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Sample records for storage-an international comparison

  1. Micro Foundations for International Productivity Comparisons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gersbach, Hans; Ark, Bart van

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology and procedures of international comparisons of productivity levels for twelve manufacturing industries (producing food products, beer, soap and detergents, iron and steel, machine tools, various types of machinery, computers, audio and video equipment, industrial

  2. Austrian emission under international comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderl, M.; Gager, M.; Gugele, B.; Huttunen, K.; Kurzweil, A.; Poupa, S.; Ritter, M.; Wappel, D.; Wieser, M.

    2004-01-01

    A comparison between anthropogenic emissions of CO 2 , CH 4 , N 2 O, SO 2 , NO x , volatile organic compounds (NMVOC), NH 3 and CO from the European Union, European Union candidate countries and Austria is presented. Data covers the years 1999-2001 and the emissions values per habitant are provided as well as a comparison against the Kyoto goals. In the middle of the European mean values are the austrian emissions values, austrian SO 2 emissions are the smallest, however CH 4 , CO and NMVOC emissions are over the European mean values. 8 figs., 6 tabs. (nevyjel)

  3. Aggregation Methods in International Comparisons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.M. Balk (Bert)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThis paper reviews the progress that has been made over the past decade in understanding the nature of the various multilateral in- ternational comparison methods. Fifteen methods are discussed and subjected to a system of ten tests. In addition, attention is paid to recently developed

  4. Ranking health between countries in international comparisons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Cross-national comparisons and ranking of summary measures of population health sometimes give rise to inconsistent and diverging conclusions. In order to minimise confusion, international comparative studies ought to be based on well-harmonised data with common standards of definitions and docum......Cross-national comparisons and ranking of summary measures of population health sometimes give rise to inconsistent and diverging conclusions. In order to minimise confusion, international comparative studies ought to be based on well-harmonised data with common standards of definitions...

  5. International Comparisons: Issues of Methodology and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serova Irina A.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the methodology and organization of statistical observation of the level of countries’ economic development. The theoretical basis of international comparisons is singled out and on its basis the comparative evaluation of inconsistency of theoretical positions and the reasons of differences of GDP growth is carried out. Based on the complexity of the formation of homogeneous data sets in order to obtain correct comparison results, a general scheme for the relationship between the theoretical base of international comparisons and PPP constraints is defined. The possibility of obtaining a single measurement of the indicators of national economies based on the existing sampling errors, measurement uncertainties and classification errors is considered. The emphasis is placed on combining the work using the ICP and CPI with the aim of achieving comparability of data in the territorial and temporal cross-section. Using the basic characteristics of sustainable economic growth, long-term prospects for changing the ranking positions of countries with different levels of income are determined. It is shown that the clarity and unambiguity of the theoretical provisions is the defining condition for the further process of data collection and formation of correct analytical conclusions.

  6. INTERNATIONAL COMPARISONS IN THE IMPROVEMENT OF EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hebert David G.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Imperfections - such as inequality and inefficiency of learning - are perennial problems for education despite a diversity of foundations on which national systems are established, which range from the idealistic vision of fostering a utopian society to the utilitarian objective of producing skilled workers capable of engendering economic growth. Despite sharing many common conditions and fundamental values, educators rarely learn valuable lessons from the successes and failures of highly relevant initiatives in distant nations. This problem may be attributed to several factors, not the least of which includes the entrenchment of local traditions and ethnocentric assumptions, but surely the quality and relevance of international-comparative research - and the way its results are disseminated - are issues that must also be taken into careful consideration. What are the unique lessons to be learned from international comparisons, and what are the prospective risks for how such comparisons may be misinterpreted and misused in educational settings? How can international comparative research be made more relevant, with tangible applications that may be recognized and effectively used by school teachers? How can international comparative education meaningfully examine subjects beyond the reach of standardized testing, in such domains as the fostering of creativity, talent, and ethical sensibilities, for example? These themes will be presented through discussion of both research findings and anecdotes from the personal experience of working for universities on four continents. Specific topics will include the challenges of accounting for conceptual equivalency and representing cultural differences, sampling and generalizability, reconciling the diverging aims of economic, anthropological, sociological, and psychological research, as well as grappling with the ambivalent discourse of globalization, multiculturalism, post-colonialism, and other social

  7. Graphical comparison of calculated internal conversion coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewbank, W.B.

    1980-11-01

    Calculated values of the coefficients of internal conversion of gamma rays in the K shell and L 1 , L 2 , L 3 subshells from published tabulations by Band and Trzhaskovskaya and by Roesel et al. at Data Nucl. Data Tables, 21, 92-514(1978) are compared with values obtained by computer interpolation among tabulated values of Hager and Seltzer Nucl. Data, A4, 1-235(1968). In some cases, agreement among the three calculations is remarkably good, and differences are generally less than 5%. In a few cases, there are differences as large as 20 to 50%, corresponding to the threshold effect described by Roesel et al. The Z-dependent resonance minimum described by Roesel et al. is also observed in the comparison of E1-E4 conversion in the L 1 subshell. In several cases (notably M1-M4 conversion in the K shell and L 1 subshell), the Band and Roesel calculations show dramatically different dependence on gamma energy and atomic number. For Z = 100, the Band calculation for E4 conversion in the L 3 subshell shows irregular behavior at energies below the K-shell binding energy. A few high-quality measurements of internal conversion coefficients (+-5%) would help greatly to establish a basis for choice among the theoretical calculations. 32 figures

  8. Operating Reserves and Wind Power Integration: An International Comparison; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, M.; Donohoo, P.; Lew, D.; Ela, E.; Kirby, B.; Holttinen, H.; Lannoye, E.; Flynn, D.; O' Malley, M.; Miller, N.; Eriksen, P. B.; Gottig, A.; Rawn, B.; Gibescu, M.; Lazaro, E. G.; Robitaille, A.; Kamwa, I.

    2010-10-01

    This paper provides a high-level international comparison of methods and key results from both operating practice and integration analysis, based on an informal International Energy Agency Task 25: Large-scale Wind Integration.

  9. Canadian Policy Responses to International Comparison Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volante, Louis

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines policy responses across Canada to international student assessment programs such as the program for international student assessment, trends in international mathematics and science study, and progress in international reading and literacy study. Literature reviewed included refereed and non-refereed journal articles,…

  10. 78 FR 38075 - International Labor Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... concepts, definitions, and classifications to facilitate data comparisons between the United States and... referred to as sequestration) required by the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act, as amended..., Room 2120, 2 Massachusetts Avenue NE., Washington, DC 20212 or by email to: [email protected] . FOR...

  11. International Comparisons on Internal Labor Markets and Corporate Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joonmo Cho

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analytical framework which demonstrates how the structures of corporate internal labor markets are formed within the broader labor and capital market context in the U.S. and Japan. This framework is then used to evaluate labor markets within Korean companies and to identify points of change which might promote greater efficiency. Prior to the Asian economic crisis, Korean conglomerates had large, closed internal labor markets. However, in the aftermath of the crisis, they have pursued structural downsizing and moved to open their labor markets. The empirical evidence introduced in this paper affirms the argument that the first step toward creating a flexible labor market in Korea should begin with establishing an efficient corporate governance structure. This implies that a simple switch from the Japanese paradigm for human resource management to an Anglo-American model or vice-versa may not improve internal labor market performance unless the change is accompanied by a solution to the problems posed by the minority controlling structure of Korean companies. The implications of this study for guiding policy in developing countries having labor market rigidities and underdeveloped corporate governance is clear. Capital market structure and corporate governance systems may provide an appropriate starting point for the development of any policies aimed at building an efficient human resource management system and a flexible labor market.

  12. Youth delinquency in Slovenia in international comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Dekleva, Bojan

    2015-01-01

    The article analyzes the official statistics of youth delinquency in Slovenia over the last 30 years. It presents an overview of Slovenian studies of youth delinquency using the self-report surveying method, and describes the International Self-Reported Delinquency Study II, which Slovenia was also took part in. And finally, it analyzes the information, on the basis of which it is possible to formulate conclusions on the extent of youth delinquency in Slovenia compared...

  13. Youth delinquency in Slovenia in international comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Dekleva, Bojan

    2010-01-01

    The article analyzes the official statistics of youth delinquency in Slovenia over the last 30 years. It presents an overview of Slovenian studies of youth delinquency using the self-report surveying method, and describes the International Self-Reported Delinquency Study II, which Slovenia was also took part in. And finally, it analyzes the information, on the basis of which it is possible to formulate conclusions on the extent of youth delinquency in Slovenia compared...

  14. Safety of nuclear installations. An international comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renner, Andrea; Diwes, Andreas; Reingardt, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Safeguarding of nuclear power plants against disruptive actions or other external hazards is part of the plant design and presumption of an operation license. The general principle is defense in depth involving different security zones with separate barriers. The safeguards for nuclear installations are organized in three areas of responsibility: governmental measures (police, military), technical (detectors, scanners, illuminations, camera tracking, concrete barriers) and personnel measures (access control, security personnel, alarm) of the operating company. International responsibilities results from the treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons and several IAEA documents. The authors discuss the national regulations in Germany, Switzerland, United Kingdom and USA. Older NPPs that are not in compliance with actual safety standards will be a topic of increasing importance.

  15. Exemption values and measurements in international comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neider, R.

    1994-01-01

    Activities are developed worldwide to systematically derive exemption limits or exemption values (IAEA, ICRP, Radiation Protection Ordinance) for different applications according to uniform principles. An important step in this regard is the adoption of the new guideline of the EU Council on radiation protection. Also regarding a uniform definition of the exemption of material from nuclear installations, agreement should be reached soon in Europe. Due to different concepts of ultimate disposal of radioactive wastes, in particular low level wastes, internationally there is no prospect of a uniform regulation concerning the exemption of very low level wastes, while in Germany a corresponding recommendation has already been made by the radiation protection commission. The exemption limits valid at present are mentioned. (orig./HP) [de

  16. Comparison of international food allergen labeling regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendel, Steven M

    2012-07-01

    Food allergy is a significant public health issue worldwide. Regulatory risk management strategies for allergic consumers have focused on providing information about the presence of food allergens through label declarations. A number of countries and regulatory bodies have recognized the importance of providing this information by enacting laws, regulations or standards for food allergen labeling of "priority allergens". However, different governments and organizations have taken different approaches to identifying these "priority allergens" and to designing labeling declaration regulatory frameworks. The increasing volume of the international food trade suggests that there would be value in supporting sensitive consumers by harmonizing (to the extent possible) these regulatory frameworks. As a first step toward this goal, an inventory of allergen labeling regulations was assembled and analyzed to identify commonalities, differences, and future needs. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Nuclear waste governance. An international comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunnengraeber, Achim; Di Nucci, Maria Rosaria; Isidoro Losada, Ana Maria; Mez, Lutz; Schreurs, Miranda A. (eds.) [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany)

    2015-06-01

    This volume examines the national plans that ten Euratom countries plus Switzerland and the United States are developing to address high-level radioactive waste storage and disposal. The chapters, which were written by 23 international experts, outline European and national regulations, technology choices, safety criteria, monitoring systems, compensation schemes, institutional structures, and approaches to public involvement. Key stakeholders, their values and interests are introduced, the responsibilities and authority of different actors considered, decision-making processes are analyzed as well as the factors influencing different national policy choices. The views and expectations of different communities regarding participatory decision making and compensation and the steps that have been or are being taken to promote dialogue and constructive problem-solving are also considered.

  18. International price comparisons for pharmaceuticals. Measurement and policy issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danzon, P M; Kim, J D

    1998-01-01

    Cross-national price comparisons for pharmaceuticals are commonly used for two purposes. Comparisons based on a sample of products are used to draw conclusions about differences in average price levels. Cross-national comparisons applied to individual products are also used by governments to set domestic prices. This paper examines the major methodological issues raised by international price comparisons, focusing on measurement of differences in average price levels and the validity of policy conclusions drawn from such price comparison studies. It argues that valid measures of average price levels can only be obtained from comparisons based on a comprehensive or representative sample of products, appropriately weighted, following standard index number methods. Comparisons of individual product prices should take into account the manufacturer's entire product portfolio over time rather than focus narrowly on a single product at a point in time. Because of the great variation across countries in both the range of drug compounds available and the dosage forms, strengths and pack sizes for each compound, obtaining a broadly comprehensive or representative sample is problematical. If products are required to match on all dimensions, including molecule, manufacturer, strength and pack, as is common in most international price comparisons, then only a very small and unrepresentative sample of the drugs available in each country can be included in the analysis. A trade-off between the desire to compare only identical products and the need to compare a truly representative sample of a country's pharmaceutical market is therefore necessary. A valid comparison of average drug prices should include generics and over-the-counter products that are good substitutes for branded prescription drugs, with all forms, strengths and packs. To achieve this broad representation, however, the requirements of same manufacturer, same brand, dosage form, strength and pack size must be

  19. International comparison of electricity generating costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, P.M.S.; Stevens, G.H.; Wigley, K.

    1989-01-01

    The paper reviews the principal findings of successive studies of projected comparative generation costs for base-load electricity production conducted by Nuclear Energy Agency working groups, including a current study jointly sponsored by the International Energy Agency. It concludes that over the six years 1983-1989 nuclear generation costs have remained steady or slightly declined in the majority of OECD countries. This represents an excellent result in view of the difficulties that have arisen in many countries during the period. Nuclear power is projected to maintain a significant advantage in most OECD countries on an assessment basis reflecting utility experience and discount rates employed by the majority of participants. However, nuclear's projected advantage has declined due to a significant fall in projected coal prices which have decreased by 50% since 1983. This decline is only slightly offset by increased capital and operating costs for coal-fired plant. If rates of return sought by utilities were higher or if coal prices prove lower than utilities project then the economic balance between nuclear and coal-fired power would be further reduced and could in some instances be reversed. To improve on its competitiveness nuclear power will have to continue to control capital costs through replication and reduced construction schedules and to improve plant availability to maximise output

  20. On the Reliability of Unit Value Ratios in International Comparisons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, Marcel P.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper reliability indicators are developed for the Laspeyres and Paasche index type currency conversion factors used in the industry of origin approach to international comparisons of output. Given the fact that these conversion factors are calculated on basis of a sampling technique,

  1. [Pitfalls in international comparisons of health data and indices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotstein, Z; Shani, M

    1991-05-01

    Comparison of published data and health indices from different countries with different health systems is subject to many pitfalls. Comparison of national expenditure for health care based on purchasing power of the currency may be misleading if the purchasing power of the health services is ignored. Comparisons may also be misleading if they ignore national geographic and demographic structures. Government and health authorities often quote different sets of data and use different terminology and definitions. This article stresses the disparity in the definition of medical manpower and points out differences relating to ratios of manpower to population and to per capita spending. Also addressed is the importance of the qualitative and value aspects of health systems not usually involved in comparison of international health indices. In conclusion, safety measures and precautions such as choosing the right index for the right purpose, adjustment of indices to the purchasing power parity of health, demographics, etc., should be used when conducting health care analyses.

