WorldWideScience

Sample records for stowing

  1. Heliostat with Stowing and Wind Survival Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesmith, Bill J. (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    A low cost thin-film based heliostat with advanced stowing and wind survival capabilities. The heliostat may include a plurality of reflective surfaces held together via a plurality of double acting magnetic hinges. The heliostat may also include a drive mechanism attached to a post, and configured to stow the plurality of facets in any desired position.

  2. Stowing of packages containing radioactive materials on conveyances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draulans, J.; Lafontaine, I.; Chevalier, G.; Gilles, P.; Jolys, J.C.; Pouard, M.

    1986-04-01

    The Commission of the European Communities has financed some research work carried out jointly by the ''Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique'' and the belgian company ''TRANSNUBEL'', in the field of stowing containers for radioactive materials on trucks. 2 reference type accidents are selected: . a front-end collision against a rigid barrier at an impact speed of 50 km/h . a side-on collision of an impacting vehicle at a speed of 25-35 km/h against a truck loaded with a container. A mathematical model has been developed by means of the CEA Trico code to compute a frontal impact in which the container (1.3 t weight), is stowed by means of 4 tie-down members, each for a nominal load of 2 t. Results indicate the stowing being insufficient and the attachment points too weak to keep the container on the platform. Real tests have been performed to verify these results. Tie-down members and chocks have been defined on the basis of static- and dynamic tests for being used in 8 crash tests. Different containers (low- and high center of gravity) and different ways of stowing have been tried out. An attempt is made to work a code of good practice for stowing, by means of tie-down members and chocks, packages on a truck platform. 19 refs

  3. Stowing of radioactive materials package during land transport. Third phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilles, P.; Chevalier, G.; Pouard, M.; Jolys, J.C.; Draulans, J.; Lafontaine, I.

    1984-01-01

    Phase 3 of this study is mainly experimental. The study is based on the work performed during 2 former studies: phase 1: definition and analysis of reference accidental conditions, and phase 2: selection of some reference accidents and computation of the deceleration forces. The main goal of the study is to draw up a reference document, giving some guidances for the stowing of packages on conveyances for land transportation. The third phase includes four frontal impact tests. The reference package used is a French IL-37 container weighing about 1.3 t. The first test was performed using a truck, loaded with two IL-37 containers and launched at a speed of 50 km/h against a fixed obstacle. The deceleration curve the behaviour of each package and the behaviour of stowing systems are compared with the theoretical results. Various measurements were made during the test: vehicle impact speed; vehicle deceleration, measured at different points on the frame, package deceleration, displacement of attachment points. The impact was filmed from different angles. The second test was performed in the same impact conditions but with a waggon instead of a truck, and loaded with one container. The front of the waggon was equipped with special shock absorbers to obtain the same deceleration as recorded during the truck impact (first test). In the third test the stowing systems were reinforced by a nylon one in order to obtain information of stowing systems of that type and to increase the energy absorption capacity. In the fourth test in addition to being stowed the package was also chocked. The results obtained have shown that it is possible to maintain a package on a truck platform even during a severe frontal impact

  4. 77 FR 6135 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Cargo Manifest/Declaration, Stow Plan, Container Status...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-07

    ... Activities: Cargo Manifest/ Declaration, Stow Plan, Container Status Messages and Importer Security Filing... the Paperwork Reduction Act: Cargo Manifest/Declaration, Stow Plan, Container Status Messages and.../Declaration, Stow Plan, Container Status Messages and Importer Security Filing. OMB Number: 1651-0001. Form...

  5. Stowing of packages containing radioactive materials on conveyances. Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draulans, J.; Lafontaine, I.

    1982-01-01

    The study includes the redaction of a reference document that would give directives concerning the stowing of packages on ground transportation means. These directives would exclusively cover the mechanical loads to which the packages are subjected in normal or accidental transport conditions. Regulatory prescriptions have been collected in Belgium, France, the United Kingdom, Italy, the Netherlands, the Federal Republic of Germany, Sweden and the U.S.A. Additionally, advisory prescriptions and information have been received from national or international organizations, as well as from companies specialized in road and railway traffic. On the basis of a large inquiry made with truck- and waggon manufacturers about generated deceleration forces involved during transport vehicles and train accidents, and about forces taken into account for the construction of these equipments, some interesting information has been collected. The most current standards concerning the strength of the stowing for road transportation are in the three directions (longitudinal, lateral and vertical) respectively 2g - 1g - 1g, while the maximum values are respectively 10g - 5g - 2g. For railway transportation, the standards in many European countries are 4 g - 0,4 g - 0,3 g. While data concerning the normal railway traffic are coherent, no reliable data exist for accidents including the impact of vehicles against rigid obstacles

  6. Technique of stowing packages containing radioactive materials during maritime transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringot, G.; Chevalier, G.; Tomachevsky, E.; Draulans, J.; Lafontaine, I.

    1989-01-01

    The Mont Louis accident (August 25, 1984 - North Sea), in which uraniumhexafluoride packages were involved, alarmed a large number of European competent authorities, including the Commission of European Communities. The latter sponsored in 1986-1987 a bibliographic data collection to obtain a first view on the problem. (C.E.C contracts n degree 86-B-7015-11-004-17 and 86-B-7015-11-005-17). The collected data supply the necessary basis for further work, aiming to increase the safety of transporting radioactive material by ship. The study collected the different deceleration values, used by the transport companies and defined the accident conditions to be considered. This work can serve as a basis for later research to end with the proposal of a code of good practice for stowing. The research-work has been carried out jointly by C.E.A.-France, I.P.S.N. at Fontenay-aux-Roses and by Transnubel S.A. Brussels Belgium. The preliminary research included two main tasks: a statistical analysis, a bibliographic study of ship accidents

  7. Mechanism of an increase in roof stability in longwalls during stowing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zborshchik, M.P.; Podkopaev, S.V. (Donetskii Politekhnicheskii Institut (Ukraine))

    1992-05-01

    Presents results of investigations into the stress and strain state of a rock body in the immediate roof and floor in cases of full caving or stowing. Elasto-optical methods were used to compare stress effects that occur when stowing or caving are used. Tangential stresses and roof stability are discussed. It is maintained that full stowing at distances not over 3-3.5 m behind a coal face reduces roof settling to 20-25%. Stress near the working face is reduced by 1.5-1.8 times.

  8. Use of the PZK system for pneumatic stowing along mine workings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarevich, Yu S; Buzhin, N K; Churakov, V N

    1983-07-01

    The utilization of waste rock for pneumatic stowing in the Komsomolets Donbassa mine with coal seams to 1 m thick and dip angles from 3 to 11/sup 0/ is evaluated. Gate roads used for mine haulage by belt conveyors are controlled by cribbings made of timber and of concrete blocks, particularly at junction of working facese by belt conveyors are controlled by cribbings made of timber and of concrete blocks, particularly at junction of working faces with gate goads. Effects of pneumatic stowing on strata control cost and environmental protection are analyzed. Waste rock which has been dumped at spoil banks on the ground surface is crushed by the PZK system developed by Dongiproshakht. The PZK system is installed underground close to haulage roadways. Crushed rock material with size from 0 to 80 mm and compression strength coefficient from 3 to 5 degrees on the Protod'yakonov scale is hauled by mine cars to working faces and stowed by the DZM-2 pneumatic system. Strips of pneumatic stowing at each side of a gate road are from 12 to 15 m wide. Design of the PZM system and of a rock hopper used for accumulation of crushed rock as well as design of the DZM-2 system are shown in schemes. Economic analysis shows that use of pneumatic stowing reduces roof subsidence in the haulage gate road to 20% and eliminates cribbings. Use of pneumatic stowing for strata control in haulage gate roads economizes 65 rubles per 1 m of gate road.

  9. Stowing of radioactive packages, materials or objects for their transport. Guide nr 27, Release of 30 August 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    A good package stowing is part of an in-depth defence approach to ensure the safety of transport operations in the case of radioactive materials. This guide thus presents a set of recommendations to ensure this safety, recalls regulatory requirements, and presents recommendations made by the ASN for specific stowing training. This document concerns all kinds of transports (road, rail, river, sea, and air). After having indicated the different regulatory references, standards and recommendations, it proposes an overview of the applicable regulatory framework and technical requirements for stowing in France and in the EU in the case of road transport, of rail transport and of sea transport, and in France and in the world for the case of air transport. The next part details regulatory requirements and recommendations made by the ASN for the stowing of radioactive loads: commitment of the company's management, specific training for concerned personnel, definition of packing and stowing plans or of specific instructions, selection of the stowing system, adequacy of the used stowing equipment, documentation to achieve a good stowing, stowing quality control. Then, recommendations are made for the undertaking of a specific training on radioactive load stowing: training modalities, training content, training objectives (for designers, operators and controllers)

  10. 76 FR 72715 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Cargo Manifest/Declaration, Stow Plan, Container Status...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-25

    ... information (a total capital/startup costs and operations and maintenance costs). The comments that are... of total annual responses was lowered from 11,300,000 to 8,100,000. Vessel Stow Plan: the number of... 74 to 60, and the number of total responses was raised from 72,121,193 to 257,100,000. Type of Review...

  11. AngelStow: A Commercial Optimization-Based Decision Support Tool for Stowage Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delgado-Ortegon, Alberto; Jensen, Rune Møller; Guilbert, Nicolas

    save port fees, optimize use of vessel capacity, and reduce bunker consumption. Stowage Coordinators (SCs) produce these plans manually with the help of graphical tools, but high-quality SPs are hard to generate with the limited support they provide. In this abstract, we introduce AngelStow which...... is a commercial optimization-based decision support tool for stowing container vessels developed in collaboration between Ange Optimization and The IT University of Copenhagen. The tool assists SCs in the process of generating SPs interactively, focusing on satisfying and optimizing constraints and objectives...... that are tedious to deal with for humans, while letting the SCs use their expertise to deal with hard combinatorial objectives and corner cases....

  12. Development of a pneumatic stowing and chocking system for packages containing radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baekelandt, L.; Libon, H.; Vandorpe, M.; Lafontaine, I.

    1989-01-01

    Since that goods are transported, their chocking and stowing is very often done by improvisation, successfully or disastrously. When the disaster appears in comics it is always a source of an enormous amusement, when it appears in road or maritime accidents it is most of the time a source of death or severe damages. Even if transport of radioactive materials could be considered as the exception where chains and tie-down systems are used abundantly, their strength relies always on the weakness of their components. Special attention has been paid to the transport of type A or type B packages, but obviously there was a lack of interest for the transport of low level radioactive waste, even knowing that the quantities of this waste are a hunderfold or a thousandfold of the first ones. On the subject of stowing and chocking systems for radioactive waste packages, TRANSNUBEL together with the CEA-France performed under the sponsorship of the Commission of the European Communities between 1980 and 1985 a study which clearly showed that during a road accident, in case of a front end impact, the stowing system must be able to absorb entirely the kinetic energy generated by the package deceleration, which is proportional to the package mass. The chocks must be able to absorb a deceleration energy generated by the package of about 30 g at a speed of about 50 km/h. This energy of course decreases at the same time as the speed. These conclusions served as basic principles for the development by TRANSNUBEL of a pneumatic stowing and chocking system for packagings containing radioactive waste

  13. Improving airplane boarding time : A review, a field study and an experiment with a new way of hand luggage stowing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coppens, J.; Dangal, Sagar; Vendel, M.E.; Anjani, S.; Akkerman, Stefan; Hiemstra-van Mastrigt, S.; Vink, P.

    2018-01-01

    The airplane (de)boarding process is not organized optimally. The goal of this paper is to search for improvement possibilities. In this paper literature is reviewed, boarding characteristics are studied in a field study and a pilot study with a new way of hand luggage stowing is performed. Computer

  14. Education and Access to Christian Thought in the Writing of Harriet Beecher Stowe and Anna Julia Cooper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magno, JoJo

    2009-01-01

    In attempting to climb past the racist and sexist barriers which existed in nineteenth-century America, women could look to writers such as Harriet Beecher Stowe and Anna Julia Cooper. Their works not only reflect the conditions of women and African-American women in particular, but also call for access to educational opportunities for these women…

  15. A stowing and deployment strategy for large membrane space systems on the example of Gossamer-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seefeldt, Patric

    2017-09-01

    Deployment systems for innovative space applications such as solar sails require a technique for a controlled and autonomous deployment in space. The deployment process has a strong impact on the mechanism and structural design and sizing. On the example of the design implemented in the Gossamer-1 project of the German Aerospace Center (DLR), such a stowing and deployment process is analyzed. It is based on a combination of zig-zag folding and coiling of triangular sail segments spanned between crossed booms. The deployment geometry and forces introduced by the mechanism considered are explored in order to reveal how the loads are transferred through the membranes to structural components such as the booms. The folding geometry and force progressions are described by function compositions of an inverse trigonometric function with the considered trigonometric function itself. If these functions are evaluated over several periods of the trigonometric function, a non-smooth oscillating curve occurs. Depending on the trigonometric function, these are often vividly described as zig-zag or sawtooth functions. The developed functions are applied to the Gossamer-1 design. The deployment geometry reveals a tendency that the loads are transferred along the catheti of the sail segments and therefore mainly along the boom axes. The load introduced by the spool deployment mechanism is described. By combining the deployment geometry with that load, a prediction of the deployment load progression is achieved. The mathematical description of the stowing and deployment geometry, as well as the forces inflicted by the mechanism provides an understanding of how exactly the membrane deploys and through which edges the deployment forces are transferred. The mathematical analysis also gives an impression of sensitive parameters that could be influenced by manufacturing tolerances or unsymmetrical deployment of the sail segments. While the mathematical model was applied on the design of

  16. Stowing of packages containing radioactive materials on conveyances in normal and accidental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draulans, J.; Lafontaine, I.; Augin, B.; Gilles, P.

    1983-01-01

    The study was performed in three successive phases. The first phase, achieved in 1981, covered the following subjects: bibliographic research of the data relating to the deceleration forces, generated during accidents with road- and rail-road conveyances; information requests to the manufacturers of road trucks, institutions for mechanical studies, transport companies, rail-road companies, transport authorities in order to complete the bibliographic data; and analysis of the obtained information and first conclusions. The second phase, achieved in November 1982, covered the following subjects: analysis of statistical data concerning truck accidents in order to define reference types of accidents, impact speed and -direction etc.; comparison between performed crash-tests in order to obtain reference data of generated forces and deceleration values; definition of an experimental programme to be performed in a third phase; and definition of the instrumentation required for the experimental programme. The third phase, ending in October 1983, was the experimental part of the study. The data, collected during the first two phases, were checked by real crash tests, to be performed at the U.T.A.C. laboratories in France. Both the theoretical data and the test results will be used to write a proposal of a code of good practice for stowing and tie-downs

  17. Stowing of radioactive materials package during road transport on vehicles of a total weight under 38 tons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilles, P.; Chevalier, G.; Pouard, M.

    1985-01-01

    Results of testing allow the formulation of recommendations for stowing radioactive material packaging for severe accidental conditions during land transport. For frontal impact kinetic energy acquired by deceleration should be totally absorbed by the packaging, as this energy is proportional to its mass it will stay on the vehicle. For side impact, the packaging should yield because kinetic energy to absorb, if fasteners are not deformed before rupture, can be largely over the packaging mass and damage could be very severe

  18. Stowing of packages containing radioactive materials during their road transportation with trucks for loads up to 38 tons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilles, P.; Chevalier, G.; Pouard, M.; Draulans, J.; Lafontaine, I.

    1986-01-01

    A compilation and a coordination of available standards, regulatory prescriptions and directives on stowing are first presented. Then generated forces resulting from road vehicle deceleration in accidental conditions are searched. The investigation shows that higher dangerous materials transportation probabilities essentially concern front end impacts (51.4 %) and side on impacts (19 %). These accidents occur with a speed of about 80 km/h before the impact and 50 km/h during the crash. During the latter, deceleration values ranging from 20 to 100g could be reached, the mean value could be about 30g. A mathematical model is developed. Experiments are realized with the aims on the one hand, to verify the results obtained from a mathematical model of accident and on the other hand to collect experimental values allowing to work out a code of good practice for the stowing of radioactive materials packages having a maximum weight of about 20 tons. A number of 8 tests has been performed with two types of packagings: lower and higher centre of gravity in front end and side on impacts. In case of a front end impact, the stowing system must be able to absorb entirely the kinetic energy generated by the package deceleration. This means that a tie-down system according to the 2g - 1g - 1g standard is convenient provided that the package is chocked in the direction of the traffic. The damage is proportional to the weight of the vehicle responsible for such side on impact. This weight could be much higher than the package weight. Deceleration values up to 120g have been recorded. As a result, the tie down system similar to the 2g - 1g - 1g standard is convenient, but chocks acting perpendicularly to the direction of the traffic are to be prohibited

  19. Clearance Analysis of Node 3 Aft CBM to the Stowed FGB Solar Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddle, Donn

    2014-01-01

    In early 2011, the ISS Vehicle Configuration Office began considering the relocation of the Permanent Multipurpose Module (PMM) to the aft facing Common Berthing Mechanism (CBM) on Node 3 to open a berthing location for visiting vehicles on the Node 1 nadir CBM. In this position, computer-aided design (CAD) models indicated that the aft end of the PMM would be only a few inches from the stowed Functional Cargo Block (FGB) port solar array. To validate the CAD model clearance analysis, in the late summer of 2011 the Image Science and Analysis Group (ISAG) was asked to determine the true geometric relationship between the on-orbit aft facing Node 3 CBM and the FGB port solar array. The desired measurements could be computed easily by photogrammetric analysis if current imagery of the ISS hardware were obtained. Beginning in the fall of 2011, ISAG used the Dynamic Onboard Ubiquitous Graphics (DOUG) program to design a way to acquire imagery of the aft face of Node 3, the aft end-cone of Node 1, the port side of pressurized mating adapter 1 (PMA1), and the port side of the FGB out to the tip of the port solar array using cameras on the Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS). This was complicated by the need to thread the SSRMS under the truss, past Node 3 and the Cupola, and into the space between the aft side of Node 3 and the FGB solar array to acquire more than 100 images from multiple positions. To minimize the number of SSRMS movements, the Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator (SPDM) would be attached to the SSRMS. This would make it possible to park the SPDM in one position and acquire multiple images by changing the viewing orientation of the SPDM body cameras using the pan/tilt units on which the cameras are mounted. Using this implementation concept, ISAG identified four SSRMS/SPDM positions from which all of the needed imagery could be acquired. Based on a photogrammetric simulation, it was estimated that the location of the FGB solar array could be

  20. Calculation of mean outcrossing rates of non-Gaussian processes with stochastic input parameters - Reliability of containers stowed on ships in severe sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik Dam

    2010-01-01

    values is expected to occur, and the final result, the mean outcrossing rate, is obtained by summation. The derived procedure is illustrated by an example considering the forces in containers stowed on ships and, in particular, results are presented for the so-called racking failure in the containers...

  1. Architectural colour at Stowe; recent discoveries by the National Trust Les couleurs du château de Stowe. Découvertes récentes du National Trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Knox

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Cette intervention présentera les découvertes récentes faites sur l’emploi de la couleur dans les châteaux appartenant au National Trust en Angleterre. Qu’il s’agisse de l’usage délicat de la technique de peinture « faux-bois » sur les montants des fenêtres de Lyme Park dans le Cheshire (vers 1730 ou des dorures des fenêtres à guillotine de Kedleston Hall dans le Derbyshire (1765, les châteaux de nos ancêtres étaient souvent peints et colorés d’une façon étonnement riche et raffinée. Dans le cas de Stowe dans le Buckinghamshire, on a utilisé une chaux de couleur miel pour recouvrir les murs de la maison principale et des nombreux temples du parc afin de faire disparaître les matériaux disparates qui composaient les murs ; c’était un moyen d’imiter la précieuse pierre taillée de Portland. En outre, dans le jardin, la superbe porte bleu de Prusse du temple de la Concorde et de la Victoire, avec ses dorures inattendues, illustre l’intensité et l’effet spectaculaire de l’utilisation de la couleur dans l’architecture du xviiie siècle.This paper will present recent discoveries made in the employment of colour in the castles managed by the National Trust in England. The castles of our ancestors were painted and coloured in a way that was rich and refined: i.e. the delicate use of the painting technique, faux-bois, on the uprights of the window frames of Lyme Park in Cheshire (c. 1730 or the gildings of the sash windows of Kedleston Hall in Derbyshire (1765. In the case of Stowe in Buckinghamshire, we used a honey-coloured limewash for the walls of the principal house and the many temples of the park to restore the uniformity of colouration and as a way to imitate the precious Portland stone carving. As well, in the garden, the superb Prussian-blue doors of the Temple of Concord and Victory, with their unexpected gilding, illustrates the intensity and the spectacular effect of the use of colour in the

  2. Public announcement of guidelines for the packing and safe stowing of cargo in freight containers and vehicles for ocean transport (Container Stowage Guidelines)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The IMO and ILO guidelines are given, which help to meet the requirements of the Maritime Safety Ordinance and the Ordinance on Ocean Transport of Dangerous Goods. The guidelines explain the principles of safe packing and stowing of cargo in freight containers and vehicles for ocean transports. Further information and practical hints are given in international publications referred to in the annex. The guidelines are also meant for training purposes. (orig./HSCH) [de

  3. The 'Whip-Stow' procedure: an innovative modification to the whipple procedure in the management of premalignant and malignant pancreatic head disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyarajah, D Rohan; Khithani, Amit; Curtis, David; Galanopoulos, Christos A

    2010-01-01

    Pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) is the standard of care in the treatment of premalignant and malignant diseases of the head of the pancreas. Variability exists in anastomosis with the pancreatic remnant. This work describes a safe and easy modification for the pancreatic anastomosis after PD. Ten patients underwent the "Whip-Stow" procedure for the management of the pancreatic remnant. PD combined with a Puestow (lateral pancreaticojejunostomy [LPJ]) was completed using a running single-layer, 4-0 Prolene obeying a duct-to-mucosa technique. LPJ and pancreaticogastrostomy (PG) historical leak rates are reported to be 13.9 and 15.8 per cent, respectively. Mortality, leak, and postoperative bleeding rates were 0 per cent in all patients. The Whip-Stow was completed without loops or microscope with a 4-0 single-layer suture decreasing the time and complexity of the anastomosis. Average time was 12 minutes as compared with the 50 minutes of a 5 or 6-0 interrupted, multilayered duct-mucosa anastomosis. Benefits included a long-segment LPJ. In this study, the Whip-Stow procedure has proven to be a safe and simple approach to pancreatic anastomosis in selected patients. This new technique provides the benefit of technical ease while obeying the age old principles of obtaining a wide duct to mucosa anastomosis.

  4. Harriet Beecher Stowe y Clorinda Matto de Turner: escritura pedagógica, modernización y nación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedhelm Schmidt-Welle

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Me propongo analizar las estrategias discursivas poscoloniales (no las del poscolonialismo y la escritura pedagógica en el contexto de dos proyectos básicos de la literatura (en el sentido más amplio de la palabra del siglo XIX: el proyecto de construir la identidad nacional o la nación, por una parte, y el de una modernización tanto socioeconómica como estético-literaria, por otra. Voy a realizar este análisis mediante una interpretación de un ejemplo de la literatura decimonónica de los Estados Unidos y otro del Perú. Se trata de Uncle Tom’s Cabin, de Harriet Beecher Stowe, publicada como novela por entregas en 1851/52 y como libro en 1852, y de la novela Aves sin nido, de Clorinda Matto de Turner, publicada en 1889.

  5. Stowing the Right Containers on Container Vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rune Møller

    2014-01-01

    ’s largest container vessels using standard mathematical programming techniques and off-the-shelf solvers. The presentation will provide basic insight into the domain, with pointers to further information that enable you to join in this promising new path of operations research and business....

  6. Biography versus Fiction or the Value of Testimony in Jacobs’s and Stowe’s Narratives about Slavery (Autobiographie contre fiction ou la valeur du témoignage dans les récits d’esclavages de Jacobs et de Stowe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Garrait-Bourrier

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Cette étude comparée a pour projet de souligner les différences culturelles qui existent entre deux genres littéraires de la période antebellum : les récits d’esclaves et la fiction abolitionniste. Via l’approche d’extraits de textes tirés de l’autobiographie d’Harriet Jacobs Incidents in the Life of A Slave Girl, écrite sous le pseudonyme de Linda Brent et du roman de Harriet Beecher-Stowe Uncle Tom’s Cabin, nous soulignerons le témoignage historique commun qui ressort de ces deux textes. Bien que d’essence et de sources différentes, ces deux récits – celui de l’ancienne esclave et celui de l’intellectuelle blanche – offrent une image authentique de l’histoire américaine d’avant guerre civile essentielle et dénoncent le même fléau: l’esclavage.

  7. Satellite Hardware: Stow-and-Go for Space Travel

    OpenAIRE

    Pellegrino, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    Man-made satellites have to fit a lot into a compact package. Protected inside a rocket while blasted through the atmosphere, a satellite is launched into Earth orbit, or beyond, to continue its unmanned mission alone. It uses gyroscopes, altitude thrusters, and magnets to regulate sun exposure and stay pointed in the right direction. Once stable, the satellite depends on solar panels to recharge its internal batteries, mirrors, and lenses for data capture, and antennas for communication back...

  8. (In) Famous Spirituality : Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, I.

    2008-01-01

    After the Egyptian and the Indian, the Greek and Roman, the Teuton and Mongolian, the Negro is a sort of seventh son, born with a veil, and gifted with second sight in this American world-a world which yields him no true self-consciousness, but only lets him see himself through the revelation of the

  9. Study of stowing of radioactive materials package in accidental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phalippou, C.; Chevalier, G.; Gilles, P.

    1986-10-01

    Two types of accidents are defined from informations collected from relations between vehicles, packaging, deceleration and accident frequency: front impact at 50 km/h and side impact at 25 km/h and 35 km/h. A finite element model the TRICO code is used for modelisation and 8 tests are realized. Recommendations are given in conclusion [fr

  10. Face-end techniques for the extraction of thick seams with pneumatic stowing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinshagen, K; Reinshagen, V

    1979-10-18

    Experience so far at Luisenthal Colliery has led to the decision that all future return air roads will be supported with semi-arches, and that all loader gates will be driven in line with the face. T-junction costs can be reduced by two-thirds, and costs at the junction with the loader gate will be more than halved. This does not include future savings in the maintenance of the gates, which will be obtained by increasing the recovery performance and by increasing useful working time by using coolie cars for manriding. (In German)

  11. The Gendered Narrator: The Voice of the God/Mother in Harriet Beecher Stowe’s Dred

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-01

    terms, and when to let the reader discover it for herself or himself. In Narrative Discourse, Gerard Genette describes the analysis of narrative...rela- tionship between the same discourse and the act which produces it" (27). When Genette speaks of these relationships, he is 3 concerned with the...form of narrative discourse, and this relationship should not be overlooked when examining the relationships Genette proposes. For example, Genette

  12. Cavity and goaf control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stassen, P

    1978-01-01

    A summary of stowing, including a definition, calculation of stowing material requirements and settling of packs is given. A) Stowing using dirt found locally - the dirt bands in the seam - the use of ripping dirt brought down by the scraper loader and used for packing purposes and the construction of dummy roads. B) Control of cavities by leaving short, thick props and timber chocks in place. C) Stowing methods involving imported firt: packing by hand, use of scraper loaders, slinger stowing and control led-gravity stowing. D) Pneumatic stowing: describes the various types of machine and their scope; pipelines, their installation and cost price; pneumatic stowing in conjunc tion with powered supports; the use of crusher-stowers for stowing ripping dirt; construction of anhydrite packs by means of a pneumatic stower. E) Hydraulic stowing: how it works, the materials involved, utilization conditions, the surface storage post, pipes, stoppings with stowed material, water removal, rates of hydraulic stowing, results of theoretical studies, and the use of hydraulic stowing in the metal-mines. F) Pumped packs: how they work, how the packs are installed, the strength of the packs and their various uses. G) Caving: describes the principle of caving, support patterns, caving with packs and makes a comparison between caving and stowing. H) Comparison between the various methods of stowing compares pneumatic with hydraulic stowing methods; compares packing by hand and mechanical stowing compares surface subsidence in terms of the method of goaf used underground. An appendix gives details of equipment used. (15 refs.) (In French)

  13. 49 CFR 176.800 - General stowage requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... must be stowed clear of living quarters, and away from foodstuffs and cargo of an organic nature. (b) A...) which also bears a FLAMMABLE LIQUID label must be stowed away from all sources of heat and ignition...

  14. 36 CFR 1192.95 - Mobility aid accessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE BOARD AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES... allowing an occupied platform to fold or retract into the stowed position. (ii) Exception. Where physical... stowed while occupied shall not apply to a lift design of this type if the stowed position is within the...

  15. 49 CFR 38.95 - Mobility aid accessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY... allowing an occupied platform to fold or retract into the stowed position. (ii) Exception. Where physical... stowed while occupied shall not apply to a lift design of this type if the stowed position is within the...

  16. Armored Composite Ammunition Pressure Vessel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clark, William

    1999-01-01

    ...). This ammunition containment system must not only meet environmental and handling requirements but also provide armor protection against impacting threats and reduce the response of the stowed...

  17. Simulating CubeSat Structure Deployment Dynamics, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There is high value in simulating the nonlinear dynamics of stowing, deploying, and performance of deployable space structures, especially given the profound...

  18. The Garies and Their Friends: The Black American Novel Comes of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simson, R.

    Black authors have long been telling America about its slave past, although America has apparently not been listening. Frank Webb's novel, "The Garies and Their Friends," was published in the same decade as Harriet Beecher Stowe's "Uncle Tom's Cabin," and yet it has never achieved the popularity of Stowe's work, although its characters are…

  19. Fluctuations of Mediterranean outflow water circulation in the Gulf of Cadiz during MIS 5 to 7: Evidence from benthic foraminiferal assemblage and stable isotope records

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Singh, A.D.; Rai, A.K.; Tiwari, M.; Naidu, P.D.; Verma, K.; Chaturvedi, M.; Niyogi, A.; Pandey, D.

    the Messinian salinity crisis. Nature, 462, 778-782. doi:10.1038/nature08555. Gonthier, E.G., Faugères, J.C., Stow, D.A.V., 1984. Contourite facies of the Faro Drift, Gulf of Cadiz. In: Stow, D.A.V., Piper, D.J.W. (Eds.), Fine‐ grained sediments: Deep...

  20. 46 CFR 148.04-13 - Ferrous metal borings, shavings, turnings, or cuttings (excluding stainless steel).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... transporting, the bilge of each hold in which the article is stowed or is to be stowed must be as dry as... leave the port unless: (i) The temperature of each article in each hold is less than 150 °F and, if the... hold; or (ii) The vessel intends to sail directly to another port that is no further than twelve hours...

  1. 49 CFR 38.125 - Mobility aid accessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY... fold or retract into the stowed position. (ii) Exception. Where physical or safety constraints prevent... a lift design of this type if the stowed position is within the passenger compartment and the lift...

  2. 36 CFR 1192.125 - Mobility aid accessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE BOARD AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES... fold or retract into the stowed position. (ii) Exception. Where physical or safety constraints prevent... a lift design of this type if the stowed position is within the passenger compartment and the lift...

  3. 49 CFR 176.903 - Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with coal... § 176.903 Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with coal. Cotton or vegetable fibers being transported on a vessel may not be stowed in the same hold with coal. They may be stowed in adjacent holds if the...

  4. Supporting of mine workings and design of support systems. Madenlerde tahkimat isleri ve tasarmi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biron, C; Arioglu, E; (Istanbul Teknik Universitesi, Maden Fakultesi)

    1980-01-01

    This article deals with elements of elasticity in rocks and examines the engineering properties of rocks. It includes stress distributions around mine openings and deformations of mine openings. Strata control concept in coal mining is explained. Support systems in stone drifts, gateways, shafts and longwalls are discussed; timber supports, steel arches, articulated arches, roof bolting, concrete supports, supports on mechanized faces are detailed. Emphasis is placed upon engineering properties of materials of support systems. The design concepts of mine support systems are described. The objects of the design are expressed with several numerical examples. It concludes with stowing: pneumatic stowing, and hydraulic stowing in metal and coal mining.

  5. 14 CFR 23.853 - Passenger and crew compartment interiors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Photographic Film PH1.25 (available from the American National Standards Institute, 1430 Broadway, New York, N... stowage compartments and compartments for stowing small items such as magazines and maps) must be self...

  6. Commander Lousma is surrounded by a week's worth of trash on the middeck

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Commander Lousma, wearing communication kit assembly (ASSY) mini headset (HDST), gathers three freefloating plastic trash bags filled with empty containers, paper towels, straws, etc. Lousma will stow them in a designated stowage volume.

  7. 78 FR 3917 - Certain Rubber Resins & Processes for Manufacturing Same; Commission Determination Not To Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-17

    ... Corporation of Stow, Ohio (``Western Chemical''); Biddle Sawyer Corporation of New York, New York (``Biddle... Biddle Sawyer because it would have resulted in delay to the investigation. No petitions for review were...

  8. Vegetable Production System (Veggie)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Vegetable Production System (Veggie) was developed to be a simple, easily stowed, high growth volume, low resource facility capable of producing fresh vegetables...

  9. Modeling Thermal Ignition of Energetic Materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gerri, Norman J; Berning, Ellen

    2004-01-01

    This report documents an attempt to computationally simulate the mechanics and thermal regimes created when a threat perforates an armor envelope and comes in contact with stowed energetic material...

  10. HC-130 Wing Life Raft Replacement Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scher, Bob

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) uses HC-130 aircraft for search and rescue (SAR) and other missions. The aircraft are presently equipped with two to four 20 person inflatable life rafts, stowed in cells in the wings...

  11. 200W Deep Space CubeSat Composite Beam Roll-Up Solar Array (COBRA), Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Solar arrays that have very high specific power (W/kg) and compact stowed volume (W/m3), while still providing shielding to the solar cell, are an enabling...

  12. 200W Deep Space CubeSat Composite Beam Roll-Up Solar Array (COBRA), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Solar arrays that have very high specific power (W/kg) and compact stowed volume (W/m3), while still providing shielding to the solar cell, are an enabling...

  13. Raamatututvustus / Oskar Tanner

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tanner, Oskar, pseud., 1939-

    1996-01-01

    Eliade, Mircea. Jaaniöö; Kippel, Enn. Kui Raudpea tuli; Beecher Stowe, Harriet. Onu Tomi onnike; Wallace, Edgar. Valge mask; Buchan, John. Kolm pantvangi; Rendell, Ruth. Hunditapp; Jurin, Artur. Näpsu

  14. 36 CFR 1192.83 - Mobility aid accessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE BOARD AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES..., curb, and intermediate positions) normally encountered in the operating environment. Where provided... allowing an occupied platform to fold or retract into the stowed position. (ii) Exception. Where physical...

