study are expected to help in formulating effective strategies for conservation and genetic improvement of indigenous Niger cattle breeds.

  2. DNA persistence of bite marks on food and its relevance for STR typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Céline M; Gass, Anja; Klein-Unseld, Rachel; Wiegand, Peter

    2017-09-01

    In forensic DNA analysis, salivary traces at crime scenes are a promising way to identify a person. However, crime scenes are oftentimes investigated a while after the crime and recovered samples might have been degraded leading to poor PCR amplification. Probably due to decomposition and negative visual impression of spoiled food, bite mark samples make up only a small part of our casework routine. In this study, bite marks on apples and chocolate bars as well as on an inert surface (microscope slide) were stored up to 3 weeks indoors and outdoors during different seasons and analyzed for amylase activity and DNA quantity and quality. The results underlined the stability of human nuclear DNA not only on inert but also on biological surfaces and their forensic usefulness even when bite marks are stored 21 days under adverse but realistic conditions at a crime scene. Overall, amylase activity as well as DNA quantity decreased over time depending on storage environment with a certain inter- and intrapersonal variation. But amylase activity testing was not found to be an appropriate screening tool for further analysis. Apple bite marks resulted in generally higher DNA amounts than chocolate bars and microscope slides. Although mold reduced the DNA quantity, complete STR profiles could be analyzed. High air humidity and cold temperatures were found to act preservative on raw food with high water content but caused loss of information over time for smooth inert surfaces and hygroscopic foods like sweets. Many factors are involved in the stability of DNA in bite marks and its resulting quality and quantity available for an STR analysis. However, since there was a substantial proportion of informative STR profiles even from bite marks stored for 21 days, the results encourage the analysis of those even if their visual appearance seems unfavorable.

  3. New satellite DNA in Lacerta s. str. lizards (Sauria: Lacertidae): evolutionary pathways and phylogenetic impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciobanu, Doina; Grechko, Vernata V; Darevsky, Ilya S; Kramerov, Dmitri A

    2004-11-15

    A new tandemly repeated (satellite) DNA family namely Agi160, from Lacerta agilis and Lacerta strigata (Lacerta sensu stricto (s. str.), Linnaeus 1758) have been cloned and sequenced. Agi160 is found in the above two species, as well as two other representatives of the same genus, L. viridis and L. media. DNA hybridization did not reveal it in Darevskia, Podarcis, Zootoca, Eremias, Ophisops, and Gallotia - the other genera of the family Lacertidae. The results suggest that Agi160 is a Lacerta s. str. specific family of tandem DNA repeats. However, a comparison between sequences of Agi160 and CLsat repeat units revealed 60 bp regions 62-74% identical. The latter is a satellite DNA family typical for Darevskia (syn. "L. saxicola complex") (Grechko et al., Molecular-genetic classification and phylogenetic relatedness of some species of Lacertidae lizards by taxonoprint data. Mol Biol 32:172-183, 1988.). Both Agi160 and CLsat tandem repeats share several common features (e.g., the same AT content and distribution of multiple short A-T runs, internal structure of repeated units, the presence of conservative regions). These data are indicative of their common origin and a possibly strong selective pressure upon conserving both satellites. A comparative analysis of structure, organization, and abundance of these two families of satDNA reveals evolutionary pathways that led to their formation and divergence. The data are consistent with the hypotheses of the concerted evolution of satellite DNA families. The possibility of use of Agi160 as a phylogenetic tool, defining relationships within Lacerta s. str., as well as within the whole family of Lacertidae is discussed. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Patterns of genetic diversity at the nine forensically approved STR loci in the Indian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Ranjan; Reddy, B Mohan; Chattopadhyay, P; Kashyap, V K; Sun, Guangyun; Deka, Ranjan

    2002-02-01

    Genetic diversity at the nine short tandem repeat (STR) loci, which are universally approved and widely used for forensic investigations, has been studied among nine Indian populations with diverse ethnic, linguistic, and geographic backgrounds. The nine STR loci were profiled on 902 individuals using fluorescent detection methods on an ABI377 System, with the aid of an Amp-F1 Profiler Plus Kit. The studied populations include two upper castes, Brahmin and Kayastha; a tribe, Garo, from West Bengal; a Hindu caste, Meitei, with historical links to Bengal Brahmins; a migrant group of Muslims; three tribal groups, Naga, Kuki and Hmar, from Manipur in northeast India; and a middle-ranking caste, Golla, who are seminomadic herders from Andhra Pradesh. Gene diversity analysis suggests that the average heterozygosity is uniformly high (>0.8) in the studied populations, with the coefficient of gene differentiation at 0.050 +/- 0.0054. Both neighbor-joining (NJ) and unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) trees based on DA distances bring out distinct clusters that are consistent with ethnic, linguistic, and/or geographic backgrounds of the populations. The fit of the Harpending and Ward model of regression of average heterozygosity on the gene frequency centroid is found to be good, and the observed outliers are consistent with the population structure and history of the studied populations. Our study suggests that the nine STR loci, used so far mostly for forensic investigations, can be used fruitfully for microevolutionary studies as well, and for reconstructing the phylogenetic history of human populations, at least at the local level.

  5. Y-Chromosome Haplogroups in the Bosnian-Herzegovinian Population Based on 23 Y-STR Loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğan, Serkan; Ašić, Adna; Doğan, Gulsen; Besic, Larisa; Marjanovic, Damir

    2016-07-01

    In a study of the Bosnian-Herzegovinian (B&H) population, Y-chromosome marker frequencies for 100 individuals, generated using the PowerPlex Y23 kit, were used to perform Y-chromosome haplogroup assignment via Whit Athey's Haplogroup Predictor. This algorithm determines Y-chromosome haplogroups from Y-chromosome short tandem repeat (Y-STR) data using a Bayesian probability-based approach. The most frequent haplogroup appeared to be I2a, with a prevalence of 49%, followed by R1a and E1b1b, each accounting for 17% of all haplogroups within the population. Remaining haplogroups were J2a (5%), I1 (4%), R1b (4%), J2b (2%), G2a (1%), and N (1%). These results confirm previously published preliminary B&H population data published over 10 years ago, especially the prediction about the B&H population being a part of the Western Balkan area, which served as the Last Glacial Maximum refuge for the Paleolithic human European population. Furthermore, the results corroborate the hypothesis that this area was a significant stopping point on the "Middle East-Europe highway" during the Neolithic farmer migrations. Finally, since these results are almost completely in accordance with previously published data on B&H and neighboring populations generated by Y-chromosome single nucleotide polymorphism analysis, it can be concluded that in silico analysis of Y-STRs is a reliable method for approximation of the Y-chromosome haplogroup diversity of an examined population.

  6. Profile-based short linear protein motif discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haslam Niall J

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Short linear protein motifs are attracting increasing attention as functionally independent sites, typically 3–10 amino acids in length that are enriched in disordered regions of proteins. Multiple methods have recently been proposed to discover over-represented motifs within a set of proteins based on simple regular expressions. Here, we extend these approaches to profile-based methods, which provide a richer motif representation. Results The profile motif discovery method MEME performed relatively poorly for motifs in disordered regions of proteins. However, when we applied evolutionary weighting to account for redundancy amongst homologous proteins, and masked out poorly conserved regions of disordered proteins, the performance of MEME is equivalent to that of regular expression methods. However, the two approaches returned different subsets within both a benchmark dataset, and a more realistic discovery dataset. Conclusions Profile-based motif discovery methods complement regular expression based methods. Whilst profile-based methods are computationally more intensive, they are likely to discover motifs currently overlooked by regular expression methods.

  7. Recurrent Structural Motifs in Non-Homologous Protein Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Guex

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We have extracted an extensive collection of recurrent structural motifs (RSMs, which consist of sequentially non-contiguous structural motifs (4–6 residues, each of which appears with very similar conformation in three or more mutually unrelated protein structures. We find that the proteins in our set are covered to a substantial extent by the recurrent non-contiguous structural motifs, especially the helix and strand regions. Computational alanine scanning calculations indicate that the average folding free energy changes upon alanine mutation for most types of non-alanine residues are higher for amino acids that are present in recurrent structural motifs than for amino acids that are not. The non-alanine amino acids that are most common in the recurrent structural motifs, i.e., phenylalanine, isoleucine, leucine, valine and tyrosine and the less abundant methionine and tryptophan, have the largest folding free energy changes. This indicates that the recurrent structural motifs, as we define them, describe recurrent structural patterns that are important for protein stability. In view of their properties, such structural motifs are potentially useful for inter-residue contact prediction and protein structure refinement.

  8. Parameterized algorithmics for finding connected motifs in biological networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betzler, Nadja; van Bevern, René; Fellows, Michael R; Komusiewicz, Christian; Niedermeier, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    We study the NP-hard LIST-COLORED GRAPH MOTIF problem which, given an undirected list-colored graph G = (V, E) and a multiset M of colors, asks for maximum-cardinality sets S ⊆ V and M' ⊆ M such that G[S] is connected and contains exactly (with respect to multiplicity) the colors in M'. LIST-COLORED GRAPH MOTIF has applications in the analysis of biological networks. We study LIST-COLORED GRAPH MOTIF with respect to three different parameterizations. For the parameters motif size |M| and solution size |S|, we present fixed-parameter algorithms, whereas for the parameter |V| - |M|, we show W[1]-hardness for general instances and achieve fixed-parameter tractability for a special case of LIST-COLORED GRAPH MOTIF. We implemented the fixed-parameter algorithms for parameters |M| and |S|, developed further speed-up heuristics for these algorithms, and applied them in the context of querying protein-interaction networks, demonstrating their usefulness for realistic instances. Furthermore, we show that extending the request for motif connectedness to stronger demands, such as biconnectedness or bridge-connectedness leads to W[1]-hard problems when the parameter is the motif size |M|.

  9. Statistical analyses to support forensic interpretation for a new ten-locus STR profiling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, L A; Evett, I W

    2001-01-01

    A new ten-locus STR (short tandem repeat) profiling system was recently introduced into casework by the Forensic Science Service (FSS) and statistical analyses are described here based on data collected using this new system for the three major racial groups of the UK: Caucasian. Afro-Caribbean and Asian (of Indo-Pakistani descent). Allele distributions are compared and the FSS position with regard to routine significance testing of DNA frequency databases is discussed. An investigation of match probability calculations is carried out and the consequent analyses are shown to provide support for proposed changes in how the FSS reports DNA results when very small match probabilities are involved.

  10. Strømmålinger ved Sæby Udløbsledning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    Med henblik på at vurdere tidevandsstrømningens amplitude i det kystnære område ud for Sæby har man i ca. 14 dage fra 25.5.81 til 11.6.81 haft udlagt en Aanderraa RCM 4 strømmåler ca. 1 m under overfladen på ca. 4 m vanddybde. Måleren la ca. 900 m fra land i en linje, som var en forlængelse af...

  11. A new autosomal STR nineplex for canine identification and parentage testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Asch, Barbara; Alves, Cíntia; Gusmão, Leonor

    2009-01-01

    power (matching probability=1.63/10(10) and matching probability among siblings=4.9/10(3)). Allele sequences and a proposal for standardized nomenclature are also herein presented, aiming at implementing the use of this system in forensic DNA typing and population genetic studies. This approach resulted...... in an optimized and well-characterized canine DNA genotyping system that is highly performing and straightforward to integrate and employ routinely. Although this STR multiplex was developed for use and tested in a case-study population, the Portuguese breed Cão de Gado Transmontano, it proved to be useful...

  12. Vurdering av strømforhold og partikkelspredning ved etablering av ny dypvannskai ved Rana Industriterminal

    OpenAIRE

    Staalstrøm, Andre; Kempa, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Det skal etableres en ny dypvannskai ved Rana Industriterminal, og i den forbindelse har NIVA gjort vurderinger av strømforhold i området og partikkelspredning i anleggsperioden. I denne rapporten er det tatt utgangspunkt i at 135 000 m³ med masse skal mudres opp. Det er videre antatt at 2 % av denne massen spres i Ranfjorden, og dette utgjør 1620 tonn tørr masse. Denne mengden tilsvarer den samme mengden partikler som kan tilføres fjorden fra Ranelva i løpet av en ukes tid, og anses ikke som...

  13. Neutrality of miniSTR D22S1045 marker by Ewing's sarcoma phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Deborah S B S; Raimann, Paulo E; Moro, Tatiane; Picanço, Juliane B; Abujamra, Ana L; de Farias, Caroline B; Roesler, Rafael; Brunetto, Algemir L; Alho, Clarice S

    2013-11-01

    Neutrality investigations of markers with forensic use are important to see if a phenotypic trait is being expressed in relation to the alleles of the marker. MiniSTR marker D22S1045 (locus 22q12.3) is localized near the breakpoint region of the EWS gene (22q12.2), which leads to the development of Ewing's Sarcoma. Analyzing allele frequencies and linkage disequilibrium in Ewing's sarcoma patients and non-affected populations, we found that the marker mD22S1045 was neutral when related to Ewing's Sarcoma. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Etnokartografie v díle Drahomíry Stránské

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vařeka, Josef; Plessingerová, A.

    15[57]-16[58], - (1999), s. 69-78 ISSN 1211-8117. [Lidová kultura 20. století, její výzkum, dokumentace a prezentace. Věnováno 100. výročí narození doc. dr. Drahomíry Stránské. Rožnov pod Radhoštěm, 08.09.1999] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA0058803 Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  15. A speedup technique for (l, d-motif finding algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinh Hieu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The discovery of patterns in DNA, RNA, and protein sequences has led to the solution of many vital biological problems. For instance, the identification of patterns in nucleic acid sequences has resulted in the determination of open reading frames, identification of promoter elements of genes, identification of intron/exon splicing sites, identification of SH RNAs, location of RNA degradation signals, identification of alternative splicing sites, etc. In protein sequences, patterns have proven to be extremely helpful in domain identification, location of protease cleavage sites, identification of signal peptides, protein interactions, determination of protein degradation elements, identification of protein trafficking elements, etc. Motifs are important patterns that are helpful in finding transcriptional regulatory elements, transcription factor binding sites, functional genomics, drug design, etc. As a result, numerous papers have been written to solve the motif search problem. Results Three versions of the motif search problem have been proposed in the literature: Simple Motif Search (SMS, (l, d-motif search (or Planted Motif Search (PMS, and Edit-distance-based Motif Search (EMS. In this paper we focus on PMS. Two kinds of algorithms can be found in the literature for solving the PMS problem: exact and approximate. An exact algorithm identifies the motifs always and an approximate algorithm may fail to identify some or all of the motifs. The exact version of PMS problem has been shown to be NP-hard. Exact algorithms proposed in the literature for PMS take time that is exponential in some of the underlying parameters. In this paper we propose a generic technique that can be used to speedup PMS algorithms. Conclusions We present a speedup technique that can be used on any PMS algorithm. We have tested our speedup technique on a number of algorithms. These experimental results show that our speedup technique is indeed very

  16. Role of an arginine-lysine rich motif in maturation and trafficking of CD19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vences-Catalán, Felipe; Kuo, Chiung-Chi; Levy, Shoshana

    2015-09-25

    Normal expression of CD19 on the surface of B cells requires the presence of the tetraspanin molecule CD81. Previous studies have shown that surface expression of CD19 is highly reduced in CD81-deficient mouse B cells and that it is completely absent in an antibody deficient human patient with a mutation in the CD81 gene. The current study explored the contribution of an arginine-lysine rich motif, present in the membrane-proximal cytoplasmic domain of CD19, for the maturation and trafficking of this molecule. We demonstrate that this motif plays a role in the maturation and recycling of CD19 but in a CD81-independent manner. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Modeling Small Noncanonical RNA Motifs with the Rosetta FARFAR Server.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesselman, Joseph D; Das, Rhiju

    2016-01-01

    Noncanonical RNA motifs help define the vast complexity of RNA structure and function, and in many cases, these loops and junctions are on the order of only ten nucleotides in size. Unfortunately, despite their small size, there is no reliable method to determine the ensemble of lowest energy structures of junctions and loops at atomic accuracy. This chapter outlines straightforward protocols using a webserver for Rosetta Fragment Assembly of RNA with Full Atom Refinement (FARFAR) ( http://rosie.rosettacommons.org/rna_denovo/submit ) to model the 3D structure of small noncanonical RNA motifs for use in visualizing motifs and for further refinement or filtering with experimental data such as NMR chemical shifts.

  18. Periodic Distribution of a Putative Nucleosome Positioning Motif in Human, Nonhuman Primates, and Archaea: Mutual Information Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, Daniela; Miramontes, Pedro; Li, Wentian; Mireles, Víctor; Bobadilla, Juan R.; José, Marco V.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, Trifonov's group proposed a 10-mer DNA motif YYYYYRRRRR as a solution of the long-standing problem of sequence-based nucleosome positioning. To test whether this generic decamer represents a biological meaningful signal, we compare the distribution of this motif in primates and Archaea, which are known to contain nucleosomes, and in Eubacteria, which do not possess nucleosomes. The distribution of the motif is analyzed by the mutual information function (MIF) with a shifted version of itself (MIF profile). We found common features in the patterns of this generic decamer on MIF profiles among primate species, and interestingly we found conspicuous but dissimilar MIF profiles for each Archaea tested. The overall MIF profiles for each chromosome in each primate species also follow a similar pattern. Trifonov's generic decamer may be a highly conserved motif for the nucleosome positioning, but we argue that this is not the only motif. The distribution of this generic decamer exhibits previously unidentified periodicities, which are associated to highly repetitive sequences in the genome. Alu repetitive elements contribute to the most fundamental structure of nucleosome positioning in higher Eukaryotes. In some regions of primate chromosomes, the distribution of the decamer shows symmetrical patterns including inverted repeats. PMID:23841049

  19. ROMANIAN FOLKLORE MOTIFS IN FASHION DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOCENCO Alexandra

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The traditional Romanian costume such as the entire popular art (architecture, woodcarvins, pottery etc. was born and lasted in our country since ancient times. Closely related to human existence, the traditional costume reflected over the years as reflected nowadays, the mentality and artistic conception of the people. Today the traditional Romanian costume became an inspiration source to the wholesale fashion production industry designers, both Romanian and international. Although the contemporary designers are working in accordance with a vision, using a wide area of styles, methods and current technology, they usually return to traditional techniques and ethnic folklore motifs, which converts and resize them, integrating them in their contemporary space. Adrian Oianu is a very appreciated Romanian designer who launched two collections inspired by his native’s country traditional costumes: “Suflecata pan’ la brau” (“Turned up ‘til the belt” and “Bucurie” (“Joy”. Dorin Negrau had as inspiration for his “Lost” collection the traditional costume from the Bihor region. Yves Saint Laurent had a collection inspired by the Romanian traditional flax blouses called “La blouse roumaine”. The paper presents the traditional Romanian values throw fashion collections. The research activity will create innovative concepts to support the garment industry in order to develop their own brand and to bring the design activities in Romania at an international level. The research was conducted during the initial stage of a project, financed through national founds, consisting in a documentary study on ethnographic characteristics of the popular costume from different regions of the country.

  20. Typing DNA profiles from previously enhanced fingerprints using direct PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Jennifer E L; Taylor, Duncan; Handt, Oliva; Linacre, Adrian

    2017-07-01

    Fingermarks are a source of human identification both through the ridge patterns and DNA profiling. Typing nuclear STR DNA markers from previously enhanced fingermarks provides an alternative method of utilising the limited fingermark deposit that can be left behind during a criminal act. Dusting with fingerprint powders is a standard method used in classical fingermark enhancement and can affect DNA data. The ability to generate informative DNA profiles from powdered fingerprints using direct PCR swabs was investigated. Direct PCR was used as the opportunity to generate usable DNA profiles after performing any of the standard DNA extraction processes is minimal. Omitting the extraction step will, for many samples, be the key to success if there is limited sample DNA. DNA profiles were generated by direct PCR from 160 fingermarks after treatment with one of the following dactyloscopic fingerprint powders: white hadonite; silver aluminium; HiFi Volcano silk black; or black magnetic fingerprint powder. This was achieved by a combination of an optimised double-swabbing technique and swab media, omission of the extraction step to minimise loss of critical low-template DNA, and additional AmpliTaq Gold ® DNA polymerase to boost the PCR. Ninety eight out of 160 samples (61%) were considered 'up-loadable' to the Australian National Criminal Investigation DNA Database (NCIDD). The method described required a minimum of working steps, equipment and reagents, and was completed within 4h. Direct PCR allows the generation of DNA profiles from enhanced prints without the need to increase PCR cycle numbers beyond manufacturer's recommendations. Particular emphasis was placed on preventing contamination by applying strict protocols and avoiding the use of previously used fingerprint brushes. Based on this extensive survey, the data provided indicate minimal effects of any of these four powders on the chance of obtaining DNA profiles from enhanced fingermarks. Copyright © 2017

  1. Detecting remote sequence homology in disordered proteins: discovery of conserved motifs in the N-termini of Mononegavirales phosphoproteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Karlin

    Full Text Available Paramyxovirinae are a large group of viruses that includes measles virus and parainfluenza viruses. The viral Phosphoprotein (P plays a central role in viral replication. It is composed of a highly variable, disordered N-terminus and a conserved C-terminus. A second viral protein alternatively expressed, the V protein, also contains the N-terminus of P, fused to a zinc finger. We suspected that, despite their high variability, the N-termini of P/V might all be homologous; however, using standard approaches, we could previously identify sequence conservation only in some Paramyxovirinae. We now compared the N-termini using sensitive sequence similarity search programs, able to detect residual similarities unnoticeable by conventional approaches. We discovered that all Paramyxovirinae share a short sequence motif in their first 40 amino acids, which we called soyuz1. Despite its short length (11-16aa, several arguments allow us to conclude that soyuz1 probably evolved by homologous descent, unlike linear motifs. Conservation across such evolutionary distances suggests that soyuz1 plays a crucial role and experimental data suggest that it binds the viral nucleoprotein to prevent its illegitimate self-assembly. In some Paramyxovirinae, the N-terminus of P/V contains a second motif, soyuz2, which might play a role in blocking interferon signaling. Finally, we discovered that the P of related Mononegavirales contain similarly overlooked motifs in their N-termini, and that their C-termini share a previously unnoticed structural similarity suggesting a common origin. Our results suggest several testable hypotheses regarding the replication of Mononegavirales and suggest that disordered regions with little overall sequence similarity, common in viral and eukaryotic proteins, might contain currently overlooked motifs (intermediate in length between linear motifs and disordered domains that could be detected simply by comparing orthologous proteins.

  2. Analysis of 16 autosomal STR loci in Uyghur and Kazakh populations from Xinjiang, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simayijiang, Halimurat; Pereira, Vania; Børsting, Claus

    2017-01-01

    . In order to evaluate the kit and get population data for Chinese Uyghurs and Kazakhs, the genetic polymorphisms of 16 autosomal STR loci included in the NGM SElect™ Kit: D3S1358, vWA, D16S539, D2S1338, D8S1179, D21S11, D18S51, D19S433, TH01, FGA, D10S1248, D22S1045, D2S441, D1S1656 D12S391, SE33......, and Amelogenin were studied in 324 unrelated Uyghur and 124 unrelated Kazakh individuals from the Xinjiang Autonomous Region of China. Allele frequencies and forensic relevant parameters were calculated using the Arlequin software and DNAVIEW. The genotype frequency distribution of each locus did not deviate...... from Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium in any of the two populations. The forensic parameters indicated that the kit is suitable for personal identification, paternity testing, and complex kinship analysis in Uyghur and Kazakh populations. Allele frequency data for the STR loci were compared with other...

  3. M13 multiple stellar populations seen with the eyes of Strömgren photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, A.; Massari, D.; Bragaglia, A.; Dalessandro, E.; Tolstoy, E.

    2018-03-01

    We present a photometric study of M13 multiple stellar populations over a wide field of view, covering approximately 6.5 half-light radii, using archival Isaac Newton Telescope observations to build an accurate multiband Strömgren catalogue. The use of the Strömgren index cy permits us to separate the multiple populations of M13 on the basis of their position on the red giant branch. The comparison with medium and high resolution spectroscopic analysis confirms the robustness of our selection criterion. To determine the radial distribution of stars in M13, we complemented our data set with Hubble Space Telescope observations of the cluster core, to compensate for the effect of incompleteness affecting the most crowded regions. From the analysis of the radial distributions, we do not find any significant evidence of spatial segregation. Some residuals may be present in the external regions where we observe only a small number of stars. This finding is compatible with the short dynamical time-scale of M13 and represents, to date, one of the few examples of fully spatially mixed multiple populations in a massive globular cluster.

  4. Analysis of 17 STR data on 5362 southern Portuguese individuals-an update on reference database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezas Silva, Raquel; Ribeiro, Teresa; Lucas, Isabel; Porto, Maria João; Costa Santos, Jorge; Dario, Paulo

    2016-03-01

    The main objective of this work consisted of the updating of allele frequencies and other relevant forensic parameters for the 17 autosomal STR loci provided by the combination of the two types of kits used routinely in our laboratory casework: AmpF/STR Identifiler(®) and the Powerplex(®) 16 Systems. This aim was of significant importance, given that the last study on these kits within the southern Portuguese population dates back to 2006, and, as a consequence, it was necessary to correct the deviation caused by population evolution over the last ten years so that they might be better applied to our forensic casework. For this reason genetic data from 5362 unrelated Caucasian Portuguese individuals from the south of Portugal who were involved in paternity testing casework from 2005 to 2014 was used. Of all the markers, TPOX proved to be the least polymorphic, and Penta E the most. Secondly, this up-to-date southern Portuguese population was compared not only with the northern and central Portuguese populations, but also with that of southern Portugal in 2006, along with populations from Spain, Italy, Greece, Romania, Morocco, Angola and Korea in order to infer information about the relatedness of these respective populations, and the variation of the southern Portuguese population over time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Strömgren survey for asteroseismology and galactic archaeology: Let the saga begin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casagrande, L.; Dotter, A.; Milone, A. P.; Marino, A. F.; Asplund, M.; Schlesinger, K. J. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Mount Stromlo Observatory, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Aguirre, V. Silva; Lund, M. N.; Grundahl, F.; Nissen, P. E. [Stellar Astrophysics Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Stello, D. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy (SIfA), School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Huber, D. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Serenelli, A. M. [Institute of Space Sciences (IEEC-CSIC), Campus UAB, Fac. Ciéncies, Torre C5 parell 2, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Cassisi, S.; Pietrinferni, A. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Collurania, via Maggini, I-64100 Teramo (Italy); Hodgkin, S. [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Feltzing, S. [Lund Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, P.O. Box 43, SE-22100 Lund (Sweden); Flynn, C. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Schönrich, R. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210-1173 (United States); Wang, W., E-mail: luca.casagrande@anu.edu.au [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2014-06-01

    Asteroseismology has the capability of precisely determining stellar properties that would otherwise be inaccessible, such as radii, masses, and thus ages of stars. When coupling this information with classical determinations of stellar parameters, such as metallicities, effective temperatures, and angular diameters, powerful new diagnostics for Galactic studies can be obtained. The ongoing Strömgren survey for Asteroseismology and Galactic Archaeology has the goal of transforming the Kepler field into a new benchmark for Galactic studies, similar to the solar neighborhood. Here we present the first results from a stripe centered at a Galactic longitude of 74° and covering latitude from about 8° to 20°, which includes almost 1000 K giants with seismic information and the benchmark open cluster NGC 6819. We describe the coupling of classical and seismic parameters, the accuracy as well as the caveats of the derived effective temperatures, metallicities, distances, surface gravities, masses, and radii. Confidence in the achieved precision is corroborated by the detection of the first and secondary clumps in a population of field stars with a ratio of 2 to 1 and by the negligible scatter in the seismic distances among NGC 6819 member stars. An assessment of the reliability of stellar parameters in the Kepler Input Catalog is also performed, and the impact of our results for population studies in the Milky Way is discussed, along with the importance of an all-sky Strömgren survey.

