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Sample records for stoyle oriol ginseng

  1. Conversando con Oriol Bohigas

    OpenAIRE

    Redondo Domínguez, Ernesto; Moya Sala, Joaquim

    2015-01-01

    [EN] Interview with Oriol Bohigas [ES] Entrevista con Oriol Bohigas Redondo Domínguez, E.; Moya Sala, J. (2015). Conversando con… Oriol Bohigas. EGA. Revista de Expresión Gráfica Arquitectónica. 20(26):22-35. doi:10.4995/ega.2015.4061 22 35 20 26

  2. Rapid decline of the volcanically threatened Montserrat oriole.

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    Geoff M. Hilton; Phil W. Atkinson; Gerard A.L. Gray; Wayne J. Arendt; David W. Gibbons

    2003-01-01

    Prior to 1995, the Montserrat oriole (Icterus oberi) was confined to ca. 30 km2 of hill forest on the Lesser Antillean island of Montserrat, but was not listed as globally threatened. Since then, the eruption of the Soufriere Hills volcano has destroyed more than half of the species’ range. Recent intensive monitoring has indicated that the species has also declined...

  3. Component Analysis of Cultivated Ginseng, Red Ginseng, Cultivated Wild Ginseng, and Red Wild Ginseng Using HPLC Method

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    Jang Ho, Lee

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The aim of this experiment is to provide an differentiation of ginseng, red ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng(CWG, and red wild ginseng(RWG through component analysis using HPLC(High Performance Liquid Chromatography, hereafter HPLC. Methods : Comparative analyses of ginsenoside Rg3, ginsenoside Rh2, and ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1 of various ginsengs were conducted using HPLC. Results : 1. CWG was relatively heat-resistant and showed slow change in color during the process of steaming and drying, compared to cultivated ginseng. 2. Ginsenoside Rg3 was not detected in cultivated ginseng and CWG, whereas it was high in red ginseng and RWG. Ginsenoside Rg3 was more generated in red ginseng than in RWG. 3. Ginsenoside Rh2 appreared during steaming and drying of cultivated ginseng, whereas it was more increased during steaming and drying of CWG. 4. Ginsenoside Rg1 content was more increased during steaming and drying of cultivated ginseng, whereas it was more decreased during steaming and drying of CWG. 5. Ginsenoside Rb1 content was increased about 500% during steaming and drying of cultivated ginseng, whereas it was increased about 30% during steaming and drying of CWG, indicating that ginsenoside Rb1 was more generated in red ginseng than in RWG. 6. Ginsenoside Rg3 content was higher, whereas ginsenoside Rg1 content was lower in 11th RWG than in 9th RWG, indicating that ginsenoside Rg3 content was increased and Rg1 content was decreased as steaming and drying continued to proceed. Ginsenoside Rh2 and Rb1 contents began to be increased, followed by decreased after 9th steaming and drying process. Conclusions : Above experiment data can be an important indicator for the identification of ginseng, red ginseng, CWG, and RWG. And the following studies will be need for making good product using CWG.

  4. Du lexique de l'eau dans Mont-Oriol et Pierre et Jean de Guy de Maupassant

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    Benzina, Ouafae

    2017-01-01

    [EN] The following article revolves around the theme of water in Mont-Oriol and Pierre and Jean of Guy de Maupassant. These two fabulous novels, indeed, include the theme of water in all its forms. In Mont-Oriol, the aquatic element determines its novelistic space and represents in itself the novel’s frame. It is present in many aspects : water, source, lake, resort, and stream. In Pierre and Jean, the lexicon of the sea is very abundant. The theme of the sea keeps appearing conti...

  5. Component analysis of cultivated ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and natural wild ginseng by structural parts using HPLC method

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    Young-Ju,Han

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The aim of this experiments is to provide an objective differentiation of ginseng, Korean and Chinese cultivated wild ginseng, and natural wild ginseng through components analysis of different parts of ginseng. Methods : Comparative analyses of ginsenoside-, ginsenoside-, and ginsenosides and from the root, stem, and leaves of ginseng, Korean and Chinese cultivated wild ginseng, and natural wild ginseng were conducted using HPLC. Results : 1. For content comparison of leaves, ginseng showed highest content of ginsenoside than other samples. Natural wild ginseng showed relatively high content of ginsenosides and than other samples. 2. For content comparison of the stem, ginseng and 10 years old Chinese cultivated wild ginseng didn't contain ginsenoside . Natural wild ginseng showed higher content of ginsenosides and than other samples. 3. For content comparison of the root, ginsenoside was found only in 5 and 10 years old Korean cultivated wild ginseng. 4. Distribution of contents by the parts of ginseng was similar in ginseng and Chinese cultivated wild ginseng. Conclusions : Above experiment data can be an important indicator for the identification of ginseng, Korean and Chinese cultivated wild ginseng, and natural wild ginseng.

  6. A study on the comparison of antioxidant effects among wild ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and cultivated ginseng extracts

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    Hae Young, Jang

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective : The objective of this study was to compare the antioxidant effects among wild ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and ginseng extracts. Methods : In vitro antioxidant activities were examined by total antioxidant capacity (TAC, oxygen radical scavenging capacity(ORAC, total phenolic content, 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity, inhibition of induced lipid peroxidation using liver mitochondria, reactive oxygen species(ROS scavenging effect using 2’, 7’-dichlorofluorescein(DCF fluorescence. Results : 1. TAC of 1.5 and 3.75 mg extracts was highest in cultivated wild ginseng, followed by wild ginseng and lowest in ginseng. 2. ORAC of 2, 10, and 20 μg extracts was highest in cultivated wild ginseng, followed by wild ginseng and lowest in ginseng. 3. Total phenolic content of 0.375, 0.938, and 1.875 mg extracts was highest in cultivated wild ginseng, followed by wild ginseng and lowest in ginseng. 4. DPPH(1, 1 -Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity between wild ginseng and cultivated wild ginseng did not differ significantly (p>0.05. 5. Induced lipid peroxidation, measured by TBARS concentration in solution containing rat liver mitochondria incubated in the presence of FeSO4/ascorbic acid was inhibited as amounts of wild ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and ginseng extracts increased. TBARS concentration of ginseng extracts were significantly (p<0.05 higher than wild ginseng or cultivated wild ginseng extracts. 6. DCF fluorescence intensity was decreased as concentrations of wild ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and ginseng extracts increased, demonstrating that ROS generation was inhibited in a concentrationdependent manner. Conclusions : In summary, the results of this study demonstrate that cultivated wild ginseng extracts had similar antioxidant activities to wild ginseng extracts and greater that of cultivated ginseng extracts.

  7. In situ analysis of chemical components induced by steaming between fresh ginseng, steamed ginseng, and red ginseng

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    Gyo In

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: This study elucidates the dynamic changes in the chemical components of P. ginseng when the steaming process was induced. These results are thought to be helpful for quality control and standardization of herbal drugs using P. ginseng and they also provide a scientific basis for pharmacological research of processed ginseng (Red ginseng.

  8. Diverse habitat use during two life stages of the critically endangered Bahama Oriole (Icterus northropi: community structure, foraging, and social interactions

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    Melissa R. Price

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Our ability to prevent extinction in declining populations often depends on effective management of habitats that are disturbed through wildfire, logging, agriculture, or development. In these disturbed landscapes, the juxtaposition of multiple habitat types can be especially important to fledglings and young birds, which may leave breeding grounds in human-altered habitat for different habitats nearby that provide increased foraging opportunities, reduced competition, and higher protection from predators. In this study, we evaluated the importance of three habitat types to two life stages of the critically endangered Bahama Oriole (Icterus northropi, a synanthropic songbird endemic to Andros, The Bahamas. First, we determined the avian species composition and relative abundance of I. northropi among three major vegetation types on Andros: Caribbean pine (Pinus caribaea forest, coppice (broadleaf dry forest, and anthropogenic areas, dominated by nonnative vegetation (farmland and developed land. We then compared the foraging strategies and social interactions of two age classes of adult Bahama Orioles in relation to differential habitat use. Bird surveys late in the Bahama Oriole’s breeding season indicated the number of avian species and Bahama Oriole density were highest in coppice. Some bird species occurring in the coppice and pine forest were never observed in agricultural or residential areas, and may be at risk if human disturbance of pine forest and coppice increases, as is occurring at a rapid pace on Andros. During the breeding season, second-year (SY adult Bahama Orioles foraged in all vegetation types, whereas after-second-year (ASY adults were observed foraging only in anthropogenic areas, where the species nested largely in introduced coconut palms (Cocos nucifera. Additionally, SY adults foraging in anthropogenic areas were often observed with an ASY adult, suggesting divergent habitat use for younger, unpaired birds. Other

  9. Correlated evolution of migration and sexual dichromatism in the New World orioles (icterus).

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    Friedman, Nicholas R; Hofmann, Christopher M; Kondo, Beatrice; Omland, Kevin E

    2009-12-01

    The evolution of sexual dimorphism has long been attributed to sexual selection, specifically as it would drive repeated gains of elaborate male traits. In contrast to this pattern, New World oriole species all exhibit elaborate male plumage, and the repeated gains of sexual dichromatism observed in the genus are due to losses of female elaboration. Interestingly, most sexually dichromatic orioles belong to migratory or temperate-breeding clades. Using character scoring and ancestral state reconstructions from two recent studies in Icterus, we tested a hypothesis of correlated evolution between migration and sexual dichromatism. We employed two discrete phylogenetic comparative approaches: the concentrated changes test and Pagel's discrete likelihood test. Our results show that the evolution of these traits is significantly correlated (CCT: uncorrected P model of character evolution suggests that gains of sexual dichromatism are 23 times more likely to occur in migratory taxa. This study demonstrates that a life-history trait with no direct relationship with sexual selection has a strong influence on the evolution of sexual dichromatism. We recommend that researchers further investigate the role of selection on elaborate female traits in the evolution of sexual dimorphism.

  10. Endophytic Bacteria Isolated from Panax ginseng Improves Ginsenoside Accumulation in Adventitious Ginseng Root Culture

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    Xiaolin Song

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ginsenoside is the most important secondary metabolite of ginseng. Natural sources of wild ginseng have been overexploited. Although root culture could reduce the length of the growth cycle of ginseng, the number of ginsenosides is fewer and their contents are lower in adventitious roots of ginseng than that in ginseng cultivated in the field. In this study, we investigated the effects of endophytic bacterial elicitors on biomass and ginsenoside production in adventitious roots cultures of Panax ginseng. Endophyte LB 5-3 as an elicitor could increase biomass and ginsenoside accumulation in ginseng adventitious root culture. After 6 days elicitation with a 10.0 mL of strain LB 5-3, the content of total ginsenoside was 2.026 mg g−1 which was four times more than that in unchallenged roots. The combination of methyl jasmonate and strain LB 5-3 had a negative effect on ginseng adventitious root growth and ginsenoside production. The genomic DNA of strain LB 5-3 was sequenced, and was found to be most closely related to Bacillus altitudinis (KX230132.1. The challenged ginseng adventitious root extracts exerted inhibitory effect against the HepG2 cells, which IC50 value was 0.94 mg mL−1.

  11. Ginseng in Dermatology: A Review.

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    Sabouri-Rad, Sarvenaz; Sabouri-Rad, Sara; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Tayarani-Najaran, Zahra

    2017-01-01

    Ginseng has gained fame as one of the most popular herbs originating from Eastern countries. Among different species which are known as ginseng, Panax ginseng C. A. Mey. (Korean or Asian ginseng) is the most frequently used one. Ginsenosides have been proposed to account for most of the biological activities of ginseng. The widely appreciated health-promoting effect of ginseng pertains to the beneficial effects of this plant against immune, cardiovascular and sexual diseases and cancer. In addition, there are some new aspects of the pharmacological activity of this plant which justify its use in dermatologic diseases. In dermatology, ginseng has been investigated mechanistically for its therapeutic effects in photoaging, wound and injury, skin cancer, dermatitis, hair loss, alopecia and cold hypersensitivity. Here, we reviewed experimental and clinical studies exploring the therapeutic efficacy of ginseng and ginsenosides in the field of dermatology. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  12. Ginseng Genome Database: an open-access platform for genomics of Panax ginseng.

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    Jayakodi, Murukarthick; Choi, Beom-Soon; Lee, Sang-Choon; Kim, Nam-Hoon; Park, Jee Young; Jang, Woojong; Lakshmanan, Meiyappan; Mohan, Shobhana V G; Lee, Dong-Yup; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2018-04-12

    The ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) is a perennial herbaceous plant that has been used in traditional oriental medicine for thousands of years. Ginsenosides, which have significant pharmacological effects on human health, are the foremost bioactive constituents in this plant. Having realized the importance of this plant to humans, an integrated omics resource becomes indispensable to facilitate genomic research, molecular breeding and pharmacological study of this herb. The first draft genome sequences of P. ginseng cultivar "Chunpoong" were reported recently. Here, using the draft genome, transcriptome, and functional annotation datasets of P. ginseng, we have constructed the Ginseng Genome Database http://ginsengdb.snu.ac.kr /, the first open-access platform to provide comprehensive genomic resources of P. ginseng. The current version of this database provides the most up-to-date draft genome sequence (of approximately 3000 Mbp of scaffold sequences) along with the structural and functional annotations for 59,352 genes and digital expression of genes based on transcriptome data from different tissues, growth stages and treatments. In addition, tools for visualization and the genomic data from various analyses are provided. All data in the database were manually curated and integrated within a user-friendly query page. This database provides valuable resources for a range of research fields related to P. ginseng and other species belonging to the Apiales order as well as for plant research communities in general. Ginseng genome database can be accessed at http://ginsengdb.snu.ac.kr /.

  13. Characterization of Korean Red Ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer: History, preparation method, and chemical composition

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    Sang Myung Lee

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available It has been reported that Korean Red Ginseng has been manufactured for 1,123 y as described in the GoRyeoDoGyeong record. The Korean Red Ginseng manufactured by the traditional preparation method has its own chemical component characteristics. The ginsenoside content of the red ginseng is shown as Rg1: 3.3 mg/g, Re: 2.0 mg/g, Rb1: 5.8 mg/g, Rc:1.7 mg/g, Rb2: 2.3 mg/g, and Rd: 0.4 mg/g, respectively. It is known that Korean ginseng generally consists of the main root and the lateral or fine roots at a ratio of about 75:25. Therefore, the red ginseng extract is prepared by using this same ratio of the main root and lateral or fine roots and processed by the historical traditional medicine prescription. The red ginseng extract is prepared through a water extraction (90°C for 14–16 h and concentration process (until its final concentration is 70–73 Brix at 50–60°C. The ginsenoside contents of the red ginseng extract are shown as Rg1: 1.3 mg/g, Re: 1.3 mg/g, Rb1: 6.4 mg/g, Rc:2.5 mg/g, Rb2: 2.3 mg/g, and Rd: 0.9 mg/g, respectively. Arginine-fructose-glucose (AFG is a specific amino-sugar that can be produced by chemical reaction of the process when the fresh ginseng is converted to red ginseng. The content of AFG is 1.0–1.5% in red ginseng. Acidic polysaccharide, which has been known as an immune activator, is at levels of 4.5–7.5% in red ginseng. Therefore, we recommended that the chemical profiles of Korean Red Ginseng made through the defined traditional method should be well preserved and it has had its own chemical characteristics since its traditional development.

  14. [A crisis of ginseng capital and the countermeasures of the ginseng-cultivating people during Daehan empire].

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    Yang, Jeong Pil

    2009-12-01

    This thesis examines a crisis of ginseng capital and the source of crisis during Daehan empire. After the China-Japan war of 1894, the Japanese merchants actively engaged in taking over the ginseng fields, so that ginseng-cultivating Koreans suffered substantial economic losses. After the Russo-Japanese war, the Japanese imperialists undertook the 'Currency Arranging Business'(CAB) in order to set a cornerstone for their invasion of Korea. The CAB eventually provoked a wide depression which in turn produced massive number of Korean merchants going bankrupt. The Kaesong merchants were no exception, since CAB stroke a severe blow on the ginseng industry, which relied heavily on the commercial capitals of the Kaesong merchants. Moreover, the Japanese imperialists broke the previous promise and bought ginseng at a dirt-cheap price, which put ginseng-cultivating Koreans in serious trouble. In order to combat such crisis, ginseng field-owners protested against such injustice by petitioning or stirring up Kaesong popular riot in vain, and consequently the number of ginseng field-owners decreased sharply. A few of the ginseng field-owners survived, and managed to maintain and even flourish more than before. These successful owners were characterized with their strong link with the official circle, utilizing their influence in ginseng industry. Their original background was not identical as some came from the influential families of Kaesong area for generations, while others made their own fortunes and continue to prosper through the difficult times of the late of the Daehan empire period.

  15. Is ginseng an ergogenic aid?

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    Bahrke, Michael S; Morgan, William P; Stegner, Aaron

    2009-06-01

    Ginseng is one of the most popular herbal supplements in the world. Although it is used for the treatment and prevention of many ailments, it is also used to increase work efficiency and is purported to increase energy and physical stamina. Athletes use ginseng for its alleged performance-enhancing attributes. However, many studies examining the pharmacological effects of ginseng on physical performance have not employed sound scientific design and methodology. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on published empirical research focusing primarily on the efficacy of ginseng with respect to physical and athletic performance. Despite attempts in recent investigations to improve on the scientific rigor used in examining the ergogenic properties of ginseng, the authors conclude that many of the same methodological shortcomings observed in earlier studies persist. Enhanced physical performance after ginseng administration in well-designed investigations remains to be demonstrated.

  16. Cytological analysis of ginseng carpel development.

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    Silva, Jeniffer; Kim, Yu-Jin; Xiao, Dexin; Sukweenadhi, Johan; Hu, Tingting; Kwon, Woo-Saeng; Hu, Jianping; Yang, Deok-Chun; Zhang, Dabing

    2017-09-01

    Panax ginseng Meyer, commonly known as ginseng, is considered one of the most important herbs with pharmaceutical values due to the presence of ginsenosides and is cultivated for its highly valued root for medicinal purposes. Recently, it has been recognized that ginseng fruit contains high contents of triterpene such as ginsenoside Re as pharmaceutical compounds. However, it is unclear how carpel, the female reproductive tissue of flowers, is formed during the three-year-old growth before fruit is formed in ginseng plants. Here, we report P. ginseng carpel development at the cytological level, starting from the initial stage of ovule development to seed development. The carpel of P. ginseng is composed of two free stigmas, two free styles, and one epigynous bilocular ovary containing one ovule in each locule. Based on our cytological study, we propose that the female reproductive development in P. ginseng can be classified into seven stages: early phase of ovule development, megasporogenesis, megagametogenesis, pre-fertilization, fertilization, post-fertilization, and seed development. We also describe the correlation of the female and male gametophyte development and compare morphological differences in carpel development between ginseng and other higher plants. One unique feature for ginseng seed development is that it takes 40 days for the embryo to develop to the early torpedo stage and that the embryo is small relative to the seed size, which could be a feature of taxonomic importance. This study will provide an integral tool for the study of the reproductive development and breeding of P. ginseng.

  17. Translocation of Endosulfan from Soil to Ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer

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    Jiyoon Kim

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to examine the translocation of highly residual agrochemical in soil, the endosulfan (total, to ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer. The soil with the level of the amount of 5.0 mg kg−1 of endosulfan (total was prepared in a Wagner pot into which the seedling of ginseng was transplanted and then the specimens of ginseng (root, leaf, and stem were collected quarterly and analyzed through GC-MS. The level of residual of endosulfan (total in the soil has decreased from 4.28 mg kg−1 (April 2013 to 1.94 mg kg−1 (December 2014 while the level in the specimens of leaf and stem of ginseng respectively sampled according to its growth phase in June and September from 2013 and 2014 showed an increase from 0.56 mg kg−1 (June 2013 to 2.46 mg kg−1 (September 2013 and decrease from 0.29 mg kg−1 (June 2014 to 0.18 mg kg−1 (September 2014. For the case of the root of ginseng, the level of the amount of 10.77 mg kg−1 of endosulfan (total was detected in June 2013 and then, the level has decreased to the level of 4.88 mg kg−1 in December 2014. The translocation of residual endosulfan (total in soil to ginseng with time was identified. The amount of residuals of α-endosulfan and β-endosulfan was also decreased with time however, the ratio of endosulfan-sulfate, the main metabolite, was gradually increasing. The retention of metabolite (endosulfan-sulfate in soil identified thereby thus suggests the potential of its translocation to plants in the case of the soils containing the residual of endosulfan (total.

  18. Effects of Korean ginseng ( Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) root extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Korean ginseng ( Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) root extract on egg production performance and egg quality of laying hens. ... The trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and total phenolics concentration of PGRE were 598 ± 1.841 mmol trolox/kg, 15.45 ± 0.457 mmol ...

  19. Anti-cancer and anti-oxidant efficacies of wild ginseng and cultivated wild ginseng of Korea and China

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    Young-Min,Ahn

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The aim of this study was to verify anti-cancer and anti-oxidant efficacies of Korean wild ginseng and cultivated wild ginseng of Korea and China. Methods : For the measurement of anti-oxidation, SOD-like activity was evaluated using xanthine oxidase reduction method under in vitro environment. Subcutaneous and abdominal cancer were induced using CT-26 human colon cancer cells for the measurement of growth inhibition of cancer cells and differences in survival rate. Results : 1. Measurement of anti-oxidant activity of ginseng, Chinese and Korean cultivated wild ginseng, and natural wild ginseng samples showed concentration dependent anti-oxidant activity in HX/XOD system. Anti-oxidant activity showed drastic increase at 1mg/ml in all samples. 2. For the evaluation of growth inhibition of cancer cells after hypodermic implantation of CT-26 cancer cells in the peritoneal cavity of mice, Chinese and Korean cultivated wild ginseng and natural wild ginseng groups showed significant inhibition of tumor growth from the 12th day compared to the control group. Similar inhibitory effects were also shown on the 15th and 18th days. But there was no significant difference between the experiment groups. 3. For the observation of increase in survival rate of the natural wild ginseng group, CT-26 cancer cells were implanted in the peritoneal cavity of mice.

  20. Ginseng, the natural effectual antiviral: Protective effects of Korean Red Ginseng against viral infection

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    Kyungtaek Im

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Korean Red Ginseng (KRG is a heat-processed ginseng developed by the repeated steaming and air-drying of fresh ginseng. Compared with fresh ginseng, KRG has been shown to possess greater pharmacological activities and stability because of changes that occur in its chemical constituents during the steaming process. In addition to anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and immune-modulatory activities, KRG and its purified components have also been shown to possess protective effects against microbial infections. Here, we summarize the current knowledge on the properties of KRG and its components on infections with human pathogenic viruses such as respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus, influenza virus, human immunodeficiency virus, human herpes virus, hepatitis virus, norovirus, rotavirus, enterovirus, and coxsackievirus. Additionally, the therapeutic potential of KRG as an antiviral and vaccine adjuvant is discussed.

  1. A study on the comparison of antioxidant effects among cultivated ginseng, and cultivated wild ginseng extracts -Using the measurement of superoxide and hydroxy radical scavenging activities-

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    Tae Jin, Rhim

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The objective of this study was to compare the antioxidant effects among cultivated wild ginseng and ginseng extracts. Methods : In vitro antioxidant activities were examined by superoxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of ginseng and cultivated wild ginseng extracts. Results : 1. In the superoxide radical scavenging activities of ginseng and cultivated wild ginseng extracts, antioxidant activities of cultivated wild ginseng extracts was showed higher than cultivated ginseng in the concentration of 0.25 and 0.50㎎/㎖. 2. In the hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of ginseng and cultivated wild ginseng extracts, antioxidant activities of cultivated wild ginseng extracts was showed higher than cultivated ginseng in the concentration of 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0㎎/㎖. Conclusions : In summary, the results of this study demonstrate that cultivated wild ginseng extracts had higher antioxidant activities to cultivated ginseng.

  2. [Research on ginseng trade competitiveness between China and Korea].

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    Xin, Min-Tong; Yang, Guang; Tang, Xiao-Jing

    2017-05-01

    Ginseng is one of China's valuable Chinese herbal medicines, with a long using history. Ginseng has worldwide reputation, and widely used in food, medicine, health products, cosmetics and other production. China and South Korea have a big ginseng industrial, and sharing half of the export market. The ginseng export competitiveness analysis seems important and necessary between China and South Korea. In this paper, the data of customs and trade of ginseng in COMTRADE database were studied, and ginseng export competitiveness was analyzed between China and Korea. The results showed that the ginseng export competitiveness of Korean more competitive than China. Contrast with China, South Korea using only 15% total amount of ginseng exports and produced the same total export amount. This article has the reference value to the traditional Chinese medicine resources management and the economics research. On this basis, this paper further discusses the problems that should be paid attention to in the development of ginseng industry in China. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  3. Comparative phenolic compound profiles and antioxidative activity of the fruit, leaves, and roots of Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) according to cultivation years

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    Chung, Ill-Min; Lim, Ju-Jin; Ahn, Mun-Seob; Jeong, Haet-Nim; An, Tae-Jin; Kim, Seung-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Background The study of phenolic compounds profiles and antioxidative activity in ginseng fruit, leaves, and roots with respect to cultivation years, and has been little reported to date. Hence, this study examined the phenolic compounds profiles and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free-radical-scavenging activities in the fruit, leaves, and roots of Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) as a function of cultivation year. Methods Profiling of 23 phenolic compounds in ginseng fruit, leaves, and roots was investigated using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with the external calibration method. Antioxidative activity of ginseng fruit, leaves, and roots were evaluated using the method of DPPH free-radical-scavenging activity. Results The total phenol content in ginseng fruit and leaves was higher than in ginseng roots (p phenol content in the ginseng samples was significantly correlated to the DPPH free-radical-scavenging activity (r = 0.928****). In particular, p-coumaric acid (r = 0.847****) and ferulic acid (r = 0.742****) greatly affected the DPPH activity. Among the 23 phenolic compounds studied, phenolic acids were more abundant in ginseng fruit, leaves, and roots than the flavonoids and other compounds (p phenolic compounds in 3–6-yr-old ginseng fruit, leaves, and roots. Conclusion This study provides basic information about the antioxidative activity and phenolic compounds profiles in fruit, leaves, and roots of Korean ginseng with cultivation years. This information is potentially useful to ginseng growers and industries involved in the production of high-quality and nutritional ginseng products. PMID:26843824

  4. Protective Effects of Ginseng on Neurological Disorders

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    Wei-Yi eOng

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Ginseng (Order: Apiales, Family: Araliaceae, Genus: Panax has been used as a traditional herbal medicine for over 2000 years, and is recorded to have antianxiety, antidepressant and cognition enhancing properties. The protective effect of ginseng on neurological disorders is discussed in this review. Ginseng species and ginsenosides, and their intestinal metabolism and bioavailability are briefly introduced. This is followed by molecular mechanisms of effects of ginseng on the brain, including glutamatergic transmission, monoamine transmission, estrogen signaling, nitric oxide production, the Keap1/Nrf2 adaptive cellular stress pathway, neuronal survival, apoptosis, neural stem cells and neuroregeneration, microglia, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and cerebral microvessels. The molecular mechanisms of the neuroprotective effects of ginseng in Alzheimer’s disease including Aβ formation, tau hyperphosphorylation and oxidative stress, major depression, stroke, Parkinson’s disease and multiple sclerosis / experimental allergic encephalitis are then presented. It is hoped that this discussion will stimulate more studies on the use of ginseng in these disorders.

  5. Characteristics of Watermelon Mosaic Virus Transmission Occurring in Korean Ginseng

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    Seung-Kook Choi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng is the most popular herb for medical purpose in Korea. Recently, viral diseases from Korean ginseng showing various degrees of severe mottling, variegation and mosaic symptoms have caused quantity losses of Korean ginseng in a large number of farms. Watermelon mosaic virus (named WMVgin was identified as a causal agent for the disease of Korean ginseng. Interestingly, WMV-gin failed to infect both Korean ginseng plant and susceptible host species including cucurbitaceous plants by mechanical inoculation. However, WMV-gin could successfully infect Korean ginseng by transmission of two aphid species (Myzus persicae and Aphis gossypii. It is likely that transmission of WMV-gin was done by both the aphid species during feeding behavior of the two aphid species on Korean ginseng, though the aphids dislike feeding in Korea ginseng. Similarly, a strain of WMV (WMV-wm isolated from watermelon was transmitted successfully to Korean ginseng plant by the two aphid species, but not by mechanical inoculations. Transmission assays using M. persicae and A. gossypii clearly showed both WMV-gin and WMV-wm were not transmitted from infected Korean ginseng plant to cucurbit species that are good host species for WMV. These results suggest WMV disease occurring in Korean ginseng plant can be controlled by ecological approaches.

  6. A Design of Ginseng Planting Environment Monitoring System Based on WSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Ding

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Through the analysis of ginseng products industry chain, this paper designs and implements ginseng planting environment monitoring system. The system realized data collection and detection of ginseng planting environment in real time by using wireless sensor, transmission of environmental parameters in real time by using GPRS wireless transmission module, and video monitor and alarm of ginseng land by using unattended machine. It is the foundation of information transformation of ginseng products industry chain based on the Internet of Things. The experiment of ginseng planting base in Fusong indicates the system can offer support of original data for scientific cultivation of ginseng, comprehensive analysis of ginseng products and propaganda of ginseng brand.

  7. ORIOLE, in the Search for Evidence of OER in Teaching. Experiences in the Use, Re-Use and the Sharing and Influence of Repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Hermosa, Gema

    2014-01-01

    The study presented here aims to gather useful information on the use, re-reuse and sharing of resources in Education and also the influence of repositories, to better understand the perspective of individual practitioners and suggest future areas of debate for researchers. Open Resources: Influence on Learners and Educators (ORIOLE) project, was…

  8. Studies on safety and efficacy of gamma-irradiated ginseng -Development of irradiation techniques for quality improvement of ginseng products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Han Ok; Byeon, Meong Uh; Yang, Jae Seung; Cho, Seong Ki; Kang, Il Joon

    1993-10-01

    The fourth year research program on Korean ginseng was carried out in order to improve in the microbiological quality and physical properties of red ginseng and its processing by application of irradiation technology. The quality of red ginseng and their products were strictly controlled by government invested Korean Tobacco Ginseng Co., but there is a need of alternative technology for decontaminating and disinfestating in view of supplying stable raw material and securing the hygienic production because the use of food fumigants and preservatives has been restricted due to their harmful effects on human and environment. It is desirable that the limited moisture content of red ginseng product should be increased, considering the economic and physical properties of its products, by application of irradiation technology for sterilization of prepackaged red ginseng products. Red ginseng products were irradiated at dose of 0, 5, 7.5, 10 kGy respectively, following moisture content of sample were increased up to 14%, 16%, 18% and 20% by keeping at humidity controlled desiccator. Each sample stored at ambient temperature (20 deg C, 70% RH) and accelerated storage condition (40 deg C, 90% RH) were used for the evaluation of microbiological quality, TBA value, color difference measurement, hydrogen donating activity, HPLC pattern and content of saponins, change of fatty acids and characteristics of moisture absorption

  9. Distribution of 19 organochlorinated pesticides residues in ginseng ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The organochlorinated pesticides widely applied and still remains in soils, has become toxic to ginseng production in Jilin Province. In this study, 19 trace organochlorinated pesticide residues in five types of ginseng products and soil samples from four ginseng production areas were analyzed using a gas ...

  10. Administration of red ginseng ameliorates memory decline in aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeonju; Oh, Seikwan

    2015-07-01

    It has been known that ginseng can be applied as a potential nutraceutical for memory impairment; however, experiments with animals of old age are few. To determine the memory enhancing effect of red ginseng, C57BL/6 mice (21 mo old) were given experimental diet pellets containing 0.12% red ginseng extract (approximately 200 mg/kg/d) for 3 mo. Young and old mice (4 mo and 21 mo old, respectively) were used as the control group. The effect of red ginseng, which ameliorated memory impairment in aged mice, was quantified using Y-maze test, novel objective test, and Morris water maze. Red ginseng ameliorated age-related declines in learning and memory in older mice. In addition, red ginseng's effect on the induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase and proinflammatory cytokines was investigated in the hippocampus of aged mice. Red ginseng treatment suppressed the production of age-processed inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-1β expressions. Moreover, it was observed that red ginseng had an antioxidative effect on aged mice. The suppressed glutathione level in aged mice was restored with red ginseng treatment. The antioxidative-related enzymes Nrf2 and HO-1 were increased with red ginseng treatment. The results revealed that when red ginseng is administered over long periods, age-related decline of learning and memory is ameliorated through anti-inflammatory activity.

  11. Discrimination of ginseng cultivation regions using light stable isotope analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kiwook; Song, Joo-Hyun; Heo, Sang-Cheol; Lee, Jin-Hee; Jung, In-Woo; Min, Ji-Sook

    2015-10-01

    Korean ginseng is considered to be a precious health food in Asia. Today, thieves frequently compromise ginseng farms by pervasive theft. Thus, studies regarding the characteristics of ginseng according to growth region are required in order to deter ginseng thieves and prevent theft. In this study, 6 regions were selected on the basis of Korea regional criteria (si, gun, gu), and two ginseng-farms were randomly selected from each of the 6 regions. Then 4-6 samples of ginseng were acquired from each ginseng farm. The stable isotopic compositions of H, O, C, and N of the collected ginseng samples were analyzed. As a result, differences in the hydrogen isotope ratios could be used to distinguish regional differences, and differences in the nitrogen isotope ratios yielded characteristic information regarding the farms from which the samples were obtained. Thus, stable isotope values could be used to differentiate samples according to regional differences. Therefore, stable isotope analysis serves as a powerful tool to discriminate the regional origin of Korean ginseng samples from across Korea. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Correlation of gene expression related to amount of ginseng saponin in 15 tissues and 6 kinds of ginseng saponin biosynthesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kang-yu; Zhang, Mei-ping; Li, Chuang; Jiang, Shi-cui; Yin, Rui; Sun, Chun-yu; Wang, Yi

    2015-08-01

    Fifteen tissues of 4-year-old fruit repining stage Jilin ginseng were chosen as materials, six kinds of monomer saponins (ginsenosides Rg1, Re, Rb1, Rc, Rb2 and Rd) content in 15 tissues was measured by HPLC and vanillin-sulfuric acid method. The relative expression of FPS, SQS, SQE, OSC, β-AS and P450 genes in 15 tissues was analyzed by real-time PCR. The correlations between ginseng saponin content in 15 tissues of Jilin ginseng and biosynthetic pathway -related genes were obtained. The results showed that was a synergistic increase and decrease trend of positive linear correlation among six kinds of monomer saponin content, and there was a significantly (P saponin content and total saponins content. Monomer saponin content and 6 kinds of enzyme gene correlation were different. Biosynthesis of ginseng total saponins and monomer saponin were regulated by six kinds of participation ginsenoside biosynthesis enzyme genes, the expression of these six kinds of genes in different tissues of ginseng showed collaborative increase and decrease trend, and regulated biosynthesis of ginseng ginsenoside by group coordinative manner.

  13. Quantification of maltol in Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng) products by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hyun Cheol; Hong, Hee-Do; Kim, Young-Chan; Rhee, Young Kyoung; Choi, Sang Yoon; Kim, Kyung-Tack; Kim, Sung Soo; Lee, Young-Chul; Cho, Chang-Won

    2015-01-01

    Background: Maltol, as a type of phenolic compounds, is produced by the browning reaction during the high-temperature treatment of ginseng. Thus, maltol can be used as a marker for the quality control of various ginseng products manufactured by high-temperature treatment including red ginseng. For the quantification of maltol in Korean ginseng products, an effective high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) method was developed. Materials and Methods: The HPLC-DAD method for maltol quantification coupled with a liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) method was developed and validated in terms of linearity, precision, and accuracy. An HPLC separation was performed on a C18 column. Results: The LLE methods and HPLC running conditions for maltol quantification were optimized. The calibration curve of the maltol exhibited good linearity (R2 = 1.00). The limit of detection value of maltol was 0.26 μg/mL, and the limit of quantification value was 0.79 μg/mL. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of the data of the intra- and inter-day experiments were <1.27% and 0.61%, respectively. The results of the recovery test were 101.35–101.75% with an RSD value of 0.21–1.65%. The developed method was applied successfully to quantify the maltol in three ginseng products manufactured by different methods. Conclusion: The results of validation demonstrated that the proposed HPLC-DAD method was useful for the quantification of maltol in various ginseng products. PMID:26246746

  14. Identification of ginseng root using quantitative X-ray microtomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Linlin; Xue, Yanling; Wang, Yudan; Qi, Juncheng; Xiao, Tiqiao

    2017-07-01

    The use of X-ray phase-contrast microtomography for the investigation of Chinese medicinal materials is advantageous for its nondestructive, in situ , and three-dimensional quantitative imaging properties. The X-ray phase-contrast microtomography quantitative imaging method was used to investigate the microstructure of ginseng, and the phase-retrieval method is also employed to process the experimental data. Four different ginseng samples were collected and investigated; these were classified according to their species, production area, and sample growth pattern. The quantitative internal characteristic microstructures of ginseng were extracted successfully. The size and position distributions of the calcium oxalate cluster crystals (COCCs), important secondary metabolites that accumulate in ginseng, are revealed by the three-dimensional quantitative imaging method. The volume and amount of the COCCs in different species of the ginseng are obtained by a quantitative analysis of the three-dimensional microstructures, which shows obvious difference among the four species of ginseng. This study is the first to provide evidence of the distribution characteristics of COCCs to identify four types of ginseng, with regard to species authentication and age identification, by X-ray phase-contrast microtomography quantitative imaging. This method is also expected to reveal important relationships between COCCs and the occurrence of the effective medicinal components of ginseng.

  15. Cancer chemoprevention by ginseng in mouse liver and other organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, H; Tokuda, H; Ii, T; Takemura, M; Kuchide, M; Kanazawa, M; Mou, X Y; Bu, P; Takayasu, J; Onozuka, M; Masuda, M; Satomi, Y; Konoshima, T; Kishi, N; Baba, M; Okada, Y; Okuyama, T

    2001-01-01

    Oral administration of red ginseng extracts (1% in diet for 40 weeks) resulted in the significant suppression of spontaneous liver tumor formation in C3H/He male mice. Average number of tumors per mouse in control group was 1.06, while that in red ginseng extracts-treated group was 0.33 (p<0.05). Incidence of liver tumor development was also lower in red ginseng extracts-treated group, although the difference from control group was not statistically significant. Anti-carcinogenic activity of white ginseng extracts, besides red ginseng extracts, was also investigated. In the present study, the administration of white ginseng extracts was proven to suppress tumor promoter-induced phenomena in vitro and in vivo. It is of interest that oral administration of the extracts of Ren-Shen-Yang- Rong-Tang, a white ginseng-containing Chinese medicinal prescription, resulted in the suppression of skin tumor promotion by 12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate in 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-initiated CD-1 mice. These results suggest the usefulness of ginseng in the field of cancer prevention. PMID:11748379

  16. Ginseng pharmacology: a new paradigm based on gintonin-lysophosphatidic acid receptor interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Yeol eNah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ginseng, the root of Panax ginseng, is used as a traditional medicine. Despite the long history of the use of ginseng, there is no specific scientific or clinical rationale for ginseng pharmacology besides its application as a general tonic. The ambiguous description of ginseng pharmacology might be due to the absence of a predominant active ingredient that represents ginseng pharmacology. Recent studies show that ginseng abundantly contains lysophosphatidic acids (LPAs, which are phospholipid-derived growth factor with diverse biological functions including those claimed to be exhibited by ginseng. LPAs in ginseng form a complex with ginseng proteins, which can bind and deliver LPA to its cognate receptors with a high affinity. As a first messenger, gintonin produces second messenger Ca2+ via G protein-coupled LPA receptors. Ca2+ is an intracellular mediator of gintonin and initiates a cascade of amplifications for further intercellular communications by activation of Ca2+-dependent kinases, receptors, gliotransmitter and neurotransmitter release. Ginsenosides, which have been regarded as primary ingredients of ginseng, cannot elicit intracellular [Ca2+]i transients, since they lack specific cell surface receptor. However, ginsenosides exhibit non-specific ion channel and receptor regulations. This is the key characteristic that distinguishes gintonin from ginsenosides. Although the current discourse on ginseng pharmacology is focused on ginsenosides, gintonin can definitely provide a mode of action for ginseng pharmacology that ginsenosides cannot. This review article introduces a novel concept of ginseng ligand-LPA receptor interaction and proposes to establish a paradigm that shifts the focus from ginsenosides to gintonin as a major ingredient representing ginseng pharmacology.

  17. Ginseng and obesity: observations and understanding in cultured cells, animals and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Longyun; Virgous, Carlos; Si, Hongwei

    2017-06-01

    Ginseng, a traditional medical herb, has been reported having beneficial effects in fatigue, heart diseases, diabetes, immune function and erectile dysfunction. In recent years, increasing investigations have been conducted on ginseng in preventing and treating of obesity, one of the major worldwide escalating public health concerns. However, the effect and the relevant mechanisms behind how ginseng works as an antiobesity treatment are still controversial. In this review, we briefly discussed the chemical structures, metabolism and pharmacokinetics of ginseng and its major bioactive components ginsenosides. The major focus is on the antiobesity effects and the physiological, cellular and molecular mechanisms of ginseng and its ginsenosides in cultured cells, animal models and humans. We particularly compared the ginsenosides profiles, the antiobesity effects and the mechanisms between Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng) and American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius), the two major ginseng species having opposite medical effects in traditional Chinese medicine. Our unpublished data on the ginseng antiobesity in cultured cells and mice were also included. We further addressed the current problems and future directions of the ginseng antiobesity research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Proof of the mysterious efficacy of ginseng: basic and clinical trials: effects of red ginseng on learning and memory deficits in an animal model of amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishijo, Hisao; Uwano, Teruko; Zhong, Yong-Mei; Ono, Taketoshi

    2004-06-01

    Ameliorating effects of red ginseng on learning and memory deficits due to hippocampal lesions and aging were reviewed; the performance of young rats with selective hippocampal lesions with or without red ginseng (p.o.), and aged rats with or without red ginseng (p.o.) in the spatial learning tasks was compared with that of sham-operated or intact young rats. Each rat was tested with 3 types of spatial learning tasks (distance movement task, DMT; random reward place search task, RRPST; and place learning task, PLT) in a circular open field using intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) as reward. The results in the DMT and RRPST indicated that motivational and motor activity of young rats with hippocampal lesions with and without ginseng and aged rats with and without ginseng were not significantly different from that of control young rats. However, young rats with hippocampal lesions without ginseng and aged rats without ginseng displayed significant deficits in the PLT. Treatment with red ginseng significantly ameliorated place-navigation deficits in young rats with hippocampal lesions in the PLT. Similarly, red ginseng improved performance of aged rats in the PLT. The results, along with previous studies showing significant effects of red ginseng on the central nervous system, suggest that red ginseng ameliorates learning and memory deficits through effects on the central nervous system, partly through effects on the hippocampal formation. However, its mechanisms are still unclear, and further studies are required.

  19. DNA MUTAGENESIS IN PANAX GINSENG CELL CULTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiselev K.V.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available At the present time, it is well documented that plant tissue culture induces a number of mutations and chromosome rearrangements termed “somaclonal variations”. However, little is known about the nature and the molecular mechanisms of the tissue culture-induced mutagenesis and the effects of long-term subculturing on the rate and specific features of the mutagenesis. The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare DNA mutagenesis in different genes of Panax ginseng callus cultures of different age. It has previously been shown that the nucleotide sequences of the Agrobacterium rhizogenes rolC locus and the selective marker nptII developed mutations during long-term cultivation of transgenic cell cultures of P. ginseng. In the present work, we analyzed nucleotide sequences of selected plant gene families in a 2-year-old and 20-year-old P. ginseng 1c cell culture and in leaves of cultivated P. ginseng plants. We analysed sequence variability between the Actin genes, which are a family of house-keeping genes; the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL and dammarenediol synthase (DDS genes, which actively participate in the biosynthesis of ginsenosides; and the somatic embryogenesis receptor kinase (SERK genes, which control plant development. The frequency of point mutations in the Actin, PAL, DDS, and SERK genes in the 2-year-old callus culture was markedly higher than that in cultivated plants but lower than that in the 20-year-old callus culture of P. ginseng. Most of the mutations in the 2- and 20-year-old P. ginseng calli were A↔G and T↔C transitions. The number of nonsynonymous mutations was higher in the 2- and 20-year-old callus cultures than the number of nonsynonymous mutations in the cultivated plants of P. ginseng. Interestingly, the total number of N→G or N→C substitutions in the analyzed genes was 1.6 times higher than the total number of N→A or N→T substitutions. Using methylation-sensitive DNA fragmentation

  20. Asian Ginseng

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... care provider before using Asian ginseng. Keep in Mind Tell all your health care providers about any ... Privacy and Policies Accessibility en Español FOIA Site Map Contact Us U.S. Department of Health & Human Services , ...

  1. Effects of Sun ginseng on memory enhancement and hippocampal neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang Hwan; Kim, Jong Min; Kim, Dong Hyun; Park, Se Jin; Liu, Xiaotong; Cai, Mudan; Hong, Jin Gyu; Park, Jeong Hill; Ryu, Jong Hoon

    2013-09-01

    Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer has been used in traditional herb prescriptions for thousands of years. A heat-processing method has been used to increase the efficacy of ginseng, yielding what is known as red ginseng. In addition, recently, a slightly modified heat-processing method was applied to ginseng, to obtain a new type of processed ginseng with increased biological activity; this new form of ginseng is referred to as Sun ginseng (SG). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of SG on memory enhancement and neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) region. The subchronic administration of SG (for 14 days) significantly increased the latency time in the passive avoidance task relative to the administration of the vehicle control (P memory-enhancing activities and that these effects are mediated, in part, by the increase in the levels of pERK and pAkt and by the increases in cell proliferation and cell survival. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Studies on the preservation of Korean Ginseng by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, H.S.; Park, M.H.; Lee, K.S.; Cho, H.O.

    1982-01-01

    In order to evaluate the feasibility for the sterilization of Korean red and white ginseng powder by irradiation, red and white ginseng powder (120 mesh) was irradiated by 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 1.0 and 2.0 Mrad with 60 Co irradiator (dose rate: 4000 rad/h). Extraction rate of crude saponins by buthanol and by 50% ethanol were slightly increased according to the irradiation dose (buthanol ex. 1.7%, 50% ethanol ex. 2.6%) at 1.0 Mrad irradiation. There are no remarkable changes in HPLC patterns of crude saponins by radiation. It was found that irradiation up to 1 Mrad on Korean ginseng products have no significant effect on proximate component, reducing sugar and amino nitrogen of ginseng powder and on the color density of ginseng extract with 50% ethanol. Irradiation up to 1 Mrad could be utilized for the sterilization of Korean ginseng powder without changes of physicochemical properties. (Author)

  3. Studies on safety and efficacy of gamma-irradiated ginseng -Development of irradiation techniques for quality improvement of ginseng products-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Han Ok; Byun, Myung Woo; Cho, Sung Kee; Kand, Il Joon; Yook, Hong Sun

    1995-02-01

    Gamma irradiation was applied to red ginseng powder for improving microbiological and physicochemical quality. Irradiation at 5-10 kGy was effective for sterilizing all contaminated microorganisms of red ginseng powder. At the dose levels, major physicochemical properties (saponin, amino acids, sugars, proximate composition, color, pH, acidity, hydrogen donating activity, fatty acids and minerals) were not changed by gamma irradiation upto 10 kGy. Based upon the results, it is concluded that gamma irradiation can effectively improve the microbiological quality of red ginseng powders without significant unfavorable changes. Therefore, it is suggested that irradiation technology is a viable alternative method to other sanitary process containing chemical fumigant and will be useful for the improvement of the quality of red ginseng powders and their products. 5 figs, 18 tabs, 92 refs. (Author)

  4. Studies on safety and efficacy of gamma-irradiated ginseng -Development of irradiation techniques for quality improvement of ginseng products-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Han Ok; Byun, Myung Woo; Cho, Sung Kee; Kand, Il Joon; Yook, Hong Sun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-02-01

    Gamma irradiation was applied to red ginseng powder for improving microbiological and physicochemical quality. Irradiation at 5-10 kGy was effective for sterilizing all contaminated microorganisms of red ginseng powder. At the dose levels, major physicochemical properties (saponin, amino acids, sugars, proximate composition, color, pH, acidity, hydrogen donating activity, fatty acids and minerals) were not changed by gamma irradiation upto 10 kGy. Based upon the results, it is concluded that gamma irradiation can effectively improve the microbiological quality of red ginseng powders without significant unfavorable changes. Therefore, it is suggested that irradiation technology is a viable alternative method to other sanitary process containing chemical fumigant and will be useful for the improvement of the quality of red ginseng powders and their products. 5 figs, 18 tabs, 92 refs. (Author).

  5. Radioprotective Effects of Hairy Roots of Ginseng

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Hyun Jung; Kim, Jin Kyu [Korea Atomic research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eun Young; Yang, Deok Cho [Chungbuk National Univ., Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Panax ginseng is an important medicinal plant in Korea, which has broad efficacious effects against hypertension, diabetes, nociception and cancer. And it improves weakness. The native ginseng is a slow growing plant taking 5-7 years from seed planting to mature root harvesting, during which time much care is needed since its growth is susceptible to many environmental factors such as soil, shade, climate, pathogens and pests. Nowadays, a wild ginseng has become extremely scarce and the ginseng supply depends almost exclusively on field cultivation, which is a time-consuming and labor-intensive process. To meet the demand for the plant in the international market, a bioreactor technology is a useful tool for production of root biomass on a large scale. Therefore, suspension culture of ginseng roots in bioreactors is viewed as a primary alternative method for large-scale production and recently our laboratory has developed a protocol for the in vitro culture of P. ginseng. About 60-70% of cellular DNA damage produced by ionizing radiation is caused by OH, formed from the radiolysis of water. Oxidative stress occurs when there is an excessive free radical production and/or low antioxidant defense, and results in the chemical alterations of biomolecules causing structural and functional modifications. The generation of the reactive oxygen metabolites plays an important role in the pathogenesis of the irradiation-induced tissue injury. An extensive literature review implicates cellular DNA as the primary target for the biological and lethal effects of ionizing radiation. Besides DNA, lipids and proteins are also attacked by free radicals. The purpose of this study, aimed at investigating the possible radioprotective effect of the hairy roots of P. ginseng on irradiation-induced damage by the comet assay.

  6. Radioprotective Effects of Hairy Roots of Ginseng

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Hyun Jung; Kim, Jin Kyu; Kim, Eun Young; Yang, Deok Cho

    2005-01-01

    Panax ginseng is an important medicinal plant in Korea, which has broad efficacious effects against hypertension, diabetes, nociception and cancer. And it improves weakness. The native ginseng is a slow growing plant taking 5-7 years from seed planting to mature root harvesting, during which time much care is needed since its growth is susceptible to many environmental factors such as soil, shade, climate, pathogens and pests. Nowadays, a wild ginseng has become extremely scarce and the ginseng supply depends almost exclusively on field cultivation, which is a time-consuming and labor-intensive process. To meet the demand for the plant in the international market, a bioreactor technology is a useful tool for production of root biomass on a large scale. Therefore, suspension culture of ginseng roots in bioreactors is viewed as a primary alternative method for large-scale production and recently our laboratory has developed a protocol for the in vitro culture of P. ginseng. About 60-70% of cellular DNA damage produced by ionizing radiation is caused by OH, formed from the radiolysis of water. Oxidative stress occurs when there is an excessive free radical production and/or low antioxidant defense, and results in the chemical alterations of biomolecules causing structural and functional modifications. The generation of the reactive oxygen metabolites plays an important role in the pathogenesis of the irradiation-induced tissue injury. An extensive literature review implicates cellular DNA as the primary target for the biological and lethal effects of ionizing radiation. Besides DNA, lipids and proteins are also attacked by free radicals. The purpose of this study, aimed at investigating the possible radioprotective effect of the hairy roots of P. ginseng on irradiation-induced damage by the comet assay

  7. Ginseng and the hypothalamic-pituitary control of stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulder, S J

    1981-01-01

    There are a group of so-called tonic remedies in Far Eastern medicine which are traditionally viewed as harmonizing or adjustive. Ginseng and eleutherococcus are the best known, and there is evidence that they increase arousal, stamina and stress resistance. We have attempted to explore the relationship between the behavioral and the stress effects, and to relate this to traditional concepts. In one series of experiments mice were given ginseng throughout their lifespan. At intervals their behavior response to mild stress was examined and found to be exaggerated compared to controls without ginseng. However, normal ambulatory behavior in the absence of stress was unaffected. A second series of experiments indicated that the binding of corticosteroid to certain brain regions was increased in adrenalectomized rats given ginseng saponin, compared to saline treated controls. This can be interpreted as a result of an increase in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal sensitivity caused by ginseng saponin. This is in accord with traditional concepts of the use of these remedies.

  8. Studies on safety and efficacy of gamma-irradiated ginseng

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Joong Ho; Cho, Han Oak; Byun, Myung Woo; Kim, Suk Won; Yang, Jae Seung; You, Young Soo; Jin, Joon Ha; Park, Soon Chul

    1992-09-01

    Microbiological qualities were evaluated for the commercial red ginseng. Molds, which might cause microbial spoilage of stored ginseng, were isolated and identified for determining radiosensitivity and growth characteristics on ginseng-extract agar media. Red ginseng inoculated with isolated molds was incubated under the ideal condition following irradiation at different doses to pre-establish the effective dose-range for decontamination by confirming mold growth on the surface of the sample. At this point of time, moisture content was determined for the corresponding sample. By comparing the monolayer moisture content of red ginseng and its actual moisture level causing microbial spoilage during storage, it was intended to establish a basal condition for the continued project regarding irradiation effects on the quality of high-moisture products and their storage stability. (Author)

  9. Probability of identification: adulteration of American Ginseng with Asian Ginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnly, James; Chen, Pei; Harrington, Peter De B

    2013-01-01

    The AOAC INTERNATIONAL guidelines for validation of botanical identification methods were applied to the detection of Asian Ginseng [Panax ginseng (PG)] as an adulterant for American Ginseng [P. quinquefolius (PQ)] using spectral fingerprints obtained by flow injection mass spectrometry (FIMS). Samples of 100% PQ and 100% PG were physically mixed to provide 90, 80, and 50% PQ. The multivariate FIMS fingerprint data were analyzed using soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) based on 100% PQ. The Q statistic, a measure of the degree of non-fit of the test samples with the calibration model, was used as the analytical parameter. FIMS was able to discriminate between 100% PQ and 100% PG, and between 100% PQ and 90, 80, and 50% PQ. The probability of identification (POI) curve was estimated based on the SD of 90% PQ. A digital model of adulteration, obtained by mathematically summing the experimentally acquired spectra of 100% PQ and 100% PG in the desired ratios, agreed well with the physical data and provided an easy and more accurate method for constructing the POI curve. Two chemometric modeling methods, SIMCA and fuzzy optimal associative memories, and two classification methods, partial least squares-discriminant analysis and fuzzy rule-building expert systems, were applied to the data. The modeling methods correctly identified the adulterated samples; the classification methods did not.

  10. Siberian Ginseng

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Some people use Siberian ginseng to improve athletic performance and the ability to do work. They also use it to treat sleep problems ( ... to reduce symptoms of chronic fatigue syndrome. Mental performance. Early ... in women experiencing mental stress. An inherited disorder that causes ...

  11. Proteomic variation in Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ulysses Akporoba

    2016-08-10

    Aug 10, 2016 ... number of ginsenoside types contained in Korean ginseng (38 ... License 4.0 International License .... AnchorChip TM 600/384 MALDI plate (Bruker Daltonik), and ... The peptide mass fingerprint search included a few.

  12. Implications of red Panax ginseng in oxidative stress associated chronic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon-Mi Lee

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The steaming process of Panax ginseng has been reported to increase its major known bioactive components, ginsenosides, and, therefore, its biological properties as compared to regular Panax ginseng. Biological functions of red Panax ginseng attenuating pro-oxidant environments associated with chronic diseases are of particular interest, since oxidative stress can be a key contributor to the pathogenesis of chronic diseases. Additionally, proper utilization of various biomarkers for evaluating antioxidant activities in natural products, such as ginseng, can also be important to providing validity to their activities. Thus, studies on the effects of red ginseng against various diseases as determined in cell lines, animal models, and humans were reviewed, along with applied biomarkers for verifying such effects. Limitations and future considerations of studying red ginseng were been discussed. Although further clinical studies are warranted, red ginseng appears to be beneficial for attenuating disease-associated symptoms via its antioxidant activities, as well as for preventing oxidative stress-associated chronic diseases.

  13. Administration of red ginseng ameliorates memory decline in aged mice

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Yeonju; Oh, Seikwan

    2015-01-01

    Background: It has been known that ginseng can be applied as a potential nutraceutical for memory impairment; however, experiments with animals of old age are few. Methods: To determine the memory enhancing effect of red ginseng, C57BL/6 mice (21 mo old) were given experimental diet pellets containing 0.12% red ginseng extract (approximately 200 mg/kg/d) for 3 mo. Young and old mice (4 mo and 21 mo old, respectively) were used as the control group. The effect of red ginseng, which ameliora...

  14. Protective Effects of Cultivated Ginseng, Cultivated Wild Ginseng of Korean and Chinese Against CCl4 and t-BHP Induced Acute Hepatotoxicity in ICR Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim, Young-Jin

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : This study was aimed at investigating live protection mechanism of Cultivated Ginseng and Cultivated Wild Ginseng of Korean and Chinese by inducing liver toxicity through and t-BHP in mice and evaluated serological findings. Methods : Experiment groups was categorized into untreated normal group, treated control group, and orally administered Cultivated Ginseng and Cultivated Wild Ginseng of Korean and Chinese experimental groups. At the termination of experiment, gross examination of the liver as well as Total bilirubin, AST, and ALT contents in the serum were evaluated. Results : 1. In the induced acute hepatotoxicity test, total bilirubin, AST and ALT didn't show significant differences between the control and experimental groups. 2. In the t-BHP induced acute hepatotoxicity test, total bilirubin, AST and ALT didn't show significant differences between the control and experimental groups. Conclusion : Taken together, Cultivated Ginseng and Cultivated Wild Ginseng of Korean and Chinese cannot be effectively used for recovering the liver functions in acute hepatotoxicity tests using and t-BHP. Further researches, for example treated long period, must be tried to verify the efficacies.

  15. Study on irradiation of freshening ginseng and toxicity test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ziwen; Xu Dechun; Yang Wanqi

    1991-01-01

    The ginsengs irradiated by 1 or 2 kGy of γ-rays have been stored for 6 months under room temperature. Its freshening rates was 86.67% and 88.33% respectively. The saponin content was maintained. The irradiated ginsengs had the vigour of sap fully and beautiful colour. Therefore they can be stored much longer for sell. The toxicity test showed that there was no toxicity for irradiated ginsengs

  16. Variation in the number of nucleoli and incomplete homogenization of 18S ribosomal DNA sequences in leaf cells of the cultivated Oriental ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelomina, Galina N; Rozhkovan, Konstantin V; Voronova, Anastasia N; Burundukova, Olga L; Muzarok, Tamara I; Zhuravlev, Yuri N

    2016-04-01

    Wild ginseng, Panax ginseng Meyer, is an endangered species of medicinal plants. In the present study, we analyzed variations within the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) cluster to gain insight into the genetic diversity of the Oriental ginseng, P. ginseng, at artificial plant cultivation. The roots of wild P. ginseng plants were sampled from a nonprotected natural population of the Russian Far East. The slides were prepared from leaf tissues using the squash technique for cytogenetic analysis. The 18S rDNA sequences were cloned and sequenced. The distribution of nucleotide diversity, recombination events, and interspecific phylogenies for the total 18S rDNA sequence data set was also examined. In mesophyll cells, mononucleolar nuclei were estimated to be dominant (75.7%), while the remaining nuclei contained two to four nucleoli. Among the analyzed 18S rDNA clones, 20% were identical to the 18S rDNA sequence of P. ginseng from Japan, and other clones differed in one to six substitutions. The nucleotide polymorphism was more expressed at the positions 440-640 bp, and distributed in variable regions, expansion segments, and conservative elements of core structure. The phylogenetic analysis confirmed conspecificity of ginseng plants cultivated in different regions, with two fixed mutations between P. ginseng and other species. This study identified the evidences of the intragenomic nucleotide polymorphism in the 18S rDNA sequences of P. ginseng. These data suggest that, in cultivated plants, the observed genome instability may influence the synthesis of biologically active compounds, which are widely used in traditional medicine.

  17. Effects of ginseng on Pseudomonas aeruginosa motility and biofilm formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hong; Lee, Baoleri; Yang, Liang

    2011-01-01

    protected animal models from developing chronic lung infection by P. aeruginosa. In the present study, the effects of ginseng on the formation of P. aeruginosa biofilms were further investigated in vitro and in vivo. Ginseng aqueous extract at concentrations of 0.5-2.0% did not inhibit the growth of P......Biofilm-associated chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infections in patients with cystic fibrosis are virtually impossible to eradicate with antibiotics because biofilm-growing bacteria are highly tolerant to antibiotics and host defense mechanisms. Previously, we found that ginseng treatments....... aeruginosa, but significantly prevented P. aeruginosa from forming biofilm. Exposure to 0.5% ginseng aqueous extract for 24 h destroyed most 7-day-old mature biofilms formed by both mucoid and nonmucoid P. aeruginosa strains. Ginseng treatment enhanced swimming and twitching motility, but reduced swarming...

  18. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of furosine in fresh and processed ginsengs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yali Li

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: These results indicate that FML is a promising indicator to estimate the heat treatment degree and honey addition level during the manufacture of ginseng products. The FML content is also an important parameter to identity the quality of ginseng products. In addition, the generation and regulation of potentially harmful Maillard reaction products-FML in ginseng processing was also investigated, providing a solid theoretical foundation and valuable reference for safe ginseng processing.

  19. The Medicinal Usage and Restriction of Ginseng in Britain and America, 1660-1900*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heasim SUL

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article demonstrates the medicinal usage of ginseng in the West from 1660 to 1914. Asian[Korea] ginseng was first introduced into England in the early 17th century, and North American ginseng was found in the early 18th century. Starting from the late 17th century doctors prescribed ginseng to cure many different kinds of ailments and disease such as: fatigue general lethargy, fever, torpidity, trembling in the joints, nervous disorder, laughing and crying hysteria, scurvy, spermatic vessel infection, jaundice, leprosy, dry gripes and constipation, strangury, yellow fever, dysentery, infertility and addictions of alcohol, opium and tobacco, etc. In the mid-18th century Materia Medica began to specify medicinal properties of ginseng and the patent medicines containing ginseng were widely circulated. However, starting in the late 18th century the medicinal properties of ginseng began to be disparaged and major pharmacopoeias removed ginseng from their contents. The reform of the pharmacopoeia, influenced by Linnaeus in botany and Lavoisier in chemistry, introduced nomenclature that emphasized identifying ingredients and active constituents. Western medicine at this period, however, failed to identify and to extract the active constituents of ginseng. Apart from the technical underdevelopment of the period, the medical discourses reveal that the so-called chemical experiment of ginseng were conducted with unqualified materials and without proper differentiation of various species of ginseng.

  20. Black ginseng extract ameliorates hypercholesterolemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, Evelyn; Jeon, Bo Ra; Jeong, Da-Hye; Lee, Kija; Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Kim, Seung-Hyung; Sung, Chang-Keun; Roh, Seong-Soo; Kim, Sung Dae; Kim, Hyun-Kyoung; Rhee, Man-Hee

    2016-04-01

    Ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) is a well-characterized medicinal herb listed in the classic oriental herbal dictionary as "Shin-nong-bon-cho-kyung." Ginseng has diverse pharmacologic and therapeutic properties. Black ginseng (BG, Ginseng Radix nigra) is produced by repeatedly steaming fresh ginseng nine times. Studies of BG have shown that prolonged heat treatment enhances the antioxidant activity with increased radical scavenging activity. Several recent studies have showed the effects of BG on increased lipid profiles in mice. In this study report the effects of water and ethanol extracts of BG on hypercholesterolemia in rats. To our knowledge, this is the first time such an effect has been reported. Experiments were conducted on male Sprague Dawley rats fed with a high-cholesterol diet supplemented with the water and ethanol extracts of BG (200 mg/kg). Their blood cholesterol levels, serum white blood cell levels, and cholesterol-metabolizing marker genes messenger RNA (mRNA) expression were determined. Liver and adipose tissues were histologically analyzed. We found that BG extracts efficiently reduced the total serum cholesterol levels, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels with increased food efficiency ratio and increased number of neutrophil cells. It also attenuated the key genes responsible for lipogenesis, that is, acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) acetyltransferase 2, 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase, and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2, at the mRNA level inside liver cells. Furthermore, the BG extract also reduced the accumulation of fat in adipose tissues, and inhibited the neutral fat content in liver cells stained with hematoxylin and eosin and oil red O. Administration of BG extracts to Sprague Dawley rats fed with high-cholesterol diet ameliorated hypercholesterolemia, which was mediated via modulation of cholesterol-metabolizing marker genes. This data throw a light on BG's cardioprotective effects.

  1. [Research on quality changes in ginseng stems and leaves before and after frost].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Ma, Shuang; Cai, En-Bo; Liu, Shuang-Li; Yang, He; Zhang, Lian-Xue; Wang, Shi-Jie

    2014-08-01

    The present study is to investigate the quality changes of ginseng stems and leaves before and after frost. The contents changes of ginsenoside, free amino acid, and total phenolic compounds, as well as DPPH radical scavenging effect before and after frost were measured. The content of 9 ginsenoside monomer in ginseng stems was decreased except for Rg, and Re after frost, but in ginseng leaves was all decreased. The total content of amino acids was decreased in ginseng stems after frost, while increased in ginseng leaves. The content of phenolic compounds in ginseng stems and leaves were both decreased after frost while the ability of DPPH radical scavenging was improved. The factor of frost has great impact on the quality of ginseng stems and leaves.

  2. Recent methodology in the phytochemical analysis of ginseng

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angelova, N.; Kong, H.-W.; Heijden, R. van de; Yang, S.-Y.; Choi, Y.H.; Kim, H.K.; Wang, M.; Hankemeier, T.; Greef, J. van der; Xu, G.; Verpoorte, R.

    2008-01-01

    This review summarises the most recent developments in ginseng analysis, in particular the novel approaches in sample pre-treatment and the use of high-performance liquid-chromatography-mass spectrometry. The review also presents novel data on analysing ginseng extracts by nuclear magnetic resonance

  3. [Induction of hairy roots of Panax ginseng and studies on suitable culture condition of ginseng hairy roots].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shou-Jing; Li, Chang-Yu; Qian, Yan-Chun; Luo, Xiao-Pei; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Xue-Song; Kang, Bo-Yu

    2004-03-01

    Ginseng is a valuable medicinal plant with ginsenosides as its mian effective components. Because ginseng is a perennial plant and has a very strict demand for soil conditions, the way of cultivating ginseng by cutting woods is still used in China at present and thus forest resources has been extremely destroyed. Increasing attention has been paid to the hairy roots induced by the infection of Agrobacterium rhizogenes in the production of plant secondary metabolic products for the hairy roots are characterized by rapid growth and stable hereditary and biochemical traits. That has opened a new way for the industrial production of ginseosides. However, there is little report for such studies from China. In this paper, hairy roots of ginseng were induced from the root explants of two-year-old ginseng by Agrobacterium rhizogenes A4 with directly inoculating. The transformed hairy roots could grow rapidly on MS medium and 1/2 MS medium without hormones. The cultured clones of the hairy roots were established on a solid 1/2 MS medium. After 4 - 5 subcultures the hairy roots still maintained a vigorous growth. A pair of primers were designed and synthesized according to the analytical results of RiA4TL-DNA sequence by Slightom et al . 0.8kb rolC was obtained by PCR using the genome DNA of hairy root of ginseng. Transformation was confirmed by PCR amplification of rolC genes from the hairy roots of P. ginseng. Growth rate of hairy roots on liquid medium increased by 2 times then that of the solid medium. The growth of the hairy roots can be divided into three stages: high speed in the first two weeks, middle speed in the 3 - 4 weeks and low speed hereafter. Changing the culture solution at 2 weeks regular intervals is conductive to maintaining the rapid growth of the hairy roots. By means of determination for specific growth rate and ginsenosides content, the high-yield hairy root clone R9923 was selected. The content of monomer gisenoside of Rg1, Re, Rf, Rbl, Rc, Rb2 and

  4. Integrated evaluation of malonyl ginsenosides, amino acids and polysaccharides in fresh and processed ginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jin-Yi; Fan, Yong; Yu, Qing-Tao; Ge, Ya-Zhong; Yan, Chen-Pu; Alolga, Raphael N; Li, Ping; Ma, Zhong-Hua; Qi, Lian-Wen

    2015-03-25

    Many analytical methods have been developed to characterize ginsenosides in ginseng. Relatively less attention has been paid to the malonyl ginsenosides, amino acids and polysaccharides in various processing ginsengs. In this study, malonyl ginsenosides were characterized by LC-Q-TOF/MS. In positive mode, the most abundant ions at m/z 425.38 were observed corresponding to the protopanoxadiol-type ginsenosides. A rich diagnostic ion at 835.48 was shown representing the malonyl ginsenosides with at least two glucosides. Twelve malonyl ginsenosides were rapidly screened using 835.48-835.49 to restructure ion chromatograms. In negative mode, besides the high deprotonated ion, a neutral loss of 44 Da (CO2) was found. High-energy collision-induced dissociation at 50 V produced the most abundant product ion [M-H-malonyl](-) by a neutral loss of 86 Da. Determination of 17 common amino acids was performed on an automatic amino acid analyzer. Arginine, glutamic acid, and aspartic acid were abundant. The contents of amino acids were 9.1% in fresh ginseng and 3.1% in black ginseng. Phenol-sulfuric acid method was applied to analysis of polysaccharides. The contents of polysaccharides were 29.1% in fresh ginseng and 11.1% in black ginseng. The optimal growth age for the accumulation of constituents was supposed to be 5-6 years. In conclusion, the contents of malonyl ginsenosides, amino acids, and polysaccharides, based on decreasing order, ranked as follows: fresh ginseng>frozen ginseng>white ginseng>stoved ginseng>red ginseng>black ginseng. Processing should be paid more attention for the quality control of ginseng products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. AKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDAN EKSTRAK UMBI AKAR GINSENG JAWA (Talinum triangulare Willd. [Antioxidant Activity of Javanese Ginseng (Talinum triangulare Willd. Root Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teti Estiasih1

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant activity of some extracts of javanese ginseng root was investigated. Javanese ginseng root extracts were prepared by solvent extraction using methanol, ethanol (96%, ethanol (70%, acetone, and hexane. Total antioxidant activity of the extracts was measured by ferric thiocyanate method, whereas radical scavenging capacity and reducing power were measured by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and the reducing potential methods, respectively. The result showed that the highest total antioxidant activity was observed in acetone and methanol extracts. It was supposed that the ability of these extracts for partitioning at the interface of the emulsion in the tested oxidation system was the highest among other extracts, therefore it had the best activity to inhibit oxidation. The highest radical scavenging capacity measured by EC50 was observed in acetone extract. The type of phenolic compounds of this extract was suggested to be responsible for the highest radical scavenging capacity. Different phenomena occurred for reducing power. Methanol extract had the highest reducing power and the least is hexane and acetone extract. It was suggested that each extracts comprised different types of phenolic based on different polarity of solvents used for extraction. The antioxidant compounds of javanese ginseng root extracts were primary antioxidant based on these ability to scavenge free radical. It could be concluded that acetone was the best solvent for antioxidant extraction of javanese ginseng root. However, all tested antioxidant mechanisms in this research showed that vitamin E (1000 ppm had better activity than javanese ginseng root extracts (1000 ppm for all types of solvent. Javanese ginseng extracts might contain other compounds that not responsible for antioxidant activity, therefore at the same concentration the activity were lower than vitamin E.

  6. Discrimination between ginseng from Korea and China by light stable isotope analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horacek, Micha; Min, Ji-Sook; Heo, Sang-Cheol; Soja, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    Ginseng is a health food and traditional medicine highly valued in Asia. Ginseng from certain origins is higher valued than from other origins, so that a reliable method for differentiation of geographical origin is important for the economics of ginseng production. To discriminate between ginseng samples from South Korea and PR China, 29 samples have been analyzed for the isotopic composition of the elements H, C and N. The results showed δ 2 H values between -94 and -79 per mille , for δ 13 C -27.9 to -23.7 per mille and for δ 15 N 1.3-5.4 per mille for Chinese ginseng. Korean ginseng gave δ 2 H ratios between -91 and -69 per mille , δ 13 C ratios between -31.2 and -22.4 per mille and δ 15 N ratios between -2.4 and +7 per mille . Despite the overlap between the values for individual isotopes, a combination of the isotope systems gave a reasonable differentiation between the two geographic origins. Especially the statistically significant difference in δ 2 H ratios facilitated the differentiation between Korean and Chinese ginseng samples.