  15. The Manners of Liberalism: A Question of Limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, William B.

    1982-01-01

    The argument that liberal education leads people to substitute intellectual tolerance or ambiguity for righteous indignation is criticized, with reference to Harriet Beecher Stowe's portrayal of Thomas Jefferson, his liberalism, and democratic manners. (MSE)

  16. High Speed Marine Craft Threat: Buoyancy and Stability Requirements for a Sub-Launched Weapon System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lowery, John

    1999-01-01

    ...) that would be used for coastal infiltration. The most practical scenario would utilize a torpedo stow for a weapon system that would be tube launched, thus ensuring the maximum cruise missile capability of the submarine with a minimal sacrifice...

  17. High-Temperature Superconductors as Electromagnetic Deployment and Support Structures in Spacecraft. [NASA NIAC Phase I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getliffe, Gwendolyn V.; Inamdar, Niraj K.; Masterson, Rebecca; Miller, David W.

    2012-01-01

    This report, concluding a one-year NIAC Phase I study, describes a new structural and mechanical technique aimed at reducing the mass and increasing the deployed-to-stowed length and volume ratios of spacecraft systems. This technique uses the magnetic fields generated by electrical current passing through coils of high-temperature superconductors (HTSs) to support spacecraft structures and deploy them to operational configurations from their stowed positions inside a launch vehicle fairing.

  18. DoD Modeling and Simulation (M&S) Glossary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    i 66 January 1998 DoD 5000.59-M SSTORM STAARS STADLS STAF STAFLO STAGE STAMIS STARS I » STDL STDN STE STEMS STEP STM STOW STOW...references (b) and (c)) 556. World Coordinate System. The right-handed geocentric Cartesian system. The shape of the world is described by the...557. World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS 84). A geocentric coordinate system which describes a basic frame of reference and geometric figure for the

  19. Methods for protecting mine roadways used by two faces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katkov, G A; Dimanshtein, A S

    1983-09-01

    Use of a mine roadway by two longwall faces reduces mine drivage by half and positively influences ventilation and mine haulage. Economic effects of repeated use of mine roadways depend on strata control cost and repair of support systems damaged or deformed by rock strata stress. Use of strips of pneumatic stowing along mine roadways is uneconomical due to low support strength and significant subsidence of the waste rock strip under rock strata stress. Use of timber cribbings as well as blocks of reinforced concrete for strata control is uneconomical due to their high damage rate and low support capacity. Investigations carried out by the IGD Im. A.A. Skochinski Institute and other research institutes show that use of hardening stowing is superior to other methods for strata control in mine roadways used by two longwall faces. Hardening stowing (on a cement basis) is prepared by the SB-67 or the PBM-2Eh machines and by other systems used for guniting in coal mines. The optimum dimensions of a strip of hardening stowing depend on coal seam thickness and mechanical properties of the surrounding rock strata. Use of hardening stowing successfully controls roof subsidence in mine roadways and reduces support deformation. Examples of hardening stowing use in some Donbass coal mines are discussed.

  20. Portable, space-saving medical patient support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bzorgi,; Fariborz, [Knoxville, TN

    2011-02-01

    A support platform having a stowed configuration and a deployed configuration on a floor. The support platform is related to stretcher devices that are used for transporting, confining, or conducting medical procedures on medical patients in medical emergencies. The support platform typically includes a work surface that has a geometric extent. A base that typically includes a plurality of frame members is provided, and the frame members are disposed across the geometric extent of, and proximal to, the work surface in the stowed configuration. The frame members are typically disposed on the floor in the deployed configuration. There is a foldable bracing system engaged with the work surface and engaged with the base. At least a portion of the foldable bracing system is disposed substantially inside at least a portion of the plurality of frame members in the stowed configuration. Further, the foldable bracing system is configured for translocation of the work surface distal from the base in the deployed configuration.

  1. Low noise wing slat system with rigid cove-filled slat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmilovich, Arvin (Inventor); Yadlin, Yoram (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Concepts and technologies described herein provide for a low noise aircraft wing slat system. According to one aspect of the disclosure provided herein, a cove-filled wing slat is used in conjunction with a moveable panel rotatably attached to the wing slat to provide a high lift system. The moveable panel rotates upward against the rear surface of the slat during deployment of the slat, and rotates downward to bridge a gap width between the stowed slat and the lower wing surface, completing the continuous outer mold line shape of the wing, when the cove-filled slat is retracted to the stowed position.

  2. 46 CFR 109.577 - Helicopter fueling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Helicopter fueling. 109.577 Section 109.577 Shipping... Miscellaneous § 109.577 Helicopter fueling. (a) The master or person in charge shall designate persons to conduct helicopter fueling operations. (b) Portable tanks are handled and stowed in accordance with...

  3. ADEPT Sounding Rocket One (SR-1)Flight Experiment Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wercinski, Paul; Smith, B.; Yount, B.; Cassell, A.; Kruger, C.; Brivkalns, C.; Makino, A.; Duttta, S.; Ghassemieh, S.; Wu, S.; hide

    2017-01-01

    The SR-1 flight experiment will demonstrate most of the primary end-to-end mission stages including: launch in a stowed configuration, separation and deployment in exo-atmospheric conditions, and passive ballistic re-entry of a 70-degree half-angle faceted cone geometry.

  4. 46 CFR 160.015-3 - Construction of lifeboat winches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Limit switch and emergency disconnect switch requirements: (1) A main line emergency disconnect switch shall be provided, the opening of which will disconnect all electrical potential to the lifeboat winch... davit arms as they approach the final stowed position. These switches shall be connected in series, they...

  5. STS-37 Mission Specialist (MS) Godwin during simulation in JSC's FB-SMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    STS-37 Mission Specialist (MS) Linda M. Godwin rehearses some phases of her scheduled duties on the middeck of the fixed-based (FB) shuttle mission simulator (SMS) located in JSC's Mission Simulation and Training Facility Bldg 5. Godwin is inspecting supplies stowed in the middeck lockers during this unsuited simulation.

  6. Foldable Frame Supporting Electromagnetic Radiation Collectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to flexible frames supporting electromagnetic radiation collectors, such as antennas, antenna reflectors, deflectors or solar collectors, for celestial or terrestrial applications, which can be folded to be stored and/or transported. The method for stowing deforms...

  7. The atlas of major Appalachian gas plays. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    This project will evaluate the technical, economic and environmental feasibility of filling abandoned underground mine voids with alkaline, advanced coal combustion wastes. Both pneumatic and hydraulic injection methods will be investigated. Success will be measured in terms of technical feasibility of the approach (i.e. % void filling), cost, environmental benefits (acid mine drainage and subsidence control) and environmental impacts (noxious ion release). Phase 1 is concerned with the development of the grout and a series of predictive models. Phase 1 will also redesign a pneumatic ejector, that was developed to stow limestone, to efficiently stow FBC ash. Phase 2 is a small scale field test at Anker Energy`s Fairfax mine. An inactive panel will be used to evaluate flow, strength, and pressure requirements for hydraulic (grout) injection. The Phase 2 pneumatic injection activities will take place at an Anker Energy mine in Preston County, West Virginia. Air flow requirements, pressure requirements, stowing rate (tons per hour), and stowing efficiency (distance blown) will be determined. Phase 3 is to take 26 months and will be a full scale test at Anker`s eleven acre Long Ridge mine site. The mine will be filled using both pneumatic and hydraulic injection methods. It is expected that the FBC ash will replace what is now an acid mine pool with an alkaline solid so that the ground water will tend to flow around rather than through the previously mined areas. The project will demonstrate whether FBC ash can be successfully disposed of in underground mines.

  8. Dictionary of navigation. German-English-French-Spanish-Italian. Schiffahrts-Woerterbuch. Deutsch-englisch-franzoesisch-spanisch-italienisch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sell, W [ed.

    1987-01-01

    This 5-language dictionary contains about 60,000 terms on the subjects: Loading, stowing, unloading; activities on board and in the harbour; marine engineering and harbour facilities; insurance and health; engine room commands, rudder commands, anchor commands, boat commands and rope commands; ship's papers - also in Portugese, Danish, Norwegian, Swedish, and Dutch; more than 1300 international abbreviations.

  9. 9 CFR 91.22 - Protection from heat of boilers and engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Protection from heat of boilers and... Protection from heat of boilers and engines. No animals shall be stowed along the alleyways leading to the engine or boiler rooms unless the sides of said engine or boiler rooms are covered by a tongue and groove...

  10. The Paradox of Biography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, Joan D.

    1997-01-01

    Uses the author's experience writing, "Harriet Beecher Stowe: A Life," as a centerpiece for an examination of the art and craft of biography. Discusses some of the pitfalls and problems, not only in research and representation, but also in the critical reception and intended audience of a biography. (MJP)

  11. Local blacksmiths's activity in the west region of Cameroon and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As a result of the nature of pollutant and exhaustible of fossils energies, developed countries have made use of renewable energy sources to make effective their energy systems. To stow on that vision in Cameroon, the promotion of micro-hydroelectric powers plants (MHPP) is a priority and any contribution to its ease is ...

  12. 46 CFR 133.140 - Stowage of rescue boats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SYSTEMS Requirements for All OSVs § 133.140 Stowage of rescue boats. (a) Rescue boats must be stowed as follows: (1) Each rescue boat must be ready for launching in not more than 5 minutes. (2) Each rescue boat... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stowage of rescue boats. 133.140 Section 133.140...

  13. River Plate communities build resilience in the face of climate change

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2014-06-18

    Jun 18, 2014 ... JAGP: You've said that from the start, your team has been working ... This is one of the most frequent complaints — they need buffer time to safely stow ... by the International Institute for Environment and Development-Latin ...

  14. 49 CFR 176.600 - General stowage requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... POISON label, being transported on a vessel, must be stowed clear of living quarters and any ventilation ducts serving living quarters and separated from foodstuffs, except when the hazardous materials and the.... (c) Each package bearing a POISON label displaying the text “PG III” or bearing a “PG III” mark...

  15. 49 CFR 176.84 - Other requirements for stowage and segregation for cargo vessels and passenger vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... persons on passenger vessels. 94 Plastic jerricans and plastic drums not permitted under deck. 95 Stow... Stowage category “04” for projectiles or cartridges for guns, cannons or mortars; Stowage category “08... projectiles or cartridges for guns, cannons or mortars; Stowage category “07” for other types; magazines must...

  16. 46 CFR 133.130 - Stowage of survival craft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stowage of survival craft. 133.130 Section 133.130... SYSTEMS Requirements for All OSVs § 133.130 Stowage of survival craft. (a) General. Each survival craft must be stowed as follows: (1) Each survival craft must be as close to the accommodation and service...

  17. 46 CFR 108.530 - Stowage of survival craft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stowage of survival craft. 108.530 Section 108.530... AND EQUIPMENT Lifesaving Equipment § 108.530 Stowage of survival craft. (a) General. Each survival craft required to be served by a launching appliance or marine evacuation system must be stowed as...

  18. 40 CFR 600.002-08 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... shaft to the differential (or equivalent) turns for each turn of the drive wheels. Base level means a unique combination of basic engine, inertia weight class and transmission class. Base vehicle means the... removed, folded, stowed, or pivoted to facilitate cargo carrying. A minivan typically includes one or more...

  19. Looking at, Engaging More: Approaches for Investigating Material Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blandy, Doug; Bolin, Paul E.

    2012-01-01

    Objects of material culture are not always those items most commonly explored in the art classroom, and are, instead, the frequently overlooked things in people's everyday world. They are the items people collect in their homes, carry with them in backpacks, purses, and pockets, and stow on shelves in the back of closets--often the things they…

  20. Protecting mine roadways used for the second time in the Komsomolets Donbassa mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaslavskii, I Yu; Boev, N A; Churakov, V N

    1983-12-01

    This paper evaluates methods for strata control in gate roads used in the Komsomolets Donbassa mine with 2 coal seams from 1 to 1.1 m thick at depths of 418 m and 624 m, with dip angles from 5 to 10 degrees. Long pillars are mined by a system of longwall faces with caving. The following methods for strata control in gate roads are comparatively evaluated: use of blocks made of reinforced concrete, use of timber cribbings, combined use of concrete blocks or cribbings and strips of pneumatic stowing from 8 to 12 m wide, use of thin coal support pillars (from 2 to 3 m). Investigation results are shown in 4 diagrams. Analyses show that use of blocks made of reinforced concrete or concrete blocks combined with strips of pneumatic stowing does not prevent excessive roof subsidence and support deformation. Use of coal support pillars from 2 to 3 m wide is not recommended due to considerable cost and coal losses. Use of timber cribbings combined with strips of pneumatic stowing is most expedient. Recommendations on using timber cribbings and pneumatic stowing for strata control in gate roads used by the next longwall face are made. (In Russian)

  1. 75 FR 27662 - Special Conditions: Boeing 747-468, Installation of a Medical Lift

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-18

    ... electrical motors, mounted to the rear wall, between the struts. A lifting gear-drive with shafts and gear... OPERATE LIFT DURING TAXI, TAKEOFF, LANDING, OR TURBULENCE. c. AN APPROVED MEDICAL STRETCHER OR WHEELCHAIR... operation. b. Operate the lift. c. Stow the lift for non-operation such as during TTL and turbulence. d...

  2. 76 FR 15798 - Special Conditions: Boeing 747-468, Installation of a Medical Lift

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ... platform is driven by two redundant electrical motors, mounted to the rear wall, between the struts. A... DURING TAXI, TAKEOFF, LANDING, OR TURBULENCE. c. AN APPROVED MEDICAL STRETCHER OR WHEELCHAIR MUST BE... the lift. c. Stow the lift for non-operation such as during TTL and turbulence. d. Operate the...

  3. Computer-Aided Drug Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowe, Ryan; Elvey, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Chemistry in high school is often presented as a jumbled mass of topics drawn from inorganic, analytical, and physical sub-disciplines. With no central theme to build on, students may have trouble grasping the chemical sciences as a coherent field. In this article, Stowe and Elvey describe an activity that integrates different facets of chemistry…

  4. Mobile lighting apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, George Michael; Klebanoff, Leonard Elliott; Rea, Gerald W; Drake, Robert A; Johnson, Terry A; Wingert, Steven John; Damberger, Thomas A; Skradski, Thomas J; Radley, Christopher James; Oros, James M; Schuttinger, Paul G; Grupp, David J; Prey, Stephen Carl

    2013-05-14

    A mobile lighting apparatus includes a portable frame such as a moveable trailer or skid having a light tower thereon. The light tower is moveable from a stowed position to a deployed position. A hydrogen-powered fuel cell is located on the portable frame to provide electrical power to an array of the energy efficient lights located on the light tower.

  5. 46 CFR 28.110 - Life preservers or other personal flotation devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... be equipped with at least one immersion suit, exposure suit, or wearable personal flotation device of..., from both the individual's normal work station and berthing area. If there is no location accessible to both the work station and the berthing area, an appropriate device must be stowed in both locations...

  6. STS-46 Atlantis', OV-104's, vertical tail and OMS pods lit up by RCS jet firing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    STS-46 Atlantis', Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104's, vertical tail and orbital maneuvering system (OMS) pods are highlighted by the glow of the reaction control system (RCS) jet firings. OV-104 was at an altitude of 128 nautical miles. The remote manipulator system (RMS) arm is partially visible stowed along the port side sill longeron.

  7. 49 CFR 176.905 - Motor vehicles or mechanical equipment powered by internal combustion engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of ignition. A motor vehicle or mechanical equipment showing any signs of leakage or electrical fault... equipment is stowed. (f) Each hold or compartment must be ventilated and fitted with an overhead water... smoke or fire detection system capable of alerting personnel on the bridge. (h) All electrical equipment...

  8. Astronauts McNair and Stewart prepare for reentry

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Astronauts Ronald E. McNair and Robert L. Stewart prepare for the re-entry phase of the shuttle Challenger near the end of the 41-B mission. The are stationed behind the crew commander and pilot. Stewart is already wearing his helmet. McNair is stowing some of his gear.

  9. 46 CFR 147.85 - Oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oxygen. 147.85 Section 147.85 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS CARGOES HAZARDOUS SHIPS' STORES Stowage and Other...) of oxygen may be on board a vessel engaged in industrial operations, if it is stowed on deck or in a...

  10. Local blacksmiths's activity in the west region of Cameroon and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    As a result of the nature of pollutant and exhaustible of fossils energies, developed countries have made use of renewable energy sources to make effective their energy systems. To stow on that vision in. Cameroon, the promotion of micro-hydroelectric powers plants (MHPP) is a priority and any contribution to its ease is ...

  11. 49 CFR 38.83 - Mobility aid accessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY..., curb, and intermediate positions) normally encountered in the operating environment. Where provided... allowing an occupied platform to fold or retract into the stowed position. (ii) Exception. Where physical...

  12. GRAVITY PIPELINE TRANSPORT FOR HARDENING FILLING MIXTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid KROUPNIK

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In underground mining of solid minerals becoming increasingly common development system with stowing hardening mixtures. In this case the natural ore array after it is replaced by an artificial excavation of solidified filling mixture consisting of binder, aggregates and water. Such a mixture is prepared on the surface on special stowing complexes and transported underground at special stowing pipelines. However, it is transported to the horizons of a few kilometers, which requires a sustainable mode of motion of such a mixture in the pipeline. Hardening stowing mixture changes its rheological characteristics over time, which complicates the calculation of the parameters of pipeline transportation. The article suggests a method of determining the initial parameters of such mixtures: the status coefficient, indicator of transportability, coefficient of hydrodynamic resistance to motion of the mixture. These indicators characterize the mixture in terms of the possibility to transport it through pipes. On the basis of these indicators is proposed methodology for calculating the parameters of pipeline transport hardening filling mixtures in drift mode when traffic on the horizontal part of the mixture under pressure column of the mixture in the vertical part of the backfill of the pipeline. This technique allows stable operation is guaranteed to provide pipeline transportation.

  13. 78 FR 57154 - Granting of Request for Early Termination of the Waiting Period Under the Premerger Notification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-17

    ... Corp. 20131099 G Carl C. Icahn; Apple Inc.; Carl C. Icahn. 20131118 G Welsh, Carson, Anderson & Stowe...; Riverstone Global Energy and Power Fund. 20131096 G TPG VI DE AIV II, L.P.; Envision RX Options Holdings Inc.; TPG VI DE AIV II, L.P. 20131102 G ASAC II LP; Activision Blizzard, Inc.; ASAC II LP. 20131119 G Abbott...

  14. On the complexity of container stowage planning problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Pacino, Dario; Jensen, Rune Møller

    2014-01-01

    The optimization of container ship and depot operations embeds the kk-shift problem, in which containers must be stowed in stacks such that at most kk containers must be removed in order to reach containers below them. We first solve an open problem introduced by Avriel et al. (2000) by showing...... that changing from uncapacitated to capacitated stacks reduces the complexity of this problem from NP-complete to polynomial. We then examine the complexity of the current state-of-the-art abstraction of container ship stowage planning, wherein containers and slots are grouped together. To do this, we define...... the hatch overstow problem, in which a set of containers are placed on top of the hatches of a container ship such that the number of containers that are stowed on hatches that must be accessed is minimized. We show that this problem is NP-complete by a reduction from the set-covering problem, which means...

  15. Sizing of type B package tie-downs on the basis of criteria related to hypothetical road transport accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phalippou, C.

    1986-01-01

    The aim is to guarantee intactness of the type B package containment system under hypothetical road accident conditions. Some experiments performed in France have led to analytical studies taking into account: a) the head-on collision, which is modelised by a uniform deceleration of 35 g, b) the side-on collision, which is modelised by a colliding object 3 times heavier than the package and an impact at 31.9 km/h. In the first case, the adopted criterion is the holding of the package on the vehicle by the strenght of the stowing members (tie-downs and chocks). In the second case, the adopted criterion is the desired breaking of the tie-downs in order to undamage package containment system; therefore it is assumed that no chock is acting against lateral impacts. Analytical and abacus methods have been developed for sizing the strenght of the stowing members in respect with the two above criteria [fr

  16. Autonomous Slat-Cove-Filler Device for Reduction of Aeroacoustic Noise Associated with Aircraft Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Travis L. (Inventor); Kidd, Reggie T. (Inventor); Lockard, David P (Inventor); Khorrami, Mehdi R. (Inventor); Streett, Craig L. (Inventor); Weber, Douglas Leo (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A slat cove filler is utilized to reduce airframe noise resulting from deployment of a leading edge slat of an aircraft wing. The slat cove filler is preferably made of a super elastic shape memory alloy, and the slat cove filler shifts between stowed and deployed shapes as the slat is deployed. The slat cove filler may be configured such that a separate powered actuator is not required to change the shape of the slat cove filler from its deployed shape to its stowed shape and vice-versa. The outer contour of the slat cove filler preferably follows a profile designed to maintain accelerating flow in the gap between the slat cove filler and wing leading edge to provide for noise reduction.

  17. A Constraint Programming Model for Fast Optimal Stowage of Container Vessel Bays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delgado-Ortegon, Alberto; Jensen, Rune Møller; Janstrup, Kira

    2012-01-01

    Container vessel stowage planning is a hard combinatorial optimization problem with both high economic and environmental impact. We have developed an approach that often is able to generate near-optimal plans for large container vessels within a few minutes. It decomposes the problem into a master...... planning phase that distributes the containers to bay sections and a slot planning phase that assigns containers of each bay section to slots. In this paper, we focus on the slot planning phase of this approach and present a constraint programming and integer programming model for stowing a set...... of containers in a single bay section. This so-called slot planning problem is NP-hard and often involves stowing several hundred containers. Using state-of-the-art constraint solvers and modeling techniques, however, we were able to solve 90% of 236 real instances from our industrial collaborator to optimality...

  18. Survivable pulse power space radiator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mims, James; Buden, David; Williams, Kenneth

    1989-01-01

    A thermal radiator system is described for use on an outer space vehicle, which must survive a long period of nonuse and then radiate large amounts of heat for a limited period of time. The radiator includes groups of radiator panels that are pivotally connected in tandem, so that they can be moved to deployed configuration wherein the panels lie largely coplanar, and to a stowed configuration wherein the panels lie in a stack to resist micrometeorite damage. The panels are mounted on a boom which separates a hot power source from a payload. While the panels are stowed, warm fluid passes through their arteries to keep them warm enough to maintain the coolant in a liquid state and avoid embrittlement of material. The panels can be stored in a largely cylindrical shell, with panels progressively further from the boom being of progressively shorter length.

  19. Planning an Integrated On-Line Library system (IOLS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-01

    Logical Workflow for Circulation of Library Materials ............. 14 Figure 9. Detail of Circulation of Libary Materials ...................... 15...Operating Honolulu, HI 96826 System (808) 947-4441 DATA RESEARCH ASSOCIATES, Inc. (ATLAS) 9270 Olive Blvd. St. Louis, MO 01775 DIGITAL EQUIPMENT CORP... DIGITAL EQUIPMENT CORP. Stow, MA 01775 (617) 897-7163 EYRING LIBRARY SYSTEMS (CARL) 5280 S. West, Suite E260 Salt Lake City, UT 84107 TANDEM SYSTEMS

  20. 46 CFR 121.710 - First-aid kits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false First-aid kits. 121.710 Section 121.710 Shipping COAST... SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 121.710 First-aid kits. A vessel must carry either a first-aid kit... kits, the contents must be stowed in a suitable, watertight container that is marked “First-Aid Kit”. A...

  1. AGOR 28: SIO Shipyard Representative Bi-Weekly Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Handles for Bridge port and stbd side sliding windows reinstalled with better adhesive. Should be good now. Have to remember to lift up on...handle before attempting to slide. Woody has expressed concern with potential interference of ships main crane and CAST 6 winches. SIO plans to...swap forward CTD handling arm with the after overboarding arm. This may exacerbate potential interferences with stowed crane . A possible solution

  2. Systems aspects of a space nuclear reactor power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, L.; Fujita, T.; Beatty, R.; Bhandari, P.; Chow, E.; Deininger, W.; Ewell, R.; Grossman, M.; Bloomfield, H.; Heller, J.

    1988-01-01

    Various system aspects of a 300-kW nuclear reactor power system for spacecraft have been investigated. Special attention is given to the cases of a reusable OTV and a space-based radar. It is demonstrated that the stowed length of the power system is important to mission design, and that orbital storage for months to years may be needed for missions involving orbital assembly.

  3. The equity premium in finance and valuation textbooks

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, Pablo

    2008-01-01

    This paper is a review of the recommendations about the equity premium found in the main finance and valuation textbooks. We review several editions of books written by authors such as Brealey and Myers; Copeland, Koller and Murrin (McKinsey); Ross, Westerfield and Jaffe; Bodie, Kane and Marcus; Damodaran; Copeland and Weston; Van Horne; Bodie and Merton; Stowe et al.; Pratt; Penman; Bruner; Weston & Brigham; and Arzac. We highlight the confusing message the textbooks convey regarding the equ...

  4. Ames Infusion Stories for NASA Annual Technology Report: Nano Entry System for CubeSat-Class Payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brandon; Jan, Darrell Leslie; Venkatapathy, Etiraj

    2015-01-01

    The Nano Entry System for CubeSat-Class Payloads led to the development of the Nano-Adaptable Deployable Entry and Placement Technology ("Nano-ADEPT"). Nano-ADEPT is a mechanically deployed entry, descent, and landing (EDL) system that stows during launch and cruise (like an umbrella) and serves as both heat shield and primary structure during EDL. It is especially designed for small spacecraft where volume is a limiting constraint.

  5. Effects of Long-Term Stowage on the Deployment of Bistable Tape Springs

    OpenAIRE

    Brinkmeyer, Alex; Pellegrino, Sergio; Weaver, Paul M.

    2016-01-01

    In the context of strain-energy-deployed space structures, material relaxation effects play a significant role in structures that are stowed for long durations, for example, in a space vehicle prior to launch. Here, the deployment of an ultrathin carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) tape spring is studied, with the aim of understanding how long-duration stowage affects its deployment behavior. Analytical modeling and experiments show that the deployment time increases predictably with stowa...

  6. STS-48 MS Gemar uses laptop during training session in JSC's MB SMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    STS-48 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Mission Specialist (MS) Charles D. Gemar, wearing lightweight headset, enters data into a portable laptop computer on the middeck of JSC's Motion Based (MB) Shuttle Mission Simulator (SMS). Gemar is participating in a preflight familiarization session in the MB-SMS located in the Mission Simulation and Training Facility Bldg 5. Visible to Gemar's right is a stowed extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) and on his left are forward locker mockups.

  7. Skylab IMSS checklist application study for emergency medical care. [emergency medical care operations involving the use and operation of the portable ambulance module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl, J. G.; Furukawa, S.

    1975-01-01

    A manual is presented that provides basic technical documentation to support the operation and utilization of the Portable Ambulance Module (PAM) in the field. The PAM is designed to be used for emergency resuscitation and victim monitoring. The functions of all the controls, displays, and stowed equipment of the unit are defined. Supportive medical and physiological data in those areas directly related to the uses of the PAM unit are presented.

  8. Ground Vehicle System Integration (GVSI) and Design Optimization Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-07-30

    number of stowed kills Same basic load lasts longer range Gun/ammo parameters impact system weight, under - armor volume requirements Round volume...internal volume is reduced, the model assumes that the crew’s ability to operate while under armor will be impaired. If the size of a vehicle crew is...changing swept volume will alter under armor volume requirements for the total system; if system volume is fixed, changing swept volume will

  9. Defending Our Satellites: The Need for Electronic Warfare Education and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    intercept Allied bombers attacking at night.9 As a result of the electronic warfare advantage that systems like Window and Airborne Cigar be- stowed...74 | Air & Space Power Journal Defending Our Satellites The Need for Electronic Warfare Education and Training Lt Col E. Lincoln Bonner, USAF...expanding education and training in the use of electronic warfare to defend US satellites and improve their survivability. The following discussion

  10. Development of heading/ripping systems and immediate roadway support (Report on ECSC contract 6220-62/8/801)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    The development of a combined heading and ripping system to enable the heading to be advanced while the coal and dirt were taken and discharged separately is discussed. A rotary head ripping machine fitted with cutting picks, dirt stowing machinery and ancillary equipment were developed. Work on the design and testing of powered roadway supports around roadheading machines showed that the problems arising may outweigh any of the possible advantages.

  11. Investigation of bio-regenerative life support and Trash-to-gas experiment on a 4 month mars simulation mission

    OpenAIRE

    Caraccio, A.; Poulet, Lucie; Hintze, P.; Miles, J.D.

    2014-01-01

    Future crewed missions to other planets or deep space locations will require regenerative Life Support Systems (LSS) as well as recycling processes for mission waste. Constant resupply of many commodity materials will not be a sustainable option for deep space missions, nor will stowing trash on board a vehicle or at a lunar or Martian outpost. The habitable volume will decline as the volume of waste increases. A complete regenerative environmentally controlled life support system (ECLSS) on ...

  12. Establishment of a permeability/porosity equation for salt grit and damming materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fein, E.; Mueller-Lyda, I.; Storck, R.

    1996-09-01

    The flow resistance of stowing and sealing materials hinder the transport of brines in an ultimate storage site in salt rock strata. This effect can be seen when brines flow into the storage areas and when contaminated brines are pressed out of the underground structure. The main variable determining flow resistance is permeability. The convergence process induced by rock pressure reduces the size of the available residual cavern and also the permeability of the stowing and sealing materials. In the long-term safety analyses carried out so far, the interdependence between porosity and permeability in the case of salt grit was commonly described by a power function. The present investigation uses the data available until the end of 1994 to derive an improved relation between permeability and porosity for salt grit stowing material. The results obtained show that the power function used until now is still applicable with only a slight modification of parameters. In addition, the statistical distribution functions of the correlated parameters of the permeability/porosity relation were determined for the first time for a probabilistic safety analysis. (orig./DG) [de

  13. Accommodating Thickness in Origami-Based Deployable Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirbel, Shannon A.; Magleby, Spencer P.; Howell, Larry L.; Lang, Robert J.; Thomson, Mark W.; Sigel, Deborah A.; Walkemeyer, Phillip E.; Trease, Brian P.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to create deployment systems with a large ratio of stowed-to-deployed diameter. Deployment from a compact form to a final flat state can be achieved through origami-inspired folding of panels. There are many models capable of this motion when folded in a material with negligible thickness; however, when the application requires the folding of thick, rigid panels, attention must be paid to the effect of material thickness not only on the final folded state, but also during the folding motion (i.e., the panels must not be required to flex to attain the final folded form). The objective is to develop new methods for deployment from a compact folded form to a large circular array (or other final form). This paper describes a mathematical model for modifying the pattern to accommodate material thickness in the context of the design, modeling, and testing of a deployable system inspired by an origami six-sided flasher model. The model is demonstrated in hardware as a 1/20th scale prototype of a deployable solar array for space applications. The resulting prototype has a ratio of stowed-to-deployed diameter of 9.2 (or 1.25 m deployed outer diameter to 0.136 m stowed outer diameter).

  14. Exposé or misconstrual? Unresolved issues of authorship and the authenticity of GW Stow’s ‘forgery’ of a rock art painting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marguerite Prins

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available George William Stow (1822-1882 is today considered to have been one of the founding fathers of rock art research and conservation in Southern Africa. He arrived from England in 1843 and settled on the frontier of the Eastern Cape where he gradually started specializing in geological exploration, the ethnological history of the early peoples of the subcontinent and the rock art of the region. By the 1870s he was responsible for the discovery of the coalfields in the Vaal Triangle of South Africa. In recent years Stow’s legacy has been the subject of academic suspicion. Some rock art experts claim that he made himself guilty of ‘forgery’. In the article the authors argues in favour of restoring the status of Stow by pointing to the fact that two mutually exclusive interpretational approaches of rock art, than it is about an alleged forgery, are at the heart of the attempts at discrediting his work. In the process, irreparable and undeserving harm has been done to the name of George William Stow and his contribution to rock art research and conservation in South Africa.

  15. Development of mechanization of extraction in underground coal mining (part I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strzeminski, J

    1984-01-01

    The history of underground coal mining and history of mechanizing underground operations of cutting, strata control, mine haulage, hoisting and ventilation are discussed. The following development periods are characterized: until 1769 (date of steam engine invention by J. Watt), from 1769 to 1945 (period of partial mechanization of operations in underground coal mining), from 1945 (period of comprehensive mechanization and automation). A general description of mining in the first development period is given. Evaluation of the second development period concentrates on mechanization in underground coal mining. The following equipment types are described: cutting (pneumatic picks and pneumatic drills, coal saws developed by Eickhoff, coal cutters developed after 1870, cutter loaders patented in 1925-1927, coal plows and coal cutter loaders), mine haulage (mine cars, conveyors developed in the United Kingdom, Germany and Russia, Poland), strata control at working faces (timber props, steel friction props, roof bars), strata control in the goaf (room and pillar mining, stowing, minestone utilization for stowing in Upper Silesia, hydraulic stowing in Upper Silesia). 5 references.

  16. Experimental use of road header (AM-50) as face cutting machine for extraction of coal in longwall panel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passi, K.K.; Kumar, C.R.; Prasad, P. [DGMS, Dhanbad (India)

    2001-07-01

    The scope of this paper has been limited to the use of available machines and techniques for attaining higher and more efficient production in underground coal mines. Under certain conditions of strata and higher degree of gassiness, the longwall method with hydraulic sand stowing is the only appropriate method of work for extraction of thick seam. In Moonidih Jitpur Colliery of M/S IISCO, No. 14 seam, Degree III gassy seam, 9.07 m thick, is extracted in multilift system with hydraulic sand stowing. In general, the bottom lift is extracted by Single Ended Ranging Arm Shearer and the middle and top lift are extracted by conventional method. However, in one of the panels spare road header machine was used as face cutting machine in bottom lift, on an experimental basis. This paper presents a successful case study of extraction of bottom lift coal by the longwall method with hydraulic sand stowing using road header (AM 50) as the face cutting machines. 9 figs.