  6. Genetic polymorphism at 15 STR loci among three important subpopulation of Bihar, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashma, R; Kashyap, V K

    2002-11-05

    Genotype polymorphism studies at 15 highly polymorphic short tandem repeat (STR) loci were carried out in three genetically important minor caste groups (Yadav, Kurmi and Baniya) of Bihar, a eastern state of India to evaluate their significance in human identification and population genetics study. The selected communities practice endogamy. Despite of same geographical area, the physical features of Yadavs and Baniyas resemble North Indian Indo-Caucasoids whereas Kurmis resemble more to Indo-Austroloids. Among the chosen 15 loci, two are penta-nucleotide repeat: Penta-D and Penta-E, and 13 are tetra-nucleotide repeat: vWA D8S1179, TPOX, FGA, D5S818, D13S317, D7S820, D16S539, D3S1358, THO1, CSF1PO, D21S11, D18S51 and are validated for other population of India and world for forensic testing and human population study. Thirteen of these STR loci are present in the combined DNA index system (CODIS) [J. Forensic Sci. 44 (1999) 1277] and world-wide data is available.

  7. STRAF-A convenient online tool for STR data evaluation in forensic genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouy, Alexandre; Zieger, Martin

    2017-09-01

    Population data in forensic genetics has to be checked for a variety of statistical parameters before it can be employed for case work. A lot of very powerful statistical tools are available for this task, most of them developed by labs having their research focus on population genetics or evolution. However, most of these programs require a substantial amount of experience. In addition, to our knowledge, none of the freely available programs calculates all the common parameters for a population study in forensic genetics at once, based on a single input file. We present here a convenient online tool that fills this gap. STRAF (STR Analysis for Forensics) provides an intuitive interface and input file format and computes all the relevant parameters for a classical population study based on autosomal STR data at once and in a convenient way. In addition, STRAF includes a PCA module that can be used for population substructure detection or quality control. The results generated by the program were verified by recalculating parameters from an already published population study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Ethnically distinct populations of historical Tibet exhibit distinct autosomal STR compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsering, Thupten; Gayden, Tenzin; Chennakrishnaiah, Shilpa; Bukhari, Areej; Garcia-Bertrand, Ralph; Herrera, Rene J

    2016-03-01

    At an average altitude of 4000m above sea level, the Tibetan plateau is one of the highest plains on the planet. It is surrounded on three sides by massive mountain ranges: the Kunlun, the Karakoram and the Himalayas. These natural barriers have kept Tibet relatively isolated. In the present study, 15 autosomal STR loci were genotyped in 338 unrelated individuals from three traditional provinces of historical Tibet: Amdo (86), Kham (101) and U-Tsang (151). All the studied loci were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium except for the D19S433 locus in the Kham province. FGA, D21S11 and D2S1338 show the highest observed heterozygosity values in Amdo (0.8954), Kham (0.9208) and U-Tsang (0.8940), respectively, whereas TPOX is the least variable marker displaying the lowest value for the same parameter. U-Tsang exhibits the highest total numbers of alleles (139) followed by Kham (130) and Amdo (128) groups. The allele frequency data from this study were compared to relevant global reference populations. Our results indicate that although these three Tibetan populations group together in both the Correspondence Analysis (CA) plot and the Neighbor Joining (NJ) tree, they exhibit some degree of genetic differentiation among themselves congruent with their unique dialects, cultures and traditions. The 15 autosomal STR loci studied were found to be informative and discriminating, thereby providing a useful set of markers for population genetic studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Population data for 12 Y-chromosome STR loci in a sample from Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matamoros, Mireya; Yurrebaso, Iñaki; Gusmão, Leonor; García, Oscar

    2009-09-01

    Haplotype, allele frequencies and population data of 12 Y-chromosome STR loci DYS19, DYS385, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS437, DYS438 and DYS439 were determined from a sample of 128 unrelated male individuals from Honduras, Central America. A total of 112 haplotypes were identified by the 12 Y-STR loci of which 98 were unique. The haplotype diversity (98.99%) and the proportion of different haplotypes (87.50%) were estimated. Genetic distances were calculated between Honduras and other populations from Southern and Central America, Europe and Africa. The analysis of a Multi Dimensional Scaling (MDS) plot, based on pairwise R(ST) genetic distances, allowed to conclude that Honduras is highly differentiated from the African samples (0.343Honduras showed a lower genetic distance to the European cluster (composed by European and South American general population samples from Brazil, Argentina, Colombia and Venezuela) than to the Central American cluster (Mexico and El Salvador).

  10. A global analysis of Y-chromosomal haplotype diversity for 23 STR loci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purps, Josephine; Siegert, Sabine; Willuweit, Sascha; Nagy, Marion; Alves, Cíntia; Salazar, Renato; Angustia, Sheila M.T.; Santos, Lorna H.; Anslinger, Katja; Bayer, Birgit; Ayub, Qasim; Wei, Wei; Xue, Yali; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Bafalluy, Miriam Baeta; Martínez-Jarreta, Begoña; Egyed, Balazs; Balitzki, Beate; Tschumi, Sibylle; Ballard, David; Court, Denise Syndercombe; Barrantes, Xinia; Bäßler, Gerhard; Wiest, Tina; Berger, Burkhard; Niederstätter, Harald; Parson, Walther; Davis, Carey; Budowle, Bruce; Burri, Helen; Borer, Urs; Koller, Christoph; Carvalho, Elizeu F.; Domingues, Patricia M.; Chamoun, Wafaa Takash; Coble, Michael D.; Hill, Carolyn R.; Corach, Daniel; Caputo, Mariela; D’Amato, Maria E.; Davison, Sean; Decorte, Ronny; Larmuseau, Maarten H.D.; Ottoni, Claudio; Rickards, Olga; Lu, Di; Jiang, Chengtao; Dobosz, Tadeusz; Jonkisz, Anna; Frank, William E.; Furac, Ivana; Gehrig, Christian; Castella, Vincent; Grskovic, Branka; Haas, Cordula; Wobst, Jana; Hadzic, Gavrilo; Drobnic, Katja; Honda, Katsuya; Hou, Yiping; Zhou, Di; Li, Yan; Hu, Shengping; Chen, Shenglan; Immel, Uta-Dorothee; Lessig, Rüdiger; Jakovski, Zlatko; Ilievska, Tanja; Klann, Anja E.; García, Cristina Cano; de Knijff, Peter; Kraaijenbrink, Thirsa; Kondili, Aikaterini; Miniati, Penelope; Vouropoulou, Maria; Kovacevic, Lejla; Marjanovic, Damir; Lindner, Iris; Mansour, Issam; Al-Azem, Mouayyad; Andari, Ansar El; Marino, Miguel; Furfuro, Sandra; Locarno, Laura; Martín, Pablo; Luque, Gracia M.; Alonso, Antonio; Miranda, Luís Souto; Moreira, Helena; Mizuno, Natsuko; Iwashima, Yasuki; Neto, Rodrigo S. Moura; Nogueira, Tatiana L.S.; Silva, Rosane; Nastainczyk-Wulf, Marina; Edelmann, Jeanett; Kohl, Michael; Nie, Shengjie; Wang, Xianping; Cheng, Baowen; Núñez, Carolina; Pancorbo, Marian Martínez de; Olofsson, Jill K.; Morling, Niels; Onofri, Valerio; Tagliabracci, Adriano; Pamjav, Horolma; Volgyi, Antonia; Barany, Gusztav; Pawlowski, Ryszard; Maciejewska, Agnieszka; Pelotti, Susi; Pepinski, Witold; Abreu-Glowacka, Monica; Phillips, Christopher; Cárdenas, Jorge; Rey-Gonzalez, Danel; Salas, Antonio; Brisighelli, Francesca; Capelli, Cristian; Toscanini, Ulises; Piccinini, Andrea; Piglionica, Marilidia; Baldassarra, Stefania L.; Ploski, Rafal; Konarzewska, Magdalena; Jastrzebska, Emila; Robino, Carlo; Sajantila, Antti; Palo, Jukka U.; Guevara, Evelyn; Salvador, Jazelyn; Ungria, Maria Corazon De; Rodriguez, Jae Joseph Russell; Schmidt, Ulrike; Schlauderer, Nicola; Saukko, Pekka; Schneider, Peter M.; Sirker, Miriam; Shin, Kyoung-Jin; Oh, Yu Na; Skitsa, Iulia; Ampati, Alexandra; Smith, Tobi-Gail; Calvit, Lina Solis de; Stenzl, Vlastimil; Capal, Thomas; Tillmar, Andreas; Nilsson, Helena; Turrina, Stefania; De Leo, Domenico; Verzeletti, Andrea; Cortellini, Venusia; Wetton, Jon H.; Gwynne, Gareth M.; Jobling, Mark A.; Whittle, Martin R.; Sumita, Denilce R.; Wolańska-Nowak, Paulina; Yong, Rita Y.Y.; Krawczak, Michael; Nothnagel, Michael; Roewer, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    In a worldwide collaborative effort, 19,630 Y-chromosomes were sampled from 129 different populations in 51 countries. These chromosomes were typed for 23 short-tandem repeat (STR) loci (DYS19, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS385ab, DYS437, DYS438, DYS439, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, DYS635, GATAH4, DYS481, DYS533, DYS549, DYS570, DYS576, and DYS643) and using the PowerPlex Y23 System (PPY23, Promega Corporation, Madison, WI). Locus-specific allelic spectra of these markers were determined and a consistently high level of allelic diversity was observed. A considerable number of null, duplicate and off-ladder alleles were revealed. Standard single-locus and haplotype-based parameters were calculated and compared between subsets of Y-STR markers established for forensic casework. The PPY23 marker set provides substantially stronger discriminatory power than other available kits but at the same time reveals the same general patterns of population structure as other marker sets. A strong correlation was observed between the number of Y-STRs included in a marker set and some of the forensic parameters under study. Interestingly a weak but consistent trend toward smaller genetic distances resulting from larger numbers of markers became apparent. PMID:24854874

  11. Review article: The mountain motif in the plot of Matthew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert J. Volschenk

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This article reviewed T.L. Donaldson’s book, Jesus on the mountain: A study in Matthean theology, published in 1985 by JSOT Press, Sheffield, and focused on the mountain motif in the structure and plot of the Gospel of Matthew, in addition to the work of Donaldson on the mountain motif as a literary motif and as theological symbol. The mountain is a primary theological setting for Jesus’ ministry and thus is an important setting, serving as one of the literary devices by which Matthew structured and progressed his narrative. The Zion theological and eschatological significance and Second Temple Judaism serve as the historical and theological background for the mountain motif. The last mountain setting (Mt 28:16–20 is the culmination of the three theological themes in the plot of Matthew, namely Christology, ecclesiology and salvation history.

  12. Nine-locus Y-chromosome STR profiling of Caucasian and Xhosa populations from Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leat, Neil; Benjeddou, Mongi; Davison, Sean

    2004-08-11

    Y-chromosome STR markers are not widely used in forensic case work in South Africa. To begin assessing the forensic value of these markers in South Africa, samples were collected from 100 English-speaking Caucasian males and 99 Xhosa males, living in the Cape Town metropolitan area. Allele and haplotype frequencies were determined for nine Y-chromosome STR loci (DYS19, DYS389-I, DYS389-II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, and the duplicated locus DYS385). Unique haplotypes were obtained for 47 Xhosa males and 66 Caucasians.

  13. Efficient motif finding algorithms for large-alphabet inputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlovic Vladimir

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We consider the problem of identifying motifs, recurring or conserved patterns, in the biological sequence data sets. To solve this task, we present a new deterministic algorithm for finding patterns that are embedded as exact or inexact instances in all or most of the input strings. Results The proposed algorithm (1 improves search efficiency compared to existing algorithms, and (2 scales well with the size of alphabet. On a synthetic planted DNA motif finding problem our algorithm is over 10× more efficient than MITRA, PMSPrune, and RISOTTO for long motifs. Improvements are orders of magnitude higher in the same setting with large alphabets. On benchmark TF-binding site problems (FNP, CRP, LexA we observed reduction in running time of over 12×, with high detection accuracy. The algorithm was also successful in rapidly identifying protein motifs in Lipocalin, Zinc metallopeptidase, and supersecondary structure motifs for Cadherin and Immunoglobin families. Conclusions Our algorithm reduces computational complexity of the current motif finding algorithms and demonstrate strong running time improvements over existing exact algorithms, especially in important and difficult cases of large-alphabet sequences.

  14. Discovering Motifs in Biological Sequences Using the Micron Automata Processor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Indranil; Aluru, Srinivas

    2016-01-01

    Finding approximately conserved sequences, called motifs, across multiple DNA or protein sequences is an important problem in computational biology. In this paper, we consider the (l, d) motif search problem of identifying one or more motifs of length l present in at least q of the n given sequences, with each occurrence differing from the motif in at most d substitutions. The problem is known to be NP-complete, and the largest solved instance reported to date is (26,11). We propose a novel algorithm for the (l,d) motif search problem using streaming execution over a large set of non-deterministic finite automata (NFA). This solution is designed to take advantage of the micron automata processor, a new technology close to deployment that can simultaneously execute multiple NFA in parallel. We demonstrate the capability for solving much larger instances of the (l, d) motif search problem using the resources available within a single automata processor board, by estimating run-times for problem instances (39,18) and (40,17). The paper serves as a useful guide to solving problems using this new accelerator technology.

  15. PISMA: A Visual Representation of Motif Distribution in DNA Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogelio Alcántara-Silva

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Because the graphical presentation and analysis of motif distribution can provide insights for experimental hypothesis, PISMA aims at identifying motifs on DNA sequences, counting and showing them graphically. The motif length ranges from 2 to 10 bases, and the DNA sequences range up to 10 kb. The motif distribution is shown as a bar-code–like, as a gene-map–like, and as a transcript scheme. Results: We obtained graphical schemes of the CpG site distribution from 91 human papillomavirus genomes. Also, we present 2 analyses: one of DNA motifs associated with either methylation-resistant or methylation-sensitive CpG islands and another analysis of motifs associated with exosome RNA secretion. Availability and Implementation: PISMA is developed in Java; it is executable in any type of hardware and in diverse operating systems. PISMA is freely available to noncommercial users. The English version and the User Manual are provided in Supplementary Files 1 and 2, and a Spanish version is available at www.biomedicas.unam.mx/wp-content/software/pisma.zip and www.biomedicas.unam.mx/wp-content/pdf/manual/pisma.pdf .

  16. BEAM web server: a tool for structural RNA motif discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrosanto, Marco; Adinolfi, Marta; Casula, Riccardo; Ausiello, Gabriele; Ferrè, Fabrizio; Helmer-Citterich, Manuela

    2018-03-15

    RNA structural motif finding is a relevant problem that becomes computationally hard when working on high-throughput data (e.g. eCLIP, PAR-CLIP), often represented by thousands of RNA molecules. Currently, the BEAM server is the only web tool capable to handle tens of thousands of RNA in input with a motif discovery procedure that is only limited by the current secondary structure prediction accuracies. The recently developed method BEAM (BEAr Motifs finder) can analyze tens of thousands of RNA molecules and identify RNA secondary structure motifs associated to a measure of their statistical significance. BEAM is extremely fast thanks to the BEAR encoding that transforms each RNA secondary structure in a string of characters. BEAM also exploits the evolutionary knowledge contained in a substitution matrix of secondary structure elements, extracted from the RFAM database of families of homologous RNAs. The BEAM web server has been designed to streamline data pre-processing by automatically handling folding and encoding of RNA sequences, giving users a choice for the preferred folding program. The server provides an intuitive and informative results page with the list of secondary structure motifs identified, the logo of each motif, its significance, graphic representation and information about its position in the RNA molecules sharing it. The web server is freely available at http://beam.uniroma2.it/ and it is implemented in NodeJS and Python with all major browsers supported. marco.pietrosanto@uniroma2.it. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  17. Characterizing Motif Dynamics of Electric Brain Activity Using Symbolic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Zanin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Motifs are small recurring circuits of interactions which constitute the backbone of networked systems. Characterizing motif dynamics is therefore key to understanding the functioning of such systems. Here we propose a method to define and quantify the temporal variability and time scales of electroencephalogram (EEG motifs of resting brain activity. Given a triplet of EEG sensors, links between them are calculated by means of linear correlation; each pattern of links (i.e., each motif is then associated to a symbol, and its appearance frequency is analyzed by means of Shannon entropy. Our results show that each motif becomes observable with different coupling thresholds and evolves at its own time scale, with fronto-temporal sensors emerging at high thresholds and changing at fast time scales, and parietal ones at low thresholds and changing at slower rates. Finally, while motif dynamics differed across individuals, for each subject, it showed robustness across experimental conditions, indicating that it could represent an individual dynamical signature.

  18. Transcriptional Network growing Models using Motif-based Preferential Attachment

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    Ahmed Farouk Abdelzaher

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Understanding relationships between architectural properties of gene-regulatory networks (GRNs has been one of the major goals in systems biology and bioinformatics, as it can provide insights into, e.g., disease dynamics and drug development. Such GRNs are characterized by their scale-free degree distributions and existence of network motifs--i.e., small-node subgraphs that occur more abundantly in GRNs than expected from chance alone. Because these transcriptional modules represent ``building blocks'' of complex networks and exhibit a wide range of functional and dynamical properties, they may contribute to the remarkable robustness and dynamical stability associated with the whole of GRNs. Here we developed network-construction models to better understand this relationship, which produce randomized GRNs by using transcriptional motifs as the fundamental growth unit in contrast to other methods that construct similar networks on a node-by-node basis. Because this model produces networks with a prescribed lower bound on the number of choice transcriptional motifs (e.g., downlinks, feed-forward loops, its fidelity to the motif distributions observed in model organisms represents an improvement over existing methods, which we validated by contrasting their resultant motif and degree distributions against existing network-growth models and data from the model organism of the bacterium Escherichia coli. These models may therefore serve as novel testbeds for further elucidating relationships between the topology of transcriptional motifs and network-wide dynamical properties.

  19. Two Important Stamp Motifs in Roman Britain and Thereafter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana C. Briscoe

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Stamped pottery has had a long and varied history in Britain. There have been periods when it flourished and periods when it almost totally disappeared. This article considers two variations of the rosette motif (A 5 and their fortunes from the late Iron Age to the Early Saxon period. Having been of little importance in the Iron Age and early Roman periods, they became some of the most widely used and distributed motifs in the fourth century. By the fifth century, they were still important, but formed a much smaller proportion of the total motifs than in the fourth century. In the vast majority of cases, there is no correlation between the find spots of fourth and fifth century examples. However, I have identified nine locations where one or other of the two motifs have been found on a late Roman site, which lies within a mile of another site with the same motif, but from the post-Roman period. In these rare conjunctions, I believe that ongoing usage of the motif can be demonstrated from Roman to post-Roman times. It is also clear that pot stamp evidence can be vital in identifying these highly unusual locations and pointing other researchers to sites worthy of special attention.

  20. An experimental test of a fundamental food web motif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rip, Jason M K; McCann, Kevin S; Lynn, Denis H; Fawcett, Sonia

    2010-06-07

    Large-scale changes to the world's ecosystem are resulting in the deterioration of biostructure-the complex web of species interactions that make up ecological communities. A difficult, yet crucial task is to identify food web structures, or food web motifs, that are the building blocks of this baroque network of interactions. Once identified, these food web motifs can then be examined through experiments and theory to provide mechanistic explanations for how structure governs ecosystem stability. Here, we synthesize recent ecological research to show that generalist consumers coupling resources with different interaction strengths, is one such motif. This motif amazingly occurs across an enormous range of spatial scales, and so acts to distribute coupled weak and strong interactions throughout food webs. We then perform an experiment that illustrates the importance of this motif to ecological stability. We find that weak interactions coupled to strong interactions by generalist consumers dampen strong interaction strengths and increase community stability. This study takes a critical step by isolating a common food web motif and through clear, experimental manipulation, identifies the fundamental stabilizing consequences of this structure for ecological communities.

  1. Analysis of the key elements of FFAT-like motifs identifies new proteins that potentially bind VAP on the ER, including two AKAPs and FAPP2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Mikitova

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Two phenylalanines (FF in an acidic tract (FFAT-motifs were originally described as having seven elements: an acidic flanking region followed by 6 residues (EFFDA-E. Such motifs are found in several lipid transfer protein (LTP families, and they interact with a protein on the cytosolic face of the ER called vesicle-associated membrane protein-associated protein (VAP. Mutation of which causes ER stress and motor neuron disease, making it important to determine which proteins bind VAP. Among other proteins that bind VAP, some contain FFAT-like motifs that are missing one or more of the seven elements. Defining how much variation is tolerated in FFAT-like motifs is a preliminary step prior to the identification of the full range of VAP interactors. RESULTS: We used a quantifiable in vivo system that measured ER targeting in a reporter yeast strain that over-expressed VAP to study the effect of substituting different elements of FFAT-like motifs in turn. By defining FFAT-like motifs more widely than before, we found them in novel proteins the functions of which had not previously been directly linked to the ER, including: two PKA anchoring proteins, AKAP220 and AKAP110; a family of plant LTPs; and the glycolipid LTP phosphatidylinositol-four-phosphate adaptor-protein-2 (FAPP-2. CONCLUSION: All of the seven essential elements of a FFAT motif tolerate variation, and weak targeting to the ER via VAP is still detected if two elements are substituted. In addition to the strong FFAT motifs already known, there are additional proteins with weaker FFAT-like motifs, which might be functionally important VAP interactors.

  2. Population genetic analysis of the GlobalFiler STR loci in 748 individuals from the Kazakh population of Xinjiang in northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Honghua; Yang, Shuping; Guo, Wei; Ren, Bo; Pu, Liwen; Ma, Teng; Xia, Mingying; Jin, Li; Li, Liming; Li, Shilin

    2016-09-01

    The six-dye GlobalFiler™ Express PCR amplification kit incorporates 21 commonly used autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci and three gender determination loci. In this study, we analyzed the GlobalFiler STR loci on 748 unrelated individuals from a Chinese Kazakh population of Xinjiang, China. No significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and linkage disequilibrium were observed within and between 21 autosomal STR loci. SE33 showed the greatest power of discrimination in Kazakh population. The combined power of discrimination of Kazakh was 99.999999999999999999999996797 %. No significant differences of allele frequencies were observed between Kazakh and Uyghur at all 15 tested STR loci, as well as Mongolian. Significant differences were only observed between Kazakh and the other Chinese populations at TH01. Multiple STR loci showed significant differences between Kazakh and Arab, as well as South Portuguese. The multidimensional scaling plot (MDS) plot and neighbor-joining tree also showed Kazakh is genetically close to Uyghur.

  3. Ubiquitous presence of the hammerhead ribozyme motif along the tree of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Peña, Marcos; García-Robles, Inmaculada

    2010-01-01

    Examples of small self-cleaving RNAs embedded in noncoding regions already have been found to be involved in the control of gene expression, although their origin remains uncertain. In this work, we show the widespread occurrence of the hammerhead ribozyme (HHR) motif among genomes from the Bacteria, Chromalveolata, Plantae, and Metazoa kingdoms. Intergenic HHRs were detected in three different bacterial genomes, whereas metagenomic data from Galapagos Islands showed the occurrence of similar ribozymes that could be regarded as direct relics from the RNA world. Among eukaryotes, HHRs were detected in the genomes of three water molds as well as 20 plant species, ranging from unicellular algae to vascular plants. These HHRs were very similar to those previously described in small RNA plant pathogens and, in some cases, appeared as close tandem repetitions. A parallel situation of tandemly repeated HHR motifs was also detected in the genomes of lower metazoans from cnidarians to invertebrates, with special emphasis among hematophagous and parasitic organisms. Altogether, these findings unveil the HHR as a widespread motif in DNA genomes, which would be involved in new forms of retrotransposable elements. PMID:20705646

  4. Genome-Wide Analysis of the Transcription Start Sites and Promoter Motifs of Phytoplasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijo, Takamichi; Neriya, Yutaro; Koinuma, Hiroaki; Iwabuchi, Nozomu; Kitazawa, Yugo; Tanno, Kazuyuki; Okano, Yukari; Maejima, Kensaku; Yamaji, Yasuyuki; Oshima, Kenro; Namba, Shigetou

    2017-12-01

    Phytoplasmas are obligate intracellular parasitic bacteria that infect both plants and insects. We previously identified the sigma factor RpoD-dependent consensus promoter sequence of phytoplasma. However, the genome-wide landscape of RNA transcripts, including non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) and RpoD-independent promoter elements, was still unknown. In this study, we performed an improved RNA sequencing analysis for genome-wide identification of the transcription start sites (TSSs) and the consensus promoter sequences. We constructed cDNA libraries using a random adenine/thymine hexamer primer, in addition to a conventional random hexamer primer, for efficient sequencing of 5'-termini of AT-rich phytoplasma RNAs. We identified 231 TSSs, which were classified into four categories: mRNA TSSs, internal sense TSSs, antisense TSSs (asTSSs), and orphan TSSs (oTSSs). The presence of asTSSs and oTSSs indicated the genome-wide transcription of ncRNAs, which might act as regulatory ncRNAs in phytoplasmas. This is the first description of genome-wide phytoplasma ncRNAs. Using a de novo motif discovery program, we identified two consensus motif sequences located upstream of the TSSs. While one was almost identical to the RpoD-dependent consensus promoter sequence, the other was an unidentified novel motif, which might be recognized by another transcription initiation factor. These findings are valuable for understanding the regulatory mechanism of phytoplasma gene expression.