  7. Discrimination between ginseng from Korea and China by light stable isotope analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horacek, Micha, E-mail: micha.horacek@ait.ac.at [Department of Environmental Resources and Technology, Austrian Institute of Technology, 2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Min, Ji-Sook; Heo, Sang-Cheol [National Institute of Scientific Investigation, 331-1 Shinwol-7dong, Yangcheon-ku, Seoul 158-707 (Korea, Republic of); Soja, Gerhard [Department of Environmental Resources and Technology, Austrian Institute of Technology, 2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)

    2010-12-03

    Ginseng is a health food and traditional medicine highly valued in Asia. Ginseng from certain origins is higher valued than from other origins, so that a reliable method for differentiation of geographical origin is important for the economics of ginseng production. To discriminate between ginseng samples from South Korea and PR China, 29 samples have been analyzed for the isotopic composition of the elements H, C and N. The results showed {delta}{sup 2}H values between -94 and -79 per mille , for {delta}{sup 13}C -27.9 to -23.7 per mille and for {delta}{sup 15}N 1.3-5.4 per mille for Chinese ginseng. Korean ginseng gave {delta}{sup 2}H ratios between -91 and -69 per mille , {delta}{sup 13}C ratios between -31.2 and -22.4 per mille and {delta}{sup 15}N ratios between -2.4 and +7 per mille . Despite the overlap between the values for individual isotopes, a combination of the isotope systems gave a reasonable differentiation between the two geographic origins. Especially the statistically significant difference in {delta}{sup 2}H ratios facilitated the differentiation between Korean and Chinese ginseng samples.

  8. Microbial transformation of ginsenosides extracted from Panax ginseng adventitious roots in an airlift bioreactor

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaolin Song; Hao Wu; Xuanchun Piao; Zhenhao Yin; Chengri Yin

    2017-01-01

    Background: Ginsenoside is the most important secondary metabolite in ginseng. Natural sources of wild ginseng have been overexploited. Although root culture can reduce the length of the growth cycle of ginseng, the number of species of ginsenosides is reduced and their contents are lower in the adventitious roots of ginseng than in the roots of ginseng cultivated in the field. Results: In this study, 147 strains of β-glucosidase-producing microorganisms were isolated from soil. Of these, ...

  9. Studies on the preservation of Korean Ginseng by irradiation: pt. 2. Effect of gamma irradiation on the physicochemical properties of Ginseng powder during the storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, H.S.; Park, M.H.; Lee, K.S. (Korea Ginseng and Tobacco Research Institute, Seoul (Republic of Korea)); Cho, H.O. (Korea Advanced Energy Research Inst., Seoul (Republic of Korea))

    1982-06-01

    The effect of the physicochemical properties of red and white ginseng powder after /sup 60/Co-..gamma.. ray irradiation during the storage for 4 months at 25degC was investigated. The storage periods and the treatment of irradiation at various doses on ginseng powders had no significant effects on the proximate composition and color density of ginseng extract with 50% ethanol. No changes in the contents of saponin and its HPLC patterns were found during the storage. However, a little increase was found in the yield of 50% ethanol extract and Hunter's color value of powder. But generally it was found to be stable in the physicochemical properties of red and white ginseng powder by irradiation of the intensity during the storage.

  10. Identification and Analysis of the Chloroplast rpoC1 Gene Differentially Expressed in Wild Ginseng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Kwang-Ho

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Panax ginseng is a well-known herbal medicine in traditional Asian medicine, and wild ginseng is widely accepted to be more active than cultivated ginseng in chemoprevention. However, little has actually been reported on the difference between wild ginseng and cultivated ginseng. Thus, to identify and analyze those differences, we used suppressive subtraction hybridization (SSH sequences with microarrays, realtime polymerase chain reaction (PCR, and reverse transcription PCRs (RT-PCRs. One of the clones isolated in this research was the chloroplast rpoC1 gene, a β subunit of RNA polymerase. Real-time RT-PCR results showed that the expression of the rpoC1 gene was significantly upregulated in wild ginseng as compared to cultivated ginseng, so, we conclude that the rpoC1 gene may be one of the important markers of wild ginseng.

  11. Modification of ginseng flavors by bitter compounds found in chocolate and coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sook Chung, Hee; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2012-06-01

    Ginseng is not widely accepted by U.S. consumers due to its unfamiliar flavors, despite its numerous health benefits. Previous studies have suggested that the bitter compounds in chocolate and coffee may mask the off-flavors of ginseng. The objectives of this study were to: (1) profile sensory characteristics of ginseng extract solution, caffeine solution, cyclo (L-Pro-L-Val) solution, theobromine solution, and 2 model solutions simulating chocolate bitterness; and (2) determine the changes in the sensory characteristics of ginseng extract solution by the addition of the bitter compounds found in chocolate and coffee. Thirteen solutions were prepared in concentrations similar to the levels of the bitter compounds found in coffee and chocolate products. Twelve panelists participated in a descriptive analysis panel which included time-intensity ratings. Ginseng extract was characterized as sweeter, starchier, and more green tea than the other sample solutions. Those characteristics of ginseng extract were effectively modified by the addition of caffeine, cyclo (L-Pro-L-Val), and 2 model solutions. A model solution simulating dark chocolate bitterness was the least influenced in intensities of bitterness by the addition of ginseng extract. Results from time-intensity ratings show that the addition of ginseng extract increased duration time in certain bitterness of the 2 model solutions. Bitter compounds found in dark chocolate could be proposed to effectively mask the unique flavors of ginseng. Future studies blending aroma compounds of chocolate and coffee into such model solutions may be conducted to investigate the influence on the perception of the unique flavors through the congruent flavors. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  12. Taste characteristics based quantitative and qualitative evaluation of ginseng adulteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Shaoqing; Yang, Liangcheng; Wang, Jun; Wang, Xinlei

    2015-05-01

    Adulteration of American ginseng with Asian ginseng is common and has caused much damage to customers. Panel evaluation is commonly used to determine their differences, but it is subjective. Chemical instruments are used to identify critical compounds but they are time-consuming and expensive. Therefore, a fast, accurate and convenient method is required. A taste sensing system, combining both advantages of the above two technologies, provides a novel potential technology for determining ginseng adulteration. The aim is to build appropriate models to distinguish and predict ginseng adulteration by using taste characteristics. It was found that ginsenoside contents decreased linearly (R(2) = 0.92) with mixed ratios. A bioplot of principal component analysis showed a good performance in classing samples with the first two principal components reaching 89.7%, and it was noted that it was the bitterness, astringency, aftertaste of bitterness and astringency, and saltiness leading the successful determination. After factor screening, bitterness, astringency, aftertaste of bitterness and saltiness were employed to build latent models. Tastes of bitterness, astringency and aftertaste bitterness were demonstrated to be most effective in predicting adulteration ratio, mean while, bitterness and aftertaste bitterness turned out to be most effective in ginsenoside content prediction. Taste characteristics of adulterated ginsengs, considered as taste fingerprint, can provide novel guidance for determining the adulteration of American and Asian ginseng. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Systems-level mechanisms of action of Panax ginseng: a network pharmacological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sa-Yoon; Park, Ji-Hun; Kim, Hyo-Su; Lee, Choong-Yeol; Lee, Hae-Jeung; Kang, Ki Sung; Kim, Chang-Eop

    2018-01-01

    Panax ginseng has been used since ancient times based on the traditional Asian medicine theory and clinical experiences, and currently, is one of the most popular herbs in the world. To date, most of the studies concerning P. ginseng have focused on specific mechanisms of action of individual constituents. However, in spite of many studies on the molecular mechanisms of P. ginseng , it still remains unclear how multiple active ingredients of P. ginseng interact with multiple targets simultaneously, giving the multidimensional effects on various conditions and diseases. In order to decipher the systems-level mechanism of multiple ingredients of P. ginseng , a novel approach is needed beyond conventional reductive analysis. We aim to review the systems-level mechanism of P. ginseng by adopting novel analytical framework-network pharmacology. Here, we constructed a compound-target network of P. ginseng using experimentally validated and machine learning-based prediction results. The targets of the network were analyzed in terms of related biological process, pathways, and diseases. The majority of targets were found to be related with primary metabolic process, signal transduction, nitrogen compound metabolic process, blood circulation, immune system process, cell-cell signaling, biosynthetic process, and neurological system process. In pathway enrichment analysis of targets, mainly the terms related with neural activity showed significant enrichment and formed a cluster. Finally, relative degrees analysis for the target-disease association of P. ginseng revealed several categories of related diseases, including respiratory, psychiatric, and cardiovascular diseases.

  14. Discrimination of Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer cultivar Chunpoong and American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius using the auxin repressed protein gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Hak Kim

    2016-10-01

    Conclusion: These results suggest that great impact to prevent authentication of precise Chunpoong and other cultivars using the auxin repressed protein gene. We therefore present an effective method for the authentication of the Chunpoong cultivar of P. ginseng and P. quinquefolius.

  15. Application of neutron radiography and tomography for analysis of root morphology of growing ginseng

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Ho; Sung, Bong Jae; Park, Jong Yoon [Geumsan Agricultural Development and Technology Center, Geumsan (Korea, Republic of); Sim, Cheul Muu; Kim, Young Jin; Lee, Seung Wook [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    The shape of main root of ginseng is very important for its commercial value. The morphology of main root is predominantly determined by the root-growing pattern in one year after transplantation of ginseng seedling(one years root). There are many factors affecting the root growing of young ginseng but no systematic approach has been applied to find the effects of various factors. The main reason for this was no method was sought to see the root shapes non-destructively. Neutron radiography is thought to be an appropriate NDT method for root morphology examination in ginseng and a study on using NR for the research on ginseng is being conducted. Considering that the live plants should be moved to the reactor site for their examination of four or five times per year at least, the pot growing method is indispensable. The pot should contain enough soils for growing-up of ginseng and its maximum size is limited to have good contrast in neutron radiography image of ginseng root. Thus, a preliminary radiographic study was performed to find the proper size of ginseng pot using the NR facility of HANARO. Several pots will be prepared for young ginsengs and they will be examined for about one year.

  16. Application of neutron radiography and tomography for analysis of root morphology of growing ginseng

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Ho; Sung, Bong Jae; Park, Jong Yoon; Sim, Cheul Muu; Kim, Young Jin; Lee, Seung Wook

    2005-01-01

    The shape of main root of ginseng is very important for its commercial value. The morphology of main root is predominantly determined by the root-growing pattern in one year after transplantation of ginseng seedling(one years root). There are many factors affecting the root growing of young ginseng but no systematic approach has been applied to find the effects of various factors. The main reason for this was no method was sought to see the root shapes non-destructively. Neutron radiography is thought to be an appropriate NDT method for root morphology examination in ginseng and a study on using NR for the research on ginseng is being conducted. Considering that the live plants should be moved to the reactor site for their examination of four or five times per year at least, the pot growing method is indispensable. The pot should contain enough soils for growing-up of ginseng and its maximum size is limited to have good contrast in neutron radiography image of ginseng root. Thus, a preliminary radiographic study was performed to find the proper size of ginseng pot using the NR facility of HANARO. Several pots will be prepared for young ginsengs and they will be examined for about one year

  17. High performance liquid chromatographic determination of Ginseng saponin by ultraviolet derivatisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besso, H.; Saruwatari, Y.; Futamura, K.; Kunihiro, K.; Fuwa, T.; Tanaka, O.

    1979-01-01

    Ginsenoides Rb 1 , b 2 , c, d, e and g 1 quantitatively reacted with benzoyl chloride in pyridine to afford the respective derivatives having strong UV absorption. The UV-derivatized saponins were separated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the saponin-contents of the various Ginseng varieties were determined. It is possible to distinguish white Ginseng from the root hairs of Ginseng by the pattern analysis of HPLC. (orig.) [de

  18. Effects of Temperature variations on the Super Fine Powderization of Korean Cultivated Wild Ginseng

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    Jin Ho Kim

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The aim of this study was to find optimal conditions for producing red ginseng from cultivated wild ginseng using the Turbo Mill. Methods : Characteristics of powdered cultivated wild ginseng based on various temperature settings of the Turbo Mill were observed, and changes in the content was measured by HPLC for various ginsenosides. Results : 1. The diameter of cultivated wild ginseng powder ground by the Turbo Mill was around 10㎛. 2. As the temperature rose, presusre, Specific Mechanical Energy(SME, and density decreased, whileas Water Solubility Index(WSI increased. 3. As the temperature rose, super fine powder showed tendency to turn into dark brown. 4. Measuring content changes by HPLC, there was no detection of ginsenoside Rg3 and ginsenosideRg1, Rb1, and Rh2 concentrations decreased with increase in temperature. Conclusions : Super fine powder of cultivated wild ginseng produced by the Turbo Mill promotes easy absorption of effective ingredients by breaking the cell walls. Using this mechanism to produce red ginseng from cultivated wild ginseng, it yielded less than satisfactory results under the current experiment setup. Furtherresearches are needed to verify more suitable condition for the production of red ginseng.

  19. Current Evaluation of the Millennium Phytomedicine- Ginseng (I): Etymology, Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry, Market and Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Lee; Zhao, Yuqing

    2009-01-01

    The dawning of this millennium broke new ground in life science and technology, presented us genomic and proteomic revolution, nanotechnology innovation, and high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) used for separating and identifying new chemical entities at pico-, or even femto-concentrations. Applications of these high technologies to the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) opened a new chapter in the ancient medicine, and prompted us to re-evaluate the thousand-year-old phytomedicine–ginseng from current perspectives. We, therefore, collected the latest information (mostly within 10 years) on ginseng, and condensed the information into two parts of this review serial. The present part covers etymology of ginseng, its pharmacognosy (natural origin, physical appearance, chemical properties, and specie identification), its cultivation and processing-related metabolic changes in active ingredients, standardized analytical methods used for quality control of various ginseng products, modern analytical methods used to identify and classify more than 100 chemical entities (many were recently unfolded) derived from ginseng species and their metabolites. The global markets and production of ginseng and relevant government regulations are herein updated to exchange information and understandings about current people’s uses and cultivation of ginseng. The second part of the review serial will classify all these 100 chemical entities separated from various ginseng species into different groups based on their structural similarities, and summarize bioactivities of these entities. The second part of the review serial will also focus on recent findings of ginseng pharmacology and its clinical trials for various diseases, and brief side effects of ginseng. PMID:19601793

  20. Current evaluation of the millennium phytomedicine--ginseng (I): etymology, pharmacognosy, phytochemistry, market and regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Lee; Zhao, Yuqing

    2009-01-01

    The dawning of this millennium broke new ground in life science and technology, presented us genomic and proteomic revolution, nanotechnology innovation, and high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) used for separating and identifying new chemical entities at pico-, or even femto-concentrations. Applications of these high technologies to the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) opened a new chapter in the ancient medicine, and prompted us to re-evaluate the thousand-year-old phytomedicine- ginseng from current perspectives. We, therefore, collected the latest information (mostly within 10 years) on ginseng, and condensed the information into two parts of this review serial. The present part covers etymology of ginseng, its pharmacognosy (natural origin, physical appearance, chemical properties, and specie identification), its cultivation and processing-related metabolic changes in active ingredients, standardized analytical methods used for quality control of various ginseng products, modern analytical methods used to identify and classify more than 100 chemical entities (many were recently unfolded) derived from ginseng species and their metabolites. The global markets and production of ginseng and relevant government regulations are herein updated to exchange information and understandings about current people's uses and cultivation of ginseng. The second part of the review serial will classify all these 100 chemical entities separated from various ginseng species into different groups based on their structural similarities, and summarize bioactivities of these entities. The second part of the review serial will also focus on recent findings of ginseng pharmacology and its clinical trials for various diseases, and brief side effects of ginseng.

  1. [White ginseng commercialization and sales expansion activities of Gaesung merchants in the 1910s and 1920s].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jeongpil

    2011-06-30

    Ginseng has always been the typical export item in Korean history. Until the 18th century, exporting ginseng was wild ginseng from the mountains. Since the 19th century, exporting ginseng became red ginseng, which was red due to steaming and drying process. Red ginseng was produced by Gaesung merchants, so that these merchants were able to gain the control of the output. Gaesung merchants of the 19th century exported red ginseng to China and made huge economic success. However, when the Korean Empire and Japanese colonial government established red ginseng monopoly, it essentially blocked Gaesung traders from manufacturing and exporting any further of its prized commodity. Then, the traders turned to sun-dried white ginseng as a substitute to red ginseng. As a result, white ginseng production dramatically increased after 1914, which in turn made Gaesung merchants newly aware of the commercial value of white ginseng, which was previously ignored. The traders made good use of the traditional medicine herb market, which opened annually, to promote the expansion of white ginseng sales. Moreover, the merchants also adopted modern marketing techniques, as they founded companies to handle solely white ginseng sales, refreshed packaging to raise commodity values, and made an effort in advertising and mail order sales. Due to such endeavors, demand for white ginseng grew exponentially both in domestic and foreign markets, which generated steady growth of white ginseng prices despite the rapid increase of its supply. This phenomenon naturally brought about the rich economic accomplishments of Gaesung merchants. Through the white ginseng sales activities of Gaesung merchants in post-1910s era, two facts can be newly uncovered. First, the mass consumption of white ginseng today in Korean society took a full-scale step after the 1910s. Second, it was a widely-held view that during the Japanese rule, majority of Korean traditional merchants were economically ruined, while a

  2. [Development of indel markers for molecular authentication of Panax ginseng and P. quinquefolius].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rong-Bo; Tian, Hui-Li; Wang, Hong-Tao; Li, Gui-Sheng

    2018-04-01

    Panax ginseng and P. quinquefolius are two kinds of important medicinal herbs. They are morphologically similar but have different pharmacological effects. Therefore, botanical origin authentication of these two ginsengs is of great importance for ensuring pharmaceutical efficacy and food safety. Based on the fact that intron position in orthologous genes is highly conserved across plant species, intron length polymorphisms were exploited from unigenes of ginseng. Specific primers were respectively designed for these two species based on their insertion/deletion sequences of cytochrome P450 and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and multiplex PCR was conducted for molecular authentication of P.ginseng and P. quinquefolius. The results showed that the developed multiplex PCR assay was effective for molecular authentication of P.ginseng and P. quinquefolius without strict PCR condition and the optimization of reaction system.This study provides a preferred ideal marker system for molecular authentication of ginseng,and the presented method can be employed in origin authentication of other herbal preparations. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  3. Molecular differentiation of Russian wild ginseng using mitochondrial nad7 intron 3 region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guisheng Li

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: An effective DNA method for molecular discrimination of Russian wild ginseng from Chinese and Korean cultivated ginseng was developed. The established real-time allele-specific PCR was simple and reliable, and the present method should be a crucial complement of chemical analysis for authentication of Russian wild ginseng.

  4. Physicochemical Characteristics and Antioxidant Capacity in Yogurt Fortified with Red Ginseng Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jieun; Paik, Hyun-Dong; Yoon, Hyun Joo; Jang, Hye Ji; Jeewanthi, Renda Kankanamge Chaturika; Jee, Hee-Sook; Lee, Na-Kyoung

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate characteristics and functionality of yogurt applied red ginseng extract. Yogurts added with red ginseng extract (0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2%) were produced using Lactobacillus acidophilus and Streptococcus thermophilus and stored at refrigerated temperature. During fermentation, pH was decreased whereas titratable aicidity and viable cell counts of L. acidophilus and S. thermophilus were increased. The composition of yogurt samples was measured on day 1, an increase of red ginseng extract content in yogurt resulted in an increase in lactose, protein, total solids, and ash content, whereas fat and moisture content decreased. The pH value and cell counts of L. acidophilus and S. thermophilus were declined, however titratable acidity was increased during storage period. The antioxidant capacity was measured as diverse methods. During refrigerated storage time, the value of antioxidant effect was decreased, however, yogurt fortified with red ginseng extract had higher capacity than plain yogurt. The antioxidant effect was improved in proportion to concentration of red ginseng extract. These data suggests that red ginseng extract could affect to reduce fermentation time of yogurt and enhance antioxidant capacity. PMID:27433113

  5. Physicochemical Characteristics and Antioxidant Capacity in Yogurt Fortified with Red Ginseng Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jieun; Paik, Hyun-Dong; Yoon, Hyun Joo; Jang, Hye Ji; Jeewanthi, Renda Kankanamge Chaturika; Jee, Hee-Sook; Li, Xiang; Lee, Na-Kyoung; Lee, Si-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate characteristics and functionality of yogurt applied red ginseng extract. Yogurts added with red ginseng extract (0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2%) were produced using Lactobacillus acidophilus and Streptococcus thermophilus and stored at refrigerated temperature. During fermentation, pH was decreased whereas titratable aicidity and viable cell counts of L. acidophilus and S. thermophilus were increased. The composition of yogurt samples was measured on day 1, an increase of red ginseng extract content in yogurt resulted in an increase in lactose, protein, total solids, and ash content, whereas fat and moisture content decreased. The pH value and cell counts of L. acidophilus and S. thermophilus were declined, however titratable acidity was increased during storage period. The antioxidant capacity was measured as diverse methods. During refrigerated storage time, the value of antioxidant effect was decreased, however, yogurt fortified with red ginseng extract had higher capacity than plain yogurt. The antioxidant effect was improved in proportion to concentration of red ginseng extract. These data suggests that red ginseng extract could affect to reduce fermentation time of yogurt and enhance antioxidant capacity.

  6. Identification of ginseng root using quantitative X-ray microtomography

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    Linlin Ye

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: This study is the first to provide evidence of the distribution characteristics of COCCs to identify four types of ginseng, with regard to species authentication and age identification, by X-ray phase-contrast microtomography quantitative imaging. This method is also expected to reveal important relationships between COCCs and the occurrence of the effective medicinal components of ginseng.

  7. Mass culture of mountain Ginseng roots using rare earth elements in bioreactor cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Sung Jin; Kim, Chang Hyun; Kim, Ha Lim [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-01-15

    An adventitious roots of mountain ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer) was used in this experiments. Various concentration of lanthanide were tested to find out optimal conditions for biomass and ginsenoside contents in mountain ginseng roots. The MS basal medium with 100 {mu}g/L lanthanide created the most optimum condition for growth of adventitious roots of mountain ginseng. Batch culture with 100 {mu}g/L lanthanide and 0.5 g (F.W) inoculation volume produced maximum final biomass of 1.89 g(F.W/flask) within 4 weeks. However, lanthanide was not effect the ginsenoside contents in adventitious roots of mountain ginseng. In bioreactors, 3.23 g F.W./L of biomass were obtained when 100 {mu}g/L lanthanide were added to the MS basal medium at 26 .deg. C

  8. Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Red Ginseng Extracts or Red Ginseng Hydrolyzates-added Asiago Cheese during Ripening

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    Kyung-Hoon Choi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate physicochemical properties of different concentrations (0.1%, 0.3%, and 0.5% of red ginseng hydrolyzates (RGH- or red ginseng extract (RGE-added Asiago cheeses (AC during ripening at 14°C for 4 months. The moisture content significantly increased with increasing concentrations of both RGH- and RGE- added AC (p<0.05. While RGHAC and RGEAC were more yellow and darker with increasing concentrations than that of control (p<0.05, the color was not influenced from the hydrolysis. In texture analysis, hardness, cohesiveness, and chewiness of RGHAC and RGEAC significantly decreased compared to the control during the ripening (p<0.05. In sensory analysis, bitterness and ginseng flavor and taste scores increased significantly with increasing the concentrations of RGH and RGE during ripening (p<0.05. In conclusion, the addition of RGH and RGE into cheese slightly influenced the properties of Asiago cheese, and similarities were observed between RGHAC and RGEAC. Thus, the lower concentrations (0.1% to 0.3% of RGH and RGE added to AC were preferred for color, texture, and sensory during the ripening, therefore, these cheeses would be worth developing commercially.

  9. Animal lectins: potential receptors for ginseng polysaccharides

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    So Hee Loh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Panax ginseng Meyer, belonging to the genus Panax of the family Araliaceae, is known for its human immune system-related effects, such as immune-boosting effects. Ginseng polysaccharides (GPs are the responsible ingredient of ginseng in immunomodulation, and are classified as acidic and neutral GPs. Although GPs participate in various immune reactions including the stimulation of immune cells and production of cytokines, the precise function of GPs together with its potential receptor(s and their signal transduction pathways have remained largely unknown. Animal lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins that are highly specific for sugar moieties. Among many different biological functions in vivo, animal lectins especially play important roles in the immune system by recognizing carbohydrates that are found exclusively on pathogens or that are inaccessible on host cells. This review summarizes the immunological activities of GPs and the diverse roles of animal lectins in the immune system, suggesting the possibility of animal lectins as the potential receptor candidates of GPs and giving insights into the development of GPs as therapeutic biomaterials for many immunological diseases.

  10. THE USE OF PANAX GINSENG AND ITS ANALOGUES AMONG PHARMACY CUSTOMERS IN ESTONIA: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volmer, Dasy; Raal, Ain; Kalle, Raivo; Sõukand, Renata

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the cross-sectional study was to evaluate the pattern of complementary self-treatment with P. ginseng and its analogues amongst pharmacy customers in Estonia. The study instrument consisted of multiple-choice items related to personal knowledge about and experience with the use of P. ginseng and its analogues. In total, 1233 customers participated in the study. Of study participants, 18.1% reported the use of P. ginseng and its analogues in their lives. P. ginseng preparations were used mostly according to the well- known indications (tiredness, weakness and decreased mental and physical capacity). Of P. ginseng users 44.3% reported positive treatment effects and 12.0% had experienced different side effects. With increase of age (p < 0.01) and at lower levels of education (p = 0.04), the use of ginseng or its analogues decreased. The better the users evaluated their health, the better they perceived the effect of P. ginseng preparations (p < 0.01). This study reported rather frequent use of P. ginseng and its analogues. P. ginseng could be seen in the treatment of conditions, where the use of local medicinal plants has not been established. Further research is needed to learn more about public knowledge and experiences about efficacy and safety of P. ginseng and its analogues.

  11. Efek ekstrak akar ginseng Jawa dan Korea terhadap libido mencit jantan pada prakondisi testosteron rendah

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    Dwi Winarni

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This research was designed to compare the potency and duration effect of Java ginseng and Korean ginseng root extract administration on sexual behavior of male mice. It was done experimentally on male mice (strain BALB, aged 8–10 weeks, weighed 25–35 g. Thirty eight mice were grouped to 4 (four groups: First group was treated with solvent (as positive control, 2nd group was treated ethynilestradiol (EE2 (as negative control, 3rd group was treated with Java ginseng root extract, and 4th group was treated with Korean ginseng root extract. All groups were administered with EE2 0.56 mg/20 g bw/day for 9 days as pretreatment to decrease the testosteron level. After pretreatment, each group divided to 3 subgroups (each would receive treatment for 9, 18, and 27 days. Ethynilestradiol 0.56 mg/20 g bw/day was administered along treatment to keep testosterone level low, except to positive control group. Java ginseng and Korean ginseng root extract (equal with 1.4 mg ginseng root powder/ 20 g bw/day and EE2 were administered orally. The level of testosterone after pretreatment was measured by RIA (radioimmuoassay and changes in libido were determined by libido test. After the last treatment, 1 male mouse kept singly in individual cage. Libido test was carried out for 20 minutes. All of these activities during test recorded by handycam. The mice were observed for time from the introduction of female into the cage of male upto the first mount (mounting latency/ ML and for the number of mounts (mounting frequency/MF. The results indicated that at low testosterone level, Java ginseng root extract administration at the dose equal with 1.4 mg ginseng root powder/20 g bw/day shortened mounting latency and increased mounting frequency but Korean ginseng extract root at the same dose gave negative effects. Duration of administration of both Java and Korean ginseng root extract didn’t give effect on libido.

  12. Effects of ginseng on stress-related depression, anxiety, and the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis

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    Seungyeop Lee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ginseng effectively regulates the immune response and the hormonal changes due to stress, thus maintaining homeostasis. In addition to suppressing the occurrence of psychological diseases such as anxiety and depression, ginseng also prevents stress-associated physiological diseases. Recent findings have revealed that ginseng is involved in adjusting the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis and controlling hormones, thus producing beneficial effects on the heart and brain, and in cases of bone diseases, as well as alleviating erectile dysfunction. Recent studies have highlighted the potential use of ginseng in the prevention and treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases such as diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and allergic asthma. However, the mechanism underlying the effects of ginseng on these stress-related diseases has not been completely established. In this review, we focus on the disease pathways caused by stress in order to determine how ginseng acts to improve health. Central to our discussion is how this effective and stable therapeutic agent alleviates the anxiety and depression caused by stress and ameliorates inflammatory diseases.

  13. Experimental and epidemiological evidence on non-organ specific cancer preventive effect of Korean ginseng and identification of active compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, T.-K

    2003-03-01

    Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer has been the most highly recognized medicinal herb in the Orient. The prolonged administration of red ginseng extract significantly inhibits the incidence of hepatoma and also proliferation of pulmonary tumors induced by aflatoxin B{sub 1} and urethane. Statistically significant anticarcinogenic effects were in aged or heat treated extracts of ginseng and red ginseng made by steaming in a 9 weeks medium-term anticarcinogenicity test using benzo[a]pyrene. In case-control studies, odds ratios (OR) of the cancer of lip, oral cavity and pharynx, larynx, lung, esophagus, stomach, liver, pancreas, ovary, and colorectum were significantly reduced. As to the type of ginseng, the ORs for cancer were reduced in user of fresh ginseng extract intakers, white ginseng extract, white ginseng powder, and red ginseng. In a cohort study with 5 years follow-up conducted in a ginseng cultivation area, ginseng users had a decreased relative risk (RR) compared with non-users. The relative risks (RRs) of ginseng users were decreased in gastric cancer and lung cancer. These findings strongly suggest that Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer cultivated in Korea has non-organ specific cancer preventive effects against various cancers. To investigate the active components for cancer prevention, several fractions of fresh and red ginseng and four semi-synthetic ginsenoside Rh{sub 1}, Rh{sub 2}, Rg{sub 3} and Rg{sub 5}, the major saponin components in red ginseng, were prepared among the ginsenosides. By using Yun's model, Rg{sub 3} and Rg{sub 5} showed statistically significant reduction of lung tumor incidence and Rh{sub 2} had a tendency to decrease the incidence. In conclusion, these results strongly suggested that Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer cultivated in Korea is a non-organ specific cancer preventive against human cancers and also indicated that the anticarcinogenicity or human cancer preventive effect of Panax ginseng is due to ginsenoside Rg{sub 3}, Rg{sub 5} and Rh

  14. Restoration of radiation injury by ginseng, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonezawa, Morio; Katoh, Norio; Takeda, Atsuhiko

    1981-01-01

    Some properties of the radioprotective substances in a ginseng extract that increased the 30-day survival ratio in irradiated mice were studied. Methanol-soluble fraction of the extract did not protect the irradiated animals. Acid or alkali (0.12 N) inactivated the extract at 60 0 C. But the radioprotective activity was stable after heating the ginseng extract in physiological saline at pH 7 in a boiling-water bath for 15 min. The ginseng extract was separated into two fractions by CM-cellulose column chromatography. One of them (CM-A) was significantly efficacious at 5% level, and the other (CM-B) at 0.1% level with the doses proportional to their yields. CM-B, not containing saponin, was subjected to further purification, UV spectrum and a biuret test suggested the presence of protein in this fraction. The supernatant obtained after heating CM-B solution at pH 7 was separated into three fractions, namely G-I, G-II and G-III, by gel-chromatography with a Sephadex G-75 column. Both G-I (0.44 mg per animal) and G-III (0.84 mg, calculated dose) were significantly efficacious, but G-II (0.47 mg) was not. (author)

  15. Restoration of radiation injury by ginseng, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Atsuhiko; Katoh, Norio; Yonezawa, Morio

    1982-01-01

    Radiation protection by post-irradiation injection of a thermostable fraction of the ginseng extract in mice, rats and guinea pigs was studied. The thermostable fraction lost ''by-effects'' of decrease in body weight and splenic hyperplasia which were caused in injected mice by the original ginseng extract. The fraction protected mice (male) irradiated with 720 R of X-rays and rats (male) irradiated with 825 R with the dose about 6 mg per 100 g of body weight. The fraction also protected guinea pigs, both female and male, irradiated with 325 R with the dose about 80 mg per 300 g of body weight. The thermostable fraction stimulated recovery of thrombocyte and erythrocyte counts, but not leukocyte counts, in 550-R irradiated mice. Recovery of all the three blood cell counts was stimulated by the fraction in rats irradiated with 630 R and guinea pigs irradiated with 200 R. Comparison of stimulated recovery by the thermostable fraction of the ginseng extract among the three blood cell counts showed that restoring action was the most marked on thrombocyte counts, commonly in the three species of the animals. (author)

  16. Dietary supplementation of chinese ginseng prevents obesity and metabolic syndrome in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoxiao; Luo, Jing; Anandh Babu, Pon Velayutham; Zhang, Wei; Gilbert, Elizabeth; Cline, Mark; McMillan, Ryan; Hulver, Matthew; Alkhalidy, Hana; Zhen, Wei; Zhang, Haiyan; Liu, Dongmin

    2014-12-01

    Obesity and diabetes are growing health problems worldwide. In this study, dietary provision of Chinese ginseng (0.5 g/kg diet) prevented body weight gain in high-fat (HF) diet-fed mice. Dietary ginseng supplementation reduced body fat mass gain, improved glucose tolerance and whole body insulin sensitivity, and prevented hypertension in HF diet-induced obese mice. Ginseng consumption led to reduced concentrations of plasma insulin and leptin, but had no effect on plasma adiponectin levels in HF diet-fed mice. Body temperature was higher in mice fed the ginseng-supplemented diet but energy expenditure, respiration rate, and locomotive activity were not significantly altered. Dietary intake of ginseng increased fatty acid oxidation in the liver but not in skeletal muscle. Expression of several transcription factors associated with adipogenesis (C/EBPα and PPARγ) were decreased in the adipose tissue of HF diet-fed mice, effects that were mitigated in mice that consumed the HF diet supplemented with ginseng. Abundance of fatty acid synthase (FASN) mRNA was greater in the adipose tissue of mice that consumed the ginseng-supplemented HF diet as compared with control or un-supplemented HF diet-fed mice. Ginseng treatment had no effect on the expression of genes involved in the regulation of food intake in the hypothalamus. These data suggest that Chinese ginseng can potently prevent the development of obesity and insulin resistance in HF diet-fed mice.

  17. Panax ginseng induces the expression of CatSper genes and sperm hyperactivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Hwa Park

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The cation channel of sperm (CatSper protein family plays important roles in male reproduction and infertility. The four members of this family are expressed exclusively in the testis and are localized differently in sperm. To investigate the effects of Panax ginseng treatment on the expression of CatSper genes and sperm hyperactivation in male mice, sperm motility and CatSper gene expression were assessed using a computer-assisted semen analysis system, a Fluoroskan Ascent microplate fluorometer to assess Ca 2+ influx, real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting and immunofluorescence. The results suggested that the Ca 2+ levels of sperm cells treated with P. ginseng were increased significantly compared with the normal group. The P. ginseng-treated groups showed increased sperm motility parameters, such as the curvilinear velocity and amplitude of lateral head displacement. Taken together, the data suggest that CatSper messenger ribonucleic acid levels were increased significantly in mouse testes in the P. ginseng-treated group, as was the protein level, with the exception of CatSper2. In conclusion, P. ginseng plays an important role in improving sperm hyperactivation via CatSper gene expression.

  18. Asian and Siberian ginseng as a potential modulator of immune function: an in vitro cytokine study using mouse macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huamin; Actor, Jeffrey K; Indrigo, Jessica; Olsen, Margaret; Dasgupta, Amitava

    2003-01-01

    Ginseng is a widely used herbal product in China, other Asian countries, and in the Unites States. There is a traditional belief that ginseng stimulates immune functions. In this study, the innate effects of Asian and Siberian ginsengs on cytokines and chemokines produced by cultured macrophages were examined. The effects of Asian and Siberian ginseng on cytokines and chemokines produced by cultured macrophages were examined. Mouse macrophages (J774A.1) were incubated with Asian or Siberian ginseng at varying concentrations (1, 10, 100, and 1000 microg/ml) for 24 h and then harvested for RNA isolation. The expression levels of IL-1beta, IL-12, TNF-alpha, MIP-1 alpha, and MIP-2 mRNA were measured by quantitative PCR. Our data showed that Asian ginseng induced a statistically significant increase in IL-12 expression at both mRNA and protein levels. However, the minor twofold increase is probably biologically insignificant. No significant increase of IL-12 by Siberian ginseng was observed at any dose level studied. No significant change in IL-1beta, IL-15, TNF-alpha, or MIP-1alpha mRNA was observed by either Asian or Siberian ginseng treatment. Our data showed statistically significant differential regulation of IL-12 by Asian ginseng. Siberian ginseng did not show a statistically significant increase. We conclude that both Asian ginseng and Siberian ginseng cannot significantly stimulate innate macrophage immune functions that influence cellular immune responses. Therefore, contrary to the popular belief, Asian and Siberian ginseng may not stimulate immune function.

  19. Evolution, functional differentiation, and co-expression of the RLK gene family revealed in Jilin ginseng, Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yanping; Wang, Kangyu; Li, Xiangyu; Sun, Chunyu; Yin, Rui; Wang, Yanfang; Wang, Yi; Zhang, Meiping

    2018-02-21

    Most genes in a genome exist in the form of a gene family; therefore, it is necessary to have knowledge of how a gene family functions to comprehensively understand organismal biology. The receptor-like kinase (RLK)-encoding gene family is one of the most important gene families in plants. It plays important roles in biotic and abiotic stress tolerances, and growth and development. However, little is known about the functional differentiation and relationships among the gene members within a gene family in plants. This study has isolated 563 RLK genes (designated as PgRLK genes) expressed in Jilin ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer), investigated their evolution, and deciphered their functional diversification and relationships. The PgRLK gene family is highly diverged and formed into eight types. The LRR type is the earliest and most prevalent, while only the Lec type originated after P. ginseng evolved. Furthermore, although the members of the PgRLK gene family all encode receptor-like protein kinases and share conservative domains, they are functionally very diverse, participating in numerous biological processes. The expressions of different members of the PgRLK gene family are extremely variable within a tissue, at a developmental stage and in the same cultivar, but most of the genes tend to express correlatively, forming a co-expression network. These results not only provide a deeper and comprehensive understanding of the evolution, functional differentiation and correlation of a gene family in plants, but also an RLK genic resource useful for enhanced ginseng genetic improvement.

  20. Ginseng administration protects skeletal muscle from oxidative stress induced by acute exercise in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voces, J; Cabral de Oliveira, A C; Prieto, J G; Vila, L; Perez, A C; Duarte, I D G; Alvarez, A I

    2004-12-01

    Enzymatic activity was analyzed in the soleus, gastrocnemius (red and white) and plantaris muscles of acutely exercised rats after long-term administration of Panax ginseng extract in order to evaluate the protective role of ginseng against skeletal muscle oxidation. Ginseng extract (3, 10, 100, or 500 mg/kg) was administered orally for three months to male Wistar rats weighing 200 +/- 50 g before exercise and to non-exercised rats (N = 8/group). The results showed a membrane stabilizing capacity of the extract since mitochondrial function measured on the basis of citrate synthase and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activities was reduced, on average, by 20% (P < 0.05) after exercise but the activities remained unchanged in animals treated with a ginseng dose of 100 mg/kg. Glutathione status did not show significant changes after exercise or treatment. Lipid peroxidation, measured on the basis of malondialdehyde levels, was significantly higher in all muscles after exercise, and again was reduced by about 74% (P < 0.05) by the use of ginseng extract. The administration of ginseng extract was able to protect muscle from exercise-induced oxidative stress irrespective of fiber type.

  1. Ginseng administration protects skeletal muscle from oxidative stress induced by acute exercise in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Voces

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic activity was analyzed in the soleus, gastrocnemius (red and white and plantaris muscles of acutely exercised rats after long-term administration of Panax ginseng extract in order to evaluate the protective role of ginseng against skeletal muscle oxidation. Ginseng extract (3, 10, 100, or 500 mg/kg was administered orally for three months to male Wistar rats weighing 200 ± 50 g before exercise and to non-exercised rats (N = 8/group. The results showed a membrane stabilizing capacity of the extract since mitochondrial function measured on the basis of citrate synthase and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activities was reduced, on average, by 20% (P < 0.05 after exercise but the activities remained unchanged in animals treated with a ginseng dose of 100 mg/kg. Glutathione status did not show significant changes after exercise or treatment. Lipid peroxidation, measured on the basis of malondialdehyde levels, was significantly higher in all muscles after exercise, and again was reduced by about 74% (P < 0.05 by the use of ginseng extract. The administration of ginseng extract was able to protect muscle from exercise-induced oxidative stress irrespective of fiber type.

  2. Ginseng treatment reduces bacterial load and lung pathology in chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Z; Johansen, H K; Faber, V

    1997-01-01

    the inflammation and antibody responses could be changed by treatment with the Chinese herbal medicine ginseng. An aqueous extract of ginseng was injected subcutaneously, and cortisone and saline were used as controls. Two weeks after challenge with P. aeruginosa, the ginseng-treated group showed a significantly...... resembling a TH1-like response. On the basis of these results it is suggested that ginseng may have the potential to be a promising natural medicine, in conjunction with other forms of treatment, for CF patients with chronic P. aeruginosa lung infection....

  3. Physiological and Biochemical Studies on The Possible Protective Role of Ginseng in Gamma Irradiated Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkiki, Sh.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    Administration of Ginseng prior to radiation exposure at both doses 2 or 6 Gy of gamma rays minimize the hazardous effect of radiation by decreasing the level of serum total lipid, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL), triglycerides, MDA and lipids of RBCS membrane. Also, Ginseng treatment before exposure to single separate doses 2 and 6 Gy of γ- rays increasing the levels of low density lipoprotein (LDL), total protein, albumin, globulin, RBCs count, WBCs count, hemoglobin content and erythropoietin. Morphological studies of bone marrow revealed that administration of Ginseng before exposure to 2 or 6 Gy of γ- radiation improve the cellularity comparing to the irradiated one. While administration of Ginseng after exposure to 6 Gy of γ-rays had no effect and showed severe hypo cellularity and loss cell wall. The radioprotective effect of Ginseng administration before exposure to irradiation was more effective than that of Ginseng administered after exposure to irradiation. Ginseng was obviously investigated as an effective agent on hematopoiesis

  4. Merit of Ginseng in the Treatment of Heart Failure in Type 1-Like Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Chia Tsai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the merit of ginseng in the improvement of heart failure in diabetic rats and the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors δ (PPARδ. We used streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat (STZ-rat to screen the effects of ginseng on cardiac performance and PPARδ expression. Changes of body weight, water intake, and food intake were compared in three groups of age-matched rats; the normal control (Wistar rats received vehicle, STZ-rats received vehicle and ginseng-treated STZ-rats. We also determined cardiac performances in addition to blood glucose level in these animals. The protein levels of PPARδ in hearts were identified using Western blotting analysis. In STZ-rats, cardiac performances were decreased but the food intake, water intake, and blood glucose were higher than the vehicle-treated control. After a 7-day treatment of ginseng in STZ-rats, cardiac output was markedly enhanced without changes in diabetic parameters. This treatment with ginseng also increased the PPARδ expression in hearts of STZ-rats. The related signal of cardiac contractility, troponin I phosphorylation, was also raised. Ginseng-induced increasing of cardiac output was reversed by the cotreatment with PPARδ antagonist GSK0660. Thus, we suggest that ginseng could improve heart failure through the increased PPARδ expression in STZ-rats.

  5. Cytotoxic effect of x-irradiation of mouse tumor cells in the presence of Korean ginseng extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Hyoung Cheol; Kim, Jin Ki; Kim, Jung Soo [College of Medicine, Chonbuk National Univ., Junju (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Dong Seong [College of Medicine, Woosuck Univ., Wanju (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-09-01

    We already reported the results that aqueous extract of Korean ginseng roots showed a marked cytotoxicity. In this study, we investigated whether combined ginseng product with X-irradiation increase the cytotoxicity of tumor cells than X-irradiation or not. Fifty gram of Korean ginseng powder mixed with 1 L of distilled water was extracted with reflux flask under condition of 100 .deg. C for 5 hrs. This aqueous ginseng extract was filtered, centrifuged and then was freezed under condition of -90 .deg. C for 16-18 hrs. The freezing extract was dried with freeze drier, and then diluted. X-irradiation was given to tumor cells by 6 MeV linear accelerator. The cytotoxicity of ginseng in vitro was evaluated from its ability to reduce the clonogenecity of fibrosarcoma (FSa ll) cells. In X-irradiation alone group, each 2, 4, 6 and 8 Gy was given to tumor cells. In X-irradiation with ginseng group, 0.2 mg/mL or ginseng extract was exposed to tumor cells for 1 hour before X-irradiation. The yield for 50 g of ginseng extract which was treated with freezing drier was 3.13 g(6.3%). Cytotoxicity in vitro was measured as survival fraction which was judged from the curve, at ginseng concentration of 0.001, 0.01, 0.1 and 1 mg/ml were 0.89{+-}0.04, 0.86{+-}0.06, 0.73{+-}0.01 and 0.09{+-}0.02, respectively. Survival fraction at X-irradiation alone of 2, 4, 6 and 8 Gy were 0.81{+-}0.07, 0.42{+-}0.08, 0.15{+-}0.02, 0.03{+-}0.01, respectively. But, survival fraction in combined group of X-irradiation and ginseng (0.2mg/mL) at each same radiation dose were 0.28{+-}0.01, 0.18{+-}0.03, 0.08{+-}0.02, 0.006{+-}0.002, respectively (p<0.05). The yield for ginseng extract which was treated with freezing drier was 6.3%. Cytotoxicity of Fsa II in combined ginseng with X-irradiation group was increased than that at X-irradiation alone group, and its enhancing effect seemed to be added.

  6. Cytotoxic effect of x-irradiation of mouse tumor cells in the presence of Korean ginseng extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Hyoung Cheol; Kim, Jin Ki; Kim, Jung Soo; Choi, Dong Seong

    2000-01-01

    We already reported the results that aqueous extract of Korean ginseng roots showed a marked cytotoxicity. In this study, we investigated whether combined ginseng product with X-irradiation increase the cytotoxicity of tumor cells than X-irradiation or not. Fifty gram of Korean ginseng powder mixed with 1 L of distilled water was extracted with reflux flask under condition of 100 .deg. C for 5 hrs. This aqueous ginseng extract was filtered, centrifuged and then was freezed under condition of -90 .deg. C for 16-18 hrs. The freezing extract was dried with freeze drier, and then diluted. X-irradiation was given to tumor cells by 6 MeV linear accelerator. The cytotoxicity of ginseng in vitro was evaluated from its ability to reduce the clonogenecity of fibrosarcoma (FSa ll) cells. In X-irradiation alone group, each 2, 4, 6 and 8 Gy was given to tumor cells. In X-irradiation with ginseng group, 0.2 mg/mL or ginseng extract was exposed to tumor cells for 1 hour before X-irradiation. The yield for 50 g of ginseng extract which was treated with freezing drier was 3.13 g(6.3%). Cytotoxicity in vitro was measured as survival fraction which was judged from the curve, at ginseng concentration of 0.001, 0.01, 0.1 and 1 mg/ml were 0.89±0.04, 0.86±0.06, 0.73±0.01 and 0.09±0.02, respectively. Survival fraction at X-irradiation alone of 2, 4, 6 and 8 Gy were 0.81±0.07, 0.42±0.08, 0.15±0.02, 0.03±0.01, respectively. But, survival fraction in combined group of X-irradiation and ginseng (0.2mg/mL) at each same radiation dose were 0.28±0.01, 0.18±0.03, 0.08±0.02, 0.006±0.002, respectively (p<0.05). The yield for ginseng extract which was treated with freezing drier was 6.3%. Cytotoxicity of Fsa II in combined ginseng with X-irradiation group was increased than that at X-irradiation alone group, and its enhancing effect seemed to be added

  7. A review on the medicinal potentials of ginseng and ginsenosides on cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Ho Lee

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Ginseng is widely used for its promising healing and restorative properties as well as for its possible tonic effect in traditional medicine. Nowadays, many studies focus on purified individual ginsenoside, an important constituent in ginseng, and study its specific mechanism of action instead of whole-plant extracts on cardiovascular diseases (CVDs. Of the various ginsenosides, purified ginsenosides such as Rb1, Rg1, Rg3, Rh1, Re, and Rd are the most frequently studied. Although there are many reports on the molecular mechanisms and medical applications of ginsenosides in the treatment of CVDs, many concerns exist in their application. This review discusses current works on the countless pharmacological functions and the potential benefits of ginseng in the area of CVDs. Results: Both in vitro and in vivo results indicate that ginseng has potentially positive effects on heart disease through its various properties including antioxidation, reduced platelet adhesion, vasomotor regulation, improving lipid profiles, and influencing various ion channels. To date, approximately 40 ginsenosides have been identified, and each has a different mechanism of action owing to the differences in chemical structure. This review aims to present comprehensive information on the traditional uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacology of ginseng, especially in the control of hypertension and cardiovascular function. In addition, the review also provides an insight into the opportunities for future research and development on the biological activities of ginseng.

  8. [Ginseng prescription rules and molecular mechanism in treating coronary heart disease based on data mining and integrative pharmacology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sen; Tang, Shi-Huan; Liu, Jin-Ling; Su, Jin; He, Fu-Yuan

    2018-04-01

    The ancient dragon Materia Medica, Compendium of Materia Medica and other works recorded that the main effect of ginseng is tonifying qi. It is reported that the main active ingredient of ginseng is ginsenoside. Modern studies have found that ginseng mono saponins are effective for cardiovascular related diseases. This paper preliminary clarified the efficacy of traditional ginseng-nourishing qi and cardiovascular disease through the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) inheritance auxiliary platform and integration platform of association of pharmacology. With the help of TCM inheritance auxiliary platform-analysis of "Chinese medicine database", Chinese medicine treatment of modern diseases that ginseng rules, so the traditional effect associated with modern medicine and pharmacology; application integration platform enrichment analysis on the target of drug and gene function, metabolic pathway, to further explore the molecular mechanism of ginseng in the treatment of coronary heart disease, aimed at mining the molecular mechanism of ginseng in the treatment of coronary heart disease. Chinese medicine containing ginseng 307 prescriptions, 87 kinds of disease indications, western medicine disease Chinese medicine therapy for ginseng main coronary heart disease; analysis of molecular mechanism of ginseng pharmacology integration platform for the treatment of coronary heart disease. Ginsenosides(Ra₁, Ra₂, Rb₁, Rb₂, Rg₁, Ro) bind these targets, PRKAA1, PRKAA2, NDUFA4, COX5B, UQCRC1, affect chemokines, non-alcoholic fatty liver, gonadotropin, carbon metabolism, glucose metabolism and other pathways to treat coronary heart disease indirectly. The molecular mechanism of Panax ginseng's multi-component, multi-target and synergistic action is preliminarily elucidated in this paper. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  9. Development of EST Intron-Targeting SNP Markers for Panax ginseng and Their Application to Cultivar Authentication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongtao; Li, Guisheng; Kwon, Woo-Saeng; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2016-06-04

    Panax ginseng is one of the most valuable medicinal plants in the Orient. The low level of genetic variation has limited the application of molecular markers for cultivar authentication and marker-assisted selection in cultivated ginseng. To exploit DNA polymorphism within ginseng cultivars, ginseng expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were searched against the potential intron polymorphism (PIP) database to predict the positions of introns. Intron-flanking primers were then designed in conserved exon regions and used to amplify across the more variable introns. Sequencing results showed that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), as well as indels, were detected in four EST-derived introns, and SNP markers specific to "Gopoong" and "K-1" were first reported in this study. Based on cultivar-specific SNP sites, allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was conducted and proved to be effective for the authentication of ginseng cultivars. Additionally, the combination of a simple NaOH-Tris DNA isolation method and real-time allele-specific PCR assay enabled the high throughput selection of cultivars from ginseng fields. The established real-time allele-specific PCR assay should be applied to molecular authentication and marker assisted selection of P. ginseng cultivars, and the EST intron-targeting strategy will provide a potential approach for marker development in species without whole genomic DNA sequence information.

  10. A Metabolomic Approach for the Discrimination of Red Ginseng Root Parts and Targeted Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In, Gyo; Seo, Hyun Kyu; Park, Hee-Won; Jang, Kyoung Hwa

    2017-03-15

    Ginsenosides are used as existing markers of red ginseng (RG) quality, and ginsenoside ratios are also indicative of the different components of red ginseng. For the analysis and classification of ginsenoside content, red ginseng was separated into three parts, namely, main roots, lateral roots, and fine roots, and each extract was subjected to ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QToF-MS) with multivariate statistical analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed a clear discrimination between the extracts of main roots and fine roots and suggested discrimination markers (four for the main roots and five for the fine roots). The fine root markers were identified as ginsenoside. We identified two markers for the main roots of red ginseng in this study. Moreover, the contents of 22 ginsenosides were analyzed in all three components of red ginseng. Fine roots have the highest protopanaxadiol (PPD)/protopanaxatriol (PPT) ratio. The PPD group of ginsenosides, which is quantitatively dominant in fine roots, clearly distinguishes the main roots from the other parts.

  11. Development of distinction method of production area of ginsengs by using a neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Youngjin; Chung, Yongsam; Sim, Chulmuu; Sun, Gwangmin; Lee, Yuna; Yoo, Sangho

    2011-01-15

    During the last 2 years of the project, we have tried to develop the technology to make a distinction of the production areas for Korean ginsengs cultivated in the various provinces in Korea and foreign countries. It will contribute to secure the health food safety for public and stability of its market. In this year, we collected ginseng samples cultivated in the northeastern province in Chinese mainland such as Liaoning province, Jilin province and Baekdu mountain within Jilin province. 10 ginseng samples were collected at each province. The elemental concentrations in the ginseng were analyzed by using a neutron activation analysis technique at the HANARO research reactor. The distinction of production area was made by using a statistical software. As a result, the Chinese Korean ginsengs were certainly differentiated from those cultivated in the famous province in Korea though there was a limitation that the number of our sample we analyzed is very small.

  12. Development of distinction method of production area of ginsengs by using a neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Youngjin; Chung, Yongsam; Sim, Chulmuu; Sun, Gwangmin; Lee, Yuna; Yoo, Sangho

    2011-01-01

    During the last 2 years of the project, we have tried to develop the technology to make a distinction of the production areas for Korean ginsengs cultivated in the various provinces in Korea and foreign countries. It will contribute to secure the health food safety for public and stability of its market. In this year, we collected ginseng samples cultivated in the northeastern province in Chinese mainland such as Liaoning province, Jilin province and Baekdu mountain within Jilin province. 10 ginseng samples were collected at each province. The elemental concentrations in the ginseng were analyzed by using a neutron activation analysis technique at the HANARO research reactor. The distinction of production area was made by using a statistical software. As a result, the Chinese Korean ginsengs were certainly differentiated from those cultivated in the famous province in Korea though there was a limitation that the number of our sample we analyzed is very small

  13. [Optimization of dissolution process for superfine grinding technology on total saponins of Panax ginseng fibrous root by response surface methodology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ya; Lai, Xiao-Pin; Yao, Hai-Yan; Zhao, Ran; Wu, Yi-Na; Li, Geng

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the effects of superfine comminution extraction technology of ginseng total saponins from Panax ginseng fibrous root, and to make sure the optimal extraction condition. Optimal condition of ginseng total saponins from Panax ginseng fibrous root was based on single factor experiment to study the effects of crushing degree, extraction time, alcohol concentration and extraction temperature on extraction rate. Response surface method was used to investigate three main factors such as superfine comminution time, extraction time and alcohol concentration. The relationship between content of ginseng total saponins in Panax ginseng fibrous root and three factors fitted second degree polynomial models. The optimal extraction condition was 9 min of superfine comminution time, 70% of alcohol, 50 degrees C of extraction temperature and 70 min of extraction time. Under the optimal condition, ginseng total saponins from Panax ginseng fibrous root was average 94. 81%, which was consistent with the predicted value. The optimization of technology is rapid, efficient, simple and stable.

  14. DNA protective effect of ginseng and the antagonistic effect of Chinese turnip: A supplementation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeto, Yim Tong; Wong, Kam Shing; Han, Andrea; Pak, Sok Cheon; Kalle, Wouter

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this clinical study is to provide scientific evidence for supporting traditional Chinese application and usage to the patients. For this purpose, we tested the ability if Panax ginseng extract to lower oxidative damage to nuclear DNA in human lymphocytes by comparing the effect of cooked Chinese turnip on this effect. Seven healthy subjects (4 males and 3 females from 37 to 60 years) participated two occasions which were at least 2 weeks apart. About 2 mL of fasting blood sample for baseline measurement was taken on arrival. They were requested to ingest the content of 5 ginseng capsules in 200 mL water. The subject remained fasting for 2 h until the second blood sample taken. In the other occasion, the experiment was repeated except a piece of cooked turnip (10 g) was taken with the ginseng extract. The two occasions could be interchanged. Comet assay was performed on two specimens on the same day for the evaluation of lymphocytic DNA damage with or without oxidative stress. For the group with ginseng supplementation, there was a significant decrease in comet score for hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) treatment over the 2-h period while no change in DNA damage for unstressed sample. For the group with ginseng together with turnip supplementation, there was no significant difference in comet score for both H 2 O 2 treatment and phosphate-buffered saline treatment. Ginseng extract could reduce DNA damage mediated by H 2 O 2 effectively, but this protection effect was antagonized by the ingestion of cooked turnip at the same time. In the current study, commercial ginseng extract was used for supplementing volunteers. Ginseng extract could protect DNA from oxidative stress in vivo while turnip diminished the protection.

  15. Converting Panax ginseng DNA and chemical fingerprints into two-dimensional barcode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yong; Li, Peng; Li, Xi-Wen; Zhao, Jing; Chen, Hai; Yang, Qing; Hu, Hao

    2017-07-01

    In this study, we investigated how to convert the Panax ginseng DNA sequence code and chemical fingerprints into a two-dimensional code. In order to improve the compression efficiency, GATC2Bytes and digital merger compression algorithms are proposed. HPLC chemical fingerprint data of 10 groups of P. ginseng from Northeast China and the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) sequence code as the DNA sequence code were ready for conversion. In order to convert such data into a two-dimensional code, the following six steps were performed: First, the chemical fingerprint characteristic data sets were obtained through the inflection filtering algorithm. Second, precompression processing of such data sets is undertaken. Third, precompression processing was undertaken with the P. ginseng DNA (ITS2) sequence codes. Fourth, the precompressed chemical fingerprint data and the DNA (ITS2) sequence code were combined in accordance with the set data format. Such combined data can be compressed by Zlib, an open source data compression algorithm. Finally, the compressed data generated a two-dimensional code called a quick response code (QR code). Through the abovementioned converting process, it can be found that the number of bytes needed for storing P. ginseng chemical fingerprints and its DNA (ITS2) sequence code can be greatly reduced. After GTCA2Bytes algorithm processing, the ITS2 compression rate reaches 75% and the chemical fingerprint compression rate exceeds 99.65% via filtration and digital merger compression algorithm processing. Therefore, the overall compression ratio even exceeds 99.36%. The capacity of the formed QR code is around 0.5k, which can easily and successfully be read and identified by any smartphone. P. ginseng chemical fingerprints and its DNA (ITS2) sequence code can form a QR code after data processing, and therefore the QR code can be a perfect carrier of the authenticity and quality of P. ginseng information. This study provides a theoretical

  16. Effect of single-dose Ginkgo biloba and Panax ginseng on driving performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaSala, Gregory S; McKeever, Rita G; Patel, Urvi; Okaneku, Jolene; Vearrier, David; Greenberg, Michael I

    2015-02-01

    Panax ginseng and Gingko biloba are commonly used herbal supplements in the United States that have been reported to increase alertness and cognitive function. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of these specific herbals on driving performance. 30 volunteers were tested using the STISIM3® Driving Simulator (Systems Technology Inc., Hawthorne, CA, USA) in this double-blind, placebo-controlled study. The subjects were randomized into 3 groups of 10 subjects per group. After 10-min of simulated driving, subjects received either ginseng (1200 mg), Gingko (240 mg), or placebo administered orally. The test herbals and placebo were randomized and administered by a research assistant outside of the study to maintain blinding. One hour following administration of the herbals or placebo, the subjects completed an additional 10-min of simulated driving. Standard driving parameters were studied including reaction time, standard deviation of lateral positioning, and divided attention. Data collected for the divided attention parameter included time to response and number of correct responses. The data was analyzed with repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Kruskal-Wallis test using SPSS 22 (IBM, Armonk, NY, USA). There was no difference in reaction time or standard deviation of lateral positioning for both the ginseng and Ginkgo arms. For the divided attention parameter, the response time in the Ginkgo arm decreased from 2.9 to 2.5 s. The ginseng arm also decreased from 3.2 to 2.4 s. None of these values were statistically significant when between group differences were analyzed. The data suggests there was no statistically significant difference between ginseng, Ginkgo or placebo on driving performance. We postulate this is due to the relatively small numbers in our study. Further study with a larger sample size may be needed in order to elucidate more fully the effects of Ginkgo and ginseng on driving ability.

  17. [Research on compatibility of prescriptions including Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Trogopterus Dung based on complex network analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng-Wen; Fan, Xin-Sheng; Zhang, Ling-Shan; Wang, Cong-Jun

    2017-09-01

    The applications of prescriptions including Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Trogopterus Dung in contemporary literatures from 1949 to 2016 are compiled and the data mining techniques containing scale-free complex network method are utilized to explore its practical characteristics, with comparison between modern and ancient ones. The results indicate that malignant neoplasms, coronary heart disease which present Qi deficiency and blood stasis type are the main diseases treated by prescriptions including Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Trogopterus Dung according to the reports during 1949 to 2016. The complex network connection shows that Glycyrrhizae Radixet Rhizoma, Angelicae Sinensis Radix, Astragali Radix, Typhae Pollen, Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma are the primary drugs related to Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Trogopterus Dung. The next are Paeoniae Radix Alba, Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma, Persicae Semen, Foria, et al. Carthami Flos, Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Cyperi Rhizoma, Bupleuri Radix are the peripheral ones. Also, Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma-Glycyrrhizae Radixet Rhizoma, Trogopterus Dung-Glycyrrhizae Radixet Rhizoma, Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma-Angelicae Sinensis Radix, Trogopterus Dung-Angelicae Sinensis Radix, Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma-Astragali Radix, Trogopterus Dung-Astragali Radix are the main paired drugs. The paired drugs including Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma-Trogopterus Dung-Glycyrrhizae Radixet Rhizoma, Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma-Trogopterus Dung-Angelicae Sinensis Radix, Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma-Trogopterus Dung-Astragali Radix, Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma-Trogopterus Dung-Typhae Pollen have a higher support degree. The main compatible drugs are different in ancient and modern prescriptions including Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Trogopterus Dung. Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Typhae Pollen, Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Astragali Radix are utilized frequently in modern prescriptions while less used in ancient ones. It is also shown

  18. Enact of Glutathione(GSH/GSSG) Contents of Fermented Ginseng on the γ-irradiated Liver of Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, In Ho

    2006-01-01

    The radioprotective effects of white and fermented ginseng on liver damage induced by 60 Co γ-ray were investigated. To one group of ICR male mice were given white(150 mg/kg/day for 7 days, orally) and fermented ginseng(150 mg/kg/day for 7 days, orally) before 60 Co γ--ray irradiation. To another group were irradiated by 5 Gy(1.01 Gy/min) dose of 60 Co γ--ray. Contrast group were given with saline(0.1 mL). The levels of reduced(GSH) and oxidized(GSSG) glutathione in liver tissue were measured. In the fermented(150 mg/kg) and white ginseng(150 mg/kg) groups than irradiation group, the GSH levels were significantly increased, but the GSSG levels were significantly decreased. The ratio of GSSG/total GSH was significantly decreased in the fermented(150 mg/kg) and white ginseng(150 mg/kg) groups than irradiation group. In the fermented(150 mg/kg) groups than white ginseng(150 mg/kg) groups the GSH levels were significantly increased. The radioprotective effects of fermented(150 mg/kg) groups than white ginseng(150 mg/kg) groups were increased.

  19. Enact of Glutathione(GSH/GSSG) Contents of Fermented Ginseng on the {gamma}-irradiated Liver of Mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, In Ho [Dept. of Radiology Technology, Jeju Halla College, Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-03-15

    The radioprotective effects of white and fermented ginseng on liver damage induced by {sup 60}Co {gamma}-ray were investigated. To one group of ICR male mice were given white(150 mg/kg/day for 7 days, orally) and fermented ginseng(150 mg/kg/day for 7 days, orally) before {sup 60}Co {gamma}--ray irradiation. To another group were irradiated by 5 Gy(1.01 Gy/min) dose of {sup 60}Co {gamma}--ray. Contrast group were given with saline(0.1 mL). The levels of reduced(GSH) and oxidized(GSSG) glutathione in liver tissue were measured. In the fermented(150 mg/kg) and white ginseng(150 mg/kg) groups than irradiation group, the GSH levels were significantly increased, but the GSSG levels were significantly decreased. The ratio of GSSG/total GSH was significantly decreased in the fermented(150 mg/kg) and white ginseng(150 mg/kg) groups than irradiation group. In the fermented(150 mg/kg) groups than white ginseng(150 mg/kg) groups the GSH levels were significantly increased. The radioprotective effects of fermented(150 mg/kg) groups than white ginseng(150 mg/kg) groups were increased.

  20. Cultivated method of short root american ginseng

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Guang; Yuan Yuchun; Jia Zhifa; Suo Binhua

    1998-01-01

    The distribution rate of 14 C assimilated material and root vitality of two years old American ginseng at green seed stage were measured. An exploratory research was made by cutting part of main root and spraying ABT on leaves of American ginseng. The results show that with cutting part of main root out before transplant and then sticking them in the seed bed, the plant develop and grow normally and the lateral and fibrous roots grow well. Spraying ABT on leaves of the plant at seed forming stage accelerate the transfer of assimilated material to the root and enhance the root vitality, especially the lateral root vitality. It is considered that cutting part of main root out is major method and spraying ABT on leaves is a supplementary measurement

  1. An essential role of Nrf2 in American ginseng-mediated anti-oxidative actions in cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinqing; Ichikawa, Tomonaga; Jin, Yu; Hofseth, Lorne J; Nagarkatti, Prakash; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Windust, Anthony; Cui, Taixing

    2010-07-20

    Ginseng has been used as a folk medicine for thousands of years in Asia, and has become a popular herbal medicine world-wide. Recent studies have revealed that ginseng, including American ginseng, exerts antioxidant effects in the cardiovascular system; however, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Thus, we investigated role of Nrf2, a master transcription factor of endogenous anti-oxidative defense systems, in the regulation of American ginseng-mediated anti-oxidative actions in cardiomyocytes. A standardized crude extract of American ginseng was supplied by the National Research Council of Canada, Institute for National Measurement Standards. H9C2 cells, a rat cardiomyocyte cell line, were exposed to angiotensin II (Ang II) or tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) to induce oxidative stress that was examined by measuring formation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Oxidative stress-induced cell death was induced by exogenous addition of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). Proteins were measured by Western blot and mRNA expression was determined by quantitative real time PCR. Nrf2-driven transcriptional activity was assessed by antioxidant response element (ARE)-luciferase reporter assay. Direct Nrf2 binding to its target gene promoters was determined by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Adenoviral over-expression of Nrf2 shRNA was utilized to knock down Nrf2 in H9C2 cells. Immunochemical staining was applied for Nrf2 expression in the heart. American ginseng induced dramatic increases in Nrf2 protein expression, Nrf2 nuclear translocation, Nrf2 transcriptional activity, direct Nrf2 binding to its target gene promoters, and expression of a group of anti-oxidative genes driven by Nrf2 in H9C2 cells. In addition, American ginseng inhibited Ang II- or TNFalpha-induced free radical formation and H(2)O(2)-induced cell death in H9C2 cells over-expressed with control shRNA but not in the cells over-expressed with Nrf2 shRNA. Finally, oral

  2. Bacterial Diversity and Community Structure in Korean Ginseng Field Soil Are Shifted by Cultivation Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ngoc-Lan; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Hoang, Van-An; Subramaniyam, Sathiyamoorthy; Kang, Jong-Pyo; Kang, Chang Ho; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Traditional molecular methods have been used to examine bacterial communities in ginseng-cultivated soil samples in a time-dependent manner. Despite these efforts, our understanding of the bacterial community is still inadequate. Therefore, in this study, a high-throughput sequencing approach was employed to investigate bacterial diversity in various ginseng field soil samples over cultivation times of 2, 4, and 6 years in the first and second rounds of cultivation. We used non-cultivated soil samples to perform a comparative study. Moreover, this study assessed changes in the bacterial community associated with soil depth and the health state of the ginseng. Bacterial richness decreased through years of cultivation. This study detected differences in relative abundance of bacterial populations between the first and second rounds of cultivation, years of cultivation, and health states of ginseng. These bacterial populations were mainly distributed in the classes Acidobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Sphingobacteria. In addition, we found that pH, available phosphorus, and exchangeable Ca+ seemed to have high correlations with bacterial class in ginseng cultivated soil.

  3. Matrix metalloproteinase-13 downregulation and potential cartilage protective action of the Korean Red Ginseng preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Je Hyeong Lee

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Some preparations from Korean Red Ginseng and ginseng leaves, particularly GDF/F4, may possess the protective activity against cartilage degradation in joint disorders, and may have potential as new therapeutic agents.

  4. Una escuela pública de vanguardia. La escuela Timbaler del Bruc de Oriol Bohigas y Josep Martorell (Barcelona, 1957

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Durá Gúrpide

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available En un momento de intensa actividad en la reformulación de los espacios educativos, la escuela Timbaler del Bruc de Oriol Bohigas y Josep Martorell incorporó avances en arquitectura escolar de acuerdo a las nuevas necesidades pedagógicas y destacó como una obra ejemplar. Esta investigación sitúa la obra en su contexto, analiza en detalle el edificio a partir de su documentación original y el redibujado de sus planos e identifica sus principales valores. Si bien el proyecto partió de patrones establecidos, añadió aportaciones particulares que contribuyeron al desarrollo de la tipología escolar y se convirtió en una referencia para proyectos posteriores, tanto de sus autores como de otros profesionales. Este artículo no solo se dirige a investigadores de la historia de la arquitectura sino también al conjunto de los arquitectos por la vigencia del valor de la obra como proyecto arquitectónico.

  5. [Progress in improvement of continuous monoculture cropping problem in Panax ginseng by controlling soil-borne disease management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Dong, Lin-Lin; Xu, Jiang; Chen, Jun-Wen; Li, Xi-Wen; Chen, Shi-Lin

    2016-11-01

    The continuous monoculture cropping problem severely has hindered the land resource of Panax ginseng cultivation and threatened the sustainable development of ginseng industry. There are comprehensive factors causing the continuous monoculture cropping problem, such as deterioration of soil physical and chemical properties, accumulation of allelochemical, increase of pesticide residue and heavy metal, imbalance of rhizospheric micro-ecosystem, and increase of soil-borne diseases. Among soil-borne disease was one of the key factors. More than 40 soil-borne diseases have been reported in the ginseng cultivation, especially, the diseases were more serious in the ginseng replanting land. Here main soil-borne diseases and their prevention way have been summarized, and we try to provide the effective improvement strategy of continuous monoculture cropping problem focusing on the disease control and offer reference for overcoming the ginseng continuous monoculture cropping problem. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  6. Studies on safety and efficiency of gamma-irradiated ginseng

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Joong Ho; Cho, Han Ok; Byun, Myung Wo; Kim, Suc Won; Yang, Jae Seong; Yoo, Young Soo; Jin, Joon Ha; Park, Soon Chul

    1991-09-01

    Gamma irradiation was applied to the biological quality improvement and preservation of white ginseng which has problems in a hygienic quality and storage stability. The current phosphine treatment showed no influence on microorganisms contaminated even though it was very useful for disinfestation of the sample, while 5 kGy irradiation effectively controlled the biological quality of the stored sample, with minimal effects on the quality parameters of white ginseng. Thus, it is concluded that gamma irradiation at a range of 5 kGy can be an alternative method of chemical fumigants provided air-tight packaging excluding recontamination is used for the stored product. (Author)

  7. Article Expression, Purification, and Characterization of Cu/ZnSOD from Panax Ginseng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayong Ding

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Superoxide dismutase (SOD has a strong antioxidant effect, but the traditional SOD extraction method is not the most efficient method of SOD amplification. In this study, we report the cloning of the Cu/ZnSOD gene from Panax ginseng into a temperature-regulated expression plasmid, pBV220. Cu/ZnSOD inclusion bodies were expressed in E. coli at a high level. Then, the inclusion bodies were purified by ion-exchange chromatography and molecular sieve chromatography. Finally, we obtained stable SOD in the bacterial broth, with a protein content of 965 mg/L and enzyme specific activity of 9389.96 U/mg. These results provide a foundation for future studies on the antioxidant mechanisms of ginseng and the development and application of ginseng Cu/ZnSOD.