  2. A comparison of justice frameworks for international research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Bridget; Loff, Bebe

    2015-07-01

    Justice frameworks have been developed for international research that provide guidance on the selection of research targets, ancillary care, research capacity strengthening, and post-trial benefits. Yet there has been limited comparison of the different frameworks. This paper examines the underlying aims and theoretical bases of three such frameworks--the fair benefits framework, the human development approach and research for health justice--and considers how their aims impact their guidance on the aforementioned four ethical issues. It shows that the frameworks' underlying objectives vary across two dimensions. First, whether they seek to prevent harmful or exploitative international research or to promote international research with health benefits for low and middle-income countries. Second, whether they address justice at the micro level or the macro level. The fair benefits framework focuses on reforming contractual elements in individual international research collaborations to ensure fairness, whereas the other two frameworks aim to connect international research with the reduction of global health inequities. The paper then highlights where there is overlap between the frameworks' requirements and where differences in the strength and content of the obligations they identify arise as a result of their varying objectives and theoretical bases. In doing so, it does not offer a critical comparison of the frameworks but rather seeks to add clarity to current debates on justice and international research by showing how they are positioned relative to one another. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. International comparisons in critical care: a necessity and challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunsch, Hannah; Rowan, Kathryn M; Angus, Derek C

    2007-12-01

    Understanding variation in critical care resources, and delivery of care between countries will allow for improved disaster planning, evaluation of research findings, and assessment of the utility of critical care itself. This review describes the available data for international comparisons and the many factors that need to be addressed for an appropriate interpretation of results. Recent studies on subgroups of critical care patients include data from many different countries. These new studies provide important information on the overall incidence of these disease states, but most of these international studies do not take into account the critical care resources of the countries being discussed. For an appropriate interpretation of findings the relevant baseline critical care resources, prevalence of diseases, and cultural practices, need to be quantified. The existence of these other factors prevents the use of a severity of illness scoring system alone to account for differences between countries. Many recent critical care studies include data from multiple countries. With continued movement towards international studies, and improvements in data collection systems, comparisons between countries are becoming easier. These findings need to be interpreted in the context of all the relevant country information.

  4. International comparison of AC-DC current transfer standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, G.; Garcocz, M.; Waldmann, W.

    2017-01-01

    The measurements of the international comparison of ac-dc current transfer standards identified as EURAMET.EM-K12 started in June 2012 and were completed in December 2014. Twenty NMIs in the EURAMET region and one NMI in the AFRIMET region took part: BEV (Austria), CMI (Czech Republic), PTB (Germany), METAS (Switzerland), JV (Norway), UME (Turkey), GUM (Poland), IPQ (Portugal), CEM (Spain), INRIM (Italy), SP (Sweden), DANIAmet-MI-Trescal (Denmark), BIM (Bulgaria), MKEH (Hungary), SIQ (Slovenia), LNE (France), NSAI NML (Ireland), VSL (The Netherlands), NPL (United Kingdom), Metrosert (Estonia), NIS (Egypt). The comparison was proposed to link the National Metrology Institutes organised in EURAMET to the key comparison CCEM-K12. The ac-dc current transfer difference of each travelling standard had been measured at its nominal current 10 mA and 5 A at the following frequencies: 10 Hz, 55 Hz, 1 kHz, 10 kHz, 20 kHz, 50 kHz, 100 kHz. The test points were selected to link the results with the equivalent CCEM Key Comparison (CCEM-K12), through five NMIs participating in both EURAMET and CCEM key comparisons (PTB, JV, NPL, SP and BEV). The report shows the degree of equivalence in the EURAMET region and also the degree of equivalence with the corresponding CCEM reference value. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCEM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  5. Wind Power Forecasting Error Distributions: An International Comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Lew, Debra; Milligan, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Wind power forecasting is essential for greater penetration of wind power into electricity systems. Because no wind forecasting system is perfect, a thorough understanding of the errors that may occur is a critical factor for system operation functions, such as the setting of operating reserve...... levels. This paper provides an international comparison of the distribution of wind power forecasting errors from operational systems, based on real forecast data. The paper concludes with an assessment of similarities and differences between the errors observed in different locations....

  6. First international 26Al interlaboratory comparison - Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merchel, Silke; Bremser, Wolfram

    2005-01-01

    After finishing Part I of the first international 26 Al interlaboratory comparison with accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) laboratories [S. Merchel, W. Bremser, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 223-224 (2004) 393], the evaluation of Part II with radionuclide counting laboratories took place. The evaluation of the results of the seven participating laboratories on four meteorite samples shows a good overall agreement between laboratories, i.e. it does not reveal any statistically significant differences if results are compared sample-by-sample. However, certain interlaboratory bias is observed with a more detailed statistical analysis including some multivariate approaches

  7. [Surgical research in Germany--an international comparison].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fendrich, V; Rothmund, M

    2010-04-01

    Surgical research in Germany occupies a lower position in international ranking than expected. According to the size of the population, the economic impact, the gross domestic product and the research funding capacity, the impact of German surgical research should be much higher. Reasons are a more intensive commitment to patient care, structural differences and a changing lifestyle in younger doctors in comparison to many leading countries. If the situation is to be improved all factors have to be evaluated and, if possible, changed. Overall, German surgeons are underrepresented as readers and authors in the scientific market, which is mostly in the English language.

  8. Qualitative content analysis for international comparison of data usage agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Haux

    2017-04-01

    Undertaking an overview of privacy conditions can be a valuable step in comparing privacy and security requirements in different national regulations. The qualitative content analysis was found a suitable approach for this purpose because it enables the detection of fine characteristics. By using an incremental design, it is possible to adapt the coding system to include additional partners. However, the current coding system has the limitation that heterogeneity between the agreements leads to a fine granularity of categories that hamper the comparability between partners. Despite these problems, the approach allows the comparison of data privacy and supports the development of a data integration process for international harmonisation.

  9. Recent activity of international comparison for nanoparticle size measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kayori; Takahata, Keiji; Misumi, Ichiko; Sugawara, Kentaro; Gonda, Satoshi; Ehara, Kensei

    2014-08-01

    Nanoparticle sizing is the most fundamental measurement for producing nanomaterials, evaluation of nanostructure, and the risk assessment of nanomaterials for human health. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) is widely used as a useful and convenient technique for determining nanoparticle size in liquid; however, the precision of this technique has been unclear. Some international comparisons are now in progress to verify the measurement accuracy of nanoparticle sizing, as a typical example of Asia Pacific Metrology Programme Supplementary Comparison. In this study, we evaluated the precision of DLS technique for nanoparticle sizing and estimated the uncertainty of the DLS data for polystyrene latex suspensions. The extrapolations of apparent diffusion coefficients to infinite dilution and to lower angles yielded more precise values than those obtained at one angle and one concentration. The extrapolated particle size measured by DLS was compared to the size determined by differential mobility analyzer (DMA), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Before the comparison, the intensity-averaged size measured by DLS was recalculated to the number-averaged size, and the thickness of water layer attaching on the surface of particles were added into uncertainty of particle sizing by DLS. After the recalculation, the consistent values of mean particle diameter were obtained between those by DLS and by DMA, AFM, and SEM within the estimated uncertainties.

  10. International comparison of energy price using a purchasing power parity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Dong Hun; Jo, Sung Han [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    1999-05-01

    The price control of government results in price distortion as well as lowering efficiency of energy market and distortion of allocating resources. Consequently, such a price policy leads to energy overconsumption and has negative influences on other policies trying to reduce environmental burden resulted from energy consumption. When the energy price does not reflect the market price properly, it results in inefficiency of energy industry and it makes very difficult to supply investment funds. Therefore, the government is planning to implement liberalization of energy price step by step. The purpose of this study is to provide basic materials for establishing a reasonable energy price policy through the international comparison among OECD countries on major products price focusing on petroleum products. To overcome problems of exchange rate, a purchasing power indicator from OECD was used for comparative analysis with OECD countries. 11 refs. 1 fig., 23 tabs.

  11. International comparison of calibration standards for exposure and absorbed dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horakova, I.; Wagner, R.

    1990-01-01

    A comparison was performed of the primary calibration standards for 60 Co gamma radiation dose from Czechoslovakia (UDZ CSAV, Prague), Austria (OEFZS/BEV Seibersdorf) and Hungary (OMH Budapest) using ND 1005 (absolute measurement) and V-415 (by means of N x ) graphite ionization chambers. BEV achieved agreement better than 0.1%, OMH 0.35%. Good agreement was also achieved for the values of exposure obtained in absolute values and those obtained via N x , this for the ND 1005/8105 chamber. The first ever international comparison involving Czechoslovakia was also performed of the unit of absorbed gamma radiation in a water and/or graphite phantom. The participants included Czechoslovakia (UDZ CSAV Prague), the USSR (VNIIFTRI Moscow) and Austria (OEFZS/BEV Seibersdorf). In all measurements, the agreement was better than 1%, which, in view of the differences in methodologies (VNIIFTRI, BEV: calorimetry, UDZ, UVVVR: ionometry) and the overall inaccuracies in determining the absorbed dose values, is a good result. (author)

  12. An international comparison of surface texture parameters quantification on polymer artefacts using optical instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Haitjema, H.; Leach, R.K.

    2016-01-01

    An international comparison of optical instruments measuring polymer surfaces with arithmetic mean height values in the sub-micrometre range has been carried out. The comparison involved sixteen optical surface texture instruments (focus variation instruments, confocal microscopes and coherent...

  13. Work-Related Attitudes of Czech Generation Z: International Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslava Kubátová,

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to present work-related attitudes of a sample of Czech Generation Z and their comparison to the results of an international research study. Currently, there are three important trends influencing the labor market: (1 the origin and development of a ubiquitous working environment, (2 the thriving of coworking centers, and (3 Generation Z's entering the labor market. Instead of traditional jobs, the bearers of human capital tend to choose independent work in an online environment, and often work in coworking centers. Using self-determination theory, we substantiate why they thrive better this way. Based on the results of an international research project focused on work attitudes among Generation Z and the results of a replication study we carried out in the Czech Republic, we attest that members of Generation Z may prefer independent virtual work in coworking centers, too. The total amount of available human capital, the lack of which is pointed out by companies, may grow thanks to new ways of working. Companies, which can use human capital of independent workers, gain a competitive advantage.

  14. An international comparison of reimbursement for DIEAP flap breast reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, A W N; Szpalski, C; Sheppard, N N; Morrison, C M; Blondeel, P N

    2015-11-01

    The deep inferior epigastric artery perforator (DIEAP) flap is currently considered the gold standard for autologous breast reconstruction. With the current economic climate and health cutbacks, we decided to survey reimbursement for DIEAP flaps performed at the main international centres in order to assess whether they are funded consistently. Data were collected confidentially from the main international centres by an anonymous questionnaire. Our results illustrate the wide disparity in international DIEAP flap breast reconstruction reimbursement: a unilateral DIEAP flap performed in New York, USA, attracts €20,759, whereas the same operation in Madrid, Spain, will only be reimbursed for €300. Only 35.7% of the surgeons can set up their own fee. Moreover, 85.7% of the participants estimated that the current fees are insufficient, and most of them feel that we are evolving towards an even lower reimbursement rate. In 55.8% of the countries represented, there is no DIEAP-specific coding; in comparison, 74.4% of the represented countries have a specific coding for transverse rectus abdominis (TRAM) flaps. Finally, despite the fact that DIEAP flaps have become the gold standard for breast reconstruction, they comprise only a small percentage of all the total number of breast reconstruction procedures performed (7-15%), with the only exception being Belgium (40%). Our results demonstrate that DIEAP flap breast reconstruction is inconsistently funded. Unfortunately though, it appears that the current reimbursement offered by many countries may dissuade institutions and surgeons from offering this procedure. However, substantial evidence exists supporting the cost-effectiveness of perforator flaps for breast reconstruction, and, in our opinion, the long-term clinical benefits for our patients are so important that this investment of time and money is absolutely essential. Copyright © 2015 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons

  15. The neural correlates of internal and external comparisons: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xue; Xiang, Yanhui; Cant, Jonathan S; Wang, Tingting; Cupchik, Gerald; Huang, Ruiwang; Mo, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Many previous studies have suggested that various comparisons rely on the same cognitive and neural mechanisms. However, little attention has been paid to exploring the commonalities and differences between the internal comparison based on concepts or rules and the external comparison based on perception. In the present experiment, moral beauty comparison and facial beauty comparison were selected as the representatives of internal comparison and external comparison, respectively. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to record brain activity while participants compared the level of moral beauty of two scene drawings containing moral acts or the level of facial beauty of two face photos. In addition, a physical size comparison task with the same stimuli as the beauty comparison was included. We observed that both the internal moral beauty comparison and external facial beauty comparison obeyed a typical distance effect and this behavioral effect recruited a common frontoparietal network involved in comparisons of simple physical magnitudes such as size. In addition, compared to external facial beauty comparison, internal moral beauty comparison induced greater activity in more advanced and complex cortical regions, such as the bilateral middle temporal gyrus and middle occipital gyrus, but weaker activity in the putamen, a subcortical region. Our results provide novel neural evidence for the comparative process and suggest that different comparisons may rely on both common cognitive processes as well as distinct and specific cognitive components.

  16. Cancer Drugs: An International Comparison of Postlicensing Price Inflation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Philip; Mahmoud, Sarah; Patel, Yogin; Kantarjian, Hagop

    2017-06-01

    The cost of cancer drugs forms a rising proportion of health care budgets worldwide. A number of studies have examined international comparisons of initial cost, but there is little work on postlicensing price increases. To examine this, we compared cancer drug prices at initial sale and subsequent price inflation in the United States and United Kingdom and also reviewed relevant price control mechanisms. The 10 top-selling cancer drugs were selected, and their prices at initial launch and in 2015 were compared. Standard nondiscounted prices were obtained from the relevant annual copies of the RED BOOK and the British National Formulary. At initial marketing, prices were on average 42% higher in the United States than in the United Kingdom. After licensing in the United States, all 10 drugs had price rises averaging an overall annual 8.8% (range, 1.4% to 24.1%) increase. In comparison, in the United Kingdom, six drugs had unchanged prices, two had decreased prices, and two had modest price increases. The overall annual increase in the United Kingdom was 0.24%. Cancer drug prices are rising substantially, both at their initial marketing price and, in the United States, at postlicensing prices. In the United Kingdom, the Pharmaceutical Price Regulation Scheme, an agreement between the government and the pharmaceutical industry, controls health care costs while allowing a return on investment and funds for research. The increasing costs of cancer drugs are approaching the limits of sustainability, and a similar government-industry agreement may allow stability for both health care provision and the pharmaceutical industry in the United States.

  17. Domestic/family violence death reviews: an international comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugeja, Lyndal; Dawson, Myrna; McIntyre, Sara-Jane; Walsh, Carolyn

    2015-04-01

    Domestic/Family Violence Death Reviews (D/FVDRs) have been established in a number of high-income countries since 1990 as a mechanism to inform prevention-focused interventions to reduce domestic/family violence. D/FVDRs differ in their structure, governance, case identification processes and inclusion criteria, review measures, and outputs. Outside of the United States, the extent of heterogeneity across and within countries has not been explored. This study comprised an international comparison of D/FVDRs and their core elements to inform the establishment of D/FVDRs in other developed countries, and potentially low- and middle-income countries where violence is a leading cause of death. Such a review is also a necessary foundation for any future evaluation D/FVDRs. The review identified 71 jurisdictions where a D/FVDRs had been established in the past two decades, 25 of which met the inclusion criteria. All D/FVDRs examined stated a reduction in deaths as a goal of the review process; however, none reported an actual reduction. The focus of the D/FVDRs examined was on intimate partner homicides; however, more recently established D/FVDRs include other familial relationships. Almost one third of the D/FVDRs examined reported changes to the domestic/family system that occurred as a result of recommendations made from the review process. While similar in many ways, D/FVDRs differ along a number of important dimensions that make it difficult to identify best practices for jurisdictions considering the establishment of such an initiative. To share knowledge, existing networks should be expanded nationally and internationally to include jurisdictions that may be considering this initiative. © The Author(s) 2013.