  5. Complete motif analysis of sequence requirements for translation initiation at non-AUG start codons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz de Arce, Alexander J; Noderer, William L; Wang, Clifford L

    2018-01-25

    The initiation of mRNA translation from start codons other than AUG was previously believed to be rare and of relatively low impact. More recently, evidence has suggested that as much as half of all translation initiation utilizes non-AUG start codons, codons that deviate from AUG by a single base. Furthermore, non-AUG start codons have been shown to be involved in regulation of expression and disease etiology. Yet the ability to gauge expression based on the sequence of a translation initiation site (start codon and its flanking bases) has been limited. Here we have performed a comprehensive analysis of translation initiation sites that utilize non-AUG start codons. By combining genetic-reporter, cell-sorting, and high-throughput sequencing technologies, we have analyzed the expression associated with all possible variants of the -4 to +4 positions of non-AUG translation initiation site motifs. This complete motif analysis revealed that 1) with the right sequence context, certain non-AUG start codons can generate expression comparable to that of AUG start codons, 2) sequence context affects each non-AUG start codon differently, and 3) initiation at non-AUG start codons is highly sensitive to changes in the flanking sequences. Complete motif analysis has the potential to be a key tool for experimental and diagnostic genomics. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  6. Utility of the Y-STR typing systems Y-PLEX 6 and Y-PLEX 5 in forensic casework and 11 Y-STR haplotype database for three major population groups in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Sudhir K; Budowle, Bruce; Chakraborty, Ranajit; Paunovic, Ana; Guidry, Robin DeVille; Larsen, Chris; Lal, Amrita; Shaffer, Megan; Pineda, Gina; Sinha, Siddhartha K; Schneida, Elaine; Nasir, Huma; Shewale, Jaiprakash G

    2004-07-01

    The Y-PLEX 6 and Y-PLEX 5 systems enable analysis for 11 Y-STR loci. We present here the utility of these systems in forensic casework. A total of 188 samples, including 127 evidence samples, were analyzed using either or both of the systems. The evidence sample types included fingernail scrapings, sperm or seminal fluid, epithelial cells, blood and other tissues. The Y-STR typing systems provided useful probative results in difficult cases. A reference database for Caucasian (n = 517), African American (n = 535), and Hispanic (n = 245) population groups within the United States was generated for estimating the haplotype frequency in forensic casework. Among the individuals profiled, 311 Caucasians, 412 African Americans, and 194 Hispanics provided unique profiles in their respective population datasets. This is the first report describing the haplotype database for the set of 11 Y-STR loci recommended by the Scientific Working Group on DNA Analysis Methods (SWGDAM). Linkage analysis reveals that the frequencies from forensically important autosomal loci can be multiplied with the Y-STR haplotype frequency. The results from Y-PLEX systems have been accepted in courts in the United States.

  7. Phyloproteomic Analysis of 11780 Six-Residue-Long Motifs Occurrences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Galzitskaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available How is it possible to find good traits for phylogenetic reconstructions? Here, we present a new phyloproteomic criterion that is an occurrence of simple motifs which can be imprints of evolution history. We studied the occurrences of 11780 six-residue-long motifs consisting of two randomly located amino acids in 97 eukaryotic and 25 bacterial proteomes. For all eukaryotic proteomes, with the exception of the Amoebozoa, Stramenopiles, and Diplomonadida kingdoms, the number of proteins containing the motifs from the first group (one of the two amino acids occurs once at the terminal position made about 20%; in the case of motifs from the second (one of two amino acids occurs one time within the pattern and third (the two amino acids occur randomly groups, 30% and 50%, respectively. For bacterial proteomes, this relationship was 10%, 27%, and 63%, respectively. The matrices of correlation coefficients between numbers of proteins where a motif from the set of 11780 motifs appears at least once in 9 kingdoms and 5 phyla of bacteria were calculated. Among the correlation coefficients for eukaryotic proteomes, the correlation between the animal and fungi kingdoms (0.62 is higher than between fungi and plants (0.54. Our study provides support that animals and fungi are sibling kingdoms. Comparison of the frequencies of six-residue-long motifs in different proteomes allows obtaining phylogenetic relationships based on similarities between these frequencies: the Diplomonadida kingdoms are more close to Bacteria than to Eukaryota; Stramenopiles and Amoebozoa are more close to each other than to other kingdoms of Eukaryota.

  8. A rapid nuclear staining test using cationic dyes contributes to efficient STR analysis of telogen hair roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, So-Yeon; Ha, Eun-Ju; Woo, Seung-Kyun; Lee, So-Min; Lim, Kyung-Hee; Eom, Yong-Bin

    2017-07-01

    Telogen hairs presented in the crime scene are commonly encountered as trace evidence. However, short tandem repeat (STR) profiling of the hairs currently have low and limited use due to poor success rate. To increase the success rate of STR profiling of telogen hairs, we developed a rapid and cost-effective method to estimate the number of nuclei in the hair roots. Five cationic dyes, Methyl green (MG), Harris hematoxylin (HH), Methylene blue (MB), Toluidine blue (TB), and Safranin O (SO) were evaluated in this study. We conducted a screening test based on microscopy and the percentage of loss with nuclear DNA, in order to select the best dye. MG was selected based on its specific nuclei staining and low adverse effect on the hair-associated nuclear DNA. We examined 330 scalp and 100 pubic telogen hairs with MG. Stained hairs were classified into five groups and analyzed by STR. The fast staining method revealed 70% (head hair) and 33.4% (pubic hair) of full (30 alleles) and high partial (18-29 alleles) STR profiling proportion from the lowest nuclei count group (one to ten nuclei). The results of this study demonstrated a rapid, specific, nondestructive, and high yield DNA profiling method applicable for screening telogen hairs. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Multiple stellar populations in the globular cluster M3 (NGC 5272) : a Strömgren perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Massari, Davide; Lapenna, Emilio; Bragaglia, Angela; Dalessandro, Emanuele; Contreras Ramos, Rodrigo; Amigo, Pía

    2016-01-01

    We present Strömgren photometry of the Galactic Globular Cluster M3 to study its multiple generations phenomenon. The use of different colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) and especially of the notoriously efficient cy index allowed us to detect a double red giant branch in the cluster CMD. After

  10. Short tandem repeat (STR) DNA markers are hypervariable and informative in Cannabis sativa: implications for forensic investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Simon; Peakall, Rod; Robertson, James

    2003-01-09

    Short tandem repeat (STR) markers are the DNA marker of choice in forensic analysis of human DNA. Here we extend the application of STR markers to Cannabis sativa and demonstrate their potential for forensic investigations. Ninety-three individual cannabis plants, representing drug and fibre accessions of widespread origin were profiled with five STR makers. A total of 79 alleles were detected across the five loci. All but four individuals from a single drug-type accession had a unique multilocus genotype. An analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed significant genetic variation among accessions, with an average of 25% genetic differentiation. By contrast, only 6% genetic difference was detected between drug and fibre crop accessions and it was not possible to unequivocally assign plants as either drug or fibre type. However, our results suggest that drug strains may typically possess lower genetic diversity than fibre strains, which may ultimately provide a means of genetic delineation. Our findings demonstrate the promise of cannabis STR markers to provide information on: (1) agronomic type, (2) the geographical origin of drug seizures, and (3) evidence of conspiracy in production of clonally propagated drug crops.

  11. Use of the LUS in sequence allele designations to facilitate probabilistic genotyping of NGS-based STR typing results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Just, Rebecca S; Irwin, Jodi A

    2018-05-01

    Some of the expected advantages of next generation sequencing (NGS) for short tandem repeat (STR) typing include enhanced mixture detection and genotype resolution via sequence variation among non-homologous alleles of the same length. However, at the same time that NGS methods for forensic DNA typing have advanced in recent years, many caseworking laboratories have implemented or are transitioning to probabilistic genotyping to assist the interpretation of complex autosomal STR typing results. Current probabilistic software programs are designed for length-based data, and were not intended to accommodate sequence strings as the product input. Yet to leverage the benefits of NGS for enhanced genotyping and mixture deconvolution, the sequence variation among same-length products must be utilized in some form. Here, we propose use of the longest uninterrupted stretch (LUS) in allele designations as a simple method to represent sequence variation within the STR repeat regions and facilitate - in the nearterm - probabilistic interpretation of NGS-based typing results. An examination of published population data indicated that a reference LUS region is straightforward to define for most autosomal STR loci, and that using repeat unit plus LUS length as the allele designator can represent greater than 80% of the alleles detected by sequencing. A proof of concept study performed using a freely available probabilistic software demonstrated that the LUS length can be used in allele designations when a program does not require alleles to be integers, and that utilizing sequence information improves interpretation of both single-source and mixed contributor STR typing results as compared to using repeat unit information alone. The LUS concept for allele designation maintains the repeat-based allele nomenclature that will permit backward compatibility to extant STR databases, and the LUS lengths themselves will be concordant regardless of the NGS assay or analysis tools

  12. A comparison of SNP and STR loci for delineating population structure and performing individual genetic assignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glover, Kevin A.; Hansen, Michael Møller; Lien, Sigbjørn

    2010-01-01

    SNPs and 14 short tandem repeats (STRs) were conducted on a data set consisting of approximately 500 Atlantic salmon arranged in 10 samples/populations. Results Global FST ranged from 0.033-0.115 and -0.002-0.316 for the 14 STR and 300 SNP loci respectively. Global FST was similar among 28 linkage...... groups when averaging data from mapped SNPs. With the exception of selecting a panel of SNPs taking the locus displaying the highest global FST for each of the 28 linkage groups, which inflated estimation of genetic differentiation among the samples, inferred genetic relationships were highly similar....... Conclusion Whilst the optimal combinations of SNPs identified in this study are linked to the samples from which they were selected, this study demonstrates that identification of highly informative SNP loci from larger panels will provide researchers with a powerful approach to delineate genetic...

  13. STR analysis of artificially degraded DNA-results of a collaborative European exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Peter M; Bender, Klaus; Mayr, Wolfgang R

    2004-01-01

    Degradation of human DNA extracted from forensic stains is, in most cases, the result of a natural process due to the exposure of the stain samples to the environment. Experiences with degraded DNA from casework samples show that every sample may exhibit different properties in this respect......, and that it is difficult to systematically assess the performance of routinely used typing systems for the analysis of degraded DNA samples. Using a batch of artificially degraded DNA with an average fragment size of approx. 200 bp a collaborative exercise was carried out among 38 forensic laboratories from 17 European...... countries. The results were assessed according to correct allele detection, peak height and balance as well as the occurrence of artefacts. A number of common problems were identified based on these results such as strong peak imbalance in heterozygous genotypes for the larger short tandem repeat (STR...

  14. Population genetic studies in the Balkans. II. DNA-STR-systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckenbeck, W; Scheil, H G; Schmidt, H D; Efremovska, L; Xirotiris, N

    2001-09-01

    Within a study of the genetics of Southeastern European populations four DNA-STR-systems (D21S11, FGA, TH01, VWA) were examined in seven samples (samples of three Aromuns and four other Balkan populations). The results have been compared to data from four samples from literature (Austrians, Germans, Hungarians, Slovenians). The results show three clusters: a) the Aromuns from Albania (Andon Poci) and Macedonia (Stip region), b) the Romanian Aromuns (Kogalniceanu), Romanians (Constanta, Ploiesti) and Albanians (Tirana) und c) the data from literature. A sample of Northeastern Greece clearly differs from these three clusters. Including seven serum protein polymorphisms (without the populations from literature) results in two clusters: a) the three Aromun populations and b) Albanians and Romanians. Again the sample of Northeastern Greece clearly differs from these clusters.

  15. Population data of 15 autosomal STR markers from Afro-Bolivians of Nor Yungas Province (Bolivia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parolin, María Laura; Iudica, Celia Estela; Lancelotti, Julio Lucio; Sambuco, Lorena Andrea; Jaureguiberry, Stella Maris; Avena, Sergio Alejandro; Carnese, Francisco Raúl

    2015-05-01

    Allele frequencies and forensic parameters for 15 autosomal loci included in the AmpFlSTR® Identifiler kit were estimated in a sample of 57 unrelated Afro-descendants from Nor Yungas (Bolivia). Buccal swabs samples were obtained from voluntary donors, after consent was given. All loci were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium after Bonferroni correction. D21S11 was the most informative locus, while the least discriminating locus was D3S1358. The combined power of discrimination and the combined probability of exclusion were >0.99999999 and >0.99997, respectively. The multidimensional scaling (MDS) plot generated by Rst matrix supported that Afro-Bolivians of Nor Yungas preserved a stronger African descent compared to other admixed Latin American populations. These results amplified the Bolivian databases of autosomal STR loci and may provide a useful tool for human identification tests and population genetic studies.

  16. Oligomerisation of C. elegans Olfactory Receptors, ODR-10 and STR-112, in Yeast

    KAUST Repository

    Tehseen, Muhammad

    2014-09-25

    It is widely accepted that vertebrate G-Protein Coupled Receptors (GPCRs) associate with each other as homo- or hetero-dimers or higher-order oligomers. The C. elegans genome encodes hundreds of olfactory GPCRs, which may be expressed in fewer than a dozen chemosensory neurons, suggesting an opportunity for oligomerisation. Here we show, using three independent lines of evidence: co-immunoprecipitation, bioluminescence resonance energy transfer and a yeast two-hybrid assay that nematode olfactory receptors (ORs) oligomerise when heterologously expressed in yeast. Specifically, the nematode receptor ODR-10 is able to homo-oligomerise and can also form heteromers with the related nematode receptor STR-112. ODR-10 also oligomerised with the rat I7 OR but did not oligomerise with the human somatostatin receptor 5, a neuropeptide receptor. In this study, the question of functional relevance was not addressed and remains to be investigated.

  17. Genetic variation of 17 STR loci in a Mexican Mestizo population from Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiz, Maria; Rios-Rivas, Ricardo Jesús; Alvarez, Juan Carlos; Lorente, José Antonio; Villegas-Carmona, Dora; Ramirez-Flores, Erika; Vega-Navarrete, Lourdes

    2016-11-01

    Genetic data from 17 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci found in the Powerplex® ESX 17 System (Promega, Madison, WI, USA) was evaluated in 162 unrelated Mexican Mestizo individuals from Mexico City. Allele frequencies and forensic parameters were estimated for the 17 STRs. All loci analyzed were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in the studied population and showed not any signs of linkage between loci. The combined power of discrimination and the power of exclusion for the 16 aSTRs studied were 1-2.56409·10 -19 and 99.999938 %, respectively. Genetic distances reveal a close relationship within different populations of Mexican Mestizos. The obtained data might be useful for population genetics research and for individual identification and paternity testing in forensic science.

  18. Determination of genetic polymorphism in Guney Karaman local Turkish sheep breed by using STR markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karslı, Taki; Balcıoǧlu, Murat Soner

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to assess genetic diversity of Güney Karaman Turkish local sheep breed. A total of 29 samples were genotyped by using 14 STR markers. All markers were polymorphic. The number of alleles in Güney Karaman sheep breed ranged from 3 to 11 per locus, with a mean of 7.42. The average observed and expected heterozygosity was 0.659 and 0.794, respectively. Mean inbreeding coefficient (Fis) value was found 0.175. The PIC values ranged from 0.569 to 0.860 with a mean of 0.743. The findings of this research demonstrate at moderate level gene diversity and heterozygosity with lower inbreeding in Güney Karaman sheep breed.

  19. First evidence of multiple populations along the AGB from Strömgren photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruyters, Pieter; Casagrande, Luca; Milone, Antonino P.; Hodgkin, Simon T.; Serenelli, Aldo; Feltzing, Sofia

    2017-07-01

    Spectroscopic studies have demonstrated that nearly all Galactic globular clusters (GCs) harbour multiple stellar populations with different chemical compositions. Moreover, colour-magnitude diagrams based exclusively on Strömgrem photometry have allowed us to identify and characterise multiple populations along the RGB of a large number of clusters. In this paper we show for the first time that Strömgren photometry is also very efficient at identifying multiple populations along the AGB, and demonstrate that the AGB of M 3, M 92, NGC 362, NGC 1851, and NGC 6752 are not consistent with a single stellar population. We also provide a catalogue of RGB and AGB stars photometrically identified in these clusters for further spectroscopic follow-up studies. We combined photometry and elemental abundances from the literature for RGB and AGB stars in NGC 6752 where the presence of multiple populations along the AGB has been widely debated. We find that, while the MS, SGB, and RGB host three stellar populations with different helium and light element abundances, only two populations of AGB stars are present in the cluster. These results are consistent with standard evolutionary theory. Based on observations made with the Isaac Newton Telescope operated on the island of La Palma by the Isaac Newton Group in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias.Full Tables B.1 and B.2 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/603/A37

  20. IQ-motif peptides as novel anti-microbial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Denise T F; Lundy, Fionnuala T; Timson, David J

    2013-04-01

    The IQ-motif is an amphipathic, often positively charged, α-helical, calmodulin binding sequence found in a number of eukaryote signalling, transport and cytoskeletal proteins. They share common biophysical characteristics with established, cationic α-helical antimicrobial peptides, such as the human cathelicidin LL-37. Therefore, we tested eight peptides encoding the sequences of IQ-motifs derived from the human cytoskeletal scaffolding proteins IQGAP2 and IQGAP3. Some of these peptides were able to inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) comparable to LL-37. In addition some IQ-motifs had activity against the fungus Candida albicans. This antimicrobial activity is combined with low haemolytic activity (comparable to, or lower than, that of LL-37). Those IQ-motifs with anti-microbial activity tended to be able to bind to lipopolysaccharide. Some of these were also able to permeabilise the cell membranes of both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. These results demonstrate that IQ-motifs are viable lead sequences for the identification and optimisation of novel anti-microbial peptides. Thus, further investigation of the anti-microbial properties of this diverse group of sequences is merited. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Haplotype and genetic relationship of 27 Y-STR loci in Han population of Chaoshan area of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-hua TIAN

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To investigate the genetic polymorphisms of 27 Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (Y-STR loci included in Yfiler® Plus kit in Han population of Chaoshan area, and explore the population genetic relationships and evaluate its application value on forensic medicine. Methods  By detecting 795 unrelated Chaoshan Han males with Yfiler® Plus kit, haplotype frequencies and population genetics parameters of the 27 Y-STR loci were statistically analyzed and compared with available data of other populations from different races and regions for analyzing the genetic distance and clustering relation of Chaoshan Han population. Results  Seven hundred and eighty-seven different haplotypes were observed in 795 unrelated male individuals, of which 779 haplotypes were unique, and 8 haplotypes occurred twice. The haplotype diversity (HD was 0.999975 with discriminative capacity (DC of 98.99%. The gene diversity (GD at the 27 Y-STR loci ranged from 0.3637(DYS391 to 0.9559(DYS385a/b. Comparing with Asian reference populations, the genetic distance (Rst between Chaoshan Han and Guangdong Han was the smallest (0.0036, while it was relatively larger between Chaoshan Han and Gansu Tibetan population (0.0935. The multi-dimensional scaling (MDS plot based on Rst values was similar to the results of clustering analysis. Conclusion  Multiplex detection of the 27 Y-STR loci reveals a highly polymorphic genetic distribution in Chaoshan Han population, which demonstrates the important significance of Yfiler® Plus kit for establishing a Y-STR database, studying population genetics, and for good practice in forensic medicine. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2017.03.08

  2. Discovering sequence motifs in quantitative and qualitative pepetide data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreatta, Massimo

    the number of experimental tests needed to identify new epitopes. Taken as a whole, this thesis provides a valuable series of algorithms and tools for the analysis of peptide data, both from the point of view of characterization of sequence motifs and the prediction of protein-peptide interactions....... and interpret such data. The first paper in this thesis presents a new, publicly available method based on artificial neural networks that allows custom analysis of quantitative peptide data. The online NNAlign web-server provides a simple yet powerful tool for the discovery of sequence motifs in large...... with the presence of multiple motifs, due to the experimental setup or the actual poly-specificity of the receptor, in peptide data. A new algorithm, based on Gibbs sampling, identifies multiple specificities by performing two tasks simultaneously: alignment and clustering of peptide data. The method, available...

  3. RANGI: a fast list-colored graph motif finding algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudi, Ali Gholami; Shahrivari, Saeed; Jalili, Saeed; Moghadam Kashani, Zahra Razaghi

    2013-01-01

    Given a multiset of colors as the query and a list-colored graph, i.e., an undirected graph with a set of colors assigned to each of its vertices, in the NP-hard list-colored graph motif problem the goal is to find the largest connected subgraph such that one can select a color from the set of colors assigned to each of its vertices to obtain a subset of the query. This problem was introduced to find functional motifs in biological networks. We present a branch-and-bound algorithm named RANGI for finding and enumerating list-colored graph motifs. As our experimental results show, RANGI's pruning methods and heuristics make it quite fast in practice compared to the algorithms presented in the literature. We also present a parallel version of RANGI that achieves acceptable scalability.

  4. How pathogens use linear motifs to perturb host cell networks

    KAUST Repository

    Via, Allegra

    2015-01-01

    Molecular mimicry is one of the powerful stratagems that pathogens employ to colonise their hosts and take advantage of host cell functions to guarantee their replication and dissemination. In particular, several viruses have evolved the ability to interact with host cell components through protein short linear motifs (SLiMs) that mimic host SLiMs, thus facilitating their internalisation and the manipulation of a wide range of cellular networks. Here we present convincing evidence from the literature that motif mimicry also represents an effective, widespread hijacking strategy in prokaryotic and eukaryotic parasites. Further insights into host motif mimicry would be of great help in the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms behind host cell invasion and the development of anti-infective therapeutic strategies.

  5. Metal-Free Motifs for Solar Fuel Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilic, Stefan; Zoric, Marija R.; Kadel, Usha Pandey; Huang, Yunjing; Glusac, Ksenija D.

    2017-05-01

    Metal-free motifs, such as graphitic carbon nitride, conjugated polymers, and doped nanostructures, are emerging as a new class of Earth-abundant materials for solar fuel devices. Although these metal-free structures show great potential, detailed mechanistic understanding of their performance remains limited. Here, we review important experimental and theoretical findings relevant to the role of metal-free motifs as either photoelectrodes or electrocatalysts. First, the light-harvesting characteristics of metal-free photoelectrodes (band energetics, exciton binding energies, charge carrier mobilities and lifetimes) are discussed and contrasted with those in traditional inorganic semiconductors (such as Si). Second, the mechanistic insights into the electrocatalytic oxygen reduction and evolution reactions, hydrogen evolution reaction, and carbon dioxide reduction reaction by metal-free motifs are summarized, including experimental surface-sensitive spectroscopy findings, studies on small molecular models, and computational modeling of these chemical transformations.

  6. Design of potent inhibitors of human RAD51 recombinase based on BRC motifs of BRCA2 protein: modeling and experimental validation of a chimera peptide.

    KAUST Repository

    Nomme, Julian

    2010-08-01

    We have previously shown that a 28-amino acid peptide derived from the BRC4 motif of BRCA2 tumor suppressor inhibits selectively human RAD51 recombinase (HsRad51). With the aim of designing better inhibitors for cancer treatment, we combined an in silico docking approach with in vitro biochemical testing to construct a highly efficient chimera peptide from eight existing human BRC motifs. We built a molecular model of all BRC motifs complexed with HsRad51 based on the crystal structure of the BRC4 motif-HsRad51 complex, computed the interaction energy of each residue in each BRC motif, and selected the best amino acid residue at each binding position. This analysis enabled us to propose four amino acid substitutions in the BRC4 motif. Three of these increased the inhibitory effect in vitro, and this effect was found to be additive. We thus obtained a peptide that is about 10 times more efficient in inhibiting HsRad51-ssDNA complex formation than the original peptide.

  7. Selection against spurious promoter motifs correlates withtranslational efficiency across bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froula, Jeffrey L.; Francino, M. Pilar

    2007-05-01

    Because binding of RNAP to misplaced sites could compromise the efficiency of transcription, natural selection for the optimization of gene expression should regulate the distribution of DNA motifs capable of RNAP-binding across the genome. Here we analyze the distribution of the -10 promoter motifs that bind the {sigma}{sup 70} subunit of RNAP in 42 bacterial genomes. We show that selection on these motifs operates across the genome, maintaining an over-representation of -10 motifs in regulatory sequences while eliminating them from the nonfunctional and, in most cases, from the protein coding regions. In some genomes, however, -10 sites are over-represented in the coding sequences; these sites could induce pauses effecting regulatory roles throughout the length of a transcriptional unit. For nonfunctional sequences, the extent of motif under-representation varies across genomes in a manner that broadly correlates with the number of tRNA genes, a good indicator of translational speed and growth rate. This suggests that minimizing the time invested in gene transcription is an important selective pressure against spurious binding. However, selection against spurious binding is detectable in the reduced genomes of host-restricted bacteria that grow at slow rates, indicating that components of efficiency other than speed may also be important. Minimizing the number of RNAP molecules per cell required for transcription, and the corresponding energetic expense, may be most relevant in slow growers. These results indicate that genome-level properties affecting the efficiency of transcription and translation can respond in an integrated manner to optimize gene expression. The detection of selection against promoter motifs in nonfunctional regions also implies that no sequence may evolve free of selective constraints, at least in the relatively small and unstructured genomes of bacteria.