  8. American Ginseng Stimulates Insulin Production and Prevents Apoptosis through Regulation of Uncoupling Protein-2 in Cultured β Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Zeqi Luo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available American ginseng root displays the ability to achieve glucose homeostasis both experimentally and clinically but the unknown mechanism used by ginseng to achieve its therapeutic effects on diabetes limits its application. Disruption in the insulin secretion of pancreatic β cells is considered the major cause of diabetes. A mitochondrial protein, uncoupling protein-2 (UCP-2 has been found to play a critical role in insulin synthesis and β cell survival. Our preliminary studies found that the extracts of American ginseng inhibit UCP-2 expression which may contribute to the ability of ginseng protecting β cell death and improving insulin synthesis. Therefore, we hypothesized that ginseng extracts suppress UCP-2 in the mitochondria of pancreatic β cells, promoting insulin synthesis and anti-apoptosis (a programmed cell-death mechanism. To test the hypothesis, the serum-deprived quiescent β cells were cultured with or without interleukin-1β (IL-1β, (200 pg ml−1, a cytokine to induce β cell apoptosis and water extracts of American ginseng (25 μg per 5 μl administered to wells of 0.5 ml culture for 24 h. We evaluated effects of ginseng on UCP-2 expression, insulin production, anti-/pro-apoptotic factors Bcl-2/caspase-9 expression and cellular ATP levels. We found that ginseng suppresses UCP-2, down-regulates caspase-9 while increasing ATP and insulin production/secretion and up-regulates Bcl-2, reducing apoptosis. These findings suggest that stimulation of insulin production and prevention of β cell loss by American ginseng extracts can occur via the inhibition of mitochondrial UCP-2, resulting in increase in the ATP level and the anti-apoptotic factor Bcl-2, while down-regulation of pro-apoptotic factor caspase-9 occurs, lowering the occurrence of apoptosis, which support the hypothesis.

  9. Effect of boron nutrition on American ginseng in field and in nutrient cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John T.A. Proctor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Field and nutrient cultures of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L. were used to establish foliar symptoms related to boron (B concentration in leaves and soils, and to evaluate radish as a time-saving model system for B nutrition. Application of excess B, 8 kg/ha versus the recommended 1.5 kg/ha, to field plantings of 2-, 3-, and 4-yr-old American ginseng plants just prior to crop emergence caused, within 4 wk after crop emergence, leaf symptoms of chlorosis followed by necrosis starting at the tips and progressing along the margins. The B concentration in leaves of 2–4-yr-old plants receiving 1.5 kg/ha B was 30 μg/g dry mass compared to 460 μg/g dry mass where 8 kg/ha B was applied. Similarly, B concentration in soils receiving the lower B concentration was 1.8 μg/g dry mass and 2.2–2.8 μg/g dry mass where the higher B concentration was applied. Application of 8 kg/ha B reduced the dry yield of 3rd-yr roots by 20% from 2745 kg/ha to 2196 kg/ha and 4th-yr roots by 26% from 4130 kg/ha to 3071 kg/ha. Ginseng seedlings and radish were grown under greenhouse conditions in nutrient culture with four B concentrations ranging from 0 mg/L to 10 mg/L. At 5 mg/L and 10 mg/L ginseng and radish developed typical leaf B toxicity symptoms similar to those described above for field-grown plants. Increasing B in the nutrient solution from 0.5 mg/L to 10 mg/L decreased, in a linear fashion, the root and leaf dry mass of ginseng, but not radish. Given the many similarities of ginseng and radish to B utilization, radish might be used as a time-saving model system for the study of B, and other micronutrients, in the slow-growing perennial ginseng.

  10. Chemical differentiation and quality evaluation of commercial Asian and American ginsengs based on a UHPLC-QTOF/MS/MS metabolomics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yujie; Zhao, Zhongzhen; Chen, Hubiao; Yi, Tao; Qin, Minjian; Liang, Zhitao

    2015-01-01

    Asian and American ginsengs are widely used medicinal materials and are being used more and more in health products. The two materials look alike but function differently. Various forms of both types of ginseng are found in the market, causing confusion for consumers in their choice. To evaluate the overall quality of commercial Asian and American ginsengs and investigate the characteristic chemical markers for differentiating between them. This article investigated 17 Asian and 21 American ginseng samples using an ultra-HPLC combined with quadrupole time-of-flight MS/MS technique. The data were processed by principal component analysis and orthogonal partial least squared discriminant analysis. In the chromatograms, a total of 40 peaks were detected. Among them, six were positively identified, and all of the remainder were tentatively identified. According to statistical results, ginsenosides Rf, Rb2 and Rc together with their isomers and derivatives were more likely to be present in Asian ginsengs, whereas ginsenoside Rb1 , pseudoginsenoside F11 and ginsenoside Rd together with their isomers and derivatives tended to be present in American ginsengs. For Asian ginsengs, ginsenoside Ra3 and 20-β-D-glucopyranosyl-ginsenoside-Rf were more likely to be present in forest samples, whereas contents of floralquinquenoside B, ginsenosides Ro and Rc, and zingibroside R1 were higher in sun-dried ginsengs. For American ginseng, wild samples often had more of the notoginsenosides R1 and Rw2 and less of the ginsenosides Rd, Rd isomer and 20 (S)-Rg3 than cultivated samples. The method provided important fingerprint information for authentication and evaluation of Asian and American ginsengs from various commercial products. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Characteristics of Korean ginseng varieties of Gumpoong, Sunun, Sunpoong, Sunone, Cheongsun, and Sunhyang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jang-Ho; Lee, Joon-Soo; Kwon, Woo-Saeng; Kang, Je-Yong; Lee, Dong-Yun; In, Jun-Gyo; Kim, Yun-Soo; Seo, Jiho; Baeg, In-Ho; Chang, Il-Moo; Grainger, Keith

    2015-04-01

    Ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) is an important medicinal herbs in Asia. However, ginseng varieties are less developed. To developed ginseng varieties, a pure line selection method was applied in this study. Gumpoong was testing of 4-yr-old specimens in 2002, the proportions of the below-ground roots that were rusty colored for Gumpoong was 1.29 in Daejeon and 1.45 in Eumseong, whereas the proportions for its yellow berry variant were 2.60 and 2.45 in the two regions, respectively. Thus the Gumpoong was resistant to root rust. Sunpoong has a high yielding property. Its average root weight is 70.6 g for 6-yr-old roots. Its yield is 2.9 kg/1.62m(2) and the rate of heaven- and earth-grade product is 20.9%, which is very high compared to 9.4% for Yunpoong. Sunone is resistance to root rot and the survival rate of 4-yr-old roots was 44.4% in 1997, whereas that of the violet-stem variant landrace was 21.7%. Sunhyang has content of arginyl-fructosyl-glucose (AFG), which produces the unique scent of red ginseng, is 95.1 μmol/g and greater than the 30.8 μmol/g of Chunpoong in 6-yr-old plants. Sunun and Cheongsun are being nurtured to protect genetic resources. Developed ginsneg varieties will be used as the basis for the protection of genetic resources and breeding.

  12. Stimulation of nitric oxide synthesis by the aqueous extract of Panax ginseng root in RAW 264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedl, R; Moeslinger, T; Kopp, B; Spieckermann, P G

    2001-12-01

    1. In this study, we investigated the effect of Panax ginseng root aqueous extracts upon inducible nitric oxide synthesis in RAW 264.7 cells. Panax ginseng root extract has been used in the Asian world for centuries as a traditional herb to enhance physical strength and resistance and is becoming more and more popular in Europe and North America. 2. Incubation of murine macrophages (RAW 264.7 cells) with increasing amounts of aqueous extracts of Panax ginseng (0.05 - 0.8 microg microl(-1)) showed a dose dependent stimulation of inducible nitric oxide synthesis. 3. Polysaccharides isolated from Panax ginseng showed strong stimulation of inducible nitric oxide synthesis, whereas a triterpene-enriched fraction from an aqueous extract of Panax ginseng did not show any stimulation. 4. Inducible nitric oxide synthase protein expression was enhanced in a dose dependent manner as revealed by immunoblotting when cells were incubated with increasing amounts of Panax ginseng extract. This was associated with an incline in inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA-levels as determined by semiquantitative polymerase chain reaction and electromobility shift assay studies indicated enhanced nuclear factor-kappaB DNA binding activity. 5. As nitric oxide plays an important role in immune function, Panax ginseng treatment could modulate several aspects of host defense mechanisms due to stimulation of the inducible nitric oxide synthase.

  13. Heat-processed ginseng saponin ameliorates the adenine-induced renal failure in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Eun Jin; Oh, Hyun-A; Choi, Hyuck Jai; Park, Jeong Hill; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Kim, Nam Jae

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of the saponin of heat-processed ginseng (Sun ginseng, SG), we investigated the protective effect of SG total saponin fraction against adenine-induced chronic renal failure in rats. SG saponin significantly decreased the levels of urea nitrogen and creatinine in the serum, but increased the urinary excretion of urea nitrogen and creatinine, indicating an improvement of renal function. SG saponin also inhibited adenine-induced kidney hypertrophy and edema. SG saponin red...

  14. Physicochemical Characteristics and Antioxidant Capacity in Yogurt Fortified with Red Ginseng Extract

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Jieun; Paik, Hyun-Dong; Yoon, Hyun Joo; Jang, Hye Ji; Jeewanthi, Renda Kankanamge Chaturika; Jee, Hee-Sook; Li, Xiang; Lee, Na-Kyoung; Lee, Si-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate characteristics and functionality of yogurt applied red ginseng extract. Yogurts added with red ginseng extract (0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2%) were produced using Lactobacillus acidophilus and Streptococcus thermophilus and stored at refrigerated temperature. During fermentation, pH was decreased whereas titratable aicidity and viable cell counts of L. acidophilus and S. thermophilus were increased. The composition of yogurt samples was measured on day 1,...

  15. Morphine dependence is attenuated by red ginseng extract and ginsenosides Rh2, Rg3, and compound K

    OpenAIRE

    Yayeh, Taddesse; Yun, Kyunghwa; Jang, Soyong; Oh, Seikwan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Red ginseng and ginsenosides have shown plethoric effects against various ailments. However, little is known regarding the effect of red ginseng on morphine-induced dependence and tolerance. We therefore investigated the effect of red ginseng extract (RGE) and biotransformed ginsenosides Rh2, Rg3, and compound K on morphine-induced dependence in mice and rats. Methods: While mice were pretreated with RGE and then morphine was injected intraperitoneally, rats were infused with g...

  16. Radioprotective potency of ginseng on some haematopoietic and physiological parameters in irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashry, O.M.; Hussein, E.M.

    2007-01-01

    Currently, investigations focus on co administration of natural products with radiation treatment. The present study was assessed to investigate the potency of ginseng as a radioprotective agent on haematopoietic cell recovery, the content of reduced glutathione (GSH) and malonaldehyde (MDA) level in addition to physiological bio markers. Panax ginseng was intraperitoneally injected (100 mg/ kg) to female rats 24 h before gamma irradiation of 7 Gy which is liable to disturb the haematopoietic system and the organs involved as the bone marrow and spleen. Animals were investigated after 5 and 9 days from irradiation, ginseng or dual treatments. Irradiation caused significant wt loss of the body and spleen, decrease in bone marrow (B.M.) viable cells, significant depression in leukocytes with its differential counts, significant drop in erythrocytes, haemoglobin and haematocrite values besides elevation in MCV. Gamma-irradiation treatment resulted in significant increase in serum MDA and glucose as well as significant reduction in blood GSH. Significant elevations in transaminases (ALT and AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities were recorded after gamma irradiation. Preservation of body wt, B.M. viable cells, spleen wt and haematopoietic cell recovery was evident upon ginseng pre-administration. It ameliorated the depression in GSH content and the elevation in MDA level. ALT, AST and ALP were depressed approaching the control level after 9 days from dual treatments and blood sugar level was maintained. The study points out the promising positive role played by ginseng as a nontoxic natural product to reduce the time necessary for reconstituting haematopoietic cells and protecting vital physiological processes after irradiation

  17. Photosynthesis rates, growth, and ginsenoside contents of 2-yr-old Panax ginseng grown at different light transmission rates in a greenhouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, In-Bae; Lee, Dae-Young; Yu, Jin; Park, Hong-Woo; Mo, Hwang-Sung; Park, Kee-Choon; Hyun, Dong-Yun; Lee, Eung-Ho; Kim, Kee-Hong; Oh, Chang-Sik

    2015-10-01

    Ginseng is a semishade perennial plant cultivated in sloping, sun-shaded areas in Korea. Recently, owing to air-environmental stress and various fungal diseases, greenhouse cultivation has been suggested as an alternative. However, the optimal light transmission rate (LTR) in the greenhouse has not been established. The effect of LTR on photosynthesis rate, growth, and ginsenoside content of ginseng was examined by growing ginseng at the greenhouse under 6%, 9%, 13%, and 17% of LTR. The light-saturated net photosynthesis rate (A sat) and stomatal conductance (g s) of ginseng increased until the LTR reached 17% in the early stage of growth, whereas they dropped sharply owing to excessive leaf chlorosis at 17% LTR during the hottest summer period in August. Overall, 6-17% of LTR had no effect on the aerial part of plant length or diameter, whereas 17% and 13% of LRT induced the largest leaf area and the highest root weight, respectively. The total ginsenoside content of the ginseng leaves increased as the LTR increased, and the overall content of protopanaxatriol line ginsenosides was higher than that of protopanaxadiol line ginsenosides. The ginsenoside content of the ginseng roots also increased as the LTR increased, and the total ginsenoside content of ginseng grown at 17% LTR increased by 49.7% and 68.3% more than the ginseng grown at 6% LTR in August and final harvest, respectively. These results indicate that 13-17% of LTR should be recommended for greenhouse cultivation of ginseng.

  18. Panax ginseng extract attenuates neuronal injury and cognitive deficits in rats with vascular dementia induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-De Zhu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Panax ginseng is a slow-growing perennial plant. Panax ginseng extract has numerous biological activities, including antitumor, anti-inflammatory and antistress activities. Panax ginseng extract also has a cognition-enhancing effect in rats with alcohol-induced memory impairment. In this study, we partially occluded the bilateral carotid arteries in the rat to induce chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, a well-known model of vascular dementia. The rats were then intragastrically administered 50 or 100 mg/kg Panax ginseng extract. Morris water maze and balance beam tests were used to evaluate memory deficits and motor function, respectively. Protein quantity was used to evaluate cholinergic neurons. Immunofluorescence staining was used to assess the number of glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive cells. Western blot assay was used to evaluate protein levels of vascular endothelial growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, Bcl-2 and Bax. Treatment with Panax ginseng extract for 8 weeks significantly improved behavioral function and increased neuronal density and VEGF and bFGF protein expression in the hippocampal CA3 area. Furthermore, Panax ginseng extract reduced the number of glial fibrillary acidic protein-immunoreactive cells, and it decreased apoptosis by upregulating Bcl-2 and downregulating Bax protein expression. The effect of Panax ginseng extract was dose-dependent and similar to that of nimodipine, a commonly used drug for the treatment of vascular dementia. These findings suggest that Panax ginseng extract is neuroprotective against vascular dementia induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, and therefore might have therapeutic potential for preventing and treating the disease.

  19. The quality of irradiated red ginseng powder following transport from Korea to the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, J.H. [Department of Food Science and Technology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: jhkwon@knu.ac.kr; Lee, J.; Waje, C.; Ahn, J.J.; Kim, G.R. [Department of Food Science and Technology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, H.W. [Korea Food and Drug Administration, Seoul 122-704 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, D.H.; Lee, J.W.; Byun, M.W. [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Jeongeup, Jeonbuk 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, K.S. [Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Chosun University, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, K.S.; Park, S.H. [Greenpia Tech Inc., Yeoju, Gyeonggi-do 469-810 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, E.J.; Ahn, D.U. [Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50010-3150 (United States)

    2009-07-15

    Irradiated red ginseng powder (2.4 kg) in commercial bottles was transported from Korea to Iowa State University (USA) via air- (10 days) and sea-cargos (50 days) to prove its qualities and identity. The microbial loads of transported samples by both methods after 5 kGy irradiation were reduced from 10{sup 6} to 10{sup 3} CFU/g in total aerobic bacteria and from 20 CFU/g (minimum detection level) to negative in coliforms, respectively, which are in accordance with Korean microbial standard for ginseng powders. Sea-transported irradiated samples showed the increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and Hunter's a (red) value, but sensory qualities of all the red ginseng samples were not significantly different depending on irradiation and transportation means. Irradiated samples could be identified from the non-irradiated ones by the analysis of photostimulated luminescence, thermoluminescence, and electron spin resonance. This trial proved the feasibility of inter-country transportation of irradiated red ginseng powder.

  20. Subacute Oral Toxicity Study of Korean Red Ginseng Extract in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Sang-Jin; Lim, Kwang-Hyun; Noh, Jeong-Ho; Jeong, Eun Ju; Kim, Yong-Soon; Han, Byung-Cheol; Lee, Seung-Ho; Moon, Kyoung-Sik

    2013-01-01

    Ginseng is a well-known traditional medicine used in Asian countries for several thousand years, and it is currently applied to medicine, cosmetics, and nutritional supplements due to its many healing and energygiving properties. It is well demonstrated that ginsenosides, the main ingredient of ginseng, produce a variety of pharmacological and therapeutic effects on central nerve system (CNS) disorders, cardiovascular disease, endocrine secretions, aging, and immune function. Korean red ginse...

  1. Effects of Panax ginseng extract in patients with fibromyalgia: a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra S. Braz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of an extract of Panax ginseng in patients with fibromyalgia. A randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial was carried out over 12 weeks to compare the effects of P. ginseng (100 mg/d with amitriptyline (25 mg/d and placebo in 38 patients with fibromyalgia: 13 in Group I (amitriptyline, 13 in Group II (placebo, and 12 in Group III (P. ginseng. Ratings on the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS revealed a reduction in pain in the P. ginseng group (p < .0001, an improvement in fatigue (p < .0001 and an improvement in sleep (p < .001, with respect to baseline characteristics, but there were no differences between the three groups. With respect to anxiety, improvements occurred in the P. ginseng group compared to baseline (p < .0001; however, amitriptyline treatment resulted in significantly greater improvements (p < .05. P. ginseng reduced the number of tender points and improved patients' quality of life (using the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire - FIQ; however, there were no differences between groups. The beneficial effects experienced by patients for all parameters suggest a need for further studies to be performed on the tolerability and efficacy of this phytotherapic as a complementary therapy for fibromyalgia.

  2. Rhizospheric microbial communities are driven by Panax ginseng at different growth stages and biocontrol bacteria alleviates replanting mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linlin Dong

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The cultivation of Panax plants is hindered by replanting problems, which may be caused by plant-driven changes in the soil microbial community. Inoculation with microbial antagonists may efficiently alleviate replanting issues. Through high-throughput sequencing, this study revealed that bacterial diversity decreased, whereas fungal diversity increased, in the rhizosphere soils of adult ginseng plants at the root growth stage under different ages. Few microbial community, such as Luteolibacter, Cytophagaceae, Luteibacter, Sphingomonas, Sphingomonadaceae, and Zygomycota, were observed; the relative abundance of microorganisms, namely, Brevundimonas, Enterobacteriaceae, Pandoraea, Cantharellales, Dendryphion, Fusarium, and Chytridiomycota, increased in the soils of adult ginseng plants compared with those in the soils of 2-year-old seedlings. Bacillus subtilis 50-1, a microbial antagonist against the pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum, was isolated through a dual culture technique. These bacteria acted with a biocontrol efficacy of 67.8%. The ginseng death rate and Fusarium abundance decreased by 63.3% and 46.1%, respectively, after inoculation with B. subtilis 50-1. Data revealed that microecological degradation could result from ginseng-driven changes in rhizospheric microbial communities; these changes are associated with the different ages and developmental stages of ginseng plants. Biocontrol using microbial antagonists alleviated the replanting problem. KEY WORDS: Panax ginseng, Microbial communities, Replanting problem, High-throughput sequencing, Different ages, Bioremediation

  3. Investigation of the Antifatigue Effects of Korean Ginseng on Professional Athletes by Gas Chromatography-Time-of-Flight-Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Bei; Liu, Yao; Shi, Aixin; Wang, Zhihong; Aa, Jiye; Huang, Xiaoping; Liu, Yi

    2018-05-01

    Ginseng is usually used for alleviating fatigue. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the regulatory effect of Korean ginseng on the metabolic pattern in professional athletes, and, further, to explore the underlying mechanism of the antifatigue effect of Korean ginseng. GC-time-of-flight-MS was used to profile serum samples from professional athletes before training and after 15 and 30 day training, and professional athletes administered with Korean ginseng in the meanwhile. Biochemical parameters of all athletes were also analyzed. For the athlete control group, strength-endurance training resulted in an elevation of creatine kinase (CK) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and a reduction in blood hemoglobin, and a dynamic trajectory of the metabolomic profile which were related to fatigue. Korean ginseng treatment not only lead to a marked reduction in CK and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) in serum, but also showed regulatory effects on the serum metabolic profile and restored scores plots close to normal, suggesting that the change in metabolic profiling could reflect the antifatigue effect of Korean ginseng. Furthermore, perturbed levels of 11 endogenous metabolites were regulated by Korean ginseng significantly, which might be primarily involved in lipid metabolism, energy balance, and chemical signaling. These findings suggest that metabolomics is a potential tool for the evaluation of the antifatigue effect of Korean ginseng and for the elucidation of its pharmacological mechanism.

  4. Effect of Panax ginseng saponins and Eleutherococcus senticosus on survival of cultured mammalian cells after ionizing radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Hur, E; Fulder, S

    1981-01-01

    Panax ginseng saponin and Eleutherococcus senticosus extract were applied to cells in culture in order to assess the effect of these substances on resistance to gamma-irradiation. Eleutherococcus was slightly radio protective. However, ginseng saponin at a dose of 10 microgram/ml was significantly radioprotective (Do = 2.25 Gy) compared to control (Do = 1.80 Gy) when it was present prior to gamma-irradiation. It enhanced radiation response if it was also present for 4-6 hours after gamma-irradiation (Do = 1.10 Gy). Ginseng-treated cells made 30% less RNA and 14% more protein during a 1 hour pulse of labeled intermediates. The cells were morphologically altered. It is concluded that ginseng saponin can increase radiation resistance. The effect is indirect, due to alterations in cell physiology rather than DNA repair processes.

  5. Comparative effects of gamma irradiation and ozone treatment on hygienic quality of Korean red ginseng powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Myung-Woo; Yook, Hong-Sun; Kang, Il-Jun; Chung, Cha-Kwon; Kwon, Joong-Ho; Choi, Kang-Ju

    1998-01-01

    For the purpose of improving hygienic quality of Korean red ginseng powder, the comparative effects of gamma irradiation and ozone treatment on the microbial and physicochemical properties were investigated. Gamma irradiation at 7.5 kGy resulted in sterilization of total aerobic bacteria, molds and coliforms below detective levels, while ozone treatment for 8 hours up to 18 ppm did not sufficiently eliminate the microorganisms of the red ginseng powder. Physicochemical properties including compositions of the red ginseng saponin (ginsenosides) and fatty acids, pH and hydrogen donating activity were not significantly changed by gamma irradiation, whereas, ozone treatment caused significant changes in fatty acid compositions, TBA value, pH, acidity and hydrogen donating activity. The results from this study led us to conclude that gamma irradiation was more effective than ozone treatment both for the improvement of hygienic quality and for the maintenance of physicochemical quality of red ginseng powder

  6. Comparative effects of gamma irradiation and ozone treatment on hygienic quality of Korean red ginseng powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Myung-Woo; Yook, Hong-Sun; Kang, Il-Jun; Chung, Cha-Kwon; Kwon, Joong-Ho; Choi, Kang-Ju

    1998-06-01

    For the purpose of improving hygienic quality of Korean red ginseng powder, the comparative effects of gamma irradiation and ozone treatment on the microbial and physicochemical properties were investigated. Gamma irradiation at 7.5 kGy resulted in sterilization of total aerobic bacteria, molds and coliforms below detective levels, while ozone treatment for 8 hours up to 18 ppm did not sufficiently eliminate the microorganisms of the red ginseng powder. Physicochemical properties including compositions of the red ginseng saponin (ginsenosides) and fatty acids, pH and hydrogen donating activity were not significantly changed by gamma irradiation, whereas, ozone treatment caused significant changes in fatty acid compositions, TBA value, pH, acidity and hydrogen donating activity. The results from this study led us to conclude that gamma irradiation was more effective than ozone treatment both for the improvement of hygienic quality and for the maintenance of physicochemical quality of red ginseng powder.

  7. Panax ginseng Leaf Extracts Exert Anti-Obesity Effects in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seul-Gi; Lee, Yoon-Jeong; Jang, Myeong-Hwan; Kwon, Tae-Ryong; Nam, Ju-Ock

    2017-09-10

    Recent studies have reported that the aerial parts of ginseng contain various saponins, which have anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-obesity properties similar to those of ginseng root. However, the leaf extracts of Korean ginseng have not yet been investigated. In this study, we demonstrate the anti-obesity effects of green leaf and dried leaf extracts (GL and DL, respectively) of ginseng in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese rats. The administration of GL and DL to HFD-induced obese rats significantly decreased body weight (by 96.5% and 96.7%, respectively), and epididymal and abdominal adipose tissue mass. Furthermore, DL inhibited the adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 adipocytes through regulation of the expression of key adipogenic regulators, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP)-α. In contrast, GL had little effect on the adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 adipocytes but greatly increased the protein expression of PPARγ compared with that in untreated cells. These results were not consistent with an anti-obesity effect in the animal model, which suggested that the anti-obesity effect of GL in vivo resulted from specific factors released by other organs, or from increased energy expenditure. To our knowledge, these findings are the first evidence for the anti-obesity effects of the leaf extracts of Korean ginseng in vivo.

  8. Ginseng and Ginkgo Biloba Effects on Cognition as Modulated by Cardiovascular Reactivity: A Randomised Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Ong Lai Teik

    Full Text Available There is some evidence to suggest that ginseng and Ginkgo biloba can improve cognitive performance, however, very little is known about the mechanisms associated with such improvement. Here, we tested whether cardiovascular reactivity to a task is associated with cognitive improvement.Using a double-blind, placebo controlled, crossover design, participants (N = 24 received two doses of Panax Ginseng (500, 1000 mg or Ginkgo Biloba (120, 240 mg (N = 24, and underwent a series of cognitive tests while systolic, diastolic, and heart rate readings were taken. Ginkgo Biloba improved aspects of executive functioning (Stroop and Berg tasks in females but not in males. Ginseng had no effect on cognition. Ginkgo biloba in females reversed the initial (i.e. placebo increase in cardiovascular reactivity (systolic and diastolic readings increased compared to baseline to cognitive tasks. This effect (reversal was most notable after those tasks (Stroop and Iowa that elicited the greatest cardiovascular reactivity during placebo. In males, although ginkgo also decreased cardiovascular readings, it did so from an initial (placebo blunted response (i.e. decrease or no change from baseline to cognitive tasks. Ginseng, on the contrary, increased cardiovascular readings compared to placebo.These results suggest that cardiovascular reactivity may be a mechanism by which ginkgo but not ginseng, in females is associated with certain forms of cognitive improvement.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02386852.

  9. Protective role of ginseng against gentamicin induced changes in kidney of albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafeez, M.; Saeed, F.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Use of gentamicin is now limited due to its toxic effects, mainly on kidney and vestibular system. Herbal products including ginseng has been reported to possess protective effects against drugs induced nephrotoxicity in experimental animals. The current investigation was designed to evaluate the effects of ginseng on gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity. Methods: Eighteen male albino mice of 6-8 weeks age, were divided into 3 groups. Group-A served as control and was given normal mouse diet; Group-B was given 80 mg/Kg/day of gentamicin intraperitoneally dissolved in 1 ml of distilled water for fifteen days. Group-C was given 80 mg/Kg/day of gentamicin intraperitoneally dissolved in 1 ml of distilled water along with 100 mg/Kg/day of ginseng orally dissolved in 1 ml of distilled water, also for fifteen days. At the end of the experiment, blood was drawn from each animal by cardiac puncture for renal function tests. Each animal was then sacrificed and kidneys removed for routine histological studies. Results: In group B, weight of the animals and kidneys decreased and there was significant increase in mean serum urea, creatinine and intraluminal diameter (p<0.001) of proximal convoluted tubules as compared to the controls (group-A). Moderate to severe necrotic and degenerative changes in proximal convoluted tubules were seen in this group. When the Ginseng and gentamicin were given together (group-C), a statistically significant improvement in the mean body and kidney weight along with improvement in renal function tests and tubular diameter were seen (p<0.001). Conclusion: It appears that Ginseng has some protective role against gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity. (author)

  10. The effective mechanism of the polysaccharides from Panax ginseng on chronic fatigue syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Sun, Chengxin; Zheng, Yan; Pan, Hongling; Zhou, Yifa; Fan, Yuying

    2014-04-01

    Ginseng acidic polysaccharide WGPA isolated from the root of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer was fractionated into WGPA-A and WGPA-N by anion-exchange chromatography. The antifatigue activity of ginseng acidic polysaccharide WGPA has been reported in our previous research. This present study was designed to identify its active component and elucidate the mechanism for preventing chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). WGPA, WGPA-A and WGPA-N were orally administered to mice once daily for 15 days. The effects of these compounds on physiological biomarkers of oxidative stress and on the morphology of the mitochondria in striated skeletal muscle were assessed. The results of forced swimming test-induced indicated that WGPA and WGPA-A could lengthen the swimming time, while WGPA-N could not. In addition, malondialdehyde and lactate dehydrogenase levels in serum were enhanced; while those of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase were lowered. Interestingly, the structural degeneration of mitochondria were all ameliorated. These findings suggested that WGPA-A is the active component of WGPA, it might have potential therapeutic effects for CFS and the oxidative stress might be involved in the pathogenesis. Our results also provided essential data for a better understanding of the antifatigue effects of P. ginseng extracts.

  11. Eustress and Malondialdehyde (MDA: Role of Panax Ginseng: Randomized, placebo controlled prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hayder Al-kuraishy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of present study was evaluation the effect of Panax Ginseng on malondialdehyde (MDA serum levels during eustress on normal healthy volunteers. Method: 65 healthy volunteers were recruited from medical students at college of medicine with age range (22.61±3.63 years, the volunteers were divided into two groups, Group A: 35 subjects treated by Panax Ginseng 500mg/day regarded as treated group. Group B: 30 subjects treated by placebo 500mg/day regarded as control group. Baseline data was obtained and then after one month of study for following induction of psychological stress through daily psychomotor performance task and visual working memory accuracy testing while; stress-induced oxidative stress was assessed by malondialdehyde (MDA serum levels. Results: placebo showed significant increases in MDA serum levels p=0.0004 which related with significant increases in perceived stress scale from p<0.0001, while; Panax Ginseng led to significant reduction in MDA serum levels from p<0.01 that related with significant increment in perceived stress scale p=0.02. Conclusion: An MDA serum level is positively correlated with eustress and this association is modulated by   Panax Ginseng therapy that produced significant reduction in MDA and rising of eustress level.

  12. Simultaneous analysis of nucleobases, nucleosides and ginsenosides in ginseng extracts using supercritical fluid chromatography coupled with single quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yang; Zhang, Tingting; Zhao, Yumei; Zhou, Haibo; Tang, Guangyun; Fillet, Marianne; Crommen, Jacques; Jiang, Zhengjin

    2017-09-10

    Nucleobases, nucleosides and ginsenosides, which have a significant impact on the physiological activity of organisms, are reported to be the active components of ginseng, while they are less present in ginseng extracts. Few analytical methods have been developed so far to simultaneously analyze these three classes of compounds with different polarities present in ginseng extracts. In the present study, a simple and efficient analytical method was successfully developed for the simultaneous separation of 17 nucleobases, nucleosides and ginsenosides in ginseng extracts using supercritical fluid chromatography coupled with single quadrupole mass spectrometry (SFC-MS). The effect of various experimental factors on the separation performance, such as the column type, temperature and backpressure, the type of modifier and additive, and the concentration of make-up solvent were systematically investigated. Under the selected conditions, the developed method was successfully applied to the quality evaluation of 14 batches of ginseng extracts from different origins. The results obtained for the different batches indicate that this method could be employed for the quality assessment of ginseng extracts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessment of microclimate conditions under artificial shades in a ginseng field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyu Jong; Lee, Byun-Woo; Kang, Je Yong; Lee, Dong Yun; Jang, Soo Won; Kim, Kwang Soo

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge on microclimate conditions under artificial shades in a ginseng field would facilitate climate-aware management of ginseng production. Weather data were measured under the shade and outside the shade at two fields located in Gochang-gun and Jeongeup-si, Korea, in 2011 and 2012 seasons to assess temperature and humidity conditions under the shade. An empirical approach was developed and validated for the estimation of leaf wetness duration (LWD) using weather measurements outside the shade as inputs to the model. Air temperature and relative humidity were similar between under the shade and outside the shade. For example, temperature conditions favorable for ginseng growth, e.g., between 8°C and 27°C, occurred slightly less frequently in hours during night times under the shade (91%) than outside (92%). Humidity conditions favorable for development of a foliar disease, e.g., relative humidity > 70%, occurred slightly more frequently under the shade (84%) than outside (82%). Effectiveness of correction schemes to an empirical LWD model differed by rainfall conditions for the estimation of LWD under the shade using weather measurements outside the shade as inputs to the model. During dew eligible days, a correction scheme to an empirical LWD model was slightly effective (10%) in reducing estimation errors under the shade. However, another correction approach during rainfall eligible days reduced errors of LWD estimation by 17%. Weather measurements outside the shade and LWD estimates derived from these measurements would be useful as inputs for decision support systems to predict ginseng growth and disease development.

  14. Ginseng Berry Extract Promotes Maturation of Mouse Dendritic Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    Full Text Available Ginseng extract has been shown to possess certain anti-virus, anti-tumor and immune-activating effects. However, the immunostimulatory effect of ginseng berry extract (GB has been less well characterized. In this study, we investigated the effect of GB on the activation of mouse dendritic cells (DCs in vitro and in vivo. GB treatment induced up-regulation of co-stimulatory molecules in bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs. Interestingly, GB induced a higher degree of co-stimulatory molecule up-regulation than ginseng root extract (GR at the same concentrations. Moreover, in vivo administration of GB promoted up-regulation of CD86, MHC class I and MHC class II and production of IL-6, IL-12 and TNF-α in spleen DCs. GB also promoted the generation of Th1 and Tc1 cells. Furthermore, Toll like receptor 4 (TLR4 and myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88 signaling pathway were essential for DC activation induced by GB. In addition, GB strongly prompted the proliferation of ovalbumin (OVA-specific CD4 and CD8 T cells. Finally, GB induced DC activation in tumor-bearing mice and the combination of OVA and GB treatment inhibited B16-OVA tumor cell growth in C57BL/6 mice. These results demonstrate that GB is a novel tumor therapeutic vaccine adjuvant by promoting DC and T cell activation.

  15. Dammarane triterpenes from the leaves of Panax ginseng enhance cellular immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Tien-Lam; Kim, Young-Ran; Yang, Jun-Li

    2014-01-01

    In our search for immune stimulating materials from natural source, bioassay-guided fractionation of a methanol extract of Panax ginseng leaves led to the isolation of three dammarane triterpenes (1-3), including two previously unknown compounds 27-demethyl-(E,E)-20(22),23-dien-3β,6α,12β-trihydro......In our search for immune stimulating materials from natural source, bioassay-guided fractionation of a methanol extract of Panax ginseng leaves led to the isolation of three dammarane triterpenes (1-3), including two previously unknown compounds 27-demethyl-(E,E)-20(22),23-dien-3β,6α,12β...

  16. American ginseng significantly reduced the progression of high-fat-diet-enhanced colon carcinogenesis in ApcMin/+mice

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    Chunhao Yu

    2015-07-01

    Conclusion: Further studies are needed to link our observed effects to the actions of the gut microbiome in converting the parent ginsenosides to bioactive ginseng metabolites. Our data suggest that American ginseng may have potential value in CRC chemoprevention.

  17. Intraconversion of Polar Ginsenosides, Their Transformation into Less-Polar Ginsenosides, and Ginsenoside Acetylation in Ginseng Flowers upon Baking and Steaming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Heating is a traditional method used in ginseng root processing, however, there aren’t reports on differences resulting from baking and steaming. Moreover, ginseng flowers, with 5.06 times more total saponins than ginseng root, are not fully taken advantage of for their ginsenosides. Transformation mechanisms of ginsenosides in ginseng flowers upon baking and steaming were thus explored. HPLC using authentic standards of 20 ginsenosides and UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS were used to quantify and identify ginsenosides, respectively, in ginseng flowers baked or steamed at different temperatures and durations. Results show that baking and steaming caused a 3.2-fold increase in ginsenoside species existed in unheated ginseng flowers (20/64 ginsenosides and transformation of a certain amount of polar ginsenosides into numerous less polar ginsenosides. Among the 20 ginsenosides with standards, polar ginsenosides were abundant in ginseng flowers baked or steamed at lower temperatures, whereas less polar ginsenosides occurred and were enriched at higher temperatures. Furthermore, the two types of heating treatments could generate mostly similar ginsenosides, but steaming was much efficient than baking in transforming polar- into less polar ginsenosides, with steaming at 120 °C being comparably equivalent to baking at 150 °C. Moreover, both the two heating methods triggered ginsenoside acetylation and thus caused formation of 16 acetylginsenosides. Finally, a new transformation mechanism concerning acetyl-ginsenosides formation was proposed.

  18. Intraconversion of Polar Ginsenosides, Their Transformation into Less-Polar Ginsenosides, and Ginsenoside Acetylation in Ginseng Flowers upon Baking and Steaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Yao, Fan; Fan, Hang; Li, Ke; Sun, Liwei; Liu, Yujun

    2018-03-26

    Heating is a traditional method used in ginseng root processing, however, there aren't reports on differences resulting from baking and steaming. Moreover, ginseng flowers, with 5.06 times more total saponins than ginseng root, are not fully taken advantage of for their ginsenosides. Transformation mechanisms of ginsenosides in ginseng flowers upon baking and steaming were thus explored. HPLC using authentic standards of 20 ginsenosides and UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS were used to quantify and identify ginsenosides, respectively, in ginseng flowers baked or steamed at different temperatures and durations. Results show that baking and steaming caused a 3.2-fold increase in ginsenoside species existed in unheated ginseng flowers (20/64 ginsenosides) and transformation of a certain amount of polar ginsenosides into numerous less polar ginsenosides. Among the 20 ginsenosides with standards, polar ginsenosides were abundant in ginseng flowers baked or steamed at lower temperatures, whereas less polar ginsenosides occurred and were enriched at higher temperatures. Furthermore, the two types of heating treatments could generate mostly similar ginsenosides, but steaming was much efficient than baking in transforming polar- into less polar ginsenosides, with steaming at 120 °C being comparably equivalent to baking at 150 °C. Moreover, both the two heating methods triggered ginsenoside acetylation and thus caused formation of 16 acetylginsenosides. Finally, a new transformation mechanism concerning acetyl-ginsenosides formation was proposed.

  19. Panax ginseng Improves Functional Recovery after Contusive Spinal Cord Injury by Regulating the Inflammatory Response in Rats: An In Vivo Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Ock Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinal cord injury (SCI results in permanent loss of motor function below the injured site. Neuroinflammatory reaction following SCI can aggravate neural injury and functional impairment. Ginseng is well known to possess anti-inflammatory effects. The present study investigated the neuroprotective effects of Panax ginseng C.A. Mayer (P. ginseng after SCI. A spinal contusion was made at the T11-12 spinal cord in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=47 using the NYU impactor. Motor function was assessed using the Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB score in P. ginseng (0.1, 0.5, 1, 3, and 5 mg/kg or vehicle (saline treated after SCI. We also assessed the protein expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS at the lesion site by western blot and then measured the cavity area using luxol fast blue/cresyl violet staining. P. ginseng treated group in SCI showed a significant improvement in locomotor function after the injury. The protein expression of COX-2 and iNOS at the lesion site and the cavity area were decreased following SCI by P. ginseng treatment. These results suggest that P. ginseng may improve the recovery of motor function after SCI which provides neuroprotection by alleviating posttraumatic inflammatory responses.

  20. Changes in element accumulation, phenolic metabolism, and antioxidative enzyme activities in the red-skin roots of Panax ginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying; Yang, Zhenming; Gao, Lingling; Liu, Wen; Liu, Rongkun; Zhao, Junting; You, Jiangfeng

    2017-07-01

    Red-skin root disease has seriously decreased the quality and production of Panax ginseng (ginseng). To explore the disease's origin, comparative analysis was performed in different parts of the plant, particularly the epidermis, cortex, and/or fibrous roots of 5-yr-old healthy and diseased red-skin ginseng. The inorganic element composition, phenolic compound concentration, reactive oxidation system, antioxidant concentrations such as ascorbate and glutathione, activities of enzymes related to phenolic metabolism and oxidation, and antioxidative system particularly the ascorbate-glutathione cycle were examined using conventional methods. Aluminum (Al), iron (Fe), magnesium, and phosphorus were increased, whereas manganese was unchanged and calcium was decreased in the epidermis and fibrous root of red-skin ginseng, which also contained higher levels of phenolic compounds, higher activities of the phenolic compound-synthesizing enzyme phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and the phenolic compound oxidation-related enzymes guaiacol peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase. As the substrate of guaiacol peroxidase, higher levels of H 2 O 2 and correspondingly higher activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase were found in red-skin ginseng. Increased levels of ascorbate and glutathione; increased activities of l-galactose 1-dehydrogenase, ascorbate peroxidase, ascorbic acid oxidase, and glutathione reductase; and lower activities of dehydroascorbate reductase, monodehydroascorbate reductase, and glutathione peroxidase were found in red-skin ginseng. Glutathione- S -transferase activity remained constant. Hence, higher element accumulation, particularly Al and Fe, activated multiple enzymes related to accumulation of phenolic compounds and their oxidation. This might contribute to red-skin symptoms in ginseng. It is proposed that antioxidant and antioxidative enzymes, especially those involved in ascorbate-glutathione cycles, are activated to protect against phenolic compound

  1. Effects of ginseng extract on various haematological parameters during aerobic exercise in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, A; Vila, L; Voces, J A; Cabral, A C; Alvarez, A I; Prieto, J G

    1999-04-01

    The effects of the Ginseng extract on various biochemical and haematological parameters in male Wistar rats subjected to a treadmill exercise protocol were studied for 12 weeks. The results showed increases in the haematological parameters, these increases being greatest for the animals treated with the extract during the third month of the study. The exercise also led to increases in these parameters, while the combination of both exercise and extract produced smaller increases. This study shows a clear physiological response due to the ginseng extract administration that reproduces many of the effects obtained after long-term exercise. The combination of exercise and treatments seems to support the theory that there is no clear synergic effect when the advantages associated with the ingestion of ginseng are compared with the performance of exercise.

  2. Radioprotective effect of Panax ginseng on the phosphatases and lipid peroxidation level in testes of Swiss albino mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar M.; Sharma M.K.; Saxena P.S.; Kumar A. [Rajasthan Univ., Jaipur (India)

    2003-03-01

    The Panax ginseng has been used as traditional medicine for past several years among oriental people. The present investigation has been made to assess the radioprotective efficacy of ginseng root extract in the testicular enzymes of Swiss albino mice. The Swiss albino mice were divided into different groups. Ginseng treated group: The animals were administered 10 mg/kg body weight ginseng root extract intraperitoneal (i.p.). Radiation treated group: The animals were exposed to 8 Gy gamma radiation at the dose rate of 1.69 Gy/min at the distance of 80 cm. Combination group: Animals were administered ginseng extract continuously for 4 d and on 4th day they were irradiated to 8 Gy gamma radiation after 30 min of extract administration. The animals from above groups were autopsied on day 1, 3, 7, 14 and 30. Biochemical estimations of acid and alkaline phosphatases and Lipid peroxidation (LPO) in testes were done. In ginseng treated group acid and alkaline phosphatases activity and LPO level did not show any significant alteration. In irradiated animals there was a significant increase in acid phosphatase activity and LPO level. However, significant decline in alkaline phosphatase activity was observed. The treatment of ginseng before irradiation causes significant decrease in acid phosphatase and LPO level and significant increase in alkaline phosphatase activity. One of the cause of radiation damage is lipid peroxidation. Due to lipid peroxidation, lysosomal membrane permeability alters and thus results in release of hydrolytic enzymes. So, an increase in acid phosphatase was noticed after radiation treatment. The alkaline phosphatase activity is associated with membrane permeability and different stages of spermatogenesis. Due to membrane damage and depletion of germ cells of testes after irradiation the enzyme activity was decreased. Ginseng markedly inhibits lipid peroxidation. It acts in indirect fashion to protect radical processes by inhibition of initiation of

  3. Radioprotective effect of Panax ginseng on the phosphatases and lipid peroxidation level in testes of Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, M.; Sharma, M.K.; Saxena, P.S.; Kumar, A.

    2003-01-01

    The Panax ginseng has been used as traditional medicine for past several years among oriental people. The present investigation has been made to assess the radioprotective efficacy of ginseng root extract in the testicular enzymes of Swiss albino mice. The Swiss albino mice were divided into different groups. Ginseng treated group: The animals were administered 10 mg/kg body weight ginseng root extract intraperitoneal (i.p.). Radiation treated group: The animals were exposed to 8 Gy gamma radiation at the dose rate of 1.69 Gy/min at the distance of 80 cm. Combination group: Animals were administered ginseng extract continuously for 4 d and on 4th day they were irradiated to 8 Gy gamma radiation after 30 min of extract administration. The animals from above groups were autopsied on day 1, 3, 7, 14 and 30. Biochemical estimations of acid and alkaline phosphatases and Lipid peroxidation (LPO) in testes were done. In ginseng treated group acid and alkaline phosphatases activity and LPO level did not show any significant alteration. In irradiated animals there was a significant increase in acid phosphatase activity and LPO level. However, significant decline in alkaline phosphatase activity was observed. The treatment of ginseng before irradiation causes significant decrease in acid phosphatase and LPO level and significant increase in alkaline phosphatase activity. One of the cause of radiation damage is lipid peroxidation. Due to lipid peroxidation, lysosomal membrane permeability alters and thus results in release of hydrolytic enzymes. So, an increase in acid phosphatase was noticed after radiation treatment. The alkaline phosphatase activity is associated with membrane permeability and different stages of spermatogenesis. Due to membrane damage and depletion of germ cells of testes after irradiation the enzyme activity was decreased. Ginseng markedly inhibits lipid peroxidation. It acts in indirect fashion to protect radical processes by inhibition of initiation of

  4. Validation of suitable reference genes for quantitative gene expression analysis in Panax ginseng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meizhen eWang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reverse transcription-qPCR (RT-qPCR has become a popular method for gene expression studies. Its results require data normalization by housekeeping genes. No single gene is proved to be stably expressed under all experimental conditions. Therefore, systematic evaluation of reference genes is necessary. With the aim to identify optimum reference genes for RT-qPCR analysis of gene expression in different tissues of Panax ginseng and the seedlings grown under heat stress, we investigated the expression stability of eight candidate reference genes, including elongation factor 1-beta (EF1-β, elongation factor 1-gamma (EF1-γ, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3G (IF3G, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3B (IF3B, actin (ACT, actin11 (ACT11, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH and cyclophilin ABH-like protein (CYC, using four widely used computational programs: geNorm, Normfinder, BestKeeper, and the comparative ΔCt method. The results were then integrated using the web-based tool RefFinder. As a result, EF1-γ, IF3G and EF1-β were the three most stable genes in different tissues of P. ginseng, while IF3G, ACT11 and GAPDH were the top three-ranked genes in seedlings treated with heat. Using three better reference genes alone or in combination as internal control, we examined the expression profiles of MAR, a multiple function-associated mRNA-like non-coding RNA (mlncRNA in P. ginseng. Taken together, we recommended EF1-γ/IF3G and IF3G/ACT11 as the suitable pair of reference genes for RT-qPCR analysis of gene expression in different tissues of P. ginseng and the seedlings grown under heat stress, respectively. The results serve as a foundation for future studies on P. ginseng functional genomics.

  5. Pharmacogenomics and the Yin/Yang actions of ginseng: anti-tumor, angiomodulating and steroid-like activities of ginsenosides

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    Yeung Hin

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In Chinese medicine, ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer has long been used as a general tonic or an adaptogen to promote longevity and enhance bodily functions. It has also been claimed to be effective in combating stress, fatigue, oxidants, cancer and diabetes mellitus. Most of the pharmacological actions of ginseng are attributed to one type of its constituents, namely the ginsenosides. In this review, we focus on the recent advances in the study of ginsenosides on angiogenesis which is related to many pathological conditions including tumor progression and cardiovascular dysfunctions. Angiogenesis in the human body is regulated by two sets of counteracting factors, angiogenic stimulators and inhibitors. The 'Yin and Yang' action of ginseng on angiomodulation was paralleled by the experimental data showing angiogenesis was indeed related to the compositional ratio between ginsenosides Rg1 and Rb1. Rg1 was later found to stimulate angiogenesis through augmenting the production of nitric oxide (NO and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. Mechanistic studies revealed that such responses were mediated through the PI3K→Akt pathway. By means of DNA microarray, a group of genes related to cell adhesion, migration and cytoskeleton were found to be up-regulated in endothelial cells. These gene products may interact in a hierarchical cascade pattern to modulate cell architectural dynamics which is concomitant to the observed phenomena in angiogenesis. By contrast, the anti-tumor and anti-angiogenic effects of ginsenosides (e.g. Rg3 and Rh2 have been demonstrated in various models of tumor and endothelial cells, indicating that ginsenosides with opposing activities are present in ginseng. Ginsenosides and Panax ginseng extracts have been shown to exert protective effects on vascular dysfunctions, such as hypertension, atherosclerotic disorders and ischemic injury. Recent work has demonstrates the target molecules of ginsenosides to be a

  6. Neuroprotective Effect of Ginseng against Alteration of Calcium Binding Proteins Immunoreactivity in the Mice Hippocampus after Radiofrequency Exposure

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    Dhiraj Maskey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium binding proteins (CaBPs such as calbindin D28-k, parvalbumin, and calretinin are able to bind Ca2+ with high affinity. Changes in Ca2+ concentrations via CaBPs can disturb Ca2+ homeostasis. Brain damage can be induced by the prolonged electromagnetic field (EMF exposure with loss of interacellular Ca2+ balance. The present study investigated the radioprotective effect of ginseng in regard to CaBPs immunoreactivity (IR in the hippocampus through immunohistochemistry after one-month exposure at 1.6 SAR value by comparing sham control with exposed and ginseng-treated exposed groups separately. Loss of dendritic arborization was noted with the CaBPs in the Cornu Ammonis areas as well as a decrease of staining intensity of the granule cells in the dentate gyrus after exposure while no loss was observed in the ginseng-treated group. A significant difference in the relative mean density was noted between control and exposed groups but was nonsignificant in the ginseng-treated group. Decrease in CaBP IR with changes in the neuronal staining as observed in the exposed group would affect the hippocampal trisynaptic circuit by alteration of the Ca2+ concentration which could be prevented by ginseng. Hence, ginseng could contribute as a radioprotective agent against EMF exposure, contributing to the maintenance of Ca2+ homeostasis by preventing impairment of intracellular Ca2+ levels in the hippocampus.

  7. Characterization of the Variability of Nucleoli in the Cells of Panax ginseng Meyer In Vivo and In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrolenko, Yuliya A; Burundukova, Olga L; Lauve, Lyudmila S; Muzarok, Tamara I; Makhan'kov, Vyacheslav V; Zhuravlev, Yuri N

    2012-07-01

    Results of karyological study of intact plants and some callus lines of Panax ginseng are presented. In the native plants of P. ginseng the nucleus with 1 nucleolus (90%) dominate, and nucleus with 2 nucleoli is rare. One nucleolar nucleus also dominate in interphase nuclei of cells of cultivated P. ginseng (from 2006), but we also found nucleus with 2 to 3 nucleoli in the same cell lines. Interphase nuclei of P. ginseng in long cultivated lines (from 1988) contain 1 to 9 nucleoli, with a predominance of nuclei containing from 3 to 4 nucleoli. It was shown that long-time cells (cultivated since 1988) had cytogenetic changes such as increase level of polyploid and aneuploid cells, increase of nucleoli number into interphase nucleus and decrease of nuclei/nucleoli ratio. These long-time cultivated cells had very low ginsenoside content.

  8. Absorption of nitrogen by ginseng and effect of nitrogen on 14C-assimilate distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Xianju; Zhang Ping; Liu Tong

    1999-01-01

    By using 15 N and 14 C tracer technique, the utilization, recovery and loss rate of N fertilizer in ginseng ware studied. With different applying levels of 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 gN/m 2 14 CO 2 assimilating ability, NR activity, N compound, sugar and ginseng saponin were determined. The results showed that the N fertilizer utilization rate was 9.85% in the first year, the accumulative utilization rate for two years was 19.06%. Recovery rate of the fertilizer-N was 81.5% in the first year and 69.78% in second year. Loss rate of the fertilizer-N was 30.22%. With the treatment of 10 gN/m 2 , 14 CO 2 assimilation ability and NR activity was the highest. With the treatment of 40 gN/m 2 , total soluble sugar, sucrose and ginseng saponin content decreased and starch content increased

  9. Biogenic silver and gold nanoparticles synthesized using red ginseng root extract, and their applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Priyanka; Kim, Yeon Ju; Wang, Chao; Mathiyalagan, Ramya; El-Agamy Farh, Mohamed; Yang, Deok Chun

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, we report a green methodology for the synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles, using the root extract of the herbal medicinal plant Korean red ginseng. The silver and gold nanoparticles were synthesized within 1 h and 10 min respectively. The nanoparticles generated were not aggregated, and remained stable for a long time, which suggests the nature of nanoparticles. The phytochemicals and ginsenosides present in the root extract assist in reducing and stabilizing the synthesized nanoparticles. The red ginseng root extract-generated silver nanoparticles exhibit antimicrobial activity against pathogenic microorganisms including Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, and Candida albicans. In addition, the silver nanoparticles exhibit biofilm degrading activity against S. aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Thus, the present study opens up a new possibility of synthesizing silver and gold nanoparticles in a green and rapid manner using Korean red ginseng root extract, and explores their biomedical applications.

  10. Effects of Radix Ginseng on microbial infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hong; Høiby, Niels; Yang, Liang

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To summarized the antimicrobial-like effects of Radix Ginseng, which provide important information to the relevant researchers and clinicians, and will benefit the clinical treatment of infectious diseases. METHODS: PubMed and Google were used to search for and collect scientific publi...

  11. Time-Course Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Resistance Genes of Panax ginseng Induced by Cylindrocarpon destructans Infection Using RNA-Seq.

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    Yuan Gao

    Full Text Available Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer is a highly valued medicinal plant. Cylindrocarpon destructans is a destructive pathogen that causes root rot and significantly reduces the quality and yield of P. ginseng. However, an efficient method to control root rot remains unavailable because of insufficient understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying C. destructans-P. ginseng interaction. In this study, C. destructans-induced transcriptomes at different time points were investigated using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq. De novo assembly produced 73,335 unigenes for the P. ginseng transcriptome after C. destructans infection, in which 3,839 unigenes were up-regulated. Notably, the abundance of the up-regulated unigenes sharply increased at 0.5 d postinoculation to provide effector-triggered immunity. In total, 24 of 26 randomly selected unigenes can be validated using quantitative reverse transcription (qRT-PCR. Gene ontology enrichment analysis of these unigenes showed that "defense response to fungus", "defense response" and "response to stress" were enriched. In addition, differentially expressed transcription factors involved in the hormone signaling pathways after C. destructans infection were identified. Finally, differentially expressed unigenes involved in reactive oxygen species and ginsenoside biosynthetic pathway during C. destructans infection were indentified. To our knowledge, this study is the first to report on the dynamic transcriptome triggered by C. destructans. These results improve our understanding of disease resistance in P. ginseng and provide a useful resource for quick detection of induced markers in P. ginseng before the comprehensive outbreak of this disease caused by C. destructans.

  12. Compound Schisandra-Ginseng-Notoginseng-Lycium Extract Ameliorates Scopolamine-Induced Learning and Memory Disorders in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Ning; Liu, Cong; Jing, Shu; Wang, Mengyang; Wang, Han; Sun, Jinghui; Wang, Chunmei; Chen, Jianguang; Li, He

    2017-01-01

    Schisandra, Ginseng, Notoginseng, and Lycium barbarum are traditional Chinese medicinal plants sharing cognitive-enhancing properties. To design a functional food to improve memory, we prepared a compound Schisandra-Ginseng-Notoginseng-Lycium (CSGNL) extract and investigated its effect on scopolamine-induced learning and memory loss in mice. To optimize the dose ratios of the four herbal extracts in CSGNL, orthogonal experiments were performed. Mice were administered CSGNL by gavage once a da...

  13. American ginseng tea protects cellular DNA within 2 h from consumption: results of a pilot study in healthy human volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeto, Yim Tong; Sin, Yuk Shan Pauline; Pak, Sok Cheon; Kalle, Wouter

    2015-01-01

    The acute genoprotective effect of Panax quinquefolius (American ginseng) has been investigated. The experiment was carried out to explore the DNA protective effect after a single dose of American ginseng tea bag infusion. Fourteen subjects (6 males and 8 females) were recruited in this study. Seven of them (3 males and 4 females) were asked to drink a cup of freshly prepared American ginseng infusions. Water was taken by the remaining subjects as the control group. Blood samples of both groups were taken before and 2 h post-ingestion. The blood samples were challenged with ultraviolet B irradiation followed by using comet assay. Completed slides were stained with Giemsa stain and DNA damage was assessed. Results showed a significant decrease in comet score after American ginseng supplementation and no change in the control group. The current study demonstrated a cup of American ginseng infusion could protect cellular DNA from oxidative stress at least within 2 h.

  14. Melanogenesis inhibition activity of floralginsenoside A from Panax ginseng berry

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    Dae Young Lee

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion: FGA showed the most potent inhibition of melanogenesis in both in vitro and in vivo studies. This study suggests that FGA purified from P. ginseng may be an effective melanogenesis inhibitor.

  15. Comprehensive Characterization for Ginsenosides Biosynthesis in Ginseng Root by Integration Analysis of Chemical and Transcriptome

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    Jing-Jing Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Herbgenomics provides a global platform to explore the genetics and biology of herbs on the genome level. Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer is an important medicinal plant with numerous pharmaceutical effects. Previous reports mainly discussed the transcriptome of ginseng at the organ level. However, based on mass spectrometry imaging analyses, the ginsenosides varied among different tissues. In this work, ginseng root was separated into three tissues—periderm, cortex and stele—each for five duplicates. The chemical analysis and transcriptome analysis were conducted simultaneously. Gene-encoding enzymes involved in ginsenosides biosynthesis and modification were studied based on gene and molecule data. Eight widely-used ginsenosides were distributed unevenly in ginseng roots. A total of 182,881 unigenes were assembled with an N50 contig size of 1374 bp. About 21,000 of these unigenes were positively correlated with the content of ginsenosides. Additionally, we identified 192 transcripts encoding enzymes involved in two triterpenoid biosynthesis pathways and 290 transcripts encoding UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs. Of these UGTs, 195 UGTs (67.2% were more highly expressed in the periderm, and that seven UGTs and one UGT were specifically expressed in the periderm and stele, respectively. This genetic resource will help to improve the interpretation on complex mechanisms of ginsenosides biosynthesis, accumulation, and transportation.

  16. Application of gamma irradiation in ginseng for both photodegradation of pesticide pentachloronitrobenzene and microbial decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Hsiao-Wei [Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, National Chung Hsing University, 250, Kuo Kuang Road, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Ming-Fa [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, 200, Chung Pei Road, Chungli 320, Taiwan (China); Wang, Ya-Ting; Chung, Hsiao-Ping [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Section 2, Kuang Fu Road, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Po-Chow; Lin, I-Hsin [Committee on Chinese Medicine and Pharmacy, Department of Health, Executive Yuan, Taipei 104, Taiwan (China); Chou, Fong-In, E-mail: fichou@mx.nthu.edu.tw [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Section 2, Kuang Fu Road, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Section 2, Kuang Fu Road, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China)

    2010-04-15

    This study investigates the feasibility of using gamma irradiation for photodegradation of a common residual fungicide, pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB), in ginseng, and for microbial decontamination. American ginseng, Panax quinquefolius, was subjected to gamma irradiation. PCNB residues were analyzed by gas chromatography with electron capture detection and mass spectrometry. Eighty percent of PCNB (100 ppm) in a methanol aqueous solution was degraded by 5 kGy irradiation, and the primary degradation product was pentachloroaniline. Furthermore, contaminated PCNB (3.7 ppm) in ginseng were reduced to 0.2 ppm after 20 kGy irradiation. The IC{sub 50} for treatment of Sclerotium rolfsii with 20 kGy irradiated PCNB was about 2.7 times higher than that for treatment with unirradiated PCNB. The survival rate of mouse fibroblast L929 cells treated with 20 kGy irradiated PCNB was about 12.9% higher than that of L929 cells treated with unirradiated PCNB. Additionally, after 20 kGy irradiation, less than 5% reduction of contents of ginsenoside Rb1 and Re were observed, and amounts of ginsenosides Rc, Rd, and Rg1 were not reduced significantly. The minimal gamma dose for microbial decontamination was 10 kGy. Therefore, gamma irradiation can be used for both PCNB photodegradation and microbial decontamination of ginseng without obvious loses of ginsenoside contents.

  17. Metabonomic analysis of water extracts from Chinese and American ginsengs by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance: identification of chemical profile for quality control

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    Chan Pui

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the gaining popularity of commercially prepared decoctions of herbal medicines on the market, an objective and efficient way to reveal the authenticity of such products is urgently needed. Previous attempts to use chromatographic or spectroscopic methods to identify ginseng samples made use of components derived from methanol extracts of the herb. It was not established that these herbs can be distinguished solely from consumable components, which are responsible for the clinical efficacy of the herb. In this study, metabonomics, or metabolic profiling, based on the application of 1H-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR, is applied to distinguish the water extracts of three closely related ginseng species: P. ginseng (from two different cultivated regions in China, P. notoginseng and P. quinquefolius. Methods A water extraction protocol that mimics how ginseng decoctions are made for consumption was used to prepare triplicate samples from each herb for analysis. High-resolution 1H NMR spectroscopy was used to acquire metabolic profiles of the four ginseng samples. The spectral data were subjected to multivariate and univariate analysis to identify metabolites that were able to distinguish different types of ginseng. Results H NMR metabolic profiling was performed to distinguish the water extracts of P. ginseng cultivated in Hebei and Jilin of China, both of which were distinguished from extracts of P. notoginseng and P. quinquefolius, by unsupervised principle component analysis based on the entire 1H NMR spectral fingerprint Statistically significant differences were found for several discriminating features traced to common metabolites and the ginsenosides Rg1 and Rd, in the 1H NMR spectra. Conclusion This study demonstrated that 1H NMR metabonomics can simultaneously distinguish different ginseng species and multiple samples of the same species that were cultivated in different regions. This technique is applicable to the

  18. Eustress and Malondialdehyde (MDA): Role of Panax Ginseng: Randomized Placebo Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kuraishy, Hayder M; Al-Gareeb, Ali I

    2017-07-01

    Objective: The present study aimed at evaluating the effect of Panax Ginseng on malondialdehyde (MDA) serum levels during eustress on healthy volunteers. Method: In this study, 65 healthy volunteers were recruited from students of a medical school, with the mean age of 22.61±3.63 years. The volunteers were divided into 2 groups: Group A included 35 participants who were treated by Panax Ginseng 500 mg/day, which was regarded as the treated group; group B included 30 participants treated by placebo 500 mg/day, which was regarded as the control group. Baseline data were obtained and then one month after the study, the participants were followed with respect to induction of psychological stress through daily psychomotor performance task and visual working memory accuracy testing. Stress was assessed by malondialdehyde (MDA) serum levels. Results: The participants in the control group showed significant increases in MDA serum levels (p = 0.0004), which were related to significant increases in perceived stress scale from pstress scale (p = 0.02). Conclusion: Panax Ginseng produced significant reduction in oxidative stress and augmented eustress level in healthy volunteers 1 month after therapy.

  19. Quality and characteristics of fermented ginseng seed oil based on bacterial strain and extraction method

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    Myung-Hee Lee

    2017-07-01

    Results and Conclusion: The color of the fermented ginseng seed oil did not differ greatly according to the fermentation or extraction method. The highest phenolic compound content recovered with the use of supercritical fluid extraction combined with fermentation using the Bacillus subtilis Korea Food Research Institute (KFRI 1127 strain. The fatty acid composition did not differ greatly according to fermentation strain and extraction method. The phytosterol content of ginseng seed oil fermented with Bacillus subtilis KFRI 1127 and extracted using the supercritical fluid method was highest at 983.58 mg/100 g. Therefore, our results suggested that the ginseng seed oil fermented with Bacillus subtilis KFRI 1127 and extracted using the supercritical fluid method can yield a higher content of bioactive ingredients, such as phenolics, and phytosterols, without impacting the color or fatty acid composition of the product.

  20. Effect of pulse-wave factors in Middle Aged Women by Mountain Cultivated Ginseng Pharmacopuncture Original Articles

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    Park Sang Wook

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this experiment is to know about Effect of pulse-wave factors in Middle Aged Women by Mountain Cultivated Ginseng Pharmacopuncture. Methods: First 20 Middle Aged women are diagnosed by pulse diagnosis, and then Mountain Cultivated Ginseng Pharmacopuncture(1 injection 20cc were injected. 30 minutes later, pulse diagnosis again performed. As a result, method of one-group pretest-posttes design were used for evaluation. Results: T(Total pulse cycle time statistically significant increased on both left and right chon, kwan,cheok. T4 time statistically significant increased on both left and right chon, kwan, cheok. T4-T1/T indexs except left cheokmaek, Right cheokmaek observation area decreased significantly in four sites.Wm(indicating high pressure retention time indexs increased significantly in the five sites were observed except right chon maek. Conclusions: Effect of pulse-wave factors in Middle Aged Women by Mountain Cultivated Ginseng Pharmacopuncture increased T, T4, Wm and decreased T4-T1/T indexs. The results of this experiment,Mountain Cultivated Ginseng Pharmacopuncture induced to increase the Pulse-wave's stability and strength.

  1. Assessment of microclimate conditions under artificial shades in a ginseng field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyu Jong Lee

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Weather measurements outside the shade and LWD estimates derived from these measurements would be useful as inputs for decision support systems to predict ginseng growth and disease development.

  2. Incorporation of Tongkat Ali and Ginseng extracts from mass propagated roots derived from bioreactor technology as supplements in energy chocolate confectionery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seri Cempaka Mohd Yusof; Sobri Hussein; Salmah Moosa; Salahbiah Badul Majid; Azhar Mohammad; Foziah Ali; Shafii Khamis; Rusli Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    Tongkat Ali (Eurycoma longifolia) and Ginseng (Panax ginseng) are well known herbs among Asians and have been sought after by Europeans and others for the benefits to health, especially as aphrodisiac and nourishing stimulants. They have high antioxidant level and were reported to be used in the treatment of type II diabetes, as well as for sexual dysfunction in men. Since Tongkat Ali and Ginseng are difficult to cultivate and have a long cultivation period, the bioreactor technology is the alternative method to produce huge amount of raw materials for the herbal industry and continuous supply of standardized raw materials that is not affected by geographical and environmental factors, soil less and free from pesticides and other contaminants. Tongkat Ali and Ginseng extracts from mass propagated roots derived from bioreactor technology have similar profiles as extracts derived from normal cultivation. Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer (LC-MS) profiles showed presence of active compounds in the Tongkat Ali and Ginseng extracts from the mass propagated roots. Cytotoxicity test using the brine shrimp (Artemia salina Leach) lethality assay, revealed that higher concentration of Tongkat Ali and Ginseng extracts from mass propagated roots did not kill or affect the brine shrimps, implying that the extracts were safe for consumption. Incorporation of combination of Tongkat Ali and Ginseng total extracts from mass propagated roots derived from bioreactor technology energy chocolate confectionery was accepted by the panelists in sensory evaluation and showed that the chocolate product has good potential as a carrier besides beverages and capsules. (author)

  3. The mRNA and miRNA transcriptomic landscape of Panax ginseng under the high ambient temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Inuk; Kang, Hyejin; Kim, Jang Uk; Chang, Hyeonsook; Kim, Sun; Jung, Woosuk

    2018-03-19

    Ginseng is a popular traditional herbal medicine in north-eastern Asia. It has been used for human health for over thousands of years. With the rise in global temperature, the production of Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A.Meyer) in Korea have migrated from mid to northern parts of the Korean peninsula to escape from the various higher temperature related stresses. Under the high ambient temperature, vegetative growth was accelerated, which resulted in early flowering. This precocious phase change led to yield loss. Despite of its importance as a traditional medicine, biological mechanisms of ginseng has not been well studied and even the genome sequence of ginseng is yet to be determined due to its complex genome structure. Thus, it is challenging to investigate the molecular biology mechanisms at the transcript level. To investigate how ginseng responds to the high ambient temperature environment, we performed high throughput RNA sequencing and implemented a bioinformatics pipeline for the integrated analysis of small-RNA and mRNA-seq data without a reference genome. By performing reverse transcriptase (RT) PCR and sanger sequencing of transcripts that were assembled using our pipeline, we validated that their sequences were expressed in our samples. Furthermore, to investigate the interaction between genes and non-coding small RNAs and their regulation status under the high ambient temperature, we identified potential gene regulatory miRNAs. As a result, 100,672 contigs with significant expression level were identified and 6 known, 214 conserved and 60 potential novel miRNAs were predicted to be expressed under the high ambient temperature. Collectively, we have found that development, flowering and temperature responsive genes were induced under high ambient temperature, whereas photosynthesis related genes were repressed. Functional miRNAs were down-regulated under the high ambient temperature. Among them are miR156 and miR396 that target flowering (SPL6

  4. Ninjin'yoeito and ginseng extract prevent oxaliplatin-induced neurodegeneration in PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Toshiaki; Yamamoto, Ayano; Ohsawa, Masahiro; Motoo, Yoshiharu; Mizukami, Hajime; Makino, Toshiaki

    2015-10-01

    Ninjin'yoeito (NYT) is a formula of Japanese traditional kampo medicine composed of 12 crude drugs, and is designed to improve the decline in constitution after recovery from disease, fatigue, anemia, anorexia, perspiration during sleep, cold limbs, slight fever, chills, persistent cough, malaise, mental disequilibrium, insomnia, and constipation. Oxaliplatin (L-OHP) is a platinum-based anticancer drug used to treat colorectal, pancreatic, and stomach cancers. However, it often causes acute and chronic peripheral neuropathies including cold allodynia and mechanical hyperalgesia. In this study, we investigated the preventive effects of NYT on neuronal degeneration caused by L-OHP using PC12 cells, which are derived from the rat adrenal medulla and differentiate into nerve-like cells after exposure to nerve growth factor. L-OHP treatment decreased the elongation of neurite-like projection outgrowths in differentiated PC12 cells. When PC12 cells were treated with NYT hot water extract, neurodegeneration caused by L-OHP was significantly prevented in a concentration-dependent manner. Among the 12 crude drugs composing NYT, the extract of Ginseng (the root of Panax ginseng) exhibited the strongest preventive effects on neurodegeneration in differentiated PC12 cells. By activity-guided fractionation, we found that the fraction containing ginsenosides displayed preventive activity and, among several ginsenosides, ginsenoside F2 exhibited significant preventive effects on L-OHP-induced decreases in neurite-like outgrowths in differentiated PC12 cells. These results suggest that NYT and ginseng are promising agents for preventing L-OHP-induced neuropathies and present ginsenoside F2 as one of the active ingredients in ginseng.