  17. Structures and Mechanisms Design Concepts for Adaptive Deployable Entry Placement Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yount, Bryan C.; Arnold, James O.; Gage, Peter J.; Mockelman, Jeffrey; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

    2012-01-01

    System studies have shown that large deployable aerodynamic decelerators such as the Adaptive Deployable Entry and Placement Technology (ADEPT) concept can revolutionize future robotic and human exploration missions involving atmospheric entry, descent and landing by significantly reducing the maximum heating rate, total heat load, and deceleration loads experienced by the spacecraft during entry [1-3]. ADEPT and the Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) [4] share the approach of stowing the entry system in the shroud of the launch vehicle and deploying it to a much larger diameter prior to entry. The ADEPT concept provides a low ballistic coefficient for planetary entry by employing an umbrella-like deployable structure consisting of ribs, struts and a fabric cover that form an aerodynamic decelerator capable of undergoing hypersonic flight. The ADEPT "skin" is a 3-D woven carbon cloth that serves as a thermal protection system (TPS) and as a structural surface that transfers aerodynamic forces to the underlying ribs [5]. This paper focuses on design activities associated with integrating ADEPT components (cloth, ribs, struts and mechanisms) into a system that can function across all configurations and environments of a typical mission concept: stowed during launch, in-space deployment, entry, descent, parachute deployment and separation from the landing payload. The baseline structures and mechanisms were selected via trade studies conducted during the summer and fall of 2012. They are now being incorporated into the design of a ground test article (GTA) that will be fabricated in 2013. It will be used to evaluate retention of the stowed configuration in a launch environment, mechanism operation for release, deployment and locking, and static strength of the deployed decelerator. Of particular interest are the carbon cloth interfaces, underlying hot structure, (Advanced Carbon- Carbon ribs) and other structural components (nose cap, struts, and

  18. Contamination control requirements implementation for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), part 2: spacecraft, sunshield, observatory, and launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooldridge, Eve M.; Schweiss, Andrea; Henderson-Nelson, Kelly; Woronowicz, Michael; Patel, Jignasha; Macias, Matthew; McGregor, R. Daniel; Farmer, Greg; Schmeitzky, Olivier; Jensen, Peter; Rumler, Peter; Romero, Beatriz; Breton, Jacques

    2014-09-01

    This paper will continue from Part 1 of JWST contamination control implementation. In addition to optics, instruments, and thermal vacuum testing, JWST also requires contamination control for a spacecraft that must be vented carefully in order to maintain solar array and thermal radiator thermal properties; a tennis court-sized sunshield made with 1-2 mil Kapton™ layers that must be manufactured and maintained clean; an observatory that must be integrated, stowed and transported to South America; and a rocket that typically launches commercial payloads without contamination sensitivity. An overview of plans developed to implement contamination control for the JWST spacecraft, sunshield, observatory and launch vehicle will be presented.

  19. EMMA - the electric and magnetic monitor of the aurora on Astrid-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg, L.G.; Marklund, G.T.; Lindqvist, P.A.

    2004-01-01

    discuss in the present paper, is designed to provide simultaneous sampling of two electric and three magnetic field components up to about 1 kHz. The spin plane components of the electric field are measured by two pairs of opposing probes extended by wire booms with a separation distance of 6.7 m....... The probes have titanium nitride (TiN) surfaces. which has proved to be a material with excellent properties for providing good electrical contact between probe and plasma. The wire booms are of a new design in which the booms in the stowed position are wound around the exterior of the spacecraft body...

  20. KSC ISS Logistics Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellado, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The presentation contains a status of KSC ISS Logistics Operations. It basically presents current top level ISS Logistics tasks being conducted at KSC, current International Partner activities, hardware processing flow focussing on late Stow operations, list of KSC Logistics POC's, and a backup list of Logistics launch site services. This presentation is being given at the annual International Space Station (ISS) Multi-lateral Logistics Maintenance Control Panel meeting to be held in Turin, Italy during the week of May 13-16. The presentatiuon content doesn't contain any potential lessons learned.

  1. Development and evaluation of the scientific fundamentals for safety analysis of an ultimate storage site in the period after operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewitz, W.; Buhmann, D.; Fein, E.; Hirsekorn, R.P.; Kuehle, T.; Noseck, U.; Storck, R.; Tix, C.

    1996-09-01

    The project comprised the analysis and evaluation of scientific results of national and international studies which must be considered in model assumptions and model data of long-term safety analyses. This was done with a view to the planning of future projects in close cooperation with the leaders of the BMBF Waste Management Project. Priority was given to models and data on the following subjects: Convergence characteristics of saline rock; behaviour of stowing and sealing materials; Leaching of cemented waste; Chemical environment in the vicinity; Sorption in the overlying rock strata; Systematics of scenario analyses. (orig./DG) [de

  2. Engineering Design Handbook. Helicopter Engineering. Part Two. Detail Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    lubrication, the splines and the monoball oc- ge’~ll ar pity -agd stac mt uis brekawy snip v casionzily require lubricationforce. F6 , A~sj, the di~aphiag tc 5v...being stowed ian aminimum volum, so as Hap sad daue co a be Wooatd in accas *.m M~ to isseff-a with the traosport of cor.. wi& MaL4T.5M= so that the men...helicopter to If lubrication is required, fittings must be located placement of modules - limited piece-part replace- where accas is possible using

  3. ALI (Autonomous Lunar Investigator): Revolutionary Approach to Exploring the Moon with Addressable Reconfigurable Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, P. E.; Curtis, S. A.; Rilee, M. L.; Floyd, S. R.

    2005-01-01

    Addressable Reconfigurable Technology (ART) based structures: Mission Concepts based on Addressable Reconfigurable Technology (ART), originally studied for future ANTS (Autonomous Nanotechnology Swarm) Space Architectures, are now being developed as rovers for nearer term use in lunar and planetary surface exploration. The architecture is based on the reconfigurable tetrahedron as a building block. Tetrahedra are combined to form space-filling networks, shaped for the required function. Basic structural components are highly modular, addressable arrays of robust nodes (tetrahedral apices) from which highly reconfigurable struts (tetrahedral edges), acting as supports or tethers, are efficiently reversibly deployed/stowed, transforming and reshaping the structures as required.

  4. Models and Algorithms for Container Vessel Stowage Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delgado-Ortegon, Alberto

    .g., selection of vessels to buy that satisfy specific demands), through to operational decisions (e.g., selection of containers that optimize revenue, and stowing those containers into a vessel). This thesis addresses the question of whether it is possible to formulate stowage optimization models...... container of those to be loaded in a port should be placed in a vessel, i.e., to generate stowage plans. This thesis explores two different approaches to solve this problem, both follow a 2-phase decomposition that assigns containers to vessel sections in the first phase, i.e., master planning...

  5. Estilos de Liderança e Mecanismos de Aprendizagem em Organizações: Análise de suas Relações em uma Organização Financeira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Isidro-Filho

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify leadership styles thatpredict perceptions about organizational learningmechanims in a Brazilian financial organization. The data collection was undertaken in 2006supported by two measure scales: Organizational Learning Mechanisms Scale and ManagerialStyles Evaluation Scale. The sample was composed by506 people that filled in a Likert fivepointquestionnaire. Professional and biographic data from the participants of the research were alsocollected. Descriptive and inferencial analyses were undertaken and the results show thatrelationship leadership style was the better predictor of perceptions upon organizational learningmechanisms, specifically about internal and external acquisition, sharing, stowing and control ofknowledge in organizations. Research limitations are stated and research agenda and practicalrecommendations are done.

  6. Insulated Containers for Bottled Water (ICB)-Performance Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-21

    Plastic   Wrapped  Cordura  Rubberized traction pad  PE  Plastic   Liner  No  Yes  Yes  No  Safe Tie‐Down  Capability  Yes  Yes  Yes  No  Easy Access...mounted Soldiers. The ICBs are lighter, require less storage space, and have more effective tie-down characteristics than coolers often used to carry...bottled water in vehicles. The performance of the ICBs and a commonly used cooler was assessed to determine whether the easier-to-stow ICBs would be as

  7. Landing gear noise attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Jeffrey W. (Inventor); Whitmire, Julia (Inventor); Kwan, Hwa-Wan (Inventor); Abeysinghe, Amal (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A landing gear noise attenuator mitigates noise generated by airframe deployable landing gear. The noise attenuator can have a first position when the landing gear is in its deployed or down position, and a second position when the landing gear is in its up or stowed position. The noise attenuator may be an inflatable fairing that does not compromise limited space constraints associated with landing gear retraction and stowage. A truck fairing mounted under a truck beam can have a compliant edge to allow for non-destructive impingement of a deflected fire during certain conditions.

  8. PLB, vertical tail, OMS pods above Earth with moon in distant background

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Payload bay (PLB) equipment, payloads, and experiments include remote manipulator system (RMS) stowed on port side sill longeron, Development Flight Instrument (DFI) pallet with High Capacity Heat Pipe Experiment, Special Philatelic Covers in two large storage (mail) boxes, Evaluation of Oxygen Interaction with Materials (EOIM) experiment trays, and Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation (AFRSI) blanket in foreground and Payload Flight Test Article (PFTA) behind DFI pallet. Vertical tail with orbital maneuvering system (OMS) pods at base points to Earth's cloud-covered surface with gibbous moon in distance.

  9. Technology for the storage of radioactive materials packagings during maritime transport. Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringot, C.; Chevalier, G.; Tomachevski, E.G.

    1989-01-01

    Following the accident of the M/S Mont Louis on August 25, 1984 carrying UF 6 cylinders, this report is a preliminary study of bibliographic data to help to define recommendations on packaging stowing for sea transport. Data on acceleration to take into account for normal or accidental transport conditions, safe areas on board that should be reserved for radioactive materials and accidents statistics are collected. Main information concerns: number of serious casualities or total losses to ships in European waters, accident causes, collision probability in function of mean distance between ships in the British Channel, selection of 8 reference accidents for future studies

  10. Methane production from coal seams and CO2 uptake capability of the Mecsek mountain range, Hungary; Die Methangewinnung aus Kohlefloezen und das CO{sub 2}-Aufnahmevermoegen des Mecsek-Gebirges in Ungarn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varga, Z.N. [Univ. Miskolc (Hungary); Lakatos, I. [Forschungsinstitut der angewandten Chemie (Hungary); Foeldessy, J.; Toth, J.; Fodor, B.; Csecsei, T. [Ungarischer Geologischer Dienst, Rotaqua KFT (Hungary)

    2006-06-15

    Methane from the Mecsek mountain range coal seams is of vast economic importance. Modified geological models focusing on zones of enhanced permeability may be useful in the development of practicable winning technologies. High gas volumes are assumed in stowed material, which may be recovered by a simple technology. There is a power station in the vicinity which produces waste gases that may be used for injection, so the Mecsek region offers promising conditions for CO2 CBM production. The same power plant is also a potential consumer of the recovered methane. (orig.)

  11. Thermal behavior of the Medicina 32-meter radio telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisanu, Tonino; Buffa, Franco; Morsiani, Marco; Pernechele, Claudio; Poppi, Sergio

    2010-07-01

    We studied the thermal effects on the 32 m diameter radio-telescope managed by the Institute of Radio Astronomy (IRA), Medicina, Bologna, Italy. The preliminary results show that thermal gradients deteriorate the pointing performance of the antenna. Data has been collected by using: a) two inclinometers mounted near the elevation bearing and on the central part of the alidade structure; b) a non contact laser alignment optical system capable of measuring the secondary mirror position; c) twenty thermal sensors mounted on the alidade trusses. Two series of measurements were made, the first series was performed by placing the antenna in stow position, the second series was performed while tracking a circumpolar astronomical source. When the antenna was in stow position we observed a strong correlation between the inclinometer measurements and the differential temperature. The latter was measured with the sensors located on the South and North sides of the alidade, thus indicating that the inclinometers track well the thermal deformation of the alidade. When the antenna pointed at the source we measured: pointing errors, the inclination of the alidade, the temperature of the alidade components and the subreflector position. The pointing errors measured on-source were 15-20 arcsec greater than those measured with the inclinometer.

  12. Deployment Methods for an Origami-Inspired Rigid-Foldable Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirbel, Shannon A.; Trease, Brian P.; Magleby, Spencer P.; Howell, Larry L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate several deployment methods for an origami-inspired solar array at two size scales: 25-meter array and CubeSat array. The array enables rigid panel deployment and introduces new concepts for actuating CubeSat deployables. The design for the array was inspired by the origami flasher model (Lang, 1997; Shafer, 2001). Figure 1 shows the array prototyped from Garolite and Kapton film at the CubeSat scale. Prior work demonstrated that rigid panels like solar cells could successfully be folded into the final stowed configuration without requiring the panels to flex (Zirbel, Lang, Thomson, & al., 2013). The design of the array is novel and enables efficient use of space. The array can be wrapped around the central bus of the spacecraft in the case of the large array, or can accommodate storage of a small instrument payload in the case of the CubeSat array. The radial symmetry of this array around the spacecraft is ideally suited for spacecraft that need to spin. This work focuses on several actuation methods for a one-time deployment of the array. The array is launched in its stowed configuration and it will be deployed when it is in space. Concepts for both passive and active actuation were considered.

  13. Effects of ventilation tunnel protection on stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strizhiboroda, S K; Kuritsyn, B I; Anosov, O S

    1983-09-01

    Analyzed are effects of strata control on a ventilation gate road situated at a depth of 860 m in a coal seam 0.65 m thick with dip angle of 48 degrees. The direct roof and floor consisted of limestone and the main roof of shales. The ventilation gate road with a cross section of 8.2 m/Sup 2/ was supported by the AP-9.2 arched steel supports. The following methods for gate road protection were used: timber cribbings, reinforced cribbings, strips of pneumatic stowing (using waste rocks), and coal support pillars. Effects of gate road protection on roof subsidence, subsidence rate and on support deformation in the gate road were analyzed considering strata control method and the distance to the advancing longwall face. The results of comparative evaluations, given in 4 diagrams, showed that timber cribbings guaranteed the most regular stress distribution and regular roof subsidence. Use of coal support pillars negatively influenced stress distribution. Irrespective of strata control method from 60 to 80% of roof subsidence occurred at a distance from 0 to 40 m behind a working face. Roof subsidence ranged from 17.3 to 38.3 mm/d when support pillars were used, was 27 mm/d when reinforced cribbings were used and ranged from 9.6 to 16.5 mm/d when pneumatic stowing was used. Use of blocks of reinforced concrete for protecting ventilation gate roads in inclined strata is recommended.

  14. Perspectives of roof bolt use in the Kuzbass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirokov, A P

    1983-10-01

    Use of roof bolting for strata control in mine roadways and underground chambers in Kuzbass mines is discussed. Use of roof bolting in the Kuzbass is increasing. In 1982 roof bolting was used in 50% of workings driven in the basin; in 15 coal mines roof bolting was the predominant method for strata control. Use of roof bolting rather than timber props permitted advance rate of mine drivage in the Kuzbass to be increased by 1.5-2.0 times. Interaction between roof bolts and rock strata is analyzed. The following bolt types are considered: timber roof bolts, steel expansion shell bolts and thread bar bolts. Bolt design is shown, along with methods for roof bolt installation in roadways and chambers. Roof bolting during level, inclined or steep seam mining, for strata control at junctions of working faces with gate roads, at junctions of 2 roadways, in coal chutes, in hydraulic mines, during thick seam slicing with hardening stowing and longwall mining with hydraulic stowing is analyzed. Effects of roof bolting on strata control efficiency in steep coal mines employing AShchM systems are evaluated.

  15. Starshade mechanical design for the Habitable Exoplanet imaging mission concept (HabEx)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Manan; Webb, David; McGown, James; Lisman, P. Douglas; Shaklan, Stuart; Bradford, S. Case; Steeves, John; Hilgemann, Evan; Trease, Brian; Thomson, Mark; Warwick, Steve; Freebury, Gregg; Gull, Jamie

    2017-09-01

    An external occulter for starlight suppression - a starshade - flying in formation with the Habitable Exoplanet Imaging Mission Concept (HabEx) space telescope could enable the direct imaging and spectrographic characterization of Earthlike exoplanets in the habitable zone. This starshade is flown between the telescope and the star, and suppresses stellar light sufficiently to allow the imaging of the faint reflected light of the planet. This paper presents a mechanical architecture for this occulter, which must stow in a 5 m-diameter launch fairing and then deploy to about a 80 m-diameter structure. The optical performance of the starshade requires that the edge profile is accurate and stable. The stowage and deployment of the starshade to meet these requirements present unique challenges that are addressed in this proposed architecture. The mechanical architecture consists of a number of petals attached to a deployable perimeter truss, which is connected to central hub using tensioned spokes. The petals are furled around the stowed perimeter truss for launch. Herein is described a mechanical design solution that supports an 80 m-class starshade for flight as part of HabEx.

  16. NET in-vessel vehicle system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, H.

    1991-02-01

    The CFFTP/Spar In-vessel Vehicle System concept for in-vessel remote maintenance of the NET/ITER machine is described. It comprises a curved deployable boom, a vehicle which can travel on the boom and an end effector or work unit mounted on the vehicle. The stowed boom, vehicle, and work unit are inserted via the equatorial access port of the torus. Following insertion the boom is deployed and locked in place. The vehicle may then travel along the boom to transport the work unit to any desired location. A novel feature of the concept is the deployable boom. When fully deployed, it closely resembles a conventional curved truss structure in configuration and characteristics. However, the joints of the truss structure are hinged so that it can fold into a compact package, of less than 20% of deployed volume for storage, transportation and insertion into the torus. A full-scale 2-metre long section of this boom was produced for demonstration purposes. As part of the concept definition the work unit for divertor handling was studied to demonstrate that large payloads could be manipulated within the confines of the torus using the in-vessel vehicle system. Principal advantages of the IVVS are its high load capacity and rigidity, low weight and stowed volume, simplicity of control and operation, and its relatively high speed of transportation

  17. A future large-aperture UVOIR space observatory: reference designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioux, Norman; Thronson, Harley; Feinberg, Lee; Stahl, H. Philip; Redding, Dave; Jones, Andrew; Sturm, James; Collins, Christine; Liu, Alice

    2015-09-01

    Our joint NASA GSFC/JPL/MSFC/STScI study team has used community-provided science goals to derive mission needs, requirements, and candidate mission architectures for a future large-aperture, non-cryogenic UVOIR space observatory. We describe the feasibility assessment of system thermal and dynamic stability for supporting coronagraphy. The observatory is in a Sun-Earth L2 orbit providing a stable thermal environment and excellent field of regard. Reference designs include a 36-segment 9.2 m aperture telescope that stows within a five meter diameter launch vehicle fairing. Performance needs developed under the study are traceable to a variety of reference designs including options for a monolithic primary mirror.

  18. Radioactivity of dumps in mining areas of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorda J.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Underground coal mining is associated with large quantities of gangue. In the past, the majority of gangue was not utilized but was placed in the vicinity of the coalmines forming cone-shaped dumps. Some of them contained even millions of tons of rock. Nowadays, environmental precautions extort larger utilization of any kind of waste materials, for example in road construction, civil engineering or as stowing in underground abandoned workings. Examination of the composition of waste dumps, including radioactivity, is thus an important issue. The paper presents results of a radiological survey carried out in several dumps located in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin in the south of Poland. Measurements of samples were carried out with the use of a gamma-ray spectrometer. Activity concentration results for the uranium and thorium decay chains are discussed.

  19. Minutes of the first, second, and third meeting of the Panel for Continuing Review and Assessment of the ORNL Hydrofracture Technique (WMPORMOD), August 6--7, 1985; November 5-6, 1985; October 6, 1986, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee: [Quarterly progress report, October--December 22, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The open session began at 0945 with a brief discussion by Dr. Steven H. Stow of desirable clarifications in several areas of the text appearing in chapter 9 of the Management of Radioactive Waste at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory: A Technical Review (National Academy Press, 1985). The ORNL staff points were well taken, and generally consistent with the understandings of the panel members who had drafted the report sections. Material was then presented by ORNL staff included Review of information collected since the October 1984 briefing, Plans for Deep Monitoring Well Groundwater Sampling and Monitoring, Plans for the Knox Reconnaissance Well, Waste Sampling and Analysis, Regulatory Interfaces and the Permitting Process, and Alternatives to Hydrofracture. Each of the presentations was summarized in a handout

  20. Utilization of test boreholes in prospecting and mining operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sierak, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    Test boreholes are of fundamental importance for mining and prospecting operations. The drilling techniques are suited to the geological conditions and to the nature of the information desired. At Cogema, non-coring test boreholes, mainly drilled by a rotary percussive method, represent over 90% of the footage drilled; they achieve impressive performances at a cost which is by far less than that of coring test boreholes. The geological exploitation of these test boreholes is effected by a combined investigation of well logging and of cuttings. These investigations lead to an assessment for certain substances like uranium or coal or they mark the limits for favourable zones which alone will form the object of coring boreholes. In mining operations, boreholes indicate the definition for workable panels; they ensure at less cost the distribution of fluids, the forwarding of stowing material and the mine ventilation [fr

  1. Rack Distribution Effects on MPLM Center of Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tester, John T.

    2005-01-01

    This research was in support of exploring the need for more flexible "center of gravity (CG) specifications than those currently established by NASA for the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM). The MPLM is the cargo carrier for International Space Station (ISS) missions. The MPLM provides locations for 16 standard racks, as shown in Figure 1; not all positions need to be filled in any given flight. The MPLM coordinate system (X(sub M), Y(sub M), Z(sub M)) is illustrated as well. For this project, the primary missions of interest were those which supply the ISS and remove excess materials on the return flights. These flights use a predominate number of "Resupply Stowage Racks" (RSR) and "Resupply Stowage Platforms" (RSP). In these two types of racks, various smaller items are stowed. Hence, these racks will exhibit a considerable range of mass values as well as a range as to where their individual CG are located.

  2. Nano Entry System for CubeSat-Class Payloads Project (Nano-ADEPT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brandon Patrick

    2014-01-01

    This project is developing a mechanically deployed system through a mission application study, deployment/ejection testing, and wind tunnel testing. Adaptable Deployable Entry and Placement Technology (ADEPT) has been under development at NASA since 2011. Nano-ADEPT is the application of this revolutionary entry technology for small spacecraft. The unique capability of ADEPT for small science payloads comes from its ability to stow within a slender volume and deploy passively to achieve a mass-efficient drag surface with a high heat rate capability. Near-term applications for this technology include return of small science payloads or CubeSat technology from Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and delivery of secondary payloads to the surface of Mars.

  3. Development of the Aquarius Antenna Deployment Mechanisms and Spring/Damper Actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Joel A.

    2008-01-01

    The Aquarius Instrument s large radar reflector dish needed to be stowed for launch, and then deployed on-orbit. The Deployment Subsystem consisted of a cantilevered boom structure and two single-axis hinge mechanisms to accurately deploy and position the reflector dish relative to the radar feed horns. The cantilevered design demanded high stiffness and accuracy from the deployment mechanism at the root of the boom. A preload-generating end-of-travel latch was also required. To largely eliminate the need for control systems, each deployment mechanism was actuated by a passive spring motor with viscous-fluid damping. Tough requirements and adaptation of a heritage actuator to the new application resulted in numerous challenges. Fabrication, assembly, and testing encountered additional problems, though ultimately the system was demonstrated very successfully. This paper revisits the development to highlight which design concepts worked and the many important lessons learned.

  4. Advancements of the Lightweight Integrated Solar Array and Transceiver (LISA-T) Small Spacecraft System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockett, Tiffany Russell; Martinez, Armando; Boyd, Darren; SanSouice, Michael; Farmer, Brandon; Schneider, Todd; Laue, Greg; Fabisinski, Leo; Johnson, Les; Carr, John A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes recent advancements of the Lightweight Integrated Solar Array and Transceiver (LISA-T) currently being developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. The LISA-T array comprises a launch stowed, orbit deployed structure on which thin-film photovoltaic (PV) and antenna devices are embedded. The system provides significant electrical power generation at low weights, high stowage efficiency, and without the need for solar tracking. Leveraging high-volume terrestrial-market PVs also gives the potential for lower array costs. LISA-T is addressing the power starvation epidemic currently seen by many small-scale satellites while also enabling the application of deployable antenna arrays. Herein, an overview of the system and its applications are presented alongside sub-system development progress and environmental testing plans.

  5. The Influence of Realistic Reynolds Numbers on Slat Noise Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockard, David P.; Choudhari, Meelan M.

    2012-01-01

    The slat noise from the 30P/30N high-lift system has been computed using a computational fluid dynamics code in conjunction with a Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings solver. Varying the Reynolds number from 1.71 to 12.0 million based on the stowed chord resulted in slight changes in the radiated noise. Tonal features in the spectra were robust and evident for all Reynolds numbers and even when a spanwise flow was imposed. The general trends observed in near-field fluctuations were also similar for all the different Reynolds numbers. Experiments on simplified, subscale high-lift systems have exhibited noticeable dependencies on the Reynolds number and tripping, although primarily for tonal features rather than the broadband portion of the spectra. Either the 30P/30N model behaves differently, or the computational model is unable to capture these effects. Hence, the results underscore the need for more detailed measurements of the slat cove flow.

  6. Geometry and design of origami bellows with tunable response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Austin; Lechenault, Frederic; Rica, Sergio; Adda-Bedia, Mokhtar

    2017-01-01

    Origami folded cylinders (origami bellows) have found increasingly sophisticated applications in space flight and medicine. In spite of this interest, a general understanding of the mechanics of an origami folded cylinder has been elusive. With a newly developed set of geometrical tools, we have found an analytic solution for all possible cylindrical rigid-face states of both Miura-ori and triangular tessellations. Although an idealized bellows in both of these families may have two allowed rigid-face configurations over a well-defined region, the corresponding physical device, limited by nonzero material thickness and forced to balance hinge and plate-bending energy, often cannot stably maintain a stowed configuration. We have identified the parameters that control this emergent bistability, and we have demonstrated the ability to design and fabricate bellows with tunable deployability.

  7. Design Development of a Combined Deployment and Pointing System for the International Space Station Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budinoff, Jason; Gendreau, Keith; Arzoumanian, Zaven; Baker, Charles; Berning, Robert; Colangelo, TOdd; Holzinger, John; Lewis, Jesse; Liu, Alice; Mitchell, Alissa; hide

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a unique suite of mechanisms that make up the Deployment and Pointing System (DAPS) for the Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER/SEXTANT) instrument, an X-Ray telescope, which will be mounted on the International Space Station (ISS). The DAPS system uses four stepper motor actuators to deploy the telescope box, latch it in the deployed position, and allow it to track sky targets. The DAPS gimbal architecture provides full-hemisphere coverage, and is fully re-stowable. The compact design of the mechanism allowed the majority of total instrument volume to be used for science. Override features allow DAPS to be stowed by ISS robotics.

  8. Development of an oil skimming and separating system to combat oil spills at sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klimek, R.; Clauss, G.

    1983-02-01

    For efficiently combatting oil pollution at sea, it is intended to combine a hopper dredger with two oil skimmers. This system consists of two oil skimmers, which are permanently stowed on deck of the ship. In case of operation, the oil skimmers work connected beside the ship, but decoupled from the ship concerning motions of sea. Hopper dredgers have already sufficient pump and tank capacity and are well-suited for operation in offshore areas and river deltas. They are characterized by low draught and are capable of lightening their cargo very quickly so that they are ready for oil skimming operation within 2 hours. Model tests with regard to the behaviour and function of the oil skimmer system were carried out at scales of 1:15, 1:10, and 1:5. Tests with the system ship/oil skimmer were performed at a scale of 1:15.

  9. Investigation by tracer method of water balance in filling the gob with slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jureczko, J.; Skowronek, E.

    1977-01-01

    Results of investigations on the establishment of conditions of water flow in filling old workings with mud, in order to determine the degree of water hazard for mine workings in one of mines are given. For the inspection of flow, the stable tracer method and the neutron activation analysis were used. Chromium as a complex compound with EDTA was used as tracer. Geological and mining conditions in the area of investigations by tracers are given and the disposal of diluted stowing slurry is characterized. The method of interpretation of results is discussed in order to determine the water flow rate in the gob and to draw up the water balance on the basis of the curve of tracer travel. (author)

  10. Investigation of sheet steel St 37.2 under mechanical impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, H.P.; Brennecke, P.; Koester, R.; Friehmelt, V.

    1990-01-01

    Special waste originating, e.g. from chemical industry and radioactive wastes are emplaced in disposal mines. Slinger stowing is an approved technique to fill up residual voids in emplacement rooms. If it should be applied, possible mechanical loads on the integrity of sheet steel containers have to be considered. By theoretical calculations and by experiments under variation of different parameters using test specimen and backfill material from the Konrad mine using the container type V as an example it has been shown that sheet steel St 37.2 with a wall thickness of 3 mm will withstand mechanical impact imposed by backfill particles having a speed of 24 m/s. (orig.) [de

  11. The OSIRIS-REx Contamination Control and Witness Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworkin, J. P.; Adelman, L.; Ajluni, T. M.; Andronikov, A. V.; Ballou, D. M.; Bartels, A. E.; Beshore, E.; Bierhaus, E. B.; Boynton, W. V.; Brucato, J. R.; hide

    2015-01-01

    The OSIRIS-REx mission (Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, and Security Regolith Explorer) is the third NASA New Frontiers mission. It is scheduled for launch in 2016. The primary objective of the mission is to return at least 60 g of "pristine" material from the B-type near- Earth asteroid (101955) Bennu, which is spectrally similar to organic-rich CI or CM meteorites [1]. The study of these samples will advance our understanding of materials available for the origin of life on Earth or elsewhere. The spacecraft will rendezvous with Bennu in 2018 and spend at least a year characterizing the asteroid before executing a maneuver to recover a sample of regolith in the touch-and-go sample acquisition mechanism (TAGSAM). The TAGSAM and sample is stowed in the sample return capsule (SRC) and returned to Earth in 2023.

  12. The medical story. [Skylab program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, R. S.; Dietlein, L. F.; Michel, E. L.

    1974-01-01

    An overview of the Skylab medical program is given. All medical subsystems provided in the orbital workshop functioned satisfactorily. Major systems included the food system, the waste management system, and provisions per personal hygiene. A series of lockers in the wardroom was used to stow the inflight medical support system. Cardiovascular counter pressure garments were launched in the orbital workshop for all three crews. Life services experiments were carried out. Two experiments were conducted in the Skylab missions to study the performance of the cardiovascular system during weightless flight and return to earth and the one g environment. A series of experiments was conducted to study mineral balance and the bioassay of body fluids.

  13. Methods for working thick seams and research on increasing their effectiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, W

    1976-01-01

    In Poland nearly 40 per cent of all coal is extracted from seams more than 3 m. thick. In absolute figures this represents about 70 million tons of coal per year. Working seams with thicknesses up to 3.5 m. does not present, at present, major difficulties. Working thicker seams calls for a steady improvement in order to increase the degree of utilizaion of the deposit and to enlarge the concentration of output. The seams are worked under protected surface structures which compels the mines to use hydraulic stowing with all its advantages and disadvantages. Rock burst hazard, the control of which is the basic problem hindering the mining, is a further problem. 3 refs.

  14. Capillary pressure at irregularly shaped pore throats: Implications for water retention characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Hyoung Suk; Kang, Dong Hun; Jang, Jaewon; Kim, Kwang Yeom; Yun, Tae Sup

    2017-12-01

    The random shapes of pore throats in geomaterials hinder accurate estimation of capillary pressure, and conventional pore network models that simply use the Young-Laplace equation assuming circular pore throats overestimate the capillary pressure. As a solution to this problem that does not complicate the pore network model or slow its implementation, we propose a new morphological analysis method to correlate the capillary pressure at an irregular pore channel with its cross-sectional geometry using lattice Boltzmann (LB) simulation and Mayer and Stowe-Princen theory. Geometry-based shape factors for pore throats are shown here to correlate strongly with the capillary pressure obtained by LB simulation. Water retention curves obtained by incorporating the morphological calibration into conventional pore network simulation and their correlative scheme agree well with experimental data. The suggested method is relevant to pore-scale processes such as geological CO2 sequestration, methane bubbling from wetlands, and enhanced carbon recovery.

  15. Study of the Accident Environment During Sea Transport of Nuclear Material: Analysis of an Engine-room Fire on a Purpose-built Ship (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, K.; Kitamura, T.; Shibata, K.; Ouchi, Y.; Ito, T.; Hohnstreiter, G.F.; Pierce, J.D.; Koski, J.A.; Dukart, R.K.

    2000-01-01

    The programme goal was to show that the IAEA safe transport regulations adequately cover the thermal effects of an engine-room fire on plutonium transport packages stowed aboard a purpose-built ship. The packages are stored in transport containers located in a cargo hold of the ship. For this study, it was assumed that the packages in No 5 hold, adjacent to an engine-room, could be subject to heating due to a fire in the engine-room. The No 5 hold and the engine-room are separated by a water-filled bulkhead. This study addressed the heat transfer from an engine-room fire that could heat and evaporate water out of the water-filled bulkhead and the resulting temperature conditions around the packages and inside the packages near their elastometric seals. (author)

  16. Recultivation of mining waste dumps in the Ruhr area, Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, D.

    1996-01-01

    In 1993 Ruhrkohle AG produced 41.9 million tons of coal and 19.1 million m 3 of mining waste. Of this, 0.7 million m 3 were used underground as stowing material, 4.7 million m 3 was used commercially, while the remaining 13.7 million m 3 required dumping. Efforts related to the use and disposal of the material up to now dumped are concentrating on applying technical methods to reduce the production of waste underground, on opening up new markets of this material, on utilization of mining waste as a building material, and on low-environmental-impact dumping. Since the late 1970s, the mining waste heaps in the Ruhr mining region have been conceived and designed as landscape structures, i.e. they are integrated into the landscape by means of careful planning and design, and are immediately planted with vegetation. 9 refs., 5 figs

  17. Systems aspects of a space nuclear reactor power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaffe, L.; Fujita, T.; Beatty, R.

    1988-01-01

    Selected systems aspects of a 300 kW nuclear reactor power system for spacecraft have been studied. The approach included examination of two candidate missions and their associated spacecraft, and a number of special topics dealing with the power system design and operation. The missions considered were a reusable orbital transfer vehicle and a space-based radar. The special topics included: Power system configuration and scaling, launch vehicle integration, operating altitude, orbital storage, start-up, thawing, control, load following, procedures in case of malfunction, restart, thermal and nuclear radiation to other portions of the spacecraft, thermal stresses between subsystems, boom and cable designs, vibration modes, attitude control, reliability, and survivability. Among the findings are that the stowed length of the power system is important to mission design and that orbital storage for months to years may be needed for missions involving orbital assembly

  18. Ball Screw Actuator Including a Stop with an Integral Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingett, Paul T. (Inventor); Perek, John (Inventor); Geck, Kellan (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An actuator includes a housing assembly, a ball nut, a ball screw, and a ball screw stop. The ball nut is rotationally mounted in the housing assembly, is adapted to receive an input torque, and is configured, upon receipt thereof, to rotate and supply a drive force. The ball screw is mounted within the housing assembly and extends through the ball nut. The ball screw has a first end and a second end, and is coupled to receive the drive force from the ball nut. The ball screw is configured, upon receipt of the drive force, to selectively translate between a stow position and a deploy position. The ball screw stop is mounted on the ball screw to translate therewith and is configured to at selectively engage the housing assembly while the ball screw is translating, and engage the ball nut when the ball screw is in the deploy position.