  8. Genome Analysis of Conserved Dehydrin Motifs in Vascular Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad A. Malik

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Dehydrins, a large family of abiotic stress proteins, are defined by the presence of a mostly conserved motif known as the K-segment, and may also contain two other conserved motifs known as the Y-segment and S-segment. Using the dehydrin literature, we developed a sequence motif definition of the K-segment, which we used to create a large dataset of dehydrin sequences by searching the Pfam00257 dehydrin dataset and the Phytozome 10 sequences of vascular plants. A comprehensive analysis of these sequences reveals that lysine residues are highly conserved in the K-segment, while the amino acid type is often conserved at other positions. Despite the Y-segment name, the central tyrosine is somewhat conserved, but can be substituted with two other small aromatic amino acids (phenylalanine or histidine. The S-segment contains a series of serine residues, but in some proteins is also preceded by a conserved LHR sequence. In many dehydrins containing all three of these motifs the S-segment is linked to the K-segment by a GXGGRRKK motif (where X can be any amino acid, suggesting a functional linkage between these two motifs. An analysis of the sequences shows that the dehydrin architecture and several biochemical properties (isoelectric point, molecular mass, and hydrophobicity score are dependent on each other, and that some dehydrin architectures are overexpressed during certain abiotic stress, suggesting that they may be optimized for a specific abiotic stress while others are involved in all forms of dehydration stress (drought, cold, and salinity.

  9. OzPythonPlex: An optimised forensic STR multiplex assay set for the Australasian carpet python (Morelia spilota).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciavaglia, Sherryn; Linacre, Adrian

    2018-03-02

    Reptile species, and in particular snakes, are protected by national and international agreements yet are commonly handled illegally. To aid in the enforcement of such legislation, we report on the development of three 11-plex assays from the genome of the carpet python to type 24 loci of tetra-nucleotide and penta-nucleotide repeat motifs (pure, compound and complex included). The loci range in size between 70 and 550 bp. Seventeen of the loci are newly characterised with the inclusion of seven previously developed loci to facilitate cross-comparison with previous carpet python genotyping studies. Assays were optimised in accordance with human forensic profiling kits using one nanogram template DNA. Three loci are included in all three of the multiplex reactions as quality assurance markers, to ensure sample identity and genotyping accuracy is maintained across the three profiling assays. Allelic ladders have been developed for the three assays to ensure consistent and precise allele designation. A DNA reference database of allele frequencies is presented based on 249 samples collected from throughout the species native range. A small number of validation tests are conducted to demonstrate the utility of these multiplex assays. We suggest further appropriate validation tests that should be conducted prior to the application of the multiplex assays in criminal investigations involving carpet pythons. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Application of Synthetic Peptide Arrays To Uncover Cyclic Di-GMP Binding Motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düvel, Juliane; Bense, Sarina; Möller, Stefan; Bertinetti, Daniela; Schwede, Frank; Morr, Michael; Eckweiler, Denitsa; Genieser, Hans-Gottfried; Jänsch, Lothar; Herberg, Friedrich W; Frank, Ronald; Häussler, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    High levels of the universal bacterial second messenger cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) promote the establishment of surface-attached growth in many bacteria. Not only can c-di-GMP bind to nucleic acids and directly control gene expression, but it also binds to a diverse array of proteins of specialized functions and orchestrates their activity. Since its development in the early 1990s, the synthetic peptide array technique has become a powerful tool for high-throughput approaches and was successfully applied to investigate the binding specificity of protein-ligand interactions. In this study, we used peptide arrays to uncover the c-di-GMP binding site of a Pseudomonas aeruginosa protein (PA3740) that was isolated in a chemical proteomics approach. PA3740 was shown to bind c-di-GMP with a high affinity, and peptide arrays uncovered LKKALKKQTNLR to be a putative c-di-GMP binding motif. Most interestingly, different from the previously identified c-di-GMP binding motif of the PilZ domain (RXXXR) or the I site of diguanylate cyclases (RXXD), two leucine residues and a glutamine residue and not the charged amino acids provided the key residues of the binding sequence. Those three amino acids are highly conserved across PA3740 homologs, and their singular exchange to alanine reduced c-di-GMP binding within the full-length protein. In many bacterial pathogens the universal bacterial second messenger c-di-GMP governs the switch from the planktonic, motile mode of growth to the sessile, biofilm mode of growth. Bacteria adapt their intracellular c-di-GMP levels to a variety of environmental challenges. Several classes of c-di-GMP binding proteins have been structurally characterized, and diverse c-di-GMP binding domains have been identified. Nevertheless, for several c-di-GMP receptors, the binding motif remains to be determined. Here we show that the use of a synthetic peptide array allowed the identification of a c-di-GMP binding motif of a putative c-di-GMP receptor protein in

  11. BlockLogo: Visualization of peptide and sequence motif conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Lars Rønn; Kudahl, Ulrich Johan; Simon, Christian

    2013-01-01

    and B-cell epitopes (both continuous and discontinuous). Our additional example shows a visualization and analysis of structural motifs that determine the specificity of peptide binding to HLA-DR molecules. The BlockLogo server also employs selected experimentally validated prediction algorithms...... to enable on-the-fly prediction of MHC binding affinity to 15 common HLA class I and class II alleles as well as visual analysis of discontinuous epitopes from multiple sequence alignments. It enables the visualization and analysis of structural and functional motifs that are usually described as regular...

  12. BayesMD: flexible biological modeling for motif discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Man-Hung Eric; Krogh, Anders; Winther, Ole

    2008-01-01

    We present BayesMD, a Bayesian Motif Discovery model with several new features. Three different types of biological a priori knowledge are built into the framework in a modular fashion. A mixture of Dirichlets is used as prior over nucleotide probabilities in binding sites. It is trained on trans......We present BayesMD, a Bayesian Motif Discovery model with several new features. Three different types of biological a priori knowledge are built into the framework in a modular fashion. A mixture of Dirichlets is used as prior over nucleotide probabilities in binding sites. It is trained...

  13. Positional bias of general and tissue-specific regulatory motifs in mouse gene promoters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farré Domènec

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The arrangement of regulatory motifs in gene promoters, or promoter architecture, is the result of mutation and selection processes that have operated over many millions of years. In mammals, tissue-specific transcriptional regulation is related to the presence of specific protein-interacting DNA motifs in gene promoters. However, little is known about the relative location and spacing of these motifs. To fill this gap, we have performed a systematic search for motifs that show significant bias at specific promoter locations in a large collection of housekeeping and tissue-specific genes. Results We observe that promoters driving housekeeping gene expression are enriched in particular motifs with strong positional bias, such as YY1, which are of little relevance in promoters driving tissue-specific expression. We also identify a large number of motifs that show positional bias in genes expressed in a highly tissue-specific manner. They include well-known tissue-specific motifs, such as HNF1 and HNF4 motifs in liver, kidney and small intestine, or RFX motifs in testis, as well as many potentially novel regulatory motifs. Based on this analysis, we provide predictions for 559 tissue-specific motifs in mouse gene promoters. Conclusion The study shows that motif positional bias is an important feature of mammalian proximal promoters and that it affects both general and tissue-specific motifs. Motif positional constraints define very distinct promoter architectures depending on breadth of expression and type of tissue.

  14. Gentamicin binds to the megalin receptor as a competitive inhibitor using the common ligand binding motif of complement type repeats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dagil, Robert; O'Shea, Charlotte; Nykjær, Anders

    2013-01-01

    megalin and investigated its interaction with gentamicin. Using NMR titration data in HADDOCK, we have generated a three-dimensional model describing the complex between megalin and gentamicin. Gentamicin binds to megalin with low affinity and exploits the common ligand binding motif previously described...... to megalin is highly similar to gentamicin binding to calreticulin. We discuss the impact of this novel insight for the future structure-based design of gentamicin antagonists....

  15. Similar [DE]XXXL[LI] motifs differentially target GLUT8 and GLUT12 in Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Flessner, Lauren B.; Moley, Kelle H.

    2008-01-01

    The transport of glucose across cell membranes is mediated by facilitative glucose transporters. The recently identified Class III glucose transporter GLUT12 is predominantly expressed in insulin-sensitive tissues such as heart, fat, and skeletal muscle. We examined the subcellular localization of GLUT12 in CHO and HEK293 cells stably expressing murine GLUT12. We have previously shown that another Class III glucose transporter, GLUT8, contains a [DE]XXXL[LI] motif that directs it to late endo...

  16. Distinct repeat motifs at the C-terminal region of CagA of Helicobacter pylori strains isolated from diseased patients and asymptomatic individuals in West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chattopadhyay Santanu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infection with Helicobacter pylori strains that express CagA is associated with gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and gastric adenocarcinoma. The biological function of CagA depends on tyrosine phosphorylation by a cellular kinase. The phosphate acceptor tyrosine moiety is present within the EPIYA motif at the C-terminal region of the protein. This region is highly polymorphic due to variations in the number of EPIYA motifs and the polymorphism found in spacer regions among EPIYA motifs. The aim of this study was to analyze the polymorphism at the C-terminal end of CagA and to evaluate its association with the clinical status of the host in West Bengal, India. Results Seventy-seven H. pylori strains isolated from patients with various clinical statuses were used to characterize the C-ternimal polymorphic region of CagA. Our analysis showed that there is no correlation between the previously described CagA types and various disease outcomes in Indian context. Further analyses of different CagA structures revealed that the repeat units in the spacer sequences within the EPIYA motifs are actually more discrete than the previously proposed models of CagA variants. Conclusion Our analyses suggest that EPIYA motifs as well as the spacer sequence units are present as distinct insertions and deletions, which possibly have arisen from extensive recombination events. Moreover, we have identified several new CagA types, which could not be typed by the existing systems and therefore, we have proposed a new typing system. We hypothesize that a cagA gene encoding higher number EPIYA motifs may perhaps have arisen from cagA genes that encode lesser EPIYA motifs by acquisition of DNA segments through recombination events.

  17. C-terminal motif prediction in eukaryotic proteomes using comparative genomics and statistical over-representation across protein families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cutler Sean R

    2007-06-01

    between species, among kingdoms and across eukaryotes. Motifs of note include a serine-acidic peptide (DSD* as well as several lysine enriched motifs found in nearly all eukaryotic genomes examined. Conclusion We have successfully generated a high confidence representation of eukaryotic motifs anchored at the C-terminus. A high incidence of true-positives in our results suggests that several previously unidentified tripeptide patterns are strong candidates for representing novel peptide motifs of a widely employed nature in the C-terminal biology of eukaryotes. Our application of comparative genomics, statistical over-representation and the adjustment for protein family homology has generated several hypotheses concerning the C-terminal topology as it pertains to sorting and potential protein interaction signals. This approach to background reduction could be expanded for application to protein motif prediction in the protein interior. A parallel N-terminal analysis is presented as supplementary data.

  18. Type 2 diabetes mellitus: phylogenetic motifs for predicting protein ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus: Phylogenetic motifs for predicting protein functional sites. 999. J. Biosci. 32(5), August 2007. 1. Introduction. Diabetes is affecting nearly 10% of the global population above 20 years of age. Its most prevalent form is type 2 diabetes (T2D), with a share of 90-95%. By the year 2025, an estimated 300 ...

  19. Insights into the motif preference of APOBEC3 enzymes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diako Ebrahimi

    Full Text Available We used a multivariate data analysis approach to identify motifs associated with HIV hypermutation by different APOBEC3 enzymes. The analysis showed that APOBEC3G targets G mainly within GG, TG, TGG, GGG, TGGG and also GGGT. The G nucleotides flanked by a C at the 3' end (in +1 and +2 positions were indicated as disfavoured targets by APOBEC3G. The G nucleotides within GGGG were found to be targeted at a frequency much less than what is expected. We found that the infrequent G-to-A mutation within GGGG is not limited to the inaccessibility, to APOBEC3, of poly Gs in the central and 3'polypurine tracts (PPTs which remain double stranded during the HIV reverse transcription. GGGG motifs outside the PPTs were also disfavoured. The motifs GGAG and GAGG were also found to be disfavoured targets for APOBEC3. The motif-dependent mutation of G within the HIV genome by members of the APOBEC3 family other than APOBEC3G was limited to GA→AA changes. The results did not show evidence of other types of context dependent G-to-A changes in the HIV genome.

  20. DNA regulatory motif selection based on support vector machine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conserved DNA sequences are essential to investigate the regulation and expression of nearby genes. The conserved regions can interact with certain proteins and can potentially determine the transcription speed and amount of the corresponding mRNA in gene replication process. In this paper, motifs of coexpressed ...

  1. Linear motif atlas for phosphorylation-dependent signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Martin Lee; Jensen, LJ; Diella, F

    2008-01-01

    bind to them remains a challenge. NetPhorest is an atlas of consensus sequence motifs that covers 179 kinases and 104 phosphorylation-dependent binding domains [Src homology 2 (SH2), phosphotyrosine binding (PTB), BRCA1 C-terminal (BRCT), WW, and 14-3-3]. The atlas reveals new aspects of signaling...

  2. Perspektif Psikologi Humanistik Abraham Maslow dalam Meninjau Motif Pelaku Pembunuhan

    OpenAIRE

    Nurwatie, Azrina; Fauzia, Rahmi; Akbar, Sukma Noor

    2014-01-01

    Fokus penelitian ini diarahkan pada motif pelaku pembunuhan dengan meninjaunya melalui perspektif psikologi humanistik Abraham Maslow. Subyek dalam penelitian ini berjumlah dua orang narapidana yang berada di Lapas Kelas IIA Anak Martapura dengan kasus pembunuhan. Metode penelitian yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode penelitian kualitatif. Teknik pengumpulan data melalui wawancara, observasi, dokumentasi,dan pemeriksaan psikologis (tes grafis). Berdasarkan hasil analisis data da...

  3. Automatic network fingerprinting through single-node motifs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Echtermeyer

    Full Text Available Complex networks have been characterised by their specific connectivity patterns (network motifs, but their building blocks can also be identified and described by node-motifs-a combination of local network features. One technique to identify single node-motifs has been presented by Costa et al. (L. D. F. Costa, F. A. Rodrigues, C. C. Hilgetag, and M. Kaiser, Europhys. Lett., 87, 1, 2009. Here, we first suggest improvements to the method including how its parameters can be determined automatically. Such automatic routines make high-throughput studies of many networks feasible. Second, the new routines are validated in different network-series. Third, we provide an example of how the method can be used to analyse network time-series. In conclusion, we provide a robust method for systematically discovering and classifying characteristic nodes of a network. In contrast to classical motif analysis, our approach can identify individual components (here: nodes that are specific to a network. Such special nodes, as hubs before, might be found to play critical roles in real-world networks.

  4. Motifs in triadic random graphs based on Steiner triple systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Marco; Reichardt, Jörg

    2013-08-01

    Conventionally, pairwise relationships between nodes are considered to be the fundamental building blocks of complex networks. However, over the last decade, the overabundance of certain subnetwork patterns, i.e., the so-called motifs, has attracted much attention. It has been hypothesized that these motifs, instead of links, serve as the building blocks of network structures. Although the relation between a network's topology and the general properties of the system, such as its function, its robustness against perturbations, or its efficiency in spreading information, is the central theme of network science, there is still a lack of sound generative models needed for testing the functional role of subgraph motifs. Our work aims to overcome this limitation. We employ the framework of exponential random graph models (ERGMs) to define models based on triadic substructures. The fact that only a small portion of triads can actually be set independently poses a challenge for the formulation of such models. To overcome this obstacle, we use Steiner triple systems (STSs). These are partitions of sets of nodes into pair-disjoint triads, which thus can be specified independently. Combining the concepts of ERGMs and STSs, we suggest generative models capable of generating ensembles of networks with nontrivial triadic Z-score profiles. Further, we discover inevitable correlations between the abundance of triad patterns, which occur solely for statistical reasons and need to be taken into account when discussing the functional implications of motif statistics. Moreover, we calculate the degree distributions of our triadic random graphs analytically.

  5. How curved membranes recruit amphipathic helices and protein anchoring motifs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatzakis, Nikos; Bhatia, Vikram Kjøller; Larsen, Jannik

    2009-01-01

    Lipids and several specialized proteins are thought to be able to sense the curvature of membranes (MC). Here we used quantitative fluorescence microscopy to measure curvature-selective binding of amphipathic motifs on single liposomes 50-700 nm in diameter. Our results revealed that sensing...

  6. Type 2 diabetes mellitus: phylogenetic motifs for predicting protein ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2007-06-28

    Jun 28, 2007 ... Diabetes mellitus, commonly referred to as diabetes, is a medical condition associated with abnormally high levels of glucose (or sugar) in the blood. Keeping this view, we demonstrate the phylogenetic motifs (PMs) identification in type 2 diabetes mellitus very likely corresponding to protein functional sites.

  7. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); CNMI, ANA; Long: 145.70271, Lat: 16.33289 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 3.65m; Data Range: 20070527-20090506.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  8. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); PRIA, PAL; Long: -162.16911, Lat: 05.88415 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 32.92m; Data Range: 20080331-20100411.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  9. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, MAR; Long: -170.53975, Lat: 25.38410 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.52m; Data Range: 20060909-20080919.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  10. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, PHR; Long: -175.83974, Lat: 27.78486 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 22.86m; Data Range: 20081002-20100915.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  11. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); MHI, OAH; Long: -158.21747, Lat: 21.46010 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 7.32m; Data Range: 20050723-20070305.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  12. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); CNMI, FDP; Long: 144.88580, Lat: 20.54513 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 12.50m; Data Range: 20070603-20070826.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  13. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, PHR; Long: -175.86298, Lat: 27.79097 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 11.60m; Data Range: 20100520-20100915.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  14. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); MHI, LAN; Long: -156.87525, Lat: 20.74163 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 11.58m; Data Range: 20081020-20101022.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  15. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); AMSM, TUT; Long: -170.56225, Lat: -14.28368 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 8.84m; Data Range: 20080223-20090529.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  16. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); MHI, OAH; Long: -158.13684, Lat: 21.35468 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 17.68m; Data Range: 20090903-20100715.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  17. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); AMSM, OFU; Long: -169.62662, Lat: -14.18175 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 9.80m; Data Range: 20040207-20060226.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  18. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, PHR; Long: -175.77935, Lat: 27.80267 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.52m; Data Range: 20080924-20100914.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  19. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); PRIA, JOH; Long: -169.49963, Lat: 16.75956 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 7.92m; Data Range: 20060120-20070618.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  20. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); PRIA, WAK; Long: 166.60452, Lat: 19.30868 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.52m; Data Range: 20070505-20090325.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  1. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); CNMI, FDP; Long: 144.90023, Lat: 20.53725 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 31.70m; Data Range: 20070603-20090428.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  2. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, MID; Long: -177.40181, Lat: 28.19361 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.00m; Data Range: 20030729-20041001.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  3. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, PHR; Long: -175.81595, Lat: 27.85396 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 7.62m; Data Range: 20060914-20080922.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  4. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); MHI, MAI; Long: -156.42031, Lat: 20.59198 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 14.90m; Data Range: 20060805-20071009.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  5. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, NEC; Long: -164.69775, Lat: 23.57152 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 17.07m; Data Range: 20050414-20060904.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  6. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); MHI, LAN; Long: -156.83705, Lat: 20.87186 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 13.11m; Data Range: 20081019-20101021.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  7. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); PRIA, JAR; Long: -159.99113, Lat: -00.36327 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 9.75m; Data Range: 20060321-20080327.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  8. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); CNMI, SAI; Long: 145.78947, Lat: 15.17485 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 19.20m; Data Range: 20080815-20090419.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  9. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); AMSM, TUT; Long: -170.72247, Lat: -14.28437 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 8.23m; Data Range: 20060220-20080219.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  10. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); AMSM, TUT; Long: -170.72348, Lat: -14.27155 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 17.68m; Data Range: 20080219-20100223.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  11. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); CNMI, FDP; Long: 144.89860, Lat: 20.53790 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 11.28m; Data Range: 20070603-20090427.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  12. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); AMSM, OFU; Long: -169.62662, Lat: -14.18168 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 10.67m; Data Range: 20060226-20071216.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  13. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); AMSM, TUT; Long: -170.76360, Lat: -14.36325 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 16.70m; Data Range: 20070406-20080206.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  14. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); AMSM, ROS; Long: -168.15342, Lat: -14.53775 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 2.40m; Data Range: 20080311-20100303.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  15. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, PHR; Long: -175.81593, Lat: 27.85397 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 7.90m; Data Range: 20040928-20060912.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  16. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); AMSM, ROS; Long: -168.16016, Lat: -14.55127 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 3.40m; Data Range: 20080312-20090714.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  17. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); AMSM, ROS; Long: -168.16871, Lat: -14.54870 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 16.50m; Data Range: 20080313-20091225.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  18. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); AMSM, SWA; Long: -171.09121, Lat: -11.05861 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 28.96m; Data Range: 20080316-20090702.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  19. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); AMSM, TUT; Long: -170.66011, Lat: -14.24481 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 13.41m; Data Range: 20070410-20080219.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  20. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); CNMI, FDP; Long: 144.88558, Lat: 20.54516 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 18.59m; Data Range: 20070603-20070611.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  1. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); CNMI, PAG; Long: 145.76486, Lat: 18.09636 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 14.63m; Data Range: 20070606-20081006.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  2. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); PRIA, HOW; Long: -176.62150, Lat: 00.80653 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 17.98m; Data Range: 20080207-20100203.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  3. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); AMSM, TUT; Long: -170.83352, Lat: -14.32833 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 27.74m; Data Range: 20080224-20100227.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  4. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); PRIA, PAL; Long: -162.00206, Lat: 05.87637 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 32.61m; Data Range: 20080402-20100412.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  5. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); AMSM, OFU; Long: -169.62484, Lat: -14.16394 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 6.40m; Data Range: 20060227-20070530.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  6. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); AMSM, TUT; Long: -170.76310, Lat: -14.36348 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 13.41m; Data Range: 20080225-20100220.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  7. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); AMSM, TUT; Long: -170.75803, Lat: -14.37495 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 30.78m; Data Range: 20080224-20100228.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  8. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, FFS; Long: -166.27187, Lat: 23.85676 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 7.92m; Data Range: 20070925-20091009.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  9. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); PRIA, KIN; Long: -162.38180, Lat: 06.42888 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 5.18m; Data Range: 20080407-20100415.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  10. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); AMSM, OFU; Long: -169.65265, Lat: -14.17770 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.22m; Data Range: 20080228-20100311.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  11. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); AMSM, TUT; Long: -170.56222, Lat: -14.28368 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 8.23m; Data Range: 20050804-20060218.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  12. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, MAR; Long: -170.51372, Lat: 25.36697 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 4.27m; Data Range: 20040921-20060909.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  13. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, MAR; Long: -170.64291, Lat: 25.47130 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 14.33m; Data Range: 20060908-20080905.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  14. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, MAR; Long: -170.63382, Lat: 25.44643 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 8.53m; Data Range: 20040924-20060907.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  15. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, MAR; Long: -170.53972, Lat: 25.38417 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.50m; Data Range: 20030720-20040920.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  16. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, MAR; Long: -170.51376, Lat: 25.36694 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 4.27m; Data Range: 20060909-20080919.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  17. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); PRIA, JAR; Long: -160.00832, Lat: -00.36893 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 32.30m; Data Range: 20060321-20080328.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  18. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); PRIA, PAL; Long: -162.11364, Lat: 05.86635 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 19.20m; Data Range: 20090918-20100408.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  19. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); PRIA, HOW; Long: -176.62152, Lat: 00.80650 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 18.60m; Data Range: 20040121-20060125.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  20. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); PRIA, WAK; Long: 166.59808, Lat: 19.31609 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 10.97m; Data Range: 20051022-20070430.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  1. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); PRIA, WAK; Long: 166.60453, Lat: 19.30868 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.52m; Data Range: 20051021-20070430.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  2. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); PRIA, JOH; Long: -169.48513, Lat: 16.74071 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 2.13m; Data Range: 20080201-20100125.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  3. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); PRIA, PAL; Long: -162.08592, Lat: 05.88624 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 3.70m; Data Range: 20040402-20060325.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  4. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); PRIA, PAL; Long: -162.06183, Lat: 05.88278 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 4.26m; Data Range: 20060324-20080330.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  5. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); CNMI, TIN; Long: 145.65074, Lat: 15.03548 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 7.32m; Data Range: 20050926-20070519.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  6. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); MHI, KAU; Long: -159.29895, Lat: 22.16533 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 14.94m; Data Range: 20050715-20060808.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  7. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); CNMI, PAG; Long: 145.75748, Lat: 18.12728 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 5.79m; Data Range: 20070605-20080513.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  8. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, FFS; Long: -166.26140, Lat: 23.76891 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 4.00m; Data Range: 20021005-20030715.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  9. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, LIS; Long: -173.96097, Lat: 26.06337 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 0.61m; Data Range: 20060925-20081005.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  10. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); PRIA, HOW; Long: -176.62216, Lat: 00.82351 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 18.90m; Data Range: 20040122-20060226.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  11. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); AMSM, TUT; Long: -170.83339, Lat: -14.32838 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 27.13m; Data Range: 20050805-20060221.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  12. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, FFS; Long: -166.21967, Lat: 23.86611 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 2.00m; Data Range: 20020912-20030714.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  13. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); PRIA, BAK; Long: -176.47574, Lat: 00.20538 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 18.90m; Data Range: 20040124-20050605.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  14. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, PHR; Long: -175.86298, Lat: 27.79096 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 11.58m; Data Range: 20090920-20100518.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  15. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); MHI, FFP; Long: -160.60318, Lat: 21.68678 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 18.90m; Data Range: 20081111-20100928.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  16. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, PHR; Long: -175.86492, Lat: 27.94435 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 35.05m; Data Range: 20060923-20070726.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  17. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); PRIA, JAR; Long: -159.97228, Lat: -00.37500 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 30.70m; Data Range: 20060320-20080328.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  18. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, MID; Long: -177.34437, Lat: 28.21823 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 9.14m; Data Range: 20050701-20060915.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  19. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); PRIA, KIN; Long: -162.38440, Lat: 06.38252 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 6.40m; Data Range: 20060330-20080404.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  20. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, PHR; Long: -175.86165, Lat: 27.94069 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 13.11m; Data Range: 20070806-20080923.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  1. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, MID; Long: -177.34429, Lat: 28.21795 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 9.45m; Data Range: 20060915-20080925.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  2. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); PRIA, JOH; Long: -169.48513, Lat: 16.74080 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 2.10m; Data Range: 20040116-20060120.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  3. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); CNMI, MAU; Long: 145.20772, Lat: 20.01772 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 2.13m; Data Range: 20070530-20090430.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  4. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, PHR; Long: -175.73123, Lat: 27.86606 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 22.25m; Data Range: 20080924-20100914.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  5. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); AMSM, TAU; Long: -169.44661, Lat: -14.25073 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 6.10m; Data Range: 20060303-20080302.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  6. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, FFS; Long: -166.26134, Lat: 23.76895 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 4.57m; Data Range: 20080915-20100908.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  7. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, PHR; Long: -175.88108, Lat: 27.78202 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 22.86m; Data Range: 20080923-20081110.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  8. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); PRIA, JAR; Long: -159.99670, Lat: -00.38208 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 32.30m; Data Range: 20060321-20080327.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  9. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, FFS; Long: -166.16685, Lat: 23.73815 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 2.13m; Data Range: 20060906-20081008.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  10. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, FFS; Long: -166.17350, Lat: 23.64478 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 2.00m; Data Range: 20030717-20040919.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  11. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, KUR; Long: -178.35620, Lat: 28.45155 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 20.12m; Data Range: 20081001-20100918.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  12. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, LIS; Long: -173.99797, Lat: 26.10004 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 22.56m; Data Range: 20090929-20100517.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  13. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); AMSM, OFU; Long: -169.65220, Lat: -14.18020 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 6.10m; Data Range: 20060228-20080228.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  14. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); CNMI, TIN; Long: 145.65072, Lat: 15.03548 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 6.71m; Data Range: 20070519-20070905.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  15. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); PRIA, HOW; Long: -176.62401, Lat: 00.81480 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 14.63m; Data Range: 20080207-20100203.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  16. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); CNMI, AGR; Long: 145.63819, Lat: 18.76656 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.52m; Data Range: 20070528-20090502.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  17. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, GAR; Long: -167.99958, Lat: 24.99883 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 10.36m; Data Range: 20040920-20060705.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  18. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, PHR; Long: -175.78082, Lat: 27.95763 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.22m; Data Range: 20080923-20100916.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  19. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); AMSM, OFU; Long: -169.62661, Lat: -14.18177 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 11.28m; Data Range: 20080229-20100311.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  20. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); MHI, MAI; Long: -156.42033, Lat: 20.59195 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 14.63m; Data Range: 20081018-20101020.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  1. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); MHI, MAI; Long: -156.15120, Lat: 20.86456 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 14.63m; Data Range: 20081018-20101016.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  2. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); MHI, MAI; Long: -156.42031, Lat: 20.59198 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 14.90m; Data Range: 20071009-20081018.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  3. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); MHI, MAI; Long: -156.58458, Lat: 20.79070 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 14.60m; Data Range: 20050806-20070402.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  4. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); MHI, MAI; Long: -156.49718, Lat: 20.63030 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 11.58m; Data Range: 20050807-20101017.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  5. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); MHI, MAI; Long: -156.58448, Lat: 20.79079 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 11.89m; Data Range: 20081024-20100326.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  6. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, LAY; Long: -171.72929, Lat: 25.75915 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 0.91m; Data Range: 20060910-20080920.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  7. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); CNMI, MAU; Long: 145.20730, Lat: 20.01768 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 10.67m; Data Range: 20050911-20070530.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  8. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); MHI, MOL; Long: -157.25236, Lat: 21.20307 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 10.36m; Data Range: 20081024-20101023.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  9. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); CNMI, ZEA; Long: 145.85335, Lat: 16.89749 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 24.68m; Data Range: 20070526-20090505.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  10. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); CNMI, ROT; Long: 145.20680, Lat: 14.18284 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 10.36m; Data Range: 20070516-20090409.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  11. Allele frequencies of 18 autosomal STR loci in the Uyghur population living in Kashgar Prefecture, Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Li, Zhenghui; Mo, Xiaoting; Ma, Wenhua; Zhang, Hantao; Lin, Ziqing; Ye, Jian