  5. Study on the Correlation between Gene Expression and Enzyme Activity of Seven Key Enzymes and Ginsenoside Content in Ginseng in Over Time in Ji'an, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Juxin; Zhang, Daihui; Zhuang, Jianjian; Huang, Yi; Mu, Ying; Lv, Shaowu

    2017-12-11

    Panax ginseng is a traditional medicine. Fresh ginseng is one of the most important industries related to ginseng development, and fresh ginseng of varying ages has different medicinal properties. Previous research has not systematically reported the correlation between changes in key enzyme activity with changes in ginsenoside content in fresh ginseng over time. In this study, for the first time, we use ginseng samples of varying ages in Ji'an and systematically reported the changes in the activity of seven key enzymes (HMGR, FPS, SS, SE, DS, CYP450, and GT). We investigated the content of ginsenoside and gene expression of these key enzymes. Ginsenoside content was measured using HPLC. HPLC, GC-MS, and LC-MS were combined to measure the enzyme activity of the key enzymes. Quantitative PCR was used in the investigation of gene expression. By analyzing the correlation between the enzyme activity and the transcription level of the key enzymes with ginsenoside content, we found that DS and GT enzyme activities are significantly correlated with the ginsenoside content in different ages of ginseng. Our findings might provide a new strategy to discriminate between ginseng of different years. Meanwhile, this research provides important information for the in-depth study of ginsenoside biosynthesis.

  6. Immunomodulatory Activity of Red Ginseng against Influenza A Virus Infection

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    Jong Seok Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ginseng herbal medicine has been known to have beneficial effects on improving human health. We investigated whether red ginseng extract (RGE has preventive effects on influenza A virus infection in vivo and in vitro. RGE was found to improve survival of human lung epithelial cells upon influenza virus infection. Also, RGE treatment reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory genes (IL-6, IL-8 probably in part through interference with the formation of reactive oxygen species by influenza A virus infection. Long-term oral administration of mice with RGE showed multiple immunomodulatory effects such as stimulating antiviral cytokine IFN-γ production after influenza A virus infection. In addition, RGE administration in mice inhibited the infiltration of inflammatory cells into the bronchial lumens. Therefore, RGE might have the potential beneficial effects on preventing influenza A virus infections via its multiple immunomodulatory functions.

  7. Effects of Panax ginseng, consumed with and without glucose, on blood glucose levels and cognitive performance during sustained 'mentally demanding' tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reay, Jonathon L; Kennedy, David O; Scholey, Andrew B

    2006-11-01

    Single doses of the traditional herbal treatment Panax ginseng have recently been shown to lower blood glucose levels and elicit cognitive improvements in healthy, overnight-fasted volunteers. The specific mechanisms responsible for these effects are not known. However, cognitive improvements may be related to the glycaemic properties of Panax ginseng. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, balanced-crossover design, 27 healthy young adults completed a 10 minute "cognitive demand" test battery at baseline. They then consumed capsules containing either ginseng (extract G115) or a placebo and 30 minutes later a drink containing glucose or placebo. A further 30 minutes later (i.e. 60 minutes post-baseline/capsules) they completed the "cognitive demand" battery six times in immediate succession. Depending on the condition to which the participant was allocated on that particular day, the combination of capsules/drink treatments corresponded to a dose of: 0mg G115/0 mg glucose (placebo); 200mg G115/0 mg glucose (ginseng); 0 mg G115/25 g glucose (glucose) or 200 mg G115/25 g glucose (ginseng/glucose combination). The 10 minute "cognitive demand" battery comprised a Serial Threes subtraction task (2 min); a Serial Sevens subtraction task (2 min); a Rapid Visual Information Processing task (5 min); and a "mental fatigue" visual analogue scale. Blood glucose levels were measured prior to the day's treatment, and before and after the post-dose completions of the battery. The results showed that both Panax ginseng and glucose enhanced performance of a mental arithmetic task and ameliorated the increase in subjective feelings of mental fatigue experienced by participants during the later stages of the sustained, cognitively demanding task performance. Accuracy of performing the Rapid Visual Information Processing task (RVIP) was also improved following the glucose load. There was no evidence of a synergistic relationship between Panax ginseng and exogenous glucose ingestion

  8. Analysis of the relationship between rusty root incidences and soil properties in Panax ginseng

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q. X.; Xu, C. L.; Sun, H.; Ma, L.; Li, L.; Zhang, D. D.; Zhang, Y. Y.

    2016-08-01

    Rusty root is a serious problem in ginseng cultivation that limits the production and quality of ginseng worldwide. The Changbai Mountains are the most famous area for ginseng cultivation in China. To clarify the relationship between rusty root and soil characteristics, physico-chemical properties and enzymatic activities of soil collected from five different fields in the Changbai Mountains were analyzed and a controlled experiment carried out by increasing the concentration of Fe (II). Soil bulk density, moisture, total iron (Fe) and total manganese (Mn) concentrations and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity were significantly higher in rusty root than healthy root groups (two-sample test, Ptest showed that there was a significant positive correlation between rusty root index and pH, N, Fe, Mn, Al, Zn and Ca of soil samples collected from fields (P<0.05 or P<0.01), and a significant positive correlation also occurred between rusty root index and Fe (II) added to soil in Fe (II) inducing rusty root (P<0.01). Physiological factors may be very important roles giving rise to ginseng rusty root. Fe (III) reduction and Fe (II) oxidation could be important in increasing the incidence of rusty root. Soil moisture and bulk density of non-rhizosphere soil not attached to the root surface, and pH, N and PPO content of rhizosphere soils attached to the root surface were heavily involved in the reduction, oxidation and sequestration of metal ions.

  9. Comprehensive Profiling and Quantification of Ginsenosides in the Root, Stem, Leaf, and Berry of Panax ginseng by UPLC-QTOF/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Won Lee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The effective production and usage of ginsenosides, given their distinct pharmacological effects, are receiving increasing amounts of attention. As the ginsenosides content differs in different parts of Panax ginseng, we wanted to assess and compare the ginsenosides content in the ginseng roots, leave, stems, and berries. To extract the ginsenosides, 70% (v/v methanol was used. The optimal ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF/MS method was used to profile various ginsenosides from the different parts of P. ginseng. The datasets were then subjected to multivariate analysis including principal component analysis (PCA and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA. A UPLC-QTOF/MS method with an in-house library was constructed to profile 58 ginsenosides. With this method, a total of 39 ginsenosides were successfully identified and quantified in the ginseng roots, leave, stem, and berries. PCA and HCA characterized the different ginsenosides compositions from the different parts. The quantitative ginsenoside contents were also characterized from each plant part. The results of this study indicate that the UPLC-QTOF/MS method can be an effective tool to characterize various ginsenosides from the different parts of P. ginseng.

  10. The effect of ginseng (the genus panax on glycemic control: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials.

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    Esra' Shishtar

    Full Text Available Despite the widespread use of ginseng in the management of diabetes, supporting evidence of its anti-hyperglycemic efficacy is limited, necessitating the need for evidence-based recommendations for the potential inclusion of ginseng in diabetes management.To elucidate the effect of ginseng on glycemic control in a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials in people with and without diabetes.MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library (through July 3, 2013.Randomized controlled trials ≥30 days assessing the glycemic effects of ginseng in people with and without diabetes.Relevant data were extracted by 2 independent reviewers. Discrepancies were resolved by consensus. The Heyland Methodological Quality Score and the Cochrane risk of bias tool were used to assess study quality and risk of bias respectively.Sixteen trials were included, in which 16 fasting blood glucose (n = 770, 10 fasting plasma insulin (n = 349, 9 glycated hemoglobin (n = 264, and 7 homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (n = 305 comparisons were reported. Ginseng significantly reduced fasting blood glucose compared to control (MD =  -0.31 mmol/L [95% CI: -0.59 to -0.03], P = 0.03. Although there was no significant effect on fasting plasma insulin, glycated hemoglobin, or homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, a priori subgroup analyses did show significant reductions in glycated hemoglobin in parallel compared to crossover trials (MD = 0.22% [95%CI: 0.06 to 0.37], P = 0.01.Most trials were of short duration (67% trials<12wks, and included participants with a relatively good glycemic control (median HbA1c non-diabetes = 5.4% [2 trials]; median HbA1c diabetes = 7.1% [7 trials].Ginseng modestly yet significantly improved fasting blood glucose in people with and without diabetes. In order to address the uncertainty in our effect estimates and provide better assessments of ginseng's anti

  11. The effect of red ginseng extract on superoxide dismutase activity in the kidney of gamma-ray irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yong Soon

    1992-01-01

    This study was prepared to observe the change of enzyme activities in kidney treated with red ginseng extract in the gamma ray irradiated mice. Determine the activity of SOD, peroxidase, catalase in the kidney a period of 1 day, 2 day, 3 day, 4 day, 5 day after a saline injection or injection of red ginseng extract or gamma ray irradiated group into four classify. The activity SOD and catalase showed a tendency to increase and recovery at the early state but pay no regard. Where ase, the activity of peroxide restored and increased pay regard. A physiological saline injection group after gamma ray irradiation showed a tendency to diminish after remarkable increase of activity of SOD, peroxidase and catalase than control group. Injection group of red ginseng extract after gamma ray irradiation observed rapid recovery on activity of SOD, peroxidase, catalase than a saline injection group. Experimental result suggested that injection of red ginseng extract after irradiation have the recovery effect on the changed of activity of SOD, peroxidase and catalase against radiation injury

  12. Assessment of radical scavenging, whitening and moisture retention activities of Panax ginseng berry mediated gold nanoparticles as safe and efficient novel cosmetic material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Zuly; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Mathiyalagan, Ramya; Seo, Kwang-Hoon; Mohanan, Padmanaban; Ahn, Jong-Chan; Kim, Yu-Jin; Yang, Deok Chun

    2018-03-01

    Panax ginseng berry extract possess remarkable pharmacological effects on skin treatment such as anti-aging, antioxidant, promotor of collagen synthesis and alleviation against atopic dermatitis. In recent years, gold nanoparticles have gained much attention due to their extensive range of applications in particular in the field of drug delivery as a result of their biological compatibility and low toxicity. In a previous study, we designed and developed biocompatible gold and silver nanoparticles based on phytochemical profile and pharmacological efficacy of P. ginseng berry extract, we were able to reduce gold ions to nanoparticles through the process of green synthesis. However, its potential as a cosmetic ingredient is still unexplored. The aim of the present study is to investigate the moisture retention, in-vitro scavenging and whitening properties of gold nanoparticles synthesized from P. ginseng berry in cosmetic applications. Our findings confirm that P. ginseng berry mediated gold nanoparticles exhibited moisture retention capacity. In addition, MTT assay results confirmed that P. ginseng berry mediated gold nanoparticles are non-toxic to human dermal fibroblast and murine melanoma skin cells, possess scavenging activity, protect and provide alleviation against injured caused by H 2 O 2 -induced damage. In addition, P. ginseng berry mediated gold nanoparticles, significantly reduced melanin content and suppress tyrosinase activity in α-MSH-stimulated B16BL6 cells. We conclude that P. ginseng berry mediated gold nanoparticles are biocompatible and environmental affable materials and can be a potential novel cosmetic ingredient.

  13. Adição de extratos de Ginkgo biloba e Panax ginseng em néctares mistos de frutas tropicais Addition of Ginkgo biloba and Panax ginseng extracts to mixed tropical fruit nectars

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    Paulo Henrique Machado de Sousa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O estudo objetivou desenvolver formulações de néctares mistos de frutas tropicais, acrescidos de diferentes concentrações de extratos de Ginkgo biloba, Panax ginseng e misturas de Ginkgo biloba e Panax ginseng, avaliar características sensoriais, físico-químicas e químicas dos néctares selecionados. As formulações dos néctares tiveram a seguinte composição de polpa: caju (Anacardium occidentale, 12,25%; manga (Mangifera indica L, 21%; e acerola (Malpighia emarginata D.C., 1,75%. Foram desenvolvidas diferentes formulações, com a adição dos extratos nas concentrações variando de 15 a 30 mg.100 mL-1 de néctar. A avaliação sensorial da impressão global, sabor e aroma foi feita por meio de teste de aceitação. Para as bebidas formuladas com Panax ginseng, somente o atributo sabor apresentou variação com o aumento da concentração do extrato. Para as bebidas acrescidas de Ginkgo biloba, observou-se um decréscimo linear para todos os atributos avaliados com o aumento da concentração do extrato. Para a mistura de extratos, não se observou variação das médias com o aumento da concentração dos extratos. Conclui-se que a adição de extrato de Panax ginseng até a concentração de 20 mg.100 mL-1 de néctar e a mistura dos extratos, em concentrações de 7,5 mg.100 mL-1 de néctar de cada extrato, apresentam boa aceitação sensorial. A adição dos extratos não afetou a composição química dos néctares que apresentaram quantidades elevadas de vitamina C, carotenoides, fenólicos totais e antocianinas.The objectives of this study were to develop formulations of mixed nectars of tropical fruits adding different concentrations of Ginkgo biloba, Panax ginseng, and a mixture of Ginkgo biloba and Panax ginseng extracts and to assess sensory, physicochemical, and chemical characteristics of selected nectars. The nectar formulations had the following pulp composition: cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale, 12.25%, mango

  14. Restoration of radiation injury by ginseng, 2. Some properties of the radioprotective substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yonezawa, M.; Katoh, N.; Takeda, A. (Radiation Center of Osaka Prefecture, Sakai (Japan))

    1981-09-01

    Some properties of the radioprotective substances in a ginseng extract that increased the 30-day survival ratio in irradiated mice were studied. Methanol-soluble fraction of the extract did not protect the irradiated animals. Acid or alkali (0.12 N) inactivated the extract at 60/sup 0/C. But the radioprotective activity was stable after heating the ginseng extract in physiological saline at pH 7 in a boiling-water bath for 15 min. The ginseng extract was separated into two fractions by CM-cellulose column chromatography. One of them (CM-A) was significantly efficacious at 5% level, and the other (CM-B) at 0.1% level with the doses proportional to their yields. CM-B, not containing saponin, was subjected to further purification, UV spectrum and a biuret test suggested the presence of protein in this fraction. The supernatant obtained after heating CM-B solution at pH 7 was separated into three fractions, namely G-I, G-II and G-III, by gel-chromatography with a Sephadex G-75 column. Both G-I (0.44 mg per animal) and G-III (0.84 mg, calculated dose) were significantly efficacious, but G-II (0.47 mg) was not.

  15. Sun Ginseng Protects Endothelial Progenitor Cells From Senescence Associated Apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Wooseok; Chung, Jin-Young; Bhan, Jaejun; Lim, Jiyeon; Lee, Soon-Tae; Chu, Kon; Kim, Manho

    2012-01-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) are a population of cells that circulate in the blood stream. They play a role in angiogenesis and, therefore, can be prognostic markers of vascular repair. Ginsenoside Rg3 prevents endothelial cell apoptosis through the inhibition of the mitochondrial caspase pathway. It also affects estrogen activity, which reduces EPC senescence. Sun ginseng (SG), which is heat-processed ginseng, has a high content of ginsenosides. The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effects of SG on senescence-associated apoptosis in EPCs. In order to isolate EPCs, mononuclear cells of human blood buffy coats were cultured and characterized by their uptake of acetylated low-density lipoprotein (acLDL) and their binding of Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (ulex-lectin). Flow cytometry with annexin-V staining was performed in order to assess early and late apoptosis. Senescence was determined by β-galactosidase (β-gal) staining. Staining with 4′-6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole verified that most adherent cells (93±2.7%) were acLDL-positive and ulex-lectin-positive. The percentage of β-gal-positive EPCs was decreased from 93.8±2.0% to 62.5±3.6% by SG treatment. A fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis showed that 4.9% of EPCs were late apoptotic in controls. Sun ginseng decreased the apoptotic cell population by 39% in the late stage of apoptosis from control baseline levels. In conclusion, these results show antisenescent and antiapoptotic effects of SG in human-derived EPCs, indicating that SG can enhance EPC-mediated repair mechanisms. PMID:23717107

  16. Effect of ginseng pretreatment on cerebral glucose metabolism in ischaemic rats using animal positron emission tomography (PET) and [18F]-FDG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rye, Choi Seok; Magata, Y.; Saji, H.; Tajima, K.; Kitano, H.; Konishi, J.; Yokoyama, A. [Department of Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, Yoshida Shimoadachi-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-01 (Japan)

    1997-07-01

    To investigate the effect of ginseng on damaged brain activity, we evaluated the cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRglc) as a functional index in post-ischaemic rats and compared the results with those obtained after the administration of a ginseng extract. CMRglc was measured using high resolution animal positron emission tomography with {sup 18}F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ({sup 18}F-FDG). The rats subjected to a 30-min occlusion showed a significant reduction of k3, the rate constant for phosphorylation of {sup 18}F-FDG by hexokinase, compared with the normal value. The ginseng pretreatment prevented the reduction in k3 and CMRglc caused by ischaemia. Although further investigation is needed to elucidate the mechanism of action, ginseng may be useful for prevention and treatment of ischaemia. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. A brief method for preparation of gintonin-enriched fraction from ginseng

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    Sun-Hye Choi

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: Because GEF can be prepared through water precipitation of ginseng ethanol extract and is easily reproducible with high yield, it could be commercially utilized for the development of gintonin-derived functional health food and natural medicine.

  18. High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode Array Detector and Electrospray Ionization Ion Trap Time-of-Flight Tandem Mass Spectrometry to Evaluate Ginseng Roots and Rhizomes from Different Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Ping; Zhang, You-Bo; Yang, Xiu-Wei; Yang, Xin-Bao; Xu, Wei; Xu, Feng; Cai, Shao-Qing; Wang, Ying-Ping; Xu, Yong-Hua; Zhang, Lian-Xue

    2016-05-09

    Ginseng, Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer, is an industrial crop in China and Korea. The functional components in ginseng roots and rhizomes are characteristic ginsenosides. This work developed a new high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization ion trap time-of-flight multistage mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-IT-TOF-MS(n)) method to identify the triterpenoids. Sixty compounds (1-60) including 58 triterpenoids were identified from the ginseng cultivated in China. Substances 1, 2, 7, 15-20, 35, 39, 45-47, 49, 55-57, 59, and 60 were identified for the first time. To evaluate the quality of ginseng cultivated in Northeast China, this paper developed a practical liquid chromatography-diode array detection (LC-DAD) method to simultaneously quantify 14 interesting ginsenosides in ginseng collected from 66 different producing areas for the first time. The results showed the quality of ginseng roots and rhizomes from different sources was different due to growing environment, cultivation technology, and so on. The developed LC-ESI-IT-TOF-MS(n) method can be used to identify many more ginsenosides and the LC-DAD method can be used not only to assess the quality of ginseng, but also to optimize the cultivation conditions for the production of ginsenosides.

  19. Dynamics of Panax ginseng Rhizospheric Soil Microbial Community and Their Metabolic Function

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    Yong Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The bacterial communities of 1- to 6-year ginseng rhizosphere soils were characterized by culture-independent approaches, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD, and amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA. Culture-dependent method (Biolog was used to investigate the metabolic function variance of microbe living in rhizosphere soil. Results showed that significant genetic and metabolic function variance were detected among soils, and, with the increasing of cultivating years, genetic diversity of bacterial communities in ginseng rhizosphere soil tended to be decreased. Also we found that Verrucomicrobia, Acidobacteria, and Proteobacteria were the dominants in rhizosphere soils, but, with the increasing of cultivating years, plant disease prevention or plant growth promoting bacteria, such as Pseudomonas, Burkholderia, and Bacillus, tended to be rare.

  20. Green synthesis of multifunctional silver and gold nanoparticles from the oriental herbal adaptogen: Siberian ginseng

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    Abbai R

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ragavendran Abbai,1,* Ramya Mathiyalagan,1,* Josua Markus,1 Yeon-Ju Kim,2 Chao Wang,2 Priyanka Singh,2 Sungeun Ahn,2 Mohamed El-Agamy Farh,2 Deok Chun Yang1,2 1Ginseng Bank, Graduate School of Biotechnology, 2Department of Oriental Medicinal Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Republic of Korea *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Pharmacologically active stem of the oriental herbal adaptogen, Siberian ginseng, was employed for the ecofriendly synthesis of Siberian ginseng silver nanoparticles (Sg-AgNPs and Siberian ginseng gold nanoparticles (Sg-AuNPs. First, for metabolic characterization of the sample, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis (indicated the presence of eleutherosides A and E, total phenol content, and total reducing sugar were analyzed. Second, the water extract of the sample mediated the biological synthesis of both Sg-AgNPs and Sg-AuNPs that were crystalline face-centered cubical structures with a Z-average hydrodynamic diameter of 126 and 189 nm, respectively. Moreover, Fourier transform infrared analysis indicated that proteins and aromatic hydrocarbons play a key role in the formation and stabilization of Sg-AgNPs, whereas phenolic compounds accounted for the synthesis and stability of Sg-AuNPs. 3-(4,5-Dimethyl-2-thiazolyl-2,5-diphenyl-2H tetrazolium bromide (MTT assay determined that Sg-AgNPs conferred strong cytotoxicity against MCF7 (human breast cancer cell line and was only slightly toxic to HaCaT (human keratinocyte cell line at 10 µg·mL-1. However, Sg-AuNPs did not display cytotoxic effects against both of the cell lines. The disc diffusion assay indicated a dose-dependent increase in the zone of inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538, Bacillus anthracis (NCTC 10340, Vibrio parahaemolyticus (ATCC 33844, and Escherichia coli (BL21 treated with Sg-AgNPs, whereas Sg-AuNPs did not show inhibitory activity. In addition, the 2,2-diphenyl-1

  1. Development of Distinction Method of Production Area of Ginsengs by Using a Neutron Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Jin; Chung, Yong Sam; Sun, Gwang Min; Lee, Yu Na; Yoo, Sang Ho [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    Distinction of production area of Korean ginsengs has been tried by using neutron activation techniques such as an instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and a prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA). A distribution of elements has varied according to the part of plant clue to the difference of enrichment effect and influence from a soil where the plants have been grown. So correlation study between plants and soil has been an Issue. In this study, the distribution of trace elements within a Korean ginseng was investigated by using an instrumental neutron activation analysis

  2. Extração de ecdisterona em raízes de ginseng brasileiro Extraction of ecdysterone from roots of Brazilian ginseng

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    Rejane Flores

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo otimizar a extração de ecdisterona em raízes de ginseng brasileiro. Primeiramente, para se avaliar a eficiência do solvente extrator, amostras de raízes dois acessos (BRA e JB-UFSM de P. glomerata foram extraídas em Soxhlet com metanol e clorofórmio, separadamente, durante 4 horas. No segundo ensaio, com o intuito de se escolher o método extrator, a extração foi conduzida em Soxhlet e em ultrassom, utilizando metanol como solvente. Em P. tuberosa, as amostras foram extraídas com metanol, e a extração foi conduzida em Soxhlet e em banho ultrasônico. O conteúdo de ecdisterona foi determinado em Cromatógrafo Líquido de Alta Eficiência (CLAE. Em ambas as espécies, um maior conteúdo de ecdisterona foi detectado nas amostras extraídas com metanol e em Soxhlet. A metodologia proposta mostrou-se eficaz para a quantificação da ecdisterona a partir das raízes de P. glomerata e P. tuberosa, podendo ser aplicada no controle de qualidade de drogas vegetais e/ou fitoterápicos.This study aimed at optimizing the extraction method from ecdysterone of Brazilian ginseng. Root samples of two accessions (BRA and JB-UFSM of P. glomerata were extracted in a Soxhlet with methanol or chloroform for 4h. In the second trial, the extration was conduced in a Soxhlet or ultrasonic using metanol as a solvent. In P. tuberosa, the roots samples were extracted with methanol in a Soxhlet or in ultrasonic. The ecdysterone content was determinated using high efficiency liquid chromatography methods. In both studied species, the highest ecdisterone content was detected from samples extracted in a Soxhlet and using methanol as a solvent. This extration method has been successfully applied for determination of ecdysterone content from roots of Brazilian ginseng, and could be useful for the quality control of drugs and pharmaceutical formulations.

  3. Evaluation of a new eastern blotting technique for the analysis of ginsenoside Re in American ginseng berry pulp extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morinaga, Osamu; Uto, Takuhiro; Yuan, Chun-Su; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Shoyama, Yukihiro

    2010-06-01

    A new eastern blotting technique has been established for ginsenoside Re (G-Re) contained in American ginseng berry pulp extracts. G-Re in American ginseng berry pulp was extracted using 100% methanol, 100% ethanol, 50% aqueous methanol, and 50% aqueous ethanol. The combined crude extracts were applied onto a polyethersulfone membrane and developed using the methanol-water-acetic acid solvent system (45:55:1 v/v). Separated components were immunostained using anti-G-Re monoclonal antibody. G-Re was first specifically detected and then quantitatively analyzed using NIH Imaging software. We also confirmed that the most suitable solvent was 50% aqueous methanol for extracting G-Re from American ginseng berry pulp. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Taste profile characterization of white ginseng by electronic tongue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pg4) from white ginseng was checked using an electronic tongue. The bitterness and aftertaste-B of Pg3 were perceived as significantly higher than those of the other subfractions. The sourness of Pg2 had the highest rating compared to that of the other subfractions. The umami of Pg4 was higher than that of the other ...

  5. Discrimination of white ginseng origins using multivariate statistical analysis of data sets

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    Hyuk-Hwan Song

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Results suggest that ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry coupled with OPLS-DA is an efficient tool for identifying the difference between the geographical origins of white ginsengs.

  6. The effect of irrigation and foliar fertilization on the colonization of american ginseng (Panax quinquefolium l. diseased parts by different micro-organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Pastucha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Field studies on the health of American ginseng cultivated in the Lublin district on poor sandy soil were conducted in the years 2004-2006. The studies involved treatment combinations with irrigation and without irrigation as well as foliar fertilization with Alkalin PK and Resistim of American ginseng plants. Mycological analysis was made of diseased ginseng parts with the aim of determining the quantitative and qualitative composition of fungi-like organisms and fungi threatening the cultivation of this plant. Fungi from the genera of Cylindrocarpon, Fusarium and the following species Alternaria alternata, Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, as well as fungi-like organisms: Pythium irregulare and Phytophthora sp., were isolated from the infected parts of ginseng. The smallest number of fungi was isolated from the plants growing on the plots without irrigation and those where foliar application with Alkalin PK was applied.

  7. Ginseng Berry Extract Supplementation Improves Age-Related Decline of Insulin Signaling in Mice

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    Eunhui Seo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ginseng berry extract on insulin sensitivity and associated molecular mechanisms in aged mice. C57BL/6 mice (15 months old were maintained on a regular diet (CON or a regular diet supplemented with 0.05% ginseng berry extract (GBD for 24 or 32 weeks. GBD-fed mice showed significantly lower serum insulin levels (p = 0.016 and insulin resistance scores (HOMA-IR (p = 0.012, suggesting that GBD improved insulin sensitivity. Pancreatic islet hypertrophy was also ameliorated in GBD-fed mice (p = 0.007. Protein levels of tyrosine phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate (IRS-1 (p = 0.047, and protein kinase B (AKT (p = 0.037, were up-regulated in the muscle of insulin-injected GBD-fed mice compared with CON-fed mice. The expressions of forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1 (p = 0.036 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ (p = 0.032, which are known as aging- and insulin resistance-related genes, were also increased in the muscle of GBD-fed mice. We conclude that ginseng berry extract consumption might increase activation of IRS-1 and AKT, contributing to the improvement of insulin sensitivity in aged mice.

  8. Effect of fermented red ginseng on cytochrome P450 and P-glycoprotein activity in healthy subjects, as evaluated using the cocktail approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Gul; Kim, Yunjeong; Jeon, Ji-Young; Kim, Dal-Sik

    2016-12-01

    We assessed the drug interaction profile of fermented red ginseng with respect to the activity of major cytochrome (CYP) P450 enzymes and of a drug transporter protein, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), in healthy volunteers. This study was an open-label crossover study. The CYP probe cocktail drugs caffeine, losartan, dextromethorphan, omeprazole, midazolam and fexofenadine were administered before and after 2 weeks of fermented red ginseng administration. Plasma samples were collected, and tolerability was assessed. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated, and the 90% confidence intervals (CIs) of the geometric mean ratios of the parameters were determined from logarithmically transformed data. Values were compared between before and after fermented red ginseng administration using analysis of variance (anova). Fifteen healthy male subjects were evaluated, none of whom were genetically defined as a poor CYP2C9, CYP2C19 or CYP2D6 metabolizer based on genotyping. Before and after fermented red ginseng administration, the geometric least-square mean metabolic ratio (90% CI) was 0.901 (0.830-0.979) for caffeine (CYP1A2) to paraxanthine, 0.774 (0.720-0.831) for losartan (CYP2C9) to EXP3174, 1.052 (0.925-1.197) for omeprazole (CYP2C19) to 5-hydroxyomeprazole, 1.150 (0.860-1.538) for dextromethorphan (CYP2D6) to dextrorphan, and 0.816 (0.673-0.990) for midazolam (CYP3A4) to 1-hydroxymidazolam. The geometric mean ratio of the area under the curve of the last sampling time (AUC last ) for fexofenadine (P-gp) was 1.322 (1.112-1.571). No significantly different drug interactions were observed between fermented red ginseng and the CYP probe substrates following the two-week administration of concentrated fermented red ginseng. However, the inhibition of P-gp was significantly different between fermented red ginseng and the CYP probe substrates. The use of fermented red ginseng requires close attention due to the potential for increased systemic exposure when it is used in

  9. Ginseng and Ganoderma lucidum use after breast cancer diagnosis and quality of life: a report from the Shanghai Breast Cancer Survival Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Ping Bao

    Full Text Available To evaluate associations between quality of life (QOL and use of ginseng and Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum among breast cancer survivors.Included in this study were 4,149 women with breast cancer who participated in the Shanghai Breast Cancer Survival Study. Ginseng use was assessed at 6-, 18-, and 36-month post-diagnosis surveys; G. lucidum use was assessed at the 6- and 36-month surveys. QOL was evaluated at the 6- and 36-month surveys. Multiple linear regression models were used to examine associations between ginseng and G.lucidum use and QOL assessed at the 36-month survey, with adjustment for potential confounders and baseline QOL.At 6 months post-diagnosis, 14.2% of participants reported regular use of ginseng and 58.8% reported use of G. lucidum. We found no significant associations between ginseng use at 6, 18, and 36 months post-diagnosis and participants' total QOL score or individual scores for psychological, physical, or social well-being. Post-diagnosis G. lucidum use was positively associated with social well-being (adjusted mean difference: 1.26; 95% CI: 0.66, 1.86, but was inversely associated with physical well-being (adjusted mean difference: -1.16; 95% CI: -1.86, -0.47 with a dose-response pattern observed for cumulative number of times of use (P for trend <0.001 for both.We found no evidence that post-diagnosis ginseng use improved the QOL of breast cancer survivors. Post-diagnosis G. lucidum use was associated with better social well-being scores, but poorer physical well-being scores.

  10. Possibility of electron beam irradiation degradation of many pesticides in ginseng oral liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Qiyong; Liu Yang; Ge Hanguang; Wu Ruoxin

    2013-01-01

    This paper is to explore the technological feasibility in degradation of pesticides in ginseng oral liquid under the irradiation of electron beam. Sixteen residual concentration-restricted pesticides in ginseng oral liquid were experimented under the dose of 0 ∼ 15 kGy. Results showed that, when the dose of the irradiation of electron beam increased, the degradation rates of all the pesticides enhanced, and the electron beam radiation showed the most remarkable effect on the degradation of pesticides such as imidacloprid and fenpropathrinwith degradation rates of more than 90% and 50%, respectively. The degradation rates of fonofos, methidathion, diazinon, phosalone and carbaryl were all higher than 30%. No significant degradation was observed in the other 9 pesticides under the same condition. (authors)

  11. Enhanced Inhibitory Effect of Ultra-Fine Granules of Red Ginseng on LPS-induced Cytokine Expression in the Monocyte-Derived Macrophage THP-1 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Yeoul Kim

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Red ginseng is one of the most popular traditional medicines in Korea because its soluble hot-water extract is known to be very effective on enhancing immunity as well as inhibiting inflammation. Recently, we developed a new technique, called the HACgearshift system, which can pulverize red ginseng into the ultra-fine granules ranging from 0.2 to 7.0 μm in size. In this study, the soluble hot-water extract of those ultra-fine granules of red ginseng (URG was investigated and compared to that of the normal-sized granules of red ginseng (RG. The high pressure liquid chromatographic analyses of the soluble hot-water extracts of both URG and RG revealed that URG had about 2-fold higher amounts of the ginsenosides, the biologically active components in red ginseng, than RG did. Using quantitative RT-PCR, cytokine profiling against the Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS in the monocyte-derived macrophage THP-1 cells demonstrated that the URG-treated cells showed a significant reduction in cytokine expression than the RG-treated ones. Transcription expression of the LPS-induced cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TGF-β was significantly inhibited by URG compared to RG. These results suggest that some biologically active and soluble components in red ginseng can be more effectively extracted from URG than RG by standard hot-water extraction.

  12. Representative parameter of immunostimulatory ginseng polysaccharide to predict radioprotection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Hyeog Jin; Shim, Ji Young; Ahn, Ji Yeon; Yun, Yeon Sook; Song, Jie Young [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-09-15

    According to the increase in the use of radiotherapy to cancer patients, many approaches have been tried to develop new agents for the protection of surrounding normal tissues. However, it is still few applied in the clinic as a radioprotector. We aim to find a representative parameter for radioprotection to easily predict the activity of in vivo experiment from the results of in vitro screening. The polysaccharide extracted from Panax ginseng was used in this study because the immunostimulator has been regarded as one of the radioprotective agent category and was already reported having a promising radioprotective activity through the increase of hematopoietic cells and the production of several cytokines. Mitogenic activity, AK cells activity and nitric oxide production were monitored for the in vitro immunological assay, and endogenous Colony-Forming Unit (e-CFU) was measured as in vivo radioprotective parameter. The immunological activity was increased by the galactose contents of ginseng polysaccharide dependently. The result of this study suggests that mitogenic activity of splenocytes demonstrated a good correlation with in vivo radioprotective effect, and may be used as a representative parameter to screen the candidates for radioprotector.

  13. Alcohol extract of North American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) reduces fatty liver, dyslipidemia, and other complications of metabolic syndrome in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ratnesh K; Lui, Edmund; Wright, David; Taylor, Adrian; Bakovic, Marica

    2017-09-01

    We investigated whether North American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) could reduce development of the metabolic syndrome phenotype in a mouse model (ETKO) of the disease. Young ETKO mice have no disease but similar to humans start to develop the fatty liver, hypertriglyceridemia, obesity, and insulin resistance at 25-30 weeks of age, and the disease continues to progress with ageing. ETKO mice were orally given an ethanol extract of ginseng roots at 4 and 32 weeks of age. Treatments with ginseng eliminated the ETKO fatty liver, reduced hepatic and intestinal lipoprotein secretion, and reduced the level of circulating lipids. Improvements by ginseng treatments were manifested as a reduction in the expression of genes involved in the regulation of fatty acid and triglyceride (fat) synthesis and secretion by the lipoproteins on one hand, and the stimulation of fatty acid oxidation and triglyceride degradation by lipolysis on the other hand. These processes altogether improved glucose, fatty acid, and triglyceride metabolism, reduced liver fat load, and reversed the progression of metabolic syndrome. These data confirm that treatments with North American ginseng could alleviate metabolic syndrome through the maintenance of a better balance between glucose and fatty acid metabolism, lipoprotein secretion, and energy homeostasis in disease-prone states.

  14. Protein extraction from the stem of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-05-23

    May 23, 2011 ... Meyer: A tissue of lower protein extraction efficiency for proteomic analysis ..... key technology R&D program (No. 2007BAI38B02),. National ... Six new dammarane-type triterpene saponins from the leaves of. Panax ginseng.

  15. 77 FR 20610 - United States Standards for Grades of Cultivated Ginseng

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ... defects. The new grades will replace the current ones and promote the orderly and efficient marketing of ginseng in an evolving global economy. Other changes will include a revised General Section, new... to determine and complement the new grades. DATES: Effective Date: May 7, 2012. FOR FURTHER...

  16. 76 FR 53875 - United States Standards for Grades of Cultivated Ginseng

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... proposed revisions would be based on quality and percentage defects. The new grades would replace the current ones and promote the orderly and efficient marketing of ginseng in an evolving global economy... amending definitions. These revisions are needed to determine and complement the new grades. DATES...

  17. Enraizamento e germinação na propagação de Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen (ginseng-brasileiro Rooting and germination in propagation of Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen (ginseng-brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana de Paula Quintão Scalon

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se este trabalho, com o objetivo de avaliar a propagação sexuada e assexuada de Pfaffia glomerata (ginseng brasileiro. As sementes foram pré-embebidas por 24 horas em KNO3 1%; ácido giberélico 50, 100 e 200 mg L-1 ; emágua e as sementes que não receberam tratamento serviram como testemunha. A semeadura foi em placas de petri sobre duas folhas de papel de filtro e a incubação a 25ºC, sob iluminação constante e na ausência de luz. As estacas com º15 cm foram imersas durante 6 horas em IAA 250 e IBA 500 mg L-1, ácido bórico 1% e em água e plantadas em embalagem plástica, contendo terra+areia (1:1. O primeiro experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 2 (níveis de luz x 6 (tratamento de pré-embebição em 4 repetições de 20 sementes. O segundo em DIC com 5 tratamentos, 4 repetições de 15 estacas por repetição. As sementes de ginseng brasileiro necessitam de tratamento de pré-embebição para acelerar a germinação, sendo a imersão em KNO3 o método mais eficiente, proporcionando 63% de germinação. Apresentam fotoblastismo neutro, com germinação média de 45%. As estacas de ginseng brasileiro imersas apenas em água apresentaram 100% de enraizamento, maior número de brotos (2,5 e maior comprimento de raiz (8,6 cm. A espécie apresenta potencial para ambos os métodos de propagação.The objective of this study was to evaluate sexual and asexual propagation of Pfaffia glomerata (Brazilian Ginseng. The seeds were pre-soaked for 24 hours in KNO3 1% , gibberellic acid 50, 100, 200 mg L-1 , and in water. Untreated seeds served as control. Sowing was accomplished in petri dishes on 2 sheets of filter paper, at 25ºC incubation, under constant illumination, and in the absence of light. The cuttings with º1,5 cm were immersed for 6 hours in IAA 250 and 500mg L-1, boric acid1% ,and in water. Soon after they were planted in plastic containers with soil + sand (1:1. The

  18. Gut microbiota-involved mechanisms in enhancing systemic exposure of ginsenosides by coexisting polysaccharides in ginseng decoction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shan-Shan; Xu, Jun; Zhu, He; Wu, Jie; Xu, Jin-Di; Yan, Ru; Li, Xiu-Yang; Liu, Huan-Huan; Duan, Su-Min; Wang, Zhuo; Chen, Hu-Biao; Shen, Hong; Li, Song-Lin

    2016-03-01

    Oral decoctions of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) serve for therapeutic and prophylactic management of diseases for centuries. Small molecules and polysaccharides are the dominant chemicals co-occurred in the TCM decoction. Small molecules are well-studied by multidisciplinary elaborations, whereas the role of polysaccharides remains largely elusive. Here we explore a gut microbiota-involved mechanism by which TCM polysaccharides restore the homeostasis of gut microbiota and consequently promote the systemic exposure of concomitant small molecules in the decoction. As a case study, ginseng polysaccharides and ginsenosides in Du-Shen-Tang, the decoction of ginseng, were investigated on an over-fatigue and acute cold stress model. The results indicated that ginseng polysaccharides improved intestinal metabolism and absorption of certain ginsenosides, meanwhile reinstated the perturbed holistic gut microbiota, and particularly enhanced the growth of Lactobacillus spp. and Bacteroides spp., two major metabolic bacteria of ginsenosides. By exploring the synergistic actions of polysaccharides with small molecules, these findings shed new light on scientization and rationalization of the classic TCM decoctions in human health care.

  19. Investigation of distribution of elements in a Korean ginseng by using a neutron activation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yu Na; Sun, Gwang Min; Chung, Yong Sam; Kim, Young Jin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    The Distinction of production areas of Korean ginsengs has been tried by using neutron activation techniques such as an instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and a prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA). This study was done as a part of those efforts. As is well known, the distribution of elements varies according to the part of plant due to the difference of enrichment effect and influence from a soil where the plants have been grown. So a correlation study between plants and soil is an important issue. In this study, the distribution of trace elements within a Korean ginseng was investigated by using an instrumental neutron activation analysis.

  20. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure extract of fresh ginseng on adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mak-Soon; Jung, Sunyoon; Oh, Soojung; Shin, Yoonjin; Kim, Chong-Tai; Kim, In-Hwan; Kim, Yangha

    2015-09-01

    Red ginseng is produced by steaming and drying fresh ginseng. Through this processing, chemical compounds are modified, and then biological activities are changed. In the food-processing industry, high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) has become an alternative to heat processing to make maximum use of bioactive compounds in food materials. This study comparatively investigated the anti-adipogenic effects of water extract of red ginseng (WRG) and high hydrostatic pressure extract of fresh ginseng (HPG) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Both WRG and HPG inhibited the accumulation of intracellular lipids and triglycerides, and the activity of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH), a key enzyme in triglyceride biosynthesis. Intracellular lipid content and GPDH activity were significantly lower in the HPG group compared to the WRG group. In addition, mRNA expression of adipogenic genes, including CEBP-α, SREBP-1c and aP2, were lower in HPG-treated cells compared to WRG-treated cells. HPG significantly increased the activity of AMPK, and WRG did not. Results suggested that HPG may have superior beneficial effects on the inhibition of adipogenesis compared with WRG. The anti-adipogenic effects of HPG were partially associated with the inhibition of GPDH activity, suppression of adipogenic gene expression and activation of AMPK in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. The Study on Acute and Subacute Toxicity and Anti-Cancer Effects of cultivated wild ginseng Herbal acupuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Rok, Kwon

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The purpose of this study was to investigate acute and subacute toxicity and sarcoma-180 anti-cancer effects of herbal acupuncture with cultivated wild ginseng (distilled in mice and rats. Methods : Balb/c mice were injected intravenous with cultivated wild ginseng herbal acupuncture for LD50 and acute toxicity test. Sprague-Dawley rats were injected intravenous with cultivated wild ginseng herbal acupuncture for subacute toxicity test. The cultivated wild ginseng herbal-acupuncture was injected at the tail vein of mice. Results : 1. In acute LD50 toxicity test, there was no mortality thus unable to attain the value. 2. Examining the toxic response in the acute toxicity test, there was no sign of toxication. 3. In acute toxic test, running biochemical serum test couldn't yield any differences between the control and experiment groups. 4. In subacute toxicity test, there was no sign of toxication in the experimental groups and didn't show any changes in weight compared to the normal group. 5. In subacute toxicity test, biochemical serum test showed significant increase of Total albumin, Albumin, and Glucose in the experimental group I compared with the control group. Significant decrease of GOT, ALP, GPT, and Triglyceride were shown. In experiment group II, only Glucose showed significant increase compared with the control group. 6. Measuring survival rate for anti-cancer effects of Sarcoma-180 cancer cell line, all the experimental groups showed significant increase in survival rate. 7. Measuring NK cell activity rate, no significant difference was shown throughout the groups. 8. Measuring Interleukin-2 productivity rate, all the experimental groups didn't show significant difference. 9. For manifestation of cytokine mRNA, significant decrease of interleukin-10 was witnessed in the experimental group compared to the control group. Conclusion : According to the results, we can conclude cultivated wild ginseng herbal acupuncture

  2. Could ginseng-based medicines be better than nitrates in treating ischemic heart disease? A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yongliang; Zhang, Shikai; Huang, Fangyi; Leung, Siu-wai

    2012-06-01

    Ginseng-based medicines and nitrates are commonly used in treating ischemic heart disease (IHD) angina pectoris in China. Hundreds of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reported in Chinese language claimed that ginseng-based medicines can relieve the symptoms of IHD. This study provides the first PRISMA-compliant systematic review with sensitivity and subgroup analyses to evaluate the RCTs comparing the efficacies of ginseng-based medicines and nitrates in treating ischemic heart disease, particularly angina pectoris. Past RCTs published up to 2010 on ginseng versus nitrates in treating IHD for 14 or more days were retrieved from major English and Chinese databases, including PubMed, Science Direct, Cochrane Library, WangFang Data, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure. The qualities of included RCTs were assessed with Jadad scale, a refined Jadad scale called M scale, CONSORT 2010 checklist, and Cochrane risk of bias tool. Meta-analysis was performed on the primary outcomes including the improvement of symptoms and electrocardiography (ECG). Subgroup analysis, sensitivity analysis, and meta-regression were performed to evaluate the effects of study characteristics of RCTs, including quality, follow-up periods, and efficacy definitions on the overall effect size of ginseng. Eighteen RCTs with 1549 participants were included. Overall odds ratios for comparing ginseng-based medicines with nitrates were 3.00 (95% CI: 2.27-3.96) in symptom improvement (n=18) and 1.61 (95% CI: 1.20-2.15) in ECG improvement (n=10). Subgroup analysis, sensitivity analysis, and meta-regression found no significant difference in overall effects among all study characteristics, indicating that the overall effects were stable. The meta-analysis of 18 eligible RCTs demonstrates moderate evidence that ginseng is more effective than nitrates for treating angina pectoris. However, further RCTs for higher quality, longer follow-up periods, lager sample size, multi-center/country, and are

  3. Microbial transformation of ginsenosides extracted from Panax ginseng adventitious roots in an airlift bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin Song

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: These findings may not only solve the problem of low productivity of metabolite in ginseng root culture but may also result in the development of a new valuable method of manufacturing ginsenoside CK.

  4. 50 CFR 23.68 - How can I trade internationally in roots of American ginseng?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... registration of persons buying and selling ginseng in that State or on tribal lands. (ii) A requirement that... of the roots. Future export certification of this stock must be issued against the weight receipt. (v...

  5. Bioconversion of Ginsenosides in the American Ginseng (西洋參 Xī Yáng Shēn Extraction Residue by Fermentation with Lingzhi (靈芝 Líng Zhī, Ganoderma Lucidum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Yang Hsu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Ginseng (人参 Rén Shēn has been widely employed in functional foods and traditional medicines in many Asian countries. Owing to the high consumer demand of ginseng products, a large amount of ginseng residue is generated after extraction of ginseng. However, the ginseng residue still contains many bioactive compounds such as ginsenosides. The objective of this research was to convert ginsenosides in American ginseng (西洋參 Xī Yáng Shēn extraction residue (AmR by fermentation with lingzhi (靈芝 Líng Zhī, Ganoderma lucidum and the fermentation products will be used for further hypoglycemic activity research. Thus, this study was primarily focused on the ginsenosides that have been reported to possess hypoglycemic activity. In this study, the changes in seven ginsenoside [Rg1, Re, Rb1, Rc, Rg3(S, compound K (CK, and Rh2(S] in the products as affected by fermentation were investigated. Our results showed that the levels of ginsenosides, namely, Rg1, Rg3(S, and CK increased, while the other ginsenosides (Re, Rb1, and Rc decreased during the fermentation process.

  6. Efficacy of Polyphenon E, Red Ginseng, and Rapamycin on Benzo(apyrene-Induced Lung Tumorigenesis in A/J Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Yan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this investigation was to determine the efficacy of several novel agents in preventing lung tumorigenesis in mice. We evaluated polyphenon E, red ginseng, and rapamycin in A/J mice treated with the tobacco-specific carcinogen benzo(apyrene for their ability to inhibit pulmonary adenoma formation and growth. We found that treatment with polyphenon E exhibited a significant reduction on both tumor multiplicity and tumor load (tumor multiplicity × tumor volume in a dose-dependent fashion. Polyphenon E (2% wt/wt in the diet reduced tumor multiplicity by 46% and tumor load by 94%. This result provided key evidence in support of a phase II clinical chemoprevention trial of lung cancer. Administration of red ginseng in drinking water decreased tumor multiplicity by 36% and tumor load by 70%. The mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor rapamycin showed significant efficacy against lung tumor growth in the tumor progression protocol and reduced tumor load by 84%. The results of these investigations demonstrate that polyphenon E, red ginseng, and rapamycin significantly inhibit pulmonary adenoma formation and growth in A/J mice.

  7. Cognitive effects of two nutraceuticals Ginseng and Bacopa benchmarked against modafinil: a review and comparison of effect sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, Chris; Camfield, David; Reay, Jonathon; Stough, Con; Scholey, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Over recent years there has been increasing research into both pharmaceutical and nutraceutical cognition enhancers. Here we aimed to calculate the effect sizes of positive cognitive effect of the pharmaceutical modafinil in order to benchmark the effect of two widely used nutraceuticals Ginseng and Bacopa (which have consistent acute and chronic cognitive effects, respectively). A search strategy was implemented to capture clinical studies into the neurocognitive effects of modafinil, Ginseng and Bacopa. Studies undertaken on healthy human subjects using a double‐blind, placebo‐controlled design were included. For each study where appropriate data were included, effect sizes (Cohen's d) were calculated for measures showing significant positive and negative effects of treatment over placebo. The highest effect sizes for cognitive outcomes were 0.77 for modafinil (visuospatial memory accuracy), 0.86 for Ginseng (simple reaction time) and 0.95 for Bacopa (delayed word recall). These data confirm that neurocognitive enhancement from well characterized nutraceuticals can produce cognition enhancing effects of similar magnitude to those from pharmaceutical interventions. Future research should compare these effects directly in clinical trials. PMID:23043278

  8. Qualitative and quantitative analysis on aroma characteristics of ginseng at different ages using E-nose and GC-MS combined with chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Shaoqing; Wang, Jun; Yang, Liangcheng; Wu, Jianfeng; Wang, Xinlei

    2015-01-01

    Aroma profiles of ginseng samples at different ages were investigated using electronic nose (E-nose) and GC-MS techniques combined with chemometrics analysis. The bioactive ginsenoside and volatile oil content increased with age. E-nose performed well in the qualitative analyses. Both Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Discriminant Functions Analysis (DFA) performed well when used to analyze ginseng samples, with the first two principal components (PCs) explaining 85.51% and the first two factors explaining 95.51% of the variations. Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) successfully clustered the different types of ginsengs into four groups. A total of 91 volatile constituents were identified. 50 of them were calculated and compared using GC-MS. The main fragrance ingredients were terpenes and alcohols, followed by aromatics and ester. The changes in terpenes, alcohols, aromatics, esters, and acids during the growth year once again confirmed the dominant role of terpenes. The Partial Least Squares (PLS) loading plot of gas sensors and aroma ingredients indicated that particular sensors were closely related to terpenes. The scores plot indicated that terpenes and its corresponding sensors contributed the most in grouping. As regards to quantitative analyze, 7 constituent of terpenes could be accurately explained and predicted by using gas sensors in PLS models. In predicting ginseng age using Back Propagation-Artificial Neural Networks (BP-ANN), E-nose data was found to predict more accurately than GC-MS data. E-nose measurement may be a potential method for determining ginseng age. The combination of GC-MS can help explain the hidden correlation between sensors and fragrance ingredients from two different viewpoints. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of Ginseng (Panax ginseng Berry EtOAc Fraction on Cognitive Impairment in C57BL/6 Mice under High-Fat Diet Inducement

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    Chang Hyeon Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available High-fat diet-induced obesity leads to type 2 diabetes. Recently, there has been growing apprehension about diabetes-associated cognitive impairment (DACM. The effect of ginseng (Panax ginseng berry ethyl acetate fraction (GBEF on mice with high-fat diet-induced cognitive impairment was investigated to confirm its physiological function. C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet for 5 weeks and then a high-fat diet with GBEF (20 and 50 mg/kg of body weight for 4 weeks. After three in vivo behavioral tests (Y-maze, passive avoidance, and Morris water maze tests, blood samples were collected from the postcaval vein for biochemical analysis, and whole brains were prepared for an ex vivo test. A method based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC accurate-mass quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF/MS was used to determine major ginsenosides. GBEF decreased the fasting blood glucose levels of high-fat diet-induced diabetes mellitus (DM mice and improved hyperglycemia. Cognitive behavior tests were examined after setting up the DM mice. The in vivo experiments showed that mice treated with GBEF exhibited more improved cognitive behavior than DM mice. In addition, GBEF effectively inhibited the acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity and malondialdehyde (MDA levels of DM mice brain tissues. Q-TOF UPLC/MS analyses of GBEF showed that ginsenoside Re was the major ginsenoside.

  10. [Louis XIV's Ginseng: Shaping of Knowledge on an Herbal Medicine in the Late 17th and the Early 18th Century France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye-Min

    2016-04-01

    This article aims to investigate the shaping of knowledge and discourse on ginseng, especially among physicians and botanists, since its introduction to France from the 17th century until the early 18th century. In France, knowledge on herbal medicine, including that of ginseng, was shaped under the influence of the modern state's policy and institution: mercantilism and the Académie royale des sciences. The knowledge of herbal medicine developed as an important part of the mercantilist policy supported systematically by the Académie. The East Asian ginseng, renowned as a panacea, was first introduced into France in the 17th century, initially in a roundabout way through transportation and English and Dutch publications of travel tales from various foreign countries. The publication activity was mainly conducted by Thévenot company with the intention to meet the needs of French mercantilism promoted by Colbert. It also implied interests on medicine in order to bolster the people's health. The Thévenot company's activity thus offered vital information on plants and herbs abroad, one of which was ginseng. Furthermore, with Louis XIV's dispatching of the Jesuit missionaries to East Asia, the Frenchmen were able to directly gather information on ginseng. These information became a basis for research of the Académie. In the Académie, founded in 1666 by Colbert, the king's physicians and botanists systematically and collectively studied on exotic plants and medical herbs including ginseng. They were also key figures of the Jardin du Roi. These institutions bore a striking contrast to the faculty of medicine at the University of Paris which has been a center of the traditional Galenic medicine. The research of the Académie on ginseng was greatly advanced, owing much to the reports and samples sent from China and Canada by Jartoux, Sarrazin, and Lapitau. From the early 18th century, the conservative attitude of the University of Paris, which was a stronghold of

  11. Louis XIV’s Ginseng: Shaping of Knowledge on an Herbal Medicine in the Late 17 and the Early 18 Century France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Min LEE

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to investigate the shaping of knowledge and discourse on ginseng, especially among physicians and botanists, since its introduction to France from the 17th century until the early 18th century. In France, knowledge on herbal medicine, including that of ginseng, was shaped under the influence of the modern state’s policy and institution: mercantilism and the Académie royale des sciences. The knowledge of herbal medicine developed as an important part of the mercantilist policy supported systematically by the Académie. The East Asian ginseng, renowned as a panacea, was first introduced into France in the 17th century, initially in a roundabout way through transportation and English and Dutch publications of travel tales from various foreign countries. The publication activity was mainly conducted by Thévenot company with the intention to meet the needs of French mercantilism promoted by Colbert. It also implied interests on medicine in order to bolster the people’s health. The Thévenot company’s activity thus offered vital information on plants and herbs abroad, one of which was ginseng. Furthermore, with Louis XIV’s dispatching of the Jesuit missionaries to East Asia, the Frenchmen were able to directly gather information on ginseng. These information became a basis for research of the Académie. In the Académie, founded in 1666 by Colbert, the king’s physicians and botanists systematically and collectively studied on exotic plants and medical herbs including ginseng. They were also key figures of the Jardin du Roi. These institutions bore a striking contrast to the faculty of medicine at the University of Paris which has been a center of the traditional Galenic medicine. The research of the Académie on ginseng was greatly advanced, owing much to the reports and samples sent from China and Canada by Jartoux, Sarrazin, and Lapitau. From the early 18th century, the conservative attitude of the University of Paris

  12. Inhibitory effect of red ginseng acidic polysaccharide from Korean red ginseng on phagocytic activity and intracellular replication of Brucella abortus in RAW 264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Alisha Wehdnesday Bernardo; Simborio, Hannah Leah Tadeja; Hop, Huynh Tan; Arayan, Lauren Togonon; Min, Won Gi; Lee, Hu Jang; Rhee, Man Hee; Chang, Hong Hee; Kim, Suk

    2016-09-30

    Korean red ginseng (KRG) has long been used in traditional Korean and Oriental medicine. However, the anti-bacterial mechanism and therapeutic efficiency of KGR for intracellular Brucella infection are still unclear. In this study, the bactericidal activity of Korean red ginseng acidic polysaccharide (RGAP) on Brucella (B.) abortus and its cytotoxic effects on RAW 264.7 cells were evaluated. In addition, B. abortus internalization and intracellular replication in macrophages were investigated after RGAP treatment. RGAP-incubated cells displayed a marked reduction in the adherence, internalization and intracellular growth of B. abortus in macrophages. Furthermore, decreased F-actin fluorescence was observed relative to untreated B. abortus-infected cells. Western blot analysis of intracellular signaling proteins revealed reduced ERK, JNK and p38α phosphorylation levels in B. abortus-infected RGAP-treated cells compared to the control. Moreover, elevated co-localization of B. abortus-containing phagosomes with lysosome-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP-1) were observed in RGAP-treated cells compared with the control. Overall, the results of this study suggest that RGAP can disrupt phagocytic activity of B. abortus via suppression of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) signaling proteins ERK, JNK and p38 levels and inhibit intracellular replication of B. abortus by enhancing phagolysosome fusion, which may provide an alternative control of brucellosis.

  13. Extraction of ecdysterone from roots of Brazilian ginseng

    OpenAIRE

    Flores, Rejane; Nicoloso, Fernando Teixeira; Brondani, Daniela; Maldaner, Joseila; Cezarotto, Verciane; Giacomelli, Sandro Rogério

    2009-01-01

    Este estudo teve como objetivo otimizar a extração de ecdisterona em raízes de ginseng brasileiro. Primeiramente, para se avaliar a eficiência do solvente extrator, amostras de raízes dois acessos (BRA e JB-UFSM) de P. glomerata foram extraídas em Soxhlet com metanol e clorofórmio, separadamente, durante 4 horas. No segundo ensaio, com o intuito de se escolher o método extrator, a extração foi conduzida em Soxhlet e em ultrassom, utilizando metanol como solvente. Em P. tuberosa, as amostras f...

  14. PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF HYDROETHANOLIC EXTRACTS FROM POWDERED ROOTS OF Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer AND Heteropterys tomentosa A. Juss AND EVALUATION OF THEIR EFFECTS ON ASTROCYTE CELL DEATH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Gomes Bezerra

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The medicinal plants Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer (Araliaceae and Heteropterys tomentosa A. Juss (Malpighiaceae are widely and separately used by the Brazilian population as phytotherapeutics for the same medicinal purposes as tonics and to improve cognition. A chemical analysis was carried out on hydroethanolic extracts of powdered roots from P. ginseng and H. tomentosa using HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS (High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled to Diode-Array Detector and Electrospray Ionization - Mass Spectrum/Mass Spectrum. The ginsenosides Rg1, Rf, mRg and mRf were the main constituents in a hydroethanolic extract from P. ginseng, while in the hydroethanolic extract from H. tomentosa, caffeoylquinic acid derivatives and astilbin isomers were the main constituents. Concentration-time-effect curves were generated in cultures of astrocytes that were incubated with hydroethanolic extracts of these species to elucidate their toxicities. The P. ginseng extract was nontoxic at all of the tested times and concentrations. The hydroethanolic extract from H. tomentosa demonstrated toxicity at a concentration of 1000 µg/mL. P. ginseng extract had no protective effect against staurosporine. Many studies have demonstrated the neuroprotective effect of ginsenosides, caffeoylquinic derivatives and flavonoids.

  15. Ginseng (Panax quinquefolius and Licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Root Extract Combinations Increase Hepatocarcinoma Cell (Hep-G2 Viability

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    David G. Popovich

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The combined cytoactive effects of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius and licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis root extracts were investigated in a hepatocarcinoma cell line (Hep-G2. An isobolographic analysis was utilized to express the possibility of synergistic, additive or antagonistic interaction between the two extracts. Both ginseng and licorice roots are widely utilized in traditional Chinese medicine preparations to treat a variety of ailments. However, the effect of the herbs in combination is currently unknown in cultured Hep-G2 cells. Ginseng (GE and licorice (LE extracts were both able to reduce cell viability. The LC50 values, after 72 h, were found to be 0.64 ± 0.02 mg/mL (GE and 0.53 ± 0.02 mg/mL (LE. An isobologram was plotted, which included five theoretical LC50s calculated, based on the fixed fraction method of combination ginseng to licorice extracts to establish a line of additivity. All combinations of GE to LE (1/5, 1/3, 1/2, 2/3, 4/5 produced an effect on Hep-G2 cell viability but they were all found to be antagonistic. The LC50 of fractions 1/3, 1/2, 2/3 were 23%, 21% and 18% above the theoretical LC50. Lactate dehydrogenase release indicated that as the proportion of GE to LE increased beyond 50%, the influence on membrane permeability increased. Cell-cycle analysis showed a slight but significant arrest at the G1 phase of cell cycle for LE. Both GE and LE reduced Hep-G2 viability independently; however, the combinations of both extracts were found to have an antagonistic effect on cell viability and increased cultured Hep-G2 survival.

  16. Comparative effects of gamma irradiation and ethylene oxide fumigation on some chemical quality of white ginseng powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, J.H.; Byun, M.W.; Cho, H.O.; Han, B.H.

    1994-01-01

    Ginseng saponins and proximate components were considerably resistant to both gamma irradiation at less than 10 kGy and commercial ethylene oxide cycle, while sulfur-containing amino acids, reducing sugar, pH, and acidity of white ginseng powder were significantly changed by EO fumigation. The contents of saponins, reducing sugar, pH and acidity were relatively liable to change under the higher relative humidity (90%), especially in the non-treated control sample. However, irradiated samples at optimum-dose range (5 to 10 kGy) depending on the microbial load following airtight packaging showed a good chemical quality for 7 months of storage at 30 pm 2 deg. C irrespective of relative humidity

  17. Induction of micronuclei in human and mouse lymphocytes irradiated with gamma radiation and effect of panax ginseng C. A. Meyer

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    Kim, Sung Ho; Oh, Heon; Lee, Song Eun [Chonnam National Univ., Kwangju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yun Sil; Kim, Tae Hwan [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Kyu Sik [Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Si Yun [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-09-01

    The frequencies of {gamma}-ray-induced micronuclei (MN) in Cytokinesis-Blocked (CB) lymphocytes at several doses were measured in three donors of human and C57BL/6 mice. Measurements performed after irradiation showed a dose-related increases in MN frequency in each of the donors studied. The relative sensitivity of mouse in Spleen Lymphocytes (SLs) compared with human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes (PBLs) was estimated by best fitting linear-quadratic model based on the radiation-induced MN data over the range from 0 cGy to 400 cGy. In the case of MN frequency with 0.2 per CB cell, the relative sensitivity of mouse SLs was 1.67. Compared with the radiation-induced MN formation in the PBLs of human, the SLs of mouse were more radiosensitive. Using this MN assay with human PBLs and mouse SLs, studies were performed to determine whether the water fraction of ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A.Meyer)against radiation-induced MN in human PBLs after in vitro irradiation (3Gy) and in SLs of C57BL/6 mice after in vivo irradiation (3Gy). The frequency of MN in human PBLs was reduced by water fraction of ginseng (0.5mg/ml of medium) both pre-and post treatment (p<0.01) in vitro. In addition, the frequency of MN in mouse SLs was also reduced by pretreatment of ginseng (2mg/ml of drinking water for 7 days) in vivo.

  18. Antiobesity, antioxidant and antidiabetic activities of red Ginseng plant extract in obese diabetic rats

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    Mostafa Abbas Shalaby

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aimed to investigate the effects of red ginseng extract (RGE on adiposity index, some serum biochemical parameters and tissue antioxidant activity in obese diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Five groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Group (1 was negative control and the other 4 groups were fed on high fat-diet for 6 weeks to induce obesity. The obese rats were then rendered diabetic by intraperitoneal injection of alloxan for 5 days. Group (2 was kept obese diabetic (positive control and the other 3 groups were orally given RGE at 100, 200 and 400 mg /kg /day, respectively, for 4 weeks. Blood samples were collected for biochemical analyses and kidneys were taken to assay of activities of antioxidant enzymes. Results: oral dosage of RGE to obese diabetic rats significantly (P < 0.05 reduced adiposity index; decreased serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, gamma- glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT enzymes, total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG, and low density lipoproteins (LDL-c and improved atherogenic index. Blood glucose and leptin hormone decreased, but insulin increased by administration of RGE. it increased activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx and catalase (CAT antioxidant enzymes in kidneys tissues. Conclusion: Red ginseng extract produces antiobesity, antioxidant, and antidiabetic activities in obese diabetic rats. The study suggests that red ginseng plant may be beneficial for the treatment of patients who suffer from obesity associated with diabetes. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2013; 2(3.000: 165-172

  19. From Woohwang Cheongsimwon* to Ginseng - The History of Medicine Use in the Joseon Era -**

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    Seong-su KIM

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In Korean traditional medicine, though herbal decoction, acupuncture, and moxibustion are all used to treat diseases, restorative medicines are the most widely preferred treatment method. This paper explores the historical background of restorative herbal medicines and ginseng among the Korean public and Korean traditional medicine practice. It also seeks to clarify how social and cultural perspectives on drug use have changed since restorative medicine became mainstream during the Joseon era. Drug use tendencies were affected by the medical system of the Joseon Dynasty, patients’ desires for reliable treatment, and perceptions of the human body and the causes of disease. In the late Joseon Dynasty, medicine, an industry originally monopolized by the government, began to be manufactured and traded on the free market, and medical personnel began to participate in medical activities on a large scale. As the health preserving theory became more popular and medical personnel became more accessible, medicinal preferences also changed. Specifically, whereas preference was first given to common medicines, such as Cheongsimwon, which are effective for various symptoms, restorative medicines, such as ginseng, gradually became more popular. These restorative medicines were faithful to the basic tenet of East Asian traditional medicine: to avoid disease by making the body healthy before the onset of illness. Patients’ desires for safe treatment and growing competition among commercial doctors who wanted stable profits further increased the popularity of milder medicines. Ultimately, as ginseng cultivation was realized, its use expanded even further in a wave of commercialization.

  20. Cognitive effects of two nutraceuticals Ginseng and Bacopa benchmarked against modafinil: a review and comparison of effect sizes.

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    Neale, Chris; Camfield, David; Reay, Jonathon; Stough, Con; Scholey, Andrew

    2013-03-01

    Over recent years there has been increasing research into both pharmaceutical and nutraceutical cognition enhancers. Here we aimed to calculate the effect sizes of positive cognitive effect of the pharmaceutical modafinil in order to benchmark the effect of two widely used nutraceuticals Ginseng and Bacopa (which have consistent acute and chronic cognitive effects, respectively). A search strategy was implemented to capture clinical studies into the neurocognitive effects of modafinil, Ginseng and Bacopa. Studies undertaken on healthy human subjects using a double-blind, placebo-controlled design were included. For each study where appropriate data were included, effect sizes (Cohen's d) were calculated for measures showing significant positive and negative effects of treatment over placebo. The highest effect sizes for cognitive outcomes were 0.77 for modafinil (visuospatial memory accuracy), 0.86 for Ginseng (simple reaction time) and 0.95 for Bacopa (delayed word recall). These data confirm that neurocognitive enhancement from well characterized nutraceuticals can produce cognition enhancing effects of similar magnitude to those from pharmaceutical interventions. Future research should compare these effects directly in clinical trials. © 2012 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  1. Single doses of Panax ginseng (G115) reduce blood glucose levels and improve cognitive performance during sustained mental activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reay, Jonathon L; Kennedy, David O; Scholey, Andrew B

    2005-07-01

    Single doses of the traditional herbal treatment Panax ginseng have recently been shown to elicit cognitive improvements in healthy young volunteers. The mechanisms by which ginseng improves cognitive performance are not known. However, they may be related to the glycaemic properties of some Panax species. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, balanced crossover design, 30 healthy young adults completed a 10 min test battery at baseline, and then six times in immediate succession commencing 60 min after the day's treatment (placebo, 200mg G115 or 400mg G115). The 10 min battery comprised a Serial Threes subtraction task (2 min); a Serial Sevens task (2 min); a Rapid Visual Information Processing task (5 min); then a 'mental fatigue' visual analogue scale. Blood glucose was measured prior to each day's treatment, and before, during and after the post-dose completions of the battery. Both the 200mg and 400mg treatments led to significant reductions in blood glucose levels at all three post-treatment measurements (p 0.005 in all cases). The most notable behavioural effects were associated with 200mg of ginseng and included significantly improved Serial Sevens subtraction task performance and significantly reduced subjective mental fatigue throughout all (with the exception of one time point in each case) of the post-dose completions of the 10 min battery (p 0.05). Overall these data suggest that Panax ginseng can improve performance and subjective feelings of mental fatigue during sustained mental activity. This effect may be related to the acute gluco-regulatory properties of the extract.

  2. [Screening strains for Trichoderma spp. for strong antagonism against ginseng root pathogens and study on their biological characters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, A-Na; Ding, Wan-Long; Zhu, Dian-Long

    2006-10-01

    To screen the Trichodenna spp. for strong antagonist against ginseng root pathogens. The biological characters of ten Trichoderma strains were compared by culturing on different media. And their antagonistic activity against Phytophthora cactorum, Cylindrocarpon destructans and Rhizoctonia solani were measured on PDA. Tv04-2 and Th3080 showed a good growth on soil solution medium and PDA, and also showed high inhibitory efficacy to the three pathogens. The two Trichoderma strains showed different growth rate under light conditions and pH. Trichoderma strains were sensitive to most fungicides used in ginseng root disease controlling, however Tv04-2 was not sensitive to the fungicide Junchong Jueba.

  3. An experimental study of radioprotective effect of ginseng alkaloid fraction on cellular damage

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    Yoo, Seong Yul; Cho, Chul Koo; Kim, Mi Sook; Yoo, Hyung Jun; Kim, Seong Ho; Kim, Tae Hwan [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-09-01

    This paper is to assess the effect of Adaptagen as a radioprotector in which main component is alkaloid fraction of ginseng. Evaluation was made in vitro and in vivo study with NIGP(S) mouse by the measurement of regeneration of jejunal crypt cell and micronucleus assay to analyze radioprotective effect of ginseng alkaloid fraction in comparison with that of water fraction after whole body irradiation. The results were as follows, 1. The degree of radiation damage of mouse jejunal crypt cell was diminished in both of alkaloid and water fraction groups compared to control group but more in alkaloid fraction group than water fraction group. 2. Regeneration of mouse jejunal crypt cell was higher both in alkaloid and water fraction groups than control group. 3. In vitro study, frequency of micronucleus was diminished in tendency for the treated groups than control group but statistically insignificant. 4. In vitro study, frequency of micronucleus was diminished in both alkaloid and water fraction groups compared to control group but more in alkaloid fraction group than water fraction group.

  4. Compound K Production from Red Ginseng Extract by β-Glycosidase from Sulfolobus solfataricus Supplemented with α-L-Arabinofuranosidase from Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus.

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    Kyung-Chul Shin

    Full Text Available Ginsenoside compound K (C-K is attracting a lot of interest because of its biological and pharmaceutical activities, including hepatoprotective, antitumor, anti-wrinkling, and anti-skin aging activities. C-K has been used as the principal ingredient in skin care products. For the effective application of ginseng extracts to the manufacture of cosmetics, the PPD-type ginsenosides in ginseng extracts should be converted to C-K by enzymatic conversion. For increased yield of C-K from the protopanaxadiol (PPD-type ginsenosides in red-ginseng extract (RGE, the α-L-arabinofuranoside-hydrolyzing α-L-arabinofuranosidase from Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus (CS-abf was used along with the β-D-glucopyranoside/α-L-arabinopyranoside-hydrolyzing β-glycosidase from Sulfolobus solfataricus (SS-bgly because SS-bgly showed very low hydrolytic activity on the α-L-arabinofuranoside linkage in ginsenosides. The optimal reaction conditions for C-K production were as follows: pH 6.0, 80°C, 2 U/mL SS-bgly, 3 U/mL CS-abf, and 7.5 g/L PPD-type ginsenosides in RGE. Under these optimized conditions, SS-bgly supplemented with CS-abf produced 4.2 g/L C-K from 7.5 g/L PPD-type ginsenosides in 12 h without other ginsenosides, with a molar yield of 100% and a productivity of 348 mg/L/h. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest concentration and productivity of C-K from ginseng extract ever published in literature.