  19. Expediency of using pneumatic balloons at the junction of a working face and gate roads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolokolov, O V; Litvinov, Yu G; Ozerova, A S

    1983-02-01

    The paper discusses strata control at longwall faces in thin coal seams. Use of pneumatic balloons instead of timber cribbing at the junction of the face and ventilation road is evaluated. The seam is 0.68 m thick at a depth of 980 m and has gradients from 60 to 63 degrees. The face mined by the Poisk coal cutter is 126 m long. The ventilation road is protected by strips of stowing. Use of pneumatic balloons with an initial pressure of 150 kN instead of timber cribbing with an initial pressure of 30 kN reduces convergence of the roof and the floor at the working face by 39%. Damage to hydraulic props at the working face caused by roof subsidence decreases by 10 to 15%. Convergence rate (measured in mm/d) decreases by 41%. Use of pneumatic balloons for strata control at working faces in thin coal seams is recommended.

  20. Pack stability in dip faces fitted with scraper conveyors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartzmann, R

    1978-01-01

    This paper presents an account of an investigation conducted by CERCHAR, at the request of HBNPC, into the problems of goafside pack stability. Winning method and support and stowing techniques are described. Sets out the study methods used: systematic measurement (by direct or remote means) using an instrument developed by CERCHAR to investigate all aspects of in situ pack behaviour: settling, stresses, pressure on supports, etc. Gives the results of the investigation (tables and graphs) load-bearing capacity of the supports, deformation of the surrounding rock, convergence and stresses in the pack (figures, graphs), resistance of support-timber screen, model of in situ pack behaviour. Detailed conclusions (potential techniques, detailed study, practical improvements in packing techniques) are presented.

  1. A 16-m Telescope for the Advanced Technology Large Aperture Telescope (ATLAST) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillie, Charles F.; Dailey, D. R.; Polidan, R. S.

    2010-01-01

    Future space observatories will require increasingly large telescopes to study the earliest stars and galaxies, as well as faint nearby objects. Technologies now under development will enable telescopes much larger than the 6.5-meter diameter James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) to be developed at comparable costs. Current segmented mirror and deployable optics technology enables the 6.5 meter JWST telescope to be folded for launch in the 5-meter diameter Ariane 5 payload fairing, and deployed autonomously after reaching orbit. Late in the next decade, when the Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle payload fairing becomes operational, even larger telescope can be placed in orbit. In this paper we present our concept for a 16-meter JWST derivative, chord-fold telescope which could be stowed in the 10-m diameter Ares V fairing, plus a description of the new technologies that enable ATLAST to be developed at an affordable price.

  2. Fixed-axis electric sail deployment dynamics analysis using hub-mounted momentum control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, JoAnna; Schaub, Hanspeter

    2018-03-01

    The deployment dynamics of a spin stabilized electric sail (E-sail) with a hub-mounted control actuator are investigated. Both radial and tangential deployment mechanisms are considered to take the electric sail from a post-launch stowed configuration to a fully deployed configuration. The tangential configuration assumes the multi-kilometer tethers are wound up on the exterior of the spacecraft hub, similar to yo-yo despinner configurations. The deployment speed is controlled through the hub rate. The radial deployment configuration assumes each tether is on its own spool. Here both the hub and spool rate are control variables. The sensitivity of the deployment behavior to E-sail length, maximum rate and tension parameters is investigated. A constant hub rate deployment is compared to a time varying hub rate that maintains a constant tether tension condition. The deployment time can be reduced by a factor of 2 or more by using a tension controlled deployment configuration.

  3. Steering Concept of a 2-Blade Heliogyro Solar Sail Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiwattananon, Peerawan; Bryant, Robert G.

    2017-01-01

    Solar sails can be classified into two groups based on their method of stabilization: 1) truss supported, and 2) centrifugally (spin) supported. The truss configuration requires masts or booms to deploy, support, and rigidize the sails whereas the spin type uses the spacecraft’s centrifugal force to deploy and stabilize the sails. The truss-supported type sail has a scaling limitation because as the sail area gets larger, the sail is increasingly more difficult to make and stow: the masts and booms get heavier, occupying more volume, and have increased risk during deployment. This major disadvantage limits the size of the sail area. The spin type comes in two configurations: 1) spinning square/disk sail and 2) heliogyro sail. This spinning square/disk sail architecture suffers the same sail area limitation as the truss-supported sail.

  4. Optimized packings with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pintér, János

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents a selection of case studies that address a substantial range of optimized object packings (OOP) and their applications. The contributing authors are well-recognized researchers and practitioners. The mathematical modelling and numerical solution aspects of each application case study are presented in sufficient detail. A broad range of OOP problems are discussed: these include various specific and non-standard container loading and object packing problems, as well as the stowing of hazardous and other materials on container ships, data centre resource management, automotive engineering design, space station logistic support, cutting and packing problems with placement constraints, the optimal design of LED street lighting, robust sensor deployment strategies, spatial scheduling problems, and graph coloring models and metaheuristics for packing applications. Novel points of view related to model development and to computational nonlinear, global, mixed integer optimization and heuristic st...

  5. Pneumatic automation systems in coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shmatkov, N.A.; Kiklevich, Yu.N.

    1981-04-01

    Giprougleavtomatizatsiya, Avtomatgormash, Dongiprouglemash, VNIIGD and other plants develop 30 new pneumatic systems for mine machines and equipment control each year. The plants produce about 200 types of pneumatic systems. Major pneumatic systems for face systems, machines and equipment are reviewed: Sirena system for remote control of ANShch and AShchM face systems for steep coal seams, UPS control systems for pump stations, PAUZA control system for stowing machines, remote control system of B100-200 drilling machines, PUSK control system for coal cutter loaders with pneumatic drive (A-70, Temp), PUVSh control system for ventilation barriers activated from moving electric locomotives, PAZ control system for skip hoist loading. Specifications of the systems are given. Economic benefit produced by the pneumatic control systems are evaluated (from 1,500 to 40,000 rubles/year). Using the systems increases productivity of face machines and other machines used in black coal mines by 5 to 30%.

  6. STS-79 Ku-band antenna, ODS and Spacehab module at PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The orbiter Ku-band antenna looms large in this view of the Space Shuttle Atlantis' payload bay. Visible just past the antenna system -- stowed on the starboard side of the payload bay wall -- is the Orbiter Docking System (ODS), and connected to the ODS via a tunnel is the Spacehab Double Module in the aft area of the payload bay. This photograph was taken from the starboard wing platform on the fifth level of the Payload Changeout Room (PCR) at Launch Pad 39A. Work is under way in the PCR to close Atlantis' payload bay doors for flight. Atlantis currently is being targeted for liftoff on Mission STS-79, the fourth docking of the U.S. Shuttle to the Russian Space Station Mir, around September 12.

  7. Assessment of landslide hazards in a mining area on the example of the Jastrzebie town safety pillar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rybicki, S; Krokoszynski, P

    1986-01-01

    Evaluates landslide hazards in areas influenced by underground mining with caving or stowing. Effects of ground subsidence and deformation on water conditions and moisture content in clays are analyzed. Moisture effects on soil cohesion and angle of internal friction are investigated on examples from the Jastrzebie area and from the Donbass in USSR. Effects of moisture content increase on soil behavior in zones of compression and tension are comparatively evaluated. Formation of sliding planes under conditions of moisture content increase in zones influenced by ground subsidence is investigated. In the light of soil property analysis slope stability conditions in the Upper Silesia and Lublin basins are discussed. Slopes in the Jastrzebie area are classified according to landslide hazards considering: angle of slope inclination, height, physical soil properties, moisture content and effects of underground mining. 14 refs.

  8. Apparatus for storing protective suits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Englemann, H.J.; Koller, J.; Schrader, H.R.; Schade, G.; Pedrerol, J.

    1975-01-01

    Arrangements are described for storing one or more protective suits when contaminated on the outside. In order to permit a person wearing a contaminated suit to leave a contaminated area safely, and without contaminating the environment, it has hitherto been the practice for the suit to be passed through a 'lock' and cleansed under decontaminating showers whilst still being worn. This procedure is time wasting and not always completely effective, and it may be necessary to provide a second suit for use whilst the first suit is being decontaminated. Repeated decontamination may also result in undue wear and tear. The arrangements described provide a 'lock' chamber in which a contaminated suit may be stowed away without its interior becoming contaminated, thus allowing repeated use by persons donning and shedding it. (U.K.)

  9. Artist's rendering of astronaut Neil Armstrong planting U.S. flag on Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Artist's Concept: Apollo 11 astronaut Neil Armstrong, after stepping onto the lunar surface, will plant the United States flag in its soil. The flag will be made of nylone, size 3- by 5 feet on a staff 8 feet long. During flight it will be stowed in two 4-foot sections strapped to the Lunar Module ladder. Armstrong's first assignment after stepping off the ladder is to pull a 'D' ring to start a television camera. The second assignment is to erect the U.S. flag. The flag will appear to be flying in a breeze. This is done with a spring-loaded wire in the nylon cloth. With everything is working normally, this will be observed on live television.

  10. Roof kinematics as a geomechanical basis for selecting the method of working

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tereskin, A F

    1979-03-01

    This paper recalls that the development of methods of winning to the rise in steep, thick seams with stowing is hampered by the problem of maintaining stability in the overlying rock mass. Examined in succession are the following factors which affect roof kinematics: seam thickness, abutment pressure, pack-compression characteristics, width of dirt band, the method of winning, the rate of coal-face advance, etc. Plans are under way to evaluate the stability of the overlying solid according to the value of deformation relative to the compression at which the solid breaks-up around its edge. This value amounts to 3-4% for highly-resistant types of coal and 1.2-2% for low-resistant coal. The practical application of the technique is discussed.

  11. STS-49 ASEM activity illustrated with PLAID computer graphics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    STS-49 Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, Assembly of Station by Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Methods (ASEM) activity is illustrated with PLAID computer graphics. An extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) suited crewmember, positioned on the remote manipulator system (RMS) manipulator foot restraint (MFR), grabs and maneuvers the multipurpose experiment support structure (MPESS) with truss assembly attached above OV-105's payload bay (PLB) using the steer wheel assembly. The MPESS/ASEM truss structure has been lifted out the sill-mounted payload retention latch assemblies (PRLAs) and will be repositioned in the PRLAs upon completion of handling procedures. Also seen in this illustration are the empty INTELSAT perigee stage cradle structure (aft PLB) and the capture bar grapple fixture stowed on the port side sill longeron.

  12. Reclamation of abandoned underground mines in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brook, D.

    1994-01-01

    Since 1980, the Derelict Land Grant program has supported reclamation of abandoned mines in the United Kingdom. The stabilization of large-scale limestone mines in the West Midlands has stimulated the development of new methods of bulk infilling using waste materials as thick pastes. Colliery spoil rock paste develops strengths of 10 to 20 kPa to support roof falls and prevent crown hole collapse. Pulverized fuel ash rock paste develops strengths over 1 MPa where lateral support to pillars is required. Smaller scale mine workings in the West Midlands and elsewhere have been stabilized using conventional grouting techniques, hydraulic and pneumatic stowing, foamed-concrete infill, bulk excavation with controlled backfill, and structural support using bolts, mesh, and shotcrete

  13. Section I Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Shuttle Flight 41-C, the Solar Max Repair mission, took off on April 6, 1984 from Kennedy Space Center in Florida. As with 41-B, the dress rehearsal for this flight, launch was early in the morning. It occurred at 7:58 CST. The landing also took place at KSC the following Friday, April 13, 1984. This was Challenger's fifth flight. There were two prime EMU's and one back-up short EMU stowed for this flight in the Airlock. The two MMU's were again mounted in their Flight Support Stations in the payload bay. Figure 1 shows the EMU functional schematic while Figure 2 shows the hardware which makes up the EMU. The payload bay configuration for the MMU's appears in Figure 3.

  14. Study of accident environment during sea transport of nuclear material: Analysis of an engine room fire on a purpose built ship. Annex 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, K.; Shibata, H.; Ouchi, Y.; Kitamura, T.; Ito, T.; Hohnstreiter, G.F.; Pierce, J.D.; Koski, J.A.; Dukart, R.J.

    2001-01-01

    The program goal was to show that the IAEA safe transport regulations adequately cover the thermal effects of an engine-room fire on plutonium transportation packages stowed aboard a purpose built ship. The packages are stored in transportation containers located in a cargo hold of the ship. This study addressed the heat transfer from an engine-room fire that could heat and evaporate water out of the water-filled bulkhead and the resulting temperature conditions around the packages and inside the packages near their elastomeric seals. This study was designed to estimate the thermal response of a plutonium package in the hold of a purpose built ship during a shipboard fire, and furthermore, to confirm the sufficiency and adequacy of the current IAEA transport regulation

  15. Touch And Go Camera System (TAGCAMS) for the OSIRIS-REx Asteroid Sample Return Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, B. J.; Ravine, M. A.; Caplinger, M.; Schaffner, J. A.; Ladewig, J. V.; Olds, R. D.; Norman, C. D.; Huish, D.; Hughes, M.; Anderson, S. K.; Lorenz, D. A.; May, A.; Jackman, C. D.; Nelson, D.; Moreau, M.; Kubitschek, D.; Getzandanner, K.; Gordon, K. E.; Eberhardt, A.; Lauretta, D. S.

    2018-02-01

    NASA's OSIRIS-REx asteroid sample return mission spacecraft includes the Touch And Go Camera System (TAGCAMS) three camera-head instrument. The purpose of TAGCAMS is to provide imagery during the mission to facilitate navigation to the target asteroid, confirm acquisition of the asteroid sample, and document asteroid sample stowage. The cameras were designed and constructed by Malin Space Science Systems (MSSS) based on requirements developed by Lockheed Martin and NASA. All three of the cameras are mounted to the spacecraft nadir deck and provide images in the visible part of the spectrum, 400-700 nm. Two of the TAGCAMS cameras, NavCam 1 and NavCam 2, serve as fully redundant navigation cameras to support optical navigation and natural feature tracking. Their boresights are aligned in the nadir direction with small angular offsets for operational convenience. The third TAGCAMS camera, StowCam, provides imagery to assist with and confirm proper stowage of the asteroid sample. Its boresight is pointed at the OSIRIS-REx sample return capsule located on the spacecraft deck. All three cameras have at their heart a 2592 × 1944 pixel complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) detector array that provides up to 12-bit pixel depth. All cameras also share the same lens design and a camera field of view of roughly 44° × 32° with a pixel scale of 0.28 mrad/pixel. The StowCam lens is focused to image features on the spacecraft deck, while both NavCam lens focus positions are optimized for imaging at infinity. A brief description of the TAGCAMS instrument and how it is used to support critical OSIRIS-REx operations is provided.

  16. Electrical resistivity tomography survey for delineating uncharted mine galleries in West Bengal, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maillol, J.M.; Sen, N.

    1999-01-01

    The history of subsidence, fires, flooding and other kinds of environmental hazards related to shallow coal workings in India goes back to colonial times some 300 years ago. As coal production accelerated in modern times, so did the environmental and socio-economic drawbacks related to exploitation. In the mid-1980s, a hydropneumatic sand-stowing method was developed to fill in abandoned galleries but their exact location had to be known. Unfortunately, most of these old workings are uncharted and consequently large tracts of land cannot be stabilized. A research program making use of integrated surface, borehole and cross-hole geophysical methods was undertaken over a five-year span to try to solve this problem. Surface geophysical methods, being cheaper and faster than their cross- and downhole counterparts, were used to cover larger areas on an exploratory basis, while cross-hole methods were employed to locate more accurately one or a network of galleries to be perforated by drillhole(s) and used as a conduit for sand stowing. The authors report the results of one of the cross-hole geophysical methods: electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). A pole-dipole configuration is used and both cross-hole and surface-borehole methodologies are tested. Forward modelling and inversion of synthetic data making use of downhole and surface physical and geometrical parameters are presented first. This phase is followed by the inversion of real data. It is concluded that ERT is not applicable for the detection of dry voids, but is effective in a waterlogged environment which is estimated to represent 85--90% of the cases. In waterlogged galleries, ERT is applicable in both cross-hole and surface-downhole modes, the latter allowing a larger surface coverage at low cost. ERT is thus a reliable geophysical tool to image water-filled voids and an adequate technique to address environmental and geotechnical problems

  17. Relaciones entre masculinidades: Controversia en La cabaña del tío Tom Relations among Masculinities: Controversy in Uncle Tom’s Cabin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Gómez R.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The American novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin, written by Harriet Beecher-Stowe, has caused historical debate because of its notion of masculinity between white men and African-American slaves in the antebellum period. The description of these two antagonist forces are said to be defined by the author on extreme foundations of sentimentalist and romantic racialism that seem to distort the real objective events related to slavery in America . Beecher-Stowe was condemned by both white and black races because of the denunciation she makes of slavery as a hegemonic male institution. This article examines this polemic in Uncle Tom’s cabin, based on the sociologist R.W. Connell’s theory of relations among masculinities. From this theory, the article argues that while whites’ masculinity is determined by a sense of power based on hegemony, complicity, and subordination, blacks’, represented by uncle Tom, is portrayed as adopting weak submission and resigned marginalization. As Uncle Tom’s Cabin is the inspiration of a historical reality, this article also studies the novel in relation to factual events in which the ideals of hegemonic masculinity established slavery as a powerful institution in America .La cabaña del tío Tom, escrita por Beecher-Stowe ha causado debate histórico debido a su noción de masculinidad entre el hombre blanco y el hombre africano durante el período de la esclavitud. Se dice que la autora describe estas dos fuerzas antagónicas con fundamentos extremos de sentimentalismo y romanticismo racial, que parecen distorsionar los hechos reales relacionados con la esclavitud en Estados Unidos. Ambas razas condenaron a la novelista por la denuncia que hace de la esclavitud como una institución hegemónicamente masculina. En este artículo se examina tal polémica en La cabaña del tío Tom, a la luz de la teoría que propone el sociólogo R.W. Connell sobre relaciones entre masculinidades. A partir de ésta, se argumenta el

  18. GISMO, an ELT in space: a giant (30-m) far-infrared and submillimeter space observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawarden, Timothy G.; Johnstone, Callum; Johnstone, Graeme

    2004-07-01

    We describe GISMO, a concept for a 30-m class achromatic diffractive Fesnel space telescope operating in the far-IR and submillimeter from ~20 μm to ~700 μm. The concept is based on the precepts of Hyde (1999). It involves two units, the Lens and Instrument spacecraft, 3 km apart in a halo orbit around the Earth-Sun L2 point. The primary lens, L1, is a 30.1-m, 32-zone f/100 Fresnel lens, fabricated from ultra-high molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMW-PE). It is 1.0 to 3.4 mm thick (the features are 2.4 mm high for a "design wavelength" of 1.2 mm) and made in 5 strips linked by fabric hinges. It is stowed for launch by folding and rolling. It is deployed warm, unrolled by pneumatic or mechanical means, unfolded by carbon-fiber struts with Shape Memory Alloy hinges and stiffened until cold by a peripheral inflatable ring. Re-oriented edgeways-on to the Sun behind a 5-layer sunshade, L1 will then cool by radiation to space, approaching ~10K after 200 - 300 days. The low equilibrium temperature occurs because the lens is very thin and has a huge view factor to space but a small one to the sunshade. The Instrument spacecraft resembles a smaller, colder (~4K) version of the James Webb Space Telescope and shares features of a concept for the SAFIR mission. A near-field Ritchey-Chretien telescope with a 3-segment off-axis 6m x 3m primary acts as field lens, re-imaging L1 on a 30-cm f/1 Fresnel Corrector lens of equal and opposite dispersion, producing an achromatic beam which is directed to a focal plane equipped with imaging and spectroscopic instruments. The "design wavelength" of the telescope is 1.2 mm and it is employed at its second and higher harmonics. The shortest wavelength, ~20μm, is set by the transmission properties of the lens material (illustrated here) and determines the design tolerances of the optical system. The overall mass is estimated at ~5 tonnes and the stowed length around 14 m. Technical challenges and areas of uncertainty for the design concept

  19. Airframe Noise from a Hybrid Wing Body Aircraft Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutcheson, Florence V.; Spalt, Taylor B.; Brooks, Thomas F.; Plassman, Gerald E.

    2016-01-01

    A high fidelity aeroacoustic test was conducted in the NASA Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel to establish a detailed database of component noise for a 5.8% scale HWB aircraft configuration. The model has a modular design, which includes a drooped and a stowed wing leading edge, deflectable elevons, twin verticals, and a landing gear system with geometrically scaled wheel-wells. The model is mounted inverted in the test section and noise measurements are acquired at different streamwise stations from an overhead microphone phased array and from overhead and sideline microphones. Noise source distribution maps and component noise spectra are presented for airframe configurations representing two different approach flight conditions. Array measurements performed along the aircraft flyover line show the main landing gear to be the dominant contributor to the total airframe noise, followed by the nose gear, the inboard side-edges of the LE droop, the wing tip/LE droop outboard side-edges, and the side-edges of deployed elevons. Velocity dependence and flyover directivity are presented for the main noise components. Decorrelation effects from turbulence scattering on spectral levels measured with the microphone phased array are discussed. Finally, noise directivity maps obtained from the overhead and sideline microphone measurements for the landing gear system are provided for a broad range of observer locations.

  20. Gossamer-1: Mission concept and technology for a controlled deployment of gossamer spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seefeldt, Patric; Spietz, Peter; Sproewitz, Tom; Grundmann, Jan Thimo; Hillebrandt, Martin; Hobbie, Catherin; Ruffer, Michael; Straubel, Marco; Tóth, Norbert; Zander, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Gossamer structures for innovative space applications, such as solar sails, require technology that allows their controlled and thereby safe deployment. Before employing such technology for a dedicated science mission, it is desirable, if not necessary, to demonstrate its reliability with a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of six or higher. The aim of the work presented here is to provide reliable technology that enables the controlled deployment and verification of its functionality with various laboratory tests, thereby qualifying the hardware for a first demonstration in low Earth orbit (LEO). The development was made in the Gossamer-1 project of the German Aerospace Center (DLR). This paper provides an overview of the Gossamer-1 mission and hardware development. The system is designed based on the requirements of a technology demonstration mission. The design rests on a crossed boom configuration with triangular sail segments. Employing engineering models, all aspects of the deployment were tested under ambient environment. Several components were also subjected to environmental qualification testing. An innovative stowing and deployment strategy for a controlled deployment, as well as the designs of the bus system, mechanisms and electronics are described. The tests conducted provide insights into the deployment process and allow a mechanical characterization of that deployment process, in particular the measurement of the deployment forces. Deployment on system level could be successfully demonstrated to be robust and controllable. The deployment technology is on TRL four approaching level five, with a qualification model for environmental testing currently being built.

  1. Two Shuttle crews check equipment at SPACEHAB to be used on ISS Flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    At Astrotech in Titusville, Fla., members of two Shuttle crews get a close look at components of a Russian cargo crane, the Strela, to be mounted to the exterior of the Russian station segment on the International Space Station (ISS). At left are STS-96 Mission Specialist Daniel T. Barry and Pilot Rick Douglas Husband. At center, STS-96 Mission Specialist Tamara E. Jernigan gives her attention to a technician with DaimlerChrysler while STS-101 Mission Specialist Edward Tsang Lu looks on. Both missions include the SPACEHAB Double Module, carrying internal and resupply cargo for Station outfitting. For the first time, STS-96 will include an Integrated Cargo Carrier (ICC) that will carry the Strela; the SPACEHAB Oceaneering Space System Box (SHOSS), which is a logistics items carrier; and a U.S.-built crane (ORU Transfer Device, or OTD) that will be stowed on the station for use during future ISS assembly missions. The ICC can carry up to 6,000 lb of unpressurized payload. It was built for SPACEHAB by DaimlerChrysler and RSC Energia of Korolev, Russia. STS-96 is targeted for launch on May 24 from Launch Pad 39B. STS-101 is scheduled to launch in early December 1999.

  2. The effect of cargo on the crush loading of RAM transportation packages in ship collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radloff, H.D.; Ammerman, D.J.

    1998-03-01

    Recent intercontinental radioactive material shipping campaigns have focused public and regulatory attention on the safety of transport of this material by ocean-going vessels. One major concern is the response of the vessel and onboard radioactive material (RAM) packages during a severe ship-to-ship collision. These collisions occur at velocities less than the velocity obtained in the Type B package regulatory impact event and the bow of the striking ship is less rigid than the unyielding target used in those tests (Ammerman and Daidola, 1996). This implies that ship impact is not a credible scenario for damaging the radioactive material packages during ship collisions. It is possible, however, for these collisions to generate significant amounts of crush force by the bow of the impacting ship overrunning the package. It is the aim of this paper to determine an upper bound on the magnitude of this crush force taking into account the strength of the radioactive material carrying vessel and any other cargo that may be stowed in the same hold as the radioactive material

  3. Determination of soil mechanics of salt rock as a potential backfilling material in an underground repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappei, G.

    1987-09-01

    Within the framework of the research and development project 'Backfilling and sealing of boreholes, chambers and roadways in a final dump', the Institute for Underground Dumping chose - from the broad range of possible stowing materials - the material 'salt spoil' and investigated its soil-mechanical properties in detail. Besides the implementation of soil-mechanical standard analyses (determination of the grain size distribution, bulk density, limits of storage density, proctor density, permeabilities, and shear strength) of two selected salt spoils (heap salt and rock salt spoil), the studies concentrated on the determination of the compression behaviour of salt spoil. In order to obtain data on the compaction behaviour of this material in the case of increasing stress, compression tests with obstructed lateral expansion were carried out on a series of spoil samples differing mainly in the composition of grain sizes. In addition to this, for a small number of samples of rock salt spoil, the creep behaviour at constant stress was determined after the compaction phase. (orig./RB) [de

  4. Large aperture telescope technology: a design for an active lightweight multi-segmented fold-out space mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, S. J.; Doel, A. P.; Whalley, M.; Edeson, R.; Edeson, R.; Tosh, I.; Poyntz-Wright, O.; Atad-Ettedgui, E.; Montgomery, D.; Nawasra, J.

    2017-11-01

    Large aperture telescope technology (LATT) is a design study for a differential lidar (DIAL) system; the main investigation being into suitable methods, technologies and materials for a 4-metre diameter active mirror that can be stowed to fit into a typical launch vehicle (e.g. ROKOT launcher with 2.1-metre diameter cargo) and can self-deploy - in terms of both leaving the space vehicle and that the mirrors unfold and self-align to the correct optical form within the tolerances specified. The primary mirror requirements are: main wavelength of 935.5 nm, RMS corrected wavefront error of λ/6, optical surface roughness better than 5 nm, areal density of less than 16 kg/m2 and 1-2 mirror shape corrections per orbit. The primary mirror consists of 7 segments - a central hexagonal mirror and 6 square mirror petals which unfold to form the 4-meter diameter aperture. The focus of the UK LATT consortium for this European Space Agency (ESA) funded project is on using lightweighted aluminium or carbon-fibre-composite materials for the mirror substrate in preference to more traditional materials such as glass and ceramics; these materials have a high strength and stiffness to weight ratio, significantly reducing risk of damage due to launch forces and subsequent deployment in orbit. We present an overview of the design, which includes suitable actuators for wavefront correction, petal deployment mechanisms and lightweight mirror technologies. Preliminary testing results from manufactured lightweight mirror samples will also be summarised.

  5. The landscape degradation in the mining sites with suspended activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca IONCE

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The extracting industry, through its extraction activities, of shipping the ores, of breaking the ores, of preparing the practical substances, of stowing the useless rock, of transporting the practical substances, etc. might modify the area’s relief and the quality of ground, of thesurface waters and of the air. Suceava County has an old tradition of mining, where the results of this activity are visible, especially the visual point of view, and where not taking certain measures of ecological remediation will emphasize the disappointing image of the landscape within the areas of mining activity performing.The predominant mountainous landscape, in which mining activities have been held, is being affected also by the abandoned industrial and administrative buildings, in an advanced degradation state.The hydrographic system, very rich in mining areas, has its water quality affected by the acid rock drainage- phenomenon which appeared in many mining waste deposits.

  6. Stowage Planning in Multiple Ports with Shifting Fee Minimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the problem of stowage planning within a vessel bay in a multiple port transportation route, aiming at minimizing the total container shifting fee. Since the access to containers is in the top-to-bottom order for each stack, reshuffle operations occur when a target container to be unloaded at its destination port is not stowed on the top of a stack at the time. Each container shift via a quay crane induces one unit of shifting fee that depends on the charge policy of the local container port. Previous studies assume that each container shift consumes a uniform cost in all ports and thus focus on minimizing the total number of shifts or the turnaround time of the vessel. Motivated by the observation that different ports are of nonuniform fee for each container shift, we propose a mixed integer programming (MIP model for the problem to produce an optimal stowage planning with minimum total shifting fee in this work. Moreover, as the considered problem is NP-hard due to the NP-hardness of its counterpart with uniform unit shifting fee, we propose an improved genetic algorithm to solve the problem. The efficiency of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated via numerical experiments.

  7. Solar dynamic power systems for space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Thomas B.; Nall, Marsha M.; Seidel, Robert C.

    1986-01-01

    The Parabolic Offset Linearly Actuated Reflector (POLAR) solar dynamic module was selected as the baseline design for a solar dynamic power system aboard the space station. The POLAR concept was chosen over other candidate designs after extensive trade studies. The primary advantages of the POLAR concept are the low mass moment of inertia of the module about the transverse boom and the compactness of the stowed module which enables packaging of two complete modules in the Shuttle orbiter payload bay. The fine pointing control system required for the solar dynamic module has been studied and initial results indicate that if disturbances from the station are allowed to back drive the rotary alpha joint, pointing errors caused by transient loads on the space station can be minimized. This would allow pointing controls to operate in bandwidths near system structural frequencies. The incorporation of the fine pointing control system into the solar dynamic module is fairly straightforward for the three strut concentrator support structure. However, results of structural analyses indicate that this three strut support is not optimum. Incorporation of a vernier pointing system into the proposed six strut support structure is being studied.

  8. Aspects of the storage of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nienhuys, K.

    1978-01-01

    The expansion in the number of nuclear power stations in the netherlands is amongst other things, dependent on an acceptable policy for the storage of the waste from the stations. Consequently the idea has developed for storage in a salt-dome. The sub-committee on radioactive waste substances of the Interdepartmental Committee for Nuclear Energy has therefore given a mandate to initiate further research. For the risk analysis over the definitive storage of nuclear waste the sub-comittee produced a report in 1975, entitled 'Safety analysis for the underground storage of nuclear waste in salt-dome outcrops'. The analysis reveals a number of defective features. This makes especially clear that statements about the definitive storage of nuclear waste in salt domes can only be made with a great deal of uncertainty. There is no guarantee that the nuclear waste generated may be stowed away so that it will never return to the ionosphere. The speed whereby the nuclear waste may return would be dependent on a combination of events which cannot generally be calculated or assessed. The long term consequences of an irreversible radioactive contamination of the biosphere is not acceptable. There is insufficient proof that the storage of radioactive waste in salt domes is feasible. (G.C.)

  9. Low concentration ratio solar array for low Earth orbit multi-100 kW application. Volume 1: Design, analysis and development tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    A preliminary design effort directed toward a low concentration ratio photovoltaic array system capable of delivering multihundred kilowatts (300 kW to 1000 kW range) in low earth orbit is described. The array system consists of two or more array modules each capable of delivering between 113 kW to 175 kW using silicon solar cells or gallium arsenide solar cells, respectively. The array module deployed area is 1320 square meters and consists of 4356 pyramidal concentrator elements. The module, when stowed in the Space Shuttle's payload bay, has a stowage volume of a cube with 3.24 meters on a side. The concentrator elements are sized for a geometric concentration ratio (GCR) of six with an aperture area of .25 sq. m. The structural analysis and design trades leading to the baseline design are discussed. It describes the configuration, as well as optical, thermal and electrical performance analyses that support the design and overall performance estimates for the array are described.

  10. Origami-Inspired Folding of Thick, Rigid Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trease, Brian P.; Thomson, Mark W.; Sigel, Deborah A.; Walkemeyer, Phillip E.; Zirbel, Shannon; Howell, Larry; Lang, Robert

    2014-01-01

    To achieve power of 250 kW or greater, a large compression ratio of stowed-to-deployed area is needed. Origami folding patterns were used to inspire the folding of a solar array to achieve synchronous deployment; however, origami models are generally created for near-zero-thickness material. Panel thickness is one of the main challenges of origami-inspired design. Three origami-inspired folding techniques (flasher, square twist, and map fold) were created with rigid panels and hinges. Hinge components are added to the model to enable folding of thick, rigid materials. Origami models are created assuming zero (or near zero) thickness. When a material with finite thickness is used, the panels are required to bend around an increasingly thick fold as they move away from the center of the model. The two approaches for dealing with material thickness are to use membrane hinges to connect the panels, or to add panel hinges, or hinges of the same thickness, at an appropriate width to enable folding.

  11. Intensifying waste water clarification in heavy and mining industries for sanitation of rivers in the Katowice district

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paluch, J.; Twardowska, I.

    1976-01-01

    This article presents a detailed account of the state of water pollution in the main and tributary rivers of the heavily populated and industrialized district of Katowice, Poland: Results of surveys in the years 1969 to 1972 are given. Several tables and maps show the degree of water pollution in rivers, the amount to which the values exceed pollution standards, percentage of treated and untreated industrial waste water entering the rivers, the classification of river sections according to their content of suspensions, phenols and salt. Further figures show the effectiveness of water cleaning flocculating agents and of waste water treatment at coking plants. Black coal mining and processing contributes the greater part to pollution of the rivers. Only 54% of mining industry waste water is cleaned mechanically and 3% chemically. The amount of 3,300 t/d of chlorite and sulfate salts is led into the rivers primarily from the Rybnik coal mining area. The clarification of waste water resulting from hydraulic stowing and from flotation processes is described as most problematic. Research efforts are being made at economic desalination and suspension flocculation. In the coking industry waste water is treated in 88% of the plants, but dephenolization takes place in only 50% of the plants. (29 refs.) (In German)

  12. Development of science and technology in underground coal mining in Czechoslovakia during the 7th 5 year plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klimek, M.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews main tasks of underground coal mining in Czechoslovakia from 1981 to 1985 in the following basins: Ostrava-Karvina, Kladno, Prievidza, Most and Sokolov. The planned increase of brown and black coal output in each of the basins is discussed. Selected problems associated with mining are evaluated: significant increase of mining depth, rock burst hazards, methane hazards and water influx in the Ostrava-Karvina basin. Investment program in the current 5 year plan as well as until the year 2000 is analyzed: sinking of 38.8 km of mine shafts and 4.4 km of blind shafts. Equipment for shaft sinking produced in the USA (by Robins the 241 SB-184) and in the USSR (the Uralmash Sk-1U system) is compared. Design and technical specifications of the two systems are given. Equipment for mine drivage is also reviewed. The following machines are described: the TVM-55H by Demag (FRG), the TBS V-600E/Sch by Wirth (FRG), the TBM ser. 18a781 by Robins (USA) and the MARK-18T by JARVA (USA). Selected types of powered supports which will be widely used in coal mines in the current 5 year plan are evaluated. Research programs in underground coal mining are reviewed (safety, mining thin coal seams, slice mining of thick coal seams in the Namurian B series, mining extremely thick seams with stowing of the top slice and mining with caving the 4.5 m thick bottom slice). (4 refs.) (In Czech)

  13. Adaptable Deployable Entry & Placement Technology (ADEPT) for Cubesat Delivery to Mars Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wercinski, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The Adaptable, Deployable Entry and Placement Technology (ADEPT), uses a mechanical skeleton to deploy a revolutionary carbon fabric system that serves as both heat shield and primary structure during atmospheric entry. The NASA ADEPT project, currently funded by the Game Changing Development Program in STMD is currently focused on 1m class hypersonic decelerators for the delivery of very small payloads ( 5 kg) to locations of interest in an effort to leverage low-cost platforms to rapidly mature the technology while simultaneously delivering high-value science. Preliminary mission design and aerothermal performance testing in arcjets have shown the ADEPT system is quite capable of safe delivery of cubesats to Mars surface. The ability of the ADEPT to transit to Mars in a stowed configuration (similar to an umbrella) provides options for integration with the Mars 2020 cruise stage, even to consider multiple ADEPTs. System-level test campaigns are underway for FY15 execution or planning for FY16. These include deployment testing, wind tunnel testing, system-level arc jet testing, and a sounding rocket flight test. The goal is system level maturation (TRL 6) at a 1m class Mars design reference mission configuration.