  18. TRENDS OF THE FACTORING TURNOVER IN INTERNATIONAL COMPARISONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éva DARABOS

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The factoring scheme was developed by the competition between the market operators and the need for the most favourable conditions of sale. The seller is constrained to provide loans on a broad scale therefore the seller may have liquidity problems. In cases of this kind, the seller can apply to a factoring company in order to access sources, instead of a bank loan. The factoring service has a price. Decision of the financial managers can largely contribute to choosing the appropriate funding form to retain the continuous liquidity situation of an enterprise. Aim of the article is to present the main tendencies of the factoring turnover in international comparisons, highlighting the characteristics of the financial service by its direction, sectorial distribution and customer size in Hungary. It has been estimated that the factoring financing approaches 10% of the short-term loan stocks of SMEs required from banks which indicates that the factoring is now far beyond the marginal financial service but it is an essential element of the short-term financing toolkit.

  19. International Semiotics: Item Difficulty and the Complexity of Science Item Illustrations in the PISA-2009 International Test Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano-Flores, Guillermo; Wang, Chao; Shade, Chelsey

    2016-01-01

    We examined multimodality (the representation of information in multiple semiotic modes) in the context of international test comparisons. Using Program of International Student Assessment (PISA)-2009 data, we examined the correlation of the difficulty of science items and the complexity of their illustrations. We observed statistically…

  20. The Generalized Internal/External Frame of Reference Model: An Extension to Dimensional Comparison Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Jens; Müller-Kalthoff, Hanno; Helm, Friederike; Nagy, Nicole; Marsh, Herb W.

    2016-01-01

    The dimensional comparison theory (DCT) focuses on the effects of internal, dimensional comparisons (e.g., "How good am I in math compared to English?") on academic self-concepts with widespread consequences for students' self-evaluation, motivation, and behavioral choices. DCT is based on the internal/external frame of reference model…

  1. The International Comparison of Value Added, Productivity and Purchasing Power Parities in Agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maddison, Angus; Ooststroom, Harry van

    1993-01-01

    This study is part of the ICOP (International Comparison of Output and Productivity) project of the University of Groningen. It presents international comparisons of levels of value added, productivity and purchasing power parities (PPPs) in agriculture for 13 countries for 1975. An early version of

  2. International comparisons of road safety using Singular Value Decomposition.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppe, S.

    2001-01-01

    There is a general interest in the comparison of road safety developments in different countries. Comparisons have been made, based on absolute levels of accident or fatality risk or on the rate of change of functions regarding risk, the number of accidents, fatalities or injuries over time. Such

  3. International Comparisons of Income Poverty and Extreme Income Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Blackburn, McKinley L.

    1993-01-01

    Uses LIS data to study the sensitivity of cross-national income poverty comparisons to the method in which poverty is measured. Examined are the differences between using absolute and relative poverty comparisons as well as the consequence of lowering the real value of the poverty line to examine extreme poverty.

  4. Genebanks: a comparison of eight proposed international genetic databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Melissa A; Harding, Sarah; McElroy, Courtney

    2003-01-01

    To identify and compare population-based genetic databases, or "genebanks", that have been proposed in eight international locations between 1998 and 2002. A genebank can be defined as a stored collection of genetic samples in the form of blood or tissue, that can be linked with medical and genealogical or lifestyle information from a specific population, gathered using a process of generalized consent. Genebanks were identified by searching Medline and internet search engines with key words such as "genetic database" and "biobank" and by reviewing literature on previously identified databases such as the deCode project. Collection of genebank characteristics was by an electronic and literature search, augmented by correspondence with informed individuals. The proposed genebanks are located in Iceland, the United Kingdom, Estonia, Latvia, Sweden, Singapore, the Kingdom of Tonga, and Quebec, Canada. Comparisons of the genebanks were based on the following criteria: genebank location and description of purpose, role of government, commercial involvement, consent and confidentiality procedures, opposition to the genebank, and current progress. All of the groups proposing the genebanks plan to search for susceptibility genes for complex diseases while attempting to improve public health and medical care in the region and, in some cases, stimulating the local economy through expansion of the biotechnology sector. While all of the identified plans share these purposes, they differ in many aspects, including funding, subject participation, and organization. The balance of government and commercial involvement in the development of each project varies. Genetic samples and health information will be collected from participants and coded in all of the genebanks, but consent procedures range from presumed consent of the entire eligible population to recruitment of volunteers with informed consent. Issues regarding confidentiality and consent have resulted in opposition to

  5. International comparison of observation-specific spatial buffers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frank, Lawrence D; Fox, Eric H; Ulmer, Jared M

    2017-01-01

    the relative differences in resulting explanatory power on self-reported physical activity outcomes. BEMs were developed in five countries using 'sausage,' 'detailed-trimmed,' and 'detailed,' network buffers at a distance of 1 km around participant household addresses (n = 5883). RESULTS: BEM values were...... significantly different (p trimmed buffer comparisons and 89% of sausage versus detailed network buffer comparisons. Results showed that BEM coefficients in physical activity models did not differ significantly across buffering methods, and in most cases BEM...

  6. An international comparison of nuclear plant training programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, J.H.

    1993-01-01

    In 1990, I visited four utility companies that own and operate pressurized water reactor (PWR) plants in different countries. The purpose of my visits and associated research was to compare nuclear power plant operator and technician training programs. The companies were: Duke Power Company (DUKE) in the United States, Electricite de France (EDF) in France, Kansai Electric Power Company (KEPCO) in Japan, and RWE Energie AG (RWE) in Germany. The purpose of this paper is to highlight selected aspects of the comparison. First, comparisons of the four subject utilities and four typical nuclear power stations operated by each company, McGuire, Paluel, Ohi, and Biblis, are provided. Then comparisons of new employee demographics and training program specific content are provided. Finally, some general observations are drawn from the comparisons. The comparisons are based on information obtained from documents, interviews, and visits to stations and training centers. However, some interpretation of the information was necessary in order to enable a comparison. For example, categorization of training modules requires judgement, interpretation, and translation. In all cases, the information is intended to be representative or typical, rather than statistically precise

  7. [The role of international comparison in surveying divorce trends].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cseh-szombathy, L

    1982-04-01

    In this study, the main survey methods and approaches to analyzing data on divorce in different countries are described. Some problems concerning the international comparability of divorce statistics are examined, and the value of international comparative studies for identifying common factors affecting divorce is stressed. (summary in ENG, RUS)

  8. International comparison for RF power in the frequency range up to 18 GHz

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Vreede, JPM

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available A Euromet international laboratory comparison (Project 393) has been carried out between 14 national standards laboratories. Thermistor mounts were used, equipped with PC7 as well as Type N connectors. The comparison is carried out using the normal...

  9. Comparisons on International Approaches of Business and Project Risk Management

    OpenAIRE

    Nadia Carmen ENE

    2005-01-01

    In this article we intend to present a comparative approach between three recognized international methodologies for risk management: RISKMAN, Project Management Institute Methodology-PMBoK and Project Risk Analysis and Management Guide (produced by Association for Project Management).

  10. A review and comparison of international exemption and clearance levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, J.R.; Mobbs, S.F.

    1997-01-01

    The publication of new European Basic Safety Standards by the European Commission and of new International Basic Safety Standards by the IAEA together with other international agencies, has led to increased interest in the application of the concepts of exemption and clearance. This paper discusses the derivation of radionuclide-specific exemption and clearance values for application in various areas of the regulation of radioactive materials. (author)

  11. Comparison report for CSNI International Standard Problem 12 (ROSA-III Run 912)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasaka, Kanji; Anoda, Yoshinari; Kumamaru, Hiroshige; Nakamura, Hideo; Iriko, Masanori; Yonomoto, Taisuke; Shiba, Masayoshi

    1982-09-01

    ROSA-III Run 912 was identified as International Standard Problem 12 by the Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations. Run 912 simulated a 5% split break LOCA condition in a BWR at the pump suction in the recirculation line with the HPCS failure. Comparisons between the test data and the calculations by eight international participants were made and discussed. (author)

  12. Lessons learnt from participation in international inter-comparison exercise for environmental radioactivity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, S.K.; Pulhani, Vandana; Sartandel, Sangeeta

    2016-06-01

    Environmental Radioactivity Measurement Section of Health Physics Division is regularly carrying out surveillance of the radioactivity concentration in the environment. The laboratory participates in the inter-comparison exercises conducted by various international agencies for quality assurance and quality control of analytical estimations. This report summarizes the results of the analysis of radioactivity in environmental matrices of the inter-comparison exercises. The participation in inter-comparison exercises has demonstrated competence in radionuclide identification and estimations, equivalence with the results of other participating laboratories, validated adopted analytical methods, introduced traceability to measurement etc. at national and international level. (author)

  13. International comparisons of public sector performance: how to move ahead?

    OpenAIRE

    Van de Walle, Steven

    2009-01-01

    textabstractMeasuring and comparing the overall performance of countries’ public sectors requires agreement on definitions and objectives of government. I argue that such an agreement is about finding a consensus rather about finding better definitions. Measuring government requires a number of leaps of faith, where certain definitions, assumptions and statistics are accepted as good enough for measurement and comparison. The political science and economic research community have a different ...

  14. Women Academics and Research Productivity: An International Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiston, Sarah Jane; Jung, Jisun

    2015-01-01

    In the prestige economy of higher education, research productivity is highly prized. Previous research indicates, however, a gender gap with respect to research output. This gap is often explained by reference to familial status and responsibilities. In this article, we examine the research productivity gender gap from an international perspective…

  15. Issues in Measurement and International Comparison of Productivity - An Overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Ark, Bart

    1996-01-01

    This paper reviews recent development in theory and measurement of productivity performance in an international comparative perspective. It emphasises the need for a better link between the theory and practice of measurement, in particular concerning measurement of productivity levels. The paper

  16. Varying gestational age patterns in cesarean delivery: An international comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delnord, M.; Blondel, B.; Drewniak, N.; Klungsøyr, K.; Bolumar, F.; Mohangoo, A.; Gissler, M.; Szamotulska, K.; Lack, N.; Nijhuis, J.; Velebil, P.; Sakkeus, L.; Chalmers, J.; Zeitlin, J.; Haidinger, G.; XMartens, G.; Misselwitz, B.; Wenzlaff, P.; Bonham, S.; Jaselioniene, J.; Gatt, M.; Klungsøyr, K.; Barros, H.; Novak, Z.; Gottvall, K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: While international variations in overall cesarean delivery rates are well documented, less information is available for clinical sub-groups. Cesarean data presented by subgroups can be used to evaluate uptake of cesarean reduction policies or to monitor delivery practices for high and

  17. Comparison of advanced reactors program of different international vendors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnihotri, N.K.

    2001-01-01

    The full text follows. Proposal for presenting a paper on Advanced Reactor Program Given below is the abstract for Track 6 session on Advanced Reactor at the ninth International Conference on Nuclear Engineering being held in Nice, France from April 8. through 12. 2001. This paper will provide an update on Advanced Reactor Program of different vendors in the United States, Japan, and Europe. Specifically the paper will look at the history of different Advanced Reactor Programs, international experience, aspect of economy due to standardization, and the highlights of technical specifications. The paper will also review aspects of Economy due to standardization, public acceptance, required construction time, and the experience of different vendors. The objective of the presentation is to underscore the highlights of the Reactor Program of different vendors in order to keep the attendees of the conference up-to-date. The presentation will be an impartial overview from an outsider's (not part of the Nuclear Steam Supply System's staff). (author)

  18. The education and training of older workers – international comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Jelenc Krašovec

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we first analyse the role and meaning of the education and training of older workers in the workplace from the perspective of their effects. These manifest on different levels: on the one hand, they are recognisable as the knowledge, skills, values, and behaviour of individuals, but, on the other hand, their influences are also present on the organisational level. In this paper, we analyse data gathered via PIAAC research; analyses are based on the hypothesis that older workers, in comparison to younger age groups, are discriminated against as regards access to education and training related to employment or work. The analyses confirm our hypothesis.

  19. International Comparison of Methane-Stabilized He-Ne Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshelyaevskii, N. B.; Oboukhov, A.; Tatarenkov, V. M.; Titov, A. N.; Chartier, J.-M.; Felder, R.

    1981-01-01

    Two portable methane-stabilized lasers designed at BIPM have been compared with a type a stationary Soviet device developed in VNIIFTRI1. This comparison is one of a series aimed at establishing the coherence of laser wavelength and frequency measurements throughout the world and took place in June 1979. The VNIIFTRI and BIPM lasers using different methods of stabilization, have different optical and mechanical designs and laser tubes. The results of previous measurements, made in VNIIFTRI, of the most important frequency shifts for Soviet lasers together with a method of reproducing their frequency which leads to a precision of 1.10-12 are also presented.

  20. International Comparison of the Export Competitiveness of Chinese Honey

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Lunjiao

    2009-01-01

    Honey production and trade in the world are introduced. Total output of honey shows an increasing trend while the output of Chinese honey always ranks the first in the world. China, Argentina, Mexico are the major exporters of honey. In the year 2006, honey exports of China, Argentina and Mexico occupy 49.9% of the world's total export volume. International competitiveness of the three honey export countries are calculated, compared and analyzed by adopting the indices such as export price, i...

  1. Results submitted to Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) for international comparison on 134Cs activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, F.H.; Smith, L.V.; Rutledge, A.R.; Merritt, J.S.

    1979-02-01

    This report describes the equipment used and the results obtained by the Radioisotope Standardization Group in its participation in the international comparison of activity measurements of a 134 Cs solution that was sponsored by Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM). The 4π(PC)-γ coincidence method was used with the γ-channel gate set narrowly around photopeaks of approximately 800 keV. The results are compared with those from three other γ-channel gates. An assessment of known and suspected sources of uncertainty is included. (author)

  2. Wind power implementation in changing institutional landscapes: An international comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breukers, Sylvia; Wolsink, Maarten

    2007-01-01

    In order to understand diverging achievements in wind power implementation, the Netherlands, England, and the German state of North Rhine Westphalia are compared in a multiple cases study. The comparison addresses the extent to which wind power, as a new energy technology, has become embedded in existing routines and practices of society. The concept of institutional capacity building is adopted to qualify the trajectories followed, taking into account the interdependent and changing political, economic, environmental and planning conditions. Moreover, attention is focused on the conditions that affect the local planning contexts, because that is the level at which conflicts are eventually played out and where a lack of social acceptance becomes manifest. This comparison partly clarifies diverging achievements in terms of implementation. Local social acceptance is problematic-to various degrees-in all three cases. Policymakers and wind project developers do not sufficiently recognise the nature of tensions at the local level. Facilitating local ownership and institutionalising participation in project planning can help to arrive at a better recognition and involvement of the multiple interests (environmental, economic and landscape) that are relevant at the local level of implementation

  3. International comparison CCQM-K119 liquefied petroleum gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, P. J.; Downey, M. L.; Atkins, E.; Brown, R. J. C.; Brown, A. S.; Zalewska, E. T.; van der Veen, A. M. H.; Smeulders, D. E.; McCallum, J. B.; Satumba, R. T.; Kim, Y. D.; Kang, N.; Bae, H. K.; Woo, J. C.; Konopelko, L. A.; Popova, T. A.; Meshkov, A. V.; Efremova, O. V.; Kustikov, Y.