  5. Detection and quantification of ginsenoside Re in ginseng samples by a chromatographic immunostaining method using monoclonal antibody against ginsenoside Re.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morinaga, Osamu; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Shoyama, Yukihiro

    2006-01-02

    A chromatographic immunostaining method has been developed for the determination of ginsenoside Re (G-Re) in ginseng samples on a polyethersulphone (PES) membrane. G-Re standard and the extracts of ginseng roots were applied to a PES membrane and developed by methanol-water-acetic acid (45:55:1, by volume). G-Re was clearly detected by an immunostaining method using a monoclonal antibody against G-Re. The coloring spots of G-Re were analyzed quantitatively using NIH Image software indicating at least 0.125 microg of G-Re was detectable. G-Re can be analyzed quantitatively between 0.25 and 4.0 microg.

  6. Cytohistological study of the leaf structures of Panax ginseng Meyer and Panax quinquefolius L.

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    Ok Ran Lee

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion: The anatomical leaf structure of both P. ginseng and P. quinquefolius shows that they are typical shade-loving sciophytes. Slight differences in chloroplast structure suggests that the two different species can be authenticated using transmission electron microscopy images, and light-resistant cultivar breeding can be performed via controlling photosynthesis efficiency.

  7. Antitumor activity of ginseng sapogenins, 25-OH-PPD and 25-OCH3-PPD, on gastric cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chen; Su, Guangyue; Wang, Xude; Zhang, Xiaoshu; Guo, Shuang; Zhao, Yuqing

    2016-01-01

    25-Hydroxyprotopanaxadiol (25-OH-PPD) and 25-methoxylprotopanaxadiol (25-OCH3-PPD), two ginseng sapogenins, have potent antitumor activity and their effects on gastric cancer (BGC-823, SGC-7901, MKN-28) cells and a gastric mucosa (GES-1) cell line are reported. Both compounds significantly inhibited the growth of gastric cancer cells, while having lesser inhibitory effects on GES-1 cells by MTT assay. A mechanistic study revealed that the two ginseng sapogenins could induce apoptosis in BGC-823 cells by morphological observation, DNA fragmentation, flow cytometry and western blot analysis. Besides, the apoptosis was inhibited by Ac-DEVD-CHO, a caspase 3 inhibitor, which was confirmed by cell viability analysis. These results indicate that 25-OH-PPD and 25-OCH3-PPD have potential to be promising agents for the treatment of gastric cancer.

  8. Applications of molecular markers in the discrimination of Panax species and Korean ginseng cultivars (Panax ginseng

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    Ick Hyun Jo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of molecular markers is one of the most useful methods for molecular breeding and marker-based molecular associated selections. Even though there is less information on the reference genome, molecular markers are indispensable tools for determination of genetic variation and identification of species with high levels of accuracy and reproducibility. The demand for molecular approaches for marker-based breeding and genetic discriminations in Panax species has greatly increased in recent times and has been successfully applied for various purposes. However, owing to the existence of diverse molecular techniques and differences in their principles and applications, there should be careful consideration while selecting appropriate marker types. In this review, we outline the recent status of different molecular marker applications in ginseng research and industrial fields. In addition, we discuss the basic principles, requirements, and advantages and disadvantages of the most widely used molecular markers, including restriction fragment length polymorphism, random amplified polymorphic DNA, sequence tag sites, simple sequence repeats, and single nucleotide polymorphisms.

  9. Applications of molecular markers in the discrimination of Panax species and Korean ginseng cultivars (Panax ginseng).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Ick Hyun; Kim, Young Chang; Kim, Dong Hwi; Kim, Kee Hong; Hyun, Tae Kyung; Ryu, Hojin; Bang, Kyong Hwan

    2017-10-01

    The development of molecular markers is one of the most useful methods for molecular breeding and marker-based molecular associated selections. Even though there is less information on the reference genome, molecular markers are indispensable tools for determination of genetic variation and identification of species with high levels of accuracy and reproducibility. The demand for molecular approaches for marker-based breeding and genetic discriminations in Panax species has greatly increased in recent times and has been successfully applied for various purposes. However, owing to the existence of diverse molecular techniques and differences in their principles and applications, there should be careful consideration while selecting appropriate marker types. In this review, we outline the recent status of different molecular marker applications in ginseng research and industrial fields. In addition, we discuss the basic principles, requirements, and advantages and disadvantages of the most widely used molecular markers, including restriction fragment length polymorphism, random amplified polymorphic DNA, sequence tag sites, simple sequence repeats, and single nucleotide polymorphisms.

  10. GC-MS Metabolomic Analysis to Reveal the Metabolites and Biological Pathways Involved in the Developmental Stages and Tissue Response of Panax ginseng

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    Jia Liu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ginsenosides, the major compounds present in ginseng, are known to have numerous physiological and pharmacological effects. The physiological processes, enzymes and genes involved in ginsenoside synthesis in P. ginseng have been well characterized. However, relatively little information is known about the dynamic metabolic changes that occur during ginsenoside accumulation in ginseng. To explore this topic, we isolated metabolites from different tissues at different growth stages, and identified and characterized them by using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The results showed that a total of 30, 16, 20, 36 and 31 metabolites were identified and involved in different developmental stages in leaf, stem, petiole, lateral root and main root, respectively. To investigate the contribution of tissue to the biosynthesis of ginsenosides, we examined the metabolic changes of leaf, stem, petiole, lateral root and main root during five development stages: 1-, 2-, 3-, 4- and 5-years. The score plots of partial least squares-discriminate analysis (PLS-DA showed clear discrimination between growth stages and tissue samples. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathway analysis in the same tissue at different growth stages indicated profound biochemical changes in several pathways, including carbohydrate metabolism and pentose phosphate metabolism, in addition, the tissues displayed significant variations in amino acid metabolism, sugar metabolism and energy metabolism. These results should facilitate further dissection of the metabolic flux regulation of ginsenoside accumulation in different developmental stages or different tissues of ginseng.

  11. Korean red ginseng and its primary ginsenosides inhibit ethanol-induced oxidative injury by suppression of the MAPK pathway in TIB-73 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye-Min; Kim, Shang-Jin; Mun, A-Reum; Go, Hyeon-Kyu; Kim, Gi-Beum; Kim, Sung-Zoo; Jang, Seon-Il; Lee, Sei-Jin; Kim, Jin-Shang; Kang, Hyung-Sub

    2012-06-14

    Panax ginseng (P. ginseng) is one of the most widely used medicinal plants due to its wide spectrum of medicinal effects. Among the currently available Panax ginseng products, Korea red ginseng (KRG) has been shown to exhibit a variety of antioxidative and hepatoprotective action. Our aim was to investigate the effects of KRG and its primary ginsenosides (Rg3 and Rh2) on EtOH-induced injury to mouse hepatocytes (TIB-73). We investigated the effects of KRG and its primary ginsenoside on EtOH-induced injury to TIB-73 cells and evaluated MAPKs signals as a possible mechanism of action. Hepatocytic injury was evaluated by biochemical assays as cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), ROS and mitochondria membrane potential (MMP) level in TIB-73 cells. The levels of MAPK activation were analyzed by Western blots. The results showed that exposure of EtOH to TIB-73 cells led to cell death and membrane damage, accompanied by a decrease in cell viability, MMP, and Mg(2+) concentrations, but an increase in LDH, AST, ROS and MAPK activation. KRG and its primary ginsenosides reduced EtOH-induced generation of ROS and the activation of ERK and JNK, and increased Mg(2+) concentrations. These results suggest that KRG and its primary ginsenosides inhibit EtOH-induced oxidative injury by suppression of the MAPK pathway in TIB-73 cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. New Polyacetylenes, DGAT inhibitors from the roots of Panax ginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Woong; Kim, Koanhoi; Rho, Mun-Chual; Chung, Mi Yeon; Kim, Young Ho; Lee, Sangku; Lee, Hyun Sun; Kim, Young Kook

    2004-03-01

    The petroleum ether extract of Panax ginseng showed a significant inhibition of the diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) enzyme from rat liver microsomes. Bioactivity-guided fractionation led to the isolation of two new polyacetylenic compounds, (9 R,10 S)-epoxyheptadecan-4,6-diyn-3-one ( 1) and 1-methoxy-(9 R,10 S)-epoxyheptadecan-4,6-diyn-3-one ( 2). Their chemical structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidence and asymmetric synthesis. IC50 values of 9 microg/mL ( 1) and 32 microg/mL ( 2) were obtained.

  13. Valid Probabilistic Predictions for Ginseng with Venn Machines Using Electronic Nose

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    You Wang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the application of electronic noses (E-noses, probabilistic prediction is a good way to estimate how confident we are about our prediction. In this work, a homemade E-nose system embedded with 16 metal-oxide semi-conductive gas sensors was used to discriminate nine kinds of ginsengs of different species or production places. A flexible machine learning framework, Venn machine (VM was introduced to make probabilistic predictions for each prediction. Three Venn predictors were developed based on three classical probabilistic prediction methods (Platt’s method, Softmax regression and Naive Bayes. Three Venn predictors and three classical probabilistic prediction methods were compared in aspect of classification rate and especially the validity of estimated probability. A best classification rate of 88.57% was achieved with Platt’s method in offline mode, and the classification rate of VM-SVM (Venn machine based on Support Vector Machine was 86.35%, just 2.22% lower. The validity of Venn predictors performed better than that of corresponding classical probabilistic prediction methods. The validity of VM-SVM was superior to the other methods. The results demonstrated that Venn machine is a flexible tool to make precise and valid probabilistic prediction in the application of E-nose, and VM-SVM achieved the best performance for the probabilistic prediction of ginseng samples.

  14. Comparative effects of gamma irradiation and phosphine fumigation on the quality of white ginseng

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, J.-H.Joong-Ho; Byun, M.-W.Myung-Woo; Kim, K.-S.Kang-Soo; Kang, I.-J.Il-Jun

    2000-03-01

    The hygienic, physicochemical, and organoleptic qualities of white ginseng were monitored during 6 months under accelerated conditions (40 deg. C, 90% r.h.) by observing its microbial populations, disinfestation, and some quality attributes following either gamma irradiation at 2.5-10 kGy or commercial phosphine (PH{sub 3}) fumigation. In a comparative study, both treatments were found to be effective for disinfecting the stored samples. Phosphine showed no appreciable decontaminating effects on microorganisms contaminated including coliforms, while 5 kGy irradiation was sufficient to control all microorganisms related to the quality of the packed samples. Irradiation at 5 kGy caused negligible changes in physicochemical attributes of the samples, such as ginsenosides, amino acids, fatty acids, and organoleptic properties, whereas phosphine fumigation was found detrimental to sensory flavor (P<0.01). Quality deterioration occurred in the commercially-packed samples was in the following order: the control, 10 kGy-, phosphine-, and 2.5-5 kGy-treated samples. Accordingly, irradiation at <5 kGy was found to be an effective alternative to phosphine fumigation for white ginseng. (author)

  15. The psychopharmacological activities of Vietnamese ginseng in mice: characterization of its psychomotor, sedative–hypnotic, antistress, anxiolytic, and cognitive effects

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    Irene Joy I. dela Peña

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: VG, like other ginseng products, has significant and potentially useful psychopharmacological effects. This includes, but is not limited to, psychomotor stimulation, anxiolytic, antistress, and memory enhancing effects.

  16. Micromorphology and development of the epicuticular structure on the epidermal cell of ginseng leaves

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    Kyounghwan Lee

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: The outwardly projected cuticle and epidermal cell wall (i.e., an epicuticular wrinkle acts as a major barrier to block out sunlight in ginseng leaves. The small vesicles in the peripheral region of epidermal cells may suppress the cuticle and parts of epidermal wall, push it upward, and consequently contribute to the formation of the epicuticular structure.

  17. Analysis of Serum Proteom after Intravenous Injection of cultivated wild ginseng pharmacopuncture

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    Dong-Hee,Lee

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : To observe the changes in the serum proteins after intravenous injection of cultivated wild ginseng pharmacopuncture. Methods : Blood was collected before and after the administration of cultivated wild ginseng pharmacopuncture and only the serum was taken. Then differences in the spots on the scanned image after carrying out 2-Dimensional electrophoresis were located and conducted mass analysis and protein identification. Results : Following results were obtained from the comparative analysis of serum proteins before and after the administration of cultivated wild ginseng pharmacopuncture. 1. 28 spots were identified before and after the administration. 2. In confirming manifestation degree, spots with more than two-times increase were 204, 1302, 2205, 3105, 7104, 8006, spots with more than one-time increase were 1101, 1505, 2013, 2403, 3009, 3010, 4002, 4009, 6704, 8101, and spots with decrease were 205, 801, 803, 3205, 5202, 6105, 6106, 7103, 9001, 9003. 3. After conducting protein identification, proteins 205, 804, 1302, 4009, 6105, 6106 are unidentified yet, and 1l01 is unnamed protein. Protein 204 is identified as complement receptor CR2-C3d, 801 as YAPl protein, 803 as antitrypsin polymer, 1505 as PRO0684, 2013 and 3010 as proapolipoprotein, 2205 as USP48, 2403 as vitamin D binding protein, 3009 as complement component 4A preprotein, 3105 as immunoglobulin lambda chain, 3205 as transthyretin, 4002 as Ras-related protein Ral-A, 4204 as beta actin, 5202 and 7104 as apolipoprotein Ll, 6704 as alpha 2 macroglobulin precursor, 7103 as complement component 3 precursor, 8006 as testis-specific protein Y, 8101 as transferrin, 9001 as (Alpha-Oxy, Beta-(Cl12gdeoxy T-State Human Hemoglobin, and 9003 as human hemoglobin. 4. Immune protein CR2-C3d(204, which acts against microbes and pathogenic organisms, was increased by more than two-times after the administration of pharmacopuncture. 5. Antitrypsin(803, which is secreted with

  18. Red Ginseng Extract Attenuates Kainate-Induced Excitotoxicity by Antioxidative Effects

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    Jin-Yi Han

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the neuroprotective activity of red ginseng extract (RGE, Panax ginseng, C. A. Meyer against kainic acid- (KA- induced excitotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. In hippocampal cells, RGE inhibited KA-induced excitotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner as measured by the MTT assay. To study the possible mechanisms of the RGE-mediated neuroprotective effect against KA-induced cytotoxicity, we examined the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS and [Ca2+]i in cultured hippocampal neurons and found that RGE treatment dose-dependently inhibited intracellular ROS and [Ca2+]i elevation. Oral administration of RGE (30 and 200 mg/kg in mice decreased the malondialdehyde (MDA level induced by KA injection (30 mg/kg, i.p.. In addition, similar results were obtained after pretreatment with the radical scavengers Trolox and N, N′-dimethylthiourea (DMTU. Finally, after confirming the protective effect of RGE on hippocampal brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF protein levels, we found that RGE is active compounds mixture in KA-induced hippocampal mossy-fiber function improvement. Furthermore, RGE eliminated 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radicals, and the IC50 was approximately 10 mg/ml. The reductive activity of RGE, as measured by reaction with hydroxyl radical (•OH, was similar to trolox. The second-order rate constant of RGE for •OH was 3.5–4.5×109 M−1·S−1. Therefore, these results indicate that RGE possesses radical reduction activity and alleviates KA-induced excitotoxicity by quenching ROS in hippocampal neurons.

  19. Progression from Chronic Atrophic Gastritis to Gastric Cancer; Tangle, Toggle, Tackle with Korea Red Ginseng

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoon Jae; Chung, Jun Won; Lee, So Jung; Choi, Ki Seok; Kim, Ju Hyun; Hahm, Ki Baik

    2010-01-01

    Key molecular players that link inflammation to carcinogenesis are prostaglandins, cytokines, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), chemokines, angiogenic growth factors, and free radicals, all of which lead to increased mutations and altered functions of important enzymes and proteins, for example, activation of oncogenic products and/or inhibition of tumor suppressor proteins, in inflamed tissues, thus contributing to multi-stage carcinogenesis process. Interpreted reversely, the identification of the molecular mechanisms by which chronic inflammation increases cancer risk or optimal intervention of targeted drugs or agents during the inflammation-associated carcinogenic process could be a necessary basis for developing new strategy of cancer prevention at many sites. In this review, we discuss the possibilities for cancer prevention by controlling inflammation process in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-associated inflamed stomach with Korea red ginseng. Korea red ginseng is a good example of a natural herb that has ubiquitous properties that are conductive to stop inflammatory carcinogenesis that is un wanted outcome of H. pylori infection, rendering rejuvenation of chronic atrophic gastritis. PMID:20490314

  20. Antibacterial Effects against Various Foodborne Pathogens and Sensory Properties of Yogurt Supplemented with Panax ginseng Marc Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Su Jin; Hwang, Ji Eun; Kim, Kee-Tae; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2017-01-01

    Panax ginseng marc is produced from fresh ginseng roots during processing and is generally treated as industrial waste. The primary aim of this study was to improve its utilization in the dairy industry as a potential high-value resource. Yogurt was prepared from 11% skim milk powder, 0.1% pectin, 10% sucrose, and ginseng marc ethanol extract (GME, 0.5% and 1.0%) in milk, and was inoculated with a 0.02% yogurt culture (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum, and Streptococcus thermophilus). After fermentation at 40°C for 6-8 h, the physicochemical properties of samples were analyzed by the AOAC, Kjeldahl, and Soxhlet methods. Sensory evaluation was performed based on consumer acceptability scores with a 7-point scale, and antimicrobial effects were measured by the agar plate method. The moisture, crude protein, crude fat, and ash contents of yogurt supplemented with 1% GME were 85.06±0.06%, 4.41±0.01%, 4.30±0.05%, and 0.81±0.03%, respectively, with no significant changes noted from those of yogurt without GME (control), except for an increase in the crude fat content. The sensory scores of color, flavor, texture, overall taste, and overall acceptance of yogurt supplemented with below 1% GME did not differ significantly (pyogurt. In addition, the growths of Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, and Enterobacter sakazakii were inhibited during fermentation and storage. These results suggest that GME could be used in dairy products as a supplement and in the food industry as an antimicrobial material. PMID:29147103

  1. Regulation of tissue differentiation by plant growth regulators on tTCLs of Panax ginseng adventitious roots

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Langhansová, Lenka; Maršík, Petr; Vaněk, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 1 (2012), s. 154-159 ISSN 0926-6690 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB400550705; GA MŠk ME08070 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Adventitious roots * Panax ginseng * Ginsenosides Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.468, year: 2012

  2. A prebiotic fiber increases the formation and subsequent absorption of compound K following oral administration of ginseng in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Ah Kim

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: These results show that prebiotic diets, such as NUTRIOSE, may promote the metabolic conversion of ginsenosides to CK and the subsequent absorption of CK in the gastrointestinal tract and may potentiate the pharmacological effects of ginseng.

  3. Synthesis and absolute configurations of the cytotoxic polyacetylenes isolated from the callus of Panax ginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Y; Satoh, M; Takeuchi, N; Kirisawa, M

    1990-06-01

    Panaxacol (1) and dihydropanaxacol (2), cytotoxic polyacetylenes isolated from the callus of Panax ginseng, were synthesized starting from D-(-)-diethyl tartrate. The absolute configuration of 1 was determined to be 9R, 10R and the absolute configuration at C-3 of 2 was tentatively assigned as 3S by the application of the R(+)-alpha-methoxy-alpha-(trifluoro methyl)phenylacetyl (MTPA) method.

  4. The history of ginseng in the management of erectile dysfunction in ancient China (3500-2600 BCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Nair

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Emperor Shen-Nung was the second of China′s mythical emperors (3500-2600 BCE. Widely considered the father of Chinese medicine, he catalogued over 365 species of medicinal plants which he personally tasted. Through his treatise ′Shen Nung Benchau Jing′, we relive Emperor Shen-Nung′s contribution to urology with reference to his management of erectile dysfunction. Time-related sources in medical and historical literature were reviewed, including the ′Shen Nung Benchau Jing′ (The medicine book of Emperor Shen-Nung, archives and manuscripts at the Wellcome History of Medicine Collection, the Royal Society of Medicine, London, The Hong Kong Museum of Medical Sciences, and The Museum of Medical History, Shanghai, China. Chinese traditional herbal medicine began approximately 5000 years ago. Agricultural clan leader, Emperor Shen-Nung, was said to have a ′crystal-like belly′ to watch the reactions in his own stomach of the herbs he collected. Ginseng was among of Shen Nung′s contributions to herbal medicine. He experienced a warm and sexually pleasurable feeling after chewing the root. He advocated this as a treatment for erectile dysfunction and used it to stimulate sexual appetite. The reputation of ginseng as an aphrodisiac is based on the doctrine of signatures, since the adult root has a phallic shape. Shen-Nung believed that ginseng′s resemblance to the human form is proof of its rejuvenative and aphrodisiac properties. It was believed that the closer the similarity to the human figure, the more potent the root. The use of ginseng for erectile dysfunction by Emperor Shen-Nung was unique for its time. It continues to hold parallels as a modern-day herbal aphrodisiac 5000 years on.

  5. [Effects of culture conditions on biomass and active components of adventitious roots culture in Panax ginseng].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tao; Gao, Wenyuan; Wang, Juan; Cao, Yu

    2010-01-01

    To optimize the culture condition of adventitious roots of Panax ginseng. The adventitious roots were obtained through tissue culture by manipulation of inoculum, various sucrose concentrations and salt strength. The contents of ginsenosides Re, Rb1 and Rg1 were determined by HPLC while the contents of polysaccharides were determined by ultraviolet spectrophotometry. The multiplication of adventitious roots reached the peak when the inoculum was 20 g x L(-1). The effects of sucrose concentration and salt strength on adventitious roots were observed. The contents of polysaccharides were higher when the medium contained more sucrose. 40 g x L(-1) sucrose was favorable for roots growth and biosynthesis of Re, while 30 g x L(-1) was favorable for the biosynthesis of Rb1 and Rg1. 3/4MS medium was benefit for the growth of adventitious roots and the biosynthesis of ginsenosides. The contents of polysaccharides were decreased with the increase of salt strength. The results showed that inoculum, various sucrose concentrations and salt strength have significant influences on adventitious roots growth, secondary metabolite and polysaccharide synthesis in P. ginseng.

  6. Comparative effects of gamma irradiation and ethylene oxide fumigation on sorption properties and microbiological quality of white ginseng powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, J.H.; Byun, M.W.; Lee, S.J.

    1994-01-01

    The microbial populations of exportable and domestic white ginseng powders, which have been problems in quality control, were higher than the legally-permissive level of microorganisms as 5x10 4 g in total bacteria and as negative coliforms. Various microorganisms contaminated in the sample were effectively decontaminated by gamma irradiation at below 10 kGy as well as ethylene oxide (EO) fumigation. The radiosensitivity of microorganisms was the highest in coliforms, followed by molds and aerobic bacteria (D 10 : 1.25 kGy). The good microbiological quality could be retained in white ginseng powders for more than 7 months of storage at 30 per mille 2 deg. C irrespective of relative humidities if products are prepared with a lower moisture content below 10% and treated by gamma irradiation at 5 to 10 kGy in an airtight packaging

  7. Trace elements determination in ginseng and ginkgo biloba medicinal plants; Determinacao de elementos traco nos fitofarmacos ginseng e ginkgo biloba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avino, Simone; Saiki, Mitiko; Fulfaro, Roberto [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica

    2002-07-01

    Determinations of trace elements in medicinal plants or in their extracts are of great interest since some elements are components of active constituents or they can affect the plant metabolism and consequently the formation of active constituents. In this work, inorganic components in medicinal drugs, Ginseng e Ginkgo Biloba provided from different laboratories, were analyzed by neutron activation analysis. Elements As, Br, Ca, Cl, Co Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, and Zn, were determined in these samples. Comparisons carried out between the results obtained for samples from different laboratories indicated distinct concentrations for several elements. These results may be attributed to the effect of soil composition and environmental conditions where these plants were cultivated. The precision and accuracy of the results were evaluated by analyzing reference materials Bowen's Kale from IUAPC and Cabbage from IAEA. (author)

  8. Degradation of 14C-lindane in soils of planting ginseng

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhengguo; Zhao Jing; Yao Jianren

    1992-01-01

    14 C-Lindane was used to study degradation of Lindane (γ-BHC) in different types of soil of planting ginseng. Results indicated that Lindane was very slowly mineralized after a 228 day's incubation period in closed system. It took about 9 years to completely mineralize Lindane in the chernozem, and 11 years in the brown calcareous at 20 ppm in the soils. In addition, the rate of Lindane mineralized depended on population and number of microorganism. In this test the fungi played more important role than the bacteria in the Lindane mineralization. 14 C-Lindane residues extracted from the soils were 77.43%-80.54%, and Lindane residues associated with the soils were 13.11%-20.77%

  9. A phase II randomized trial of Observation versus stereotactic ablative RadiatIon for OLigometastatic prostate CancEr (ORIOLE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwan, Noura; Phillips, Ryan; Ross, Ashley; Rowe, Steven P; Gorin, Michael A; Antonarakis, Emmanuel S; Deville, Curtiland; Greco, Stephen; Denmeade, Samuel; Paller, Channing; Song, Daniel Y; Diehn, Maximilian; Wang, Hao; Carducci, Michael; Pienta, Kenneth J; Pomper, Martin G; DeWeese, Theodore L; Dicker, Adam; Eisenberger, Mario; Tran, Phuoc T

    2017-06-29

    We describe a randomized, non-blinded Phase II interventional study to assess the safety and efficacy of stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) for hormone-sensitive oligometastatic prostate adenocarcinoma, and to describe the biology of the oligometastatic state using immunologic, cellular, molecular, and functional imaging correlates. 54 men with oligometastatic prostate adenocarcinoma will be accrued. The primary clinical endpoint will be progression at 6 months from randomization with the hypothesis that SABR to all metastases will forestall progression by disrupting the metastatic process. Secondary clinical endpoints will include local control at 6 months post-SABR, toxicity and quality of life, and androgen deprivation therapy (ADT)-free survival (ADT-FS). Further fundamental analysis of the oligometastatic state with be achieved through correlation with investigational 18 F-DCFPyL PET/CT imaging and measurement of circulating tumor cells, circulating tumor DNA, and circulating T-cell receptor repertoires, facilitating an unprecedented opportunity to characterize, in isolation, the effects of SABR on the dynamics of and immunologic response to oligometastatic disease. Patients will be randomized 2:1 to SABR or observation with minimization to balance assignment by primary intervention, prior hormonal therapy, and PSA doubling time. Progression after 6 months will be compared using Fisher's exact test. Hazard ratios and Kaplan-Meier estimates of progression free survival (PFS), ADT free survival (ADT-FS), time to locoregional progression (TTLP) and time to distant progression (TTDP) will be calculated based on an intention-to-treat. Local control will be assessed using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) 1.1 criteria. Withdrawal from the study prior to 6 months will be counted as progression. Adverse events will be summarized by type and grade. Quality of life pre- and post- SABR will be measured by Brief Pain Inventory. The ORIOLE

  10. Aluminium resistant, plant growth promoting bacteria induce overexpression of Aluminium stress related genes in Arabidopsis thaliana and increase the ginseng tolerance against Aluminium stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farh, Mohamed El-Agamy; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Sukweenadhi, Johan; Singh, Priyanka; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2017-07-01

    Panax ginseng is an important cash crop in the Asian countries due to its pharmaceutical effects, however the plant is exposed to various abiotic stresses, lead to reduction of its quality. One of them is the Aluminum (Al) accumulation. Plant growth promoting bacteria which able to tolerate heavy metals has been considered as a new trend for supporting the growth of many crops in heavy metal occupied areas. In this study, twelve bacteria strains were isolated from rhizosphere of diseased Korean ginseng roots located in Gochang province, Republic of Korea and tested for their ability to grow in Al-embedded broth media. Out of them, four strains (Pseudomonas simiae N3, Pseudomonas fragi N8, Chryseobacterium polytrichastri N10, and Burkholderia ginsengiterrae N11-2) were able to grow. The strains could also show other plant growth promoting activities e.g. auxins and siderophores production and phosphate solubilization. P. simiae N3, C. polytrichastri N10, and B. ginsengiterrae N11-2 strains were able to support the growth of Arabidopsis thaliana stressed by Al while P. fragi N8 could not. Plants inoculated with P. simiae N3, C. polytrichastri N10, and B. ginsengiterrae N11-2 showed higher expression level of Al-stress related genes, AtAIP, AtALS3 and AtALMT1, compared to non-bacterized plants. Expression profiles of the genes reveal the induction of external mechanism of Al resistance by P. simiae N3 and B. ginsengiterrae N11-2 and internal mechanism by C. polytrichastri N10. Korean ginseng seedlings treated with these strains showed higher biomass, particularly the foliar part, higher chlorophyll content than non-bacterized Al-stressed seedlings. According to the present results, these strains can be used in the future for the cultivation of ginseng in Al-persisted locations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Identification of suitable sites for mountain ginseng cultivation using GIS and geo-temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hag Mo; Choi, Soo Im; Kim, Hyun

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to explore an accurate site identification technique using a geographic information system (GIS) and geo-temperature (gT) for locating suitable sites for growing cultivated mountain ginseng (CMG; Panax ginseng), which is highly sensitive to the environmental conditions in which it grows. The study site was Jinan-gun, South Korea. The spatial resolution for geographic data was set at 10 m × 10 m, and the temperatures for various climatic factors influencing CMG growth were calculated by averaging the 3-year temperatures obtained from the automatic weather stations of the Korea Meteorological Administration. Identification of suitable sites for CMG cultivation was undertaken using both a conventional method and a new method, in which the gT was added as one of the most important factors for crop cultivation. The results yielded by the 2 methods were then compared. When the gT was added as an additional factor (new method), the proportion of suitable sites identified decreased by 0.4 % compared with the conventional method. However, the proportion matching real CMG cultivation sites increased by 3.5 %. Moreover, only 68.2 % corresponded with suitable sites identified using the conventional factors; i.e., 31.8 % were newly detected suitable sites. The accuracy of GIS-based identification of suitable CMG cultivation sites improved by applying the temperature factor (i.e., gT) in addition to the conventionally used factors.

  12. Chemical composition, and cytotoxic, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the essential oil from ginseng leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Rui; Sun, Liwei; Wang, Yanbing; Liu, Jianzeng; Liu, Xiaodan; Feng, Hao; Zhao, Daqing

    2014-06-01

    Panax ginseng C.A.Meyer is one of the most valuable traditional Chinese medicines. In this study, the essential oil of ginseng leaves (EOGL), collected using hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC/MS, contained a complex mixture of aliphatic (69.0%), terpenoid (21.5%) and aromatic compounds (2.4%). Among 54 components identified, the major ones were palmitic acid (36.1%), beta-farnesene (15.4%), linoleic acid (9.8%) and phytol (5.6%). In the cytotoxicity study, EOGL exhibited obvious cytotoxic activities against different cancer cell lines, including Hela, A549, ZR-75-1, HT-29, SGC7901 and B16 cells. Furthermore, Annexin V-FITC/PI staining assay indicated that EOGL can induce late apoptosis of ZR-75-1 cells, and the percentage of apoptotic cells increased in a concentration-dependent manner (0.9% to 5.6% and 67.4%). In addition to this, we also found that EOGL exhibited weak DPPH radical scavenging (12.0 +/- 0.4 mg/mL) and ABTS radical scavenging activities (1.6 +/- 0.1 mg/mL), and showed antibacterial activity against the Gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, and the Gram-negative bacterium, Escherichia coli. The data suggest that EOGL, which possesses important biological activities, especially significant anticancer activity, could be a potential medicinal resource.

  13. A key role of microRNA-29b for the suppression of colon cancer cell migration by American ginseng.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Poudyal

    Full Text Available Metastasis of colon cancer cells increases the risk of colon cancer mortality. We have recently shown that American ginseng prevents colon cancer, and a Hexane extract of American Ginseng (HAG has particularly potent anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. Dysregulated microRNA (miR expression has been observed in several disease conditions including colon cancer. Using global miR expression profiling, we observed increased miR-29b in colon cancer cells following exposure to HAG. Since miR-29b plays a role in regulating the migration of cancer cells, we hypothesized that HAG induces miR-29b expression to target matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 thereby suppressing the migration of colon cancer cells. Results are consistent with this hypothesis. Our study supports the understanding that targeting MMP-2 by miR-29b is a mechanism by which HAG suppresses the migration of colon cancer cells.

  14. Effects of Ultrasound on Extraction of Saponin from Ginseng

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Ohdaira, Etsuzo; Ide, Masao

    1994-05-01

    We performed a study of the effects of ultrasound on the extraction of saponin from Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer. In this study, the extraction of saponin was examined as functions of irradiation time (0.5 to 6 h) and acoustic pressure (0 to 90 kPa). It has been observed that the yields of both total extract and saponin are larger with ultrasonic irradiation than those without ultrasonic irradiation; the increase in yield of total extract is approximately 15 wt%, and that of saponin is approximately 30 wt% at an acoustic pressure 67 kPa. In addition, the yield increases with the acoustic pressure. It is also demonstrated that saponin was not resolved in the acoustic intensity range of this experiment. The enhancement in liquid-solid extraction caused by ultrasound can be attributed to the phenomenon of cavitation.

  15. Electrocardiographic and blood pressure effects of energy drinks and Panax ginseng in healthy volunteers: A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sachin A; Occiano, Andrew; Nguyen, Tinh An; Chan, Amanda; Sky, Joseph C; Bhattacharyya, Mouchumi; O'Dell, Kate M; Shek, Allen; Nguyen, Nancy N

    2016-09-01

    Energy drink usage has been linked to emergency room visits and deaths. The objective of the study is to assess the electrocardiographic and blood pressure effects of energy drinks, Panax ginseng and placebo in healthy individuals. This was a randomized, double blinded, placebo controlled, crossover study. Young healthy volunteers with no comorbid conditions consumed 32oz of an energy drink, control drink with 800mg of Panax ginseng or matching placebo-control drink over 45min. Primary endpoints were QTc interval and systolic blood pressure. Secondary endpoints included QT interval, PR interval, QRS duration, heart rate, and diastolic blood pressure. All endpoints were assessed at baseline, 1, 2, 3.5, and 5.5h. A significant increase in QTc interval 2h post energy drink consumption was evident when compared to placebo (3.37±10.7ms and -3.19±11.8ms respectively; p=0.030). Similarly, systolic blood pressure 2h post energy drink consumption increased when compared to placebo (2.00±6.37mmHg and -2.67±5.83mmHg respectively; p=0.014). The PR interval significantly reduced over a 2h period post energy drink use in a clinically non-meaningful manner. Heart rate at 2h was not significantly higher in the energy drink group when compared to others. The QT interval, QRS interval and diastolic blood pressure were not impacted at any time point. Certain energy drinks consumed at a high volume significantly increase the QTc interval and systolic blood pressure by over 6ms and 4mmHg respectively. Panax ginseng does not have a significant impact on ECG or blood pressure parameters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Analysis of Serum proteom before and after Intravenous Injection of wild ginseng herbal acupuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Sik Kang

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : To observe changes in the serum proteins before and after intravenous injection of wild ginseng herbal acupuncture. Methods : Blood was collected before and after the administration of wild ginseng herbal acupuncture and only the serum was centrifuged. Then differences in the spots on the scanned image after running 2-Dimensional electrophoresis were located and conducted mass analysis and protein identification. Results : Following results were obtained from the comparative analysis of serum proteins before and after the administration of wild ginseng herbal acupuncture. 1. 28 spots were identified before and after the administration. 2. In confirming manifestation degree, spots with more than two-times increase were 204, 803, 1505, 2205, 3105, 7104, 9001 spots, with more than one-time increase were 1101, 1302, 2013, 3009, 3010, 4002, 4009, 6706, 7103, 8006, 8101, and spots with decrease were 205, 801, 3205, 5202, 6105. 3. After conducting protein identification, proteins 205, 804, 1302, 4009, 6105, 6106 are unidentified yet, and 1101 is unnamed protein. Protein 204 is identified as complement receptor CR2-C3d, 801 as YAP1 protein, 803 as antitrypsin polymer, 1505 as PRO0684, 2013 and 3010 as proapolipoprotein, 2205 as USP48, 2403 as vitamin D binding protein, 3009 as complement component 4A preprotein, 3105 as immunoglobulin lambda chain, 3205 as transthyretin, 4002 as Ras-related protein Ral-A, 4204 as beta actin, 5202 and 7104 as apolipoprotein L1, 6704 as alpha 2 macroglobulin precursor, 7103 as complement component 3 precursor, 8006 as testis-specific protein Y, 8101 as transferrin, 9001 as (Alpha-Oxy, Beta-(C112gdeoxy T-State Human Hemoglobin, and 9003 as human hemoglobin. 4. Immune protein CR2-C3d, which acts against microbes and pathogenic organisms, and Antitrypsin(803, which is secreted with inflammatory response in the lungs, were increased by more than 200% after the administration of herbal acupuncture. 5

  17. Black ginseng-enriched Chong-Myung-Tang extracts improve spatial learning behavior in rats and elicit anti-inflammatory effects in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Saba

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: Our research for the first time provides the scientific evidence that consumption of black ginseng-enriched CMT extract as a brain tonic improves memory impairment. Thus, our study results can be taken as a reference for future neurobehavioral studies.

  18. Enhancement of ginsenoside Rg(1) in Panax ginseng hairy root by overexpressing the α-L-rhamnosidase gene from Bifidobacterium breve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ru; Zhang, Bian-Ling; Li, Gu-Cai; Xie, Tao; Hu, Teng; Luo, Zhi-Yong

    2015-10-01

    To improve the production of ginsenoside Rg1 in Panax ginseng. The α-L-rhamnosidase gene from Bifidobacterium breve (BbRha) was overexpressed into hairy root culture system using Agrobacterium rhizogenes A4. Ginsenoside Rg1 in hairy roots was obtained following transformation via overexpressed gene representing 2.2-fold higher than those of control lines. Several overexpression transgenic hairy root lines were obtained exhibiting markedly increased levels of the corresponding α-L-rhamnosidase enzymatic activity relative to control. Ginsenoside Rg1 levels in the transgenic lines were higher (2.2-fold) than those of control after following 30 days culturing, while ginsenoside Re contents in tested transgenic lines were found to be lower. The transgenic hairy roots harboring α-L-rhamnosidase gene improved the accumulation of ginsenoside Rg1 up to 3.6 mg g(-1) dry weight. BbRha gene selectively enhances the production of ginsenoside Rg1 in P. ginseng hairy roots.

  19. Ginseng Berry Extract Prevents Atherogenesis via Anti-Inflammatory Action by Upregulating Phase II Gene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Ki Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ginseng berry possesses higher ginsenoside content than its root, which has been traditionally used in herbal medicine for many human diseases, including atherosclerosis. We here examined the antiatherogenic effects of the Korean ginseng berry extract (KGBE and investigated its underlying mechanism of action in vitro and in vivo. Administration of KGBE decreased atherosclerotic lesions, which was inversely correlated with the expression levels of phase II genes to include heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 and glutamine-cysteine ligase (GCL. Furthermore, KGBE administration suppressed NF-κB-mediated expression of atherogenic inflammatory genes (TNF-α, IL-1β, iNOS, COX-2, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1, without altering serum cholesterol levels, in ApoE-/- mice fed a high fat-diet. Treatment with KGBE increased phase II gene expression and suppressed lipopolysaccharide-induced reactive oxygen species production, NF-κB activation, and inflammatory gene expression in primary macrophages. Importantly, these cellular events were blocked by selective inhibitors of HO-1 and GCL. In addition, these inhibitors reversed the suppressive effect of KGBE on TNF-α-mediated induction of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, resulting in decreased interaction between endothelial cells and monocytes. These results suggest that KGBE ameliorates atherosclerosis by inhibiting NF-κB-mediated expression of atherogenic genes via upregulation of phase II enzymes and thus has therapeutic or preventive potential for atherosclerosis.

  20. Extração de ecdisterona em raízes de ginseng brasileiro

    OpenAIRE

    Flores,Rejane; Nicoloso,Fernando Teixeira; Brondani,Daniela; Maldaner,Joseila; Cezarotto,Verciane; Giacomelli,Sandro Rogério

    2009-01-01

    Este estudo teve como objetivo otimizar a extração de ecdisterona em raízes de ginseng brasileiro. Primeiramente, para se avaliar a eficiência do solvente extrator, amostras de raízes dois acessos (BRA e JB-UFSM) de P. glomerata foram extraídas em Soxhlet com metanol e clorofórmio, separadamente, durante 4 horas. No segundo ensaio, com o intuito de se escolher o método extrator, a extração foi conduzida em Soxhlet e em ultrassom, utilizando metanol como solvente. Em P. tuberosa, as amostras f...

  1. Primary structures of two ribonucleases from ginseng calluses - New members of the PR-10 family of intracellular pathogenesis-related plant proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moiseyev, GP; Fedoreyeva, LI; Zhuravlev, YN; Yasnetskaya, E; Jekel, PA; Beintema, JJ

    1997-01-01

    The amino acid sequences of two ribonucleases from a callus cell culture of Panax ginseng were determined, The two sequences differ at 26% of the amino acid positions, Homology was found with a large family of intracellular pathogenesis-related proteins, food allergens and tree pollen allergens from

  2. Efficacy and safety of Panax ginseng berry extract on glycemic control: A 12-wk randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Seok Choi

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: The present study suggests that ginseng berry extract has the potential to improve glucose metabolism in human, especially in those with fasting glucose level of 110 mg/dL or higher. For a more meaningful benefit, further research in people with higher blood glucose levels is required.

  3. Análise comparativa de embalagens secundárias e bulas de medicamentos contendo Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer A comparative analysis of inner wrapping and package inserts for medicines containing Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Tirico Auricchio

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available As informações contidas nas bulas e embalagem de medicamentos de diferentes fabricantes contendo Panax ginseng foram analisadas comparativamente com os dados encontrados na literatura científica. Observaram-se bulas longas, com várias informações em relação às indicações de uso, muitas das quais sem comprovação em humanos, e todas foram deficitárias em relação aos .efeitos adversos e interações medicamentosas. Foi observada falta de padronização quanto às posologias, em relação tanto ao extrato seco, quanto ao teor dos ginsenosídeos presentes. Constatou-se a falta de homogeneidade nas informações aos usuários sobre indicações de uso, efeitos adversos e interações medicamentosas entre as oito amostras estudadas.The information provided on package inserts and inner wrapping of eight products containing Panax ginseng from different manufacturers was compared internally and checked against data from the scientific literature. The inserts included extensive text, containing abundant information on indications for use, but no scientific evidence in humans. All the inserts lacked information on potential adverse effects and drug interaction. There was no standardization as to dose regimens, particularly in relation to the dried extract and ginsenoside concentration. The eight inserts thus showed no concern over standardization, indication for usage, or possible side effects and drug interactions.

  4. Effects of administration of the standardized Panax ginseng extract G115 on hepatic antioxidant function after exhaustive exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voces, J; Alvarez, A I; Vila, L; Ferrando, A; Cabral de Oliveira, C; Prieto, J G

    1999-06-01

    The effect of prolonged treatment with the standardized Panax ginseng extract G115 on the antioxidant capacity of the liver was investigated. For this purpose, rats that had received G115 orally at different doses for 3 months and untreated control rats were subjected to exhaustive exercise on a treadmill. A bell-shaped dose response on running time was obtained. The results showed that the administration of G115 significantly increases the hepatic glutathione peroxidase activity (GPX) and the reduced glutathione (GSH) levels in the liver, with a dose-dependent reduction of the thiobarbituric acid reactant substances (TBARS). After the exercise, there is reduced hepatic lipid peroxidation, as evidenced by the TBARS levels in both the controls and the treated animals. The GPX (glutathione peroxidase) and SOD (superoxide dismutase) activity are also significantly increased in the groups receiving G115, compared with the controls. The hepatic transaminase levels, ALT (Alanine-amino-transferase) and AST (Aspartate-amino-transferase), in the recuperation phase 48 h after the exercise, indicate a clear hepatoprotective effect related to the administration of the standardized Panax ginseng extract G115. At hepatic level, G115 increases the antioxidant capacity, with a marked reduction of the effects of the oxidative stress induced by the exhaustive exercise.

  5. Antioxidant effects of cultured wild ginseng root extracts on the male reproductive function of boars and guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Suk Jun; Bae, Gui-Seck; Park, Jae Hawn; Song, Tae Ho; Choi, Ahreum; Ryu, Buom-Yong; Pang, Myung-Geol; Kim, Eun Joong; Yoon, Minjung; Chang, Moon Baek

    2016-07-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the effects of cultured wild ginseng root extracts (cWGRE) on the sperm of boars and the reproductive system of guinea pigs. Firstly, semen collected from boars (n=10) were incubated in 38°C for 1h with xanthine and xanthine oxidase to generate ROS. The cWGRE was added to the sperm culture system to test its antioxidant effect on the boar sperm. The amount of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) was measured by a chemiluminescence assay using luminol. The results indicated that the addition of cWGRE to boar sperm culture inhibited xanthine and xanthine oxidase-induced ROS concentrations. Treatment with cWGRE also had a positive effect on maintaining sperm motility. Effects of cWGRE administration on vitamin C-deficient guinea pigs were further investigated. Hartley guinea pigs (n=25) at 8 weeks of age were randomly divided into five groups. With the exception of the positive control group, each group was fed vitamin C-deficient feed for 21days (d). Respective groups were also orally administered cWGRE, ginseng extract, or mixed ginsenosides for 21 days. In comparison to the control group, oral administration of cWGRE reduced (Pproduction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Synergistic effects of climate change and harvest on extinction risk of American ginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souther, Sara; McGraw, James B

    Over the next century, the conservation of biodiversity will depend not only on our ability to understand the effect of climate change, but also on our capacity to predict how other factors interact with climate change to influence species viability. We used American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.), the United States' premier wild-harvested medicinal, as a model system to ask whether the effect of harvest on extinction risk depends on changing climatic conditions. We performed stochastic projections of viability response to an increase in maximum growing-season temperature of 1°C over the next 70 years by sampling matrices from long-term demographic studies of 12 populations (representing 75 population-years of data). In simulations that included harvest and climate change, extinction risk at the median population size (N = 140) was 65%, far exceeding the additive effects of the two factors (extinction risk = 8% and 6% for harvest and climate change, respectively; quasi-extinction threshold = 20). We performed a life table response experiment (LTRE) to determine underlying causes of the effect of warming and harvest on deterministic λ (λd). Together, these factors decreased λd values primarily by reducing growth of juvenile and small adult plants to the large-adult stage, as well as decreasing stasis of the juveniles and large adults. The interaction observed in stochastic model results followed from a nonlinear increase in extinction risk as the combined impact of harvest and warming consistently reduced λ values below the demographic tipping point of λ = 1. While further research is needed to create specific recommendations, these findings indicate that ginseng harvest regulations should be revised to account for changing climate. Given the possibility of nonlinear response like that reported here, pre-emptive adaptation of management strategies may increase efficacy of biodiversity conservation by allowing behavior modification prior to precipitous

  7. American Ginseng Extract (Panax quinquefolius L. Is Safe in Long-Term Use in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

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    Iva Mucalo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The objective of the present study was to test the safety of supplementation with the American ginseng (AG interventional material as an adjunct to conventional therapy (diet and/or medications in type 2 diabetes, using a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel design. Methods. Each participant received either AG (10% ginsenosides or placebo capsules (500 mg/meal = 3 g/day for a period of 12 weeks. Outcomes included measures of safety including kidney function (urates and creatinine, liver function (AST and ALT, and haemostatic function (PV and INR. Results. Seventy-four participants with well-controlled type 2 diabetes (sex: 28 M and 46 F, age: 63 ± 9.5, BMI: 32 ± 5, and HbA1c: 7 ± 1.3, randomized to either intervention (n=35 or control (n=39 group, completed the study. There was no change in any of the measures of safety between treatments from baseline. The number or severity of adverse events did not differ between the AG intervention and placebo. Conclusion. Following 12 weeks of supplementation with AG, safety was not compromised in a high cardiovascular disease (CVD risk population of patients with type 2 diabetes. This demonstrated that safety is noteworthy, as reviews have continuously warned of possible adverse effects of ginseng consumption.

  8. The skin protective effects of compound K, a metabolite of ginsenoside Rb1 from Panax ginseng

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    Eunji Kim

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Compound K (CK is a ginsenoside, a metabolite of Panax ginseng. There is interest both in increasing skin health and antiaging using natural skin care products. In this study, we explored the possibility of using CK as a cosmetic ingredient. Methods: To assess the antiaging effect of CK, RT-PCR was performed, and expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase-1, cyclooxygenase-2, and type I collagen were measured under UVB irradiation conditions. The skin hydrating effect of CK was tested by RT-PCR, and its regulation was explored through immunoblotting. Melanin content, melanin secretion, and tyrosinase activity assays were performed. Results: CK treatment reduced the production of matrix metalloproteinase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 in UVB irradiated NIH3T3 cells and recovered type I collagen expression level. Expression of skin hydrating factors—filaggrin, transglutaminase, and hyaluronic acid synthases-1 and -2—were augmented by CK and were modulated through the inhibitor of κBα, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, or extracellular signal-regulated kinases pathway. In the melanogenic response, CK did not regulate tyrosinase activity and melanin secretion, but increased melanin content in B16F10 cells was observed. Conclusion: Our data showed that CK has antiaging and hydrating effects. We suggest that CK could be used in cosmetic products to protect the skin from UVB rays and increase skin moisture level. Keywords: compound K, melanogenesis, Panax ginseng, skin protection, UVB irradiation

  9. Quality Characteristics, Changes in Physiochemical Properties and Functional Properties of Camembert Cheese Containing Red Ginseng Powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jai-Sung; Bae, Inhyu

    2018-02-01

    Effects of quality, physicochemical properties and antioxidants in Camembert cheese added with red ginseng powder (RGP) were investigated. Cheese samples were prepared with 0.05%, 0.10%, 0.15% and 0.20% RGP. and then monitored during ripening at 14°C for 28 d. The pH of the RGP amended treatment groups increased during the ripening period relative to the control ( p camembert cheese, but the ripening grade was similar to that of the common camembert cheese, and the additional function of the cheese was reinforced. Functional cheese could be developed.

  10. Korean Red Ginseng exhibits no significant adverse effect on disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a randomized, double-blind, crossover study

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    Soo-Kyung Cho

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Panax ginseng is a well-known immune modulator, and there is concern that its immune-enhancing effects may negatively affect patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA by worsening symptoms or increasing the risk of adverse effects from other drugs. In this randomized, crossover clinical trial, we evaluated the impact of Korean Red Ginseng (KRG on disease activity and safety in RA patients. Methods: A total of 80 female RA patients were randomly assigned to either the KRG (2 g/d, n = 40 treatment or placebo (n = 40 groups for 8 wk, followed by crossover to the other treatment group for an additional 8 wk. The primary outcome was the disease flare rate, defined as worsening disease activity according to the disease activity score 28 joints-erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-ESR. The secondary outcomes were development of adverse events (AEs and patient reported outcomes. Outcomes were evaluated at baseline and 8 wk and 16 wk. The outcomes were compared using the Chi-square test. Results: Of the 80 patients, 70 completed the full study. Their mean age was 51.9 yr, and most exhibited low disease activity (mean DAS28-ESR 3.5 ± 1.0 at enrollment. After intervention, the flare rate was 3.7% in each group. During KRG treatment, 10 AEs were reported, while five AEs were developed with placebo; however, this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.16. Gastrointestinal- and nervous system-related symptoms were frequent in the KRG group. Conclusion: KRG is not significantly associated with either disease flare rate or the rate of AE development in RA patients. Keywords: effect, Korean Red Ginseng, rheumatoid arthritis, safety

  11. A randomized, double-blind, placebo- controlled study on the anti-haemostatic effects of Curcuma longa, Angelica sinensis and Panax ginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Foon Yin; Wong, Wan Hui; Ang, Seng Kok; Koh, Hwee Ling; Kun, Mei Ching; Lee, Lai Heng; Li, Xiaomei; Ng, Heng Joo; Tan, Chuen Wen; Zhao, Yan; Linn, Yeh Ching

    2017-08-15

    Herbs with "blood-activating" properties by traditional medicine theory often raise concerns for their possible anti-platelet or anticoagulation effects based on reports from in vitro studies. Such herbs have been implicated for bleeding manifestations based on only anecdotal reports. In particular, the combination of such herbs with anti-platelet agents is often empirically advised against despite lack of good clinical evidence. Here we studied 3 commonly used herbal preparations Curcuma longa, Angelica sinensis and Panax ginseng on their respective anti-platelet and anticoagulation effect, alone and in combination with aspirin. This is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involving 25 healthy volunteers for each herbal preparation. Each subject underwent 3 phases comprising of herbal product alone, aspirin alone and aspirin with herbal product, where each phase lasted for 3 weeks with 2 weeks of washout between phases. PT/APTT, platelet function by light transmission aggregometry and thrombin generation assay by calibrated automated thrombogram were measured at baseline and after each phase. Information on adverse reaction including bleeding manifestations was collected after each phase. On the whole there was no clinically relevant impact on platelet and coagulation function. With the exception of 5 of 24 subjects in the Curcuma longa group, 2 of 24 subjects in the Angelica sinensis group and 1 of 23 subjects in the Panax ginseng group who had an inhibition in arachidonic-acid induced platelet aggregation, there was no effect of these 3 herbals products on platelet aggregation by other agonists. Combination of these herbal products with aspirin respectively did not further aggravate platelet inhibition caused by aspirin. None of the herbs impaired PT/APTT or thrombin generation. There was no significant bleeding manifestation. This study on healthy volunteers provides good evidence on the lack of bleeding risks of Curcuma longa, Angelica sinensis

  12. Bioavailability of ginsenosides from white and red ginsengs in the simulated digestion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Ok; Cha, Kwang Hyun; Lee, Eun Ha; Kim, Sang Min; Choi, Sang Won; Pan, Cheol-Ho; Um, Byung-Hun

    2014-10-15

    This study aims to investigate the bioavailability of ginsenosides during simulated digestion of white (WG) and red (RG) ginseng powders. Stability, bioaccessibility, and permeability of ginsenosides present in WG and RG were studied in a Caco-2 cell culture model coupled with oral, gastric, and small intestinal simulated digestion. Most ginsenosides in WG and RG were stable (>90%) during the simulated digestion. Bioaccessibilities of total ginsenosides during in vitro digestion of WG and RG were similar at approximately 85%. However, the bioaccessibility of protopanaxatriol type ginsenosides in the early food phase was greater than that of the protopanaxadiol type. The less polar RG ginsenosides were released later following the jejunum phase. Ginsenosides had low permeability (digestion and that ginsenosides are poorly absorbed in humans.

  13. A placebo-controlled trial of Korean red ginseng extract for preventing Influenza-like illness in healthy adults

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    Ha Ki-Chan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstracts Background Standardized Korean red ginseng extract has become the best-selling influenza-like illness (ILI remedy in Korea, yet much controversy regarding the efficacy of the Korean red ginseng (KRG in reducing ILI incidence remains. The aim of the study is to assess the efficacy of the KRG extract on the ILI incidence in healthy adults. Methods/Design We will conduct a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study at the onset of the influenza seasons. A total of 100 subjects 30-70 years of age will be recruited from the general populations. The subjects will be instructed to take 9 capsules per day of either the KRG extract or a placebo for a period of 3 months. The primary outcome measure is to assess the frequency of ILI onset in participated subjects. Secondary variable measures will be included severity and duration of ILI symptoms. The ILI symptoms will be scored by subjects using a 4-point scale. Discussion This study is a randomized placebo controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of the KRG extract compared to placebo and will be provided valuable new information about the clinical and physiological effects of the KRG extract on reduction of ILI incidence including flu and upper respiratory tract infections. The study has been pragmatically designed to ensure that the study findings can be implemented into clinical practice if KRG extract can be shown to be an effective reduction strategy in ILI incidence. Trial Registration NCT01478009.

  14. Development of a Biofungicide Using a Mycoparasitic Fungus Simplicillium lamellicola BCP and Its Control Efficacy against Gray Mold Diseases of Tomato and Ginseng

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    Teak Soo Shin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available To develop a commercial product using the mycoparasitic fungus Simplicillium lamellicola BCP, the scaleup of conidia production from a 5-l jar to a 5,000-l pilot bioreactor, optimization of the freeze-drying of the fermentation broth, and preparation of a wettable powder-type formulation were performed. Then, its disease control efficacy was evaluated against gray mold diseases of tomato and ginseng plants in field conditions. The final conidial yields of S. lamellicola BCP were 3.3 × 10⁸ conidia/ml for a 5-l jar, 3.5 × 10⁸ conidia/ml for a 500-l pilot vessel, and 3.1 × 10⁸ conidia/ml for a 5,000-l pilot bioreactor. The conidial yield in the 5,000-l pilot bioreactor was comparable to that in the 5-l jar and 500-l pilot vessel. On the other hand, the highest conidial viability of 86% was obtained by the freeze-drying method using an additive combination of lactose, trehalose, soybean meal, and glycerin. Using the freeze-dried sample, a wettable powder-type formulation (active ingredient 10%; BCP-WP10 was prepared. A conidial viability of more than 50% was maintained in BCP-WP10 until 22 weeks for storage at 40°C. BCP-WP10 effectively suppressed the development of gray mold disease on tomato with control efficacies of 64.7% and 82.6% at 500- and 250-fold dilutions, respectively. It also reduced the incidence of gray mold on ginseng by 65.6% and 81.3% at 500- and 250-fold dilutions, respectively. The results indicated that the new microbial fungicide BCP-WP10 can be used widely to control gray mold diseases of various crops including tomato and ginseng.

  15. Physicochemical Characterization of Polysaccharides with Macrophage Immunomodulatory Activities Isolated from Red Ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer

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    Liang Zheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, four polysaccharide fractions designated as RGP1, RGP2, RGP3, and RGP4 were isolated from red ginseng by DEAE-52 cellulose chromatography, and their macrophage immunomodulatory activities were investigated. The results revealed that the proliferation, NO production, and neutral red phagocytosis of RAW 264.7 macrophage cells in groups treated with RGP1 and RGP2 in vitro were increased significantly compared to RGP3 and RGP4. In addition, the level of TNF-α in RAW 264.7 cells was significantly increased in RGP1 and RGP2 groups. All the results consistently indicated that polysaccharide fractions RGP1 and RGP2 had strong macrophage immunomodulatory activities. Furthermore, RGP1 and RGP2 were purified by Sephadex G-100 column and RGP2 was further fractionated into a homogeneous fraction RGP2-1, with the molecular weight of 2.16 × 104 Da. The analysis of monosaccharide composition revealed that RGP1 was composed of arabinose, glucose, and galactose with a relative molecular ratio of 0.02 : 0.88 : 0.10. RGP2-1 was composed of rhamnose, arabinose, glucose, and galactose with a relative molecular ratio of 0.02 : 0.10 : 0.77 : 0.11. These results provided evidences that the neutral polysaccharide fractions RGP1 and RGP2 possessed significant immunomodulatory activity and could be explored as a promising natural immunomodulating agent applied in functional foods or medicines.

  16. Ginseng-berry-mediated gold and silver nanoparticle synthesis and evaluation of their in vitro antioxidant, antimicrobial, and cytotoxicity effects on human dermal fibroblast and murine melanoma skin cell lines

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    Jiménez Pérez ZE

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Zuly Elizabeth Jiménez Pérez,1 Ramya Mathiyalagan,1 Josua Markus,1 Yeon-Ju Kim,2 Hyun Mi Kang,3 Ragavendran Abbai,1 Kwang Hoon Seo,2 Dandan Wang,2 Veronika Soshnikova,2 Deok Chun Yang1,21Department of Biotechnology and Ginseng Bank, 2Department of Oriental Medicine Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Republic of Korea; 3Advanced Cosmeceutical Technology R&D Center, Suwon, Republic of KoreaAbstract: There has been a growing interest in the design of environmentally affable and biocompatible nanoparticles among scientists to find novel and safe biomaterials. Panax ginseng Meyer berries have unique phytochemical profile and exhibit beneficial pharmacological activities such as antihyperglycemic, antiobesity, antiaging, and antioxidant properties. A comprehensive study of the biologically active compounds in ginseng berry extract (GBE and the ability of ginseng berry (GB as novel material for the biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles (GBAuNPs and silver nanoparticles (GBAgNPs was conducted. In addition, the effects of GBAuNPs and GBAgNPs on skin cell lines for further potential biological applications are highlighted. GBAuNPs and GBAgNPs were synthesized using aqueous GBE as a reducing and capping agent. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized for their size, morphology, and crystallinity. The nanoparticles were evaluated for antioxidant, anti-tyrosinase, antibacterial, and cytotoxicity activities and for morphological changes in human dermal fibroblast and murine melanoma skin cell lines. The phytochemicals contained in GBE effectively reduced and capped gold and silver ions to form GBAuNPs and GBAgNPs. The optimal synthesis conditions (ie, temperature and v/v % of GBE and kinetics were investigated. Polysaccharides and phenolic compounds present in GBE were suggested to be responsible for stabilization and functionalization of nanoparticles. GBAuNPs and GBAgNPs showed increased scavenging activity

  17. Aeromicrobium ginsengisoli sp. nov., isolated from a ginseng field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung Kyum; Park, Min-Ju; Im, Wan-Taek; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2008-09-01

    Strain Gsoil 098(T), a Gram-positive, non-spore-forming, non-motile coccus, was isolated from soil from a ginseng field in South Korea and characterized in order to determine its taxonomic position. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain Gsoil 098(T) belongs to the family Nocardioidaceae, and the highest degrees of sequence similarity were found with Aeromicrobium marinum T2(T) (99.0%), A. panaciterrae Gsoil 161(T) (98.9%), A. alkaliterrae KSL-107(T) (98.4%), A. fastidiosum KCTC 9576(T) (98.1%) and A. erythreum NRRL B-3381(T) (97.5%). Chemotaxonomic analysis revealed that strain Gsoil 098(T) possesses menaquinone MK-9(H(4)) and predominant fatty acids C(16 : 0), 10-methyl C(18:0) and C(18:0). DNA-DNA hybridization results and physiological and biochemical tests clearly demonstrated that strain Gsoil 098(T) represents a distinct species. Based on these data, Gsoil 098(T) (=KCTC 19207(T) =JCM 14732(T) =GBS 39(T)) should be classified as the type strain of a novel Aeromicrobium species, for which the name Aeromicrobium ginsengisoli sp. nov. is proposed.

  18. Neutron Tomography Application for Aircraft-parts and Root of Ginseng

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yi Kyung; Lee, Seung Wook; Sim, Chul Mu; Jeon, Jin Su; Kim, Tae Ju [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    The neutron computerized tomography is considered to be a complementary tool to X-ray tomography in the sense that neutron interacts with atomic nucleus, otherwise X-ray interacts with an orbital electron of atom. The neutron tomography compared with X-ray tomography has a relatively short history. It is employed in stationary, as neutron sources are produced by the nuclear reactor. The full potential of the neutron tomography has yet to be investigated. Since, HANARO NRF was installed in 1995, the neutron radiography research group of KAERI has been developed the non-destructive testing methods by the computer tomography served for aerospace industry and agricultural industry. Concerning to NDT for aerospace, research was cooperated with Korean Air force. At the first stage, research was focused to find the micro-cracks based on internal passages inside aircraft parts and residual core of turbine blade. Concerning to NDT for agriculture, research was cooperated with the Agricultural Development and Technology Center. Research was focused to find the alive roots of Korean ginseng.

  19. The Effect of Korean Red Ginseng on Sexual Function in Premenopausal Women: Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind, Crossover Clinical Trial

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    Ho Seok Chung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether Korean red ginseng (KRG extracts could improve sexual function in premenopausal women. Forty-one premenopausal women participated in this placebo-controlled, double-blind, and crossover clinical study with administration of either three ginseng capsules (1 g per capsule or placebo daily. After 8 weeks of medication of KRG or placebo, medication was changed for the subjects to placebo or KRG after 2 weeks of washout period. The efficacy of KRG extracts was measured by using Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI. Results. Twenty-three women completed the study. Total FSFI scores increased after KRG treatment (from 20.13±2.87 to 23.98±4.10, p=0.015 and placebo treatment (from 20.06±2.64 to 23.78±3.28, p=0.003. However, this change was not significantly different between the two groups (p=0.702. KRG treatment significantly improved sexual desire, arousal, orgasm, and satisfaction domains; however, there was no treatment effect compared with placebo. There was a case of gastric discomfort after taking KRG extracts. Oral administration of KRG extracts improved sexual function in premenopausal women; however, there were no statistical significant changes compared to placebo. It implies that KRG extracts have a substantial placebo effect in premenopausal women with sexual dysfunction.

  20. The risk-benefit profile of commonly used herbal therapies: Ginkgo, St. John's Wort, Ginseng, Echinacea, Saw Palmetto, and Kava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Edzard

    2002-01-01

    Because use of herbal remedies is increasing, a risk-benefit profile of commonly used herbs is needed. This article provides a clinically oriented overview of the efficacy and safety of ginkgo, St. John's wort, ginseng, echinacea, saw palmetto, and kava. Wherever possible, assessments are based on systematic reviews of randomized clinical trials. Encouraging data support the efficacy of some of these popular herbal medicinal products, and the potential for doing good seems greater than that for doing harm. The published evidence suggests that ginkgo is of questionable use for memory loss and tinnitus but has some effect on dementia and intermittent claudication. St. John's wort is efficacious for mild to moderate depression, but serious concerns exist about its interactions with several conventional drugs. Well-conducted clinical trials do not support the efficacy of ginseng to treat any condition. Echinacea may be helpful in the treatment or prevention of upper respiratory tract infections, but trial data are not fully convincing. Saw palmetto has been shown in short-term trials to be efficacious in reducing the symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Kava is an efficacious short-term treatment for anxiety. None of these herbal medicines is free of adverse effects. Because the evidence is incomplete, risk-benefit assessments are not completely reliable, and much knowledge is still lacking.

  1. Effects of a standardized Panax ginseng extract on the skeletal muscle of the rat: a comparative study in animals at rest and under exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, A; Vila, L; Voces, J A; Cabral, A C; Alvarez, A I; Prieto, J G

    1999-04-01

    The effect of standardized Panax ginseng extract G115 on enzymatic activities, myotypological composition, capillaries and mitochondrial content was studied in the skeletal muscle of male rats Wistar. Simultaneously to the G115 administration the rats performed exercise. The animals were divided into 4 groups. The dose of the ginseng extract G115 was 50 mg/kg. The length of the experimental period was 12 weeks. After 24 hours of inactivity the muscles of the hindlimb were extracted. With regard to the enzymatic activities of the citrate synthase (CS) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), CS increases with exercise, while the LDH undergoes no major variations, either due to the exercise or the treatment. Treatment with G115 increases the capillary density and the mitochondrial content of the red gastrocnemius muscle. The results suggest that prolonged treatment with G115 increases the capillary density and the oxidative capacity of the muscles with greater aerobic potential in a manner similar to the performance of physical exercise. When exercise and treatment are combined, the effects that are obtained separately are not potentiated.

  2. Proteomic Analysis of the Effect of Korean Red Ginseng in the Striatum of a Parkinson?s Disease Mouse Model

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Dongsoo; Jeon, Hyongjun; Ryu, Sun; Koo, Sungtae; Ha, Ki-Tae; Kim, Seungtae

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that Korean Red Ginseng (KRG) suppresses dopaminergic neuronal death in the brain of a Parkinson's disease (PD) mouse model, but the mechanism is still elusive. Using a 2-dimensional electrophoresis technique, we investigated whether KRG can restore the changes in protein expressions in the striatum (ST) of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-injected mice. Male C57BL/6 mice (9 weeks old) were injected with 20 mg/kg MPTP intraperitoneally four times a...

  3. [Differences between cold and hot natures of processed Radix ginseng rubra and Panax quinquefolius L. based upon mice temperature tropism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue-Ru; Zhao, Yan-Ling; Wang, Jia-Bo; Zhou, Can-Ping; Liu, Ta-Si; Zhao, Hai-Ping; Ren, Yong-Shen; Yan, Dan; Xiao, Xiao-He

    2009-07-28

    To establish an objective method to estimate the disparity between the cold and hot natures on the basis of an intrinsic correlation between temperature tropism of mice and the cold and hot natures of Chinese medicines. Male KM mice were randomly divided into 7 groups of 6 each, namely the normal group (NM), the weak model group (WM), the strong model group (SM), the weak model plus Radix ginseng rubra group (WM + RG), the weak model plus Panax quinquefolius L. group (WM + PQ), the strong model plus Radix ginseng rubra group (SM + RG) and the strong model plus Panax quinquefolius L. group (SM +PQ). The specific herbal drugs were administered intragastricly. To induce the weak model, mice were fed with a limited supply of feed and forced to swim in cold water until almost drowning while the strong model induced by feeding a high-protein diet with an unlimited feed access. The doses of Radix ginseng rubra and Panax quinquefolius L. were 35 mg/g of body weight per day (counted by the quantity of crude material) and lasting for seven days. The NM and model groups without dosing were intragastricly administered with physiological saline of the same volume to the dosing groups. The percentage of the remaining time of mouse on a high temperature (40 degrees C) pad to the total monitoring time was recorded by a self-designed intelligent animal behavior monitoring system. Meanwhile, the drinking volume of mice in each group was measured. Immediately after experiment, the activities of Na(+)K(+)-ATPase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in liver tissue were measured by assay kits of phosphorus and xanthine oxidase methods respectively. The features of deficient and cold symptom, such as fatigue, stagnant weight growth, decreased water intake, cold limbs and tail etc, were observed in WM group. And the features of heat symptom, such as increased weight and water intake, hyperactivity etc, were observed in SM group. The percentage of time that the mouse remained on 40 degrees C

  4. New Steroidal Erythrityl Triesters from the Heat Processed Roots of Panax ginseng

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    Ill-Min Chung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two new compounds stigmasta-3α-ol-3α-(2′R,3′S-butane-1′,2′,3′,4′-tetraolyl-2′,3′-dioctadec-9″/9‴-enoyl-4′-octadec-9″″,12″″-dienoate (1 and stigmasta-5-en-3β-ol-3β-(2′R,3′S-butane-1′,2′,3′,4′-tetraolyl-2′,3′-dioctadec-9″/9‴-enoyl-4′-octadec-9″″,12″″-dienoate (2 along with β-sitosterol-β-D-glucoside were isolated and identified from the heat processed roots of Panax ginseng. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR (COSY, HSQC, and HMBC spectroscopic techniques aided by FAB-MS, ESI FT/MS, and IR spectra.

  5. Desenvolvimento de néctares mistos de frutas tropicais adicionados de Ginkgo biloba e Panax ginseng

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Paulo Henrique Machado de

    2006-01-01

    Com o apelo da mudança para hábitos saudáveis, observa-se o aumento do consumo de fruta fresca em todo o mundo, que se estende aos sucos processados. Bebidas com novos sabores e aromas estão sendo elaboradas, sendo as bebidas mistas de frutas mais uma opção para os consumidores e uma tendência do mercado internacional. A adição de componentes funcionais também vem sendo feita, e os extratos de Ginkgo biloba e Panax ginseng vêm como uma nova opção, por apresentarem inúmeros benefícios à saúde,...

  6. Effect of ginseng saponina on nicotine-induced dopamine release in the rat nucleus accumbens and striatum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Eun; Shim, In Sop; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the effect of ginseng total saponin (GTS) on nicotine-induced dopamine (DA) release in the striatum and nucleus accumbens of freely moving rats using in vivo microdialysis technique. Systemic pretreatment with GTS decreased striatal DA release induced by local infusion of nicotine into the striatum. However, GTS had no effect on the resting levels of extracellular DA in the striatum. GTS also blocked nicotine-induced DA release in the nucleus accumbens. The results of the present study suggest that GTS acts on the DA terminals to prevent DA release induced by nicotine. This may reflect the blocking effect of GTS on behavioral hyperactivity induced by psychostimulants

  7. Effect of ginseng saponina on nicotine-induced dopamine release in the rat nucleus accumbens and striatum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Eun [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shim, In Sop [Kyunghee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-10-01

    We investigated the effect of ginseng total saponin (GTS) on nicotine-induced dopamine (DA) release in the striatum and nucleus accumbens of freely moving rats using in vivo microdialysis technique. Systemic pretreatment with GTS decreased striatal DA release induced by local infusion of nicotine into the striatum. However, GTS had no effect on the resting levels of extracellular DA in the striatum. GTS also blocked nicotine-induced DA release in the nucleus accumbens. The results of the present study suggest that GTS acts on the DA terminals to prevent DA release induced by nicotine. This may reflect the blocking effect of GTS on behavioral hyperactivity induced by psychostimulants.

