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Sample records for storm main phase

  1. Banded ion morphology - main and recovery storm phases

    Frahm, R.A.; Reiff, P.H.; Winningham, J.D.; Burch, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    The occurrence of bands in ion spectra obtained with the high-altitude and low-altitude plasma instruments on DE-1 and DE-2, respectively, during main and recovery storm phases from the period September 1981 - January 1982 is analyzed statistically. Typical spectra are shown; diagrams and graphs of storm morphology are provided; and two theoretical models (one based on time-of-flight effects and another based on convective dispersion) are discussed. It is found that bands occur more often in the main phase than in the recovery phase, and more often and at higher latitudes in the evening than before noon. From the stability of the bands and the dependence of energy on latitude it is inferred that convective dispersion plays a more important role than time-of-flight effects in the motion of heavy ions in the magnetosphere. 14 references

  2. Correlation between auroral activity and rate of development of a storm in its main phase

    Boroyev R.N.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the relationship between the rate of storm development in its main phase (|ΔDst|/ΔT and the average value (ΣAE/ΔT of AE index for the main phase where |ΔDst| is the Dst-index variation, ΣAE is the total value of AE index for the main phase of magnetic storm, ΔT is the main phase duration. We considered storms initiated by corotating interaction region (CIR and interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME (magnetic cloud and ejecta. For CIR events, the value of ΣAE/ΔT is shown to correlate with the rate of storm development in its main phase in contrast to the storms initiated by the ICME. As found, there is a weak correlation between ΣAE/ΔT and the minimum value of Dst index for CIR and ICME events.

  3. Substorm activity during the main phase of magnetic storms induced by the CIR and ICME events

    Boroyev, R. N.; Vasiliev, M. S.

    2018-01-01

    In this work, the relation of high-latitude indices of geomagnetic activity (AE, Kp) with the rate of storm development and a solar wind electric field during the main phase of magnetic storm induced by the CIR and ICME events is investigated. 72 magnetic storms induced by CIR and ICME events have been selected. It is shown that for the CIR and ICME events the increase of average value of the Kp index (Kpaver) is observed with the growth of rate of storm development. The value of Kpaver index correlates with the magnitude of minimum value of Dst index (|Dstmin|) only for the ICME events. The analysis of average values of AE and Kp indices during the main phase of magnetic storm depending on the SW electric field has shown that for the CIR events, unlike the ICME events, the value of AEaver increases with the growth of average value of the electric field (Eswaver). The value of Kpaver correlates with the Eswaver only for the ICME events. The relation between geomagnetic indices and the maximum value of SW electric field (Eswmax) is weak. However, for the ICME events Kpaver correlates with Eswmax.

  4. Influence of the interplanetary driver type on the durations of main and recovery phases of magnetic storms

    Yermolaev, Yu. I.; Lodkina, I. G.; Nikolaeva, N. S.; Yermolaev, M. Yu.

    2013-01-01

    We study durations of main and recovery phases of magnetic storms induced by different types of large-scale solar-wind streams (Sheath, magnetic cloud (MC), Ejecta and CIR) on the basis of OMNI data base during 1976-2000. Durations of both main and recovery phases depend on types of interplanetary drivers. On the average, duration of main phase of storms induced by compressed regions (CIR and Sheath) is shorter than by MC and Ejecta while duration of recovery phase of CIR- and Sheath-induced ...

  5. Geometry of duskside equatorial current during magnetic storm main phase as deduced from magnetospheric and low-altitude observations

    S. Dubyagin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of a coordinated study of the moderate magnetic storm on 22 July 2009. The THEMIS and GOES observations of magnetic field in the inner magnetosphere were complemented by energetic particle observations at low altitude by the six NOAA POES satellites. Observations in the vicinity of geosynchronous orbit revealed a relatively thin (half-thickness of less than 1 RE and intense current sheet in the dusk MLT sector during the main phase of the storm. The total westward current (integrated along the z-direction on the duskside at r ~ 6.6 RE was comparable to that in the midnight sector. Such a configuration cannot be adequately described by existing magnetic field models with predefined current systems (error in B > 60 nT. At the same time, low-altitude isotropic boundaries (IB of > 80 keV protons in the dusk sector were shifted ~ 4° equatorward relative to the IBs in the midnight sector. Both the equatorward IB shift and the current strength on the duskside correlate with the Sym-H* index. These findings imply a close relation between the current intensification and equatorward IB shift in the dusk sector. The analysis of IB dispersion revealed that high-energy IBs (E > 100 keV always exhibit normal dispersion (i.e., that for pitch angle scattering on curved field lines. Anomalous dispersion is sometimes observed in the low-energy channels (~ 30–100 keV. The maximum occurrence rate of anomalous dispersion was observed during the main phase of the storm in the dusk sector.

  6. Substorms during different storm phases

    N. Partamies

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available After the deep solar minimum at the end of the solar cycle 23, a small magnetic storm occurred on 20–26 January 2010. The Dst (disturbance storm time index reached the minimum of −38 nT on 20 January and the prolonged recovery that followed the main phase that lasted for about 6 days. In this study, we concentrate on three substorms that took place (1 just prior to the storm, (2 during the main phase of the storm, and (3 at the end of the recovery of the storm. We analyse the solar wind conditions from the solar wind monitoring spacecraft, the duration and intensity of the substorm events as well as the behaviour of the electrojet currents from the ground magnetometer measurements. We compare the precipitation characteristics of the three substorms. The results show that the F-region electron density enhancements and dominant green and red auroral emission of the substorm activity during the storm recovery resembles average isolated substorm precipitation. However, the energy dissipated, even at the very end of a prolonged storm recovery, is very large compared to the typical energy content of isolated substorms. In the case studied here, the dissipation of the excess energy is observed over a 3-h long period of several consecutive substorm intensifications. Our findings suggest that the substorm energy dissipation varies between the storm phases.

  7. Ionospheric behaviour during storm recovery phase

    Buresova, D.; Lastovicka, J.; Boska, J.; Sindelarova, T.; Chum, J.

    2012-04-01

    Intensive ionospheric research, numerous multi-instrumental observations and large-scale numerical simulations of ionospheric F region response to magnetic storm-induced disturbances during the last several decades were primarily focused on the storm main phase, in most cases covering only a few hours of the recovery phase following after storm culmination. Ionospheric behaviour during entire recovery phase still belongs to not sufficiently explored and hardly predictable features. In general, the recovery phase is characterized by an abatement of perturbations and a gradual return to the "ground state" of ionosphere. However, observations of stormy ionosphere show significant departures from the climatology also within this phase. This paper deals with the quantitative and qualitative analysis of the ionospheric behaviour during the entire recovery phase of strong-to-severe magnetic storms at middle latitudes for nowadays and future modelling and forecasting purposes.

  8. Coastal Storm Hazards from Virginia to Maine

    2015-11-01

    secondary terms • integration of joint probability of storm responses, including extratropical events. A diagram summarizing the JPM methodology is... Extratropical Cyclones. The GPD- based approach defined above was used to compute the final storm response statistics for XCs. ERDC/CHL TR-15-5 39...from the numerical modeling of all storms , tropical and extratropical . As discussed in Section 2.1.2, JPM methodology generally consists of the

  9. The effects of storms and storm-generated currents on sand beaches in Southern Maine, USA

    Hill, H.W.; Kelley, J.T.; Belknap, D.F.; Dickson, S.M.

    2004-01-01

    Storms are one of the most important controls on the cycle of erosion and accretion on beaches. Current meters placed in shoreface locations of Saco Bay and Wells Embayment, ME, recorded bottom currents during the winter months of 2000 and 2001, while teams of volunteers profiled the topography of nearby beaches. Coupling offshore meteorological and beach profile data made it possible to determine the response of nine beaches in southern Maine to various oceanographic and meteorological conditions. The beaches selected for profiling ranged from pristine to completely developed and permitted further examination of the role of seawalls on the response of beaches to storms. Current meters documented three unique types of storms: frontal passages, southwest storms, and northeast storms. In general, the current meter results indicate that frontal passages and southwest storms were responsible for bringing sediment towards the shore, while northeast storms resulted in a net movement of sediment away from the beach. During the 1999-2000 winter, there were a greater percentage of frontal passages and southwest storms, while during the 2000-2001 winter, there were more northeast storms. The sediment that was transported landward during the 1999-2000 winter was reworked into the berm along moderately and highly developed beaches during the next summer. A northeast storm on March 5-6, 2001, resulted in currents in excess of 1 m s-1 and wave heights that reached six meters. The storm persisted over 10 high tides and caused coastal flooding and property damage. Topographic profiles made before and after the storm demonstrate that developed beaches experienced a loss of sediment volume during the storm, while sediment was redistributed along the profile on moderately developed and undeveloped beaches. Two months after the storm, the profiles along the developed beaches had not reached their pre-storm elevation. In comparison, the moderately developed and undeveloped beaches

  10. Narrow-band emission with 0.5 to 3.5 Hz varying frequency in the background of the main phase of the 17 March 2013 magnetic storm

    Potapov A.S.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We present results of the analysis of an unusually long narrow-band emission in the Pc1 range with increasing carrier frequency. The event was observed against the background of the main phase of a strong magnetic storm caused by arrival of a high-speed solar wind stream with a shock wave in the stream head and a long interval of negative vertical component of the interplanetary magnetic field. Emission of approximately 9-hour duration had a local character, appearing only at three stations located in the range of geographical longitude λ=100–130 E and magnetic shells L=2.2–3.4. The signal carrier frequency grew in a stepped mode from 0.5 to 3.5 Hz. We propose an emission interpretation based on the standard model of the generation of ion cyclotron waves in the magnetosphere due to the resonant wave-particle interaction with ion fluxes of moderate energies. We suppose that a continuous shift of the generation region, located in the outer area of the plasmasphere, to smaller L-shell is able to explain both the phenomenon locality and the range of the frequency increase. A narrow emission frequency band is associated with the formation of nose-like structures in the energy spectrum of ion fluxes penetrating from the geomagnetic tail into the magnetosphere. We offer a possible scenario of the processes leading to the generation of the observed emission. The scenario contains specific values of the generation region position, plasma density, magnetic field, and resonant proton energies. We discuss morphological differences of the emissions considered from known types of geomagnetic pulsations, and reasons for the occurrence of this unusual event.

  11. Effects of magnetic storm phases on F layer irregularities below the auroral oval

    Aarons, J.; Gurgiolo, C.; Rodger, A.S.

    1988-01-01

    Observations of F-layer irregularity development and intensity were obtained between September and October 1981, primarily over subauroral latitudes in the area of the plasmapause. The results reveal the descent of the auroral irregularity region to include subauroral latitudes in the general area of the plasmapause during the main phases of a series of magnetic storms. Irregularities were found primarily at lower latitudes during the subauroral or plasmapause storm. A model for the subauroral irregularities in recovery phases of magnetic storms is proposed in which energy stored in the ring current is slowly released. 27 references

  12. Cost-efficient and storm surge-sensitive bridge design for coastal Maine.

    2013-08-01

    Climatic variation felt through changing weather patterns is having increasingly acute effects on Maines : transportation infrastructure. Acute risk occurs as a result of events, such as storms and flooding, while chronic risk : surrounds longer r...

  13. Storms

    Kai, Keizo; Melrose, D.B.; Suzuki, S.

    1985-01-01

    At metre and decametre wavelengths long-lasting solar radio emission, consisting of thousands of short-lived spikes superimposed on a slowly varying continuum, is observed. This type of storm emission may continue for periods ranging from a few hours to several days; the long duration is one of the characteristics which distinguish storms from other types of solar radio emission. These events are called storms or noise storms by analogy with geomagnetic storms. (author)

  14. Biological effects of geomagnetic storms

    Chibisov, S.M.; Breus, T.K.; Levitin, A.E.; Drogova, G.M.; AN SSSR, Moscow; AN SSSR, Moscow

    1995-01-01

    Six physiological parameters of cardio-vascular system of rabbits and ultrastructure of cardiomyocytes were investigated during two planetary geomagnetic storms. At the initial and main phase of the storm the normal circadian structure in each cardiovascular parameter was lost. The disynchronozis was growing together with the storm and abrupt drop of cardia activity was observed during the main phase of storm. The main phase of storm followed by the destruction and degradation of cardiomyocytes. Parameters of cardia activity became substantially synchronized and characterized by circadian rhythm structure while the amplitude of deviations was still significant at the recovery stage of geomagnetic storm. 3 refs.; 7 figs

  15. Radial growth of hardwoods following the 1998 ice storm in New Hampshire and Maine

    Kevin T. Smith; Walter C. Shortle

    2003-01-01

    Ice storms and resulting injury to tree crowns occur frequently in North America. Reaction of land managers to injury caused by the regional ice storm of January 1998 had the potential to accelerate the harvesting of northern hardwoods due to concern about the future loss of wood production by injured trees. To assess the effect of this storm on radial stem growth,...

  16. Manifestation of interplanetary medium parameters in development of a geomagnetic storm initial phase

    Chkhetiya, A.M.

    1988-01-01

    The role of solar wind plasma parameters in formation of a geomagnetic storm initial phase is refined. On the basis of statistical analysis an empirical formula relating the interplanetary medium parameters (components of interplanetary magnetic field, proton velocity and concentration) and D st -index during the geomagnetic storm initial phase is proposed

  17. How does the predicted geomagnetic main field variation alter the thermosphere-ionosphere storm-time response?

    Maute, A. I.; Lu, G.; Richmond, A. D.

    2017-12-01

    Earth's magnetic main field plays an important role in the thermosphere-ionosphere (TI) system, as well as its coupling to Earth's magnetosphere. The ionosphere consists of a weakly ionized plasma strongly influenced by the main field and embedded in the thermosphere. Therefore, ion-neutral coupling and ionospheric electrodynamics can influence the plasma distribution and neutral dynamics. There are strong longitude variations of the TI storm response. At high latitude magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling is organized by the geomagnetic main field, leading in general to stronger northern middle latitude storm time response in the American sector due to the geomagnetic dipole location. In addition, the weak geomagnetic main field in the American sector leads to larger local ExB drift and can alter the plasma densities. During geomagnetic storms the intense energy input into the high latitude region is redistributed globally, leading to thermospheric heating, wind circulation changes and alterations of the ionospheric electrodynamics. The storm time changes are measurable in the plasma density, ion drift, temperature, neutral composition, and other parameters. All these changes depend, to some degree, on the geomagnetic main field which changes on decadal time scales. In this study, we employ a forecast model of the geomagnetic main field based on data assimilation and geodynamo modeling [Aubert et al., 2015]. The main field model predicts that in 50 years the South Atlantic Anomaly is further weakened by 2 mT and drifts westward by approximately 10o. The dipole axis moves northward and westward by 2o and 6o, respectively. Simulating the March 2015 geomagnetic storm with the Thermosphere-Ionosphere Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (TIE-GCM) driven by the Assimilative Mapping of Ionospheric Electrodynamics (AMIE), we evaluate the thermosphere-ionosphere response using the geomagnetic main field of 2015, 2065, and 2115. We compare the TI response for 2015 with

  18. On the Variability of Wilson Currents by Storm Type and Phase

    Deierling, Wiebke; Kalb, Christina; Mach, Douglas; Liu, Chuntao; Peterson, Michael; Blakeslee, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Storm total conduction currents from electrified clouds are thought to play a major role in maintaining the potential difference between the earth's surface and the upper atmosphere within the Global Electric Circuit (GEC). However, it is not entirely known how the contributions of these currents vary by cloud type and phase of the clouds life cycle. Estimates of storm total conduction currents were obtained from data collected over two decades during multiple field campaigns involving the NASA ER-2 aircraft. In this study the variability of these currents by cloud type and lifecycle is investigated. We also compared radar derived microphysical storm properties with total storm currents to investigate whether these storm properties can be used to describe the current variability of different electrified clouds. The ultimate goal is to help improve modeling of the GEC via quantification and improved parameterization of the conduction current contribution of different cloud types.

  19. Hybrid Adaptive Filter development for the minimisation of transient fluctuations superimposed on electrotelluric field recordings mainly by magnetic storms

    A. Konstantaras

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The method of Hybrid Adaptive Filtering (HAF aims to recover the recorded electric field signals from anomalies of magnetotelluric origin induced mainly by magnetic storms. An adaptive filter incorporating neuro-fuzzy technology has been developed to remove any significant distortions from the equivalent magnetic field signal, as retrieved from the original electric field signal by reversing the magnetotelluric method. Testing with further unseen data verifies the reliability of the model and demonstrates the effectiveness of the HAF method.

  20. SMALL MAIN-BELT ASTEROID SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY, PHASE II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains visible-wavelength (0.435-0.925 micron) spectra for 1341 main-belt asteroids observed during the second phase of the Small Main-belt Asteroid...

  1. Application of SWAN+ADCIRC to tide-surge and wave simulation in Gulf of Maine during Patriot's Day storm

    Dong-mei Xie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The southern coast of the Gulf of Maine in the United States is prone to flooding caused by nor'easters. A state-of-the-art fully-coupled model, the Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN model with unstructured grids and the ADvanced CIRCulation (ADCIRC model, was used to study the hydrodynamic response in the Gulf of Maine during the Patriot's Day storm of 2007, a notable example of nor'easters in this area. The model predictions agree well with the observed tide-surges and waves during this storm event. Waves and circulation in the Gulf of Maine were analyzed. The Georges Bank plays an important role in dissipating wave energy through the bottom friction when waves propagate over the bank from offshore to the inner gulf due to its shallow bathymetry. Wave energy dissipation results in decreasing significant wave height (SWH in the cross-bank direction and wave radiation stress gradient, which in turn induces changes in currents. While the tidal currents are dominant over the Georges Bank and in the Bay of Fundy, the residual currents generated by the meteorological forcing and waves are significant over the Georges Bank and in the coastal area and can reach 0.3 m/s and 0.2 m/s, respectively. In the vicinity of the coast, the longshore current generated by the surface wind stress and wave radiation stress acting parallel to the coastline is inversely proportional to the water depth and will eventually be limited by the bottom friction. The storm surge level reaches 0.8 m along the western periphery of the Gulf of Maine while the wave set-up due to radiation stress variation reaches 0.2 m. Therefore, it is significant to coastal flooding.

  2. GPS phase scintillation at high latitudes during the geomagnetic storm of 17-18 March 2015

    Prikryl, P.; Ghoddousi-Fard, R.; Weygand, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    The geomagnetic storm of 17–18 March 2015 was caused by the impacts of a coronal mass ejection and a high-speed plasma stream from a coronal hole. The high-latitude ionosphere dynamics is studied using arrays of ground-based instruments including GPS receivers, HF radars, ionosondes, riometers......, and magnetometers. The phase scintillation index is computed for signals sampled at a rate of up to 100 Hz by specialized GPS scintillation receivers supplemented by the phase scintillation proxy index obtained from geodetic-quality GPS data sampled at 1 Hz. In the context of solar wind coupling...... to the magnetosphere-ionosphere system, it is shown that GPS phase scintillation is primarily enhanced in the cusp, the tongue of ionization that is broken into patches drawn into the polar cap from the dayside storm-enhanced plasma density, and in the auroral oval. In this paper we examine the relation between...

  3. Relationship between substorms and storms

    Kamide, Y.

    1980-01-01

    In an attempt to deduce a plausible working model of the relationship between magnetospheric substorms and storms, recent relevant studies of various processes occurring during disturbed periods are integrated along with some theoretical suggestions. It has been shown that the main phase of geomagnetic storms is associated with the successive occurrence of intense substorms and with the sustained southward component of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). However, these relations are only qualitatively understood, and thus basic questions remain unanswered involving the hypothesis whether a magnetic storm is a non-linear (or linear) superposition of intense substorms, each of which constitutes an elementary storm, or the main phase of magnetic storms occurs as a result of the intense southward IMF which enhances magnetospheric convection and increases occurrence probability of substorms. (Auth.)

  4. Main results of the German risk study - phase B

    Heuser, F.W.

    1987-01-01

    To start the author introduces briefly some comments on main tasks and objectives of risk analysises which at least after the Chernobyl accident should be emphasized more explicitly. Following on some main results of the system - and accident event tree analysis of the German Risk Study, Phase B, are summarized. The second part of this paper deals with the analysis of core melt accidents performed in context of the study. Hetero investigations on the hydrogen problem and investigations on containment venting after a core melt accident will be discussed in more detail

  5. Main results of the german risk study, phase B

    Heuser, F.W.

    1988-01-01

    Work on the German Risk Study is under contract of the Federal Ministry of Research and Technology. The reference plant for the analysis is the Biblis nuclear power plant, Unit B, a KWU pressurized water reactor of the 1300 MWel class. The plant is in operation since 1976. First results on Phase A of the study have been published in 1979. Investigations on Phase B have been foreseen to endeepen the analysis. The principal purpose of these investigations is to improve and to optimize the plant's safety features on a more realistic basis. Main objectives of Phase B are: - Completeness of accident event tree analysis taking into account further accident initiating events. - Identification and analyses of accident management measures which are adequate to minimize accidental risk. - improvement of the analysis on an as far as possible realistic basis, thereby taking into account recent results of safety research. The paper deals with the most important results of the plant analyses (level 1 and level 2) which have been performed within the scope of Phases B of the study

  6. [Electrical storm].

    Barnay, C; Taieb, J; Morice, R

    2007-11-01

    Electrical storm is defined as repeated occurrence of severe ventricular arrhythmias requiring multiple cardioversions, two or more or three or more following different studies. The clinical aspect can sometimes be made of multiple, self aggravating, life threatening accesses. There are three main clinical circumstances of occurrence: in patients equipped with intracardiac defibrillators, during the acute phase of myocardial infarction and in Brugada syndrome. 10 to 15% of patients with cardiac defibrillators are subject to electrical storms in a period of two years. The causative arrhythmia is most often ventricular tachycardia than ventricular fibrillation, especially in secondary prevention and if the initial arrhythmias justifying the device was a ventricular tachycardia. Precipitaing factors are present in one third of cases, mainly acute heart failure, ionic disorders and arrhythmogenic drugs. Predictive factors are age, left ventricular ejection fractionelectrical shock in 50% of cases, antitachycardi stimulation in 30% and in 20% by association of the two. Treatment, after elimination of inappropriate shocks, is mainly based on beta-blockers and amiodarone, class I antiarrhythmics, lidocaïne or bretylium in some cases, and sedation pushed to general anesthesia in some cases. Radio-frequency ablation and even heart transplantation have been proposed in extreme cases. Quinidine has been proved efficient in cases of Brugada syndrome.

  7. CHEMISTRY IN A FORMING PROTOPLANETARY DISK: MAIN ACCRETION PHASE

    Yoneda, Haruaki [Department of Planetology, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Tsukamoto, Yusuke [Riken, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama (Japan); Furuya, Kenji; Aikawa, Yuri, E-mail: aikawa@ccs.tsukuba.ac.jp [Center for Computational Sciences, University of Tsukuba (Japan)

    2016-12-10

    We investigate the chemistry in a radiation-hydrodynamics model of a star-forming core that evolves from a cold (∼10 K) prestellar core to the main accretion phase in ∼10{sup 5} years. A rotationally supported gravitationally unstable disk is formed around a protostar. We extract the temporal variation of physical parameters in ∼1.5 × 10{sup 3} SPH particles that end up in the disk, and perform post-processing calculations of the gas-grain chemistry adopting a three-phase model. Inside the disk, the SPH particles migrate both inward and outward. Since a significant fraction of volatiles such as CO can be trapped in the water-dominant ice in the three-phase model, the ice mantle composition depends not only on the current position in the disk, but also on whether the dust grain has ever experienced higher temperatures than the water sublimation temperature. Stable molecules such as H{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4}, NH{sub 3}, and CH{sub 3}OH are already abundant at the onset of gravitational collapse and are simply sublimated as the fluid parcels migrate inside the water snow line. On the other hand, various molecules such as carbon chains and complex organic molecules (COMs) are formed in the disk. The COMs abundance sensitively depends on the outcomes of photodissociation and diffusion rates of photofragments in bulk ice mantle. As for S-bearing species, H{sub 2}S ice is abundant in the collapse phase. In the warm regions in the disk, H{sub 2}S is sublimated to be destroyed, while SO, H{sub 2}CS, OCS, and SO{sub 2} become abundant.

  8. CHEMISTRY IN A FORMING PROTOPLANETARY DISK: MAIN ACCRETION PHASE

    Yoneda, Haruaki; Tsukamoto, Yusuke; Furuya, Kenji; Aikawa, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the chemistry in a radiation-hydrodynamics model of a star-forming core that evolves from a cold (∼10 K) prestellar core to the main accretion phase in ∼10 5 years. A rotationally supported gravitationally unstable disk is formed around a protostar. We extract the temporal variation of physical parameters in ∼1.5 × 10 3 SPH particles that end up in the disk, and perform post-processing calculations of the gas-grain chemistry adopting a three-phase model. Inside the disk, the SPH particles migrate both inward and outward. Since a significant fraction of volatiles such as CO can be trapped in the water-dominant ice in the three-phase model, the ice mantle composition depends not only on the current position in the disk, but also on whether the dust grain has ever experienced higher temperatures than the water sublimation temperature. Stable molecules such as H 2 O, CH 4 , NH 3 , and CH 3 OH are already abundant at the onset of gravitational collapse and are simply sublimated as the fluid parcels migrate inside the water snow line. On the other hand, various molecules such as carbon chains and complex organic molecules (COMs) are formed in the disk. The COMs abundance sensitively depends on the outcomes of photodissociation and diffusion rates of photofragments in bulk ice mantle. As for S-bearing species, H 2 S ice is abundant in the collapse phase. In the warm regions in the disk, H 2 S is sublimated to be destroyed, while SO, H 2 CS, OCS, and SO 2 become abundant.

  9. Geomagnetic storms and their sources on the sun:the rising phase of the sunspot cycle

    Takao Saito

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Solar phenomena, including solar flares and coronal holes, are considered in the context of a NEWS coordinate system, obtained by application of the heliographic and heliomagnetic coordinate systems to the solar latitude and longitude, respectively. By expressing the occurrence of solar phenomena in terms of NEWS coordinates, we discovered that solar flares tend to converge in the NE and SW quadrants of the solar disk, where they act as sources of sporadic storms. Meanwhile, coronal holes converge to solar longitudes of 0° and 180°, where they are sources of recurrent storms. Because of their concentration in the NE- and SW-quadrants, this correlation is referred to as the 'NEWS law'. The neutral line of the source surface shows a beautiful single wave in its declining phase, while it tends to show a double wave in the rising phase. Solar rotation numbers 2118 to 2119, where the neutral line exhibited two complicated asymmetric waves in both the N-S and S-W directions, were chosen for detailed analysis. Notwithstanding such an extremely complicated case, the NEWS law is satisfied when the double wave is separated into its two single-wave parts.

  10. Thermospheric storms and related ionospheric effects

    Chandra, S.; Spencer, N.W.

    1976-01-01

    A comparative study of thermospheric storms for the equinox and winter conditions is presented based on the neutral composition measurements from the Aeros-A Nate (Neutral Atmosphere Temperature Experiment) experiment. The main features of the two storms as inferred from the changes in N 2 , Ar, He, and O are described, and their implications to current theories of thermospheric storms are discussed. On the basis of the study of the F region critical frequency measured from a chain of ground-based ionospheric stations during the two storm periods, the general characteristics of the ionospheric storms and the traveling ionospheric disturbances are described. It is suggested that the positive and negative phases of ionospheric storms are the various manifestations of thermospheric storms

  11. The effect of geomagnetic storm on GPS derived total electron content (TEC) at Varanasi, India

    Kumar, Sanjay; Singh, A K

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we studied the effect of geomagnetic storm on Global Positioning System (GPS) derived total electron content (TEC) at low latitude Varanasi (Geomagnetic lat 14 0 , 55' N, geomagnetic long 154 0 E) during the period of May 2007 to April 2008. During this period 2 storms were found, which were occurred on 20 November 2007 and 9 March 2008. In this study vertical total electron content (VTEC) of single Pseudorandom Noise (PRN) and average of VTEC of same PRN before 10 days of storm, which is called background TEC, were used to see the effect of these storms on the variation of TEC. From this study this is found that during the storm of March 2008 the TEC increases in main phase of storm while in the case of November 2007 storm, TEC decreases during the main phase of storm but increases in the recovery phase (next day) of storm.

  12. Statistical Relationship between Sawtooth Oscillations and Geomagnetic Storms

    Jae-Hun Kim

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated a statistical relationship between sawtooth oscillations and geomagnetic storms during 2000-2004. First of all we selected a total of 154 geomagnetic storms based on the Dst index, and distinguished between different drivers such as Coronal Mass Ejection (CME and Co-rotating Interaction Region (CIR. Also, we identified a total of 48 sawtooth oscillation events based on geosynchronous energetic particle data for the same 2000-2004 period. We found that out of the 154 storms identified, 47 storms indicated the presence of sawtooth oscillations. Also, all but one sawtooth event identified occurred during a geomagnetic storm interval. It was also found that sawtooth oscillation events occur more frequently for storms driven by CME (˜62% than for storms driven by CIR (˜30%. In addition, sawtooth oscillations occurred mainly (˜82% in the main phase of storms for CME-driven storms while they occurred mostly (˜78% during the storm recovery phase for CIR-driven storms. Next we have examined the average characteristics of the Bz component of IMF, and solar wind speed, which were the main components for driving geomagnetic storm. We found that for most of the sawtooth events, the IMF Bz corresponds to --15 to 0 nT and the solar wind speed was in the range of 400˜700 km/s. We found that there was a weak tendency that the number of teeth for a given sawtooth event interval was proportional to the southward IMF Bz magnitude.

  13. Study of plasma equilibrium during the AC current reversal phase in STOR-M

    Xiao, C.

    2002-01-01

    Alternating current (AC) tokamak operation and equilibrium studies have been performed on the STOR-M tokamak. The recent experiments have achieved consistent smooth current reversal through the implementation of a hybrid digital-analog position controller and by careful density control. In order to study the plasma equilibrium during the current reversal phase with negligible rotational transform, a segmented limiter with four isolated conducting plates has been installed. The plates can be connected outside the vacuum vessel, which allows measurements of currents flowing between limiter plates. When the current reversal is smooth with zero dwell time, the hydrogen line emission level and electron density remain finite, indicating a finite particle confinement. The current from the top to the bottom limiter plate is also finite and its direction is consistent with that of the grad-B drift. The observation suggests that the limiter and other conducting structures surrounding the plasmas plays the role, during the current reversal phase of AC tokamak operation, to short out the charge separation arising from the grad-B drift and to maintain a finite particle confinement. (author)

  14. Application of SWAN+ADCIRC to tide-surge and wave simulation in Gulf of Maine during Patriot’s Day storm

    Dong-mei Xie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The southern coast of the Gulf of Maine in the United States is prone to flooding caused by nor’easters. A state-of-the-art fully-coupled model, the Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN model with unstructured grids and the ADvanced CIRCulation (ADCIRC model, was used to study the hydrodynamic response in the Gulf of Maine during the Patriot’s Day storm of 2007, a notable example of nor’easters in this area. The model predictions agree well with the observed tide-surges and waves during this storm event. Waves and circulation in the Gulf of Maine were analyzed. The Georges Bank plays an important role in dissipating wave energy through the bottom friction when waves propagate over the bank from offshore to the inner gulf due to its shallow bathymetry. Wave energy dissipation results in decreasing significant wave height (SWH in the cross-bank direction and wave radiation stress gradient, which in turn induces changes in currents. While the tidal currents are dominant over the Georges Bank and in the Bay of Fundy, the residual currents generated by the meteorological forcing and waves are significant over the Georges Bank and in the coastal area and can reach 0.3 m/s and 0.2 m/s, respectively. In the vicinity of the coast, the longshore current generated by the surface wind stress and wave radiation stress acting parallel to the coastline is inversely proportional to the water depth and will eventually be limited by the bottom friction. The storm surge level reaches 0.8 m along the western periphery of the Gulf of Maine while the wave set-up due to radiation stress variation reaches 0.2 m. Therefore, it is significant to coastal flooding.

  15. IRI STORM validation over Europe

    Haralambous, Haris; Vryonides, Photos; Demetrescu, Crişan; Dobrică, Venera; Maris, Georgeta; Ionescu, Diana

    2014-05-01

    The International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) model includes an empirical Storm-Time Ionospheric Correction Model (STORM) extension to account for storm-time changes of the F layer peak electron density (NmF2) during increased geomagnetic activity. This model extension is driven by past history values of the geomagnetic index ap (The magnetic index applied is the integral of ap over the previous 33 hours with a weighting function deduced from physically based modeling) and it adjusts the quiet-time F layer peak electron density (NmF2) to account for storm-time changes in the ionosphere. In this investigation manually scaled hourly values of NmF2 measured during the main and recovery phases of selected storms for the maximum solar activity period of the current solar cycle are compared with the predicted IRI-2012 NmF2 over European ionospheric stations using the STORM model option. Based on the comparison a subsequent performance evaluation of the STORM option during this period is quantified.

  16. Connection of the positive phase of ionospheric storms with the day-time cusp

    Morozova, L.D.; Danilov, A.D.

    1986-01-01

    Data on the relation of ionospheric storms with the day-time cusp are considered. Experimental data on the velocity and direction of wind from the day-time cusp region, obtained for perturbed conditions on 30.12.1981, are analyzed. It is shown that perturbed wind from the cusp results in the increase of the value δf 0 F2 and under conditions before magnetic storm onset unambiguously causes positive ionosheric perturbation, and under conditions of a developed magnetic storm-either a positive perturbation or a decrease in the amplitude of negative perturbation

  17. GPS phase scintillation during the geomagnetic storm of March 17, 2015: The relation to auroral electrojet currents

    Prikryl, Paul; Ghoddousi-Fard, Reza; Connors, Martin

    and magnetometers. GPS phase scintillation index is computed for L1 signal sampled at the rate of 50 Hz by specialized GPS scintillation receivers of the Expanded Canadian High Arctic Ionospheric Network (ECHAIN). To further extend the geographic coverage, the phasescintillation proxy index is obtained from......Ionospheric irregularities cause rapid fluctuations of radio wave amplitude and phase that candegrade GPS positional accuracy and affect performance of radio communication and navigation systems. The ionosphere becomes particularly disturbed during geomagnetic storms caused by impacts of coronal...... mass ejections compounded by high-speed plasma streams from coronal holes. Geomagnetic storm of March 17, 2015 was the largest in the current solar cycle. The high-latitude ionosphere dynamics is studied using arrays of ground-based instruments including GPS receivers, HF radars, ionosondes, riometers...

  18. Surface-Borne Time-of-Reception Measurements (STORM), Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Invocon proposes the Surface-borne Time-Of-Reception Measurements (STORM) system as a method to locate the position of lightning strikes on aerospace vehicles....

  19. Neural network prediction of relativistic electrons at geosynchronous orbit during the storm recovery phase: effects of recurring substorms

    M. Fukata

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available During the recovery phase of geomagnetic storms, the flux of relativistic (>2 MeV electrons at geosynchronous orbits is enhanced. This enhancement reaches a level that can cause devastating damage to instruments on satellites. To predict these temporal variations, we have developed neural network models that predict the flux for the period 1–12 h ahead. The electron-flux data obtained during storms, from the Space Environment Monitor on board a Geostationary Meteorological Satellite, were used to construct the model. Various combinations of the input parameters AL, SAL, Dst and SDst were tested (where S denotes the summation from the time of the minimum Dst. It was found that the model, including SAL as one of the input parameters, can provide some measure of relativistic electron-flux prediction at geosynchronous orbit during the recovery phase. We suggest from this result that the relativistic electron-flux enhancement during the recovery phase is associated with recurring substorms after Dst minimum and their accumulation effect.Key words. Magnetospheric physics (energetic particles, trapped; magnetospheric configuration and dynamics; storms and substorms

  20. Geomagnetic storms, super-storms, and their impacts on GPS-based navigation systems

    Astafyeva, E.; Yasyukevich, Yu.; Maksikov, A.; Zhivetiev, I.

    2014-07-01

    Using data of GPS receivers located worldwide, we analyze the quality of GPS performance during four geomagnetic storms of different intensity: two super-storms and two intense storms. We show that during super-storms the density of GPS Losses-of-Lock (LoL) increases up to 0.25% at L1 frequency and up to 3% at L2 frequency, and up to 0.15% (at L1) and 1% (at L2) during less intense storms. Also, depending on the intensity of the storm time ionospheric disturbances, the total number of total electron content (TEC) slips can exceed from 4 to 40 times the quiet time level. Both GPS LoL and TEC slips occur during abrupt changes of SYM-H index of geomagnetic activity, i.e., during the main phase of geomagnetic storms and during development of ionospheric storms. The main contribution in the total number of GPS LoL was found to be done by GPS sites located at low and high latitudes, whereas the area of numerous TEC slips seemed to mostly correspond to the boundary of the auroral oval, i.e., region with intensive ionospheric irregularities. Our global maps of TEC slips show where the regions with intense irregularities of electron density occur during geomagnetic storms and will let us in future predict appearance of GPS errors for geomagnetically disturbed conditions.

  1. Equatorial E Region Electric Fields and Sporadic E Layer Responses to the Recovery Phase of the November 2004 Geomagnetic Storm

    Moro, J.; Resende, L. C. A.; Denardini, C. M.; Xu, J.; Batista, I. S.; Andrioli, V. F.; Carrasco, A. J.; Batista, P. P.; Schuch, N. J.

    2017-12-01

    Equatorial E region electric fields (EEFs) inferred from coherent radar data, sporadic-E (Es) layers observed from a digital ionosonde data, and modeling results are used to study the responses of the equatorial E region over São Luís (SLZ, 2.3°S, 44.2°W, -7° dip angle), Brazil, during the super storm of November 2004. The EEF is presented in terms of the zonal (Ey) and vertical (Ez) components in order to analyze the corresponding characteristics of different types of Es seen in ionograms and simulated with the E region ionospheric model. We bring out the variabilities of Ey and Ez components with storm time changes in the equatorial E region. In addition, some aspects of the electric fields and Es behavior in three cases of weak, very weak, and strong Type II occurrences during the recovery phase of the geomagnetic storm are discussed. The connection between the enhanced occurrence and suppressions of the Type II irregularities and the q-type Es (Esq) controlled by electric fields, with the development or disruption of the blanketing sporadic E (Esb) layers produced by wind shear mechanism, is also presented. The mutual presence of Esq along with the Esb occurrences is a clear indicator of the secular drift of the magnetic equator and hence that of the equatorial electrojet (EEJ) over SLZ. The results show evidence about the EEJ and Es layer electrodynamics and coupling during geomagnetic disturbance time electric fields.

  2. The corrosion mechanism of the sintered (Ce, Nd)-Fe-B magnets prepared by double main phase and single main phase approaches

    Shi, Xiaoning; Zhu, Minggang; Zhou, Dong; Song, Liwei; Guo, Zhaohui; Li, Jia; Li, Wei

    2018-05-01

    The sintered (Ce, Nd)-Fe-B magnets were produced widely by Double Main Phase (DMP) method in China as the magnetic properties of the DMP magnets are superior to those of single main phase (SMP) magnets with the same nominal composition. In this work, the microstructure and corrosion mechanism of the sintered (Ce0.2Nd0.8)30FebalB (wt.%) magnets prepared by DMP and SMP method were studied in detail. Compared to SMP magnets, the DMP magnets have more positive corrosion potential, lower corrosion current density, larger electron transfer resistance, and lower mass loss of the free corrosion experiment in 0.5mol/l Na2SO4 aqueous solution. All of the results show that the DMP magnets have better corrosion resistance than SMP magnets. The back scattered electron images show that the crystalline grains of the DMP magnets are sphericity with a smooth surface while the SMP ones have plenty of edges and corners. Besides, the distribution of Ce/Nd is much more uneven in both magnetic phase and rare earth (Re)-rich phase of the DMP magnets than those of SMP magnets. After corrosion, DMP magnets show eroded magnetic phase and intact Re-rich phase, which indicate that galvanic corrosion of the Re-rich phase acting as the cathode appears.

  3. Phased Array Ultrasonic Evaluation of Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Nozzle Weld

    James, Steve; Engel, J.; Kimbrough, D.; Suits, M.; Hopson, George (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of the phased array ultrasonic evaluation of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) nozzle weld. Details are given on the nondestructive testing evaluation approach, conventional shear wave and phased array techniques, and an x-ray versus phased array risk analysis. The field set-up was duplicated to the greatest extent possible in the laboratory and the phased array ultrasonic technique was developed and validated prior to weld evaluation. Results are shown for the phased array ultrasonic evaluation and conventional ultrasonic evaluation results.

  4. The Effect of Storm Driver and Intensity on Magnetospheric Ion Temperatures

    Keesee, Amy M.; Katus, Roxanne M.; Scime, Earl E.

    2017-09-01

    Energy deposited in the magnetosphere during geomagnetic storms drives ion heating and convection. Ions are also heated and transported via internal processes throughout the magnetosphere. Injection of the plasma sheet ions to the inner magnetosphere drives the ring current and, thus, the storm intensity. Understanding the ion dynamics is important to improving our ability to predict storm evolution. In this study, we perform superposed epoch analyses of ion temperatures during storms, comparing ion temperature evolution by storm driver and storm intensity. The ion temperatures are calculated using energetic neutral atom measurements from the Two Wide-Angle Imaging Neutral-Atom Spectrometers (TWINS) mission. The global view of these measurements provide both spatial and temporal information. We find that storms driven by coronal mass ejections (CMEs) tend to have higher ion temperatures throughout the main phase than storms driven by corotating interaction regions (CIRs) but that the temperatures increase during the recovery phase of CIR-driven storms. Ion temperatures during intense CME-driven storms have brief intervals of higher ion temperatures than those during moderate CME-driven storms but have otherwise comparable ion temperatures. The highest temperatures during CIR-driven storms are centered at 18 magnetic local time and occur on the dayside for moderate CME-driven storms. During the second half of the main phase, ion temperatures tend to decrease in the postmidnight to dawn sector for CIR storms, but an increase is observed for CME storms. This increase begins with a sharp peak in ion temperatures for intense CME storms, likely a signature of substorm activity that drives the increased ring current.

  5. The storm time central plasma sheet

    R. Schödel

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available The plasma sheet plays a key role during magnetic storms because it is the bottleneck through which large amounts of magnetic flux that have been eroded from the dayside magnetopause have to be returned to the dayside magnetosphere. Using about five years of Geotail data we studied the average properties of the near- and midtail central plasma sheet (CPS in the 10–30 RE range during magnetic storms. The earthward flux transport rate is greatly enhanced during the storm main phase, but shows a significant earthward decrease. Hence, since the magnetic flux cannot be circulated at a sufficient rate, this leads to an average dipolarization of the central plasma sheet. An increase of the specific entropy of the CPS ion population by a factor of about two during the storm main phase provides evidence for nonadiabatic heating processes. The direction of flux transport during the main phase is consistent with the possible formation of a near-Earth neutral line beyond ~20 RE.Key words. Magnetospheric physics (plasma convection; plasma sheet; storms and substorms

  6. Current understanding of magnetic storms: Storm-substorm relationships

    Kamide, Y.; Gonzalez, W.D.; Baumjohann, W.; Daglis, I.A.; Grande, M.; Joselyn, J.A.; Singer, H.J.; McPherron, R.L.; Phillips, J.L.; Reeves, E.G.; Rostoker, G.; Sharma, A.S.; Tsurutani, B.T.

    1998-01-01

    This paper attempts to summarize the current understanding of the storm/substorm relationship by clearing up a considerable amount of controversy and by addressing the question of how solar wind energy is deposited into and is dissipated in the constituent elements that are critical to magnetospheric and ionospheric processes during magnetic storms. (1) Four mechanisms are identified and discussed as the primary causes of enhanced electric fields in the interplanetary medium responsible for geomagnetic storms. It is pointed out that in reality, these four mechanisms, which are not mutually exclusive, but interdependent, interact differently from event to event. Interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) and corotating interaction regions (CIRs) are found to be the primary phenomena responsible for the main phase of geomagnetic storms. The other two mechanisms, i.e., HILDCAA (high-intensity, long-duration, continuous auroral electrojet activity) and the so-called Russell-McPherron effect, work to make the ICME and CIR phenomena more geoeffective. The solar cycle dependence of the various sources in creating magnetic storms has yet to be quantitatively understood. (2) A serious controversy exists as to whether the successive occurrence of intense substorms plays a direct role in the energization of ring current particles or whether the enhanced electric field associated with southward IMF enhances the effect of substorm expansions. While most of the Dst variance during magnetic storms can be solely reproduced by changes in the large-scale electric field in the solar wind and the residuals are uncorrelated with substorms, recent satellite observations of the ring current constituents during the main phase of magnetic storms show the importance of ionospheric ions. This implies that ionospheric ions, which are associated with the frequent occurrence of intense substorms, are accelerated upward along magnetic field lines, contributing to the energy density of the

  7. F layer positive response to a geomagnetic storm - June 1972

    Miller, N.J.; Grebowsky, J.M.; Mayr, H.G.; Harris, I.; Tulunay, Y.K.

    1979-01-01

    A circulation model of neutral thermosphere-ionosphere coupling is used to interpret in situ spacecraft measurements taken during a topside mid-latitude ionospheric storm. The data are measurements of electron density taken along the circular polar orbit of Ariel 4 at 550 km during the geomagnetically disturbed period June 17--18, 1972. We infer that collisional momentum transfer from the disturbed neutral thermosphere to the ionosphere was the dominant midday process generating the positive F layer storm phase in the summer hemisphere. In the winter hemisphere the positive storm phase drifted poleward in apparent response to magnetospheric E x B drifts. A summer F layer positive phase developed at the sudden commencement and again during the geomagnetic main phase; a winter F layer positive phase developed only during the geomagnetic main phase. The observed seasonal differences in both the onsets and the magnitudes of the positive phases are attributed to the interhemispheric asymmetry in thermospheric dynamics

  8. Behavior of the ionosphere total electronic content in Sao Jose dos Campos during magnetic storms in 1980

    Paula, E.R. de; Abdu, M.A.; Kantor, I.J.

    1983-07-01

    Faraday rotation data from 1980, obtained with a polarimeter at Sao Jose dos Campos (23 0 S, 46 0 W), were analyzed during periods occurring magnetic storms. In order to select these periods, the magnetic index Dst was used. It was observed that during magnetic storms preceeded by a few calm days, an increase in the Total Electron Content (TEC) is observed during the storm main phase, relative to the mean of the magnetic calm days (positive phase). Afterwards, during the storms recovery phase, a decrease was registered relative to the average (negative phase). This TEC behaviour, observed at low latitudes storms, is typical of the behaviour over medium latitudes. But, when several storms occur with few intervening days between them, the positive phase seems to prevail. This indicates an inibition of the source of the negative phase. This work discusses the possible origins of the positive and negative phases. (Author) [pt

  9. Ionospheric Anomalies of the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake with Multiple Observations during Magnetic Storm Phase

    Liu, Yang

    2017-04-01

    days. Associated with geomagnetic storm at similar time, radio occultation data provided by COSMIC were deeply investigated within the whole month. It's quite different that the storm or earthquake didn't trigger scintillation burst. This is probably due to the storm occurrence local time was in noon sector, which has little impact on ionospheric irregularities increase, but help to enhance the effect of westward electricity, which on the other hand diminishes scintillation bubbles (Li et al 2008). A small geomagnetic disturbance was also found almost a week prior to the earthquake, the relationship of this event to the major earthquake is worth further discussion. Similar analysis of GNSS TECs have been done, the results indicated that it can be also referred as precursor to the major earthquake. Li G, Ning B, Zhao B, et al. Effects of geomagnetic storm on GPS ionospheric scintillations at Sanya[J]. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 2008, 70(7):1034-1045. Liu J Y, Chen Y I, Chuo Y J, et al. A statistical investigation of pre-earthquake ionospheric anomaly[J]. Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres, 2006, 111(A5). Liu J Y, Sun Y Y. Seismo-traveling ionospheric disturbances of ionograms observed during the 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku Earthquake[J]. Earth, Planets and Space, 2011, 63(7):897-902. Zhao B, Wang M, Yu T, et al. Is an unusual large enhancement of ionospheric electron density linked with the 2008 great Wenchuan earthquake?[J]. Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres, 2008, 113(A11):A11304. Pulinets S A. Seismic activity as a source of the ionospheric variability [J]. Advances in Space Research, 1998, 22(6):903-906.

  10. The modification of main steam safety valves in Qinshan phase Ⅱ expansion project

    Chen Haiqiao

    2012-01-01

    The main steam safety valves of NPP steam system are second- class nuclear safety component. It used to limit the pressure of SG secondary side and main steam system via emitting steam into the environment. At present, the main steam safety valves have mechanical valves and assisted power valves. According to the experience of power plants at home and abroad, including Qinshan Phase Ⅱ unit 1/2 experience feedback, Qinshan Phase Ⅱ expansion project made modification on valve type, setting value and valve body. This paper introduce the characteristics of different safety valve types, the modification of main steam safety valves and the modification analysis on safety issues.security and impact on the other systems in Qinshan Phase Ⅱ expansion project. (author)

  11. AMPTE/CCE observations of the plasma composition below 17 keV during the September 4, 1984 magnetic storm

    Shelley, E.G.; Klumpar, D.M.; Peterson, W.K.; Ghielmetti, A.; Balsiger, H.; Geiss, J.; Rosenbauer, H.; Bern Universitaet, Switzerland; Max-Planck-Institut fuer Aeronomie, Katlenburg, West Germany)

    1985-01-01

    Observations from the Hot Plasma Composition Experiment on the AMPTE/CCE spacecraft during the magnetic storm of 4-5 September 1984 reveal that significant injection of ions of terrestrial origin accompanied the storm development. The compression of the magnetosphere at storm sudden commencement carried the magnetopause inside the CCE orbit clearly revealing the shocked solar wind plasma. A build up of suprathermal ions is observed near the plasmapause during the storm main phase and recovery phase. Pitch angle distributions in the ring current during the main phase show differences between H(+) and O(+) that suggest mass dependent injection, transport and/or loss processes. 9 references

  12. Assessing storm erosion hazards

    Ranasinghe, Ranasinghe W M R J B; Callaghan, D.; Ciavola, Paolo; Coco, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    The storm erosion hazard on coasts is usually expressed as an erosion volume and/or associated episodic coastline retreat. The accurate assessment of present-day and future storm erosion volumes is a key task for coastal zone managers, planners and engineers. There are four main approaches that can

  13. Variations of ionospheric plasma concentration in the region of the main ionospheric through during the magnetic storm on 18-19.12, 1978 in relation to interplanetary magnetic field variations

    Gdalevich, G.L.; Eliseev, A.Yu.; Kolomijtsev, O.P.; Afonin, V.V.; Ozerov, V.D.; Soboleva, T.N.

    1986-01-01

    The variations of ion concentration in the region of the main ionospheric trough at the height approximately 500 km during the storm on 18-19, 12, 1978 are considered by data from ''Kosmos-900'' satellite. Three These changes in ion density are compared with variations of interplanetary medium parameters, in particular with Ey=-VBz, with the component of the interplanetary electric field. The comparison results are discussed. Exact correlation of ionospheric disturbance development with variations of interplanetary medium parameters is observed. This effect is expressed in the evening section both in the high and mean latitudes and it is obv ously caused by magnetosphere rearrangement in the region of the minimum pole trough, and on the equatorial wall - by convection field penetration to the mean latitude. The movement of the equatorial boundary of diffusion precipitations, which is much responsible for formation of the polar trough wall, corresponds to the boundary movement of corotating and convective plasma or to the last closed equipotentiality. But some delay of the precipitation boundary due to the responsiveness of precipitation processes is observed on the recovery phase

  14. Main results on the RF amplitude and phase regulation systems in operation at GANIL

    Joubert, A.; Ducoudret, B.; Labiche, J.C.; Loyant, J.M.

    1984-06-01

    The general features of the amplitude and phase regulations and their control systems are briefly reviewed. These feedback control systems are fully under the control of the main computer aided by dedicated CAMAC microprocessors for actions such as starting, parameters tuning or phase stability surveying. Numerous results obtained with spectrum analysis method give the actual RF purity and the residual modulation and crossmodulation noise level for all RF signals picked up in the RF resonators. A typical value for the noise immunity is 80 dB below the carrier at 100 Hz deviation. Another set of results gives the actual long term phase drift between resonators (< 0.2 RF degree within 6 hours). The stability of the RF phases is confirmed by on line beam phase measurements

  15. Energetic electron precipitation and VLF phase disturbances at middle latitudes following the magnetic storm of December 6, 1971

    Larsen, T.R.; Potemra, T.A.; Imhof, W.L.; Reagan, J.B.

    1977-01-01

    Enhanced fluxes of electrons precipitating over middle latitudes (L approx. 3--4) were detected by the polar-orbiting satellite 1971-089A following a period of magnetic activity starting on December 16, 1971. The electron fluxes measured in 256 differential channels between 130 and 2800 keV have been coordinated with phase observations of VLF radio waves propagating in the earth-ionosphere waveguide. The VLF paths in question, NLK (near Seattle, Washington) and GBR (at Rugby, England) to APL (near Washington, D. C.), cover approx. =120 0 in longitude and range from L approx. 2.5 to L approx. 4.0 in invariant latitude. These paths showed marked daytime and nighttime phase advances from 1650 UT on December 17 (in excess of 10 μs during maximum disturbance). The phase values did not return to prestorm levels before December 22--23. The unusual presence of these daytime VLF disturbances is offered as evidence for the widespread precipitation at low L shell vales of nearly relativistic electrons (E/sub e/> approx.200 keV) which would be required to penetrate below approx.70-km altitude to affect the daytime VLF transmissions. Wave guide mode calculations using D region electron density profiles deduced from the satellite particle data predict phase advances which agree reasonably well with the observed values. It is concluded that the observed long-lived VLF phase disturbances can be explained by excess D region ionization caused by energetic electrons precipitating from the earth's radiation belt following their injection deep into the magnetosphere during the magnetic storm

  16. Chromaticity correction in the TRISTAN phase I main ring version 11

    Wu, Yingzhi.

    1984-05-01

    This report deals with chromaticity correction in the TRISTAN phase I main ring version 11. The program PATRICIA is used to track the trajectories of test particles over 2000 turns. The results show that particles with transverse initial amplitudes of at least 11 σ in both planes and with a synchrotron oscillation amplitude of 7 σsub(e) remain stable. (author)

  17. Impacts of a heavy storm of rain upon dissolved and particulate organic C, N and P in the main river of a vegetation-rich basin area in Japan.

    Li, Fusheng; Yuasa, Akira; Muraki, Yuzo; Matsui, Yoshihiko

    2005-06-01

    The impacts of a heavy storm of rain upon the dissolved and particulate organic matter (OM), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in the main river of the vegetation-rich Nagara River basin were investigated using water samples collected along the river line during a critical typhoon-induced heavy rain storm event. Besides, based on a high performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) system, the variance of dissolved OM (DOM) in its molecular weight (MW) characteristics was also assessed. From the MW standpoint, DOM components merged into the river along the river line resembled those present in its headwater. The MW range changed only slightly from 1010 to 5900 at the upstream (US), to 1130-5900 and 1200-5900 Da at the midstream (MS) and downstream (DS), respectively, while the corresponding weight-averaged MW (M(w)) decreased from 3669 to 3330 and 2962 Da. The heavy storm of rain enhanced the content of DOM; however, apart from a small larger-MW fraction (about 5900-6800 Da), the newly emerged DOM constituents exhibited an MW range similar to those existed before the storm. Due also to the storm of rain, total P and N (TP and TN) changed markedly in the ranges of 6.6-11.9, 8.3-40.6 and 48.4-231.3 microg/l for TP, and 145.4-296.0, 502.2-1168.7 and 1342.7-1927.3 microg/l for TN at the US, MS and DS, respectively. The larger values of TP and TN generally appeared for samples at elevated river water levels. The enhanced presence of P was found largely attributed to its particulate form; while, for N, the contribution from its dissolved form was significant. The newly emerged suspended particles via the storm-water contained lower content of OM, N and P, and a general decreasing trend of the particulate OM, N and P along the river line was also confirmed. The C/N ratio in the dissolved form varied in 0.7-6.7 and decreased downstream, while, that in the particulate form 2.3-17.3. Suspended particles that emerged in the river water during the storm exhibited larger C

  18. Solar Wind Features Responsible for Magnetic Storms and Substorms During the Declining Phase of the Solar Cycle: 197

    Tsurutani, B.; Arballo, J.

    1994-01-01

    We examine interplanetary data and geomagnetic activity indices during 1974 when two long-lasting solar wind corotating streams existed. We find that only 3 major storms occurred during 1974, and all were associated with coronal mass ejections. Each high speed stream was led by a shock, so the three storms had sudden commencements. Two of the 1974 major storms were associated with shock compression of preexisting southward fields and one was caused by southward fields within a magnetic cloud. Corotating streams were responsible for recurring moderate to weak magnetic storms.

  19. Learning Storm

    Jain, Ankit

    2014-01-01

    If you are a Java developer who wants to enter into the world of real-time stream processing applications using Apache Storm, then this book is for you. No previous experience in Storm is required as this book starts from the basics. After finishing this book, you will be able to develop not-so-complex Storm applications.

  20. GPS phase scintillation and auroral electrojet currents during geomagnetic storms of March 17, 2013 and 2015

    Prikryl, P.; Ghoddousi-Fard, R.; Viljanen, A.

    2017-01-01

    in the context of solar wind coupling to the magnetosphere-ionosphere system. Phase scintillation is observed at high latitudes by arrays of high-rate GNSS Ionospheric Scintillation and TEC Monitors (GISTMs) and geodetic-quality GPS receivers sampling at 1 Hz. The high-rate GPS receivers are distributed...... in the northern and in the southern high latitudes with sparser coverage. In addition to GPS receivers, the high-latitude ionosphere dynamics is studied using arrays of ground-based instruments including HF radars, ionosondes, riometers, magnetometers, optical imagers as well as particle detectors and ultraviolet...

  1. Nippon Storm Study design

    Takashi Kurita

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available An understanding of the clinical aspects of electrical storm (E-storms in patients with implantable cardiac shock devices (ICSDs: ICDs or cardiac resynchronization therapy with defibrillator [CRT-D] may provide important information for clinical management of patients with ICSDs. The Nippon Storm Study was organized by the Japanese Heart Rhythm Society (JHRS and Japanese Society of Electrocardiology and was designed to prospectively collect a variety of data from patients with ICSDs, with a focus on the incidence of E-storms and clinical conditions for the occurrence of an E-storm. Forty main ICSD centers in Japan are participating in the present study. From 2002, the JHRS began to collect ICSD patient data using website registration (termed Japanese cardiac defibrillator therapy registration, or JCDTR. This investigation aims to collect data on and investigate the general parameters of patients with ICSDs, such as clinical backgrounds of the patients, purposes of implantation, complications during the implantation procedure, and incidence of appropriate and inappropriate therapies from the ICSD. The Nippon Storm Study was planned as a sub-study of the JCDTR with focus on E-storms. We aim to achieve registration of more than 1000 ICSD patients and complete follow-up data collection, with the assumption of a 5–10% incidence of E-storms during the 2-year follow-up.

  2. The blowdown, refill and reflood phase during a LOCA. Survey of the main physical phenomena

    Reocreux, M.

    1980-05-01

    In this paper, the main physical phenomena occuring during a LOCA are reviewed. They are presented in a chronological order. For each phenomena, a detailed physical description is given followed by the review of the general modelling problems. For some of these phenomena, modelling details are given for critical flow, for two-phase flow and heat transfer, for critical heat flux and post critical heat flux heat transfer, for reflood and rewet heat transfer and in the survey on LOCA computation codes

  3. Avoiding the Perfect Storm: Criminal Economies, Spoilers, and the Post-Conflict Phase in Colombia

    Juan Carlos Garzón-Vergara

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of ending the armed conflict in Colombia will depend, to a large extent, on the state’s ability to prevent multiple criminal economies, and inhibit the actors who participate in them from damaging the implementation of the final peace agreements. This article analyzes criminal economies’ ability to destabilize and thereby damage the post-conflict phase, and identifies dilemmas the state must confront in responding to this situation. The article’s objective is to provide an analytical model to understand the complex relationship between actors involved in the peace process and criminal economies, and to thereby identify risks and possible models for intervention. The theoretical referent of this work is the discussion about peacebuilding in fragile states and literature that identifies organized crime as a spoiler. This is the first attempt to apply this perspective to Colombia, and to take the particular characteristics of the country into account while making comparisons with other countries that exhibit similar features in their own post-conflict and transitional phases. The article comes to the conclusion that in Colombia it is necessary to consider Interim Stabilization Measures, which allow the state to provide an effective response that takes advantage of available resources without losing sight of the need to strengthen local institutions in the mid-term.

  4. Main phases of siting for nuclear power plants with review of required investigations

    Malbasa, N.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of the article is a short description of the main phases in the process of siting for nuclear power plants as interpreted and applied by the Institut za elektroprivredu, Zagreb in the screening, comparison and evaluation of the sites for NPPs in the SR of Croatia. The scope and purpose, as well as review of required data and investigations for each particular phase are given. Common used methods for the comparison of sites are described and example of rejection criteria applicable for early phases of the siting is proposed. It is given a list of the most important activities which detailed analysis id indispensable for ending of the evaluation and getting a site permit from the regulatory body. A legal and regulatory basis for carrying out the siting process is also described. (author)

  5. Numerical study of Tallinn storm-water system flooding conditions using CFD simulations of multi-phase flow in a large-scale inverted siphon

    Kaur, K.; Laanearu, J.; Annus, I.

    2017-10-01

    The numerical experiments are carried out for qualitative and quantitative interpretation of a multi-phase flow processes associated with malfunctioning of the Tallinn storm-water system during rain storms. The investigations are focused on the single-line inverted siphon, which is used as under-road connection of pipes of the storm-water system under interest. A multi-phase flow solver of Computational Fluid Dynamics software OpenFOAM is used for simulating the three-phase flow dynamics in the hydraulic system. The CFD simulations are performed with different inflow rates under same initial conditions. The computational results are compared essentially in two cases 1) design flow rate and 2) larger flow rate, for emptying the initially filled inverted siphon from a slurry-fluid. The larger flow-rate situations are under particular interest to detected possible flooding. In this regard, it is anticipated that the CFD solutions provide an important insight to functioning of inverted siphon under a restricted water-flow conditions at simultaneous presence of air and slurry-fluid.

  6. Morphology of geomagnetic storms, recorded at Hurbanovo, and its relation to solar activity

    Ochabova, P.; Psenakova, M.

    1977-01-01

    The morphological structure of geomagnetic storms was investigated using the data on 414 storms, recorded in the years 1949 to 1968 at the Geomagnetic Observatory of Hurbanovo (phi=47.9 deg N, lambda=18.2 deg E). These data also formed a suitable basis for investigating the effect of the solar activity on the characteristic features of storms. The storm-time variation of the geomagnetic field was considered after the Sq-variation had been eliminated. The sets of storms, i.e. 263 storms recorded at a time of high sunspot activity and 151 storms recorded at a time of low activity, were divided into 7 groups, depending on the duration of their initial phase. In 92% of the investigated storms the increase in the horizontal component lasted from 0 to 15 hrs. The effect of the solar activity was markedly reflected in the occurrence of very severe storms, as well as in the maximum decrease in the H-component in the main phase. This can also be seen in the rate at which the storms recover. (author)

  7. New forecasting methods of the intensity and time development of geomagnetic and ionospheric storms

    Akasofu, S.I.

    1981-01-01

    The main phase of a geomagnetic storm develops differently from one storm to another. A description is given of the solar wind quantity which controls directly the development of the main phase of geomagnetic storms. The parameters involved include the solar wind speed, the magnetic field intensity, and the polar angle of the solar wind magnetic field projected onto the dawn-dusk plane. A redefinition of geomagnetic storm and auroral activity is given. It is pointed out that geomagnetic disturbances are caused by the magnetic fields of electric currents which are generated by the solar wind-magnetosphere dynamo. Attention is given to approaches for forecasting the occurrence and intensity of geomagnetic storms and ionospheric disturbances

  8. Magnetic storm effect on the occurrence of ionospheric irregularities at an equatorial station in the African sector

    Olushola Abel Oladipo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale ionospheric irregularities usually measured by GPS TEC fluctuation indices are regular occurrence at the equatorial region shortly after sunset around solar maximum. Magnetic storm can trigger or inhibit the generation of these irregularities depending on the local time the main phase of a particular storm occurs. We studied the effect of nine (9 distinct storms on the occurrence of ionospheric irregularities at Fraceville in Gabon (Lat = −1.63˚, Long = 13.55˚, dip lat. = −15.94˚, an equatorial station in the African sector. These storms occurred between November 2001 and September 2002. We used TEC fluctuation indices (i.e. ROTI and ROTIAVE estimated from 30 s interval Rinex data and also we used the storm indices (i.e. Dst, dDst/dt, and IMF BZ to predict the likely effect of each storm on the irregularities occurrence at this station. The results obtained showed that most of the storms studied inhibited ionospheric irregularities. Only one out of all the storms studied (i.e. September 4, 2002 storms with the main phase on the night of September 7-8 triggered post-midnight ionospheric irregularities. There are two of the storms during which ionospheric irregularities were observed. However, these may not be solely attributed to the storms event because the level of irregularities observed during these two storms is comparable to that observed during previous days before the storms. For this station and for the storms investigated, it seems like a little modification to the use of Aarons categories in terms of the local time the maximum negative Dst occurs could lead to a better prediction. However, it would require investigating many storms during different level of solar activities and at different latitudes to generalize this modification.

  9. The Southern Hemisphere and equatorial region ionization response for a 22 September 1999 severe magnetic storm

    E. Yizengaw

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The ionospheric storm evolution process was monitored during the 22 September 1999 magnetic storm over the Australian eastern region, through measurements of the ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC from seven Global Positioning Systems (GPS stations. The spatial and temporal variations of the ionosphere were analysed as a time series of TEC maps. Results of our analysis show that the main ionospheric effect of the storm under consideration are: the long lasting negative storm effect during a magnetic storm at mid-latitude regions; the strong, positive disturbances during the storm's main phase at auroral latitude regions; the effects of storm-induced equatorward directed wind causing a positive disturbance at high and mid-latitude stations with appropriate time shift between higher and lower latitudes; daytime poleward movement of depleted plasma that causes temporary suppression of the equatorial anomaly during the start of the storm recovery phase; and prompt penetration of eastward electric fields to ionospheric altitudes and the production of nearly simultaneous TEC enhancement at all latitudes. In general, we found dominant negative disturbance over mid and high latitudes and positive disturbance at low latitudes. A comparison of storm-time behaviour of TEC determined from GPS satellites, and foF2 derived from ionosondes at a range of latitudes, showed reasonable agreement between the two independent measurements.