    2018-01-01

    Liquefied hydrocarbon mixtures with traceable composition are required in order to underpin measurements of the composition and other physical properties of LPG (liquefied petroleum gas), thus meeting the needs of an increasingly large industrial market. This comparison aims to assess the analytical capabilities of laboratories for measuring the composition of a Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG) mixture when sampled in the liquid phase from a Constant Pressure Cylinder. Mixtures contained ethane, propane, propene, i-butane, n-butane, but-1-ene and i-pentane with nominal amount fractions of 2, 71, 9, 4, 10, 3 and 1 cmol mol-1 respectively. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  4. An international comparison of the outcomes of environmental regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouldson, Andy; Carpenter, Angela; Afionis, Stavros

    2014-01-01

    Whilst there is much discussion about the stringency of environmental regulations and the variability of industrial environmental performance in different countries, there are very few robust evaluations that allow meaningful comparisons to be made. This is partly because data scarcity restricts the ability to make ‘like for like’ comparisons across countries and over time. This paper combines data on benzene emissions from Pollution Release and Transfer Registers with data on industrial production from oil refineries to generate normalized measures of industrial environmental performance across eight Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development countries and the EU-15. We find that normalized emissions levels are improving in nearly all countries, and that there is some convergence in emissions performance between countries, but that there are still very significant variations across countries. We find that average emissions levels are lower in Japan and Germany than in the USA and Australia, which in turn are lower than in Canada and the EU-15, but we note that average emissions in the EU-15 are significantly affected by particularly high emissions in the UK. These findings have significant implications for wider debates on the stringency of environmental regulations and the variability of industrial environmental performance in different countries. (paper)

  5. International comparison of product certification and verification methods for appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Nan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Romankiewicz, John [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Zheng, Nina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Enforcement of appliance standards and consumer trust in appliance labeling are important foundations of growing a more energy efficient economy. Product certification and verification increase compliance rates which in turn increase both energy savings and consumer trust. This paper will serve two purposes: 1) to review international practices for product certification and verification as they relate to the enforcement of standards and labeling programs in the U.S., E.U., Australia, Japan, Canada, and China; and 2) to make recommendations for China to implement improved certification processes related to their mandatory standards and labeling program such as to increase compliance rates and energy savings potential.

  6. International Comparison of Product Certification and Verification Methods for Appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Nan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Romankiewicz, John [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Zheng, Nina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Enforcement of appliance standards and consumer trust in appliance labeling are important foundations of growing a more energy efficient economy. Product certification and verification increase compliance rates which in turn increase both energy savings and consumer trust. This paper will serve two purposes: 1) to review international practices for product certification and verification as they relate to the enforcement of standards and labeling programs in the U.S., E.U., Australia, Japan, Canada, and China; and 2) to make recommendations for China to implement improved certification processes related to their mandatory standards and labeling program such as to increase compliance rates and energy savings potential.

  7. International Comparisons in Underserved Health: Issues, Policies, Needs and Projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Paul; Morelli, Vincent

    2017-03-01

    Health care globally has made great strides; for example, there are lower rates of infant and maternal mortality. Increased incomes have led to lower rates of diseases accompanying poverty and hunger. There has been a shift away from the infectious diseases so deadly in developing nations toward first-world conditions. This article presents health care statistics across age groups and geographic areas to help the primary care physician understand these changes. There is a special focus on underserved populations. New technologies in health and health care spending internationally are addressed, emphasizing universal health care. The article concludes with recommendations for the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Clinical review: International comparisons in critical care - lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Srinivas; Wunsch, Hannah

    2012-12-12

    Critical care medicine is a global specialty and epidemiologic research among countries provides important data on availability of critical care resources, best practices, and alternative options for delivery of care. Understanding the diversity across healthcare systems allows us to explore that rich variability and understand better the nature of delivery systems and their impact on outcomes. However, because the delivery of ICU services is complex (for example, interplay of bed availability, cultural norms and population case-mix), the diversity among countries also creates challenges when interpreting and applying data. This complexity has profound influences on reported outcomes, often obscuring true differences. Future research should emphasize determination of resource data worldwide in order to understand current practices in different countries; this will permit rational pandemic and disaster planning, allow comparisons of in-ICU processes of care, and facilitate addition of pre- and post-ICU patient data to better interpret outcomes.

  9. The EU health claim regulation in international comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    Nutrition and health claims are voluntary claims on food indicating favourable nutritional content or health benefits of the food. Nutrition and health claims on food are increasingly regulated in the world market. This process is accompanied by intensive stakeholder discussions on the possible...... impact on consumer protection and food marketing effectiveness. This article reviews literature on regulations in the major food markets in comparison with the EU regulation. The focus is on identifying characteristics of regulations that are expected to have an impact on consumer protection and food...... marketing. The EU regulation is regarded as focusing relatively strongly on precaution and consumer understanding. The extent to which this hampers food innovations is in dispute. It is suggested that using marketing measures in favour of scientifically approved claims as well as stakeholder cooperation...

  10. Development of quality assurance requirements - an international comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, M [Siemens AG, Bereich Energieerzeugung (KWU), Erlangen (Germany); Mertz, W [Siemens AG, Bereich Energieerzeugung (KWU), Offenbach am Main (Germany)

    1993-12-01

    Total quality management strategy and the worldwide introduction of the DIN/ISO 9000 (EN 29 000) series of standards have given new impetus to traditional quality assurance. The most important change must surely be seen in the holistic approach of total quality management and its strict orientation towards customer requirements and satisfaction. International codes and standards for the nuclear industry will also have to be brought into line as part of the process of harmonizing quality assurance system standards. One possible approach is simply to specify a supplementary 'delta' of nuclear-specific requirements to be appended to the broad range of conventional requirements. It is a particular feature of quality-assured procedures in Germany that product and/or component related quality requirements and quality verifications are defined in the specifications of the architect engineer so that full implementation of the requirements from the design phase through to the manufacturing phase is assured. Looking at the development of the European Pressurized Water Reactor (EPR) and the elaboration of 'Common Rules', it is to be anticipated that a major step will be made toward international harmonization of safety criteria. (orig.)

  11. Development of quality assurance requirements - an international comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Link, M.; Mertz, W.

    1993-01-01

    Total quality management strategy and the worldwide introduction of the DIN/ISO 9000 (EN 29 000) series of standards have given new impetus to traditional quality assurance. The most important change must surely be seen in the holistic approach of total quality management and its strict orientation towards customer requirements and satisfaction. International codes and standards for the nuclear industry will also have to be brought into line as part of the process of harmonizing quality assurance system standards. One possible approach is simply to specify a supplementary 'delta' of nuclear-specific requirements to be appended to the broad range of conventional requirements. It is a particular feature of quality-assured procedures in Germany that product and/or component related quality requirements and quality verifications are defined in the specifications of the architect engineer so that full implementation of the requirements from the design phase through to the manufacturing phase is assured. Looking at the development of the European Pressurized Water Reactor (EPR) and the elaboration of 'Common Rules', it is to be anticipated that a major step will be made toward international harmonization of safety criteria. (orig.) [de

  12. The anatomy of medical research: US and international comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Hamilton; Matheson, David H M; Cairns-Smith, Sarah; George, Benjamin P; Palisch, Chase; Dorsey, E Ray

    2015-01-13

    Medical research is a prerequisite of clinical advances, while health service research supports improved delivery, access, and cost. Few previous analyses have compared the United States with other developed countries. To quantify total public and private investment and personnel (economic inputs) and to evaluate resulting patents, publications, drug and device approvals, and value created (economic outputs). Publicly available data from 1994 to 2012 were compiled showing trends in US and international research funding, productivity, and disease burden by source and industry type. Patents and publications (1981-2011) were evaluated using citation rates and impact factors. (1) Reduced science investment: Total US funding increased 6% per year (1994-2004), but rate of growth declined to 0.8% per year (2004-2012), reaching $117 billion (4.5%) of total health care expenditures. Private sources increased from 46% (1994) to 58% (2012). Industry reduced early-stage research, favoring medical devices, bioengineered drugs, and late-stage clinical trials, particularly for cancer and rare diseases. National Insitutes of Health allocations correlate imperfectly with disease burden, with cancer and HIV/AIDS receiving disproportionate support. (2) Underfunding of service innovation: Health services research receives $5.0 billion (0.3% of total health care expenditures) or only 1/20th of science funding. Private insurers ranked last (0.04% of revenue) and health systems 19th (0.1% of revenue) among 22 industries in their investment in innovation. An increment of $8 billion to $15 billion yearly would occur if service firms were to reach median research and development funding. (3) Globalization: US government research funding declined from 57% (2004) to 50% (2012) of the global total, as did that of US companies (50% to 41%), with the total US (public plus private) share of global research funding declining from 57% to 44%. Asia, particularly China, tripled investment from $2

  13. Energy use and carbon emissions: Some international comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    This report examines international energy use patterns, trends, and energy-related carbon emissions since 1970. The main focus of this study is on the developed countries, represented by the members of the organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). The study is organized as follows: (1) the OECD is placed in a world context; (2) aggregate-level information is then presented for an important part of the OECD, namely the Group of Seven (G-7) major industrialized countries (the US, Canada, Japan, the United Kingdom, France, Italy, and Germany -- defined in this report as western Germany only, except where indicated); and (3) individual economic sectors within the G-7 countries are broken out for detailed review

  14. Liquid and gaseous wastes from pressurised water reactors: International comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedittini, M.

    1989-04-01

    This report presents the main results of a comparison on radioactive effluents releases from ninety-four PWRs in the following countries: Belgium, Federal Republic of Germany, France, Japan, Sweden, Switzerland and the United States. For liquid releases, distinctions have been undertaken between tritium and no tritium activities and for gaseous releases between noble gases and halogens-aerosols. Data have been collected from literature published or by contacting utilities responsible or authorities in order to constitute a data bank. However for the comparison, reactors for which commercial operation starts before July 1974, have been excluded. As far as the main comparative results are concerned, the averages of tritium activity per energy production unit for liquid releases are ranging between 1840 GBq/TWh and 3000 GBq/TWh and two groups of countries may be noted: those for which the results are around 2000 GBq/TWh as Frg, Japan and Switzerland and those which have an activity level around 3000 GBq/TWh as Belgium, France and Sweden. The United States are between these two groups. A factor which may provide an explanation for these discrepancies concerns practices for primary circuit: recycling it, leads to a lower tritium activity for releases and to a higher tritium activity concentration in the primary circuit. Excluding tritium, mean liquid activities per reactor are widely varying from one country to another: - lower than 0,05 GBq in Japan and in Switzerland; - from one thousand to two thousand times higher in France, Sweden and the United States. Discrepancies for gaseous activities are narrower: a factor of 40 in noble gases activities and a factor of 25 for halogens and aerosols activities. In conclusion, for activities of the tritium liquid as well as activities of all other types of radionuclides, countries can be shared in two groups according the activity level - For the lowest: FRG, Japan and Switzerland; - For the highest: Belgium, France and Sweden

  15. Liquid and gaseous wastes from pressurised water reactors: international comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedittini, M.

    1989-04-01

    This report presents the main results of a comparison on radioactive effluents releases from ninety-four PWRs in the following countries: Belgium, Federal Republic of Germany, France, Japan, Sweden, Switzerland and the United States. For liquid releases, distinctions have been undertaken between tritium and no tritium activities and for gaseous releases between noble gases and halogens-aerosols. Data have been collected from literature published or by contacting utilities responsible or authorities in order to constitute a data bank. However for the comparison, reactors for which commercial operation starts before July 1974, have been excluded. As far as the main comparative results are concerned, the averages of tritium activity per energy production unit for liquid releases are ranging between 1840 GBq/TWh and 3000 GBq/TWh and two groups of countries may be noted: those for which the results are around 2000 GBq/TWh as FRG, Japan and Switzerland and those which have an activity level around 3000 GBq/TWh as Belgium, France and Sweden. The United States are between these two groups. A factor which may provide an explanation for these discrepancies concerns practices for primary circuit: recycling it, leads to a lower tritium activity for releases and to a higher tritium activity concentration in the primary circuit. Excluding tritium, mean liquid activities per reactor are widely varying from one country to another: - lower than 0,05 GBq in Japan and in Switzerland; - from one thousand to two thousand times higher in France, Sweden and the United States. Discrepancies for gaseous activities are narrower: a factor of 40 in noble gases activities and a factor of 25 for halogens and aerosols activities. In conclusion, for activities of the tritium liquid as well as activities of all other types of radionuclides, countries can be shared in two groups according the activity level - For the lowest: FRG, Japan and Switzerland; - For the highest: Belgium, France and Sweden

  16. Colleagues and Competitors: How Internal Social Comparisons Shape Organizational Search and Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumann, Oliver; Eggers, JP; Stieglitz, Nils

    2018-01-01

    Intra-organizational comparisons—managers and units benchmarking their performance against each other—can turn colleagues into competitors. To better understand when organizations should allow or even encourage internal social comparisons, we study their implications for organizational adaptation....... We highlight empirical implications and discuss theoretical links to work on intra-organizational competition, social comparisons and aspiration-driven search, diversification and performance, and the adaptation of multi-business firms....

  17. True Multilateral Indexes for International Comparisons of Purchasing Power and Real Income

    OpenAIRE

    J.P. Neary

    1997-01-01

    I consider the problem of choosing index numbers of purchasing power and real income for international comparisons. I show that the desirable properties of methods based on the Fisher "Ideal" index do not extend to multilateral comparisons, except when tastes are homothetic. By contrast, the Geary method, which underlies the Penn World Tables, provides an approximation to a set of "true" exchange rate indexes which have many desirable properties. In particular, if demands exhibit generalized ...

  18. Simplified hearing protector ratings—an international comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, R.

    1984-03-01

    A computer was programmed to model the distributions of dB(A) levels reaching the ears of an imaginary workforce wearing hearing protectors selected on the basis of either octave band attenuation values or various simplified ratings in use in Australia, Germany, Poland, Spain or the U.S.A. Both multi-valued and single-valued versions of dB(A) reduction and sound level conversion ratings were considered. Ratings were compared in terms of precision and protection rate and the comparisons were replicated for different samples of noise spectra ( N = 400) and hearing protectors ( N = 70) to establish the generality of the conclusions. Different countries adopt different approaches to the measurement of octave band attenuation values and the consequences of these differences were investigated. All rating systems have built-in correction factors to account for hearing protector performance variability and the merits of these were determined in the light of their ultimate effects on the distribution of dB(A) levels reaching wearers' ears. It was concluded that the optimum rating is one that enables the dB(A) level reaching wearers to be estimated by subtracting a single rating value from the dB(C) level of the noise environment, the rating value to be determined for a pink noise spectrum from mean minus one standard deviation octave band attenuation values with further protection rate adjustments being achieved by the use of a constant correction factor.