  8. A 1H NMR-based metabolomics approach to evaluate the geographical authenticity of herbal medicine and its application in building a model effectively assessing the mixing proportion of intentional admixtures: A case study of Panax ginseng: Metabolomics for the authenticity of herbal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huy Truong; Lee, Dong-Kyu; Choi, Young-Geun; Min, Jung-Eun; Yoon, Sang Jun; Yu, Yun-Hyun; Lim, Johan; Lee, Jeongmi; Kwon, Sung Won; Park, Jeong Hill

    2016-05-30

    Ginseng, the root of Panax ginseng has long been the subject of adulteration, especially regarding its origins. Here, 60 ginseng samples from Korea and China initially displayed similar genetic makeup when investigated by DNA-based technique with 23 chloroplast intergenic space regions. Hence, (1)H NMR-based metabolomics with orthogonal projections on the latent structure-discrimination analysis (OPLS-DA) were applied and successfully distinguished between samples from two countries using seven primary metabolites as discrimination markers. Furthermore, to recreate adulteration in reality, 21 mixed samples of numerous Korea/China ratios were tested with the newly built OPLS-DA model. The results showed satisfactory separation according to the proportion of mixing. Finally, a procedure for assessing mixing proportion of intentionally blended samples that achieved good predictability (adjusted R(2)=0.8343) was constructed, thus verifying its promising application to quality control of herbal foods by pointing out the possible mixing ratio of falsified samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. An Experimental Study on Effects of Distilled Red-ginseng Herbal Acupuncture on A549 human ephithelial lung cancer cell in vitro and implanted Sarcoma-180

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Hwan Won

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : In order to investigate effects and immune improvement of distilled red-ginseng herbal Acupuncture, expression of Cox-1, Cox-2, and mRNA of Bcl-2 and Bax were analyzed in A549 cell in vivo. Survival time and expression of cytokine mRNA were measured for the mice with Sarcoma-180 induced abdominal cancer. Methods : Balb/c mouse was treated with distilled red-ginseng Herbal Acupuncture at Wisu(BL21 and Chung- wan(CV12 to investigate anti-cancer effects and immune response. Results : 1. For expression of mRNA of Cox-1 using RT-PCR, the control group and the experiment groups didn't show significant differences. For Cox-2, both experiment groups and the normal group showed significant decrease. 2.For expression of mRNA of Bcl-2 using RT-PCR, experiment groups showed slight decrease compared to the control group. For Bax, no significant changes were shown between the control group and experiment groups. 3.For survival time, all of experiment groups showed 11.1 % increase compared to the control group. 4. For IL-2 and IL-4 productivity using Flow cytometry, all of experiment groups didn't show any significance. 5.For IL-2 productivity using ELISA, all of experiment groups didn't show any significance. 6.For expression of cytokine mRNA using RT-PCR, significant increase of IL-2 and IL-4 were witnessed in the experiment group II compared to the control group. Significant increase of IL-10 was shown in all of experiment groups compared to the control group. Conclusion : According to the results, we can expect that distilled red-ginseng Herbal Acupuncture may be further effects in anti-cancer and immune improvement if increasing concentration.

  10. COMPRIMENTO DA ESTACA DE RAMO NO ENRAIZAMENTO DE GINSENG BRASILEIRO (Pfaffia glomerata SHOOT CUTTING LENGTH ON ROOTING OF BRAZILIAN GINSENG (Pfaffia glomerata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Teixeira Nicoloso

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available A Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen é uma dentre várias espécies conhecidas como ginseng brasileiro e é usada como planta medicinal. O objetivo desse trabalho foi determinar se o comprimento da estaca de ramo influencia o enraizamento da P. glomerata. Os tratamentos usados consistiram de três comprimentos de estacas (10, 15 e 20cm; ± 1cm de variação. As estacas foram obtidas dos 70cm basais de ramos, com 80 a 140cm de comprimento, de plantas possuindo dois anos de idade, cultivadas no Jardim Botânico da UFSM. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso com três repetições e 30 estacas por unidade experimental. O bloco experimental consistiu de uma bandeja plástica com capacidade para 36 litros de solução nutritiva. O experimento foi instalado no dia 15 de julho de 1998 e conduzido por 44 dias sob condições controladas de temperatura, luminosidade e umidade do ar. Os resultados indicaram que (i o tamanho da estaca não afeta a percentagem de enraizamento, a produção de massa seca de folhas e raízes. Por outro lado, as mudas obtidas de estacas de 10cm apresentam maior número de brotações, comprimento das brotações, massa seca de talos e massa seca total produzida por estaca que as de 20cm; e (ii o uso de estacas com 10cm de comprimento é viável e, conseqüentemente, possibilita a obtenção de um maior número de estacas por ramo.Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen is among several species known as Brazilian ginsengs and it is used as medicinal plant. The aim of this work was to evaluate the length of the shoot cuttings on rooting of P. glomerata. Treatments consisted of three length of cuttings (10, 15, and 20cm; ± 1cm of variation. Cuttings were obtained from the 70cm of the basal portion from shoots of 80 to 140cm of length, from two-year-old plants grown in the Botanical Garden at State University of Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. Treatments were distributed in a completely randomized block design with

  11. Methyl Jasmonate and Salicylic Acid Induced Oxidative Stress and Accumulation of Phenolics in Panax ginseng Bioreactor Root Suspension Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kee-Yoeup Paek

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the enzyme variations responsible for the synthesis of phenolics, 40 day-old adventitious roots of Panax ginseng were treated with 200 μM methyl jasmonate (MJ or salicylic acid (SA in a 5 L bioreactor suspension culture (working volume 4 L. Both treatments caused an increase in the carbonyl and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 contents, although the levels were lower in SA treated roots. Total phenolic, flavonoid, ascorbic acid, non-protein thiol (NPSH and cysteine contents and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical reducing activity were increased by MJ and SA. Fresh weight (FW and dry weight (DW decreased significantly after 9 days of exposure to SA and MJ. The highest total phenolics (62%, DPPH activity (40%, flavonoids (88%, ascorbic acid (55%, NPSH (33%, and cysteine (62% contents compared to control were obtained after 9 days in SA treated roots. The activities of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase, substrate specific peroxidases (caffeic acid peroxidase, quercetin peroxidase and ferulic acid peroxidase were higher in MJ treated roots than the SA treated ones. Increased shikimate dehydrogenase, chlorogenic acid peroxidase and β-glucosidase activities and proline content were observed in SA treated roots than in MJ ones. Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase activity remained unaffected by both MJ and SA. These results strongly indicate that MJ and SA induce the accumulation of phenolic compounds in ginseng root by altering the phenolic synthesis enzymes.

  12. The host immune enhancing agent Korean red ginseng oil successfully attenuates Brucella abortus infection in a murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Alisha Wehdnesday Bernardo; Hop, Huynh Tan; Arayan, Lauren Togonon; Huy, Tran Xuan Ngoc; Park, Soo Jong; Kim, Kwang Dong; Min, WonGi; Lee, Hu Jang; Rhee, Man Hee; Kwak, Yi-Seong; Kim, Suk

    2017-02-23

    Panax ginseng Meyer (Araliaceae), is one of the most valuable traditional Chinese medicines and is used for the treatment of various human diseases. In this study, we elucidated the protective mechanism of the essential oil from Korean red ginseng (RGO) against Brucella infection. The effects of RGO on Brucella abortus viability, NO production, uptake and intracellular growth in macrophages were investigated. Mice were intraperitoneally infected with B. abortus and orally treated with RGO for 14 days. The weights and bacterial numbers from each spleen were monitored, and the sera were evaluated for cytokine production. B. abortus viability was not affected, whereas NO production, internalization and intracellular replication were inhibited in RGO-treated macrophages. Bacterial adherence, F-actin polymerization and MAPK signaling protein phosphorylation (ERK1/2, JNK and p38α) were reduced and the co-localization of B. abortus-containing phagosomes with LAMP-1 was augmented in RGO-treated cells compared to untreated cells. RGO displayed protective effects against cell damage by inhibiting nitrite production during B. abortus infection in macrophages. Moreover, the spleen weight and bacterial burden were lower in the RGO-treated group than in the control group. The uninfected RGO-treated mice displayed increased TNF-α and IFN-γ production, whereas the B. abortus-infected RGO-treated mice showed reduced IL-10 production compared to the control. RGO exhibits protective effects against B. abortus infection in vitro and in vivo, which emphasize the beneficial effects of RGO in the prevention and treatment of brucellosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Improved inflammatory balance of human skeletal muscle during exercise after supplementations of the ginseng-based steroid Rg1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Wen Hou

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of ginseng-based steroid Rg1 on TNF-alpha and IL-10 gene expression in human skeletal muscle against exercise challenge, as well as on its ergogenic outcomes. Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover trials were performed, separated by a 4-week washout. Healthy young men were randomized into two groups and received capsule containing either 5 mg of Rg1 or Placebo one night and one hour before exercise. Muscle biopsies were conducted at baseline, immediately and 3 h after a standardized 60-min cycle ergometer exercise. While treatment differences in glycogen depletion rate of biopsied quadriceps muscle during exercise did not reach statistical significance, Rg1 supplementations enhanced post-exercise glycogen replenishment and increased citrate synthase activity in the skeletal muscle 3 h after exercise, concurrent with improved meal tolerance during recovery (P<0.05. Rg1 suppressed the exercise-induced increases in thiobarbituric acids reactive substance (TBARS and reversed the increased TNF-alpha and decreased IL-10 mRNA of quadriceps muscle against the exercise challenge. PGC-1 alpha and GLUT4 mRNAs of exercised muscle were not affected by Rg1. Maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max was not changed by Rg1. However, cycling time to exhaustion at 80% VO2max increased significantly by ~20% (P<0.05.Our result suggests that Rg1 is an ergogenic component of ginseng, which can minimize unwanted lipid peroxidation of exercised human skeletal muscle, and attenuate pro-inflammatory shift under exercise challenge.

  14. Improved inflammatory balance of human skeletal muscle during exercise after supplementations of the ginseng-based steroid Rg1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Chien-Wen; Lee, Shin-Da; Kao, Chung-Lan; Cheng, I-Shiung; Lin, Yu-Nan; Chuang, Sheng-Ju; Chen, Chung-Yu; Ivy, John L; Huang, Chih-Yang; Kuo, Chia-Hua

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of ginseng-based steroid Rg1 on TNF-alpha and IL-10 gene expression in human skeletal muscle against exercise challenge, as well as on its ergogenic outcomes. Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover trials were performed, separated by a 4-week washout. Healthy young men were randomized into two groups and received capsule containing either 5 mg of Rg1 or Placebo one night and one hour before exercise. Muscle biopsies were conducted at baseline, immediately and 3 h after a standardized 60-min cycle ergometer exercise. While treatment differences in glycogen depletion rate of biopsied quadriceps muscle during exercise did not reach statistical significance, Rg1 supplementations enhanced post-exercise glycogen replenishment and increased citrate synthase activity in the skeletal muscle 3 h after exercise, concurrent with improved meal tolerance during recovery (P<0.05). Rg1 suppressed the exercise-induced increases in thiobarbituric acids reactive substance (TBARS) and reversed the increased TNF-alpha and decreased IL-10 mRNA of quadriceps muscle against the exercise challenge. PGC-1 alpha and GLUT4 mRNAs of exercised muscle were not affected by Rg1. Maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) was not changed by Rg1. However, cycling time to exhaustion at 80% VO2max increased significantly by ~20% (P<0.05). Our result suggests that Rg1 is an ergogenic component of ginseng, which can minimize unwanted lipid peroxidation of exercised human skeletal muscle, and attenuate pro-inflammatory shift under exercise challenge.

  15. Volatile Discrimination of Irradiated and Fumigated White Ginseng Powders at Different Storage Times and Temperatures Using the Electronic Nose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, J.H.; Shin, J.A.; Lee, K.T.

    2006-01-01

    The pattern of volatile emissions from white ginseng powders (WGP) that were treated with selected preservatives was investigated during 5-months of storage (at-10 and 25℃) by an electronic nose system equipped with 12 metal-oxide sensors. WGP were treated with gamma radiation at 5 kGy, commercial methyl bromide (MeBr), and phosphine fumigations. Electronic nose differentiated the volatile patterns of the WGP with each different preservative treatment. In addition, each volatile pattern was affected by both storage time (1, 2 and 5 months) and temperature (-10 and 25℃)

  16. Protective effect of Korean Red Ginseng extract against Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric inflammation in Mongolian gerbils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minkyung Bae

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric inflammation includes induction of inflammatory mediators interleukin (IL-8 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, which are mediated by oxidant-sensitive transcription factor NF-κB. High levels of lipid peroxide (LPO and increased activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO, a biomarker of neutrophil infiltration, are observed in H. pylori-infected gastric mucosa. Panax ginseng Meyer, a Korean herb medicine, is widely used in Asian countries for its biological activities including anti-inflammatory efficacy. The present study aims to investigate whether Korean Red Ginseng extract (RGE inhibits H. pylori-induced gastric inflammation in Mongolian gerbils. One wk after intragastric inoculation with H. pylori, Mongolian gerbils were fed with either the control diet or the diet containing RGE (200 mg RGE/gerbil for 6 wk. The following were determined in gastric mucosa: the number of viable H. pylori in stomach; MPO activity; LPO level; mRNA and protein levels of keratinocyte chemoattractant factor (KC, a rodent IL-8 homolog, IL-1β, and iNOS; protein level of phospho-IκBα (which reflects the activation of NF-κB; and histology. As a result, RGE suppressed H. pylori-induced mRNA and protein levels of KC, IL-1β, and iNOS in gastric mucosa. RGE also inhibited H. pylori-induced phosphorylation of IκBα and increases in LPO level and MPO activity of gastric mucosa. RGE did not affect viable H. pylori colonization in the stomach, but improved the histological grade of infiltration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils, intestinal metaplasia, and hyperplasia. In conclusion, RGE inhibits H. pylori-induced gastric inflammation by suppressing induction of inflammatory mediators (KC, IL-1β, iNOS, MPO activity, and LPO level in H. pylori-infected gastric mucosa.

  17. EFFECTS OF CREATINE, GINSENG, AND ASTRAGALUS SUPPLEMENTATION ON STRENGTH, BODY COMPOSITION, MOOD, AND BLOOD LIPIDS DURING STRENGTH-TRAINING IN OLDER ADULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. Rogers

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of supplemental dietary creatine and a botanical extract consisting of ginseng and astragalus were evaluated in 44 adults aged 55-84 years participating in a 12-week strength-training program. Participants consumed creatine only (Cr, creatine plus botanical extract (CrBE, or placebo (PL, and performed bench press, lat pull down, biceps curl, leg press, knee extension, and knee flexion for 3 sets of 8-12 reps on 3 days per week for 12 weeks. The 1-repetition maximum for each exercise, body composition (full-body DEXA, blood lipids, and mood states were evaluated before and after the intervention. Training improved (p < 0.05 strength and lean mass for all groups, however greater gains were observed with Cr and CrBE compared with placebo (but no difference was found between Cr and CrBE. Only CrBE improved blood lipids and self-reported vigor, and the CrBE group lost significantly more body fat and gained more bench press strength than Cr. These results indicate that strength and lean mass gains achieved by older adults participating in a strength training program can be enhanced with creatine supplementation, and that ginseng and astragalus may provide additional health and psychological benefits. However, these herbs do not appear to have an additive effect on strength and lean mass gains during training

  18. Historical study of the research of Korean Ginseng by Japanese and Korean doctors in eighteenth ;century%18世纪日朝医家关于朝鲜人参的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敏; 梁永宣

    2015-01-01

    In the eighteenth Century, Korean envoys and Japanese doctors did a lot of conversation on Korean ginseng, the content of which were arranged as books later by Japanese. Through 5 collections of those books, it is found that the contents of those conversations are focused mainly on 3 aspects, viz. , the name and the quality of the Korean ginseng, processing method and cultivation conditions. Those records not only reflect the condition of Japanese doctors truly and actually getting the knowledge of Korean ginseng, but also provide precious historical data to the research on the history of Japan and Korea medical communi-cation in the Edo period.%18世纪时,朝鲜通信使者与日本医家围绕朝鲜人参进行了多次笔谈交流,其文字后经日方整理成册。通过对其中5部笔谈书籍的研究,发现其内容主要涉及探讨朝鲜人参名称及品种优劣、药物加工方法、栽培情况等3方面。这些记录不仅可以真实、生动地了解日本医家学习朝鲜人参知识的状况,也为研究江户时期日朝医学交流史提供了珍贵史料。

  19. Ginseng Rb fraction protects glia, neurons and cognitive function in a rat model of neurodegeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kangning Xu

    Full Text Available The loss and injury of neurons play an important role in the onset of various neurodegenerative diseases, while both microgliosis and astrocyte loss or dysfunction are significant causes of neuronal degeneration. Previous studies have suggested that an extract enriched panaxadiol saponins from ginseng has more neuroprotective potential than the total saponins of ginseng. The present study investigated whether a fraction of highly purified panaxadiol saponins (termed as Rb fraction was protective for both glia and neurons, especially GABAergic interneurons, against kainic acid (KA-induced excitotoxicity in rats. Rats received Rb fraction at 30 mg/kg (i.p., 40 mg/kg (i.p. or saline followed 40 min later by an intracerebroventricular injection of KA. Acute hippocampal injury was determined at 48 h after KA, and impairment of hippocampus-dependent learning and memory as well as delayed neuronal injury was determined 16 to 21 days later. KA injection produced significant acute hippocampal injuries, including GAD67-positive GABAergic interneuron loss in CA1, paralbumin (PV-positive GABAergic interneuron loss, pyramidal neuron degeneration and astrocyte damage accompanied with reactive microglia in both CA1 and CA3 regions of the hippocampus. There was also a delayed loss of GAD67-positive interneurons in CA1, CA3, hilus and dentate gyrus. Microgliosis also became more severe 21 days later. Accordingly, KA injection resulted in hippocampus-dependent spatial memory impairment. Interestingly, the pretreatment with Rb fraction at 30 or 40 mg/kg significantly protected the pyramidal neurons and GABAergic interneurons against KA-induced acute excitotoxicity and delayed injury. Rb fraction also prevented memory impairments and protected astrocytes from KA-induced acute excitotoxicity. Additionally, microglial activation, especially the delayed microgliosis, was inhibited by Rb fraction. Overall, this study demonstrated that Rb fraction protected both

  20. Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction (MAP) for ginseng components by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Joong-Ho; Bélanger, Jacqueline M R; Paré, J R Jocelyn

    2003-03-26

    Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to predict optimum conditions for microwave-assisted extraction-a MAP technology-of saponin components from ginseng roots. A central composite design was used to monitor the effect of ethanol concentration (30-90%, X(1)) and extraction time (30-270 s, X(2)) on dependent variables, such as total extract yield (Y(1)), crude saponin content (Y(2)), and saponin ratio (Y(3)), under atmospheric pressure conditions when focused microwaves were applied at an emission frequency of 2450 MHz. In MAP under pre-established conditions, correlation coefficients (R (2)) of the models for total extract yield and crude saponin were 0.9841 (p extraction conditions were predicted for each variable as 52.6% ethanol and 224.7 s in extract yield and as 77.3% ethanol and 295.1 s in crude saponins, respectively. Estimated maximum values at predicted optimum conditions were in good agreement with experimental values.

  1. Protective effects of cultured and fermented ginseng extracts against scopolamine-induced memory loss in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Song-Hee; Kim, Sung-June; Yun, Young Won; Nam, Sang Yoon; Lee, Hu-Jang; Lee, Beom-Jun

    2018-03-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of a concentrate of fermented wild ginseng root culture (HLJG0701) on memory improvement in the scopolamine (SPL)-induced memory-deficient mouse model. Eight-week-old male ICR mice were used to evaluate the protective effect of HLJG0701 against the SPL-induced memory loss animal model. The Morris water maze test, which measures hippocampus-dependent learning ability, and the Y-maze test, a short-term memory assessment test, were performed and related markers were analyzed. HLJG0701-treated groups displayed significantly reduced acetylcholinesterase activity and increased acetylcholine level compared with the SPL-administered group (SPL-G) ( P memory loss by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase activity and preventing acetylcholine deficiency.

  2. Korean Red Ginseng Improves Glucose Control in Subjects with Impaired Fasting Glucose, Impaired Glucose Tolerance, or Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Bang, Hyangju; Kwak, Jung Hyun; Ahn, Hyeon Yeong; Shin, Dong Yeob; Lee, Jong Ho

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of Korean red ginseng (KRG) supplementation on glucose control in subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), or newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The study was a 12-week randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled (5 g of KRG [n=21] or placebo [n=20] in tablet form) trial. Glucose-related biomarkers, including serum and whole blood levels of glucose, insulin, and C-peptide, were measured by 2...

  3. Background Reduction around Prompt Gamma-ray Peaks from Korean White Ginseng

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y. N.; Sun, G. M.; Moon, J. H.; Chung, Y. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Y. E. [Chung-buk National University, Chungju (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-10-15

    Prompt gamma-ray activation analysis (PGAA) is recognized as a very powerful and unique nuclear method in terms of its non-destruction, high precision, and no time-consuming advantages. This method is used for the analysis of trace elements in various types of sample matrix such as metallurgical, environmental, biological samples, etc. When a spectrum is evaluated, background continuum is a major disturbing factor for a precise and accurate analysis. Furthermore, a prompt gamma spectrum is complicate with a wide range. To make the condition free from this limitation, a reduction of the background is important for the PGAA analysis. The background-reducing methods are divided into using the electronic equipment like a suppression mode and principal component analysis (PCA) based on a multivariate statistical method. In PGAA analysis, Lee et al. compared the background reduction methods like PCA and wavelet transform for the prompt gamma-ray spectra. Lim et al. have applied the multivariate statistical method to the identification of the peaks with low-statistics from the explosives. In this paper, effective reduction of background in the prompt gamma spectra using the PCA is applied to the prompt gammaray peaks from Korean Baeksam (Korean white ginseng)

  4. Hepatoprotective effect of fermented ginseng and its major constituent compound K in a rat model of paracetamol (acetaminophen)-induced liver injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igami, Kentaro; Shimojo, Yosuke; Ito, Hisatomi; Miyazaki, Toshitsugu; Kashiwada, Yoshiki

    2015-04-01

    This work aimed at evaluating the effect of fermented ginseng (FG) and fermented red ginseng (FRG) against rat liver injury caused by paracetamol (acetaminophen (APAP)). Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in the serum and histopathological changes in the liver were analysed to determine the degree of liver injury. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) microarray analysis was performed to compare gene expression levels altered in the rat livers. Phosphorylated Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells were detected using western blot analysis to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of compound K. Pretreatment with FG, containing compound K at high concentration, attenuated AST as well as ALT levels in rats, while no obvious effect was observed in the group that received FRG, whose content of compound K was lower than that of FG. In addition, the results of our histopathological analysis were consistent with changes in the serum biochemical analysis. DNA microarray analysis indicated that JNK- and glutathione S-transferase (GST)-related genes were involved in the hepatotoxicity. Notably, compound K, a major ginsenoside in FG, inhibited the phosphorylation of JNK in HepG2 cells. FG was shown to possess hepatoprotective activity against paracetamol (APAP)-induced liver injury better than FRG. Compound K might play an important role for an anti-inflammatory activity of FG by inhibiting JNK signalling in the liver. © 2014 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  5. Neuroprotective and Cognition-Enhancing Effects of Compound K Isolated from Red Ginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Ji Yeon; Ju, Sung Hee; Oh, Jisun; Lee, Seung Kwon; Kim, Jong-Sang

    2016-04-13

    The present study was aimed at elucidating the effect of compound K derived from red ginseng on memory function in mouse model and glutamate-induced cytotoxicity in mouse hippocampal HT22 cells. Compound K induced antioxidant enzymes in nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2)-mediated manner, and effectively attenuated cytotoxicity and mitochondrial damage induced by glutamate in HT22 cells. However, the cytoprotective effect by compound K was abolished by heme oxygenase-1 inhibitor, tin protophorphyrin IX, suggesting that neuroprotective effect of compound K was caused by its Nrf2-mediated induction of antioxidant enzymes. Further, memory deficit induced by scopolamine was restored by compound K, which did not inhibit acetylcholine esterase, in C57BL/6 mice but not in Nrf2 knockout mice as assessed by passive avoidance test, Y-maze and water maze tests, suggesting that scopolamine-induced memory impairment was overcome by the induction of Nrf2-mediated antioxidant enzymes by the compound K. Overall, our data indicate that compound K could be useful in prevention and treatment of reactive oxygen species-induced neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease.

  6. Influence of fluoride on streptozotocin induced diabetic nephrotoxicity in mice: Protective role of Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng & banaba (Lagerstroemia speciosa on mitochondrial oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahaboob P Basha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Chronic fluoride intoxication through drinking water is a serious health problem. Patients with diabetes are known to have impaired renal function and elimination of fluoride from the body is mainly done through kidney. Fluoride toxicity in diabetes patients may aggravate complications. In this study, the influence of fluoride was assessed on streptozotocin (STZ induced diabetes in mice as also the efficacy/protective effective of oral supplementation of ginseng (GE and banaba leaf extracts (BLE. Methods: The efficacy of plant extracts, GE and BLE at doses of 50, 150, 250 mg/kg b.w./day alone and in combination, was tested for a period of 15 days on fluoride treated STZ induced diabetic animals. Results: Fluoride exposure to mice with STZ-induced diabetes produced significant changes in OSI (organo-somatic index, fluoride content, blood glucose, urea, serum creatinine and oxidative stress indices in kidney tissues with evident histological alterations. Among the antioxidant treatments, combination therapy of GE and BLE at 150 mg/kg b.w. significantly normalized the impaired biochemical variables in kidney tissues of fluoride toxicated diabetic mice. Interpretations & conclusions: High fluoride uptake was found to be diabetogenic and further aggravated the renal oxidative damage and thereby the toxicity in mice with STZ induced diabetes mice. GE and BLE exposure individually or in combination at a dose of 150 mg/kg b.w./day for 15 days exhibited protective effects on fluoride toxicated STZ induced nephrotoxicity in mice.

  7. Preparation of minor ginsenosides C-Mc, C-Y, F2, and C-K from American ginseng PPD-ginsenoside using special ginsenosidase type-I from Aspergillus niger g.848.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chun-Ying; Zhou, Rui-Xin; Sun, Chang-Kai; Jin, Ying-Hua; Yu, Hong-Shan; Zhang, Tian-Yang; Xu, Long-Quan; Jin, Feng-Xie

    2015-07-01

    Minor ginsenosides, those having low content in ginseng, have higher pharmacological activities. To obtain minor ginsenosides, the biotransformation of American ginseng protopanaxadiol (PPD)-ginsenoside was studied using special ginsenosidase type-I from Aspergillus niger g.848. DEAE (diethylaminoethyl)-cellulose and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis were used in enzyme purification, thin-layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were used in enzyme hydrolysis and kinetics; crude enzyme was used in minor ginsenoside preparation from PPD-ginsenoside; the products were separated with silica-gel-column, and recognized by HPLC and NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance). The enzyme molecular weight was 75 kDa; the enzyme firstly hydrolyzed the C-20 position 20-O-β-D-Glc of ginsenoside Rb1, then the C-3 position 3-O-β-D-Glc with the pathway Rb1→Rd→F2→C-K. However, the enzyme firstly hydrolyzed C-3 position 3-O-β-D-Glc of ginsenoside Rb2 and Rc, finally hydrolyzed 20-O-L-Ara with the pathway Rb2→C-O→C-Y→C-K, and Rc→C-Mc1→C-Mc→C-K. According to enzyme kinetics, K m and V max of Michaelis-Menten equation, the enzyme reaction velocities on ginsenosides were Rb1 > Rb2 > Rc > Rd. However, the pure enzyme yield was only 3.1%, so crude enzyme was used for minor ginsenoside preparation. When the crude enzyme was reacted in 3% American ginseng PPD-ginsenoside (containing Rb1, Rb2, Rc, and Rd) at 45°C and pH 5.0 for 18 h, the main products were minor ginsenosides C-Mc, C-Y, F2, and C-K; average molar yields were 43.7% for C-Mc from Rc, 42.4% for C-Y from Rb2, and 69.5% for F2 and C-K from Rb1 and Rd. Four monomer minor ginsenosides were successfully produced (at low-cost) from the PPD-ginsenosides using crude enzyme.

  8. Qualitative and quantitative radiation protection analysis of mucosa of ICR strained mice using selected herbal extracts such as GC-2112 from garlic (Allium sativum) and GX-2137 from ginseng (Panax sp.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunagan, J.B.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Earlier reports showed that ginseng has significant radioprotective and stimulatory effect on the recovery of the lymphocytes and leukocytes. Using graded absorbed doses of radiation (1.5, 5, 20, 50 Gy) applied in ICR strain male white mice which was injected with GX-2137 from ginseng (Panax sp.) and GC-2112 from garlic (Allium sativum) was tested to prove some radioprotective efficiency. The herbal extracts were injected intraperitoneally and the experimental mice were sacrificed 2 and 48 hrs post-irradiation. Factors such as analyzing kinetics of critical tissue parameters (length of villi, the number of crypt and villi cells and cell density) and determining the Relative Protection Efficiencies (RPE) using quantitative histopathological techniques were used to quantify the radiation protection assay in the duodenum of ICR strain mice. Results showed that GC-2112 and GX-2137 protected the villi structures. After 2 hrs. post irradiation, tissue degeneration was evident. RPE values of significant radioprotection of the crypts is demonstrated at absorbed dose. It was found that some villi cells are even viable at non-physiologic dose of 50 Gy. (author)

  9. Structures and biological activities of azaphilones produced by Penicillium sp. KCB11A109 from a ginseng field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Sangkeun; Ko, Sung-Kyun; Kim, Jong Won; Lee, Jae Kyoung; Jang, Mina; Ryoo, In-Ja; Hwang, Gwi Ja; Kwon, Min Cheol; Shin, Kee-Sun; Futamura, Yushi; Hong, Young-Soo; Oh, Hyuncheol; Kim, Bo Yeon; Ueki, Masashi; Takahashi, Shunji; Osada, Hiroyuki; Jang, Jae-Hyuk; Ahn, Jong Seog

    2016-02-01

    Twelve metabolites, including five highly oxygenated azaphilones, geumsanols A-E, along with seven known analogues were isolated from Penicillium sp. KCB11A109, a fungus derived from a ginseng field. Their structures were assigned by spectroscopic means (NMR and MS), and stereochemistries were determined by extensive spectroscopic analyses ((1)H-(1)H coupling constants, NOESY, and HETLOC) and chemical derivatizations (modified Mosher's method and acetonide formation). The isolates were evaluated for their anticancer, antimicrobial, antimalarial activities, and phenotypic effects in zebrafish development. Of these compounds possessing no pyranoquinone core, only geumsanol E exhibited cytotoxic activities and toxic effects on zebrafish embryos, suggesting that a double bond at C-11 and C-12 is important for biological activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Eureka! Physics of Particles, Matter and the Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Sullivan, Colm T

    1997-01-01

    To provide a simple account of the whole of physics within 200 pages (excluding a glossary and index) of a small-format book is an extraordinarily ambitious project, yet this is what Roger Blin-Stoyle has attempted in Eureka! and, on the whole, he has succeeded admirably. Furthermore, he has achieved this without resorting to much more than a dozen mathematical expressions, most of them in the treatment of special relativity. To say that the account is comprehensive would be something of an understatement; this reviewer failed to detect a single topic, pure or applied, which could be described as part of mainstream physics which did not get at least a mention in these pages. The book is well written and the explanations are clear, as one would expect from an author who is an eminent scientist and who has given a professional lifetime to physics education and the promotion of the discipline. The reader should be warned, however, not to expect anything very radical - there are no novel treatments, no unique insights. The strength of the book lies in its clarity and compactness. The material is presented in a matter-of-fact manner with no forced emphasis on the exotic, so often a feature of recent attempts to present physics to the lay reader. The modern trend towards early specialization in physics courses in schools and universities has many unhappy consequences, not least of which is the loss of awareness of the essential unity of the subject. In this little book Professor Blin-Stoyle makes a valiant and welcome attempt to address the balance. Anyone with an interest in getting to know what is involved in that area of human knowledge we call physics could do a lot worse than start here. (book review)

  11. The Effects of Panax ginseng and Panax quinquefolius on Thermoregulation in Animal Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Bin Na; Do, Moon Ho; Her, You Ri

    2015-01-01

    We devised a study using animal models of hyperthermia and hypothermia and also attempted to accurately assess the effects of Panax ginseng (PG) and Panax quinquefolius (PQ) on body temperature using these models. In addition, we investigated the effects of PG and PQ in our animal models in high and low temperature environments. The results of our experiments show that mice with normothermia, hyperthermia, and hypothermia maintained their body temperatures after a certain period in accordance with the condition of each animal model. In our experiments of body temperature change in models of normal, low, or high room temperature, the hyperthermic model did not show any body temperature change in either the PG- or PQ-administered group. In the normal and low room temperature models, the group administered PG maintained body temperature, while the body temperature of the PQ-administered group was lower than or similar to that of the control group. In conclusion, the fact that PG increases body temperature could not be verified until now. We also showed that the effect of maintaining body temperature in the PG-administered group was superior in a hypothermia-prone low temperature environment. PMID:25709709

  12. Ginseng Berry Extract Attenuates Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Acute and Chronic Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the in vivo functions of ginseng berry extract (GB as a therapy for dextran sodium sulfate (DSS-induced colitis. C57BL/6 mice were given drinking water containing DSS (3% for eight days to induce acute colitis. At the same time, the mice received an oral dose of GB (50 mg/kg once daily. The GB-treated mice were less susceptible to the development of acute colitis than were control mice treated with saline, as determined by weight loss, disease activity, and colon histology. The administration of GB to DSS-treated mice also reduced the numbers and inhibited the activation of colon-infiltrating T cells, neutrophils, intestinal CD103−CD11c+ dendritic cells (cDCs, and macrophages. In addition, GB treatment promoted the migration of CD103+CD11c+ cDCs and expansion of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells in the colons of DSS-treated mice. Similarly, in the DSS-induced chronic colitis model, GB treatment improved the macroscopic and histological appearance of the colon wall when compared to untreated control mice, as indicated by longer colon length and lower histological scores. This is the first report to show that oral administration of GB suppresses immune activation and protects against experimentally induced colitis.

  13. Effects of cultivated wild ginseng pharmacopuncture on lowering lipid and oxidative capacity in biochemical and molecular biological study in obese rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Ju Choi

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : This study was carried out to identified the effects of distilled cultivated wild ginseng pharmacopuncture to the obesity. Methods : Cultivated wild ginseng pharmacopuncture was administered on the points of chung-wan(CV12, Ch'ŏnch'u(ST25, and Chok-samni(ST36 on lowering lipid and oxidative capacity in biochemical and molecular biological aspects were investigated in obese rats fed with high fat diet. Results : 1. The contents of plasma β-lipoprotein showed a tendency to decrease in the pharmacopuncture groups compared to the control group. In the pharmacopuncture groups, the values of ST25 and ST36 pharmacopuncture groups showed lower value. 2. The contents of plasma free fatty acids showed a tendency to decrease in pharmacopuncture groups compared to the control group. However, in the pharmacopuncture groups, the values were not significantly different. 3. Plasma triglyceride and glucose showed lower value in the ST25 pharmacopuncture groups compared with the other groups. 4. The activity of AST showed a tendency to decrease in the pharmacopuncture groups. However, the activity of ALT was not significantly different in all the treatment groups. 5. Plasma total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol showed lower value in the ST25 and ST36 pharmacopuncture groups and HDL-cholesterol showed higher value in the CV12 pharmacopuncture groups than that of the other treatment groups. 6. Liver total cholesterol values didn't show significant difference in all the treatment groups, and triglyceride showed lower value in the pharmacopuncture groups. 7. The contents of plasma TBARS showed lower value in the ST25 pharmacopuncture group and contents of liver TBARS showed a tendency to decrease in the pharmacopuncture groups. However these values didn't show significant difference in the pharmaco puncture groups. 8. Liver super oxide dismutase activity showed higher value in the ST25 and ST36 pharmacopuncture groups, and the value of liver

  14. Nitrogênio e fósforo no crescimento de plantas de ginseng brasileiro [Pfaffia glomerata(Spreng. Pedersen] cultivadas in vitro Nitrogen and phosphorus on growth of brazilian ginseng [Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen] in vitro cultured plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Russowski

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available O ginseng brasileiro [Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen] apresenta propriedades medicinais marcantes e, por isso, atualmente, é largamente explorado de forma extrativista, tanto por parte dos coletores de ervas como pela indústria farmacêutica. Este trabalho objetivou caracterizar o efeito da variação isolada da concentração de N e P do meio MS no crescimento de plantas de P. glomerata cultivadas in vitro. Segmentos nodais de 1,0cm de comprimento e sem folhas, de plantas já estabelecidas in vitro, foram cultivados em meio MS contendo cinco concentrações (0, 25, 50, 100 e 150% da concentração padrão do meio de cultura MS de nitrogênio ou fósforo. Aos 15 dias após a inoculação (DAI, o número de raízes e o percentual de enraizamento são maiores na concentração de N e P equivalentes a 50% daquela do meio de cultura MS. Aos 40 DAI, o crescimento em altura das brotações, número de segmentos nodais, índice de área foliar, número de folhas, matéria seca de raízes, da parte aérea e total da planta é maior na concentração de N e P, em média, próxima a 80% daquela do meio de cultura MS.Brazilian ginseng [Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen] has expressionable medicinal properties, and therefore, nowadays it is extensively exploited either by the herb collectors as well as the pharmaceutical industry. The aim of this work was to characterize the effect of N and P concentrations from the MS medium on growth of P. glomerata in vitro cultured plants. 1-node segment without leaves, from in vitro cultivated plants, were grown on five levels (0, 25, 50, 100, and 150% of the strength of the MS medium of N and P. After 15 days of inoculation, root number and rooting percentage are greater on N and P levels of the MS medium with 50% strength. After 40 days of inoculation, growth, based on sprout height, number of nodal segments per plant, leave area index per plant, number of leaves per plant, dry weight of aerial parts, roots

  15. Positive Selection Driving Cytoplasmic Genome Evolution of the Medicinally Important Ginseng Plant Genus Panax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Peng; Shi, Feng-Xue; Li, Ming-Rui; Liu, Bao; Wen, Jun; Xiao, Hong-Xing; Li, Lin-Feng

    2018-01-01

    Panax L. (the ginseng genus) is a shade-demanding group within the family Araliaceae and all of its species are of crucial significance in traditional Chinese medicine. Phylogenetic and biogeographic analyses demonstrated that two rounds of whole genome duplications accompanying with geographic and ecological isolations promoted the diversification of Panax species. However, contributions of the cytoplasmic genomes to the adaptive evolution of Panax species remained largely uninvestigated. In this study, we sequenced the chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes of 11 accessions belonging to seven Panax species. Our results show that heterogeneity in nucleotide substitution rate is abundant in both of the two cytoplasmic genomes, with the mitochondrial genome possessing more variants at the total level but the chloroplast showing higher sequence polymorphisms at the genic regions. Genome-wide scanning of positive selection identified five and 12 genes from the chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes, respectively. Functional analyses further revealed that these selected genes play important roles in plant development, cellular metabolism and adaptation. We therefore conclude that positive selection might be one of the potential evolutionary forces that shaped nucleotide variation pattern of these Panax species. In particular, the mitochondrial genes evolved under stronger selective pressure compared to the chloroplast genes.

  16. Korean Red Ginseng Improves Blood Pressure Stability in Patients with Intradialytic Hypotension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Ju Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Intradialytic hypotension (IDH is a common complication during hemodialysis which may increase mortality risks. Low dose of Korean red ginseng (KRG has been reported to increase blood pressure. Whether KRG can improve hemodynamic stability during hemodialysis has not been examined. Methods. The 8-week study consisted of two phases: observation phase and active treatment phase. According to prehemodialysis blood pressure (BP, 38 patients with IDH were divided into group A (BP ≥ 140/90 mmHg, n = 18 and group B (BP < 140/90 mmHg, n = 20. Patients were instructed to chew 3.5 gm KRG slices at each hemodialysis session during the 4-week treatment phase. Blood pressure changes, number of sessions disturbed by symptomatic IDH, plasma levels of vasoconstrictors, blood biochemistry, and adverse effects were recorded. Results. KRG significantly reduced the degree of blood pressure drop during hemodialysis (P<0.05 and the frequency of symptomatic IDH (P<0.05. More activation of vasoconstrictors (endothelin-1 and angiotensin II during hemodialysis was found. The postdialytic levels of endothelin-1 and angiotensin II increased significantly (P<0.01. Conclusion. Chewing KRG renders IDH patients better resistance to acute BP reduction during hemodialysis via activation of vasoconstrictors. Our results suggest that KRG could be an adjuvant treatment for IDH.

  17. Cytoprotective Effect of American Ginseng in a Rat Ethanol Gastric Ulcer Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Chang Huang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Panax quinquefolium L. (American Ginseng, AG is one of the most popular herbal medicines in the World. We aimed to investigate whether chronic (28-day supplementation with AG could protect against ethanol-induced ulcer in gastric tissue. Furthermore, we investigated the possible molecular mechanisms leading to AG-mediated gastric mucosal protection. We randomized 32 male Wistar rats into four groups for treatment (n = 8 per group: supplementation with water (vehicle and low-dose (AG-1X, medium-dose (AG-2X and high-dose (AG-5X AG at 0, 250, 500, and 1250 mg/kg, respectively. In the first experiment, animals were fed vehicle or AG treatments for 4 weeks. At day 29, 75% ethanol was given orally to each animal at 10 mL/kg to induce gastric ulceration for 2 h. In a second experiment, animals were pretreated orally with each treatment for 1 hr before a single oral administration of ethanol (70%, 10 mL/kg. Trend analysis revealed that AG treatments inhibited ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage. AG supplementation dose-dependently decreased the pro-inflammatory levels of interleukin 1β and cyclooxygenase 2 and the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins tBid, cytochrome C, and caspases-9 and -3 and increased the levels of anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and p-Bad. AG could have pharmacological potential for treating gastric ulcer.

  18. Cama-de-frango em mono e policultivo de fáfia com cravo-de-defunto e manjericão Poultry manure in mono and intercrop of Brazilian ginseng with marigold and basil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdenise C Barboza

    2010-09-01

    os policultivos foram efetivos.This study was carried out in field of the Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados, in Dourados, Brazil, during the period from March 2005 to September 2006. The aim of the experiment was to evaluate Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng Pedersen yield under monocropping system or intercropped with Tagetes erecta L. and Ocimum basilicum L, in a Distroferric Red Latosol (sand loam Rhodic Oxisol, using semi-decomposed poultry manure (PM. The study objects were Brazilian ginseng (BG, marigold (M and basil (B under monocropping and the intercropping of two Brazilian ginseng, three marigold (BG2M3 and three basil (BG2B3 lines, all of them with or without semi-decomposed poultry manure (PM as fertilizer. Ten treatments were arranged in randomized blocks design, with four replications. Fresh and dry weight production from shoot of Brazilian ginseng were higher (13.22 t ha-1 and 4.39 t ha-1, respectively under monocropping, independently of the use of poultry manure. Nevertheless, none of experimental designs influenced the dry and fresh weight production or root number of Brazilian ginseng which produced average values of 10.02 and 2.07 t ha-1 and 417,916 roots ha-1, respectively. Root diameter was higher (23.5 mm under intercropping system with basil. Dry and fresh weight of marigold flowers were higher (14.28 t ha-1and 1.278 t ha-1, respectively when intercropped with Brazilian ginseng, but only fresh weight of the flowers was increased (14.17 t ha-1 by poultry manure application. Basil shoot production was higher (52.91 t ha-1 when intercropped, independently of the used species; however, they were not influenced by the use of poultry manure. Land equivalent ration (LER for the Brazilian ginseng intercropped with marigold was 2.15 under poultry manure application and 1.99 without it, and for the basil 2.44 under poultry manure application and 3.08 without it. Values higher than 1.0 indicate that the intercropping systems were effective.

  19. Burkholderia ginsengiterrae sp. nov. and Burkholderia panaciterrae sp. nov., antagonistic bacteria against root rot pathogen Cylindrocarpon destructans, isolated from ginseng soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farh, Mohamed El-Agamy; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Van An, Hoang; Sukweenadhi, Johan; Singh, Priyanka; Huq, Md Amdadul; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2015-04-01

    Strain DCY85(T) and DCY85-1(T), isolated from rhizosphere of ginseng, were rod-shaped, Gram-reaction-negative, strictly aerobic, catalase positive and oxidase negative. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain DCY85(T) as well as DCY85-1(T) belonged to the genus Burkholderia and were closely related to Burkholderia fungorum KACC 12023(T) (98.1 and 98.0 % similarity, respectively). The major polar lipids of strain DCY85(T) and DCY85-1(T) were phosphatidylethanolamine, one unidentified aminolipid and two unidentified phospholipids. The major fatty acids of both strains are C16:0, C18:1 ω7c and summed feature 3 (C16:1 ω6c and/or C16:1 ω7c). The predominant isoprenoid quinone of each strain DCY85(T) and DCY85-1(T) was ubiquinone (Q-8) and the G+C content of their genomic DNA was 66.0 and 59.4 mol%, respectively, which fulfill the characteristic range of the genus Burkholderia. The polyamine content of both DCY85(T) and DCY85-1(T) was putrescine. Although both DCY85(T) and DCY85-1(T) have highly similar 16S rRNA and identical RecA and gyrB sequences, they show differences in phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics. DNA-DNA hybridization results proved the consideration of both strains as two different species. Based on the results from our polyphasic characterization, strain DCY85(T) and DCY85-1(T) are considered novel Burkholderia species for which the name Burkholderia ginsengiterrae sp. nov and Burkholderia panaciterrae sp. nov are, respectively, proposed. An emended description of those strains is also proposed. DCY85(T) and DCY85-1(T) showed antagonistic activity against the common root rot pathogen of ginseng, Cylindrocarpon destructans. The proposed type strains are DCY85(T) (KCTC 42054(T) = JCM 19888(T)) and DCY85-1(T) (KCTC 42055(T) = JCM 19889(T)).

  20. Transcriptomic analysis of Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus) to discover genes involved in saponin biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Hwan-Su; Lee, Hyoshin; Choi, Yong Eui

    2015-03-14

    Eleutherococcus senticosus, Siberian ginseng, is a highly valued woody medicinal plant belonging to the family Araliaceae. E. senticosus produces a rich variety of saponins such as oleanane-type, noroleanane-type, 29-hydroxyoleanan-type, and lupane-type saponins. Genomic or transcriptomic approaches have not been used to investigate the saponin biosynthetic pathway in this plant. In this study, de novo sequencing was performed to select candidate genes involved in the saponin biosynthetic pathway. A half-plate 454 pyrosequencing run produced 627,923 high-quality reads with an average sequence length of 422 bases. De novo assembly generated 72,811 unique sequences, including 15,217 contigs and 57,594 singletons. Approximately 48,300 (66.3%) unique sequences were annotated using BLAST similarity searches. All of the mevalonate pathway genes for saponin biosynthesis starting from acetyl-CoA were isolated. Moreover, 206 reads of cytochrome P450 (CYP) and 145 reads of uridine diphosphate glycosyltransferase (UGT) sequences were isolated. Based on methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatment and real-time PCR (qPCR) analysis, 3 CYPs and 3 UGTs were finally selected as candidate genes involved in the saponin biosynthetic pathway. The identified sequences associated with saponin biosynthesis will facilitate the study of the functional genomics of saponin biosynthesis and genetic engineering of E. senticosus.

  1. Protective Effects of Korean Red Ginseng against Alcohol-Induced Fatty Liver in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo Jin Lee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study tested the hypothesis that Korean red ginseng (KRG provides a protective effect against alcoholic fatty liver. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups and fed a modified Lieber-DeCarli diet containing 5% (w/v alcohol or an isocaloric amount of dextrin-maltose for the controls for 6 weeks: normal control (CON, alcohol control (ET, and ET treated with 125 or 250 mg/kg body weight/day of KRG (RGL or RGH, respectively. Compared with the CON group, the ET group exhibited a significant increase in triglycerides, total cholesterol and the presence of lipid droplets in the liver, and a decrease in fat mass, which were all attenuated by KRG supplementation in adose-dependent manner. The mitigation was accompanied by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK signaling pathways in the liver and adipose tissue. In addition, suppression in the alcohol-induced changes of adipose adipokine mRNA expression was also observed in KRG supplementation group. These findings suggest that KRG may have the potential to ameliorate alcoholic fatty liver by suppressing inappropriate lysis of adipose tissue and preventing unnecessary de novo lipogenesis in the liver, which are mediated by AMPK signaling pathways. A mechanism for an interplay between the two organs is still needed to be examined with further assays.

  2. Inhibitory effects of ginseng total saponin on up-regulation of cAMP pathway induced by repeated administration of morphine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jeong-Ju; Lee, Jae-Woong; Lee, Wan-Kyu; Hong, Jin-Tae; Lee, Chong-Kil; Lee, Myung-Koo; Oh, Ki-Wan

    2008-02-01

    We have reported that ginseng total saponin (GTS) inhibited the development of physical and psychological dependence on morphine. However, the possible molecular mechanisms of GTS are unclear. Therefore, this study was undertaken to understand the possible molecular mechanism of GTS on the inhibitory effects of morphine-induced dependence. It has been reported that the up-regulated cAMP pathway in the LC of the mouse brain after repeated administration of morphine contributes to the feature of withdrawals. GTS inhibited up-regulation of cAMP pathway in the LC after repeated administration of morphine in this experiment. GTS inhibited cAMP levels and protein expression of protein kinase A (PKA). In addition, GTS inhibited the increase of cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation. Therefore, we conclude that the inhibitory effects of GTS on morphine-induced dependence might be mediated by the inhibition of cAMP pathway.

  3. Korean Ginseng Berry Fermented by Mycotoxin Non-producing Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae: Ginsenoside Analyses and Anti-proliferative Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhipeng; Ahn, Hyung Jin; Kim, Nam Yeon; Lee, Yu Na; Ji, Geun Eog

    2016-01-01

    To transform ginsenosides, Korean ginseng berry (KGB) was fermented by mycotoxin non-producing Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae. Changes of ginsenoside profile and anti-proliferative activities were observed. Results showed that A. niger tended to efficiently transform protopanaxadiol (PPD) type ginsenosides such as Rb1, Rb2, Rd to compound K while A. oryzae tended to efficiently transform protopanaxatriol (PPT) type ginsenoside Re to Rh1 via Rg1. Butanol extracts of fermented KGB showed high cytotoxicity on human adenocarcinoma HT-29 cell line and hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cell line while that of unfermented KGB showed little. The minimum effective concentration of niger-fermented KGB was less than 2.5 µg/mL while that of oryzae-fermented KGB was about 5 µg/mL. As A. niger is more inclined to transform PPD type ginsenosides, niger-fermented KGB showed stronger anti-proliferative activity than oryzae-fermented KGB.

  4. Dietary honey and ginseng protect against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatonephrotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Denshary, Ezzeldeen S; Al-Gahazali, Mohammad A; Mannaa, Fathia A; Salem, Hesham A; Hassan, Nabila S; Abdel-Wahhab, Mosaad A

    2012-11-01

    Liver diseases are amongst the most serious health problems in the world today and hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the world's deadliest cancers. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the protective effect of sider honey and/or Korean ginseng extract (KGE) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced hepato-nephrotoxicity in rat. Eighty male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were allocated into different groups and over a 4-week period, they orally received honey and/or KGE or were treated either with CCl(4) alone (100 mg/kg b.w) or with CCl(4) after a pretreatment period with honey, KGE or a combination of both. Clinical, clinico-pathological and histopathological evaluations were done and CCl(4)-treated groups were compared with rats receiving no treatment and with rats given honey, KGE or a combination of these substances. The results indicated that oral administration of CCl(4) induced severe hepatic and kidney injury associated with oxidative stress. The combined treatment with CCl(4) plus honey and/or KGE resulted in a significant improvement in all evaluated parameters. This improvement was prominent in the group receiving CCl(4) after combined pretreatment with honey and KGE. Animals receiving honey and/or KGE (without CCl(4)-treatment) were comparable to the control untreated group. It could be concluded that honey and KGE protect SD rats against the severe CCl(4)-induced hepatic and renal toxic effects. Our results suggest that the protective activity of honey and KGE may have been related to their antioxidant properties. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Improved penetration of wild ginseng extracts into the skin using low-temperature atmospheric pressure plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Seoul Hee; Hae Choi, Jeong; Song, Yeon Suk; Lee, Hae-June; Hong, Jin-Woo; Kim, Gyoo Cheon

    2018-04-01

    Wild ginseng (WG) is a well-known traditional medicinal plant that grows in natural environments in deep mountains. WG has been thought to exert potent physiological and medicinal effects, and, recently, its use in skin care has attracted much interest. This study investigated the efficient penetration of WG extracts into the skin by means of low-temperature atmospheric pressure plasma (LTAPP), and its effects on the skin at the cellular and tissue levels. NIH3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts and HRM-2 hairless mice were used to confirm the improved absorption of WG extracts into the skin using LTAPP. The gene expression levels in NIH3T3 cells and morphological changes in skin tissues after WG treatment were monitored using both in vitro and in vivo experiments. Although WG extracts did not show any significant effects on proliferative activity and cytotoxicity, at a concentration of 1:800, it significantly increased the expression of fibronectin and vascular endothelial growth factor. In the in vivo study, the combinational treatment of LTAPP and WG markedly induced the expression of fibronectin and integrin α6, and it thickened. Our results showed that LTAPP treatment safely and effectively accelerated the penetration of the WG extracts into the skin, thereby increasing the effects of WG on the skin.

  6. Korean Red Ginseng Extract Attenuates 3-Nitropropionic Acid-Induced Huntington’s-Like Symptoms

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    Minhee Jang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Korean red ginseng (KRG possesses neuroprotective activity. However, the potential neuroprotective value of KRG for the striatal toxicity is largely unknown. We investigated whether KRG extract (KRGE could have a neuroprotective effect in a 3-nitropropionic acid- (3-NP induced (i.p. Huntington’s disease (HD model. KRGE (50, 100, and 250 mg/kg/day, p.o. was administrated 10 days before 3-NP injection (pre-administration, from the same time with 3-NP injection (co-administration, or from the peak point of neurological impairment by 3-NP injection (post-administration. Pre-administration of KRGE produced the greatest neuroprotective effect in this model. Pre-administration of KRGE significantly decreased 3-NP-induced neurological impairment, lethality, lesion area, and neuronal loss in the 3-NP-injected striatum. KRGE attenuated microglial activation and phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB signal pathway. KRGE also reduced the level of mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin- (IL- 1β, IL-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and OX-42. Interestingly, the intrathecal administration of SB203580 (a p38 inhibitor or PD98059 (an inhibitor of MAPK Kinase, MEK increased the survival rate in the 3-NP-induced HD model. Pre-administration of KRGE may effectively inhibit 3-NP-induced striatal toxicity via the inhibition of the phosphorylation of MAPKs and NF-κB pathways, indicating its therapeutic potential for suppressing Huntington’s-like symptoms.

  7. [A sudden rise in INR due to combination of Tribulus terrestris, Avena sativa, and Panax ginseng (Clavis Panax)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turfan, Murat; Tasal, Abdurrahman; Ergun, Fatih; Ergelen, Mehmet

    2012-04-01

    Warfarin sodium is an antithrombin agent used in patients with prosthetic valve and atrial fibrillation. However, there are many factors that can change the effectiveness of the drug. Today, herbal mixtures promoted through targeted print and visual media can lead to sudden activity changes in patients using warfarin. In this case report we will present two cases with a sudden rise in INR due to using combination of Tribulus terrestris, Avena sativa and Panax ginseng (Panax Clavis). Two patients who used warfarin due to a history of aortic valve replacement (case 1) and atrial fibrillation (case 2) were admitted to the hospital due very high levels of INR detected during routine follow-up. Both patients had used an herbal medicine called ''Panax'' during the last month. The patients gave no indication regarding a change in diet or the use of another agent that might interact with warfarin. In cases where active bleeding could not be determinated, we terminated the use of the drug and re-evaluated dosage of warfarin before finally discharging the patient.

  8. A Strategy for Simultaneous Isolation of Less Polar Ginsenosides, Including a Pair of New 20-Methoxyl Isomers, from Flower Buds of Panax ginseng

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    Sha-Sha Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to simultaneously isolate the less polar ginsenosides from the flower buds of Panax ginseng (FBPG. Five ginsenosides, including a pair of new 20-methoxyl isomers, were extracted from FBPG and purified through a five-step integrated strategy, by combining ultrasonic extraction, Diaion Hp-20 macroporous resin column enrichment, solid phase extraction (SPE, reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC analysis and preparation, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR analysis. The quantification of the five ginsenosides was also discussed by a developed method with validations within acceptable limits. Ginsenoside Rg5 showed content of about 1% in FBPG. The results indicated that FBPG might have many different ginsenosides with diverse chemical structures, and the less polar ginsenosides were also important to the quality control and standardization of FBPG.

  9. Ephedra and Energy Drinks on College Campuses. Infofacts/Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapner, Daniel Ari

    2008-01-01

    The February 2003 death of Baltimore Orioles pitcher Steve Bechler, who according to the coroner's report died after taking ephedrine alkaloids (ephedra), has garnered national attention for the topic of nutritional supplements and energy drinks. Energy drinks and energy-enhancing pills, diet aids, muscle-enlargers, and other supplements fall…

  10. Supplementation of Korean Red Ginseng improves behavior deviations in animal models of autism

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    Edson Luck T. Gonzales

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorders that primarily display social and communication impairments and restricted/repetitive behaviors. ASD prevalence has increased in recent years, yet very limited therapeutic targets and treatments are available to counteract the incapacitating disorder. Korean Red Ginseng (KRG is a popular herbal plant in South Korea known for its wide range of therapeutic effects and nutritional benefits and has recently been gaining great scientific attention, particularly for its positive effects in the central nervous system. Objectives: Thus, in this study, we investigated the therapeutic potential of KRG in alleviating the neurobehavioral deficits found in the valproic acid (VPA-exposed mice models of ASD. Design: Starting at 21 days old (P21, VPA-exposed mice were given daily oral administrations of KRG solution (100 or 200 mg/kg until the termination of all experiments. From P28, mice behaviors were assessed in terms of social interaction capacity (P28–29, locomotor activity (P30, repetitive behaviors (P32, short-term spatial working memory (P34, motor coordination (P36, and seizure susceptibility (P38. Results: VPA-exposed mice showed sociability and social novelty preference deficits, hyperactivity, increased repetitive behavior, impaired spatial working memory, slightly affected motor coordination, and high seizure susceptibility. Remarkably, long-term KRG treatment in both dosages normalized all the ASD-related behaviors in VPA-exposed mice, except motor coordination ability. Conclusion: As a food and herbal supplement with various known benefits, KRG demonstrated its therapeutic potential in rescuing abnormal behaviors related to autism caused by prenatal environmental exposure to VPA.

  11. Antiatherosclerotic Effect of Korean Red Ginseng Extract Involves Regulator of G-Protein Signaling 5

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    Eun Ju Im

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Regulator of G-protein signaling 5 (RGS5, an inhibitor of Gα(q and Gα(i activation, has been reported to have antiatherosclerosis. Previous studies showed antiatherosclerotic effect of Korean red ginseng water extract (KRGE via multiple signaling pathways. However, potential protective effect of KRGE through RGS5 expression has not been elucidated. Here, we investigated the antiatherosclerotic effect of KRGE in vivo and in vitro and its role on RGS5 mRNA expression. Elevated levels of total cholesterol, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, and triglyceride (TG in western diet groups of low-density lipoprotein receptor deficient LDLr−/− mice were reversed by oral administration of KRGE. KRGE suppressed transcriptional activity of tumor necrotic factor alpha (TNF-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6, and leptin in adipose tissue. It also potently repressed western diet-induced atheroma formation in aortic sinus. While KRGE showed reduced mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells, it enhanced mRNA expression of RGS5. Moreover, RGS5 siRNA transfection of microglia cells pretreated with KRGE reversed its inhibitory effect on the expression of iNOS, COX-2, and IL-1β mRNA. In conclusion, KRGE showed antiatherosclerotic and anti-inflammatory effects in western diet fed LDLr−/− mice and this effect could partly be mediated by RGS5 expression.

  12. Nest predators of open and cavity nesting birds in oak woodlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathryn L. Purcell; Jared Verner

    1999-01-01

    Camera setups revealed at least three species of rodents and seven species of birds as potential predators at artificial open nests. Surprisingly, among avian predators identified at open nests, one third were Bullock's Orioles (Icterus bullockii). Two rodent species and three bird species were potential predators at artificial cavity nests. This high predator...

  13. Proinflammatory cytokines and CD14 expression in mammary tissue of cows following intramammary inoculation of Panax ginseng at drying off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baravalle, C; Dallard, B E; Cadoche, M C; Pereyra, E A L; Neder, V E; Ortega, H H; Calvinho, L F

    2011-11-15

    The lack of efficacy of conventional strategies for the maintenance of healthy udders in domestic cattle has prompted studies on the use of immunomodulators or biological response modifiers (BRM) for this purpose. These compounds are agents that modify the host's response to pathogens leading to beneficial effects on disease outcome. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a single intramammary infusion of Panax ginseng (GS) extract on the amount of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the number of monocytes/macrophages present in bovine mammary tissues at drying off. Eight mammary quarters from six nonpregnant cows in late lactation were infused with 10 mL of GS (3mg/mL), six quarters were treated with 10 mL of placebo (vehicle alone) and six quarters were maintained as uninoculated controls. The analyses of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) by immunohistochemistry revealed that the production of this proinflammatory cytokine significantly increased (Pmastitis at drying off, either alone or in conjunction with dry cow antibiotic therapy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Carbon nanotubes as carriers of Panax ginseng metabolites and enhancers of ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1 anti-cancer activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiani, Mohamed H.; Eassa, Souzan; Parnell, Charlette; Nima, Zeid; Ghosh, Anindya; Biris, Alexandru S.; Khodakovskaya, Mariya V.

    2017-01-01

    A major benefit to nanomaterial based-medicine is the ability to provide nanosized vehicles for sporadic metabolites. Here, we describe how the conjugation of valuable ginseng secondary metabolites (ginsenoside Rb1 or Rg1) with carbon nanotubes (CNT) can enhance their anti-proliferative and anti-cancer effects. Ginsenoside-CNT conjugate (Rb-CNT or Rg-CNT) permitted the ginsenosides to be used at a low dose, yet achieve a higher incidence of cancer killing. We were able to demonstrate that the ginsenoside-CNT conjugate can decrease cell viability up to 62% in breast cancer cells (MCF-7) and enhance antiproliferation of drug-resistant pancreatic cancer cells (PANC-1) by 61%. The interaction of the ginsenoside-CNT conjugate with breast cancer cells was studied using Raman Spectroscopy mapping. Total transcriptome profiling (Affymetrix platform) of MCF-7 cells treated with the ginsenoside-CNT conjugate shows that a number of cellular, apoptotic and response to stimulus processes were affected. Therefore, our data confirmed the potential use of CNT as a drug delivery system.

  15. Effect of Sucrose Stearate on the Sensory-Related Quality of the Broth and Porridge of Ready-To-Eat Ginseng Chicken Soup Samgyetang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triyannanto, Endy; Lee, Keun Taik

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the sensory-related characteristics of the broth and porridge of ready-to-eat (RTE) ginseng chicken soup ( Samgyetang ) with sucrose stearate added at various concentrations (0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.3%) during storage at 25°C for 12 mon. Scores indicating the lightness and size of fat droplets in the broth increased during storage as the sucrose stearate concentration increased, while the clarity scores decreased until 9 mon and the taste scores decreased throughout the storage period ( p 0.05). The taste scores were lower for treated porridge samples than for the control group ( p 0.05). The addition of sucrose stearate to the RTE Samgyetang broth improved the lightness (CIE L *) value of the broth and various sensory palatability parameters, including the color and fat droplet size of the broth and the softness and vividness of the porridge, despite reductions in broth clarity and taste scores for the broth and porridge during storage.

  16. The skin protective effects of compound K, a metabolite of ginsenoside Rb1 from Panax ginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunji; Kim, Donghyun; Yoo, Sulgi; Hong, Yo Han; Han, Sang Yun; Jeong, Seonggu; Jeong, Deok; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Cho, Jae Youl; Park, Junseong

    2018-04-01

    Compound K (CK) is a ginsenoside, a metabolite of Panax ginseng . There is interest both in increasing skin health and antiaging using natural skin care products. In this study, we explored the possibility of using CK as a cosmetic ingredient. To assess the antiaging effect of CK, RT-PCR was performed, and expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase-1, cyclooxygenase-2, and type I collagen were measured under UVB irradiation conditions. The skin hydrating effect of CK was tested by RT-PCR, and its regulation was explored through immunoblotting. Melanin content, melanin secretion, and tyrosinase activity assays were performed. CK treatment reduced the production of matrix metalloproteinase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 in UVB irradiated NIH3T3 cells and recovered type I collagen expression level. Expression of skin hydrating factors-filaggrin, transglutaminase, and hyaluronic acid synthases-1 and -2-were augmented by CK and were modulated through the inhibitor of κBα, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, or extracellular signal-regulated kinases pathway. In the melanogenic response, CK did not regulate tyrosinase activity and melanin secretion, but increased melanin content in B16F10 cells was observed. Our data showed that CK has antiaging and hydrating effects. We suggest that CK could be used in cosmetic products to protect the skin from UVB rays and increase skin moisture level.

  17. Effect of the Interaction of Veratrum Nigrum with Panax Ginseng on Estrogenic Activity In Vivo and In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ying; Ding, Jie; An, Jin-na; Qu, Ya-kun; Li, Xin; Ma, Xiao-ping; Zhang, Yi-min; Dai, Guo-jing; Lin, Na

    2016-01-01

    Panax ginseng (GS) and Veratrum nigrum (VN) are representative of incompatible pairs in “eighteen antagonistic medicaments” that have been recorded in the Chinese medicinal literature for over 2,000 years. However, evidence linking interference effects with combination use is scare. Based on the estrogen-like effect of GS described in our previous studies, we undertake a characterization of the interaction on estrogenic activity of GS and VN using in vivo models of immature and ovariectomized (OVX) mice and in vitro studies with MCF-7 cells for further mechanism. VN decreased the estrogenic efficacy of GS on promoting the development of the uterus and vagina in immature mice, and reversing the atrophy of reproductive tissues in OVX mice. VN interfered with the estrogenic efficacy of GS by decreasing the increase of the serum estradiol and the up-regulation of ERα and ERβ expressions by treatment with GS. And VN antagonized the estrogenic efficacy of GS on promoting the viability of MCF-7 cells and up-regulation of protein and gene expressions of ERs. In conclusion, this study provided evidence that GS and VN decreased effects on estrogenic activity, which might be related to regulation of estrogen secretion and ERs. PMID:27229740

  18. Anticancer activity and potential mechanisms of 1C, a ginseng saponin derivative, on prostate cancer cells

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    Xu De Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: AD-2 (20(R-dammarane-3b, 12b, 20, 25-tetrol; 25-OH-PPD is a ginsenoside and isolated from Panax ginseng, showing anticancer activity against extensive human cancer cell lines. In this study, effects and mechanisms of 1C ((20R-3b-O-(L-alanyl-dammarane-12b, 20, 25-triol, a modified version of AD-2, were evaluated for its development as a novel anticancer drug. Methods: MTT assay was performed to evaluate cell cytotoxic activity. Cell cycle and levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS were determined using flow cytometry analysis. Western blotting was employed to analyze signaling pathways. Results: 1C concentration-dependently reduces prostate cancer cell viability without affecting normal human gastric epithelial cell line-1 viability. In LNCaP prostate cancer cells, 1C triggered apoptosis via Bcl-2 family-mediated mitochondria pathway, downregulated expression of mouse double minute 2, upregulated expression of p53 and stimulated ROS production. ROS scavenger, N-acetylcysteine, can attenuate 1C-induced apoptosis. 1C also inhibited the proliferation of LNCaP cells through inhibition on Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Conclusion: 1C shows obvious anticancer activity based on inducing cell apoptosis by Bcl-2 family-mediated mitochondria pathway and ROS production, inhibiting Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. These findings demonstrate that 1C may provide leads as a potential agent for cancer therapy. Keywords: 1C, AD-2, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species, Wnt/β-catenin pathway

  19. A Limited Role of p53 on the Ability of a Hexane Fraction of American Ginseng to Suppress Mouse Colitis

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    Deepak Poudyal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ulcerative colitis (UC is debilitating and carries a high colon cancer risk. Apoptosis of inflammatory cells is a key mechanism regulating UC. We have recently shown that American ginseng (AG, and to a greater extent, a Hexane fraction of AG (HAG can cause apoptosis and suppress mouse colitis through a p53-mediated mechanism. Here, we tested the hypothesis that HAG suppresses colitis through a p53 mechanism. We found only a limited impact of p53 in the ability of HAG to induce inflammatory cell apoptosis and suppress mouse colitis in vitro and in vivo. Finally, we asked whether HAG could cause cell cycle arrest of HCT116 colon cancer cells in vitro. Interestingly, HAG caused a G1 arrest of such cells independent of p53 status. Findings are significant because HAG suppresses colitis and associated colon cancer, and mutation in p53 is observed in most colitis-driven colon cancers. Therefore, HAG might be very effective in targeting the inflammatory cells and cancer cells since it induces apoptosis of inflammatory cells and cell cycle arrest in both p53−/− and WT p53 colon cancer cells.

  20. The anti-obesity effects of the dietary combination of fermented red ginseng with levan in high fat diet mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jin sun; Lee, Seung Ri; Hwang, Keum Taek; Ji, Geun Eog

    2014-04-01

    In this study, to evaluate the anti-obesity effects of fermented red ginseng (FG), levan (L), and their combination (FGL), we investigated their effects on the weights of body, liver and white adipose tissue, lipid profiles, and biomarkers for insulin resistance in high fat diet (HFD)-induced obese C57BL/6J male mice. Furthermore, the levels of leptin in the serum were measured. FG (150 mg/kg/d), L (100 mg/kg/d), and FGL (150 mg/kg/d of FG plus 100 mg/kg/d of L) were administered orally to mice daily for 11 weeks. After 11 weeks feeding, FGL showed significantly lower body weight and fat mass with decreasing food efficiency ratio than the HFD control mice. In addition, the FGL group was significantly lower in the levels of total cholesterol and fasting blood glucose and score of the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance. Furthermore, FGL decreased serum leptin levels compared to the HFD control group. Taken together, FGL showed a significant anti-obesity effect in HFD-induced obese mice and prevent insulin and leptin resistance. FGL may be potentially useful for the prevention of obesity. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Optimization of dynamic-microwave assisted enzymatic hydrolysis extraction of total ginsenosides from stems and leaves of panax ginseng by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Yan; Ren, Hui

    2018-03-21

    Ginseng stems and leaves (GSAL) are abundant in ginsenosides compounds. For efficient utilization of GSAL and the enhancement of total ginsenosides (TG) compound yields in GSAL, TG from GSAL were extracted, using dynamic-microwave assisted extraction coupled with enzymatic hydrolysis (DMAE-EH) method. The extraction process has been simulated and its main influencing factors such as ethanol concentration, microwave temperature, microwave time and pump flow rate have been optimized by response surface methodology coupled with a Box-Behnken design(BBD). The experimental results indicated that optimal extraction conditions of TG from GSAL were as follows: ethanol concentration of 75%, microwave temperature of 60°C, microwave time of 20 min and pump flow rate of 38 r/min. After experimental verification, the experimental yields of TG was 60.62 ± 0.85 mg g -1 , which were well agreement with the predicted by the model. In general, the present results demonstrated that DMAE-EH method was successfully used to extract total ginsenosides in GSAL.

  2. A case report of monitoring PSA level changes in two prostate cancer patients treated with Mountain Ginseng Pharmacopuncture and Sweet Bee Venom along with western anticancer therapy

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    Yeonhee Lee

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this report is to find out how Mountain Ginseng Pharmacopuncture(MGP and Sweet Bee Venom(SBV treatments are effective on prostate cancer patients by monitoring Prostate specific antigen(PSA values. Methods: We treated two prostate cancer patients with MGP and SBV from October 2008 to April 2011. One patient had localized prostate cancer, the other was in the terminal stage of prostate cancer with lung and bone metastasis and both had been receiving western anticancer therapy. We had monitored the changes of PSA value. Results: In case 1, MGP and SBV treatments seemed to be helpful in preventing the recurrence of localized prostate cancer. In case 2, PSA value was decreased by MGP treatment. Conclusions: It is conceivable that MGP and SBV are effective treatments for patients with prostate cancer.