  10. Global distribution of GPS losses of phase lock and total electron content slips during the 2005 May 15 and the 2003 November 20 magnetic storms

    Yasyukevich, Yuriy; Astafeva, Elvira; Givetev, Ilya; Maksikov, Aleksey

    2015-12-01

    Using data of worldwide network of GPS receivers we investigated losses of GPS phase lock (LoL) during two strong magnetic storms. At fundamental L1 frequency, LoL density is found to increase up to 0.25 % and at L2 frequency the increase is up to 3 %. This is several times as much compared with the background level. During the 2003 November 20 magnetic storm, the number of total electron content (TEC) slips exceeded the background level ~50 times. During superstorms, the most number of GPS LoL is observed at low and high latitudes. At the same time, the area of numerous TEC slips correspond to auroral oval boundaries.

  11. Modeling the ocean effect of geomagnetic storms

    Olsen, Nils; Kuvshinov, A.

    2004-01-01

    At coastal sites, geomagnetic variations for periods shorter than a few days are strongly distorted by the conductivity of the nearby sea-water. This phenomena, known as the ocean (or coast) effect, is strongest in the magnetic vertical component. We demonstrate the ability to predict the ocean...... if the oceans are considered. Our analysis also indicates a significant local time asymmetry (i.e., contributions from spherical harmonics other than P-I(0)), especially during the main phase of the storm....

  12. Analysis of Storm Surge in Hong Kong

    Kao, W. H.

    2017-12-01

    A storm surge is a type of coastal flood that is caused by low-pressure systems such as tropical cyclones. Storm surges caused by tropical cyclones can be very powerful and damaging, as they can flood coastal areas, and even destroy infrastructure in serious cases. Some serious cases of storm surges leading to more than thousands of deaths include Hurricane Katrina (2005) in New Orleans and Typhoon Haiyan (2013) in Philippines. Hong Kong is a coastal city that is prone to tropical cyclones, having an average of 5-6 tropical cyclones entering 500km range of Hong Kong per year. Storm surges have seriously damaged Hong Kong in the past, causing more than 100 deaths by Typhoon Wanda (1962), and leading to serious damage to Tai O and Cheung Chau by Typhoon Hagupit (2008). To prevent economic damage and casualties from storm surges, accurately predicting the height of storm surges and giving timely warnings to citizens is very important. In this project, I will be analyzing how different factors affect the height of storm surge, mainly using data from Hong Kong. These factors include the windspeed in Hong Kong, the atmospheric pressure in Hong Kong, the moon phase, the wind direction, the intensity of the tropical cyclone, distance between the tropical cyclone and Hong Kong, the direction of the tropical cyclone relative to Hong Kong, the speed of movement of the tropical cyclone and more. My findings will also be compared with cases from other places, to see if my findings also apply for other places.

  13. Analysis of flow dynamics of main pulmonary artery by cine phase contrast MR angiography

    Honda, Norinari; Machida, Kikuo; Mamiya, Toshio

    1996-01-01

    Nineteen studies of cine phase contrast MR angiography (PCMRA) of main pulmonary artery (MPA) entered the study. Cine PCMRA was obtained by a 1.5T MR imager with a gradient echo sequence coupled with velocity encoding bipolar pulses. Retrospective EKG gating was used. Mean velocity, maximum velocity, and maximum flow rate of MPA were 6.2 to 28 cm/s (mean/SD 13/5.1, n=18), 61 to 148 cm/s (mean/SD 102/30, n=13), and 12,561 to 30,113 ml/min (mean/SD 18,730/5,464, n=18), respectively. Retrograde flow in the MPA was noted to begin at late-to mid-systole. Retrograde flow occurred first in the posterior part (15/19) or occurred from periphery (4/19). Thus hemodynamic parameters and velocity maps of MPA can be obtained by cine PCMRA. (author)

  14. Development of VLF noise storm and its relation to dynamics of magnetosphere during geomagnetic storms

    Fedyakina, N.I.; Khorosheva, O.V.

    1989-01-01

    Dependence between the development of geomagnetic storm and VLF noise storm is studied. Two conditions should be met for the development of noise storm in VLF-hiss (f ≅ 0.5-10 kHz): a) threshold intensity of electron fluxes with E e > 40 keV in plasma layers; b) the presence of substorms resulting to widening of electron belt and its collision with cold plasma of plasmasphere. The noise storm at the fixed longitude begins about midnight independently of the phase of magnetic storm; Noise storm duration is connected with geomagnetic storm intensity by direct linear relationship

  15. VLF emissions and whistlers observed during geomagnetic storms

    Ondoh, T.; Tanaka, Y.; Nishizaki, R.; Nagayama, M.

    1974-01-01

    Whistler-triggered emissions and a narrowband hiss are described which were observed over Japan by ISIS 2 during the main phase of the geomagnetic storm of August 9, 1972. The characteristics of the narrowband hiss and increases in the whistler rate during the storm are discussed, and the ISIS-2 data are compared with data on whistler cutoffs and VLF noise breakups obtained by OGO 4 and Alouette I. Since the whistlers and narrowband hiss are usually observed inside and outside the plasmapause, it is thought that the plasmapause may have been located near the low-latitude end of the narrowband hiss during the main phase of the storm. It is suggested that the increases in the whistler rate may have been caused by the formation of whistler ducts in the disturbed plasmapause.

  16. Oxidation behaviour of Ti2AIN films composed mainly of nanolaminated MAX phase.

    Wang, Q M; Garkas, W; Renteria, A Flores; Leyens, C; Kim, K H

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, we reported the oxidation behaviour of Ti2AIN films on polycrystalline Al2O3 substrates. The Ti2AIN films composed mainly of nanolaminated MAX phase was obtained by first depositing Ti-Al-N films using reactive sputtering of two elemental Ti and Al targets in Ar/N2 atmosphere and subsequent vacuum annealing at 800 degrees C for 1 h. The Ti2AIN films exhibited excellent oxidation resistance and thermal stability at 600-900 degrees C in air. Very low mass gain was observed. At low temperature (600 degrees C), no oxide crystals were observed on film surface. Blade-like Theta-Al2O3 fine crystals formed on film surfaces at 700-800 degrees C. At high temperature (900 degrees C), firstly Theta-Al2O3 formed on film surface and then transformed into alpha-Al2O3. At 700-900 degrees C, a continuous Al2O3 layer formed on Ti2AIN films surface, acting as diffusion barrier preventing further oxidation attack. The mechanism of the excellent oxidation resistance of Ti2AIN films was discussed based on the experimental results.

  17. Movie-maps of low-latitude magnetic storm disturbance

    Love, Jeffrey J.; Gannon, Jennifer L.

    2010-06-01

    We present 29 movie-maps of low-latitude horizontal-intensity magnetic disturbance for the years 1999-2006: 28 recording magnetic storms and 1 magnetically quiescent period. The movie-maps are derived from magnetic vector time series data collected at up to 25 ground-based observatories. Using a technique similar to that used in the calculation of Dst, a quiet time baseline is subtracted from the time series from each observatory. The remaining disturbance time series are shown in a polar coordinate system that accommodates both Earth rotation and the universal time dependence of magnetospheric disturbance. Each magnetic storm recorded in the movie-maps is different. While some standard interpretations about the storm time equatorial ring current appear to apply to certain moments and certain phases of some storms, the movie-maps also show substantial variety in the local time distribution of low-latitude magnetic disturbance, especially during storm commencements and storm main phases. All movie-maps are available at the U.S. Geological Survey Geomagnetism Program Web site (http://geomag.usgs.gov).

  18. Uniform magnetization reversal in dual main-phase (Ce,Nd)2Fe14B sintered magnets with inhomogeneous microstructure

    Zhang, Le-le; Li, Zhu-bai; Zhang, Xue-feng; Ma, Qiang; Liu, Yan-li; Li, Yong-feng; Zhao, Qian

    2017-01-01

    The element distribution and the magnetic properties were investigated in (Ce,Nd)–Fe–B sintered magnets prepared by mixing Nd 13.5 Fe 80 B 6.5 and Ce 9 Nd 4.5 Fe 80 B 6.5 powders with different mass ratios. Two main phases exist, but element diffusion is evident, and the chemical composition of the main phase is widely different from that of the master alloy. The Ce element tends to be expelled from the Ce-rich Re 2 Fe 14 B phase. Compared with the Ce-rich main phase, the Nd-rich Re 2 Fe 14 B phase is more stable in structure. Although the microstructure is inhomogeneous and the magnetocrystalline anisotropy is variable, the magnetization reversal is uniform in these dual main-phase magnets, which should ascribe to the existence of the exchange coupling, and magnetization reversal undergoes the nucleation of the reversed domain in irreversible magnetization. It is expected to further improve the coercivity by optimizing the distribution of the Nd-rich main phase in preparing the resource-saving (Ce,Nd) 2 Fe 14 B sintered magnets. (paper)

  19. The storm-time ring current: a statistical analysis at two widely separated low-latitude stations

    P. Francia

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a statistical analysis of the geomagnetic field variations during the storm main phase at two low-latitude stations, separated by several hours in magnetic local time, in order to investigate the asymmetry and longitudinal extent of the storm-time ring current. The results show evidence for an asymmetric current which typically extends from evening to noon and, during moderate solar wind electric field conditions, up to the early morning, confirming the important role of the magnetospheric convection in the ring current energization. We also analyzed a possible relationship between the local current intensity during the storm main phase and the substorm activity observed at different time delays τ with respect to the storm onset. The results show a significant anticorrelation for τ =-1h, indicating that if the substorm activity is high just before the storm, a weaker ring current develops.

  20. Geomagnetic storms

    McNamara, A.G.

    1980-01-01

    Disturbances due to geomagnetic storms can affect the functioning of communications satellites and of power lines and other long conductors. Two general classes of geomagnetic activity can be distinguished: ionospheric current flow (the auroral electrojet), and magnetospheric compression. Super magnetic storms, such as the one of August 1972, can occur at any time and average about 17 occurrences per century. Electrical transmission systems can be made more tolerant of such events at a price, but the most effective way to minimize damage is by better operator training coupled with effective early warning systems. (LL)

  1. Main results of German risk study, Phase B, in the light of methodological problems

    Koeberlein, K.

    1991-01-01

    The German Risk Study, Phase B, which has been performed for a 1,300 MWe KWU-type pressurized water reactor, is a level 2 probabilistic safety assessment (PSA). In the study, 32 initiating events have been considered. An expected plant damage state frequency of about 3x10 -5 per year has been calculated. In a plant damage state core meltdown can only be prevented by means of accident management procedures. The probability is high (about 98%) that in a plant damage state the primary system will not be depressurized. Core meltdown under high system pressure would endanger the containment integrity immediately. In most plant damage states accident management procedures are possible which bring the plant in a safe state or, at least, reduce the pressure in the primary system before the pressure vessel fails. On a preliminary basis, a success probability of 99% for accident management procedures (secondary or primary side bleed and feed) has been estimated. This results in an expected core melt frequency of about 4x10 -6 per year. The expected frequency of high pressure core meltdown is about 6x10 -7 per year. Loads on, and failure modes of, the containment during a core melt accident as well as release fractions after containment failure have been analyzed. The study did, however, refrain from quantifying the probability of containment failure modes. A main uncertainty in this area is the probability of containment failure due to hydrogen burning. The results of the study point out, that the risk can be reduced significantly if containment failure due to hydrogen burning can be reliably prevented

  2. Variation of Magnetic Field (By , Bz Polarity and Statistical Analysis of Solar Wind Parameters during the Magnetic Storm Period

    Ga-Hee Moon

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available It is generally believed that the occurrence of a magnetic storm depends upon the solar wind conditions, particularly the southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF component. To understand the relationship between solar wind parameters and magnetic storms, variations in magnetic field polarity and solar wind parameters during magnetic storms are examined. A total of 156 storms during the period of 1997~2003 are used. According to the interplanetary driver, magnetic storms are divided into three types, which are coronal mass ejection (CME-driven storms, co-rotating interaction region (CIR-driven storms, and complicated type storms. Complicated types were not included in this study. For this purpose, the manner in which the direction change of IMF By and Bz components (in geocentric solar magnetospheric coordinate system coordinate during the main phase is related with the development of the storm is examined. The time-integrated solar wind parameters are compared with the time-integrated disturbance storm time (Dst index during the main phase of each magnetic storm. The time lag with the storm size is also investigated. Some results are worth noting: CME-driven storms, under steady conditions of Bz < 0, represent more than half of the storms in number. That is, it is found that the average number of storms for negative sign of IMF Bz (T1~T4 is high, at 56.4%, 53.0%, and 63.7% in each storm category, respectively. However, for the CIR-driven storms, the percentage of moderate storms is only 29.2%, while the number of intense storms is more than half (60.0% under the Bz < 0 condition. It is found that the correlation is highest between the time-integrated IMF Bz and the time-integrated Dst index for the CME-driven storms. On the other hand, for the CIR-driven storms, a high correlation is found, with the correlation coefficient being 0.93, between time-integrated Dst index and time-integrated solar wind speed, while a low correlation, 0.51, is

  3. Dynamics of a longitudinal current during a magnetic storm

    Dolginov, S.Sh.; Zhuzgov, L.N.; Kosacheva, V.P.; Strunnikova, L.N.; Tyurmina, L.O.; Sharova, V.A.; Shkol'nikova, S.I.

    1984-01-01

    Results, investigating a spatial distribution and the structure of longitudinal currents during a magnetic storm at 18-19.09.81, are presented. It is shown that during the main phase of the storm the large-scale current system expands to the equator, and current density increases. Inside the current layer and to the pole of it there appears intensive small scale longitudinal l currents. During magnetic storm restopation phase the current system segregates into several pairs of opposite directed currents. During further decreasing of geomagnetic activity the large-scale current system is restored+ and its center is shifted to the pole, longitudinal current density being decreased. The invariant width of longitudinal currents is decreased, while the magnitude, Dsub(st), being increased, that is connected to the displacement of an auroral oval to the equator

  4. On the Reduced Geoeffectiveness of Solar Cycle 24: A Moderate Storm Perspective

    Selvakumaran, R.; Veenadhari, B.; Akiyama, S.; Pandya, Megha; Gopalswamy, N,; Yashiro, S.; Kumar, Sandeep; Makela, P.; Xie, H.

    2016-01-01

    The moderate and intense geomagnetic storms are identified for the first 77 months of solar cycles 23 and 24. The solar sources responsible for the moderate geomagnetic storms are indentified during the same epoch for both the cycles. Solar cycle 24 has shown nearly 80% reduction in the occurrence of intense storms whereas it is only 40% in case of moderate storms when compared to previous cycle. The solar and interplanetary characteristics of the moderate storms driven by coronal mass ejection (CME) are compared for solar cycles 23 and 24 in order to see reduction in geoeffectiveness has anything to do with the occurrence of moderate storm. Though there is reduction in the occurrence of moderate storms, the Dst distribution does not show much difference. Similarly, the solar source parameters like CME speed, mass, and width did not show any significant variation in the average values as well as the distribution. The correlation between VBz and Dst is determined, and it is found to be moderate with value of 0.68 for cycle 23 and 0.61 for cycle 24. The magnetospheric energy flux parameter epsilon (epsilon) is estimated during the main phase of all moderate storms during solar cycles 23 and 24. The energy transfer decreased in solar cycle 24 when compared to cycle 23. These results are significantly different when all geomagnetic storms are taken into consideration for both the solar cycles.

  5. The gas phase structure of α -pinene, a main biogenic volatile organic compound

    Neeman, Elias M.; Avilés Moreno, Juan Ramón; Huet, Thérèse R.

    2017-12-01

    The gas phase structure of the bicyclic atmospheric aerosol precursor α-pinene was investigated employing a combination of quantum chemical calculation and Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy coupled to a supersonic jet expansion. The very weak rotational spectra of the parent species and all singly substituted 13C in natural abundance have been identified, from 2 to 20 GHz, and fitted to Watson's Hamiltonian model. The rotational constants were used together with geometrical parameters from density functional theory and ab initio calculations to determine the rs, r0, and rm(1 ) structures of the skeleton, without any structural assumption in the fit concerning the heavy atoms. The double C=C bond was found to belong to a quasiplanar skeleton structure containing 6 carbon atoms. Comparison with solid phase structure is reported. The significant differences of α-pinene in gas phase and other gas phase bicyclic monoterpene structures (β-pinene, nopinone, myrtenal, and bicyclo[3.1.1]heptane) are discussed.

  6. Magnetic storm effects on the mid-latitude plasmasphere

    Smith, A.J.; Clilverd, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    Whistler mode group delays observed at Faraday, Antarctica (65 o S,64 0 W) decrease after the onset of magnetic storms, and slowly recover to normal levels in 1 or 2 days. This is interpreted as a decrease (typically of ∼50%) and recovery of the plasmaspheric electron density at L = 2.5. Within 1 day of the main phase of storms with K p (max) between 6 and 8, the number of observed whistler ducts increases by a factor of 2 or 3, recovering in a few days. During the most intense storms (K p > 8) the duct number decreases. The frequency of occurrence of observed whistler mode signals increases during storms, due probably to enhanced ionospheric propagation of the signals; the storm time dependence implies that there is no link with the apparent increase in duct numbers. The amplitudes of received whistler mode signals are increased by up to a factor of 10 during storms: this is interpreted in terms of magnetospheric amplification through wave-particle interactions, though the evidence suggests that amplification is not necessarily the mechanism by which increased duct numbers are observed. There appears to be a real increase in the duct formation rate, consistent with Walker's (1978) theory in which ring current penetration of the plasmasphere creates a preferential region for duct formation 1.5 R E inside the plasmapause. (author)

  7. Ionosphere and thermosphere responses during August 1972 storms - a review

    Matsushita, S.

    1976-01-01

    Various reports of ionospheric responses during the August 1972 storm events are reviewed with respect to the phenomena in three major world sectors, N-S America, Afro-Europe, and Austro-Asia, in order to have a global picture. Emphasized highlights are (1) extensive investigation of the sudden increase of the total electron content estimated from Faraday-rotation measurements of satellite signals; (2) a dramatic upward surge above 300 km latitude, soon after a flare, measured by the Millstone Hill incoherent scatter radar; (3) electron density profiles, electric fields and conductivities, and neutral winds, at the time of the geomagnetic storm sudden commencement and during the succeeding storms, measured by the Chatanika incoherent scatter radar; and, (4) approximately 2.5-h oscillatory F2 density variations in Eastern Asia during the F2 storm main phase. To show temporal variations of the latitudinal distributions of storm-time F2 electron densities, in three longitudinal sectors separated about 60 0 longitude each, newly investigated results of the F2 hourly data at 35 stations in the Asia-Australia-Pacific sector are then exhibited. Finally, current theories or at least theoretical ideas of ionospheric storm mechanisms are briefly introduced, and a few remarks on the August events in the light of those theories are presented. (Auth.)

  8. Chromaticity correction in the TRISTAN phase I main ring with two types of insertion

    Wu, Yingzhi; Egawa, Kazumi.

    1984-07-01

    The TRISTAN main ring now under construction has four insertions. Besides the normal modes in which the four insertions have the same optics, the TRISTAN main ring will be operated in somewhat more complicated configurations with insertions having different optics. This report will consider chromaticity corrections using six families of sextupoles for the TRISTAN main ring with two different insertion types; opposite insertions have the same optics. The strength of correcting sextupoles is determined mainly using the W-correction method. The program PATRICIA is used to track the trajectories of test particles over 800 turns. The results show that the correction scheme adopted allows adequately large amplitudes of betatron and synchrotron oscillations. (author)

  9. Magnetic field of the magnetospheric ring current and its dynamics during magnetic storms

    Feldstein, Y.I.; Grafe, A.; Pisarsky, V.Yu.; Prigansova, A.; Sumaruk, P.V.

    1990-01-01

    This review examines models existing in the literature which describe the magnetic field produced by the ring current (DR) at the Earth's surface based on the energy balance equation. The parameters of this equation, the injection function F and decay parameter τ are considered to depend on parameters of the interplanetary medium and the DR intensity. The existing models are shown to be able to describe the DR variations with sufficient accuracy (r.m.s. deviation δ between the experimental and modelled values of DR for 170 magnetic storms is 5 < δ < 15 nT, and the correlation coefficient between the two is 0.85 < r < 1). The models describe that part of the geomagnetic field variation at low latitudes during a magnetic storm that is controlled by the geoeffective characteristics of the interplanetary medium and which thus responds immediately to its variations (the driven part). The values of τ are significantly less during the main phase of a magnetic storm than during the recovery phase. This reflects the difference in the main mechanisms of ion loss from the ring current during the two phases of the storm. These are the interaction of ions with hydromagnetic waves during the main phase of the storm with its intervals of intense plasma injection into the inner magnetosphere, and charge exchange with the cold hydrogen geocorona during the recovery phase. (author)

  10. Ionospheric Response to the Magnetic Storm of 22 June 2015

    Mansilla, Gustavo A.

    2018-03-01

    A global study is made of the response of the total electron content of the ionosphere (TEC) to the geomagnetic storm occurred on 22 June 2015 (one of the strongest geomagnetic storms of the current Solar Cycle 24). Using data from 44 sites, a hemispheric comparison is made by considering high latitudes (> 50°), middle latitudes (30°-50°) and low latitudes (30°N-30°S). The main features observed were: increases in TEC at high latitudes prior to the storm main phase, a considerable asymmetry of TEC response at middle and low latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere and decreases at equatorial latitudes. The long duration enhancements in TEC were well correlated with increases in the O/N2 ratio but decreases in TEC had not associated decreases in the O/N2 ratio as occur with the decreases in the electron density. Besides, prompt penetration electric fields can play an important role in the equatorial and low-latitude ionosphere during main phase of the storm.

  11. Geomagnetic storm forecasting service StormFocus: 5 years online

    Podladchikova, Tatiana; Petrukovich, Anatoly; Yermolaev, Yuri

    2018-04-01

    Forecasting geomagnetic storms is highly important for many space weather applications. In this study, we review performance of the geomagnetic storm forecasting service StormFocus during 2011-2016. The service was implemented in 2011 at SpaceWeather.Ru and predicts the expected strength of geomagnetic storms as measured by Dst index several hours ahead. The forecast is based on L1 solar wind and IMF measurements and is updated every hour. The solar maximum of cycle 24 is weak, so most of the statistics are on rather moderate storms. We verify quality of selection criteria, as well as reliability of real-time input data in comparison with the final values, available in archives. In real-time operation 87% of storms were correctly predicted while the reanalysis running on final OMNI data predicts successfully 97% of storms. Thus the main reasons for prediction errors are discrepancies between real-time and final data (Dst, solar wind and IMF) due to processing errors, specifics of datasets.

  12. Cenozoic intraplate tectonics in Central Patagonia: Record of main Andean phases in a weak upper plate

    Gianni, G. M.; Echaurren, A.; Folguera, A.; Likerman, J.; Encinas, A.; García, H. P. A.; Dal Molin, C.; Valencia, V. A.

    2017-11-01

    Contraction in intraplate areas is still poorly understood relative to similar deformation at plate margins. In order to contribute to its comprehension, we study the Patagonian broken foreland (PBF) in South America whose evolution remains controversial. Time constraints of tectonic events and structural characterization of this belt are limited. Also, major causes of strain location in this orogen far from the plate margin are enigmatic. To unravel tectonic events, we studied the Cenozoic sedimentary record of the central sector of the Patagonian broken foreland (San Bernardo fold and thrust belt, 44°30‧S-46°S) and the Andes (Meseta de Chalia, 46°S) following an approach involving growth-strata detection, U-Pb geochronology and structural modeling. Additionally, we elaborate a high resolution analysis of the effective elastic thickness (Te) to examine the relation between intraplate contraction location and variations in lithospheric strength. The occurrence of Eocene growth-strata ( 44-40 Ma) suggests that contraction in the Andes and the Patagonian broken foreland was linked to the Incaic phase. Detection of synextensional deposits suggests that the broken foreland collapsed partially during Oligocene to early Miocene. During middle Miocene times, the Quechua contractional phase produced folding of Neogene volcanic rocks and olistostrome deposition at 17 Ma. Finally, the presented Te map shows that intraplate contraction related to Andean phases localized preferentially along weak lithospheric zones (Te < 15 km). Hence, the observed strain distribution in the PBF appears to be controlled by lateral variations in the lithospheric strength. Variations in this parameter could be related to thermo-mechanical weakening produced by intraplate rifting in Paleozoic-Mesozoic times.

  13. Occurrence of Equatorial Plasma Bubbles during Intense Magnetic Storms

    Chao-Song Huang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An important issue in low-latitude ionospheric space weather is how magnetic storms affect the generation of equatorial plasma bubbles. In this study, we present the measurements of the ion density and velocity in the evening equatorial ionosphere by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP satellites during 22 intense magnetic storms. The DMSP measurements show that deep ion density depletions (plasma bubbles are generated after the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF turns southward. The time delay between the IMF southward turning and the first DMSP detection of plasma depletions decreases with the minimum value of the IMF Bz, the maximum value of the interplanetary electric field (IEF Ey, and the magnitude of the Dst index. The results of this study provide strong evidence that penetration electric field associated with southward IMF during the main phase of magnetic storms increases the generation of equatorial plasma bubbles in the evening sector.

  14. Magnetospheric storm dynamics in terms of energy output rate

    Prigancova, A.; Feldstein, Ya.I.

    1992-01-01

    Using hourly values of both the global magnetospheric disturbance characteristic DR, and AE index of auroral ionospheric currents during magnetic storm intervals, the energy output rate dynamics is evaluated for a magnetic storm main/recovery phase and a whole storm interval. The magnetospheric response to the solar wind energy input rate under varying interplanetary and magnetospheric conditions is considered from the temporal variability point of view. The peculiarities of the response are traced separately. As far as quantitative characteristics of energy output rate are concerned, the time dependence pattern of the ring current decay parameter is emphasized to be fairly important. It is pointed out that more insight into the plasma processes, especially at L = 3 - 5, is needed for adequate evidence of the dependence. (Author)

  15. Psychosocial and psychoeducational group program for main caregiver of mentally sick in early phase of schizophrenia

    Estíbaliz Amaro Martín

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Deinstitutionalization processes in recent times have led to a new age in relations between family and mental health professionals. Care professionals were replaced, after the psychiatric reform, for care carried out by the family without the knowledge, information and skills to assume these functions. This is the situation of many families of patients with schizophrenia.Disabling features of schizophrenia usually cause depends on their families, who take care with the consequent impact on their lives. Psychosocial interventions assessing their work and want to build an alliance with them by giving them skills and coping mechanisms to reduce adverse family atmosphere, anticipate and solve problems and reduce the expressions of anger and guilt keeping appropiate expectations. However, these actions must be enforced by providing main caregivers with the skills that enable them to gain control, this is the main target of psychoeducational programs.Today there are many people in favour of such interventions in the early stages of schizophrenia. However, it is no clear how far development of these programs is supported by evidence of effectiveness. So it has proposed a psychosocial and psychoeducational program aimed at main caregivers of patients with schizophrenia in early stages. This program will be led by a psychiatric nurse in collaboration with other professionals in the interdisciplinary team; psychiatrist, clinical psychologist and social worker. It has developed clinical trial with a control group who will receive the gide for families, caregivers and people affected, "Cómo afrontar la esquizofrenia," and an experimental group will receive, in addition to the guide, the group intervention sessions.

  16. [Diagnosis and treatment of thyroid storm].

    Akamizu, Takashi

    2012-11-01

    Thyrotoxic storm is a life-threatening condition requiring emergency treatment. Neither its epidemiological data nor diagnostic criteria have been fully established. We clarified the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of thyroid storm using nationwide surveys and then formulate diagnostic criteria for thyroid storm. To perform the nationwide survey on thyroid storm, we first developed tentative diagnostic criteria for thyroid storm, mainly based upon the literature (the first edition). We analyzed the relationship of the major features of thyroid storm to mortality and to certain other features. Finally, based upon the findings of these surveys, we revised the diagnostic criteria. Thyrotoxic storm is still a life-threatening disorder with over 10% mortality in Japan.

  17. Geomagnetic Storm Sudden Commencements

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Storm Sudden Commencements (ssc) 1868 to present: STORM1 and STORM2 Lists: (Some text here is taken from the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy...

  18. Safety study for HTR concepts under German site conditions. Main volume for phase I B

    1981-12-01

    Within the spectrum of accidents, core heat-up, caused by failure of the power supplies to the reactor or by interruption of the cooling system, is of major significance. This accident causes no serious effects to the environment if the reactor containment building remains intact; however, in certain infrequent events the containment building could fail due to overpressure after about one week at the earliest and a significant environmental hazard would ensue. The other accidents - depressurisation, water and air ingress - are by comparison of distinctly lower importance to the overall risk. A common feature of all the significant accidents is that within the first five hours the maximum release of radioactivity to the reactor containment building is the inventory of the primary circuit, while the fission product inventory of the core is securely retained. The accidents investigated are characterised in the study by the probability of occurrence, by the types and quantities of the fission products released and by the period of release. It was stipulated that in this phase of the study the health risk to the neighbouring population should not be determined. However, the estimated quantities of released nuclides and their associated time of release lead to the conclusion that the worst possible damage to the environment is very limited. This arises from the inherent safety characteristics of the HTR and the comparatively long period available for counter measures. (orig./HP) [de

  19. Use of probabilistic design methods for NASA applications. [to be used in design phase of Space Transportation Main Engine

    Safie, Fayssal M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a reliability evaluation process designed to improve the reliability of advanced launch systems. The work performed includes the development of a reliability prediction methodology to be used in the design phase of the Space Transportation Main Engine (STME). This includes prediction techniques which use historical data bases as well as deterministic and probabilistic engineering models for predicting design reliability. In summary, this paper describes a probabilistic design approach for the next-generation liquid rocket engine, the STME.

  20. EXTRASOLAR STORMS: PRESSURE-DEPENDENT CHANGES IN LIGHT-CURVE PHASE IN BROWN DWARFS FROM SIMULTANEOUS HST AND SPITZER OBSERVATIONS

    Yang, Hao; Apai, Dániel; Karalidi, Theodora [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Marley, Mark S. [NASA Ames Research Center, Naval Air Station, Moffett Field, Mountain View, CA 94035 (United States); Flateau, Davin [Department of Planetary Sciences, 1629 E. University Blvd., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Showman, Adam P. [Department of Planetary Sciences, University of Arizona, 1629 University Blvd., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Metchev, Stanimir [The University of Western Ontario, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Centre for Planetary Science and Exploration, 1151 Richmond St., London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada); Buenzli, Esther [Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zürich Wolfgang-Pauli-Str. 27, 8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Radigan, Jacqueline [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Dr., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Artigau, Étienne [Département de Physique, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128 Succ. Centre-ville, Montréal, QC H3C 3J7 (Canada); Lowrance, Patrick J. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, MS 100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Burgasser, Adam J., E-mail: haoyang@email.arizona.edu, E-mail: apai@arizona.edu [Center for Astrophysics and Space Science, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2016-07-20

    We present Spitzer /Infrared Array Camera Ch1 and Ch2 monitoring of six brown dwarfs during eight different epochs over the course of 20 months. For four brown dwarfs, we also obtained simulataneous Hubble Space Telescope ( HST )/WFC3 G141 grism spectra during two epochs and derived light curves in five narrowband filters. Probing different pressure levels in the atmospheres, the multiwavelength light curves of our six targets all exhibit variations, and the shape of the light curves evolves over the timescale of a rotation period, ranging from 1.4 to 13 hr. We compare the shapes of the light curves and estimate the phase shifts between the light curves observed at different wavelengths by comparing the phase of the primary Fourier components. We use state-of-the-art atmosphere models to determine the flux contribution of different pressure layers to the observed flux in each filter. We find that the light curves that probe higher pressures are similar and in phase, but are offset and often different from the light curves that probe lower pressures. The phase differences between the two groups of light curves suggest that the modulations seen at lower and higher pressures may be introduced by different cloud layers.

  1. Radionuclides retention in C-S-H, main phases of cement matrices for low and intermediate-level wastes

    Badillo A, V. E.; Lopez R, C.; Vidal M, J.; Gutierrez B, O.

    2014-10-01

    Knowing that the behavior of cementitious materials based on hydraulic binder called cement is essentially determined by the physicochemical evolution of the cement paste (water + cement) which constitutes it, the evolution of the cement paste in contact with different aqueous solutions is studied since one of the main risks in safety of systems is composed of surface and groundwater, which contribute to the alteration of the different barriers and represent the main way of radionuclides transport. The calcium silicates CSH are the main phases that compose the systems based on Portland cement. The hydrates calcium silicates possess a high degree of structural complexity which includes crystalline, partially crystalline and amorphous phases. In this study the microstructures of the CSH phases as well as the retention of radionuclide Sr (II) are studied through the 87m Sr in formulations of water/cement w/c = 0.55; experimental values of K d low around 20 ml g -1 are obtained in function of hydration time of the cement paste in equilibrium with aqueous solutions. (Author)

  2. The structure of the big magnetic storms

    Mihajlivich, J. Spomenko; Chop, Rudi; Palangio, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    The records of geomagnetic activity during Solar Cycles 22 and 23 (which occurred from 1986 to 2006) indicate several extremely intensive A-class geomagnetic storms. These were storms classified in the category of the Big Magnetic Storms. In a year of maximum solar activity during Solar Cycle 23, or more precisely, during a phase designated as a post-maximum phase in solar activity (PPM - Phase Post maximum), near the autumn equinox, on 29, October 2003, an extremely strong and intensive magnetic storm was recorded. In the first half of November 2004 (7, November 2004) an intensive magnetic storm was recorded (the Class Big Magnetic Storm). The level of geomagnetic field variations which were recorded for the selected Big Magnetic Storms, was ΔD st=350 nT. For the Big Magnetic Storms the indicated three-hour interval indices geomagnetic activity was Kp = 9. This study presents the spectral composition of the Di - variations which were recorded during magnetic storms in October 2003 and November 2004. (Author)

  3. Ionospheric Storm Effects and Equatorial Plasma Irregularities During the 17-18 March 2015 Event

    Zhou, Yun-Liang; Luhr, Hermann; Xiong, Chao; Pfaff, Robert F.

    2016-01-01

    The intense magnetic storm on 17-18 March 2015 caused large disturbances of the ionosphere. Based on the plasma density (Ni) observations performed by the Swarm fleet of satellites, the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment mission, and the Communications/Navigation Outage Forecasting System satellite, we characterize the storm-related perturbations at low latitudes. All these satellites sampled the ionosphere in morning and evening time sectors where large modifications occurred. Modifications of plasma density are closely related to changes of the solar wind merging electric field (E (sub m)). We consider two mechanisms, prompt penetration electric field (PPEF) and disturbance dynamo electric field (DDEF), as the main cause for the Ni redistribution, but effects of meridional wind are also taken into account. At the start of the storm main phase, the PPEF is enhancing plasma density on the dayside and reducing it on the nightside. Later, DDEF takes over and causes the opposite reaction. Unexpectedly, there appears during the recovery phase a strong density enhancement in the morning/pre-noon sector and a severe Ni reduction in the afternoon/evening sector, and we suggest a combined effect of vertical plasma drift, and meridional wind is responsible for these ionospheric storm effects. Different from earlier studies about this storm, we also investigate the influence of storm dynamics on the initiation of equatorial plasma irregularities (EPIs). Shortly after the start of the storm main phase, EPIs appear in the post-sunset sector. As a response to a short-lived decline of E (sub m), EPI activity appears in the early morning sector. Following the second start of the main phase, EPIs are generated for a few hours in the late evening sector. However, for the rest of the storm main phase, no more EPIs are initiated for more than 12 hours. Only after the onset of recovery phase does EPI activity start again in the post-midnight sector, lasting more than 7 hours

  4. Storm/substorm signatures in the outer belt

    Korth, A.; Friedel, R.H.W.; Mouikis, C.; Fennell, J.F.

    1998-01-01

    The response of the ring current region is compared for periods of storm and substorm activity, with an attempt to isolate the contributions of both processes. The authors investigate CRRES particle data in an overview format that allows the display of long-term variations of the outer radiation belt. They compare the evolution of the ring current population to indicators of storm (Dst) and substorm (AE) activity and examine compositional changes. Substorm activity leads to the intensification of the ring current at higher L (L ∼ 6) and lower ring current energies compared to storms (L ∼ 4). The O + /H + ratio during substorms remains low, near 10%, but is much enhanced during storms (can exceed 100%). They conclude that repeated substorms with an AE ∼ 900 nT lead to a ΔDst of ∼ 30 nT, but do not contribute to Dst during storm main phase as substorm injections do not form a symmetric ring current during such disturbed times

  5. Where is the magnetic energy for the expansion phase of auroral substorms accumulated? 2. The main body, not the magnetotail

    Akasofu, Syun-Ichi

    2017-08-01

    It is suggested that the magnetosphere tries to stabilize itself by quickly unloading the magnetic energy accumulated within its main body, when the accumulated magnetic energy exceeds a limited amount, which can be identified as the energy for the expansion phase. It is this process which manifests as the impulsive expansion phase, during which auroral arcs advance well beyond the presubstorm latitude in the midnight sector. It was shown in the previous paper that the magnetotail does not have enough magnetic energy for a medium substorm (energy 5 × 1015 J; AE = 1000 nT). In this paper, it is shown that (1) the reason of the short lifetime (1-1.5 h) of the expansion phase is due to the fact that a limited amount of magnetic energy accumulated during the growth phase is dissipated in a period similar to the duration of the growth phase (1-1.5 h); the accumulation rate is similar to the dissipation rate during the expansion phase: (2) when the main body of the magnetosphere accumulates the magnetic energy, it is inflated; β (= (nkT/B2/8π)) even at XGSM = -6 RE becomes close to 1.0 for magnetic energy (2.9 × 1014 J) which is less than the amount consumed by a medium intensity substorm. (3) As a result, the plasma sheet current and thus the magnetosphere are expected to become unstable, unloading the accumulated excess magnetic energy and resulting in current reduction and deflation. (4) The resulting deflation can cause an earthward electric field of 5-50 mV/m, which can generate Bostrom's current system, which is mainly responsible in producing various phenomena of the expansion phase. (5) The large range of substorm intensity (AE = 100-2000 nT) is likely to be due to the location where the energy is accumulated; the closer is the distance to the Earth (XGSM between -10 RE and -4 RE), the more intense the substorm intensity is.

  6. Chromospheric Response during the Precursor and the Main Phase of a B6.4 Flare on 2005 August 20

    Awasthi, Arun Kumar; Rudawy, Pawel; Falewicz, Robert; Berlicki, Arkadiusz; Liu, Rui

    2018-05-01

    Solar flare precursors depict a constrained rate of energy release, in contrast to the imminent rapid energy release, which calls for a different regime of plasma processes to be at play. Due to the subtle emission during the precursor phase, its diagnostics remain delusive, revealing either nonthermal electrons (NTEs) or thermal conduction to be the driver. In this regard, we investigate the chromospheric response during various phases of a B6.4 flare on 2005 August 20. Spatiotemporal investigation of flare ribbon enhancement during the precursor phase, carried out using spectra images recorded in several wavelength positions on the Hα line profile, revealed its delayed response (180 s) compared to the X-ray emission, as well as a sequential increment in the width of the line profile, which are indicative of a slow heating process. However, the energy contained in the Hα emission during the precursor phase can reach as high as 80% of that estimated during the main phase. Additionally, the plasma hydrodynamics during the precursor phase, resulting from the application of a single-loop one-dimensional model, revealed the presence of a power-law extension in the model-generated X-ray spectra, with a flux lower than the RHESSI background. Therefore, our multiwavelength diagnostics and hydrodynamical modeling of the precursor emission indicates the role of a two-stage process. First, reconnection-triggered NTEs, although too small in flux to overcome the observational constraints, thermalize in the upper chromosphere. This leads to the generation of a slow conduction front, which causes plasma heating during the precursor phase.

  7. Ring current and auroral electrojets in connection with interplanetary medium parameters during magnetic storm

    Y. I. Feldstein

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the auroral electrojet indices (AE and the ring current magnetic field (DR was investigated by observations obtained during the magnetic storm on 1-3 April 1973. During the storm main phase the DR development is accompanied by a shift of the auroral electrojets toward the equator. As a result, the standard AE indices calculated on the basis of data from auroral observatories was substantially lower than the real values (AE'. To determine AE' during the course of a storm main phase data from subauroral magnetic observatories should be used. It is shown that the intensity of the indices (AE' which take into account the shift of the electrojets is increased substantially relative to the standard indices during the storm main phase. AE' values are closely correlated with geoeffective solar wind parameters. A high correlation was obtained between AE' and the energy flux into the ring current during the storm main phase. Analysis of magnetic field variations during intervals with intense southward IMF components demonstrates a decrease of the saturation effect of auroral electrojet currents if subauroral stations magnetic field variations are taken into account. This applies both to case studies and statistical data. The dynamics of the electrojets in connection with the development of the ring current and of magnetospheric substorms can be described by the presence (absence of saturation for minimum (maximum AE index values during a 1-h interval. The ring current magnetic field asymmetry (ASY was calculated as the difference between the maximum and minimum field values along a parallel of latitude at low latitudes. The ASY value is closely correlated with geoeffective solar wind parameters and simultaneously is a more sensitive indicator of IMF Bz variations than the symmetric ring current. ASY increases (decreases faster during the main phase (the recovery phase than DR. The magnetic field decay at low latitudes in the

  8. Similarity and differences in morphology and mechanisms of the foF2 and TEC disturbances during the geomagnetic storms on 26–30 September 2011

    M. V. Klimenko

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an analysis of the ground-based observations and model simulations of ionospheric electron density disturbances at three longitudinal sectors (eastern European, Siberian and American during geomagnetic storms that occurred on 26–30 September 2011. We use the Global Self-consistent Model of the Thermosphere, Ionosphere and Protonosphere (GSM TIP to reveal the main mechanisms influencing the storm-time behavior of the total electron content (TEC and the ionospheric F2 peak critical frequency (foF2 during different phases of geomagnetic storms. During the storm's main phase the long-lasting positive disturbances in TEC and foF2 at sunlit mid-latitudes are mainly explained by the storm-time equatorward neutral wind. The effects of eastward electric field can only explain the positive ionospheric storm in the first few hours of the initial storm phase. During the main phase the ionosphere was more changeable than the plasmasphere. The positive disturbances in the electron content at the plasmaspheric heights (800–20 000 km at high latitudes can appear simultaneously with the negative disturbances in TEC and foF2. The daytime positive disturbances in foF2 and TEC occurred at middle and low latitudes and at the Equator due to n(O ∕ n(N2 enhancement during later stage of the main phase and during the recovery phase of the geomagnetic storm. The plasma tube diffusional depletion and negative disturbances in electron and neutral temperature were the main formation mechanisms of the simultaneous formation of the positive disturbances in foF2 and negative disturbances in TEC at low latitudes during the storm's recovery phase.

  9. Proxy records of Holocene storm events in coastal barrier systems: Storm-wave induced markers

    Goslin, Jérôme; Clemmensen, Lars B.

    2017-10-01

    Extreme storm events in the coastal zone are one of the main forcing agents of short-term coastal system behavior. As such, storms represent a major threat to human activities concentrated along the coasts worldwide. In order to better understand the frequency of extreme events like storms, climate science must rely on longer-time records than the century-scale records of instrumental weather data. Proxy records of storm-wave or storm-wind induced activity in coastal barrier systems deposits have been widely used worldwide in recent years to document past storm events during the last millennia. This review provides a detailed state-of-the-art compilation of the proxies available from coastal barrier systems to reconstruct Holocene storm chronologies (paleotempestology). The present paper aims (I) to describe the erosional and depositional processes caused by storm-wave action in barrier and back-barrier systems (i.e. beach ridges, storm scarps and washover deposits), (ii) to understand how storm records can be extracted from barrier and back-barrier sedimentary bodies using stratigraphical, sedimentological, micro-paleontological and geochemical proxies and (iii) to show how to obtain chronological control on past storm events recorded in the sedimentary successions. The challenges that paleotempestology studies still face in the reconstruction of representative and reliable storm-chronologies using these various proxies are discussed, and future research prospects are outlined.

  10. Observations of ions of ionospheric origin in the storm-time ring current

    Johnson, R.G.; Sharp, R.D.; Shelley, E.G.

    1977-01-01

    O + , He + , and H + ions in the energy range 0.5 to 16 keV have been observed in the storm-time ring current with an energetic ion mass spectrometer aboard the polar-orbiting S3-3 satellite. During the main phases of the 29 December 1976, 6 April 1977, and 19 April 1977 magnetic storms, the O + number density within the instrument energy range in the inner ring current (L=2.8--4.0) was larger than the H + density in the altitude range from about 5000--7000 km. At two days after the main phase of the 29 December 1976 storm, O + was still the dominant ion at MLT=14.5 hours in the L=2.6--3.4 range at altitudes near 6000 km

  11. Solar noise storms

    Elgaroy, E O

    2013-01-01

    Solar Noise Storms examines the properties and features of solar noise storm phenomenon. The book also presents some theories that can be used to gain a better understanding of the phenomenon. The coverage of the text includes topics that cover the features and behavior of noise storms, such as the observable features of noise storms; the relationship between noise storms and the observable features on the sun; and ordered behavior of storm bursts in the time-frequency plane. The book also covers the spectrum, polarization, and directivity of noise storms. The text will be of great use to astr

  12. Solar wind-magnetosphere coupling during intense magnetic storms (1978-1979)

    Gonzalez, Walter D.; Gonzalez, Alicia L. C.; Tsurutani, Bruce T.; Smith, Edward J.; Tang, Frances

    1989-01-01

    The solar wind-magnetosphere coupling problem during intense magnetic storms was investigated for ten intense magnetic storm events occurring between August 16, 1978 to December 28, 1979. Particular attention was given to the dependence of the ring current energization on the ISEE-measured solar-wind parameters and the evolution of the ring current during the main phase of the intense storms. Several coupling functions were tested as energy input, and several sets of the ring current decay time-constant were searched for the best correlation with the Dst response. Results indicate that a large-scale magnetopause reconnection operates during an intense storm event and that the solar wind ram pressure plays an important role in the energization of the ring current.

  13. Geomagnetic storm effects on the occurrences of ionospheric irregularities over the African equatorial/low-latitude region

    Amaechi, P. O.; Oyeyemi, E. O.; Akala, A. O.

    2018-04-01

    The study investigated the effects of intense geomagnetic storms of 2015 on the occurrences of large scale ionospheric irregularities over the African equatorial/low-latitude region. Four major/intense geomagnetic storms of 2015 were analyzed for this study. These storms occurred on 17th March 2015 (-229 nT), 22nd June 2015 (-204 nT), 7th October 2015 (-124 nT), and 20th December 2015 (-170 nT). Total Electron Content (TEC) data obtained from five African Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) stations, grouped into eastern and western sectors were used to derive the ionospheric irregularities proxy indices, e.g., rate of change of TEC (ROT), ROT index (ROTI) and ROTI daily average (ROTIAVE). These indices were characterized alongside with the disturbance storm time (Dst), the Y component of the Interplanetary Electric Field (IEFy), polar cap (PC) index and the H component of the Earth's magnetic field from ground-based magnetometers. Irregularities manifested in the form of fluctuations in TEC. Prompt penetration of electric field (PPEF) and disturbance dynamo electric field (DDEF) modulated the behaviour of irregularities during the main and recovery phases of the geomagnetic storms. The effect of electric field over both sectors depends on the local time of southward turning of IMF Bz. Consequently, westward electric field inhibited irregularities during the main phase of March and October 2015 geomagnetic storms, while for the June 2015 storm, eastward electric field triggered weak irregularities over the eastern sector. The effect of electric field on irregularities during December 2015 storm was insignificant. During the recovery phase of the storms, westward DDEF suppressed irregularities.

  14. Magnesium, Iron and Aluminum in LLNL Air Particulate and Rain Samples with Reference to Magnesium in Industrial Storm Water

    Esser, Bradley K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bibby, Richard K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Fish, Craig [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-08-25

    Storm water runoff from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory’s (LLNL’s) main site and Site 300 periodically exceeds the Discharge Permit Numeric Action Level (NAL) for Magnesium (Mg) under the Industrial General Permit (IGP) Order No. 2014-0057-DWQ. Of particular interest is the source of magnesium in storm water runoff from the site. This special study compares new metals data from air particulate and precipitation samples from the LLNL main site and Site 300 to previous metals data for storm water from the main site and Site 300 and alluvial sediment from the main site to investigate the potential source of elevated Mg in storm water runoff. Data for three metals (Mg, Iron {Fe}, and Aluminum {Al}) were available from all media; data for additional metals, such as Europium (Eu), were available from rain, air particulates, and alluvial sediment. To attribute source, this study compared metals concentration data (for Mg, Al, and Fe) in storm water and rain; metal-metal correlations (Mg with Fe, Mg with Al, Al with Fe, Mg with Eu, Eu with Fe, and Eu with Al) in storm water, rain, air particulates, and sediments; and metal-metal ratios ((Mg/Fe, Mg/Al, Al/Fe, Mg/Eu, Eu/Fe, and Eu/Al) in storm water, rain, air particulates and sediments. The results presented in this study are consistent with a simple conceptual model where the source of Mg in storm water runoff is air particulate matter that has dry-deposited on impervious surfaces and subsequently entrained in runoff during precipitation events. Such a conceptual model is consistent with 1) higher concentrations of metals in storm water runoff than in precipitation, 2) the strong correlation of Mg with Aluminum (Al) and Iron (Fe) in both storm water and air particulates, and 3) the similarity in metal mass ratios between storm water and air particulates in contrast to the dissimilarity of metal mass ratios between storm water and precipitation or alluvial sediment. The strong correlation of Mg with Fe and Al

  15. A study of the effect of geomagnetic storms on low latitude whistlers

    Rao, Manoranjan; Somayajulu, V.V.; Dikshit, S.K.

    1974-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a detailed study of the influence of geomagnetic storms on low latitude whistlers recorded on ground. Studied in detail is the effect of the geomagnetic storm of March 6-10, 1970 on whistlers recorded at Gulmarg (Geomagnetic coordinates: 24 0 10'N; 147 0 24'E); results of analysis for the earlier storm of January 13-15, 1967 are included for comparison. Some of the important results of the present study are: (i) Both the whistler occurrence rate and dispersion increase simultaneously with Kp, (ii) During the decaying phase of the storm, changes in occurrence rate and in dispersion lag behind those in Kp, (iii) There is an indication of the existence of a cross-over latitude where tube contents may not change appreciably during storm periods, (iv) Multipath whistlers are observed only during disturbed conditions, (v) Duct life ranges between several hours to few days and (vi) Maximum number of ducts is observed during the main and recovery phases of the storm. (auth.)

  16. Effect of geomagnetic storms on VHF scintillations observed at low latitude

    Singh, S. B.; Patel, Kalpana; Singh, A. K.

    2018-06-01

    A geomagnetic storm affects the dynamics and composition of the ionosphere and also offers an excellent opportunity to study the plasma dynamics. In the present study, we have used the VHF scintillations data recorded at low latitude Indian station Varanasi (Geomag. latitude = 14^{°}55^' }N, long. = 154^{°}E) which is radiated at 250 MHz from geostationary satellite UFO-02 during the period 2011-2012 to investigate the effects of geomagnetic storms on VHF scintillation. Various geomagnetic and solar indices such as Dst index, Kp index, IMF Bz and solar wind velocity (Vx) are used to describe the geomagnetic field variation observed during geomagnetic storm periods. These indices are very helpful to find out the proper investigation and possible interrelation between geomagnetic storms and observed VHF scintillation. The pre-midnight scintillation is sometimes observed when the main phase of geomagnetic storm corresponds to the pre-midnight period. It is observed that for geomagnetic storms for which the recovery phase starts post-midnight, the probability of occurrence of irregularities is enhanced during this time and extends to early morning hours.

  17. Co-crystallization phase transformations in all π-conjugated block copolymers with different main-chain moieties.

    Lee, Yi-Huan; Chen, Wei-Chih; Yang, Yi-Lung; Chiang, Chi-Ju; Yokozawa, Tsutomu; Dai, Chi-An

    2014-05-21

    Driven by molecular affinity and balance in the crystallization kinetics, the ability to co-crystallize dissimilar yet self-crystallizable blocks of a block copolymer (BCP) into a uniform domain may strongly affect its phase diagram. In this study, we synthesize a new series of crystalline and monodisperse all-π-conjugated poly(2,5-dihexyloxy-p-phenylene)-b-poly(3-(2-ethylhexyl)thiophene) (PPP-P3EHT) BCPs and investigate this multi-crystallization effect. Despite vastly different side-chain and main-chain structures, PPP and P3EHT blocks are able to co-crystallize into a single uniform domain comprising PPP and P3EHT main-chains with mutually interdigitated side-chains spaced in-between. With increasing P3EHT fraction, PPP-P3EHTs undergo sequential phase transitions and form hierarchical superstructures including predominately PPP nanofibrils, co-crystalline nanofibrils, a bilayer co-crystalline/pure P3EHT lamellar structure, a microphase-separated bilayer PPP-P3EHT lamellar structure, and finally P3EHT nanofibrils. In particular, the presence of the new co-crystalline lamellar structure is the manifestation of the interaction balance between self-crystallization and co-crystallization of the dissimilar polymers on the resulting nanostructure of the BCP. The current study demonstrates the co-crystallization nature of all-conjugated BCPs with different main-chain moieties and may provide new guidelines for the organization of π-conjugated BCPs for future optoelectronic applications.

  18. Main corrective measures in an early phase of nuclear power plants’ preparation for safe long term operation

    Krivanek, Robert, E-mail: r.krivanek@iaea.org [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Department of Nuclear Safety and Security, Operational Safety Section, Vienna 1400 (Austria); Fiedler, Jan, E-mail: fiedler@fme.vutbr.cz [University of Technology Brno, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Energy Institute, Technická 2896/2, 616 69 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Results of SALTO missions provide the most important issues for safe long term operation (LTO) of nuclear power plants. • The most important technical corrective measures in an early phase of preparation for safe LTO are described. • Their satisfactory resolution creates a basis for further activities to demonstrate preparedness for safe LTO. - Abstract: This paper presents the analysis of main technical deficiencies of nuclear power plants (NPPs) in preparedness for safe long term operation (LTO) and the main corrective measures in an early phase of preparation for safe LTO of NPPs. It focuses on technical aspects connected with management of physical ageing of NPP structures, systems and components (SSCs). It uses as a basis results of IAEA SALTO missions performed between 2005 and 2016 (see also paper NED8805 in Nuclear Engineering and Design in May 2016) and the personal experiences of the authors with preparation of NPPs for safe LTO. This paper does not discuss other important aspects of safe LTO of NPPs, e.g. national nuclear energy policies, compliance of NPPs with the latest international requirements on design, obsolescence, environmental impact and economic aspects of LTO. Chapter 1 provides a brief introduction of the current status of the NPP’ fleet in connection with LTO. Chapter 2 provides an overview of SALTO peer review service results with a focus on deficiencies related to physical ageing of safety SSCs and a demonstration that SSCs will perform their safety function during the intended period of LTO. Chapter 3 discusses the main corrective measures which NPPs typically face during the preparation for demonstration of safe LTO. Chapter 4 summarizes the current status of the NPP’ fleet in connection with LTO and outlines further steps needed in preparation for safe LTO.

  19. Magnetic storm injection of 0.9- to 16-keV/e solar and terrestrial ions into the high-altitude magnetosphere

    Balsiger, H.; Eberhardt, P.; Geiss, J.; Young, D.T.

    1980-01-01

    The Geos 1 ion composition experiments has surveyed the plasma composition in the energy per charge range below 16 keV/e at all local times and at L=3--8. During quiet and moderately disturbed times, H + is the dominant species with a few percent of heavy (M/Q>1) ions. Substorms and storms increase the relative amount of heavy ions, and occasionally, they can become the dominant species in the outer magnetosphere. Two sources, the solar wind (characterized by 4 He ++ ) and the ionosphere (characterized by O + ), give on the average comparable contributions to storm time plasma, although in individual storms one or the other may dominate. Data presented here suggest that high-altitude thermal plasma or the plasmasphere (characterized by He + and O ++ ) must be considered as a third source. Under storm conditions with Geos in the dawn-noon local time sector we have observed a mixed composition region just inside the magnetopause where high fluxes of H + , He ++ , O + , and occasionally He + ions are present. During several storms a composition profile could be measured down to Lapprox.3. Both O + and He + increase toward low altitudes, and O + (within our energy range) can become dominant at the inner edge of the ring current. On April 30, 1978, during a storm, O + contributed > or approx. =8% to the total local energy density of the ring current particles at L=4.1. In no storm has He + been observed to be the main constituent during the recovery phase. During storm recovery, H + and O + are the dominant ions, the H + /O + ratio remaining constant or even increasing during the days following the main phase of the storms. This suggests that charge exchange is not the only loss mechanism for the storm time ring current and/or that H + is replenished during the recovery phase

  20. NCDC Storm Events Database

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Storm Data is provided by the National Weather Service (NWS) and contain statistics on personal injuries and damage estimates. Storm Data covers the United States of...

  1. Reactivity of main components and substituent distribution in esterified sugarcane bagasse prepared by effective solid phase reaction.

    Gan, Tao; Zhang, Yanjuan; Chen, Yane; Hu, Huayu; Yang, Mei; Huang, Zuqiang; Chen, Dong; Huang, Aimin

    2018-02-01

    Three main components of lignocellulose (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin isolated from sugarcane bagasse (SCB)) as well as holocellulose and SCB were modified with maleic acid by mechanical activation (MA)-assisted solid phase reaction (MASPR) technology. The order of reactivity was found to be lignin>hemicellulose>cellulose. The amorphous structure of lignin and hemicellulose mainly attributed to their better reactivity, and the modified lignin could reach a maximum degree of esterification (DE) of 93.45%. MA improved the accessibility and reactivity of cellulose, as the DE of modified cellulose gradually increased with milling time and reached the maximum value of 57.30% at 120min, which had significant effect on structure changes and DE of modified holocellulose and SCB. MA enhanced the esterification of all three components in lignocellulose with relatively high substituent distribution in them, and maleated SCB with a maximum DE of 64.17% was successfully prepared by this simple, green, and effective MASPR technology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Development in risk level - Norwegian Shelf. Phase 7 main report 2006; Utvikling i risikonivaa - norsk sokkel. Fase 7 hovedrapport 2006

    NONE

    2007-04-15

    The project's main objective is to establish and evaluate status and trends for the risk level for the petroleum industry as a whole. The project has been based on two complementary assessment processes: 1. Register, analyze and evaluate data for defined risk and accident situations and contribution from barriers. 2. To conduct social science analyses, in phase 7, mainly by means of field work in two installations. On the basis of these data and indicators, a neutral development is observed in 2006. This includes central indicators related to major accidents, also helicopter accidents, as well as the frequency for severe personal injuries. For major accidents there has been a persistent trend that the frequency is declining, but the degree of seriousness ascends. There has been no fatal accidents in 2006, within the Petroleum Safety Authority Norway's jurisdiction. The field work points towards well service personnel as a challenging group, but a few arrangements have succeeded in improving conditions for this group (ml)

  3. The Earth's revolution, Moon phase, Syzygy astronomy events, their effect in disturbances of the Earth's geomagnetic field, and the ``Magnetic Storm Double Time Method'' for predicting the occurrence time, magnitude and epicenter location of earthquakes

    Chen, I. W.

    2003-04-01

    An increasing number of geomagnetic observation stations were established and operated in China since 1966 to the 1980s (and until present), effectively covering a large area of the nation. Close relativity between magnetic storms and earthquakes, as well as close relativity between the regional differences of magnetic disturbance recorded by these stations and the epicenter location of earthquakes, was discovered and observed by Tie-zheng Zhang during1966 - 1969. On such basis during 1969/1970, Zhang developed the “Magnetic Storm Double Time Method” for predicting the occurrence time, magnitude and epicenter location of EQs. By this method,.Zhang successfully predicted the Yunnan Tonghai Ms7.7 EQ Jan. 5, 1970 (occurrence date only), the Bohai ML5.2 EQ, Feb. 12, 1970 and other EQs, including the Haicheng Ms7.3 EQ Feb. 4, 1975, and the Tangshan Ms7.8 EQ July 28, 1976. On the basis of this method, Z.P. Shen developed the “Geomagnetic Deflection Angle Double Time Method” in 1970, and later developed the “Magnetic Storm - Moon Phase Double Time Method” in 1990s. With this method, Shen is able to predict the occurrence dates of most of the strongest EQs Ms37.5 on the Earth since 1991. Zhang also discovered that strong EQs often correspond with a number of sets of magnetic storms. Z.Q. Ren discovered close relativity exists between Syzygy astronomy events and such sets of magnetic storm as well as the occurrence dates of strong EQs. Computerized calculation of historical magnetic storm and EQ data proves the effectiveness of this method. Over 3,000 days of geomagnetic isoline images are computer processed by the Author from over 400,000 geomagnetic field data obtained by Zhang from over 100 geomagnetic observation stations during 1966 - 1984. Clear relativity is shown between the Earth’s revolution, Moon phases, Syzygy astronomy events related to the Earth, and their disturbance effect on the Earth’s geomagnetic field and the occurrence of EQs.

  4. Radial transport of storm time ring current ions

    Lui, A. T. Y.

    1993-01-01

    Radial transport of energetic ions for the development of the main phase of geomagnetic storms is investigated with data from the medium energy particle analyzer (MEPA) on the Charge Composition Explorer spacecraft, which monitored protons, helium ions, and the carbon-nitrogen-oxygen group, which is mostly dominated by oxygen ions. From a study of four geomagnetic storms, we show that the flux increase of these ions in the inner ring current region can be accounted for by an inward displacement of the ring current population by 0.5 to 3.5 R(E). There is a general trend that a larger inward displacement occurs at higher L shells than at lower ones. These results are in agreement with previous findings. The radially injected population consists of the prestorm population modified by substorm injections which occur on a much shorter time scale than that for a storm main phase. It is also found that the inward displacement is relatively independent of ion mass and energy, suggesting that the radial transport of these energetic ions is effected primarily by convective motion from a large electric field or by diffusion resulting from magnetic field fluctuations.

  5. Electrical storm: clinical manifestations and management.

    Littmann, L; Rennyson, S L

    2007-10-01

    Electrical storm is the clustering of hemodynamically destabilizing ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation that typically requires multiple electrical cardioversions or defibrillations within a 24-hour period. Electrical storm is frequently seen in the acute phase of myocardial infarction, in patients with the genetic arrhythmia syndromes, and in patients with implanted cardioverters-defibrillators. The evaluation and management should focus on the immediate suppression of the arrhythmia, a search for possible reversible causes, and attempts to prevent recurrences. In this review we present the most common conditions associated with electrical storm, therapeutic options for suppression of electrical storm, and new investigational techniques emerging for the treatment of electrical storm in refractory cases. The management of this life threatening arrhythmia typically requires the coordinated efforts of emergency medicine, critical care, cardiology, cardiac electrophysiology, and pacemaker experts.

  6. The evaluation and management of electrical storm.

    Eifling, Michael; Razavi, Mehdi; Massumi, Ali

    2011-01-01

    Electrical storm is an increasingly common and life-threatening syndrome that is defined by 3 or more sustained episodes of ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation, or appropriate shocks from an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator within 24 hours. The clinical presentation can be dramatic. Electrical storm can manifest itself during acute myocardial infarction and in patients who have structural heart disease, an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator, or an inherited arrhythmic syndrome. The presence or absence of structural heart disease and the electrocardiographic morphology of the presenting arrhythmia can provide important diagnostic clues into the mechanism of electrical storm. Electrical storm typically has a poor outcome.The effective management of electrical storm requires an understanding of arrhythmia mechanisms, therapeutic options, device programming, and indications for radiofrequency catheter ablation. Initial management involves determining and correcting the underlying ischemia, electrolyte imbalances, or other causative factors. Amiodarone and β-blockers, especially propranolol, effectively resolve arrhythmias in most patients. Nonpharmacologic treatment, including radiofrequency ablation, can control electrical storm in drug-refractory patients. Patients who have implantable cardioverter-defibrillators can present with multiple shocks and may require drug therapy and device reprogramming. After the acute phase of electrical storm, the treatment focus should shift toward maximizing heart-failure therapy, performing revascularization, and preventing subsequent ventricular arrhythmias. Herein, we present an organized approach for effectively evaluating and managing electrical storm.

  7. Geometric effects of ICMEs on geomagnetic storms

    Cho, KyungSuk; Lee, Jae-Ok

    2017-04-01

    It has been known that the geomagnetic storm is occurred by the interaction between the Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejection (ICME) and the Earth's magnetosphere; especially, the southward Bz component of ICME is thought as the main trigger. In this study, we investigate the relationship between Dst index and solar wind conditions; which are the southward Bz, electric field (VBz), and time integral of electric field as well as ICME parameters derived from toroidal fitting model in order to find what is main factor to the geomagnetic storm. We also inspect locations of Earth in ICMEs to understand the geometric effects of the Interplanetary Flux Ropes (IFRs) on the geomagnetic storms. Among 59 CDAW ICME lists, we select 30 IFR events that are available by the toroidal fitting model and classify them into two sub-groups: geomagnetic storms associated with the Magnetic Clouds (MCs) and the compression regions ahead of the MCs (sheath). The main results are as follows: (1) The time integral of electric field has a higher correlation coefficient (cc) with Dst index than the other parameters: cc=0.85 for 25 MC events and cc=0.99 for 5 sheath events. (2) The sheath associated intense storms (Dst ≤-100nT) having usually occur at flank regions of ICMEs while the MC associated intense storms occur regardless of the locations of the Earth in ICMEs. The strength of a geomagnetic storm strongly depends on electric field of IFR and durations of the IFR passages through the Earth.

  8. Storm-time ionization enhancements at the topside low-latitude ionosphere

    A. Dmitriev

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Ion density enhancements at the topside low-latitude ionosphere during a Bastille storm on 15–16 July 2000 and Halloween storms on 29–31 October 2003 were studied using data from ROCSAT-1/IPEI experiment. Prominent ion density enhancements demonstrate similar temporal dynamics both in the sunlit and in the nightside hemispheres. The ion density increases dramatically (up to two orders of magnitude during the main phase of the geomagnetic storms and reaches peak values at the storm maximum. The density enhancements are mostly localized in the region of a South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA, which is characterized by very intense fluxes of energetic particles. The dynamics of near-Earth radiation was studied using SAMPEX/LEICA data on >0.6 MeV electrons and >0.8 MeV protons at around 600 km altitude. During the magnetic storms the energetic particle fluxes in the SAA region and in its vicinity increase more than three orders of magnitude. The location of increased fluxes overlaps well with the regions of ion density enhancements. Two mechanisms were considered to be responsible for the generation of storm-time ion density enhancements: prompt penetration of the interplanetary electric field and abundant ionization of the ionosphere by enhanced precipitation of energetic particles from the radiation belt.