    2018-03-10

    There is currently no large population data-based data set in Kashgar Prefecture Uyghur. The allele frequencies of 18 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci included in the DNATyper™ 19 kit were evaluated in 2600 Uyghur individuals living in Kashgar Prefecture, Northwest China. The values of combined power of discrimination (CPD) and combined probability of exclusion (CPE) of all 18 autosomal STR loci were 0.99999999999999999998235 and 0.99999998670, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the Uyghur population has a closer relationship with the Xinjiang-Kazakh, Inner Mongolia-Mongolian, and other three Uyghur populations. In addition, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that Uyghur population is an admixture of Eastern Asian and European populations.

  12. StatsX v2.0: the interactive graphical software for population statistics on X-STR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Yubo; Guo, Fei; Niu, Qingshan

    2018-03-21

    StatsX (Statistics for X-STR) v2.0 is developed to facilitate the workflow for analysis of population data on X-chromosomal short tandem repeat (X-STR) marker. The interactive graphical and installable software can estimate allele/haplotype frequencies from female, male, and pooled samples and calculate forensic parameters by importing a single file. In addition, it is able to filter out the invalid raw data and export a series of pre-formatted Arlequin input files that are directly used for testing the significance of the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE), linkage disequilibrium (LD), and gender differentiation. As expected, all results of frequencies and forensic parameters can be saved as EXCEL workbooks and also plotted as bar or line graphs. Further, full concordance was obtained by recalculating frequencies and forensic parameters with other established software from a published Han Chinese population.

  13. Validation of the AmpFlSTR« SEfiler Plus(TM) PCR Amplification kit for forensic STR analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredslund, Stine Frisk; Mogensen, Helle Smidt; Morling, Niels

    2009-01-01

    Validation of the AmpFlSTR« SEfiler Plus(TM) PCR Amplification kit with 29 and 30 PCR cycles for forensic STR analysis demonstrated that the kit had fewer artefacts than the AmpFlSTR« SGM Plus(TM) kit (28 PCR cycles). The SEfiler Plus kit was more sensitive and devoid of colour artefacts, but sho......Validation of the AmpFlSTR« SEfiler Plus(TM) PCR Amplification kit with 29 and 30 PCR cycles for forensic STR analysis demonstrated that the kit had fewer artefacts than the AmpFlSTR« SGM Plus(TM) kit (28 PCR cycles). The SEfiler Plus kit was more sensitive and devoid of colour artefacts...

  14. Motivated Proteins: A web application for studying small three-dimensional protein motifs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milner-White E James

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Small loop-shaped motifs are common constituents of the three-dimensional structure of proteins. Typically they comprise between three and seven amino acid residues, and are defined by a combination of dihedral angles and hydrogen bonding partners. The most abundant of these are αβ-motifs, asx-motifs, asx-turns, β-bulges, β-bulge loops, β-turns, nests, niches, Schellmann loops, ST-motifs, ST-staples and ST-turns. We have constructed a database of such motifs from a range of high-quality protein structures and built a web application as a visual interface to this. Description The web application, Motivated Proteins, provides access to these 12 motifs (with 48 sub-categories in a database of over 400 representative proteins. Queries can be made for specific categories or sub-categories of motif, motifs in the vicinity of ligands, motifs which include part of an enzyme active site, overlapping motifs, or motifs which include a particular amino acid sequence. Individual proteins can be specified, or, where appropriate, motifs for all proteins listed. The results of queries are presented in textual form as an (XHTML table, and may be saved as parsable plain text or XML. Motifs can be viewed and manipulated either individually or in the context of the protein in the Jmol applet structural viewer. Cartoons of the motifs imposed on a linear representation of protein secondary structure are also provided. Summary information for the motifs is available, as are histograms of amino acid distribution, and graphs of dihedral angles at individual positions in the motifs. Conclusion Motivated Proteins is a publicly and freely accessible web application that enables protein scientists to study small three-dimensional motifs without requiring knowledge of either Structured Query Language or the underlying database schema.

  15. Motivated proteins: a web application for studying small three-dimensional protein motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leader, David P; Milner-White, E James

    2009-02-11

    Small loop-shaped motifs are common constituents of the three-dimensional structure of proteins. Typically they comprise between three and seven amino acid residues, and are defined by a combination of dihedral angles and hydrogen bonding partners. The most abundant of these are alphabeta-motifs, asx-motifs, asx-turns, beta-bulges, beta-bulge loops, beta-turns, nests, niches, Schellmann loops, ST-motifs, ST-staples and ST-turns. We have constructed a database of such motifs from a range of high-quality protein structures and built a web application as a visual interface to this. The web application, Motivated Proteins, provides access to these 12 motifs (with 48 sub-categories) in a database of over 400 representative proteins. Queries can be made for specific categories or sub-categories of motif, motifs in the vicinity of ligands, motifs which include part of an enzyme active site, overlapping motifs, or motifs which include a particular amino acid sequence. Individual proteins can be specified, or, where appropriate, motifs for all proteins listed. The results of queries are presented in textual form as an (X)HTML table, and may be saved as parsable plain text or XML. Motifs can be viewed and manipulated either individually or in the context of the protein in the Jmol applet structural viewer. Cartoons of the motifs imposed on a linear representation of protein secondary structure are also provided. Summary information for the motifs is available, as are histograms of amino acid distribution, and graphs of dihedral angles at individual positions in the motifs. Motivated Proteins is a publicly and freely accessible web application that enables protein scientists to study small three-dimensional motifs without requiring knowledge of either Structured Query Language or the underlying database schema.

  16. The Rho ADP-ribosylating C3 exoenzyme binds cells via an Arg-Gly-Asp motif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrbeck, Astrid; Höltje, Markus; Adolf, Andrej; Oms, Elisabeth; Hagemann, Sandra; Ahnert-Hilger, Gudrun; Just, Ingo

    2017-10-27

    The Rho ADP-ribosylating C3 exoenzyme (C3bot) is a bacterial protein toxin devoid of a cell-binding or -translocation domain. Nevertheless, C3 can efficiently enter intact cells, including neurons, but the mechanism of C3 binding and uptake is not yet understood. Previously, we identified the intermediate filament vimentin as an extracellular membranous interaction partner of C3. However, uptake of C3 into cells still occurs (although reduced) in the absence of vimentin, indicating involvement of an additional host cell receptor. C3 harbors an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) motif, which is the major integrin-binding site, present in a variety of integrin ligands. To check whether the RGD motif of C3 is involved in binding to cells, we performed a competition assay with C3 and RGD peptide or with a monoclonal antibody binding to β1-integrin subunit and binding assays in different cell lines, primary neurons, and synaptosomes with C3-RGD mutants. Here, we report that preincubation of cells with the GRGDNP peptide strongly reduced C3 binding to cells. Moreover, mutation of the RGD motif reduced C3 binding to intact cells and also to recombinant vimentin. Anti-integrin antibodies also lowered the C3 binding to cells. Our results indicate that the RGD motif of C3 is at least one essential C3 motif for binding to host cells and that integrin is an additional receptor for C3 besides vimentin. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Human EGF-derived direct and reverse short linear motifs: conformational dynamics insight into the receptor-binding residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldogazieva, Nurbubu T; Shaitan, Konstantin V; Antonov, Mikhail Yu; Mokhosoev, Innokenty M; Levtsova, Olga V; Terentiev, Alexander A

    2018-04-01

    Short linear motifs (SLiMs) have been recognized to perform diverse functions in a variety of regulatory proteins through the involvement in protein-protein interactions, signal transduction, cell cycle regulation, protein secretion, etc. However, detailed molecular mechanisms underlying their functions including roles of definite amino acid residues remain obscure. In our previous studies, we demonstrated that conformational dynamics of amino acid residues in oligopeptides derived from regulatory proteins such as alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA), and pregnancy specific β1-glycoproteins (PSGs) contributes greatly to their biological activities. In the present work, we revealed the 22-member linear modules composed of direct and reverse AFP 14-20 -like heptapeptide motifs linked by CxxGY/FxGx consensus motif within epidermal growth factor (EGF), growth factors of EGF family and numerous regulatory proteins containing EGF-like modules. We showed, first, the existence of similarity in amino acid signatures of both direct and reverse motifs in terms of their physicochemical properties. Second, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation study demonstrated that key receptor-binding residues in human EGF in the aligned positions of the direct and reverse motifs may have similar distribution of conformational probability densities and dynamic behavior despite their distinct physicochemical properties. Third, we found that the length of a polypeptide chain (from 7 to 53 residues) has no effect, while disulfide bridging and backbone direction significantly influence the conformational distribution and dynamics of the residues. Our data may contribute to the atomic level structure-function analysis and protein structure decoding; additionally, they may provide a basis for novel protein/peptide engineering and peptide-mimetic drug design.

  18. Účast D. Stránské na Soupisovém výzkumu NSČ

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Motyčková, Dana

    15[57]-16[58], - (1999), s. 99-102 ISSN 1211-8117. [Lidová kultura 20. století, její výzkum, dokumentace a prezentace. Věnováno 100. výročí narození doc. dr. Drahomíry Stránské. Rožnov pod Radhoštěm, 08.09.1999] Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  19. Population data of 13 nonCODIS STR markers located inside the 6 nonsyndromic oculocutaneous albinism genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khordadpoor Deilamani, Faravareh; Akbari, Mohammad Taghi

    2016-11-01

    Allele frequencies and forensic statistics of 13 autosomal short tandem repeat loci were estimated in 56 unrelated Iranian individuals. Except for two loci which were monomorph, a total of 5-11 alleles at each locus were observed and altogether 94 alleles for all selected loci were found. Our results show that 11 out of 13 nonCODIS STR loci are polymorphic and can be useful for human identification and kinship analysis and relationship investigations in Iran.

  20. Validation of the AmpFlSTR« SEfiler Plus(TM) PCR Amplification kit for forensic STR analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredslund, Stine Frisk; Mogensen, Helle Smidt; Morling, Niels

    2009-01-01

    Validation of the AmpFlSTR« SEfiler Plus(TM) PCR Amplification kit with 29 and 30 PCR cycles for forensic STR analysis demonstrated that the kit had fewer artefacts than the AmpFlSTR« SGM Plus(TM) kit (28 PCR cycles). The SEfiler Plus kit was more sensitive and devoid of colour artefacts, but sho......, but showed more stutters, drop-ins, drop-outs and allelic imbalances...

  1. STR Profiling for Discrimination between Wild and Domestic Swine Specimens and between Main Breeds of Domestic Pigs Reared in Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rębała, Krzysztof; Rabtsava, Alina A; Kotova, Svetlana A; Kipen, Viachaslau N; Zhurina, Natalja V; Gandzha, Alla I; Tsybovsky, Iosif S

    2016-01-01

    A panel comprising 16 short tandem repeats (STRs) and a gender-specific amelogenin marker was worked out and tested for robustness in discrimination between wild and domestic swine subspecies encountered in Europe, between regional populations of wild boars and between main breeds of domestic pigs reared in Belarus. The STR dataset comprised 310 wild boars, inhabiting all administrative regions of Belarus, and 313 domestic pigs, representing three local and three cosmopolitan lines. Additionally, a total of 835 wild boars were genotyped for the presence of melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) alleles specific for domestic pigs. Correctness of assignment of STR profiles to appropriate populations was measured by log-likelihood ratios (log-LRs). All samples were correctly identified as wild boars or domestic pigs with average log-LR of 42.4 (LR = 2.6×1018). On the other hand, as many as 50 out of 835 (6.0%) genotyped wild boars from Belarus possessed MC1R alleles specific to domestic pigs, demonstrating supremacy of our STR profiling system over traditional differentiation between wild boars and domestic pigs, based on single binary markers. Mean log-LRs for allocation of wild boars to their regions of origin and of domestic pigs to appropriate breeds were 2.3 (LR = 9.7) and 13.4 (LR = 6.6×105), respectively. Our results demonstrate the developed STR profiling system to be a highly efficient tool for differentiation between wild and domestic swine subspecies and between diverse breeds of domestic pigs as well as for verification of genetic identity of porcine specimens for the purpose of forensic investigations of wildlife crimes, assurance of veterinary public health, parentage control in animal husbandry, food safety management and traceability of livestock products.

  2. The development and application of a multiplex short tandem repeat (STR) system for identifying subspecies, individuals and sex in tigers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zheng-Ting; Uphyrkina, Olga V; Fomenko, Pavel; Luo, Shu-Jin

    2015-07-01

    Poaching and trans-boundary trafficking of tigers and body parts are threatening the world's last remaining wild tigers. Development of an efficient molecular genetic assay for tracing the origins of confiscated specimens will assist in law enforcement and wildlife forensics for this iconic flagship species. We developed a multiplex genotyping system "tigrisPlex" to simultaneously assess 22 short tandem repeat (STR, or microsatellite) loci and a gender-identifying SRY gene, all amplified in 4 reactions using as little as 1 ng of template DNA. With DNA samples used for between-run calibration, the system generates STR genotypes that are directly compatible with voucher tiger subspecies genetic profiles, hence making it possible to identify subspecies via bi-parentally inherited markers. We applied "tigrisPlex" to 12 confiscated specimens from Russia and identified 6 individuals (3 females and 3 males), each represented by duplicated samples and all designated as Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica) with high confidence. This STR multiplex system can serve as an effective and versatile approach for genetic profiling of both wild and captive tigers as well as confiscated tiger products, fulfilling various conservation needs for identifying the origins of tiger samples. © 2015 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. Population genetics for 23 Y-STR loci in Tibetan in China and confirmation of DYS448 null allele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yi; Gao, Jingshang; Fan, Guangyao; Liao, Linchuan; Hou, Yiping

    2015-05-01

    Tibetan is one of 56 ethnic groups in China, where a level of genetic sub-structure might be expected. Although a global analysis of Y-chromosomal haplotype diversity for 23 STR loci and Y-STR databases with PPY23 kit were created with collaborative effort, there was a lack of data for Tibetan population. In this study we evaluated 248 unrelated male individuals of Chinese Tibetan living in the Tibet Autonomous Region to explore the underlying genetic structure of Tibetan populations. These samples were typed for 23 short-tandem repeat (STR) loci (DYS19, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS385ab, DYS437, DYS438, DYS439, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, DYS635, GATAH4, DYS481, DYS533, DYS549, DYS570, DYS576, and DYS643) by using PPY23 kit. A total of 224 different haplotypes were found. Haplotype diversity was 0.9990. Both Rst pairwise analyses and multidimensional scaling plot showed the genetic structure of Tibetan population was significantly different from some of Chinese ethnic groups and neighboring populations. There were few interesting null features at DYS448 observed by PPY23 that deserved some comment. It revealed that PPY23 marker set provided substantially stronger discriminatory power in Tibetan population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of the 16 X-STR loci typing system and genetic analysis in a Shanghai Han population from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kuan; Zhao, Shumin; Tian, Huaizhou; Zhang, Suhua; Li, Chengtao

    2013-11-01

    This study developed a new multiplex PCR system that simultaneously amplifies 16 X-STR loci in the same PCR reaction, and the polymorphism and mutation rates of these 16 X-STR loci were explored in a Shanghai Han population from China. These loci included DXS10134, DXS10159, DXS6789, DXS6795, DXS6800, DXS6803, DXS6807, DXS6810, DXS7132, DXS7424, DXS8378, DXS9902, GATA165B12, GATA172D05, GATA31E08, and HPRTB. Samples from 591 unrelated individuals (293 males and 298 females) and 400 two-generation families were successfully analyzed using this multiplex system. Allele frequencies and mutation rates of the 16 loci were investigated, with the comparison of allele frequency distributions among different populations performed. Polymorphism information contents of these loci were all >0.6440 except the locus DXS6800 (0.4706). Nine cases of mutations were detected in the 16 loci from the investigation of 9232 meioses. Pairwise comparisons of allele frequency distributions showed significant differences for most loci among populations from different countries and ethnic groups but not among the Han population living in other areas of China. These results suggest that the 16 X-STR loci system provides highly informative polymorphic data for paternity testing and forensic identification in the Han population in Shanghai, China, as a complementary tool. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Inner and inter population structure construction of Chinese Jiangsu Han population based on Y23 STR system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huipin Wang

    Full Text Available In this study, we analyzed the genetic polymorphisms of 23 Y-STR loci from PowerPlex® Y23 system in 916 unrelated healthy male individuals from Chinese Jiangsu Han, and observed 912 different haplotypes including 908 unique haplotypes and 4 duplicate haplotypes. The haplotype diversity reached 0.99999 and the discrimination capacity and match probability were 0.9956 and 0.0011, respectively. The gene diversity values ranged from 0.3942 at DYS438 to 0.9607 at DYS385a/b. Population differentiation within 10 Jiangsu Han subpopulations were evaluated by RST values and visualized in Neighbor-Joining trees and Multi-Dimensional Scaling plots as well as population relationships between the Jiangsu Han population and other 18 Eastern Asian populations. Such results indicated that the 23 Y-STR loci were highly polymorphic in Jiangsu Han population and played crucial roles in forensic application as well as population genetics. For the first time, we reported the genetic diversity of male lineages in Jiangsu Han population at a high-resolution level of 23 Y-STR set and consequently contributed to familial searching, offender tracking, and anthropology analysis of Jiangsu Han population.

  6. Evaluation and In-House Validation of Five DNA Extraction Methods for PCR-based STR Analysis of Bloodstained Denims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Perdigon

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available One type of crime scene evidence commonly submitted for analysis is bloodstain on denim. However, chemicals (e.g., indigo used to produce denim materials may co-purify with DNA and hence, affect subsequent DNA analysis. The present study compared five methods (e.g., standard organic, organic with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, modified FTA™, organic/Chelex®-Centricon®, and QIAamp® DNA Mini Kit-based procedures for the isolation of blood DNA from denim. A Short Tandem Repeat (STR-based analysis across two to nine STR markers, namely, HUMvWA, HUMTH01, D8S306, HUMFES/FPS, HUMDHFRP2, HUMF13A01, HUMFGA, HUMTPOX, and HUMCSF1PO, was used to evaluate successful amplification of blood DNA extracted from light indigo, dark indigo, indigo-sulfur, pure indigo, sulfur-top, and sulfur-bottom denim materials. The results of the present study support the utility of organic/Chelex®-Centricon® and QIAamp® Kit procedures in extracting PCR-amplifiable DNA from five different types of denim materials for STR analysis. Furthermore, a solid-based method using FTA™ classic cards was modified to provide a simple, rapid, safe, and cost-effective procedure for extracting blood DNA from light, dark indigo and pure indigo denim materials. However, DNA eluted from bloodstained sulfur-dyed denims (e.g., sulfur-top and sulfur-bottom using FTA™ procedure was not readily amplifiable.

  7. Population genetics of 26 Y-STR loci for the Han ethnic in Hunan province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Weibo; Gong, Zheng; Rong, Haibo; Guan, Hua; Zhang, Tao; Zhao, Yihe; Fu, Xiaoliang; Zha, Lagabaiyila; Jin, Chuan; Ding, Yanjun

    2017-01-01

    To study the population data of Y-chromosome STRs (Y-STRs) of Han population resided in Hunan province, we analyzed haplotypes of 26 Y-STRs (DYS19, DYS385a/b, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS437, DYS438, DYS439, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, DYS481, DYS533, DYS549, DYS570, DYS576, DYS635, DYS643, DYS388, DYS449, DYS460, and YGATAH4) in 310 unrelated male individuals using a commercially available Goldeneye® DNA ID 26Y system. The calculated average gene diversity values ranged from 0.4211 to 0.9590 for DYS438 and DYS385a/b loci, respectively. The discriminatory capacity was 96.77 % with 300 observed haplotypes. Population relationships between Hunan Han and eight other populations available from Y-chromosome haplotype reference database (YHRD) were compared. The results showed that the Han population resided in the Hunan district is significantly different from other populations. Our results also indicated that these 26 Y-STR loci were highly genetically polymorphic in the Hunan Han population and of great value in forensic application.

  8. Genetic polymorphism of 22 autosomal STR markers in a Han population of Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiu-Ling; Chen, Zi-Xiang; Chen, Chu-Guang; Lu, De-Jian

    2016-09-01

    Population genetic data and forensic statistics of 22 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci (D1S1656, D2S1338, D3S3045, D4S2366, D5S2500, D6S477, D7S3048, D8S1132, D9S925, D10S1435, D11S2368, D12S391, D13S325, D14S608, D15S659, D16S539, D17S1290, D18S535, D19S253, D20S470, D21S1270 and GATA198B05) were determined for a sample of 515 unrelated individuals from Han population in Southern China. The expected heterozygosity and the discrimination power varied from 0.7358 to 0.8733 and 0.8915 to 0.9702, respectively. The probability of excluding an unrelated man as the true father (assuming no background relatedness in the population) for trios and for duos ranged from 0.5126 to 0.7415 and 0.3331 to 0.5864, respectively. The studied STRs appear to provide a significant improvement in the statistical power of kinship analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Genetic diversity of 21 autosomal STR loci in the Han population from Sichuan province, Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Guanglin; Li, Ye; Wang, Zheng; Liang, Weibo; Luo, Haibo; Liao, Miao; Zhang, Ji; Yan, Jing; Li, Yingbi; Hou, Yiping; Wu, Jin

    2017-11-01

    Exploration of the ethnic origin and genetic differentiation of 56 Chinese officially recognized nationalities populations played a fundamental role in the research field of population genetics, forensic science, linguistics, anthropology, and archaeology. In the present study, population data of 21 autosomal STR loci (CSF1PO, D10S1248, D12S391, D13S317, D16S539, D18S51, D19S433, D21S11, D2S1338, D2S441, D3S1358, D5S818, D6S1043, D7S820, D8S1179, FGA, Penta D, Penta E, TH01, TPOX, and vWA) included in the AGCU EX22 kit in 2793 Southwest Han Chinese individuals was obtained and population genetic relationships among 28 Chinese populations were investigated. Our study indicated that the twenty-one autosomal STRs are highly polymorphic in the Sichuan Han population and can be used as a powerful tool in the routine forensic usage. MDS and phylogenetic analysis suggested that the Sichuan Han population kept a close genetic relationship with the southwest populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Genetic polymorphisms of nine X-STR loci in four population groups from Inner Mongolia, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Qiao-Fang; Yu, Bin; Li, Sheng-Bin

    2007-02-01

    Nine short tandem repeat (STR) markers on the X chromosome (DXS101, DXS6789, DXS6799, DXS6804, DXS7132, DXS7133, DXS7423, DXS8378, and HPRTB) were analyzed in four population groups (Mongol, Ewenki, Oroqen, and Daur) from Inner Mongolia, China, in order to learn about the genetic diversity, forensic suitability, and possible genetic affinities of the populations. Frequency estimates, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, and other parameters of forensic interest were computed. The results revealed that the nine markers have a moderate degree of variability in the population groups. Most heterozygosity values for the nine loci range from 0.480 to 0.891, and there are evident differences of genetic variability among the populations. A UPGMA tree constructed on the basis of the generated data shows very low genetic distance between Mongol and Han (Xi'an) populations. Our results based on genetic distance analysis are consistent with the results of earlier studies based on linguistics and the immigration history and origin of these populations. The minisatellite loci on the X chromosome studied here are not only useful in showing significant genetic variation between the populations, but also are suitable for human identity testing among Inner Mongolian populations.