  3. Anti-fatigue activity of a mixture of seahorse (Hippocampus abdominalis hydrolysate and red ginseng

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    Nalae Kang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Seahorse, a syngnathidae fish, is one of the important organisms used in Chinese traditional medicine. Hippocampus abdominalis, a seahorse species successfully cultured in Korea, was validated for use in food by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety in February 2016; however. the validation was restricted to 50% of the entire composition. Therefore, to use H. abdominalis as a food ingredient, H. abdominalis has to be prepared as a mixture by adding other materials. In this study, the effect of H. abdominalis on muscles was investigated to scientifically verify its potential bioactivity. In addition, the anti-fatigue activity of a mixture comprising H. abdominalis and red ginseng (RG was evaluated to commercially utilize H. abdominalis in food industry. H. abdominalis was hydrolyzed using Alcalase, a protease, and the effect of H. abdominalis hydrolysate (HH on the muscles was assessed in C2C12 myoblasts by measuring cell proliferation and glycogen content. In addition, the mixtures comprising HH and RG were prepared at different percentages of RG to HH (20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, and 80% RG, and the anti-fatigue activity of these mixtures against oxidative stress was assessed in C2C12 myoblasts. In C2C12 myoblasts, H2O2-induced oxidative stress caused a decrease in viability and physical fatigue-related biomarkers such as glycogen and ATP contents. However, treatment with RG and HH mixtures increased cell viability and the content of fatigue-related biomarkers. In particular, the 80% RG mixture showed an optimum effect on cell viability and ATP synthesis activity. In this study, all results indicated that HH had anti-fatigue activity at concentrations approved for use in food by the law in Korea. Especially, an 80% RG to HH mixture can be used in food for ameliorating fatigue.

  4. Fluoride Exposure Aggravates the Testicular Damage and Sperm Quality in Diabetic Mice: Protective Role of Ginseng and Banaba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sm, Saumya; Mahaboob Basha, P

    2017-06-01

    Fluoride toxicity is known to pose infertility in fluoride-intoxicated animals as well as in people residing in fluoride endemic zones. The present study addresses the degree of impairments caused due to co-exposure of high fluoride toxicity in diabetic mice. Swiss mice, Mus musculus, were subjected to fluoride toxicity by providing fluoride-supplemented drinking water (600 ppm NaF) for a period of 30 days after the confirmation of streptozotocin-induced diabetes(STZ, 50 mg/kgbw). Consequently, aggravated hyperglycemia and tissue fluoride accumulation were witnessed in fluoride-intoxicated diabetic mice; later, these toxicated mice were treated with ginseng extract (GE) and banaba leaf extract, (BLE) at dose of 150 mg/kgbw/day alone and in combination for 15 and 30-day duration to check the efficacy of phytoextracts in reversing the toxicity. The spermatological indices studied, such as sperm density, motility, viability and morphology as well as the testicular biochemical parameters showed enhanced impairment in reproductive status of fluoride-intoxicated diabetic mice. Further, 15-days administration of GE and BLE in combination at a dose of 150 mg/kgbw/day was found to be beneficial in normalizing the alterations observed upon fluoride intoxication to diabetic mice. However, the correlates showed moderate association between blood glucose levels and the spermatological as well as biochemical indices wherein the tissue fluoride levels correlate least.

  5. Proteomic Analysis of the Effect of Korean Red Ginseng in the Striatum of a Parkinson's Disease Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongsoo; Jeon, Hyongjun; Ryu, Sun; Koo, Sungtae; Ha, Ki-Tae; Kim, Seungtae

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that Korean Red Ginseng (KRG) suppresses dopaminergic neuronal death in the brain of a Parkinson's disease (PD) mouse model, but the mechanism is still elusive. Using a 2-dimensional electrophoresis technique, we investigated whether KRG can restore the changes in protein expressions in the striatum (ST) of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-injected mice. Male C57BL/6 mice (9 weeks old) were injected with 20 mg/kg MPTP intraperitoneally four times at 2-h intervals. KRG (100 mg/kg) was orally administered once a day for 3 days from one hour after the first MPTP injection. Two hours after the third KRG administration a pole test was performed to evaluate motor function, after which the brains were immediately harvested. Survival of dopaminergic neurons in the nigrostriatal pathway and protein expression in the ST were measured by immunohistochemistry and 2-dimensional electrophoresis. KRG suppressed MPTP-induced behavioral dysfunction and neuronal death in the nigrostriatal pathway. Moreover, 30 proteins changed by MPTP and KRG in the ST were identified and shown to be related to glycolysis/gluconeogenesis and neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease and PD. KRG has neuroprotective effects against MPTP toxicity and alleviates protein expression profiles related to enhancing energy metabolism in the ST of MPTP-treated mice.

  6. Ginseng Purified Dry Extract, BST204, Improved Cancer Chemotherapy-Related Fatigue and Toxicity in Mice

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    Hyun-Jung Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer related fatigue (CRF is one of the most common side effects of cancer and its treatments. A large proportion of cancer patients experience cancer-related physical and central fatigue so new strategies are needed for treatment and improved survival of these patients. BST204 was prepared by incubating crude ginseng extract with ginsenoside-β-glucosidase. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of BST204, mixture of ginsenosides on 5-fluorouracil (5-FU-induced CRF, the glycogen synthesis, and biochemical parameters in mice. The mice were randomly divided into the following groups: the naïve normal (normal, the HT-29 cell inoculated (xenograft, xenograft and 5-FU treated (control, xenograft + 5-FU + BST204-treated (100 and 200 mg/kg (BST204, and xenograft + 5-FU + modafinil (13 mg/kg treated group (modafinil. Running wheel activity and forced swimming test were used for evaluation of CRF. Muscle glycogen, serum inflammatory cytokines, aspartic aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, creatinine (CRE, white blood cell (WBC, neutrophil (NEUT, red blood cell (RBC, and hemoglobin (HGB were measured. Treatment with BST204 significantly increased the running wheel activity and forced swimming time compared to the control group. Consistent with the behavioral data, BST204 markedly increased muscle glycogen activity and concentrations of WBC, NEUT, RBC, and HGB. Also, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interleukin-6 (IL-6, AST, ALT, and CRE levels in the serum were significantly reduced in the BST204-treated group compared to the control group. This result suggests that BST204 may improve chemotherapy-related fatigue and adverse toxic side effects.

  7. Systematic profiling and comparison of the lipidomes from Panax ginseng, P. quinquefolius, and P. notoginseng by ultrahigh performance supercritical fluid chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry and ion mobility-derived collision cross section measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaojian; Yang, Wenzhi; Qiu, Shi; Hou, Jinjun; Wu, Wanying; Guo, Dean

    2018-05-04

    Lipidomics currently is still confronted with challenges from chromatographic separation and lipids identification. Here we report a lipidomics platform by integrating ultrahigh performance supercritical fluid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPSFC/QTOF-MS) and collision cross section (CCS) measurement using ion mobility spectroscopy/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (IMS/QTOF-MS), aiming to enhance the profiling performance and identification reliability of lipids. The lipidomes extracted from three congeneric Panax species (P. ginseng, P. quinquefolius, and P. notoginseng) by methyl tert-butyl ether are comprehensively profiled and compared by use of this platform. A potent UHPSFC/QTOF-MS approach was developed on a 1.7-μm particles packed Torus 2-PIC column using CH 3 OH (in CO 2 ) as a modifier and CH 3 OH/0.2 mM ammonium acetate as the makeup liquid, enabling well resolution of six lipid subclasses by both positive and negative MS E modes. In contrast to the reversed-phase chromatography, "normal-phase" like elution order and better resolution of polar lipids and some lipid isomers were achieved by UHPSFC separation. Pattern recognition chemometric analysis of 60 batches of Ginseng samples ultimately unveiled 24 lipid markers, of which triacylglycerols were the most important. Aside from the automated MS database searching against HMDB and LIPID MAPS, the application of CCS retrieval or CCS prediction improved lipid identification by reducing the possible hits. In conclusion, this integral platform can significantly improve the chromatographic separation and the reliability of lipids identification in lipidomics studies. It is the first report that systematically compares the lipidomic difference of three reputable Panax species, providing useful information for their quality control in addition to ginsenoside analysis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ginseng, one of the most widely used herbal medicines, has a wide range of therapeutic and pharmacological applications. Ginsenosides are the major bioactive ingredients of ginseng, which are responsible for various pharmacological activities of ginseng. Ginsenoside Rh2, known as an antitumour ginsenoside, exists as ...

  9. A high-fat diet increases oxidative renal injury and protein glycation in D-galactose-induced aging rats and its prevention by Korea red ginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sok; Kim, Chan-Sik; Min, Jinah; Lee, Soo Hwan; Jung, Yi-Sook

    2014-01-01

    Declining renal function is commonly observed with age. Obesity induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) may reduce renal function. Korean red ginseng (KRG) has been reported to ameliorate oxidative tissue injury and have an anti-aging effect. This study was designed to investigate whether HFD would accelerate the D-galactose-induced aging process in the rat kidney and to examine the preventive effect of KRG on HFD and D-galactose-induced aging-related renal injury. When rats with D-galactose-induced aging were fed an HFD for 9 wk, enhanced oxidative DNA damage, renal cell apoptosis, protein glycation, and extracellular high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), a signal of tissue damage, were observed in renal glomerular cells and tubular epithelial cells. However, treatment of rats with HFD- plus D-galactose-induced aging with KRG restored all of these renal changes. Our data suggested that a long-term HFD may enhance D-galactose-induced oxidative renal injury in rats and that this age-related renal injury could be suppressed by KRG through the repression of oxidative injury.

  10. Effects of acute supplementation of Panax ginseng on endurance running in a hot & humid environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Fadzel Wong Chee; Keong, Chen Chee; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives: Athletes in Malaysia need to perform in a hot and humid environment due to the climatic nature of the country. c0 hronic supplementation of Panax ginseng (PG) (a deciduous perennial plant belonging to the Araliaceae family) enhances physical performance. As the ergogenic effect of acute supplementation of PG on endurance performance has not been explored in the Malaysian population especially in a hot and humid condition this study was taken up. Methods: Nine heat adapted recreational runners (age : 25.4 ± 6.9 yr, body mass : 57.6 ± 8.4 kg; body height : 168.3 ± 7.6 cm) were recruited in this placebo-controlled double-blind randomized study. Subjects ingested 200 mg of PG one hour before the exercise test on treadmill at 70 per cent of their VO2max in a laboratory environment of 31 °C and 70 per cent relative humidity. They drank 3 ml/kg body weight of cool water every 20 min during the exercise to prevent adverse effects of dehydration. Blood samples were drawn every 20 min for the analysis of glucose, lactate, insulin and free fatty acids. Oxygen uptake was determined every 20 min while heart rate, body and skin temperatures, and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded every 10 min during the trials. Results: Endurance running time to exhaustion did not differ between PG and placebo trials. Heart rate, skin temperature, core body temperature, oxygen uptake, RPE, plasma insulin, glucose, free fatty acid and lactate levels during the endurance exercise did not show any significant differences between the trials. Interpretation & conclusions: We conclude that acute supplementation of 200 mg of PG did not affect the endurance running performance of the heat-adapted male recreational runners in the heat. PMID:21321426

  11. « L’AMOUR » DANS LE STYLE INDIVIDUEL DE GUY DE MAUPASSANT (SUR L’EXEMPLE DU ROMAN «MONT-ORIOL»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Prenko

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article traite le problème de l’actualisation du concept de l’amour dans le style individuel de Guy de Maupassant sur l’exemple de son roman «Mont-Oriol». On a essayé de montrer les différents moyens de la réalisation de ce concept dans le but de prouver que l’amour est la dominante émotionnelle du roman.

  12. Ginseng gintonin activates the human cardiac delayed rectifier K+ channel: involvement of Ca2+/calmodulin binding sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sun-Hye; Lee, Byung-Hwan; Kim, Hyeon-Joong; Jung, Seok-Won; Kim, Hyun-Sook; Shin, Ho-Chul; Lee, Jun-Hee; Kim, Hyoung-Chun; Rhim, Hyewhon; Hwang, Sung-Hee; Ha, Tal Soo; Kim, Hyun-Ji; Cho, Hana; Nah, Seung-Yeol

    2014-09-01

    Gintonin, a novel, ginseng-derived G protein-coupled lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptor ligand, elicits [Ca(2+)]i transients in neuronal and non-neuronal cells via pertussis toxin-sensitive and pertussis toxin-insensitive G proteins. The slowly activating delayed rectifier K(+) (I(Ks)) channel is a cardiac K(+) channel composed of KCNQ1 and KCNE1 subunits. The C terminus of the KCNQ1 channel protein has two calmodulin-binding sites that are involved in regulating I(Ks) channels. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of gintonin-mediated activation of human I(Ks) channel activity by expressing human I(Ks) channels in Xenopus oocytes. We found that gintonin enhances IKs channel currents in concentration- and voltage-dependent manners. The EC50 for the I(Ks) channel was 0.05 ± 0.01 μg/ml. Gintonin-mediated activation of the I(Ks) channels was blocked by an LPA1/3 receptor antagonist, an active phospholipase C inhibitor, an IP3 receptor antagonist, and the calcium chelator BAPTA. Gintonin-mediated activation of both the I(Ks) channel was also blocked by the calmodulin (CaM) blocker calmidazolium. Mutations in the KCNQ1 [Ca(2+)]i/CaM-binding IQ motif sites (S373P, W392R, or R539W)blocked the action of gintonin on I(Ks) channel. However, gintonin had no effect on hERG K(+) channel activity. These results show that gintonin-mediated enhancement of I(Ks) channel currents is achieved through binding of the [Ca(2+)]i/CaM complex to the C terminus of KCNQ1 subunit.

  13. Bacillus beijingensis sp. nov. and Bacillus ginsengi sp. nov., isolated from ginseng root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Fubin; Zhang, Xiaoxia; Liu, Lin; Sun, Lei; Schumann, Peter; Song, Wei

    2009-04-01

    Four alkaligenous, moderately halotolerant strains, designated ge09, ge10(T), ge14(T) and ge15, were isolated from the internal tissue of ginseng root and their taxonomic positions were investigated by using a polyphasic approach. Cells of the four strains were Gram-positive-staining, non-motile, short rods. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strains ge09 and ge10(T) formed one cluster and strains ge14(T) and ge15 formed another separate cluster within the genus Bacillus. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities with type strains of other Bacillus species were less than 97 %. Levels of DNA-DNA relatedness among the four strains showed that strains ge09 and ge10(T) and strains ge14(T) and ge15 belonged to two separate species; the mean level of DNA-DNA relatedness between ge10(T) and ge14(T) was only 28.7 %. Their phenotypic and physiological properties supported the view that the two strains represent two different novel species of the genus Bacillus. The DNA G+C contents of strains ge10(T) and ge14(T) were 49.9 and 49.6 mol%, respectively. Strains ge10(T) and ge14(T) showed the peptidoglycan type A4alpha l-Lys-d-Glu. The lipids present in strains ge10(T) and ge14(T) were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, a minor amount of phosphatidylcholine and two unknown phospholipids. Their predominant respiratory quinone was MK-7. The fatty acid profiles of the four novel strains contained large quantities of branched and saturated fatty acids. The predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C(15 : 0) (42.5 %), anteiso-C(15 : 0) (22.2 %), anteiso-C(17 : 0) (7.3 %) and C(16 : 1)omega7c alcohol (5.7 %) in ge10(T) and iso-C(15 : 0) (50.7 %) and anteiso-C(15 : 0) (20.1 %) in ge14(T). On the basis of their phenotypic properties and phylogenetic distinctiveness, two novel species of the genus Bacillus are proposed, Bacillus beijingensis sp. nov. (type strain ge10(T) =DSM 19037(T) =CGMCC 1.6762(T)) and Bacillus ginsengi sp. nov. (type strain ge14

  14. Major League Baseball Anti-Trust Immunity: Examining the Legal and Financial Implications of Relocation Rules

    OpenAIRE

    Mark, Nagel; Matt, Brown; Daniel, Rascher; Chad, McEvoy

    2006-01-01

    Major League Baseball (MLB) rules restrict the movement of any franchise into another’s territory. These territorial rules are designed to protect each team’s potential local revenue sources as well as to provide stability throughout the league. Recently, Major League Baseball approved financial compensation for the Washington Nationals’ move into the Baltimore Orioles’ territory – primarily because it was in the best interest of MLB even though it hurt the Orioles. However, the Oakland Athle...

  15. Social isolation stress-induced oxidative damage in mouse brain and its modulation by majonoside-R2, a Vietnamese ginseng saponin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Nguyen Thi Thu; Murakami, Yukihisa; Tohda, Michihisa; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Kinzo

    2005-08-01

    Stressors with a physical factor such as immobilization, electric foot shock, cold swim, etc., have been shown to produce oxidative damage to membrane lipids in the brain. In this study, we investigated the effect of protracted social isolation stress on lipid peroxidation activity in the mouse brain and elucidated the protective effect of majonoside-R2, a major saponin component of Vietnamese ginseng, in mice exposed to social isolation stress. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance levels, one of the end products of lipid peroxidation reaction, were increased in the brains of mice subjected to 6-8 weeks of social isolation stress. Measurements of nitric oxide (NO) metabolites (NO(x)(-)) also revealed a significant increase of NO production in the brains of socially isolated mice. Moreover, the depletion of brain glutathione content, an endogenous antioxidant, in socially isolated animals occurred in association with the rise in lipid peroxidation. The intraperitoneal administration of majonoside-R2 (10-50 mg/kg) had no effect on thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), NO, or glutathione levels in the brains of group-housed control mice but it significantly suppressed the increase in TBARS and NO levels and the decrease in glutathione levels caused by social isolation stress. These results suggest that mice subjected to 6-8 weeks of social isolation stress produces oxidative damage in the brain partly via enhancement of NO production, and that majonoside-R2 exerts a protective effect by modulating NO and glutathione systems in the brain.

  16. Effects of Ginsenoside Rb1 on Skin Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Kimura

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ginseng roots (Panax ginseng CA Meyer have been used traditionally for the treatment, especially prevention, of various diseases in China, Korea, and Japan. Both experimental and clinical studies suggest ginseng roots to have pharmacological effects in patients with life-style-related diseases such as non-insulin-dependent diabetic mellitus, atherosclerosis, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension. The topical use of ginseng roots to treat skin complaints including atopic suppurative dermatitis, wounds, and inflammation is also described in ancient Chinese texts; however, there have been relatively few studies in this area. In the present paper, we describe introduce the biological and pharmacological effects of ginsenoside Rb1 isolated from Red ginseng roots on skin damage caused by burn-wounds using male Balb/c mice (in vivo and by ultraviolet B irradiation using male C57BL/6J and albino hairless (HR-1 mice (in vivo. Furthermore, to clarify the mechanisms behind these pharmacological actions, human primary keratinocytes and the human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT were used in experiments in vitro.

  17. Analytical Research to Determine the effects of the Components of ONGABO on the Viability of HepG2 Cancer Cells by Using the Sovereign, Minister, Assistant and Courier Principle (君臣佐使論

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Jeong-Hun

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study used the basic principle of Oriental medicine, the sovereign, minister, assistant and courier principle (君臣佐使論 to investigate the effects of the component of ONGABO, which is composed of Ginseng Radix (Red Ginseng, Angelica Gigantis Radix, Schisandrae Fructus, Cuscuta Semen and Curcumae tuber on the viability of HepG2 cells. Methods: Single and mixed extracts of the component of ONGABO were prepared by lypohilizing powder of Red Ginseng (6-year root from Kanghwa, Angelica Gigantis Radix, Schisandrae Fructus, Cuscuta Semen, Curcumae Tuber (from Omniherb Co., Ltd., Korea at the laboratory of herbal medicine in Woosuk University and were eluted after being macerated with 100% ethanol for three days. The cell viability of HepG2 was determined by using an absorptiometric analysis with PrestoBlue (Invitrogen reagent after the plate had been incubated for 48 hours. All of the experiments were repeated three times to obtain the average value and standard deviation. The statistical analysis was done and the correlation factor was obtained by using Microsoft Office Excel 2007 and Origin 6.0 software. Results: Although Ginseng Radix (Red Ginseng and Schisandrae Fructus did not enhance the viability of HepG2 cells, they were shown to provide protection of those cells. On the other hand, Angelica Gigantis Radix decreased the viability of HepG2 cells significantly, Cuscuta Semen and Curcumae Tuber had a small or no effect on the viability of HepG2 cells. Conclusions: In the sovereign, minister, assistant and courier principle (君臣佐使論, Ginseng Radix (Red Ginseng corresponds to the sovereign component because it provides cell protection effects, Angelica Gigantis Radix corresponds to minister medicinal because it kills cells, Schisandrae Fructus corresponds to the assistant medicinal to help red ginseng having cell protect effects. Cuscuta Semen and Curcumae Tuber correspond to the courier medicinal having no effect in

  18. Analytical Research to Determine the effects of the Components of ONGABO on the Viability of HepG2 Cancer Cells by Using the Sovereign, Minister, Assistant and Courier Principle ().

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jeong-Hun; Jun, Seung-Lyul; Hwang, Sung-Yeoun; Ahn, Seong-Hun

    2012-12-01

    This study used the basic principle of Oriental medicine, the sovereign, minister, assistant and courier principle () to investigate the effects of the component of ONGABO, which is composed of Ginseng Radix (Red Ginseng), Angelica Gigantis Radix, Schisandrae Fructus, Cuscuta Semen and Curcumae tuber on the viability of HepG2 cells. Single and mixed extracts of the component of ONGABO were prepared by lypohilizing powder of Red Ginseng (6-year root from Kanghwa), Angelica Gigantis Radix, Schisandrae Fructus, Cuscuta Semen, Curcumae Tuber (from Omniherb Co., Ltd., Korea) at the laboratory of herbal medicine in Woosuk University and were eluted after being macerated with 100% ethanol for three days. The cell viability of HepG2 was determined by using an absorptiometric analysis with PrestoBlue (Invitrogen) reagent after the plate had been incubated for 48 hours. All of the experiments were repeated three times to obtain the average value and standard deviation. The statistical analysis was done and the correlation factor was obtained by using Microsoft Office Excel 2007 and Origin 6.0 software. Although Ginseng Radix (Red Ginseng) and Schisandrae Fructus did not enhance the viability of HepG2 cells, they were shown to provide protection of those cells. On the other hand, Angelica Gigantis Radix decreased the viability of HepG2 cells significantly, Cuscuta Semen and Curcumae Tuber had a small or no effect on the viability of HepG2 cells. In the sovereign, minister, assistant and courier principle (), Ginseng Radix (Red Ginseng) corresponds to the sovereign component because it provides cell protection effects, Angelica Gigantis Radix corresponds to minister medicinal because it kills cells, Schisandrae Fructus corresponds to the assistant medicinal to help red ginseng having cell protect effects. Cuscuta Semen and Curcumae Tuber correspond to the courier medicinal having no effect in cell viability in HepG2. We hope this study provides motivation for advanced research

  19. Protective mechanism of Korean Red Ginseng in cisplatin-induced ototoxicity through attenuation of nuclear factor-κB and caspase-1 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su-Jin; Kwak, Hyun Jeong; Kim, Dae-Seung; Choi, Hyun-Myung; Sim, Jung-Eun; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Um, Jae-Young; Hong, Seung-Heon

    2015-07-01

    Cisplatin is an effective anti-cancer drug; however, one of its side effects is irreversible sensorineural hearing damage. Korean Red Ginseng (KRG) has been used clinically for the treatment of various diseases; however, the underlying mechanism of KRG treatment of ototoxicity has not been studied extensively. The present study aimed to further investigate the mechanism of KRG on cisplatin-induced toxicity in auditory HEI-OC1 cells in vitro, as well as in vivo. The pharmacological effects of KRG on cisplatin-induced changes in the hearing threshold of mice were determined, as well as the effect on the impairment of hair cell arrays. In addition, in order to elucidate the protective mechanisms of KRG, the regulatory effects of KRG on cisplatin-induced apoptosis-associated gene levels and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation were investigated in auditory cells. The results revealed that KRG prevented cisplatin-induced alterations in the hearing threshold of mice as well as the destruction of hair cell arrays in rat organ of Corti primary explants. In addition, KRG inhibited cisplatin-mediated cell toxicity, reactive oxygen species generation, interleukin-6 production, cytochrome c release and activation of caspases-3 in the HEI-OC1 auditory cell line. Furthermore, the results demonstrated that KRG inhibited the activation of NF-κB and caspase-1. In conclusion, these results provided a model for the pharmacological mechanism of KRG and provided evidence for potential therapies against ototoxicity.

  20. Journal of Computational Electronics: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Computational Electronics (8th) (IWCE-8), Beckman Institute, University of Illinois, 15-18 October 2001. Volume 1, Issue 1-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Investigaci6n 48 Oriols through project BFM2000-0353 and by a grant of the Landauer R. 1989. Physica D. 38: 226. Pr cqramna cientifico dle la OTAN...that in the AlSb/InAs and the InAs/GaSb confining inter- will not be dealt with in this article . Our treatment does faces. When the electrons move in the...journals. with the articles . PROCESS FOR SUBMISSION 3. Provide a separate double-spaced sheet listing all footnotes, beginning with "Affiliation of author

  1. The Effects of a Korean Ginseng, GINST15, on Hypo-Pituitary-Adrenal and Oxidative Activity Induced by Intense Work Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Shawn D; DuPont, William H; Caldwell, Lydia K; Hardesty, Vincent H; Barnhart, Emily C; Beeler, Matthew K; Post, Emily M; Volek, Jeff S; Kraemer, William J

    2018-01-01

    The effect of GINST15, an enzyme fermented ginseng supplement, on hormonal and inflammatory responses to physical stress in humans is unknown. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the constitutive and stress-induced effects of GINST15 supplement on hypo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and antioxidant activity in addition to muscle damage. Ten women (age: 38.7 ± 7.8 years; height: 163.81 ± 4.4 cm; body mass 76.0 ± 11.6 kg) and nine men (age: 41.2. ± 9.7 years; height: 177.4 ± 5.3 cm; body mass: 88.5 ± 5.0 kg) participated in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, counterbalanced within-group study. Participants completed three 14-day treatment cycles with different doses (high: 960 mg; low: 160 mg; placebo: 0 mg) separated by a 1-week washout period. At the end of treatment, physical stress was imposed with intense resistance exercise work stress. Participants provided blood at rest and various time points after exercise (immediately [IP], 30 min [30], 60 min [60], 24 h [+24HR]). Cortisol (CORT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), total glutathione, nonspecific antioxidant activity, total antioxidant power (TAP), and creatine kinase were measured. GINST15 supplementation produced stress-inducible dose-dependent reductions in circulating cortisol and increased enzymatic and nonspecific antioxidant activity. Twenty-four hours after intense exercise, a high dose GINST15, a bioactive ginsenoside metabolite, significantly reduces muscle damage and HPA responses to physical stress in humans; these effects may result from increased antioxidant expression.

  2. Preanesthetic Assessment of Herbal and Dietary Supplement Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-10-01

    in the U.S. in 1995 were echinacea, garlic, goldenseal, ginseng, ginkgo, saw palmetto, ma huang, aloe, Siberian ginseng, and cranberry . Since then, St...should be avoided by patients taking prednisone and in patients with manic- depressive disorders and psychosis (Miller, 1998). Fishman, Catarau, Sachs

  3. Overexpression of a Panax ginseng tonoplast aquaporin alters salt tolerance, drought tolerance and cold acclimation ability in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yanhui; Lin, Wuling; Cai, Weiming; Arora, Rajeev

    2007-08-01

    Water movement across cellular membranes is regulated largely by a family of water channel proteins called aquaporins (AQPs). Since several abiotic stresses such as, drought, salinity and freezing, manifest themselves via altering water status of plant cells and are linked by the fact that they all result in cellular dehydration, we overexpressed an AQP (tonoplast intrinsic protein) from Panax ginseng, PgTIP1, in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants to test its role in plant's response to drought, salinity and cold acclimation (induced freezing tolerance). Under favorable conditions, PgTIP1 overexpression significantly increased plant growth as determined by the biomass production, and leaf and root morphology. PgTIP1 overexpression had beneficial effect on salt-stress tolerance as indicated by superior growth status and seed germination of transgenic plants under salt stress; shoots of salt-stressed transgenic plants also accumulated greater amounts of Na(+) compared to wild-type plants. Whereas PgTIP1 overexpression diminished the water-deficit tolerance of plants grown in shallow (10 cm deep) pots, the transgenic plants were significantly more tolerant to water stress when grown in 45 cm deep pots. The rationale for this contrasting response, apparently, comes from the differences in the root morphology and leaf water channel activity (speed of dehydration/rehydration) between the transgenic and wild-type plants. Plants overexpressed with PgTIP1 exhibited lower (relative to wild-type control) cold acclimation ability; however, this response was independent of cold-regulated gene expression. Our results demonstrate a significant function of PgTIP1 in growth and development of plant cells, and suggest that the water movement across tonoplast (via AQP) represents a rate-limiting factor for plant vigor under favorable growth conditions and also significantly affect responses of plant to drought, salt and cold stresses.

  4. Rapid solubilization of insoluble phosphate by a novel environmental stress-tolerant Burkholderia vietnamiensis M6 isolated from ginseng rhizospheric soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ki-Hyun; Lee, O-Mi; Jung, Ho-Il; Jeong, Jin-Ha; Jeon, Young-Dong; Hwang, Dae-Youn; Lee, Chung-Yeol; Son, Hong-Joo

    2010-04-01

    We isolated and characterized novel insoluble phosphate (P)-solubilizing bacteria tolerant to environmental factors like high salt, low and high pHs, and low temperature. A bacterium M6 was isolated from a ginseng rhizospheric soil and confirmed to belong to Burkholderia vietnamiensis by BIOLOG system and 16S rRNA gene analysis. The optimal cultural conditions for the solubilization of P were 2.5% (w/v) glucose, 0.015% (w/v) urea, and 0.4% (w/v) MgCl(2).6H(2)O along with initial pH 7.0 at 35 degrees C. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that B. vietnamiensis M6 produced gluconic and 2-ketogluconic acids. During the culture, the pH was reduced with increase in gluconic acid concentration and was inversely correlated with P solubilization. Insoluble P solubilization in the optimal medium was about 902 mg l(-1), which was approximately 1.6-fold higher than the yield in NBRIP medium (580 mg l(-1)). B. vietnamiensis M6 showed resistance against different environmental stresses like 10-45 degrees C, 1-5% (w/v) salt, and 2-11 pH range. The maximal concentration of soluble P produced by B. vietnamiensis M6 from Ca(3)(PO(4))(2), CaHPO(4), and hydroxyapatite was 1,039, 2,132, and 1,754 mg l(-1), respectively. However, the strain M6 produced soluble P with 20 mg l(-1) from FePO(4) after 2 days and 100 mg l(-1) from AlPO(4) after 6 days, respectively. Our results indicate that B. vietnamiensis M6 could be a potential candidate for the development of biofertilizer applicable to environmentally stressed soil.

  5. Utilization of irradiation on food preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, H.O.; Kwon, J.H.; Byun, M.W.; Yang, H.S.

    1983-01-01

    The research programme in 1982 was conducted not only to develop the commercial storage method of sprouting foods by irradiation combined with natural low temperature and to sterilize the E.coli of ginseng and ginseng product but also to approach the development of the long term storage method of rice and barley. (Author)

  6. Program for Research on Dietary Supplements in Military Operations and Healthcare Metabolically Optimized Brain - JWF

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Alcohol; Vitamins / Minerals / Antioxidants / Dietary supplements (not specified); Herbal Medicine (Subsets: Ginseng and Gingko Biloba); Diet...looking specifically at the role of glucose (Hoyland 2008). c. Other Intervention Groupings considered: i. Herbal Medicine : 58 abstracts identified...involved herbal medicine (excluding gingko biloba and ginseng) as an intervention on the healthy adult population. 31 separate herb or herbal

  7. Ginseng Total Saponins Reverse Corticosterone-Induced Changes in Depression-Like Behavior and Hippocampal Plasticity-Related Proteins by Interfering with GSK-3β-CREB Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to explore the antidepressant mechanisms of ginseng total saponins (GTS in the corticosterone-induced mouse depression model. In Experiment 1, GTS (50, 25, and 12.5 mg kg−1 d−1, intragastrically were given for 3 weeks. In Experiment 2, the same doses of GTS were administrated after each corticosterone (20 mg kg−1 d−1, subcutaneously injection for 22 days. In both experiments, mice underwent a forced swimming test and a tail suspension test on day 20 and day 21, respectively, and were sacrificed on day 22. Results of Experiment 1 revealed that GTS (50 and 25 mg kg−1 d−1 exhibited antidepressant activity and not statistically altered hippocampal protein levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and neurofilament light chain (NF-L. Results of Experiment 2 showed that GTS (50 and 25 mg kg−1 d−1 ameliorated depression-like behavior without normalizing hypercortisolism. The GTS treatments reversed the corticosterone-induced changes in mRNA levels of BDNF and NF-L, and protein levels of BDNF NF-L, phosphor-cAMP response element-binding protein (Ser133, and phosphor-glycogen synthase kinase-3β (Ser9 in the hippocampus. These findings imply that the effect of GTS on corticosterone-induced depression-like behavior may be mediated partly through interfering with hippocampal GSK-3β-CREB signaling pathway and reversing decrease of some plasticity-related proteins.

  8. Hair Regenerative Mechanisms of Red Ginseng Oil and Its Major Components in the Testosterone-Induced Delay of Anagen Entry in C57BL/6 Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Van-Long; Bak, Min Ji; Lee, Changook; Jun, Mira; Jeong, Woo-Sik

    2017-09-08

    Hair loss (alopecia) is a universal problem for numerous people in the world. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of red ginseng oil (RGO) and its major components on hair re-growth using testosterone (TES)-induced delay of anagen entry in C57BL/6 mice and their mechanisms of action. Seven-week-old C57BL/6 mice were daily treated with TES for 1 h prior to topical application of 10% RGO, 1% linoleic acid (LA), 1% β-sitosterol (SITOS), or 1% bicyclo(10.1.0)tridec-1-ene (BICYCLO) once a day for 28 days. Hair regenerative capacity was significantly restored by treatment of RGO and its major compounds in the TES-treated mice. Histological analysis showed that RGO along with LA and SITOS but not BICYCLO promoted hair growth through early inducing anagen phase that was delayed by TES in mice. Treatment of mice with RGO, LA, or SITOS up-regulated Wnt/β-catenin and Shh/Gli pathways-mediated expression of genes such as β-catenin, Lef-1, Sonic hedgehog, Smoothened, Gli-1, Cyclin D1, and Cyclin E in the TES-treated mice. In addition, RGO and its major components reduced the protein level of TGF-β but enhanced the expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. These results suggest that RGO is a potent novel therapeutic natural product for treatment of androgenic alopecia possibly through hair re-growth activity of its major components such as LA and SITOS.

  9. Transcriptomics-based identification of WRKY genes and characterization of a salt and hormone-responsive PgWRKY1 gene in Panax ginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuruzzaman, Mohammed; Cao, Hongzhe; Xiu, Hao; Luo, Tiao; Li, Jijia; Chen, Xianghui; Luo, Junli; Luo, Zhiyong

    2016-02-01

    WRKY proteins belong to a transcription factor (TF) family and play dynamic roles in many plant processes, including plant responses to abiotic and biotic stresses, as well as secondary metabolism. However, no WRKY gene in Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer has been reported to date. In this study, a number of WRKY unigenes from methyl jasmonate (MeJA)-treated adventitious root transcriptome of this species were identified using next-generation sequencing technology. A total of 48 promising WRKY unigenes encoding WRKY proteins were obtained by eliminating wrong and incomplete open reading frame (ORF). Phylogenetic analysis reveals 48 WRKY TFs, including 11 Group I, 36 Group II, and 1 Group III. Moreover, one MeJA-responsive unigene designated as PgWRKY1 was cloned and characterized. It contains an entire ORF of 1077 bp and encodes a polypeptide of 358 amino acid residues. The PgWRKY1 protein contains a single WRKY domain consisting of a conserved amino acid sequence motif WRKYGQK and a C2H2-type zinc-finger motif belonging to WRKY subgroup II-d. Subcellular localization of PgWRKY1-GFP fusion protein in onion and tobacco epidermis cells revealed that PgWRKY1 was exclusively present in the nucleus. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated that the expression of PgWRKY1 was relatively higher in roots and lateral roots compared with leaves, stems, and seeds. Importantly, PgWRKY1 expression was significantly induced by salicylic acid, abscisic acid, and NaCl, but downregulated by MeJA treatment. These results suggested that PgWRKY1 might be a multiple stress-inducible gene responding to hormones and salt stresses. © The Author 2015. Published by ABBS Editorial Office in association with Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  10. A Distinctive Pattern of Beauveria bassiana-biotransformed Ginsenoside Products Triggers Mitochondria/FasL-mediated Apoptosis in Colon Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gum, Sang Il; Rahman, Md Khalilur; Won, Jong Soon; Cho, Min Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Ginseng is one of the most commonly used adaptogens. Transformation into the minor ginsenosides produces compounds with more effective action. Beauveria bassiana, a teleomorph of Cordyceps bassiana, is a highly efficient producer of mammalian steroids and produces large amounts of sugar-utilizing enzymes. However, the fermentation of steroid glycosides in ginseng with B. bassiana has never been studied. Thus, we evaluated the bioconversion of the major ginsenosides in white ginseng by B. bassiana. Interestingly, B. bassiana increased the total amount of protopanaxadiols and hydrolyzed Rb1 into minor ginsenosides, exhibiting high levels of Rd and Rg3, as well as moderate levels of Rb2 and Rc analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with evaporative light-scattering detection. The β-glucosidase activity was highly increased, which led to the selective elimination of sugar moiety at the 20-C position of Rb1 to Rd, followed by Rg3. Rb2 and Rc accumulated because of the minimal activities of α-L-arabinopyranosidase and α-L-arabinofuranosidase, respectively. The fermentation product exerted dose-dependent cytotoxicity in HCT-15 cells, which are resistant to ginseng. The product, but not white ginseng, exhibited apoptotic effects via the Fas ligand and caspase 8/9. This study demonstrates for the first time that the B. bassiana-fermented metabolites have potent apoptotic activity in colon cancer cells, linking to a therapeutic use. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. New methods for estimating non-timber forest product output: an Appalachian case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve Kruger; James. Chamberlain

    2015-01-01

    Assessing the size and structure of non-timber forest product (NTFP) markets is difficult due to a lack of knowledge about NTFP supply chains. Harvesting ginseng and other wild medicinal plants has long provided a source of income and cultural identity in Appalachian communities in the eastern United States. With the exception of ginseng, the extent of the harvest of...

  12. Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Red Ginseng By-product on Laying Performance, Blood Biochemistry, Serum Immunoglobulin and Microbial Population in Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, H K; Park, S-B; Kim, C H

    2016-10-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of red ginseng by-product (RGB) on the laying performance, blood biochemistry, and microbial population in laying hens. A total of 120 Hy-Line Brown laying hens (75 weeks old) were randomly allotted to 1 of 3 dietary treatments with 4 replicates per treatment. A commercial-type basal diet was prepared, and 2 additional diets were prepared by supplementing 5.0 or 10.0 g/kg of RGB to the basal diet at the expense of corn. The diets were fed to hens on an ad libitum basis for 4 weeks. There were no differences in feed intake, egg weight, and feed conversion ratio during 4 weeks of the feeding trial. However, hen-day egg production was significantly greater (p<0.05) for the RGB treatment groups than that for the basal treatment group. There were no differences in triglyceride, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase during the 4-week feeding trial. However, RGB supplementation increased (p<0.05) the serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM content compared with basal treatment group. The total cholesterol was lower (p<0.05) in the RGB treatments groups than that in the basal treatment group. The intestinal Lactobacillus population was greater (p<0.05) for the RGB treatments groups than that for the basal treatment group. However, the numbers of Salmonella and Escherichia coli were not different among dietary treatments. During the entire experiment, there was no significant difference in egg quality among all the treatments. In conclusion, in addition to improving hen-day production, there were positive effects of dietary RGB supplementation on serum immunoglobulin and cholesterol levels in laying hens.

  13. Compound K, a metabolite of ginseng saponin, induces apoptosis via caspase-8-dependent pathway in HL-60 human leukemia cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Sung-Hee; Chung, Kyung-Sook; Choi, Jung-Hye; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Lee, Kyung-Tae

    2009-01-01

    Compound K [20-O-β-(D-glucopyranosyl)-20(S)-protopanaxadiol], a metabolite of the protopanaxadiol-type saponins of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, has been reported to possess anti-tumor properties to inhibit angiogenesis and to induce tumor apoptosis. In the present study, we investigated the effect of Compound K on apoptosis and explored the underlying mechanisms involved in HL-60 human leukemia cells. We examined the effect of Compound K on the viabilities of various cancer cell lines using MTT assays. DAPI assay, Annexin V and PI double staining, Western blot assay and immunoprecipitation were used to determine the effect of Compound K on the induction of apoptosis. Compound K was found to inhibit the viability of HL-60 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner with an IC 50 of 14 μM. Moreover, this cell death had typical features of apoptosis, that is, DNA fragmentation, DNA ladder formation, and the externalization of Annexin V targeted phosphatidylserine residues in HL-60 cells. In addition, compound-K induced a series of intracellular events associated with both the mitochondrial- and death receptor-dependent apoptotic pathways, namely, (1) the activation of caspases-3, -8, and -9; (2) the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential; (3) the release of cytochrome c and Smac/DIABLO to the cytosol; (4) the translocation of Bid and Bax to mitochondria; and (5) the downregulations of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL. Furthermore, a caspase-8 inhibitor completely abolished caspase-3 activation, Bid cleavage, and subsequent DNA fragmentation by Compound K. Interestingly, the activation of caspase-3 and -8 and DNA fragmentation were significantly prevented in the presence of cycloheximide, suggesting that Compound K-induced apoptosis is dependent on de novo protein synthesis. The results indicate that caspase-8 plays a key role in Compound K-stimulated apoptosis via the activation of caspase-3 directly or indirectly through Bid cleavage, cytochrome c release, and caspase-9 activation

  14. Compound K, a metabolite of ginseng saponin, induces apoptosis via caspase-8-dependent pathway in HL-60 human leukemia cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Jung-Hye

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Compound K [20-O-β-(D-glucopyranosyl-20(S-protopanaxadiol], a metabolite of the protopanaxadiol-type saponins of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, has been reported to possess anti-tumor properties to inhibit angiogenesis and to induce tumor apoptosis. In the present study, we investigated the effect of Compound K on apoptosis and explored the underlying mechanisms involved in HL-60 human leukemia cells. Methods We examined the effect of Compound K on the viabilities of various cancer cell lines using MTT assays. DAPI assay, Annexin V and PI double staining, Western blot assay and immunoprecipitation were used to determine the effect of Compound K on the induction of apoptosis. Results Compound K was found to inhibit the viability of HL-60 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner with an IC50 of 14 μM. Moreover, this cell death had typical features of apoptosis, that is, DNA fragmentation, DNA ladder formation, and the externalization of Annexin V targeted phosphatidylserine residues in HL-60 cells. In addition, compound-K induced a series of intracellular events associated with both the mitochondrial- and death receptor-dependent apoptotic pathways, namely, (1 the activation of caspases-3, -8, and -9; (2 the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential; (3 the release of cytochrome c and Smac/DIABLO to the cytosol; (4 the translocation of Bid and Bax to mitochondria; and (5 the downregulations of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL. Furthermore, a caspase-8 inhibitor completely abolished caspase-3 activation, Bid cleavage, and subsequent DNA fragmentation by Compound K. Interestingly, the activation of caspase-3 and -8 and DNA fragmentation were significantly prevented in the presence of cycloheximide, suggesting that Compound K-induced apoptosis is dependent on de novo protein synthesis. Conclusions The results indicate that caspase-8 plays a key role in Compound K-stimulated apoptosis via the activation of caspase-3 directly or indirectly through

  15. 40 CFR 180.399 - Iprodione; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... food commodities: Commodity Parts per million Almond, hulls 2.0 Almond 0.3 Apricot 20.0 Bean, dry, seed... subgroup 13A 25.0 Carrot, roots 5.0 Cherry, sweet, postharvest 20.0 Cherry, tart 20.0 Cotton, undelinted seed 0.10 Cowpea, hay 90.0 Currant 15.0 Garlic 0.1 Ginseng 2.0 Ginseng, dried root 4.0 Grape 60.0 Grape...

  16. Hair Regenerative Mechanisms of Red Ginseng Oil and Its Major Components in the Testosterone-Induced Delay of Anagen Entry in C57BL/6 Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van-Long Truong

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Hair loss (alopecia is a universal problem for numerous people in the world. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of red ginseng oil (RGO and its major components on hair re-growth using testosterone (TES-induced delay of anagen entry in C57BL/6 mice and their mechanisms of action. Seven-week-old C57BL/6 mice were daily treated with TES for 1 h prior to topical application of 10% RGO, 1% linoleic acid (LA, 1% β-sitosterol (SITOS, or 1% bicyclo(10.1.0tridec-1-ene (BICYCLO once a day for 28 days. Hair regenerative capacity was significantly restored by treatment of RGO and its major compounds in the TES-treated mice. Histological analysis showed that RGO along with LA and SITOS but not BICYCLO promoted hair growth through early inducing anagen phase that was delayed by TES in mice. Treatment of mice with RGO, LA, or SITOS up-regulated Wnt/β-catenin and Shh/Gli pathways-mediated expression of genes such as β-catenin, Lef-1, Sonic hedgehog, Smoothened, Gli-1, Cyclin D1, and Cyclin E in the TES-treated mice. In addition, RGO and its major components reduced the protein level of TGF-β but enhanced the expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. These results suggest that RGO is a potent novel therapeutic natural product for treatment of androgenic alopecia possibly through hair re-growth activity of its major components such as LA and SITOS.

  17. Leaf-specific pathogenesis-related 10 homolog, PgPR-10.3, shows in silico binding affinity with several biologically important molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Haeng Han

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: Although ginseng PR-10.3 gene is expressed in all organs of 3-wk-old plantlets, its expression is restricted to leaves in mature 2-yr-old ginseng plants. The putative binding property of PgPR-10.3 with Re is intriguing. Further verification of binding affinity with other biologically important molecules in the large hydrophobic cavity of PgPR-10.3 may provide an insight into the biological features of PR-10 proteins.

  18. Roots & Hollers

    OpenAIRE

    Kollman, Patrick L; Gorman, Thomas A

    2011-01-01

    Roots & Hollers, 2011 A documentary by Thomas Gorman & Patrick Kollman Master’s Project Abstract: Roots & Hollers uncovers the wild American ginseng trade, revealing a unique intersection between Asia and rural America. Legendary in Asia for its healing powers, ginseng helps sustain the livelihoods of thousands in Appalachia. A single root can sell for thousands of dollars at auction. Shot on-location in the mountains of Kentucky and West Virginia, this student doc...

  19. American Ginseng

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... short-term. This treatment might also reduce some physical side effects of antipsychotic drugs. However, it does not improve other mental symptoms. Aging. Anemia. Bleeding disorders. Digestive disorders. Dizziness. ...

  20. Selected herbals and human exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucci, L R

    2000-08-01

    Herbs have been used throughout history to enhance physical performance, but scientific scrutiny with controlled clinical trials has only recently been used to study such effects. The following herbs are currently used to enhance physical performance regardless of scientific evidence of effect: Chinese, Korean, and American ginsengs; Siberian ginseng, mahuang or Chinese ephedra; ashwagandha; rhodiola; yohimbe; CORDYCEPS: fungus, shilajit or mummio; smilax; wild oats; Muira puama; suma (ecdysterone); Tribulus terrestris; saw palmetto berries; beta-sitosterol and other related sterols; and wild yams (diosgenin). Controlled studies of Asian ginsengs found improvements in exercise performance when most of the following conditions were true: use of standardized root extracts, study duration (>8 wk, daily dose >1 g dried root or equivalent, large number of subjects, and older subjects. Improvements in muscular strength, maximal oxygen uptake, work capacity, fuel homeostasis, serum lactate, heart rate, visual and auditory reaction times, alertness, and psychomotor skills have also been repeatedly documented. Siberian ginseng has shown mixed results. Mahuang, ephedrine, and related alkaloids have not benefited physical performance except when combined with caffeine. Other herbs remain virtually untested. Future research on ergogenic effects of herbs should consider identity and amount of substance or presumed active ingredients administered, dose response, duration of test period, proper experimental controls, measurement of psychological and physiologic parameters (including antioxidant actions), and measurements of performance pertinent to intended uses.

  1. 20(R)-ginsenoside Rg3, a rare saponin from red ginseng, ameliorates acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity by suppressing PI3K/AKT pathway-mediated inflammation and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan-Dan; Hou, Jin-Gang; Liu, Wei; Ren, Shen; Wang, Ying-Ping; Zhang, Rui; Chen, Chen; Wang, Zi; Li, Wei

    2018-06-01

    Although ginsenoside Rg3 was isolated as a major component of Korea red ginseng and confirmed to exert potential hepatoprotective effect on acetaminophen (APAP)-induced liver injury via induction of glutathione S-transferase (GST) in vitro, thein vivo hepatoprotective effect of Rg3 and the underlying molecular mechanism of action remain unclear. The current study was aimed to explore whether 20(R)-Ginsenoside Rg3 (20(R)-Rg3) could alleviate acetaminophen-induced liver injury in mice and to determine the involvement of PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. Our findings demonstrated that a single injection of APAP (250 mg/kg) increased the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β); such increases were attenuated by pretreatment of mice with 20(R)-Rg3 for seven days. The depletion of glutathione (GSH), generation of malondialdehyde (MDA) and the over expression of cytochrome P450 E1 (CYP2E1) and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) caused by APAP exposure were also inhibited by 20(R)-Rg3 pretreatment. Moreover, 20(R)-Rg3 pretreatment significantly alleviated APAP-induced apoptosis, necrosis, and inflammatory infiltration in liver tissues. Importantly, 20(R)-Rg3 effectively attenuated APAP-induced liver injury in part via activating PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. In summary, 20(R)-Rg3 exerted liver protection against APAP-caused hepatotoxicity evidenced by inhibition of oxidative stress and inflammatory response, alleviation of hepatocellular necrosis and apoptosis via activation of PI3K/AKT signaling pathway, showing potential as a novel therapeutic agent to prevent liver damage. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of ginseng polysaccharides and dendritic cells on the balance of Th1/Th2 T helper cells in patients with non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Junjie; Liu, Huiping; Wang, Xiaolong

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the effect of thorascopic administration.of ginseng polysaccharides (GPS) plus dendritic cells (DC) on T helper cell type 1/T helper cell type 2 (Th1/Th2) balance in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A total of 96 NSCLC patients were divided evenly into two groups. The control group was treated with DCs alone and the treatment group was treated with DCs plus GPS. After DCs and GPS were administered thoracoscopically, once a week, 4 times for 30 days, the patients' quality of life was measured with the Functional Assessment of Cancer Treatment-Lung (FACT-L) questionnaire before and after treatment. Serum interferon-γ (INF-γ), interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-2 and IL-5 were examined before and after treatments. The level of Th1 cytokines (INF-γ, IL-2) and the ratio of Th1/Th2 cytokines (INF-γ/IL-4, IL-2/ IL-5) increased in both treatment groups, while Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5) and FACT-L scores decreased (P GPS group than in the control group (P L scores and Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5) were higher in the control group than in the DCs + GPS group (P GPS had a greater effect on NSCLC patients' immune function as compared with DCs alone. This was evident by increased expression of Th1 cytokines (INF-γ, IL-2) and the ratio of Th1/Th2 (INF-γ/IL-4, IL-2/IL-5), as well as by decreased FACT-L scores and the expression of Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5).

  3. [Effect of American Ginseng Capsule on the liver oxidative injury and the Nrf2 protein expression in rats exposed by electromagnetic radiation of frequency of cell phone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ya-ping; Ma, Hui-Rong; Chen, Jing-Wei; Li, Jing-Jing; Li, Chun-xiang

    2014-05-01

    To observe the effect of American Ginseng Capsule (AGC) on the liver oxidative injury and the Nrf2 protein expression in the liver tissue of rats exposed by 900 MHz cell phone electromagnetic radiation. Totally 40 male SD rats were randomly divided into the normal control group, the model group, the Shuifei Jibin Capsule (SJC) group, and the AGC group,10 in each group. Rats in the normal control group were not irradiated. Rats in the rest three groups were exposed by imitated 900 MHz cellular phone for 4 h in 12 consecutive days. Meanwhile, rats in the SJC group and the AGC group were intragastrically administrated with suspension of SJC and AGC (1 mL/200 g body weight) respectively. Normal saline was administered to rats in the normal control group and the model group. The histolomorphological changes of the liver tissue were observed by HE staining. Contents of malonic dialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX)were detected by colorimetry. The Nrf2 protein expression of hepatocytes was detected by immunohistochemical assay and Western blot. Compared with the normal control group, hepatocyte nucleus was atrophied or partially disappeared, the contents of liver MDA and Nrf2 protein obviously increased (P electromagnetic radiation induced by 900 MHz cell phone could affect the expression of Nrf2 protein, induce oxidative injury, and induce abnormal morphology of liver cells. SJC and AGC could promote the morphological recovery of the liver cells. Its mechanism might be related to affecting the expression of Nrf2 protein and attenuating oxidative damage of liver cells.

  4. [Effect of ginseng polysaccharide-induced wnt/beta-catenin signal transduction pathway on apoptosis of human nasopharyngeal cancer cells CNE-2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jia-Ming; Liu, Ze-Hong; Li, Jing; Wang, Ya-Ping; Yang, Lv-Yuan; Huang, Jiang-Ju

    2013-10-01

    To observe the effect of ginseng polysaccharide (GPS) on the proliferation and apoptosis of human nasopharyngeal cancer cells CNE-2, and discuss the possible mechanism. The effect of GPS on the growth of CNE-2 cells was observed by CCK8 assay. CNE-2 cells in the logarithmic phase were collected and processed respectively with different concentrations (0, 0. 1, 0. 2, 0. 3. 0. 4 g L-1) of GPS for 48 h. The flow cytometry was used to detect its induction effect on CNE-2 cell apoptosis. Hoechst-33258 cell staining and electron microscope were used to observe the morphological changes of cells. The beta-catenin mRNA expression was detected by Real-time PCR. The protein localizations and expressions of beta-catenin and TCF4 were tested by the immunofluorescence staining. The expressions of beta-catenin, Bcl-2 and Bax proteins were detected by Western blot. CCK8 assay results showed that GPS could remarkably inhibit the proliferation of CNE-2 cells, with dose-time dependence. IC50 of cells induced with GPS for 48 h was 0. 39 g L-1. After being processed with GPS with concentrations of 0.1, 0. 2, 0. 3, 0. 4 g L-1 for 48 h, the cell apoptosis rates of human nasopharyngeal cancer cells CNE-2 were (5. 69 +/- 0. 29)% , (10. 3 +/- 0. 63)% , (15. 4 +/- 0. 74 ) % and (35. 7 +/- 1. 86)% , respectively. Significant difference was observed compared with the control group (2. 08 +/- 0. 11) % (P GPS with the concentration of 0. 4 g L -1 for 48 h. The results of Real-time PCR showed a significant reduction in beta-catenin mRNA expression. The results of laser confocal microscopy revealed notable decrease of beta-catenin and TCF4 expression in nucleus and transfer from nucleus to cell membranes in beta-catenin expression areas after being processed with GPS for 48 h. Western blot showed significant decrease in the expressions of beta-catenin and anti-apoptosis protein Bcl-2, with an increasing expression in apoptosis-promoting protein Bax (P GPS could significantly inhibit the

  5. Heterologous Expression of Panax ginseng PgTIP1 Confers Enhanced Salt Tolerance of Soybean Cotyledon Hairy Roots, Composite, and Whole Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing An

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Panax ginseng TIP gene PgTIP1 was previously demonstrated to have high water channel activity by its heterologous expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes and in yeast; it also plays a significant role in growth of PgTIP1-transgenic Arabidopsis plants under favorable conditions and has enhanced tolerance toward salt and drought treatment. In this work, we first investigated the physiological effects of heterologous PgTIP1 expression in soybean cotyledon hairy roots or composite plants mediated by Agrobacterium rhizogenes toward enhanced salt tolerance. The PgTIP1-transgenic soybean plants mediated by the pollen tube pathway, represented by the lines N and J11, were analyzed at the physiological and molecular levels for enhanced salt tolerance. The results showed that in terms of root-specific heterologous expression, the PgTIP1-transformed soybean cotyledon hairy roots or composite plants displayed superior salt tolerance compared to the empty vector-transformed ones according to the mitigatory effects of hairy root growth reduction, drop in leaf RWC, and rise in REL under salt stress. Additionally, declines in K+ content, increases in Na+ content and Na+/K+ ratios in the hairy roots, stems, or leaves were effectively alleviated by PgTIP1-transformation, particularly the stems and leaves of composite soybean plants. At the whole plant level, PgTIP1-trasgenic soybean lines were found to possess stronger root vigor, reduced root and leaf cell membrane damage, increased SOD, POD, CAT, and APX activities, steadily increased leaf Tr, RWC, and Pn values, and smaller declines in chlorophyll and carotenoid content when exposed to salt stress compared to wild type. Moreover, the distribution patterns of Na+, K+, and Cl- in the roots, stems, and leaves of salt-stressed transgenic plants were readjusted, in that the absorbed Na+ and Cl- were mainly restricted to the roots to reduce their transport to the shoots, and the transport of root-absorbed K+ to the

  6. A ginseng saponin metabolite-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells involves a mitochondria-mediated pathway and its downstream caspase-8 activation and Bid cleavage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Seon-Hee; Lee, Byung-Hoon

    2004-01-01

    20-O-(β-D-Glucopyranosyl)-20(S)-protopanaxadiol (IH901), an intestinal bacterial metabolite of ginseng saponin formed from ginsenosides Rb1, Rb2, and Rc, is suggested to be a potential chemopreventive agent. Here, we show that IH901 induces apoptosis in human hepatoblastoma HepG2 cells. IH901 led to an early activation of procaspase-3 (12 h posttreatment), and the activation of caspase-8 became evident only later (18 h posttreatment). Caspase activation was a necessary requirement for apoptosis because caspase inhibitors significantly inhibited cell death by IH901. Treatment of HepG2 cells with IH901 also induced the cleavage of cytosolic factors such as Bid and Bax and translocation of truncated Bid (tBid) to mitochondria. A time-dependent release of cytochrome c from mitochondria was observed, which was accompanied by activation of caspase-9. A broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor, N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethylketone (zVAD-fmk), and a specific inhibitor for caspase-8, N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Ile-Glu-Thr-Asp-fluoromethylketone (zIETD-fmk), abrogated Bid processing and translocation, and caspase-3 activation. Cytochrome c release was inhibited by zVAD-fmk, however, the inhibition by zIETD-fmk was not complete. The activation of caspase-8 was inhibited not only by zIETD-fmk but also by zVAD-fmk. The results, together with the kinetic change of caspase activation, indicate that activation of caspase-8 occurred downstream of caspase-3 and -9. Our data suggest that the activation of caspase-8 after early caspase-3 activation might act as an amplification loop necessary for successful apoptosis. Primary hepatocytes isolated from normal Sprague-Dawley rats were not affected by IH901 (0-60 μM). The very low toxicity in normal hepatocytes and high activity in hepatoblastoma HepG2 cells suggest that IH901 is a promising experimental cancer chemopreventive agent

  7. Radioescuchas y “música nacional” a mediados del siglo XX: el programa radial Antología Musical de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernando Andrés Pulido Londoño

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article contextualizes and analyzes the opinions of people who listened to the radio program the Antología Musical de Colombia, as found in the letters they sent to its director, the Colombian musician Oriol Rangel. In those letters, listeners remarked on the values of the “national music” of Colombia, the core of the program, which was drawn from popular genres of Andean music. The article shows the convergence of commercial radio networks, the national record industry, specialized criticism and radio audiences in the mid-20th century in Colombia. The opinions of the listeners, which are recreated on the basis of novel original sources, reveal their listening habits, aesthetic preferences and anxiety about what they regarded as the loss of “national music”.

  8. Anti-inflammatory function of ginsenoside Rg1 on alcoholic hepatitis through glucocorticoid receptor related nuclear factor-kappa B pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yan; Chu, Shifeng; Li, Jingwei; Li, Jianping; Zhang, Zhao; Xia, Congyuan; Heng, Yang; Zhang, Meijin; Hu, Jinfeng; Wei, Guining; Li, Yueting; Chen, Naihong

    2015-09-15

    Ginseng is the dried root of Panax ginseng C.A. Mayer. Since ancient times, ginseng has been used as one kind of treatment drug or tonic in China and even other eastern countries like Korea and Japan. Pharmacological active chemical ingredients and its extract of ginseng are a mixture of triterpenoid saponins, collectively called ginsenosides. Among them, ginsenoside Rg1 is the most pharmacological active one. Based on prior experimental results and the understanding of alcoholic hepatitis, the major aim of this study is to investigate whether Rg1 is beneficial in a rodent model mimic alcoholic hepatic injury associated with binge drinking and explore the underlying possible mechanisms. C57BL/6 mice were given oral consumption of 6g/kg alcohol 1h after treated with Rg1 (10, 20 and 40mg/kg) or dexamethasone (1mg/kg) for 9 consecutive days. Biochemical analyses were performed and liver fragments were processed for microscopy, immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. According to our data, Rg1 treatment significantly reversed the high mortality rate induced by alcohol consumption and also alleviated liver impairment as evidenced by the decrease of serum parameters. Meanwhile, histological and ultrastructural analysis of alcoholic groups showed hepatocellular impairment but restored in Rg1-treated groups. Overproductive inflammatory cytokines were also suppressed by Rg1 in alcohol-intoxicated mouse livers. In addition, changes of GR related NF-κB pathway, including phospho-IκB-α, were also modulated to normal levels. This study demonstrates that Rg1 might promote GR mediating the repression of NF-κB and inhibit the inflammatory reactions in alcoholic hepatitis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Ginsenoside Rb1 Protects Rat Neural Progenitor Cells against Oxidative Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Ni

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Ginseng, the root of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, has been used as a tonic to enhance bodily functions against various ailments for hundreds of years in Far Eastern countries without apparent adverse effects. Ginsenoside Rb1, one of the most active ingredients of ginseng, has been shown to possess various pharmacological activities. Here we report that Rb1 exhibits potent neuroprotective effects against oxidative injury induced by tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BHP. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH assay demonstrated that incubation with 300 µm t-BHP for 2.5 h led to a significant cell loss of cultured rat embryonic cortex-derived neural progenitor cells (NPCs and the cell viability was pronouncedly increased by 24 h pretreatment of 10 µm Rb1. TUNEL staining further confirmed that pretreatment of Rb1 significantly reduced the cell apoptosis in t-BHP-induced oxidative injury. Real time PCR revealed that pretreatment with Rb1 activated Nrf2 pathway in cultured NPCs and led to an elevated expression of HO-1. The results of the present study demonstrate that Rb1 shows a potent anti-oxidative effect on cultured NPCs by activating Nrf2 pathway.

  10. Therapeutic Potential of Ginsenosides as an Adjuvant Treatment for Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Litao; Gao, Jialiang; Wei, Fan; Zhao, Jing; Wang, Danwei; Wei, Junping

    2018-01-01

    Ginseng, one of the oldest traditional Chinese medicinal herbs, has been used widely in China and Asia for thousands of years. Ginsenosides extracted from ginseng, which is derived from the roots and rhizomes of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer, have been used in China as an adjuvant in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Owing to the technical complexity of ginsenoside production, the total ginsenosides are generally extracted. Accumulating evidence has shown that ginsenosides exert antidiabetic effects. In vivo and in vitro tests revealed the potential of ginsenoside Rg1, Rg3, Rg5, Rb1, Rb2, Rb3, compound K, Rk1, Re, ginseng total saponins, malonyl ginsenosides, Rd, Rh2, F2, protopanaxadiol (PPD) and protopanaxatriol (PPT)-type saponins to treat diabetes and its complications, including type 1 diabetes mellitus, type 2 diabetes mellitus, diabetic nephropathy, diabetic cognitive dysfunction, type 2 diabetes mellitus with fatty liver disease, diabetic cerebral infarction, diabetic cardiomyopathy, and diabetic erectile dysfunction. Many effects are attributed to ginsenosides, including gluconeogenesis reduction, improvement of insulin resistance, glucose transport, insulinotropic action, islet cell protection, hepatoprotective activity, anti-inflammatory effect, myocardial protection, lipid regulation, improvement of glucose tolerance, antioxidation, improvement of erectile dysfunction, regulation of gut flora metabolism, neuroprotection, anti-angiopathy, anti-neurotoxic effects, immunosuppression, and renoprotection effect. The molecular targets of these effects mainly contains GLUTs, SGLT1, GLP-1, FoxO1, TNF-α, IL-6, caspase-3, bcl-2, MDA, SOD, STAT5-PPAR gamma pathway, PI3K/Akt pathway, AMPK-JNK pathway, NF-κB pathway, and endoplasmic reticulum stress. Rg1, Rg3, Rb1, and compound K demonstrated the most promising therapeutic prospects as potential adjuvant medicines for the treatment of diabetes. This paper highlights the underlying pharmacological mechanisms of the

  11. A systematic review of the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions of herbal medicine with warfarin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songie Choi

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to systematically review data regarding pharmacokinetic (PK-pharmacodynamic (PD parameters from randomized controlled trials relating to interactions between herbal medicines and warfarin.Three electronic databases were searched to identify relevant trials. Two reviewers independently performed the study selection and data extraction. The risk of bias and reporting quality were also assessed independently by two reviewers using the Cochrane risk of bias tool and the consolidated standards of reporting trials (CONSORT. Outcomes were measured for all reported PK-PD parameters and adverse events.Nine randomized controlled trials met our inclusion criteria. Most of the included studies were unclear regarding the risk of bias and had a low quality of methodology. Using CONSORT, the reporting percentages for the articles ranged from 36.5% to 61.5% and the mean percentage for all articles was 45.6%. St John's wort and echinacea affected the PK parameters of warfarin. Ginseng, ginger, garlic, and cranberry had no significant effect on the PK parameters. American ginseng altered the PD parameters of warfarin. St John's wort, ginseng, Korea red ginseng, ginkgo, ginger, garlic, aged garlic, and echincea did not significantly alter the PD parameters. Studies of ginkgo and cranberry showed conflicting results on the PK parameters and PD parameters, respectively. The incidence of adverse events in all trials was low and no major adverse events were reported.It was difficult to determine whether ten herbal medicines had significant effects on the PK-PD parameters of warfarin. Low quality of evidence, different compounds within and different compositions of the herbs, and methodological limitations of the crossover study, which is a clinical study in which subjects receive a sequence of different interventions, made it difficult to form conclusions. Additional studies that remedy these vulnerabilities are necessary to verify these

  12. Comparative Hair Restorer Efficacy of Medicinal Herb on Nude (Foxn1nu Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahnaz Begum

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Eclipta alba (L. Hassk, Asiasarum sieboldii (Miq. F. Maek (Asiasari radix, and Panax ginseng C. A. Mey (red ginseng are traditionally acclaimed for therapeutic properties of various human ailments. Synergistic effect of each standardized plant extract was investigated for hair growth potential on nude mice, as these mutant mice genetically lack hair due to abnormal keratinization. Dried plant samples were ground and extracted by methanol. Topical application was performed on the back of nude mice daily up to completion of two hair growth generations. The hair density and length of Eclipta alba treated mice were increased significantly P>0.001 than control mice. Hair growth area was also distinctly visible in Eclipta alba treated mice. On the other hand, Asiasari radix and Panax ginseng treated mice developing hair loss were recognized from the abortive boundaries of hair coverage. Histomorphometric observation of nude mice skin samples revealed an increase in number of hair follicles (HFs. The presence of follicular keratinocytes was confirmed by BrdU labeling, S-phase cells in HFs. Therefore, Eclipta alba extract and/or phytochemicals strongly displayed incomparability of hair growth promotion activity than others. Thus, the standardized Eclipta alba extract can be used as an effective, alternative, and complementary treatment against hair loss.

  13. The Multivariate Regression Statistics Strategy to Investigate Content-Effect Correlation of Multiple Components in Traditional Chinese Medicine Based on a Partial Least Squares Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ying; Li, Su-Ning; Pei, Xuexue; Hao, Kun

    2018-03-01

    Amultivariate regression statisticstrategy was developed to clarify multi-components content-effect correlation ofpanaxginseng saponins extract and predict the pharmacological effect by components content. In example 1, firstly, we compared pharmacological effects between panax ginseng saponins extract and individual saponin combinations. Secondly, we examined the anti-platelet aggregation effect in seven different saponin combinations of ginsenoside Rb1, Rg1, Rh, Rd, Ra3 and notoginsenoside R1. Finally, the correlation between anti-platelet aggregation and the content of multiple components was analyzed by a partial least squares algorithm. In example 2, firstly, 18 common peaks were identified in ten different batches of panax ginseng saponins extracts from different origins. Then, we investigated the anti-myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury effects of the ten different panax ginseng saponins extracts. Finally, the correlation between the fingerprints and the cardioprotective effects was analyzed by a partial least squares algorithm. Both in example 1 and 2, the relationship between the components content and pharmacological effect was modeled well by the partial least squares regression equations. Importantly, the predicted effect curve was close to the observed data of dot marked on the partial least squares regression model. This study has given evidences that themulti-component content is a promising information for predicting the pharmacological effects of traditional Chinese medicine.

  14. The Multivariate Regression Statistics Strategy to Investigate Content-Effect Correlation of Multiple Components in Traditional Chinese Medicine Based on a Partial Least Squares Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Peng

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Amultivariate regression statisticstrategy was developed to clarify multi-components content-effect correlation ofpanaxginseng saponins extract and predict the pharmacological effect by components content. In example 1, firstly, we compared pharmacological effects between panax ginseng saponins extract and individual saponin combinations. Secondly, we examined the anti-platelet aggregation effect in seven different saponin combinations of ginsenoside Rb1, Rg1, Rh, Rd, Ra3 and notoginsenoside R1. Finally, the correlation between anti-platelet aggregation and the content of multiple components was analyzed by a partial least squares algorithm. In example 2, firstly, 18 common peaks were identified in ten different batches of panax ginseng saponins extracts from different origins. Then, we investigated the anti-myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury effects of the ten different panax ginseng saponins extracts. Finally, the correlation between the fingerprints and the cardioprotective effects was analyzed by a partial least squares algorithm. Both in example 1 and 2, the relationship between the components content and pharmacological effect was modeled well by the partial least squares regression equations. Importantly, the predicted effect curve was close to the observed data of dot marked on the partial least squares regression model. This study has given evidences that themulti-component content is a promising information for predicting the pharmacological effects of traditional Chinese medicine.

  15. Analysis of Changes in the Lorenz Energy Budget of the Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, T. D.

    2009-12-01

    Several recent papers have addressed the topic of changes in global precipitation rates related to changes in Earth's global energy balance. Less studied are the processes that may be governing the large-scale regional distribution of precipitation around the globe. This study uses the energy budget partition paradigm first put forth by Lorenz (1955) and follows the methodology of Arpé et al. (1986) and Oriol (1982) to identify latitude bands where the partition of energy amongst zonal and eddy kinetic and potential energy bins may account for the spatial patterns of precipitation change predicted by many IPCC AR4 models. In doing so, this study may help to identify whether or not the climate change predicted by these models is indeed creating enhanced baroclinic storms in the mid-latitudes or if there are other mechanisms at work producing the patterns of precipitation change.

  16. Therapeutic Effects of Water Extract of Arisaema Erubescens Tubers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the anti-arthritic activity of the water extract of Rhizoma Arisaematis (WERA) using collagen II .... Plethysmometer PV-200 (ChengDu Technology. & Market Co. ..... Chung WY. Red ginseng saponin extract attenuates.

  17. Habitat models to assist plant protection efforts in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Manen, F.T.; Young, J.A.; Thatcher, C.A.; Cass, W.B.; Ulrey, C.