  19. Progress in organizing national and international comparisons for nuclear medicine measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahagia, Maria; Waetjen, Anamaria C.; Ivan, Constantin

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents the progress registered by the Radionuclide Metrology Laboratory (RML) from IFIN-HH, in improvement of the quality of radiopharmaceuticals activity measurement, and assurance of the whole traceability chain from international level to the national users. The progress in organization of comparisons for radiopharmaceuticals activity measurement is analyzed. A detailed description of two recent national comparisons, and an international one, regarding 131 I solutions, within the frame of the IAEA's CRP E2.10.05 'Harmonization of quality practices for nuclear medicine radioactivity measurements' is done, with the analysis of the strong and week points in measurements. The most important outcome of the paper is the analysis of the evolution in quality of comparisons since a previously reported one. At the RML level, the improvements are: demonstration of the international equivalence of primary Romanian activity standard, improvement of the secondary standard, relevance of the comparison within the IAEA frame, implementation of a quality system in standardization and in comparisons, and implication of the RML in calibrations and metrological checks. The participants' reported improvements refer to growing of the awareness in quality of measurement and improvement of the measurement equipment. Reasons for future comparisons organization are presented. (author)

  20. An international comparison of grade 6 students' understanding of the equal sign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capraro, Robert M; Capraro, Mary Margaret; Yetkiner, Z Ebrar; Ozel, Serkan; Kim, Hae Gyu; Küçük, Ali Riza

    2010-02-01

    This study extends the scope of international comparisons examining students' conceptions of the equal sign. Specifically, Korean (n = 193) and Turkish (n = 334) Grade 6 students were examined to assess whether their conceptions and responses were similar to prior findings published for Chinese and U.S. students and to hypothesize relationships about problem types and conceptual understanding of the equal sign. About 59.6% of the Korean participants correctly answered all items providing conceptually accurate solutions, as compared to 28.4% of the Turkish sample. Comparison with previous studies in China and the USA indicated that the Chinese sample outperformed those from other nations, followed by Korea, Turkey, and the USA. In large-scale international studies such as Trends in International Mathematics and Science (TIMSS) and the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), students from China and Korea have been among the high achievers.

  1. Hotel Classification Systems: A Comparison of International Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Minazzi,

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few decades we have witnessed an increasing interest of scholars andespecially operators in service quality in the lodging business. Firstly, it is important to observe thatthe diverseness of the hospitality industry also affects the classification of hotel quality. We canactually find many programmes, classifications and seals of quality promoted by public authoritiesand private companies that create confusion in the consumer perceptions of hotel quality. Moreover,new electronic distribution channels and their ratings are becoming a new way to gather informationabout a hotel and its quality. Secondly, a point that can cause complications is that different countriesand regions can choose differing approaches depending on the features of the classification (numberof levels, symbols used, etc. and the nature of the programme (public, private. Considering theseassumptions and the recent changes in the Italian hotel classification system, this paper aims toanalyse the situation in Italy, underlining both its positive and negative aspects and comparing it withother European and North American cases. Based on a review of literature and tourism laws as wellas personal interviews with public authorities and exponents of the private sectors, we were able toidentify critical issues and trends in hotel classification systems. The comparison of case studiesshows a heterogeneous situation. Points in common are the scale and the symbol used but, if weanalyse the requirements of each category, we discover very different circumstances, also sometimesin the same country. A future European classification system could be possible only after astandardization of minimum requirements and criteria at a national level. In this situation brands andonline consumers’ feedbacks become even more considered by the customers in the hospitalityindustry.

  2. Environmental risk comparisons with internal methods of UST leak detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durgin, P.B.

    1993-01-01

    The past five years have seen a variety of advances in how leaks can be detected from within underground storage tanks. Any leak-detection approach employed within a storage tanks must be conducted at specific time intervals and meet certain leak-rate criteria according to federal and state regulations. Nevertheless, the potential environmental consequences of leak detection approaches differ widely. Internal, volumetric UST monitoring techniques have developed over time including: (1) inventory control with stick measurements, (2) precision tank testing, (3) automatic tank gauging (ATG), (4) statistical inventory reconciliation (SIR), and (5) statistical techniques with automatic tank gauging. An ATG focuses on the advantage of precise data but measured for only a brief period. On the other hand, stick data has less precision but when combined with SIR over extended periods it too can detect low leak rates. Graphs demonstrate the comparable amounts of fuel than can leak out of a tank before being detected by these techniques. The results indicate that annual tank testing has the greatest potential for large volumes of fuel leaking without detection while new statistical approaches with an ATG have the least potential. The environmental implications of the volumes of fuel leaked prior to detection are site specific. For example, if storage tank is surrounded by a high water table and in a sole-source aquifer even small leaks may cause problems. The user must also consider regulatory risks. The level of environmental and regulatory risk should influence selection of the UST leak detection method

  3. Overview and comparison of international practices on funding mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tchapga, Flavien

    2006-01-01

    Although the Funding Mechanisms of Decommissioning and Dismantling (D and D) of Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) has recently gained a growing interest, this is not only a new but also an old issue. The issue is old because National Atomic Laws and/or other Nuclear Legislation recognized the mandatory character of D and D. Consequently accumulation of funds to cover the future D and D expenses is a legal requirement since the beginning of Nuclear Energy Industry, at least in countries with a market economy. The issue is new as well because many of the large commercial NPP may reach the end of their lifetime during the next twenty years. As a result, the growing interest on D and D Funding Mechanisms is justified since the funds accumulated should cover the related expenses if any. Despite this growing interest, there is however a lack, at least at the NEA level, of an updated survey of existing Funding Mechanisms. Because Electric utilities are experiencing deregulation movement, there is also a lack of a 'comparison framework' which takes into account this new context, and within which the effectiveness of current Funding Mechanisms could be assessed. In the field of NPP decommissioning, funding mechanisms refer to the overall process of financing future D and D operations. Therefore, one can expect a funding mechanism to organize some relevant functions regarding D and D financing. These functions are, 1) the recognition of the liabilities and the estimation of the related financial burden, 2) the collection of the corresponding financial resources 3) the management and disbursement of those resources when needed. In fact, the mandatory character of D and D suggest that an effective Funding Mechanism should provide availability of funds. This is to say the funds collected should be managed in a consistent way regarding their protection against financial insecurity. Since there is no investment without risk, availability of funds is properly a matter of degree

  4. Reference population for international comparisons and time trend surveillance of preterm delivery proportions in three countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morken, N.H.; Vogel, I.; Kallen, K.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: International comparison and time trend surveillance of preterm delivery rates is complex. New techniques that could facilitate interpretation of such rates are needed. METHODS: We studied all live births and stillbirths (>or= 28 weeks gestation) registered in the medical birth...

  5. International comparison of 50/60 Hz power (1996-1999)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oldham, N

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available An international comparison of 50/60 Hz power is described. The travelling standard was an electronic power transducer that was tested at 120 V, 5 A, 53 Hz, at five power factors (1.0, 0.5, and 0.0). Fifteen National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) from...

  6. International Comparisons of Behavioral and Emotional Problems in Preschool Children: Parents' Reports from 24 Societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rescorla, Leslie A.; Achenbach, Thomas M.; Ivanova, Masha Y.; Harder, Valerie S.; Otten, Laura; Bilenberg, Niels; Bjarnadottir, Gudrun; Capron, Christiane; De Pauw, Sarah S. W.; Dias, Pedro; Dobrean, Anca; Dopfner, Manfred; Duyme, Michel; Eapen, Valsamma; Erol, Nese; Esmaeili, Elaheh Mohammad; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Frigerio, Alessandra; Fung, Daniel S. S.; Goncalves, Miguel; Gudmundsson, Halldor; Jeng, Suh-Fang; Jusiene, Roma; Kim, Young Ah; Kristensen, Solvejg; Liu, Jianghong; Lecannelier, Felipe; Leung, Patrick W. L.; Machado, Barbara Cesar; Montirosso, Rosario; Oh, Kyung Ja; Ooi, Yoon Phaik; Pluck, Julia; Pomalima, Rolando; Pranvera, Jetishi; Schmeck, Klaus; Shahini, Mimoza; Silva, Jaime R.; Simsek, Zeynep; Sourander, Andre; Valverde, Jose; van der Ende, Jan; Van Leeuwen, Karla G.; Wu, Yen-Tzu; Yurdusen, Sema; Zubrick, Stephen R.; Verhulst, Frank C.

    2011-01-01

    International comparisons were conducted of preschool children's behavioral and emotional problems as reported on the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1 1/2-5 by parents in 24 societies (N = 19,850). Item ratings were aggregated into scores on syndromes; "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders"-oriented scales; a Stress…

  7. International Test Comparisons: Reviewing Translation Error in Different Source Language-Target Language Combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xueyu; Solano-Flores, Guillermo; Qian, Ming

    2018-01-01

    This article addresses test translation review in international test comparisons. We investigated the applicability of the theory of test translation error--a theory of the multidimensionality and inevitability of test translation error--across source language-target language combinations in the translation of PISA (Programme of International…

  8. Student and School Factors Affecting Mathematics Achievement: International Comparisons between Korea, Japan and the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jongho; Lee, Hyunjoo; Kim, Yongnam

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to comparatively investigate student- and school-level factors affecting mathematics achievement of Korean, Japanese and American students. For international comparisons, the PISA 2003 data were analysed by using the Hierarchical Linear Modeling method. The variables of competitive-learning preference, instrumental…

  9. Can the Apgar Score be Used for International Comparisons of Newborn Health?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siddiqui, A.; Cuttini, M.; Wood, R.; Velebil, P.; Delnord, M.; Zile, I.; Barros, H.; Gissler, M.; Hindori-Mohangoo, A.D.; Blondel, B.; Zeitlin, J.; Euro-Peristat Scientific Committee; Haidinger, G.; Alexander, S.; Pavlou, P.; Mortensen, L.; Sakkeus, L.; Lack, N.; Antsaklis, A.; Berbik, I.; Ólafsdóttir, H.S.; Bonham, S.; Misins, J.; Jaselioniene, J.; Wagener, Y.; Gatt, M.; Nijhuis, J.; Klungsøyr, K.; Szamotulska, K.; Horga, M.; Cap, J.; Mandić, N.T.; Bolúmar, F.; Gottvall, K.; Berrut, S.; Macfarlane, A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The Apgar score has been shown to be predictive of neonatal mortality in clinical and population studies, but has not been used for international comparisons. We examined population-level distributions in Apgar scores and associations with neonatal mortality in Europe. Methods: Aggregate

  10. Internal governance systems and R&D investment: An international comparison.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zouari-Hadiji Rim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the theoretical framework of corporate governance, this article studies the efficiency of the control exerted by the ownership structure and the board of directors on managers for the purpose of privileging investment in R&D. This efficiency is sensitive to national systems of governance. Tests realized on a sample of 531 U.S., Japanese and French firms with the canonical method corroborate the existence of positive relationships between concentration of ownership, the internal administrator dominance and the non-dual structure on the one hand, and the investment in R&D, on the other.

  11. International comparisons of behavioral and emotional problems in preschool children: parents' reports from 24 societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rescorla, Leslie A; Achenbach, Thomas M; Ivanova, Masha Y

    2011-01-01

    International comparisons were conducted of preschool children's behavioral and emotional problems as reported on the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1½-5 by parents in 24 societies (N = 19,850). Item ratings were aggregated into scores on syndromes; Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental...... Disorders-oriented scales; a Stress Problems scale; and Internalizing, Externalizing, and Total Problems scales. Effect sizes for scale score differences among the 24 societies ranged from small to medium (3-12%). Although societies differed greatly in language, culture, and other characteristics, Total...

  12. International comparison of activity measurements of a solution of 75Se

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratel, Guy

    2002-04-01

    Activity measurements of a solution of 75Se, supplied by the BIPM, have been carried out by 21 laboratories within the framework of an international comparison. Seven different methods were used. Details on source preparation, experimental facilities and counting data are reported. The measured activity-concentration values show a total spread of 6.62% before correction and 6.02% after correction for delayed events, with standard deviations of the unweighted means of 0.45% and 0.36%, respectively. The correction for delayed events was measured directly by four laboratories. Unfortunately no consensus on the activity value could be deduced from their results. The results of the comparison have been entered in the tables of the International Reference System (SIR) for γ-ray emitting radionuclides. The half-life of the metastable state was also determined by two laboratories and found to be in good agreement with the values found in the literature.

  13. International comparison of radon measurement using solid state nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Dan; Yang Weigen; Song Jianfeng

    2011-01-01

    It introduces the radon measurements international comparison using solid state track detectors among Zhejiang Environmental Radiation Monitoring Center (RMTC), Japan Chemical Analysis Center (JCAC) and National Institute for Radiological Protection of China CDC (NIRP). The results of the international comparison show that: Compared to the reference values, the measurements' relative deviations of detectors from 3 labs were 2%∼22%, which were exposed in radon chambers with different radon concentration, while the measurements' relative deviations were 0.5%∼13% when exposed in the environment. The measurement's relative deviations of RMTC were 5%∼3% in radon chambers and 0.5%∼9% in the environment, the results met requirements of the relative standards both at home and abroad. (authors)

  14. How do american students measure up? Making sense of international comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koretz, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    In response to frequent news media reports about how poorly American students fare compared with their peers abroad, Daniel Koretz takes a close look at what these comparisons say, and do not say, about the achievement of U.S. high school students. He stresses that the comparisons do not provide what many observers of education would like: unambiguous information about the effectiveness of American high schools compared with those in other nations. Koretz begins by describing the. two principal international student comparisons-the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) and the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA). Both assessments, he stresses, reflect the performance of students several years before they complete high school. PISA, which targets fifteen-year-old students, measures students' abilities to apply what they have learned in school to real-world problems. By contrast, TIMSS tests fourth and eighth graders. Unlike PISA, TIMSS follows the school curriculum closely. Because the findings of the two tests are sometimes inconsistent, Koretz stresses the importance of considering data from both sources. He cautions against comparing U.S. students with an "international average," which varies widely from survey to survey depending on which countries participate, and recommends instead comparing them with students in other nations that are similar to the United States or that are particularly high-achieving. Many observers, says Koretz, speculate that the lackluster average performance of American students in international comparisons arises because many, especially minority and low-income U.S. students, attend low-performing schools. But both TIMSS and PISA, he says, show that the performance of American students on the exams is not much more variable than that of students in countries that are socially more homogeneous or that have more equitable educational systems. Koretz emphasizes that the international comparisons

  15. Once again on Interregional, International and Cross-age Comparison of Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Gennadi Kazakevitch

    2003-01-01

    Any discussion on unemployment is never restricted with the data on unemployment only. Unemployment is linked to several key indicators such as number of employed, active population and participation rate. As we often see, increase in unemployment occurs simultaneously with increase in the number of jobs, if participation rate increases at the same time. This makes doubtful any simplistic interregional, international, inter-temporal or cross-age comparison of unemployment data taken in isolat...

  16. Occupational radiation exposure in PWR: International comparison of some global indicators between 1975 and 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochard, J.; Benedittini, M.