  9. Geomagnetically Induced Currents Around the World During the 17 March 2015 Storm

    Carter, B. A.; Yizengaw, E.; Pradipta, R.; Weygand, J. M.; Piersanti, M.; Pulkkinen, Antti Aleksi; Moldwin, M. B.; Norman, R.; Zhang, K.

    2016-01-01

    Geomagnetically induced currents (GICs) represent a significant space weather issue for power grid and pipeline infrastructure, particularly during severe geomagnetic storms. In this study, magnetometer data collected from around the world are analyzed to investigate the GICs caused by the 2015 St. Patricks Day storm. While significant GIC activity in the high-latitude regions due to storm time substorm activity is shown for this event, enhanced GIC activity was also measured at two equatorial stations in the American and Southeast Asian sectors. This equatorial GIC activity is closely examined, and it is shown that it is present both during the arrival of the interplanetary shock at the storm sudden commencement (SSC) in Southeast Asia and during the main phase of the storm approximately 10 h later in South America. The SSC caused magnetic field variations at the equator in Southeast Asia that were twice the magnitude of those observed only a few degrees to the north, strongly indicating that the equatorial electrojet (EEJ) played a significant role. The large equatorial magnetic field variations measured in South America are also examined, and the coincident solar wind data are used to investigate the causes of the sudden changes in the EEJ approximately 10 h into the storm. From this analysis it is concluded that sudden magnetopause current increases due to increases in the solarwind dynamic pressure, and the sudden changes in the resultant magnetospheric and ionospheric current systems, are the primary drivers of equatorial GICs.

  10. DE 2 observations of disturbances in the upper atmosphere during a geomagnetic storm

    Miller, N.J.; Brace, L.H.; Spencer, N.W.; Carignan, G.R.

    1990-01-01

    Data taken in the dusk sector of the mid-latitude thermosphere at 275-450 km by instruments on board Dynamics Explorer 2 in polar orbit are used to examine the response of the ionosphere- thermosphere system during a geomagnetic storm. The results represent the first comparison of nearly simultaneous measurements of storm disturbances in dc electric fields, zonal ion convection, zonal winds, gas composition and temperature, and electron density and temperature, at different seasons in a common local time sector. The storm commenced on November 24, 1982, during the interaction of a solar wind disturbance with the geomagnetic field while the north-south component of the interplanetary magnetic field, B z , was northward. The storm main phase began while B z was turning southward. Storm-induced variations in meridional de electric fields, neutral composition, and N e were stronger and spread farther equatorward in the winter hemisphere. Westward ion convection was intense enough to produce westward winds of 600 m s - 1 via ion drag in the winter hemisphere. Frictional heating was sufficient to elevate ion temperatures above electron temperatures in both seasons and to produce large chemical losses of O + by increasing the rate of O + loss via ion-atom interchange. Part of the chemical loss of O + was compensated by upward flow of O + as the ion scale height adjusted to the increasing ion temperatures. In this storm, frictional heating was an important subauroral heat source equatorward to at least 53 degree invariant latitude

  11. The Global Statistical Response of the Outer Radiation Belt During Geomagnetic Storms

    Murphy, K. R.; Watt, C. E. J.; Mann, I. R.; Jonathan Rae, I.; Sibeck, D. G.; Boyd, A. J.; Forsyth, C. F.; Turner, D. L.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Baker, D. N.; Spence, H. E.; Reeves, G. D.; Blake, J. B.; Fennell, J.

    2018-05-01

    Using the total radiation belt electron content calculated from Van Allen Probe phase space density, the time-dependent and global response of the outer radiation belt during storms is statistically studied. Using phase space density reduces the impacts of adiabatic changes in the main phase, allowing a separation of adiabatic and nonadiabatic effects and revealing a clear modality and repeatable sequence of events in storm time radiation belt electron dynamics. This sequence exhibits an important first adiabatic invariant (μ)-dependent behavior in the seed (150 MeV/G), relativistic (1,000 MeV/G), and ultrarelativistic (4,000 MeV/G) populations. The outer radiation belt statistically shows an initial phase dominated by loss followed by a second phase of rapid acceleration, while the seed population shows little loss and immediate enhancement. The time sequence of the transition to the acceleration is also strongly μ dependent and occurs at low μ first, appearing to be repeatable from storm to storm.

  12. Combined TOPEX/Poseidon TEC and ionosonde observations of negative low-latitude ionospheric storms

    K. J. W. Lynn

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Ionospheric storms showing a strong depression in daytime foF2 values were sought which penetrated to low-latitudes, as identified by vertical ionosondes operating at Darwin and Townsville over the period 1992-1998. The 32 storms thus identified showed a seasonal occurrence peaking near the equinoxes with a bias to the summer side. Of these storms, three (27 March 1995, 25 October 1997, 8 November 1997 combined Australian and South East Asian ionosonde observations with local afternoon TOPEX/Poseidon measurements of TEC. The equatorial anomaly is usually well developed at this time of day and consequently these storms were chosen for detailed study. The TOPEX/Poseidon satellite provided vertical profiles of the ionosphere across both hemispheres, thus allowing the totality of storm behaviour to be observed for the first time at low-latitudes and related directly to the ionosonde observations. The three storms were remarkably consistent in their behaviour, the negative ionospheric storm day followed some 24-36h after the beginning of a magnetic storm and the development of the equatorial anomaly was suppressed. However, the suppression of the equatorial anomaly was not the main cause of the strong depression in foF2 observed by the Southern Hemisphere ionosondes. The latter was associated with an additional bite-out in both TEC and foF2 that occurred on the southern side of the magnetic equator. None of the three storms produced any major negative disturbance outside the range of normal variability of TEC and foF2 at the northern latitude sites for which data was available, despite the absence of the anomaly. The satellite measurements show the strength of the anomaly to be highly variable from day-to-day and anomaly peaks are frequently not present even on magnetically quiet days. Thus, an absence of anomaly peaks is contained within the normal variability of non-storm days. The north-south asymmetry and seasonal occurrence are consistent with

  13. Geomagnetic storms in the Antarctic F-region

    Wrenn, G.L.; Rodger, A.S.; Rishbeth, H.

    1987-01-01

    New analysis procedures are used to show that the main phase mid-latitude storm effects conform to consistent patterns in local time when suitable selection rules are applied, with averaging over several years. Changes in the maximum plasma frequency, foF2, with respect to estimated quiet-time values, are analysed in terms of asub(p)(t), a new geomagnetic index derived to take account of integrated disturbance. Reduction of foF2 is greatest during the early morning hours, in summer, at higher geomagnetic latitudes, near solar minimum and through the more active periods. The various dependencies are quantitatively determined for the first time by creating an average 'steady state' disturbance, rather than following specific storm events. This approach permits tests of competing theories using available modelling programs. (author)

  14. Changes in the High-Latitude Topside Ionospheric Vertical Electron-Density Profiles in Response to Solar-Wind Perturbations During Large Magnetic Storms

    Benson, Robert F.; Fainberg, Joseph; Osherovich, Vladimir; Truhlik, Vladimir; Wang, Yongli; Arbacher, Becca

    2011-01-01

    The latest results from an investigation to establish links between solar-wind and topside-ionospheric parameters will be presented including a case where high-latitude topside electron-density Ne(h) profiles indicated dramatic rapid changes in the scale height during the main phase of a large magnetic storm (Dst wind data obtained from the NASA OMNIWeb database indicated that the magnetic storm was due to a magnetic cloud. This event is one of several large magnetic storms being investigated during the interval from 1965 to 1984 when both solar-wind and digital topside ionograms, from either Alouette-2, ISIS-1, or ISIS-2, are potentially available.

  15. Geomagnetic storms, the Dst ring-current myth and lognormal distributions

    Campbell, W.H.

    1996-01-01

    The definition of geomagnetic storms dates back to the turn of the century when researchers recognized the unique shape of the H-component field change upon averaging storms recorded at low latitude observatories. A generally accepted modeling of the storm field sources as a magnetospheric ring current was settled about 30 years ago at the start of space exploration and the discovery of the Van Allen belt of particles encircling the Earth. The Dst global 'ring-current' index of geomagnetic disturbances, formulated in that period, is still taken to be the definitive representation for geomagnetic storms. Dst indices, or data from many world observatories processed in a fashion paralleling the index, are used widely by researchers relying on the assumption of such a magnetospheric current-ring depiction. Recent in situ measurements by satellites passing through the ring-current region and computations with disturbed magnetosphere models show that the Dst storm is not solely a main-phase to decay-phase, growth to disintegration, of a massive current encircling the Earth. Although a ring current certainly exists during a storm, there are many other field contributions at the middle-and low-latitude observatories that are summed to show the 'storm' characteristic behavior in Dst at these observatories. One characteristic of the storm field form at middle and low latitudes is that Dst exhibits a lognormal distribution shape when plotted as the hourly value amplitude in each time range. Such distributions, common in nature, arise when there are many contributors to a measurement or when the measurement is a result of a connected series of statistical processes. The amplitude-time displays of Dst are thought to occur because the many time-series processes that are added to form Dst all have their own characteristic distribution in time. By transforming the Dst time display into the equivalent normal distribution, it is shown that a storm recovery can be predicted with

  16. The Response of Equatorial Ionization Anomaly in 120°E to the Geomagnetic Storm of 18 August 2003 at Different Altitudes From Multiple Satellite Observations

    Luo, Weihua; Zhu, Zhengping; Xiong, Chao; Chang, Shanshan

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, the variations of equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) in 120°E region during the 17-20 August 2003 storm are investigated from measurements of satellites at different altitudes from Challenging Minisatellite Payload (CHAMP), Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), scientific satellite of the Republic of China (ROCSAT-1), and Defense Meteorological Satellite Program missions. The results showed that (1) at CHAMP and GRACE altitudes, the EIA was inhibited before the storm sudden commencement (SSC) and also during the storm recovery phase, but it was enhanced significantly during the storm main phase of the storm. (2) The variations of EIA strength and interhemispheric density asymmetry of the two crests were similar at CHAMP and GRACE altitudes, while the location asymmetry of the two crests was different at CHAMP and GRACE altitudes. (3) The irregularities and long-duration scintillation were recorded before the SSC of the storm, when the EIA was inhibited. The irregularities at different altitudes and short-duration scintillation were observed during the main phase of the storm, when the EIA was enhanced significantly. (4) The EIA enhancement can be attributed to the enhanced electric field due to prompt penetration interplanetary electric fields and the storm time neutral wind, while the suppression of EIA on 17 August can be attributed to the absence of the equatorward neutral wind, which varied with the altitudes. The EIA inhibition during the recovery phase may be caused mainly by the neutral wind. Our results suggest that the neutral wind is the crucial factor causing the variations in EIA and the occurrence of scintillation.

  17. The storm time ring current dynamics and response to CMEs and CIRs using Van Allen Probes observations and CIMI simulations

    Mouikis, Christopher; Bingham, Samuel; Kistler, Lynn; Spence, Harlan; Gkioulidou, Matina

    2017-04-01

    The ring current responds differently to the different solar and interplanetary storm drivers such as coronal mass injections, (CME's), and co-rotating interaction regions (CIR's). Using Van Allen Probes observations, we develop an empirical ring current model of the ring current pressure, the pressure anisotropy and the current density development during the storm phases for both types of storm drivers and for all MLTs inside L 6. Delineating the differences in the ring current development between these two drivers will aid our understanding of the ring current dynamics. We find that during the storm main phase most of the ring current pressure in the pre-midnight inner magnetosphere is contributed by particles on open drift paths that cause the development of a strong partial ring current that causes most of the main phase Dst drop. These particles can reach as deep as L 2 and their pressure compares to the local magnetic field pressure as deep as L 3. During the recovery phase, if these particles are not lost at the magnetopause, will become trapped and will contribute to the symmetric ring current. However, the largest difference between the CME and CIR ring current responses during the storm main and early recovery phases is caused by how the 15 - 60 keV O+ responds to these drivers. This empirical model is compared to the results of CIMI simulations of a CMEs and a CIRs where the model input is comprised of the superposed epoch solar wind conditions of the storms that comprise the empirical model. Different inner magnetosphere boundary conditions are tested in order to match the empirical model results. Comparing the model and simulation results improves our understanding of the ring current dynamics as part of the highly coupled inner magnetosphere system. In addition, within the framework of this empirical model, the prediction of the EMIC wave generation linear theory is tested using the observed plasma parameters and comparing with the observations of

  18. Electron flux enhancement in the inner radiation belt during moderate magnetic storms

    H. Tadokoro

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available During moderate magnetic storms, an electron channel (300–1100 keV of the NOAA satellite has shown sudden electron flux enhancements in the inner radiation belt. After examinating the possibility of contamination by different energetic particles, we conclude that these electron flux enhancements are reliable enough to be considered as natural phenomena, at least for the cases of small to moderate magnetic storms. Here, we define small and moderate storms to be those in which the minimum Dst ranges between −30 and −100 nT. The electron flux enhancements appear with over one order of magnitude at L~2 during these storms. The enhancement is not accompanied by any transport of electron flux from the outer belt. Statistical analysis shows that these phenomena have a duration of approximately 1 day during the period, starting with the main phase to the early recovery phase of the storms. The flux enhancement shows a dawn-dusk asymmetry; the amount of increased flux is larger in the dusk side. We suggest that this phenomenon could not be caused by the radial diffusion but would be due to pitch-angle scattering at the magnetic equator. The inner belt is not in a stationary state, as was previously believed, but is variable in response to the magnetic activity.

  19. Phase 2 environmental site assessment SW corner of plan 954 GV, block 7 : Main Street, Turner Valley, AB

    Reinson, E.; Harvey, K.; Brooks, N.; Burton, K.; Reinson, K.; Cropley, K.

    2010-05-01

    This document described the second phase of an environmental site assessment (ESA) at a parking lot in front of the Flare and Derrik on Main Street in Turner Valley, Alberta. The objective of this ESA was to confirm the presence of any substances of concern. The site has been occupied by an outdoor ice rink, and there is pipeline right-of-way along the east portion of the site. There is also an abandoned crude oil pipeline along the east portion of the property and an abandoned natural gas pipeline on the west side of the property. This ESA investigated the impact of the pipelines, the underground storage tanks on the adjacent sites, and the oil and gas lease on the adjacent site. Seven exploratory testholes were drilled and 3 monitoring wells were installed. The study involved soil inspection and field VOC measurements every 60 centimeters, or as required. Groundwater sampling and surveying was also performed. Groundwater and soil samples were analyzed for hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), salinity and metals. All the results for soil were below Tier 1 guidelines. There appeared to be a layer of clay fill which had some hydrocarbons, PAHs and barium present, but they were below the applicable criteria. In terms of groundwater, PAHs and selenium exceeded the Tier 1 guidelines in monitoring well no. 4 (MW4). In another well, manganese exceeded the Tier 1 guidelines. Copper exceeded the Tier 1 guidelines in all three wells. All the results were below the Tier 2 guidelines in all 3 wells with the exception of carcinogenic PAHs (B(a)P TPE) in MW4. Due to the minor presence of hydrocarbons (below criteria) located in the surficial soil layer, Ballast Environmental Consultants recommended that an environmental professional be present during the excavation and that further soil samples be taken from the suspect layer to confirm all the soils in the area of the library are below the applicable criteria. refs., tabs., figs.

  20. Phase 2 environmental site assessment SW corner of plan 954 GV, block 7 : Main Street, Turner Valley, AB

    Reinson, E.; Harvey, K.; Brooks, N.; Burton, K.; Reinson, K.; Cropley, K. [Ballast Environmental Consultants Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-05-15

    This document described the second phase of an environmental site assessment (ESA) at a parking lot in front of the Flare and Derrik on Main Street in Turner Valley, Alberta. The objective of this ESA was to confirm the presence of any substances of concern. The site has been occupied by an outdoor ice rink, and there is pipeline right-of-way along the east portion of the site. There is also an abandoned crude oil pipeline along the east portion of the property and an abandoned natural gas pipeline on the west side of the property. This ESA investigated the impact of the pipelines, the underground storage tanks on the adjacent sites, and the oil and gas lease on the adjacent site. Seven exploratory testholes were drilled and 3 monitoring wells were installed. The study involved soil inspection and field VOC measurements every 60 centimeters, or as required. Groundwater sampling and surveying was also performed. Groundwater and soil samples were analyzed for hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), salinity and metals. All the results for soil were below Tier 1 guidelines. There appeared to be a layer of clay fill which had some hydrocarbons, PAHs and barium present, but they were below the applicable criteria. In terms of groundwater, PAHs and selenium exceeded the Tier 1 guidelines in monitoring well no. 4 (MW4). In another well, manganese exceeded the Tier 1 guidelines. Copper exceeded the Tier 1 guidelines in all three wells. All the results were below the Tier 2 guidelines in all 3 wells with the exception of carcinogenic PAHs (B(a)P TPE) in MW4. Due to the minor presence of hydrocarbons (below criteria) located in the surficial soil layer, Ballast Environmental Consultants recommended that an environmental professional be present during the excavation and that further soil samples be taken from the suspect layer to confirm all the soils in the area of the library are below the applicable criteria. refs., tabs., figs.

  1. Analysis of the positive ionospheric response to a moderate geomagnetic storm using a global numerical model

    A. A. Namgaladze

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Current theories of F-layer storms are discussed using numerical simulations with the Upper Atmosphere Model, a global self-consistent, time dependent numerical model of the thermosphere-ionosphere-plasmasphere-magnetosphere system including electrodynamical coupling effects. A case study of a moderate geomagnetic storm at low solar activity during the northern winter solstice exemplifies the complex storm phenomena. The study focuses on positive ionospheric storm effects in relation to thermospheric disturbances in general and thermospheric composition changes in particular. It investigates the dynamical effects of both neutral meridional winds and electric fields caused by the disturbance dynamo effect. The penetration of short-time electric fields of magnetospheric origin during storm intensification phases is shown for the first time in this model study. Comparisons of the calculated thermospheric composition changes with satellite observations of AE-C and ESRO-4 during storm time show a good agreement. The empirical MSISE90 model, however, is less consistent with the simulations. It does not show the equatorward propagation of the disturbances and predicts that they have a gentler latitudinal gradient. Both theoretical and experimental data reveal that although the ratio of [O]/[N2] at high latitudes decreases significantly during the magnetic storm compared with the quiet time level, at mid to low latitudes it does not increase (at fixed altitudes above the quiet reference level. Meanwhile, the ionospheric storm is positive there. We conclude that the positive phase of the ionospheric storm is mainly due to uplifting of ionospheric F2-region plasma at mid latitudes and its equatorward movement at low latitudes along geomagnetic field lines caused by large-scale neutral wind circulation and the passage of travelling atmospheric disturbances (TADs. The calculated zonal electric field disturbances also help to create the positive ionospheric

  2. Analysis of the positive ionospheric response to a moderate geomagnetic storm using a global numerical model

    A. A. Namgaladze

    Full Text Available Current theories of F-layer storms are discussed using numerical simulations with the Upper Atmosphere Model, a global self-consistent, time dependent numerical model of the thermosphere-ionosphere-plasmasphere-magnetosphere system including electrodynamical coupling effects. A case study of a moderate geomagnetic storm at low solar activity during the northern winter solstice exemplifies the complex storm phenomena. The study focuses on positive ionospheric storm effects in relation to thermospheric disturbances in general and thermospheric composition changes in particular. It investigates the dynamical effects of both neutral meridional winds and electric fields caused by the disturbance dynamo effect. The penetration of short-time electric fields of magnetospheric origin during storm intensification phases is shown for the first time in this model study. Comparisons of the calculated thermospheric composition changes with satellite observations of AE-C and ESRO-4 during storm time show a good agreement. The empirical MSISE90 model, however, is less consistent with the simulations. It does not show the equatorward propagation of the disturbances and predicts that they have a gentler latitudinal gradient. Both theoretical and experimental data reveal that although the ratio of [O]/[N2] at high latitudes decreases significantly during the magnetic storm compared with the quiet time level, at mid to low latitudes it does not increase (at fixed altitudes above the quiet reference level. Meanwhile, the ionospheric storm is positive there. We conclude that the positive phase of the ionospheric storm is mainly due to uplifting of ionospheric F2-region plasma at mid latitudes and its equatorward movement at low latitudes along geomagnetic field lines caused by large-scale neutral wind circulation and the passage of travelling atmospheric disturbances (TADs. The calculated zonal electric field disturbances also help

  3. Radial profile of pressure in a storm ring current as a function of D st

    Kovtyukh, A. S.

    2010-06-01

    Using satellite data obtained near the equatorial plane during 12 magnetic storms with amplitudes from -61 down to -422 nT, the dependences of maximum in L-profile of pressure ( L m) of the ring current (RC) on the current value of D st are constructed, and their analytical approximations are derived. It is established that function L m( D st ) is steeper on the phase of recovery than during the storm’s main phase. The form of the outer edge of experimental radial profiles of RC pressure is studied, and it is demonstrated to correspond to exponential growth of the total energy of RC particles on a given L shell with decreasing L. It is shown that during the storms’ main phase the ratio of plasma and magnetic field pressures at the RC maximum does not practically depend on the storm strength and L m value. This fact reflects resistance of the Earth’s magnetic field to RC expansion, and testifies that during storms the possibilities of injection to small L are limited for RC particles. During the storms’ recovery phase this ratio quickly increases with increasing L m, which reflects an increased fraction of plasma in the total pressure balance. It is demonstrated that function L m( D st ) is derived for the main phase of storms from the equations of drift motion of RC ions in electrical and magnetic fields, reflecting the dipole character of magnetic field and scale invariance of the pattern of particle convection near the RC maximum. For the recovery phase it is obtained from the Dessler-Parker-Sckopke relationship. The obtained regularities allow one to judge about the radial profile of RC pressure from ground-based magnetic measurements (data on the D st variation).

  4. Access of energetic particles to storm time ring current through enhanced radial diffusion

    Lyons, L.R.; Schulz, M.

    1989-01-01

    Magnetic storms are distinguishable from other periods of geomagnetic activity by the injection of trapped electrons and ions to the 2 approx-lt L approx-lt 4 region. It has been proposed previously that this injection results from an inward displacement of the preexisting trapped-particle population by enhanced storm time electric fields. However, high-energy (approx-gt 40 keV) ring-current particles have drift periods that are typically shorter than the time of the main-phase development, and so the direct radial transport of these particles is restricted. The authors propose here that the transport of approx-gt 40 keV particles into the storm time ring current can result from enhanced stochastic radial transport driven by fluctuating electric fields during a storm's main phase. They estimate the effects of such electric fields by applying radial-diffusion theory, assuming a preexisting trapped-particle population as the initial conditions, and they demonstrate the feasibility of explaining observed flux increases of approx-gt 40-keV particles at L approx-lt 4 by enhanced radial diffusion. It is necessary that new particles be injected near the outer boundary of the trapping region so as to maintain the fluxes there as an outer boundary condition, and they estimate that the approx-gt 40-keV portion of the storm time ring current at L ∼ 3 consists of about 50% preexisting and about 50% new particles. They thus find that formation of the storm time ring current may be explainable via a combination of direct radial transport at energies approx-lt 40 keV and diffusive radial transport at higher energies

  5. Distortions of the magnetic field by storm-time current systems in Earth's magnetosphere

    N. Yu. Ganushkina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic field and current system changes in Earth's inner magnetosphere during storm times are studied using two principally different modeling approaches: on one hand, the event-oriented empirical magnetic field model, and, on the other, the Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF built around a global MHD simulation. Two storm events, one moderate storm on 6–7 November 1997 with Dst minimum about −120 nT and one intense storm on 21–23 October 1999 with Dst minimum about −250 nT were modeled. Both modeling approaches predicted a large ring current (first partial, later symmetric contribution to the magnetic field perturbation for the intense storm. For the moderate storm, the tail current plays a dominant role in the event-oriented model results, while the SWMF results showed no strong tail current in the main phase, which resulted in a poorly timed storm peak relative to the observations. These results imply that the the development of a ring current depends on a strong force to inject the particles deep into the inner magnetosphere, and that the tail current is an important external source for the distortions of the inner magnetospheric magnetic field for both storms. Neither modeling approach was able to reproduce all the variations in the Bx and By components observed at geostationary orbit by GOES satellites during these two storms: the magnetopause current intensifications are inadequate, and the field-aligned currents are not sufficiently represented. While the event-oriented model reproduces rather well the Bz component at geostationary orbit, including the substorm-associated changes, the SWMF field is too dipolar at these locations. The empirical model is a useful tool for validation of the first-principle based models such as the SWMF.

  6. Phase Transitions on Surfaces. An International Conference. Abstracts and Program, 3-7 August 1981, Orono, Maine.

    1982-04-16

    P. J. Estrup Chemisorption-Induced Phase Transitions and Adatom Interactions on GaAs(110) P. Skeath, C. Y. Su, P. W. Chye , I. Lindau and W. E. Spicer...Transitions and Adatom Interactions on GaAs(ll0)* Perry Skeath, C. Y. Su, P. W. Chye , I Lindau, and W. E. Spicer Stanford Electronics Labs Stanford...ORDER PHASE TRANSITIONS* P. KLEBAN and CHIN -KUN HU, Department of Physics and Astronomy and Laboratory for Surface Science and Technology University of

  7. Healthcare4VideoStorm: Making Smart Decisions Based on Storm Metrics.

    Zhang, Weishan; Duan, Pengcheng; Chen, Xiufeng; Lu, Qinghua

    2016-04-23

    Storm-based stream processing is widely used for real-time large-scale distributed processing. Knowing the run-time status and ensuring performance is critical to providing expected dependability for some applications, e.g., continuous video processing for security surveillance. The existing scheduling strategies' granularity is too coarse to have good performance, and mainly considers network resources without computing resources while scheduling. In this paper, we propose Healthcare4Storm, a framework that finds Storm insights based on Storm metrics to gain knowledge from the health status of an application, finally ending up with smart scheduling decisions. It takes into account both network and computing resources and conducts scheduling at a fine-grained level using tuples instead of topologies. The comprehensive evaluation shows that the proposed framework has good performance and can improve the dependability of the Storm-based applications.

  8. Energy content of stormtime ring current from phase space mapping simulations

    Chen, M.W.; Schulz, M.; Lyons, L.R.

    1993-01-01

    The authors perform a model study to account for the increase in energy content of the trapped-particle population which occurs during the main phase of major geomagnetic storms. They consider stormtime particle transport in the equatorial region of the magnetosphere. They start with a phase space distribution of the ring current before the storm, created by a steady state transport model. They then use a previously developed guiding center particle simulation to map the stormtime ring current phase space, following Liouville's theorem. This model is able to account for the ten to twenty fold increase in energy content of magnetospheric ions during the storm

  9. Statistical analysis of storm-time near-Earth current systems

    M. W. Liemohn

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Currents from the Hot Electron and Ion Drift Integrator (HEIDI inner magnetospheric model results for all of the 90 intense storms (disturbance storm-time (Dst minimum < −100 nT from solar cycle 23 (1996–2005 are calculated, presented, and analyzed. We have categorized these currents into the various systems that exist in near-Earth space, specifically the eastward and westward symmetric ring current, the partial ring current, the banana current, and the tail current. The current results from each run set are combined by a normalized superposed epoch analysis technique that scales the timeline of each phase of each storm before summing the results. It is found that there is a systematic ordering to the current systems, with the asymmetric current systems peaking during storm main phase (tail current rising first, then the banana current, followed by the partial ring current and the symmetric current systems peaking during the early recovery phase (westward and eastward symmetric ring current having simultaneous maxima. The median and mean peak amplitudes for the current systems ranged from 1 to 3 MA, depending on the setup configuration used in HEIDI, except for the eastward symmetric ring current, for which the mean never exceeded 0.3 MA for any HEIDI setup. The self-consistent electric field description in HEIDI yielded larger tail and banana currents than the Volland–Stern electric field, while the partial and symmetric ring currents had similar peak values between the two applied electric field models.

  10. Effect of main injection timing for controlling the combustion phasing of a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine using a new dual injection strategy

    Das, Pranab; Subbarao, P.M.V.; Subrahmanyam, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A new dual injection concept is developed by minimum geometry modification. • The occurrence of combustion parameters strongly depend on main injection timing. • At higher load, premixed equivalence ratio dominates over main injection timing. • Retarded of main injection timing tends to retard combustion phasing. • Slightly retarded main injection timing is recommended to avoid intense knocking. - Abstract: Homogeneous charge compression ignition combustion of diesel fuel is implemented using a novel dual injection strategy. A new experimental technique is developed to modify a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine to run on homogeneous combustion mode. Effect of main injection timing is investigated covering a range from 26 to 8 crank angle degrees before top dead center with an interval of 3°. Retarded main injection timing is identified as a control strategy for delaying combustion phasing and a means of controlled combustion phasing of direct injection homogeneous charge compression ignition combustion. Two load conditions were investigated and it was observed that at higher load, start of combustion depends more on fuel air equivalence ratio than main injection timing, whereas at low load, it significantly varies with varying main injection timing. Significant improvements in smoke and oxides of nitrogen emissions are observed when compared with the baseline conventional combustion. By studying different combustion parameters, it is observed that there is an improvement in performance and emissions with marginal loss in thermal efficiency when the main injection timing is 20° before top dead center. This is identified as the optimum main injection timing for such homogeneous combustion under the same operating condition

  11. NARX neural network Prediction of SYMH and ASYH indices for geomagnetic storms of solar cycle 24 including recent St. Patrick's day, 2015 storm

    Bhaskar, A. T.; Vichare, G.

    2017-12-01

    Here, an attempt is made to develop a prediction model for SYMH and ASYH geomagnetic indices using Artificial Neural Network (ANN). SYMH and ASYH indices represent longitudinal symmetric and asymmetric component of the ring current. The ring current state depends on its past conditions therefore, it is necessary to consider its history for prediction. To account this effect Nonlinear Autoregressive Network with eXogenous inputs (NARX) is implemented. This network considers input history of 30 minutes and output feedback of 120 minutes. Solar wind parameters mainly velocity, density and interplanetary magnetic field are used as inputs. SYMH and ASYH indices during geomagnetic storms of 1998-2013, having minimum SYMH training two independent networks. We present the prediction of SYMH and ASYH indices during 9 geomagnetic storms of solar cycle 24 including the recent largest storm occurred on St. Patrick's day, 2015. The present prediction model reproduces the entire time profile of SYMH and ASYH indices along with small variations of 10-30 minutes to good extent within noise level, indicating significant contribution of interplanetary sources and past state of the magnetosphere. However, during the main phase of major storms, residuals (observed-modeled) are found to be large, suggesting influence of internal factors such as magnetospheric processes.

  12. Using the phase shift to asymptotically characterize the dipolar mixed modes in post-main-sequence stars

    Jiang, C.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Cunha, M.

    2018-01-01

    from the eigenvalue condition for mixed modes as a tool to characterize dipolar mixed modes from the theoretical as well as the practical point of view. Unlike the coupling strength, whose variation in a given star is very small over the relevant frequency range, the phase shifts vary significantly...

  13. The evolution of ring current ion energy density and energy content during geomagnetic storms based on Van Allen Probes measurements

    Zhao, H.; University of Colorado, Boulder, CO; Li, X.; University of Colorado, Boulder, CO; Baker, D. N.

    2015-01-01

    Enabled by the comprehensive measurements from the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS), Helium Oxygen Proton Electron mass spectrometer (HOPE), and Radiation Belt Storm Probes Ion Composition Experiment (RBSPICE) instruments onboard Van Allen Probes in the heart of the radiation belt, the relative contributions of ions with different energies and species to the ring current energy density and their dependence on the phases of geomagnetic storms are quantified. The results show that lower energy (<50 keV) protons enhance much more often and also decay much faster than higher-energy protons. During the storm main phase, ions with energies <50 keV contribute more significantly to the ring current than those with higher energies; while the higher-energy protons dominate during the recovery phase and quiet times. The enhancements of higher-energy proton fluxes as well as energy content generally occur later than those of lower energy protons, which could be due to the inward radial diffusion. For the 29 March 2013 storm we investigated in detail that the contribution from O + is ~25% of the ring current energy content during the main phase and the majority of that comes from <50 keV O + . This indicates that even during moderate geomagnetic storms the ionosphere is still an important contributor to the ring current ions. Using the Dessler-Parker-Sckopke relation, the contributions of ring current particles to the magnetic field depression during this geomagnetic storm are also calculated. In conclusion, the results show that the measured ring current ions contribute about half of the Dst depression.

  14. Ring current and auroral electrojets in connection with interplanetary medium parameters during magnetic storm

    Y. I. Feldstein

    Full Text Available The relationship between the auroral electrojet indices (AE and the ring current magnetic field (DR was investigated by observations obtained during the magnetic storm on 1-3 April 1973. During the storm main phase the DR development is accompanied by a shift of the auroral electrojets toward the equator. As a result, the standard AE indices calculated on the basis of data from auroral observatories was substantially lower than the real values (AE'. To determine AE' during the course of a storm main phase data from subauroral magnetic observatories should be used. It is shown that the intensity of the indices (AE' which take into account the shift of the electrojets is increased substantially relative to the standard indices during the storm main phase. AE' values are closely correlated with geoeffective solar wind parameters. A high correlation was obtained between AE' and the energy flux into the ring current during the storm main phase. Analysis of magnetic field variations during intervals with intense southward IMF components demonstrates a decrease of the saturation effect of auroral electrojet currents if subauroral stations magnetic field variations are taken into account. This applies both to case studies and statistical data. The dynamics of the electrojets in connection with the development of the ring current and of magnetospheric substorms can be described by the presence (absence of saturation for minimum (maximum AE index values during a 1-h interval. The ring current magnetic field asymmetry (ASY was calculated as the difference between the maximum and minimum field values along a parallel of latitude at low latitudes. The ASY value is closely correlated with geoeffective solar wind parameters and simultaneously is a more sensitive indicator of IMF Bz variations than the symmetric ring current.

  15. Ionosphere dynamics over the Southern Hemisphere during the 31 March 2001 severe magnetic storm using multi-instrument measurement data

    E. Yizengaw

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the 31 March 2001 severe magnetic storm on the Southern Hemisphere ionosphere have been studied using ground-based and satellite measurements. The prime goal of this comprehensive study is to track the ionospheric response from high-to-low latitude to obtain a clear understanding of storm-time ionospheric change. The study uses a combination of ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC obtained from GPS signal group delay and phase advance measurements, ionosonde data, and data from satellite in-situ measurements, such as the Defense Metrological Satellite Program (DMSP, TOPographic EXplorer (TOPEX, and solar wind data from the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE. A chain of Global Positioning System (GPS stations near the 150° E meridian has been used to give comprehensive latitude coverage extending from the cusp to the equatorial region. A tomographic inversion algorithm has been applied to the GPS TEC measurements to obtain maps of the latitudinal structure of the ionospheric during this severe magnetic storm period, enabling both the spatial and temporal response of the ionosphere to be studied. Analysis of data from several of the instruments indicates that a strong density enhancement occurred at mid-latitudes at 11:00 UT on 31 March 2001 and was followed by equatorward propagating large-scale Travelling Ionospheric Disturbances (TIDs. The tomographic reconstruction revealed important features in ionospheric structure, such as quasi-wave formations extending finger-like to higher altitudes. The most pronounced ionospheric effects of the storm occurred at high- and mid-latitudes, where strong positive disturbances occurred during the storm main phase, followed by a long lasting negative storm effect during the recovery phase. Relatively minor storm effects occurred in the equatorial region.

  16. Role of neutral wind and storm time electric fields inferred from the storm time ionization distribution at low latitudes: in-situ measurements by Indian satellite SROSS-C2

    P. Subrahmanyam

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been a renewal of interest in the study of the effects of solar weather events on the ionization redistribution and irregularity generation. The observed changes at low and equatorial latitudes are rather complex and are noted to be a function of location, the time of the storm onset and its intensity, and various other characteristics of the geomagnetic storms triggered by solar weather events. At these latitudes, the effects of geomagnetic storms are basically due to (a direct penetration of the magnetospheric electric fields to low latitudes, (b development of disturbance dynamo, (c changes in atmospheric neutral winds at ionospheric level and (d changes in neutral composition triggered by the storm time atmospheric heating.

    In the present study an attempt is made to further understand some of the observed storm time effects in terms of storm time changes in zonal electric fields and meridional neutral winds. For this purpose, observations made by the Retarding Potential Analyzer (RPA payload on board the Indian satellite SROSS-C2 are examined for four prominent geomagnetic storm events that occurred during the high solar activity period of 1997-2000. Available simultaneous observations, from the GPS satellite network, are also used. The daytime passes of SROSS-C2 have been selected to examine the redistribution of ionization in the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA region. In general, EIA is observed to be weakened 12-24 h after the main phase onset (MPO of the storm. The storm time behaviour inferred by SROSS-C2 and the GPS satellite network during the geomagnetic storm of 13 November 1998, for which simultaneous observations are available, is found to be consistent. Storm time changes in the delay of received GPS signals are noted to be ~1-3 m, which is a significant component of the total delay observed on a quiet day.

    An attempt is made to identify and

  17. Modeling of the outer electron belt during magnetic storms

    Desorgher, L.; Buehler, P.; Zehnder, A.; Daly, E.; Adams, L.

    1999-01-01

    The flux dropout of relativistic electrons in the earth's outer radiation belt, during the main phase of the 26 March 1995 magnetic storm is examined. Outer belt measurements by the Radiation Environment Monitor, REM aboard the STRV-1b satellite are presented to characterize this dropout. In order to simulate the dynamics of the electron belt during the storm main phase a particle tracing code was developed which allows to trace the trajectories of equatorially mirroring electrons in a dynamic magnetospheric electromagnetic field. Two simulations were performed in a non-stationary magnetic field, one taking only the induced electric field into account (fully adiabatic motion), and one with an additional non-stationary convection electric field. The simulations show, that adiabatic deceleration can produce the observed count rate decrease and also the observed inward motion of the count rate peak. The convection electric field causes diffusion, which can take particles from low L values out to the magnetopause and contribute to an additional loss of particles, which is suggested by the observations

  18. Multi-Instrument Observations of a Geomagnetic Storm and its Effects on the Arctic Ionosphere: A Case Study of the 19 February 2014 Storm

    Durgonics, Tibor; Komjathy, Attila; Verkhoglyadova, Olga

    2017-01-01

    We present a multi-instrumented approach for the analysis of the Arctic ionosphere during the 19 February 2014 highly complex, multiphase geomagnetic storm, which had the largest impact on the disturbance storm-time (Dst) index that year. The geomagnetic storm was the result of two powerful Earth......-directed coronal mass ejections (CMEs). It produced a strong long lasting negative storm phase over Greenland with a dominant energy input in the polar-cap. We employed GNSS networks, geomagnetic observatories, and a specific ionosonde station in Greenland. We complemented the approach with spaceborne measurements...... specifically found that, (1) Thermospheric O/N2 measurements demonstrated significantly lower values over the Greenland sector than prior to the storm-time. (2) An increased ion flow in the topside ionosphere was observed during the negative storm phase. (3) Negative storm phase was a direct consequence...

  19. The ionosphere of Europe and North America before the magnetic storm of October 28, 2003

    Blagoveshchensky, D. V.; Macdugall, J. W.; Pyatkova, A. V.

    2006-05-01

    The X17 solar flare occurred on October 28, 2003, and was followed by the X10 flare on October 29. These flares caused very strong geomagnetic storms (Halloween storms). The aim of the present study is to compare the variations in two main ionospheric parameters ( foF2 and hmF2) at two chains of ionosondes located in Europe and North America for the period October 23-28, 2003. This interval began immediately before the storm of October 28 and includes its commencement. Another task of the work is to detect ionospheric precursors of the storm or substorm expansion phase. An analysis is based on SPIDR data. The main results are as follows. The positive peak of δ foF2 (where δ is the difference between disturbed and quiet values) is observed several hours before the magnetic storm or substorm commencement. This peak can serve as a disturbance precursor. The amplitude of δ foF2 values varies from 20 to 100% of the foF2 values. The elements of similarity in the variations in the δ foF2 values at two chains are as follows: (a) the above δ foF2 peak is as a rule observed simultaneously at two chains before the disturbance; (b) the δ foF2 variations are similar at all midlatitude (or, correspondingly, high-latitude) ionosondes of the chain. The differences in the δ foF2 values are as follows: (a) the effect of the main phase and the phase of strong storm recovery at one chain differs from such an effect at another chain; (b) the manifestation of disturbances at high-latitude stations of the chain differ from the manifestations at midlatitude stations. The δ hmF2 variations are approximately opposite to the δ foF2 variations, and the δ hmF2 values lie in the interval 15-25% of the hmF2 values. The performed study is useful and significant in studying the problems of the space weather, especially in a short-term prediction of ionospheric disturbances caused by magnetospheric storms or substorms.

  20. Storm Data Publication

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — 'Storm Data and Unusual Weather Phenomena' is a monthly publication containing a chronological listing, by state, of hurricanes, tornadoes, thunderstorms, hail,...

  1. Influence of main process variables on the treatment of waste waters using a new technology Mixer-Settler based on Phase Inversion (MSPI)

    Moraes, N.A.; Paulo, J.B.A.; Medeiros, G.S. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica], e-mail: norberto@eq.ufrn.br

    2011-04-15

    The prototype of a device on a semi-industrial scale to treat wastewaters from the oil industry has been widely studied as a viable alternative to conventional equipment. The device, called Mixer-Settler based on Phase Inversion (MSPI), uses the phase inversion method as operating principle. Using experimental planning (2{sup 4} factorial with four repetitions in the central point), it was determined the influence of the main variables on the oil/water separation process for waters containing between 30 and 100 mg of oil per liter of water. The following variables were evaluated: specific throughput, organic/aqueous phase ratio, agitation in the mixing chamber, and coconut oil concentration. The response variable was the oil/water separation efficiency. The results show that the separation efficiency of the device is a function of the effective throughput and the organic/aqueous phase ratio. (author)

  2. Storm surge climatology report

    Horsburgh, Kevin; Williams, Joanne; Cussack, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    Any increase in flood frequency or severity due to sea level rise or changes in storminess would adversely impact society. It is crucial to understand the physical drivers of extreme storm surges to have confidence in the datasets used for extreme sea level statistics. We will refine and improve methods to the estimation of extreme sea levels around Europe and more widely. We will do so by developing a comprehensive world picture of storm surge distribution (including extremes) for both tropi...

  3. Kinetics of the main phase transition of hydrated lecithin monitored by real-time x-ray diffraction

    Caffrey, M.; Bilderback, D.H.

    1984-01-01

    A method is described for observing and recording in real-time x-ray diffraction from an unoriented hydrated membrane lipid, dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), through its thermotropic gel/liquid crystal phase transition. Synchrotron radiation from the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (Ithaca, New York) was used as an x-ray source of extremely high brilliance and the dynamic display of the diffraction image was effected using a three-stage image intensifier tube coupled to an external fluorescent screen. The image on the output phosphor was sufficiently intense to be recorded cinematographically and to be displayed on a television monitor using a vidicon camera at 30 frames x s -1 . These measurements set an upper limit of 2 s on the DPPC gel → liquid crystal phase transition and indicate that the transition is a two-state process. The real-time method couples the power of x-ray diffraction as a structural probe with the ability to follow kinetics of structural changes. The method does not require an exogenous probe, is relatively nonperturbing, and can be used with membranes in a variety of physical states and with unstable samples. The method has the additional advantage over its static measurement counterpart in that it is more likely to detect transiently stable intermediates if present

  4. Long Term Sorption Diffusion Experiment (LTDE-SD). Performance of main in situ experiment and results from water phase measurements

    Widestrand, Henrik; Byegaard, Johan; Nilsson, Kersti; Hoeglund, Susanne; Gustafsson, Erik; Kronberg, Magnus

    2010-12-01

    The LTDE-SD experiment, (Long Term Sorption Diffusion Experiment) aimed at increasing the scientific knowledge of sorption and diffusion under in situ conditions and to provide data for performance and safety assessment calculations. Performance and results of the in situ experiment phase are presented in the report. In total, 21 radionuclide trace elements and one stable trace element were injected, circulated and sampled for ∼6.5 months in a closed borehole section. The trace elements represented non-sorbing tracers and sorbing tracers for which the sorption was dominated by a cation exchange mechanism, a surface complexation mechanism, or dependent on an electrochemical reduction in order to reach the tetravalent state (oxidation state IV) considered very strongly sorbing. The borehole section in contact with the tracer labelled groundwater consisted in part of a natural fracture surface and a borehole section in the unaltered matrix rock, devoid of natural fractures. Water samples were regularly extracted and analysed for trace element concentration and a few ion exchange speciation and filtered samplings were also conducted. Independent colloid filtering and chemical speciation calculations were performed in support the evaluation. Sorption was demonstrated for a series of elements present in the experiment. The amounts lost of the different respective tracers from the aqueous phase follow very well the general understanding of the relative sorption strength of the tracers, as inferred from e.g. batch sorption experiments and dynamic in situ tracer experiments. The chemical speciation calculations of the different tracers were in line with the results of the ion exchange speciation performed during the experiment. With the exception of UO 2 2+ carbonate complexes formed, no strong indications were obtained that aqueous complexation prevents adsorption under the chemical conditions of the experiment. The 20 nm filtered sampling indicated that radionuclide

  5. Long Term Sorption Diffusion Experiment (LTDE-SD). Performance of main in situ experiment and results from water phase measurements

    Widestrand, Henrik; Byegaard, Johan; Nilsson, Kersti; Hoeglund, Susanne; Gustafsson, Erik (Geosigma AB, Uppsala (Sweden)); Kronberg, Magnus (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    The LTDE-SD experiment, (Long Term Sorption Diffusion Experiment) aimed at increasing the scientific knowledge of sorption and diffusion under in situ conditions and to provide data for performance and safety assessment calculations. Performance and results of the in situ experiment phase are presented in the report. In total, 21 radionuclide trace elements and one stable trace element were injected, circulated and sampled for approx6.5 months in a closed borehole section. The trace elements represented non-sorbing tracers and sorbing tracers for which the sorption was dominated by a cation exchange mechanism, a surface complexation mechanism, or dependent on an electrochemical reduction in order to reach the tetravalent state (oxidation state IV) considered very strongly sorbing. The borehole section in contact with the tracer labelled groundwater consisted in part of a natural fracture surface and a borehole section in the unaltered matrix rock, devoid of natural fractures. Water samples were regularly extracted and analysed for trace element concentration and a few ion exchange speciation and filtered samplings were also conducted. Independent colloid filtering and chemical speciation calculations were performed in support the evaluation. Sorption was demonstrated for a series of elements present in the experiment. The amounts lost of the different respective tracers from the aqueous phase follow very well the general understanding of the relative sorption strength of the tracers, as inferred from e.g. batch sorption experiments and dynamic in situ tracer experiments. The chemical speciation calculations of the different tracers were in line with the results of the ion exchange speciation performed during the experiment. With the exception of UO{sub 2} 2+ carbonate complexes formed, no strong indications were obtained that aqueous complexation prevents adsorption under the chemical conditions of the experiment. The 20 nm filtered sampling indicated that

  6. Dynamics of long-period irregular pulsations in high latitudes during strong magnetic storms

    Kurazhkovskaya, N.A.; Klajn, B.I.

    1995-01-01

    Effects of strong magnetic storms within np type high-latitudinal long-period irregular pulsations at Mirny studied using data obtained at observatory of the magnetosphere south hemisphere. Variation of long-period irregular pulsation amplitude is shown to depend essentially on duration of storm initial phase and on the nature of solar wind heterogeneity enabling growth of strong storm. 14 refs

  7. Temporal Evolution of Ion Spectral Structures During a Geomagnetic Storm: Observations and Modeling

    Ferradas, C. P.; Zhang, J.-C.; Spence, H. E.; Kistler, L. M.; Larsen, B. A.; Reeves, G. D.; Skoug, R. M.; Funsten, H. O.

    2018-01-01

    Using the Van Allen Probes/Helium, Oxygen, Proton, and Electron mass spectrometer, we perform a case study of the temporal evolution of ion spectral structures observed in the energy range of 1 to 50 keV throughout the geomagnetic storm of 2 October 2013. The ion spectral features are observed near the inner edge of the plasma sheet and are signatures of fresh transport from the plasma sheet into the inner magnetosphere. We find that the characteristics of the ion structures are determined by the intensity of the convection electric field. Prior to the beginning of the storm, the plasma sheet inner edge exhibits narrow nose spectral structures that vary little in energy across L values. Ion access to the inner magnetosphere during these times is limited to the nose energy bands. As convection is enhanced and large amounts of plasma are injected from the plasma sheet during the main phase of the storm, ion access occurs at a wide energy range, as no nose structures are observed. As the magnetosphere recovers from the storm, single noses and then multiple noses are observed once again. We use a model of ion drift and losses due to charge exchange to simulate the ion spectra and gain insight into the main observed features.

  8. A comprehensive analysis of the geomagnetic storms occurred dur

    Essam Ghamry

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Geomagnetic storms are considered as one of the major natural hazards. Egyptian geomagnetic observatories observed multiple geomagnetic storms during 18 February to 2 March 2014. During this period, four interplanetary shocks successively hit the Earth’s magnetosphere, leading to four geomagnetic storms. The storm onsets occurred on 18, 20, 23 and 27 February. A non-substorm Pi2 pulsation was observed on 26 February. This Pi2 pulsation was detected in Egyptian observatories (Misallat and Abu Simbel, Kakioka station in Japan and Carson City station in US with nearly identical waveforms. Van Allen Probe missions observed non-compressional Pc4 pulsations on the recovery phase of the third storm. This Pc4 event is may be likely attributed to the decay of the ring current in the recovery phase.

  9. The plasmasheet H+ and O+ contribution on the storm time ring current

    Mouikis, C.; Bingham, S.; Kistler, L. M.; Spence, H. E.; Gkioulidou, M.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Farrugia, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    The source population of the storm time ring current is the night side plasma sheet. We use Van Allen Probes and Cluster observations to determine the contribution of the convecting plasma sheet H+ and O+ particles in the storm time development of the ring current. Using the Volland-Stern model with a dipole magnetic field together with the identification of the observed energy cutoffs in the particle spectra, we specify the pressure contributed by H+ and O+ populations that are on open drift paths vs. the pressure contributed by the trapped populations, for different local times. We find that during the storm main phase most of the ring current pressure in the pre-midnight inner magnetosphere is contributed by particles on open drift paths that cause the development of a strong partial ring current that causes most of the main phase Dst drop. These particles can reach as deep as L~2 and their pressure compares to the local magnetic field pressure as deep as L~3. During the recovery phase, if these particles are not lost at the magnetopause, will become trapped and will contribute to the symmetric ring current.

  10. Storm impacts on small barrier islands

    Kroon, Aart; Fruergaard, Mikkel

    The shorelines of the Baltic Sea and the inner coastal waters in Denmark consist of many barrier islands. These sandy barrier islands were mainly formed in the Holocene and are still very dynamic. The present day changes in the morphology are dominantly governed by storm waves and associated high...

  11. Great magnetic storms

    Tsurutani, B.T.; Yen Te Lee; Tang, F.; Gonzalez, W.D.

    1992-01-01

    The five largest magnetic storms that occurred between 1971 and 1986 are studied to determine their solar and interplanetary causes. All of the events are found to be associated with high speed solar wind streams led by collisionless shocks. The high speed streams are clearly related to identifiable solar flares. It is found that (1) it is the extreme values of the southward interplanetary magnetic fields rather than solar wind speeds that are the primary causes of great magnetic storms, (2) shocked and draped sheath fields preceding the driver gas (magnetic cloud) are at least as effective in causing the onset of great magnetic storms (3 of 5 events ) as the strong fields within the driver gas itself, and (3) precursor southward fields ahead of the high speed streams allow the shock compression mechanism (item 2) to be particularly geoeffective

  12. Progress in the Study of Coastal Storm Deposits

    Xiong, Haixian; Huang, Guangqing; Fu, Shuqing; Qian, Peng

    2018-05-01

    Numerous studies have been carried out to identify storm deposits and decipher storm-induced sedimentary processes in coastal and shallow-marine areas. This study aims to provide an in-depth review on the study of coastal storm deposits from the following five aspects. 1) The formation of storm deposits is a function of hydrodynamic and sedimentary processes under the constraints of local geological and ecological factors. Many questions remain to demonstrate the genetic links between storm-related processes and a variety of resulting deposits such as overwash deposits, underwater deposits and hummocky cross-stratification (HCS). Future research into the formation of storm deposits should combine flume experiments, field observations and numerical simulations, and make full use of sediment source tracing methods. 2) Recently there has been rapid growth in the number of studies utilizing sediment provenance analysis to investigate the source of storm deposits. The development of source tracing techniques, such as mineral composition, magnetic susceptibility, microfossil and geochemical property, has allowed for better understanding of the depositional processes and environmental changes associated with coastal storms. 3) The role of extreme storms in the sedimentation of low-lying coastal wetlands with diverse ecosystem services has also drawn a great deal of attention. Many investigations have attempted to quantify widespread land loss, vertical marsh sediment accumulation and wetland elevation change induced by major hurricanes. 4) Paleostorm reconstructions based on storm sedimentary proxies have shown many advantages over the instrumental records and historic documents as they allow for the reconstruction of storm activities on millennial or longer time scales. Storm deposits having been used to establish proxies mainly include beach ridges and shelly cheniers, coral reefs, estuary-deltaic storm sequences and overwash deposits. Particularly over the past few

  13. Storm and cloud dynamics

    Cotton, William R

    1992-01-01

    This book focuses on the dynamics of clouds and of precipitating mesoscale meteorological systems. Clouds and precipitating mesoscale systems represent some of the most important and scientifically exciting weather systems in the world. These are the systems that produce torrential rains, severe winds including downburst and tornadoes, hail, thunder and lightning, and major snow storms. Forecasting such storms represents a major challenge since they are too small to be adequately resolved by conventional observing networks and numerical prediction models.Key Features* Key Highlight

  14. The Southern Hemisphere and equatorial region ionization response for a 22 September 1999 severe magnetic storm

    Yizengaw, Endawoke

    2004-01-01

    The ionospheric storm evolution process was monitored during the 22 September 1999 magnetic storm over the Australian eastern region, through measurements of the ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) from seven Global Positioning Systems (GPS) stations. The spatial and temporal variations of the ionosphere were analysed as a time series of TEC maps. Results of our analysis show that the main ionospheric effect of the storm under consideration are: the long lasting negative storm effect dur...

  15. No Calm After the Storm: A Systematic Review of Human Health Following Flood and Storm Disasters.

    Saulnier, Dell D; Brolin Ribacke, Kim; von Schreeb, Johan

    2017-10-01

    Introduction How the burden of disease varies during different phases after floods and after storms is essential in order to guide a medical response, but it has not been well-described. The objective of this review was to elucidate the health problems following flood and storm disasters. A literature search of the databases Medline (US National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health; Bethesda, Maryland USA); Cinahl (EBSCO Information Services; Ipswich, Massachusetts USA); Global Health (EBSCO Information Services; Ipswich, Massachusetts USA); Web of Science Core Collection (Thomson Reuters; New York, New York USA); Embase (Elsevier; Amsterdam, Netherlands); and PubMed (National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Institutes of Health; Bethesda, Maryland USA) was conducted in June 2015 for English-language research articles on morbidity or mortality and flood or storm disasters. Articles on mental health, interventions, and rescue or health care workers were excluded. Data were extracted from articles that met the eligibility criteria and analyzed by narrative synthesis. The review included 113 studies. Poisonings, wounds, gastrointestinal infections, and skin or soft tissue infections all increased after storms. Gastrointestinal infections were more frequent after floods. Leptospirosis and diabetes-related complications increased after both. The majority of changes occurred within four weeks of floods or storms. Health changes differently after floods and after storms. There is a lack of data on the health effects of floods alone, long-term changes in health, and the strength of the association between disasters and health problems. This review highlights areas of consideration for medical response and the need for high-quality, systematic research in this area. Saulnier DD , Brolin Ribacke K , von Schreeb J . No calm after the storm: a systematic review of human health following flood and storm disasters. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(5):568-579.

  16. Validation of Storm Water Management Model Storm Control Measures Modules

    Simon, M. A.; Platz, M. C.

    2017-12-01

    EPA's Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) is a computational code heavily relied upon by industry for the simulation of wastewater and stormwater infrastructure performance. Many municipalities are relying on SWMM results to design multi-billion-dollar, multi-decade infrastructure upgrades. Since the 1970's, EPA and others have developed five major releases, the most recent ones containing storm control measures modules for green infrastructure. The main objective of this study was to quantify the accuracy with which SWMM v5.1.10 simulates the hydrologic activity of previously monitored low impact developments. Model performance was evaluated with a mathematical comparison of outflow hydrographs and total outflow volumes, using empirical data and a multi-event, multi-objective calibration method. The calibration methodology utilized PEST++ Version 3, a parameter estimation tool, which aided in the selection of unmeasured hydrologic parameters. From the validation study and sensitivity analysis, several model improvements were identified to advance SWMM LID Module performance for permeable pavements, infiltration units and green roofs, and these were performed and reported herein. Overall, it was determined that SWMM can successfully simulate low impact development controls given accurate model confirmation, parameter measurement, and model calibration.

  17. Topographic Correction Module at Storm (TC@Storm)

    Zaksek, K.; Cotar, K.; Veljanovski, T.; Pehani, P.; Ostir, K.

    2015-04-01

    Different solar position in combination with terrain slope and aspect result in different illumination of inclined surfaces. Therefore, the retrieved satellite data cannot be accurately transformed to the spectral reflectance, which depends only on the land cover. The topographic correction should remove this effect and enable further automatic processing of higher level products. The topographic correction TC@STORM was developed as a module within the SPACE-SI automatic near-real-time image processing chain STORM. It combines physical approach with the standard Minnaert method. The total irradiance is modelled as a three-component irradiance: direct (dependent on incidence angle, sun zenith angle and slope), diffuse from the sky (dependent mainly on sky-view factor), and diffuse reflected from the terrain (dependent on sky-view factor and albedo). For computation of diffuse irradiation from the sky we assume an anisotropic brightness of the sky. We iteratively estimate a linear combination from 10 different models, to provide the best results. Dependent on the data resolution, we mask shades based on radiometric (image) or geometric properties. The method was tested on RapidEye, Landsat 8, and PROBA-V data. Final results of the correction were evaluated and statistically validated based on various topography settings and land cover classes. Images show great improvements in shaded areas.

  18. California's Perfect Storm

    Bacon, David

    2010-01-01

    The United States today faces an economic crisis worse than any since the Great Depression of the 1930s. Nowhere is it sharper than in the nation's schools. Last year, California saw a perfect storm of protest in virtually every part of its education system. K-12 teachers built coalitions with parents and students to fight for their jobs and their…

  19. Dave Storm esitleb singlit

    2002-01-01

    7. märtsil klubis Spirit ja 8. märtsil klubis Terminal presenteerib tallinlane DJ Dave Storm oma uut singlit "Ride", millel teeb laulmisega kaasa ameeriklane Charlie C. Singelplaadi annab peadselt välja Inglise plaadifirma Refunkt

  20. Interview with Gert Storm

    Storm, Gerrit

    2013-01-01

    Gert Storm studied biology at the Utrecht University, The Netherlands, and obtained his PhD degree in 1987 at the Department of Pharmaceutics of the same university. He is now Professor of targeted drug delivery at the University of Utrecht, as well as Professor of targeted therapeutics at the MIRA

  1. Unexpected storm-time nightside plasmaspheric density enhancement at low L shell

    Chu, X.; Bortnik, J.; Denton, R. E.; Yue, C.

    2017-12-01

    We have developed a three-dimensional dynamic electron density (DEN3D) model in the inner magnetosphere using a neural network approach. The DEN3D model can provide spatiotemporal distribution of the electron density at any location and time that spacecraft observations are not available. Given DEN3D's good performance in predicting the structure and dynamic evolution of the plasma density, the salient features of the DEN3D model can be used to gain further insight into the physics. For instance, the DEN3D models can be used to find unusual phenomena that are difficult to detect in observations or simulations. We report, for the first time, an unexpected plasmaspheric density increase at low L shell regions on the nightside during the main phase of a moderate storm during 12-16 October 2004, as opposed to the expected density decrease due to storm-time plasmaspheric erosion. The unexpected density increase is first discovered in the modeled electron density distribution using the DEN3D model, and then validated using in-situ density measurements obtained from the IMAGE satellite. The density increase was likely caused by increased earthward transverse field plasma transport due to enhanced nightside ExB drift, which coincided with enhanced solar wind electric field and substorm activity. This is consistent with the results of physics-based simulation SAMI3 model which show earthward enhanced plasma transport and electron density increase at low L shells during storm main phase.

  2. The ionospheric response in the Brazilian sector during the super geomagnetic storm on 20 November 2003

    F. Becker-Guedes

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available A very intense geomagnetic storm (superstorm began with storm sudden commencement (SSC at 08:03 UT on 20 November 2003, as a result of the coronal mass ejection (CME by sunspot 484 hurled into space on 18 November 2003. The geomagnetic storm attained |Dst|max=472 nT at 20:00 UT (20 November. In this paper we present the simultaneous ionospheric sounding observations, using the Canadian Advanced Digital Ionosondes (CADIs, carried out from Palmas (PAL; 10.2° S, 48.2° W; dip latitude 5.5° S; a near equatorial station and São José dos Campos (SJC; 23.2° S, 45.9° W; dip latitude 17.6° S; station located under the crest of equatorial ionospheric anomaly, Brazil. In addition, total electron content (TEC measurements from several GPS receiving stations in the Brazilian sector during this storm are presented. The simultaneous ionospheric sounding observations carried out at SJC and PAL, and TEC observations on 3 consecutive days viz., 19 November (quiet, 20 November (disturbed and 21 November (recovery phase are presented. Salient features from the ionospheric observations in the Brazilian sector during the superstorm are discussed. The difference in the observed ionospheric response at the two stations (PAL and SJC is considerable. This is not surprising given that PAL is close to the magnetic equator and SJC is near the crest of the equatorial ionospheric anomaly (EIA. It should be pointed out that soon after the SSC (about 4 h later, the F-region critical frequency (foF2, the F-region peak height (hpF2, and variations of virtual heights at different frequencies (iso-frequency plots all show wavelike oscillations of the F-region during daytime at both the ionospheric sounding stations. Unusual rapid uplifting of F-region at PAL was observed during both the main and recovery phases of the storm.

  3. Acute and emergency care for thyrotoxicosis and thyroid storm.

    Idrose, Alzamani Mohammad

    2015-07-01

    Thyroid hormones affect all organ systems and, in excess, can cause increased metabolic rate, heart rate, ventricle contractility, and gastrointestinal motility as well as muscle and central nervous system excitability. Thyroid storm is the extreme manifestation of thyrotoxicosis with an estimated incidence of 0.20 per 100,000 per year among hospitalized patients in Japan. The mortality of thyroid storm without treatment ranges from 80% to 100%; but with treatment, the mortality rate is between 10% and 50%. The diagnostic strategy for thyroid storm may take into consideration Burch-Wartofsky scoring or Akamizu's diagnostic criteria. Multiple treatment aims need to be addressed in managing thyroid storm effectively. This paper puts together all aspects to be considered for the management of hyperthyroidism and thyroid storm during the acute and emergency phase as well as consideration of special populations.

  4. Acute and emergency care for thyrotoxicosis and thyroid storm

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hormones affect all organ systems and, in excess, can cause increased metabolic rate, heart rate, ventricle contractility, and gastrointestinal motility as well as muscle and central nervous system excitability. Thyroid storm is the extreme manifestation of thyrotoxicosis with an estimated incidence of 0.20 per 100,000 per year among hospitalized patients in Japan. The mortality of thyroid storm without treatment ranges from 80% to 100%; but with treatment, the mortality rate is between 10% and 50%. The diagnostic strategy for thyroid storm may take into consideration Burch–Wartofsky scoring or Akamizu's diagnostic criteria. Multiple treatment aims need to be addressed in managing thyroid storm effectively. This paper puts together all aspects to be considered for the management of hyperthyroidism and thyroid storm during the acute and emergency phase as well as consideration of special populations. PMID:29123713

  5. Ionospheric Responses to the July 15 - 16, 2000 Magnetic Storm around Geographic Longitude 121E

    Yu-Jung Chuo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents observed behavior of ionospheric responses using vertical total electron contents (VTEC and NmF2. The data were collected from global positioning system (GPS networks and ionosondes around the geographic longitude of 121°E from mid- to low-latitudes for the severe magnetic storm on 15 July 2000. The results show that the severe magnetic storm caused significant density depletion and a G-condition occurrence in the western Pacific region on 15 - 16 July 2000. The G-condition is observed on the ionograms at Chung-Li station around 2330 UT on July 15. Furthermore, the variation of the F-peak height (HmF2 at Cebu indicates that a zonal electric field produced an upward drift and enhanced the fountain effect from 1000 UT on July 15. The observation of a G-condition indicates that a storm-induced neutral-wind circulation was the main cause of compositional change; i.e., an increase in the N2/O ratio and its associated loss coefficients that produced a negative storm phase along the chain of geographic longitude 121°E.

  6. Local time and cutoff rigidity dependences of storm time increase associated with geomagnetic storms

    Kudo, S.; Wada, M.; Tanskanen, P.; Kodama, M.

    1987-01-01

    The cosmic ray increases due to considerable depressions of cosmic ray cutoff rigidity during large geomagnetic storms are investigated. Data from a worldwide network of cosmic ray neutron monitors are analyzed for 17 geomagnetic storms which occurred in the quiet phase of the solar activity cycle during 1966-1978. As expected from the longitudinal asymmetry of the low-altitude geomagnetic field during large geomagnetic storms, a significant local time dependence of the increment in the cosmic ray during large geomagnetic storms, a significant local time dependence of the increment in the cosmic ray intensity is obtained. It is shown that the maximum phases of the local time dependence occur at around 1800 LT and that the amplitudes of the local time dependence are consistent with presently available theoretical estimates. The dependence of the increment on the cutoff rigidity is obtained for both the local time dependent part and the local time independent part of the storm time increase. The local time independent part, excluding the randomizing local time dependent part, shows a clear-cut dependence on cutoff rigidity which is consistent with theoretical estimates

  7. Storm-time variation of radiative cooling by Nitric Oxide as observed by TIMED-SABER and GUVI

    Sunil Krishna, M. V.; Bharti, G.; Bag, T.

    2017-12-01

    The variation of O/N2 and nitric oxide radiative emission flux exiting thermosphere have been studied over northern hemisphere during the super-storm event of November 7-12, 2004. The data have been obtained from GUVI and SABER onboard the NASA's TIMED satellite. The NO radiative flux is observed to show an anti-correlation with O/N2 on a global scale. Both NO radiative flux and O/N2 ratio show equatorward motion with maximum penetration in western longitude sectors. A local variation of O, O2 and N2 densities have been calculated by using NRLMSISE-00 model over a mid-latitude location (55oN,180oE). On a local scale, model calculated O/O2 and O/N2 ratios are found to follow the observations made by GUVI. The SABER retrieved NO cooling rate (CR) at a local site suggests an enhancement during the storm period with the peak emission rate closely correlated to the progression of the storm. The peak emission altitude of NO CR moves upward during the main phase of the storm. The NO abundance has been calculated by using cooling rate and NOEM model. Both these suggest huge increase in NO density during the storm which is required to account the changes in NO radiative flux.