  14. Analysis and simulation on two types of thrust reversers in an aircraft engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Feng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With rapid development of new composite material and manufacturing, innovative engineering solutions are supplied to the advanced nacelle, such as integrated propulsion system(IPS, carbon-fiber composite inner skin by single-piece molding process,which offers a reduction in fuel burn and less noise produced by engines. The advanced nacelle has an O-duct thrust reverser demonstrator whose composite structure is in the form of an “O” as opposed to the traditional “D-duct”. A comparative study is to be conducted to investigate the differences between the latest O-duct and conventional D-duct in numerical approaches. To focus on the quantitative analysis of thrust reverser’s operation, this paper mainly uses CATIA/Digital Mock Up(DMU to simulate under deployment and stowed conditions of two different thrust reverser. After comparing the structural weight, the design models of blocker door are built for kinematic analysis of relevant mechanism and simulation. The results show that simplified design and elimination of multiple interfaces generates weight saving, O-duct improves airflows within the engine, meanwhile D-duct has excellent cost effective and maintainability.

  15. Reassessing Roman ceramic building materials: economics, logistics and social factors in the supply of tile to Dorchester on Thames, Oxfordshire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward C. Peveler

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This research explores the supply of Roman ceramic building materials to Dorchester on Thames, Oxfordshire. Mineralogy and bulk chemistry of tile fabrics were analysed by thin-section and scanning electron microscopy. The assemblage from this Roman ‘small town’ has shown, besides the existence of local manufacture, that tegulae were on occasion transported c. 50 km by road to the site. The ‘pink grog-tempered ware’ fabric in which some tegulae were made is analogous to a fabric used to produce large storage jars in the vicinity of Stowe Park, Buckinghamshire. Analysis and discussion of the mechanisms and logistics which facilitated the production and long-distance transport of these tiles and jars is undertaken. Social and economic factors involved in their production and purchase are proposed. This study demonstrates the importance of greater levels of analysis of building materials, with the potential to inform us about social strata beneath those most visible in the historical and archaeological record, and a significant, often neglected aspect of the Roman economy.

  16. Research and Technology Development to Advance Environmental Monitoring, Food Systems, and Habitat Design for Exploration Beyond Low Earth Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Thomas A.; Perchonek, M. H.; Ott, C. M.; Kaiser, M. K.

    2011-01-01

    Exploration missions will carry crews far beyond the relatively safe environs of cis-lunar space. Such trips will have little or no opportunity for resupply or rapid aborts and will be of a duration that far exceeds our experience to date. The challenges this imposes on the requirements of systems that monitor the life support and provide food and shelter for the crew are the focus of much research within the Human Research Program. Making all of these technologies robust and reliable enough for multi-year missions with little or no ability to run for home calls for a thorough understanding of the risks and impacts of failure. The way we currently monitor for microbial contamination of water, air, and surfaces, by sampling and growing cultures on nutrient media, must be reconsidered for exploration missions which have limited capacity for consumables. Likewise, the shelf life of food must be increased so that the nutrients required to keep the crewmembers healthy do not degrade over the life of the mission. Improved formulations, preservation, packaging, and storage technologies are all being investigated for ways slow this process or replace stowed food with key food items grown fresh in situ. Ensuring that the mass and volume of a spacecraft are used to maximum efficiency calls for infusing human factors into the design from its inception to increase efficiency, improve performance, and retain robustness toward operational realities. Integrating the human system with the spacecraft systems is the focus of many lines of investigation.

  17. Development trends in mining technologies. [Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, W

    1983-01-01

    Research programs on underground black coal mining in Poland are discussed. It is assumed that no major technology changes will take place by the year 2000. Second generation of mining technologies will be used after the year 2000. The following technologies of the second generation are discussed: in-situ gasification, chemical coal disintegration, manless hydraulic mining with hydraulic transport. Research programs on technologies of the second generation should guarantee their commercial and economic use by the year 2000. The following targets for research programs aimed at increasing productivity, reducing mining cost, reducing labor and increasing safety in mining, covering the next 2 decades are comparatively evaluated: increasing advance rate of longwall faces, increasing machine time of integrated face systems by at least 20%, improving design of powered supports for eliminating rock falls, development of heavy-duty face systems for longwall mining with hydraulic stowing, development of face systems for mining thick coal seams on their whole thickness, slice mining thick coal seams with artificial roofs, bidirectional longwall mining by shearer loaders, use of more elastic and reliable mining systems.

  18. Mechanization of operations in underground workings in coal mines and research project trends. [Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reich, K; Skoczynski, W; Sikora, W

    1985-01-01

    Structure of black coal reserves of Poland, imported and Polish made equipment for underground mining, prospects for mechanization of selected operations in underground mines and research programs of the KOMAG Center for Mechanization of Mining are evaluated. Prospects for longwall mining with caving or stowing in thick coal seams (slice mining), thin (0.8 to 1.2 m), level or inclined coal seams and steep seams are analyzed. The following equipment for mechanization of underground mining is evaluated: integrated face systems, shearer loaders, chain conveyors, belt conveyors, coal plows, equipment for mine drivage, hoists, drive systems for mining equipment. The following research programs of the KOMAG Center are reviewed: modernization of face systems for coal seams with uncomplicated mining conditions, development of equipment for thin seam mining, development of types of mining equipment for coal seams from 1.5 to 3.0 m thick with dip angles to 25 degrees, modernization of equipment for thick seam mining, increasing efficiency of mine drivage (new types of heading machines, materials handling equipment for mine drivage), mechanization of auxiliary operations in underground coal mines, improving quality of mining equipment, development of equipment for coal preparation, increasing occupational safety in underground mining.

  19. Selected problems of coal mining mechanization in the coal industry of Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoniak, J; Sikora, W [Politechnika Slaska, Gliwice (Poland)

    1987-01-01

    Discusses conditions for underground coal mining in Poland, types of equipment for coal cutting, mine haulage and strata control and development trends of mining technologies. In 1985, black coal output was 191.6 Mt; 85.3% came from longwall faces mined by sets of mining equipment (coal cutters, chain conveyors and powered supports). The average coal output per longwall face was 881 t/d, output per face mined by sets for mining equipment was 1,134 t/d. In 1985, 653 shearer loaders and 77 coal plows were used in Polish coal mines. Number of shearer loaders is increasing. Shearer loaders with chainless haulage system were safest and most economic. The shearer loaders were equipped with the POLTRAK chainless haulage system developed in Poland. Research programs concentrate on development of new mining equipment for thin seam mining, steep seam mining, longwall mining with hydraulic stowing, efficient strata control by powered or shield supports under conditions of increased stresses or rock burst hazards. 4 refs.

  20. Development of a New, High-Power Solar Array for Telecommunication Satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimmermann C.G.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Airbus is currently developing the Next Generation Solar Array (NGSA for telecommunication satellites. It is based on a hybrid array concept which combines a conventional rigid panel array with lightweight, semi-rigid lateral panels. The main figures of merit power/mass and power/volume can be doubled through this concept. Mechanically, the semi-rigid panels are the key new element. Through acoustic testing as well as sine vibration testing in air and in vacuum it was verified that these panels are suitable as cell support in stowed configuration. With the help of finite element modelling it is demonstrated that the semi-rigid panels are compatible with a free deployment. Electrically, the new array is to be equipped with a new generation of 4 junction solar cells with efficiencies above 30%. The increased radiation dose due to electric orbit raising has to be taken into account to arrive at the optimum shielding while still minimizing the array mass. By adjusting the ratio of rigid to semi-rigid panels and through the choice of solar cell type and mass, the NGSA can be tailored in a wide range to needs of a given platform. This is illustrated for the solar array to be flown on the new Airbus platform Eurostar Neo.

  1. Zonal Aerosol Direct and Indirect Radiative Forcing using Combined CALIOP, CERES, CloudSat, and CERES Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, W. F.; Kato, S.; Rose, F. G.; Sun-Mack, S.

    2009-12-01

    Under the NASA Energy and Water Cycle System (NEWS) program, cloud and aerosol properties derived from CALIPSO, CloudSat, and MODIS data then matched to the CERES footprint are used for irradiance profile computations. Irradiance profiles are included in the publicly available product, CCCM. In addition to the MODIS and CALIPSO generated aerosol, aerosol optical thickness is calculated over ocean by processing MODIS radiance through the Stowe-Ignatov algorithm. The CERES cloud mask and properties algorithm are use with MODIS radiance to provide additional cloud information to accompany the actively sensed data. The passively sensed data is the only input to the standard CERES radiative flux products. The combined information is used as input to the NASA Langley Fu-Liou radiative transfer model to determine vertical profiles and Top of Atmosphere shortwave and longwave flux for pristine, all-sky, and aerosol conditions for the special data product. In this study, the three sources of aerosol optical thickness will be compared directly and their influence on the calculated and measured TOA fluxes. Earlier studies indicate that the largest uncertainty in estimating direct aerosol forcing using aerosol optical thickness derived from passive sensors is caused by cloud contamination. With collocated CALIPSO data, we are able to estimate frequency of occurrence of cloud contamination, effect on the aerosol optical thickness and direct radiative effect estimates.

  2. Reclamation of lands transformed by mining activities as an important aspect of environmental protection of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chudek, M; Duchowski, S; Czuber, W

    1976-01-01

    Surface area of lands transformed by coal mining in the basin are analyzed. In 1975 there were 3,110.9 ha of waste lands. Of this, spoil banks dumped on the surface covered 1,019.5 ha, spoil banks located in the cuts of surface mines (e.g. where sand is removed for stowing) or in other subsided places covered 1,064.5 ha, and water reservoirs covered 665.6 ha. Composition of spoil banks produced by black coal mines is analyzed from the point of view of land reclamation. A scheme of reclamation of spoil banks used in the Upper Silesian black coal basin is given. Reclamation of 5 large spoil banks is described. The land reclamation procedure consists in: leveling the spoil bank slopes so that their inclination is 1:10 instead of 1:4. When afforestation is used relatively steep slopes (1:4) are not leveled, centers of endogenic fires are extinguished by packing using rollers, the top layer of a spoil bank is mixed with calcium carbonate (3 to 10 kg/ha), then the top layer of waste fertilized by calcium carbonate is covered with soil (in some cases with fertile soil), soil cover ranges from 15 to 30 cm, the top soil cover is fertilized (dose ranges from 300 to 500 kg/ha). Later lupine is planted and ploughed as additional fertilizer. At a later stage trees and bushes are planted. (10 refs.) (In Polish)

  3. Brake Failure from Residual Magnetism in the Mars Exploration Rover Lander Petal Actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandura, Louise

    2004-01-01

    In January 2004, two Mars Exploration Rover spacecraft arrived at Mars. Each safely delivered an identical rover to the Martian surface in a tetrahedral lander encased in airbags. Upon landing, the airbags deflated and three Lander Petal Actuators opened the three deployable Lander side petals enabling the rover to exit the Lander. Approximately nine weeks prior to the scheduled launch of the first spacecraft, one of these mission-critical Lander Petal Actuators exhibited a brake stuck-open failure during its final flight stow at Kennedy Space Center. Residual magnetism was the definitive conclusion from the failure investigation. Although residual magnetism was recognized as an issue in the design, the lack of an appropriately specified lower bound on brake drop-out voltage inhibited the discovery of this problem earlier in the program. In addition, the brakes had more unit-to-unit variation in drop-out voltage than expected, likely due to a larger than expected variation in the magnetic properties of the 15-5 PH stainless steel brake plates. Failure analysis and subsequent rework of two other Lander Petal Actuators with marginal brakes was completed in three weeks, causing no impact to the launch date.

  4. Verify Occulter Deployment Tolerances as Part of NASA's Technology Development for Exoplanet Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasdin, N. J.; Shaklan, S.; Lisman, D.; Thomson, M.; Webb, D.; Cady, E.; Marks, G. W.; Lo, A.

    2013-01-01

    In support of NASA's Exoplanet Exploration Program and the Technology Development for Exoplanet Missions (TDEM), we recently completed a 2 year study of the manufacturability and metrology of starshade petals. An external occult is a satellite employing a large screen, or starshade, that flies in formation with a spaceborne telescope to provide the starlight suppression needed for detecting and characterizing exoplanets. Among the advantages of using an occulter are the broadband allowed for characterization and the removal of light before entering the observatory, greatly relaxing the requirements on the telescope and instrument. This poster presents the results of our successful first TDEM that demonstrated an occulter petal could be built and measured to an accuracy consistent with close to 10^-10 contrast. We also present the progress in our second TDEM to demonstrate the next critical technology milestone: precision deployment of the central truss and petals to the necessary accuracy. We have completed manufacture of four sub-scale petals and a central hub to fit with an existing deployable truss. We show the plans for repeated stow and deploy tests of the assembly and the metrology to confirm that each deploy repeatably meets the absolute positioning requirements of the petals (better than 1.0 mm).

  5. Low-Level Waste Forum notes and summary reports for 1994. Volume 9, Number 4, July 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    This issue includes the following articles: Federal Facility Compliance Act Task Force forms mixed waste workgroup; Illinois Department of Nuclear Safety considers construction of centralized storage facility; Midwest Commission agrees on capacity limit, advisory committee; EPA responds to California site developer's queries regarding application of air pollutant standards; county-level disqualification site screening of Pennsylvania complete; Texas Compact legislation introduced in US Senate; Generators ask court to rule in their favor on surcharge rebates lawsuit; Vermont authority and Battelle settle wetlands dispute; Eighth Circuit affirms decision in Nebraska community consent lawsuit; Nebraska court dismisses action filed by Boyd County local monitoring committee; NC authority, Chem-Nuclear, and Stowe exonerated; Senator Johnson introduces legislation to transfer Ward Valley site; Representative Dingell writes to Clinton regarding disposal of low-level radioactive waste; NAS committee on California site convenes; NRC to improve public petition process; NRC releases draft proposed rule on criteria for decontamination and closure of NRC-licensed facilities; and EPA names first environmental justice federal advisory council

  6. Protecting and supporting mine workings by artificial supports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voskoboev, F N; Anosov, O S; Malyuga, M F

    1983-04-01

    A method for strata control in inclined thin coal seams using concrete pillars is evaluated. A coal seam from 0.44 to 0.52 m thick inclined at an angle from 50 to 77 degrees was mined by a system of dip faces. The direct roof consisted of shales and the main roof of sandstones and shales. The floor was prone to heave. The pillars were made of waste rocks and concretes. Rocks were covered by a system of timber liners. Concrete was grouted by perforated pipes. Timber liners were sealed by gunite to prevent concrete leaks. Comparative evaluations show that use of concrete pillars guaranteed efficient strata control. Roof subsidence ranged from 110 to 165 mm in comparison to roof subsidence from 220 to 280 mm when cribbings had been used. Concrete pillar dimensions and distribution are shown in two schemes. Use of waste rocks as aggregate reduced cost of strata control and reduced weight of rocks hauled to the ground surface. For stowing, types 400 and 500 sulfate-resistant cement, calcium chloride (hardening agent), sand and water were used. Concrete samples were tested under laboratory conditions. (In Russian)

  7. Near Earth Asteroid Solar Sail Engineering Development Unit Test Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockett, Tiffany Russell; Few, Alexander; Wilson, Richard

    2017-01-01

    The Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) Scout project is a 30x20x10cm (6U) cubesat reconnaissance mission to investigate a near Earth asteroid utilizing an 86m2 solar sail as the primary propulsion system. This will be the largest solar sail NASA will launch to date. NEA Scout is a secondary payload currently manifested on the maiden voyage of the Space Launch System in 2018. In development of the solar sail subsystem, design challenges were identified and investigated for packaging within a 6U form factor and deployment in cis-lunar space. Analysis furthered understanding of thermal, stress, and dynamics of the stowed system and matured an integrated sail membrane model for deployed flight dynamics. This paper will address design, fabrication, and lessons learned from the NEA Scout solar sail subsystem engineering development unit. From optical properties of the sail material to folding and spooling the single 86m2 sail, the team has developed a robust deployment system for the solar sail. This paper will also address expected and received test results from ascent vent, random vibration, and deployment tests.

  8. Growth patterns for etiolated soybeans germinated under spaceflight conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Howard G.; Piastuch, William C.

    In the GENEX (GENe EXpression) spaceflight experiment (flown on STS-87), six surface sterilized soybean seeds ( Glycine max cv McCall) were inserted into each of 32 autoclaved plastic seed growth pouches containing an inner germination paper sleeve (for a total of 192 seeds). The pouches were stowed within a mid-deck locker until Mission Flight Day 10, at which time an astronaut added water to initiate the process of seed germination on-orbit and subsequently transferred them to four light-tight aluminum canisters called BRIC-60s (Biological Research In Canisters). We report here on the morphological characteristics of: (1) the recovered flight plants ( N = 177), (2) the corresponding ground control population ( N = 183), plus (3) additional controls grown on the ground under clinostat conditions ( N = 93). No significant morphological differences were found between the flight, ground control and clinorotated treatments for either the cotyledons or hypocotyls. There were, however, significantly longer primary roots produced in the flight population relative to the ground control population, which in turn had significantly longer primary roots than the clinorotated population. This same pattern was observed relative to the production of lateral roots (flight > control > clinorotated). Taken together with previous literature reports, we believe that there is now sufficient evidence to conclude that plants grown under conditions of microgravity will generally exhibit enhanced root production relative to their ground control counterparts. Some causes underlying this phenomenon are speculated on.

  9. Conceptual design of a Moving Belt Radiator (MBR) shuttle-attached experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Jerry L.

    1990-01-01

    The conceptual design of a shuttle-attached Moving Belt Radiator (MBR) experiment is presented. The MBR is an advanced radiator concept in which a rotating belt is used to radiate thermal energy to space. The experiment is developed with the primary focus being the verification of the dynamic characteristics of a rotating belt with a secondary objective of proving the thermal and sealing aspects in a reduced gravity, vacuum environment. The mechanical design, selection of the belt material and working fluid, a preliminary test plan, and program plan are presented. The strategy used for selecting the basic sizes and materials of the components are discussed. Shuttle and crew member requirements are presented with some options for increasing or decreasing the demands on the STS. An STS carrier and the criteria used in the selection process are presented. The proposed carrier for the Moving Belt Radiator experiment is the Hitchhiker-M. Safety issues are also listed with possible results. This experiment is designed so that a belt can be deployed, run at steady state conditions, run with dynamic perturbations imposed, verify the operation of the interface heat exchanger and seals, and finally be retracted into a stowed position for transport back to earth.

  10. Experimental and Analytical Evaluation of a Composite Honeycomb Deployable Energy Absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Karen E.; Kellas, Sotiris; Horta, Lucas G.; Annett, Martin S.; Polanco, Michael A.; Littell, Justin D.; Fasanella, Edwin L.

    2011-01-01

    In 2006, the NASA Subsonic Rotary Wing Aeronautics Program sponsored the experimental and analytical evaluation of an externally deployable composite honeycomb structure that is designed to attenuate impact energy during helicopter crashes. The concept, which is designated the Deployable Energy Absorber (DEA), utilizes an expandable Kevlar honeycomb structure to dissipate kinetic energy through crushing. The DEA incorporates a unique flexible hinge design that allows the honeycomb to be packaged and stowed flat until needed for deployment. A variety of deployment options such as linear, radial, and/or hybrid methods can be used. Experimental evaluation of the DEA utilized a building block approach that included material characterization testing of its constituent, Kevlar -129 fabric/epoxy, and flexural testing of single hexagonal cells. In addition, the energy attenuation capabilities of the DEA were demonstrated through multi-cell component dynamic crush tests, and vertical drop tests of a composite fuselage section, retrofitted with DEA blocks, onto concrete, water, and soft soil. During each stage of the DEA evaluation process, finite element models of the test articles were developed and simulations were performed using the explicit, nonlinear transient dynamic finite element code, LS-DYNA. This report documents the results of the experimental evaluation that was conducted to assess the energy absorption capabilities of the DEA.

  11. Xavier Herbert: Forgotten or Repressed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liz Conor

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Xavier Herbert is one of Australia’s outstanding novelists and one of the more controversial. In his time, he was also an outspoken public figure. Yet many young Australians today have not heard of the man or his novels. His key works Capricornia (1938 and Poor Fellow My Country (1975 won major awards and were judged as highly significant on publication, yet there has been relatively little analysis of their impact. Although providing much material for Baz Luhrmann’s blockbuster film Australia (2008, his works are rarely recommended as texts in school curricula or in universities. Gough Whitlam took a particular interest in the final draft of Poor Fellow My Country, describing it as a work of ‘national significance’ and ensuring the manuscript was sponsored to final publication. In 1976 Randolph Stow described it as ‘THE Australian classic’. Yet, a search of the Australian Literature database will show that it is one of the most under-read and least taught works in the Australian literary canon. In our view, an examination of his legacy is long overdue. This collection brings together new scholarship that explores the possible reasons for Herbert’s eclipse within public recognition, from his exposure of unpalatable truths such as interracial intimacy, to his relationship with fame. This reevaluation gives new readings of the works of this important if not troublesome public intellectual and author.

  12. All-Union Congress on the problem of dealing with sudden outbursts of coal, rock and gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-05-01

    In recent years several measures have been taken to prevent the occurrence of outbursts, involving research, special training and new technology. In the 10th 5 year plan period the number of outbursts and associated injuries fell by 1.7 times, but in recent years the rate has started to increase again (52 in 1982). The reasons for this were chiefly slack discipline and the inadequacy of forecasting techniques. The slow progress of research and the introduction of new equipment is criticized. Not enough gassy mines are worked by the pillar system, and stowing of the goaf is still the exception. Automation of plows, narrow-web cutter loaders, heading machines, drills and supports is continuing, as is the introduction of radio control, loudspeaker warning systems, intrinsically safe power sources, etc. The M87 DGA remote control support has been working in a Donbass mine for 3 years with no reports of injuries during this period. LIRA and IKAR radio control systems and control panels connected by cables are in use with cutter loaders allowing operating personnel to remain at a safe distance from danger zones. A list of papers and reports delivered at the Congress is given.

  13. Toward the bi-modal camber morphing of large aircraft wing flaps: the CleanSky experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecora, R.; Amoroso, F.; Magnifico, M.

    2016-04-01

    The Green Regional Aircraft (GRA), one of the six CleanSky platforms, represents the largest European effort toward the greening of next generation air transportation through the implementation of advanced aircraft technologies. In this framework researches were carried out to develop an innovative wing flap enabling airfoil morphing according to two different modes depending on aircraft flight condition and flap setting: - Camber morphing mode. Morphing of the flap camber to enhance high-lift performances during take-off and landing (flap deployed); - Tab-like morphing mode. Upwards and downwards deflection of the flap tip during cruise (flap stowed) for load control at high speed and consequent optimization of aerodynamic efficiency. A true-scale flap segment of a reference aircraft (EASA CS25 category) was selected as investigation domain for the new architecture in order to duly face the challenges posed by real wing installation issues especially with reference to the tapered geometrical layout and 3D aerodynamic loads distributions. The investigation domain covered the flap region spanning 3.6 m from the wing kink and resulted characterized by a taper ratio equal to 0.75 with a root chord of 1.2 m. High TRL solutions for the adaptive structure, actuation and control system were duly analyzed and integrated while assuring overall device compliance with industrial standards and applicable airworthiness requirements.

  14. Operational experience and evaluation of a dual-element stretched-membrane heliostat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strachan, J.W.; Van Der Geest, J.

    1994-01-01

    A dual-element, stretched-membrane central receiver heliostat was designed and manufactured in 1989, by a private US company engaged in the development of commercial central receiver solar technology. The two-module collector, with a collection area of 97.5 m{sup 2}, extends stretched-membrane mirror technology on several fronts with face-down stow capability and a digital controller that integrates tracking and focusing control on a single programmable control board. The solar collector was installed at Sandia`s National Solar Thermal Test Facility in Albuquerque, New Mexico and evaluated over a three-and-a-half year period which ended in September 1993. The measured performance and the operational and maintenance characteristics of this commercial prototype are the subject of this report. The results of beam quality measurements, tracking repeatability tests, measurements of beam movement in elevated winds, performance tests of the focusing system, and all-day beam quality and tracking tests are presented, and the authors offer a detailed discussion of the knowledge gained through operation and maintenance and of the improvements made or suggested to the heliostat`s design.

  15. Low-Level Waste Forum notes and summary reports for 1994. Volume 9, Number 4, July 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-07-01

    This issue includes the following articles: Federal Facility Compliance Act Task Force forms mixed waste workgroup; Illinois Department of Nuclear Safety considers construction of centralized storage facility; Midwest Commission agrees on capacity limit, advisory committee; EPA responds to California site developer`s queries regarding application of air pollutant standards; county-level disqualification site screening of Pennsylvania complete; Texas Compact legislation introduced in US Senate; Generators ask court to rule in their favor on surcharge rebates lawsuit; Vermont authority and Battelle settle wetlands dispute; Eighth Circuit affirms decision in Nebraska community consent lawsuit; Nebraska court dismisses action filed by Boyd County local monitoring committee; NC authority, Chem-Nuclear, and Stowe exonerated; Senator Johnson introduces legislation to transfer Ward Valley site; Representative Dingell writes to Clinton regarding disposal of low-level radioactive waste; NAS committee on California site convenes; NRC to improve public petition process; NRC releases draft proposed rule on criteria for decontamination and closure of NRC-licensed facilities; and EPA names first environmental justice federal advisory council.

  16. Design and testing of a model CELSS chamber robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Mark; Dezego, Shawn; Jones, Kinzy; Kewley, Christopher; Langlais, Mike; McCarthy, John; Penny, Damon; Bonner, Tom; Funderburke, C. Ashley; Hailey, Ruth

    1994-08-01

    A robot system for use in an enclosed environment was designed and tested. The conceptual design will be used to assist in research performed by the Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) project. Design specifications include maximum load capacity, operation at specified environmental conditions, low maintenance, and safety. The robot system must not be hazardous to the sealed environment, and be capable of stowing and deploying within a minimum area of the CELSS chamber facility. This design consists of a telescoping robot arm that slides vertically on a shaft positioned in the center of the CELSS chamber. The telescoping robot arm consists of a series of links which can be fully extended to a length equal to the radius of the working envelope of the CELSS chamber. The vertical motion of the robot arm is achieved through the use of a combination ball screw/ball spline actuator system. The robot arm rotates cylindrically about the vertical axis through use of a turntable bearing attached to a central mounting structure fitted to the actuator shaft. The shaft is installed in an overhead rail system allowing the entire structure to be stowed and deployed within the CELSS chamber. The overhead rail system is located above the chamber's upper lamps and extends to the center of the CELSS chamber. The mounting interface of the actuator shaft and rail system allows the entire actuator shaft to be detached and removed from the CELSS chamber. When the actuator shaft is deployed, it is held fixed at the bottom of the chamber by placing a square knob on the bottom of the shaft into a recessed square fitting in the bottom of the chamber floor. A support boot ensures the rigidity of the shaft. Three student teams combined into one group designed a model of the CELSS chamber robot that they could build. They investigated materials, availability, and strength in their design. After the model arm and stand were built, the class performed pre-tests on the entire system

  17. Forensics, radiology, society. X-rays. Tool and document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, Beatrice; Vogel, Hermann

    2014-01-01

    During the last years, the individual specialities of forensic medicine and diagnostic imaging have increasingly cooperated to create the interdisciplinary entity of forensic radiology. The book demonstrates the potential of this speciality: It has become evident that the combination of diagnostic imaging and forensic medicine solves more cases of death of unknown cause than each alone, and that a radiograph can be read like a document describing forces of modern time and its effects on current society. The posters of 6 exhibitions demonstrate the actual cause of death and its preceding violence. They aim at the medical as well as the interested lay-public: Causes of natural and of violent death become visible. For instance, stab- and gunshot wounds into a person's rear are contradictory of self-defence. Stab wounds with penetration of ribs indicate great force and, therefore, intentional homicide. The same is valid for multiple stabs, stabs through silicon prosthesis of a mammoplasty, and stabs into the breast cage of a defenceless toddler. X-rays of the living can indicate preceding torture. X-rays are part of the security technology employed at airports and countries' borders. They help to detect drugs, explosives, and human stow-aways. The x-ray examination of the deceased visualises success and failure of the preceding therapy. After reanimation, the position of a tracheal tube, the effects of a vascular puncture, and potential fractures of the breast cage can be evaluated. After cardiac and aortic interventions, the procedure of choice and its effects can be seen. Concerning general or intensive care, diagnostic imaging shows the position of urinary catheters, gastric tubes and vascular catheters. Prenatal diagnostic imaging can determine the sex of the foetus and possible malformations; and in peri- and postnatal death, it may show the effects of iatrogenic actions, and later on, of child-abuse.

  18. Role of support services in Jaduguda mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Pinaki; Bannerjee, S.N.; Srinivasan, M.N.; Radhakrishnan, V.N.; Khanwalkar, S.D.

    1991-01-01

    This paper highlights the role of the supporting services which are divided into two main groups. Group A consists of services rendered by survey, planning, geology and physics sub-groups. The survey sub-group enforces the directional controls of the various lay-outs, the underground geology sub-group establishes the parameters for the development of drives and stop blocks while the physics section supplies the data regarding grade and thickness and exercises the ore quality control. The techniques evolved in giving these supports to the production system is described. Diamond drilling of holes through rock formation have been successfully used for transporting stowing sand and for draining accumulated water in the levels to respective sumps besides its normal use for underground exploration. Group B consists of engineering services. With limited mining machinery in the early sixties, the mechanical engineering services have taken significant strides for servicing today's equipments consisting of drill jumbos, hydro-pneumatic trackless loaders. Alimak raises climbers, diesel locomotives and mechanised ore transfer systems besides servicing the vital area of modern koepe system of friction winding where Jaduguda has already been a fore-runner in the country. Electrical engineering services basically maintain the electrical systems and equipments both permanent and extensions as mining areas progress in depth. Indigenisation of imported equipments and spares for them and modernisation in certain key areas has been attempted successfully over the years. Civil engineering services are mostly confined to strengthening support system for mine tunnels and construction of ore transfer passes for stopping. (author). 3 figs

  19. A miniature, low-power scientific fluxgate magnetometer: A stepping-stone to cube-satellite constellation missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, D. M.; Mann, I. R.; Ciurzynski, M.; Barona, D.; Narod, B. B.; Bennest, J. R.; Pakhotin, I. P.; Kale, A.; Bruner, B.; Nokes, C. D. A.; Cupido, C.; Haluza-DeLay, T.; Elliott, D. G.; Milling, D. K.

    2016-12-01

    Difficulty in making low noise magnetic measurements is a significant challenge to the use of cube-satellite (CubeSat) platforms for scientific constellation class missions to study the magnetosphere. Sufficient resolution is required to resolve three-dimensional spatiotemporal structures of the magnetic field variations accompanying both waves and current systems of the nonuniform plasmas controlling dynamic magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. This paper describes the design, validation, and test of a flight-ready, miniature, low-mass, low-power, and low-magnetic noise boom-mounted fluxgate magnetometer for CubeSat applications. The miniature instrument achieves a magnetic noise floor of 150-200 pT/√Hz at 1 Hz, consumes 400 mW of power, has a mass of 121 g (sensor and boom), stows on the hull, and deploys on a 60 cm boom from a three-unit CubeSat reducing the noise from the onboard reaction wheel to less than 1.5 nT at the sensor. The instrument's capabilities will be demonstrated and validated in space in late 2016 following the launch of the University of Alberta Ex-Alta 1 CubeSat, part of the QB50 constellation mission. We illustrate the potential scientific returns and utility of using a CubeSats carrying such fluxgate magnetometers to constitute a magnetospheric constellation using example data from the low-Earth orbit European Space Agency Swarm mission. Swarm data reveal significant changes in the spatiotemporal characteristics of the magnetic fields in the coupled magnetosphere-ionosphere system, even when the spacecraft are separated by only approximately 10 s along track and approximately 1.4° in longitude.

  20. EMMA - the Electric and Magnetic Monitor of the Aurora on Astrid-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. G. Blomberg

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The Astrid-2 mission has dual primary objectives. First, it is an orbiting instrument platform for studying auroral electrodynamics. Second, it is a technology demonstration of the feasibility of using micro-satellites for innovative space plasma physics research. The EMMA instrument, which we discuss in the present paper, is designed to provide simultaneous sampling of two electric and three magnetic field components up to about 1kHz. The spin plane components of the electric field are measured by two pairs of opposing probes extended by wire booms with a separation distance of 6.7m. The probes have titanium nitride (TiN surfaces, which has proved to be a material with excellent properties for providing good electrical contact between probe and plasma. The wire booms are of a new design in which the booms in the stowed position are wound around the exterior of the spacecraft body. The boom system was flown for the first time on this mission and worked flawlessly. The magnetic field is measured by a tri-axial fluxgate sensor located at the tip of a rigid, hinged boom extended along the spacecraft spin axis and facing away from the Sun. The new advanced-design fluxgate magnetometer uses digital signal processors for detection and feedback, thereby reducing the analogue circuitry to a minimum. The instrument characteristics as well as a brief review of the science accomplished and planned are presented. Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere. Magnetospheric physics (magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions. Space plasma physics (instruments and techniques

  1. Fluxgate Magnetometry on the Experimental Albertan Satellite #1 (Ex-Alta-1) CubeSat Mission: Steps Toward a Magnetospheric Constellation Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, I. R.; Miles, D.; Nokes, C.; Cupido, C.; Elliott, D.; Ciurzynski, M.; Barona, D.; Narod, B. B.; Bennest, J.; Pakhotin, I.; Kale, A.; Bruner, B.; Haluza-DeLay, T.; Forsyth, C.; Rae, J.; Lange, C.; Sameoto, D.; Milling, D. K.