  11. Further characterization of six miniSTR loci in the Han population from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-jun JIA

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To describe the characteristics of two miniplex sets: NC01 (D10S1248, D14S1434 and D22S1045, which was recommended by EDNAP/ENFSI, and a new miniplex one (D2S2944, D18S872 and D19S591. Methods  DNA was extracted using the Chelex-100 extraction method. The products were genotyped by ABI PRISM® 310 Genetic Analyzer and the results were analyzed with GeneScan 3.7 and GenoTyper 3.7 software. Results  All loci meet Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The combined power of discrimination for the six loci in Chinese population was 0.9999 and the cumulative probability of exclusion was 0.9793. We also compared the sequencing data of NC01 with other different ethic groups. Conclusion  Two miniplex sets were constructed. These miniSTR makers have different characteristics in different ethic groups.

  12. Borodáč’s Chlapci na Stráži

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maťašík Andrej

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the production of the play Chlapci na stráži [Boys on Guard], which was awarded in a competition organized on the occasion of the twentieth anniversary of the establishment of Czechoslovakia in the spring of 1938. It was written by Ján Borodáč, the artistic director of the Drama Company of the Slovak National Theatre under the pseudonym of Ján Debnár. By the time it was premiered on 29 October 1939, there had been significant political changes. Following the Munich Agreement, Czechoslovakia, based on the decision of the prime ministers of France, Great Britain, Italy and Germany, had lost ethnically mixed Czech-German borderlands, President Eduard Beneš had offered his resignation and had gone into exile, and Slovakia had got the autonomy it was promised by the Pittsburgh Agreement (an obligation that had gone unfulfilled for long. The play which was supposed to celebrate the anniversary of the Czechoslovak Republic paradoxically acquired a new meaning under the pressure of these changes - it celebrated the autonomy and called for a defiance of revisionist pressures from Horthy’s Hungary.

  13. High phenotypic variability in Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerusa Smid

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker is a genetic prion disease and the most common mutation is p.Pro102Leu. We report clinical, molecular and neuropathological data of seven individuals, belonging to two unrelated Brazilian kindreds, carrying the p.Pro102Leu. Marked differences among patients were observed regarding age at onset, disease duration and clinical presentation. In the first kindred, two patients had rapidly progressive dementia and three exhibited predominantly ataxic phenotypes with variable ages of onset and disease duration. In this family, age at disease onset in the mother and daughter differed by 39 years. In the second kindred, different phenotypes were also reported and earlier ages of onset were associated with 129 heterozygosis. No differences were associated with apoE genotype. In these kindreds, the codon 129 polymorphism could not explain the clinical variability and 129 heterozygosis was associated with earlier disease onset. Neuropathological examination in two patients confirmed the presence of typical plaques and PrPsc immunopositivity.

  14. Effects of heavy metal pollution on red wood ant (Formica s. str.) populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eeva, T.; Sorvari, J.; Koivunen, V.

    2004-01-01

    We studied the species composition, mound population densities, relative abundance and colony sizes of red wood ants along a well known air pollution gradient of a copper smelter in Southwest Finland. The dominant species, Formica aquilonia, was further studied for heavy metal (Al, Cu, Cd, Ni, Zn, As, Pb, Hg) levels and morphological characters (body mass, head width, labial gland disease) of workers. We found five species belonging to Formica s. str., and two of them showed changes in their relative abundance, which could not be explained by natural habitat differences. Nest mound volumes were 34% smaller in the polluted area, suggesting that smaller colonies can be maintained there. The heavy metal levels in F. aquilonia workers were higher in the polluted area for all metals, except Hg. The largest relative differences between the study areas (polluted/unpolluted) were found for As (4.1), Ni (2.4), Cu (2.1) and Pb (1.8). Morphological characters of workers were not related to the heavy metal levels. Our data showed that red wood ants can tolerate relatively high amounts of heavy metals and maintain reproducing colonies even in a heavily polluted area, but on the basis of smaller colony sizes, pollution stress may also cause trade-offs in reproduction. - Capsule: Five species of red wood ants vary in their sensitivity to heavy metal pollution but all of them had smaller colonies in a polluted area

  15. Pierced Lasso Bundles are a new class of knot-like motifs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellinor Haglund

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A four-helix bundle is a well-characterized motif often used as a target for designed pharmaceutical therapeutics and nutritional supplements. Recently, we discovered a new structural complexity within this motif created by a disulphide bridge in the long-chain helical bundle cytokine leptin. When oxidized, leptin contains a disulphide bridge creating a covalent-loop through which part of the polypeptide chain is threaded (as seen in knotted proteins. We explored whether other proteins contain a similar intriguing knot-like structure as in leptin and discovered 11 structurally homologous proteins in the PDB. We call this new helical family class the Pierced Lasso Bundle (PLB and the knot-like threaded structural motif a Pierced Lasso (PL. In the current study, we use structure-based simulation to investigate the threading/folding mechanisms for all the PLBs along with three unthreaded homologs as the covalent loop (or lasso in leptin is important in folding dynamics and activity. We find that the presence of a small covalent loop leads to a mechanism where structural elements slipknot to thread through the covalent loop. Larger loops use a piercing mechanism where the free terminal plugs through the covalent loop. Remarkably, the position of the loop as well as its size influences the native state dynamics, which can impact receptor binding and biological activity. This previously unrecognized complexity of knot-like proteins within the helical bundle family comprises a completely new class within the knot family, and the hidden complexity we unraveled in the PLBs is expected to be found in other protein structures outside the four-helix bundles. The insights gained here provide critical new elements for future investigation of this emerging class of proteins, where function and the energetic landscape can be controlled by hidden topology, and should be take into account in ab initio predictions of newly identified protein targets.

  16. A conserved cysteine motif is critical for rice ceramide kinase activity and function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Cheng Bi

    Full Text Available Ceramide kinase (CERK is a key regulator of cell survival in dicotyledonous plants and animals. Much less is known about the roles of CERK and ceramides in mediating cellular processes in monocot plants. Here, we report the characterization of a ceramide kinase, OsCERK, from rice (Oryza sativa spp. Japonica cv. Nipponbare and investigate the effects of ceramides on rice cell viability.OsCERK can complement the Arabidopsis CERK mutant acd5. Recombinant OsCERK has ceramide kinase activity with Michaelis-Menten kinetics and optimal activity at 7.0 pH and 40°C. Mg2+ activates OsCERK in a concentration-dependent manner. Importantly, a CXXXCXXC motif, conserved in all ceramide kinases and important for the activity of the human enzyme, is critical for OsCERK enzyme activity and in planta function. In a rice protoplast system, inhibition of CERK leads to cell death and the ratio of added ceramide and ceramide-1-phosphate, CERK's substrate and product, respectively, influences cell survival. Ceramide-induced rice cell death has apoptotic features and is an active process that requires both de novo protein synthesis and phosphorylation, respectively. Finally, mitochondria membrane potential loss previously associated with ceramide-induced cell death in Arabidopsis was also found in rice, but it occurred with different timing.OsCERK is a bona fide ceramide kinase with a functionally and evolutionarily conserved Cys-rich motif that plays an important role in modulating cell fate in plants. The vital function of the conserved motif in both human and rice CERKs suggests that the biochemical mechanism of CERKs is similar in animals and plants. Furthermore, ceramides induce cell death with similar features in monocot and dicot plants.

  17. Multiplex PCR for 17 Y-Chromosome Specific Short Tandem Repeats (STR to Enhance the Reliability of Fetal Sex Determination in Maternal Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Zheng

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to demonstrate the influence of target gene and amplification product length on the performance of fetal gender determination systems using maternal plasma. A total of 40 pairs of plasma DNA samples from pregnant women and genomic DNA samples from maternal blood, amniotic fluid and paternal blood were isolated for gender determination by amplification of the amelogenin gene and 17 Y-chromosome STR loci, using three different commercial kits. The gender of the fetuses was confirmed by cytogenetic analysis or phenotype at birth. Both the AmpFℓSTR-Identifiler amplification kit and the Mini-STR Amplification kit for amelogenin gene detection were reliable in determining fetal gender (92.0% and 96.0%, respectively, but false negatives were present in both systems. AmpFℓSTR-Yfiler was found to be fully reliable as it amplified Y-STR in all cases of pregnancies with male fetuses and thus was 100% correct in determining fetal gender. The results demonstrated that multiple fluorescent PCR for 17 Y-STR loci was more reliable than AMELY gene testing in fetal sex determination with maternal plasma. We also found that the shorter amplification products could improve the performance of fetal gender determination systems.

  18. Functional Analysis of Light-harvesting-like Protein 3 (LIL3) and Its Light-harvesting Chlorophyll-binding Motif in Arabidopsis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kaori; Takabayashi, Atsushi; Tanaka, Ayumi; Tanaka, Ryouichi

    2014-01-01

    The light-harvesting complex (LHC) constitutes the major light-harvesting antenna of photosynthetic eukaryotes. LHC contains a characteristic sequence motif, termed LHC motif, consisting of 25–30 mostly hydrophobic amino acids. This motif is shared by a number of transmembrane proteins from oxygenic photoautotrophs that are termed light-harvesting-like (LIL) proteins. To gain insights into the functions of LIL proteins and their LHC motifs, we functionally characterized a plant LIL protein, LIL3. This protein has been shown previously to stabilize geranylgeranyl reductase (GGR), a key enzyme in phytol biosynthesis. It is hypothesized that LIL3 functions to anchor GGR to membranes. First, we conjugated the transmembrane domain of LIL3 or that of ascorbate peroxidase to GGR and expressed these chimeric proteins in an Arabidopsis mutant lacking LIL3 protein. As a result, the transgenic plants restored phytol-synthesizing activity. These results indicate that GGR is active as long as it is anchored to membranes, even in the absence of LIL3. Subsequently, we addressed the question why the LHC motif is conserved in the LIL3 sequences. We modified the transmembrane domain of LIL3, which contains the LHC motif, by substituting its conserved amino acids (Glu-171, Asn-174, and Asp-189) with alanine. As a result, the Arabidopsis transgenic plants partly recovered the phytol-biosynthesizing activity. However, in these transgenic plants, the LIL3-GGR complexes were partially dissociated. Collectively, these results indicate that the LHC motif of LIL3 is involved in the complex formation of LIL3 and GGR, which might contribute to the GGR reaction. PMID:24275650

  19. Functional analysis of light-harvesting-like protein 3 (LIL3) and its light-harvesting chlorophyll-binding motif in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kaori; Takabayashi, Atsushi; Tanaka, Ayumi; Tanaka, Ryouichi

    2014-01-10

    The light-harvesting complex (LHC) constitutes the major light-harvesting antenna of photosynthetic eukaryotes. LHC contains a characteristic sequence motif, termed LHC motif, consisting of 25-30 mostly hydrophobic amino acids. This motif is shared by a number of transmembrane proteins from oxygenic photoautotrophs that are termed light-harvesting-like (LIL) proteins. To gain insights into the functions of LIL proteins and their LHC motifs, we functionally characterized a plant LIL protein, LIL3. This protein has been shown previously to stabilize geranylgeranyl reductase (GGR), a key enzyme in phytol biosynthesis. It is hypothesized that LIL3 functions to anchor GGR to membranes. First, we conjugated the transmembrane domain of LIL3 or that of ascorbate peroxidase to GGR and expressed these chimeric proteins in an Arabidopsis mutant lacking LIL3 protein. As a result, the transgenic plants restored phytol-synthesizing activity. These results indicate that GGR is active as long as it is anchored to membranes, even in the absence of LIL3. Subsequently, we addressed the question why the LHC motif is conserved in the LIL3 sequences. We modified the transmembrane domain of LIL3, which contains the LHC motif, by substituting its conserved amino acids (Glu-171, Asn-174, and Asp-189) with alanine. As a result, the Arabidopsis transgenic plants partly recovered the phytol-biosynthesizing activity. However, in these transgenic plants, the LIL3-GGR complexes were partially dissociated. Collectively, these results indicate that the LHC motif of LIL3 is involved in the complex formation of LIL3 and GGR, which might contribute to the GGR reaction.

  20. Insights into the Activity and Substrate Binding of Xylella fastidiosa Polygalacturonase by Modification of a Unique QMK Amino Acid Motif Using Protein Chimeras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Jeremy G; Lincoln, James E; Kirkpatrick, Bruce C

    2015-01-01

    Polygalacturonases (EC 3.2.1.15) catalyze the random hydrolysis of 1, 4-alpha-D-galactosiduronic linkages in pectate and other galacturonans. Xylella fastidiosa possesses a single polygalacturonase gene, pglA (PD1485), and X. fastidiosa mutants deficient in the production of polygalacturonase are non-pathogenic and show a compromised ability to systemically infect grapevines. These results suggested that grapevines expressing sufficient amounts of an inhibitor of X. fastidiosa polygalacturonase might be protected from disease. Previous work in our laboratory and others have tried without success to produce soluble active X. fastidiosa polygalacturonase for use in inhibition assays. In this study, we created two enzymatically active X. fastidiosa / A. vitis polygalacturonase chimeras, AX1A and AX2A to explore the functionality of X. fastidiosa polygalacturonase in vitro. The AX1A chimera was constructed to specifically test if recombinant chimeric protein, produced in Escherichia coli, is soluble and if the X. fastidiosa polygalacturonase catalytic amino acids are able to hydrolyze polygalacturonic acid. The AX2A chimera was constructed to evaluate the ability of a unique QMK motif of X. fastidiosa polygalacturonase, most polygalacturonases have a R(I/L)K motif, to bind to and allow the hydrolysis of polygalacturonic acid. Furthermore, the AX2A chimera was also used to explore what effect modification of the QMK motif of X. fastidiosa polygalacturonase to a conserved RIK motif has on enzymatic activity. These experiments showed that both the AX1A and AX2A polygalacturonase chimeras were soluble and able to hydrolyze the polygalacturonic acid substrate. Additionally, the modification of the QMK motif to the conserved RIK motif eliminated hydrolytic activity, suggesting that the QMK motif is important for the activity of X. fastidiosa polygalacturonase. This result suggests X. fastidiosa polygalacturonase may preferentially hydrolyze a different pectic substrate or

  1. Polymorphism between HLA-A*0301 and A*0302 located outside the pocket F alters the PΩ peptide motif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elamin, N E; Bade-Doeding, C; Blasczyk, R; Eiz-Vesper, B

    2010-12-01

    The human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A*03 group has more than 90 known members and is one of the largest families of HLA class I alleles, with the most common variant being HLA-A*0301. In this study, we determined the peptide-binding motif of the highly frequent Sudanese allele A*0302 and compared it with the previously published peptide-binding motif of A*0301. The two alleles differ only at two distinct residues Glu152Val and Leu156Gln, which are predicted to be part of specificity pockets D, C and E and thus in contact with the peptide. Soluble recombinant A*0302 was expressed, affinity purified and the bound peptides were then eluted and analysed by mass spectrometry. The peptide-binding motif of A*0302 differs significantly from the previously published HLA-A*0301 and the Glu152Val/Leu156Gln mismatches appear to have a significant impact on the peptide-binding features of A*0302 and A*0301. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. DMINDA: an integrated web server for DNA motif identification and analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qin; Zhang, Hanyuan; Mao, Xizeng; Zhou, Chuan; Liu, Bingqiang; Chen, Xin; Xu, Ying

    2014-07-01

    DMINDA (DNA motif identification and analyses) is an integrated web server for DNA motif identification and analyses, which is accessible at http://csbl.bmb.uga.edu/DMINDA/. This web site is freely available to all users and there is no login requirement. This server provides a suite of cis-regulatory motif analysis functions on DNA sequences, which are important to elucidation of the mechanisms of transcriptional regulation: (i) de novo motif finding for a given set of promoter sequences along with statistical scores for the predicted motifs derived based on information extracted from a control set, (ii) scanning motif instances of a query motif in provided genomic sequences, (iii) motif comparison and clustering of identified motifs, and (iv) co-occurrence analyses of query motifs in given promoter sequences. The server is powered by a backend computer cluster with over 150 computing nodes, and is particularly useful for motif prediction and analyses in prokaryotic genomes. We believe that DMINDA, as a new and comprehensive web server for cis-regulatory motif finding and analyses, will benefit the genomic research community in general and prokaryotic genome researchers in particular. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  3. Characterizing the binding motifs of 11 common human HLA‐DP and HLA‐DQ molecules using NNAlign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreatta, Massimo; Nielsen, Morten

    2012-01-01

    in the pattern of amino acid preferences at core positions, with conserved hydrophobic/aromatic anchors at P1 and P6, and an additional hydrophobic anchor at P9 in some variants. These results confirm the existence of a previously hypothesized supertype encompassing the most common DP alleles. Conversely...... and the relative weight of different amino acids at a given position. The recent publication of larger data sets of peptide‐binding to DP and DQ molecules opens the possibility of using data‐driven bioinformatics methods to accurately define the binding motifs of these molecules. Using the neural network......, the binding motifs for DQ molecules appear more divergent, displaying unconventional anchor positions and in some cases rather unspecific amino acid preferences....

  4. How curved membranes recruit amphipathic helices and protein anchoring motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzakis, Nikos S; Bhatia, Vikram K; Larsen, Jannik; Madsen, Kenneth L; Bolinger, Pierre-Yves; Kunding, Andreas H; Castillo, John; Gether, Ulrik; Hedegård, Per; Stamou, Dimitrios

    2009-11-01

    Lipids and several specialized proteins are thought to be able to sense the curvature of membranes (MC). Here we used quantitative fluorescence microscopy to measure curvature-selective binding of amphipathic motifs on single liposomes 50-700 nm in diameter. Our results revealed that sensing is predominantly mediated by a higher density of binding sites on curved membranes instead of higher affinity. We proposed a model based on curvature-induced defects in lipid packing that related these findings to lipid sorting and accurately predicted the existence of a new ubiquitous class of curvature sensors: membrane-anchored proteins. The fact that unrelated structural motifs such as alpha-helices and alkyl chains sense MC led us to propose that MC sensing is a generic property of curved membranes rather than a property of the anchoring molecules. We therefore anticipate that MC will promote the redistribution of proteins that are anchored in membranes through other types of hydrophobic moieties.

  5. Core signalling motif displaying multistability through multi-state enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Song; Saez Cornellana, Meritxell; Wiuf, Carsten Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Bistability, and more generally multistability, is a key system dynamics feature enabling decision-making and memory in cells. Deciphering the molecular determinants of multistability is thus crucial for a better understanding of cellular pathways and their (re)engineering in synthetic biology....... Here, we show that a key motif found predominantly in eukaryotic signalling systems, namely a futile signalling cycle, can display bistability when featuring a two-state kinase. We provide necessary and sufficient mathematical conditions on the kinetic parameters of this motif that guarantee...... the existence of multiple steady states. These conditions foster the intuition that bistability arises as a consequence of competition between the two states of the kinase. Extending from this result, we find that increasing the number of kinase states linearly translates into an increase in the number...

  6. An exegesis of IAPs: salvation and surprises from BIR motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, L K

    1999-08-01

    The BIR (baculovirus IAP repeat) motif is a conserved sequence of approximately 70 amino acids that was identified originally in the 'inhibitor of apoptosis' (IAP) family of proteins. BIR-containing proteins (BIRPs) are found in viruses, yeast and metazoans. Recent genetic analysis of a nematode BIRP demonstrated an essential role in cytokinesis instead of apoptosis. It is likely that BIRs originated in eukaryotes to serve a role in cytokinesis and/or mitotic spindle function during cell division and that, with gene duplication, the more recent adaptation of some BIRPs to the regulation of apoptosis was possible. IAPs interact with a variety of proteins, including members of the caspase protease family. This article discusses current research on the structure and function of the BIR motifs and how it could provide insight into the function of BIRPs in cell division.

  7. The coiled coil motif in polymer drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechar, Michal; Pola, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The coiled coil is a superhelical structural protein motif that has been thoroughly investigated in recent years. Because of the relatively well-understood principles that determine the properties of coiled coil peptides and proteins, macromolecular systems containing the coiled coil motif have been suggested for various applications. This short review focuses on hybrid polymer coiled coil systems designed for drug delivery purposes. After a short introduction, the most important features of the coiled coils (stability, association number, oligomerization selectivity and orientation of helices) are described, and the factors influencing these characteristics are discussed. Several examples of the most interesting biomedical applications of the polymer-coiled coil systems (according to the authors' opinion) are presented. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Neoanalysis, Orality, and Intertextuality: An Examination of Homeric Motif Transference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Burgess

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In Homeric studies scholars have speculated on the influence of (non-surviving preHomeric material on the Iliad. This article expands this line of argument from an oralist perspective, with reference to modern intertextual theory. It concludes that preHomeric and nonHomeric motifs from oral traditions were transferred into the epic poem, creating an intertextually allusive poetics that would have been recognizable to an early Greek audience informed of mythological traditions.

  9. Ribosomal RNA Kink-turn motif - a flexible molecular hinge

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rázga, Filip; Špačková, Naďa; Réblová, K.; Koča, J.; Leontis, Neocles B.; Šponer, Jiří

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 1 (2005), s. 38-38 ISSN 1211-5894. [Setkání českých a slovenských strukturních biologů 2005. Nové Hrady, 15.09.2005-20.09.2005] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507 Keywords : Kink-turn motif Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  10. Exon silencing by UAGG motifs in response to neuronal excitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping An

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Alternative pre-mRNA splicing plays fundamental roles in neurons by generating functional diversity in proteins associated with the communication and connectivity of the synapse. The CI cassette of the NMDA R1 receptor is one of a variety of exons that show an increase in exon skipping in response to cell excitation, but the molecular nature of this splicing responsiveness is not yet understood. Here we investigate the molecular basis for the induced changes in splicing of the CI cassette exon in primary rat cortical cultures in response to KCl-induced depolarization using an expression assay with a tight neuron-specific readout. In this system, exon silencing in response to neuronal excitation was mediated by multiple UAGG-type silencing motifs, and transfer of the motifs to a constitutive exon conferred a similar responsiveness by gain of function. Biochemical analysis of protein binding to UAGG motifs in extracts prepared from treated and mock-treated cortical cultures showed an increase in nuclear hnRNP A1-RNA binding activity in parallel with excitation. Evidence for the role of the NMDA receptor and calcium signaling in the induced splicing response was shown by the use of specific antagonists, as well as cell-permeable inhibitors of signaling pathways. Finally, a wider role for exon-skipping responsiveness is shown to involve additional exons with UAGG-related silencing motifs, and transcripts involved in synaptic functions. These results suggest that, at the post-transcriptional level, excitable exons such as the CI cassette may be involved in strategies by which neurons mount adaptive responses to hyperstimulation.

  11. A dream motif in contemporary Slovenian youth literature

    OpenAIRE

    Kosmatin, Vesna

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to discuss the motif of dreams in contemporary Slovene children’s fiction. The theoretical part discusses two terms: children’s fiction and dreams. In the scope of children’s fiction, the focus is the definitions, theories, and open questions regarding the target audience. Furthermore, the concept of picture book is discussed and the importance of interaction between text and illustration is identified. The basis for the research is the book by Maria Nikolajev...

  12. Aplikasi Ornamen Khas Maluku untuk Pengembangan Desain Motif Batik

    OpenAIRE

    Masiswo Masiswo; Vivin Atika

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRAKMaluku memiliki banyak ragam hias budaya warisan nilai leluhur berupa ornamen etnis yang merupakan kesenian dan keterampilan kerajinan. Hasil warisan tersebut sampai saat ini masih lestari hidup serta dapat dinikmati sebagai konsumsi rohani yang memuaskan manusia. Berkaitan dengan keberlangsungan nilai-nilai tradisi etnis yang berwujud pada ornamen-ornamen daerah Maluku, maka dikembangkan untuk kebutuhan manusia berupa motif batik pada kain. Pengembangan ornamen ini lebih menekankan pa...

  13. The E Block motif is associated with Legionella pneumophila translocated substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li; Boyd, Dana; Amyot, Whitney M; Hempstead, Andrew D; Luo, Zhao-Qing; O'Connor, Tamara J; Chen, Cui; Machner, Matthias; Montminy, Timothy; Isberg, Ralph R

    2011-02-01

    Legionella pneumophila promotes intracellular growth by moving bacterial proteins across membranes via the Icm/Dot system. A strategy was devised to identify large numbers of Icm/Dot translocated proteins, and the resulting pool was used to identify common motifs that operate as recognition signals. The 3' end of the sidC gene, which encodes a known translocated substrate, was replaced with DNA encoding 200 codons from the 3' end of 442 potential substrate-encoding genes. The resulting hybrid proteins were then tested in a high throughput assay, in which translocated SidC antigen was detected by indirect immunofluorescence. Among translocated substrates, regions of 6-8 residues called E Blocks were identified that were rich in glutamates. Analysis of SidM/DrrA revealed that loss of three Glu residues, arrayed in a triangle on an α-helical surface, totally eliminated translocation of a reporter protein. Based on this result, a second strategy was employed to identify Icm/Dot substrates having carboxyl terminal glutamates. From the fusion assay and the bioinformatic queries, carboxyl terminal sequences from 49 previously unidentified proteins were shown to promote translocation into target cells. These studies indicate that by analysing subsets of translocated substrates, patterns can be found that allow predictions of important motifs recognized by Icm/Dot. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Motif structure and cooperation in real-world complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Mostafa; Rabiee, Hamid R.; Jalili, Mahdi

    2010-12-01

    Networks of dynamical nodes serve as generic models for real-world systems in many branches of science ranging from mathematics to physics, technology, sociology and biology. Collective behavior of agents interacting over complex networks is important in many applications. The cooperation between selfish individuals is one of the most interesting collective phenomena. In this paper we address the interplay between the motifs’ cooperation properties and their abundance in a number of real-world networks including yeast protein-protein interaction, human brain, protein structure, email communication, dolphins’ social interaction, Zachary karate club and Net-science coauthorship networks. First, the amount of cooperativity for all possible undirected subgraphs with three to six nodes is calculated. To this end, the evolutionary dynamics of the Prisoner’s Dilemma game is considered and the cooperativity of each subgraph is calculated as the percentage of cooperating agents at the end of the simulation time. Then, the three- to six-node motifs are extracted for each network. The significance of the abundance of a motif, represented by a Z-value, is obtained by comparing them with some properly randomized versions of the original network. We found that there is always a group of motifs showing a significant inverse correlation between their cooperativity amount and Z-value, i.e. the more the Z-value the less the amount of cooperativity. This suggests that networks composed of well-structured units do not have good cooperativity properties.