  8. Probabilistic storm surge inundation maps for Metro Manila based on Philippine public storm warning signals

    Tablazon, J.; Caro, C. V.; Lagmay, A. M. F.; Briones, J. B. L.; Dasallas, L.; Lapidez, J. P.; Santiago, J.; Suarez, J. K.; Ladiero, C.; Gonzalo, L. A.; Mungcal, M. T. F.; Malano, V.

    2015-03-01

    A storm surge is the sudden rise of sea water over the astronomical tides, generated by an approaching storm. This event poses a major threat to the Philippine coastal areas, as manifested by Typhoon Haiyan on 8 November 2013. This hydro-meteorological hazard is one of the main reasons for the high number of casualties due to the typhoon, with 6300 deaths. It became evident that the need to develop a storm surge inundation map is of utmost importance. To develop these maps, the Nationwide Operational Assessment of Hazards under the Department of Science and Technology (DOST-Project NOAH) simulated historical tropical cyclones that entered the Philippine Area of Responsibility. The Japan Meteorological Agency storm surge model was used to simulate storm surge heights. The frequency distribution of the maximum storm surge heights was calculated using simulation results of tropical cyclones under a specific public storm warning signal (PSWS) that passed through a particular coastal area. This determines the storm surge height corresponding to a given probability of occurrence. The storm surge heights from the model were added to the maximum astronomical tide data from WXTide software. The team then created maps of inundation for a specific PSWS using the probability of exceedance derived from the frequency distribution. Buildings and other structures were assigned a probability of exceedance depending on their occupancy category, i.e., 1% probability of exceedance for critical facilities, 10% probability of exceedance for special occupancy structures, and 25% for standard occupancy and miscellaneous structures. The maps produced show the storm-surge-vulnerable areas in Metro Manila, illustrated by the flood depth of up to 4 m and extent of up to 6.5 km from the coastline. This information can help local government units in developing early warning systems, disaster preparedness and mitigation plans, vulnerability assessments, risk-sensitive land use plans, shoreline

  9. The Roles of Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Coupling on Ring Current development: Comparison of TWINS Measurements and CIMI Simulations for the 7-10 September 2015 Geomagnetic Storm

    Edmond, J. A.; Hill, S. C.; Xu, H.; Perez, J. D.; Fok, M. C. H.; Goldstein, J.; McComas, D. J.; Valek, P. W.

    2017-12-01

    The Two Wide-Angle Imaging Neutral-Atom Spectrometers (TWINS) mission obtained energetic neutral atom (ENA) images during a 4 day storm on 7-10 September 2015. The storm has two separate SYM/H minima, so we divide the storm into four intervals: first main phase, first recovery phase, second main phase, and second recovery phase. Simulations with the Comprehensive Inner Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Model (CIMI) are compared and contrasted with the TWINS observations. We find good agreement in most aspects of the storm. E. G. (1) the location of the ion pressure peaks are most often in the dusk-midnight sector, (2) the pitch angle distributions at the pressure peaks most often display perpendicular anisotropy, and (3) the energy spectra at the pressure peaks have similar maximum energies. There are, however, some exceptions to these general features. We describe and interpret these notable events. We also have examined particle paths determined from the CIMI model simulations to assist in the interpretation of the notable events.In this poster, we focus upon the features of the CIMI simulations with a self-consistent electric field and with the semi-empirical Weimer electric potential in relationship to the TWINS observations.

  10. Combined Global MHD and Test-Particle Simulation of a Radiation Belt Storm: Comparing Depletion, Recovery and Enhancement with in Situ Measurements

    Sorathia, K.; Ukhorskiy, A. Y.; Merkin, V. G.; Wiltberger, M. J.; Lyon, J.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Fennell, J. F.

    2017-12-01

    During geomagnetic storms the intensities of radiation belt electrons exhibit dramatic variability. In the main phase electron intensities exhibit deep depletion over a broad region of the outer belt. The intensities then increase during the recovery phase, often to levels that significantly exceed their pre-storm values. In this study we analyze the depletion, recovery and enhancement of radiation belt intensities during the 2013 St. Patrick's geomagnetic storm. We simulate the dynamics of high-energy electrons using our newly-developed test-particle radiation belt model (CHIMP) based on a hybrid guiding-center/Lorentz integrator and electromagnetic fields derived from high-resolution global MHD (LFM) simulations. Our approach differs from previous work in that we use MHD flow information to identify and seed test-particles into regions of strong convection in the magnetotail. We address two science questions: 1) what are the relative roles of magnetopause losses, transport-driven atmospheric precipitation, and adiabatic cooling in the radiation belt depletion during the storm main phase? and 2) to what extent can enhanced convection/mesoscale injections account for the radiation belt buildup during the recovery phase? Our analysis is based on long-term model simulation and the comparison of our model results with electron intensity measurements from the MAGEIS experiment of the Van Allen Probes mission.

  11. Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide-based frozen ionic liquid for the hollow-fiber solid-phase microextraction of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its main metabolites.

    Pang, Long; Yang, Peijie; Pang, Rong; Li, Shunyi

    2017-08-01

    1-Hexadecyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide is a solid-phase ionic organic material under ambient temperature and is considered as a kind of "frozen" ionic liquid. Because of their solid-state and ultra-hydrophobicity, "frozen" ionic liquids are able to be confined in the pores of hollow fiber, based on which a simple method was developed for the hollow-fiber solid-phase microextraction of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its main metabolites. Under optimized conditions, the proposed method results in good linearity (R 2 > 0.9965) over the range of 0.5-50 μg/L, with low limits of detection and quantification in the range of 0.33-0.38 and 1.00-1.25 μg/L, respectively. Intra- and interday precisions evaluated by relative standard deviation were 3-6 and 1-6%, respectively. The spiked recoveries of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its main metabolites from real water samples were in the range of 64-113 and 79-112%, respectively, at two different concentration levels. The results suggest that "frozen" ionic liquids are promising for use as a class of novel sorbents. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Representation of Northern Hemisphere winter storm tracks in climate models

    Greeves, C.Z.; Pope, V.D.; Stratton, R.A.; Martin, G.M. [Met Office Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, Exeter (United Kingdom)

    2007-06-15

    Northern Hemisphere winter storm tracks are a key element of the winter weather and climate at mid-latitudes. Before projections of climate change are made for these regions, it is necessary to be sure that climate models are able to reproduce the main features of observed storm tracks. The simulated storm tracks are assessed for a variety of Hadley Centre models and are shown to be well modelled on the whole. The atmosphere-only model with the semi-Lagrangian dynamical core produces generally more realistic storm tracks than the model with the Eulerian dynamical core, provided the horizontal resolution is high enough. The two models respond in different ways to changes in horizontal resolution: the model with the semi-Lagrangian dynamical core has much reduced frequency and strength of cyclonic features at lower resolution due to reduced transient eddy kinetic energy. The model with Eulerian dynamical core displays much smaller changes in frequency and strength of features with changes in horizontal resolution, but the location of the storm tracks as well as secondary development are sensitive to resolution. Coupling the atmosphere-only model (with semi-Lagrangian dynamical core) to an ocean model seems to affect the storm tracks largely via errors in the tropical representation. For instance a cold SST bias in the Pacific and a lack of ENSO variability lead to large changes in the Pacific storm track. Extratropical SST biases appear to have a more localised effect on the storm tracks. (orig.)

  13. Leonid storm research

    Rietmeijer, Frans; Brosch, Noah; Fonda, Mark

    2000-01-01

    This book will appeal to all researchers that have an interest in the current Leonid showers It contains over forty research papers that present some of the first observational results of the November 1999 Leonid meteor storm, the first storm observed by modern observing techniques The book is a first glimpse of the large amount of information obtained during NASA's Leonid Multi-Instrument Aircraft Campaign and groundbased campaigns throughout the world It provides an excellent overview on the state of meteor shower research for any professional researcher or amateur meteor observer interested in studies of meteors and meteoroids and their relation to comets, the origin of life on Earth, the satellite impact hazard issue, and upper atmosphere studies of neutral atom chemistry, the formation of meteoric debris, persistent trains, airglow, noctilucent clouds, sprites and elves

  14. Dust storm, northern Mexico

    1983-01-01

    This large dust storm along the left side of the photo, covers a large portion of the state of Coahuila, Mexico (27.5N, 102.0E). The look angle of this oblique photo is from the south to the north. In the foreground is the Sierra Madre Oriental in the states Coahuila and Nuevo Leon with the Rio Grande River, Amistad Reservoir and Texas in the background.

  15. Solar storms; Tormentas solares

    Collaboration: Pereira Cuesta, S.; Pereira Pagan, B.

    2016-08-01

    Solar storms begin with an explosion, or solar flare, on the surface of the sun. The X-rays and extreme ultraviolet radiation from the flare reach the Earths orbit minutes later-travelling at light speed. The ionization of upper layers of our atmosphere could cause radio blackouts and satellite navigation errors (GPS). Soon after, a wave of energetic particles, electrons and protons accelerated by the explosion crosses the orbit of the Earth, and can cause real and significant damage. (Author)

  16. LibrarySTORM

    Breüner, Niels; Bech, Tine

    2013-01-01

    Når flere uddannelser samles i en nybygning til Campus C på Ceres grunden i Aarhus, skal der også indrettes et fælles bibliotek. Når der samtidig er midler til at arbejde med brugerdreven innovation, lå det lige for at inddrage de studerende og få deres visioner for fremtidens bibliotek. Der blev...... arrangeret en udviklingsdag, hvor der skulle brainstormes – og projektet blev kaldt LibrarySTORM....

  17. Modeling storm waves

    Benoit, M.; Marcos, F.; Teisson, Ch.

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear power stations located on the coast take the water they use to cool their circuits from the sea. The water intake and discharge devices must be able to operate in all weathers, notably during extreme storms, with waves 10 m high and over. To predict the impact of the waves on the equipment, they are modeled digitally from the moment they form in the middle of the ocean right up to the moment they break on the shore. (authors)

  18. Noise storm coordinated observations

    Elgaroey, Oe.; Tlamicha, A.

    1983-01-01

    The usually accepted bipolar model of noise storm centers is irrelevant for the present observations. An alternative model has been proposed in which the different sources of a noise storm center are located in different flux tubes connecting active regions with their surroundings. Radio emission is observed from the wide, descending branch of the flux tubes, opposite to the flaring site. The relation between the sense of circular polarization of the radio emission and the magnetic polarity, has been more precisely defined. The radiation is in the ordinary mode with respect to the underlying large scale photospheric magnetic polarity. Thus the ''irregular'' polarity of noice storm center ''B'' is explained. As regards center ''C'', one should note that although the observed radio emission is polarized in the ordinary mode with respect to the leading spot of region HR 17653, center ''C'' is not situated in flux tubes originating from the leading part of this region according to the proposed model. Rather, the radio sources are located in the wide and descending part of flux tubes connecting a large, quiet area of south magnetic polarity with the following part of the region HR 17653 (of north magnetic polarity). Thus it is the polarity of the extended area which determines the polarization of the radio emission. The observed polarization should result rather from the emission process than from complicated conditions of propagation for the radio waves

  19. Electrical Storm: Incidence, Prognosis and Therapy.

    Sagone, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    The term "electrical storm" indicates a life-threatening clinical condition characterized by the recurrence of hemodynamically unstable ventricular tachycardia and/or ventricular fibrillation, in particular in patients with ICD implanted for primary or secondary prevention. Although there isn't a shared definition of electrical storm, nowadays the most accepted definition refers to three or more separate arrhythmia episodes leading to ICD therapies including antitachycardia pacing or shock occurring over a single 24 hours' time period. Clinical presentation can be dramatic and triggering mechanism are not clear at all yet, but electrical storm is associated with high mortality rates and low patients quality of life, both in the acute phase and in the long term. The first line therapy is based on antiarrhythmic drugs to suppress electrical storm, but in refractory patients, interventions such as catheter ablation or in some cases surgical cardiac sympathetic denervation might be helpful. Anyhow, earlier interventional management can lead to better outcomes than persisting with antiarrhythmic pharmacologic therapy and, when available, an early interventional approach should be preferred.

  20. Study of the Equatorial and Low-Latitude Electrodynamic and Ionospheric Disturbances During the 22-23 June 2015 Geomagnetic Storm Using Ground-Based and Spaceborne Techniques

    Astafyeva, E.; Zakharenkova, I.; Hozumi, K.; Alken, P.; Coïsson, P.; Hairston, M. R.; Coley, W. R.

    2018-03-01

    We use a set of ground-based instruments (Global Positioning System receivers, ionosondes, magnetometers) along with data of multiple satellite missions (Swarm, C/NOFS, DMSP, GUVI) to analyze the equatorial and low-latitude electrodynamic and ionospheric disturbances caused by the geomagnetic storm of 22-23 June 2015, which is the second largest storm in the current solar cycle. Our results show that at the beginning of the storm, the equatorial electrojet (EEJ) and the equatorial zonal electric fields were largely impacted by the prompt penetration electric fields (PPEF). The PPEF were first directed eastward and caused significant ionospheric uplift and positive ionospheric storm on the dayside, and downward drift on the nightside. Furthermore, about 45 min after the storm commencement, the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) Bz component turned northward, leading to the EEJ changing sign to westward, and to overall decrease of the vertical total electron content (VTEC) and electron density on the dayside. At the end of the main phase of the storm, and with the second long-term IMF Bz southward turn, we observed several oscillations of the EEJ, which led us to conclude that at this stage of the storm, the disturbance dynamo effect was already in effect, competing with the PPEF and reducing it. Our analysis showed no significant upward or downward plasma motion during this period of time; however, the electron density and the VTEC drastically increased on the dayside (over the Asian region). We show that this second positive storm was largely influenced by the disturbed thermospheric conditions.

  1. Polarization reversal during the solar noise storm activity of August 1971

    Kurihara, Masahiro

    1975-01-01

    Reversals of the sense of circular polarization of solar radio emission were observed for active type I storms in August 1971. Observations with a 160-MHz interferometer revealed that the reversals were caused by sudden growth and decay of a secondary storm source whose sense of polarization was opposite to that of the long-lasting main source. The time variations of both the associated S-component sources and sunspots are compared with that of the storm sources. The role of the magnetic field, which presumably connects the storm sources, the S-component sources, and the sunspots, is discussed in relation to the origin of the storm activity. (author)

  2. SUB-THz AND H{alpha} ACTIVITY DURING THE PREFLARE AND MAIN PHASES OF A GOES CLASS M2 EVENT

    Kaufmann, Pierre; Gimenez de Castro, C. Guillermo; Raulin, Jean-Pierre; Correia, Emilia; Fernandes, Luis Olavo; De Souza, Rodney V. [CRAAM, Escola de Engenharia, Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Marcon, Rogerio [IFGW, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Brazil); White, Stephen M. [AFRL, Space Vehicles Directorate, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Godoy, Rodolfo; Marun, Adolfo; Pereyra, Pablo [Complejo Astronomico El Leoncito, CONICET, San Juan (Argentina)

    2011-12-01

    Radio and optical observations of the evolution of flare-associated phenomena have shown an initial and rapid burst at 0.4 THz only followed subsequently by a localized chromospheric heating producing an H{alpha} brightening with later heating of the whole active region. A major instability occurred several minutes later producing one impulsive burst at microwaves only, associated with an M2.0 GOES X-ray flare that exhibited the main H{alpha} brightening at the same site as the first flash.The possible association between long-enduring time profiles at soft X-rays, microwaves, H{alpha}, and sub-THz wavelengths is discussed. In the decay phase, the H{alpha} movie shows a disrupting magnetic arch structure ejecting dark, presumably chromospheric, material upward. The time sequence of events suggests genuine interdependent and possibly non-thermal instabilities triggering phenomena, with concurrent active region plasma heating and material ejection.

  3. Positive ionospheric storm effects at Latin America longitude during the superstorm of 20–22 November 2003: revisit

    B. Zhao

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Positive ionospheric storm effects that occurred during the superstorm on 20 November 2003 are investigated using a combination of ground-based Global Positioning System (GPS total electron content (TEC, and the meridian chain of ionosondes distributed along the Latin America longitude of ~280° E. Both the ground-based GPS TEC and ionosonde electron density profile data reveal significant enhancements at mid-low latitudes over the 280° E region during the main phase of the November 2003 superstorm. The maximum enhancement of the topside ionospheric electron content is 3.2–7.7 times of the bottomside ionosphere at the locations of the ionosondes distributed around the mid- and low latitudes. Moreover, the height of maximum electron density exceeds 400 km and increases by 100 km compared with the quiet day over the South American area from middle to low latitudes, which might have resulted from a continuous eastward penetration electric field and storm-generated equatorward winds. Our results do not support the conclusions of Yizengaw et al. (2006, who suggested that the observed positive storm over the South American sector was mainly the consequence of the changes of the bottomside ionosphere. The so-called "unusual" responses of the topside ionosphere for the November 2003 storm in Yizengaw et al. (2006 are likely associated with the erroneous usage of magnetometer and incomplete data.

  4. Storm time dynamics of auroral electrojets: CHAMP observation and the Space Weather Modeling Framework comparison

    H. Wang

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigate variations of the location and intensity of auroral currents during two magnetic storm periods based on magnetic field measurements from CHAMP separately for both hemispheres, as well as for the dayside and nightside. The corresponding auroral electrojet current densities are on average enhanced by about a factor of 7 compared to the quiet time current strengths. The nightside westward current densities are on average 1.8 (2.2 times larger than the dayside eastward current densities in the Northern (Southern Hemisphere. Both eastward and westward currents are present during the storm periods with the most intense electrojets appearing during the main phase of the storm, before the ring current maximizes in strength. The eastward and westward electrojet centers can expand to 55° MLat during intense storms, as is observed on 31 March 2001 with Dst=−387 nT. The equatorward shift of auroral currents on the dayside is closely controlled by the southward IMF, while the latitudinal variations on the nightside are better described by the variations of the Dst index. However, the equatorward and poleward motion of the nightside auroral currents occur earlier than the Dst variations. The Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF can capture the general dynamics of the storm time current variations. Both the model and the actual data show that the currents tend to saturate when the merging electric field is larger than 10 mV/m. However, the exact prediction of the temporal development of the currents is still not satisfactory.

  5. Storm time dynamics of auroral electrojets: CHAMP observation and the Space Weather Modeling Framework comparison

    H. Wang

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigate variations of the location and intensity of auroral currents during two magnetic storm periods based on magnetic field measurements from CHAMP separately for both hemispheres, as well as for the dayside and nightside. The corresponding auroral electrojet current densities are on average enhanced by about a factor of 7 compared to the quiet time current strengths. The nightside westward current densities are on average 1.8 (2.2 times larger than the dayside eastward current densities in the Northern (Southern Hemisphere. Both eastward and westward currents are present during the storm periods with the most intense electrojets appearing during the main phase of the storm, before the ring current maximizes in strength. The eastward and westward electrojet centers can expand to 55° MLat during intense storms, as is observed on 31 March 2001 with Dst=−387 nT. The equatorward shift of auroral currents on the dayside is closely controlled by the southward IMF, while the latitudinal variations on the nightside are better described by the variations of the Dst index. However, the equatorward and poleward motion of the nightside auroral currents occur earlier than the Dst variations. The Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF can capture the general dynamics of the storm time current variations. Both the model and the actual data show that the currents tend to saturate when the merging electric field is larger than 10 mV/m. However, the exact prediction of the temporal development of the currents is still not satisfactory.

  6. Combined ESR and EISCAT observations of the dayside polar cap and auroral oval during the May 15, 1997 storm

    H. Liu

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The high-latitude ionospheric response to a major magnetic storm on May 15, 1997 is studied and different responses in the polar cap and the auroral oval are highlighted. Depletion of the F2 region electron density occurred in both the polar cap and the auroral zone, but due to different physical processes. The increased recombination rate of O+ ions caused by a strong electric field played a crucial role in the auroral zone. The transport effect, however, especially the strong upward ion flow was also of great importance in the dayside polar cap. During the main phase and the beginning of the recovery phase soft particle precipitation in the polar cap showed a clear relation to the dynamic pressure of the solar wind, with a maximum cross-correlation coefficient of 0.63 at a time lag of 5 min.Key words: Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; polar ionosphere - Magnetospheric physics (storms and substorms

  7. Van Allen Probe Observations of Chorus Wave Activity, Source and Seed electrons, and the Radiation Belt Response During ICME and CIR Storms

    Bingham, S.; Mouikis, C.; Kistler, L. M.; Farrugia, C. J.; Paulson, K. W.; Huang, C. L.; Boyd, A. J.; Spence, H. E.; Kletzing, C.

    2017-12-01

    Whistler mode chorus waves are electromagnetic waves that have been shown to be a major contributor to enhancements in the outer radiation belt during geomagnetic storms. The temperature anisotropy of source electrons (10s of keV) provides the free energy for chorus waves, which can accelerate sub-relativistic seed electrons (100s of keV) to relativistic energies. This study uses Van Allen Probe observations to examine the excitation and plasma conditions associated with chorus wave observations, the development of the seed population, and the outer radiation belt response in the inner magnetosphere, for 25 ICME and 35 CIR storms. Plasma data from the Helium Oxygen Proton Electron (HOPE) instrument and magnetic field measurements from the Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science (EMFISIS) are used to identify chorus wave activity and to model a linear theory based proxy for chorus wave growth. A superposed epoch analysis shows a peak of chorus wave power on the dawnside during the storm main phase that spreads towards noon during the storm recovery phase. According to the linear theory results, this wave activity is driven by the enhanced convection driving plasma sheet electrons across the dayside. Both ICME and CIR storms show comparable levels of wave growth. Plasma data from the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS) and the Relativistic Electron Proton Telescope (REPT) are used to observe the seed and relativistic electrons. A superposed epoch analysis of seed and relativistic electrons vs. L shows radiation belt enhancements with much greater frequency in the ICME storms, coinciding with a much stronger and earlier seed electron enhancement in the ICME storms.

  8. Explosive development of winter storm Xynthia over the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean

    M. L. R. Liberato

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In winter of 2009–2010 south-western Europe was hit by several destructive windstorms. The most important was Xynthia (26–28 February 2010, which caused 64 reported casualties and was classified as the 2nd most expensive natural hazard event for 2010 in terms of economic losses. In this work we assess the synoptic evolution, dynamical characteristics and the main impacts of storm Xynthia, whose genesis, development and path were very uncommon. Wind speed gusts observed at more than 500 stations across Europe are evaluated as well as the wind gust field obtained with a regional climate model simulation for the entire North Atlantic and European area. Storm Xynthia was first identified on 25 February around 30° N, 50° W over the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean. Its genesis occurred on a region characterized by warm and moist air under the influence of a strong upper level wave embedded in the westerlies. Xynthia followed an unusual SW–NE path towards Iberia, France and central Europe. The role of moist air masses on the explosive development of Xynthia is analysed by considering the evaporative sources. A lagrangian model is used to identify the moisture sources, sinks and moisture transport associated with the cyclone during its development phase. The main supply of moisture is located over an elongated region of the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean with anomalously high SST, confirming that the explosive development of storm Xynthia had a significant contribution from the subtropics.

  9. Three-Step Buildup of the 17 March 2015 Storm Ring Current: Implication for the Cause of the Unexpected Storm Intensification

    Keika, Kunihiro; Seki, Kanako; Nosé, Masahito; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Lanzerotti, Louis J.; Mitchell, Donald G.; Gkioulidou, Matina; Manweiler, Jerry W.

    2018-01-01

    We examine the spatiotemporal variations of the energy density and the energy spectral evolution of energetic ions in the inner magnetosphere during the main phase of the 17 March 2015 storm, using data from the RBSPICE and EMFISIS instruments onboard Van Allen Probes. The storm developed in response to two southward IMF intervals separated by about 3 h. In contrast to two steps seen in the Dst/SYM-H index, the ring current ion population evolved in three steps: the first subphase was apparently caused by the earlier southward IMF, and the subsequent subphases occurred during the later southward IMF period. Ion energy ranges that contribute to the ring current differed between the three subphases. We suggest that the spectral evolution resulted from the penetration of different plasma sheet populations. The ring current buildup during the first subphase was caused by the penetration of a relatively low-energy population that had existed in the plasma sheet during a prolonged prestorm northward IMF interval. The deeper penetration of the lower-energy population was responsible for the second subphase. The third subphase, where the storm was unexpectedly intensified to a Dst/SYM-H level of population. We attribute the hot, dense population to the entry of hot, dense solar wind into the plasma sheet and/or ion heating/acceleration in the near-Earth plasma sheet associated with magnetotail activity such as reconnection and dipolarization.

  10. Tree Survival and Growth Following Ice Storm Injury

    Walter C. Shortle; Kevin T. Smith; Kenneth R. Dudzik

    2003-01-01

    Nearly 25 million acres of forest from northwestern New York and southern Quebec to the south-central Maine coast were coated with ice from a 3-day storm in early January 1998. This storm was unusual in its size and the duration of icing. Trees throughout the region were injured as branches and stems broke and forks split under the weight of the ice. These injuries...

  11. Empirical STORM-E Model. [I. Theoretical and Observational Basis

    Mertens, Christopher J.; Xu, Xiaojing; Bilitza, Dieter; Mlynczak, Martin G.; Russell, James M., III

    2013-01-01

    Auroral nighttime infrared emission observed by the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument onboard the Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite is used to develop an empirical model of geomagnetic storm enhancements to E-region peak electron densities. The empirical model is called STORM-E and will be incorporated into the 2012 release of the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI). The proxy for characterizing the E-region response to geomagnetic forcing is NO+(v) volume emission rates (VER) derived from the TIMED/SABER 4.3 lm channel limb radiance measurements. The storm-time response of the NO+(v) 4.3 lm VER is sensitive to auroral particle precipitation. A statistical database of storm-time to climatological quiet-time ratios of SABER-observed NO+(v) 4.3 lm VER are fit to widely available geomagnetic indices using the theoretical framework of linear impulse-response theory. The STORM-E model provides a dynamic storm-time correction factor to adjust a known quiescent E-region electron density peak concentration for geomagnetic enhancements due to auroral particle precipitation. Part II of this series describes the explicit development of the empirical storm-time correction factor for E-region peak electron densities, and shows comparisons of E-region electron densities between STORM-E predictions and incoherent scatter radar measurements. In this paper, Part I of the series, the efficacy of using SABER-derived NO+(v) VER as a proxy for the E-region response to solar-geomagnetic disturbances is presented. Furthermore, a detailed description of the algorithms and methodologies used to derive NO+(v) VER from SABER 4.3 lm limb emission measurements is given. Finally, an assessment of key uncertainties in retrieving NO+(v) VER is presented

  12. Storm Warnings for Cuba

    1994-01-01

    Services: Telephone: (310) 451-7002; Fax: (310) 451-6915; Internet : order@rand.org. al Accesion For "Ni %&’ Storm WarningsDTI’ TAB E03 --- - - -for...reaction leading to an uncontrol- lable burgeoning of private entrepreneurial activity. As one observer 14See Acuerdo del Buro Politico , "Para llevar a...34 10Comisi6n de Relaciones Internacionales, Asamblea Nacional del Poder Popular, Datos, Reflexiones y Argumentos Sobre la Actual Situaci6n de Cuba, n.p

  13. The women day storm

    Parnowski, Aleksei; Polonska, Anna; Semeniv, Oleg

    2012-01-01

    On behalf of the International Women Day, the Sun gave a hot kiss to our mother Earth in a form of a full halo CME generated by the yesterday's double X-class flare. The resulting geomagnetic storm gives a good opportunity to compare the performance of space weather forecast models operating in near-real-time. We compare the forecasts of most major models and identify some common problems. We also present the results of our own near-real-time forecast models.

  14. The evolution of stellar metallicity gradients of the Milky Way disk from LSS-GAC main sequence turn-off stars: a two-phase disk formation history?

    Xiang, Mao-Sheng; Liu, Xiao-Wei; Huang, Yang; Wang, Chun; Ren, Juan-Juan; Chen, Bing-Qiu; Sun, Ning-Chen; Zhang, Hua-Wei; Yuan, Hai-Bo; Rebassa-Mansergas, Alberto; Huo, Zhi-Ying

    2015-01-01

    Accurate measurements of stellar metallicity gradients in the radial and vertical directions of the disk and their temporal variations provide important constraints on the formation and evolution of the Milky Way disk. We use 297 042 main sequence turn-off stars selected from the LAMOST Spectroscopic Survey of the Galactic Anti-center (LSS-GAC) to determine the radial and vertical gradients of stellar metallicity, Δ[Fe/H]/ΔR and Δ[Fe/H]/Δ|Z| of the Milky Way disk in the direction of the anticenter. We determine ages of those turn-off stars by isochrone fitting and measure the temporal variations of metallicity gradients. We have carried out a detailed analysis of the selection effects resulting from the selection, observation and data reduction of LSS-GAC targets and the potential biases of a magnitude limited sample on the determinations of metallicity gradients. Our results show that the gradients, both in the radial and vertical directions, exhibit significant spatial and temporal variations. The radial gradients yielded by stars with the oldest ages (≳ 11 Gyr) are essentially zero at all heights from the disk midplane, while those given by younger stars are always negative. The vertical gradients deduced from stars with the oldest ages (≳ 11 Gyr) are negative and only show very weak variations with Galactocentric distance in the disk plane, R, while those yielded by younger stars show strong variations with R. After being essentially flat at the earliest epochs of disk formation, the radial gradients steepen as age decreases, reaching a maximum (steepest) at age 7–8 Gyr, and then they flatten again. Similar temporal trends are also found for the vertical gradients. We infer that the assembly of the Milky Way disk may have experienced at least two distinct phases. The earlier phase is probably related to a slow, pressure-supported collapse of gas, when the gas settles down to the disk mainly in the vertical direction. In the later phase, there are

  15. Energy and mass dependence of the contribution to storm-time plasma pressure observed by Arase/MEP-i

    Kasahara, S.; Keika, K.; Yokota, S.; Hoshino, M.; Seki, K.; Nose, M.; Amano, T.; Yoshizumi, M.; Shinohara, I.

    2017-12-01

    The ring current is mainly controlled by the ion pressure and its spatial gradient. The ion pressure is dominated by ions with energies of a few to a few 100s keV. Oxygen ions of ionospheric origin can be energized in the plasma sheet and/or the inner magnetosphere up to a few tens to a few hundreds of keV. The ionospheric oxygen ions make a significant contribution to the ion pressure during geomagnetically active periods. This paper examines spatial variations and energy-spectral evolution of energetic ( 10 to 200 keV/q) ions during the main phase of a CIR-driven storm on 17 March 2017 (Storm 1) and a CME-driven storm on 27-28 May 2017 (Storm 2). We use ion data from the MEP-i instrument on board the Arase satellite. The instrument measured energetic ions with energies of 5-120 keV/q during Storm 1 and 9-180 keV/q during Storm 2; ion mass/charge was derived from energy and velocity measurements by an electrostatic analyzer and the time-of-flight system, respectively. Below is a brief summary of the MEP-i observations during the two storms. During Storm 1, MEP-i saw high fluxes of >10 keV/q protons and oxygen ions (and possibly other minor ions) at Lm 3.5 around midnight. MEP-i continued to observe high-flux ions until the end of the main phase. Both proton and oxygen ion pressures increased; the O-to-H ratio increased by about an order of magnitude, from 0.02 to 0.2-0.3. The high-flux >10 keV/q ions consisted of clearly different two populations: one dominated by 5-20 keV/q ions, likely originating from pre-existing cold plasma sheet population; and the other with structured dispersion signatures at 30-90 keV/q, likely due to the penetration of ions accelerated in the near-Earth plasma sheet. We found that both populations contributed to the total pressure almost equally. During Storm 2, MEP-i observed proton and oxygen high fluxes in a wide energy range (10-120 keV/q). The pressure increased for both protons and oxygen ions; the O-to-H ratio increased from 0

  16. Geomagnetic storm effects on GPS based navigation

    P. V. S. Rama Rao

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The energetic events on the sun, solar wind and subsequent effects on the Earth's geomagnetic field and upper atmosphere (ionosphere comprise space weather. Modern navigation systems that use radio-wave signals, reflecting from or propagating through the ionosphere as a means of determining range or distance, are vulnerable to a variety of effects that can degrade the performance of the navigational systems. In particular, the Global Positioning System (GPS that uses a constellation of earth orbiting satellites are affected due to the space weather phenomena.

    Studies made during two successive geomagnetic storms that occurred during the period from 8 to 12 November 2004, have clearly revealed the adverse affects on the GPS range delay as inferred from the Total Electron Content (TEC measurements made from a chain of seven dual frequency GPS receivers installed in the Indian sector. Significant increases in TEC at the Equatorial Ionization anomaly crest region are observed, resulting in increased range delay during the periods of the storm activity. Further, the storm time rapid changes occurring in TEC resulted in a number of phase slips in the GPS signal compared to those on quiet days. These phase slips often result in the loss of lock of the GPS receivers, similar to those that occur during strong(>10 dB L-band scintillation events, adversely affecting the GPS based navigation.

  17. Influence of storm characteristics on soil erosion and storm runoff

    Johnny M. III Grace

    2008-01-01

    Unpaved forest roads can be major sources of sediment from forested watersheds. Storm runoff from forest roads are a concern due to their potential delivery of sediments and nutrients to stream systems resulting in degraded water quality. The volume and sediment concentrations of stormwater runoff emanating from forest roads can be greatly influenced by storm...

  18. Magnetic storm generation by large-scale complex structure Sheath/ICME

    Grigorenko, E. E.; Yermolaev, Y. I.; Lodkina, I. G.; Yermolaev, M. Y.; Riazantseva, M.; Borodkova, N. L.

    2017-12-01

    We study temporal profiles of interplanetary plasma and magnetic field parameters as well as magnetospheric indices. We use our catalog of large-scale solar wind phenomena for 1976-2000 interval (see the catalog for 1976-2016 in web-side ftp://ftp.iki.rssi.ru/pub/omni/ prepared on basis of OMNI database (Yermolaev et al., 2009)) and the double superposed epoch analysis method (Yermolaev et al., 2010). Our analysis showed (Yermolaev et al., 2015) that average profiles of Dst and Dst* indices decrease in Sheath interval (magnetic storm activity increases) and increase in ICME interval. This profile coincides with inverted distribution of storm numbers in both intervals (Yermolaev et al., 2017). This behavior is explained by following reasons. (1) IMF magnitude in Sheath is higher than in Ejecta and closed to value in MC. (2) Sheath has 1.5 higher efficiency of storm generation than ICME (Nikolaeva et al., 2015). The most part of so-called CME-induced storms are really Sheath-induced storms and this fact should be taken into account during Space Weather prediction. The work was in part supported by the Russian Science Foundation, grant 16-12-10062. References. 1. Nikolaeva N.S., Y. I. Yermolaev and I. G. Lodkina (2015), Modeling of the corrected Dst* index temporal profile on the main phase of the magnetic storms generated by different types of solar wind, Cosmic Res., 53(2), 119-127 2. Yermolaev Yu. I., N. S. Nikolaeva, I. G. Lodkina and M. Yu. Yermolaev (2009), Catalog of Large-Scale Solar Wind Phenomena during 1976-2000, Cosmic Res., , 47(2), 81-94 3. Yermolaev, Y. I., N. S. Nikolaeva, I. G. Lodkina, and M. Y. Yermolaev (2010), Specific interplanetary conditions for CIR-induced, Sheath-induced, and ICME-induced geomagnetic storms obtained by double superposed epoch analysis, Ann. Geophys., 28, 2177-2186 4. Yermolaev Yu. I., I. G. Lodkina, N. S. Nikolaeva and M. Yu. Yermolaev (2015), Dynamics of large-scale solar wind streams obtained by the double superposed epoch

  19. Nonlinear chaotic model for predicting storm surges

    M. Siek

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the use of the methods of nonlinear dynamics and chaos theory for building a predictive chaotic model from time series. The chaotic model predictions are made by the adaptive local models based on the dynamical neighbors found in the reconstructed phase space of the observables. We implemented the univariate and multivariate chaotic models with direct and multi-steps prediction techniques and optimized these models using an exhaustive search method. The built models were tested for predicting storm surge dynamics for different stormy conditions in the North Sea, and are compared to neural network models. The results show that the chaotic models can generally provide reliable and accurate short-term storm surge predictions.

  20. Observing Storm Surges from Space: A New Opportunity

    Han, Guoqi; Ma, Zhimin; Chen, Dake; de Young, Brad; Chen, Nancy

    2013-04-01

    Coastal tide gauges can be used to monitor variations of a storm surge along the coast, but not in the cross-shelf direction. As a result, the cross-shelf structure of a storm surge has rarely been observed. In this study we focus on Hurricane Igor-induced storm surge off Newfoundland, Canada. Altimetric observations at about 2:30, September 22, 2010 UTC (hours after the passage of Hurricane Igor) reveal prominent cross-shelf variation of sea surface height during the storm passage, including a large nearshore slope and a mid-shelf depression. A significant coastal surge of 1 m derived from satellite altimetry is found to be consistent with tide-gauge measurements at nearby St. John's station. The post-storm sea level variations at St. John's and Argentia are argued to be associated with free equatorward-propagating continental shelf waves (with phase speeds of 11-13 m/s), generated along the northeast Newfoundland coast hours after the storm moved away from St. John's. The cross-shelf e-folding scale of the shelf wave was estimated to be ~100 km. We further show approximate agreement of altimetric and tide-gauge observations in the Gulf of Mexico during Hurricane Katrina (2005) and Isaac (2012). The study for the first time in the literature shows the robustness of satellite altimetry to observe storm surges, complementing tide-gauge observations for the analysis of storm surge characteristics and for the validation and improvement of storm surge models.

  1. Effect of geomagnetic storm conditions on the equatorial ionization anomaly and equatorial temperature anomaly

    Bharti, Gaurav; Bag, T.; Sunil Krishna, M. V.

    2018-03-01

    The effect of the geomagnetic storm on the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) and equatorial temperature anomaly (ETA) has been studied using the atomic oxygen dayglow emissions at 577.7 nm (OI 557.7 nm) and 732.0 nm (OII 732.0 nm). For the purpose of this study, four intense geomagnetic storms during the ascending phase of solar cycle 24 have been considered. This study is primarily based on the results obtained using photochemical models with necessary inputs from theoretical studies and experimental observations. The latest reaction rate coefficients, quantum yields and the corresponding cross-sections have also been incorporated in these models. The volume emission rate of airglow emissions has been calculated using the neutral densities from NRLMSISE-00 and charged densities from IRI-2012 model. The modeled volume emission rate (VER) for OI 557.7 nm shows a positive correlation with the Dst index at 150 km and negative correlation with Dst at 250 and 280 km altitudes. Latitudinal profile of the greenline emission rate at different altitudes show a distinct behaviour similar to what has been observed in EIA with crests on either sides of the equator. The EIA crests are found to show poleward movement in the higher altitude regions. The volume emission rate of 732.0 nm emission shows a strong enhancement during the main phase of the storm. The changes observed in the airglow emission rates are explained with the help of variations induced in neutral densities and parameters related to EIA and ETA. The latitudinal variation of 732.0 nm emission rate is correlated to the variability in EIA during the storm period.

  2. The intense magnetic storm of December 19, 1980: Observations at L = 4

    Bering, E.A. III; Benbrook, J.R.; Haacke, R.; Dudeney, J.R.; Lanzerotti, L.J.; MacLennan, C.G.; Rosenberg, T.J.

    1991-01-01

    The intense magnetic storm of December 19, 1980 occurred during a major rocket and balloon geophysical research campaign at Siple Station, Antarctica. A balloon flight measuring the electric field and bremsstrahlung X ray flux was conducted during the main phase of the storm. The balloon data and associated ground-based data from around the world contain several lines of evidence which indicate that the dayside auroral oval expanded to an invariant latitude ≤ 59 degree during the storm. Evidence for this conclusion includes (1) the pattern of ground-based magnetic field and ionospheric electric field perturbations; (2) a substantial departure from the normal diurnal curve of the vertical component of the electric field in the stratosphere; and, (3) identical, relatively rapid equatorward motion of regions of electron precipitation, observed or inferred to occur, simultaneously at three L∼4 stations: Siple, Halley Bay and SANAE, separated by several hours in local time across the dayside. The absence of electron precipitation at Siple after this equatorward motion is an indication that the polar cap had expanded to include Siple during this interval. The power spectra of the magnetic field fluctuations at ULF observed at Siple and in a conjugate latitude chain of magnetometers were consistent with the presence of the dayside auroral oval in the near vicinity of Siple and with the presence of a major magnetospheric boundary slightly equatorward of ∼ 59 degree. The stratospheric electric field measured during the recovery phase was very large for this latitude for a period of several hours. This observation suggests that a subauroral latitude ion drift event of unusual intensity and duration accompanied this storm

  3. Main Memory

    P.A. Boncz (Peter); L. Liu (Lei); M. Tamer Özsu

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractPrimary storage, presently known as main memory, is the largest memory directly accessible to the CPU in the prevalent Von Neumann model and stores both data and instructions (program code). The CPU continuously reads instructions stored there and executes them. It is also called Random

  4. Studying Peculiarities of Ionospheric Response to the 2015 March 17-19 Geomagnetic Storm in East Asia: Observations and Simulation

    Romanova, Elena; Zherebtsov, Gelii; Polekh, Nelya; Wang, Xiao; Wang, Guojun; Zolotukhina, Nina; Shi, Jiankui

    2016-07-01

    We report results of the research into effects of the strong geomagnetic storm in the ionosphere of high, middle, and low latitudes on March 17-19, 2015. The research relies on measurements made at the network of ionospheric stations located near the 120°E meridian. The analysis of experimental data has revealed that at the beginning of the main storm phase the equatorial wall of the main ionospheric trough (MIT) shifted towards geographic latitudes 58-60°N, which caused negative disturbances in subauroral latitudes and positive disturbances in middle latitudes. Further displacement of the MIT equatorial wall towards a geographic latitude of 52° N led to a decrease in the F2-layer critical frequency (foF2) up to 2 MHz in middle latitudes during evening and night hours, and to the appearance of sporadic layers in these latitudes due to energetic particle precipitation. Such phenomena are largely specific to the subauroral ionosphere. During the recovery storm phase on March 18, 2015 during daylight hours, negative disturbances were recorded at all the stations. Since prolonged negative disturbances are usually associated with a reduction in the ratio of concentrations of atomic oxygen and molecular nitrogen [O]/[N2] which is transported by disturbed thermospheric wind from auroral latitudes to middle and low ones, we analyzed measurements of [O]/[N2], made by GUVI (Global Ultraviolet Imager, http://guvi.jhuapl.edu/site/gallery/guvi-galleryl3on2.shtml), during this storm. The storm appeared to be characterized by very low values of [O]/[N2] which were recorded in the longitude sector 60 - 150°E up to 15°N on March 18. The discovered peculiarities of the ionospheric response to the storm were interpreted using a theoretical model of ionosphere-plasmosphere coupling developed at ISTP SB RAS. The simulation showed that the displacement of MIT equatorial wall resulted in foF2 variations similar to those observed during the main storm phase in subauroral and middle

  5. Phenological models to predict the main flowering phases of olive ( Olea europaea L.) along a latitudinal and longitudinal gradient across the Mediterranean region

    Aguilera, Fátima; Fornaciari, Marco; Ruiz-Valenzuela, Luis; Galán, Carmen; Msallem, Monji; Dhiab, Ali Ben; la Guardia, Consuelo Díaz-de; del Mar Trigo, María; Bonofiglio, Tommaso; Orlandi, Fabio

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop pheno-meteorological models to explain and forecast the main olive flowering phenological phases within the Mediterranean basin, across a latitudinal and longitudinal gradient that includes Tunisia, Spain, and Italy. To analyze the aerobiological sampling points, study periods from 13 years (1999-2011) to 19 years (1993-2011) were used. The forecasting models were constructed using partial least-squares regression, considering both the flowering start and full-flowering dates as dependent variables. The percentages of variance explained by the full-flowering models (mean 84 %) were greater than those explained by the flowering start models (mean 77 %). Moreover, given the time lag from the North African areas to the central Mediterranean areas in the main olive flowering dates, the regional full-flowering predictive models are proposed as the most useful to improve the knowledge of the influence of climate on the olive tree floral phenology. The meteorological parameters related to the previous autumn and both the winter and the spring seasons, and above all the temperatures, regulate the reproductive phenology of olive trees in the Mediterranean area. The mean anticipation of flowering start and full flowering for the future period from 2081 to 2100 was estimated at 10 and 12 days, respectively. One question can be raised: Will the olive trees located in the warmest areas be northward displaced or will they be able to adapt their physiology in response to the higher temperatures? The present study can be considered as an approach to design more detailed future bioclimate research.

  6. Ionosonde observations of the effects of the major magnetic storm of September 22-26, 1999 at equatorial station in west Africa

    Coulibaly, I. S.; Adohi, B. J.-P.; Tanoh, K. S.

    2018-05-01

    A new approach to study the mechanisms of storm-time variations in the F-layer height and critical frequency at dip-equator is proposed. The latitudinal variations in the magnetic disturbance index DP were combined with h'F and foF2 data from an IPS 42-type ionosonde at Korkogo (9.2° N, 5° W; 2.4° S dip lat), Ivory Coast, to investigate the nighttime ionospheric effects of the geomagnetic storm of September 22-26, 1999 in the West-African sector. A clear equatorward penetration of magnetic disturbances from high latitudes regions was observed. At dip-equator, the DP magnetic disturbance pattern showed up to four distinct regimes of disturbance electric fields, each associated with a specific phase of the storm. A regime of westward transient electric fields followed by a regime of eastward transient electric fields occurred during the main phase of the storm. This was preceded by a period of quasi-absence of disturbance during the compression phase, the whole followed by a regime of westward persistent disturbance electric fields during the recovery phase. From the latitudinal variations and the shapes of these perturbations, we could associate the regime of westward (resp. eastward) disturbance electric fields with prompt penetration (resp. overshielding) occasioned by magnetospheric convections and the persistent one with a cumulative effect of storm-time winds and magnetospheric convections from high latitudes regions. The h'F variations were found to be strongly correlated with the DP ones, clearly providing evidence for the prevalence of these electric fields on the observed F-layer motions. Additionally, the foF2 variations showed two periods of depleted electron density, one in the evening during the compression phase of the storm and the other near midnight. We discussed the mechanisms of these ionospheric negative storms in the light of earlier investigations of storm-time ionospheric disturbances and validated our method by comparison of the above

  7. Auroral electrojet dynamics during magnetic storms, connection with plasma precipitation and large-scale structure of the magnetospheric magnetic field

    Y. I. Feldstein

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Effect of the equatorward shift of the eastward and westward electrojets during magnetic storms main phase is analyzed based on the meridional chains of magnetic observatories EISCAT and IMAGE and several Russian observatories (geomagnetic longitude ~110°, corrected geomagnetic latitudes 74°F 51°. Magnetic storms of various Dst index intensity where the main phase falls on 1000 UT - 2400 UT interval were selected so that one of the observatory chains was located in the afternoon - near midnight sector of MLT. The eastward electrojet center shifts equatorward with Dst intensity increase: when Dst ~ - 50 nT the electrojet center is located at F ~ 62°, when Dst ~ -300 nT it is placed at F ~54°. The westward electrojet center during magnetic storms main phase for intervals between substorms shifts equatorward with Dst increase: at F~ 62° when Dst ~ -100 nT and at F ~ 55° when Dst ~ -300 nT. During substorms within the magnetic storms intervals the westward electrojet widens poleward covering latitudes F~ 64°- 65°. DMSP (F08, F10 and F11 satellite observations of auroral energy plasma precipitations at upper atmosphere altitudes were used to determine precipitation region structure and location of boundaries of various plasma domains during magnetic storms on May 10-11, 1992, February 5-7 and February 21-22, 1994. Interrelationships between center location, poleward and equatorward boundaries of electrojets and characteristic plasma regions are discussed. The electrojet center, poleward and equatorward boundaries along the magnetic observatories meridional chain were mapped to the magnetosphere using the geomagnetic field paraboloid model. The location of auroral energy oxygen ion regions in the night and evening magnetosphere is determined. Considerations are presented on the mechanism causing the appearance in the inner magnetosphere during active intervals of magnetic storms of ions with energy of tens KeV. In the framework of the

  8. Thyroid storm: an updated review.

    Chiha, Maguy; Samarasinghe, Shanika; Kabaker, Adam S

    2015-03-01

    Thyroid storm, an endocrine emergency first described in 1926, remains a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. No laboratory abnormalities are specific to thyroid storm, and the available scoring system is based on the clinical criteria. The exact mechanisms underlying the development of thyroid storm from uncomplicated hyperthyroidism are not well understood. A heightened response to thyroid hormone is often incriminated along with increased or abrupt availability of free hormones. Patients exhibit exaggerated signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism and varying degrees of organ decompensation. Treatment should be initiated promptly targeting all steps of thyroid hormone formation, release, and action. Patients who fail medical therapy should be treated with therapeutic plasma exchange or thyroidectomy. The mortality of thyroid storm is currently reported at 10%. Patients who have survived thyroid storm should receive definite therapy for their underlying hyperthyroidism to avoid any recurrence of this potentially fatal condition. © The Author(s) 2013.

  9. Main Memory

    Boncz, Peter; Liu, Lei; Özsu, M.

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractPrimary storage, presently known as main memory, is the largest memory directly accessible to the CPU in the prevalent Von Neumann model and stores both data and instructions (program code). The CPU continuously reads instructions stored there and executes them. It is also called Random Access Memory (RAM), to indicate that load/store instructions can access data at any location at the same cost, is usually implemented using DRAM chips, which are connected to the CPU and other per...

  10. On contribution of energetic and heavy ions to the plasma pressure: Storm Sept 27 - Oct 4, 2002

    Kronberg, E. A.; Mouikis, C.; Kistler, L. M.; Dandouras, I. S.; Daly, P. W.; Welling, D. T.; Grigorenko, E. E.

    2015-12-01

    Contribution of the energetic ions (>> 40 keV) and of heavy ions into the total plasma pressure is often neglected. In this study we evaluate the contribution of these components for the storm observed from September 27 to October 4 in 2002. The thermal component of the pressure for the protons, helium and oxygen at 0--40 keV/q is measured by the Cluster/CIS/CODIF sensor. The contribution of the energetic ions at energies >> 40 keV is calculated from the Cluster/RAPID/IIMS observations. The results show that before the storm has initiated, the contribution of the energetic ions in to the total pressure is indeed negligible in the tail plasma sheet, less than ˜1%. However, with the storm development contribution of the energetic part becomes significant, up to ˜30%, towards the recovery phase and cannot be neglected. Heavy ions contribute to the 27% of the total pressure and half of them are energetic. The contribution of energetic ions to the pressure of the ring current (L≃5) is significant. The heavy ions play a dominant role in the plasma pressure, about 62% during the main phase of the magnetic storm. Half of them are energetic ions. The SWMF/BATS-R-US MHD model underestimates the contribution of the energetic and heavy ions in to the ion distribution in the magnetotail plasma sheet and the ring current. The ring current plasma pressure distorts the terrestrial internal magnetic field and defines magnetic storm. Therefore, it is essential to take in to account the contribution of the energetic and heavy ions.

  11. Storm-enhanced plasma density and polar tongue of ionization development during the 15 May 2005 superstorm

    Horvath, Ildiko; Lovell, Brian C.

    2015-06-01

    We investigate the ionosphere's global response to the 15 May 2005 superstorm in terms of storm evolution and ionospheric electrodynamics. Our aim is to study the global distribution of plasma and the resultant large-scale ionospheric features including the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA), storm-enhanced density (SED), and polar tongue of ionization (TOI). We have combined multi-instrument ionospheric data, solar and terrestrial magnetic data, and polar convection maps. Results reveal the prompt penetration of the interplanetary electric field to the polar region and then to the equator with a dusk-to-dawn polarity during the initial phase and with a dawn-to-dusk polarity during the main phase. This drove during the initial phase a weak eastward equatorial electrojet (EEJ) in the American sector at nighttime and a weak westward EEJ in the Indian-Australian sector at daytime. During the main phase, these EEJs intensified and changed polarities. SED and polar TOI development was observed prior to and during the initial phase at evening-premidnight hours over North America and during the main phase in the south at afternoon-evening hours in the Australian sector. During the main phase and early in the recovery phase, the EIA-SED structure was well formed in the Asian longitude sector. Then, polar TOI development was absent in the north because of the long distance from the magnetic pole but was supported in the south because of the closeness of daytime cusp and magnetic pole. Thus, the EIA-SED-TOI structure developed twice but each time in a different longitude sector and with different characteristics.

  12. Formation mechanism for the structure of the magnetic-storm ring current

    Tverskoy, B A

    1999-01-01

    An analysis is presented for the implications of the relationship between the amplitude of the Dst variation and the position L sub m sub a sub x of the intensity maximum of the relativistic-electron belt that arises immediately after the cessation of a storm. The quantity L sub m sub a sub x is regarded to correspond to the position of the pressure maximum of the ring-current plasma at the moment of the maximum amplitude of the storm main phase. Under this assumption, the structure of the mentioned plasma formation is calculated, and the idea is substantiated that the plasma cloud is adiabatically driven deep into the magnetosphere during the sub-storm and subsequently symmetrized (this idea was originally put forward by the author on the basis of the theory of the magnetosphere-ionosphere interaction). It is shown that the presence of the mentioned relationship implies the existence of a certain boundary where the entropy calculated for a unit-magnetic-flux tube always has the same value. The applicability ...

  13. Formation mechanism for the structure of the magnetic-storm ring current

    Tverskoy, B.A.

    1999-01-01

    An analysis is presented for the implications of the relationship between the amplitude of the Dst variation and the position L max of the intensity maximum of the relativistic-electron belt that arises immediately after the cessation of a storm. The quantity L max is regarded to correspond to the position of the pressure maximum of the ring-current plasma at the moment of the maximum amplitude of the storm main phase. Under this assumption, the structure of the mentioned plasma formation is calculated, and the idea is substantiated that the plasma cloud is adiabatically driven deep into the magnetosphere during the sub-storm and subsequently symmetrized (this idea was originally put forward by the author on the basis of the theory of the magnetosphere-ionosphere interaction). It is shown that the presence of the mentioned relationship implies the existence of a certain boundary where the entropy calculated for a unit-magnetic-flux tube always has the same value. The applicability of the theory of low-pressure plasmas to the problem under study is justified

  14. Thromboembolic complications of thyroid storm.

    Min, T; Benjamin, S; Cozma, L

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid storm is a rare but potentially life-threatening complication of hyperthyroidism. Early recognition and prompt treatment are essential. Atrial fibrillation can occur in up to 40% of patients with thyroid storm. Studies have shown that hyperthyroidism increases the risk of thromboembolic events. There is no consensus with regard to the initiation of anticoagulation for atrial fibrillation in severe thyrotoxicosis. Anticoagulation is not routinely initiated if the risk is low on a CHADS2 score; however, this should be considered in patients with thyroid storm or severe thyrotoxicosis with impending storm irrespective of the CHADS2 risk, as it appears to increase the risk of thromboembolic episodes. Herein, we describe a case of thyroid storm complicated by massive pulmonary embolism. Diagnosis of thyroid storm is based on clinical findings. Early recognition and prompt treatment could lead to a favourable outcome.Hypercoagulable state is a recognised complication of thyrotoxicosis.Atrial fibrillation is strongly associated with hyperthyroidism and thyroid storm.Anticoagulation should be considered for patients with severe thyrotoxicosis and atrial fibrillation irrespective of the CHADS2 score.Patients with severe thyrotoxicosis and clinical evidence of thrombosis should be immediately anticoagulated until hyperthyroidism is under control.

  15. Variability of the North Atlantic summer storm track: mechanisms and impacts on European climate

    Dong, Buwen; Sutton, Rowan T.; Woollings, Tim; Hodges, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    The summertime variability of the extratropical storm track over the Atlantic sector and its links to European climate have been analysed for the period 1948–2011 using observations and reanalyses. The main results are as follows. (1) The dominant mode of the summer storm track density variability is characterized by a meridional shift of the storm track between two distinct paths and is related to a bimodal distribution in the climatology for this region. It is also closely related to the Su...

  16. From pre-storm activity to magnetic storms: a transition described in terms of fractal dynamics

    G. Balasis

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available We show that distinct changes in scaling parameters of the Dst index time series occur as an intense magnetic storm approaches, revealing a gradual reduction in complexity. The remarkable acceleration of energy release – manifested in the increase in susceptibility – couples to the transition from anti-persistent (negative feedback to persistent (positive feedback behavior and indicates that the occurence of an intense magnetic storm is imminent. The main driver of the Dst index, the VBSouth electric field component, does not reveal a similar transition to persistency prior to the storm. This indicates that while the magnetosphere is mostly driven by the solar wind the critical feature of persistency in the magnetosphere is the result of a combination of solar wind and internal magnetospheric activity rather than solar wind variations alone. Our results suggest that the development of an intense magnetic storm can be studied in terms of "intermittent criticality" that is of a more general character than the classical self-organized criticality phenomena, implying the predictability of the magnetosphere.

  17. A Regional GPS Receiver Network For Monitoring Mid-latitude Total Electron Content During Storms

    Vernon, A.; Cander, Lj. R.

    A regional GPS receiver network has been used for monitoring mid-latitude total elec- tron content (TEC) during ionospheric storms at the current solar maximum. Differ- ent individual storms were examined to study how the temporal patterns of changes develop and how they are related to solar and geomagnetic activity for parameter de- scriptive of plasmaspheric-ionospheric ionisation. Use is then made of computer con- touring techniques to produce snapshot maps of TEC for different study cases. Com- parisons with the local ionosonde data at different phases of the storms enable the storm developments to be studied in detail.

  18. Observations and global numerical modelling of the St. Patrick's Day 2015 geomagnetic storm event

    Foerster, M.; Prokhorov, B. E.; Doornbos, E.; Astafieva, E.; Zakharenkova, I.

    2017-12-01

    With a sudden storm commencement (SSC) at 04:45 UT on St. Patrick's day 2015 started the most severe geomagnetic storm in solar cycle 24. It appeared as a two-stage geomagnetic storm with a minimum SYM-H value of -233 nT. In the response to the storm commencement in the first activation, a short-term positive effect in the ionospheric vertical electron content (VTEC) occurred at low- and mid-latitudes on the dayside. The second phase commencing around 12:30 UT lasted longer and caused significant and complex storm-time changes around the globe with hemispherical different ionospheric storm reactions in different longitudinal ranges. Swarm-C observations of the neutral mass density variation along the orbital path as well as Langmuir probe plasma and magnetometer measurements of all three Swarm satellites and global TEC records are used for physical interpretations and modelling of the positive/negative storm scenario. These observations pose a challenge for the global numerical modelling of thermosphere-ionosphere storm processes as the storm, which occurred around spring equinox, obviously signify the existence of other impact factors than seasonal dependence for hemispheric asymmetries to occur. Numerical simulation trials using the Potsdam version of the Upper Atmosphere Model (UAM-P) are presented to explain these peculiar M-I-T storm processes.

  19. Magnetospheric signature of some F layer positive storms

    Miller, N.J.; Mayr, H.G.; Grebowsky, J.M.; Harris, I.; Tulunay, Y.K.

    1981-01-01

    Calculations using a self-consistent model of the global thermosphere-ionosphere system perturbed by high-latitude thermospheric heating show that the resultant electron density disturbances within the mid-latitude F layer can propagate upward along magnetic field lines to the equator. The F layer disturbances described by the model calculations correspond to the evolution of enhancements or reductions in electron density that is called the positive or negative phase of an F layer storm. We deduce that the positive phase of dayside F layer storms is initiated when high-latitude thermospheric heating generates equatorward winds. These winds raise the mid-latitude F layer along the geomagnetic field B through momentum transfer from neutral atoms to F layer ons that pull electrons with them. For Lapprox.3 or less the upward movement of ionospheric plasma results in ionization increases at all altitudes along B from the F2 maximum to the equator. An increase in the average magnitude of the equatorial dawn-dusk magnetospheric electric field retards the dayside development of a positive storm phase by drifting plasma away from mid-latitude field lines along which the electron density is increasing. During an F layer storm in June 1972, instruments on Explorer 45 and Ariel 4 detected dayside electron density enhancements simultaneously at 550 km over mid-latitudes and near the equatorial plane in the magnetosphere. These in situ measurements support the model prediction that disturbances in the magnetospheric plasma near the equator can arise through interactions occuring at lower altitudes along a magnetic field line. Our study demonstrates that some storm time enhancements of dayside magnetospheric plasma near Lapprox.2--3 may be signatures of the positive phase of an F layer storm

  20. Event storm detection and identification in communication systems

    Albaghdadi, Mouayad; Briley, Bruce; Evens, Martha

    2006-01-01

    Event storms are the manifestation of an important class of abnormal behaviors in communication systems. They occur when a large number of nodes throughout the system generate a set of events within a small period of time. It is essential for network management systems to detect every event storm and identify its cause, in order to prevent and repair potential system faults. This paper presents a set of techniques for the effective detection and identification of event storms in communication systems. First, we introduce a new algorithm to synchronize events to a single node in the system. Second, the system's event log is modeled as a normally distributed random process. This is achieved by using data analysis techniques to explore and then model the statistical behavior of the event log. Third, event storm detection is proposed using a simple test statistic combined with an exponential smoothing technique to overcome the non-stationary behavior of event logs. Fourth, the system is divided into non-overlapping regions to locate the main contributing regions of a storm. We show that this technique provides us with a method for event storm identification. Finally, experimental results from a commercially deployed multimedia communication system that uses these techniques demonstrate their effectiveness

  1. [Electrical storm in patients with prophylactic defibrillator implantation].

    Rodríguez-Mañero, Moisés; González-Cambeiro, Cristina; Moreno-Arribas, Jose; Expósito-García, Víctor; Sánchez-Gómez, Juan Miguel; González-Torres, Luis; Arce-León, Álvaro; Arguedas-Jiménez, Hugo; Gaztañaga, Larraitz; Salvador-Montañés, Oscar; Iglesias-Bravo, Jose Antonio; Huerta, Ana Andrés La; Fernández-Armenta, Juan; Arias, Miguel Ángel; Martínez-Sande, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the prevalence of electrical storm, baseline characteristics and mortality implications of patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillator in primary prevention versus those patients without electrical storm. We sought to assess the prevalence, baseline risk profile and survival significance of electrical storm in patients with implantable defibrillator for primary prevention. Retrospective multicenter study performed in 15 Spanish hospitals. Consecutives patients referred for desfibrillator implantation, with or without left ventricular lead (at least those performed in 2010 and 2011), were included. Over all 1,174 patients, 34 (2,9%) presented an electrical storm, mainly due to ventricular tachycardia (82.4%). There were no significant baseline differences between groups, with similar punctuation in the mortality risk scores (SHOCKED, MADIT and FADES). A clear trigger was identified in 47% of the events. During the study period (38±21 months), long-term total mortality (58.8% versus 14.4%, pstorm patients. Rate of inappropriate desfibrillator intervention was also higher (14.7 versus 8.6%, pstorm was 2.9%. There were no baseline differences in the cardiovascular risk profile versus those without electrical storm. However, all cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality was increased in these patients versus control desfibrillator patients without electrical storm, as was the rate of inappropriate desfibrillator intervention. Copyright © 2015 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  2. US Weather Bureau Storm Reports

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weather Bureau and US Army Corps and other reports of storms from 1886-1955. Hourly precipitation from recording rain gauges captured during heavy rain, snow,...

  3. Computer simulation of inner magnetospheric dynamics for the magnetic storm of July 29, 1977

    Wolf, R.A.; Harel, M.; Spiro, R.W.; Voigt, G.; Reiff, P.H.; Chen, C.

    1982-01-01

    We present preliminary results of applying the Rice convection model to the early main phase of the magnetic storm of July 29, 1977. The computer model self-consistently computes electric fields and currents, as well as plasma distributions and velocities, in the inner-magnetosphere/ionosphere system. In the equatorial plane, the region modeled includes geocentric distances less than about the magnetopause standoff distance. Particle loss, parallel electric fields, and neutral winds are neglected. On the basis of solar wind parameters and the AL index as input, the model predicts the injection of plasma-sheet plasma to form a substantial storm time ring current. The total strength of the model-predicted ring current agrees accurately with the observed Dst index. Comparison of the model results with electric fields and Birkeland currents measured by S3-3 shows qualitative agreement but interesting quantitative discrepancies. During this event, region 1 currents, which in standard convection theory would connect to the outer magnetosphere, are observed as low as 60 0 invariant latitude at dawn and dusk. We examine the possibility that the magnetic field might be so highly inflated that 60 0 field lines extend to the outer magnetosphere. In the model, distortion of the inner edge of the plasma sheet by the magnetospheric compression associated with the sudden commencement temporarily disturbs the normal Birkeland-current pattern. The normal tendency for the plasma sheet's inner edge to shield low L alues from the convection electric field is also temporarily disrupted. Normal Birkeland currents and shielding reassert themselves after about an hour. Time-integrated Joule heating in the model ionosphere over the first 5.5 hours of the storm main phase is about half the increase in model ring-current energy

  4. Main findings

    2014-01-01

    Licensing regimes vary from country to country. When the license regime involves several regulators and several licenses, this may lead to complex situations. Identifying a leading organisation in charge of overall coordination including preparation of the licensing decision is a useful practice. Also, if a stepwise licensing process is implemented, it is important to fix in legislation decisions and/or time points and to identify the relevant actors. There is considerable experience in civil and mining engineering that can be applied when constructing a deep geological disposal facility. Specific challenges are, however, the minimization of disturbances to the host rock and the understanding of its long-term behavior. Construction activities may affect the geo-hydraulic and geochemical properties of the various system components which are important safety features of the repository system. Clearly defined technical specifications and an effective quality management plan are important in ensuring successful repository implementation which is consistent with safety requirements. Monitoring plan should also be defined in advance. The regulatory organization should prepare itself to the licensing review before construction by allocating sufficient resources. It should increase its competence, e.g., by interacting early with the implementer and through its own R and D. This will allow the regulator to define appropriate technical conditions associated to the construction license and to elaborate a relevant inspection plan of the construction work. After construction, obtaining the operational license is the most important and crucial step. Main challenges include (a) establishing sufficient confidence so that the methods for closing the individual disposal units comply with the safety objectives and (b) addressing the issue of ageing of materials during a 50-100 years operational period. This latter challenge is amplified when reversibility/retrievability is required

  5. Toward an integrated storm surge application: ESA Storm Surge project

    Lee, Boram; Donlon, Craig; Arino, Olivier

    2010-05-01

    Storm surges and their associated coastal inundation are major coastal marine hazards, both in tropical and extra-tropical areas. As sea level rises due to climate change, the impact of storm surges and associated extreme flooding may increase in low-lying countries and harbour cities. Of the 33 world cities predicted to have at least 8 million people by 2015, at least 21 of them are coastal including 8 of the 10 largest. They are highly vulnerable to coastal hazards including storm surges. Coastal inundation forecasting and warning systems depend on the crosscutting cooperation of different scientific disciplines and user communities. An integrated approach to storm surge, wave, sea-level and flood forecasting offers an optimal strategy for building improved operational forecasts and warnings capability for coastal inundation. The Earth Observation (EO) information from satellites has demonstrated high potential to enhanced coastal hazard monitoring, analysis, and forecasting; the GOCE geoid data can help calculating accurate positions of tide gauge stations within the GLOSS network. ASAR images has demonstrated usefulness in analysing hydrological situation in coastal zones with timely manner, when hazardous events occur. Wind speed and direction, which is the key parameters for storm surge forecasting and hindcasting, can be derived by using scatterometer data. The current issue is, although great deal of useful EO information and application tools exist, that sufficient user information on EO data availability is missing and that easy access supported by user applications and documentation is highly required. Clear documentation on the user requirements in support of improved storm surge forecasting and risk assessment is also needed at the present. The paper primarily addresses the requirements for data, models/technologies, and operational skills, based on the results from the recent Scientific and Technical Symposium on Storm Surges (www

  6. Extreme changes in the dayside ionosphere during a Carrington-type magnetic storm

    Mannucci Anthony J.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that during the 30 October 2003 superstorm, dayside O+ ions were uplifted to DMSP altitudes (~850 km. Peak densities were ~9 × 105 cm−3 during the magnetic storm main phase (peak Dst = −390 nT. By comparison the 1–2 September 1859 Carrington magnetic storm (peak Dst estimated at −1760 nT was considerably stronger. We investigate the impact of this storm on the low- to mid-latitude ionosphere using a modified version of the NRL SAMI2 ionospheric code. It is found that the equatorial region (LAT = 0° ± 15° is swept free of plasma within 15 min (or less of storm onset. The plasma is swept to higher altitudes and higher latitudes due to E × B convection associated with the prompt penetration electric field. Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA O+ density enhancements are found to be located within the broad range of latitudes ~ ± (25°–40° at ~500–900 km altitudes. Densities within these peaks are ~6 × 106 oxygen ions-cm−3 at ~700 km altitude, approximately +600% quiet time values. The oxygen ions at the top portions (850–1000 km of uplifted EIAs will cause strong low-altitude satellite drag. Calculations are currently being performed on possible uplift of oxygen neutrals by ion-neutral coupling to understand if there might be further significant satellite drag forces present.