    1987-09-01

    This report presents the main results of an international comparative study of occupational radiation exposure in Pressurised Water Reactors (PWRs). The comparison is based on some synthetic indicators concerning both collective and mean individual exposures assessed for the following countries: Belgium, United-States, France, Japan, Federal Republic of Germany, Sweden and Switzerland. Information has been gained from the published literature and when it was possible, through direct correspondence with power station operators or national regulatory authorities. It concerns 120 reactors totalizing more than 900 reactor operating years. For the comparison, only reactors which were installed after 1974 have been considered, in order to have more homogeneous data representative of modern operating plants. Indicators calculated for the comparison are the collective and mean individual doses per reactor expressed either on a calendar year basis (from 1975 to 1985) or on a number of operating year basis (up to 11 years) [fr

  17. International comparison of resistance thermometers between NMIs from Spain, Mexico and Andean countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Campo, D.; Ruiz, V. C.; Méndez-Lango, E.; Córdova, L.; von Borries, E.; Sánchez, C. A.; Arévalo, A.; Aguilera, B.; Guillén, E.; Cabrera, C.; Quintana, L.

    2013-09-01

    An international comparison on semi-standard Platinum Resistance Thermometers (PRTs) among the National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) of Spain, Mexico and the Andean Countries (Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela) began in 2004 and was successfully completed in 2005. Two PRTs were circulated (hand carried) and compared from -40 °C up to 250 °C. The Centro Español de Metrología (Spanish NMI), CEM, was the pilot laboratory and the Centro Nacional de Metrología (Mexican NMI), CENAM, was the co-pilot laboratory. This paper shows the details of the comparison and the final results as they were presented in the approved final report of the comparison in September of 2005.

  18. Evolution of deceased organ donation activity vs. efficiency over a 15 year period: an international comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Julius; Elmer, Andreas; Mahíllo, Beatriz; Domínguez-Gil, Beatriz; Avsec, Danica; Costa, Alessandro Nanni; Haase-Kromwijk, Bernadette J J M; Laouabdia, Karim; Immer, Franz F

    2018-04-19

    The donation rate (DR) per million population is not ideal for an efficiency comparison of national deceased organ donation programs. The DR does not account for variabilities in the potential for deceased donation which mainly depends on fatalities from causes leading to brain death. In this study, the donation activity was put into relation to the mortality from selected causes. Based on that metric, this study assesses the efficiency of different donation programs. This is a retrospective analysis of 2001-2015 deceased organ donation and mortality registry data. Included are 27 Council of Europe countries, as well as the USA. A donor conversion index (DCI) was calculated for assessing donation program efficiency over time and in international comparisons. According to the DCI and of the countries included in the study, Spain, France, and the USA had the most efficient donation programs in 2015. Even though mortality from the selected causes decreased in most countries during the study period, differences in international comparisons persist. This indicates that the potential for deceased organ donation and its conversion into actual donation is far from being similar internationally. Compared with the DR, the DCI takes into account the potential for deceased organ donation, and therefore is a more accurate metric of performance. National donation programs could optimize performance by identifying the areas where most potential is lost, and by implementing measures to tackle these issues.

  19. Longitudinal relationships among internalization of the media ideal, peer social comparison, and body dissatisfaction: implications for the tripartite influence model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Rachel F; McLean, Siân A; Paxton, Susan J

    2015-05-01

    Sociocultural theory of body dissatisfaction posits that internalization of the media ideal and appearance comparison are predictors of body dissatisfaction, a key risk factor for eating disorders. However, no data exist regarding the longitudinal relationships between these variables. The aim of this study was to explore longitudinal relationships among internalization of the media-ideal, social appearance comparison, and body dissatisfaction. A sample of 277 Grade 7 school girls (M age = 12.77 years, SD = 0.44) completed measures of internalization of the media ideal, social appearance comparison, and body dissatisfaction at baseline, 8 months, and 14 months. Path analyses indicated that baseline internalization of the media ideal predicted social appearance comparison and body dissatisfaction at 8 months, and social appearance comparison at 8 months predicted body dissatisfaction at 14 months. A reciprocal effect emerged with body dissatisfaction at 8 months predicting internalization of the media ideal at 14 months. The findings inform sociocultural theory of body dissatisfaction, suggesting that internalization of the media ideal precedes and predicts appearance comparison and that body image interventions that target internalization of the media ideal, and social appearance comparison as well as body dissatisfaction are likely to be effective. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. International comparison of methods to test the validity of dead-time and pile-up corrections for high-precision. gamma. -ray spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houtermans, H.; Schaerf, K.; Reichel, F. (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)); Debertin, K. (Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany, F.R.))

    1983-02-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency organized an international comparison of methods applied in high-precision ..gamma..-ray spectrometry for the correction of dead-time and pile-up losses. Results of this comparison are reported and discussed.

  1. The availability of German nuclear power plants in an international comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehndrich, W.; Kutsch, W.

    1976-01-01

    Due to unprecise definitions, incomplete reports and the small number of plants in operation, an analysis of the availability of nuclear power stations by international standards meets some difficulties. Especially in the classification of causes of accidents, isolated cases gain too much importance due to the statistically small number of unscheduled shutdowns and thus often distort the picture. Still, the present comparison based on statements made by the ABE committee and the IAEA presents a good picture of availability tendencies and main types of failures and gives rise to the assumption that the initial difficulties with which every new technology has to cope will soon be overcome. (orig./AK) [de

  2. An international comparison of regulatory organizations and licensing procedures for new nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bredimas, Alexandre; Nuttall, William J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers measures needed to license new nuclear power plants efficiently. We base our analysis on international standards and a comparison of the national regulatory and licensing framework in seven countries (Canada, France, Germany, Japan, Switzerland, the UK and the USA). We split the review into the organization of regulatory responsibilities and the licensing process. We propose a set of considerations that should be incorporated into national solutions. While conscious of the different cultural fundamentals of each region, we hope this paper will help fuel an emerging debate on this highly topical issue

  3. Standardization of the 192Ir within the framework of an international comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwahara, A.; Delgado, J.U.; Silva, T.A. da

    1998-01-01

    In 1997, six national metrology laboratories of several countries, including the Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologias das Radiacoes Ionizantes (LNMRI), participated of an international comparison of activity concentration measurements of a 1 92 I r solution. The measuring method used by LNMRI was the 4 ΠΒ-Γ absolute coincidence counting. Other indirect methods such as germanium detector spectroemtry and 4 ΠΓ ionization chamber used in order to check the absolute measurement. The reported results by the participant laboratories showed good agreeement and the metrological traceability to Bureau International des Poids et Mesures was established for the activity measurements of 1 92 I r. The half time was also determined following its decay by using the 4 4 ΠΓ ionization chambers

  4. International Comparisons of Behavioral and Emotional Problems in Preschool Children: Parents’ Reports From 24 Societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rescorla, Leslie A.; Achenbach, Thomas M.; Ivanova, Masha Y.; Harder, Valerie S.; Otten, Laura; Bilenberg, Niels; Bjarnadottir, Gudrun; Capron, Christiane; De Pauw, Sarah S. W.; Dias, Pedro; Dobrean, Anca; Döpfner, Manfred; Duyme, Michel; Eapen, Valsamma; Erol, Nese; Esmaeili, Elaheh Mohammad; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Frigerio, Alessandra; Fung, Daniel S. S.; Gonçalves, Miguel; Guđmundsson, Halldór; Jeng, Suh-Fang; Jusiené, Roma; Kim, Young Ah; Kristensen, Solvejg; Liu, Jianghong; Lecannelier, Felipe; Leung, Patrick W. L.; Machado, Bárbara César; Montirosso, Rosario; Oh, Kyung Ja; Ooi, Yoon Phaik; Plück, Julia; Pomalima, Rolando; Pranvera, Jetishi; Schmeck, Klaus; Shahini, Mimoza; Silva, Jaime R.; Simsek, Zeynep; Sourander, Andre; Valverde, José; van der Ende, Jan; Van Leeuwen, Karla G.; Wu, Yen-Tzu; Yurdusen, Sema; Zubrick, Stephen R.; Verhulst, Frank C.

    2014-01-01

    International comparisons were conducted of preschool children’s behavioral and emotional problems as reported on the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1½–5 by parents in 24 societies (N =19,850). Item ratings were aggregated into scores on syndromes; Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders–oriented scales; a Stress Problems scale; and Internalizing, Externalizing, and Total Problems scales. Effect sizes for scale score differences among the 24 societies ranged from small to medium (3–12%). Although societies differed greatly in language, culture, and other characteristics, Total Problems scores for 18 of the 24 societies were within 7.1 points of the omnicultural mean of 33.3 (on a scale of 0–198). Gender and age differences, as well as gender and age interactions with society, were all very small (effect sizes societies, correlations between mean item ratings averaged .78, and correlations between internal consistency alphas for the scales averaged .92, indicating that the rank orders of mean item ratings and internal consistencies of scales were very similar across diverse societies. PMID:21534056

  5. Toward an International Comparison of Economic and Educational Mobility: Recent Findings from the Japan Child Panel Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akabayashi, Hideo; Nakamura, Ryosuke; Naoi, Michio; Shikishima, Chizuru

    2016-01-01

    In the past decades, income inequality has risen in most developed countries. There is growing interest among economists in international comparisons of economic and educational mobility. This is aided by the availability of internationally comparable, large-scale data. The present paper aims to make three contributions. First, we introduce the…

  6. Comparison and Evaluation of Learning Outcomes from an International Perspective: Development of a Best-Practice Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmgren, Maja; Ho, Felix; Åkesson, Eva; Schmid, Siegbert; Towns, Marcy

    2015-01-01

    Chemistry education focused on learning outcomes is increasingly practiced, providing new opportunities for international comparisons. The interest in intended learning outcomes and constructive alignment has grown in many parts of the world due to both research in higher education and political decisions. In an International Union of Pure and…

  7. [The quality of the German health-care system in an international comparison - a systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauerer, M; Emmert, M; Schöffski, O

    2013-08-01

    Studies assessing the quality of the German health-care system in an international comparison come to different results. Therefore, this review aims to investigate how the German health-care system is evaluated in comparison to other health-care systems by reviewing international publications. Results show starting points for ways to improve the German health-care system, to maintain and expand its strengths as well as to derive strategies for solving identified problems. A systematic review searching different databases [library catalogues, WorldCat (including MEDLINE and OAIster-search), German National Library, Google Scholar and others]. Search requests were addressed to English or German language publications for the time period 2000-2010 (an informal search was conducted in October 2011 for an update). Results of the identified studies were aggregated and main statements derived. In total, 13 publications assessing the German health-care system in an international comparison were identified. These comparisons are based on 377 measures. After aggregation, 244 substantially different indicators remained, which were dedicated to 14 categories. It became apparent that the German health-care system can be characterised by a high level of expenses, a well-developed health-care infrastructure as well as a high availability of personal and material resources. Outcome measures demonstrate heterogeneous results. It can be stated that, particularly in this field, there is potential for further improvement. The utilisation of health-care services is high, the access is mostly not regulated and out of pocket payments can pose a barrier for patients. Waiting times are not regarded as a major weakness. Although civic satisfaction seems to be acceptable, a large portion of the citizens calls for elementary modifications. Especially, more patient-centred health-care delivery should be addressed as well as management of information and the adoption of meaningful electronic

  8. Datasets collected in general practice: an international comparison using the example of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturgiss, Elizabeth; van Boven, Kees

    2018-06-04

    International datasets from general practice enable the comparison of how conditions are managed within consultations in different primary healthcare settings. The Australian Bettering the Evaluation and Care of Health (BEACH) and TransHIS from the Netherlands collect in-consultation general practice data that have been used extensively to inform local policy and practice. Obesity is a global health issue with different countries applying varying approaches to management. The objective of the present paper is to compare the primary care management of obesity in Australia and the Netherlands using data collected from consultations. Despite the different prevalence in obesity in the two countries, the number of patients per 1000 patient-years seen with obesity is similar. Patients in Australia with obesity are referred to allied health practitioners more often than Dutch patients. Without quality general practice data, primary care researchers will not have data about the management of conditions within consultations. We use obesity to highlight the strengths of these general practice data sources and to compare their differences. What is known about the topic? Australia had one of the longest-running consecutive datasets about general practice activity in the world, but it has recently lost government funding. The Netherlands has a longitudinal general practice dataset of information collected within consultations since 1985. What does this paper add? We discuss the benefits of general practice-collected data in two countries. Using obesity as a case example, we compare management in general practice between Australia and the Netherlands. This type of analysis should start all international collaborations of primary care management of any health condition. Having a national general practice dataset allows international comparisons of the management of conditions with primary care. Without a current, quality general practice dataset, primary care researchers will not

  9. Comparison of MACCS users calculations for the international comparison exercise on probabilistic accident consequence assessment code, October 1989--June 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neymotin, L.

    1994-04-01

    Over the past several years, the OECD/NEA and CEC sponsored an international program intercomparing a group of six probabilistic consequence assessment (PCA) codes designed to simulate health and economic consequences of radioactive releases into atmosphere of radioactive materials following severe accidents at nuclear power plants (NPPs): ARANO (Finland), CONDOR (UK), COSYMA (CEC), LENA (Sweden), MACCS (USA), and OSCAAR (Japan). In parallel with this effort, two separate groups performed similar calculations using the MACCS and COSYMA codes. Results produced in the MACCS Users Group (Greece, Italy, Spain, and USA) calculations and their comparison are contained in the present report. Version 1.5.11.1 of the MACCS code was used for the calculations. Good agreement between the results produced in the four participating calculations has been reached, with the exception of the results related to the ingestion pathway dose predictions. The main reason for the scatter in those particular results is attributed to the lack of a straightforward implementation of the specifications for agricultural production and counter-measures criteria provided for the exercise. A significantly smaller scatter in predictions of other consequences was successfully explained by differences in meteorological files and weather sampling, grids, rain distance intervals, dispersion model options, and population distributions

  10. Translation and Adaptation of Tests: Lessons Learned and Recommendations for Countries Participating in timss, pisa and other International Comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Solano-Flores

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a conceptual model and methodology for the review of translated tests in the context of such international comparisons as the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS and the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA. We also present the results of an investigation into the quality of the Mexican translation of the TIMSS-1995 into the Spanish language. We identified translation errors in a significant percentage of the items, as well as relatively high correlations between the severity of translation errors and the items’ p-values. These findings indicate that our error-coding system is highly sensitive to test-translation error. The results underscore the need for improved translation and translation-review procedures in international comparisons. In our opinion, to implement the guidelines properly for test translation in international comparisons, each participating country needs to have internal procedures that would ensure a rigorous review of its own translations. The article concludes with four recommendations for countries participating in international comparisons. These recommendations relate to: (a the characteristics of the individuals in charge of translating instruments; (b the use of review, not simply at the end of the process, but during the process of test translation; (c the minimum time needed for various translation review iterations to take place; and (d the need for proper documentation of the entire process of test translation.

  11. Looking beyond general metrics for model comparison - lessons from an international model intercomparison study

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer-Euser, Tanja; Bouaziz, Laurène; De Niel, Jan; Brauer, Claudia; Dewals, Benjamin; Drogue, Gilles; Fenicia, Fabrizio; Grelier, Benjamin; Nossent, Jiri; Pereira, Fernando; Savenije, Hubert; Thirel, Guillaume; Willems, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    International collaboration between research institutes and universities is a promising way to reach consensus on hydrological model development. Although model comparison studies are very valuable for international cooperation, they do often not lead to very clear new insights regarding the relevance of the modelled processes. We hypothesise that this is partly caused by model complexity and the comparison methods used, which focus too much on a good overall performance instead of focusing on a variety of specific events. In this study, we use an approach that focuses on the evaluation of specific events and characteristics. Eight international research groups calibrated their hourly model on the Ourthe catchment in Belgium and carried out a validation in time for the Ourthe catchment and a validation in space for nested and neighbouring catchments. The same protocol was followed for each model and an ensemble of best-performing parameter sets was selected. Although the models showed similar performances based on general metrics (i.e. the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency), clear differences could be observed for specific events. We analysed the hydrographs of these specific events and conducted three types of statistical analyses on the entire time series: cumulative discharges, empirical extreme value distribution of the peak flows and flow duration curves for low flows. The results illustrate the relevance of including a very quick flow reservoir preceding the root zone storage to model peaks during low flows and including a slow reservoir in parallel with the fast reservoir to model the recession for the studied catchments. This intercomparison enhanced the understanding of the hydrological functioning of the catchment, in particular for low flows, and enabled to identify present knowledge gaps for other parts of the hydrograph. Above all, it helped to evaluate each model against a set of alternative models.