  15. ROMANIAN TRADITIONAL MOTIF ELEMENT OF MODERNITY IN CLOTHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ŞUTEU Marius Darius

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper are presented the phases for improving from an aesthetic point of view a clothing item, the T-shirt for women using software design patterns, computerised graphics and textile different modern technologies including: industrial embroidery, digital printing, sublimation. In the first phase a documentation was prepared in the University of Oradea and traditional motif was selected from a collection comprising a number of Romanian traditional motifs from different parts of the country and were reintepreted and stylized whilst preserving the symbolism and color range specified to the area. For the styling phase was used CorelDraw vector graphics program that allows changing the shape, size and color of the drawings without affecting the identity of the pattern. The embroidery was done using BERNINA Embroidery Software Designer Plus Software. This software allows you to export the model to any domestic or industrial embroidery machine regardless of brand. Finally we observed the resistance of the printed and embroided model to various: elasticity, resistance to abrasion and a sensory analysis on the preservation of color. After testing we noticed the imprint resistance applied to the fabric, resulting in a quality that makes possible to keep the Romanian traditional motif from generation to generation.

  16. Maximum likelihood density modification by pattern recognition of structural motifs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terwilliger, Thomas C.

    2004-04-13

    An electron density for a crystallographic structure having protein regions and solvent regions is improved by maximizing the log likelihood of a set of structures factors {F.sub.h } using a local log-likelihood function: (x)+p(.rho.(x).vertline.SOLV)p.sub.SOLV (x)+p(.rho.(x).vertline.H)p.sub.H (x)], where p.sub.PROT (x) is the probability that x is in the protein region, p(.rho.(x).vertline.PROT) is the conditional probability for .rho.(x) given that x is in the protein region, and p.sub.SOLV (x) and p(.rho.(x).vertline.SOLV) are the corresponding quantities for the solvent region, p.sub.H (x) refers to the probability that there is a structural motif at a known location, with a known orientation, in the vicinity of the point x; and p(.rho.(x).vertline.H) is the probability distribution for electron density at this point given that the structural motif actually is present. One appropriate structural motif is a helical structure within the crystallographic structure.

  17. A novel swarm intelligence algorithm for finding DNA motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Chengwei; Ruan, Jianhua

    2009-01-01

    Discovering DNA motifs from co-expressed or co-regulated genes is an important step towards deciphering complex gene regulatory networks and understanding gene functions. Despite significant improvement in the last decade, it still remains one of the most challenging problems in computational molecular biology. In this work, we propose a novel motif finding algorithm that finds consensus patterns using a population-based stochastic optimisation technique called Particle Swarm Optimisation (PSO), which has been shown to be effective in optimising difficult multidimensional problems in continuous domains. We propose to use a word dissimilarity graph to remap the neighborhood structure of the solution space of DNA motifs, and propose a modification of the naive PSO algorithm to accommodate discrete variables. In order to improve efficiency, we also propose several strategies for escaping from local optima and for automatically determining the termination criteria. Experimental results on simulated challenge problems show that our method is both more efficient and more accurate than several existing algorithms. Applications to several sets of real promoter sequences also show that our approach is able to detect known transcription factor binding sites, and outperforms two of the most popular existing algorithms.

  18. Insertion of tetracysteine motifs into dopamine transporter extracellular domains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deanna M Navaroli

    Full Text Available The neuronal dopamine transporter (DAT is a major determinant of extracellular dopamine (DA levels and is the primary target for a variety of addictive and therapeutic psychoactive drugs. DAT is acutely regulated by protein kinase C (PKC activation and amphetamine exposure, both of which modulate DAT surface expression by endocytic trafficking. In order to use live imaging approaches to study DAT endocytosis, methods are needed to exclusively label the DAT surface pool. The use of membrane impermeant, sulfonated biarsenic dyes holds potential as one such approach, and requires introduction of an extracellular tetracysteine motif (tetraCys; CCPGCC to facilitate dye binding. In the current study, we took advantage of intrinsic proline-glycine (Pro-Gly dipeptides encoded in predicted DAT extracellular domains to introduce tetraCys motifs into DAT extracellular loops 2, 3, and 4. [(3H]DA uptake studies, surface biotinylation and fluorescence microscopy in PC12 cells indicate that tetraCys insertion into the DAT second extracellular loop results in a functional transporter that maintains PKC-mediated downregulation. Introduction of tetraCys into extracellular loops 3 and 4 yielded DATs with severely compromised function that failed to mature and traffic to the cell surface. This is the first demonstration of successful introduction of a tetracysteine motif into a DAT extracellular domain, and may hold promise for use of biarsenic dyes in live DAT imaging studies.

  19. Interlinking motifs and entropy landscapes of statistically interacting particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Lu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The s=1/2 Ising chain with uniform nearest-neighbor and next-nearest-neighbor coupling is used to construct a system of floating particles characterized by motifs of up to six consecutive local spins. The spin couplings cause the assembly of particles which, in turn, remain free of interaction energies even at high density. All microstates are configurations of particles from one of three different sets, excited from pseudo-vacua associated with ground states of periodicities one, two, and four. The motifs of particles and elements of pseudo-vacuum interlink in two shared site variables. The statistical interaction between particles is encoded in a generalized Pauli principle, describing how the placement of one particle modifies the options for placing further particles. In the statistical mechanical analysis arbitrary energies can be assigned to all particle species. The entropy is a function of the particle populations. The statistical interaction specifications are transparently built into that expression. The energies and structures of the particles alone govern the ordering at low temperature. Under special circumstances the particles can be replaced by more fundamental particles with shorter motifs that interlink in only one shared site variable. Structures emerge from interactions on two levels: particles with shapes from coupled spins and long-range ordering tendencies from statistically interacting particles with shapes.

  20. TOPDOM: database of conservatively located domains and motifs in proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Julia; Dobson, László; Tusnády, Gábor E

    2016-09-01

    The TOPDOM database-originally created as a collection of domains and motifs located consistently on the same side of the membranes in α-helical transmembrane proteins-has been updated and extended by taking into consideration consistently localized domains and motifs in globular proteins, too. By taking advantage of the recently developed CCTOP algorithm to determine the type of a protein and predict topology in case of transmembrane proteins, and by applying a thorough search for domains and motifs as well as utilizing the most up-to-date version of all source databases, we managed to reach a 6-fold increase in the size of the whole database and a 2-fold increase in the number of transmembrane proteins. TOPDOM database is available at http://topdom.enzim.hu The webpage utilizes the common Apache, PHP5 and MySQL software to provide the user interface for accessing and searching the database. The database itself is generated on a high performance computer. tusnady.gabor@ttk.mta.hu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  1. The city as a motif in Slovene youth literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Mileva Blažić

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the city as motif of Slovenian youth literature in four different periods, beginning in the first period of original Slovenian youth literature in the second half of the 19th century, second period in the first half of the 20th century, third period in the second half of the 20th century and after 1950, when significant books were produced in the field of short modern stories, emphasising on picture books and realistic narrative prose, and the fourth period after 1990. A discernable shift can be observed in the thirties of the 20th century, during the times of socialist realism. The most significant change occurred after 1960, when massive migration from rural to urban environments caused by industrialisation began. The motif of urban environment especially marked modern realistic narrative, coined problematic narrative after 1990, with its focus on issues of growing up in such environments. The city as motif or theme doesn’t appear only in realistic narrative, but since the early 20th century also in fantastic narrative, thus it dichotomically presents the image of real world in Slovenian youth realistic narrative.

  2. A cost-aggregating integer linear program for motif finding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsford, Carl; Zaslavsky, Elena; Singh, Mona

    2011-01-01

    In the motif finding problem one seeks a set of mutually similar substrings within a collection of biological sequences. This is an important and widely-studied problem, as such shared motifs in DNA often correspond to regulatory elements. We study a combinatorial framework where the goal is to find substrings of a given length such that the sum of their pairwise distances is minimized. We describe a novel integer linear program for the problem, which uses the fact that distances between substrings come from a limited set of possibilities allowing for aggregate consideration of sequence position pairs with the same distances. We show how to tighten its linear programming relaxation by adding an exponential set of constraints and give an efficient separation algorithm that can find violated constraints, thereby showing that the tightened linear program can still be solved in polynomial time. We apply our approach to find optimal solutions for the motif finding problem and show that it is effective in practice in uncovering known transcription factor binding sites. PMID:22081765

  3. Autosomal STR variations reveal genetic heterogeneity in the Mon-Khmer speaking group of Northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampuansai, Jatupol; Völgyi, Antónia; Kutanan, Wibhu; Kangwanpong, Daoroong; Pamjav, Horolma

    2017-03-01

    Since prehistoric times, Mon-Khmer speaking people have been recognized as indigenous ethnic groups living in northern Thailand. After the period of Tai colonization in the thirteenth century CE, the Mon-Khmer inhabitants were fragmented; some were expelled to rural areas while some were integrated into the mainstream of Tai society. Autosomal STR variations revealed that the present-day Mon-Khmer people could be genetically divided into two clusters. This finding appears to be consistent with the level of historical contact with the Tai majority ethnic groups. The cluster consisting of the Khamu, Lua, Paluang and Htin people, indicate that they have lived in remote areas and have had little historical contact with the Tai people. In this way, they appeared to have maintained aspects of their Mon-Khmer ancestral genetic bloodline but have genetically diverged from the Tai people. The cluster comprised of the Mon and Lawa people had an exclusively close relationship with the Tai people during the establishment of the prosperous Lan Na Kingdom. A fraction of the Tai genetic component investigated among the Mon people and some Lawa populations reflected the evidence of genetic admixture. However, some Lawa people, who have lived in the mountainous area of Mae Hong Son Province have exhibited a unique gene pool, which might have been shaped by the founder effect that occurred during their historical fragmentation. The rise of the genetic assimilation of the hill-tribe Karen people into the Mon-Khmer and the Tai gene pools indicated that different languages, cultures, and geographical distances have lost their power as barriers of inter-ethnic marriages in the present day. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Genetic structure and diversity of three Colombian southwest afrodescendent populations using 8 STR's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guauque Olarte, Sandra; Fuentes Pardo, Angela Patricia; Cardenas Henao, Heiber; Barreto, Guillermo

    2010-01-01

    To estimate the diversity, structure and genetic flow in three Colombian southwest afrodescendent populations (Buenaventura, Mulalo y Tumaco), the alleles revealed by 8 autosomal STR's were analyzed in 78 no-related individuals, by the use of PCR and comparison with specific allelic ladders for every system resolved by polyacrylamide gel (8%). the results were compared with 2 Amerindian populations (Awa-Kuaikier and Coyaima) and 2 mixed Colombian populations (Valle del Cauca and Cauca). For the afrodescendent and Amerindian populations was found moderate diversity (h between 0.768±0.414 and 0.796±0.424), in contrast, the mixed population showed higher rates (>0.803), which is probably caused by mixing with Amerindians, that also can explain the high endogamy seen in mixed populations. The AMOVA exhibited moderate genetic structure between the afrodescendent populations (FST= 0.098; p<0.05), but higher between the three ethnical groups compared (FST=0.26723; p<0.05). The closer genetics distances are in favor of Tumaco and Buenaventura, supported for the migration rate found (34.298), which was the same inside of Amerindian and mixed populations. Maybe, because Mulalo is a closed isolated population, its differences in front others afrodescendent populations are explained. The neighbor-joining tree showed nearest relations among Amerindian and mixed populations, furthermore, the ancestral character for the afrodescendents. That sustains the idea of genetic flow maintained between the 3 ethnical groups, principally between Amerindian and mixed populations, supported because the genetic differences, migration rates and Amerindian matrilineality reported in the literature

  5. [(11)C]PiB PET in Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deters, Kacie D; Risacher, Shannon L; Yoder, Karmen K; Oblak, Adrian L; Unverzagt, Frederick W; Murrell, Jill R; Epperson, Francine; Tallman, Eileen F; Quaid, Kimberly A; Farlow, Martin R; Saykin, Andrew J; Ghetti, Bernardino

    2016-01-01

    Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker Disease (GSS) is a familial neurodegenerative disorder characterized clinically by ataxia, parkinsonism, and dementia, and neuropathologically by deposition of diffuse and amyloid plaques composed of prion protein (PrP). The purpose of this study was to evaluate if [(11)C]Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB) positron emission tomography (PET) is capable of detecting PrP-amyloid in PRNP gene carriers. Six individuals at risk for GSS and eight controls underwent [(11)C]PiB PET scans using standard methods. Approximately one year after the initial scan, each of the three asymptomatic carriers (two with PRNP P102L mutation, one with PRNP F198S mutation) underwent a second [(11)C]PiB PET scan. Three P102L carriers, one F198S carrier, and one non-carrier of the F198S mutation were cognitively normal, while one F198S carrier was cognitively impaired during the course of this study. No [(11)C]PiB uptake was observed in any subject at baseline or at follow-up. Neuropathologic study of the symptomatic individual revealed PrP-immunopositive plaques and tau-immunopositive neurofibrillary tangles in cerebral cortex, subcortical nuclei, and brainstem. PrP deposits were also numerous in the cerebellar cortex. This is the first study to investigate the ability of [(11)C]PiB PET to bind to PrP-amyloid in GSS F198S subjects. This finding suggests that [(11)C]PiB PET is not suitable for in vivo assessment of PrP-amyloid plaques in patients with GSS.

  6. [11C]PiB PET in Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deters, Kacie D; Risacher, Shannon L; Yoder, Karmen K; Oblak, Adrian L; Unverzagt, Frederick W; Murrell, Jill R; Epperson, Francine; Tallman, Eileen F; Quaid, Kimberly A; Farlow, Martin R; Saykin, Andrew J; Ghetti, Bernardino

    2016-01-01

    Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker Disease (GSS) is a familial neurodegenerative disorder characterized clinically by ataxia, parkinsonism, and dementia, and neuropathologically by deposition of diffuse and amyloid plaques composed of prion protein (PrP). The purpose of this study was to evaluate if [11C]Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB) positron emission tomography (PET) is capable of detecting PrP-amyloid in PRNP gene carriers. Six individuals at risk for GSS and eight controls underwent [11C]PiB PET scans using standard methods. Approximately one year after the initial scan, each of the three asymptomatic carriers (two with PRNP P102L mutation, one with PRNP F198S mutation) underwent a second [11C]PiB PET scan. Three P102L carriers, one F198S carrier, and one non-carrier of the F198S mutation were cognitively normal, while one F198S carrier was cognitively impaired during the course of this study. No [11C]PiB uptake was observed in any subject at baseline or at follow-up. Neuropathologic study of the symptomatic individual revealed PrP-immunopositive plaques and tau-immunopositive neurofibrillary tangles in cerebral cortex, subcortical nuclei, and brainstem. PrP deposits were also numerous in the cerebellar cortex. This is the first study to investigate the ability of [11C]PiB PET to bind to PrP-amyloid in GSS F198S subjects. This finding suggests that [11C]PiB PET is not suitable for in vivo assessment of PrP-amyloid plaques in patients with GSS. PMID:27069768

  7. Leucine-based receptor sorting motifs are dependent on the spacing relative to the plasma membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler, C; Dietrich, J; Nielsen, B L

    1998-01-01

    Many integral membrane proteins contain leucine-based motifs within their cytoplasmic domains that mediate internalization and intracellular sorting. Two types of leucine-based motifs have been identified. One type is dependent on phosphorylation, whereas the other type, which includes an acidic...... amino acid, is constitutively active. In this study, we have investigated how the spacing relative to the plasma membrane affects the function of both types of leucine-based motifs. For phosphorylation-dependent leucine-based motifs, a minimal spacing of 7 residues between the plasma membrane...... and the phospho-acceptor was required for phosphorylation and thereby activation of the motifs. For constitutively active leucine-based motifs, a minimal spacing of 6 residues between the plasma membrane and the acidic residue was required for optimal activity of the motifs. In addition, we found that the acidic...

  8. Placental complications after a previous cesarean section

    OpenAIRE

    Milošević Jelena; Lilić Vekoslav; Tasić Marija; Radović-Janošević Dragana; Stefanović Milan; Antić Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The incidence of cesarean section has been rising in the past 50 years. With the increased number of cesarean sections, the number of pregnancies with the previous cesarean section rises as well. The aim of this study was to establish the influence of the previous cesarean section on the development of placental complications: placenta previa, placental abruption and placenta accreta, as well as to determine the influence of the number of previous cesarean sections on the complic...

  9. The EAR motif controls the early flowering and senescence phenotype mediated by over-expression of SlERF36 and is partly responsible for changes in stomatal density and photosynthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar Upadhyay

    Full Text Available The EAR motif is a small seven amino acid motif associated with active repression of several target genes. We had previously identified SlERF36 as an EAR motif containing gene from tomato and shown that its over-expression results in early flowering and senescence and a 25-35% reduction of stomatal density, photosynthesis and stomatal conductance in transgenic tobacco. In order to understand the role of the EAR motif in governing the phenotypes, we have expressed the full-length SlERF36 and a truncated form, lacking the EAR motif under the CaMV35S promoter, in transgenic Arabidopsis. Plants over-expressing the full-length SlERF36 show prominent early flowering under long day as well as short day conditions. The early flowering leads to an earlier onset of senescence in these transgenic plants which in turn reduces vegetative growth, affecting rosette, flower and silique sizes. Stomatal number is reduced by 38-39% while photosynthesis and stomatal conductance decrease by about 30-40%. Transgenic plants over-expressing the truncated version of SlERF36 (lacking the C-terminal EAR motif, show phenotypes largely matching the control with normal flowering and senescence indicating that the early flowering and senescence is governed by the EAR motif. On the other hand, photosynthetic rates and stomatal number were also reduced in plants expressing SlERF36ΔEAR although to a lesser degree compared to the full- length version indicating that these are partly controlled by the EAR motif. These studies show that the major phenotypic changes in plant growth caused by over-expression of SlERF36 are actually mediated by the EAR motif.

  10. Discovery of novel antimicrobial peptides with unusual cysteine motifs in dandelion Taraxacum officinale Wigg. flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astafieva, A A; Rogozhin, E A; Odintsova, T I; Khadeeva, N V; Grishin, E V; Egorov, Ts A

    2012-08-01

    Three novel antimicrobial peptides designated ToAMP1, ToAMP2 and ToAMP3 were purified from Taraxacum officinale flowers. Their amino acid sequences were determined. The peptides are cationic and cysteine-rich and consist of 38, 44 and 42 amino acid residues for ToAMP1, ToAMP2 and ToAMP3, respectively. Importantly, according to cysteine motifs, the peptides are representatives of two novel previously unknown families of plant antimicrobial peptides. ToAMP1 and ToAMP2 share high sequence identity and belong to 6-Cys-containing antimicrobial peptides, while ToAMP3 is a member of a distinct 8-Cys family. The peptides were shown to display high antimicrobial activity both against fungal and bacterial pathogens, and therefore represent new promising molecules for biotechnological and medicinal applications. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Peptomics, identification of novel cationic Arabidopsis peptides with conserved sequence motifs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Addie Nina; Mundy, John; Skriver, Karen

    2002-01-01

    function. Annotation of the Arabidopsis genome sequence has made it possible to identify peptide-encoding genes. However, such annotational identification is impeded because small genes are poorly predicted by gene-prediction algorithms, thus prompting the alternative approaches described here. We...... initially performed a systematic analysis of short polypeptides encoded by annotated genes on two Arabidopsis chromosomes using SignalP to identify potentially secreted peptides. Subsequent homology searches with selected, putatively secreted peptides, led to the identification of a potential, large...... Arabidopsis family of 34 genes. The predicted peptides are characterized by a conserved C-terminal sequence motif and additional primary structure conservation in a core region. The majority of these genes had not previously been annotated. A subset of the predicted peptides show high overall sequence...

  12. IQCJ-SCHIP1, a novel fusion transcript encoding a calmodulin-binding IQ motif protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwasnicka-Crawford, Dorota A.; Carson, Andrew R.; Scherer, Stephen W.

    2006-01-01

    The existence of transcripts that span two adjacent, independent genes is considered rare in the human genome. This study characterizes a novel human fusion gene named IQCJ-SCHIP1. IQCJ-SCHIP1 is the longest isoform of a complex transcriptional unit that bridges two separate genes that encode distinct proteins, IQCJ, a novel IQ motif containing protein and SCHIP1, a schwannomin interacting protein that has been previously shown to interact with the Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) protein. IQCJ-SCHIP1 is located on the chromosome 3q25 and comprises a 1692-bp transcript encompassing 11 exons spanning 828 kb of the genomic DNA. We show that IQCJ-SCHIP1 mRNA is highly expressed in the brain. Protein encoded by the IQCJ-SCHIP1 gene was localized to cytoplasm and actin-rich regions and in differentiated PC12 cells was also seen in neurite extensions

  13. The Wolbachia WO bacteriophage proteome in the Aedes albopictus C/wStr1 cell line: evidence for lytic activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldridge, Gerald D; Markowski, Todd W; Witthuhn, Bruce A; Higgins, LeeAnn; Baldridge, Abigail S; Fallon, Ann M

    2016-01-01

    Wolbachia pipientis (Rickettsiales), an obligate intracellular alphaproteobacterium in insects, manipulates host reproduction to maximize invasion of uninfected insect populations. Modification of host population structure has potential applications for control of pest species, particularly if Wolbachia can be maintained, manipulated, and genetically engineered in vitro. Although Wolbachia maintains an obligate mutualism with genome stability in nematodes, arthropods can be co-infected with distinct Wolbachia strains, and horizontal gene transfer between strains is potentially mediated by WO phages encoded within Wolbachia genomes. Proteomic analysis of a robust, persistent infection of a mosquito cell line with wStr from the planthopper, Laodelphax striatellus, revealed expression of a full array of WO phage genes, as well as nine of ten non-phage genes that occur between two distinct clusters of WOMelB genes in the genome of wMel, which infects Drosophila melanogaster. These non-phage genes encode potential host-adaptive proteins and are expressed in wStr at higher levels than phage structural proteins. A subset of seven of the non-phage genes is flanked by highly conserved non-coding sequences, including a putative promoter element, that are not present in a syntenically arranged array of homologs in plasmids from three tick-associated Rickettsia spp. These studies expand our understanding of wStr in a host cell line derived from the mosquito, Aedes albopictus, and provide a basis for investigating conditions that favor the lytic phase of the WO phage life cycle and recovery of infectious phage particles.

  14. My-Forensic-Loci-queries (MyFLq) framework for analysis of forensic STR data generated by massive parallel sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Neste, Christophe; Vandewoestyne, Mado; Van Criekinge, Wim; Deforce, Dieter; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip

    2014-03-01

    Forensic scientists are currently investigating how to transition from capillary electrophoresis (CE) to massive parallel sequencing (MPS) for analysis of forensic DNA profiles. MPS offers several advantages over CE such as virtually unlimited multiplexy of loci, combining both short tandem repeat (STR) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci, small amplicons without constraints of size separation, more discrimination power, deep mixture resolution and sample multiplexing. We present our bioinformatic framework My-Forensic-Loci-queries (MyFLq) for analysis of MPS forensic data. For allele calling, the framework uses a MySQL reference allele database with automatically determined regions of interest (ROIs) by a generic maximal flanking algorithm which makes it possible to use any STR or SNP forensic locus. Python scripts were designed to automatically make allele calls starting from raw MPS data. We also present a method to assess the usefulness and overall performance of a forensic locus with respect to MPS, as well as methods to estimate whether an unknown allele, which sequence is not present in the MySQL database, is in fact a new allele or a sequencing error. The MyFLq framework was applied to an Illumina MiSeq dataset of a forensic Illumina amplicon library, generated from multilocus STR polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on both single contributor samples and multiple person DNA mixtures. Although the multilocus PCR was not yet optimized for MPS in terms of amplicon length or locus selection, the results show excellent results for most loci. The results show a high signal-to-noise ratio, correct allele calls, and a low limit of detection for minor DNA contributors in mixed DNA samples. Technically, forensic MPS affords great promise for routine implementation in forensic genomics. The method is also applicable to adjacent disciplines such as molecular autopsy in legal medicine and in mitochondrial DNA research. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by

  15. Massively parallel sequencing of 32 forensic markers using the Precision ID GlobalFiler™ NGS STR Panel and the Ion PGM™ System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng; Zhou, Di; Wang, Hui; Jia, Zhenjun; Liu, Jing; Qian, Xiaoqin; Li, Chengtao; Hou, Yiping

    2017-11-01

    Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) technologies have proved capable of sequencing the majority of the key forensic STR markers. By MPS, not only the repeat-length size but also sequence variations could be detected. Recently, Thermo Fisher Scientific has designed an advanced MPS 32-plex panel, named the Precision ID GlobalFiler™ NGS STR Panel, where the primer set has been designed specifically for the purpose of MPS technologies and the data analysis are supported by a new version HID STR Genotyper Plugin (V4.0). In this study, a series of experiments that evaluated concordance, reliability, sensitivity of detection, mixture analysis, and the ability to analyze case-type and challenged samples were conducted. In addition, 106 unrelated Han individuals were sequenced to perform genetic analyses of allelic diversity. As expected, MPS detected broader allele variations and gained higher power of discrimination and exclusion rate. MPS results were found to be concordant with current capillary electrophoresis methods, and single source complete profiles could be obtained stably using as little as 100pg of input DNA. Moreover, this MPS panel could be adapted to case-type samples and partial STR genotypes of the minor contributor could be detected up to 19:1 mixture. Aforementioned results indicate that the Precision ID GlobalFiler™ NGS STR Panel is reliable, robust and reproducible and have the potential to be used as a tool for human forensics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Structure of the central RNA recognition motif of human TIA-1 at 1.95 A resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Amit O.; Swenson, Matthew C.; Benning, Matthew M.; Kielkopf, Clara L.