  7. Magnetic storms and induction hazards

    Love, Jeffrey J.; Rigler, E. Joshua; Pulkkinen, Antti; Balch, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic storms are potentially hazardous to the activities and technological infrastructure of modern civilization. This reality was dramatically demonstrated during the great magnetic storm of March 1989, when surface geoelectric fields, produced by the interaction of the time-varying geomagnetic field with the Earth's electrically conducting interior, coupled onto the overlying Hydro-Québec electric power grid in Canada. Protective relays were tripped, the grid collapsed, and about 9 million people were temporarily left without electricity [Bolduc, 2002].

  8. [Thyroid Storm and Myxedema Coma].

    Milkau, Malte; Sayk, Friedhelm

    2018-03-01

    Thyroid storm and myxedema coma are the most severe clinical forms of thyroid dysfunction. While both hyper- and hypothyroidsm are common diseases, thyroid storm and myxedema coma are rare. Due to their unspecific signs and symptoms they are often difficult to diagnose. Both disorders are medical emergencies, which still show a significant mortality. The following article summarizes diagnostic tools and treatment options for these disorders. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Coastal Storm Surge Analysis: Storm Forcing. Report 3. Intermediate Submission No. 1.3

    2013-07-01

    The storm surge study considers both tropical storms and extratropical cyclones for determination of return period storm surge elevations. The...Appendix B: Extratropical Cyclone Selection in Support of FEMA Region III Storm Surge Modeling...stations applied in the storm selection process. ............................................. 56  Table B2. Extratropical cyclones selected from the

  10. Empirical Modeling of the Storm Time Innermost Magnetosphere Using Van Allen Probes and THEMIS Data: Eastward and Banana Currents

    Stephens, G. K.; Sitnov, M. I.; Ukhorskiy, A. Y.; Roelof, E. C.; Tsyganenko, N. A.; Le, G.

    2016-01-01

    The structure of storm time currents in the inner magnetosphere, including its innermost region inside 4R(sub E), is studied for the first time using a modification of the empirical geomagnetic field model TS07D and new data from Van Allen Probes and Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms missions. It is shown that the model, which uses basis-function expansions instead of ad hoc current modules to approximate the magnetic field, consistently improves its resolution and magnetic field reconstruction with the increase of the number of basis functions and resolves the spatial structure and evolution of the innermost eastward current. This includes a connection between the westward ring current flowing largely at R > or approx. 3R(sub E) and the eastward ring current concentrated at R banana current' was previously inferred from the pressure distributions based on the energetic neutral atom imaging and first-principles ring current simulations. The morphology of the equatorial currents is dependent on storm phase. During the main phase, it is complex, with several asymmetries forming banana currents. Near SYM-H minimum, the banana current is strongest, is localized in the evening-midnight sector, and is more structured compared to the main phase. It then weakens during the recovery phase resulting in the equatorial currents to become mostly azimuthally symmetric.

  11. Empirical Modeling of the Storm Time Innermost Magnetosphere Using Van Allen Probes and THEMIS Data: Eastward and Banana Currents

    Stephens, G. K.; Sitnov, M. I.; Ukhorskiy, A. Y.; Roelof, E. C.; Tsyganenko, N. A.; Le, G.

    2016-01-01

    The structure of storm time currents in the inner magnetosphere, including its innermost region inside 4R(sub E), is studied for the first time using a modification of the empirical geomagnetic field model TS07D and new data from Van Allen Probes and Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms missions. It is shown that the model, which uses basis-function expansions instead of ad hoc current modules to approximate the magnetic field, consistently improves its resolution and magnetic field reconstruction with the increase of the number of basis functions and resolves the spatial structure and evolution of the innermost eastward current. This includes a connection between the westward ring current flowing largely at R > or approx. 3R(sub E) and the eastward ring current concentrated at R storm phase. During the main phase, it is complex, with several asymmetries forming banana currents. Near SYM-H minimum, the banana current is strongest, is localized in the evening-midnight sector, and is more structured compared to the main phase. It then weakens during the recovery phase resulting in the equatorial currents to become mostly azimuthally symmetric.

  12. Multidecadal Scale Detection Time for Potentially Increasing Atlantic Storm Surges in a Warming Climate

    Lee, Benjamin Seiyon; Haran, Murali; Keller, Klaus

    2017-10-01

    Storm surges are key drivers of coastal flooding, which generate considerable risks. Strategies to manage these risks can hinge on the ability to (i) project the return periods of extreme storm surges and (ii) detect potential changes in their statistical properties. There are several lines of evidence linking rising global average temperatures and increasingly frequent extreme storm surges. This conclusion is, however, subject to considerable structural uncertainty. This leads to two main questions: What are projections under various plausible statistical models? How long would it take to distinguish among these plausible statistical models? We address these questions by analyzing observed and simulated storm surge data. We find that (1) there is a positive correlation between global mean temperature rise and increasing frequencies of extreme storm surges; (2) there is considerable uncertainty underlying the strength of this relationship; and (3) if the frequency of storm surges is increasing, this increase can be detected within a multidecadal timescale (≈20 years from now).

  13. Phosphorus Dynamics along River Continuum during Typhoon Storm Events

    Ming Fai Chow

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Information on riverine phosphorus (P dynamics during typhoon storm events remains scarce in subtropical regions. Thus, this study investigates the spatial and temporal dynamics of riverine phosphorus in a headwater catchment during three typhoon events. Continuous sampling (3 h intervals of stormwater samples and discharge data were conducted at five locations, which represent the upstream, transitional zone, and downstream areas of the main inflow river. The results revealed that the average event mean concentrations (EMCs for total dissolved phosphorus (TDP and particulate phosphorus (PP in the upstream catchment of Fei-Tsui reservoir were 15.66 μg/L and 11.94 μg/L, respectively. There was at least a 1.3-fold increase in flow-weighted concentrations of TDP and PP from the upper to lower reaches of the main stream. PP and TDP were transported either in clockwise or anticlockwise directions, depending on storm intensity and source. The transport of TDP was primarily regulated by the subsurface flow during the storm event. Soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP contributes more than 50% of the TDP load in moderate storms, while extreme storms supply a greater dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP load into the stream. TDP accounted for approximately 50% of TP load during typhoon storms. Mobilization of all P forms was observed from upstream to downstream of the river, except for DOP. A decrease of DOP load on passing downstream may reflect the change in phosphorus form along the river continuum. Peak discharge and antecedent dry days are correlated positively with P fluxes, indicating that river bank erosion and re-suspension of within-channel sediment are the dominant pathways of P during typhoon storm periods.

  14. Identification of storm surge vulnerable areas in the Philippines through the simulation of Typhoon Haiyan-induced storm surge levels over historical storm tracks

    Lapidez, J. P.; Tablazon, J.; Dasallas, L.; Gonzalo, L. A.; Cabacaba, K. M.; Ramos, M. M. A.; Suarez, J. K.; Santiago, J.; Lagmay, A. M. F.; Malano, V.

    2015-07-01

    Super Typhoon Haiyan entered the Philippine Area of Responsibility (PAR) on 7 November 2013, causing tremendous damage to infrastructure and loss of lives mainly due to the storm surge and strong winds. Storm surges up to a height of 7 m were reported in the hardest hit areas. The threat imposed by this kind of natural calamity compelled researchers of the Nationwide Operational Assessment of Hazards (Project NOAH) which is the flagship disaster mitigation program of the Department of Science and Technology (DOST) of the Philippine government to undertake a study to determine the vulnerability of all Philippine coastal communities to storm surges of the same magnitude as those generated by Haiyan. This study calculates the maximum probable storm surge height for every coastal locality by running simulations of Haiyan-type conditions but with tracks of tropical cyclones that entered PAR from 1948-2013. One product of this study is a list of the 30 most vulnerable coastal areas that can be used as a basis for choosing priority sites for further studies to implement appropriate site-specific solutions for flood risk management. Another product is the storm tide inundation maps that the local government units can use to develop a risk-sensitive land use plan for identifying appropriate areas to build residential buildings, evacuation sites, and other critical facilities and lifelines. The maps can also be used to develop a disaster response plan and evacuation scheme.

  15. Identification of storm surge vulnerable areas in the Philippines through the simulation of Typhoon Haiyan-induced storm surge levels over historical storm tracks

    J. P. Lapidez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Super Typhoon Haiyan entered the Philippine Area of Responsibility (PAR on 7 November 2013, causing tremendous damage to infrastructure and loss of lives mainly due to the storm surge and strong winds. Storm surges up to a height of 7 m were reported in the hardest hit areas. The threat imposed by this kind of natural calamity compelled researchers of the Nationwide Operational Assessment of Hazards (Project NOAH which is the flagship disaster mitigation program of the Department of Science and Technology (DOST of the Philippine government to undertake a study to determine the vulnerability of all Philippine coastal communities to storm surges of the same magnitude as those generated by Haiyan. This study calculates the maximum probable storm surge height for every coastal locality by running simulations of Haiyan-type conditions but with tracks of tropical cyclones that entered PAR from 1948–2013. One product of this study is a list of the 30 most vulnerable coastal areas that can be used as a basis for choosing priority sites for further studies to implement appropriate site-specific solutions for flood risk management. Another product is the storm tide inundation maps that the local government units can use to develop a risk-sensitive land use plan for identifying appropriate areas to build residential buildings, evacuation sites, and other critical facilities and lifelines. The maps can also be used to develop a disaster response plan and evacuation scheme.

  16. [Geochemical characteristics and sources of atmospheric particulates in Shanghai during dust storm event].

    Qian, Peng; Zheng, Xiang-min; Zhou, Li-min

    2013-05-01

    Atmospheric particulates were sampled from three sampling sites of Putuo, Minhang and Qingpu Districts in Shanghai between Oct. , 2009 and Oct. , 2010. In addition, particulate samples were also collected from Nantong, Zhengzhou, Xi'an, and Beijing city where dust storm dust transported along during spring. Element compositions of atmospheric particulates were determined by XRF and ICP-MS. The concentrations of major and trace elements in atmospheric particulates from Putuo, Minhang and Qingpu Districts were similar, indicating their common source. The UCC standardization distribution map showed that the major element composition of dust storm samples was similar to that of loess in northwestern China, indicating that the dust storm dust was mainly derived from Western desert and partly from local area. The REE partition patterns of dust storm dusts among different cities along dust transport route were similar to each other, as well as to those of northern loess, which indicates that the dust storm samples may have the same material source as loess, which mainly comes from crust material. However, the REE partition patterns of non-dust storm particulates were different among the studied cities, and different from those of loess, which suggests that the non-dust storm samples may be mixed with non-crust source material, which is different from dust storm dust and loess. The major element composition and REE partition pattern are effective indicators for source tracing of dust storm dust.

  17. Storm Time Variation of Radiative Cooling by Nitric Oxide as Observed by TIMED-SABER and GUVI

    Bharti, Gaurav; Sunil Krishna, M. V.; Bag, T.; Jain, Puneet

    2018-02-01

    The variation of O/N2 (reference to N2 column density 1017 cm-2) and nitric oxide radiative emission flux exiting the thermosphere have been studied over the Northern Hemisphere during the superstorm event of 7-12 November 2004. The data have been obtained from Global Ultraviolet Imager (GUVI) and Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) on board the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)'s Thermosphere, Ionosphere, Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite. The NO radiative flux is observed to show an anti-correlation with O/N2 on a global scale. Both NO radiative flux and O/N2 ratio show equatorward motion with maximum penetration in western longitude sectors. A local variation of O, O2, and N2 densities have been calculated using NRLMSISE-00 model over a midlatitude location (55°N,180°E). On a local scale, model calculated O/O2 and O/N2 ratios are found to follow the observations made by GUVI. The collisional excitation of NO with atomic oxygen is the most dominant process for the total cooling rate. The SABER-retrieved NO cooling rate (CR) at a local site suggests an enhancement during the storm period with the peak emission rate closely correlated to the progression of the storm. The peak emission altitude of NO CR moves upward during the main phase of the storm. The NO abundance has been calculated by using cooling rate and Nitric Oxide Empirical Model (NOEM) model. Both these suggest a vary large (3-15 times) increase in NO density during the storm, which is required to account the changes in NO radiative flux. A similar kind of enhancement in NO abundance is also noticed in Student Nitric Oxide Explorer observations during intense geomagnetic storms.

  18. Study of the mid-latitude ionospheric response to geomagnetic storms in the European region

    Berényi, Kitti Alexandra; Barta, Veronika; Kis, Arpad

    2016-07-01

    Geomagnetic storms affect the ionospheric regions of the terrestrial upper atmosphere through different physical and atmospheric processes. The phenomena that can be regarded as a result of these processes, generally is named as "ionospheric storm". The processes depend on altitude, segment of the day, the geomagnetic latitude and longitude, strength of solar activity and the type of the geomagnetic storm. We examine the data of ground-based radio wave ionosphere sounding measurements of European ionospheric stations (mainly the data of Nagycenk Geophysical Observatory) in order to determine how and to what extent a geomagnetic disturbance of a certain strength affects the mid-latitude ionospheric regions in winter and in summer. For our analysis we used disturbed time periods between November 2012 and June 2015. Our results show significant changing of the ionospheric F2 layer parameters on strongly disturbed days compared to quiet ones. We show that the critical frequencies (foF2) increase compared to their quiet day value when the ionospheric storm was positive. On the other hand, the critical frequencies become lower, when the storm was negative. In our analysis we determined the magnitude of these changes on the chosen days. For a more complete analysis we compare also the evolution of the F2 layer parameters of the European ionosonde stations on a North-South geographic longitude during a full storm duration. The results present the evolution of an ionospheric storm over a geographic meridian. Furthermore, we compared the two type of geomagnetic storms, namely the CME caused geomagnetic storm - the so-called Sudden impulse (Si) storms- and the HSS (High Speed Solar Wind Streams) caused geomagnetic storms -the so-called Gradual storms (Gs)- impact on the ionospheric F2-layer (foF2 parameter). The results show a significant difference between the effect of Si and of the Gs storms on the ionospheric F2-layer.

  19. The ionospheric response in the Brazilian sector during the super geomagnetic storm on 20 November 2003

    F. Becker-Guedes

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available A very intense geomagnetic storm (superstorm began with storm sudden commencement (SSC at 08:03 UT on 20 November 2003, as a result of the coronal mass ejection (CME by sunspot 484 hurled into space on 18 November 2003. The geomagnetic storm attained |Dst|max=472 nT at 20:00 UT (20 November. In this paper we present the simultaneous ionospheric sounding observations, using the Canadian Advanced Digital Ionosondes (CADIs, carried out from Palmas (PAL; 10.2° S, 48.2° W; dip latitude 5.5° S; a near equatorial station and São José dos Campos (SJC; 23.2° S, 45.9° W; dip latitude 17.6° S; station located under the crest of equatorial ionospheric anomaly, Brazil. In addition, total electron content (TEC measurements from several GPS receiving stations in the Brazilian sector during this storm are presented. The simultaneous ionospheric sounding observations carried out at SJC and PAL, and TEC observations on 3 consecutive days viz., 19 November (quiet, 20 November (disturbed and 21 November (recovery phase are presented. Salient features from the ionospheric observations in the Brazilian sector during the superstorm are discussed. The difference in the observed ionospheric response at the two stations (PAL and SJC is considerable. This is not surprising given that PAL is close to the magnetic equator and SJC is near the crest of the equatorial ionospheric anomaly (EIA. It should be pointed out that soon after the SSC (about 4 h later, the F-region critical frequency (foF2, the F-region peak height (hpF2, and variations of virtual heights at different frequencies (iso-frequency plots all show wavelike oscillations of the F-region during daytime at both the ionospheric sounding stations. Unusual rapid uplifting of F-region at PAL was observed during both the main and recovery phases of the storm.

  20. Edge plasma fluctuations in STOR-M

    Zhang, W.; Hirose, A.; Zhang, L.; Xiao, C.; Conway, G.D.; Skarsgard, H.M.

    1993-01-01

    In the STOR-M tokamak, the coherence and propagation nature of the density (n e ) and magnetic (B r ) fluctuations are investigated both in the scrape-off layer (SOL, r/a > 1) and at the plasma edge (r/a -2 is of the order of the reverse electron skin depth kθ ≅ ω pe /c. In terms of the hybrid ion Larmor radius ρ s = c s /Ω i , it corresponds to k θρ s ≅ 0.1. These observations support the skin size electromagnetic drift mode which predicts that a low β tokamak discharge is unstable against the skin size electromagnetic instability with a phase velocity significantly smaller than the electron diamagnetic drift velocity. Edge fluctuations observed in STOR-M appear to propagate at the local E x B drift, and the phase velocity in the plasma from is υ theta ≅ 5 x 10 4 cm/sec, compared with the local electron diamagnetic drift, υ e ≅ 2.5 x 10 5 cm/sec. In the SOL region, the density fluctuations propagate in the ion diamagnetic drift, but still with the local E x B drift because E r changes its sign at r/a ≅ 1

  1. Longitudinal differences observed in the ionospheric F-region during the major geomagnetic storm of 31 March 2001

    Y. Sahai

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A new ionospheric sounding station using a Canadian Advanced Digital Ionosonde (CADI was established for routine measurements by the "Universidade do Vale do Paraiba (UNIVAP" at São José dos Campos (23.2° S, 45.9° W, Brazil, in August 2000. A major geomagnetic storm with gradual commencement at about 01:00 UT was observed on 31 March 2001. In this paper, we present and discuss salient features from the ionospheric sounding measurements carried out at S. J. Campos on the three consecutive UT days 30 March (quiet, 31 March (disturbed and 1 April (recovery 2001. During most of the storm period, the foF2 values showed negative phase, whereas during the two storm-time peaks, large F-region height variations were observed. In order to study the longitudinal differences observed in the F-region during the storm, the simultaneous ionospheric sounding measurements carried out at S. J. Campos, El Arenosillo (37.1° N, 6.7° W, Spain, Okinawa (26.3° N, 127.8° E, Japan and Wakkanai (45.5° N, 141.7° E, Japan, during the period 30 March-1 April 2001, have been analyzed. A comparison of the observed ionospheric parameters (h'F and foF2 in the two longitudinal zones (1. Japanese and 2. Brazilian-Spanish shows both similarities and differences associated with the geomagnetic disturbances. Some latitudinal differences are also observed in the two longitudinal zones. In addition, global ionospheric TEC maps from the worldwide network of GPS receivers are presented, showing widespread TEC changes during both the main and recovery phases of the storm. The ionospheric sounding measurements are compared with the ASPEN-TIMEGCM model runs appropriate for the storm conditions. The model results produce better agreement during the quiet period. During the disturbed period, some of the observed F-region height variations are well reproduced by the model results. The model foF2 and TEC results differ considerably during the recovery period and indicate much

  2. Longitudinal differences observed in the ionospheric F-region during the major geomagnetic storm of 31 March 2001

    Y. Sahai

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A new ionospheric sounding station using a Canadian Advanced Digital Ionosonde (CADI was established for routine measurements by the "Universidade do Vale do Paraiba (UNIVAP" at São José dos Campos (23.2° S, 45.9° W, Brazil, in August 2000. A major geomagnetic storm with gradual commencement at about 01:00 UT was observed on 31 March 2001. In this paper, we present and discuss salient features from the ionospheric sounding measurements carried out at S. J. Campos on the three consecutive UT days 30 March (quiet, 31 March (disturbed and 1 April (recovery 2001. During most of the storm period, the foF2 values showed negative phase, whereas during the two storm-time peaks, large F-region height variations were observed. In order to study the longitudinal differences observed in the F-region during the storm, the simultaneous ionospheric sounding measurements carried out at S. J. Campos, El Arenosillo (37.1° N, 6.7° W, Spain, Okinawa (26.3° N, 127.8° E, Japan and Wakkanai (45.5° N, 141.7° E, Japan, during the period 30 March-1 April 2001, have been analyzed. A comparison of the observed ionospheric parameters (h'F and foF2 in the two longitudinal zones (1. Japanese and 2. Brazilian-Spanish shows both similarities and differences associated with the geomagnetic disturbances. Some latitudinal differences are also observed in the two longitudinal zones. In addition, global ionospheric TEC maps from the worldwide network of GPS receivers are presented, showing widespread TEC changes during both the main and recovery phases of the storm. The ionospheric sounding measurements are compared with the ASPEN-TIMEGCM model runs appropriate for the storm conditions. The model results produce better agreement during the quiet period. During the disturbed period, some of the observed F-region height variations are well reproduced by the model results. The model foF2 and TEC results differ considerably during the

  3. Ionospheric F-region response to the 26 September 2011 geomagnetic storm in the Antarctica American and Australian sectors

    E. Correia

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The ionospheric response at middle and high latitudes in the Antarctica American and Australian sectors to the 26–27 September 2011 moderately intense geomagnetic storm was investigated using instruments including an ionosonde, riometer, and GNSS receivers. The multi-instrument observations permitted us to characterize the ionospheric storm-enhanced density (SED and tongues of ionization (TOIs as a function of storm time and location, considering the effect of prompt penetration electric fields (PPEFs. During the main phase of the geomagnetic storm, dayside SEDs were observed at middle latitudes, and in the nightside only density depletions were observed from middle to high latitudes. Both the increase and decrease in ionospheric density at middle latitudes can be attributed to a combination of processes, including the PPEF effect just after the storm onset, dominated by disturbance dynamo processes during the evolution of the main phase. Two SEDs–TOIs were identified in the Southern Hemisphere, but only the first episode had a counterpart in the Northern Hemisphere. This difference can be explained by the interhemispheric asymmetry caused by the high-latitude coupling between solar wind and the magnetosphere, which drives the dawn-to-dusk component of the interplanetary magnetic field. The formation of polar TOI is a function of the SED plume location that might be near the dayside cusp from which it can enter the polar cap, which was the case in the Southern Hemisphere. Strong GNSS scintillations were observed at stations collocated with SED plumes at middle latitudes and cusp on the dayside and at polar cap TOIs on the nightside.

  4. L-shell bifurcation of electron outer belt at the recovery phase of geomagnetic storm as observed by STEP-F and SphinX instruments onboard the CORONAS-Photon satellite

    Dudnik, Oleksiy; Sylwester, Janusz; Kowalinski, Miroslaw; Podgorski, Piotr

    2016-07-01

    Radiation belts and sporadically arising volumes comprising enhanced charged particle fluxes in the Earth's magnetosphere are typically studied by space-borne telescopes, semiconductor, scintillation, gaseous and other types of detectors. Ambient and internal electron bremsstrahlung in hard X-ray arises as a result of interaction of precipitating particles with the atmosphere (balloon experiments) and with the satellite's housings and instrument boxes (orbital experiments). Theses emissions provide a number of new information on the physics of radiation belts. The energies of primary electrons and their spectra responsible for measured X-ray emissions remain usually unknown. Combined measurements of particle fluxes, and their bremsstrahlung by individual satellite instruments placed next to each other provide insight to respective processes. The satellite telescope of electrons and protons STEP-F and the solar X-ray spectrophotometer SphinX were placed in close proximity to each other aboard CORONAS-Photon, the low, circular and highly inclined orbit satellite. Based on joint analysis of the data we detected new features in the high energy particle distributions of the Earth's magnetosphere during deep minimum of solar activity [1-3]. In this research the bifurcation of Van Allen outer electron radiation belt during the weak geomagnetic storm and during passage of interplanetary shock are discussed. Outer belt bifurcation and growth of electron fluxes in a wide energy range were recorded by both instruments during the recovery phase of May 8, 2009 substorm. STEP-F recorded also barely perceptible outer belt splitting on August 5, 2009, after arrival of interplanetary shock to the Earth's magnetosphere bowshock. The STEP-F and SphinX data are compared with the space weather indexes, and with relativistic electron fluxes observed at geostationary orbit. We discuss possible mechanism of the phenomena consisting in the splitting of drift shells because of Earth

  5. Total electron content responses to HILDCAAs and geomagnetic storms over South America

    Mara de Siqueira Negreti, Patricia; Rodrigues de Paula, Eurico; Nicoli Candido, Claudia Maria

    2017-12-01

    Total electron content (TEC) is extensively used to monitor the ionospheric behavior under geomagnetically quiet and disturbed conditions. This subject is of greatest importance for space weather applications. Under disturbed conditions the two main sources of electric fields, which are responsible for changes in the plasma drifts and for current perturbations, are the short-lived prompt penetration electric fields (PPEFs) and the longer-lasting ionospheric disturbance dynamo (DD) electric fields. Both mechanisms modulate the TEC around the globe and the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) at low latitudes. In this work we computed vertical absolute TEC over the low latitude of South America. The analysis was performed considering HILDCAA (high-intensity, long-duration, continuous auroral electrojet (AE) activity) events and geomagnetic storms. The characteristics of storm-time TEC and HILDCAA-associated TEC will be presented and discussed. For both case studies presented in this work (March and August 2013) the HILDCAA event follows a geomagnetic storm, and then a global scenario of geomagnetic disturbances will be discussed. Solar wind parameters, geomagnetic indices, O / N2 ratios retrieved by GUVI instrument onboard the TIMED satellite and TEC observations will be analyzed and discussed. Data from the RBMC/IBGE (Brazil) and IGS GNSS networks were used to calculate TEC over South America. We show that a HILDCAA event may generate larger TEC differences compared to the TEC observed during the main phase of the precedent geomagnetic storm; thus, a HILDCAA event may be more effective for ionospheric response in comparison to moderate geomagnetic storms, considering the seasonal conditions. During the August HILDCAA event, TEC enhancements from ˜ 25 to 80 % (compared to quiet time) were observed. These enhancements are much higher than the quiet-time variability observed in the ionosphere. We show that ionosphere is quite sensitive to solar wind forcing and

  6. Total electron content responses to HILDCAAs and geomagnetic storms over South America

    P. M. de Siqueira Negreti

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Total electron content (TEC is extensively used to monitor the ionospheric behavior under geomagnetically quiet and disturbed conditions. This subject is of greatest importance for space weather applications. Under disturbed conditions the two main sources of electric fields, which are responsible for changes in the plasma drifts and for current perturbations, are the short-lived prompt penetration electric fields (PPEFs and the longer-lasting ionospheric disturbance dynamo (DD electric fields. Both mechanisms modulate the TEC around the globe and the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA at low latitudes. In this work we computed vertical absolute TEC over the low latitude of South America. The analysis was performed considering HILDCAA (high-intensity, long-duration, continuous auroral electrojet (AE activity events and geomagnetic storms. The characteristics of storm-time TEC and HILDCAA-associated TEC will be presented and discussed. For both case studies presented in this work (March and August 2013 the HILDCAA event follows a geomagnetic storm, and then a global scenario of geomagnetic disturbances will be discussed. Solar wind parameters, geomagnetic indices, O ∕ N2 ratios retrieved by GUVI instrument onboard the TIMED satellite and TEC observations will be analyzed and discussed. Data from the RBMC/IBGE (Brazil and IGS GNSS networks were used to calculate TEC over South America. We show that a HILDCAA event may generate larger TEC differences compared to the TEC observed during the main phase of the precedent geomagnetic storm; thus, a HILDCAA event may be more effective for ionospheric response in comparison to moderate geomagnetic storms, considering the seasonal conditions. During the August HILDCAA event, TEC enhancements from  ∼  25 to 80 % (compared to quiet time were observed. These enhancements are much higher than the quiet-time variability observed in the ionosphere. We show that ionosphere is quite sensitive to

  7. Tormenta tiroidea Thyroid storm

    Lisette Leal Curí

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La tormenta tiroidea es una de las situaciones más críticas entre las emergencias endocrinas y tiene una significativa mortalidad. La etiología más común de tirotoxicosis es la enfermedad de Graves y el factor precipitante que predomina es la infección. Clínicamente se caracteriza por la disfunción de varios sistemas (termorregulador, nervioso central, gastrointestinal y cardiovascular, con niveles de hormonas tiroideas libres o totales por encima de los valores normales. El tratamiento debe tener un enfoque multidisciplinario, e incluye medidas de soporte en unidades de cuidados intensivos, normalización de la temperatura corporal, reducción de la producción y liberación de hormonas tiroideas, con antitiroideos de síntesis y yodo respectivamente, bloqueo de los efectos periféricos mediante la administración de beta-bloqueadores, y corrección del factor desencadenante. Una vez que el paciente se encuentra estable es necesario planificar una terapia definitiva que impida la recurrencia futura de la crisis tirotóxica.The thyroid storm is one of the most critical situations in the endocrine emergencies and exhibits a significant mortality rate. The most common etiology of thyrotoxicosis is Graves' disease and the predominant precipitating factor is infection. The clinical characteristics are dysfunction of several systems (heat-regulator, central nervous, gastrointestinal and cardiovascular, and levels of total or free thyroid hormones that exceed the normal values. The treatment must be multidisciplinary and include support measures in intensive care units, normalization of body temperature, reduction of the production and the release of thyroid hormones by using synthesis and iodine anti-thyroid products respectively, blockade of the peripheral effects through administration of Beta-blockers and correction of the unleashing factor. Once the patients are stabilized, it is necessary to plan the final therapy that will prevent the

  8. Meteorology, Macrophysics, Microphysics, Microwaves, and Mesoscale Modeling of Mediterranean Mountain Storms: The M8 Laboratory

    Starr, David O. (Technical Monitor); Smith, Eric A.

    2002-01-01

    Comprehensive understanding of the microphysical nature of Mediterranean storms can be accomplished by a combination of in situ meteorological data analysis and radar-passive microwave data analysis, effectively integrated with numerical modeling studies at various scales, from synoptic scale down through the mesoscale, the cloud macrophysical scale, and ultimately the cloud microphysical scale. The microphysical properties of and their controls on severe storms are intrinsically related to meteorological processes under which storms have evolved, processes which eventually select and control the dominant microphysical properties themselves. This involves intense convective development, stratiform decay, orographic lifting, and sloped frontal lifting processes, as well as the associated vertical motions and thermodynamical instabilities governing physical processes that affect details of the size distributions and fall rates of the various types of hydrometeors found within the storm environment. Insofar as hazardous Mediterranean storms, highlighted in this study by three mountain storms producing damaging floods in northern Italy between 1992 and 2000, developing a comprehensive microphysical interpretation requires an understanding of the multiple phases of storm evolution and the heterogeneous nature of precipitation fields within a storm domain. This involves convective development, stratiform transition and decay, orographic lifting, and sloped frontal lifting processes. This also involves vertical motions and thermodynamical instabilities governing physical processes that determine details of the liquid/ice water contents, size disi:ributions, and fall rates of the various modes of hydrometeors found within hazardous storm environments.

  9. Electrical Storm Simulation to Improve the Learning Physics Process

    Martínez Muñoz, Miriam; Jiménez Rodríguez, María Lourdes; Gutiérrez de Mesa, José Antonio

    2013-01-01

    This work is part of a research project whose main objective is to understand the impact that the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has on the teaching and learning process on the subject of Physics. We will show that, with the use of a storm simulator, physics students improve their learning process on one hand they understand…

  10. Data-based Modeling of the Dynamical Inner Magnetosphere During Strong Geomagnetic Storms

    Tsyganenko, N.; Sitnov, M.

    2004-12-01

    , with the peak values as large as 5--8 MA for the symmetric ring current and region 1 field-aligned current. At the peak of the main phase, the total partial ring current can largely exceed the symmetric one, reaching ˜10 MA and even more, but it quickly subsides as the external solar wind driving disappears, with the relaxation time ≤2 hours. The tail current dramatically increases during the main phase and shifts earthward, so that the peak current concentrates at unusually close distances ˜4-6RE. This is accompanied by a significant thinning of the current sheet and enormous tailward stretching of the inner geomagnetic field lines. As an independent consistency test, we calculated the expected Dst-variation based on the model output at Earth's surface and compared it with the actual observed Dst. A good agreement (cumulative correlation coefficient R=0.92) was found, in spite of that ˜90% of the spacecraft data used in the fitting were taken at synchronous orbit and beyond, while only 3.7% of those data came from distances 2.5≤ R≤4 RE. The obtained results demonstrate the possibility to develop a dynamical model of the magnetic field, based on magnetospheric and interplanetary data and allowing one to reproduce and forecast the entire process of a geomagnetic storm, as it unfolds in time and space. Reference: N. A. Tsyganenko, H. J. Singer, J. C. Kasper, Storm-time distortion of the inner magnetosphere: How severe can it get ? J. Geophys. Res., v. 108(A5), 1209, 2003.

  11. The 2015 Summer Solstice Storm: One of the Major Geomagnetic Storms of Solar Cycle 24 Observed at Ground Level

    Augusto, C. R. A.; Navia, C. E.; de Oliveira, M. N.; Nepomuceno, A. A.; Raulin, J. P.; Tueros, E.; de Mendonça, R. R. S.; Fauth, A. C.; Vieira de Souza, H.; Kopenkin, V.; Sinzi, T.

    2018-05-01

    We report on the 22 - 23 June 2015 geomagnetic storm that occurred at the summer solstice. There have been fewer intense geomagnetic storms during the current solar cycle, Solar Cycle 24, than in the previous cycle. This situation changed after mid-June 2015, when one of the largest solar active regions (AR 12371) of Solar Cycle 24 that was located close to the central meridian, produced several coronal mass ejections (CMEs) associated with M-class flares. The impact of these CMEs on the Earth's magnetosphere resulted in a moderate to severe G4-class geomagnetic storm on 22 - 23 June 2015 and a G2 (moderate) geomagnetic storm on 24 June. The G4 solstice storm was the second largest (so far) geomagnetic storm of Cycle 24. We highlight the ground-level observations made with the New-Tupi, Muonca, and the CARPET El Leoncito cosmic-ray detectors that are located within the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) region. These observations are studied in correlation with data obtained by space-borne detectors (ACE, GOES, SDO, and SOHO) and other ground-based experiments. The CME designations are taken from the Computer Aided CME Tracking (CACTus) automated catalog. As expected, Forbush decreases (FD) associated with the passing CMEs were recorded by these detectors. We note a peculiar feature linked to a severe geomagnetic storm event. The 21 June 2015 CME 0091 (CACTus CME catalog number) was likely associated with the 22 June summer solstice FD event. The angular width of CME 0091 was very narrow and measured {˜} 56° degrees seen from Earth. In most cases, only CME halos and partial halos lead to severe geomagnetic storms. We perform a cross-check analysis of the FD events detected during the rise phase of Solar Cycle 24, the geomagnetic parameters, and the CACTus CME catalog. Our study suggests that narrow angular-width CMEs that erupt in a westward direction from the Sun-Earth line can lead to moderate and severe geomagnetic storms. We also report on the strong solar proton

  12. Measuring storm tide and high-water marks caused by Hurricane Sandy in New York: Chapter 2

    Simonson, Amy E.; Behrens, Riley

    2015-01-01

    In response to Hurricane Sandy, personnel from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) deployed a temporary network of storm-tide sensors from Virginia to Maine. During the storm, real-time water levels were available from tide gages and rapid-deployment gages (RDGs). After the storm, USGS scientists retrieved the storm-tide sensors and RDGs and surveyed high-water marks. These data demonstrate that the timing of peak storm surge relative to astronomical tide was extremely important in southeastern New York. For example, along the south shores of New York City and western Suffolk County, the peak storm surge of 6–9 ft generally coincided with the astronomical high tide, which resulted in substantial coastal flooding. In the Peconic Estuary and northern Nassau County, however, the peak storm surge of 9 ft and nearly 12 ft, respectively, nearly coincided with normal low tide, which helped spare these communities from more severe coastal flooding.

  13. Space storms as natural hazards

    L. I. Dorman

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Eruptive activity of the Sun produces a chain of extreme geophysical events: high-speed solar wind, magnetic field disturbances in the interplanetary space and in the geomagnetic field and also intense fluxes of energetic particles. Space storms can potentially destroy spacecrafts, adversely affect astronauts and airline crew and human health on the Earth, lead to pipeline breaking, melt electricity transformers, and discontinue transmission. In this paper we deal with two consequences of space storms: (i rise in failures in the operation of railway devices and (ii rise in myocardial infarction and stroke incidences.

  14. Utility of bolus dynamic CT for the detection of hypervascular malignant hepatic tumors. Mainly referring to the comparison with delayed phase contrast-enhanced CT

    Matsuda, Hiromichi; Abe, Kimihiko; Freeny, P.C.

    1996-01-01

    In order to analyze the usefulness of dynamic contrast-enhanced CT, 84 patients who had hepatocellular carcinoma or suspected hypervascular metastases were studied with conventional incremental dynamic CT (CID-CT) or double helical CT (DH-CT). Delayed phase contrast-enhanced CT studies were consecutively performed in all patients. Thirty-six of 84 patients had malignant hepatic neoplasms; six had hepatocellular carcinoma and 30 had metastatic tumors. At first, the detectability of hepatic lesions was evaluated with bolus dynamic CT and delayed phase CT. Dynamic CT has detected more lesions than delayed CT. Some hepatic lesions described as isodensity were missed on CID-CT. Therefore, delayed phase CT cannot be eliminated when CID-CT is performed. Secondly, hepatic lesion detectability with CID-CT was compared with that of DH-CT. DH-CT did not miss the hepatic lesions picked up by delayed phase CT and was expected to provide excellent detectability of hypervascular hepatic neoplasms. In addition, first helical CT showed most hepatic lesions as areas of obvious hyperdensity, while CID-CT did not show their correct vascularities. So-called hypervascular hepatic tumors, however, were not always hypervascular and were demonstrated as areas of iso-hypodensity even on initial helical scanning. Second helical CT was useful to detect these so-called hypervascular, but actually hypovascular lesions. In conclusion, dynamic CT was helpful in detecting hypervascular hepatic malignant neoplasms, and DH-CT was more accurate than-CID-CT for the detection of hepatic lesions and the evaluation of vascular lesion. (author)

  15. Midlatitude Plasma Bubbles Over China and Adjacent Areas During a Magnetic Storm on 8 September 2017

    Aa, Ercha; Huang, Wengeng; Liu, Siqing; Ridley, Aaron; Zou, Shasha; Shi, Liqin; Chen, Yanhong; Shen, Hua; Yuan, Tianjiao; Li, Jianyong; Wang, Tan

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents observations of postsunset super plasma bubbles over China and adjacent areas during the second main phase of a storm on 8 September 2017. The signatures of the plasma bubbles can be seen or deduced from (1) deep field-aligned total electron content depletions embedded in regional ionospheric maps derived from dense Global Navigation Satellite System networks, (2) significant equatorial and midlatitudinal plasma bite-outs in electron density measurements on board Swarm satellites, and (3) enhancements of ionosonde virtual height and scintillation in local evening associated with strong southward interplanetary magnetic field. The bubbles/depletions covered a broad area mainly within 20°-45°N and 80°-110°E with bifurcated structures and persisted for nearly 5 hr (˜13-18 UT). One prominent feature is that the bubbles extended remarkably along the magnetic field lines in the form of depleted flux tubes, reaching up to midlatitude of around 50°N (magnetic latitude: 45.5°N) that maps to an altitude of 6,600 km over the magnetic equator. The maximum upward drift speed of the bubbles over the magnetic equator was about 700 m/s and gradually decreased with altitude and time. The possible triggering mechanism of the plasma bubbles was estimated to be storm time eastward prompt penetration electric field, while the traveling ionospheric disturbance could play a role in facilitating the latitudinal extension of the depletions.

  16. Storm Identification, Tracking and Forecasting Using High-Resolution Images of Short-Range X-Band Radar

    Sajid Shah

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Rain nowcasting is an essential part of weather monitoring. It plays a vital role in human life, ranging from advanced warning systems to scheduling open air events and tourism. A nowcasting system can be divided into three fundamental steps, i.e., storm identification, tracking and nowcasting. The main contribution of this work is to propose procedures for each step of the rain nowcasting tool and to objectively evaluate the performances of every step, focusing on two-dimension data collected from short-range X-band radars installed in different parts of Italy. This work presents the solution of previously unsolved problems in storm identification: first, the selection of suitable thresholds for storm identification; second, the isolation of false merger (loosely-connected storms; and third, the identification of a high reflectivity sub-storm within a large storm. The storm tracking step of the existing tools, such as TITANand SCIT, use only up to two storm attributes, i.e., center of mass and area. It is possible to use more attributes for tracking. Furthermore, the contribution of each attribute in storm tracking is yet to be investigated. This paper presents a novel procedure called SALdEdA (structure, amplitude, location, eccentricity difference and areal difference for storm tracking. This work also presents the contribution of each component of SALdEdA in storm tracking. The second order exponential smoothing strategy is used for storm nowcasting, where the growth and decay of each variable of interest is considered to be linear. We evaluated the major steps of our method. The adopted techniques for automatic threshold calculation are assessed with a 97% goodness. False merger and sub-storms within a cluster of storms are successfully handled. Furthermore, the storm tracking procedure produced good results with an accuracy of 99.34% for convective events and 100% for stratiform events.

  17. Contribution of energetic and heavy ions to the plasma pressure: The 27 September to 3 October 2002 storm

    Kronberg, E. A.; Welling, D.; Kistler, L. M.; Mouikis, C.; Daly, P. W.; Grigorenko, E. E.; Klecker, B.; Dandouras, I.

    2017-09-01

    Magnetospheric plasma sheet ions drift toward the Earth and populate the ring current. The ring current plasma pressure distorts the terrestrial internal magnetic field at the surface, and this disturbance strongly affects the strength of a magnetic storm. The contribution of energetic ions (>40 keV) and of heavy ions to the total plasma pressure in the near-Earth plasma sheet is not always considered. In this study, we evaluate the contribution of low-energy and energetic ions of different species to the total plasma pressure for the storm observed by the Cluster mission from 27 September until 3 October 2002. We show that the contribution of energetic ions (>40 keV) and of heavy ions to the total plasma pressure is ≃76-98.6% in the ring current and ≃14-59% in the magnetotail. The main source of oxygen ions, responsible for ≃56% of the plasma pressure of the ring current, is located at distances earthward of XGSE ≃ -13.5 RE during the main phase of the storm. The contribution of the ring current particles agrees with the observed Dst index. We model the magnetic storm using the Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF). We assess the plasma pressure output in the ring current for two different ion outflow models in the SWMF through comparison with observations. Both models yield reasonable results. The model which produces the most heavy ions agrees best with the observations. However, the data suggest that there is still potential for refinement in the simulations.

  18. Patterns of Storm Injury and Tree Response

    Kevin Smith; Walter Shortle; Kenneth Dudzik

    2001-01-01

    The ice storm of January 1998 in the northeastern United States and adjacent Canada was an extreme example of severe weather that injures trees every year. Broken branches, split branch forks, and snapped stems are all examples of storm injury.

  19. Storm Water Management Model (SWMM)

    Stormwater discharges continue to cause impairment of our Nation’s waterbodies. Regulations that require the retention and/or treatment of frequent, small storms that dominate runoff volumes and pollutant loads are becoming more common. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (E...

  20. Stochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy (STORM).

    Xu, Jianquan; Ma, Hongqiang; Liu, Yang

    2017-07-05

    Super-resolution (SR) fluorescence microscopy, a class of optical microscopy techniques at a spatial resolution below the diffraction limit, has revolutionized the way we study biology, as recognized by the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2014. Stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM), a widely used SR technique, is based on the principle of single molecule localization. STORM routinely achieves a spatial resolution of 20 to 30 nm, a ten-fold improvement compared to conventional optical microscopy. Among all SR techniques, STORM offers a high spatial resolution with simple optical instrumentation and standard organic fluorescent dyes, but it is also prone to image artifacts and degraded image resolution due to improper sample preparation or imaging conditions. It requires careful optimization of all three aspects-sample preparation, image acquisition, and image reconstruction-to ensure a high-quality STORM image, which will be extensively discussed in this unit. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  1. Shoreline resilience to individual storms and storm clusters on a meso-macrotidal barred beach

    Angnuureng, Donatus Bapentire; Almar, Rafael; Senechal, Nadia; Castelle, Bruno; Addo, Kwasi Appeaning; Marieu, Vincent; Ranasinghe, Roshanka

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of individual storms and storm clusters on shoreline recovery for the meso-to macrotidal, barred Biscarrosse beach in SW France, using 6 years of daily video observations. While the study area experienced 60 storms during the 6-year study period, only 36 storms

  2. A storm-time plasmasphere evolution study using data assimilation

    Nikoukar, R.; Bust, G. S.; Bishop, R. L.; Coster, A. J.; Lemon, C.; Turner, D. L.; Roeder, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    In this work, we study the evolution of the Earth's plasmasphere during geomagnetic active periods using the Plasmasphere Data Assimilation (PDA) model. The total electron content (TEC) measurements from an extensive network of global ground-based GPS receivers as well as GPS receivers on-board Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate (COSMIC) satellites and Communications/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) satellite are ingested into the model. Global Core Plasma model, which is an empirical plasmasphere model, is utilized as the background model. Based on the 3D-VAR optimization, the PDA assimilative model benefits from incorporation of regularization techniques to prevent non-physical altitudinal variation in density estimates due to the limited-angle observational geometry. This work focuses on the plasmapause location, plasmasphere erosion time scales and refilling rates during the main and recovery phases of geomagnetic storms as estimated from the PDA 3-dimensional global maps of electron density in the ionosphere/plasmasphere. The comparison between the PDA results with in-situ density measurements from THEMIS and Van Allen Probes, and the RCM-E first-principle model will be also presented.

  3. 46 CFR 108.221 - Storm rails.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storm rails. 108.221 Section 108.221 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Rails § 108.221 Storm rails. Each unit must have a storm rail in the following...

  4. 46 CFR 169.329 - Storm rails.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storm rails. 169.329 Section 169.329 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Rails and Guards § 169.329 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must be...

  5. Er Storm P. en hardcore vagabond?

    Sortkær, Allan

    2002-01-01

    Den vagabond, som vi kender som Storm P.s, er ikke en figur, der kom fra en guddommelig inspiration eller deslige. Den var en allerede velkendt figur, før Storm P. tog den til sig, og figuren gennemgik radikale forandringer gennem Storm P.s liv: Krads social satire, hypervoldelig eller hyggelig...

  6. 46 CFR 116.920 - Storm rails.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storm rails. 116.920 Section 116.920 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150... and Guards § 116.920 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must be installed where necessary...

  7. 46 CFR 177.920 - Storm rails.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storm rails. 177.920 Section 177.920 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Rails and Guards § 177.920 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must be...

  8. 46 CFR 127.320 - Storm rails.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storm rails. 127.320 Section 127.320 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENTS Rails and Guards § 127.320 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails must be installed in each passageway and at...

  9. Magnetic storms on Mars

    Vennerstrøm, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    and typical time profile of such periods is investigated and compared to solar wind measurements at Earth. Typical durations of the events are 20–40h, and there is a tendency for large events to last longer, but a large spread in duration and intensity are found. The large and medium intensity events at Mars......Based on data from the Mars Global Surveyor magnetometer we examine periods of significantly enhanced magnetic disturbances in the martian space environment. Using almost seven years of observations during the maximum and early declining phase of the previous solar cycle the occurrence pattern...... are found to occur predominantly in association with interplanetary sector boundaries, with solar wind dynamic pressure enhancements being the most likely interplanetary driver. In addition it is found that, on time scales of months to several years, the dominant cause of global variability of the magnetic...

  10. A phase I/II trial to evaluate the safety, feasibility and activity of salvage therapy consisting of the mTOR inhibitor Temsirolimus added to standard therapy of Rituximab and DHAP for the treatment of patients with relapsed or refractory diffuse large cell B-Cell lymphoma – the STORM trial

    Witzens-Harig, Mathias; Memmer, Marie Luise; Dreyling, Martin; Hess, Georg

    2013-01-01

    The current standard treatment of patients with relapsed or refractory diffuse large cell B-Cell lymphoma (DLBCL) primarily consists of intensified salvage therapy and, if the disease is chemo-sensitive, high dose therapy followed with autologous stem cell transplantation. In the rituximab era however, this treatment approach has shown only limited benefit. In particular, patients relapsing after rituximab-containing primary treatment have an adverse prognosis, especially if this occurs within the first year after therapy or if the disease is primarily refractory. Therefore there is an ultimate need for improved salvage treatment approaches. The STORM study is a prospective, multicentre phase I/II study to evaluate the safety, feasibility and activity of salvage therapy consisting of the mTOR inhibitor temsirolimus added to the standard therapy rituximab and DHAP for the treatment of patients with relapsed or refractory DLBCL. The primary objective of the phase I of the trial is to establish the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of temsirolimus in combination with rituximab and DHAP. The secondary objective is to demonstrate that stem cells can be mobilized during this regimen in patients scheduled to proceed to high dose therapy. In phase II, the previously established maximum tolerated dose of temsirolimus will be used. The primary objective is to evaluate the overall response rate (ORR) in patients with relapsed DLBCL. The secondary objective is to evaluate progression free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS) and toxicity. The study will be accompanied by an analysis of lymphoma subtypes determined by gene expression analysis (GEP). The STORM trial evaluates the safety, feasibility and activity of salvage therapy consisting of the mTOR inhibitor temsirolimus added to standard therapy of rituximab and DHAP for the treatment of patients with relapsed or refractory DLBCL. It also might identify predictive markers for this treatment modality. ClinicalTrials.gov http

  11. Large enhancements in low latitude total electron content during 15 May 2005 geomagnetic storm in Indian zone

    N. Dashora

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Results pertaining to the response of the equatorial and low latitude ionosphere to a major geomagnetic storm that occurred on 15 May 2005 are presented. These results are also the first from the Indian zone in terms of (i GPS derived total electron content (TEC variations following the storm (ii Local low latitude electrodynamics response to penetration of high latitude convection electric field (iii effect of storm induced traveling atmospheric disturbances (TAD's on GPS-TEC in equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA zone. Data set comprising of ionospheric TEC obtained from GPS measurements, ionograms from an EIA zone station, New Delhi (Geog. Lat. 28.42° N, Geog. Long. 77.21° E, ground based magnetometers in equatorial and low latitude stations and solar wind data obtained from Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE has been used in the present study. GPS receivers located at Udaipur (Geog. Lat. 24.73° N, Geog. Long. 73.73° E and Hyderabad (Geog. Lat. 17.33° N, Geog. Long. 78.47° E have been used for wider spatial coverage in the Indian zone. Storm induced features in vertical TEC (VTEC have been obtained comparing them with the mean VTEC of quiet days. Variations in solar wind parameters, as obtained from ACE and in the SYM-H index, indicate that the storm commenced on 15 May 2005 at 02:39 UT. The main phase of the storm commenced at 06:00 UT on 15 May with a sudden southward turning of the Z-component of interplanetary magnetic field (IMF-Bz and subsequent decrease in SYM-H index. The dawn-to-dusk convection electric field of high latitude origin penetrated to low and equatorial latitudes simultaneously as corroborated by the magnetometer data from the Indian zone. Subsequent northward turning of the IMF-Bz, and the penetration of the dusk-to-dawn electric field over the dip equator is also discernible. Response of the low latitude ionosphere to this storm may be characterized in terms of (i enhanced background level of VTEC as compared to

  12. Large enhancements in low latitude total electron content during 15 May 2005 geomagnetic storm in Indian zone

    N. Dashora

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Results pertaining to the response of the equatorial and low latitude ionosphere to a major geomagnetic storm that occurred on 15 May 2005 are presented. These results are also the first from the Indian zone in terms of (i GPS derived total electron content (TEC variations following the storm (ii Local low latitude electrodynamics response to penetration of high latitude convection electric field (iii effect of storm induced traveling atmospheric disturbances (TAD's on GPS-TEC in equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA zone.

    Data set comprising of ionospheric TEC obtained from GPS measurements, ionograms from an EIA zone station, New Delhi (Geog. Lat. 28.42° N, Geog. Long. 77.21° E, ground based magnetometers in equatorial and low latitude stations and solar wind data obtained from Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE has been used in the present study. GPS receivers located at Udaipur (Geog. Lat. 24.73° N, Geog. Long. 73.73° E and Hyderabad (Geog. Lat. 17.33° N, Geog. Long. 78.47° E have been used for wider spatial coverage in the Indian zone. Storm induced features in vertical TEC (VTEC have been obtained comparing them with the mean VTEC of quiet days. Variations in solar wind parameters, as obtained from ACE and in the SYM-H index, indicate that the storm commenced on 15 May 2005 at 02:39 UT. The main phase of the storm commenced at 06:00 UT on 15 May with a sudden southward turning of the Z-component of interplanetary magnetic field (IMF-Bz and subsequent decrease in SYM-H index. The dawn-to-dusk convection electric field of high latitude origin penetrated to low and equatorial latitudes simultaneously as corroborated by the magnetometer data from the Indian zone. Subsequent northward turning of the IMF-Bz, and the penetration of the dusk-to-dawn electric field over the dip equator is also discernible. Response of the low latitude ionosphere to this storm may be characterized in terms of (i

  13. Assessment of storm forecast

    Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Huus Bjerge, Martin

    When wind speed exceeds a certain value, wind turbines shut-down in order to protect their structure. This leads to sudden wind plants shut down and to new challenges concerning the secure operation of the pan-European electric system with future large scale offshore wind power. This task aims...... stopped, completely or partially, producing due to extreme wind speeds. Wind speed and power measurements from those events are presented and compared to the forecast available at Energinet.dk. The analysis looked at wind speed and wind power forecast. The main conclusion of the analysis is that the wind...... to consider it an EWP) and that the available wind speed forecasts are given as a mean wind speed over a rather large area. At wind power level, the analysis shows that prediction of accurate production levels from a wind farm experiencing EWP is rather poor. This is partially because the power curve...

  14. Klaus, an exceptional winter storm over Northern Iberia and Southern France - a comparison between storm diagnostics

    Liberato, M. L. R.; Pinto, J. G.; Trigo, I. F.; Trigo, R. M.

    2010-05-01

    The synoptic evolution and dynamical characteristics of storm "Klaus" (23 and 24 January 2009) are analysed. "Klaus" was an extratropical cyclone which developed over the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean on the 21st January 2009, then moved eastward embedded in the strong westerly flow and experienced a notorious strengthening on the 23rd January. The storm moved into the Bay of Biscay and deepened further before hitting Northern Spain and Southwestern France with gusts of up to 198 km/h. Afterwards, it steered southeastwards across Southern France into Northern Italy and the Adriatic. "Klaus" was the most intense and damaging wind storm in the region in a decade, provoked more than 20 casualties and insured losses of several billion Euros. The evolution of "Klaus" is analysed using two standard cyclone detecting and tracking schemes: a) the vorticity maxima based algorithm originally developed by Murray and Simmonds [1991], adapted for Northern Hemisphere cyclone characteristics [Pinto et al. 2005]; and b) the pressure minima based algorithm first developed for the Mediterranean region [Trigo et al. 1999; 2002] and later extended to a larger Euro-Atlantic region [Trigo 2006]. Additionally, the synoptic and mesoscale features of the storm are analysed. The vorticity based method detects the storm earlier than the pressure minima one. Results show that both tracks exhibited similar features and positions throughout almost all of their lifecycles, with minor discrepancies being probably related to different ways of both methods handling the spatio-temporal evolution of multiple candidates for cyclonic centres. In its strengthening phase, "Klaus" presents deepening rates above 37 hPa/24h, a value that after geostrophically adjusted to the reference latitude of 60°N increases to 44 hPa/24h, implying an exceptional event with bomb characteristics. During maximum intensity change within 24 hours was 1.165hPa/(deglat)2. References: Murray RJ, Simmonds I (1991) Aust

  15. Glacier melting during lava dome growth at Nevado de Toluca volcano (Mexico): Evidences of a major threat before main eruptive phases at ice-caped volcanoes

    Capra, L.; Roverato, M.; Groppelli, G.; Caballero, L.; Sulpizio, R.; Norini, G.

    2015-03-01

    Nevado de Toluca volcano is one of the largest stratovolcanoes in the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. During Late Pleistocene its activity was characterized by large dome growth and subsequent collapse emplacing large block and ash flow deposits, intercalated by Plinian eruptions. Morphological and paleoclimate studies at Nevado de Toluca and the surrounding area evidenced that the volcano was affected by extensive glaciation during Late Pleistocene and Holocene. During the older recognized glacial period (27-60 ka, MIS 3), the glacier was disturbed by the intense magmatic and hydrothermal activity related to two dome extrusion episodes (at 37 ka and 28 ka). Glacier reconstruction indicates maximum ice thickness of 90 m along main valleys, as at the Cano ravines, the major glacial valley on the northern slope of the volcano. Along this ravine, both 37 and 28 ka block-and-ash deposits are exposed, and they directly overlay a fluviatile sequence, up to 40 m-thick, which 14C ages clearly indicate that their emplacement occurred just before the dome collapsed. These evidences point to a clear interaction between the growing dome and its hydrothermal system with the glacier. During dome growth, a large amount of melting water was released along major glacial valleys forming thick fluvioglacial sequences that were subsequently covered by the block-and-ash flow deposits generated by the collapse of the growing dome. Even though this scenario is no longer possible at the Nevado de Toluca volcano, the data presented here indicate that special attention should be paid to the possible inundation areas from fluviatile/lahar activity prior to the main magmatic eruption at ice-capped volcanoes.

  16. Main internal dose-forming factors for inhabitants of contaminated regions at current phase of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident (Kyiv region as an example)

    Vasilenko, V.V.; Nechajev, S.Yu.; Tsigankov, M.Ya.; And others

    2015-01-01

    Objective of this work is revealing of main dose"forming factors of internal doses for inhabitants of contaminated regions of Kyiv region relying on the results of integral dosimetric monitoring. Three villages have been chosen for the investigation. They are: Raghivka, Zelena Poliana (Poliske district), Karpylivka (Ivankiv district). Twice a year, in May and in October those villages' residents were inspected for content of incorporated "1"3"7Cs. They were measured by direct method at the place of residence with the help of whole body counters (WBC). The principal food samples were collected for detection of "9"0Sr and "1"3"7Cs content. Those villages' inhabitants were interviewed about food consumption levels. Mathematical, dosimetric and radio-chemical methods were used in this work. The estimation of internal doses due to intake of "1"3"7Cs by ingestion of milk and potatoes are in the range 0.3-34% of doses estimated on the base of WBC data. The contribution to the dose of internal exposure from intake of "1"3"7Cs with the milk consumption is no more than two times higher than the contribution of potatoes consumption in the case of equal consumption levels of these products. Contributions to the dose of internal exposure from intake of "9"0Sr with milk and potatoes consumptions are approximately similar. Consumption of mushrooms and other wild nature products by inhabitants from the inspected settlements is the main forming factor of internal dose due to "1"3"7Cs intake

  17. Effect of an intervention in storm drains to prevent Aedes aegypti reproduction in Salvador, Brazil.

    Souza, Raquel Lima; Mugabe, Vánio André; Paploski, Igor Adolfo Dexheimer; Rodrigues, Moreno S; Moreira, Patrícia Sousa Dos Santos; Nascimento, Leile Camila Jacob; Roundy, Christopher Michael; Weaver, Scott C; Reis, Mitermayer Galvão; Kitron, Uriel; Ribeiro, Guilherme Sousa

    2017-07-11

    Aedes aegypti, the principal vector for dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses, is a synanthropic species that uses stagnant water to complete its reproductive cycle. In urban settings, rainfall water draining structures, such as storm drains, may retain water and serve as a larval development site for Aedes spp. reproduction. Herein, we describe the effect of a community-based intervention on preventing standing water accumulation in storm drains and their consequent infestation by adult and immature Ae. aegypti and other mosquitoes. Between April and May of 2016, local residents association of Salvador, Brazil, after being informed of water accumulation and Ae. aegypti infestation in the storm drains in their area, performed an intervention on 52 storm drains. The intervention consisted of placing concrete at the bottom of the storm drains to elevate their base to the level of the outflow tube, avoiding water accumulation, and placement of a metal mesh covering the outflow tube to avoid its clogging with debris. To determine the impact of the intervention, we compared the frequency at which the 52 storm drains contained water, as well as adult and immature mosquitoes using data from two surveys performed before and two surveys performed after the intervention. During the pre-intervention period, water accumulated in 48 (92.3%) of the storm drains, and immature Ae. aegypti were found in 11 (21.2%) and adults in 10 (19.2%). After the intervention, water accumulated in 5 (9.6%) of the storm drains (P Aedes mosquitoes (mainly Culex spp.) in the storm drains also decreased after the intervention. This study exemplifies how a simple intervention targeting storm drains can result in a major reduction of water retention, and, consequently, impact Ae. aegypti larval populations. Larger and multi-center evaluations are needed to confirm the potential of citywide structural modifications of storm drains to reduce Aedes spp. infestation level.

  18. Pesticides in storm runoff from agricultural and urban areas in the Tuolumne River basin in the vicinity of Modesto, California

    Kratzer, Charles R.

    1998-01-01

    The occurrence, concentrations, and loads of dissolved pesticides in storm runoff were compared for two contrasting land uses in the Tuolumne River Basin, California, during two different winter storms: agricultural areas (February 1994) and the Modesto urban area (February 1995). Both storms followed the main application period of pesticides on dormant almond orchards. Eight samples of runoff from agricultural areas were collected from a Tuolumne River site, and 10 samples of runoff from urban areas were collected from five storm drains. All samples were analyzed for 46 pesticides. Six pesticides were detected in runoff from agricultural areas, and 15 pesticides were detected in runoff from urban areas. Chlorpyrifos, diazinon, dacthal (DCPA), metolachlor, and simazine were detected in almost every sample. Median concentrations were higher in the runoff from urban areas for all pesticides except napropamide and simazine. The greater occurrence and concentrations in storm drains is partly attributed to dilution of agricultural runoff by nonstorm base-flow in the Tuolumne River and by storm runoff from nonagricultural and nonurban land. In most cases, the occurrence and relative concentrations of pesticides found in storm runoff from agricultural and urban areas were related to reported pesticide application. Pesticide concentrations in runoff from agricultural areas were more variable during the storm hydrograph than were concentrations in runoff from urban areas. All peak pesticide concentrations in runoff from agricultural areas occurred during the rising limb of the storm hydrograph, whereas peak concentrations in the storm drains occurred at varying times during the storm hydrograph. Transport of pesticides from agricultural areas during the February 1994 storm exceeded transport from urban areas during the February 1995 storm for chlorpyrifos, diazinon, metolachlor, napropamide, and simazine. Transport of DCPA was about the same from agricultural and urban

  19. Magnetic Storms at Mars and Earth

    Vennerstrøm, Susanne; Falkenberg, Thea Vilstrup

    In analogy with magnetic storms at the Earth, periods of significantly enhanced global magnetic activity also exist at Mars. The extensive database of magnetic measurements from Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), covering almost an entire solar cycle, is used in combination with geomagnetic activity...... indices at Earth to compare the occurrence of magnetic storms at Mars and Earth. Based on superposed epochs analysis the time-development of typical magnetic storms at Mars and Earth is described. In contradiction to storms at Earth, most magnetic storms at Mars are found to be associated...... with heliospheric current sheet crossings, where the IMF changes polarity. While most storms at the Earth occur due to significant southward excursions of the IMF associated with CMEs, at Mars most storms seem to be associated with the density enhancement of the heliospheric current sheet. Density enhancements...

  20. Thyroid storm precipitated by duodenal ulcer perforation.

    Natsuda, Shoko; Nakashima, Yomi; Horie, Ichiro; Ando, Takao; Kawakami, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid storm is a rare and life-threatening complication of thyrotoxicosis that requires prompt treatment. Thyroid storm is also known to be associated with precipitating events. The simultaneous treatment of thyroid storm and its precipitant, when they are recognized, in a patient is recommended; otherwise such disorders, including thyroid storm, can exacerbate each other. Here we report the case of a thyroid storm patient (a 55-year-old Japanese male) complicated with a perforated duodenal ulcer. The patient was successfully treated with intensive treatment for thyroid storm and a prompt operation. Although it is believed that peptic ulcer rarely coexists with hyperthyroidism, among patients with thyroid storm, perforation of a peptic ulcer has been reported as one of the causes of fatal outcome. We determined that surgical intervention was required in this patient, reported despite ongoing severe thyrotoxicosis, and reported herein a successful outcome.