    2005-01-01

    During 2002, the National Park Service initiated a demonstration project to develop science-based law enforcement strategies for the protection of at-risk natural resources, including American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.), bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis L.), and black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa (L.) Nutt. [syn. Actaea racemosa L.]). Harvest pressure on these species is increasing because of the growing herbal remedy market. We developed habitat models for Shenandoah National Park and the northern portion of the Blue Ridge Parkway to determine the distribution of favorable habitats of these three plant species and to demonstrate the use of that information to support plant protection activities. We compiled locations for the three plant species to delineate favorable habitats with a geographic information system (GIS). We mapped potential habitat quality for each species by calculating a multivariate statistic, Mahalanobis distance, based on GIS layers that characterized the topography, land cover, and geology of the plant locations (10-m resolution). We tested model performance with an independent dataset of plant locations, which indicated a significant relationship between Mahalanobis distance values and species occurrence. We also generated null models by examining the distribution of the Mahalanobis distance values had plants been distributed randomly. For all species, the habitat models performed markedly better than their respective null models. We used our models to direct field searches to the most favorable habitats, resulting in a sizeable number of new plant locations (82 ginseng, 73 bloodroot, and 139 black cohosh locations). The odds of finding new plant locations based on the habitat models were 4.5 (black cohosh) to 12.3 (American ginseng) times greater than random searches; thus, the habitat models can be used to improve the efficiency of plant protection efforts, (e.g., marking of plants, law enforcement activities). The field searches also

  18. Effects of gintonin on the proliferation, migration, and tube formation of human umbilical-vein endothelial cells: involvement of lysophosphatidic-acid receptors and vascular-endothelial-growth-factor signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Hee Hwang

    2016-10-01

    Conclusion: The gintonin-mediated proliferation, migration, and vascular-endothelial-growth-factor release in HUVECs via LPA-receptor activation may be one of in vitro mechanisms underlying ginseng-induced angiogenic and wound-healing effects.

  19. Herbs at a Glance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cautions, and resources for more information. Acai Aloe Vera Asian Ginseng Astragalus Bilberry Bitter Orange Black Cohosh ... app today. Subscribe Get dietary supplement updates by e-mail Email Address This page last modified June ...

  20. “Nano-Ginseng” for Enhanced Cytotoxicity AGAINST Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Weiyan; Si, Chuanling; Lei, Jiandu

    2018-01-01

    Panax ginseng has high medicinal and health values. However, the various and complex components of ginseng may interact with each other, thus reducing and even reversing therapeutic effects. In this study, we designed and fabricated a novel “nano-ginseng” with definite ingredients, ginsenoside Rb1/protopanaxadiol nanoparticles (Rb1/PPD NPs), completely based on the protopanaxadiol-type extracts. The optimized nano-formulations demonstrated an appropriate size (~110 nm), high drug loading efficiency (~96.8%) and capacity (~27.9 wt %), long half-time in systemic circulation (nine-fold longer than free PPD), better antitumor effects in vitro and in vivo, higher accumulation at the tumor site and reduced damage to normal tissues. Importantly, this process of “nano-ginseng” production is a simple, scalable, green economy process. PMID:29473838

  1. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-15

    Jun 15, 2016 ... rats were accidentally divided into the control, sham and test group ... cadmium chloride due to abundant antioxidant property. ..... Karadeniz A, Cemek M, Simsek N. The effects of Panax ginseng and Spirulina platensis on.

  2. 7 CFR 65.255 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 65.255 Section 65.255 Agriculture..., PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.255 United States. United States means the 50... United States. ...

  3. Molecular detection of Cylindrocarpon destructans in infected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2012-05-24

    May 24, 2012 ... Molecular detection of Cylindrocarpon destructans in infected Chinese ginseng .... EDTA and potassium acetate (pH 5.5) were added to provide final concentrations of 100 ..... Variation in Nectria radicicola and its anamorph ...

  4. Drug: D06985 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 727], Pinellia tuber [DR:D06778], Scutellaria root [DR:D06688], Ginseng [DR:D06772], Jujube [DR:D06758], Glycyrrhiza [DR:D04365], Gin...ger [DR:D06744] ... Therapeutic category: 5200 ... PubChem: 51091327 ...

  5. Ginsenoside Rb1 protects against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced oxidative stress by increasing heme oxygenase-1 expression through an estrogen receptor-related PI3K/Akt/Nrf2-dependent pathway in human dopaminergic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Yong Pil; Jeong, Hye Gwang

    2010-01-01

    Phytoestrogens are polyphenolic non-steroidal plant compounds with estrogen-like biological activity. Ginseng, the root of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer (Araliaceae), is a popular traditional herbal medicine. Ginsenoside Rb1 (Rb1), an active component commonly found in ginseng root, is a phytoestrogen that exerts estrogen-like activity. In this study, we demonstrate that the phytoestrogen Rb1 inhibits 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced oxidative injury via an ER-dependent Gβ1/PI3K/Akt and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) pathway. Pretreatment of SH-SY5Y cells with Rb1 significantly reduced 6-OHDA-induced caspase-3 activation and subsequent cell death. Rb1 also up-regulated HO-1 expression, which conferred cytoprotection against 6-OHDA-induced oxidative injury. Moreover, Rb1 induced both Nrf2 nuclear translocation, which is upstream of HO-1 expression and PI3K activation, a pathway that is involved in induced Nrf2 nuclear translocation, HO-1 expression and cytoprotection. Also, Rb1-mediated increases in PI3K activation and HO-1 induction were reversed by co-treatment with ICI 182,780 and pertussis toxin. Taken together, these results suggest that Rb1 augments the cellular antioxidant defenses through ER-dependent HO-1 induction via the Gβ1/PI3K/Akt-Nrf2 signaling pathway, thereby protecting cells from oxidative stress. Thus our study indicates that Rb1 has a partial cytoprotective role in dopaminergic cell culture systems.

  6. STEAMakers- a global initiative to connect STEM career professionals with the public to inspire the next generation and nurture a creative approach to science, technology, maths & engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Niamh; Sorkhabi, Elburz; Gasquez, Oriol; Yajima, Saho

    2016-04-01

    STEAMakers is a global initiative founded by Niamh Shaw, Elburz Sorkhabi, Oriol Gasquez & Saho Yajima, four alumni of The International Space University's Space Studies Programme 2015 who each shared a vision to inspire the next generation to embrace science, technology, engineering & maths (STEM) in new ways, by embedding the Arts within STEM, putting the 'A' in STEAM. STEAMakers invited STEM professionals around the world to join their community, providing training and a suite of STEAM events, specially designed to encourage students to perceive science, technology, engineering & maths as a set of tools with which to create, design, troubleshoot, innovate, and imagine. The ultimate goal of STEAMakers is to grow this community and create a global culture of non-linear learning among the next generation, to nurture within them a new multidisciplinary mindset and incubate new forms of innovation and thought leadership required for the future through the power of inspiration and creativity.

  7. Ozsoy et al., Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. (2016) 13(3):203 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shoots and leaves against acute ccl4-induced liver injury as well as the changes in ... The experimental protocol described in the present study was approved by the animal assays ethics comittee of ıstanbul ..... Dietary honey and ginseng.

  8. (Tongkat Ali) for callus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2010-12-06

    Dec 6, 2010 ... The induction of callus cultures using leaf, petiole, rachis, stem, tap root, fibrous root, cotyledon and ... other countries of the South-East Asia region and widely distributed ..... Indian ginseng plantlets from stem callus. Plant Cell ...

  9. Ekstraktion af æteriske olier fra oregano

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellitsgaard Jakobsen, Jens; Ankerfeldt, Dorte; Jensen, Morten Busch

    2010-01-01

    med keratin - Ammoniakforurening reduceres med ny teknologi - Genvinding og genanvendelse af ammoniak fra spildevand og husdyrgødning - Ginseng - en virkningsfuld medicinplante - Ekstraktion af æteriske olier fra oregano "Biotek" er udviklet med udgangspunkt i originalartikler udarbejdet af forskere...

  10. Effects of Ginseng Fruit Saponins on Serotonin System in Sprague-Dawley Rats with Myocardial Infarction, Depression,and Myocardial Infarction Complicated with Depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong-Fang He; Yan-Ping Ren; Mei-Yan Liu

    2016-01-01

    Background:Our previous studies have demonstrated that the levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and 5-HT 2A receptor (5-HT2AR) in serum and platelet were associated with depression and myocardial infarction (MI),and pretreatment with ginseng fruit saponins (GFS) before MI and depression had an effect on the 5-HT system.In this study,the effects of GFS on the 5-HT system in the Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with MI,depression,and MI + depression were evaluated.Methods:A total of eighty SD rats were allocated to four groups:MI,depression,MI + depression,and control groups (n =20 in each group).Each group included two subgroups (n =10 in each subgroup):Saline treatment subgroup and GFS treatment subgroup.The levels of5-HT,5-HT2AR,and serotonin transporter (SERT) were quantified in serum,platelet lysate,and brain tissue through the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method,respectively.Results:Compared with those in the saline treatment subgroups,the levels of 5-HT in serum and platelet lysate statistically significantly increased in the GFS treatment subgroups of MI,depression,and MI + depression groups (serum:all P =0.000;platelet lysate:P =0.002,0.000,0.000,respectively).However,the 5-HT levels in brain homogenate significantly decreased in the GFS treatment subgroups compared with those in the saline treatment subgroups in MI and depression groups (P =0.025 and 0.044 respectively),and no significant difference was observed between saline and GFS treatment subgroups in MI + depression group (P =0.663).Compared with that in GFS treatment subgroup of control group,the 5-HT2AR levels in the platelet lysate significantly decreased in GFS treatment subgroups of MI,depression,and MI + depression groups (all P=0.000).Compared to those in the saline treatment subgroups,the serum SERT levels significantly decreased in the GFS treatment subgroups in MI,depression,and MI + depression groups (P =0.009,0.038,and P=0.001,respectively),while the SERT levels ofplatelet lysate

  11. Structure modification and medical application of the natural products by proton beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D. W.; Park, J. K.; Kang, J. E.; Shin, S. C.; Ahn, J. H.; Lee, E. S.

    2008-04-01

    This study was performed for the investigation of changes of constituent contents of Korean ginseng (Panax genseng C.A. Meyer) after proton beam irradiation (Beam energy from MC-50 cyclotron : 36.5MeV) with beam range of 500 - 10000Gy

  12. Structure modification and medical application of the natural products by proton beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D. W.; Park, J. K.; Kang, J. E.; Shin, S. C.; Ahn, J. H.; Lee, E. S. [Dongguk University, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-04-15

    This study was performed for the investigation of changes of constituent contents of Korean ginseng (Panax genseng C.A. Meyer) after proton beam irradiation (Beam energy from MC-50 cyclotron : 36.5MeV) with beam range of 500 - 10000Gy

  13. Antioxidant and antimicrobial effect of some natural plant extracts added to lamb patties during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim, Hayam M.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural plants are considered an important target to investigate in order to provide a new source of natural antioxidants and/or antimicrobial agents. The optimum concentrations of some natural plant (jojoba, jatropha, ginseng and ginger extracts were determined and added to lamb patties. Some chemical and microbial characteristics of the prepared patties during storage for 9 days at 4°C were evaluated. Both the addition of these extracts and storage time had a significant effect on the patties throughout the storage period. The effectiveness of the tested natural extracts can be listed in the following order of decreasing Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS values: ginseng > jatropha > jojoba > ginger. Aerobic plate count, mould and yeast counts decreased significantly with addition of the extracts during the storage period. Also, the addition of the extracts was significantly effective in reducing histamine, tyramine and putrescine formation during the storage period. Compared to control patties, the addition of these natural extracts was effective as antioxidant and antimicrobial agents for improving the properties of lamb patties.

    Las plantas naturales están consideradas como un importante producto donde buscar y encontrar nuevas fuentes de antioxidantes naturales y/o agentes antimicrobianos. La concentración óptima de algunos extractos de plantas naturales (jojoba, jatropha, ginseng y jengibre fueron determinado y añadidas a pasteles de cordero. Algunas características químicas y microbiológicas de los pasteles preparados y almacenados durante 9 días a 4°C fueron evaluados. Tanto la adición de estos extractos como el tiempo de almacenamiento tuvieron un efecto significativo en los pasteles en el periodo de almacenamiento. La efectividad de los extractos naturales ensayados puede ser enumerada en el siguiente orden decreciente de valores de substancias reactivas con el ácido tiobarbitúrico (TBARS: ginseng

  14. Synergistic effects of ginsenoside Rg3 and cyclophosphamine on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-31

    Aug 31, 2011 ... Key words: Ginseng, cyclophosphamide, angiogenesis, lung cancer. INTRODUCTION. With the development ... immunohistochemical staining with mouse monoclonal PCNA antibody (1:100) and the number of ... endothelium with mouse monoclonal CD31-PECAM antibody. (1:100). The number of CD31 ...

  15. Résultats de recherche | Page 380 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Biodiversité et santé : Tuons-nous les plantes qui peuvent nous guérir ? Enrhumé ? Vite, de l'échinacée. Le stress vous tenaille ? Prenez un peu de ginseng. Research in Action. Food security Poverty POVERTY ALLEVIATION Gender ...

  16. Short communication: Influence of pasteurization on the active compounds in medicinal plants to be used in dairy products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäger, Anna Katharina; Saaby, Lasse; Kudsk, Dorte Søndergaard

    2010-01-01

    Interest from the dairy industry in adding herbal drugs to milk and yogurt products raises the question of whether these plant materials can be pasteurized. Root material of Rhodiola rosea, Eleutherococcus senticosus, and Panax ginseng, all plants with adaptogenic activities, was pasteurized...

  17. 77 FR 56128 - Polyoxin D Zinc Salt; Amendment to an Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... vegetables, fruiting vegetables, ginseng, grapes, pistachios, pome fruits, potatoes, and strawberries by..., pistachios, pome fruits, potatoes, and strawberries. The toxicological data submitted to support the previous..., potatoes, and strawberries is amended by establishing an exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for...

  18. Neutron activation analysis of phytotherapic obtained from medicinal plants; Analise por ativacao com neutrons de fitoterapicos obtidos de plantas medicinais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Henrique S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas]. E-mail: hs_moreira@hotmail.com; Saiki, Mitiko; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: mitiko@ipen.br; mbvascon@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    This paper determines the inorganic constituents in phytotherapic samples for posterior study of the relationship existent among the concentrations of the found elements and the their possible therapeutical effects. The samples of phytotherapic pills (Centella asiatica, Ginkgo biloba and Ginseng) were analysed by using neutron activation analysis (NAA). The As, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Na, Rb, Sc, Se and Zn samples were determined in the phytotherapics, The Centella asiatica presented the higher concentrations of Br, Co, Cr, Fe, K, La, Na, Rb, Sc, Se and Zn. In the sample of Ginko biloba, higher levels of As and Ca were found, while in the sample ol Ginseng the element As were not detected. The found results have shown the the NAA method is appropriated for analysing this type of materials due to his simplicity, multielemental capacity and quality of the results obtained. (author)

  19. Toxicological safety evaluation of biomolecules and materials transformed by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Il Jun; Jeon, Young Eun; Kang, Hyo Jin; Yun, Sung Bok

    2010-01-01

    In the bacterial reversion assay with S. typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA1535 and TA1537, gamma irradiated hyaluronic acid (10 and 50 kGy) did not induce a significant increase in the number of revertant colonies in the presence of S9 metabolic activation system. In chromosomal aberration tests with CHO cells, gamma irradiated hyaluronic acid (10 and 50 kGy) did not result in an increase in the frequency of chromosomal aberrations. In vivo mouse micronucleus assay, gamma irradiated hyaluronic acid (10 and 50 kGy) did not show an increase in the frequency of polychromatic erythrocytes with micronuclei. These results indicate that hyaluronic acids irradiated at 10 and 50 kGy did not show any genotoxic effects under these experimental conditions. In order to evaluate their possible subacute toxicity, the male and female of ICR mouse were given to methanol extract of 50 kGy irradiated red ginseng and 20 kGy irradiated water extract of mistletoe for three months. During the experimental periods, appearance, behavior, mortality, food and water consumption of rats fed the 50 kGy irradiated red ginseng and 20 kGy irradiated water extract of mistletoe were not affected compared to the non-irradiated control. Although minor changes in biochemical parameters were observed, they were not dose dependent and not affected by gamma irradiation. These results indicate that 50 kGy irradiated red ginseng and 20 kGy irradiated water extract of mistletoe did not show any toxic effects under these experimental conditions

  20. Toxicological safety evaluation of biomolecules and materials transformed by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Il Jun; Jeon, Young Eun; Kang, Hyo Jin; Yun, Sung Bok

    2010-01-15

    In the bacterial reversion assay with S. typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA1535 and TA1537, gamma irradiated hyaluronic acid (10 and 50 kGy) did not induce a significant increase in the number of revertant colonies in the presence of S9 metabolic activation system. In chromosomal aberration tests with CHO cells, gamma irradiated hyaluronic acid (10 and 50 kGy) did not result in an increase in the frequency of chromosomal aberrations. In vivo mouse micronucleus assay, gamma irradiated hyaluronic acid (10 and 50 kGy) did not show an increase in the frequency of polychromatic erythrocytes with micronuclei. These results indicate that hyaluronic acids irradiated at 10 and 50 kGy did not show any genotoxic effects under these experimental conditions. In order to evaluate their possible subacute toxicity, the male and female of ICR mouse were given to methanol extract of 50 kGy irradiated red ginseng and 20 kGy irradiated water extract of mistletoe for three months. During the experimental periods, appearance, behavior, mortality, food and water consumption of rats fed the 50 kGy irradiated red ginseng and 20 kGy irradiated water extract of mistletoe were not affected compared to the non-irradiated control. Although minor changes in biochemical parameters were observed, they were not dose dependent and not affected by gamma irradiation. These results indicate that 50 kGy irradiated red ginseng and 20 kGy irradiated water extract of mistletoe did not show any toxic effects under these experimental conditions

  1. 7 CFR 65.160 - Ground chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground chicken. 65.160 Section 65.160 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.160 Ground chicken. Ground chicken means...

  2. 7 CFR 65.230 - Production step.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production step. 65.230 Section 65.230 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards..., PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.230 Production step. Production step means, in...

  3. 75 FR 19393 - Notice of Withdrawal of Pesticide Petitions for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-14

    ... ppm; ginseng at 0.3 ppm; mushroom at 0.09 ppm; nut, tree, group 14 at 0.2 ppm; sunflower at 0.05 ppm; vegetable, tuberous and corm, subgroup 1C at 0.1 ppm; tomato and tomatillo at 1.4 ppm; and mustard (grown...

  4. 7 CFR 65.150 - Goat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.150 Goat. Goat means meat produced from goats. ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Goat. 65.150 Section 65.150 Agriculture Regulations of...

  5. 7 CFR 65.190 - Lamb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lamb. 65.190 Section 65.190 Agriculture Regulations of..., PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.190 Lamb. Lamb means meat produced from sheep. ...

  6. 7 CFR 65.170 - Ground lamb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground lamb. 65.170 Section 65.170 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.170 Ground lamb. Ground lamb means comminuted...

  7. 7 CFR 65.120 - Chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chicken. 65.120 Section 65.120 Agriculture Regulations..., PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.120 Chicken. Chicken has the meaning given the term in...

  8. Molecular detection of Cylindrocarpon destructans in infected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed for rapid detection of C. destructans in diseased ginseng roots and artificially inoculated soil. One pair of specific primers was designed from comparisons of nucleotide sequences of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of ...

  9. 7 CFR 65.165 - Ground goat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground goat. 65.165 Section 65.165 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.165 Ground goat. Ground goat means comminuted...

  10. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 11, No 42 (2012)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular detection of Cylindrocarpon destructans in infected Chinese ginseng roots and soil · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... Biogenic volatile compounds of activated sludge and their application for metal bioremediation · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  11. Initial decay process of radicals induced in irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaimori, Yoshihiko; Sakamoto, Yuki; Nakamura, Hideo; Ukai, Mitsuko; Kikuchi, Masahiro; Shimoyama, Yuhei; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Kameya, Hiromi

    2011-01-01

    In order to determine radial decay behaviors of γ-irradiated food, we analyzed radicals in the food using ESR. We detected the ESR signal of specimens just several minutes after irradiation. The singlet signal intensity at g=2.0, originated from organic free radicals was increased as followed by the increasing radiation dose. Singlet signal intensity that increased by γ-irradiation was decreased with time. The phenomena of decay of the ESR singlet signal showed two phase that are rapid decay and slow decay. It was suggested that those two phase decay is due to at least the two radical species. Also we concluded that after three hours of radiation treatment long life radical as ESR signal intensity was detected in irradiated specimen; black pepper, green coffee bean and ginseng, showed the same decay phenomena. But the signal intensity of irradiated black pepper was three times larger than that of irradiated green coffee bean and irradiated ginseng. (author)

  12. Gene expression of panaxydol-treated human melanoma cells using radioactive cDNA microarrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Joong Youn; Yu, Su Jin; Soh, Jeong Won; Kim, Meyoung Kon

    2001-01-01

    Polyacetylenic alcohols derived from Panax ginseng have been studied to be an anticancer reagent previously. One of the Panax ginseng polyacetylenic alcohols, i.e., panaxydol, has been studied to possess an antiproliferative effect on human melanoma cell line (SK-MEL-1). In ths study, radioactive cDNA microarrays enabled an efficient approach to analyze the pattern of gene expression (3.194 genes in a total) simultaneously. The bioinformatics selection of human cDNAs, which is specifically designed for immunology, apoptosis and signal transduction, were arrayed on nylon membranes. Using with 33 P labeled probes, this method provided highly sensitive gene expression profiles of our interest including apoptosis, cell proliferation, cell cycle, and signal transduction. Gene expression profiles were also classified into several categories in accordance with the duration of panaxydol treatment. Consequently, the gene profiles of our interest were significantly up (199 genes, > 2.0 of Z-ratio) or down-(196 genes, < 2.0 of Z-ratio) regulated in panaxydol-treated human melanoma cells

  13. Gene expression of panaxydol-treated human melanoma cells using radioactive cDNA microarrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Joong Youn; Yu, Su Jin; Soh, Jeong Won; Kim, Meyoung Kon [College of Medicine, Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    Polyacetylenic alcohols derived from Panax ginseng have been studied to be an anticancer reagent previously. One of the Panax ginseng polyacetylenic alcohols, i.e., panaxydol, has been studied to possess an antiproliferative effect on human melanoma cell line (SK-MEL-1). In ths study, radioactive cDNA microarrays enabled an efficient approach to analyze the pattern of gene expression (3.194 genes in a total) simultaneously. The bioinformatics selection of human cDNAs, which is specifically designed for immunology, apoptosis and signal transduction, were arrayed on nylon membranes. Using with {sup 33}P labeled probes, this method provided highly sensitive gene expression profiles of our interest including apoptosis, cell proliferation, cell cycle, and signal transduction. Gene expression profiles were also classified into several categories in accordance with the duration of panaxydol treatment. Consequently, the gene profiles of our interest were significantly up (199 genes, > 2.0 of Z-ratio) or down-(196 genes, < 2.0 of Z-ratio) regulated in panaxydol-treated human melanoma cells.

  14. Acanthopanax senticosus: review of botany, chemistry and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Linzhang; Zhao, Hongfang; Huang, Baokang; Zheng, Chengjian; Peng, Wei; Qin, Luping

    2011-02-01

    Acanthopanax senticosus (Rupr. et Maxim) Harms (Araliaceae), also called Siberian Ginseng, Eleutherococcus senticosus, and Ciwujia in Chinese, is a widely used traditional Chinese herb that could invigorate qi, strengthen the spleen, and nourish kidney in the theory of Traditional Chinese Medicine. With high medicinal value, Acanthopanax senticosus (AS, thereafter) is popularly used as an "adaptogen" like Panax ginseng. In recent decades, a great number of chemical, pharmacological, and clinical studies on AS have been carried out worldwide. Several kinds of chemical compounds have been reported, including triterpenoid saponins, lignans, coumarins, and flavones, among which, phenolic compounds such as syringin and eleutheroside E, were considered to be the most active components. Considerable pharmacological experiments both in vitro and in vivo have persuasively demonstrated that AS possessed anti-stress, antiulcer, anti-irradiation, anticancer, anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective activities, etc. The present review is an up-to-date and comprehensive analysis of the botany, chemistry, pharmacology, toxicity and clinical trials of AS.

  15. When science meets culture: The prevention and management of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Because of the increasing number of men seeking treatment for ED, there is a need to assess the safety and biological plausibility of some of the readily available ... These include oysters, alcoholic beverages, chocolate, chilli, Epimedium extract (horny goat weed), Panax ginseng, Ginkgo biloba, Tribulis terrestris, Eriosema ...

  16. 7 CFR 65.140 - Food service establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... retail establishments that provide ready-to-eat foods that are consumed either on or outside of the... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Food service establishment. 65.140 Section 65.140..., PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.140 Food service establishment. Food service...

  17. 78 FR 21945 - Notice of Receipt of Pesticide Products; Registration Applications To Register New Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    ... include: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS...; Bulb Onion, subgroups 3-07 A and B; Fruiting Vegetable group 8-10; and Greenhouse Tomato. Contact: Rose... Type: Fungicide. Proposed Uses: Bean, succulent; Ginseng; Onion, bulb, subgroup 3-07A; and Onion, green...

  18. Microbial conversion of major ginsenoside Rb1 to minor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... minor ginsenoside Rd by Indian fermented food bacteria. Kalaiselvi ... South Korea. Accepted 17 April, 2009. Ginsenoside Rb1 is the predominant secondary metabolite (saponin) in Panax ginseng. Hydrolysis of the sugar .... culture and 200 µl of major ginsenoside Rb1. The reaction mixture was incubated ...

  19. Commonly Used Dietary Supplements on Coagulation Function during Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong-Zhi Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients who undergo surgery appear to use dietary supplements significantly more frequently than the general population. Because they contain pharmacologically active compounds, dietary supplements may affect coagulation and platelet function during the perioperative period through direct effects, pharmacodynamic interactions, and pharmacokinetic interactions. However, in this regard, limited studies have been conducted that address the pharmacological interactions of dietary supplements. To avoid possible bleeding risks during surgery, information about the potential complications of dietary supplements during perioperative management is important for physicians. Methods: Through a systematic database search of all available years, articles were identified in this review if they included dietary supplements and coagulation/platelet function, while special attention was paid to studies published after 1990. Results: Safety concerns are reported in commercially available dietary supplements. Effects of the most commonly used natural products on blood coagulation and platelet function are systematically reviewed, including 11 herbal medicines (echinacea, ephedra, garlic, ginger, ginkgo, ginseng, green tea, kava, saw palmetto, St John’s wort, and valerian and four other dietary supplements (coenzyme Q10, glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate, fish oil, and vitamins. Bleeding risks of garlic, ginkgo, ginseng, green tea, saw palmetto, St John’s wort, and fish oil are reported. Cardiovascular instability was observed with ephedra, ginseng, and kava. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions between dietary supplements and drugs used in the perioperative period are discussed. Conclusions: To prevent potential problems associated with the use of dietary supplements, physicians should be familiar with the perioperative effects of commonly used dietary supplements. Since the effects of dietary supplements on coagulation and platelet

  20. Commonly Used Dietary Supplements on Coagulation Function during Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong-Zhi; Moss, Jonathan; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Patients who undergo surgery appear to use dietary supplements significantly more frequently than the general population. Because they contain pharmacologically active compounds, dietary supplements may affect coagulation and platelet function during the perioperative period through direct effects, pharmacodynamic interactions, and pharmacokinetic interactions. However, in this regard, limited studies have been conducted that address the pharmacological interactions of dietary supplements. To avoid possible bleeding risks during surgery, information about the potential complications of dietary supplements during perioperative management is important for physicians. Methods Through a systematic database search of all available years, articles were identified in this review if they included dietary supplements and coagulation/platelet function, while special attention was paid to studies published after 1990. Results Safety concerns are reported in commercially available dietary supplements. Effects of the most commonly used natural products on blood coagulation and platelet function are systematically reviewed, including 11 herbal medicines (echinacea, ephedra, garlic, ginger, ginkgo, ginseng, green tea, kava, saw palmetto, St John’s wort, and valerian) and four other dietary supplements (coenzyme Q10, glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate, fish oil, and vitamins). Bleeding risks of garlic, ginkgo, ginseng, green tea, saw palmetto, St John’s wort, and fish oil are reported. Cardiovascular instability was observed with ephedra, ginseng, and kava. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions between dietary supplements and drugs used in the perioperative period are discussed. Conclusions To prevent potential problems associated with the use of dietary supplements, physicians should be familiar with the perioperative effects of commonly used dietary supplements. Since the effects of dietary supplements on coagulation and platelet function are

  1. Traditional Japanese medicines inhibit compound action potentials in the frog sciatic nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Akitomo; Fujita, Tsugumi; Ohtsubo, Sena; Kumamoto, Eiichi

    2016-02-03

    Traditional Japanese (Kampo) medicines have a variety of clinical effects including pain alleviation, but evidence for a mechanism for their pain relief has not yet been elucidated fully. Considering that Kampo medicine contains many plant-derived chemicals having an ability to inhibit nerve action potential conduction, it is possible that this medicine inhibits nerve conduction. The purpose of the present study was to know how various Kampo medicines affect nerve conduction. We examined the effects of Kampo and crude medicines on compound action potentials (CAPs) recorded from the frog sciatic nerve by using the air-gap method. Daikenchuto, rikkosan, kikyoto, rikkunshito, shakuyakukanzoto and kakkonto concentration-dependently reduced the peak amplitude of the CAP. Among the Kampo medicines, daikenchuto was the most effective in inhibiting CAPs. Daikenchuto is composed of three kinds of crude medicine, Japanese pepper, processed ginger and ginseng radix. When the crude medicines were tested, Japanese pepper and processed ginger reduced CAP peak amplitudes, while ginseng radix hardly affected CAPs. Moreover, there was an interaction between the Japanese pepper and processed ginger activities in such that one medicine at low but not high concentrations increased the extent of the inhibition by the other one that was co-applied. Kampo medicines have an ability to inhibit nerve conduction. This action of daikenchuto is due to Japanese pepper and processed ginger but not ginseng radix, probably through an interaction between Japanese pepper and processed ginger in a manner dependent on their concentrations. Nerve conduction inhibition could contribute to at least a part of Kampo medicine's clinical effects such as pain alleviation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Commonly Used Dietary Supplements on Coagulation Function during Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong-Zhi; Moss, Jonathan; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2015-09-01

    Patients who undergo surgery appear to use dietary supplements significantly more frequently than the general population. Because they contain pharmacologically active compounds, dietary supplements may affect coagulation and platelet function during the perioperative period through direct effects, pharmacodynamic interactions, and pharmacokinetic interactions. However, in this regard, limited studies have been conducted that address the pharmacological interactions of dietary supplements. To avoid possible bleeding risks during surgery, information of potential complications of dietary supplements during perioperative management is important for physicians. Through a systematic database search of all available years, articles were identified in this review if they included dietary supplements and coagulation/platelet function, while special attention was paid to studies published after 1990. Safety concerns are reported in commercially available dietary supplements. Effects of the most commonly used natural products on blood coagulation and platelet function are systematically reviewed, including 11 herbal medicines (echinacea, ephedra, garlic, ginger, ginkgo, ginseng, green tea, kava, saw palmetto, St John's wort, and valerian) and 4 other dietary supplements (coenzyme Q 10 , glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate, fish oil, and vitamins). Bleeding risks of garlic, ginkgo, ginseng, green tea, saw palmetto, St John's wort, and fish oil are reported. Cardiovascular instability was observed with ephedra, ginseng, and kava. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions between dietary supplements and drugs used in the perioperative period are discussed. To prevent potential problems associated with the use of dietary supplements, physicians should be familiar with the perioperative effects of commonly used dietary supplements. Since the effects of dietary supplements on coagulation and platelet function are difficult to predict, it is prudent to advise their

  3. Biological activity of selected plants with adaptogenic effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Ivanišová

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine biological activity of plants with adaptogenic effect: Panax ginseng Mayer., Withania somnifera L., Eleuterococcus senticosus Rupr. et Maxim., Astragallus membranaceus Fisch. and Codonopsis pilosulae Franch. The antioxidant activity was detected by DPPH and phosphomolybdenum method, total polyphenol content with Folin – Ciocalteu reagent, flavonoids content by aluminium chloride method. The detection of antimicrobial activity was carried out by disc diffusion method against three species of Gram-negative bacteria: Escherichia coli CCM 3988, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica CCM 3807, Yersinia enterocolitica CCM 5671 and two Gram-positive bacteria: Bacillus thuringiensis CCM 19, Stapylococcus aureus subsp. aureus CCM 2461. Results showed that plants with adaptogenic effect are rich for biologically active substances. The highest antioxidant activity by DPPH method was determined in the sample of Eleuterococcus senticosus (3.15 mg TEAC – Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity per g of sample and by phosphomolybdenum method in the sample of Codonopsis pilosulae (188.79 mg TEAC per g of sample. In the sample of Panax ginseng was measured the highest content of total polyphenols (8.10 mg GAE – galic acid equivalent per g of sample and flavonoids (3.41 μg QE – quercetin equivalent per g of sample. All samples also showed strong antimicrobial activity with the best results in Panax ginseng and Withania somnifera in particular for species Yersinia enterocolitica CCM 5671 and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica CCM 3807. The analyzed species of plant with high value of biological activity can be used more in the future, not only in food, but also in cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries.

  4. A strategy for efficient discovery of new natural compounds by integrating orthogonal column chromatography and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis: Its application in Panax ginseng, Panax quinquefolium and Panax notoginseng to characterize 437 potential new ginsenosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wen-zhi; Ye, Min; Qiao, Xue; Liu, Chun-fang; Miao, Wen-juan; Bo, Tao; Tao, Hai-yan; Guo, De-an

    2012-08-20

    To discover new natural compounds from herbal medicines tends to be more and more difficult. In this paper, a strategy integrating orthogonal column chromatography and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) analysis was proposed, and was applied for rapid discovery of new ginsenosides from Panax ginseng (PG), Panax quinquefolium (PQ), and Panax notoginseng (PN). The ginsenosides extracts were fractionated by MCI gel×silica gel orthogonal column chromatography. The fractions were then separated on a C(18) HPLC column, eluted with a three-component mobile phase (CH(3)CN/CH(3)OH/3mM CH(3)COONH(4)H(2)O), and detected by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. The structures of unknown ginsenosides were elucidated by analyzing negative and positive ion mass spectra, which provided complementary information on the sapogenins and oligosaccharide chains, respectively. A total of 623 comprising 437 potential new ginsenosides were characterized from the ethanol extracts of PG, PQ and PN. New acylations, diversified saccharide chains and C-17 side chains constituted novelty of the newly identified ginsenosides. An interpretation guideline was proposed for structural characterization of unknown ginsenosides by LC/MS. To confirm reliability of this strategy, two targeted unknown trace ginsenosides were obtained in pure form by LC/MS-guided isolation. Based on extensive NMR spectroscopic analysis and other techniques, they were identified as 3-O-[6-O-(E)-butenoyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl(1,2)-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-20(S)-protopanaxadiol-20-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl(1,6)-β-D-glucopyranoside (named ginsenoside IV) and 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl(1,2)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-3β,12β,20(S),24(R)-tetra hydroxy-dammar-25-ene-20-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl(1,6)-β-D-glucopyranoside (ginsenoside V), respectively. The fully established structures were consistent with the MS-oriented structural elucidation. This study expanded our understanding on ginsenosides of Panax species, and the

  5. 21 CFR 310.528 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as an...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as an aphrodisiac. 310.528 Section 310.528 Food and Drugs FOOD AND... drug product. Anise, cantharides, don qual, estrogens, fennel, ginseng, golden seal, gotu kola, Korean...

  6. Winter habitat occurrence patterns of temperate migrant birds in Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, D.K.; Robbins, C.S.; Sauer, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    We used mist nets and point counts to sample bird populations in 61 sites in Belize during January-March of 1987-1991. Sites were classified as forest, second growth, woody agricultural crops (citrus, mango, cacao, and cashew), or non-woody agricultural crops (rice and sugar cane). We evaluated patterns of occurence of wintering temperate migrant bird species in these habitats. Mist net captures of 22 of 31 migrant species differed significantly among habitats. Of these, 13 species were captured more frequently in the agricultural habitats. American Redstart (Setophaga ruticilla), Black-and-white Warbler (Mniotilta varia), and Magnolia Warbler (Dendroica magnolia) were among the species captured most frequently in woody agricultural habitats; captures of Common Yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas), Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea), and Northern (lcterus galbula) and Orchard orioles (I. spur/anus) were highest in the non-woody agricultural sites. We relate these occurrence patterns to trends in breeding populations in North America. While count data provide a wide picture of winter habitat distribution of migrants, more intensive work is necessary to assess temporal and geographic variation of migrant bird use of agricultural habitats.

  7. Computation of quantum electron transport with local current conservation using quantum trajectories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alarcón, A; Oriols, X

    2009-01-01

    A recent proposal for modeling time-dependent quantum electron transport with Coulomb and exchange correlations using quantum (Bohm) trajectories (Oriols 2007 Phys. Rev. Lett. 98 066803) is extended towards the computation of the total (particle plus displacement) current in mesoscopic devices. In particular, two different methods for the practical computation of the total current are compared. The first method computes the particle and the displacement currents from the rate of Bohm particles crossing a particular surface and the time-dependent variations of the electric field there. The second method uses the Ramo–Shockley theorem to compute the total current on that surface from the knowledge of the Bohm particle dynamics in a 3D volume and the time-dependent variations of the electric field on the boundaries of that volume. From a computational point of view, it is shown that both methods achieve local current conservation, but the second is preferred because it is free from 'spurious' peaks. A numerical example, a Bohm trajectory crossing a double-barrier tunneling structure, is presented, supporting the conclusions

  8. 7 CFR 65.100 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 65.100 Section 65.100 Agriculture Regulations of... MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING OF BEEF..., AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.100 Act. Act means the Agricultural Marketing Act of...

  9. Heterologous production of a ginsenoside saponin (compound K) and its precursors in transgenic tobacco impairs the vegetative and reproductive growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwak, Yu Shin; Han, Jung Yeon; Adhikari, Prakash Babu; Ahn, Chang Ho; Choi, Yong Eui

    2017-06-01

    Production of compound K (a ginsenoside saponin) and its precursors in transgenic tobacco resulted in stunted growth and seed set failure, which may be caused by strong autotoxicity of heterologously produced phytochemicals against the tobacco itself. Panax ginseng roots contain various saponins (ginsenosides), which are major bioactive compounds. A monoglucosylated saponin, compound K (20-O-(β-D-glucopyranosyl)-20(S)-protopanaxadiol), has high medicinal and cosmetic values but is present in undetectable amounts in naturally grown ginseng roots. The production of compound K (CK) requires complicated deglycosylation of ginsenosides using physicochemical and/or enzymatic degradation. In this work, we report the production of CK in transgenic tobacco by co-overexpressing three genes (PgDDS, CYP716A47 and UGT71A28) isolated from P. ginseng. Introduction and expression of the transgenes in tobacco lines were confirmed by genomic PCR and RT-PCR. All the lines of transgenic tobacco produced CK including its precursors, protopanaxadiol and dammarenediol-II (DD). The concentrations of CK in the leaves ranged from 1.55 to 2.64 µg/g dry weight, depending on the transgenic line. Interestingly, production of CK in tobacco brought stunted plant growth and gave rise to seed set failure. This seed set failure was caused by both long-styled flowers and abnormal pollen development in transgenic tobacco. Both CK and DD treatments highly suppressed in vitro germination and tube growth in wild-type pollens. Based on these results, metabolic engineering for CK production in transgenic tobacco was successfully achieved, but the production of CK and its precursors in tobacco severely affects vegetative and reproductive growth due to the cytotoxicity of phytochemicals that are heterologously produced in transgenic tobacco.

  10. Phytochemical Assays of Commercial Botanical Dietary Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Krochmal

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing popularity of botanical dietary supplements (BDS has been accompanied by concerns regarding the quality of commercial products. Health care providers, in particular, have an interest in knowing about product quality, in view of the issues related to herb-drug interactions and potential side effects. This study assessed whether commercial formulations of saw palmetto, kava kava, echinacea, ginseng and St. John's wort had consistent labeling and whether quantities of marker compounds agreed with the amounts stated on the label. We purchased six bottles each of two lots of supplements from nine manufacturers and analyzed the contents using established commercial methodologies at an independent laboratory. Product labels were found to vary in the information provided, such as serving recommendations and information about the herb itself (species, part of the plant, marker compound, etc. With regard to marker compound content, little variability was observed between different lots of the same brand, while the content did vary widely between brands (e.g. total phenolic compounds in Echinacea ranged from 3.9–15.3 mg per serving; total ginsenosides in ginseng ranged from 5.3–18.2 mg per serving. Further, the amounts recommended for daily use also differed between brands, increasing the potential range of a consumer's daily dose. Echinacea and ginseng were the most variable, while St. John's wort and saw palmetto were the least variable. This study highlights some of the key issues in the botanical supplement market, including the importance of standardized manufacturing practices and reliable labeling information. In addition, health care providers should keep themselves informed regarding product quality in order to be able to appropriately advise patients utilizing both conventional and herbal medicines.

  11. Phytochemical Assays of Commercial Botanical Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The growing popularity of botanical dietary supplements (BDS) has been accompanied by concerns regarding the quality of commercial products. Health care providers, in particular, have an interest in knowing about product quality, in view of the issues related to herb-drug interactions and potential side effects. This study assessed whether commercial formulations of saw palmetto, kava kava, echinacea, ginseng and St. John's wort had consistent labeling and whether quantities of marker compounds agreed with the amounts stated on the label. We purchased six bottles each of two lots of supplements from nine manufacturers and analyzed the contents using established commercial methodologies at an independent laboratory. Product labels were found to vary in the information provided, such as serving recommendations and information about the herb itself (species, part of the plant, marker compound, etc.) With regard to marker compound content, little variability was observed between different lots of the same brand, while the content did vary widely between brands (e.g. total phenolic compounds in Echinacea ranged from 3.9–15.3 mg per serving; total ginsenosides in ginseng ranged from 5.3–18.2 mg per serving). Further, the amounts recommended for daily use also differed between brands, increasing the potential range of a consumer's daily dose. Echinacea and ginseng were the most variable, while St. John's wort and saw palmetto were the least variable. This study highlights some of the key issues in the botanical supplement market, including the importance of standardized manufacturing practices and reliable labeling information. In addition, health care providers should keep themselves informed regarding product quality in order to be able to appropriately advise patients utilizing both conventional and herbal medicines. PMID:15841264

  12. Comparative analysis of the expression level of recombinant ginsenoside-transforming β-glucosidase in GRAS hosts and mass production of the ginsenoside Rh2-Mix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Muhammad Zubair; Cui, Chang-Hao; Park, Seul-Ki; Han, Nam Soo; Kim, Sun-Chang

    2017-01-01

    The ginsenoside Rh2, a pharmaceutically active component of ginseng, is known to have anticancer and antitumor effects. However, white ginseng and red ginseng have extremely low concentrations of Rh2 or Rh2-Mix [20(S)-Rh2, 20(R)-Rh2, Rk2, and Rh3]. To enhance the production of food-grade ginsenoside Rh2, an edible enzymatic bioconversion technique was developed adopting GRAS host strains. A β-glucosidase (BglPm), which has ginsenoside conversion ability, was expressed in three GRAS host strains (Corynebacterium glutamicum, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactococus lactis) by using a different vector system. Enzyme activity in these three GRAS hosts were 75.4%, 11.5%, and 9.3%, respectively, compared to that in the E. coli pGEX 4T-1 expression system. The highly expressed BglPm_C in C. glutamicum can effectively transform the ginsenoside Rg3-Mix [20(S)-Rg3, 20(R)-Rg3, Rk1, Rg5] to Rh2-Mix [20(S)-Rh2, 20(R)-Rh2, Rk2, Rh3] using a scaled-up biotransformation reaction, which was performed in a 10-L jar fermenter at pH 6.5/7.0 and 37°C for 24 h. To our knowledge, this is the first report in which 50 g of PPD-Mix (Rb1, Rb2, Rb3, Rc, and Rd) as a starting substrate was converted to ginsenoside Rg3-Mix by acid heat treatment and then 24.5-g Rh2-Mix was obtained by enzymatic transformation of Rg3-Mix through by BglPm_C. Utilization of this enzymatic method adopting a GRAS host could be usefully exploited in the preparation of ginsenoside Rh2-Mix in cosmetics, functional food, and pharmaceutical industries, thereby replacing the E. coli expression system. PMID:28423055

  13. Oral antineoplastic agent interactions with medicinal plants and food: an issue to take into account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-Borrell, Roberto; Escudero-Vilaplana, Vicente; Romero-Jiménez, Rosa; Iglesias-Peinado, Irene; Herranz-Alonso, Ana; Sanjurjo-Sáez, María

    2016-11-01

    To review interactions between oral antineoplastic agents (OAAs) for the treatment of solid and hematological tumors and common food and medicinal plants. All potential interactions between OAAs, medicinal plants and food were reviewed. OAAs were considered to be drugs for oral administration that have direct antitumor activity and were approved by the European Medicines Agency in April 2015. We performed the literature search in Pubmed(®) considering only medicinal plants and food. In addition, available data were analyzed from each OAA in secondary data sources taken from Thomson Micromedex(®) and Lexi-comp(®), as well as in the summary of product characteristics. Fifty-eight OAAs were analyzed. We found interactions in 60.3 % of OAAs. Those with most interactions described were: imatinib and procarbazine (4 interactions) and erlotinib, vemurafenib, pomalidomide, medroxyprogesterone and methotrexate (3 interactions). We found 39 interactions (74.4 % important). St. John's wort was the medicinal plant with most interactions (92.6 % were considered important). The rest were: important (ginseng-imatinib, methotrexate-cola and tobacco-erlotinib and tobacco-pomalidomide) and moderate (caffeine-vemurafenib/medroxyprogesterone, medroxyprogesterone-ruxolitinib/St. John's wort, garlic-anagrelide and ginseng-procarbazine). Twenty-six interactions (61.5 % important). Grapefruit had most interactions (82.4 % were considered important). The rest were: important (alcohol-procarbazine) and moderate (dairy-estramustine, methotrexate-ethanol, procarbazine-tyramine, vitamin A-tretinoin/bexarotene and grapefruit-bexarotene/etoposide/sunitinib). A review of interactions of medicinal plants and food should be taken into account in the management of OAAs, since more than half have interactions with MPs and food, of which 70.3 % are considered important. The most relevant are HSJ, grapefruit, ginseng and tobacco. This review is intended to serve as a support to all healthcare

  14. Drug: D06760 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e ginseng (TN) Chikusetsusaponin III [CPD:C17539], Chikusetsusaponin IV [CPD:C17540], Chikusetsusaponin V [CPD:C17543], Chikusetsusap...onin Ia [CPD:C17544], Chikusetsusaponin Ib [CPD:C17545] ... Panax japonicus [TAX:44...nax rhizome Major component: Chikusetsusaponin [CPD:C17539 C17540 C17543 C17544 C17545] ... PubChem: 47208411 ...

  15. Non-timber forest products in Central Appalachia: market opportunities for rural development (poster abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.L. Hammett; J.L. Chamberlain

    1999-01-01

    The gathering of forest products has supplemented the incomes of Central Appalachia residents for many generations. Non-timber forest products (NTFPs) can be grouped within four general categories: edibles such as mushrooms; medicinal and dietary supplements, including ginseng, gingko, and St. John?s wort; floral products such as moss, grape vines, and ferns; and...

  16. Publications | Page 266 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Biodiversity and health: Are we killing the plants that can cure? Getting a cold? Take some echinacea. Feeling stressed? Try a little ginseng. Worried and depressed? Perhaps some St. John's wort will pick you up. The growth in popularity of these and hundreds of other herbal remedies in Europe and North America has ...

  17. Qualitation and quantification of specific polysaccharides from Panax species using GC-MS, saccharide mapping and HPSEC-RID-MALLS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Kit-Leong; Wu, Ding-Tao; Deng, Yong; Leong, Fong; Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Wen-Jie; Li, Shao-Ping

    2016-11-20

    The objective of this study was to qualify and quantify the specific polysaccharides in Panax spp. The analyses of specific polysaccharides were performed by using GC-MS, saccharide mapping and high performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) coupled with multi angle laser light scattering (MALLS) and refractive index detector (RID). Results showed that compositional monosaccharides were the same in different species of Panax and composed of rhamnose, arabinose, galacturonic acid, mannose, glucose, and galactose. Saccharide mapping results showed that glycosides linkages, which existed in specific polysaccharides from Panax spp., were similar. Additionally, the content of specific polysaccharides of P. ginseng, P. notoginseng and P. quinquefolium were 17.9-20.5mg/g, 11.9-15.0mg/g, and 9.9-13.3mg/g, respectively. P. ginseng, P. notoginseng, and P. quinquefolium could be clustered into three groups using both hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis. The results possessed great potential in characterization and content determination of specific polysaccharides in Panax spp. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Film analysis employing subtarget effect using 355 nm Nd-YAG laser-induced plasma at low pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedwig, Rinda [Department of Computer Engineering, Faculty of Computer Studies, Bina Nusantara University, 9 K.H. Syahdan, Jakarta Barat 11480 (Indonesia); Budi, Wahyu Setia [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Diponegoro University, Tembalang Campus, Semarang, Central Java (Indonesia); Abdulmadjid, Syahrun Nur [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Syiah Kuala University, Darussalam, Banda Aceh, Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam (Indonesia); Pardede, Marincan [Research Center of Maju Makmur Mandiri Foundation, 40 Srengseng Raya, Kembangan, Jakarta Barat 11630 (Indonesia); Suliyanti, Maria Margaretha [Research Center of Maju Makmur Mandiri Foundation, 40 Srengseng Raya, Kembangan, Jakarta Barat 11630 (Indonesia); Lie, Tjung Jie [Research Center of Maju Makmur Mandiri Foundation, 40 Srengseng Raya, Kembangan, Jakarta Barat 11630 (Indonesia); Kurniawan, Davy Putra [Research Center of Maju Makmur Mandiri Foundation, 40 Srengseng Raya, Kembangan, Jakarta Barat 11630 (Indonesia); Kurniawan, Koo Hendrik [Research Center of Maju Makmur Mandiri Foundation, 40 Srengseng Raya, Kembangan, Jakarta Barat 11630 (Indonesia)]. E-mail: kurnia18@cbn.net.id; Kagawa, Kiichiro [Department of Physics, Faculty of Education and Regional Studies, 9-1 bunkyo 3-chome, Fukui 910-8507 (Japan); Tjia, May On [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Bandung Institute of Technology, 10 Ganesha, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2006-12-15

    The applicability of spectrochemical analysis for liquid and powder samples of minute amount in the form of thin film was investigated using ultraviolet Nd-YAG laser (355 nm) and low-pressure ambient air. A variety of organic samples such as commercial black ink usually used for stamp pad, ginseng extract, human blood, liquid milk and ginseng powder was prepared as film deposited on the surface of an appropriate hard substrate such as copper plate or glass slide. It was demonstrated that in all cases studied, good quality spectra were obtained with very low background and free from undesirable contamination by the substrate elements, featuring ppm or even sub-ppm sensitivity and worthy of application for quantitative analysis of organic samples. The proper preparation of the films was found to be crucial in achieving the high quality spectra. It was further shown that much inferior results were obtained when the atmospheric-pressure (101 kPa) operating condition of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy or the fundamental wavelength of the Nd-YAG laser was employed due to the excessive or improper laser ablation process.

  19. Film analysis employing subtarget effect using 355 nm Nd-YAG laser-induced plasma at low pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedwig, Rinda; Budi, Wahyu Setia; Abdulmadjid, Syahrun Nur; Pardede, Marincan; Suliyanti, Maria Margaretha; Lie, Tjung Jie; Kurniawan, Davy Putra; Kurniawan, Koo Hendrik; Kagawa, Kiichiro; Tjia, May On

    2006-01-01

    The applicability of spectrochemical analysis for liquid and powder samples of minute amount in the form of thin film was investigated using ultraviolet Nd-YAG laser (355 nm) and low-pressure ambient air. A variety of organic samples such as commercial black ink usually used for stamp pad, ginseng extract, human blood, liquid milk and ginseng powder was prepared as film deposited on the surface of an appropriate hard substrate such as copper plate or glass slide. It was demonstrated that in all cases studied, good quality spectra were obtained with very low background and free from undesirable contamination by the substrate elements, featuring ppm or even sub-ppm sensitivity and worthy of application for quantitative analysis of organic samples. The proper preparation of the films was found to be crucial in achieving the high quality spectra. It was further shown that much inferior results were obtained when the atmospheric-pressure (101 kPa) operating condition of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy or the fundamental wavelength of the Nd-YAG laser was employed due to the excessive or improper laser ablation process

  20. Production of Ginsenoside F2 by Using Lactococcus lactis with Enhanced Expression of β-Glucosidase Gene from Paenibacillus mucilaginosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling; Shin, So-Yeon; Lee, Soo Jin; Moon, Jin Seok; Im, Wan Taek; Han, Nam Soo

    2016-03-30

    This study aimed to produce a pharmacologically active minor ginsenoside F2 from the major ginsenosides Rb1 and Rd by using a recombinant Lactococcus lactis strain expressing a heterologous β-glucosidase gene. The nucleotide sequence of the gene (BglPm) was derived from Paenibacillus mucilaginosus and synthesized after codon optimization, and the two genes (unoptimized and optimized) were expressed in L. lactis NZ9000. Codon optimization resulted in reduction of unfavorable codons by 50% and a considerable increase in the expression levels (total activities) of β-glucosidases (0.002 unit/mL, unoptimized; 0.022 unit/mL, optimized). The molecular weight of the enzyme was 52 kDa, and the purified forms of the enzymes could successfully convert Rb1 and Rd into F2. The permeabilized L. lactis expressing BglPm resulted in a high conversion yield (74%) of F2 from the ginseng extract. Utilization of this microbial cell to produce F2 may provide an alternative method to increase the health benefits of Panax ginseng.

  1. Costs and returns of producing hops in established tree plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim Ha; Shadi Atallah; Tamara Benjamin; Lori Hoagland; Lenny Farlee; Keith. Woeste

    2017-01-01

    This article is the first of two publications that analyzes economic opportunities in forest farming for Indiana forest plantation owners. This study explores growing hops along the fence lines of newly established forest stands, while the second study investigates producing American ginseng in older (20- to 30-year-old) forests. The economic analysis presented in this...

  2. Sexospécificités | Page 203 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Indigenous peoples who live there depend on this forest for food, medicine, building materials and much more. But parts of the rainforest are being cut by outsiders, the pressure on natural resources is ... Le stress vous tenaille ? Prenez un peu de ginseng. Vous êtes inquiet et déprimé ? Le millepertuis devrait vous ...

  3. 2005 Department of Defense Survey of Health Related Behaviors among Active Duty Military Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    Fentanyl Cannabis , THC, "pot", "weed", "chronic" LSD ("acid"), Phencyclidine (PCP) ("angel dust"), Mescaline, Peyote, Psilocybin, "mushrooms" (or...Palmetto) . . . . . . . . . . . . Weight loss products (such as Chromium Picolinate, Ripped Fuel, caffeine , Dexatrim, Acutrim, Metabolife, Metabolite...Echinacea, Ginseng, Saw Palmetto) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Weight loss products (such as Chromium Picolinate, Ripped Fuel, caffeine , Dexatrim

  4. Effects of spermidine, proline and carbohydrate sources on somatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The in vitro main roots transverse thin cell layers of Vietnamese ginseng (Panax vietnamensis Ha et. Grushv.) were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 1.0 mg.l-1 2,4- dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 0.2 mg.l-1 kinetin and 0.5 mg.l-1 naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), 30 g.l-1 sucrose and 8.5 ...

  5. Marketing of specialty forest products in the southeast: opportunities for research, education and outreach (poster abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.L. Hammett; J.L. Chamberlain

    1999-01-01

    The specialty forest products sector in the Southeast is growing rapidly - perhaps faster than in other sections of the country. In 1993, the state of Virginia exported almost 10 percent of the national total of wild harvested ginseng. On a yearly basis, the value of the specialty forest products extracted from Virginia?s forests has been estimated at $35 million. The...

  6. Traditional Chinese medicine research and education in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghayur, Muhammad Nabeel

    2009-06-01

    Abstract Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is one of the oldest forms of medicine in the world. There has been a growing interest in TCM in Canada in terms of consumers and also among the research community. To cater for this interest, the Canadian Institute of Chinese Medicinal Research (CICMR) was established in 2004. Since its formation, CICMR has been organizing annual meetings. In 2008, the CICMR meeting, jointly organized with the Ontario Ginseng Innovation Research Centre, was held from October 16th to 19th, in London, Ontario, Canada. The meeting saw a number of participants and speakers from many countries who discussed TCM in a Canadian perspective. The talks and presentations focused on TCM practices in Asia and Canada; analytical techniques for unravelling the science behind TCM; basic and clinical research findings in the areas of cancer and cardiovascular diseases; safety and quality control issues; the regulatory and educational framework of TCM in Canada; and the latest findings in agricultural, chemical, and pharmacological research on ginseng from all over the world. The meeting successfully provided a platform for constructive discussions on TCM practices and research and education in Canada and the world.

  7. 78 FR 14461 - Fenpyrazamine; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-06

    ... berry subgroup 13-07G at 3.0 ppm (PP 1F7841); pistachio at 0.02 ppm; Caneberry subgroup 13-07A at 7.0..., Bushberry Subgroup 13-07B, Caneberry Subgroup 13-07A, Ginseng, and Pistachio'' in docket ID number EPA-HQ..., hulls at 1.5 ppm; pistachio at 0.02 ppm; lettuce, head at 1.5 ppm; lettuce, leaf at 2 ppm; Caneberry...

  8. Nitric oxide, human diseases and the herbal products that affect the nitric oxide signalling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achike, Francis I; Kwan, Chiu-Yin

    2003-09-01

    1. Nitric oxide (NO) is formed enzymatically from l-arginine in the presence of nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Nitric oxide is generated constitutively in endothelial cells via sheer stress and blood-borne substances. Nitric oxide is also generated constitutively in neuronal cells and serves as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator in non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic nerve endings. Furthermore, NO can also be formed via enzyme induction in many tissues in the presence of cytokines. 2. The ubiquitous presence of NO in the living body suggests that NO plays an important role in the maintenance of health. Being a free radical with vasodilatory properties, NO exerts dual effects on tissues and cells in various biological systems. At low concentrations, NO can dilate the blood vessels and improve the circulation, but at high concentrations it can cause circulatory shock and induce cell death. Thus, diseases can arise in the presence of the extreme ends of the physiological concentrations of NO. 3. The NO signalling pathway has, in recent years, become a target for new drug development. The high level of flavonoids, catechins, tannins and other polyphenolic compounds present in vegetables, fruits, soy, tea and even red wine (from grapes) is believed to contribute to their beneficial health effects. Some of these compounds induce NO formation from the endothelial cells to improve circulation and some suppress the induction of inducible NOS in inflammation and infection. 4. Many botanical medicinal herbs and drugs derived from these herbs have been shown to have effects on the NO signalling pathway. For example, the saponins from ginseng, ginsenosides, have been shown to relax blood vessels (probably contributing to the antifatigue and blood pressure-lowering effects of ginseng) and corpus cavernosum (thus, for the treatment of men suffering from erectile dysfunction; however, the legendary aphrodisiac effect of ginseng may be an overstatement). Many plant extracts or

  9. An overview of herbal supplement utilization with particular emphasis on possible interactions with dental drugs and oral manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abebe, Worku

    2003-01-01

    Herbal medication in the United States is a popular form of therapy. This paper provides an overview of the utilization of herbal supplements with particular emphasis on possible interactions with oral health drugs and oral manifestations. Herbal supplements are regulated by the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA), which limits their regulation by the U.S Food and Drug Administration (FDA). A number of studies indicate that there is a progressive increase in the utilization of herbal supplements. The majority of consumers of these products are white, middle-aged women who have some college education. Many of the consumers use pharmaceutical drugs concurrently, but most do not inform their health-care providers about their use of herbal supplements. Various herbal supplements have been reported or are suspected to interact with certain oral health drugs, the most important one being 1) bromelain, cayenne, chamomile, feverfew, dong quai, eleuthro/Seberian ginseng, garlic, ginkgo, ginger, ginseng and licorice interacting with aspirin; 2) aloe latex, ephedra, ginseng, rhubarb, cascara sagrada, licorice, and senna interacting with corticosteriods; 3) kava, St. John's wort, chamomile, and valerian interacting with central nervous system (CNS) depressant drugs; and 4) herbs acting on the gastrointestinal system, altering the absorption of several orally administered drugs. Further, the use of some herbal supplements has been reported to be associated with oral manifestations, including aphthous ulcers, lip and tongue irritation, and swelling with feverfew; gingival bleeding with feverfew and ginkgo; tongue numbness with echinacea; xerostomia with St. John's wort; oral and lingual dyskinesia with kava; and salivation with yohimbe. These potential effects of herbal supplements in conjunction with factors related to regulation restrictions suggest that the use of these products may be associated with various adverse reactions that can affect oral health and

  10. Biotechnological experiments in space flights on board of space stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechitailo, Galina S.

    2012-07-01

    Space flight conditions are stressful for any plant and cause structural-functional transition due to mobiliation of adaptivity. In space flight experiments with pea tissue, wheat and arabidopsis we found anatomical-morphological transformations and biochemistry of plants. In following experiments, tissue of stevia (Stevia rebaudiana), potato (Solanum tuberosum), callus culture and culture and bulbs of suffron (Crocus sativus), callus culture of ginseng (Panax ginseng) were investigated. Experiments with stevia carried out in special chambers. The duration of experiment was 8-14 days. Board lamp was used for illumination of the plants. After experiment the plants grew in the same chamber and after 50 days the plants were moved into artificial ionexchange soil. The biochemical analysis of plants was done. The total concentration of glycozides and ratio of stevioside and rebauside were found different in space and ground plants. In following generations of stevia after flight the total concentration of stevioside and rebauside remains higher than in ground plants. Experiments with callus culture of suffron carried out in tubes. Duration of space flight experiment was 8-167 days. Board lamp was used for illumination of the plants. We found picrocitina pigment in the space plants but not in ground plants. Tissue culture of ginseng was grown in special container in thermostate under stable temperature of 22 ± 0,5 C. Duration of space experiment was from 8 to 167 days. Biological activity of space flight culutre was in 5 times higher than the ground culture. This difference was observed after recultivation of space flight samples on Earth during year after flight. Callus tissue of potato was grown in tubes in thermostate under stable temperature of 22 ± 0,5 C. Duration of space experiment was from 8 to 14 days. Concentration of regenerates in flight samples was in 5 times higher than in ground samples. The space flight experiments show, that microgravity and other

  11. Identification and characterization of a ginsenoside-transforming β-glucosidase from Pseudonocardia sp. Gsoil 1536 and its application for enhanced production of minor ginsenoside Rg2(S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Du

    Full Text Available The ginsenoside Rg2(S, which is one of the pharmaceutical components of ginseng, is known to have neuroprotective, anti-inflammation, and anti-diabetic effects. However, the usage of ginsenoside Rg2(S is restricted owing to the small amounts found in white and red ginseng. To enhance the production of ginsenoside Rg2(S as a 100 gram unit with high specificity, yield, and purity, an enzymatic bioconversion method was developed to adopt the recombinant glycoside hydrolase (BglPC28, which is a ginsenoside-transforming recombinant β-glucosidase from Pseudonocardia sp. strain Gsoil 1536. The gene, termed bglPC28, encoding β-glucosidase (BglPC28 belonging to the glycoside hydrolase family 3 was cloned. bglPC28 consists of 2,232 bp (743 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular mass of 78,975 Da. This enzyme was overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3 using a GST-fused pGEX 4T-1 vector system. The optimum conditions of the recombinant BglPC28 were pH 7.0 and 37 °C. BglPC28 can effectively transform the ginsenoside Re to Rg2(S; the Km values of PNPG and Re were 6.36 ± 1.10 and 1.42 ± 0.13 mM, respectively, and the Vmax values were 40.0 ± 2.55 and 5.62 ± 0.21 µmol min-1 mg-1 of protein, respectively. A scaled-up biotransformation reaction was performed in a 10 L jar fermenter at pH 7.0 and 30°C for 12 hours with a concentration of 20 mg/ml of ginsenoside Re from American ginseng roots. Finally, 113 g of Rg2(S was produced from 150 g of Re with 84.0 ± 1.1% chromatographic purity. These results suggest that this enzymatic method could be usefully exploited in the preparation of ginsenoside Rg2(S in the cosmetics, functional food, and pharmaceutical industries.

  12. Black ginseng extract ameliorates hypercholesterolemia in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Saba

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: Administration of BG extracts to Sprague Dawley rats fed with high-cholesterol diet ameliorated hypercholesterolemia, which was mediated via modulation of cholesterol-metabolizing marker genes. This data throw a light on BG's cardioprotective effects.

  13. Cistanches Herba: A neuropharmacology review

    OpenAIRE

    Caimei Gu; Linfang Huang

    2016-01-01

    Cistanches Herba (family Orobanchaceae), commonly known as desert ginseng or Rou Cong Rong, is a global genus and commonly used for its neuroprotective, immunomodulatory, anti-oxidative, kidney impotence, laxative, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, anti-bacterial, anti-viral, and anti-tumor effects in traditional herbal formulations in North Africa, Arabic, and Asian countries. The major bioactive compounds present in this plant is phenylethanoid glycosides. In recent years, there has been...

  14. Canada-U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    reaffirmed this timetable and added goat meat, chicken, ginseng, pecans , and macadamia nuts as covered commodities. A final rule was issued on...major countries gather to discuss and coordinate international policies. The G-8 is a group of advanced countries (Canada, France, Germany, Italy ...Financial Crisis Since the mid-1970s, leaders from the G-7 (Canada, France, Germany, Italy , Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States), a small group

  15. Biological activity of selected plants with adaptogenic effect

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Ivanišová; Miroslava Kačániová; Jana Petrová; Radka Staňková; Lucia Godočíková; Tomáš Krajčovič; Štefan Dráb

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine biological activity of plants with adaptogenic effect: Panax ginseng Mayer., Withania somnifera L., Eleuterococcus senticosus Rupr. et Maxim., Astragallus membranaceus Fisch. and Codonopsis pilosulae Franch. The antioxidant activity was detected by DPPH and phosphomolybdenum method, total polyphenol content with Folin – Ciocalteu reagent, flavonoids content by aluminium chloride method. The detection of antimicrobial activity was carried out by disc diff...

  16. Natural products used for diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Karen; Gong, William C

    2002-01-01

    To review the efficacy and safety of natural products commonly used for diabetes. English and Spanish-language journals retrieved through a MEDLINE search of articles published between 1960 and December 2001 using these index terms: Opuntia, karela, gymnema, tecoma, alpha lipoic acid, thioctic acid, ginseng, panaxans, and diabetes. Natural products have long been used in traditional systems of medicine for diabetes. Products in common use include nopal (prickly pear cactus), fenu-greek, karela (bitter melon), gymnema, ginseng, tronadora, chromium, and alpha-lipoic acid. The popularity of these products varies among people of different ethnicities. Nopal is the most commonly used herbal hypoglycemic among persons of Mexican descent. Karela is more commonly used by persons from Asian countries. Some of these agents have gained universal appeal. For a select number of products, studies have revealed single or multiple mechanisms of action. For several of these, high soluble fiber content is a contributing factor. Based on the available evidence, several natural products in common use can lower blood glucose in patients with diabetes. Commonly used natural products often have a long history of traditional use, and pharmacists who have a stronger understanding of these products are better positioned to counsel patients on their appropriate use.

  17. Ginsenoside 25-OCH3-PPD promotes activity of LXRs to ameliorate P2X7R-mediated NLRP3 inflammasome in the development of hepatic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xin; Song, Jian; Lian, Li-Hua; Yao, You-Li; Shao, Dan-Yang; Fan, Ying; Hou, Li-Shuang; Wang, Ge; Zheng, Shuang; Wu, Yan-Ling; Nan, Ji-Xing

    2018-06-22

    Ginseng is widely used in energy drinks, dietary supplements and herbal medicines, and its pharmacological actions are related with energy metabolism. As an important modulating energy metabolism pathway, liver X receptors (LXRs) can promote the resolving of hepatic fibrosis and inflammation. The present study aims to evaluate the regulation of 25-OCH3-PPD, a ginsenoside isolated from Panax ginseng, against hepatic fibrosis and inflammation in thioacetamide (TAA)-stimulated mice by activating LXRs pathway. 25-OCH3-PPD decreases serum ALT/AST levels and improves the histological pathology of liver in TAA-induced mice; attenuates transcripts of pro-fibrogenic markers associated with hepatic stellate cell activation; attenuates the levels of pro-Inflammatory cytokines and blocks apoptosis happened in liver; inhibits NLRP3 inflammasome by affecting P2X7R activation; regulates PI3K/Akt and LKB1/AMPK-SIRT1. 25-OCH3-PPD also facilitates LX25Rs and FXR activities decreased by TAA stimulation. 25-OCH3-PPD also decreases α-SMA via regulation of LXRs and P2X7R-NLRP3 in vitro. Our data suggest the possibility that 25-OCH3-PPD promotes activity of LXRs to ameliorate P2X7R-mediated NLRP3 inflammasome in the development of hepatic fibrosis.

  18. Development of drying equipment for heat sensitive material : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenau, G.J.; Sokhansanj, S. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    This paper described a project in which two types of prototype heat pump dryer systems were designed, constructed and field tested in 2000 to 2002. Performance testing was accomplished through a computer based simulation model for predicting dryer performance. The paper describes the procedures followed and the results obtained. The dryer is used for high value specialty crops such as ginseng, herbs and echinacea which require low temperature drying. The heat pump dryer operates under a closed loop and can dry these crops at low temperatures, independent of ambient conditions. The first prototype was a small fixed bed cabinet dryer suitable for small growers. The other was a full scale prototype moving bed cross flow system suitable for large scale commercial drying of sensitive agricultural crops. The heat pump system is faster and more energy efficient than conventional dryers. The average moisture content of ginseng roots was reduced by 10 per cent in 5 days using 190 kWh of energy. The heat pump dryer is 22 per cent more efficient than a conventional dryer due to its recirculating system. Drying time is reduced by 65 per cent. A computerized simulation validated experimental results. 30 refs., 10 tabs., 29 figs.

  19. Maltol, a Food Flavoring Agent, Attenuates Acute Alcohol-Induced Oxidative Damage in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Han

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of maltol, a food-flavoring agent, on alcohol-induced acute oxidative damage in mice. Maltol used in this study was isolated from red ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A Meyer and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and mass spectrometry. For hepatoprotective activity in vivo, pretreatment with maltol (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg; 15 days drastically prevented the elevated activities of aspartate transaminase (AST, alanine transaminase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and triglyceride (TG in serum and the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β in liver tissue (p < 0.05. Meanwhile, the levels of hepatic antioxidant, such as catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px were elevated by maltol pretreatment, compared to the alcohol group (p < 0.05. Histopathological examination revealed that maltol pretreatment significantly inhibited alcohol-induced hepatocyte apoptosis and fatty degeneration. Interestingly, pretreatment of maltol effectively relieved alcohol-induced oxidative damage in a dose-dependent manner. Maltol appeared to possess promising anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory capacities. It was suggested that the hepatoprotective effect exhibited by maltol on alcohol-induced liver oxidative injury may be due to its potent antioxidant properties.

  20. Traditional Chinese Medicines in Treatment of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Weidong; Zhao, Yunan; Zhang, Yaou

    2011-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) occurs in 95% of the diabetic populations. Management of T2DM is a challenge. Traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) are usually served as adjuvants used to improve diabetic syndromes in combination of routine antidiabetic drugs. For single-herb prescriptions, Ginseng, Bitter melon, Golden Thread, Fenugreek, Garlic, and Cinnamon might have antidiabetic effects in T2DM patients. Among 30 antidiabetic formulas approved by the State Food and Drugs Administrator of China, top 10 of the most frequently prescribed herbs are Membranous Milkvetch Root, Rehmannia Root, Mongolian Snakegourd Root, Ginseng, Chinese Magnoliavine Fruit, Kudzuvine Root, Dwarf Lilyturf Tuber, Common Anemarrhena Rhizome, Barbary Wolfberry Fruit, and India Bread, which mainly guided by the theory of TCM. Their action mechanisms are related to improve insulin sensitivity, stimulate insulin secretion, protect pancreatic islets, and even inhibit intake of intestinal carbohydrates. However, it is very difficult to determine antihyperglycemic components of TCM. Nevertheless, TCM are becoming popular complementary and alternative medicine in treatment of syndromes of T2DM. In the future, it requires further validation of phytochemical, pharmacological, and clinical natures of TCM in T2DM in the future studies, especially for those herbs with a high prescription frequency. PMID:21584252