    2008-01-01

    T-cell-restricted intracellular antigen-1 (TIA-1) regulates alternative pre-mRNA splicing in the nucleus, and mRNA translation in the cytoplasm, by recognizing uridine-rich sequences of RNAs. As a step towards understanding RNA recognition by this regulatory factor, the X-ray structure of the central RNA recognition motif (RRM2) of human TIA-1 is presented at 1.95 A resolution. Comparison with structurally homologous RRM-RNA complexes identifies residues at the RNA interfaces that are conserved in TIA-1-RRM2. The versatile capability of RNP motifs to interact with either proteins or RNA is reinforced by symmetry-related protein-protein interactions mediated by the RNP motifs of TIA-1-RRM2. Importantly, the TIA-1-RRM2 structure reveals the locations of mutations responsible for inhibiting nuclear import. In contrast with previous assumptions, the mutated residues are buried within the hydrophobic interior of the domain, where they would be likely to destabilize the RRM fold rather than directly inhibit RNA binding

  17. Comparison of loline alkaloid gene clusters across fungal endophytes: predicting the co-regulatory sequence motifs and the evolutionary history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutil, Brandi L; Greenwald, Charles; Liu, Gang; Spiering, Martin J; Schardl, Christopher L; Wilkinson, Heather H

    2007-10-01

    LOL, a fungal secondary metabolite gene cluster found in Epichloë and Neotyphodium species, is responsible for production of insecticidal loline alkaloids. To analyze the genetic architecture and to predict the evolutionary history of LOL, we compared five clusters from four fungal species (single clusters from Epichloë festucae, Neotyphodium sp. PauTG-1, Neotyphodium coenophialum, and two clusters we previously characterized in Neotyphodium uncinatum). Using PhyloCon to compare putative lol gene promoter regions, we have identified four motifs conserved across the lol genes in all five clusters. Each motif has significant similarity to known fungal transcription factor binding sites in the TRANSFAC database. Conservation of these motifs is further support for the hypothesis that the lol genes are co-regulated. Interestingly, the history of asexual Neotyphodium spp. includes multiple interspecific hybridization events. Comparing clusters from three Neotyphodium species and E. festucae allowed us to determine which Epichloë ancestors are the most likely contributors of LOL in these asexual species. For example, while no present day Epichloë typhina isolates are known to produce lolines, our data support the hypothesis that the E. typhina ancestor(s) of three asexual endophyte species contained a LOL gene cluster. Thus, these data support a model of evolution in which the polymorphism in loline alkaloid production phenotypes among endophyte species is likely due to the loss of the trait over time.

  18. Population data of 19 autosomal STR loci in the Li population from Hainan Province in southernmost China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Haoliang; Wang, Xiao; Ren, Zheng; He, Guanglin; Long, Ren; Liang, Anwen; Song, Tao; Deng, Jianqiang

    2018-03-20

    In the present study, population data of 19 autosomal STR loci included in the Goldeneye™ DNA ID System 20A in 653 Li individuals was obtained and population genetic relationships among 13 populations were investigated. MDS and phylogenetic analysis suggested that the Hainan Li population kept a close genetic relationship with the Chinese Han populations, especially for Southern Han populations (Guangdong Han, Sichuan Han, and Hunan Han). Our results indicated that the 19 autosomal STRs are highly discriminative and polymorphic in the Hainan Li population suitable for personal forensic identification and paternity testing.

  19. DNA nanotechnology based on i-motif structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yuanchen; Yang, Zhongqiang; Liu, Dongsheng

    2014-06-17

    CONSPECTUS: Most biological processes happen at the nanometer scale, and understanding the energy transformations and material transportation mechanisms within living organisms has proved challenging. To better understand the secrets of life, researchers have investigated artificial molecular motors and devices over the past decade because such systems can mimic certain biological processes. DNA nanotechnology based on i-motif structures is one system that has played an important role in these investigations. In this Account, we summarize recent advances in functional DNA nanotechnology based on i-motif structures. The i-motif is a DNA quadruplex that occurs as four stretches of cytosine repeat sequences form C·CH(+) base pairs, and their stabilization requires slightly acidic conditions. This unique property has produced the first DNA molecular motor driven by pH changes. The motor is reliable, and studies show that it is capable of millisecond running speeds, comparable to the speed of natural protein motors. With careful design, the output of these types of motors was combined to drive micrometer-sized cantilevers bend. Using established DNA nanostructure assembly and functionalization methods, researchers can easily integrate the motor within other DNA assembled structures and functional units, producing DNA molecular devices with new functions such as suprahydrophobic/suprahydrophilic smart surfaces that switch, intelligent nanopores triggered by pH changes, molecular logic gates, and DNA nanosprings. Recently, researchers have produced motors driven by light and electricity, which have allowed DNA motors to be integrated within silicon-based nanodevices. Moreover, some devices based on i-motif structures have proven useful for investigating processes within living cells. The pH-responsiveness of the i-motif structure also provides a way to control the stepwise assembly of DNA nanostructures. In addition, because of the stability of the i-motif, this

  20. Short sequence motifs, overrepresented in mammalian conservednon-coding sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minovitsky, Simon; Stegmaier, Philip; Kel, Alexander; Kondrashov,Alexey S.; Dubchak, Inna

    2007-02-21

    Background: A substantial fraction of non-coding DNAsequences of multicellular eukaryotes is under selective constraint. Inparticular, ~;5 percent of the human genome consists of conservednon-coding sequences (CNSs). CNSs differ from other genomic sequences intheir nucleotide composition and must play important functional roles,which mostly remain obscure.Results: We investigated relative abundancesof short sequence motifs in all human CNSs present in the human/mousewhole-genome alignments vs. three background sets of sequences: (i)weakly conserved or unconserved non-coding sequences (non-CNSs); (ii)near-promoter sequences (located between nucleotides -500 and -1500,relative to a start of transcription); and (iii) random sequences withthe same nucleotide composition as that of CNSs. When compared tonon-CNSs and near-promoter sequences, CNSs possess an excess of AT-richmotifs, often containing runs of identical nucleotides. In contrast, whencompared to random sequences, CNSs contain an excess of GC-rich motifswhich, however, lack CpG dinucleotides. Thus, abundance of short sequencemotifs in human CNSs, taken as a whole, is mostly determined by theiroverall compositional properties and not by overrepresentation of anyspecific short motifs. These properties are: (i) high AT-content of CNSs,(ii) a tendency, probably due to context-dependent mutation, of A's andT's to clump, (iii) presence of short GC-rich regions, and (iv) avoidanceof CpG contexts, due to their hypermutability. Only a small number ofshort motifs, overrepresented in all human CNSs are similar to bindingsites of transcription factors from the FOX family.Conclusion: Human CNSsas a whole appear to be too broad a class of sequences to possess strongfootprints of any short sequence-specific functions. Such footprintsshould be studied at the level of functional subclasses of CNSs, such asthose which flank genes with a particular pattern of expression. Overallproperties of CNSs are affected by

  1. Current role of endovascular therapy in Marfan patients with previous aortic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Akin

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Ibrahim Akin, Stephan Kische, Tim C Rehders, Tushar Chatterjee, Henrik Schneider, Thomas Körber, Christoph A Nienaber, Hüseyin InceDepartment of Medicine, Division of Cardiology at the University Hospital Rostock, Rostock School of Medicine, Ernst-Heydemann-Str. 6, 18057 Rostock, GermanyAbstract: The Marfan syndrome is a heritable disorder of the connective tissue which affects the cardiovascular, ocular, and skeletal system. The cardiovascular manifestation with aortic root dilatation, aortic valve regurgitation, and aortic dissection has a prevalence of 60% to 90% and determines the premature death of these patients. Thirty-four percent of the patients with Marfan syndrome will have serious cardiovascular complications requiring surgery in the first 10 years after diagnosis. Before aortic surgery became available, the majority of the patients died by the age of 32 years. Introduction in the aortic surgery techniques caused an increase of the 10 year survival rate up to 97%. The purpose of this article is to give an overview about the feasibility and outcome of stent-graft placement in the descending thoracic aorta in Marfan patients with previous aortic surgery.Keywords: Marfan syndrome, aortic dissection, root replacement, stent-graft, previous aortic surgery

  2. Retrospective genetic study of germinative mutations in Str loci of individuals potentially exposed to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Emilia Oliveira Alves

    2010-01-01

    21S11 loeus and 03 mutations on FGA loeus, comprising a total of 11 mutations and a mutation rate of 0.008. In such context, we did not find significant differences (p= 0.15), indicating a possible exposure effect on the mutation rates of the STR loci, in the group accidentally exposed to Cesium-137. (author)

  3. Genome wide identification of regulatory motifs in Bacillus subtilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siggia Eric D

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To explain the vastly different phenotypes exhibited by the same organism under different conditions, it is essential that we understand how the organism's genes are coordinately regulated. While there are many excellent tools for predicting sequences encoding proteins or RNA genes, few algorithms exist to predict regulatory sequences on a genome wide scale with no prior information. Results To identify motifs involved in the control of transcription, an algorithm was developed that searches upstream of operons for improbably frequent dimers. The algorithm was applied to the B. subtilis genome, which is predicted to encode for approximately 200 DNA binding proteins. The dimers found to be over-represented could be clustered into 317 distinct groups, each thought to represent a class of motifs uniquely recognized by some transcription factor. For each cluster of dimers, a representative weight matrix was derived and scored over the regions upstream of the operons to predict the sites recognized by the cluster's factor, and a putative regulon of the operons immediately downstream of the sites was inferred. The distribution in number of operons per predicted regulon is comparable to that for well characterized transcription factors. The most highly over-represented dimers matched σA, the T-box, and σW sites. We have evidence to suggest that at least 52 of our clusters of dimers represent actual regulatory motifs, based on the groups' weight matrix matches to experimentally characterized sites, the functional similarity of the component operons of the groups' regulons, and the positional biases of the weight matrix matches. All predictions are assigned a significance value, and thresholds are set to avoid false positives. Where possible, we examine our false negatives, drawing examples from known regulatory motifs and regulons inferred from RNA expression data. Conclusions We have demonstrated that in the case of B. subtilis

  4. Interlinking motifs and entropy landscapes of statistically interacting particles

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Ping; Liu, Dan; Müller, Gerhard; Karbach, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The s=1/2 Ising chain with uniform nearest-neighbor and next-nearest-neighbor coupling is used to construct a system of floating particles characterized by motifs of up to six consecutive local spins. The spin couplings cause the assembly of particles which, in turn, remain free of interaction energies even at high density. All microstates are configurations of particles from one of three different sets, excited from pseudo-vacua associated with ground states of periodicities one, two, and fo...

  5. Nucleic Acid i-Motif Structures in Analytical Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, Joan Josep; Sadurní, Anna; Gargallo, Raimundo

    2016-09-02

    Under the appropriate experimental conditions of pH and temperature, cytosine-rich segments in DNA or RNA sequences may produce a characteristic folded structure known as an i-motif. Besides its potential role in vivo, which is still under investigation, this structure has attracted increasing interest in other fields due to its sharp, fast and reversible pH-driven conformational changes. This "on/off" switch at molecular level is being used in nanotechnology and analytical chemistry to develop nanomachines and sensors, respectively. This paper presents a review of the latest applications of this structure in the field of chemical analysis.

  6. Dimensionality of social networks using motifs and eigenvalues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Bonato

    Full Text Available We consider the dimensionality of social networks, and develop experiments aimed at predicting that dimension. We find that a social network model with nodes and links sampled from an m-dimensional metric space with power-law distributed influence regions best fits samples from real-world networks when m scales logarithmically with the number of nodes of the network. This supports a logarithmic dimension hypothesis, and we provide evidence with two different social networks, Facebook and LinkedIn. Further, we employ two different methods for confirming the hypothesis: the first uses the distribution of motif counts, and the second exploits the eigenvalue distribution.

  7. Finding a Leucine in a Haystack: Searching the Proteome for ambigous Leucine-Aspartic Acid motifs

    KAUST Repository

    Arold, Stefan T.

    2016-01-25

    Leucine-aspartic acid (LD) motifs are short helical protein-protein interaction motifs involved in cell motility, survival and communication. LD motif interactions are also implicated in cancer metastasis and are targeted by several viruses. LD motifs are notoriously difficult to detect because sequence pattern searches lead to an excessively high number of false positives. Hence, despite 20 years of research, only six LD motif–containing proteins are known in humans, three of which are close homologues of the paxillin family. To enable the proteome-wide discovery of LD motifs, we developed LD Motif Finder (LDMF), a web tool based on machine learning that combines sequence information with structural predictions to detect LD motifs with high accuracy. LDMF predicted 13 new LD motifs in humans. Using biophysical assays, we experimentally confirmed in vitro interactions for four novel LD motif proteins. Thus, LDMF allows proteome-wide discovery of LD motifs, despite a highly ambiguous sequence pattern. Functional implications will be discussed.

  8. HIGEDA: a hierarchical gene-set genetics based algorithm for finding subtle motifs in biological sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Thanh; Altman, Tom; Gardiner, Katheleen

    2010-02-01

    Identification of motifs in biological sequences is a challenging problem because such motifs are often short, degenerate, and may contain gaps. Most algorithms that have been developed for motif-finding use the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm iteratively. Although EM algorithms can converge quickly, they depend strongly on initialization parameters and can converge to local sub-optimal solutions. In addition, they cannot generate gapped motifs. The effectiveness of EM algorithms in motif finding can be improved by incorporating methods that choose different sets of initial parameters to enable escape from local optima, and that allow gapped alignments within motif models. We have developed HIGEDA, an algorithm that uses the hierarchical gene-set genetic algorithm (HGA) with EM to initiate and search for the best parameters for the motif model. In addition, HIGEDA can identify gapped motifs using a position weight matrix and dynamic programming to generate an optimal gapped alignment of the motif model with sequences from the dataset. We show that HIGEDA outperforms MEME and other motif-finding algorithms on both DNA and protein sequences. Source code and test datasets are available for download at http://ouray.cudenver.edu/~tnle/, implemented in C++ and supported on Linux and MS Windows.

  9. CMD: A Database to Store the Bonding States of Cysteine Motifs with Secondary Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Bostan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Computational approaches to the disulphide bonding state and its connectivity pattern prediction are based on various descriptors. One descriptor is the amino acid sequence motifs flanking the cysteine residue motifs. Despite the existence of disulphide bonding information in many databases and applications, there is no complete reference and motif query available at the moment. Cysteine motif database (CMD is the first online resource that stores all cysteine residues, their flanking motifs with their secondary structure, and propensity values assignment derived from the laboratory data. We extracted more than 3 million cysteine motifs from PDB and UniProt data, annotated with secondary structure assignment, propensity value assignment, and frequency of occurrence and coefficiency of their bonding status. Removal of redundancies generated 15875 unique flanking motifs that are always bonded and 41577 unique patterns that are always nonbonded. Queries are based on the protein ID, FASTA sequence, sequence motif, and secondary structure individually or in batch format using the provided APIs that allow remote users to query our database via third party software and/or high throughput screening/querying. The CMD offers extensive information about the bonded, free cysteine residues, and their motifs that allows in-depth characterization of the sequence motif composition.

  10. Preoperative screening: value of previous tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, D S; Snow, R; Lofgren, R P

    1990-12-15

    To determine the frequency of tests done in the year before elective surgery that might substitute for preoperative screening tests and to determine the frequency of test results that change from a normal value to a value likely to alter perioperative management. Retrospective cohort analysis of computerized laboratory data (complete blood count, sodium, potassium, and creatinine levels, prothrombin time, and partial thromboplastin time). Urban tertiary care Veterans Affairs Hospital. Consecutive sample of 1109 patients who had elective surgery in 1988. At admission, 7549 preoperative tests were done, 47% of which duplicated tests performed in the previous year. Of 3096 previous results that were normal as defined by hospital reference range and done closest to the time of but before admission (median interval, 2 months), 13 (0.4%; 95% CI, 0.2% to 0.7%), repeat values were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery. Most of the abnormalities were predictable from the patient's history, and most were not noted in the medical record. Of 461 previous tests that were abnormal, 78 (17%; CI, 13% to 20%) repeat values at admission were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery (P less than 0.001, frequency of clinically important abnormalities of patients with normal previous results with those with abnormal previous results). Physicians evaluating patients preoperatively could safely substitute the previous test results analyzed in this study for preoperative screening tests if the previous tests are normal and no obvious indication for retesting is present.

  11. The molluscum contagiosum virus death effector domain containing protein MC160 RxDL motifs are not required for its known viral immune evasion functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaury, Michael; Velagapudi, Uday Kiran; Weber, Sarah; Soto, Cassandra; Talele, Tanaji T; Nichols, Daniel Brian

    2017-08-01

    The molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV) uses a variety of immune evasion strategies to antagonize host immune responses. Two MCV proteins, MC159 and MC160, contain tandem death effector domains (DEDs). They are reported to inhibit innate immune signaling events such as NF-κB and IRF3 activation, and apoptosis. The RxDL motif of MC159 is required for inhibition of both apoptosis and NF-κB activation. However, the role of the conserved RxDL motif in the MC160 DEDs remained unknown. To answer this question, we performed alanine mutations to neutralize the arginine and aspartate residues present in the MC160 RxDL in both DED1 and DED2. These mutations were further modeled against the structure of the MC159 protein. Surprisingly, the RxDL motif was not required for MC160's ability to inhibit MAVS-induced IFNβ activation. Further, unlike previous results with the MC159 protein, mutations within the RxDL motif of MC160 had no effect on the ability of MC160 to dampen TNF-α-induced NF-κB activation. Molecular modeling predictions revealed no overall changes to the structure in the MC160 protein when the amino acids of both RxDL motifs were mutated to alanine (DED1 = R67A D69A; DED2 = R160A D162A). Taken together, our results demonstrate that the RxDL motifs present in the MC160 DEDs are not required for known functions of the viral protein.

  12. Genetic polymorphism of 21 non-CODIS STR loci in Chengdu Han population and its interpopulation analysis between 25 populations in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ye; Li, Hepei; He, Guanglin; Liang, Weibo; Luo, Haibo; Liao, Miao; Zhang, Ji; Yan, Jing; Li, Yingbi; Hou, Yiping; Wu, Jin

    2018-03-01

    AGCU 21+1 STR kit contains 21 non-combined DNA index system (non-CODIS) short tandem repeats (STR) loci and a sex-determining locus amelogenin. In this study, we evaluated the genetic diversity and forensically relevant population statistics of 21 non-CODIS loci in 210 Chinese Han individuals from Chengdu city, Sichuan province, Southwest China. No significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were observed within the 21 non-CODIS STR loci. The combined power of discrimination (CPD) and combined power of exclusion (CPE) were 0.99999999999999999994278, 0.999999355 respectively. To reveal interpopulation differentiations of mainland population of China, a neighbor-joining (N-J) phylogenetic tree was constructed based on Nei's genetic distances among Chengdu Han and 25 published populations. The phylogenetic analyses indicated that Chengdu Han population keeps a close genetic relationship with other Han populations. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Automatic electromagnetic valve for previous vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granados, C. E.; Martin, F.

    1959-01-01

    A valve which permits the maintenance of an installation vacuum when electric current fails is described. It also lets the air in the previous vacuum bomb to prevent the oil ascending in the vacuum tubes. (Author)

  14. Motif decomposition of the phosphotyrosine proteome reveals a new N-terminal binding motif for SHIP2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Martin Lee; Hanke, S.; Hinsby, A. M.

    2008-01-01

    Advances in mass spectrometry-based proteomics have yielded a substantial mapping of the tyrosine phosphoproteome and thus provided an important step toward a systematic analysis of intracellular signaling networks in higher eukaryotes. In this study we decomposed an uncharacterized proteomics data...... set of 481 unique phosphotyrosine (Tyr(P)) peptides by sequence similarity to known ligands of the Src homology 2 (SH2) and the phosphotyrosine binding (PTB) domains. From 20 clusters we extracted 16 known and four new interaction motifs. Using quantitative mass spectrometry we pulled down Tyr...

  15. Computing distribution of scale independent motifs in biological sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Jonas S; Vinga, Susana

    2006-10-18

    The use of Chaos Game Representation (CGR) or its generalization, Universal Sequence Maps (USM), to describe the distribution of biological sequences has been found objectionable because of the fractal structure of that coordinate system. Consequently, the investigation of distribution of symbolic motifs at multiple scales is hampered by an inexact association between distance and sequence dissimilarity. A solution to this problem could unleash the use of iterative maps as phase-state representation of sequences where its statistical properties can be conveniently investigated. In this study a family of kernel density functions is described that accommodates the fractal nature of iterative function representations of symbolic sequences and, consequently, enables the exact investigation of sequence motifs of arbitrary lengths in that scale-independent representation. Furthermore, the proposed kernel density includes both Markovian succession and currently used alignment-free sequence dissimilarity metrics as special solutions. Therefore, the fractal kernel described is in fact a generalization that provides a common framework for a diverse suite of sequence analysis techniques.

  16. Computing distribution of scale independent motifs in biological sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinga Susana

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The use of Chaos Game Representation (CGR or its generalization, Universal Sequence Maps (USM, to describe the distribution of biological sequences has been found objectionable because of the fractal structure of that coordinate system. Consequently, the investigation of distribution of symbolic motifs at multiple scales is hampered by an inexact association between distance and sequence dissimilarity. A solution to this problem could unleash the use of iterative maps as phase-state representation of sequences where its statistical properties can be conveniently investigated. In this study a family of kernel density functions is described that accommodates the fractal nature of iterative function representations of symbolic sequences and, consequently, enables the exact investigation of sequence motifs of arbitrary lengths in that scale-independent representation. Furthermore, the proposed kernel density includes both Markovian succession and currently used alignment-free sequence dissimilarity metrics as special solutions. Therefore, the fractal kernel described is in fact a generalization that provides a common framework for a diverse suite of sequence analysis techniques.

  17. MCAST: scanning for cis-regulatory motif clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Charles E; Johnson, James; Bailey, Timothy L; Noble, William Stafford

    2016-04-15

    Precise regulatory control of genes, particularly in eukaryotes, frequently requires the joint action of multiple sequence-specific transcription factors. A cis-regulatory module (CRM) is a genomic locus that is responsible for gene regulation and that contains multiple transcription factor binding sites in close proximity. Given a collection of known transcription factor binding motifs, many bioinformatics methods have been proposed over the past 15 years for identifying within a genomic sequence candidate CRMs consisting of clusters of those motifs. The MCAST algorithm uses a hidden Markov model with a P-value-based scoring scheme to identify candidate CRMs. Here, we introduce a new version of MCAST that offers improved graphical output, a dynamic background model, statistical confidence estimates based on false discovery rate estimation and, most significantly, the ability to predict CRMs while taking into account epigenomic data such as DNase I sensitivity or histone modification data. We demonstrate the validity of MCAST's statistical confidence estimates and the utility of epigenomic priors in identifying CRMs. MCAST is part of the MEME Suite software toolkit. A web server and source code are available at http://meme-suite.org and http://alternate.meme-suite.org t.bailey@imb.uq.edu.au or william-noble@uw.edu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Prevalent RNA recognition motif duplication in the human genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yihsuan S; Gomez, Shawn M; Wang, Zefeng

    2014-05-01

    The sequence-specific recognition of RNA by proteins is mediated through various RNA binding domains, with the RNA recognition motif (RRM) being the most frequent and present in >50% of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs). Many RBPs contain multiple RRMs, and it is unclear how each RRM contributes to the binding specificity of the entire protein. We found that RRMs within the same RBP (i.e., sibling RRMs) tend to have significantly higher similarity than expected by chance. Sibling RRM pairs from RBPs shared by multiple species tend to have lower similarity than those found only in a single species, suggesting that multiple RRMs within the same protein might arise from domain duplication followed by divergence through random mutations. This finding is exemplified by a recent RRM domain duplication in DAZ proteins and an ancient duplication in PABP proteins. Additionally, we found that different similarities between sibling RRMs are associated with distinct functions of an RBP and that the RBPs tend to contain repetitive sequences with low complexity. Taken together, this study suggests that the number of RBPs with multiple RRMs has expanded in mammals and that the multiple sibling RRMs may recognize similar target motifs in a cooperative manner.

  19. Proline Rich Motifs as Drug Targets in Immune Mediated Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mythily Srinivasan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The current version of the human immunome network consists of nearly 1400 interactions involving approximately 600 proteins. Intermolecular interactions mediated by proline-rich motifs (PRMs are observed in many facets of the immune response. The proline-rich regions are known to preferentially adopt a polyproline type II helical conformation, an extended structure that facilitates transient intermolecular interactions such as signal transduction, antigen recognition, cell-cell communication and cytoskeletal organization. The propensity of both the side chain and the backbone carbonyls of the polyproline type II helix to participate in the interface interaction makes it an excellent recognition motif. An advantage of such distinct chemical features is that the interactions can be discriminatory even in the absence of high affinities. Indeed, the immune response is mediated by well-orchestrated low-affinity short-duration intermolecular interactions. The proline-rich regions are predominantly localized in the solvent-exposed regions such as the loops, intrinsically disordered regions, or between domains that constitute the intermolecular interface. Peptide mimics of the PRM have been suggested as potential antagonists of intermolecular interactions. In this paper, we discuss novel PRM-mediated interactions in the human immunome that potentially serve as attractive targets for immunomodulation and drug development for inflammatory and autoimmune pathologies.

  20. Romanian traditional motif - element of modernity in clothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doble, L.; Stan, O.; Suteu, M. D.; Albu, A.; Bohm, G.; Tsatsarou-Michalaki, A.; Gialinou, E.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper are presented the phases for improving from an aesthetic point of view a clothing item, the jacket respectively, with a straight cut for women using software design patterns, computerised graphics and textile different modern technologies including: industrial embroidery, digital printing, sublimation. In the first phase a documentation was prepared in the Ethnographic Museum of Transylvania from Cluj Napoca where more traditional motifs were selected specific to Transylvania etnographic region and were reintepreted and stylized whilst preserving the symbolism and color range specified to the area. For the styling phase was used CorelDraw vector graphics program that allows changing the shape, size and color of the drawings without affecting the identity of the pattern. In the patterns design phase Gemini CAD software was used and for the modeling and model development Optitex software was used. The part for garnishing the model was performed using Embrodery machine software reproducing the stylized motif identically. In order to obtain a significantly improved aesthetic look and an added artistic value the pattern chosen for the jacket was done using a combination of modern textile technologies. This has allowed the realization of a particular texture on the surface of the designed product, demonstrating that traditional patterns can be reintepreted in modern clothing