  1. Thyroid Storm Precipitated by Duodenal Ulcer Perforation

    Shoko Natsuda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid storm is a rare and life-threatening complication of thyrotoxicosis that requires prompt treatment. Thyroid storm is also known to be associated with precipitating events. The simultaneous treatment of thyroid storm and its precipitant, when they are recognized, in a patient is recommended; otherwise such disorders, including thyroid storm, can exacerbate each other. Here we report the case of a thyroid storm patient (a 55-year-old Japanese male complicated with a perforated duodenal ulcer. The patient was successfully treated with intensive treatment for thyroid storm and a prompt operation. Although it is believed that peptic ulcer rarely coexists with hyperthyroidism, among patients with thyroid storm, perforation of a peptic ulcer has been reported as one of the causes of fatal outcome. We determined that surgical intervention was required in this patient, reported despite ongoing severe thyrotoxicosis, and reported herein a successful outcome.

  2. Sediment Lofting From Melt-Water Generated Turbidity Currents During Heinrich Events as a Tool to Assess Main Sediment Delivery Phases to Small Subpolar Ocean Basins

    Hesse, R.

    2009-05-01

    Small subpolar ocean basins such as the Labrador Sea received a major portion (25%) of their sediment fill during the Pleistocene glaciations (less than 5% of the basin's lifetime), but the detailed timing of sediment supply to the basin remained essentially unknown until recently. The main sediment input into the basin was probably not coupled to major glacial cycles and associated sea-level changes but was related to Heinrich events. Discovery of the depositional facies of fine-grained lofted sediment provides a tool which suggests that the parent-currents from which lofting took place may have been sandy-gravelly turbidity currents that built a huge braided abyssal plain in the Labrador Sea (700 by 120 km underlain by 150 m on average of coarse- grained sediment) which is one of the largest sand accumulations (104 km3) on Earth. The facies of lofted sediment consists of stacked layers of graded muds that contain ice-rafted debris (IRD) which impart a bimodal grain-size distribution to the graded muds. The texturally incompatible grain populations of the muds (median size between 4 and 8 micrometers) and the randomly distributed coarse silt and sand-sized IRD require the combination of two transport processes that delivered the populations independently and allowed mixing at the depositional site: (i) sediment rafting by icebergs (dropstones) and (ii) the rise of turbid freshwater plumes out of fresh-water generated turbidity currents. Sediment lofting from turbidity currents is a process that occurs in density currents generated from sediment-laden fresh-water discharges into the sea that can produce reversed buoyancy, as is well known from experiments. When the flows have traveled long enough, their tops will have lost enough sediment by settling so that they become hypopycnal (their density decreasing below that of the ambient seawater) causing the current tops to lift up. The turbid fresh-water clouds buoyantly rise out of the turbidity current to a level of

  3. Coronal mass ejections and disturbances in solar wind plasma parameters in relation with geomagnetic storms

    Verma, P L; Singh, Puspraj; Singh, Preetam

    2014-01-01

    Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) are the drastic solar events in which huge amount of solar plasma materials are ejected into the heliosphere from the sun and are mainly responsible to generate large disturbances in solar wind plasma parameters and geomagnetic storms in geomagnetic field. We have studied geomagnetic storms, (Dst ≤-75 nT) observed during the period of 1997-2007 with Coronal Mass Ejections and disturbances in solar wind plasma parameters (solar wind temperature, velocity, density and interplanetary magnetic field) .We have inferred that most of the geomagnetic storms are associated with halo and partial halo Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs).The association rate of halo and partial halo coronal mass ejections are found 72.37 % and 27.63 % respectively. Further we have concluded that geomagnetic storms are closely associated with the disturbances in solar wind plasma parameters. We have determined positive co-relation between magnitudes of geomagnetic storms and magnitude of jump in solar wind plasma temperature, jump in solar wind plasma density, jump in solar wind plasma velocity and jump in average interplanetary magnetic field with co-relation co-efficient 0 .35 between magnitude of geomagnetic storms and magnitude of jump in solar wind plasma temperature, 0.19 between magnitude of geomagnetic storms and magnitude of jump in solar wind density, 0.34 between magnitude of geomagnetic storms and magnitude of jump in solar wind plasma velocity, 0.66 between magnitude of geomagnetic storms and magnitude of jump in average interplanetary magnetic field respectively. We have concluded that geomagnetic storms are mainly caused by Coronal Mass Ejections and disturbances in solar wind plasma parameters that they generate.

  4. Breakdown of air pockets in downwardly inclined sewerage pressure mains.

    Lubbers, C L; Clemens, F H L R

    2006-01-01

    In the Netherlands, wastewater is collected in municipal areas and transported to centralised WWTPs by an extensive system of pressure mains. Over the last decades these pressure mains did not receive much attention in terms of monitoring of performance or maintenance. A recent inventory showed that half of the pressure mains show an increased pressure loss for no directly obvious reason. One of the many causes that account for the reduction of the flow capacity is the occurrence of free gas in the pipeline. During dry weather periods with low flow velocities, gas may accumulate at high points in the system. Once the velocity increases during storm weather flow, the air pockets may be broken down and transported to the end of the system. A research study is started focussing on the description of the gas-water phenomena in wastewater pressure mains with respect to transportation of gas. An experimental facility is constructed for the study of multi-phase flow. This paper describes the preliminary results of experiments on breakdown rates of gas pockets as a function of inclination angle and water flow rate. The results show an increasing breakdown rate with increasing inclination angle.

  5. Radionuclides retention in C-S-H, main phases of cement matrices for low and intermediate-level wastes; Retencion de radionuclidos en C-S-H, principales fases de matrices de cemento para desechos de bajo y medio nivel

    Badillo A, V. E.; Lopez R, C.; Vidal M, J. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Gutierrez B, O., E-mail: veronica.badillo@inin.gob.mx [Instituto Tecnologico de Toluca, Av. Tecnologico s/n, Exrancho La Virgen, Metepec, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    Knowing that the behavior of cementitious materials based on hydraulic binder called cement is essentially determined by the physicochemical evolution of the cement paste (water + cement) which constitutes it, the evolution of the cement paste in contact with different aqueous solutions is studied since one of the main risks in safety of systems is composed of surface and groundwater, which contribute to the alteration of the different barriers and represent the main way of radionuclides transport. The calcium silicates CSH are the main phases that compose the systems based on Portland cement. The hydrates calcium silicates possess a high degree of structural complexity which includes crystalline, partially crystalline and amorphous phases. In this study the microstructures of the CSH phases as well as the retention of radionuclide Sr (II) are studied through the {sup 87m}Sr in formulations of water/cement w/c = 0.55; experimental values of K d low around 20 ml g{sup -1} are obtained in function of hydration time of the cement paste in equilibrium with aqueous solutions. (Author)

  6. Studies of 212Pb storm

    Yunoki, E.; Kataoka, T.; Michihiro, K.; Sugiyama, H.; Shimizu, M.; Mori, T.

    1996-01-01

    212 Pb which reached its equilibrium state with its daughters in the air was measured around small uranium mines in Japan. Environmental. 212 Pb concentrations rose suddenly and reached a value ten times as high as usual values. These Phenomena were observed many times during the past six Years. We called these Phenomena 212 Pb storms. Meteorological conditions lead to the variations of 220 Rn progeny concentrations. These phenomena have been studied in the point of meteorology. (author)

  7. GPS TEC Fluctuations in the Low and High Latitudes During the 2015 St. Patrick`s Day Storm

    Chung, Jong-Kyun; Hong, Junseok; Yoo, Sung-Moon; Kim, Jeong-Han; Jee, Geonhwa; Hegai, Valery V.

    2017-12-01

    As a part of collaborative efforts to understand ionospheric irregularities, the Korea ionospheric scintillation sites (KISS) network has been built based on global positioning system (GPS) receivers with sampling rates higher than 1 Hz. We produce the rate of TEC index (ROTI) to represent GPS TEC fluctuations related to ionospheric irregularities. In the KISS network, two ground-based GPS sites at Kiruna (marker: KIRN; geographic: 67.9° N, 21.4° E; geomagnetic: 65.2° N) and Chuuk (marker: CHUK; geographic: 7.5° N, 151.9° E; geomagnetic: 0.4° N) were selected to evaluate the ROTI value for ionospheric irregularities during the occurrence of the 2015 St. Patrick’s Day storm. The KIRN ROTI values in the aurora region appear to be generally much higher than the CHUK ROTI values in the EIA region. The CHUK ROTI values increased to 0.5 TECU/min around UT=13:00 (LT=23:00) on March 16 in the quiet geomagnetic condition. On March 17, 2015, CHUK ROTI values more than 1.0 TECU/min were measured between UT=9:00 and 12:00 (LT=19:00 and 22:00) during the first main phase of the St. Patrick’s Day storm. This may be due to ionospheric irregularities by increased pre-reversal enhancement (PRE) after sunset during the geomagnetic storm. Post-midnight, the CHUK ROTI showed two peaks of 0.5 TECU/min and 0.3 TECU/min near UT=15:00 (LT=01:00) and UT=18:00 (LT=04:00) at the second main phase. The KIRN site showed significant peaks of ROTI around geomagnetic latitude=63.3° N and MLT=15:40 on the same day. These can be explained by enhanced ionospheric irregularities in the auroral oval at the maximum of AE index

  8. nuSTORM Costing document

    Bross, Alan D. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Detailed costing of the nuSTORM conventional facilities has been done by the Fermilab Facilities Engineering Services Section (FESS) and is reported on in the nuSTORM Project Definition Report (PDR) 6-13-1. Estimates for outfitting the primary proton beam line, the target station, the pion capture/transport line and decay ring are based on either experience from existing Fermilab infrastructure (NuMI) or is based on the detailed costing exercises for DOE CD-1 approval for future experiments (mu2e and LBNE). The detector costing utilized the Euronu costing for the Neutrino Factory Magnetized Iron Neutrino Detector (MIND), extrapolations from MINOS as-built costs and from recent vendor quotes. Costs included all manpower and are fully burdened (FY2013 dollars). The costs are not escalated, however, beyond the 5-year project timeline, since a project start for nuSTORM is unknown. Escalation can be estimated from various models (see Figure 1). LBNE has used the Jacob’s model to determine their cost escalation.

  9. SAPS effects on thermospheric winds during the 17 March 2013 storm

    Sheng, C.; Lu, G.; Wang, W.; Doornbos, E.; Talaat, E. R.

    2017-12-01

    Strong subauroral polarization streams (SAPS) were observed by DMSP satellites during the main phase of the 17 March 2013 geomagnetic storm. Both DMSP F18 and GOCE satellites sampled at 19 MLT during this period, providing near-simultaneous measurements of ion drifts and neutral winds near dusk. The fortuitous satellite conjunction allows us to directly examine the SAPS effects on thermospheric winds. In addition, two sets of model runs were carried out for this event: (1) the standard TIEGCM run with high-latitude forcing; (2) the SAPS-TIEGCM run by incoporating an empirical model of SAPS in the subauroral zone. The difference between these two runs represents the influence of SAPS forcing. In particular, we examine ion-neutral coupling at subauroral latitudes through detailed forcing term analysis to determine how the SAPS-related strong westward ion drifts alter thermospheric winds.

  10. Evolution of the ring current during two geomagnetic storms

    Lui, A.T.Y.; McEntire, R.W.; Krimigis, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    The progressive developments in the radial profiles of the particle pressure, plasma beta, and electric currents of the storm time ring current are investigated with data from the medium energy particle analyzer on the AMPTE Charged Particle Explorer spacecraft. Measurements of ions from 25 keV to 1 MeV, which carry 70--85% of the energy density of the entire ring current population, are used in this work. Two geomagnetic storms in September of 1984 are selected and four traversals of the equatorial ring current region during the course of each storm are studied. It is shown that enhancements in the particle pressure occur initially in the outer region and reach the inner region in the late phase of the storm. Structures suggestive of multiple particle injections are seen in the pressure profile. The leading and trailing edges of the particle injection structures are associated, respectively, with the depressions and enhancements of the westward current densities of the ring current. Plasma beta occasionally increases to values of the order of 1 in some regions of the ring current from prestorm values of the order of 0.1 or less. It is also found that the location of the maximum ring current particle pressure can be several earth radii from where the most intense westward ring current flows. This is a consequence of the dominance of pressure gradient current over the current associated with the magnetic field line curvature and particle anisotropy. copyright American Geophysical Union 1987

  11. Wind response in the lower thermosphere to the geomagnetic storm on March, 1989

    Kazimirovskij, Eh.S.; Vergasova, G.V.

    1991-01-01

    The horizontal wind response in the ionospheric D region above Irkutsk to the geomagnetic storm on March 13, 1989 is studied. The geomagnetic storm response is expressed through a stability loss of the wind system, a great speed increase of the meridional and zonal wind, in particular, and their dispersions, respectively, as well as changes in the semidaily tidal phase. The proof of the fact that the Earth magnetic field disturbances destabilize the system of horizontal winds in the lower ionosphere is given

  12. Renovating the Main Building

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    CERN's "Main Building" is exactly that. The Organization's central hub, with hundreds of staff and visitors passing through its doors every day, will soon be getting a well-earned facelift. Refurbishment work will proceed in phases, starting with the Salle des Pas Perdus, the concourse between the Council Chamber and the Main Auditorium. By the end of August, informal seating areas will be installed, electronic display panels will provide practical information and improved sound insulation will enhance conditions in the auditoria and surrounding meeting rooms.   In light green the area that will undergo the facelift. Work will start in July. The ground floor is home to the entrance to Restaurant No. 1, the bank, the post office, the travel agent, the Users Office, the Staff Association, the notice boards etc. Step up to the first floor to access CERN's largest lecture theatre, the Council Chamber and its "Pas Perdus" lobby. Everyone who works at or visits CERN i...

  13. Predicting geomagnetic storms from solar-wind data using time-delay neural networks

    H. Gleisner

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available We have used time-delay feed-forward neural networks to compute the geomagnetic-activity index Dst one hour ahead from a temporal sequence of solar-wind data. The input data include solar-wind density n, velocity V and the southward component Bz of the interplanetary magnetic field. Dst is not included in the input data. The networks implement an explicit functional relationship between the solar wind and the geomagnetic disturbance, including both direct and time-delayed non-linear relations. In this study we especially consider the influence of varying the temporal size of the input-data sequence. The networks are trained on data covering 6600 h, and tested on data covering 2100 h. It is found that the initial and main phases of geomagnetic storms are well predicted, almost independent of the length of the input-data sequence. However, to predict the recovery phase, we have to use up to 20 h of solar-wind input data. The recovery phase is mainly governed by the ring-current loss processes, and is very much dependent on the ring-current history, and thus also the solar-wind history. With due consideration of the time history when optimizing the networks, we can reproduce 84% of the Dst variance.

  14. Noninvasive optical monitoring multiple physiological parameters response to cytokine storm

    Li, Zebin; Li, Ting

    2018-02-01

    Cancer and other disease originated by immune or genetic problems have become a main cause of death. Gene/cell therapy is a highlighted potential method for the treatment of these diseases. However, during the treatment, it always causes cytokine storm, which probably trigger acute respiratory distress syndrome and multiple organ failure. Here we developed a point-of-care device for noninvasive monitoring cytokine storm induced multiple physiological parameters simultaneously. Oxy-hemoglobin, deoxy-hemoglobin, water concentration and deep-tissue/tumor temperature variations were simultaneously measured by extended near infrared spectroscopy. Detection algorithms of symptoms such as shock, edema, deep-tissue fever and tissue fibrosis were developed and included. Based on these measurements, modeling of patient tolerance and cytokine storm intensity were carried out. This custom device was tested on patients experiencing cytokine storm in intensive care unit. The preliminary data indicated the potential of our device in popular and milestone gene/cell therapy, especially, chimeric antigen receptor T-cell immunotherapy (CAR-T).

  15. The electric storm of November 1882

    Love, Jeffrey J.

    2018-01-01

    In November 1882, an intense magnetic storm related to a large sunspot group caused widespread interference to telegraph and telephone systems and provided spectacular and unusual auroral displays. The (ring current) storm time disturbance index for this storm reached maximum −Dst ≈ 386 nT, comparable to Halloween storm of 29–31 October 2003, but from 17 to 20 November the aa midlatitude geomagnetic disturbance index averaged 214.25 nT, the highest 4 day level of disturbance since the beginning of aa index in 1868. This storm contributed to scientists' understanding of the reality of solar‐terrestrial interaction. Past occurrences of magnetic storms, like that of November 1882, can inform modern evaluations of the deleterious effects that a magnetic superstorm might have on technological systems of importance to society.

  16. Extreme Geomagnetic Storms – 1868–2010

    Vennerstrøm, Susanne; Lefèvre, L.; Dumbović, M.

    2016-01-01

    presents our investigation of the corresponding solar eventsand their characteristics. The storms were selected based on their intensity in the aa index,which constitutes the longest existing continuous series of geomagnetic activity. They areanalyzed statistically in the context of more well...... occurring in May 1921 and the Quebec storm from March 1989. We identifykey characteristics of the storms by combining several different available data sources, listsof storm sudden commencements (SSCs) signifying occurrence of interplanetary shocks,solar wind in-situ measurements, neutron monitor data...... %), Forbushdecreases (100 %), and energetic solar proton events (70 %). A quantitative comparison ofthese associations relative to less intense storms is also presented. Most notably, we findthat most often the extreme storms are characterized by a complexity that is associated with multiple, often interacting, solar...

  17. Thermal hydraulic calculation of STORM facility using GOTHIC code

    Pevec, D.; Grgic, D.; Prah, M.

    1995-01-01

    Benchmark calculation CTI defined in frame of STORM experimental programme is used to prove that the GOTHIC code is capable to predict behaviour of experimental facility with reasonable accuracy. GOTHIC code is developed mainly for containment calculation. In this situation it is successfully used for calculation of one dimensional flow of steam and noncondensable mixture. Steady state distributions of pressure, temperature and the velocity of gas along facility are consistent with results obtained by other benchmark participants. (author)

  18. Integration of coastal inundation modeling from storm tides to individual waves

    Li, Ning; Roeber, Volker; Yamazaki, Yoshiki; Heitmann, Troy W.; Bai, Yefei; Cheung, Kwok Fai

    2014-11-01

    Modeling of storm-induced coastal inundation has primarily focused on the surge generated by atmospheric pressure and surface winds with phase-averaged effects of the waves as setup. Through an interoperable model package, we investigate the role of phase-resolving wave processes in simulation of coastal flood hazards. A spectral ocean wave model describes generation and propagation of storm waves from deep to intermediate water, while a non-hydrostatic storm-tide model has the option to couple with a spectral coastal wave model for computation of phase-averaged processes in a near-shore region. The ocean wave and storm-tide models can alternatively provide the wave spectrum and the surface elevation as the boundary and initial conditions for a nested Boussinesq model. Additional surface-gradient terms in the Boussinesq equations maintain the quasi-steady, non-uniform storm tide for modeling of phase-resolving surf and swash-zone processes as well as combined tide, surge, and wave inundation. The two nesting schemes are demonstrated through a case study of Hurricane Iniki, which made landfall on the Hawaiian Island of Kauai in 1992. With input from a parametric hurricane model and global reanalysis and tidal datasets, the two approaches produce comparable significant wave heights and phase-averaged surface elevations in the surf zone. The nesting of the Boussinesq model provides a seamless approach to augment the inundation due to the individual waves in matching the recorded debris line along the coast.

  19. Global ionospheric effects of geomagnetic storm on May 2-3, 2010 and their influence on HF radio wave propagation

    Kotova, Daria; Klimenko, Maxim; Klimenko, Vladimir; Zakharov, Veniamin

    2013-04-01

    In this work we have investigated the global ionospheric response to geomagnetic storm on May 2-3, 2010 using GSM TIP (Global Self-consistent Model of the Thermosphere, Ionosphere and Protonosphere) simulation results. In the GSM TIP storm time model runs, several input parameters such as cross-polar cap potential difference and R2 FAC (Region 2 Field-Aligned Currents) varied as a function of the geomagnetic activity AE-index. Current simulation also uses the empirical model of high-energy particle precipitation by Zhang and Paxton. In this model, the energy and energy flux of precipitating electrons depend on a 3 hour Kp-index. We also have included the 30 min time delay of R2 FAC variations with respect to the variations of cross-polar cap potential difference. In addition, we use the ground-based ionosonde data for comparison our model results with observations. We present an analysis of the physical mechanisms responsible for the ionospheric effects of geomagnetic storms. The obtained simulation results are used by us as a medium for HF radio wave propagation at different latitudes in quiet conditions, and during main and recovery phase of a geomagnetic storm. To solve the problem of the radio wave propagation we used Zakharov's (I. Kant BFU) model based on geometric optics. In this model the solution of the eikonal equation for each of the two normal modes is reduced using the method of characteristics to the integration of the six ray equation system for the coordinates and momentum. All model equations of this system are solved in spherical geomagnetic coordinate system by the Runge-Kutta method. This model was tested for a plane wave in a parabolic layer. In this study, the complex refractive indices of the ordinary and extraordinary waves at ionospheric heights was calculated for the first time using the global first-principal model of the thermosphere-ionosphere system that describes the parameters of an inhomogeneous anisotropic medium during a

  20. A Peek into a Cul-De-Sac and a Mews of Martian Dust Storm Activity: Western Hellas and Syria-Claritas Fossae During Mars Year 29

    Heavens, N. G.

    2016-12-01

    Western Hellas Planitia (WHP) and the region encompassed by Syria Planum and Claritas Fossae are the main centers of textured dust storm activity in Mars's southern low to mid-latitudes. (Texture in this context refers to distinct fine structure at the cloud tops indicative of active lifting.) WHP is a well-known initiation zone for regional and global dust storm activity and often the end point of the Utopia "flushing storm" track. Syria-Claritas Fossae (SCF), too, can be a lifting center in global dust storm activity. Indeed, SCF and the area to its west was the region most denuded of dust by the Mars Year (MY) 25 global dust storm, perhaps suggesting that SCF contained the principal lifting center of the storm. Thus, if the Acidalia and Utopia storm tracks are Mars's dust storm alleys, through which dust storms pass quickly again and again; WHP might be a cul-de-sac and SCF something like a mews, where dust storm activity can enter more or less easily but may not as easily leave. In this presentation, I will focus on dust storm activity in these areas in a typical non-global dust storm year, MY 29. Synthesizing visible imagery by the Mars Color Imager (MARCI) on board Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) and Mars Climate Sounder (MCS) also on board MRO, I will consider the climatology, morphology, texture, and vertical structure of dust storm activity in these areas in order to infer their governing dynamics. This investigation has two aims: (1) to understand why these areas are centers of textured dust storm activity; and (2) to connect the characteristics of smaller-scale dust storm activity in these regions to the underlying dynamics in order to understand the role of WHP and SCF in the dynamics of global dust storms. This work is supported by NASA's Mars Data Analysis Program (NNX14AM32G).

  1. Alternative salvage technique during postcardiotomy electrical storm.

    Ryu, Y G; Baek, M J; Kim, H J

    2010-08-01

    Cardiac electrical storm is generally treated with antiarrhythmic drugs, electrical cardioversion, or catheter ablation. However, these conservative treatment modalities are considered neither curative nor preventive with regard to recurrent arrhythmias in postoperative electrical storm after open heart surgery. We present a case of surgical ventricular assist device placement for postcardiotomy electrical storm in a 38-year-old patient. Copyright (c) Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart-New York.

  2. New storm water regulations impact industry

    Gemar, C.

    1991-01-01

    In November 1990, new Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations aimed at governing the discharge of storm water from industrial facilities became effective. Because some industrial runoff contains toxics and other pollutants, the EPA considers storm water a major source of water contamination. The new regulations will have a profound impact on the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit requirements for industry. This paper summarizes the new storm water regulations, focusing on the requirements for industrial facilities. It also presents suggestions for compliance

  3. Identification of Storm Surge Vulnerable Areas in the Philippines Through Simulations of Typhoon Haiyan-Induced Storm Surge Using Tracks of Historical Tropical Cyclones

    Lapidez, John Phillip; Suarez, John Kenneth; Tablazon, Judd; Dasallas, Lea; Gonzalo, Lia Anne; Santiago, Joy; Cabacaba, Krichi May; Ramos, Michael Marie Angelo; Mahar Francisco Lagmay, Alfredo; Malano, Vicente

    2014-05-01

    Super Typhoon Haiyan entered the Philippine Area of Responsibility (PAR) 07 November 2013, causing tremendous damage to infrastructure and loss of lives mainly due to the typhoon's storm surge and strong winds. Storm surges up to a height of 7 meters were reported in the hardest hit areas. The threat imposed by this kind of natural calamity compelled researchers of the Nationwide Operational Assessment of Hazards, the flagship disaster mitigation program of the Department of Science and Technology, Government of the Philippines, to undertake a study to determine the vulnerability of all Philippine coastal communities to storm surges of the same magnitude as those generated by Haiyan. This study calculates the maximum probable storm surge height for every coastal locality by running simulations of Haiyan-type conditions but with tracks of tropical cyclones that entered PAR from 1948-2013. DOST-Project NOAH used the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) Storm Surge Model, a numerical code that simulates and predicts storm surges spawned by tropical cyclones. Input parameters for the storm surge model include bathymetric data, storm track, central atmospheric pressure, and maximum wind speed. The simulations were made using Haiyan's pressure and wind speed as the forcing parameters. The simulated storm surge height values were added to the maximum tide level obtained from WXTide, software that contains a catalogue of worldwide astronomical tides, to come up with storm tide levels. The resulting water level was used as input to FLO-2D to generate the storm tide inundation maps. One product of this study is a list of the most vulnerable coastal areas that can be used as basis for choosing priority sites for further studies to implement appropriate site-specific solutions. Another product is the storm tide inundation maps that the local government units can use to develop a Risk-Sensitive Land Use Plan for identifying appropriate areas to build residential buildings

  4. Flow of Energy through the Inner Magnetosphere during the March 17, 2015 solar storm as observed by the Van Allen Probes Radiation Belt Storm Probes Ion Composition Experiment (RBSPICE)

    Manweiler, J. W.; Madanian, H.; Gerrard, A. J.; Patterson, J. D.; Mitchell, D. G.; Lanzerotti, L. J.

    2017-12-01

    On March 17, 2015, a large solar storm impacted the Earth's magnetosphere with a maximum negative Dst of -232 nT. We report on the temporal and spatial evolution of the proton energetic particle distributions in phase space during this storm, as measured by the Radiation Belt Storm Probes Ion Composition Experiment (RBSPICE) instrument on board each of the Van Allen Probes. We characterize the distribution prior to onset of the storm to provide a definition of quiet time conditions. We then show how the distribution evolves during the storm noting key changes of the distribution as a function of L and MLT and showing how the pitch angle distributions change throughout the storm. These observations displayed a number of interesting features of the storm including high beta plasma conditions and multiple injections of protons into the inner magnetosphere. We present the radial changes of the distribution at storm onset and following the evolution of the distribution during storm recovery. We compare observations of the East/West asymmetry in the proton distribution before versus after onset using both Van Allen Probes A and B spacecraft observations. Finally, we note interesting changes in the distribution showing an anomalous dropout in mid-energies of the distribution and observe an outward radial propagation of this dropout during recovery.

  5. Ice storm 1998 : lessons learned

    McCready, J. [Eastern Ontario Model Forest, Kemptville, ON (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    This paper presented details of a partnership formed in response to the ice storm of 1998, which caused extensive damage to trees in woodlots and urban settings in eastern Ontario and western Quebec. The aim of the Ice Storm Forest Recovery Group was to assist in the recovery of eastern forests, collect information on the extent of the damage to trees as well as contribute to the development of assistance programs for woodlot owners and municipalities. In response to the group's request, an initial aerial survey was conducted by the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources to map the extent of the damage in eastern Ontario, which was followed by a more scientific survey with the Canadian Forest Service through the development of a flying grid pattern to observe the status of trees, followed by extensive ground checks. Damage was variable, depending on tree species, stand age and composition, management practices, wind direction, topography and ice deposition patterns. A summary of the severity of damage indicated that conifers suffered less than hardwoods. Consultants were hired to prepare news releases and extension notes to the public in order to provide information for the caring of trees. Various educational workshops were held which attracted large numbers of landowners and homeowners. A literature review was undertaken to produce a summary of current published knowledge covering the effects of storms and ice damage to trees and forests. Science efforts were published in a series of papers, and financial assistance programs were then organized by governmental agencies. It was concluded that cooperation between all agencies, groups and levels of government is needed in order to coordinate effective emergency strategies. 7 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

  6. A theoretical study of thermospheric composition perturbations during an impulsive geomagnetic storm

    Burns, A.G.; Killeen, T.L.; Roble, R.G.

    1991-01-01

    The compositional response of the neutral thermosphere to an impulsive geomagnetic storm has been investigated using a numerical simulation made with the National Center for Atmospheric Research thermospheric general circulation model (NCAR-TGCM). Calculated time-dependent changes in neutral thermospheric composition have been studied, together with detailed neutral parcel trajectories and other diagnostic information from the model, to gain a greater understanding of the physical mechanisms responsible for composition variability during geomagnetic storms and, in particular, to investigate the causes of the positive and negative ionospheric storm effects. The following principal results were obtained from this study. (1) Calculated perturbations in thermospheric composition following the onset of an impulsive geomagnetic storm were found to be in good qualitative agreement with the previous experimental statistical study of storm time thermospheric morphology by Proelss. (2) During the initial (onset) phase of the simulated storm, upward vertical winds occurred in the auroral zone and downward winds occurred in the central magnetic polar cap. (3) The largest perturbations in mass mixing ratio of nitrogen at F region altitudes were found to be associated with parcels of neutral gas that travelled through the cusp region and with parcels that were trapped within the auroral zone for a long time. (4) Storm time enhancements in Ψ N 2 were found to occur in the midnight and early morning sectors both within and equatorward of the auroral zone, and these were determined to be associated with the advective effects of the large antisunward polar cap neutral winds

  7. Storm Surge and Tide Interaction: A Complete Paradigm

    Horsburgh, K.

    2014-12-01

    Estimates show that in 2005, in the largest 136 coastal cities, there were 40 million people and 3,000 billion of assets exposed to 1 in 100 year coastal flood events. Mean sea level rise will increase this exposure to 150 million people and 35,000 billion of assets by 2070. Any further change in the statistics of flood frequency or severity would impact severely on economic and social systems. It is therefore crucial to understand the physical drivers of extreme storm surges, and to have confidence in datasets used for extreme sea level statistics. Much previous research has focussed on the process of tide-surge interaction, and it is now widely accepted that the physical basis of tide-surge interaction is that a phase shift of the tidal signal represents the effect of the surge on the tide. The second aspect of interaction is that shallow water momentum considerations imply that differing tidal states should modulate surge generation: wind stress should have greater surge-generating potential on lower tides. We present results from a storm surge model of the European shelf that demonstrate that tidal range does have an effect on the surges generated. The cycle-integrated effects of wind stress (i.e. the skew surge) are greater when tidal range is low. Our results contradict the absence of any such correlation in tide gauge records. This suggests that whilst the modulating effect of the tide on the skew surge (the time-independent difference between peak prediction and observations) is significant, the difference between individual storms is dominant. This implies that forecasting systems must predict salient detail of the most intense storms. A further implication is that flood forecasting models need to simulate tides with acceptable accuracy at all coastal locations. We extend our model analysis to show that the same modulation of storm surges (by tidal conditions) applies to tropical cyclones. We conduct simulations using a mature operational storm surge model

  8. [Thyrotoxic storm and myxedema coma].

    Takasu, N

    1999-08-01

    Thyrotoxic or hyperthyroid storm is a grave, life-threatening, but relatively infrequent medical emergency. Immediate causes of death in this emergency are severe hyperpyrexia and pulmonary edema associated with arrhythmias, shock, and coma. This emergency is found in Graves' patients most frequently. Myxedema coma is an emergency clinical state caused by severe deficiency of thyroid hormones. This crisis represents the extreme expression of hypothyroidism. While it is quite useful to elicit a history of previous hypothyroidism, thyroid surgery, or radioactive iodine treatment, it is not obtainable.

  9. Tides, main lunar phases and babies

    Silveira, Fernando Lang da; UFRGS - Rio Grande do Sul

    2003-01-01

    The mechanisms responsible for the tides are discussed, using mathematics that is accessible to secondary school students; we show that both the Moon and the Sun are responsible for the tidal effects on the oceans. Despite the gravitational pull of the Sun on the Earth being approximately 200 times greater than that of the Moon, solar tidal effects are approximately half those of the lunar effects. We present a study of 104,616 dates of birth, with the intention of identi...

  10. Final Environmental Assessment Airfield Storm Drainage System Repair Joint Base Andrews-Naval Air Facility Washington, MD

    2015-06-01

    the airfield. • Phase 1–September 2015 to October 2016: Replace or rehabilitate storm drain pipes between the West Runway and Taxiway Whiskey...activities, landfills , and other support and training operations have affected groundwater and surface waters at JBA with metals, volatile organic...the airfield.  Phase 1: September 2015 to October 2016: Replace or rehabilitate storm drain pipes between the West Runway and Taxiway Whiskey

  11. In the Eye of the Storm: A Participatory Course on Coastal Storms

    Curtis, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Storm disasters are amplified in the coastal environment due to population pressures and the power of the sea. The upper-division/graduate university course "Coastal Storms" was designed to equip future practitioners with the skills necessary to understand, respond to, and mitigate for these natural disasters. To accomplish this, "Coastal Storms"…

  12. Spring Dust Storm Smothers Beijing

    2002-01-01

    A few days earlier than usual, a large, dense plume of dust blew southward and eastward from the desert plains of Mongolia-quite smothering to the residents of Beijing. Citizens of northeastern China call this annual event the 'shachenbao,' or 'dust cloud tempest.' However, the tempest normally occurs during the spring time. The dust storm hit Beijing on Friday night, March 15, and began coating everything with a fine, pale brown layer of grit. The region is quite dry; a problem some believe has been exacerbated by decades of deforestation. According to Chinese government estimates, roughly 1 million tons of desert dust and sand blow into Beijing each year. This true-color image was made using two adjacent swaths (click to see the full image) of data from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS), flying aboard the OrbView-2 satellite, on March 17, 2002. The massive dust storm (brownish pixels) can easily be distinguished from clouds (bright white pixels) as it blows across northern Japan and eastward toward the open Pacific Ocean. The black regions are gaps between SeaWiFS' viewing swaths and represent areas where no data were collected. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  13. A superposed epoch analysis of geomagnetic storms

    J. R. Taylor

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available A superposed epoch analysis of geomagnetic storms has been undertaken. The storms are categorised via their intensity (as defined by the Dst index. Storms have also been classified here as either storm sudden commencements (SSCs or storm gradual commencements (SGCs, that is all storms which did not begin with a sudden commencement. The prevailing solar wind conditions defined by the parameters solar wind speed (vsw, density (ρsw and pressure (Psw and the total field and the components of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF during the storms in each category have been investigated by a superposed epoch analysis. The southward component of the IMF, appears to be the controlling parameter for the generation of small SGCs (-100 nT< minimum Dst ≤ -50 nT for ≥ 4 h, but for SSCs of the same intensity solar wind pressure is dominant. However, for large SSCs (minimum Dst ≤ -100 nT for ≥ 4 h the solar wind speed is the controlling parameter. It is also demonstrated that for larger storms magnetic activity is not solely driven by the accumulation of substorm activity, but substantial energy is directly input via the dayside. Furthermore, there is evidence that SSCs are caused by the passage of a coronal mass ejection, whereas SGCs result from the passage of a high speed/ slow speed coronal stream interface. Storms are also grouped by the sign of Bz during the first hour epoch after the onset. The sign of Bz at t = +1 h is the dominant sign of the Bz for ~24 h before the onset. The total energy released during storms for which Bz was initially positive is, however, of the same order as for storms where Bz was initially negative.

  14. Combined ESR and EISCAT observations of the dayside polar cap and auroral oval during the May 15, 1997 storm

    H. Liu

    Full Text Available The high-latitude ionospheric response to a major magnetic storm on May 15, 1997 is studied and different responses in the polar cap and the auroral oval are highlighted. Depletion of the F2 region electron density occurred in both the polar cap and the auroral zone, but due to different physical processes. The increased recombination rate of O+ ions caused by a strong electric field played a crucial role in the auroral zone. The transport effect, however, especially the strong upward ion flow was also of great importance in the dayside polar cap. During the main phase and the beginning of the recovery phase soft particle precipitation in the polar cap showed a clear relation to the dynamic pressure of the solar wind, with a maximum cross-correlation coefficient of 0.63 at a time lag of 5 min.

    Key words: Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; polar ionosphere - Magnetospheric physics (storms and substorms

  15. Dynamics Of Saturn'S Mid-scale Storms In The Cassini Era.

    Del Rio Gaztelurrutia, Teresa; Hueso, R.; Sánchez-Lavega, A.

    2010-10-01

    Convective storms, similar to those in Earth, but of much larger scale, develop often in Saturn's atmosphere. During the Voyagers’ flybys of Saturn in 1981 mid-scale storms, with an horizontal extension of the order of 1000-3000 km were observed to occur mainly in a narrow tropical-latitude band in the Northern hemisphere at latitudes 38-40 deg North. Contrasting with the Voyagers’ era, since the starting of the Cassini mission in 2004, a similar mid-scale convective activity has concentrated in the so-called "storm alley", a narrow band at a symmetric Southern latitude of 38 deg.. In this work, we characterize this storm activity using available visual information provided by Cassini ISS cameras and the continuous survey from the Earth by the International Outer Planets Watch (IOPW) and its online database PVOL (Hueso et al., Planetary and Space Science, 2010). We study the frequency of appearance of storms with sizes above 2000 km, their characteristic size and life-time, as well as their interaction with surrounding dynamical features. In particular we examine the possibility that storms might provide a mechanism of injection of energy into Saturn's jets, the influence of storms in the generation of atmospheric vortices, and the analogies and differences of Voyagers’ and present day jet structure at the relevant latitudes. Acknowledgments: This work has been funded by the Spanish MICIIN AYA2009-10701 with FEDER support and Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT-464

  16. Dynamics of total electron content distribution during strong geomagnetic storms

    Astafyeva, E. I.; Afraimovich, E. L.; Kosogorov, E. A.

    We worked out a new method of mapping of total electron content TEC equal lines displacement velocity The method is based on the technique of global absolute vertical TEC value mapping Global Ionospheric Maps technique GIM GIM with 2-hours time resolution are available from Internet underline ftp cddisa gsfc nasa gov in standard IONEX-files format We determine the displacement velocity absolute value as well as its wave vector orientation from increments of TEC x y derivatives and TEC time derivative for each standard GIM cell 5 in longitude to 2 5 in latitude Thus we observe global traveling of TEC equal lines but we also can estimate the velocity of these line traveling Using the new method we observed anomalous rapid accumulation of the ionosphere plasma at some confined area due to the depletion of the ionization at the other spacious territories During the main phase of the geomagnetic storm on 29-30 October 2003 very large TEC enhancements appeared in the southwest of North America TEC value in that area reached up to 200 TECU 1 TECU 10 16 m -2 It was found that maximal velocity of TEC equal lines motion exceeded 1500 m s and the mean value of the velocity was about 400 m s Azimuth of wave vectors of TEC equal lines were orientated toward the center of region with anomaly high values of TEC the southwest of North America It should be noted that maximal TEC values during geomagnetically quiet conditions is about 60-80 TECU the value of TEC equal lines

  17. Reconnaissance level study Mississippi storm surge barrier

    Van Ledden, M.; Lansen, A.J.; De Ridder, H.A.J.; Edge, B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports a reconnaissance level study of a storm surge barrier in the Mississippi River. Historical hurricanes have shown storm surge of several meters along the Mississippi River levees up to and upstream of New Orleans. Future changes due to sea level rise and subsidence will further

  18. Normothermic thyroid storm: an unusual presentation

    Sabir, Anas Ahmad; Sada, Kabiru; Yusuf, Bashir O.; Aliyu, Idris

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid storm is a rare life-threatening emergency due to thyrotoxicosis. A 30-year-old female presented with restlessness, tachycardia and vomiting but with normothermia which is an unusual presentation. There is the need for clinicians to be aware of atypical clinical features that can make the diagnosis of thyroid storm difficult. PMID:27540465

  19. Predicting the occurrence of super-storms

    N. Srivastava

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of five super-storms (Dst<-300 nT of the current solar cycle after the launch of SoHO, to identify solar and interplanetary variables that influence the magnitude of resulting geomagnetic storms, is described. Amongst solar variables, the initial speed of a CME is considered the most reliable predictor of the strength of the associated geomagnetic storm because fast mass ejections are responsible for building up the ram pressure at the Earth's magnetosphere. However, although most of the super-storms studied were associated with high speed CMEs, the Dst index of the resulting geomagnetic storms varied between -300 to -472 nT. The most intense storm of 20 November 2003, (Dst ~ -472 nT had its source in a comparatively smaller active region and was associated with a relatively weaker, M-class flare while all other super-storms had their origins in large active regions and were associated with strong X-class flares. However, this superstorm did not show any associated extraordinary solar and interplanetary characteristics. The study also reveals the challenge in the reliable prediction of the magnitude of a geomagnetic storm from solar and interplanetary variables.

  20. Predicting the occurrence of super-storms

    N. Srivastava

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of five super-storms (Dst<-300 nT of the current solar cycle after the launch of SoHO, to identify solar and interplanetary variables that influence the magnitude of resulting geomagnetic storms, is described. Amongst solar variables, the initial speed of a CME is considered the most reliable predictor of the strength of the associated geomagnetic storm because fast mass ejections are responsible for building up the ram pressure at the Earth's magnetosphere. However, although most of the super-storms studied were associated with high speed CMEs, the Dst index of the resulting geomagnetic storms varied between -300 to -472 nT. The most intense storm of 20 November 2003, (Dst ~ -472 nT had its source in a comparatively smaller active region and was associated with a relatively weaker, M-class flare while all other super-storms had their origins in large active regions and were associated with strong X-class flares. However, this superstorm did not show any associated extraordinary solar and interplanetary characteristics. The study also reveals the challenge in the reliable prediction of the magnitude of a geomagnetic storm from solar and interplanetary variables.

  1. Storm Sewage Dilution in Smaller Streams

    Larsen, Torben; Vestergaard, Kristian

    1987-01-01

    A numerical model has been used to show how dilution in smaller streams can be effected by unsteady hydraulic conditions caused by a storm sewage overflow.......A numerical model has been used to show how dilution in smaller streams can be effected by unsteady hydraulic conditions caused by a storm sewage overflow....

  2. Living with storm damage to forests

    Gardiner, B.; Schuck, A.; Schelhaas, M.J.; Orazio, C.; Blennow, K.; Nicoll, B.

    2013-01-01

    Windstorms are a major disturbance factor for European forests. In the past six decades wind storms have damaged standing forest volume, which on a yearly average equals about the size of Poland's annual fellings. The evedence also indicates that the actual severity of storms in the wake of climatic

  3. Storm real-time processing cookbook

    Anderson, Quinton

    2013-01-01

    A Cookbook with plenty of practical recipes for different uses of Storm.If you are a Java developer with basic knowledge of real-time processing and would like to learn Storm to process unbounded streams of data in real time, then this book is for you.

  4. Perturbation electric fields and disturbance currents investigated during the 25 September 1998 great storm

    Horvath, Ildiko; Lovell, Brian C.

    2014-10-01

    This study investigates the ionosphere's response to the 25 September 1998 great storm and utilizes multi-instrument observations covering the Australian (140°E; geographic) and Indian (75°E) longitude sectors. Results show the domination of eastward (westward) electrojet at 140°E (75°E). Its causative net eastward (westward) perturbation electric (E) field drove the forward (reverse) plasma fountain, caused the presence (absence) of the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA). These strong longitudinal differences were due to a combination of various LT-dependent, E field-driven, and competing mechanisms. Perturbation E fields are identified as prompt penetration E field (PPEF) and disturbance dynamo E field (DDEF). Due to the later (earlier) local time at 140°E (75°E), the undershielding PPEF was eastward (westward) directed early in the main phase. A series of periodic substorms occurred during the recovery phase. The substorm-related eastward PPEFs became overpowered by westward DDEFs over India but remained dominant in the Australian sector. Thus, eastward PPEFs (westward DDEFs) dominated at 140°E (75°E). At 140°E these eastward PPEFs exhibited a strong positive correlation with the variations of both the cross polar cap potential drop and the asymmetric ring current, significantly increased the net equatorial upward E × B drift and thus caused EIA development with plasma bubbles scintillating GPS signals. Based on the strong and independent correlation of these asymmetric ring current events with both the EIA development and the scintillation activity, we propose that the ASY-H index could provide a natural tool for modeling EIA development and scintillation episodes during severe storms characterized by periodic substorm-related eastward PPEFs.

  5. Relativistic Electrons Observed at UARS and the Interpretation of their Storm-Associated Intensity Variations

    Pesnell, W. D.; Goldberg, R. A.; Chenette, D. L.; Gaines, E. E.

    1999-01-01

    The High Energy Particle Spectrometer (HEPS) instrument on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) provides a database of electron intensities well resolved in energy and pitch-angle. Because of its 57 deg. orbital inclination, UARS encounters with magnetic shells L greater than 2 occur quite far off-equator (B/B (sub 0) greater than 9), corresponding to equatorial pitch angle alpha (sub 0) greater than 20 deg. Data acquired by HEPS (October 1991 through September 1994) span the declining phase of Solar Cycle 22. To reveal the storm-associated time dependence of relativistic electron intensities over the wide range of energies (50 keV to 5 MeV) covered by HEPS, we divide the daily average of the measured spectrum at a given L value (bin width = 0.25) by the corresponding 500-day average and plot the results with a color scale that spans only 2.5 decades. The data show that our off-equatorial electron intensities typically increase with time after the end of recovery phase (not during main phase or recovery phase) of each geomagnetic storm. The delay in off-equatorial energetic electron response and the subsequent lifetime of the corresponding electron flux enhancement seem to increase with particle energy above 300 keV. The trend below 300 keV seems to be opposite, such that the delay varies inversely with electron energy. Our working hypothesis for interpretation is that stormtime radial transport tends to increase the phase-space densities of trapped relativistic electrons but typically leads to a flux increases at specified energies only as the current (as indicated by Dst) decays. Flux enhancements in early recovery phase are greatest for equatorially mirroring electrons, and to pitch-angle anisotropies are initially large. Subsequent pitch-angle diffusion broadens the flux enhancement to particles that mirror off equator, thus gradually increasing low-altitude electron intensities (as detected by HEPS/UARS) on time scales equal to about 20% of

  6. Thyroid storm precipitated by acute biliary pancreatitis

    Mehrdad Karimi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid storm is an acute, life-threatening exacerbation and sudden releasing large amounts of thyroid hormone in a short period of time. Nevertheless, critical aggravation of hyperthyroidism typically resulted from concurrent disorder. Synchronous management of thyroid storm along with its precipitant, such as infection is recommended. We described the case of an acute biliary pancreatitis complicated with a thyroid storm. The patient was successfully managed with a quick surgical intervention and further critical care for thyroid storm. Although it is widely believed that pancreatitis is seldom concurrent with thyrotoxicosis, thyroid storm can be precipitated by a variety of factors, including intra-abdominal infections such as acute pancreatitis or perforated peptic ulcer. In conclusion, acute pancreatitis in patients with thyrotoxicosis seems to be extremely rare, but such patients should be managed intensively against underlying thyroid disorders as well as pancreatitis.

  7. Interplanetary sources of magnetic storms: A statistical study

    Vennerstrøm, Susanne

    2001-01-01

    Magnetic storms are mainly caused by the occurrence of intense southward magnetic fields in the interplanetary medium. These fields can be formed directly either by ejection of magnetic structures from the Sun or by stream interaction processes during solar wind propagation. In the present study we...... examine 30 years of satellite measurement of the solar wind during magnetic storms, with the aim of estimating the relative importance of these two processes. We use the solar wind proton temperature relative to the temperature expected from the empirical relation to the solar wind speed T......-p/T-exp, together with the speed gradient, and the interplanetary magnetic field azimuth in the ecliptic, in order to distinguish between the two processes statistically. We find that compression due to stream interaction is at least as important as the direct effect of ejection of intense fields, and probably more...

  8. Interplanetary sources to magnetic storms - A statistical study

    Vennerstrøm, Susanne

    2001-01-01

    Magnetic storms are mainly caused by the occurrence of intense southward magnetic fields in the interplanetary medium. These fields can be formed directly either by ejection of magnetic structures from the Sun or by stream interaction processes during solar wind propagation. In the present study we...... examine 30 years of satellite measurement of the solar wind during magnetic storms, with the aim of estimating the relative importance of these two processes. We use the solar wind proton temperature relative to the temperature expected from the empirical relation to the solar wind speed Tp/Texp, together...... with the speed gradient, and the interplanetary magnetic field azimuth in the ecliptic, in order to distinguish between the two processes statistically. We find that compression due to stream interaction is at least as important as the direct effect of ejection of intense fields, and probably more so. Only...

  9. Storm-wave trends in Mexican waters of the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea

    E. Ojeda

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-year time series of hindcast wave data were analysed for 10 coastal locations along the eastern Mexican coast to obtain information about storm events occurring in the region, with the goal of examining the possible presence of interannual trends in the number of storm-wave events and their main features (wave height, duration and energy content. The storms were defined according to their significant wave height and duration, and the events were classified as related to either tropical cyclones or Norte events. The occurrence and characteristics of both types of events were analysed independently. There is no statistically significant change in the number of storm-wave events related to Nortes or their characteristics during the study period. However, there is a subtle increase in the number of events related to tropical cyclones in the western Caribbean region and a more evident increase in wave height and energy content of these events.

  10. Analysis of storm-tide impacts from Hurricane Sandy in New York

    Schubert, Christopher E.; Busciolano, Ronald J.; Hearn, Paul P.; Rahav, Ami N.; Behrens, Riley; Finkelstein, Jason S.; Monti, Jack; Simonson, Amy E.

    2015-07-21

    The hybrid cyclone-nor’easter known as Hurricane Sandy affected the mid-Atlantic and northeastern United States during October 28-30, 2012, causing extensive coastal flooding. Prior to storm landfall, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) deployed a temporary monitoring network from Virginia to Maine to record the storm tide and coastal flooding generated by Hurricane Sandy. This sensor network augmented USGS and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) networks of permanent monitoring sites that also documented storm surge. Continuous data from these networks were supplemented by an extensive post-storm high-water-mark (HWM) flagging and surveying campaign. The sensor deployment and HWM campaign were conducted under a directed mission assignment by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). The need for hydrologic interpretation of monitoring data to assist in flood-damage analysis and future flood mitigation prompted the current analysis of Hurricane Sandy by the USGS under this FEMA mission assignment.

  11. Identification of dust storm source areas in West Asia using multiple environmental datasets.

    Cao, Hui; Amiraslani, Farshad; Liu, Jian; Zhou, Na

    2015-01-01

    Sand and Dust storms are common phenomena in arid and semi-arid areas. West Asia Region, especially Tigris-Euphrates alluvial plain, has been recognized as one of the most important dust source areas in the world. In this paper, a method is applied to extract SDS (Sand and Dust Storms) sources in West Asia region using thematic maps, climate and geography, HYSPLIT model and satellite images. Out of 50 dust storms happened during 2000-2013 and collected in form of MODIS images, 27 events were incorporated as demonstrations of the simulated trajectories by HYSPLIT model. Besides, a dataset of the newly released Landsat images was used as base-map for the interpretation of SDS source regions. As a result, six main clusters were recognized as dust source areas. Of which, 3 clusters situated in Tigris-Euphrates plain were identified as severe SDS sources (including 70% dust storms in this research). Another cluster in Sistan plain is also a potential source area. This approach also confirmed six main paths causing dust storms. These paths are driven by the climate system including Siberian and Polar anticyclones, monsoon from Indian Subcontinent and depression from north of Africa. The identification of SDS source areas and paths will improve our understandings on the mechanisms and impacts of dust storms on socio-economy and environment of the region. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Dust Storm Hits Canary Islands

    2002-01-01

    A thick pall of sand and dust blew out from the Sahara Desert over the Atlantic Ocean yesterday (January 6, 2002), engulfing the Canary Islands in what has become one of the worst sand storms ever recorded there. In this scene, notice how the dust appears particularly thick in the downwind wake of Tenerife, the largest of the Canary Islands. Perhaps the turbulence generated by the air currents flowing past the island's volcanic peaks is churning the dust back up into the atmosphere, rather than allowing it to settle toward the surface. This true-color image was captured by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite, on January 7, 2002. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  13. Copper disinfection ban causes storm.

    Lester, Alan

    2013-05-01

    Since 1 February this year, under the EU's Biocidal Products Directive, it has been illegal to sell or use water treatment systems that use elemental copper, a practice employed historically by a significant number of UK healthcare facilities to combat Legionella. Alan Lester, managing director of specialist supplier of 'environmentally-friendly' water treatment systems, Advanced Hydro, says the ban has caused 'a storm of giant proportion,' with advocates of copper ion-based treatment systems arguing that this disinfection method dates back 3,000 years to Egyptian times, making it an 'undoubtedly proven' technology. Here he explains why the ban came into force, considers why the UK's Health and Safety Executive (HSE) is seeking a derogation, looks at the ban's likely impact, and gives a personal viewpoint on the 'pros and cons' of some of the alternative treatment technologies, including a titanium dioxide-based system marketed by Advanced Hydro itself in the UK.

  14. On the phenomenological theory of magnetic storms

    Guglielmi A.V.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses methodical issues concerning the modeling of the Dst variation in a geomagnetic storm. We describe the so-called RBM (Russell — Burton — McPherron model representing an ordinary differential equation with solutions simulating the relation between the Dst variation and the azimuthal component of the interplanetary electric field. Special attention is paid to the threshold nature of Dst variation excitation. We would like to emphasize the necessity of stochastic extension of the RBM model by taking into account fluctuations inherent to any physical system. The integral representation of a Dst variation bifurcation diagram is given. It enables us to account for the effect of fluctuations that eliminate the diagram root singularity and cause a threshold point shift. The Dst variation is shown to be typical of the wide class of threshold phenomena similar to second-order phase transitions. We draw an analogy with threshold phenomena in Earth’s magnetosphere, atmosphere, and lithosphere. In addition, we briefly discuss the issue about soft and hard passages through the threshold, as well as about explosive instability in geophysical media.

  15. Predicting severe winter coastal storm damage

    Hondula, David M; Dolan, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Over the past 40 years residents of, and visitors to, the North Carolina coastal barrier islands have experienced the destructive forces of several 'named' extratropical storms. These storms have caused large-scale redistributions of sand and loss of coastal structures and infrastructure. While most of the population living on the islands are familiar with the wintertime storms, the damage and scars of the 'super northeasters'-such as the Ash Wednesday storm of 7 March 1962, and the Halloween storm of 1989-are slipping away from the public's memory. In this research we compared the damage zones of the 1962 Ash Wednesday storm, as depicted on aerial photographs taken after the storm, with photos taken of the same areas in 2003. With these high-resolution aerial photos we were able to estimate the extent of new development which has taken place along the Outer Banks of North Carolina since 1962. Three damage zones were defined that extend across the islands from the ocean landward on the 1962 aerial photos: (1) the zone of almost total destruction on the seaward edge of the islands where the storm waves break; (2) the zone immediately inland where moderate structural damage occurs during severe storms; and (3) the zone of flood damage at the landward margin of the storm surge and overwash. We considered the rate of coastal erosion, the rate of development, and increases in property values as factors which may contribute to changing the financial risk for coastal communities. In comparing the values of these four factors with the 1962 damage data, we produced a predicted dollar value for storm damage should another storm of the magnitude of the 1962 Ash Wednesday storm occur in the present decade. This model also provides an opportunity to estimate the rate of increase in the potential losses through time as shoreline erosion continues to progressively reduce the buffer between the development and the edge of the sea. Our data suggest that the losses along the North

  16. Predicting severe winter coastal storm damage

    Hondula, David M; Dolan, Robert, E-mail: hondula@virginia.edu [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Virginia, PO Box 400123, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    Over the past 40 years residents of, and visitors to, the North Carolina coastal barrier islands have experienced the destructive forces of several 'named' extratropical storms. These storms have caused large-scale redistributions of sand and loss of coastal structures and infrastructure. While most of the population living on the islands are familiar with the wintertime storms, the damage and scars of the 'super northeasters'-such as the Ash Wednesday storm of 7 March 1962, and the Halloween storm of 1989-are slipping away from the public's memory. In this research we compared the damage zones of the 1962 Ash Wednesday storm, as depicted on aerial photographs taken after the storm, with photos taken of the same areas in 2003. With these high-resolution aerial photos we were able to estimate the extent of new development which has taken place along the Outer Banks of North Carolina since 1962. Three damage zones were defined that extend across the islands from the ocean landward on the 1962 aerial photos: (1) the zone of almost total destruction on the seaward edge of the islands where the storm waves break; (2) the zone immediately inland where moderate structural damage occurs during severe storms; and (3) the zone of flood damage at the landward margin of the storm surge and overwash. We considered the rate of coastal erosion, the rate of development, and increases in property values as factors which may contribute to changing the financial risk for coastal communities. In comparing the values of these four factors with the 1962 damage data, we produced a predicted dollar value for storm damage should another storm of the magnitude of the 1962 Ash Wednesday storm occur in the present decade. This model also provides an opportunity to estimate the rate of increase in the potential losses through time as shoreline erosion continues to progressively reduce the buffer between the development and the edge of the sea. Our data suggest that the

  17. Predicting severe winter coastal storm damage

    Hondula, David M.; Dolan, Robert

    2010-07-01

    Over the past 40 years residents of, and visitors to, the North Carolina coastal barrier islands have experienced the destructive forces of several 'named' extratropical storms. These storms have caused large-scale redistributions of sand and loss of coastal structures and infrastructure. While most of the population living on the islands are familiar with the wintertime storms, the damage and scars of the 'super northeasters'—such as the Ash Wednesday storm of 7 March 1962, and the Halloween storm of 1989—are slipping away from the public's memory. In this research we compared the damage zones of the 1962 Ash Wednesday storm, as depicted on aerial photographs taken after the storm, with photos taken of the same areas in 2003. With these high-resolution aerial photos we were able to estimate the extent of new development which has taken place along the Outer Banks of North Carolina since 1962. Three damage zones were defined that extend across the islands from the ocean landward on the 1962 aerial photos: (1) the zone of almost total destruction on the seaward edge of the islands where the storm waves break; (2) the zone immediately inland where moderate structural damage occurs during severe storms; and (3) the zone of flood damage at the landward margin of the storm surge and overwash. We considered the rate of coastal erosion, the rate of development, and increases in property values as factors which may contribute to changing the financial risk for coastal communities. In comparing the values of these four factors with the 1962 damage data, we produced a predicted dollar value for storm damage should another storm of the magnitude of the 1962 Ash Wednesday storm occur in the present decade. This model also provides an opportunity to estimate the rate of increase in the potential losses through time as shoreline erosion continues to progressively reduce the buffer between the development and the edge of the sea. Our data suggest that the losses along the

  18. Statistical uncertainty of extreme wind storms over Europe derived from a probabilistic clustering technique

    Walz, Michael; Leckebusch, Gregor C.

    2016-04-01

    Extratropical wind storms pose one of the most dangerous and loss intensive natural hazards for Europe. However, due to only 50 years of high quality observational data, it is difficult to assess the statistical uncertainty of these sparse events just based on observations. Over the last decade seasonal ensemble forecasts have become indispensable in quantifying the uncertainty of weather prediction on seasonal timescales. In this study seasonal forecasts are used in a climatological context: By making use of the up to 51 ensemble members, a broad and physically consistent statistical base can be created. This base can then be used to assess the statistical uncertainty of extreme wind storm occurrence more accurately. In order to determine the statistical uncertainty of storms with different paths of progression, a probabilistic clustering approach using regression mixture models is used to objectively assign storm tracks (either based on core pressure or on extreme wind speeds) to different clusters. The advantage of this technique is that the entire lifetime of a storm is considered for the clustering algorithm. Quadratic curves are found to describe the storm tracks most accurately. Three main clusters (diagonal, horizontal or vertical progression of the storm track) can be identified, each of which have their own particulate features. Basic storm features like average velocity and duration are calculated and compared for each cluster. The main benefit of this clustering technique, however, is to evaluate if the clusters show different degrees of uncertainty, e.g. more (less) spread for tracks approaching Europe horizontally (diagonally). This statistical uncertainty is compared for different seasonal forecast products.

  19. Severe Autumn storms in future Western Europe with a warmer Atlantic Ocean

    Baatsen, Michiel; Haarsma, Reindert J.; Van Delden, Aarnout J.; de Vries, Hylke

    2015-08-01

    Simulations with a very high resolution (~25 km) global climate model indicate that more severe Autumn storms will impact Europe in a warmer future climate. The observed increase is mainly attributed to storms with a tropical origin, especially in the later part of the twentyfirst century. As their genesis region expands, tropical cyclones become more intense and their chances of reaching Europe increase. This paper investigates the properties and evolution of such storms and clarifies the future changes. The studied tropical cyclones feature a typical evolution of tropical development, extratropical transition and a re-intensification. A reduction of the transit area between regions of tropical and extratropical cyclogenesis increases the probability of re-intensification. Many of the modelled storms exhibit hybrid properties in a considerable part of their life cycle during which they exhibit the hazards of both tropical and extratropical systems. In addition to tropical cyclones, other systems such as cold core extratropical storms mainly originating over the Gulf Stream region also increasingly impact Western Europe. Despite their different history, all of the studied storms have one striking similarity: they form a warm seclusion. The structure, intensity and frequency of storms in the present climate are compared to observations using the MERRA and IBTrACS datasets. Damaging winds associated with the occurrence of a sting jet are observed in a large fraction of the cyclones during their final stage. Baroclinic instability is of great importance for the (re-)intensification of the storms. Furthermore, so-called atmospheric rivers providing tropical air prove to be vital for the intensification through diabatic heating and will increase considerably in strength in the future, as will the associated flooding risks.

  20. Scale-dependent behavior of the foredune: Implications for barrier island response to storms and sea-level rise

    Houser, Chris; Wernette, Phil; Weymer, Bradley A.

    2018-02-01

    The impact of storm surge on a barrier island tends to be considered from a single cross-shore dimension, dependent on the relative elevations of the storm surge and dune crest. However, the foredune is rarely uniform and can exhibit considerable variation in height and width at a range of length scales. In this study, LiDAR data from barrier islands in Texas and Florida are used to explore how shoreline position and dune morphology vary alongshore, and to determine how this variability is altered or reinforced by storms and post-storm recovery. Wavelet analysis reveals that a power law can approximate historical shoreline change across all scales, but that storm-scale shoreline change ( 10 years) and dune height exhibit similar scale-dependent variations at swash and surf zone scales (< 1000 m). The in-phase nature of the relationship between dune height and storm-scale shoreline change indicates that areas of greater storm-scale shoreline retreat are associated with areas of smaller dunes. It is argued that the decoupling of storm-scale and historical shoreline change at swash and surf zone scales is also associated with the alongshore redistribution of sediment and the tendency of shorelines to evolve to a more diffusive (or straight) pattern with time. The wavelet analysis of the data for post-storm dune recovery is also characterized by red noise at the smallest scales characteristic of diffusive systems, suggesting that it is possible that small-scale variations in dune height can be repaired through alongshore recovery and expansion if there is sufficient time between storms. However, the time required for dune recovery exceeds the time between storms capable of eroding and overwashing the dune. Correlation between historical shoreline retreat and the variance of the dune at swash and surf zone scales suggests that the persistence of the dune is an important control on transgression through island migration or shoreline retreat with relative sea-level rise.

  1. Decontamination of main coolant pumps

    Roofthooft, R.

    1988-01-01

    Last year a number of main coolant pumps in Belgian nuclear power plants were decontaminated. A new method has been developed to reduce the time taken for decontamination and the volume of waste to be treated. The method comprises two phases: Oxidation with permanganate in nitric acid and dissolution in oxalic acid. The decontamination of main coolant pumps can now be achieved in less than one day. The decontamination factors attained range between 15 and 150. (orig.) [de

  2. Investigation of Quality and Reclamation of Urban Storm Runoff in City of Shiraz

    Mohammad Parvinnia

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban storm runoff is considered as a potentially reclaimable and valuable resource in many arid and semiarid areas, in Iran. Urban storm runoff in Shiraz is collected mainly by Khoshk River and transported to the Maharloo Lake without any treatment or reclamation. In this study, storm runoff quality and the possibility for its reclamation from different parts of the city in certain canals and pipes are investigated. The quality of the first flush in three relatively large and small suburban areas with different land uses is studied. For the purposes of this study, three stations were considered: one near the downstream end of the city on Khoshk River with a relatively large watershed, one in the middle of the city where street runoff is the main constituent of the flush, and a third one near the western outskirts of the city with relatively small mainly residential watershed.

  3. Radial diffusion with outer boundary determined by geosynchronous measurements: Storm and post-storm intervals

    Chu, F.; Haines, P.; Hudson, M.; Kress, B.; Freidel, R.; Kanekal, S.

    2007-12-01

    Work is underway by several groups to quantify diffusive radial transport of radiation belt electrons, including a model for pitch angle scattering losses to the atmosphere. The radial diffusion model conserves the first and second adiabatic invariants and breaks the third invariant. We have developed a radial diffusion code which uses the Crank Nicholson method with a variable outer boundary condition. For the radial diffusion coefficient, DLL, we have several choices, including the Brautigam and Albert (JGR, 2000) diffusion coefficient parameterized by Kp, which provides an ad hoc measure of the power level at ULF wave frequencies in the range of electron drift (mHz), breaking the third invariant. Other diffusion coefficient models are Kp-independent, fixed in time but explicitly dependent on the first invariant, or energy at a fixed L, such as calculated by Elkington et al. (JGR, 2003) and Perry et al. (JGR, 2006) based on ULF wave model fields. We analyzed three periods of electron flux and phase space density (PSD) enhancements inside of geosynchronous orbit: March 31 - May 31, 1991, and July 2004 and Nov 2004 storm intervals. The radial diffusion calculation is initialized with a computed phase space density profile for the 1991 interval using differential flux values from the CRRES High Energy Electron Fluxmeter instrument, covering 0.65 - 7.5 MeV. To calculate the initial phase space density, we convert Roederer L* to McIlwain's L- parameter using the ONERA-DESP program. A time averaged model developed by Vampola1 from the entire 14 month CRRES data set is applied to the July 2004 and Nov 2004 storms. The online CRESS data for specific orbits and the Vampola-model flux are both expressed in McIlwain L-shell, while conversion to L* conserves phase space density in a distorted non-dipolar magnetic field model. A Tsyganenko (T04) magnetic field model is used for conversion between L* and L. The outer boundary PSD is updated using LANL GEO satellite fluxes

  4. Time Delay Between Dst Index and Magnetic Storm Related Structure in the Solar Wind

    Osherovich, Vladimir A.; Fainberg, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Benson et al. (2015, this volume) selected 10 large magnetic storms, with associated Dst minimum values less than or equal to -100 nT, for which high-latitude topside ionospheric electron density profiles are available from topside-sounder satellites. For these 10 storms, we performed a superposition of Dst and interplanetary parameters B, v, N(sub p) and T(sub p). We have found that two interplanetary parameters, namely B and v, are sufficient to reproduce Dst with correlation coefficient cc approximately 0.96 provided that the interplanetary parameter times are taken 0.15 days earlier than the associated Dst times. Thus we have found which part of the solar wind is responsible for each phase of the magnetic storm. This result is also verified for individual storms as well. The total duration of SRS (storm related structure in the solar wind) is 4 - 5 days which is the same as the associated Dst interval of the magnetic storm.