    2017-12-01

    Making low noise magnetic measurements is a significant challenge to the use of cube-satellite (CubeSat) platforms for scientific constellation class missions for studies of geospace. We describe the design, validation, and test, and initial on-orbit results from a miniature, low-mass, low-power, and low-magnetic noise boom-mounted fluxgate magnetometer flown on the University of Alberta Experimental Albertan Satellite #1 (Ex-Alta-1) Cube Satellite, launched in 2017 from the International Space Station as part of the QB50 constellation mission. The miniature instrument achieves a magnetic noise floor of 150-200 pT/√Hz at 1 Hz, consumes 400 mW of power, has a mass of 121 g (sensor and boom), stows on the hull, and deploys on a 60 cm boom from a three-unit CubeSat reducing the noise from the onboard reaction wheel to less than 1.5 nT at the sensor. The instrument's capabilities are being demonstrated and validated in space with flight on Ex-Alta-1. We present on-orbit data from the boom-deployment and initial operations of the fluxgate sensor and illustrate the potential scientific returns and utility of using CubeSats carrying such fluxgate magnetometers to constitute a magnetospheric constellation mission. We further illustrate the value of scientific constellations using example data from the low-Earth orbit European Space Agency Swarm mission. Swarm data reveal significant changes in the spatiotemporal characteristics of the magnetic fields in the coupled magnetosphere-ionosphere system, even when the spacecraft are separated by only approximately 10 s along track and approximately 1.4° in longitude. This indicates the likely energetic significance of Alfven wave dynamics, and we use Swarm measurements to illustrate the value of satellite constellations for diagnosing magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling even in low-Earth orbit.

  2. EMMA - the Electric and Magnetic Monitor of the Aurora on Astrid-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. G. Blomberg

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The Astrid-2 mission has dual primary objectives. First, it is an orbiting instrument platform for studying auroral electrodynamics. Second, it is a technology demonstration of the feasibility of using micro-satellites for innovative space plasma physics research. The EMMA instrument, which we discuss in the present paper, is designed to provide simultaneous sampling of two electric and three magnetic field components up to about 1kHz. The spin plane components of the electric field are measured by two pairs of opposing probes extended by wire booms with a separation distance of 6.7m. The probes have titanium nitride (TiN surfaces, which has proved to be a material with excellent properties for providing good electrical contact between probe and plasma. The wire booms are of a new design in which the booms in the stowed position are wound around the exterior of the spacecraft body. The boom system was flown for the first time on this mission and worked flawlessly. The magnetic field is measured by a tri-axial fluxgate sensor located at the tip of a rigid, hinged boom extended along the spacecraft spin axis and facing away from the Sun. The new advanced-design fluxgate magnetometer uses digital signal processors for detection and feedback, thereby reducing the analogue circuitry to a minimum. The instrument characteristics as well as a brief review of the science accomplished and planned are presented.

    Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere. Magnetospheric physics (magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions. Space plasma physics (instruments and techniques

  3. OCAMS: The OSIRIS-REx Camera Suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizk, B.; Drouet d'Aubigny, C.; Golish, D.; Fellows, C.; Merrill, C.; Smith, P.; Walker, M. S.; Hendershot, J. E.; Hancock, J.; Bailey, S. H.; DellaGiustina, D. N.; Lauretta, D. S.; Tanner, R.; Williams, M.; Harshman, K.; Fitzgibbon, M.; Verts, W.; Chen, J.; Connors, T.; Hamara, D.; Dowd, A.; Lowman, A.; Dubin, M.; Burt, R.; Whiteley, M.; Watson, M.; McMahon, T.; Ward, M.; Booher, D.; Read, M.; Williams, B.; Hunten, M.; Little, E.; Saltzman, T.; Alfred, D.; O'Dougherty, S.; Walthall, M.; Kenagy, K.; Peterson, S.; Crowther, B.; Perry, M. L.; See, C.; Selznick, S.; Sauve, C.; Beiser, M.; Black, W.; Pfisterer, R. N.; Lancaster, A.; Oliver, S.; Oquest, C.; Crowley, D.; Morgan, C.; Castle, C.; Dominguez, R.; Sullivan, M.

    2018-02-01

    The OSIRIS-REx Camera Suite (OCAMS) will acquire images essential to collecting a sample from the surface of Bennu. During proximity operations, these images will document the presence of satellites and plumes, record spin state, enable an accurate model of the asteroid's shape, and identify any surface hazards. They will confirm the presence of sampleable regolith on the surface, observe the sampling event itself, and image the sample head in order to verify its readiness to be stowed. They will document Bennu's history as an example of early solar system material, as a microgravity body with a planetesimal size-scale, and as a carbonaceous object. OCAMS is fitted with three cameras. The MapCam will record color images of Bennu as a point source on approach to the asteroid in order to connect Bennu's ground-based point-source observational record to later higher-resolution surface spectral imaging. The SamCam will document the sample site before, during, and after it is disturbed by the sample mechanism. The PolyCam, using its focus mechanism, will observe the sample site at sub-centimeter resolutions, revealing surface texture and morphology. While their imaging requirements divide naturally between the three cameras, they preserve a strong degree of functional overlap. OCAMS and the other spacecraft instruments will allow the OSIRIS-REx mission to collect a sample from a microgravity body on the same visit during which it was first optically acquired from long range, a useful capability as humanity reaches out to explore near-Earth, Main-Belt and Jupiter Trojan asteroids.

  4. An Engineering Design Reference Mission for a Future Large-Aperture UVOIR Space Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thronson, Harley A.; Bolcar, Matthew R.; Clampin, Mark; Crooke, Julie A.; Redding, David; Rioux, Norman; Stahl, H. Philip

    2016-01-01

    From the 2010 NRC Decadal Survey and the NASA Thirty-Year Roadmap, Enduring Quests, Daring Visions, to the recent AURA report, From Cosmic Birth to Living Earths, multiple community assessments have recommended development of a large-aperture UVOIR space observatory capable of achieving a broad range of compelling scientific goals. Of these priority science goals, the most technically challenging is the search for spectroscopic biomarkers in the atmospheres of exoplanets in the solar neighborhood. Here we present an engineering design reference mission (EDRM) for the Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST), which was conceived from the start as capable of breakthrough science paired with an emphasis on cost control and cost effectiveness. An EDRM allows the engineering design trade space to be explored in depth to determine what are the most demanding requirements and where there are opportunities for margin against requirements. Our joint NASA GSFC/JPL/MSFC/STScI study team has used community-provided science goals to derive mission needs, requirements, and candidate mission architectures for a future large-aperture, non-cryogenic UVOIR space observatory. The ATLAST observatory is designed to operate at a Sun-Earth L2 orbit, which provides a stable thermal environment and excellent field of regard. Our reference designs have emphasized a serviceable 36-segment 9.2 m aperture telescope that stows within a five-meter diameter launch vehicle fairing. As part of our cost-management effort, this particular reference mission builds upon the engineering design for JWST. Moreover, it is scalable to a variety of launch vehicle fairings. Performance needs developed under the study are traceable to a variety of additional reference designs, including options for a monolithic primary mirror.

  5. Use of a Combined SpO2/PtcCO2 Sensor in the Delivery Room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costantino Romagnoli

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2 and partial arterial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2 are important respiratory parameters in critically ill neonates. A sensor combining a pulse oximeter with the Stow-Severinghaus electrode, required for the measurement of peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2 and transcutaneous partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PtcCO2, respectively, has been recently used in neonatal clinical practice (TOSCA500ÒRadiometer. We evaluated TOSCA usability and reliability in the delivery room (DR, throughout three different periods, on term, late-preterm, and preterm neonates. During the first period (period A, 30 healthy term neonates were simultaneously monitored with both TOSCA and a MASIMO pulse oximeter. During the second period (period B, 10 healthy late-preterm neonates were monitored with both TOSCA and a transcutaneous device measuring PtcCO2 (TINAÒ TCM3, Radiometer. During the third period (period C, 15 preterm neonates were monitored with TOSCA and MASIMO after birth, during stabilization, and during transport to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU. Blood gas analyses were performed to compare transcutaneous and blood gas values. TOSCA resulted easily and safely usable in the DR, allowing reliable noninvasive SaO2 estimation. Since PtcCO2 measurements with TOSCA required at least 10 min to be stable and reliable, this parameter was not useful during the early resuscitation immediately after birth. Moreover, PtcCO2 levels were less precise if compared to the conventional transcutaneous monitoring. However, PtcCO2 measurement by TOSCA was useful as trend-monitoring after stabilization and during transport to NICU.

  6. Development of corotational formulated FEM for application to 30m class large deployable reflector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozawa, Satoru; Fujiwara, Yuuichi; Tsujihata, Akio

    2010-01-01

    JAXA, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, is now developing a corotational formulated finite element analysis method and its software 'Origami/ETS' for the development of 30m class large deployable reflectors. For the reason that the deployable reflector is composed of beams, cables and mesh, this analysis method is generalized for finite elements with multiple nodes, which are commonly used in linear finite element analyses. The large displacement and rotation are taken into account by the corotational formulation. The tangent stiffness matrix for finite elements with multiple nodes is obtained as follows; the geometric stiffness matrix of two node elements is derived by taking variation of the element's corotational matrix from the virtual work of finite elements with large displacement; similarly the geometric stiffness matrix for three node elements is derived; as the extension of two and three node element theories, the geometric stiffness matrix for multiple node elements is derived; with the geometric stiffness matrix for multiple node elements, the tangent stiffness matrix is obtained. The analysis method is applied for the deployment analysis and static structural analysis of the 30m class large deployable reflector. In the deployment analysis, it is confirmed that this method stably analyzes the deployment motion from the deployment configuration to the stowed configuration of the reflector. In the static analysis, it is confirmed that the mesh structure is analyzed successfully. The 30m class large deployable reflector is now still being developed and is about to undergo several tests with its prototypes. This analysis method will be used in the tests and verifications of the reflector.

  7. A Remote Sensing Approach to Environmental Monitoring in a Reclaimed Mine Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajchandar Padmanaban

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Mining for resources extraction may lead to geological and associated environmental changes due to ground movements, collision with mining cavities, and deformation of aquifers. Geological changes may continue in a reclaimed mine area, and the deformed aquifers may entail a breakdown of substrates and an increase in ground water tables, which may cause surface area inundation. Consequently, a reclaimed mine area may experience surface area collapse, i.e., subsidence, and degradation of vegetation productivity. Thus, monitoring short-term landscape dynamics in a reclaimed mine area may provide important information on the long-term geological and environmental impacts of mining activities. We studied landscape dynamics in Kirchheller Heide, Germany, which experienced extensive soil movement due to longwall mining without stowing, using Landsat imageries between 2013 and 2016. A Random Forest image classification technique was applied to analyze land-use and landcover dynamics, and the growth of wetland areas was assessed using a Spectral Mixture Analysis (SMA. We also analyzed the changes in vegetation productivity using a Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI. We observed a 19.9% growth of wetland area within four years, with 87.2% growth in the coverage of two major waterbodies in the reclaimed mine area. NDVI values indicate that the productivity of 66.5% of vegetation of the Kirchheller Heide was degraded due to changes in ground water tables and surface flooding. Our results inform environmental management and mining reclamation authorities about the subsidence spots and priority mitigation areas from land surface and vegetation degradation in Kirchheller Heide.

  8. Capillary pressure-saturation relationships for porous granular materials: Pore morphology method vs. pore unit assembly method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweijen, Thomas; Aslannejad, Hamed; Hassanizadeh, S. Majid

    2017-09-01

    In studies of two-phase flow in complex porous media it is often desirable to have an estimation of the capillary pressure-saturation curve prior to measurements. Therefore, we compare in this research the capability of three pore-scale approaches in reproducing experimentally measured capillary pressure-saturation curves. To do so, we have generated 12 packings of spheres that are representative of four different glass-bead packings and eight different sand packings, for which we have found experimental data on the capillary pressure-saturation curve in the literature. In generating the packings, we matched the particle size distributions and porosity values of the granular materials. We have used three different pore-scale approaches for generating the capillary pressure-saturation curves of each packing: i) the Pore Unit Assembly (PUA) method in combination with the Mayer and Stowe-Princen (MS-P) approximation for estimating the entry pressures of pore throats, ii) the PUA method in combination with the hemisphere approximation, and iii) the Pore Morphology Method (PMM) in combination with the hemisphere approximation. The three approaches were also used to produce capillary pressure-saturation curves for the coating layer of paper, used in inkjet printing. Curves for such layers are extremely difficult to determine experimentally, due to their very small thickness and the presence of extremely small pores (less than one micrometer in size). Results indicate that the PMM and PUA-hemisphere method give similar capillary pressure-saturation curves, because both methods rely on a hemisphere to represent the air-water interface. The ability of the hemisphere approximation and the MS-P approximation to reproduce correct capillary pressure seems to depend on the type of particle size distribution, with the hemisphere approximation working well for narrowly distributed granular materials.

  9. Dual-Compartment Inflatable Suitlock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Kriss J.; Guirgis, Peggy L.; Boyle, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    There is a need for an improvement over current NASA Extravehicular Activity (EVA) technology. The technology must allow the capacity for quicker, more efficient egress/ingress, allow for shirtsleeve suit maintenance, be compact in transport, and be applicable to environments ranging from planetary surface (partial-g) to orbital or deep space zero-g environments. The technology must also be resistant to dust and other foreign contaminants that may be present on or around a planetary surface. The technology should be portable, and be capable of docking with a variety of habitats, ports, stations, vehicles, and other pressurized modules. The Dual-Compartment Inflatable Suitlock (DCIS) consists of three hard inline bulkheads, separating two cylindrical membrane-walled compartments. The Inner Bulkhead can be fitted with a variety of hatch types, docking flanges, and mating hardware, such as the Common Berthing Mechanism (CBM), for the purpose of mating with vehicles, habitats, and other pressurized modules. The Inner Bulkhead and Center Bulkhead function as the end walls of the Inner Compartment, which during operations, would stay pressurized, either matching the pressure of the habitat or acting as a lower-pressure transitional volume. The Inner Compartment contains donning/doffing fixtures and inner suit-port hatches. The Center Bulkhead has two integrated suit-ports along with a maintenance hatch. The Center Bulkhead and Outer Bulkhead function as the end walls of the Outer Compartment, which stays at vacuum during normal operations. This allows the crewmember to quickly don a suit, and egress the suitlock without waiting for the Outer Compartment to depressurize. The Outer Compartment can be pressurized infrequently for both nominal and off-nominal suit maintenance tasks, allowing shirtsleeve inspections and maintenance/repair of the environmental suits. The Outer Bulkhead has a pressure-assisted hatch door that stays open and stowed during EVA operations, but can

  10. Influence of Spanwise Boundary Conditions on Slat Noise Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockard, David P.; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Buning, Pieter G.

    2015-01-01

    The slat noise from the 30P/30N high-lift system is being investigated through computational fluid dynamics simulations with the OVERFLOW code in conjunction with a Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings acoustics solver. In the present study, two different spanwise grids are being used to investigate the effect of the spanwise extent and periodicity on the near-field unsteady structures and radiated noise. The baseline grid with periodic boundary conditions has a short span equal to 1/9th of the stowed chord, whereas the other, longer span grid adds stretched grids on both sides of the core, baseline grid to allow inviscid surface boundary conditions at both ends. The results indicate that the near-field mean statistics obtained using the two grids are similar to each other, as are the directivity and spectral shapes of the radiated noise. However, periodicity forces all acoustic waves with less than one wavelength across the span to be two-dimensional, without any variation in the span. The spanwise coherence of the acoustic waves is what is needed to make estimates of the noise that would be radiated from realistic span lengths. Simulations with periodic conditions need spans of at least six slat chords to allow spanwise variation in the low-frequencies associated with the peak of broadband slat noise. Even then, the full influence of the periodicity is unclear, so employing grids with a fine, central region and highly stretched meshes that go to slip walls may be a more efficient means of capturing the spanwise decorrelation of low-frequency acoustic phenomena.

  11. The validity of compliance monitors to assess wearing time of thoracic-lumbar-sacral orthoses in children with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Louis N; Sison-Williamson, Mitell; Mendoza, Melissa M; McDonald, Craig M; Molitor, Fred; Mulcahey, M J; Betz, Randal R; Vogel, Lawrence C; Bagley, Anita

    2008-06-15

    Prospective multicenter observation. To determine the validity of 3 commercially available at recording thoracic-lumbar-sacral orthosis (TLSO) wearing time of children with spinal cord injury (SCI) and to assess each monitor's function during daily activities. A major limitation to studies assessing the effectiveness of spinal prophylactic bracing is the patient's compliance with the prescribed wearing time. Although some studies have begun to use objective compliance monitors, there is little documentation of the validity of the monitors during activities of daily life and no comparisons of available monitors. Fifteen children with SCI who wore a TLSO for paralytic scoliosis were observed for 4 days during their rehabilitation stay. Three compliance monitors (2 temperature and 1 pressure sensitive) were mounted onto each TLSO. Time of brace wear from the monitors was compared with the wear time per day recorded in diaries. Observed versus monitored duration of brace wear found the HOBO (temperature sensitive) to be the most valid compliance monitor. The HOBO had the lowest average of difference and variance of difference scores. The correlation between the recorded daily entries and monitored brace wear time was also highest for the HOBO in analysis of dependent and independent scores. Bland-Altman plots showed that the pressure sensitive monitor underestimated wear time whereas the temperature monitors overestimated wear time. Compliance to prescribed wearing schedule has been a barrier to studying TLSO efficacy. All 3 monitors were found to measure TLSO compliance, but the 2 temperature monitors were more in agreement with the daily diaries. Based on its functional advantages compared with the HOBO, the StowAway TidbiT will be used to further investigate the long-term compliance of TLSO bracing in children with SCI.

  12. U.S. Army Physical Demands Study: Reliability of Simulations of Physically Demanding Tasks Performed by Combat Arms Soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulis, Stephen A; Redmond, Jan E; Frykman, Peter N; Warr, Bradley J; Zambraski, Edward J; Sharp, Marilyn A

    2017-12-01

    Foulis, SA, Redmond, JE, Frykman, PN, Warr, BJ, Zambraski, EJ, and Sharp, MA. U.S. Army physical demands study: reliability of simulations of physically demanding tasks performed by combat arms soldiers. J Strength Cond Res 31(12): 3245-3252, 2017-Recently, the U.S. Army has mandated that soldiers must successfully complete the physically demanding tasks of their job to graduate from their Initial Military Training. Evaluating individual soldiers in the field is difficult; however, simulations of these tasks may aid in the assessment of soldiers' abilities. The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of simulated physical soldiering tasks relevant to combat arms soldiers. Three cohorts of ∼50 soldiers repeated a subset of 8 simulated tasks 4 times over 2 weeks. Simulations included: sandbag carry, casualty drag, and casualty evacuation from a vehicle turret, move under direct fire, stow ammunition on a tank, load the main gun of a tank, transferring ammunition with a field artillery supply vehicle, and a 4-mile foot march. Reliability was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), standard errors of measurement (SEMs), and 95% limits of agreement. Performance of the casualty drag and foot march did not improve across trials (p > 0.05), whereas improvements, suggestive of learning effects, were observed on the remaining 6 tasks (p ≤ 0.05). The ICCs ranged from 0.76 to 0.96, and the SEMs ranged from 3 to 16% of the mean. These 8 simulated tasks show high reliability. Given proper practice, they are suitable for evaluating the ability of Combat Arms Soldiers to complete the physical requirements of their jobs.

  13. Chronic pain during pregnancy: a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray-Griffith SL

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Shona L Ray-Griffith,1,2 Michael P Wendel,2 Zachary N Stowe,3 Everett F Magann2 1Department of Psychiatry, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, USA; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, USA; 3Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, USA Background and purpose: The majority of the reviews and studies on chronic pain in pregnancy have primarily focused on the pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment options. The purpose of our review was to identify evidence-based clinical research for the evaluation and management of preexisting chronic pain in pregnancy, chronic pain associated with pregnancy, and chronic pain in relation to mode of delivery. Methods: A literature search was undertaken using the search engines PubMed, CINAHL, EBSCOhost, and Web of Science. Search terms used included “chronic pain” AND “pregnant OR pregnancy” OR “pregnancy complications” from inception through August 2016. Results: The basis of this review was the 144 articles that met inclusion criteria for this review. Based on our review of the current literature, we recommend 7 guidelines for chronic pain management during and after pregnancy: 1 complete history and physical examination; 2 monitor patients for alcohol, nicotine, and substance use; 3 collaborate with patient to set treatment goals; 4 develop a management plan; 5 for opioids, use lowest effective dose; 6 formulate a pain management plan for labor and delivery; and 7 discuss reproductive health with women with chronic pain. Conclusion: The management of chronic pain associated with pregnancy is understudied. Obstetrical providers primarily manage chronic pain during pregnancy. Some general guidelines are provided for those health care providers until more information is available. Keywords: chronic pain, pregnancy, pregnancy complications, chronic pain in pregnancy

  14. Biomass burial and storage to reduce atmospheric CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, N.

    2012-04-01

    To mitigate global climate change, a portfolio of strategies will be needed to keep the atmospheric CO2 concentration below a dangerous level. Here a carbon sequestration strategy is proposed in which certain dead or live trees are harvested via collection or selective cutting, then buried in trenches or stowed away in above-ground shelters. The largely anaerobic condition under a sufficiently thick layer of soil will prevent the decomposition of the buried wood. Because a large flux of CO2 is constantly being assimilated into the world's forests via photosynthesis, cutting off its return pathway to the atmosphere forms an effective carbon sink. It is estimated that a theoretical carbon sequestration potential for wood burial is 10 ± 5 GtC/y, but probably 1-3 GtC/y can be realized in practice. Burying wood has other benefits including minimizing CO2 source from deforestation, extending the lifetime of reforestation carbon sink, and reducing fire danger. There are possible environmental impacts such as nutrient lock-up which nevertheless appears manageable, but other environmental concerns and factors will likely set a limit so that only part of the full potential can be realized. Based on data from forest industry, the cost for wood burial is estimated to be 14/tCO2 (50/tC), lower than the typical cost for power plant CO2 capture with geological storage. The low cost for carbon sequestration with wood burial is possible because the technique uses the natural process of photosynthesis to remove carbon from the atmosphere. The technique is low tech, distributed, safe, and can be stopped at any time, thus an attractive option for large-scale implementation in a world-wide carbon market.

  15. LDR segmented mirror technology assessment study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krim, M.; Russo, J.

    1983-01-01

    In the mid-1990s, NASA plans to orbit a giant telescope, whose aperture may be as great as 30 meters, for infrared and sub-millimeter astronomy. Its primary mirror will be deployed or assembled in orbit from a mosaic of possibly hundreds of mirror segments. Each segment must be shaped to precise curvature tolerances so that diffraction-limited performance will be achieved at 30 micron (nominal operating wavelength). All panels must lie within 1 micron on a theoretical surface described by the optical precipitation of the telescope's primary mirror. To attain diffraction-limited performance, the issues of alignment and/or position sensing, position control of micron tolerances, and structural, thermal, and mechanical considerations for stowing, deploying, and erecting the reflector must be resolved. Radius of curvature precision influences panel size, shape, material, and type of construction. Two superior material choices emerged: fused quartz (sufficiently homogeneous with respect to thermal expansivity to permit a thin shell substrate to be drape molded between graphite dies to a precise enough off-axis asphere for optical finishing on the as-received a segment) and a Pyrex or Duran (less expensive than quartz and formable at lower temperatures). The optimal reflector panel size is between 1-1/2 and 2 meters. Making one, two-meter mirror every two weeks requires new approaches to manufacturing off-axis parabolic or aspheric segments (drape molding on precision dies and subsequent finishing on a nonrotationally symmetric dependent machine). Proof-of-concept developmental programs were identified to prove the feasibility of the materials and manufacturing ideas.

  16. Supra-subduction zone extensional magmatism in Vermont and adjacent Quebec: Implications for early Paleozoic Appalachian tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J.; Coish, R.; Evans, M.; Dick, G.

    2003-01-01

    Metadiabasic intrusions of the Mount Norris Intrusive Suite occur in fault-bounded lithotectonic packages containing Stowe, Moretown, and Cram Hill Formation lithologies in the northern Vermont Rowe-Hawley belt, a proposed Ordovician arc-trench gap above an east-dipping subduction zone. Rocks of the Mount Norris Intrusive Suite are characteristically massive and weakly foliated, have chilled margins, contain xenoliths, and have sharp contacts that both crosscut and are parallel to early structural fabrics in the host metasedimentary rocks. Although the mineral assemblage of the Mount Norris Intrusive Suite is albite + actinolite + epidote + chlorite + calcite + quartz, intergrowths of albite + actinolite are probably pseudomorphs after plagioclase + clinopyroxene. The metadiabases are subalkaline, tholeiitic, hypabyssal basalts with preserved ophitic texture. A backarc-basin tectonic setting for the intrusive suite is suggested by its LREE (light rare earth element) enrichment, negative Nb-Ta anomalies, and Ta/Yb vs. Th/Yb trends. Although no direct isotopic age data are available, the intrusions are broadly Ordovician because their contacts are clearly folded by the earliest Acadian (Silurian-Devonian) folds. Field evidence and geochemical data suggest compelling along-strike correlations with the Coburn Hill Volcanics of northern Vermont and the Bolton Igneous Group of southern Quebec. Isotopic and stratigraphic age constraints for the Bolton Igneous Group bracket these backarc magmas to the 477-458 Ma interval. A tectonic model that begins with east-dipping subduction and progresses to outboard west-dipping subduction after a syncollisional polarity reversal best explains the intrusion of deformed metamorphosed metasedimentary rocks by backarc magmas.

  17. Near Earth Asteroid Scout Solar Sail Engineering Development Unit Test Suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockett, Tiffany Russell; Few, Alexander; Wilson, Richard

    2017-01-01

    The Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) Scout project is a 6U reconnaissance mission to investigate a near Earth asteroid utilizing an 86m(sub 2) solar sail as the primary propulsion system. This will be the largest solar sail NASA has launched to date. NEA Scout is currently manifested on the maiden voyage of the Space Launch System in 2018. In development of the solar sail subsystem, design challenges were identified and investigated for packaging within a 6U form factor and deployment in cis-lunar space. Analysis was able to capture understanding of thermal, stress, and dynamics of the stowed system as well as mature an integrated sail membrane model for deployed flight dynamics. Full scale system testing on the ground is the optimal way to demonstrate system robustness, repeatability, and overall performance on a compressed flight schedule. To physically test the system, the team developed a flight sized engineering development unit with design features as close to flight as possible. The test suite included ascent vent, random vibration, functional deployments, thermal vacuum, and full sail deployments. All of these tests contributed towards development of the final flight unit. This paper will address several of the design challenges and lessons learned from the NEA Scout solar sail subsystem engineering development unit. Testing on the component level all the way to the integrated subsystem level. From optical properties of the sail material to fold and spooling the single sail, the team has developed a robust deployment system for the solar sail. The team completed several deployments of the sail system in preparation for flight at half scale (4m) and full scale (6.8m): boom only, half scale sail deployment, and full scale sail deployment. This paper will also address expected and received test results from ascent vent, random vibration, and deployment tests.

  18. Near Earth Asteroid Scout: NASA's Solar Sail Mission to a NEA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Les; Lockett, Tiffany

    2017-01-01

    NASA is developing a solar sail propulsion system for use on the Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) Scout reconnaissance mission and laying the groundwork for their use in future deep space science and exploration missions. Solar sails use sunlight to propel vehicles through space by reflecting solar photons from a large, mirror-like sail made of a lightweight, highly reflective material. This continuous photon pressure provides propellantless thrust, allowing for very high Delta V maneuvers on long-duration, deep space exploration. Since reflected light produces thrust, solar sails require no onboard propellant. The Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) Scout mission, funded by NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems Program and managed by NASA MSFC, will use the sail as primary propulsion allowing it to survey and image Asteroid 1991VG and, potentially, other NEA's of interest for possible future human exploration. NEA Scout uses a 6U cubesat (to be provided by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory), an 86 m(exp. 2) solar sail and will weigh less than 12 kilograms. NEA Scout will be launched on the first flight of the Space Launch System in 2018. The solar sail for NEA Scout will be based on the technology developed and flown by the NASA NanoSail-D and The Planetary Society's Lightsail-A. Four approximately 7 m stainless steel booms wrapped on two spools (two overlapping booms per spool) will be motor deployed and pull the sail from its stowed volume. The sail material is an aluminized polyimide approximately 2.5 microns thick. As the technology matures, solar sails will increasingly be used to enable science and exploration missions that are currently impossible or prohibitively expensive using traditional chemical and electric propulsion systems. This paper will summarize the status of the NEA Scout mission and solar sail technology in general.

  19. Unwrapping a First Aid Tourniquet From Its Plastic Wrapper With and Without Gloves Worn: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kragh, John F; Aden, James K; Lambert, Connor D; Moore, Virgil K; Dubick, Michael A

    The purpose of this study was to gather data about unwrapping a packaged limb tourniquet from its plastic wrapper while wearing different types of gloves. Because already unwrapped tourniquets require no time to unwrap, unwrapping data may provide insights into the issue of having tourniquets unwrapped when stowed in a first aid kit of a Serviceperson at war. In a laboratory setting, 36 tests of nine glove groups were performed in which four people, gloved and ungloved, unwrapped tourniquets. Other tourniquets were environmentally exposed for 3 months. All the users successfully unwrapped each tourniquet. Mean times to unwrap by glove group were not significantly different (p = .0961). When mean values of eight experimental groups were compared with that of one control group (i.e., bare hands), results showed no significant difference (p > .07). Mean time was least for bare hands (12 seconds) and most for cold gloves layered under mittens (22 seconds). Among the 36 pairwise comparisons of difference between glove group means, after adjustment for multiple comparisons, no comparison was noted to be statistically significant (p > .052, all 36 pairs). Glove thickness ranged from 0 mm for bare hands to 2.5 mm for cold gloves layered under mittens. By glove group, the thickness-time association was moderate, as tested by linear regression (R2 = 0.6096). The tourniquets exposed to the environment had evidence of rapid photodegradation due to direct exposure to sunlight. Such exposure also destroyed the wrappers. In a preliminary study, different gloves performed similarly when wearers unwrapped a tourniquet from its wrapper. The tourniquet wrappers gave no visible protection from sunlight, and environmental exposure destroyed the wrappers. 2017.

  20. Increased root production in soybeans grown under space flight conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, H. G.; Piastuch, W. C.

    The GENEX ({Gen}e {Ex}pression) spaceflight experiment (flown on STS-87) was developed to investigate whether direct and/or indirect effects of microgravity are perceived as an external stimulus for soybean seedling response. Protocols were designed to optimize root and shoot formation, gas exchange and moisture uniformity. Six surface sterilized soybean seeds (Glycine max cv McCall) were inserted into each of 32 autoclaved plastic seed growth pouches containing an inner germination paper sleeve (for a total of 192 seeds). The pouches were stowed within a mid-deck locker until Mission Flight Day 10, at which time an astronaut added water to each pouch (thereby initiating the process of seed germination on-orbit), and subsequently transferred them to four passive, light-tight aluminum canisters called BRIC-60s (Biological Research In Canisters). We report here on the morphological characteristics of: (1) the recovered flight material, (2) the corresponding ground control population, plus (3) additional controls grown on the ground under clinostat conditions. No significant growth differences were found between the flight, ground control and clinorotated treatments for either the cotyledons or hypocotyls. There were, however, significantly longer primary roots produced in the flight population relative to the ground control population, which in turn had significantly longer primary roots than the clinorotated population. This same pattern was observed relative to the production of lateral roots (flight > control > clinorotated). Taken together with previous literature reports, we believe that there is now sufficient evidence to conclude that plants grown under conditions of microgravity will generally exhibit enhanced root production relative to their ground control counterparts. The mechanism underlying this phenomenon is open to speculation. Funded under NASA Contract NAS10-12180.

  1. Distribution Occurrence of Phenylketonuria in the World: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parastoo Moradi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ​ Background and objectives : Phenylketonuria (PKU is a metabolic error which is caused by the deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH inverting phenylalanine to tyrosine. This disease is the most common form of hyperphenyalaninaemia stow which is inherited in a form of a predominant autosomal. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of occurrence of phenylketonuria disease in the world by using the systematic review and meta-analysis. Material and Methods : The national and international databases such as Medline, CINAHL, Embase, PubMed and OVID, Google scholar, IranDOC, IranMedex, SID, Magiran, have been searched from 1990 onwards, without language restrictions and by using the key words: phenylketonuria, prevalence, incidence, congenital diseases. A total of 304 articles related with this topic were found. Finally, 62 studies were accepted. Data were analyzed by using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software at 95% confidence level. The distribution of diseases was shown by using Geographic Information System software on the world map. Results : The findings showed that in 100000 people, the best estimate of the disease prevalence of phenylketonuria is 11.83 (95% CI: 10.22- 13.44 and the best estimate of the incidence of this disease is 8.2 (95% CI: 6.37- 10.03 in the world. The distribution of phenylketonuria disease has the highest rate in Europe and Asia and lowest rate in Africa and America, respectively. Conclusion : According to the findings of the present study, it can be said that there is a wide variety in the occurrence of phenylketonuria in the world and recent studies have confirmed his. Therefore, because of the irreversible consequences of the disease, the development of the appropriate training and control programs is recommended to reduce the occurrence of the disease.

  2. Space Station Integrated Kinetic Launcher for Orbital Payload Systems (SSIKLOPS) - Cyclops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James P.; Lamb, Craig R.; Ballard, Perry G.