  12. University Competencies Quality Management: from Self-Assessment to International Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denys Ilnytskyy

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article represents a methodological summary of the main levels, tools, approaches and subjects of the use of assessment in educational activity with an emphasis on the university-based dimension. It has been revealed that the use of assessment as one of the tools for quality management has both internal (self-assessment and external dimensions (variety of tools, which is widespread in universities in the field of implementation of educational programs that have a competency-based dimension. The deep integration of assessment components into a competency-based model for the US labour force development system, as well as the disposition of assessment in the system of competencies in the national qualifications framework in higher education, which are characteristic for the European countries, have been identified. It has been demonstrated that the educational trajectory of personality training throughout life and career development is encountered at various stages with a variety of assessment tools. The comparative characteristics of pre-university assessment, certification programs of global assessment, external assessment of applicants and graduates, and persons aged 30+, functioning of accreditation agencies and agencies of professional accreditation, international rating, international comparisons of education quality, are given. It is proved that the necessity to bear costs for conducting international comparisons, national and international ratings is conditioned not only by the impact of the internationalization of educational activities and the globalization of the world economy, but primarily by the desire to ensure the highest quality of educational services, provided by leaders, and their high average level within the national educational systems. The results are broadly illustrated by evidence and examples from the developed countries (mainly the United States and Ukraine. Based on the research of the attitude of students and

  13. A comparison of international criteria for the ultimate storage of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mielke, H.

    1985-01-01

    In countries other than the Federal Republic of Germany and internationally there are no comprehensive codes referring to criteria and safety requirements except those of the IAEA and USA. In other countries there exist safety goals for the ultimate storage or for purely geological criteria. The degree of detailing regulations differs widely abroad and internationally. Safety goals abroad and internationally as well as measures for their realisation in the ultimate storage of radioactive wastes in deep geological formations are in line with the German safety goals. The IAEA refers to general aspects of geological, waste technology and ultimate storage technology criteria. In the USA, ultimate storage technology criteria have been quantified in part. The quantitative geological criteria existing in Great Britain and in the Netherlands are only relevant in as much as safety analyses must be performed for a specific site to provide evidence for the safety of this site. The comparison shows that most requirements pronounced abroad are also made for the Federal Republic of Germany. Some requirements are more specified in the Federal Republic of Germany, some are more detailed abroad. (orig./HP) [de

  14. Profit, productivity, and price differential: an international performance comparison of the natural gas transportation industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong-Dong Lee; Sung-Bae Park; Tai-Yoo Kim

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to evaluate the performance of natural gas transportation utilities, focusing on the three-key strategic performance measures of profit, productivity, and price differential. We propose a methodology that expresses the three performance measures in a unified single equation using the Edgeworth index. The proposed methodology is applied to an international comparison of the performance of 28 natural gas transportation utilities operating in eight countries in which the business environments differ greatly. The empirical results show the possible causes of performance differences and may shed some light on the direction of regulatory policy, especially for developing countries that have relatively short histories in the natural gas industry, such as Korea. (author)

  15. Internal photoemission from plasmonic nanoparticles: comparison between surface and volume photoelectric effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uskov, Alexander; Protsenko, Igor E.; Ikhsanov, Renat S.

    2014-01-01

    in the surface mechanism, which leads to a substantial (by similar to 5 times) increase of the internal photoelectron emission rate from a nanoparticle compared to the case when such a discontinuity is absent. For a plasmonic nanoparticle, a comparison of the two photoeffect mechanisms was undertaken...... for the first time which showed that the surface photoeffect can in the general case be larger than the volume one, which agrees with the results obtained for a flat metal surface first formulated by Tamm and Schubin in their pioneering development of a quantum-mechanical theory of photoeffect in 1931....... In accordance with our calculations, this possible predominance of the surface effect is based on two factors: (i) effective cooling of hot carriers during their propagation from the volume of the nanoparticle to its surface in the scenario of the volume mechanism and (ii) strengthening of the surface mechanism...

  16. Rockets and feathers revisited: an international comparison on European gasoline markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galeotti, Marzio; Lanza, Alessandro; Manera, Matteo

    2003-01-01

    This paper re-examines the issue of asymmetries in the transmission of shocks to crude oil prices onto the retail price of gasoline. The distinguishing features are: (i) use of updated and comparable data to carry out an international comparison of gasoline markets; (ii) two-stage modeling of the transmission mechanism, in order to assess possible asymmetries at either the refinery stage, the distribution stage or both; (iii) use of asymmetric error correction models to distinguish between short-run and long-run asymmetries; (iv) explicit, possibly asymmetric, role of the exchange rate; (v) bootstrapping of F-tests of asymmetries, in order to overcome the low-power problem of conventional testing procedures. In contrast to several previous findings, the results generally point to widespread differences in both adjustment speeds and short-run responses when input prices rise or fall. (Author)

  17. The National Strategy of Ecological Transition towards Sustainable Development - International comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleiber, Florence; Vey, Frederic; Moreau, Sylvain; Bottin, Anne; Baudu-Baret, Claude

    2017-05-01

    The National Strategy of Ecological Transition towards Sustainable Development (SNTEDD) 2015-2020 follows on from the 2010-2013 National Strategy for Sustainable Development. Adopted at the Council of Ministers meeting of 4 February 2015, the SNTEDD identifies four major ecological challenges and nine strategic areas of action. The SNTEDD is monitored by 72 indicators developed via a collaborative process of selection implemented by a special commission of the National Council for Ecological Transition (CNTE) responsible for the indicators. This 'indicators' commission has sought to obtain a perspective on outcomes by means of international comparisons. This study presents initial elements of an analysis of France's situation compared with that of other countries (mostly EU or OECD members) with regard to each of the challenges and areas of action identified in the SNTEDD

  18. International comparison of cost of falls in older adults living in the community: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J C; Robertson, M C; Ashe, M C; Liu-Ambrose, T; Khan, K M; Marra, C A

    2010-08-01

    Our objective was to determine international estimates of the economic burden of falls in older people living in the community. Our systematic review emphasized the need for a consensus on methodology for cost of falls studies to enable more accurate comparisons and subgroup-specific estimates among different countries. The purpose of this study was to determine international estimates of the economic burden of falls in older people living in the community. This is a systematic review of peer-reviewed journal articles reporting estimates for the cost of falls in people aged > or =60 years living in the community. We searched for papers published between 1945 and December 2008 in MEDLINE, PUBMED, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Collaboration, and NHS EED databases that identified cost of falls in older adults. We extracted the cost of falls in the reported currency and converted them to US dollars at 2008 prices, cost items measured, perspective, time horizon, and sensitivity analysis. We assessed the quality of the studies using a selection of questions from Drummond's checklist. Seventeen studies met our inclusion criteria. Studies varied with respect to viewpoint of the analysis, definition of falls, identification of important and relevant cost items, and time horizon. Only two studies reported a sensitivity analysis and only four studies identified the viewpoint of their economic analysis. In the USA, non-fatal and fatal falls cost US $23.3 billion (2008 prices) annually and US $1.6 billion in the UK. The economic cost of falls is likely greater than policy makers appreciate. The mean cost of falls was dependent on the denominator used and ranged from US $3,476 per faller to US $10,749 per injurious fall and US $26,483 per fall requiring hospitalization. A consensus on methodology for cost of falls studies would enable more accurate comparisons and subgroup-specific estimates among different countries.

  19. International Medical Graduates in Radiation Oncology: Historical Trends and Comparison With Other Medical Specialties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Vivek, E-mail: vivek333@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska (United States); Shah, Chirag [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Lautenschlaeger, Tim [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana (United States); Lin, Chi [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska (United States); Beriwal, Sushil [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Zhen, Weining [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska (United States); Mehta, Minesh P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Miami Cancer Institute, Coral Gables, Florida (United States); Zietman, Anthony L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Purpose: This is the first National Resident Matching Program analysis evaluating historical patterns of international medical graduates (IMGs) in radiation oncology (RO) and providing comparison with American (MD) medical graduates (AMGs), osteopathic students (DOs), unfilled positions, and other specialties. Methods and Materials: National Resident Matching Program data for IMGs were available from 2003 to 2015, with limited data for other specialty matches. The following RO-specific figures were obtained per year: total positions available; total matched positions; number of unfilled positions; and number of IMG, AMG, and DO matches. In addition, the number of IMG matches and total matched positions were obtained for 19 other specialties. Fisher exact tests and χ{sup 2} tests were considered significant at α <.05. Results: From 2010 to 2015, 0.8% of RO matches were IMGs, a decline from 2.4% in 2003 to 2009 (P=.006). Proportions of DO matches during these intervals increased by 40% (from 1.0% to 1.4%), significantly lower than IMGs for 2003 to 2009 (P=.03) but not 2010 to 2015 (P=.26). From 2003 to 2015, the percentage of IMG matches, at 1.5%, was significantly lower than the percentage of unfilled seats, at 3.5% (P<.001). In comparison with other specialties (2003-2015), RO had the fewest IMG matches (1.5%), followed by otolaryngology (1.9%) and orthopedics (2.2%); specialties with the highest IMG proportions were internal medicine (37.1%), family medicine (35.7%), and neurology (31.1%). Conclusions: Presently, IMGs represent <1% of RO matches, the lowest among major specialties. There are several speculative factors associated with this low proportion. There are significantly more unfilled positions than those filled by IMGs; programs at risk of not matching could weigh the advantages and disadvantages of interviewing IMGs.

  20. Comparison of the Internal Dynamics of Metalloproteases Provides New Insights on Their Function and Evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique F Carvalho

    Full Text Available Metalloproteases have evolved in a vast number of biological systems, being one of the most diverse types of proteases and presenting a wide range of folds and catalytic metal ions. Given the increasing understanding of protein internal dynamics and its role in enzyme function, we are interested in assessing how the structural heterogeneity of metalloproteases translates into their dynamics. Therefore, the dynamical profile of the clan MA type protein thermolysin, derived from an Elastic Network Model of protein structure, was evaluated against those obtained from a set of experimental structures and molecular dynamics simulation trajectories. A close correspondence was obtained between modes derived from the coarse-grained model and the subspace of functionally-relevant motions observed experimentally, the later being shown to be encoded in the internal dynamics of the protein. This prompted the use of dynamics-based comparison methods that employ such coarse-grained models in a representative set of clan members, allowing for its quantitative description in terms of structural and dynamical variability. Although members show structural similarity, they nonetheless present distinct dynamical profiles, with no apparent correlation between structural and dynamical relatedness. However, previously unnoticed dynamical similarity was found between the relevant members Carboxypeptidase Pfu, Leishmanolysin, and Botulinum Neurotoxin Type A, despite sharing no structural similarity. Inspection of the respective alignments shows that dynamical similarity has a functional basis, namely the need for maintaining proper intermolecular interactions with the respective substrates. These results suggest that distinct selective pressure mechanisms act on metalloproteases at structural and dynamical levels through the course of their evolution. This work shows how new insights on metalloprotease function and evolution can be assessed with comparison schemes that

  1. Comparison of psychotic bipolar disorder, schizoaffective disorder, and schizophrenia: an international, multisite study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tondo, L; Vázquez, G H; Baethge, C; Baronessa, C; Bolzani, L; Koukopoulos, A; Mazzarini, L; Murru, A; Pacchiarotti, I; Pinna, M; Salvatore, P; Sani, G; Selle, V; Spalletta, G; Girardi, P; Tohen, M; Vieta, E; Baldessarini, R J

    2016-01-01

    Nosological distinctions among schizoaffective disorder (SA), bipolar I disorder with psychotic features (BDp), and schizophrenia (SZ) remain unresolved. We compared 2269 subjects with psychotic features in DSM-IV-TR diagnoses (1435 BDp, 463 SZ, 371 SA) from 8 collaborating international sites, by 12 sociodemographic and clinical measures, all between diagnostic pairs. In bivariate comparisons, SA was consistently intermediate between BDp and SZ for 11/12 features (except onset stressors), and SZ vs. BDp differed in all 12 factors. SA differed from both BDp and SZ in 9/12 factors: SA and BDp were similar in education and suicidal ideation or acts; SA and SZ were similar in education, onset stressors, and substance abuse. Meta-analytic comparisons of diagnostic pairs for 10 categorical factors indicated similar differences of SA from both SZ and BDp. Multivariate modeling indicated significantly independent differences between BDp and SZ (8 factors), SA vs. SZ (5), and BDp vs. SA (3). Measurement variance was similar for all diagnoses. SA was consistently intermediate between BDp and SZ. The three diagnostic groups ranked: BDp > SA > SZ related to lesser morbidity or disability. The findings are not consistent with a dyadic Kraepelinian categorization, although the considerable overlap among the three DSM-IV diagnostic groups indicates uncertain boundaries if they represent distinct disorders. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Multi-parametric ultrasound criteria for internal carotid artery disease - comparison with CT angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlinn, Kristian; Kepplinger, Jessica; Siepmann, Timo; Pallesen, Lars-Peder; Bodechtel, Ulf; Reichmann, Heinz; Puetz, Volker; Floegel, Thomas; Kitzler, Hagen H.; Alexandrov, Andrei V.

    2016-01-01

    The German Society of Ultrasound in Medicine (known by its acronym DEGUM) recently proposed a novel multi-parametric ultrasound approach for comprehensive and accurate assessment of extracranial internal carotid artery (ICA) steno-occlusive disease. We determined the agreement between duplex ultrasonography (DUS) interpreted by the DEGUM criteria and CT angiography (CTA) for grading of extracranial ICA steno-occlusive disease. Consecutive patients with acute cerebral ischemia underwent DUS and CTA. Internal carotid artery stenosis was graded according to the DEGUM-recommended criteria for DUS. Independent readers manually performed North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial-type measurements on axial CTA source images. Both modalities were compared using Spearman's correlation and Bland-Altman analyses. A total of 303 acute cerebral ischemia patients (mean age, 72 ± 12 years; 58 % men; median baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, 4 [interquartile range 7]) provided 593 DUS and CTA vessel pairs for comparison. There was a positive correlation between DUS and CTA (r s = 0.783, p < 0.001) with mean difference in degree of stenosis measurement of 3.57 %. Bland-Altman analysis further revealed widely varying differences (95 % limits of agreement -29.26 to 22.84) between the two modalities. Although the novel DEGUM criteria showed overall good agreement between DUS and CTA across all stenosis ranges, potential for wide incongruence with CTA underscores the need for local laboratory validation to avoid false screening results. (orig.)

  3. 25 Years of DECOVALEX - Research Advances and Lessons Learned from an International Model Comparison Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkholzer, J. T.