  5. Deep Space Storm Shelter Simulation Study

    Dugan, Kathryn; Phojanamongkolkij, Nipa; Cerro, Jeffrey; Simon, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Missions outside of Earth's magnetic field are impeded by the presence of radiation from galactic cosmic rays and solar particle events. To overcome this issue, NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems Radiation Works Storm Shelter (RadWorks) has been studying different radiation protective habitats to shield against the onset of solar particle event radiation. These habitats have the capability of protecting occupants by utilizing available materials such as food, water, brine, human waste, trash, and non-consumables to build short-term shelters. Protection comes from building a barrier with the materials that dampens the impact of the radiation on astronauts. The goal of this study is to develop a discrete event simulation, modeling a solar particle event and the building of a protective shelter. The main hallway location within a larger habitat similar to the International Space Station (ISS) is analyzed. The outputs from this model are: 1) the total area covered on the shelter by the different materials, 2) the amount of radiation the crew members receive, and 3) the amount of time for setting up the habitat during specific points in a mission given an event occurs.

  6. Observations of energetic helium ions in the Earth's radiation belts during a sequence of geomagnetic storms

    Spjeldvik, W.N.; Fritz, T.A.

    1981-01-01

    Every year a significant number of magnetic storms disturb the earth's magnetosphere and the trapped particle populations. In this paper, we present observations of energetic (MeV) helium ions made with Explorer 45 during a sequence of magnetic storms during June through December of 1972. The first of these storms started on June 17 and had a Dst index excursion to approx.190 gamma, and the MeV helium ions were perturbed primarily beyond 3 earth radii in the equatorial radiation belts with a typical flux increase of an order of magnitude at L = 4. The second storm period took place during August and was associated with very major solar flare activity. Although the Dst extremum was at best 35 gamma less than the June storm, this period can be characterized as irregular (or multi-storm) with strong compression of the magnetosphere and very large (order of magnitude) MeV helium ion flux enhancements down to Lapprox.2. Following this injection the trapped helium ion fluxes showed positive spectral slope with the peak beyond 3.15 MeV at L = 2.5; and at the lowest observable L shells (Lapprox.2--3) little flux decay (tau>100 days) was seen during the rest of the year. Any effects of two subsequent major magnetic storms in September and November were essentially undetectable in the prolonged after-effect of the August solar flare associated MeV helium ion injection. The helium ion radial profile of the phase space density showed a significant negative slope during this period, and we infer that radial diffusion constitutes a significant loss of helium ions on L shells above Lapprox. =4 during the aftermath of the August 1972 magnetic storm

  7. High-Latitude Topside Ionospheric Vertical Electron Density Profile Changes in Response to Large Magnetic Storms

    Benson, Robert F.; Fainberg, Joseph; Osherovich, Vladimir A.; Truhlik, Vladimir; Wang, Yongli; Bilitza, Dieter; Fung, Shing F.

    2016-01-01

    Large magnetic-storm-induced changes were detected in high-latitude topside vertical electron density profiles Ne(h) in a database of profiles and digital topside ionograms, from the International Satellites for Ionospheric Studies (ISIS) program, that enabled Ne(h) profiles to be obtained in nearly the same region of space before, during, and after a major magnetic storm (Dst -100nT). Storms where Ne(h) profiles were available in the high-latitude Northern Hemisphere had better coverage of solar wind parameters than storms with available Ne(h) profiles in the high-latitude Southern Hemisphere. Large Ne(h) changes were observed during all storms, with enhancements and depletions sometimes near a factor of 10 and 0.1, respectively, but with substantial differences in the responses in the two hemispheres. Large spatial andor temporal Ne(h) changes were often observed during Dst minimum and during the storm recovery phase. The storm-induced Ne(h) changes were the most pronounced and consistent in the Northern Hemisphere in that large enhancements were observed during winter nighttime and large depletions during winter and spring daytime. The limited available cases suggested that these Northern Hemisphere enhancements increased with increases of the time-shifted solar wind velocity v, magnetic field B, and with more negative values of the B components except for the highest common altitude (1100km) of the profiles. There was also some evidence suggesting that the Northern Hemisphere depletions were related to changes in the solar wind parameters. Southern Hemisphere storm-induced enhancements and depletions were typically considerably less with depletions observed during summer nighttime conditions and enhancements during summer daytime and fall nighttime conditions.

  8. The Storm Time Evolution of the Ionospheric Disturbance Plasma Drifts

    Zhang, Ruilong; Liu, Libo; Le, Huijun; Chen, Yiding; Kuai, Jiawei

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we use the C/NOFS and ROCSAT-1 satellites observations to analyze the storm time evolution of the disturbance plasma drifts in a 24 h local time scale during three magnetic storms driven by long-lasting southward IMF Bz. The disturbance plasma drifts during the three storms present some common features in the periods dominated by the disturbance dynamo. The newly formed disturbance plasma drifts are upward and westward at night, and downward and eastward during daytime. Further, the disturbance plasma drifts are gradually evolved to present significant local time shifts. The westward disturbance plasma drifts gradually migrate from nightside to dayside. Meanwhile, the dayside downward disturbance plasma drifts become enhanced and shift to later local time. The local time shifts in disturbance plasma drifts are suggested to be mainly attributed to the evolution of the disturbance winds. The strong disturbance winds arisen around midnight can constantly corotate to later local time. At dayside the westward and equatorward disturbance winds can drive the F region dynamo to produce the poleward and westward polarization electric fields (or the westward and downward disturbance drifts). The present results indicate that the disturbance winds corotated to later local time can affect the local time features of the disturbance dynamo electric field.

  9. A case report of thyroid storm induced by acute sepsis

    Chiu-Yin Yeh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid storm is a rare but life-threatening condition, which can be induced by many critical diseases. We reported a 40-year-old woman with thyroid goiter manifesting with acute sepsis-induced hyperthyroidism. She mainly presented with abdominal bloating, diarrhea, lower limbs edema and exertional dyspnea. The lactate was 9.5 mmol/L and procalcitonin was 3.8 ng/mL, suggesting acute sepsis. The thyroid echo showed bilateral thyroid goiter. Relevant data included a thyroid-stimulating hormone level of 0.03 μIU/mL; free tetraiodothyronine, 5.67 ng/dL; thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibody, 76.9% (normal range, < 14%; and antimicrosomal antibody titer, 1:102400 (normal range, < 1:100, suggesting toxic goiter with thyroid storm. Piperacillin/tazobactam, methimazole and Lugol's iodine achieved a good outcome. The symptoms of early sepsis and those of thyroid storm could be similar. Therefore, a careful history taking, a thorough physical examination and a high degree of suspicion could make early diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

  10. Storm-time radiation belt electron dynamics: Repeatability in the outer radiation belt

    Murphy, K. R.; Mann, I. R.; Rae, J.; Watt, C.; Boyd, A. J.; Turner, D. L.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Baker, D. N.; Spence, H. E.; Reeves, G. D.; Blake, J. B.; Fennell, J. F.

    2017-12-01

    During intervals of enhanced solar wind driving the outer radiation belt becomes extremely dynamic leading to geomagnetic storms. During these storms the flux of energetic electrons can vary by over 4 orders of magnitude. Despite recent advances in understanding the nature of competing storm-time electron loss and acceleration processes the dynamic behavior of the outer radiation belt remains poorly understood; the outer radiation belt can exhibit either no change, an enhancement, or depletion in radiation belt electrons. Using a new analysis of the total radiation belt electron content, calculated from the Van Allen probes phase space density (PSD), we statistically analyze the time-dependent and global response of the outer radiation belt during storms. We demonstrate that by removing adiabatic effects there is a clear and repeatable sequence of events in storm-time radiation belt electron dynamics. Namely, the relativistic (μ=1000 MeV/G) and ultra-relativistic (μ=4000 MeV/G) electron populations can be separated into two phases; an initial phase dominated by loss followed by a second phase dominated by acceleration. At lower energies, the radiation belt seed population of electrons (μ=150 MeV/G) shows no evidence of loss but rather a net enhancement during storms. Further, we investigate the dependence of electron dynamics as a function of the second adiabatic invariant, K. These results demonstrate a global coherency in the dynamics of the source, relativistic and ultra-relativistic electron populations as function of the second adiabatic invariant K. This analysis demonstrates two key aspects of storm-time radiation belt electron dynamics. First, the radiation belt responds repeatably to solar wind driving during geomagnetic storms. Second, the response of the radiation belt is energy dependent, relativistic electrons behaving differently than lower energy seed electrons. These results have important implications in radiation belt research. In particular

  11. Statistical Characteristics of Solar Wind Dynamic Pressure Enhancements During Geomagnetic Storms

    C.-R. Choi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Solar wind dynamic pressure enhancements are known to cause various types of disturbances to the magnetosphere. In particular, dynamic pressure enhancements may affect the evolution of magnetic storms when they occur during storm times. In this paper, we have investigated the statistical significance and features of dynamic pressure enhancements during magnetic storm times. For the investigation, we have used a total of 91 geomagnetic storms for 2001-2003, for which the Dst minimum (Dst_min is below -50 nT. Also, we have imposed a set of selection criteria for a pressure enhancement to be considered an event: The main selection criterion is that the pressure increases by ≥50% or ≥3nPa within 30 min and remains to be elevated for 10 min or longer. For our statistical analysis, we define the storm time to be the interval from the main Dst decrease, through Dst_min, to the point where the Dst index recovers by 50%. Our main results are summarized as follows. (i ~81% of the studied storms indicate at least one event of pressure enhancements. When averaged over all the 91 storms, the occurrence rate is 4.5 pressure enhancement events per storm and 0.15 pressure enhancement events per hour. (ii The occurrence rate of the pressure enhancements is about three times higher for CME-driven storm times than for CIR-driven storm times. (iii Only 21.1% of the pressure enhancements show a clear association with an interplanetary shock. (iv A large number of the pressure enhancement events are accompanied with a simultaneous change of IMF By and/or Bz: For example, 73.5% of the pressure enhancement events are associated with an IMF change of either |∆Bz|>2nT or |∆By|>2nT. This last finding suggests that one should consider possible interplay effects between the simultaneous pressure and IMF changes in many situations.

  12. Storm-driven sediment transport in Massachusetts Bay

    Warner, J.C.; Butman, B.; Dalyander, P.S.

    2008-01-01

    Massachusetts Bay is a semi-enclosed embayment in the western Gulf of Maine about 50 km wide and 100 km long. Bottom sediment resuspension is controlled predominately by storm-induced surface waves and transport by the tidal- and wind-driven circulation. Because the Bay is open to the northeast, winds from the northeast ('Northeasters') generate the largest surface waves and are thus the most effective in resuspending sediments. The three-dimensional oceanographic circulation model Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) is used to explore the resuspension, transport, and deposition of sediment caused by Northeasters. The model transports multiple sediment classes and tracks the evolution of a multilevel sediment bed. The surficial sediment characteristics of the bed are coupled to one of several bottom-boundary layer modules that calculate enhanced bottom roughness due to wave-current interaction. The wave field is calculated from the model Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN). Two idealized simulations were carried out to explore the effects of Northeasters on the transport and fate of sediments. In one simulation, an initially spatially uniform bed of mixed sediments exposed to a series of Northeasters evolved to a pattern similar to the existing surficial sediment distribution. A second set of simulations explored sediment-transport pathways caused by storms with winds from the northeast quadrant by simulating release of sediment at selected locations. Storms with winds from the north cause transport southward along the western shore of Massachusetts Bay, while storms with winds from the east and southeast drive northerly nearshore flow. The simulations show that Northeasters can effectively transport sediments from Boston Harbor and the area offshore of the harbor to the southeast into Cape Cod Bay and offshore into Stellwagen Basin. This transport pattern is consistent with Boston Harbor as the source of silver found in the surficial sediments of Cape Cod Bay and

  13. Index for Predicting Insurance Claims from Wind Storms with an Application in France.

    Mornet, Alexandre; Opitz, Thomas; Luzi, Michel; Loisel, Stéphane

    2015-11-01

    For insurance companies, wind storms represent a main source of volatility, leading to potentially huge aggregated claim amounts. In this article, we compare different constructions of a storm index allowing us to assess the economic impact of storms on an insurance portfolio by exploiting information from historical wind speed data. Contrary to historical insurance portfolio data, meteorological variables show fewer nonstationarities between years and are easily available with long observation records; hence, they represent a valuable source of additional information for insurers if the relation between observations of claims and wind speeds can be revealed. Since standard correlation measures between raw wind speeds and insurance claims are weak, a storm index focusing on high wind speeds can afford better information. A storm index approach has been applied to yearly aggregated claim amounts in Germany with promising results. Using historical meteorological and insurance data, we assess the consistency of the proposed index constructions with respect to various parameters and weights. Moreover, we are able to place the major insurance events since 1998 on a broader horizon beyond 40 years. Our approach provides a meteorological justification for calculating the return periods of extreme-storm-related insurance events whose magnitude has rarely been reached. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  14. Rain storm models and the relationship between their parameters

    Stol, P.T.

    1977-01-01

    Rainfall interstation correlation functions can be obtained with the aid of analytic rainfall or storm models. Since alternative storm models have different mathematical formulas, comparison should be based on equallity of parameters like storm diameter, mean rainfall amount, storm maximum or total

  15. 46 CFR 72.40-10 - Storm rails.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storm rails. 72.40-10 Section 72.40-10 Shipping COAST... and Guards § 72.40-10 Storm rails. (a) Suitable storm rails shall be installed in all passageways and at the deckhouse sides where passengers or crew might have normal access. Storm rails shall be...

  16. Hindicast and forecast of the Parsifal storm

    Bertotti, L.; Cavaleri, L. [Istituto Studio Dinamica Grandi Masse, Venice (Italy); De girolamo, P.; Magnaldi, S. [Rome, Univ. `La Sapienza` (Italy). Dip. di Idraulica, Trasporti e Strade; Franco, L. [Rome, III Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Scienze dell`Ingegneria Civile

    1998-05-01

    On 2 November 1995 a Mistral storm in the Gulf of Lions sank the 16 metre yacht Parsifal claiming six lives out of the nine member crew. The authors analyse the storm with different meteorological and wave models, verifying the results against the available buoy and satellite measurements. Then the authors consider the accuracy of the storm forecasts and the information available the days before the accident. The limitations related to the resolution of the meteorological models are explored by hind casting the storm also with the winds produced by some limited area models. Finally, the authors discuss the present situation of wind and wave hind cast and forecast in the Mediterranean Sea, and the distribution of these results to the public.

  17. Storm Water General Permit 2 for Construction

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — General permit #2 for storm water discharges associated with industrial activity for Construction Activities in Iowa for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination...

  18. Nuclear magnetohydrodynamic EMP, solar storms, and substorms

    Rabinowitz, M.; Meliopoulous, A.P.S.; Glytsis, E.N.

    1992-01-01

    In addition to a fast electromagnetic pulse (EMP), a high altitude nuclear burst produces a relatively slow magnetohydrodynamic EMP (MHD EMP), whose effects are like those from solar storm geomagnetically induced currents (SS-GIC). The MHD EMP electric field E approx-lt 10 - 1 V/m and lasts approx-lt 10 2 sec, whereas for solar storms E approx-gt 10 - 2 V/m and lasts approx-gt 10 3 sec. Although the solar storm electric field is lower than MHD EMP, the solar storm effects are generally greater due to their much longer duration. Substorms produce much smaller effects than SS-GIC, but occur much more frequently. This paper describes the physics of such geomagnetic disturbances and analyzes their effects

  19. Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) Storm Wallets

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) is responsible for typhoon forecasts and warnings for the Western Pacific and Indian Ocean basins. After each storm, the JTWC...

  20. Storm Water BMP Tool Implementation Testing

    2017-12-01

    Under project 2015-ORIL 7, a screening tool was developed to assist Local communities with selecting post-construction storm water best management practices (BMPs) to comply with the Ohio Environmental Protection Agencys (Ohio EPA) statewide Const...

  1. Ice Storms in a Changing Climate

    2016-06-01

    CHANGING CLIMATE by Jennifer M. McNitt June 2016 Thesis Advisor: Wendell Nuss Co-Advisor: David W. Titley THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT...SUBTITLE ICE STORMS IN A CHANGING CLIMATE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Jennifer M. McNitt 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS...increase in global temperatures, due to climate change, could affect the frequency, intensity, and geographic location of ice storms. Three known ice

  2. A case study of storm commencement and recovery plasmaspheric electric fields near L=2.5 at equinox

    H. F. Balmforth (*

    Full Text Available Data from the VLF Doppler experiment at Faraday, Antarctica (65° S, 64° W are used to study the penetration of the high-latitude convection electric field to lower latitudes during severely disturbed conditions. Alterations of the electric field at L-values within the range 2.0 - 2.7 are studied for two cases at equinox (10 - 12 September 1986 and 1 - 3 May 1986. The recovery of the electric field is found to be approximately an exponential function of time. Values for the equatorial meridional E×B drift velocity, inferred from the data, are used as inputs to a model of the plasmasphere and ionosphere. The model and experimental results are used to investigate the post-storm alteration of ionospheric coupling processes. The magnitude of the effect of ionosphere-plasmasphere coupling fluxes on NmF2 values and the O+-H+ transition height is dependent on the local time of storm commencement, and on the orientation of the electric field. The coupling fluxes appear to have a maximum influence on ionospheric content during the main phase of geomagnetic activity that produces outward motion of plasmaspheric whistler ducts.

  3. Mapping Hurricane Rita inland storm tide

    Berenbrock, Charles; Mason, Jr., Robert R.; Blanchard, Stephen F.; Simonovic, Slobodan P.

    2009-01-01

    Flood-inundation data are most useful for decision makers when presented in the context of maps of effected communities and (or) areas. But because the data are scarce and rarely cover the full extent of the flooding, interpolation and extrapolation of the information are needed. Many geographic information systems (GIS) provide various interpolation tools, but these tools often ignore the effects of the topographic and hydraulic features that influence flooding. A barrier mapping method was developed to improve maps of storm tide produced by Hurricane Rita. Maps were developed for the maximum storm tide and at 3-hour intervals from midnight (0000 hour) through noon (1200 hour) on September 24, 2005. The improved maps depict storm-tide elevations and the extent of flooding. The extent of storm-tide inundation from the improved maximum storm-tide map was compared to the extent of flood-inundation from a map prepared by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). The boundaries from these two maps generally compared quite well especially along the Calcasieu River. Also a cross-section profile that parallels the Louisiana coast was developed from the maximum storm-tide map and included FEMA high-water marks.

  4. Evaluating the Role and Effects of Precipitation on Relativistic Electron Losses during Storms

    Chen, Y.; Fu, X.

    2016-12-01

    Theoretic studies have suggested that during storm times various waves (e.g., whistler-mode chorus and electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves) can cause significant precipitation of relativistic ( MeV) electrons that are originally trapped inside the outer radiation belt. However, the role of precipitation and its quantitative contribution to the losses of outer-belt electrons remain open questions. In this study, we tackle these questions by systemically examining the latest wave and electron in-situ, simultaneous observations made at different altitudes by Van Allen Probes from near equator, NOAA POES at low Earth orbits near/across electron loss cone, and BARREL under the mesosphere. After calibrating with DEMTER observations, we first confirm and quantify the response of POES MEPED proton channels to MeV electrons. Next, we identify a list of precipitation events from BARREL and POES measurements, examine the temporal adn spatial relation between the two data sets, and estimate the intensities of electron precipitation with ascertained uncertainties. Then, from Van Allen Probes data, we select another list of dropout events during storms. By cross checking the above two lists, we are able to determine the causal relation between precipitation and dropouts through individual case as well as statistical studies so as to quantify the contributions from precipitation. This study mainly focuses on the relatively small L-shells with positive phase space density radial gradient in order to alleviate the impacts from outward radial diffusion and adiabatic effects. Based upon the recent discovery of cross-energy cross-pitch angle coherence, we pay particular attention to the cross-term diffusions which may account for the extra "loss" needed by observed MeV electron dropouts. Results from this observational study will advance our knowledge on the loss mechanism of outer-belt electrons, and thus lay down another stepping stone towards high-fidelity physics-based models for

  5. Storm water control plan for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    1996-04-01

    This document provides the Environmental Restoration Program with information about the erosion and sediment control, storm water management, maintenance, and reporting and record keeping practices to be employed during Phase II of the remediation project for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) Operable Unit

  6. Prediction of geomagnetic storms from solar wind data with the use of a neural network

    H. Lundstedt

    Full Text Available An artificial feed-forward neural network with one hidden layer and error back-propagation learning is used to predict the geomagnetic activity index (Dst one hour in advance. The Bz-component and ΣBz, the density, and the velocity of the solar wind are used as input to the network. The network is trained on data covering a total of 8700 h, extracted from the 25-year period from 1963 to 1987, taken from the NSSDC data base. The performance of the network is examined with test data, not included in the training set, which covers 386 h and includes four different storms. Whilst the network predicts the initial and main phase well, the recovery phase is not modelled correctly, implying that a single hidden layer error back-propagation network is not enough, if the measured Dst is not available instantaneously. The performance of the network is independent of whether the raw parameters are used, or the electric field and square root of the dynamical pressure.

  7. Short- and medium-term response to storms on three Mediterranean coarse-grained beaches

    Grottoli, Edoardo; Bertoni, Duccio; Ciavola, Paolo

    2017-10-01

    The storm response of three Italian coarse-grained beaches was investigated to better understand the morphodynamics of coarse-clastic beaches in a microtidal context. Two of the studied sites are located on the eastern side of the country (Portonovo and Sirolo) and the third one (Marina di Pisa) is on the western side. Portonovo and Sirolo are mixed sand and gravel beaches where the storms approach from two main directions, SE and NE. Marina di Pisa is a coarse-grained, gravel-dominated beach, exposed to storms driven by SW winds. Gravel nourishments were undertaken in recent years on the three sites. Beach topography was monitored measuring the same network of cross sections at a monthly (i.e. short-term) to seasonal frequency (i.e. medium-term). Geomorphic changes were examined before and after storm occurrences by means of profile analyses and shoreline position evaluations. The beach orientation and the influence of hard structures are the main factors controlling the transport and accumulation of significant amount of sediments and the consequent high variability of beach morphology over the medium-term. For Marina di Pisa, storms tend to accumulate material towards the upper part of the beach with no shoreline rotation and no chance to recover the initial configuration. Sirolo and Portonovo showed a similar behaviour that is more typical of pocket beaches. Both beaches show shoreline rotation after storms in a clockwise or counter-clockwise direction according to the incoming wave direction. The wider and longer beach at Sirolo allows the accumulation of a thin layer of sediment during storms, rather than at Portonovo where, given its longshore and landward boundaries, the beach material tends to accumulate in greater thickness. After storms, Sirolo and especially Portonovo can quickly recover the initial beach configuration, as soon as another storm of comparable energy approaches from the opposite direction of the previous one. Large morphological

  8. Thyroid Storm: A Japanese Perspective.

    Akamizu, Takashi

    2018-01-01

    Thyroid storm (TS) is life threatening. In the mid-2000s, its incidence was poorly defined, peer-reviewed diagnostic criteria were not available, and management and treatment did not seem to be verified based upon evidence and latest advances in medicine. First, diagnostic criteria were developed based on 99 patients in the literature and seven patients in this study. Then, initial and follow-up surveys were conducted from 2004 through 2008, targeting all hospitals in Japan to obtain and verify information on patients who met diagnostic criteria for TS. Based on these data, the diagnostic criteria were revised, and management and treatment guidelines were created. The incidence of TS in hospitalized patients in Japan was estimated to be 0.20 per 100,000 per year and 0.22% of all thyrotoxic patients. The mortality rate was 10.7%. Multiple organ failure was the most common cause of death, followed by congestive heart failure, respiratory failure, and arrhythmia. In the final diagnostic criteria for TS, the definition of jaundice as serum bilirubin concentration >3 mg/dL was added. Based upon nationwide surveys and the latest information, guidelines for the management and treatment for TS were extensively revised and algorithms were developed. TS remains a life-threatening disorder, with >10% mortality in Japan. New peer-reviewed diagnostic criteria for TS are presented and its clinical features, prognosis, and incidence are clarified based on nationwide surveys. Furthermore, this information helped to establish detailed guidelines for the management and treatment of TS. A prospective prognostic study to validate the guidelines is eagerly anticipated.

  9. Research Opportunities at Storm Peak Laboratory

    Hallar, A. G.; McCubbin, I. B.

    2006-12-01

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) operates a high elevation facility, Storm Peak Laboratory (SPL), located on the west summit of Mt. Werner in the Park Range near Steamboat Springs, Colorado at an elevation of 3210 m MSL (Borys and Wetzel, 1997). SPL provides an ideal location for long-term research on the interactions of atmospheric aerosol and gas- phase chemistry with cloud and natural radiation environments. The ridge-top location produces almost daily transition from free tropospheric to boundary layer air which occurs near midday in both summer and winter seasons. Long-term observations at SPL document the role of orographically induced mixing and convection on vertical pollutant transport and dispersion. During winter, SPL is above cloud base 25% of the time, providing a unique capability for studying aerosol-cloud interactions (Borys and Wetzel, 1997). A comprehensive set of continuous aerosol measurements was initiated at SPL in 2002. SPL includes an office-type laboratory room for computer and instrumentation setup with outside air ports and cable access to the roof deck, a cold room for precipitation and cloud rime ice sample handling and ice crystal microphotography, a 150 m2 roof deck area for outside sampling equipment, a full kitchen and two bunk rooms with sleeping space for nine persons. The laboratory is currently well equipped for aerosol and cloud measurements. Particles are sampled from an insulated, 15 cm diameter manifold within approximately 1 m of its horizontal entry point through an outside wall. The 4 m high vertical section outside the building is capped with an inverted can to exclude large particles.

  10. Dust Storms: Why Are Dust Storms a Concern?

    ... Skip to main content ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH CONCERNS AND TOXIC CHEMICALS WHERE YOU LIVE, WORK, AND PLAY Search:  Home ... Tree Farm and Logging Uranium Tailings Urban and Industrial Runoff Urban ... Acetone Ammonia Arsenic Asbestos Benzene Bisphenol A (BPA) ...

  11. Storm induced large scale TIDs observed in GPS derived TEC

    C. Borries

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This work is a first statistical analysis of large scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (LSTID in Europe using total electron content (TEC data derived from GNSS measurements. The GNSS receiver network in Europe is dense enough to map the ionospheric perturbation TEC with high horizontal resolution. The derived perturbation TEC maps are analysed studying the effect of space weather events on the ionosphere over Europe.

    Equatorward propagating storm induced wave packets have been identified during several geomagnetic storms. Characteristic parameters such as velocity, wavelength and direction were estimated from the perturbation TEC maps. Showing a mean wavelength of 2000 km, a mean period of 59 min and a phase speed of 684 ms−1 in average, the perturbations are allocated to LSTID. The comparison to LSTID observed over Japan shows an equal wavelength but a considerably faster phase speed. This might be attributed to the differences in the distance to the auroral region or inclination/declination of the geomagnetic field lines.

    The observed correlation between the LSTID amplitudes and the Auroral Electrojet (AE indicates that most of the wave like perturbations are exited by Joule heating. Particle precipitation effects could not be separated.

  12. Storm induced large scale TIDs observed in GPS derived TEC

    C. Borries

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This work is a first statistical analysis of large scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (LSTID in Europe using total electron content (TEC data derived from GNSS measurements. The GNSS receiver network in Europe is dense enough to map the ionospheric perturbation TEC with high horizontal resolution. The derived perturbation TEC maps are analysed studying the effect of space weather events on the ionosphere over Europe. Equatorward propagating storm induced wave packets have been identified during several geomagnetic storms. Characteristic parameters such as velocity, wavelength and direction were estimated from the perturbation TEC maps. Showing a mean wavelength of 2000 km, a mean period of 59 min and a phase speed of 684 ms−1 in average, the perturbations are allocated to LSTID. The comparison to LSTID observed over Japan shows an equal wavelength but a considerably faster phase speed. This might be attributed to the differences in the distance to the auroral region or inclination/declination of the geomagnetic field lines. The observed correlation between the LSTID amplitudes and the Auroral Electrojet (AE indicates that most of the wave like perturbations are exited by Joule heating. Particle precipitation effects could not be separated.

  13. Effects of dust storm events on weekly clinic visits related to pulmonary tuberculosis disease in Minqin, China

    Wang, Yun; Wang, Ruoyu; Ming, Jing; Liu, Guangxiu; Chen, Tuo; Liu, Xinfeng; Liu, Haixia; Zhen, Yunhe; Cheng, Guodong

    2016-02-01

    Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is a major public health problem in China. Minqin, a Northwest county of China, has a very high number of annual PTB clinic visits and it is also known for its severe dust storms. The epidemic usually begins in February and ends in July, while the dust storms mainly occur throughout spring and early summer, thereby suggesting that there might be a close link between the causative agent of PTB and dust storms. We investigated the general impact of dust storms on PTB over time by analyzing the variation in weekly clinic visits in Minqin during 2005-2012. We used the Mann-Whitney-Pettitt test and a regression model to determine the seasonal periodicity of PTB and dust storms in a time series, as well as assessing the relationships between meteorological variables and weekly PTB clinic visits. After comparing the number of weekly PTB cases in Gansu province with dust storm events, we detected a clear link between the population dynamics of PTB and climate events, i.e., the onset of epidemics and dust storms (defined by an atmospheric index) occurred in almost the same mean week. Thus, particulate matter might be the cause of PTB outbreaks on dust storm days. It is highly likely that the significant decline in annual clinic visits was closely associated with improvements in the local environment, which prevented desertification and decreased the frequency of dust storm events. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first population-based study to provide clear evidence that a PTB epidemic was affected by dust storms in China, which may give insights into the association between this environmental problem and the evolution of epidemic disease.

  14. The StoRM Certification Process

    Ronchieri, Elisabetta; Dibenedetto, Michele; Zappi, Riccardo; Dal Pra, Stefano; Aiftimiei, Cristina; Traldi, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    StoRM is an implementation of the SRM interface version 2.2 used by all Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments and non-LHC experiments as SRM endpoint at different Tiers of Worldwide LHC Computing Grid. The complexity of its services and the demand of experiments and users are increasing day by day. The growing needs in terms of service level by the StoRM users communities make it necessary to design and implement a more effective testing procedure to quickly and reliably validate new StoRM candidate releases both in code side (for example via test units, and schema valuator) and in final product software (for example via functionality tests, and stress tests). Testing software service is a very critical quality activity performed in a very ad-hoc informal manner by developers, testers and users of StoRM up to now. In this paper, we describe the certification mechanism used by StoRM team to increase the robustness and reliability of the StoRM services. Various typologies of tests, such as quality, installation, configuration, functionality, stress and performance, defined on the base of a set of use cases gathered as consequence of the collaboration among the StoRM team, experiments and users, are illustrated. Each typology of test is either increased or decreased easily from time to time. The proposed mechanism is based on a new configurable testsuite. This is executed by the certification team, who is responsible for validating the release candidate package as well as bug fix (or patch) package, given a certain testbed that considers all possible use cases. In correspondence of each failure, the package is given back to developers waiting for validating a new package.

  15. Coastal Storm Surge Analysis: Storm Surge Results. Report 5: Intermediate Submission No. 3

    2013-11-01

    Vickery, P., D. Wadhera, A. Cox, V. Cardone , J. Hanson, and B. Blanton. 2012. Coastal storm surge analysis: Storm forcing (Intermediate Submission No...CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Jeffrey L. Hanson, Michael F. Forte, Brian Blanton

  16. The structure of mid- and high-latitude ionosphere during September 1999 storm event obtained from GPS observations

    I. I. Shagimuratov

    Full Text Available TEC data, obtained from over 60 GPS stations, were used to study the ionospheric effects of the 12–16 September 1999 magnetic storm over Europe. The spatial and temporal changes of the ionosphere were analysed as a time series of TEC maps, which present 15 min averages of TEC. The data set consisting of GPS observations, collected by a dense network of European stations, with sampling rate of 30 s, enable the creation of TEC maps with high spatial and temporal resolution. The storm included the positive as well as the negative phase. The positive phase took place during the first storm day of 12 September 1999. The short-lived daytime TEC enhancement was observed at all latitudes. The maximal enhancement reached a factor of 1.3–1.5. On the second and third days, the negative phase of the storm developed. The TEC decrease was registered regardless of time of the day. The TEC depression exceeded 70% relative to quiet days. On the following days (15 and 16 September, a significant daytime enhancement of TEC was observed once again. The complex occurrence of the ionospheric storm was probably related to the features of development of the magnetic storm. We found out that during the storm the large and medium-scale irregularities developed in the high-latitude ionosphere. The multi-stations technique, employed to create TEC maps, was particularly successful while studying the mid-latitude ionospheric trough. We found out that the essential changes of TEC during the storm, which were registered at the auroral and sub-auroral ionosphere, were connected with the effect of the trough and its dynamics, which depends on geomagnetic activity.

    Key words. Ionosphere (ionospheric disturbances; auroral ionosphere; mid-latitude ionosphere

  17. Main Memory DBMS

    P.A. Boncz (Peter); L. Liu (Lei); M. Tamer Özsu

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractA main memory database system is a DBMS that primarily relies on main memory for computer data storage. In contrast, normal database management systems employ hard disk based persisntent storage.

  18. Examples of storm impacts on barrier islands: Chapter 4

    Plant, Nathaniel G.; Doran, Kara; Stockdon, Hilary F.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the morphologic variability of barrier islands and on the differences in storm response. It describes different types of barrier island response to individual storms, as well as the integrated response of barrier islands to many storms. The chapter considers case study on the Chandeleur Island chain, where a decadal time series of island elevation measurements have documented a wide range of barrier island responses to storms and long-term processes that are representative of barrier island behaviour at many other locations. These islands are low elevation, extremely vulnerable to storms and exhibit a diversity of storm responses. Additionally, this location experiences a moderately high rate of relative sea-level rise, increasing its vulnerability to the combined impacts of storms and long-term erosional processes. Understanding how natural processes, including storm impacts and intervening recovery periods interact with man-made restoration processes is also broadly relevant to understand the natural and human response to future storms.

  19. Acceleration and loss of relativistic electrons during small geomagnetic storms.

    Anderson, B R; Millan, R M; Reeves, G D; Friedel, R H W

    2015-12-16

    Past studies of radiation belt relativistic electrons have favored active storm time periods, while the effects of small geomagnetic storms ( D s t  > -50 nT) have not been statistically characterized. In this timely study, given the current weak solar cycle, we identify 342 small storms from 1989 through 2000 and quantify the corresponding change in relativistic electron flux at geosynchronous orbit. Surprisingly, small storms can be equally as effective as large storms at enhancing and depleting fluxes. Slight differences exist, as small storms are 10% less likely to result in flux enhancement and 10% more likely to result in flux depletion than large storms. Nevertheless, it is clear that neither acceleration nor loss mechanisms scale with storm drivers as would be expected. Small geomagnetic storms play a significant role in radiation belt relativistic electron dynamics and provide opportunities to gain new insights into the complex balance of acceleration and loss processes.

  20. Mathematical modeling of tornadoes and squall storms

    Sergey A. Arsen’yev

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in modeling of tornadoes and twisters consist of significant achievements in mathematical calculation of occurrence and evolution of a violent F5-class tornado on the Fujita scale, and four-dimensional mathematical modeling of a tornado with the fourth coordinate time multiplied by its characteristic velocity. Such a tornado can arise in a thunderstorm supercell filled with turbulent whirlwinds. A theory of the squall storms is proposed. The squall storm is modeled by running perturbation of the temperature inversion on the lower boundary of cloudiness. This perturbation is induced by the action of strong, hurricane winds in the upper and middle troposphere, and looks like a running solitary wave (soliton; which is developed also in a field of pressure and velocity of a wind. If a soliton of a squall storm gets into the thunderstorm supercell then this soliton is captured by supercell. It leads to additional pressure fall of air inside a storm supercell and stimulate amplification of wind velocity here. As a result, a cyclostrophic balance inside a storm supercell generates a tornado. Comparison of the radial distribution of wind velocity inside a tornado calculated by using the new formulas and equations with radar observations of the wind velocity inside Texas Tornado Dummit in 1995 and inside the 3 May 1999 Oklahoma City Tornado shows good correspondence.

  1. Factors Associated With Mortality of Thyroid Storm

    Ono, Yosuke; Ono, Sachiko; Yasunaga, Hideo; Matsui, Hiroki; Fushimi, Kiyohide; Tanaka, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Thyroid storm is a life-threatening and emergent manifestation of thyrotoxicosis. However, predictive features associated with fatal outcomes in this crisis have not been clearly defined because of its rarity. The objective of this study was to investigate the associations of patient characteristics, treatments, and comorbidities with in-hospital mortality. We conducted a retrospective observational study of patients diagnosed with thyroid storm using a national inpatient database in Japan from April 1, 2011 to March 31, 2014. Of approximately 21 million inpatients in the database, we identified 1324 patients diagnosed with thyroid storm. The mean (standard deviation) age was 47 (18) years, and 943 (71.3%) patients were female. The overall in-hospital mortality was 10.1%. The number of patients was highest in the summer season. The most common comorbidity at admission was cardiovascular diseases (46.6%). Multivariable logistic regression analyses showed that higher mortality was significantly associated with older age (≥60 years), central nervous system dysfunction at admission, nonuse of antithyroid drugs and β-blockade, and requirement for mechanical ventilation and therapeutic plasma exchange combined with hemodialysis. The present study identified clinical features associated with mortality of thyroid storm using large-scale data. Physicians should pay special attention to older patients with thyrotoxicosis and coexisting central nervous system dysfunction. Future prospective studies are needed to clarify treatment options that could improve the survival outcomes of thyroid storm. PMID:26886648

  2. Thyrotoxicosis and Choledocholithiasis Masquerading as Thyroid Storm

    Christian L. Horn

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A 26-year-old female, thirteen months postpartum, presented to the emergency department for four weeks of epigastric abdominal pain, pruritus, new onset jaundice, and 11.3 kgs (25 lbs unintentional weight loss. On examination, she was afebrile, tachycardic, alert, and oriented and had jaundice with scleral icterus. Labs were significant for undetectable TSH, FT4 that was too high to measure, and elevated total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, and transaminases. Abdominal ultrasound revealed cholelithiasis without biliary ductal dilation. Treatment for presumed thyroid storm was initiated. Further work-up with magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP revealed an obstructing cholelith within the distal common bile duct. With the presence of choledocholithiasis explaining the jaundice and abdominal pain, plus the absence of CNS alterations, the diagnosis of thyroid storm was revised to thyrotoxicosis complicated by choledocholithiasis. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatogram (ERCP with sphincterotomy was performed to alleviate the biliary obstruction, with prompt symptomatic improvement. Thyroid storm is a rare manifestation of hyperthyroidism with a high rate of morbidity and mortality. The diagnosis of thyroid storm is based on clinical examination, and abnormal thyroid function tests do not correlate with disease severity. Knowledge of the many manifestations of thyroid storm will facilitate a quick and accurate diagnosis and treatment.

  3. Body-wave seismic interferometry applied to earthquake- and storm-induced wavefield

    Ruigrok, E.N.

    2012-01-01

    Seismology is the study of the vibration of the Earth. Seismologists pay much attention to the main source of Earth vibration: earthquakes. But also other seismic sources, like mining blasts, ocean storms and windmills, are studied. All these sources induce seismic waves, which can eventually be

  4. Hardwood crown injuries and rebuilding following ice storms: a literature review

    Martin J. Kraemer; Ralph D. Nyland

    2010-01-01

    Ice storms occur frequently in northeastern North America. They damage and kill trees, change the structural characteristics of a forest, and may importantly alter the goods and services that owners realize from their land. This literature review summarizes 90 years of relevant information, mainly from fairly short term studies published between 1904 and 2006. It...

  5. Detailed Analysis of Solar Data Related to Historical Extreme Geomagnetic Storms: 1868 – 2010

    Lefèvre, Laure; Vennerstrøm, Susanne; Dumbović, Mateja

    2016-01-01

    An analysis of historical Sun–Earth connection events in the context of the most extreme space weather events of the last ∼ 150 years is presented. To identify the key factors leading to these extreme events, a sample of the most important geomagnetic storms was selected based mainly on the well-...

  6. Thermal Tides During the 2001 Martian Global-Scale Dust Storm

    Guzewich, Scott D.; Wilson, R. John; McConnochie, Timothy H.; Toigo, Anthony D.; Bandfield, Donald J.; Smith, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    The 2001 (Mars Year 25) global dust storm radically altered the dynamics of the Martian atmosphere. Using observations from the Thermal Emission Spectrometer onboard the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft and Mars WRF general circulation model simulations, we examine the changes to thermal tides and planetary waves caused by the storm. We find that the extratropical diurnal migrating tide is dramatically enhanced during the storm, particularly in the southern hemisphere, reaching amplitudes of more than 20 K. The tropical diurnal migrating tide is weakened to almost undetectable levels. The diurnal Kelvin waves are also significantly weakened, particularly during the period of global expansion at Ls=200deg-210deg. In contrast, the westward propagating diurnal wavenumber 2 tide strengthens to 4-8 K at altitudes above 30km. The wavenumber 1 stationary wave reaches amplitudes of 10-12 K at 50deg-70degN, far larger than is typically seen during this time of year. The phase of this stationary wave and the enhancement of the diurnal wavenumber 2 tide appear to be responses to the high-altitude westward propagating equatorial wavenumber 1 structure in dust mixing ratio observed during the storm in previous works. This work provides a global picture of dust storm wave dynamics that reveals the coupling between the tropics and high-latitude wave responses. We conclude that the zonal distribution of thermotidal forcing from atmospheric aerosol concentration is as important to understanding the atmospheric wave response as the total global mean aerosol optical depth.

  7. Effect of Tide Elevation on Extratropical Storm Surge in Northwest Europe

    Keshtpoor, M.; Carnacina, I.; Yablonsky, R. M.

    2016-12-01

    Extratropical cyclones (ETCs) are the major storm surge-generating meteorological events in northwest Europe. The total water level increase induced by these ETCs is significantly influenced by the local tidal range, which exceeds 8 meters along the southwestern UK coastline. In particular, a surge-generating ETC during high tide may put coastal assets and infrastructure in risk. Also, during low tide, the risk of surge induced by extreme ETC events is diminished. Here, the effect of tidal elevation on storm surge is investigated at 196 tide gauges in northwest Europe. A numerical, hydrodynamic model was developed using Delft3D-FM framework to simulate the coastal hydrodynamics during ETCs. Then, 1750 historical events were simulated to investigate the pattern of coastal inundation. Results suggest that in areas with a large tidal range ( 8 meters) and during the time period surrounding high or low tide, the pattern of coastal hydrodynamics is governed by tide and not storm surge. This result is most evident near the English Channel and Bristol Channel, where low frequency maximum water levels are observed when storm surge is combined with high tide. In contrast, near the tidal phase reversal, coastal hydrodynamics responds primarily to the storm surge, and low frequency maximum water elevation largely depends on the surge. In the areas with a small tidal range, ETC strength determines the pattern of coastal inundation.

  8. Determination of blood concentrations of main active compounds in Zi-Cao-Cheng-Qi decoction and their total plasma protein binding rates based on hollow fiber liquid phase microextraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography.

    Li, Miaomiao; Chen, Xuan; Hu, Shuang; Wang, Runqin; Peng, Xiaoli; Bai, Xiaohong

    2018-01-01

    Oil-in-salt hollow fiber liquid phase microextraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV) was developed for determination of the blood concentrations of the main active compounds, hesperidin, honokiol, shikonin, magnolol, emodin and β,β'-dimethylacrylshikonin, after oral administration of Zi-Cao-Cheng-Qi decoction (ZCCQD) and their total plasma protein binding rates. In the procedure, a hollow fiber segment was immersed in organic solvent to fill the solvent in the fiber lumen and wall pore, and then the fiber was immersed into sodium chloride solution to cover a thin salt membrane on the fiber wall pore filling organic solvent. Various factors affecting the procedure, such as extraction solvent, sample phase pH, stirring rate, extraction time, NaCl concentration and fiber immersion time in the NaCl solution, were optimized. Under the optimum conditions, good linearities (r 2 ≥0.9905), low limits of detection (0.7-2.5ng/mL) or quantitation (1.2-12ng/mL), satisfactory precision (2.6%-12.8%) and accuracy (81.0%-114.2%) of this method, were observed. The results showed that, after oral administration of a 25g/kg dose, (1) the blood concentrations (at 0.5h) of hesperidin, honokiol, shikonin, magnolol, emodin and β,β'-dimethylacrylshikonin were 0.45, 0.40, 0.48, 0.74, 0.11 and 1.11μg/mL, respectively; (2) the total plasma protein binding rates of the six active compounds were 42.0% (hesperidin), 71.8% (honokiol), 64.6% (shikonin), 77.7% (magnolol), 75.3% (emodin) and 75.7% (β,β'-dimethylacrylshikonin), respectively. The proposed procedure coupled with HPLC shows obvious advantages, such as low solvent consumption, simple operation, high sensitivity and strong purifying and can be used for the determination of both the blood concentrations and total plasma protein binding rates of active compounds in traditional Chinese medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Response of the Ionospheric F-region in the Latin American Sector During the Intense Geomagnetic Storm of 21-22 January 2005

    Sahai, Y.; Fagundes, P. R.; de Jesus, R.; de Abreu, A. J.; Crowley, G.; Pillat, V. G.; Guarnieri, F. L.; Abalde, J. R.; Bittencourt, J. A.

    2009-12-01

    Ionospheric storms are closely associated with geomagnetic storms and are an extreme example of space weather events. The response of the ionosphere to storms is rather complicated. In the present investigation, we have studied the response of the ionospheric F-region in the Latin American sector during the intense geomagnetic storm of 21-22 January 2005 (with storm sudden commencement (SSC) at 1712 UT on 21 January). This geomagnetic storm is anomalous (minimum Dst reached -105 nT at 0700 UT on 22 January) because the main phase occurred during the northward excursion of the Bz component of interplanetary magnetic fields (IMFs). The monthly mean F10.7 solar flux for the month of January 2005 was 99.0 sfu. The ionospheric F-region parameters observed at Ramey (18.5 N, 67.1 W; RAM), Puerto Rico, Jicamarca (12.0 S, 76.8 W; JIC), Peru, Manaus (2.9 S, 60.0 W; MAN), and São José dos Campos (23.2 S, 45.9 W; SJC), Brazil, during 21-22 January (geomagnetically disturbed) and 25 January (geomagnetically quiet) have been analyzed. Both JIC and MAN, the equatorial stations, show unusually rapid uplifting of the F-region peak heights(hpF2/hmF2) and a decrease in the NmF2 coincident with the time of SSC. At both RAM and SJC an uplifting of the F-region peak height is observed at about 2000 UT. The low-latitude station SJC shows a coincident decrease in NmF2 with the uplifting, whereas the mid-latitude station RAM shows a decrease in NmF2 earlier than the uplifting. Also, the observed variations in the F-region ionospheric parameters are compared with the TIMEGCM model run for 21-22 January and the model results show both similarities and differences from the observed results. Average GPS-TEC (21-22 and 25 January) and phase fluctuations (21, 22, 25, 26 January) observed at Belem (1.5 S, 48.5 W; BELE), Brasilia (15.9 S, 47.9 W; BRAZ), Presidente Prudente (22.3o S, 51.4 W; UEPP), and Porto Alegre (30.1 S, 51.1 W; POAL), Brazil, are also presented. These GPS stations belong to

  10. Psychological stress in hydro workers of the 1998 ice storm : a longitudinal investigation (Quebec)

    Benzimra, Y.

    2003-07-01

    This thesis examined occupational stress in terms of the stressful transactions that take place between workers and their workplace. In particular, it documented some of the experiences of hydro workers during the ice storm of 1998 which hit eastern Canada. In addition to identifying stressors, this study assessed the worker's levels of psychological stress and distress 5 and 10 months following the storm. It also examined differences in psychological stress and distress levels between workers with different levels of exposure to the storm. The added contribution of appraised extra-organization stressors to the prediction of psychological stress was also assessed along with the added contribution of extra-organizational sources of support to the prediction of psychological stress. The objective was to test an integrative model of workplace stress and overall distress to better understand the relationship between psychological stress and distress levels over time. Two phases of data, 5 months apart, were collected from full-time employees of Hydro-Quebec, including both men and women who filled out questionnaires about perceived social support and other indicators of overall stress. The results revealed different experiences of the recovery effort workers during and after the ice storm. The experiences of different groups of workers varied depending on the type and degree of involvement in the recovery efforts from the storm. The results emphasized the importance of considering appraised organization stressors when predicting psychological stress. The study revealed that psychological stress 5 months following the ice storm did not add significantly to the prediction of psychological distress 5 months later, once the contribution of psychological distress at the first phase was accounted for.

  11. VLF Wave Properties During Geomagnetic Storms

    Blancarte, J.; Artemyev, A.; Mozer, F.; Agapitov, O. V.

    2017-12-01

    Whistler-mode chorus is important for the global dynamics of the inner magnetosphere electron population due to its ability to scatter and accelerate electrons of a wide energy range in the outer radiation belt. The parameters of these VLF emissions change dynamically during geomagnetic storms. Presented is an analysis of four years of Van Allen probe data, utilizing electric and magnetic field in the VLF range focused on the dynamics of chorus wave properties during the enhancement of geomagnetic activity. It is found that VLF emissions respond to geomagnetic storms in more complicated ways than just by affecting the waves' amplitude growth or depletion. Oblique wave amplitudes grow together with parallel waves during periods of intermediate geomagnetic activity, while the occurrence rate of oblique waves decreases during larger geomagnetic storms.

  12. Thyroid storm precipitated by radioactive iodine therapy

    Redkar, Neelam N.; Rawat, Kavita J.; Yelale, Abhijit; Shivchand, Akshay

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid storm or thyrotoxic crisis is a rare but life-threatening condition requiring immediate treatment, preferably in an intensive care unit. Its incidence is about 1-2% among patients with overt hyperthyroidism. A thyrotoxic crisis occurs predominantly in the elderly and is three to five times more common in women than in men. The overall mortality is 10-20%. Even though the pathogenesis is still not fully understood, an increased sensitivity to catecholamines appears to be an important mechanism, and a number of endogenous and exogenous stress factors that can provoke the onset of a thyrotoxic storm have been identified. Authors presented a case where the cause of precipitation of thyroid storm was improper preparation of patient for Radioactive iodine treatment

  13. Storm time electric field penetration observed at mid-latitude

    Yeh, H.C.; Foster, J.C.; Rich, F.J.; Swider, W.

    1991-01-01

    During the height of the February 8-9, 1986, magnetic storm the Millstone Hill radar was in the evening local time sector (1600-2200 MLT). Radar observations indicate that high speed (>1,000 m s -1 ) westward ion flow penetrated deeply below 50 degree invariant latitude (Λ) and persisted for 6 hours between 2100 UT on February 8 and 0300 UT on February 9. The double-peaked ion convection feature was pronounced throughout the period, and the separation in the dual maxima ranged from 4 degree to 10 degree. The latitude positions of the high-latitude ion drift peak and the convection reversal varied in unison. The low-latitude ion drift peak (∼49 degree Λ or L =2.3) did not show significant universal time/magnetic local time (UT/MLT) variation in its latitude location but showed a decrease in magnitude during the initial recovery phase of the storm. Using simultaneous particle (30 eV-30 keV) precipitation data from the DMSP F6 and F7 satellites, the authors find the high-latitude ion drift peak to coincide with the boundary plasma sheet/central plasma sheet transition in the high ionospheric conductivity (>15 mho) region. The low-latitude ion drift peak lay between the equatorward edges of the electron and soft ( + dominated ring current energy density in magnetic latitude. The low-latitude ion drift peak is the low-altitude signature of the electric field shielding effect associated with ring current penetration into the outer layer of the storm time plasmasphere

  14. The assessment of Urban Storm Inundation

    Setyandito, Oki; Wijayanti, Yureana; Alwan, Muhammad; Chayati, Cholilul; Meilani

    2017-12-01

    A Sustainable and integrated plan in order to solve urban storm inundation problem, is an urgent issue in Indonesia. A reliable and complete datasets of urban storm inundation area in Indonesia should become its basis to give clear description of inundation area for formulating the best solution. In this study, Statistics Indonesia data in thirty three provinces were assessed during 2000 until 2012 providing data series of urban flood area, flood frequency and land cover changes. Drainage system condition in big cities should be well understood to ensure its infrastructure condition and performance. If inundation occurred, it can be concluded that there is drainage system problem. Inundation data is also important for drainage system design process in the future. The study result is provided estimation of urban storm inundation area based on calculation of Statistics Indonesia data. Moreover, this study is preceded by analyzing and reviewing the capacity of existing drainage channel, using case study of Mataram, West Nusa Tenggara. Rainfall data was obtained from three rainfall stations surround Mataram City. The storm water quantity was calculated using three different approaches as follows: 1) Rational Method; 2) Summation of existing inundation and surface run off discharge; 3) Discharge calculation from existing channel dimensions. After that, the result of these approaches was compared. The storm water quantity gap was concluded as quantity of inundation. The result shows that 36% of drainage channel in Brenyok Kanan River sub system could not accommodate the storm water runoff in this area, which causing inundation. The redesign of drainage channel using design discharge from Rational Method approach should be performed. Within area with the lowest level topography, a construction of detention or storage pond is essential to prevent inundation in this area. Furthermore, the benefits and drawbacks of the statistics database are discussed. Recommendations

  15. Zonal wind observations during a geomagnetic storm

    Miller, N. J.; Spencer, N. W.

    1986-01-01

    In situ measurements taken by the Wind and Temperature Spectrometer (WATS) onboard the Dynamics Explorer 2 spacecraft during a geomagnetic storm display zonal wind velocities that are reduced in the corotational direction as the storm intensifies. The data were taken within the altitudes 275 to 475 km in the dusk local time sector equatorward of the auroral region. Characteristic variations in the value of the Dst index of horizontal geomagnetic field strength are used to monitor the storm evolution. The detected global rise in atmospheric gas temperature indicates the development of thermospheric heating. Concurrent with that heating, reductions in corotational wind velocities were measured equatorward of the auroral region. Just after the sudden commencement, while thermospheric heating is intense in both hemispheres, eastward wind velocities in the northern hemisphere show reductions ranging from 500 m/s over high latitudes to 30 m/s over the geomagnetic equator. After 10 hours storm time, while northern thermospheric heating is diminishing, wind velocity reductions, distinct from those initially observed, begin to develop over southern latitudes. In the latter case, velocity reductions range from 300 m/s over the highest southern latitudes to 150 m/s over the geomagnetic equator and extend into the Northern Hemisphere. The observations highlight the interhemispheric asymmetry in the development of storm effects detected as enhanced gas temperatures and reduced eastward wind velocities. Zonal wind reductions over high latitudes can be attributed to the storm induced equatorward spread of westward polar cap plasma convection and the resulting plasma-neutral collisions. However, those collisions are less significant over low latitudes; so zonal wind reductions over low latitudes must be attributed to an equatorward extension of a thermospheric circulation pattern disrupted by high latitude collisions between neutrals transported via eastward winds and ions

  16. Adaptive mesh refinement for storm surge

    Mandli, Kyle T.; Dawson, Clint N.

    2014-01-01

    An approach to utilizing adaptive mesh refinement algorithms for storm surge modeling is proposed. Currently numerical models exist that can resolve the details of coastal regions but are often too costly to be run in an ensemble forecasting framework without significant computing resources. The application of adaptive mesh refinement algorithms substantially lowers the computational cost of a storm surge model run while retaining much of the desired coastal resolution. The approach presented is implemented in the GeoClaw framework and compared to ADCIRC for Hurricane Ike along with observed tide gauge data and the computational cost of each model run. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Adaptive mesh refinement for storm surge

    Mandli, Kyle T.

    2014-03-01

    An approach to utilizing adaptive mesh refinement algorithms for storm surge modeling is proposed. Currently numerical models exist that can resolve the details of coastal regions but are often too costly to be run in an ensemble forecasting framework without significant computing resources. The application of adaptive mesh refinement algorithms substantially lowers the computational cost of a storm surge model run while retaining much of the desired coastal resolution. The approach presented is implemented in the GeoClaw framework and compared to ADCIRC for Hurricane Ike along with observed tide gauge data and the computational cost of each model run. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Main ionospheric trough in the daytime sector studied on the basis of vertical sounding data

    Benkova, N.P.; Kozlov, E.F.; Mozhaev, A.M.; Osipov, N.K.; Samorokin, N.I.

    1980-09-01

    Data for 1969-1973 are used to study the displacement of the main ionospheric trough during daytime magnetic storms. The depth of the trough and electron density gradients on the sides of the trough are determined. The trough is found to move in a southeasterly direction during daytime storms. The results agree with theoretical conclusions that explain the formation of the trough by the collective transport of ionospheric plasma in a sunward direction.

  19. Characterizations of the first flush in storm water runoff from an urban roadway.

    Lee, B C; Matsui, S; Shimizu, Y; Matsuda, T

    2005-07-01

    Storm water runoff from urban roadways contains anthropogenic pollutants, which are mainly generated from traffic-related activities. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of pollutants from the roadway runoff as well as first flush effects. Storm water runoff was sampled during five storm events from the experimental site in Otsu, Shiga, Japan. From the hydrographs and pollutographs for the roadway runoff, the concentration of pollutants increased with increasing runoff flow in the low flow rate event, but did not significantly increase in the high flow rate event. Moreover, according to the analysis of cumulative pollutant mass versus runoff volume curves from five storm events, the first 50% of the runoff volume transported 62% of TOC and Mo, 60% of SS, 59% of Fe, Mn and Cu, 58% of Ni, 57% of Cd and Pb, 56% of Al, 55% of Zn, and 54% of Cr, as the mean values. The first 30% and 80% of the runoff volume also transported 34-43% mass of the pollutants and 82-88% mass of the pollutants, respectively. This study for storm water runoff may also provide useful information to correctly design treatment facilities, such as detention tanks and ponds, filtration and adsorption systems.

  20. Variability of the North Atlantic summer storm track: mechanisms and impacts on European climate

    Dong, Buwen; Sutton, Rowan T; Woollings, Tim; Hodges, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    The summertime variability of the extratropical storm track over the Atlantic sector and its links to European climate have been analysed for the period 1948–2011 using observations and reanalyses. The main results are as follows. (1) The dominant mode of the summer storm track density variability is characterized by a meridional shift of the storm track between two distinct paths and is related to a bimodal distribution in the climatology for this region. It is also closely related to the Summer North Atlantic Oscillation (SNAO). (2) A southward shift is associated with a downstream extension of the storm track and a decrease in blocking frequency over the UK and northwestern Europe. (3) The southward shift is associated with enhanced precipitation over the UK and northwestern Europe and decreased precipitation over southern Europe (contrary to the behaviour in winter). (4) There are strong ocean–atmosphere interactions related to the dominant mode of storm track variability. The atmosphere forces the ocean through anomalous surface fluxes and Ekman currents, but there is also some evidence consistent with an ocean influence on the atmosphere, and that coupled ocean–atmosphere feedbacks might play a role. The ocean influence on the atmosphere may be particularly important on decadal timescales, related to the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). (letter)

  1. Main messages of INPRO

    Khoroshev, M.

    2004-01-01

    In this presentation author deals with activities of the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO). It is concluded that INPRO has political, financial and technical support from Member States; Phase IA on the establishment of basic principles user requirements and criteria the development of an assessment methodology has been finalised; Phase IB addresses the validation of the INPRO methodology and the assessment of concepts and approaches; INPRO is open to all interested Member States an international organisations

  2. Ionospheric response to a recurrent magnetic storm during an event of High Speed Stream in October 2016.

    Nicoli Candido, C. M.; Resende, L.; Becker-Guedes, F.; Batista, I. S.

    2017-12-01

    In this work we investigate the response of the low latitude ionosphere to recurrent geomagnetic activity caused by events of High speed streams (HSSs)/Corotating Interaction Regions (CIRs) during the low descending phase of solar activity in the solar cycle 24. Intense magnetic field regions called Corotating Interaction Regions or CIRs are created by the interaction of fast streams and slow streams ejected by long duration coronal holes in Sun. This interaction leads to an increase in the mean interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) which causes moderate and recurrent geomagnetic activity when interacts with the Earth's magnetosphere. The ionosphere can be affected by these phenomena by several ways, such as an increase (or decrease) of the plasma ionization, intensification of plasma instabilities during post-sunset/post-midnight hours and subsequent development of plasma irregularities/spread-F, as well as occurrence of plasma scintillation. Therefore, we investigate the low latitude ionospheric response during moderate geomagnetic storm associated to an event of High Speed Stream occurred during decreasing phase of solar activity in 2016. An additional ionization increasing is observed in Es layer during the main peak of the geomagnetic storm. We investigate two possible different mechanisms that caused these extras ionization: the role of prompt penetration of interplanetary electric field, IEFEy at equatorial region, and the energetic electrons precipitation on the E and F layers variations. Finally, we used data from Digisondes installed at equatorial region, São Luís, and at conjugate points in Brazilian latitudes, Boa Vista and Cachoeira Paulista. We analyzed the ionospheric parameters such as the critical frequency of F layer, foF2, the F layer peak height, hmF2, the F layer bottomside, h'F, the blanketing frequency of sporadic layer, fbEs, the virtual height of Es layer h'Es and the top frequency of the Es layer ftEs during this event.

  3. Hybrid vs Adaptive Ensemble Kalman Filtering for Storm Surge Forecasting

    Altaf, M. U.; Raboudi, N.; Gharamti, M. E.; Dawson, C.; McCabe, M. F.; Hoteit, I.

    2014-12-01

    Recent storm surge events due to Hurricanes in the Gulf of Mexico have motivated the efforts to accurately forecast water levels. Toward this goal, a parallel architecture has been implemented based on a high resolution storm surge model, ADCIRC. However the accuracy of the model notably depends on the quality and the recentness of the input data (mainly winds and bathymetry), model parameters (e.g. wind and bottom drag coefficients), and the resolution of the model grid. Given all these uncertainties in the system, the challenge is to build an efficient prediction system capable of providing accurate forecasts enough ahead of time for the authorities to evacuate the areas at risk. We have developed an ensemble-based data assimilation system to frequently assimilate available data into the ADCIRC model in order to improve the accuracy of the model. In this contribution we study and analyze the performances of different ensemble Kalman filter methodologies for efficient short-range storm surge forecasting, the aim being to produce the most accurate forecasts at the lowest possible computing time. Using Hurricane Ike meteorological data to force the ADCIRC model over a domain including the Gulf of Mexico coastline, we implement and compare the forecasts of the standard EnKF, the hybrid EnKF and an adaptive EnKF. The last two schemes have been introduced as efficient tools for enhancing the behavior of the EnKF when implemented with small ensembles by exploiting information from a static background covariance matrix. Covariance inflation and localization are implemented in all these filters. Our results suggest that both the hybrid and the adaptive approach provide significantly better forecasts than those resulting from the standard EnKF, even when implemented with much smaller ensembles.

  4. Maine's Employability Skills Program

    McMahon, John M.; Wolffe, Karen E.; Wolfe, Judy; Brooker, Carrie

    2013-01-01

    This Practice Report describes the development and implementation of the "Maine Employability Skills Program," a model employment program developed by the Maine Division for the Blind and Visually Impaired (DBVI). The program was designed to support the efforts of the chronically unemployed or underemployed. These consumers were either…

  5. Revisiting the latent heat nudging scheme for the rainfall assimilation of a simulated convective storm

    Leuenberger, D.; Rossa, A.

    2007-12-01

    Next-generation, operational, high-resolution numerical weather prediction models require economical assimilation schemes for radar data. In the present study we evaluate and characterise the latent heat nudging (LHN) rainfall assimilation scheme within a meso-γ scale NWP model in the framework of identical twin simulations of an idealised supercell storm. Consideration is given to the model’s dynamical response to the forcing as well as to the sensitivity of the LHN scheme to uncertainty in the observations and the environment. The results indicate that the LHN scheme is well able to capture the dynamical structure and the right rainfall amount of the storm in a perfect environment. This holds true even in degraded environments but a number of important issues arise. In particular, changes in the low-level humidity field are found to affect mainly the precipitation amplitude during the assimilation with a fast adaptation of the storm to the system dynamics determined by the environment during the free forecast. A constant bias in the environmental wind field, on the other hand, has the potential to render a successful assimilation with the LHN scheme difficult, as the velocity of the forcing is not consistent with the system propagation speed determined by the wind. If the rainfall forcing moves too fast, the system propagation is supported and the assimilated storm and forecasts initialised therefrom develop properly. A too slow forcing, on the other hand, can decelerate the system and eventually disturb the system dynamics by decoupling the low-level moisture inflow from the main updrafts during the assimilation. This distortion is sustained in the free forecast. It has further been found that a sufficient temporal resolution of the rainfall input is crucial for the successful assimilation of a fast moving, coherent convective storm and that the LHN scheme, when applied to a convective storm, appears to necessitate a careful tuning.

  6. Two-dimensional numerical modeling of the cosmic ray storm

    Kadokura, A.; Nishida, A.

    1986-01-01

    A numerical model of the cosmic ray storm in the two-dimensional heliosphere is constructed incorporating the drift effect. We estimate the effect of a flare-associated interplanetary shock and the disturbed region behind it (characterized by enhancement in velocity and magnetic field, and decrease in mean free path) on the density and anisotropy of cosmic rays in the heliosphere. As the disturbance propagates outward, a density enhancement appears on the front side, and a density depression region is produced on the rear side. The effect of drift on the cosmic ray storm appears most clearly in the higher-latitude region. For the parallel (antiparallel) state of the solar magnetic field which corresponds to the pre(post-) 1980 period, the density in the higher-latitude region decreases (increases) before the shock arrival. The maximum density depression near the earth for the parallel state is greater than for the antiparallel state, and the energy spectrum of the density depression in percentage is softer for the parallel state than for the antiparallel state. Prior to the arrival of the shock, the phase of solar diurnal anisotropy begins to shift to the earlier hours, and its amplitude becomes greater for both polarity states. North-south anisotropy also becomes greater because of the enhanced drift for both polarity states

  7. High-resolution reconstruction of extreme storm events over the North Sea during the Late Holocene: inferences from aeolian sand influx in coastal mires, Western Denmark.

    Goslin, Jerome; Clemmensen, Lars B.