    2013-01-01

    Access to space for satellites in the 50-100 kg class is a challenge for the small satellite community. Rideshare opportunities are limited and costly, and the small sat must adhere to the primary payloads schedule and launch needs. Launching as an auxiliary payload on an Expendable Launch Vehicle presents many technical, environmental, and logistical challenges to the small satellite community. To assist the community in mitigating these challenges and in order to provide the community with greater access to space for 50-100 kg satellites, the NASA International Space Station (ISS) and Engineering communities in collaboration with the Department of Defense (DOD) Space Test Program (STP) is developing a dedicated 50-100 kg class ISS small satellite deployment system. The system, known as Cyclops, will utilize NASA's ISS resupply vehicles to launch small sats to the ISS in a controlled pressurized environment in soft stow bags. The satellites will then be processed through the ISS pressurized environment by the astronaut crew allowing satellite system diagnostics prior to orbit insertion. Orbit insertion is achieved through use of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's Experiment Module Robotic Airlock (JEM Airlock) and one of the ISS Robotic Arms. Cyclops' initial satellite deployment demonstration of DOD STP's SpinSat and UT/TAMU's Lonestar satellites will be toward the end of 2013 or beginning of 2014. Cyclops will be housed on-board the ISS and used throughout its lifetime. The anatomy of Cyclops, its concept of operations for satellite deployment, and its satellite interfaces and requirements will be addressed further in this paper.

  3. Ionizing radiation effects on ISS ePTFE jacketed cable assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, S. L.; Golden, J. L.; Lorenz, M. J.; Pedley, M. D.

    2003-09-01

    Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), which is susceptible to embrittlement by ionizing radiation, is used as a primary material in the Mobile Transporter's (MT) Trailing Umbilical System (TUS) cable on the International Space Station (ISS). The TUS cable provides power and data service between the ISS truss and the MT. The TUS cable is normally stowed in an uptake reel and is fed out to follow the MT as it moves along rails on the ISS truss structure. For reliable electrical and mechanical performance, TUS cable polymeric materials must be capable of >3.5% elongation without cracking or breaking. The MT TUS cable operating temperature on ISS is expected to range between -100°C and +130°C. The on-orbit functional life requirement for the MT TUS cable is 10 years. Analysis and testing were performed to verify that the MT TUS cable would be able to meet full-life mechanical and electrical performance requirements, despite progressive embrittlement by the natural ionizing radiation environment. Energetic radiation belt electrons (trapped electrons) are the principal contributor to TUS cable radiation dose. TUS cable specimens were irradiated, in vacuum, with both energetic electrons and gamma rays. Electron beam energy was chosen to minimize charging effects on the non-conductive ePTFE (expanded PTFE) targets. Tensile testing was then performed, over the expected range of operating temperatures, as a function of radiation dose. When compared to the expected in-flight radiation dose/depth profile, atomic oxygen (AO) erosion of the radiation damaged TUS cable jacket surfaces is more rapid than the development of radiation induced embrittlement of the same surfaces. Additionally, the layered construction of the jacket prevents crack growth propagation, leaving the inner layer material compliant with the design elongation requirements. As a result, the TUS cable insulation design was verified to meet performance life requirements.

  4. Investigation of Bio-Regenerative Life Support and Trash-to-Gas Experiment on a 4-Month Mars Simulation Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraccio, Anne; Poulet, Lucie; Hintze, Paul E.; Miles, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Future crewed missions to other planets or deep space locations will require regenerative Life Support Systems (LSS) as well as recycling processes for mission waste. Constant resupply of many commodity materials will not be a sustainable option for deep space missions, nor will stowing trash on board a vehicle or at a lunar or Martian outpost. The habitable volume will decline as the volume of waste increases. A complete regenerative environmentally controlled life support system (ECLSS) on an extra-terrestrial outpost will likely include physico-chemical and biological technologies, such as bioreactors and greenhouse modules. Physico-chemical LSS do not enable food production and bio-regenerative LSS are not stable enough to be used alone in space. Mission waste that cannot be recycled into the bio-regenerative ECLSS can include excess food, food packaging, clothing, tape, urine and fecal waste. This waste will be sent to a system for converting the trash into high value products. Two crew members on a 120 day Mars analog simulation, in collaboration with Kennedy Space Centers (KSC) Trash to Gas (TtG) project investigated a semi-closed loop system that treated non-edible biomass and other logistical waste for volume reduction and conversion into useful commodities. The purpose of this study is to show how plant growth affects the amount of resources required by the habitat and how spent plant material can be recycled. Real-time data was sent to the reactor at KSC in Florida for replicating the analog mission waste for laboratory operation. This paper discusses the 120 day mission plant growth activity, logistical and plant waste management, power and water consumption effects of the plant and logistical waste, and potential energy conversion techniques using KSCs TtG technology.

  5. Forensics, radiology, society. X-rays. Tool and document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, Beatrice; Vogel, Hermann [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Forensic Medicine

    2014-07-01

    During the last years, the individual specialities of forensic medicine and diagnostic imaging have increasingly cooperated to create the interdisciplinary entity of forensic radiology. The book demonstrates the potential of this speciality: It has become evident that the combination of diagnostic imaging and forensic medicine solves more cases of death of unknown cause than each alone, and that a radiograph can be read like a document describing forces of modern time and its effects on current society. The posters of 6 exhibitions demonstrate the actual cause of death and its preceding violence. They aim at the medical as well as the interested lay-public: Causes of natural and of violent death become visible. For instance, stab- and gunshot wounds into a person's rear are contradictory of self-defence. Stab wounds with penetration of ribs indicate great force and, therefore, intentional homicide. The same is valid for multiple stabs, stabs through silicon prosthesis of a mammoplasty, and stabs into the breast cage of a defenceless toddler. X-rays of the living can indicate preceding torture. X-rays are part of the security technology employed at airports and countries' borders. They help to detect drugs, explosives, and human stow-aways. The x-ray examination of the deceased visualises success and failure of the preceding therapy. After reanimation, the position of a tracheal tube, the effects of a vascular puncture, and potential fractures of the breast cage can be evaluated. After cardiac and aortic interventions, the procedure of choice and its effects can be seen. Concerning general or intensive care, diagnostic imaging shows the position of urinary catheters, gastric tubes and vascular catheters. Prenatal diagnostic imaging can determine the sex of the foetus and possible malformations; and in peri- and postnatal death, it may show the effects of iatrogenic actions, and later on, of child-abuse.

  6. Advisory material for the IAEA regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material (1985 edition). 3. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material provide standards for ensuring a high level of safety of people, property and the environment against radiation and criticality hazards as well as thermal effects associated with the transport of radioactive material. The basic requirements to be met are: Effective containment of radioactive material; Effective control of radiation emitted from the package; A subcritical condition for any fissile material; and Adequate dissipation of any heat generated within the package. Effective quality assurance and compliance assurance programmes are required, for example: (a) Appropriate and sound packages are used; (b) The activity of radioactive material in each package does not exceed the regulatory activity limit for that material and that package type; (c) The radiation levels external to, and the contamination levels on, surfaces of packages do not exceed the appropriate limits; (d) Packages are properly marked and labelled and transport documents are completed; (e) the number of packages containing radioactive material in a conveyance is within the regulatory limits; (f) Packages of radioactive material are stowed in conveyances and are stored at a safe distance from persons and photosensitive materials; (g) Only those transport and lifting devices which have been tested are used in loading, conveying and unloading packages of radioactive material; and (h) Packages of radioactive material are properly secured for transport. The control of the transport of radioactive materials may be necessary also for other reasons, e.g. safeguards control and physical protection of nuclear materials and control of a property. For radioactive materials having other dangerous properties, the regulations of Member States, modal conventions and agreements, and other relevant documents of international organizations need to be applied. A Member State may require in its national regulations that an additional approval be

  7. Icepod: A modular approach to the development of an airborne remote sensing and data acquisition platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frearson, N.; Bell, R. E.; Tinto, K. J.; Zappa, C. J.

    2013-12-01

    The New York Air National Guard [NYANG] provides regular airborne support to the National Science Foundation [NSF] moving science parties and their equipment onto and around the ice-sheets in both polar regions during the respective summer seasons. Icepod has been developed to utilize this readily available resource, providing the aircraft with a modular external pod attached to the rear-paratrooper door on either side of the NYANG's ski-equipped LC-130s. The pod is divided into five separate bays each approximately a 2ft cube within which can be mounted an array of remote sensors. Power, heating, sensor control and data management services are provided to each bay. An Ethernet network is used to transfer commands and data packets between the individual sensors and data acquisition system located inside the aircraft. Data for each sensor is stored on ruggedized and removable hard-drives that can be taken off the aircraft at the end of a flight for further analysis. In its current configuration the pod is equipped for the remote sensing of ice sheets and their margins and the bay's contain two radar systems, radar antennas, a vibration isolated optics bay including a scanning laser, Infra-red camera and high-definition visible wave camera. Sensor data is geo-referenced using GNSS and orientation sensors located inside the pod. A Pyrometer provides the downward looking IR Camera with the current sky temperature. In January 2013, the Icepod system was flight certified at the Stratton air base in Schenectady, New York. The system deployed to Greenland in April and July 2013 to test the instrumentation suite over ice and its ease of deployment with the NYANG. Icepod can be operated in two modes, a traditional dedicated science flight mode and a piggy-back mode. In piggy-back mode science parties and their cargo are delivered to their destinations with Icepod installed but stowed. Once they have been delivered the Icepod is deployed and measurements can be taken on the

  8. OSIRIS-REx Asteroid Sample Return Mission Image Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevres Fernandez, Lee Roger; Bos, Brent

    2018-01-01

    NASA’s Origins Spectral Interpretation Resource Identification Security-Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) mission constitutes the “first-of-its-kind” project to thoroughly characterize a near-Earth asteroid. The selected asteroid is (101955) 1999 RQ36 (a.k.a. Bennu). The mission launched in September 2016, and the spacecraft will reach its asteroid target in 2018 and return a sample to Earth in 2023. The spacecraft that will travel to, and collect a sample from, Bennu has five integrated instruments from national and international partners. NASA's OSIRIS-REx asteroid sample return mission spacecraft includes the Touch-And-Go Camera System (TAGCAMS) three camera-head instrument. The purpose of TAGCAMS is to provide imagery during the mission to facilitate navigation to the target asteroid, confirm acquisition of the asteroid sample and document asteroid sample stowage. Two of the TAGCAMS cameras, NavCam 1 and NavCam 2, serve as fully redundant navigation cameras to support optical navigation and natural feature tracking. The third TAGCAMS camera, StowCam, provides imagery to assist with and confirm proper stowage of the asteroid sample. Analysis of spacecraft imagery acquired by the TAGCAMS during cruise to the target asteroid Bennu was performed using custom codes developed in MATLAB. Assessment of the TAGCAMS in-flight performance using flight imagery was done to characterize camera performance. One specific area of investigation that was targeted was bad pixel mapping. A recent phase of the mission, known as the Earth Gravity Assist (EGA) maneuver, provided images that were used for the detection and confirmation of “questionable” pixels, possibly under responsive, using image segmentation analysis. Ongoing work on point spread function morphology and camera linearity and responsivity will also be used for calibration purposes and further analysis in preparation for proximity operations around Bennu. Said analyses will provide a broader understanding

  9. Preliminary design study of the TMT Telescope structure system: overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usuda, Tomonori; Ezaki, Yutaka; Kawaguchi, Noboru; Nagae, Kazuhiro; Kato, Atsushi; Takaki, Junji; Hirano, Masaki; Hattori, Tomoya; Tabata, Masaki; Horiuchi, Yasushi; Saruta, Yusuke; Sofuku, Satoru; Itoh, Noboru; Oshima, Takeharu; Takanezawa, Takashi; Endo, Makoto; Inatani, Junji; Iye, Masanori; Sadjadpour, Amir; Sirota, Mark; Roberts, Scott; Stepp, Larry

    2014-07-01

    operational status of Hydro Static Bearing (HSB) system and stow lock pins. In order to find a practical solution, design optimization study for seismic risk mitigation was carried out extensively, including the performing of dynamic response analyses of the STR system under the time dependent acceleration profile of seven major earthquakes. The work is now moving to the final design phase from April 2014 for two years.

  10. Surface sediment remobilization triggered by earthquakes in the Nankai forearc region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okutsu, N.; Ashi, J.; Yamaguchi, A.; Irino, T.; Ikehara, K.; Kanamatsu, T.; Suganuma, Y.; Murayama, M.

    2017-12-01

    Submarine landslides triggered by earthquakes generate turbidity currents (e.g. Piper et al., 1988; 1999). Recently several studies report that the remobilization of the surface sediment triggered by earthquakes can also generate turbidity currents. However, studies that proposed such process are still limited (e.g. Ikehara et al., 2016; Mchugh et al., 2016; Moernaut et al., 2017). The purpose of this study is to examine those sedimentary processes in the Nankai forearc region, SW Japan using sedimentary records. We collected 46 cm-long multiple core (MC01) and a 6.7 m-long piston core (PC03) from the small basin during the R/V Shinsei Maru KS-14-8 cruise. The small confined basin, which is our study site, block the paths of direct sediment supply from river-submarine canyon system. The sampling site is located at the ENE-WSW elongated basin between the accretionary prism and the forearc basin off Kumano without direct sediment supply from river-submarine canyon system. The basin exhibits a confined basin that captures almost of sediments supplied from outside. Core samples are mainly composed of silty clay or very fine sand. Cs-137 measurement conducted on a MC01 core shows constantly high value at the upper 17 cm section and no detection below it. Moreover, the sedimentary structure is similar to fine-grained turbidite described by Stow and Shanmgam (1980), we interpret the upper 17 cm of MC01 as muddy turbidite. Grain size distribution and magnetic susceptibility also agree to this interpretation. Rapid sediment deposition after 1950 is assumed and the most likely event is the 2004 off Kii peninsula earthquakes (Mw=6.6-7.4). By calculation from extent of provenance area, which are estimated by paleocurrent analysis and bathymetric map, and thickness of turbidite layer we conclude that surface 1 cm of slope sediments may be remobilized by the 2004 earthquakes. Muddy turbidites are also identified in a PC03 core. The radiocarbon age gap of 170 years obtained

  11. Pre-Flight Dark Forward Electrical Testing of the Mir Cooperative Solar Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerslake, Thomas W.; Scheiman, David A.; Hoffman, David J.

    1997-01-01

    The Mir Cooperative Solar Array (MCSA) was developed jointly by the United States (US) and Russia to provide approximately 6 kW of photovoltaic power to the Russian space station Mir. After final assembly in Russia, the MCSA was shipped to the NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in the summer of 1995 and launched to Mir in November 1995. Program managers were concerned of the potential for MCSA damage during the transatlantic shipment and the associated handling operations. To address this concern, NASA Lewis Research Center (LERC) developed an innovative dark-forward electrical test program to assess the gross electrical condition of each generator following shipment from Russia. The use of dark test techniques, which allow the array to remain in the stowed configuration, greatly simplifies the checkout of large area solar arrays. MCSA dark electrical testing was successfully performed at KSC in July 1995 following transatlantic shipment. Data from this testing enabled engineers to quantify the effects of potential MCSA physical damage that would degrade on-orbit electrical performance. In this paper, an overview of the principles and heritage of photovoltaic array dark testing is given. The specific MCSA dark test program is also described including the hardware, software, testing procedures and test results. The current-voltage (4) response of both solar cell circuitry and by-pass diode circuitry was obtained. To guide the development of dark test hardware, software and procedures, a dedicated FORTRAN computer code was developed to predict the dark 4 responses of generators with a variety of feasible damage modes. By comparing the actual test data with the predictions, the physical condition of the generator could be inferred. Based on this data analysis, no electrical short-circuits or open-circuits were detected. This suggested the MCSA did not sustain physical damage that affected electrical performance during handling and shipment from Russia to the US. Good

  12. Evaluation of Hands-Free Devices for the Display of Maintenance Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; Hoffman, Ronald B.; Litaker, Harry, Jr.; Solem, Jody; Holden, Kritina; Twyford, Evan; Conlee, Carl

    2007-01-01

    Over the past year, NASA's focus has turned to crewed long duration and exploration missions. On these journeys, crewmembers will be required to execute thousands of procedures to maintain life support systems, check out space suits, conduct science experiments, and perform medical exams. To support the many complex tasks crewmembers undertake in microgravity, NASA is interested in providing crewmembers a hands-free work environment to promote more efficient operations. The overarching objective is to allow crewmembers to use both of their hands for tasks related to their mission, versus holding a paper manual or interacting with a display. The use of advanced, hands-free tools will undoubtedly make the crewmembers task easier, but they can also add to overall task complexity if not properly designed. A leading candidate technology for supporting a hands-free environment is the Head-Mounted Display (HMD). A more recent technology (e-book reader) that could be easily temp-stowed near the work area is also a potential hands-free solution. Previous work at NASA involved the evaluation of several commercially available HMDs for visual quality, comfort, and fit, as well as suitability for use in microgravity. Based on results from this work, three HMDs were selected for further evaluation (along with an e-book reader), using International Space Station (ISS)-like maintenance procedures. Two evaluations were conducted in the Space Station Mockup and Trainer Facility (SSMTF) located at the NASA Johnson Space Center (building 9). The SSMTF is a full scale, medium fidelity replica of the pressurized portions of the ISS. It supports crew training such as ingress and egress, habitability, and emergency procedures. In each of the two evaluations, the participants performed two maintenance procedures. One maintenance procedure involved inspecting air filters in a life support system and replacing them with a clean filter if one were found to be contaminated. The second

  13. Deployable Propulsion and Power Systems for Solar System Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Les; Carr, John

    2017-01-01

    NASA is developing thin-film based, deployable propulsion, power and communication systems for small spacecraft that could provide a revolutionary new capability allowing small spacecraft exploration of the solar system. The Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) Scout reconnaissance mission will demonstrate solar sail propulsion on a 6U CubeSat interplanetary spacecraft and lay the groundwork for their future use in deep space science and exploration missions. Solar sails use sunlight to propel vehicles through space by reflecting solar photons from a large, mirror-like sail made of a lightweight, highly reflective material. This continuous photon pressure provides propellantless thrust, allowing for very high delta V maneuvers on long-duration, deep space exploration. Since reflected light produces thrust, solar sails require no onboard propellant. The Lightweight Integrated Solar Array and Transceiver (LISA-T) is a launch stowed, orbit deployed array on which thin-film photovoltaic and antenna elements are embedded. Inherently, small satellites are limited in surface area, volume, and mass allocation; driving competition between power, communications, and GN&C (guidance navigation and control) subsystems. This restricts payload capability and limits the value of these low-cost satellites. LISA-T is addressing this issue, deploying large-area arrays from a reduced volume and mass envelope - greatly enhancing power generation and communications capabilities of small spacecraft. The NEA Scout mission, funded by NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems Program and managed by NASA MSFC, will use the solar sail as its primary propulsion system, allowing it to survey and image one or more NEA's of interest for possible future human exploration. NEA Scout uses a 6U cubesat (to be provided by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory), an 86 sq m solar sail and will weigh less than 12 kilograms. NEA Scout will be launched on the first flight of the Space Launch System in 2018. Similar in concept

  14. Instrumented Moles for Planetary Subsurface Regolith Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, L. O.; Coste, P. A.; Grzesik, A.; Knollenberg, J.; Magnani, P.; Nadalini, R.; Re, E.; Romstedt, J.; Sohl, F.; Spohn, T.

    2006-12-01

    consisting of a 'tractor' element containing the hammering mechanism jointed to a trailed compartment housing the instruments as well as some front-end electronics, tethered to surface controls and instruments. This presentation will highlight the design of the IMS and will describe results of comprehensive functional and environmental tests that included soil penetration to depths beyond 2 m, thermal vacuum functional tests, as well as vibration testing of the stowed system. Mission scenarios that are being considered for the IMS are discussed (including the ExoMars mission of ESA), and an update is given on parallel tests of the HP3 instrument package that is being developed in a dedicated, ESA-funded effort.

  15. How Burying Biomass Can Contribute to CO2 Stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, B.; Zeng, N.; Zaitchik, B.; Gregg, J.

    2008-12-01

    To mitigate global climate change, a portfolio of strategies will be needed to keep the atmospheric CO2 concentration below a dangerous level. Here a carbon sequestration strategy is proposed in which certain dead or live trees are harvested via collection or selective cutting, then buried in trenches or stowed away in above-ground shelters. The largely anaerobic condition under a sufficiently thick layer of soil will prevent the decomposition of the buried wood. Because a large flux of CO2 is constantly being assimilated into the world's forests via photosynthesis, cutting off its return pathway to the atmosphere forms an effective carbon sink. It is estimated that a sustainable long-term carbon sequestration potential for wood burial is 10 ± 5 GtC y-1, and currently about 65 GtC is on the world's forest floors in the form of coarse woody debris suitable for burial. The potential is largest in tropical forests (4.2 GtC y-1), followed by temperate (3.7 GtC y-1) and boreal forests (2.1 GtC y-1). Burying wood has other benefits including minimizing CO2 source from deforestation, extending the lifetime of reforestation carbon sink, and reducing fire danger. There are possible environmental impacts such as nutrient lock-up which nevertheless appears manageable, but other environmental concerns and factors will likely set a limit so that only part of the full potential can be realized. Based on data from North American logging industry, the cost for wood burial is estimated to be 14/tCO2 (50/tC), lower than the typical cost for power plant CO2 capture with geological storage. The low cost for carbon sequestration with wood burial is possible because the technique uses the natural process of photosynthesis to remove carbon from the atmosphere. The technique is low tech, distributed, safe, and can be stopped at any time, thus an attractive option for large-scale implementation in a world-wide carbon market.

  16. Deployment Technology of a Heliogyro Solar Sail for Long Duration Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peerawan, Wiwattananon; Bryant, Robert G.; Edmonson, William W.; Moore, William B.; Bell, Jared M.

    2015-01-01

    Interplanetary, multi-mission, station-keeping capabilities will require that a spacecraft employ a highly efficient propulsion-navigation system. The majority of space propulsion systems are fuel-based and require the vehicle to carry and consume fuel as part of the mission. Once the fuel is consumed, the mission is set, thereby limiting the potential capability. Alternatively, a method that derives its acceleration and direction from solar photon pressure using a solar sail would eliminate the requirement of onboard fuel to meet mission objectives. MacNeal theorized that the heliogyro-configured solar sail architecture would be lighter, less complex, cheaper, and less risky to deploy a large sail area versus a masted sail. As sail size increases, the masted sail requires longer booms resulting in increased mass, and chaotic uncontrollable deployment. With a heliogyro, the sail membrane is stowed as a roll of thin film forming a blade when deployed that can extend up to kilometers. Thus, a benefit of using a heliogyro-configured solar sail propulsion technology is the mission scalability as compared to masted versions, which are size constrained. Studies have shown that interplanetary travel is achievable by the heliogyro solar sail concept. Heliogyro solar sail concept also enables multi-mission missions such as sample returns, and supply transportation from Earth to Mars as well as station-keeping missions to provide enhanced warning of solar storm. This paper describes deployment technology being developed at NASA Langley Research Center to deploy and control the center-of-mass/center-of-pressure using a twin bladed heliogyro solar sail 6-unit (6U) CubeSat. The 6U comprises 2x2U blade deployers and 2U for payload. The 2U blade deployers can be mounted to 6U or larger scaled systems to serve as a non-chemical in-space propulsion system. A single solar sail blade length is estimated to be 2.4 km with a total area from two blades of 720 m2; total allowable weight

  17. 30-kW SEP Spacecraft as Secondary Payloads for Low-Cost Deep Space Science Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, John R.; Larson, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The Solar Array System contracts awarded by NASA's Space Technology Mission Directorate are developing solar arrays in the 30 kW to 50 kW power range (beginning of life at 1 AU) that have significantly higher specific powers (W/kg) and much smaller stowed volumes than conventional rigid-panel arrays. The successful development of these solar array technologies has the potential to enable new types of solar electric propulsion (SEP) vehicles and missions. This paper describes a 30-kW electric propulsion vehicle built into an EELV Secondary Payload Adapter (ESPA) ring. The system uses an ESPA ring as the primary structure and packages two 15-kW Megaflex solar array wings, two 14-kW Hall thrusters, a hydrazine Reaction Control Subsystem (RCS), 220 kg of xenon, 26 kg of hydrazine, and an avionics module that contains all of the rest of the spacecraft bus functions and the instrument suite. Direct-drive is used to maximize the propulsion subsystem efficiency and minimize the resulting waste heat and required radiator area. This is critical for packaging a high-power spacecraft into a very small volume. The fully-margined system dry mass would be approximately 1120 kg. This is not a small dry mass for a Discovery-class spacecraft, for example, the Dawn spacecraft dry mass was only about 750 kg. But the Dawn electric propulsion subsystem could process a maximum input power of 2.5 kW, and this spacecraft would process 28 kW, an increase of more than a factor of ten. With direct-drive the specific impulse would be limited to about 2,000 s assuming a nominal solar array output voltage of 300 V. The resulting spacecraft would have a beginning of life acceleration that is more than an order of magnitude greater than the Dawn spacecraft. Since the spacecraft would be built into an ESPA ring it could be launched as a secondary payload to a geosynchronous transfer orbit significantly reducing the launch costs for a planetary spacecraft. The SEP system would perform the escape

  18. Enabling Wireless Avionics Intra-Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Omar; Nguyen, Truong; Mackenzie, Anne

    2016-01-01

    to model the propagation of a system in a "deployed" configuration versus a "stowed" configuration. The differences in relative field strength provide valuable information about the distribution of the field that can be used to engineer RF links with optimal radiated power and antenna configuration that accomplish the intended system reliability. Such modeling will be necessary in subsequent studies for managing multipath propagation characteristics inside a main cabin and to understand more complex environments, such as the inside wings, landing gear bays, cargo bays, avionics bays, etc. The results of the short research effort are described in the present document. The team puts forth a set of recommendations with the intention of informing the project and program leadership of the future work that, in the opinion of the EWAIC team, would assist the ECON team reach the intended goal of developing an all-wireless aircraft.

  19. Inflatable Re-Entry Vehicle Experiment (IRVE) Design Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Stephen J.; Dillman, Robert A.; Starr, Brett R.; Stephan, Ryan A.; Lindell, Michael C.; Player, Charles J.; Cheatwood, F. McNeil

    2005-01-01

    Inflatable aeroshells offer several advantages over traditional rigid aeroshells for atmospheric entry. Inflatables offer increased payload volume fraction of the launch vehicle shroud and the possibility to deliver more payload mass to the surface for equivalent trajectory constraints. An inflatable s diameter is not constrained by the launch vehicle shroud. The resultant larger drag area can provide deceleration equivalent to a rigid system at higher atmospheric altitudes, thus offering access to higher landing sites. When stowed for launch and cruise, inflatable aeroshells allow access to the payload after the vehicle is integrated for launch and offer direct access to vehicle structure for structural attachment with the launch vehicle. They also offer an opportunity to eliminate system duplication between the cruise stage and entry vehicle. There are however several potential technical challenges for inflatable aeroshells. First and foremost is the fact that they are flexible structures. That flexibility could lead to unpredictable drag performance or an aerostructural dynamic instability. In addition, durability of large inflatable structures may limit their application. They are susceptible to puncture, a potentially catastrophic insult, from many possible sources. Finally, aerothermal heating during planetary entry poses a significant challenge to a thin membrane. NASA Langley Research Center and NASA's Wallops Flight Facility are jointly developing inflatable aeroshell technology for use on future NASA missions. The technology will be demonstrated in the Inflatable Re-entry Vehicle Experiment (IRVE). This paper will detail the development of the initial IRVE inflatable system to be launched on a Terrier/Orion sounding rocket in the fourth quarter of CY2005. The experiment will demonstrate achievable packaging efficiency of the inflatable aeroshell for launch, inflation, leak performance of the inflatable system throughout the flight regime, structural

  20. Experimental validation of a true-scale morphing flap for large civil aircraft applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecora, R.; Amoroso, F.; Arena, M.; Noviello, M. C.; Rea, F.

    2017-04-01

    Within the framework of the JTI-Clean Sky (CS) project, and during the first phase of the Low Noise Configuration Domain of the Green Regional Aircraft - Integrated Technological Demonstration (GRA-ITD, the preliminary design and technological demonstration of a novel wing flap architecture were addressed. Research activities were carried out to substantiate the feasibility of morphing concepts enabling flap camber variation in compliance with the demanding safety requirements applicable to the next generation green regional aircraft, 130- seats with open rotor configuration. The driving motivation for the investigation on such a technology was found in the opportunity to replace a conventional double slotted flap with a single slotted camber-morphing flap assuring similar high lift performances -in terms of maximum attainable lift coefficient and stall angle- while lowering emitted noise and system complexity. Studies and tests were limited to a portion of the flap element obtained by slicing the actual flap geometry with two cutting planes distant 0.8 meters along the wing span. Further activities were then addressed in order to increase the TRL of the validated architecture within the second phase of the CS-GRA. Relying upon the already assessed concept, an innovative and more advanced flap device was designed in order to enable two different morphing modes on the basis of the A/C flight condition / flap setting: Mode1, Overall camber morphing to enhance high-lift performances during take-off and landing (flap deployed); Mode2, Tab-like morphing mode. Upwards and downwards deflection of the flap tip during cruise (flap stowed) for load control at high speed. A true-scale segment of the outer wing flap (4 meters span with a mean chord of 0.9 meters) was selected as investigation domain for the new architecture in order to duly face the challenges posed by real wing installation. Advanced and innovative solutions for the adaptive structure, actuation and control

  1. Mechanical Design of High Lift Systems for High Aspect Ratio Swept Wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Peter K. C.

    1998-01-01

    The NASA Ames Research Center is working to develop a methodology for the optimization and design of the high lift system for future subsonic airliners with the involvement of two partners. Aerodynamic analysis methods for two dimensional and three dimensional wing performance with flaps and slats deployed are being developed through a grant with the aeronautical department of the University of California Davis, and a flap and slat mechanism design procedure is being developed through a contract with PKCR, Inc., of Seattle, WA. This report documents the work that has been completed in the contract with PKCR on mechanism design. Flap mechanism designs have been completed for seven (7) different mechanisms with a total of twelve (12) different layouts all for a common single slotted flap configuration. The seven mechanisms are as follows: Simple Hinge, Upside Down/Upright Four Bar Linkage (two layouts), Upside Down Four Bar Linkages (three versions), Airbus A330/340 Link/Track Mechanism, Airbus A320 Link/Track Mechanism (two layouts), Boeing Link/Track Mechanism (two layouts), and Boeing 767 Hinged Beam Four Bar Linkage. In addition, a single layout has been made to investigate the growth potential from a single slotted flap to a vane/main double slotted flap using the Boeing Link/Track Mechanism. All layouts show Fowler motion and gap progression of the flap from stowed to a fully deployed position, and evaluations based on spanwise continuity, fairing size and number, complexity, reliability and maintainability and weight as well as Fowler motion and gap progression are presented. For slat design, the options have been limited to mechanisms for a shallow leading edge slat. Three (3) different layouts are presented for maximum slat angles of 20 deg, 15 deg and 1O deg all mechanized with a rack and pinion drive similar to that on the Boeing 757 airplane. Based on the work of Ljungstroem in Sweden, this type of slat design appears to shift the lift curve so that

  2. Solarbus Solar Array Innovative Light Weight Mechanical Architecture with Thin Lateral Panels Deployed with Shape Memory Alloy Regulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Abrigeon, Laurent; Carpine, Anne; Laduree, Gregory

    2005-05-01

    The standard ALCATEL SOLAR ARRAY PLANAR CONCEPT on the TELECOM market today on flight is named SOLARBUS.This concept is:• 3 to 10 identical panels covered with Si Hi-η celltechnology.• A central mast constitute by 3 to 4 panels and 1yoke linked together by hinges and synchronizedby cables.• From 2 to 6 lateral panelsThis concept is able to fit with the customer requirements in order to have a competitive "global offer at system level" (mass to power ratio 48-50 W/Kg)But, for the near future, in line with the market trend, and based on the previous experience, an improvement of the SOLARBUS Solar Array concept in term of W/kg/€ is essential in order to maintain the competitiveness of the global ALCATEL offer at system level.In order to increase the W/Kg performance Alcatel has developed a new architecture named Lightweight Panel Structure (LPS). The objectives of this new structure are :• To decrease the kg/m2 ratio • To be compatible of all promising cells technology including Si Hi-n, GaAs, GaAs+ small reflectors. This new architecture is based on the fact that during the 3 major life phases of a Solar Array (Launch/Deployment/Deployed orbital life), the structural needs are more important for the central panels than for the lateral panels.So two different panels have been designed :• Central panels (named LPS1)• Lateral panels (named LPS2)The stowing configuration as been adapted : 2 thin lateral panels LPS2 between 2 structural central panels LPS1, and local bumpers to transfer the loads from LPS2 to LPS1.Also one of the more stringent loads applied to the panels are corresponding to deployment loads. In order to limit the mass of reinforcement of the panels, a deployment speed regulator shall be used. In the frame of the new generation of solar arrays, Alcatel has developed a new actuator based on shape memory alloy torsional rod. This light weight component is directly connected to heaters lines and is able to provide great actuation torque

  3. Tile-based rigidization surface parametric design study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giner Munoz, Laura; Luntz, Jonathan; Brei, Diann; Kim, Wonhee

    2018-03-01

    Inflatable technologies have proven useful in consumer goods as well as in more recent applications including civil structures, aerospace, medical, and robotics. However, inflatable technologies are typically lacking in their ability to provide rigid structural support. Particle jamming improves upon this by providing structures which are normally flexible and moldable but become rigid when air is removed. Because these are based on an airtight bladder filled with loose particles, they always occupy the full volume of its rigid state, even when not rigidized. More recent developments in layer jamming have created thin, compact rigidizing surfaces replacing the loose volume of particles with thinly layered surface materials. Work in this area has been applied to several specific applications with positive results but have not generally provided the broader understanding of the rigidization performance as a function of design parameters required for directly adapting layer rigidization technology to other applications. This paper presents a parametric design study of a new layer jamming vacuum rigidization architecture: tile-based vacuum rigidization. This form of rigidization is based on layers of tiles contained within a thin vacuum bladder which can be bent, rolled, or otherwise compactly stowed, but when deployed flat, can be vacuumed and form a large, flat, rigid plate capable of supporting large forces both localized and distributed over the surface. The general architecture and operation detailing rigidization and compliance mechanisms is introduced. To quantitatively characterize the rigidization behavior, prototypes rigidization surfaces are fabricated and an experimental technique is developed based on a 3-point bending test. Performance evaluation metrics are developed to describe the stiffness, load-bearing capacity, and internal slippage of tested prototypes. A set of experimental parametric studies are performed to better understand the impact of

  4. Lower Cretaceous smarl turbidites of the Argo Abyssal Plain, Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumoulin, Julie A.; Stewart, Sondra K.; Kennett, Diana; Mazzullo, Elsa K.