    2017-04-01

    Possessing long and accurate archives of storm events worldwide is the key for a better understanding of the atmospheric patterns driving these events and of the response of the coastal systems to storms. To be adequately addressed, the ongoing and potential future changes in wind regimes (including in particular the frequency and magnitude of storm events) have to be replaced in the context of long-time records of past storminess, i.e. longer than the century-scale records of instrumental weather data which do not allow the calculation of reliable return periods. During the last decade, several Holocene storminess chronologies have been based on storm-traces left by aeolian processes within coastal lakes, mires and peat bogs, (e.g. Björck and Clemmensen, 2004; De Jong et al., 2006; Clemmensen et al., 2009; Nielsen et al.; 2016; Orme et al., 2016). These data have shown to adequately complement the records which can be derived from the study of records related to wave-induced processes including e.g. washover deposits. Previous works along the west coast of Jutland, Denmark have revealed four main periods of dune building during the last 4200 yrs (Clemmensen et al., 2001; 2009). These were shown to be in phase with periods of climate deterioration (cold periods) recognized elsewhere in Europe and the North Atlantic region and suggest periods of increased aeolian activity. Yet, doubts remain on whether these periods where characterized by several big short-lived storm events or rather by an overall increase in wind energy. This study aims at constructing a high-resolution (centennial to multi-decadal) history of past storminess over the North Sea for the last millenaries. Plurimeter sequences of peat and gyttja have been retrieved from two coastal mires and were analyzed for their sand content. The quartz grains were systematically counted within centimetric slices (Aeolian Sand Influx method, Björck & Clemmensen, 2004), while the palaeo-environmental context and

  8. Global evolution of storm-time effects in the-F region during 17-18 December 1971

    Alamelu, V.; Mukunda Rao, M.; Sethuraman, R.

    1982-01-01

    The latitudinal variation of the effect of the great storm of 17 Dec. 71 is investigated by choosing stations of varying latitudes but of approximately the same longitude. In addition, three stations, one each in the American, African and Indian zone, are chosen to find the longitudinal changes produced during this storm. It is seen that the storm is mainly a negative one in the southern hemisphere of this longitude sector. The noon biteout is enhanced on the major storm day, viz., 17 Dec. 71, at the American equator, with large evening peaks on both 17th and 18th. The northern hemisphere does not exhibit any large change in the critical frequency of the F layer. The reported changes in TEC measurements are not reflected in the parameter f 0 F 2 at Lindau

  9. Rhode Island hurricanes and tropical storms: A fifty-six year summary 1936-1991. Technical memo

    Vallee, D.R.

    1993-03-01

    The paper was compiled to provide a general overview of all tropical cyclone activity near Rhode Island since 1936. The year of 1936 is arbitrary, chosen mainly to include a 'not so well known' system prior to the well documented Great New England Hurricane of 1938. Thirty-one such storms have affected the state in the past 56 years, either making landfall along the coast of southern New England, or passing close enough over the offshore waters to spread tropical storm or hurricane force conditions into the area. The intensities of these systems have ranged from weak, disorganized tropical storms to full fledged major hurricanes. The one feature common to almost all of the storms was a rapid acceleration toward Rhode Island, which greatly reduced the time to prepare and evacuate

  10. SENZ Umbrellas: taking the world by storm

    Smits, A.A.J.; Bodewes, W.

    2011-01-01

    This case describes the start-up of SENZ Umbrellas, a Dutch venture founded by three graduates of Delft University of Technology (the Netherlands) who aimed to introduce an asymmetrical, storm-proof umbrella onto a mass-market where product innovation was limited. It demonstrates the marketing

  11. Tornadic storm avoidance behavior in breeding songbirds

    Streby, Henry M.; Kramer, Gunnar R.; Peterson, Sean M.; Lehman, Justin A.; Buehler, David A.; Andersen, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Migration is a common behavior used by animals of many taxa to occupy different habitats during different periods. Migrant birds are categorized as either facultative (i.e., those that are forced to migrate by some proximal cue, often weather) or obligate (i.e., those that migrate on a regular cycle). During migration, obligate migrants can curtail or delay flights in response to inclement weather or until favorable winds prevail, and they can temporarily reorient or reverse direction when ecological or meteorological obstacles are encountered. However, it is not known whether obligate migrants undertake facultative migrations and make large-scale movements in response to proximal cues outside of their regular migration periods. Here, we present the first documentation of obligate long-distance migrant birds undertaking a facultative migration, wherein breeding golden-winged warblers (Vermivora chrysoptera) carrying light-level geolocators performed a >1,500 km 5-day circumvention of a severe tornadic storm. The birds evacuated their breeding territories >24 hr before the arrival of the storm and atmospheric variation associated with it. The probable cue, radiating >1,000 km from tornadic storms, perceived by birds and influencing bird behavior and movements, is infrasound (i.e., sound below the range of human hearing). With the predicted increase in severity and frequency of similar storms as anthropogenic climate change progresses, understanding large-scale behavioral responses of animals to such events will be an important objective of future research.

  12. Okla. Tornado Renews Debate on Storm Safety

    Shah, Nirvi

    2013-01-01

    As soon as the winds that left seven students in Moore, Okla., dead last month had calmed, and more storms blew through the same area less than two weeks later, questions about the safety of schools in a region labeled Tornado Alley rose amid the rubble. While better design of new schools and thorough emergency training and practice may be in…

  13. Optimal antiarrhythmic drug therapy for electrical storm

    Sorajja, Dan; Munger, Thomas M.; Shen, Win-Kuang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Electrical storm, defined as 3 or more separate episodes of ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation within 24?hours, carries significant morbidity and mortality. These unstable ventricular arrhythmias have been described with a variety of conditions including ischemic heart disease, structural heart disease, and genetic conditions. While implantable cardioverter defibrillator implantation and ablation may be indicated and required, antiarrhythmic medication remains an imp...

  14. Geomagnetic storm under laboratory conditions: randomized experiment

    Gurfinkel, Yu I.; Vasin, A. L.; Pishchalnikov, R. Yu; Sarimov, R. M.; Sasonko, M. L.; Matveeva, T. A.

    2017-10-01

    The influence of the previously recorded geomagnetic storm (GS) on human cardiovascular system and microcirculation has been studied under laboratory conditions. Healthy volunteers in lying position were exposed under two artificially created conditions: quiet (Q) and storm (S). The Q regime playbacks a noise-free magnetic field (MF) which is closed to the natural geomagnetic conditions on Moscow's latitude. The S regime playbacks the initially recorded 6-h geomagnetic storm which is repeated four times sequentially. The cardiovascular response to the GS impact was assessed by measuring capillary blood velocity (CBV) and blood pressure (BP) and by the analysis of the 24-h ECG recording. A storm-to-quiet ratio for the cardio intervals (CI) and the heart rate variability (HRV) was introduced in order to reveal the average over group significant differences of HRV. An individual sensitivity to the GS was estimated using the autocorrelation function analysis of the high-frequency (HF) part of the CI spectrum. The autocorrelation analysis allowed for detection a group of subjects of study which autocorrelation functions (ACF) react differently in the Q and S regimes of exposure.

  15. Developing Design Storm Hydrographs for Small Tropical ...

    Hydrographs are vital tools in the design and construction of water-control structures in urban and rural systems. The purpose of this study was to explore the development of design storm hydrographs for the small tropical catchment with limited data. In this study, Clark's Unit Hydrograph method was used to develop ...

  16. SeaWiFS: North Pacific Storm

    2002-01-01

    An extratropical storm can be seen swirling over the North Pacific just south of Alaska. This SeaWiFS image was collected yesterday at 23:20 GMT. Credit: Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  17. Geomagnetic storm under laboratory conditions: randomized experiment.

    Gurfinkel, Yu I; Vasin, A L; Pishchalnikov, R Yu; Sarimov, R M; Sasonko, M L; Matveeva, T A

    2018-04-01

    The influence of the previously recorded geomagnetic storm (GS) on human cardiovascular system and microcirculation has been studied under laboratory conditions. Healthy volunteers in lying position were exposed under two artificially created conditions: quiet (Q) and storm (S). The Q regime playbacks a noise-free magnetic field (MF) which is closed to the natural geomagnetic conditions on Moscow's latitude. The S regime playbacks the initially recorded 6-h geomagnetic storm which is repeated four times sequentially. The cardiovascular response to the GS impact was assessed by measuring capillary blood velocity (CBV) and blood pressure (BP) and by the analysis of the 24-h ECG recording. A storm-to-quiet ratio for the cardio intervals (CI) and the heart rate variability (HRV) was introduced in order to reveal the average over group significant differences of HRV. An individual sensitivity to the GS was estimated using the autocorrelation function analysis of the high-frequency (HF) part of the CI spectrum. The autocorrelation analysis allowed for detection a group of subjects of study which autocorrelation functions (ACF) react differently in the Q and S regimes of exposure.

  18. Tree recovery from ice storm injury

    Kevin T. Smith

    2015-01-01

    Ice storms are part of nature, particularly in northeastern North America. The combination of air and surface temperatures, precipitation, and wind that result in damaging layers of ice is very specific, occurring infrequently at any given location. Across the region however, damaging ice is formed in fragmented areas every year. Occasionally as in December 2013 and...

  19. Thyroid storm and warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia.

    Moore, Joseph A; Gliga, Louise; Nagalla, Srikanth

    2017-08-01

    Graves' disease is often associated with other autoimmune disorders, including rare associations with autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA). We describe a unique presentation of thyroid storm and warm AIHA diagnosed concurrently in a young female with hyperthyroidism. The patient presented with nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and altered mental status. Laboratory studies revealed hemoglobin 3.9g/dL, platelets 171×10 9 L -1 , haptoglobin storm and warm AIHA. She was started on glucocorticoids to treat both warm AIHA and thyroid storm, as well as antithyroid medications, propranolol and folic acid. Due to profound anemia and hemodynamic instability, the patient was transfused two units of uncrossmatched packed red blood cells slowly and tolerated this well. She was discharged on methimazole as well as a prolonged prednisone taper, and achieved complete resolution of the thyrotoxicosis and anemia at one month. Hyperthyroidism can affect all three blood cell lineages of the hematopoietic system. Anemia can be seen in 10-20% of patients with thyrotoxicosis. Several autoimmune processes can lead to anemia in Graves' disease, including pernicious anemia, celiac disease, and warm AIHA. This case illustrates a rarely described presentation of a patient with Graves' disease presenting with concurrent thyroid storm and warm AIHA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Fine structure in fast drift storm bursts

    McConnell, D.; Ellis, G.R.A.

    1981-01-01

    Recent observations with high time resolution of fast drift storm (FDS) solar bursts are described. A new variety of FDS bursts characterised by intensity maxima regularly placed in the frequency domain is reported. Possible interpretations of this are mentioned and the implications of the short duration of FDS bursts are discussed. (orig.)

  1. DRDC Support to Exercise Cyber Storm III

    2011-10-01

    d’intervention fédéraux portant sur les incidents cybernétiques sont encore relativement peu élaborés et insuffisamment développés et un examen des plans examinés...9 2.7 CSIII Ethics Protocol...30 Annex C .. Exercise Cyber Storm III Ethics

  2. Turbine main engines

    Main, John B; Herbert, C W; Bennett, A J S

    1965-01-01

    Turbine Main Engines deals with the principle of operation of turbine main engines. Topics covered include practical considerations that affect turbine design and efficiency; steam turbine rotors, blades, nozzles, and diaphragms; lubricating oil systems; and gas turbines for use with nuclear reactors. Gas turbines for naval boost propulsion, merchant ship propulsion, and naval main propulsion are also considered. This book is divided into three parts and begins with an overview of the basic mode of operation of the steam turbine engine and how it converts the pressure energy of the ingoing ste

  3. Geomagnetic Storm Impact On GPS Code Positioning

    Uray, Fırat; Varlık, Abdullah; Kalaycı, İbrahim; Öǧütcü, Sermet

    2017-04-01

    This paper deals with the geomagnetic storm impact on GPS code processing with using GIPSY/OASIS research software. 12 IGS stations in mid-latitude were chosen to conduct the experiment. These IGS stations were classified as non-cross correlation receiver reporting P1 and P2 (NONCC-P1P2), non-cross correlation receiver reporting C1 and P2 (NONCC-C1P2) and cross-correlation (CC-C1P2) receiver. In order to keep the code processing consistency between the classified receivers, only P2 code observations from the GPS satellites were processed. Four extreme geomagnetic storms October 2003, day of the year (DOY), 29, 30 Halloween Storm, November 2003, DOY 20, November 2004, DOY 08 and four geomagnetic quiet days in 2005 (DOY 92, 98, 99, 100) were chosen for this study. 24-hour rinex data of the IGS stations were processed epoch-by-epoch basis. In this way, receiver clock and Earth Centered Earth Fixed (ECEF) Cartesian Coordinates were solved for a per-epoch basis for each day. IGS combined broadcast ephemeris file (brdc) were used to partly compensate the ionospheric effect on the P2 code observations. There is no tropospheric model was used for the processing. Jet Propulsion Laboratory Application Technology Satellites (JPL ATS) computed coordinates of the stations were taken as true coordinates. The differences of the computed ECEF coordinates and assumed true coordinates were resolved to topocentric coordinates (north, east, up). Root mean square (RMS) errors for each component were calculated for each day. The results show that two-dimensional and vertical accuracy decreases significantly during the geomagnetic storm days comparing with the geomagnetic quiet days. It is observed that vertical accuracy is much more affected than the horizontal accuracy by geomagnetic storm. Up to 50 meters error in vertical component has been observed in geomagnetic storm day. It is also observed that performance of Klobuchar ionospheric correction parameters during geomagnetic storm

  4. Motivations and sensation seeking characteristics of recreational storm chasers

    Shuangyu Xu; Sonja Wilhelm Stanis; Carla Barbieri; Jiawen. Chen

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about recreational storm chasing, a type of risk recreation that has increased in popularity since the 1990s. This study was conducted to understand factors associated with participation in recreational storm chasing in the United States. Particularly, this study assessed the motivations and sensation seeking attributes of recreational storm chasers, as...

  5. Spotter's Guide for Identifying and Reporting Severe Local Storms.

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (DOC), Rockville, MD.

    This guide is designed to assist personnel working in the National Weather Service's Severe Local Storm Spotter Networks in identifying and reporting severe local storms. Provided are pictures of cloud types for severe storms including tornadoes, hail, thunder, lightning, heavy rains, and waterspouts. Instructions for key indications to watch for…

  6. 46 CFR 190.25-10 - Storm rails.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storm rails. 190.25-10 Section 190.25-10 Shipping COAST... ARRANGEMENT Rails and Guards § 190.25-10 Storm rails. (a) On vessels in ocean and coastwise service, suitable storm rails shall be installed in all passageways and at the deckhouse sides where persons on board...

  7. 40 CFR 35.925-21 - Storm sewers.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Storm sewers. 35.925-21 Section 35.925... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925-21 Storm... treatment works for control of pollutant discharges from a separate storm sewer system (as defined in § 35...

  8. 46 CFR 92.25-10 - Storm rails.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storm rails. 92.25-10 Section 92.25-10 Shipping COAST... ARRANGEMENT Rails and Guards § 92.25-10 Storm rails. (a) On vessels in ocean and coastwise service, suitable storm rails shall be installed in all passageways and at the deckhouse sides where persons on board...

  9. Accuracy of right and left ventricular functional assessment by short-axis vs axial cine steady-state free-precession magnetic resonance imaging: intrapatient correlation with main pulmonary artery and ascending aorta phase-contrast flow measurements.

    James, Susan H; Wald, Rachel; Wintersperger, Bernd J; Jimenez-Juan, Laura; Deva, Djeven; Crean, Andrew M; Nguyen, Elsie; Paul, Narinder S; Ley, Sebastian

    2013-08-01

    The left ventricle (LV) is routinely assessed with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) by using short-axis orientation; it remains unclear whether the right ventricle (RV) can also be adequately assessed in this orientation or whether dedicated axial orientation is required. We used phase-contrast (PC) flow measurements in the main pulmonary artery (MPA) and the ascending aorta (Aorta) as nonvolumetric standard of reference and compared RV and LV volumes in short-axis and axial orientations. A retrospective analysis identified 30 patients with cardiac MRI data sets. Patients underwent MRI (1.5 T or 3 T), with retrospectively gated cine steady-state free-precession in axial and short-axis orientations. PC flow analyses of MPA and Aorta were used as the reference measure of RV and LV output. There was a high linear correlation between MPA-PC flow and RV-stroke volume (SV) short axis (r = 0.9) and RV-SV axial (r = 0.9). Bland-Altman analysis revealed a mean offset of 1.4 mL for RV axial and -2.3 mL for RV-short-axis vs MPA-PC flow. There was a high linear correlation between Aorta-PC flow and LV-SV short-axis (r = 0.9) and LV-SV axial (r = 0.9). Bland-Altman analysis revealed a mean offset of 4.8 m for LV short axis and 7.0 mL for LV axial vs Aorta-PC flow. There was no significant difference (P = .6) between short-axis-LV SV and short-axis-RV SV. No significant impact of the slice acquisition orientation for determination of RV and LV stroke volumes was found. Therefore, cardiac magnetic resonance workflow does not need to be extended by an axial data set for patients without complex cardiac disease for assessment of biventricular function and volumes. Copyright © 2013 Canadian Association of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of the STORM model storm-time corrections for middle latitude

    Burešová, Dalia; McKinnell, L.- A.; Šindelářová, Tereza; de la Morena, B. A.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 8 (2010), s. 1039-1046 ISSN 0273-1177 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/1356; GA AV ČR 1QS300120506 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Ionosphere * Geomagnetic storms * STORM model * International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.076, year: 2010

  11. Maine highway safety plan

    2010-01-01

    Each September 1, the MeBHS must provide NHTSA a comprehensive plan to reduce : traffic crashes and resulting deaths, injuries and property damage. The Highway Safety : Plan (HSP) serves as Maines application for available federal funds for these ...

  12. Maine Field Station

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — In 2000 NOAA's National Marine Fisheries Service established the Maine Field Station in Orono, ME to have more direct involvement in the conservation of the living...

  13. Maine's forests 2008

    George L. McCaskill; William H. McWilliams; Charles J. Barnett; Brett J. Butler; Mark A. Hatfield; Cassandra M. Kurtz; Randall S. Morin; W. Keith Moser; Charles H. Perry; Christopher W. Woodall

    2011-01-01

    The second annual inventory of Maine's forests was completed in 2008 after more than 3,160 forested plots were measured. Forest land occupies almost 17.7 million acres, which represents 82 percent of the total land area of Maine. The dominant forest-type groups are maple/beech/yellow birch, spruce/fir, white/red/jack pine, and aspen/white birch. Statewide volume...

  14. Maine Forests 2013

    George L. McCaskill; Thomas Albright; Charles J. Barnett; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Cassandra M. Kurtz; William H. McWilliams; Patrick D. Miles; Randall S. Morin; Mark D. Nelson; Richard H. Widmann; Christopher W. Woodall

    2016-01-01

    The third 5-year annualized inventory of Maine's forests was completed in 2013 after more than 3170 forested plots were measured. Maine contains more than 17.6 million acres of forest land, an area that has been quite stable since 1960, covering more than 82 percent of the total land area. The number of live trees greater than 1 inch in diameter are approaching 24...

  15. Hindcast of extreme sea states in North Atlantic extratropical storms

    Ponce de León, Sonia; Guedes Soares, Carlos

    2015-02-01

    This study examines the variability of freak wave parameters around the eye of northern hemisphere extratropical cyclones. The data was obtained from a hindcast performed with the WAve Model (WAM) model forced by the wind fields of the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR). The hindcast results were validated against the wave buoys and satellite altimetry data showing a good correlation. The variability of different wave parameters was assessed by applying the empirical orthogonal functions (EOF) technique on the hindcast data. From the EOF analysis, it can be concluded that the first empirical orthogonal function (V1) accounts for greater share of variability of significant wave height (Hs), peak period (Tp), directional spreading (SPR) and Benjamin-Feir index (BFI). The share of variance in V1 varies for cyclone and variable: for the 2nd storm and Hs V1 contains 96 % of variance while for the 3rd storm and BFI V1 accounts only for 26 % of variance. The spatial patterns of V1 show that the variables are distributed around the cyclones centres mainly in a lobular fashion.

  16. Catalogue of Meteor Showers and Storms in Korean History

    Sang-Hyeon Ahn

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a more complete and accurate catalogue of astronomical records for meteor showers and meteor storms appeared in primary official Korean history books, such as Samguk-sagi, Koryo-sa, Seungjeongwon-ilgi, and Choson-Wangjo-Sillok. So far the catalogue made by Imoto and Hasegawa in 1958 has been widely used in the international astronomical society. The catalogue is based on a report by Sekiguchi in 1917 that is mainly based on secondary history books. We observed that the catalogue has a number of errors in either dates or sources of the records. We have thoroughly checked the primary official history books, instead of the secondary ones, in order to make a corrected and extended catalogue. The catalogue contains 25 records of meteor storms, four records of intense meteor-showers, and five records of usual showers in Korean history. We also find that some of those records seem to correspond to some presently active meteor showers such as the Leonids, the Perseids, and the ¥ç-Aquarids-Orionids pair. However, a large number of those records do not correspond to such present showers. This catalogue we obtained can be useful for various astrophysical studies in the future.

  17. Detection of Asian Dust Storm Using MODIS Measurements

    Yong Xie

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Every year, a large number of aerosols are released from dust storms into the atmosphere, which may have potential impacts on the climate, environment, and air quality. Detecting dust aerosols and monitoring their movements and evolutions in a timely manner is a very significant task. Satellite remote sensing has been demonstrated as an effective means for observing dust aerosols. In this paper, an algorithm based on the multi-spectral technique for detecting dust aerosols was developed by combining measurements of moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS reflective solar bands and thermal emissive bands. Data from dust events that occurred during the past several years were collected as training data for spectral and statistical analyses. According to the spectral curves of various scene types, a series of spectral bands was selected individually or jointly, and corresponding thresholds were defined for step-by-step scene classification. The multi-spectral algorithm was applied mainly to detect dust storms in Asia. The detection results were validated not only visually with MODIS true color images, but also quantitatively with products of Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI and Cloud Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP. The validations showed that this multi-spectral detection algorithm was suitable to monitor dust aerosols in the selected study areas.

  18. Overview of the ARkStorm scenario

    Porter, Keith; Wein, Anne; Alpers, Charles N.; Baez, Allan; Barnard, Patrick L.; Carter, James; Corsi, Alessandra; Costner, James; Cox, Dale; Das, Tapash; Dettinger, Mike; Done, James; Eadie, Charles; Eymann, Marcia; Ferris, Justin; Gunturi, Prasad; Hughes, Mimi; Jarrett, Robert; Johnson, Laurie; Le-Griffin, Hanh Dam; Mitchell, David; Morman, Suzette; Neiman, Paul; Olsen, Anna; Perry, Suzanne; Plumlee, Geoffrey; Ralph, Martin; Reynolds, David; Rose, Adam; Schaefer, Kathleen; Serakos, Julie; Siembieda, William; Stock, Jonathan; Strong, David; Wing, Ian Sue; Tang, Alex; Thomas, Pete; Topping, Ken; Wills, Chris; Jones, Lucile

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, Multi Hazards Demonstration Project (MHDP) uses hazards science to improve resiliency of communities to natural disasters including earthquakes, tsunamis, wildfires, landslides, floods and coastal erosion. The project engages emergency planners, businesses, universities, government agencies, and others in preparing for major natural disasters. The project also helps to set research goals and provides decision-making information for loss reduction and improved resiliency. The first public product of the MHDP was the ShakeOut Earthquake Scenario published in May 2008. This detailed depiction of a hypothetical magnitude 7.8 earthquake on the San Andreas Fault in southern California served as the centerpiece of the largest earthquake drill in United States history, involving over 5,000 emergency responders and the participation of over 5.5 million citizens. This document summarizes the next major public project for MHDP, a winter storm scenario called ARkStorm (for Atmospheric River 1,000). Experts have designed a large, scientifically realistic meteorological event followed by an examination of the secondary hazards (for example, landslides and flooding), physical damages to the built environment, and social and economic consequences. The hypothetical storm depicted here would strike the U.S. West Coast and be similar to the intense California winter storms of 1861 and 1862 that left the central valley of California impassible. The storm is estimated to produce precipitation that in many places exceeds levels only experienced on average once every 500 to 1,000 years. Extensive flooding results. In many cases flooding overwhelms the state's flood-protection system, which is typically designed to resist 100- to 200-year runoffs. The Central Valley experiences hypothetical flooding 300 miles long and 20 or more miles wide. Serious flooding also occurs in Orange County, Los Angeles County, San Diego, the San Francisco Bay area, and other

  19. Simulation of low-latitude ionospheric response to 2015 St. Patrick's Day super geomagnetic storm using ionosonde-derived PRE vertical drifts over Indian region

    Joshi, L. M.; Sripathi, S.; Singh, Ram

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we present low-latitude ionospheric response over Indian longitude to the recent super geomagnetic storm of 17 March 2015, using the Sami2 is Another Model of the Ionosphere (SAMI2) model which incorporates ionosonde-derived vertical drift impacted by prompt penetration eastward electric field occurring during the evening prereversal enhancement (PRE) in the vertical drift. The importance of this storm is that (1) Dst reaches as low as -228 nT and (2) prompt penetration of eastward electric field coincided with evening hours PRE. The daytime vertical E × B drifts in the SAMI2 model are, however, considered based on Scherliess-Fejer model. The simulations indicate a significant enhancement in F layer height and equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) in the post sunset hours on 17 March 2015 vis-a-vis quiet day. The model simulations during recovery phase, considering disturbance dynamo vertical E × B drift along with equatorward disturbance wind, indicate suppression of the daytime EIA. SAMI2 simulations considering the disturbance wind during the recovery phase suggest that equatorward wind enhances the ionospheric density in the low latitude; however, its role in the formation of the EIA depends on the polarity of the zonal electric field. Comparison of model derived total electron content (TEC) with the TEC from ground GPS receivers indicates that model does reproduce enhancement of the EIA during the main phase and suppression of the EIA during the recovery phase of the superstorm. However, peculiarities pertaining to the ionospheric response to prompt penetration electric field in the Indian sector vis-a-vis earlier reports from American sector have been discussed.

  20. The Hachioji Experimental Basin Study — Storm runoff processes and the mechanism of its generation

    Tanaka, T.; Yasuhara, M.; Sakai, H.; Marui, A.

    1988-09-01

    The study discusses storm runoff processes and the mechanism of its generation in relation to dynamic responses of subsurface water in a small forested drainage basin located in the western suburbs of Tokyo, Japan. Intensive field observations were carried out for the period 1980-1983. In the drainage basin overland flow occurred from restricted areas on the valley floor. No significant overland flow was produced on the steep hillside slopes even during a heavy storm event. The maximum extent of the saturated area occupied only 1-4% of the total basin area. The main source of storm runoff was groundwater flow. More than 90% of the total discharge was due to groundwater flow and the surface flow component contributed less than 10%. The rapid and large amounts of groundwater discharge during a storm event could not be explained solely by the traditional concept of Darcian matrix flow. These phenomena were mainly attributed to rapid flow such as pipe flow which has velocities about as high as those of surface flows. The pulsating flow phenomenon was observed as a characteristic of pipe flow.

  1. Main sequence mass loss

    Brunish, W.M.; Guzik, J.A.; Willson, L.A.; Bowen, G.

    1987-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that variable stars may experience mass loss, driven, at least in part, by oscillations. The class of stars we are discussing here are the δ Scuti variables. These are variable stars with masses between about 1.2 and 2.25 M/sub θ/, lying on or very near the main sequence. According to this theory, high rotation rates enhance the rate of mass loss, so main sequence stars born in this mass range would have a range of mass loss rates, depending on their initial rotation velocity and the amplitude of the oscillations. The stars would evolve rapidly down the main sequence until (at about 1.25 M/sub θ/) a surface convection zone began to form. The presence of this convective region would slow the rotation, perhaps allowing magnetic braking to occur, and thus sharply reduce the mass loss rate. 7 refs

  2. Earlier vegetation green-up has reduced spring dust storms.

    Fan, Bihang; Guo, Li; Li, Ning; Chen, Jin; Lin, Henry; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Shen, Miaogen; Rao, Yuhan; Wang, Cong; Ma, Lei

    2014-10-24

    The observed decline of spring dust storms in Northeast Asia since the 1950s has been attributed to surface wind stilling. However, spring vegetation growth could also restrain dust storms through accumulating aboveground biomass and increasing surface roughness. To investigate the impacts of vegetation spring growth on dust storms, we examine the relationships between recorded spring dust storm outbreaks and satellite-derived vegetation green-up date in Inner Mongolia, Northern China from 1982 to 2008. We find a significant dampening effect of advanced vegetation growth on spring dust storms (r = 0.49, p = 0.01), with a one-day earlier green-up date corresponding to a decrease in annual spring dust storm outbreaks by 3%. Moreover, the higher correlation (r = 0.55, p storm outbreak ratio (the ratio of dust storm outbreaks to times of strong wind events) indicates that such effect is independent of changes in surface wind. Spatially, a negative correlation is detected between areas with advanced green-up dates and regional annual spring dust storms (r = -0.49, p = 0.01). This new insight is valuable for understanding dust storms dynamics under the changing climate. Our findings suggest that dust storms in Inner Mongolia will be further mitigated by the projected earlier vegetation green-up in the warming world.

  3. Storm water permitting for oil and gas facilities

    de Blanc, P.C.

    1991-01-01

    After several false starts, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published new federal storm water regulations in the November 16, 1990 Federal Register. These regulations identify facilities which must apply for a storm water permit and detail permit application requirements. The regulations appear at 40 CFR 122 Subpart B and became effective December 17, 1990. An outline of these regulations and their applicability to oil and gas facilities is presented. They are: facilities which require a storm water permit; types of storm water permits; permit application deadlines; permit application forms; facilities with existing storm water permits; storm water permit application data requirements; storm water sampling and analysis requirements; and EPA contacts for additional information

  4. Response of equatorial, low- and mid-latitude F-region in the American sector during the intense geomagnetic storm on 24-25 October 2011

    de Jesus, R.; Sahai, Y.; Fagundes, P. R.; de Abreu, A. J.; Brunini, C.; Gende, M.; Bittencourt, J. A.; Abalde, J. R.; Pillat, V. G.

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, we present and discuss the response of the ionospheric F-region in the American sector during the intense geomagnetic storm which occurred on 24-25 October 2011. In this investigation ionospheric sounding data obtained of 23, 24, 25, and 26 October 2011 at Puerto Rico (United States), Jicamarca (Peru), Palmas, São José dos Campos (Brazil), and Port Stanley, are presented. Also, the GPS observations obtained at 12 stations in the equatorial, low-, mid- and high-mid-latitude regions in the American sector are presented. During the fast decrease of Dst (about ˜54 nT/h between 23:00 and 01:00 UT) on the night of 24-25 October (main phase), there is a prompt penetration of electric field of magnetospheric origin resulting an unusual uplifting of the F region at equatorial stations. On the night of 24-25 October 2011 (recovery phase) equatorial, low- and mid-latitude stations show h'F variations much larger than the average variations possibly associated with traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs) caused by Joule heating at high latitudes. The foF2 variations at mid-latitude stations and the GPS-VTEC observations at mid- and low-latitude stations show a positive ionospheric storm on the night of 24-25 October, possibly due to changes in the large-scale wind circulation. The foF2 observations at mid-latitude station and the GPS-VTEC observations at mid- and high-mid-latitude stations show a negative ionospheric storm on the night of 24-25 October, probably associated with an increase in the density of molecular nitrogen. During the daytime on 25 October, the variations in foF2 at mid-latitude stations show large negative ionospheric storm, possibly due to changes in the O/N2 ratio. On the night of 24-25, ionospheric plasma bubbles (equatorial irregularities that extended to the low- and mid-latitude regions) are observed at equatorial, low- and mid-latitude stations. Also, on the night of 25-26, ionospheric plasma bubbles are observed at equatorial

  5. FERMILAB: Main Injector

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The Fermilab Main Injector (FMI) project is the centerpiece of the Laboratory's Fermilab III programme for the 1990s. Designed to support a luminosity of at least 5x10 31 cm -2 s -1 in the Tevatron collider, it will also provide new capabilities for rare neutral kaon decay and neutrino oscillation studies. The Fermilab Main Injector 8-150 GeV synchrotron is designed to replace the existing Main Ring which seriously limits beam intensities for the Tevatron and the antiproton production target. The project has passed several significant milestones and is now proceeding rapidly towards construction. The project received a $11.65M appropriation in 1992 and has been given $15M for the current fiscal year. Through the Energy Systems Acquisition Advisory Board (ESAAB) process, the US Department of Energy (DoE) has authorized funds for construction of the underground enclosure and service building where the Main Injector will touch the Tevatron, and to the preparation of bids for remaining project construction

  6. FERMILAB: Main Injector

    Anon.

    1993-06-15

    The Fermilab Main Injector (FMI) project is the centerpiece of the Laboratory's Fermilab III programme for the 1990s. Designed to support a luminosity of at least 5x10{sup 31} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} in the Tevatron collider, it will also provide new capabilities for rare neutral kaon decay and neutrino oscillation studies. The Fermilab Main Injector 8-150 GeV synchrotron is designed to replace the existing Main Ring which seriously limits beam intensities for the Tevatron and the antiproton production target. The project has passed several significant milestones and is now proceeding rapidly towards construction. The project received a $11.65M appropriation in 1992 and has been given $15M for the current fiscal year. Through the Energy Systems Acquisition Advisory Board (ESAAB) process, the US Department of Energy (DoE) has authorized funds for construction of the underground enclosure and service building where the Main Injector will touch the Tevatron, and to the preparation of bids for remaining project construction.

  7. Main facts 1995

    1996-01-01

    This report presents the main facts of the studies carried out by the Direction des Etudes et Recherches (DER) of Electricite de France: new applications of electricity, classical and nuclear thermal power plants, electrical equipment, environment protection, monitoring and plants operations

  8. Main designations and attributions

    2010-01-01

    The chapter presents the main designations and attributions of the LNMRI - Brazilian National Laboratory of Metrology of Ionizing Radiation, the Cooperative Center in Radiation Protection and Medical Preparations for Accidents with Radiation; the Treaty for fully banning of nuclear tests and the Regional Center for Training of IAEA

  9. Maine Bouguer Gravity Grid

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 2 kilometer Bouguer anomaly grid for the state of Maine. Number of columns is 197 and number of rows is 292. The order of the data is from the lower left to the...

  10. Main facts 1993

    1994-01-01

    This report presents the main facts of the studies carried out by the Direction des Etudes et Recherches (DER) of Electricite de France: new applications of electricity, classical and nuclear thermal power plants, electrical equipment, environment protection, network analysis, information and informatic equipment

  11. STORMVEX: The Storm Peak Lab Cloud Property Validation Experiment Science and Operations Plan

    Mace, J; Matrosov, S; Shupe, M; Lawson, P; Hallar, G; McCubbin, I; Marchand, R; Orr, B; Coulter, R; Sedlacek, A; Avallone, L; Long, C

    2010-09-29

    During the Storm Peak Lab Cloud Property Validation Experiment (STORMVEX), a substantial correlative data set of remote sensing observations and direct in situ measurements from fixed and airborne platforms will be created in a winter season, mountainous environment. This will be accomplished by combining mountaintop observations at Storm Peak Laboratory and the airborne National Science Foundation-supported Colorado Airborne Multi-Phase Cloud Study campaign with collocated measurements from the second ARM Mobile Facility (AMF2). We describe in this document the operational plans and motivating science for this experiment, which includes deployment of AMF2 to Steamboat Springs, Colorado. The intensive STORMVEX field phase will begin nominally on 1 November 2010 and extend to approximately early April 2011.

  12. Physical and Dynamical Linkages Between Lightning Jumps and Storm Conceptual Models

    Schultz, Christopher J.; Carey, Lawrence D.; Schultz, Elise V.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Goodman, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    The presence and rates of total lightning are both correlated to and physically dependent upon storm updraft strength, mixed phase precipitation volume and the size of the charging zone. The updraft modulates the ingredients necessary for electrification within a thunderstorm, while the updraft also plays a critical role in the development of severe and hazardous weather. Therefore utilizing this relationship, the monitoring of lightning rates and jumps provides an additional piece of information on the evolution of a thunderstorm, more often than not, at higher temporal resolution than current operational radar systems. This correlation is the basis for the total lightning jump algorithm that has been developed in recent years. Currently, the lightning jump algorithm is being tested in two separate but important efforts. Schultz et al. (2014; this conference) is exploring the transition of the algorithm from its research based formulation to a fully objective algorithm that includes storm tracking, Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) Proxy data and the lightning jump algorithm. Chronis et al. (2014) provides context for the transition to current operational forecasting using lightning mapping array based products. However, what remains is an end-to-end physical and dynamical basis for coupling total lightning flash rates to severe storm manifestation, so the forecaster has a reason beyond simple correlation to utilize the lightning jump algorithm within their severe storm conceptual models. Therefore, the physical basis for the lightning jump algorithm in relation to severe storm dynamics and microphysics is a key component that must be further explored. Many radar studies have examined flash rates and their relationship to updraft strength, updraft volume, precipitation-sized ice mass, etc.; however, their relationship specifically to lightning jumps is fragmented within the literature. Thus the goal of this study is to use multiple Doppler and polarimetric

  13. The Use of a Statistical Model of Storm Surge as a Bias Correction for Dynamical Surge Models and its Applicability along the U.S. East Coast

    Haydee Salmun

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study extends the applicability of a statistical model for prediction of storm surge originally developed for The Battery, NY in two ways: I. the statistical model is used as a biascorrection for operationally produced dynamical surge forecasts, and II. the statistical model is applied to the region of the east coast of the U.S. susceptible to winter extratropical storms. The statistical prediction is based on a regression relation between the “storm maximum” storm surge and the storm composite significant wave height predicted ata nearby location. The use of the statistical surge prediction as an alternative bias correction for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA operational storm surge forecasts is shownhere to be statistically equivalent to the existing bias correctiontechnique and potentially applicable for much longer forecast lead times as well as for storm surge climate prediction. Applying the statistical model to locations along the east coast shows that the regression relation can be “trained” with data from tide gauge measurements and near-shore buoys along the coast from North Carolina to Maine, and that it provides accurate estimates of storm surge.

  14. Coronal mass ejections and large geomagnetic storms

    Gosling, J.T.; Bame, S.J.; McComas, D.J.; Phillips, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    Previous work indicates that coronal mass ejection (CME) events in the solar wind at 1 AU can be identified by the presence of a flux of counterstreaming solar wind halo electrons (above about 80 eV). Using this technique to identify CMEs in 1 AU plasma data, the authors find that most large geomagnetic storms during the interval surrounding the last solar maximum (Aug. 1978-Oct. 1982) were associated with Earth-passage of interplanetary disturbances in which the Earth encountered both a shock and the CME driving the shock. However, only about one CME in six encountered by Earth was effective in causing a large geomagnetic storm. Slow CMEs which did not interact strongly with the ambient solar wind ahead were particularly ineffective in a geomagnetic sense

  15. Predicting typhoon-induced storm surge tide with a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model and artificial neural network model

    Chen, W.-B.; Liu, W.-C.; Hsu, M.-H.

    2012-12-01

    Precise predictions of storm surges during typhoon events have the necessity for disaster prevention in coastal seas. This paper explores an artificial neural network (ANN) model, including the back propagation neural network (BPNN) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) algorithms used to correct poor calculations with a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model in predicting storm surge height during typhoon events. The two-dimensional model has a fine horizontal resolution and considers the interaction between storm surges and astronomical tides, which can be applied for describing the complicated physical properties of storm surges along the east coast of Taiwan. The model is driven by the tidal elevation at the open boundaries using a global ocean tidal model and is forced by the meteorological conditions using a cyclone model. The simulated results of the hydrodynamic model indicate that this model fails to predict storm surge height during the model calibration and verification phases as typhoons approached the east coast of Taiwan. The BPNN model can reproduce the astronomical tide level but fails to modify the prediction of the storm surge tide level. The ANFIS model satisfactorily predicts both the astronomical tide level and the storm surge height during the training and verification phases and exhibits the lowest values of mean absolute error and root-mean-square error compared to the simulated results at the different stations using the hydrodynamic model and the BPNN model. Comparison results showed that the ANFIS techniques could be successfully applied in predicting water levels along the east coastal of Taiwan during typhoon events.

  16. Thermospheric mass density variations during geomagnetic storms and a prediction model based on the merging electric field

    R. Liu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available With the help of four years (2002–2005 of CHAMP accelerometer data we have investigated the dependence of low and mid latitude thermospheric density on the merging electric field, Em, during major magnetic storms. Altogether 30 intensive storm events (Dstmin<−100 nT are chosen for a statistical study. In order to achieve a good correlation Em is preconditioned. Contrary to general opinion, Em has to be applied without saturation effect in order to obtain good results for magnetic storms of all activity levels. The memory effect of the thermosphere is accounted for by a weighted integration of Em over the past 3 h. In addition, a lag time of the mass density response to solar wind input of 0 to 4.5 h depending on latitude and local time is considered. A linear model using the preconditioned Em as main controlling parameter for predicting mass density changes during magnetic storms is developed: ρ=0.5 Em + ρamb, where ρamb is based on the mean density during the quiet day before the storm. We show that this simple relation predicts all storm-induced mass density variations at CHAMP altitude fairly well especially if orbital averages are considered.

  17. Thermospheric mass density variations during geomagnetic storms and a prediction model based on the merging electric field

    Liu, R.; Lühr, H.; Doornbos, E.; Ma, S.-Y.

    2010-09-01

    With the help of four years (2002-2005) of CHAMP accelerometer data we have investigated the dependence of low and mid latitude thermospheric density on the merging electric field, Em, during major magnetic storms. Altogether 30 intensive storm events (Dstmineffect in order to obtain good results for magnetic storms of all activity levels. The memory effect of the thermosphere is accounted for by a weighted integration of Em over the past 3 h. In addition, a lag time of the mass density response to solar wind input of 0 to 4.5 h depending on latitude and local time is considered. A linear model using the preconditioned color: #000;">Em as main controlling parameter for predicting mass density changes during magnetic storms is developed: ρ=0.5 color: #000;">Em + ρamb, where ρamb is based on the mean density during the quiet day before the storm. We show that this simple relation predicts all storm-induced mass density variations at CHAMP altitude fairly well especially if orbital averages are considered.

  18. Elliptical magnetic clouds and geomagnetic storms

    Antoniadou, I.; Geranios, A.; Vandas, Marek; Panagopoulou, M.; Zacharopoulou, O.; Malandraki, O.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 56, 3-4 (2008), s. 492-500 ISSN 0032-0633 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS300120506; GA ČR GA205/06/0875 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : magnetic clouds * geomagnetic storms * solar wind Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 2.506, year: 2008

  19. Investigation of a strong positive ionospheric storm during geomagnetic disturbances occurred in the Brazilian sector

    de Abreu, A. J.; Sahai, Y.; Fagundes, P. R.; de Jesus, R.; Bittencourt, J. A.; Pillat, V. G.

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we have investigated the responses of the ionospheric F region at equatorial and low latitude regions in the Brazilian sector during the super geomagnetic storm on 15-16 May 2005. The geomagnetic storm reached a minimum Dst of -263 nT at 0900 UT on 15 May. In this paper, we present vertical total electron content (vTEC) and phase fluctuations (in TECU/min) from Global Positioning System (GPS) observations obtained at Belém (BELE), Brasília (BRAZ), Presidente Prudente (UEPP), and Porto Alegre (POAL), Brazil, during the period 14-17 May 2005. Also, we present ionospheric parameters h'F, hpF2, and foF2, using the Canadian Advanced Digital Ionosonde (CADI) obtained at Palmas (PAL) and São José dos Campos (SJC), Brazil, for the same period. The super geomagnetic storm has fast decrease in the Dst index soon after SSC at 0239 UT on 15 May. It is a good possibility of prompt penetration of electric field of magnetospheric origin resulting in uplifting of the F region. The vTEC observations show a trough at BELE and a crest above UEPP, soon after SSC, indicating strengthening of nighttime equatorial anomaly. During the daytime on 15 and 16 May, in the recovery phase, the variations in foF2 at SJC and the vTEC observations, particularly at BRAZ, UEPP, and POAL, show large positive ionospheric storm. There is ESF on the all nights at PAL, in the post-midnight (UT) sector, and phase fluctuations only on the night of 14-15 May at BRAZ, after the SSC. No phase fluctuations are observed at the equatorial station BELE and low latitude stations (BRAZ, UEPP, and POAL) at all other times. This indicates that the plasma bubbles are generated and confined on this magnetically disturbed night only up to the low magnetic latitude and drifted possibly to west.

  20. Analysis of High-Latitude lonospheric Processes During HSS and CME-Induced Geomagnetic Storms

    Durgonics, Tibor; Komjathy, Attila; Verkhoglyadova, Olga

    processes responsible for the negative phase have less pronounced impact on the diurnal TEC variations than on patch formation. We also investigated and assessed storm influences on airborne navigation at high-latitudes in order to determine the possible cause of the radio communication disturbances....... This effort may lead us to a better understanding of the phenomenon and might help develop communication hardware that is more resistant to such effects....

  1. Porosity, single-phase permeability, and capillary pressure data from preliminary laboratory experiments on selected samples from Marker Bed 139 at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Volume 1 of 3: Main report, appendix A

    Howarth, S.M.; Christian-Frear, T.

    1997-08-01

    Three groups of core samples from Marker Bed 139 of the Salado Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) were analyzed to provide data to support the development of numerical models used to predict the long-term hydrologic and structural response of the WIPP repository. These laboratory experiments, part of the FY93 Experimental Scoping Activities of the Salado Two-Phase Flow Laboratory Program, were designed to (1) generate WIPP-specific porosity and single-phase permeability data, (2) provide information needed to design and implement planned tests to measure two-phase flow properties, including threshold pressure, capillary pressure, and relative permeability, and (3) evaluate the suitability of using analog correlations for the Salado Formation to assess the long-term performance of the WIPP. This report contains a description of the boreholes core samples, the core preparation techniques used, sample sizes, testing procedures, test conditions, and results of porosity and single-phase permeability tests performed at three laboratories: TerraTek, Inc. (Salt Lake City, UT), RE/SPEC, Inc. (Rapid City, SD), and Core Laboratories-Special Core Analysis Laboratory (Carrollton, TX) for Rock Physics Associates. In addition, this report contains the only WIPP-specific two-phase-flow capillary-pressure data for twelve core samples. The WIPP-specific data generated in this laboratory study and in WIPP field-test programs and information from suitable analogs will form the basis for specification of single- and two-phase flow parameters for anhydrite markers beds for WIPP performance assessment calculations.

  2. Porosity, single-phase permeability, and capillary pressure data from preliminary laboratory experiments on selected samples from Marker Bed 139 at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Volume 1 of 3: Main report, appendix A

    Howarth, S.M.; Christian-Frear, T.

    1997-08-01

    Three groups of core samples from Marker Bed 139 of the Salado Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) were analyzed to provide data to support the development of numerical models used to predict the long-term hydrologic and structural response of the WIPP repository. These laboratory experiments, part of the FY93 Experimental Scoping Activities of the Salado Two-Phase Flow Laboratory Program, were designed to (1) generate WIPP-specific porosity and single-phase permeability data, (2) provide information needed to design and implement planned tests to measure two-phase flow properties, including threshold pressure, capillary pressure, and relative permeability, and (3) evaluate the suitability of using analog correlations for the Salado Formation to assess the long-term performance of the WIPP. This report contains a description of the boreholes core samples, the core preparation techniques used, sample sizes, testing procedures, test conditions, and results of porosity and single-phase permeability tests performed at three laboratories: TerraTek, Inc. (Salt Lake City, UT), RE/SPEC, Inc. (Rapid City, SD), and Core Laboratories-Special Core Analysis Laboratory (Carrollton, TX) for Rock Physics Associates. In addition, this report contains the only WIPP-specific two-phase-flow capillary-pressure data for twelve core samples. The WIPP-specific data generated in this laboratory study and in WIPP field-test programs and information from suitable analogs will form the basis for specification of single- and two-phase flow parameters for anhydrite markers beds for WIPP performance assessment calculations

  3. Assessing the Performance of GPS Precise Point Positioning Under Different Geomagnetic Storm Conditions during Solar Cycle 24

    Xiaomin Luo

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The geomagnetic storm, which is an abnormal space weather phenomenon, can sometimes severely affect GPS signal propagation, thereby impacting the performance of GPS precise point positioning (PPP. However, the investigation of GPS PPP accuracy over the global scale under different geomagnetic storm conditions is very limited. This paper for the first time presents the performance of GPS dual-frequency (DF and single-frequency (SF PPP under moderate, intense, and super storms conditions during solar cycle 24 using a large data set collected from about 500 international GNSS services (IGS stations. The global root mean square (RMS maps of GPS PPP results show that stations with degraded performance are mainly distributed at high-latitude, and the degradation level generally depends on the storm intensity. The three-dimensional (3D RMS of GPS DF PPP for high-latitude during moderate, intense, and super storms are 0.393 m, 0.680 m and 1.051 m, respectively, with respect to only 0.163 m on quiet day. RMS errors of mid- and low-latitudes show less dependence on the storm intensities, with values less than 0.320 m, compared to 0.153 m on quiet day. Compared with DF PPP, the performance of GPS SF PPP is inferior regardless of quiet or disturbed conditions. The degraded performance of GPS positioning during geomagnetic storms is attributed to the increased ionospheric disturbances, which have been confirmed by our global rate of TEC index (ROTI maps. Ionospheric disturbances not only lead to the deteriorated ionospheric correction but also to the frequent cycle-slip occurrence. Statistical results show that, compared with that on quiet day, the increased cycle-slip occurrence are 13.04%, 56.52%, and 69.57% under moderate, intense, and super storms conditions, respectively.

  4. AI techniques in geomagnetic storm forecasting

    Lundstedt, Henrik

    This review deals with how geomagnetic storms can be predicted with the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques. Today many different Al techniques have been developed, such as symbolic systems (expert and fuzzy systems) and connectionism systems (neural networks). Even integrations of AI techniques exist, so called Intelligent Hybrid Systems (IHS). These systems are capable of learning the mathematical functions underlying the operation of non-linear dynamic systems and also to explain the knowledge they have learned. Very few such powerful systems exist at present. Two such examples are the Magnetospheric Specification Forecast Model of Rice University and the Lund Space Weather Model of Lund University. Various attempts to predict geomagnetic storms on long to short-term are reviewed in this article. Predictions of a month to days ahead most often use solar data as input. The first SOHO data are now available. Due to the high temporal and spatial resolution new solar physics have been revealed. These SOHO data might lead to a breakthrough in these predictions. Predictions hours ahead and shorter rely on real-time solar wind data. WIND gives us real-time data for only part of the day. However, with the launch of the ACE spacecraft in 1997, real-time data during 24 hours will be available. That might lead to the second breakthrough for predictions of geomagnetic storms.

  5. Plasmaspheric noise radiation during geomagnetic storms

    Larkina, V.I.; Likhter, Ya.I.

    1981-01-01

    Variations of plasmospheric background radiations during geomagnetic storms of different intensity are investigated. Used are results of ELF and VLF radiation measurements as well as electron fluxes of energies Esub(e)>40 keV carried out by Intercosmos 3 and Intercosmos 5 satellites. Dependences of radiation amplitude variations at 1.6 and 25 kHz frequencies on L shell for various geomagnetic activity in the day-time as well as data on variations of quasicaptured electron fluxes at Esub(e)>40 keV, are given. It is shown that experimental data agree with the existing theories of plasmospheric noise excitation. It is concluded that the plasmospheric noise excitation area Lsub(max) is always in the region of gap between radiation belts and inner slope of external radiation belt during magnetic storms. During magnetic storms Lsub(max) area moves simultaneously with the area, where particle flux of the external radiation belt is the most intensive [ru

  6. CALCULATION: PRECIPITATION CHARACTERISITICS FOR STORM WATER MANAGEMENT

    D. Ambos

    2000-01-01

    This Calculation is intended to satisfy engineering requirements for maximum 60-minute precipitation amounts for 50 and 100-year return periods at and near Yucca Mountain. This data requirement is documented in the ''Interface Control Document for Support Operations to Surface Facilities Operations Functional and Organizational Interfaces'' (CRWMS M and O 1998a). These developed data will supplement the information on 0.1 hour to 6-hour (in 0.1-hour increments) probable maximum precipitation (PMP) presented in the report, ''Precipitation Design Criteria for Storm Water Management'' (CRWMS M and O 1998b). The Reference Information Base (RIB) item, Precipitation ''Characteristics for Storm Water Management'' (M09902RIB00045 .OOO), was developed based on CRWMS M and O (1998b) and will be supplemented (via revision) with the information developed in this Calculation. The ''Development Plan for the Calculation: Precipitation Characteristics for Storm Water Management'' (CRWMS M and O 2000) was prepared in accordance with AP-2.l3Q, ''Technical Product Development Planning''. This calculation was developed in accordance with AP-3.12Q, Rev. O/ICN 2

  7. [Thyroid emergencies : Thyroid storm and myxedema coma].

    Spitzweg, C; Reincke, M; Gärtner, R

    2017-10-01

    Thyroid emergencies are rare life-threatening endocrine conditions resulting from either decompensated thyrotoxicosis (thyroid storm) or severe thyroid hormone deficiency (myxedema coma). Both conditions develop out of a long-standing undiagnosed or untreated hyper- or hypothyroidism, respectively, precipitated by an acute stress-associated event, such as infection, trauma, or surgery. Cardinal features of thyroid storm are myasthenia, cardiovascular symptoms, in particular tachycardia, as well as hyperthermia and central nervous system dysfunction. The diagnosis is made based on clinical criteria only as thyroid hormone measurements do not differentiate between thyroid storm and uncomplicated hyperthyroidism. In addition to critical care measures therapy focusses on inhibition of thyroid hormone synthesis and secretion (antithyroid drugs, perchlorate, Lugol's solution, cholestyramine, thyroidectomy) as well as inhibition of thyroid hormone effects in the periphery (β-blocker, glucocorticoids).Cardinal symptoms of myxedema coma are hypothermia, decreased mental status, and hypoventilation with risk of pneumonia and hyponatremia. The diagnosis is also purely based on clinical criteria as measurements of thyroid hormone levels do not differ between uncomplicated severe hypothyroidism and myxedema coma. In addition to substitution of thyroid hormones and glucocorticoids, therapy focusses on critical care measures to treat hypoventilation and hypercapnia, correction of hyponatremia and hypothermia.Survival of both thyroid emergencies can only be optimized by early diagnosis based on clinical criteria and prompt initiation of multimodal therapy including supportive measures and treatment of the precipitating event.

  8. Relativistic electron flux dropout due to field line curvature during the storm on 1 June 2013

    Kang, S. B.; Fok, M. C. H.; Engebretson, M. J.; Li, W.; Glocer, A.

    2017-12-01

    Significant electron flux depletion over a wide range of L-shell and energy, referred as a dropout, was observed by Van Allen Probes during the storm main phase on June 1, 2013. During the same period, MeV electron precipitation with isotropic pitch-angle distribution was also observed in the evening sector from POES but no EMIC waves were detected from either space- or ground-based magnetometers. Based on Tsyganenko empirical magnetic field model, magnetic field lines are highly non-dipolar and stretched at the night side in the inner magnetosphere. This condition can break the first adiabatic invariant (conservation of magnetic moment) and generate pitch-angle scattering of relativistic electron to the loss cone. To understand the relative roles of different physical mechanisms on this dropout event, we simulate flux and phase space density of relativistic electrons with event specific plasma wave intensities using the Comprehensive Inner Magnetosphere and Ionosphere (CIMI) model, as a global 4-D inner magnetosphere model. We also employ pitch-angle scattering due to field line curvature in the CIMI model. We re-configure magnetic field every minute and update electric field every 20 seconds to capture radial transport. CIMI-simulation with pitch-angle scattering due to field line curvature shows more depletion of relativistic electron fluxes and better agreement to observation than CIMI-simulation with radial transport only. We conclude that pitch-angle scattering due to field line curvature is one of the dominant processes for the relativistic electron flux dropout.

  9. Fermilab Main Injector plan

    Anon.

    1990-07-15

    The Fermilab Main Injector is the centrepiece of the 'Fermilab III' scheme to significantly upgrade the Laboratory's existing accelerator complex. The new accelerator is designed to provide increased particle beam levels to boost the collision rate in the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider (luminosity in excess of 5 x 10{sup 31} per sq cm per s) and, if approved, would provide increased flexibility in all areas of high energy physics research.

  10. Fermilab Main Injector plan

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    The Fermilab Main Injector is the centrepiece of the 'Fermilab III' scheme to significantly upgrade the Laboratory's existing accelerator complex. The new accelerator is designed to provide increased particle beam levels to boost the collision rate in the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider (luminosity in excess of 5 x 10 31 per sq cm per s) and, if approved, would provide increased flexibility in all areas of high energy physics research

  11. Maine coast winds

    Avery, Richard

    2000-01-28

    The Maine Coast Winds Project was proposed for four possible turbine locations. Significant progress has been made at the prime location, with a lease-power purchase contract for ten years for the installation of turbine equipment having been obtained. Most of the site planning and permitting have been completed. It is expect that the turbine will be installed in early May. The other three locations are less suitable for the project, and new locations are being considered.

  12. Project evaluation: main characteristics

    Moutinho, Nuno

    2010-01-01

    — The evaluation process of real investment projects must consider not only the traditional financial approach, but also non-financial aspects. Non financial analysis can provide additional relevant information about projects. We investigate financial and non-financial areas most relevant in project appraisal. We present main critical success factors and areas of analysis that lead to the perception of project success. Finally, companies are segmented to verify its financial and non-financial...

  13. Marketing Maine Tablestock Potatoes

    Berney, Gerald; Grajewski, Gregory; Hinman, Don; Prater, Marvin E.; Taylor, April

    2010-01-01

    The Marketing Services Division of USDA’s Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) was asked by USDA’s Agricultural Research Service (ARS) National Program Leader and ARS’s New England Soil and Water Research Laboratory personnel to help with existing efforts to assist Maine fresh potato farmers in their search for alternative marketing strategies, and reverse the recent decline in the profitability of their operations. ARS researchers previously had conducted an exhaustive study defining possibl...

  14. Study of the energy spectra of the major ion species in the ring-current region of the magnetosphere during geomagnetic storms

    Kistler, L.M.

    1987-01-01

    Using the University of Maryland/Max Planck Institute for Aeronomy Charge Energy Mass (CHEM) spectrometer on the AMPTE Charge Composition Explorer (CCE) spacecraft, the author examined the near-equatorial storm-time energy spectra of four major magnetospheric ions, H + , O + , He + , and He ++ over the energy range 1-300 keV/e in the L-range 3-6. The data were obtained during the main phase of all geomagnetic storms with minimum Dst less than -50 in the time period September 1984 to November 1985. During this period, the orbit of the CCE precessed such that the full range of local times was covered. When the spectra are organized by local time, certain features emerge. In particular, there is a dip in the spectra of all ions at 10-20 keV/e in the drawn-to-noon sector, while in the noon-to-dusk sector the proton distribution function drops off sharply below ∼5 keV. These spectra were compared with those predicted by a model of ion drift and loss in the magnetosphere. It was found that the spectra are most consistent with a Volland-Stern electric field with γ = 2 and with a rotation of the nominal dawn-to-dusk electric field eastward by two hours local time

  15. Severe ionosphere disturbances caused by the sudden response of evening subequatorial ionospheres to geomagnetic storms

    Tanaka, T.

    1981-01-01

    By monitoring C band beacon signals from geostationary satellites in Japan, we have observed anomalously strong ionospheric scintillations several times during three years from 1978 to 1980. These severe scinitillations occur associated with geomagnetic storms and accompany sudden and intense ionospheric perturbations in the low-latiude region. Through the analysis of these phenomena we have identified a new type of ionospheric disturbances characterized by intensifications of equatorial anomalies and successive severe ionospheric scintillations that extend to the C band range. The events occur only during a limited local time interval after the sunset, when storm time decreases of midlatitude geomagnetic fields in the same meridan take place during the same time interval. From the viewpoint of ionospheric storms, these disturbances precede the occurrence of midlatitude negative phases and storm time depressions of equatorial anomalies to indicate that the cause of the events is different from distrubed thermospheric circulations. The timing and magnitude of substorms at high-latitudes not always correlate with the events. We have concluded that the phenomena are closely related with penetrations toward low-latitudes of electric fields owing to the partial closure of asymmetrical ring currents

  16. Impact of the storm-time plasma sheet ion composition on the ring current energy density

    Mouikis, C.; Kistler, L. M.; Petrinec, S. M.; Fuselier, S. A.; Cohen, I.

    2017-12-01

    The adiabatic inward transport of the night-side near-earth ( 6 Re) hot plasma sheet is the dominant contributor to the ring current pressure during storm times. During storm times, the plasma sheet composition in the 6 - 12 Re tail region changes due to O+ entry from the lobes (from the cusp) and the direct feeding from the night side auroral region. In addition, at substorm onset the plasma sheet O+ ions can be preferentially accelerated. We use MMS and observations during two magnetic storms, 5/8/2016 and 7/16/2017, to monitor the composition changes and energization in the 6 - 12 Re plasma sheet region. For both storms the MMS apogee was in the tail. In addition, we use subsequent Van Allen Probe observations (with apogee in the dawn and dusk respectively) to test if the 6-12 Re plasma sheet, observed by MMS, is a sufficient source of the O+ in the ring current. For this we will compare the phase space density (PSD) of the plasma sheet source population and the PSD of the inner magnetosphere at constant magnetic moment values as used in Kistler et al., [2016].

  17. Dual-Polarization Radar Observations of Upward Lightning-Producing Storms

    Lueck, R.; Helsdon, J. H.; Warner, T.

    2013-12-01

    The Upward Lightning Triggering Study (UPLIGHTS) seeks to determine how upward lightning, which originates from the tips of tall objects, is triggered by nearby flash activity. As a component of this study we analyze standard and dual-polarization weather radar data. The Correlation Coefficient (CC) in particular can be used to identify and quantify the melting layer associated with storms that produce upward lightning. It has been proposed that positive charge generation due to aggregate shedding at the melting layer results in a positive charge region just above the cloud base. This positive charge region may serve as a positive potential well favorable for negative leader propagation, which initiate upward positive leaders from tall objects. We characterize the horizontal coverage, thickness and height of the melting layer in addition to cloud base heights when upward lightning occurs to determine trends and possible threshold criteria relating to upward lightning production. Furthermore, we characterize storm type and morphology using relevant schemes as well as precipitation type using the Hydrometer Classification Algorithm (HCA) for upward lightning-producing storms. Ice-phase hydrometeors have been shown to be a significant factor in thunderstorm electrification. Only a small fraction of storms produce upward lightning, so null cases will be examined and compared as well.

  18. Aerosol Particles from Dried Salt-Lakes and Saline Soils Carried on Dust Storms over Beijing

    Xingying Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of individual particles from a super dust storm (DS on 20 March 2002, and those of non dust storm aero sols for Beijing (NDS and Duolun (DL (a desert area are determined using a variety of methods. In China, typically the source of aero sols in dust storms is thought to be deserts with alumino silicates being the main constituent particles; how ever, this does not reflect a complete analysis with our evidence indicating potential alternate dust sources along the storm's trans port path. Individual particle anal y sis of aero sols collected from a super dust storm on 20 March 2002 in Beijing shows that among all the 14 elements measured, only S and Cl have re mark able positive correlation. 82.5% of all particles measured contained both S and Cl, and the relative mass per cent age of S and Cl in these particles is much higher than the average of all particles. 62.0% of all particles contained S, Cl, and Na, in which the concentration of Na is 1.4 times higher than average. PMF (Positive Matrix Factorization anal y sis indicates that NaCl and Na2SO4 are major components of these particles with S and Cl showing significant positive correlation. More over, SO4 2- and Cl- also show significant positive correlation in bulk aero sol analysis. XPS (X-ray Pho to electron Spectros copy analysis of the surface of aero sols demonstrates that concentrations of Na and S on particles from the dust storm are higher than those from non-dust storm particles in Beijing and also for particles from. It is very likely that particles enriched with S, Cl, and Na is from the surface soils of dried salt-lakes and saline soils enriched with chloride and sulfate. This evidence demonstrates that be sides deserts, surface soils from dry salt-lakes and saline soils of arid and semi-arid areas are also sources of particulates in dust storms over Beijing.

  19. Hurricane & Tropical Storm Impacts over the South Florida Metropolitan Area: Mortality & Government

    Colon Pagan, I. C.

    2007-12-01

    , mortality also increases. A relief is also remarkable when that time is between one and four years, which might be related to better government actions during a certain period after a strong hurricane impact. Results reflect a lack of focus on hurricane and tropical storm related themes, while a decrease in funding can be the consequence of less interest and much more attention on less probable hazards with a long term recovery period. Even though the government has an important role in hurricanes and tropical storms mitigation, some of the main ideas to decrease mortality are focused in networking between private and public sector and the understanding of self-vulnerability of each individual.

  20. Atmosphere surface storm track response to resolved ocean mesoscale in two sets of global climate model experiments

    Small, R. Justin; Msadek, Rym; Kwon, Young-Oh; Booth, James F.; Zarzycki, Colin

    2018-05-01

    It has been hypothesized that the ocean mesoscale (particularly ocean fronts) can affect the strength and location of the overlying extratropical atmospheric storm track. In this paper, we examine whether resolving ocean fronts in global climate models indeed leads to significant improvement in the simulated storm track, defined using low level meridional wind. Two main sets of experiments are used: (i) global climate model Community Earth System Model version 1 with non-eddy-resolving standard resolution or with ocean eddy-resolving resolution, and (ii) the same but with the GFDL Climate Model version 2. In case (i), it is found that higher ocean resolution leads to a reduction of a very warm sea surface temperature (SST) bias at the east coasts of the U.S. and Japan seen in standard resolution models. This in turn leads to a reduction of storm track strength near the coastlines, by up to 20%, and a better location of the storm track maxima, over the western boundary currents as observed. In case (ii), the change in absolute SST bias in these regions is less notable, and there are modest (10% or less) increases in surface storm track, and smaller changes in the free troposphere. In contrast, in the southern Indian Ocean, case (ii) shows most sensitivity to ocean resolution, and this coincides with a larger change in mean SST as ocean resolution is changed. Where the ocean resolution does make a difference, it consistently brings the storm track closer in appearance to that seen in ERA-Interim Reanalysis data. Overall, for the range of ocean model resolutions used here (1° versus 0.1°) we find that the differences in SST gradient have a small effect on the storm track strength whilst changes in absolute SST between experiments can have a larger effect. The latter affects the land-sea contrast, air-sea stability, surface latent heat flux, and the boundary layer baroclinicity in such a way as to reduce storm track activity adjacent to the western boundary in the N