    1992-01-01

    Sediments recovered during Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 123 from the Argo Abyssal Plain (AAP) consist largely of turbidites derived from the adjacent Australian continental margin. The oldest abundant turbidites are Valanginian-Aptian in age and have a mixed (smarl) composition; they contain subequal amounts of calcareous and siliceous biogenic components, as well as clay and lesser quartz. Most are thin-bedded, fine sand to mud-sized, and best described by Stow and Piper's model (1984) for fine-grained biogenic turbidites. Thicker (to 3 m), coarser-grained (medium-to-coarse sand-sized) turbidites fit Bouma's model (1962) for sandy turbidites; these generally are base-cut-out (BCDE, BDE) sequences, with B-division parallel lamination as the dominant structure. Parallel laminae most commonly concentrate quartz and/or calcispheres vs. lithic clasts or clay, but distinctive millimeter to centimeter-thick, radiolarian-rich laminae occur in both fine and coarse-grained Valanginian-Hauterivian turbidites.AAP turbidites were derived from relatively deep parts of the continental margin (outer shelf, slope, or rise) that lay below the photic zone, but above the calcite compensation depth (CCD). Biogenic components are largely pelagic (calcispheres, foraminifers, radiolarians, nannofossils); lesser benthic foraminifers are characteristic of deep-water (abyssal to bathyal) environments. Abundant nonbiogenic components are mostly clay and clay clasts; smectite is the dominant clay species, and indicates a volcanogenic provenance, most likely the Triassic-Jurassic volcanic suite exposed along the northern Exmouth Plateau.Lower Cretaceous smarl turbidites were generated during eustatic lowstands and may have reached the abyssal plain via Swan Canyon, a submarine canyon thought to have formed during the Late Jurassic. In contrast to younger AAP turbidites, however, Lower Cretaceous turbidites are relatively fine-grained and do not contain notably older reworked fossils. Early

  5. Carbon sequestration via wood burial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng Ning

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To mitigate global climate change, a portfolio of strategies will be needed to keep the atmospheric CO2 concentration below a dangerous level. Here a carbon sequestration strategy is proposed in which certain dead or live trees are harvested via collection or selective cutting, then buried in trenches or stowed away in above-ground shelters. The largely anaerobic condition under a sufficiently thick layer of soil will prevent the decomposition of the buried wood. Because a large flux of CO2 is constantly being assimilated into the world's forests via photosynthesis, cutting off its return pathway to the atmosphere forms an effective carbon sink. It is estimated that a sustainable long-term carbon sequestration potential for wood burial is 10 ± 5 GtC y-1, and currently about 65 GtC is on the world's forest floors in the form of coarse woody debris suitable for burial. The potential is largest in tropical forests (4.2 GtC y-1, followed by temperate (3.7 GtC y-1 and boreal forests (2.1 GtC y-1. Burying wood has other benefits including minimizing CO2 source from deforestation, extending the lifetime of reforestation carbon sink, and reducing fire danger. There are possible environmental impacts such as nutrient lock-up which nevertheless appears manageable, but other concerns and factors will likely set a limit so that only part of the full potential can be realized. Based on data from North American logging industry, the cost for wood burial is estimated to be $14/tCO2($50/tC, lower than the typical cost for power plant CO2 capture with geological storage. The cost for carbon sequestration with wood burial is low because CO2 is removed from the atmosphere by the natural process of photosynthesis at little cost. The technique is low tech, distributed, easy to monitor, safe, and reversible, thus an attractive option for large-scale implementation in a world-wide carbon market.

  6. First-Generation Jet Propulsion Laboratory "Hockey-Puck" Free-Flying Magnetometers for Distributed In-Situ Multiprobe Measurement of Current Density Filamentation in the Northern Auroral Zone: Enstrophy Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadi, H.; Blaes, B.; Boehm, M.; Boykins, K.; Gibbs, J.; Goodman, W.; Lieneweg, U.; Lux, J.; Lynch, K.; Narvaez, P.

    2000-01-01

    The sub-orbital rocket mission was a collaborative project between the University of New Hampshire, Cornell University, and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to study filamentation phenomena in the northern Auroral zone. The Enstrophy mission test flies the JPL Free-Flying Magnetometer (FFM) concept. The FFM technology development task has been funded by NASA develop miniaturized, low-power, integrated "sensorcrafts". JPL's role was to design, integrate, test, and deliver four FFMs for deployment from the sounding rocket, allowing a unique determination of curl-B. This provides a direct measurement of magnetic-field-aligned current density along the rocket trajectory. A miniaturized three-axis fluxgate magnetometer was integrated with a 4-channel 22-bit sigma-delta Analog to Digital Converter (ADC), four temperature sensors, digital control electronics, seven (Li-SOCl2) batteries, two (4 deg x 170 deg field of view) sun-sensors, a fan-shaped-beam laser diode beacon, a (16 MHz) stable Temperature Compensated Crystal Oscillator (TCXO) clock, Radio Frequency (RF) communication subsystem, and an antenna for approximately 15 minutes of operation where data was collected continuously and transmitted in three (3) bursts (approximately 26 seconds each) to ground station antennas at Poker Flat, Alaska. FFMs were stowed within two trays onboard the rocket during the rocket launch and were released simultaneously using the spinning action of the rocket at approximately 300 km altitude (approximately 100 sec. into the flight). FFMs were deployed with spin rate of approximately 17 Hz and approximately 3 m/sec linear velocity with respect to the rocket. For testing purposes while the rocket was in the launch pad and during flight prior to release of FFMs from the rocket, commands (such as "power on", "test", "flight", "power off', and clock "Reset" signal) were transmitted via a infrared Light Emitting Diode to an infrared detector in the FFM. Special attention was paid to low

  7. Design and end-to-end modelling of a deployable telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolkens, Dennis; Kuiper, Hans

    2017-09-01

    Deployable optics have the potential of revolutionizing the field of high resolution Earth Observation. By offering the same resolutions as a conventional telescope, while using a much smaller launch volume and mass, the costs of high resolution image data can be brought down drastically. In addition, the technology will ultimately enable resolutions that are currently unattainable due to limitations imposed by the size of launcher fairings. To explore the possibilities and system complexities of a deployable telescope, a concept study was done to design a competitive deployable imager. A deployable telescope was designed for a ground sampling distance of 25 cm from an orbital altitude of 550 km. It offers an angular field of view of 0.6° and has a panchromatic channel as well as four multispectral bands in the visible and near infrared spectrum. The optical design of the telescope is based on an off-axis Korsch Three Mirror Anastigmat. A freeform tertiary mirror is used to ensure a diffraction limited image quality for all channels, while maintaining a compact design. The segmented primary mirror consists of four tapered aperture segments, which can be folded down during launch, while the secondary mirror is mounted on a deployable boom. In its stowed configuration, the telescope fits within a quarter of the volume of a conventional telescope reaching the same resolution. To reach a diffraction limited performance while operating in orbit, the relative position of each individual mirror segment must be controlled to a fraction of a wavelength. Reaching such tolerances with deployable telescope challenging, due to inherent uncertainties in the deployment mechanisms. Adding to the complexity is the fact that the telescope will be operating in a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) where it will be exposed to very dynamic thermal conditions. Therefore, the telescope will be equipped with a robust calibration system. Actuators underneath the primary mirror will be controlled using

  8. Shuttle and ISS Food Systems Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloeris, Vickie

    2000-01-01

    Russia and the U.S. provide the current International Space Station (ISS) food system. Each country contributes half of the food supply in their respective flight food packaging. All of the packaged flight food is stowed in Russian provided containers, which interface with the Service Module galley. Each country accepts the other's flight worthiness inspections and qualifications. Some of the food for the first ISS crew was launched to ISS inside the Service Module in July of 2000, and STS-106 in September 2000 delivered more food to the ISS. All subsequent food deliveries will be made by Progress, the Russian re-supply vehicle. The U.S. will ship their portion of food to Moscow for loading onto the Progress. Delivery schedules vary, but the goal is to maintain at least a 45-day supply onboard ISS at all times. The shelf life for ISS food must be at least one year, in order to accommodate the long delivery cycle and onboard storage. Preservation techniques utilized in the US food system include dehydration, thermo stabilization, intermediate moisture, and irradiation. Additional fresh fruits and vegetables will be sent with each Progress and Shuttle flights as permitted by volume allotments. There is limited refrigeration available on the Service Module to store fresh fruits and vegetables. Astronauts and cosmonauts eat half U.S. and half Russian food. Menu planning begins 1 year before a planned launch. The flight crews taste food in the U.S. and in Russia and rate the acceptability. A preliminary menu is planned, based on these ratings and the nutritional requirements. The preliminary menu is then evaluated by the crews while training in Russia. Inputs from this evaluation are used to finalize the menu and flight packaging is initiated. Flight food is delivered 6 weeks before launch. The current challenge for the food system is meeting the nutritional requirements, especially no more than 10 mg iron, and 3500 mg sodium. Experience from Shuttle[Mir also indicated

  9. Bedrock Geology and Asbestos Deposits of the Upper Missisquoi Valley and Vicinity, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cady, Wallace Martin; Albee, Arden Leroy; Chidester, A.H.

    1963-01-01

    The upper Missisquoi Valley and vicinity as described in this report covers an area of about 250 square miles at the headwaters of the Missisquoi River in north-central Vermont. About 90 percent of the area is forested and the remainder is chiefly farm land. The topography reflects the geologic structure and varied resistance of the bedrock to erosion. Most of the area is on the east limb of the Green Mountain anticlinorium, which is the principal structural feature of Vermont. The bedrock is predominantly sedimentary and volcanic rock that has been regionally metamorphosed. It was intruded before metamorphism by mafic and ultramafic igneous rocks, and after metamorphism by felsic and mafic igneous rocks. The metamorphosed sedimentary and volcanic rocks range in age from Cambrian(?) to Middle Silurian, the intrusive igneous rocks from probably Late Ordovician to probably late Permian. Metamorphism and principal folding in the region occurred in Middle Devonian time. The metamorphosed sedimentary and volcanic rocks make up a section at least 25,000 feet thick and can be divided into nine formations. The Hazens Notch formation of Cambrian(?) and Early Cambrian age is characterized by carbonaceous schist. It is succeeded in western parts of the area by the Jay Peak formation of Early Cambrian age, which is chiefly a schist that is distinguished by the general absence of carbonaceous zones; in central parts of the area the Hazens Notch formation is followed by the Belvidere Mountain amphibolite, probably the youngest of the formations of Early Cambrian age. The Ottauquechee formation, composed of carbonaceous phyllite and quartzite, and phyllitic graywacke, is of Middle Cambrian age. The Stowe formation of Late Cambrian(?) and Early(?) Ordovician age overlies the Ottauquechee and is predominantly noncarbonaceous schist, though it also contains greenstone and carbonaceous schist and phyllite. The Umbrella Hill formation of Middle Ordovician age is characteristically a

  10. Estimated water withdrawals and return flows in Vermont in 2005 and 2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medalie, Laura; Horn, Marilee A.

    2010-01-01

    In 2005, about 12 percent of total water withdrawals (440 million gallons per day (Mgal/d)) in Vermont were from groundwater sources (51 Mgal/d), and about 88 percent were from surface-water sources (389 Mgal/d). Of total water withdrawals, about 78 percent were used for cooling at a power plant, 9 percent were withdrawn by public suppliers, about 5 percent were withdrawn for domestic use, about 3 percent were withdrawn for use at fish hatcheries, and the remaining 5 percent were divided among commercial/industrial, irrigation, livestock, and snowmaking uses. About 49 percent of the population of Vermont was supplied with drinking water by a public supplier, and 51 percent was self supplied. Some of the Minor Civil Divisions (MCDs) that had large self-supplied populations were located near the major cities of St. Albans, Burlington, Montpelier, Barre, and Rutland, where the cities themselves were served largely by public supply, but the surrounding areas were not. Most MCDs where withdrawals by community water systems totaled more than 1 Mgal/d used predominantly surface water, and those where withdrawals by community water systems totaled 1 Mgal/d or less used predominantly groundwater. Withdrawals of groundwater greater than 1 Mgal/d were made in Middlebury, Bethel, Hartford, Springfield, and Bennington, and withdrawals of surface water greater than 2 Mgal/d were made in Grand Isle, Burlington, South Burlington, Mendon, Brattleboro, and Vernon. Increases in groundwater withdrawals greater than 0.1 Mgal/d are projected for 2020 for Fairfax, Hardwick, Middlebury, Sharon, Proctor, Springfield, and Manchester. The largest projected increases in surface-water withdrawals from 2005 to 2020 are located along the center axis of the Green Mountains in the ski-area towns of Stowe, Warren, Mendon, Killington, and Wilmington. In 2005, withdrawals were at least 1 Mgal/d greater than return flows in South Burlington, Waterford, Orange, Mendon, Woodford, and Vernon. Many of

  11. Editorial on Future Jet Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal-Or, Benjamin

    2014-12-01

    competions and Awards. [Rule-13]. We also provide 26 references [17-43] to a different, unclassified technology that enhances TV-induced flight safety for passenger jets, turboprops and helicopters. It is based on patented stowed-away/emergency-deployed TV-kits added to fixed-configuration, subsonic exhaust nozzles of low thrust-to-weight ratio vehicles. Expected benefits include anti-terror recoveries from emergencies, like forced landing on unprepared runways or highways, or recoveries from all airframe-hydraulics-outs, asymmetric ice on wings, landing gear catastrophes, and recoveries from pilot errors and bad-whether incidents [Rule 9(7)]. Other TV technologies involve preventing catastrophes in speed and patrol boats, racing and regular cars/SUVs, buses and trucks. [Rule 9(8)] and faster helicopters [Rule 9(10)].

  12. Hubble gets new ESA-supplied solar arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Derek Eaton, ESA project manager, was overjoyed with the success of the day's spacewalk. "To build two such massive arrays some years apart to such tight tolerances and have one replace the other with so few problems is a tribute to the design and manufacturing skills of ESA and British Aerospace, the prime contractor for the arrays", he said. "The skill of Kathy and Tom contributed greatly to this success". The astronauts began their spacewalk at 09h30 p.m. CST (04h30 a.m. CET, Monday). Their first task was to jettison the troublesome solar array that failed to retract yesterday. Perched on the end of the shuttle's robot arm, 7.5 metres above the cargo bay, Thornton carefully released the array. ESA astronaut Claude Nicollier then pulled the arm away from the free-floating panel and mission commander Dick Covey fired the shuttle's thrusters to back away. Endeavour and the discarded array are moving apart at a rate of 18.5 kilometres each 90-minute orbit of the Earth. The array is expected to burn up in the Earth's atmosphere harmlessly within a year or so. The astronauts had no problems installing the new arrays and stowing the left-hand wing in the cargo bay for the return to Earth. The new arrays will remain rolled-up against the side of the telescope until the fifth spacewalk on Wednesday/Thursday. The telescope itself will be deployed on Saturday. The telescope's first set of arrays flexed in orbit because of the sudden swing in temperature as the craft moved in and out of sunlight. The movement, or "jitter", affected the telescope's pointing system and disrupted observations at times. The Space Telescope Operations Control Centre largely compensated for the problem with special software but this occupied a large amount of computer memory. The new arrays incorporate three major changes to eliminate the problem. The metal bi-stem booms, which support the solar blankets, is protected from extreme temperature changes by a concertina-style sleeve made up of one

  13. Review of the Design, Construction, and Coming Scientific Capabilities of the New Arecibo HF Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulzer, M. P.

    2010-12-01

    The design of the new Arecibo HF facility gives efficient illumination of the 305 meter dish without compromising the use of other feeds. When complete, it will provide 83 dbW at 8.175 MHz, and 80 dbW at 5.1 MHz. Illumination of the 305 meter dish uses dipoles near the surface of the dish transmitting upward to a sub-reflector that illuminates the main dish. There are three crossed dipoles for each of the two frequencies. Each dipole section is fed from one of six 100KW transmitters The sub-reflector will consist of a metal mesh with five foot openings, shaped approximately as a catenary rotated about a vertical axis, but actually hexagonal rather than circular at the top. It is held by cables from the three main towers. The dipoles will be supported on towers mounted on concrete pads underneath the dish. The dipole elements can be stowed along the tower sides between operational campaigns. The six towers, three for each frequency, pass through the surface of the dish, requiring the removal of two panels for each. Each dipole element is connected to a transmitter through a three inch coax line. The six transmitters are located in a steel building located several hundred feet from the 305 meter dish. The electrical substation that provides power to the transmitters and the heat exchangers which provide cooling are located outside this building. At this time, the six transmitters in the building are ready for the final wiring. The duct work for the air cooling is complete the the blowers are installed. The pipes for the water cooling are in place and connection to the pump located with the heat exchangers is underway. The trays for the coax lines have been installed from the transmitter building to underneath the dish. One line has been installed in order to verify that this can be done easily. The others will be installed when the civil work underneath the dish is complete. Four one MW generators are on site and being installed. These will provide a flexible and

  14. The Impact of Similarity-Based Interference in Processing Wh-Questions in Aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Mackenzie

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We describe two experiments investigating the comprehension of different types of Wh-questions in neurotypical adults (Experiment 1 and adults with Broca’s aphasia (Experiment 2. Consider as examples: Two mailmen and a fireman got into a fight yesterday afternoon. 1a. Who pushed the fireman yesterday afternoon? – Subject-extracted Who 1b. Who did the fireman push ___ yesterday afternoon? – Object-extracted Who 2a. Which mailman pushed the fireman yesterday afternoon? – Subject-extracted Which 2b. Which mailman did the fireman push ___ yesterday afternoon? – Object-extracted Which There is evidence from the linguistic and psycholinguistic literatures that suggest Which-questions are more difficult to understand than Who/What-questions and within those, that object-extracted are more difficult than subject-extracted. We used a unique eye tracking-while listening method where listeners were presented with sentences like (1 and (2 above while gazing at a three-figure picture (e.g., a picture of a mailman pushing a fireman who is pushing another mailman; we measured gazes to the referents in the pictures across the time-course of the sentences, and also collected accuracy and response time data to answer the questions (by button press. We examined four specific hypotheses: Discourse, Memory Retrieval, Word Order, and Intervener. The Discourse hypothesis suggests that Which-questions should be more difficult to process than Who-questions because the former is required to refer to an individual taken from a set of entities previously mentioned in the discourse (Donkers & Stowe, 2006; Shapiro, 2000. The Memory Retrieval hypothesis makes the opposite claim; Which-questions, unlike Who-questions, contain specific information in the Wh-phrase that should speed memory retrieval (Hofmeister, 2007. The Word Order hypothesis suggests that, regardless of question type (Which or Who, object-extracted questions should be more difficult to understand

  15. Browning boreal forests of western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbyla, David

    2011-12-01

    The GIMMS NDVI dataset has been widely used to document a 'browning trend' in North American boreal forests (Goetz et al 2005, Bunn et al 2007, Beck and Goetz 2011). However, there has been speculation (Alcaraz-Segura et al 2010) that this trend may be an artifact due to processing algorithms rather than an actual decline in vegetation activity. This conclusion was based primarily on the fact that GIMMS NDVI did not capture NDVI recovery within most burned areas in boreal Canada, while another dataset consistently showed post-fire increasing NDVI. I believe that the results of Alcaraz-Segura et al (2010) were due simply to different pixel sizes of the two datasets (64 km2 versus 1 km2 pixels). Similar results have been obtained from tundra areas greening in Alaska, with the results simply due to these pixel size differences (Stow et al 2007). Furthermore, recent studies have documented boreal browning trends based on NDVI from other sensors. Beck and Goetz (2011) have shown the boreal browning trend derived from a different sensor (MODIS) to be very similar to the boreal browning trend derived from the GIMMS NDVI dataset for the circumpolar boreal region. Parent and Verbyla (2010) found similar declining NDVI patterns based on NDVI from Landsat sensors and GIMMS NDVI in boreal Alaska. Zhang et al (2008) found a similar 'browning trend' in boreal North America based on a production efficiency model using an integrated AVHRR and MODIS dataset. The declining NDVI trend in areas of boreal North America is consistent with tree-ring studies (D'Arrigo et al 2004, McGuire et al 2010, Beck et al 2011). The decline in tree growth may be due to temperature-induced drought stress (Barber et al 2000) caused by higher evaporative demands in a warming climate (Lloyd and Fastie 2002). In a circumpolar boreal study, Lloyd and Bunn (2007) found that a negative relationship between temperature and tree-ring growth occurred more frequently in warmer parts of species' ranges

  16. Assessment of health-cost externalities of air pollution at the national level using the EVA model system. CEEH scientific report no. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, J.; Silver, J.D.; Christensen, Jesper H. (and others)

    2011-03-15

    are: agriculture (39%), road traffic (19%), domestic heating (wood stoves; 16%), other mobile sources (7%), and power plants (6%). 2) Taking into account the health-related external costs in Europe, the sectors are: agriculture (43%), road traffic (18%), major power plants (10%), domestic heating (wood stows; 9%) and other mobile sources (8%). 3) Emissions in Denmark cause health-related external costs in Europe of 4.9 billion (bn) Euros/year. Out of this, the effects in Denmark from Danish sources correspond to 0.8 bn Euros/year. 4) The total external cost in Denmark from all air pollution sources in Europe is 4.5 bn Euros/year for the year 2000, corresponding to approx2% of the Danish GDP. This figure is decreasing to 3.8 bn Euros/year for the year 2007 and projected to 2.5 bn Euros/year for the year 2020 based on the NEC-II emission scenario. 5) The number of premature deaths in Denmark due to air pollution is approx4000 for the year 2000, decreasing to approx3400 in the year 2007 and approx2200 in the year 2020. The major results and conclusions concerning effects from international ship traffic are: 1) Emissions from international ship traffic are responsible for external costs related to impacts on human health of 58 bn Euros/year corresponding to 7% of the total health costs in Europe in 2000 increasing to 64 Euros/year in the year 2020 corresponding to 12% of the total health costs. 2) The number of premature deaths in Europe due to international ship traffic is approx49500 and approx53200 for the year 2000 and 2020, respectively. 3) The contribution to health-related external costs from international ship traffic to Denmark is 18% of the total external cost in Denmark in the year 2000 and 19% in the year 2020, even though the total external cost from international ship traffic is decreasing from approx800 million (mio) Euros/year to approx480 mio Euros/year. 4) The contribution to the external cost of health effects in Denmark from international ship traffic

  17. Sample Curation in Support of the OSIRIS-REx Asteroid Sample Return Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righter, Kevin; Nakamura-Messenger, Keiko

    2017-01-01

    The OSIRIS-REx asteroid sample return mission launched to asteroid Bennu Sept. 8, 2016. The spacecraft will arrive at Bennu in late 2019, orbit and map the asteroid, and perform a touch and go (TAG) sampling maneuver in July 2020. After sample is stowed and confirmed the spacecraft will return to Earth, and the sample return capsule (SRC) will land in Utah in September 2023. Samples will be recovered from Utah [2] and then transported and stored in a new sample cleanroom at NASA Johnson Space Center in Houston [3]. The materials curated for the mission are described here. a) Materials Archive and Witness Plate Collection: The SRC and TAGSAM were built between March 2014 and Summer of 2015, and instruments (OTES,OVIRS, OLA, OCAMS, REXIS) were integrated from Summer 2015 until May 2016. A total of 395 items were received for the materials archive at NASA-JSC, with archiving finishing 30 days after launch (with the final archived items being related to launch operations)[4]. The materials fall into several general categories including metals (stainless steel, aluminum, titanium alloys, brass and BeCu alloy), epoxies, paints, polymers, lubricants, non-volatile-residue samples (NVR), sapphire, and various miscellaneous materials. All through the ATLO process (from March 2015 until late August 2016) contamination knowledge witness plates (Si wafer and Al foil) were deployed in the various cleanrooms in Denver and KSC to provide an additional record of particle counts and volatiles that is archived for current and future scientific studies. These plates were deployed in roughly monthly increments with each unit containing 4 Si wafers and 4 Al foils. We archived 128 individual witness plates (64 Si wafers and 64 Al foils); one of each witness plate (Si and Al) was analyzed immediately by the science team after archiving, while the remaining 3 of each are archived indefinitely. Information about each material archived is stored in an extensive database at NASA-JSC, and key

  18. New views on changing Arctic vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Robert E.

    2012-03-01

    trend data could be extracted. While other studies have used TM data to map change across two to three points in time to evaluate change in boreal or arctic vegetation under climate change (Masek 2001, Ranson et al 2004), the time-series analysis of Fraser et al (2011) allows the detection of subtle trends not typically discernible with two-date comparisons. Second, the findings of Fraser et al confirm that vegetation in the Arctic appears to be responding to warming, particularly winter warming. Their maps represent a basic empirical dataset whose spatial patterns should be replicated by model-based approaches. Third, the comparatively fine resolution of this study relative to previous satellite studies allows Fraser et al to more precisely locate where greening occurs. They note increases in shrub cover, confirming findings from studies that used other approaches to reach similar conclusions (Stow et al 2004, Tape et al 2006). They also find evidence that both shrub and herbaceous growth occurs more in landscape positions already favorable to productive vegetation, such as lower hillslopes and valleys, and less so on uplands. Such findings will certainly factor into discussions of the mechanism by which warming could facilitate vegetative growth in Arctic communities (Forbes et al 2010, Sturm et al 2005). The work of Fraser et al (2011) also adds to a growing body of work leveraging free Landsat data from the US Geological Survey's (USGS) archive. As the longest-running continuous satellite image dataset for land processes, Landsat data provide unparalleled witness to the enormous changes occurring on Earth since 1972 (Wulder et al 2008). By opening the US holdings of the Landsat archive to all humans on the planet (Woodcock et al 2008), the USGS in 2008 catalyzed a blossoming of approaches to capture and characterize that change (Goodwin et al 2010, Hais et al 2009, Hansen et al 2010, Huang et al 2010, Kennedy et al 2010, Potapov et al 2011, Vogelmann et al 2009

  19. MIRAS characterization and monitoring during the SMOS In-Orbit Commissioning Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbella, I.; Torres, F.; Martin-Neira, M.; Duffo, N.; González-Gambau, V.; Camps, A.; Vall-Llossera, M.

    2009-04-01

    1 Introduction The Microwave Imaging Radiometer with Aperture Synthesis (MIRAS) is the single payload of the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission. The instrument was completed in early 2007 and thoroughly tested both in anechoic chamber and vacuum thermal chamber during 2007. It was integrated to the platform in early 2008 and re-tested, including compatibility, during 2008. At present, the whole satellite is stowed and waiting to be launched during 2009. In two weeks after launch, the satellite will be in the final orbit with all deployments completed. Then the In-Orbit Commissioning Phase will start, having an estimated duration of 5.5 months. During this phase, the instrument modes of operation will be systematically checked and the calibration parameters will be fully characterized in real conditions. Also, the first brightness temperature images will be obtained in order to assess the overall retrieval procedures including inversion. In the end, the objective of the In-Orbit Commissioning Phase is to provide verification that the payload meets the scientific requirements of the mission. The general design and planning of the In-Orbit Commissioning Phase is given in [1]. This abstract presents the foreseen activities to be performed during this phase by the UPC team. Just after the start of the In-Orbit Commissioning Phase, the instrument will be commanded to perform a sequence of operations oriented at providing a full characterization in terms of calibration parameters. The idea is to reproduce the results obtained during the tests carried out on ground [2]. In particular, the following issues will be covered: Thermal Stability: To provide understanding of both the intra-orbit and inter-orbit temperature variations. The instrument will be continuously operating during a number of orbits while all temperature sensors being monitored. Electrical Stability: To re-compute all internal calibration parameters (gains, offsets, receiver noise temperatures

  20. Paresev in flight with pilot Milt Thompson

    Science.gov (United States)

    1964-01-01

    This movie clip runs 37 seconds in length and begins with a shot from the chase plane of NASA Dryden test pilot Milt Thompson at the controls of the Paresev, then the onboard view from the pilot's seat and finally bringing the Paresev in for a landing on the dry lakebed at Edwards AFB. The Paresev (Paraglider Rescue Vehicle) was an indirect outgrowth of kite-parachute studies by NACA Langley engineer Francis M. Rogallo. In early 1960's the 'Rogallo wing' seemed an excellent means of returning a spacecraft to Earth. The delta wing design was patented by Mr. Rogallo. In May 1961, Robert R. Gilruth, director of the NASA Space Task Group, requested studies of an inflatable Rogallo-type 'Parawing' for spacecraft. Several companies responded; North American Aviation, Downey, California, produced the most acceptable concept and development was contracted to that company. In November 1961 NASA Headquarters launched a paraglider development program, with Langley doing wind tunnel studies and the NASA Flight Research Center supporting the North American test program. The North American concept was a capsule-type vehicle with a stowed 'parawing' that could be deployed and controlled from within for a landing more like an airplane instead of a 'splash down' in the ocean. The logistics became enormous and the price exorbitant, plus NASA pilots and engineers felt some baseline experience like building a vehicle and flying a Parawing should be accomplished first. The Paresev (Paraglider Research Vehicle) was used to gain in-flight experience with four different membranes (wings), and was not used to develop the more complicated inflatable deployment system. The Paresev was designed by Charles Richard, of the Flight Research Center Vehicle and System Dynamics Branch, with the rest of the team being: engineers, Richard Klein, Gary Layton, John Orahood, and Joe Wilson; from the Maintenance and Manufacturing Branch: Frank Fedor, LeRoy Barto; Victor Horton as Project Manager, with

  1. Obituary: David Q. Wark, 1918-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillin, Larry Max

    2003-12-01

    his work at the Office of Research and Applications in NOAA/NESDIS on developing advanced techniques for sounding the atmosphere from satellites. Dr. Wark's work in remote sensing of the Earth's atmosphere and surface from weather satellites benefited from his skill both as a meteorologist and an astronomer. Most of his work was directed toward the goal of deducing vertical temperature and moisture profiles in the Earth's atmosphere, but he also proposed a method for obtaining cloud top altitudes using the oxygen A band. In the early days of this effort at NOAA/NESDIS and its predecessor agencies, Dr. Wark and others (most notably Dr. S. Fritz), assembled a remarkable group of internationally known scientists at NOAA to work on this pioneering effort and made Suitland, Maryland an exciting place to work. Included in this group of visiting scientists were G. Yamamoto, D. G. James, S. Twomey, and F. Saiedy. In addition to his own insights, Dr. Wark proved to have a remarkable facility for subdividing the complex temperature profiling problem into smaller component problems that the visiting and U.S. scientists could attack without interfering with each other. Despite his well-deserved reputation for having a formidable personality, he guided the development of the satellite temperature profiling field with tact, diplomacy, and scientific acumen. During this time, Dr. Wark also brought to NESDIS, and guided, a number of younger scientists who went on to establish reputations of their own in the fields of satellite remote sensing and satellite meteorology. These included J. Alishouse, L. Crone, D. Crosby, H. Fleming, H. Jacobowitz, L. McMillin, W. L. Smith, L. Stowe, and M. Weinreb. A Fellow of the American Meteorological Society, Dr. Wark received numerous awards from various scientific organizations, including a Silver Medal and a Gold Medal from the U.S. Department of Commerce, the Medal for Exceptional Scientific Achievement from NASA, the 2nd Half-Century Award from

  2. M2-F1 lifting body and Paresev 1B on ramp

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-01-01

    -parachute studies by NACA Langley engineer Francis M. Rogallo. In the early 1960s the 'Rogallo wing' seemed an excellent means of returning a spacecraft to Earth. The delta wing design was patented by Mr. Rogallo. In May 1961, Robert R. Gilruth, director NASA's Space Task Group, requested studies of an inflatable Rogallo-type 'Parawing' for spacecraft. Several companies responded; North American Aviation produced the most acceptable concept and development was contracted to that company. In November 1961 NASA Headquarters launched a paraglider development program, with Langely doing wind-tunnel studies and the NASA Flight Research Center supporting the North American test program. The North American concept was a capsule type vehicle with a stowed 'parawing' that could be deployed and controlled from within for a landing more like an airplane instead of a 'splash down' in the ocean as was the practice in the Mercury and later the Gemini and Apollo programs. The logistics became enormous and the price exorbitant, besides which, NASA pilots and engineers felt some baseline experience like building a vehicle and flying a Parawing should be accomplished first. The Paresev (Paraglider Research Vehicle) was used to gain in-flight experience with four different membranes (wings) and was not used to develop the more complicated inflatable deployment system. The Paresev was designed by Charles Richard, of the Flight Research Center's Vehicle and System Dynamics Branch, with the rest of the team being: engineers Richard Klein, Gary Layton, John Orahood, and Joe Wilson; Frank Fedor and LeRoy Barto from the Maintenance and Manufacturing Branch; Project Manager Victor Horton, with Gary Layton becoming Project Manager later on in the Program. Mr. Paul Bikle, Director of the Center, gave instructions that were short and to the point: build a single-seat Paraglider and 'do it quick and cheap.' The Paresev was unpowered, the 'fuselage' an open framework fabricated of welded 4130 steel tubing

  3. Selective Photonic Disinfection; A ray of hope in the war against pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsen, Shaw-Wei D.; Tsen, Kong-Thon

    2016-06-01

    transcriptional analysis of the glycoprotein M gene of murine cytomegalovirus J. Gen. Virol. 76 2895 2901 2895-901 10.1099/0022-1317-76-11-2895 citation> 19 citation publication-type="book"> Uversky V N Fernandez A Fink A L 2006 Protein Reviews (vol 4) Uversky V N Fink A L New York Springer citation> 20 citation publication-type="journal"> Tsen S W Chapa T Beatty W Xu B Tsen K T Achilefu S 2014 Ultrashort pulsed laser treatment inactivates viruses by inhibiting viral replication and transcription in the host nucleus Antiviral Res. 110 70 76 70-6 10.1016/j.antiviral.2014.07.012 citation> 21 citation publication-type="other"> Shellan G R Redwood A J Smith L M Gorman S 2006 The Mouse in Biomedical Research (New York: Academic) citation> 22 citation publication-type="other"> Britt W J Alford C A 1996 Fields Virology (Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott-Raven) citation> 23 citation publication-type="journal"> Preston V G Murray J Preston C M McDougall I M Stow N D 2008 The UL25 gene product of herpes simplex virus type 1 is involved in uncoating of the viral genome J. Virol. 82 6654 6666 6654-66 10.1128/JVI.00257-08 citation> 24 citation publication-type="journal"> Lu C H Lin K H Hsu Y Y Tsen K T Kuan Y S 2014 Inhibition of Escherichia Coli respiratory enzymes by short visible femtosecond laser irradiation J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 47 315402 10.1088/0022-3727/47/31/315402 citation> 25 citation publication-type="journal"> Maclean M MacGregor S J Anderson J G Woolsey G 2008 High-intensity narrow-spectrum light inactivation and wavelength sensitivity of Staphylococcus aureus FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 285 227 232 227-32 10.1111/j.1574-6968.2008.01233.x citation> 1 citation publication-type="journal"> Bryant J Klein H G 2007 Pathogen inactivation: the definitive safeguard for the blood supply Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 131 719 33 719-33 citation> 2 citation publication-type="journal"> Salunkhe V van der Meer P F de Korte D Seghatchian J Gutierrez L 2015 Development of blood transfusion product pathogen