    2017-12-01

    This presentation provides an overview of an international research and model comparison collaboration (DECOVALEX) for advancing the understanding and modeling of coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes in geological systems. Prediction of these coupled effects is an essential part of the performance and safety assessment of geologic disposal systems for radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel, and is also relevant for a range of other sub-surface engineering activities. DECOVALEX research activities have been supported by a large number of radioactive-waste-management organizations and regulatory authorities. Research teams from more than a dozen international partner organizations have participated in the comparative modeling evaluation of complex field and laboratory experiments in the UK, Switzerland, Japan, France and Sweden. Together, these tasks (1) have addressed a wide range of relevant issues related to engineered and natural system behavior in argillaceous, crystalline and other host rocks, (2) have yielded in-depth knowledge of coupled THM and THMC processes associated with nuclear waste repositories and wider geo-engineering applications, and (3) have advanced the capability, as well as demonstrated the suitability, of numerical simulation models for quantitative analysis.

  4. Multi-parametric ultrasound criteria for internal carotid artery disease - comparison with CT angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barlinn, Kristian; Kepplinger, Jessica; Siepmann, Timo; Pallesen, Lars-Peder; Bodechtel, Ulf; Reichmann, Heinz; Puetz, Volker [Carl Gustav Carus University Hospital, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Department of Neurology, Dresden (Germany); Floegel, Thomas [Carl Gustav Carus University Hospital, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Department of Neurology, Dresden (Germany); Carl Gustav Carus University Hospital, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Department of Neuroradiology, Dresden (Germany); Kitzler, Hagen H. [Carl Gustav Carus University Hospital, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Department of Neuroradiology, Dresden (Germany); Alexandrov, Andrei V. [The University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Department of Neurology, Memphis, TN (United States)

    2016-09-15

    The German Society of Ultrasound in Medicine (known by its acronym DEGUM) recently proposed a novel multi-parametric ultrasound approach for comprehensive and accurate assessment of extracranial internal carotid artery (ICA) steno-occlusive disease. We determined the agreement between duplex ultrasonography (DUS) interpreted by the DEGUM criteria and CT angiography (CTA) for grading of extracranial ICA steno-occlusive disease. Consecutive patients with acute cerebral ischemia underwent DUS and CTA. Internal carotid artery stenosis was graded according to the DEGUM-recommended criteria for DUS. Independent readers manually performed North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial-type measurements on axial CTA source images. Both modalities were compared using Spearman's correlation and Bland-Altman analyses. A total of 303 acute cerebral ischemia patients (mean age, 72 ± 12 years; 58 % men; median baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, 4 [interquartile range 7]) provided 593 DUS and CTA vessel pairs for comparison. There was a positive correlation between DUS and CTA (r{sub s} = 0.783, p < 0.001) with mean difference in degree of stenosis measurement of 3.57 %. Bland-Altman analysis further revealed widely varying differences (95 % limits of agreement -29.26 to 22.84) between the two modalities. Although the novel DEGUM criteria showed overall good agreement between DUS and CTA across all stenosis ranges, potential for wide incongruence with CTA underscores the need for local laboratory validation to avoid false screening results. (orig.)

  5. International comparisons of health system performance among OECD countries: opportunities and data privacy protection challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oderkirk, Jillian; Ronchi, Elettra; Klazinga, Niek

    2013-09-01

    Health data constitute a significant resource in most OECD countries that could be used to improve health system performance. Well-intended policies to allay concerns about breaches of confidentiality and to reduce potential misuse of personal health information may be limiting data use. A survey of 20 OECD countries explored the extent to which countries have developed and use personal health data and the reasons why data use may be problematic in some. Countries are divided, with one-half engaged regularly in national data linkage studies to monitor health care quality. Country variation is linked to risk management in granting an exemption to patient consent requirements; in sharing identifiable data among government authorities; and in project approvals and granting access to data. The resources required to comply with data protection requirements is a secondary problem. The sharing of person-level data across borders for international comparisons is rarely reported and there were few examples of studies of health system performance. Laws and policies enabling data sharing and data linkage are needed to strengthen national information infrastructure. To develop international studies comparing health care quality and health system performance, actions are needed to address heterogeneity in data protection practices. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Assess of the Status of the Karaj Operating Rooms in Comparison with International Standards in 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Naseri

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Because of making money, the operating room (OR is known as the beating heart of any clinical & health center. The effective and regular activity of the operating room guarantees a sustainable income for the hospital. So, in order to provide high quality treatment and care services, and to save the health and safety of OR staff, exploiting standard equipments and spaces as well as employing professional and skilled personnel is necessary. This study was aimed to assess the status of the Karaj operating rooms from physical, safety, sterilization, staffing and equipment aspects in comparison to the International Standards. Methods: This sectional descriptive study was conducted in Alborz University of Medical Sciences in 2011. Samples were 10 operating room wards from 10 surgical hospitals. Data were collected by a 70 items check-list at 5 fields of physical, safety, sterilization, staffing and equipment conditions and then compared to the international standards. The data were recorded in SPSS software and analyzed by statistical methods. Results: The results showed that compared to the international standards, the physical aspect was 60.5%, safety aspect 66%, sterilization aspect 68%, staffing aspect 63%, and equipment aspect was 80% close to the standard criteria. On the whole, in 10 assessed hospitals, equipment aspect with 80% had the best and the physical aspect with 60.5% had the worst conditions respectively. Conclusion: Due to admission in different medical and paramedical programs in Alborz University of Medical Sciences, renovation of the ORs is essential for training skilled students. Considering the results of this study could help the University authorities to improve the current condition.

  7. Monte Carlo modelling of Germanium detectors for the measurement of low energy photons in internal dosimetry: Results of an international comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Ros, J.M. [CIEMAT, Av. Complutense 22, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: jm.gomezros@ciemat.es; Carlan, L. de [CEA DRT/LIST/DETECS/LNHB/LMD, Bat 534, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette, Cedex (France); IRSN DRPH/SDI/LEDI, BP6, F-92262, Fontenay-aux-Roses, Cedex (France); Franck, D. [IRSN DRPH/SDI/LEDI, BP6, F-92262, Fontenay-aux-Roses, Cedex (France); Gualdrini, G. [ENEA ION-IRP, Via dei Colli 16, I-40136 Bologna (Italy); Lis, M.; Lopez, M.A.; Moraleda, M. [CIEMAT, Av. Complutense 22, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Zankl, M. [GSF - National Research Center for Environment and Health, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Badal, A. [Institut de Tecniques Energetiques, UPC, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Capello, K. [Human Monitoring Laboratory (Canada); Cowan, P. [Serco Assurance, Bld. A32, Winfrith Tech. Centre Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset DT2 8DH (United Kingdom); Ferrari, P. [ENEA ION-IRP, Via dei Colli 16, I-40136 Bologna (Italy); Heide, B. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Henniger, J. [Technical University of Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Hooley, V. [Serco Assurance, Bld. A32, Winfrith Tech. Centre Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset DT2 8DH (United Kingdom); Hunt, J. [IRD, Av. Salvador Allende, s/n, Recreio, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Kinase, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken 319-1195 (Japan); Kramer, G.H. [Human Monitoring Laboratory (Canada); Loehnert, D. [Technical University of Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Lucas, S. [LARN Laboratory, University of Namur, Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium)] (and others)

    2008-02-15

    This communication summarizes the results concerning the Monte Carlo (MC) modelling of Germanium detectors for the measurement of low energy photons arising from the 'International comparison on MC modelling for in vivo measurement of Americium in a knee phantom' organized within the EU Coordination Action CONRAD (Coordinated Network for Radiation Dosimetry) as a joint initiative of EURADOS working groups 6 (computational dosimetry) and 7 (internal dosimetry). MC simulations proved to be an applicable way to obtain the calibration factor that needs to be used for in vivo measurements.

  8. Comparison of fully internally and strongly contracted multireference configuration interaction procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivalingam, Kantharuban; Krupicka, Martin; Auer, Alexander A.; Neese, Frank

    2016-08-01

    Multireference (MR) methods occupy an important class of approaches in quantum chemistry. In many instances, for example, in studying complex magnetic properties of transition metal complexes, they are actually the only physically satisfactory choice. In traditional MR approaches, single and double excitations are performed with respect to all reference configurations (or configuration state functions, CSFs), which leads to an explosive increase of computational cost for larger reference spaces. This can be avoided by the internal contraction scheme proposed by Meyer and Siegbahn, which effectively reduces the number of wavefunction parameters to their single-reference counterpart. The "fully internally contracted" scheme (FIC) is well known from the popular CASPT2 approach. An even shorter expansion of the wavefunction is possible with the "strong contraction" (SC) scheme proposed by Angeli and Malrieu in their NEVPT2 approach. Promising multireference configuration interaction formulations (MRCI) employing internal contraction and strong contraction have been reported by several authors. In this work, we report on the implementation of the FIC-MRCI and SC-MRCI methodologies, using a computer assisted implementation strategy. The methods are benchmarked against the traditional uncontracted MRCI approach for ground and excited states of small molecules (N2, O2, CO, CO+, OH, CH, and CN). For ground states, the comparison includes the "partially internally contracted" MRCI based on the Celani-Werner ansatz (PC-MRCI). For the three contraction schemes, the average errors range from 2% to 6% of the uncontracted MRCI correlation energies. Excitation energies are reproduced with ˜0.2 eV accuracy. In most cases, the agreement is better than 0.2 eV, even in cases with very large differential correlation contributions as exemplified for the d-d and ligand-to-metal charge transfer transitions of a Cu [NH 3 ] 4 2 + model complex. The benchmark is supplemented with the

  9. "I Am Chelsea Manning": Comparison of Gendered Representation of Private Manning in U.S. and International News Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackl, Andrea M; Becker, Amy B; Todd, Maureen E

    2016-01-01

    On August 22, 2013, Bradley Manning released a statement requesting to be referred to as female. In the following days, the news media discussed whether language should shift toward a female representation. Using quantitative content analysis and qualitative contextual analysis, this study analyzed whether U.S. and international newspapers (N = 197) acknowledged Manning's request to be referred to as "Chelsea" in the two weeks after the statement. Results suggest that the mainstream press was hesitant in shifting toward a female representation. A comparison of international and U.S. newspapers suggests that the U.S. press lagged behind international coverage using a female depiction.

  10. Patient satisfaction with musculoskeletal physiotherapy care in Australia: an international comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hush, Julia M; Yung, Vivian; Mackey, Martin; Adams, Roger; Wand, Benedict M; Nelson, Roger; Beattie, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: (1) To attain a quantitative estimate of patient satisfaction with physiotherapy care for musculoskeletal conditions in Australia; (2) to compare the observed level of patient satisfaction with care in Australia with those from other countries; and (3) to compare factors contributing to patient satisfaction between Australia and the United States (US). Methods: We conducted a prospective study of 274 patients presenting for physiotherapy treatment of a musculoskeletal disorder in Australian clinics. Patient satisfaction was measured using the 20-item MedRisk Instrument for Measuring Patient Satisfaction with Physical Therapy Care (MRPS) and satisfaction scores were compared with those from Northern Europe, North America, the United Kingdom, and Ireland. To investigate factors contributing to patient satisfaction between Australia and the US, we compared 20-item MRPS data from Australian and Spanish-speaking US cohorts. Results: Mean Australian MRPS satisfaction score was 4.55 (95% confidence interval: 4.51–4.59) on a scale of 1 to 5, where 1 indicates high dissatisfaction and 5 indicates high satisfaction. This high level of patient satisfaction is consistent with international data. Australian respondents specifically valued interpersonal aspects of care, including advice and information about their condition and an explanation about self-management. The correlation between treatment outcomes and global patient satisfaction was low (r = −0.22). A comparison of data collected from Australia and the US showed that MRPS items regarding interpersonal aspects of care, such as the therapists’ communication skills, correlated strongly with global satisfaction in both countries. However, there were other questionnaire items for which the correlation with global satisfaction was significantly different between Australia and the US. Conclusions: Patient satisfaction with musculoskeletal physiotherapy care in Australia is high and comparable with

  11. International network for comparison of HIV neutralization assays: the NeutNet report II.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo Heyndrickx

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neutralizing antibodies provide markers for vaccine-induced protective immunity in many viral infections. By analogy, HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies induced by immunization may well predict vaccine effectiveness. Assessment of neutralizing antibodies is therefore of primary importance, but is hampered by the fact that we do not know which assay(s can provide measures of protective immunity. An international collaboration (NeutNet involving 18 different laboratories previously compared different assays using monoclonal antibodies (mAbs and soluble CD4 (Phase I study. METHODS: In the present study (Phase II, polyclonal reagents were evaluated by 13 laboratories. Each laboratory evaluated nine plasmas against an 8 virus panel representing different genetic subtypes and phenotypes. TriMab, a mixture of three mAbs, was used as a positive control allowing comparison of the results with Phase I in a total of nine different assays. The assays used either uncloned virus produced in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs (Virus Infectivity Assays, VIA, or Env (gp160-pseudotyped viruses (pseudoviruses, PSV produced in HEK293T cells from molecular clones or from uncloned virus. Target cells included PBMC and genetically engineered cell lines in either single- or multiple-cycle infection format. Infection was quantified by using a range of assay read-outs including extra- or intra-cellular p24 antigen detection, luciferase, beta-galactosidase or green fluorescent protein (GFP reporter gene expression. FINDINGS: Using TriMab, results of Phase I and Phase II were generally in agreement for six of the eight viruses tested and confirmed that the PSV assay is more sensitive than PBMC (p = 0.014. Comparisons with the polyclonal reagents showed that sensitivities were dependent on both virus and plasma. CONCLUSIONS: Here we further demonstrate clear differences in assay sensitivities that were dependent on both the neutralizing reagent and the virus

  12. International network for comparison of HIV neutralization assays: the NeutNet report II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyndrickx, Leo; Heath, Alan; Sheik-Khalil, Enas; Alcami, Jose; Bongertz, Vera; Jansson, Marianne; Malnati, Mauro; Montefiori, David; Moog, Christiane; Morris, Lynn; Osmanov, Saladin; Polonis, Victoria; Ramaswamy, Meghna; Sattentau, Quentin; Tolazzi, Monica; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Willems, Betty; Wrin, Terri; Fenyö, Eva Maria; Scarlatti, Gabriella

    2012-01-01

    Neutralizing antibodies provide markers for vaccine-induced protective immunity in many viral infections. By analogy, HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies induced by immunization may well predict vaccine effectiveness. Assessment of neutralizing antibodies is therefore of primary importance, but is hampered by the fact that we do not know which assay(s) can provide measures of protective immunity. An international collaboration (NeutNet) involving 18 different laboratories previously compared different assays using monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and soluble CD4 (Phase I study). In the present study (Phase II), polyclonal reagents were evaluated by 13 laboratories. Each laboratory evaluated nine plasmas against an 8 virus panel representing different genetic subtypes and phenotypes. TriMab, a mixture of three mAbs, was used as a positive control allowing comparison of the results with Phase I in a total of nine different assays. The assays used either uncloned virus produced in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) (Virus Infectivity Assays, VIA), or Env (gp160)-pseudotyped viruses (pseudoviruses, PSV) produced in HEK293T cells from molecular clones or from uncloned virus. Target cells included PBMC and genetically engineered cell lines in either single- or multiple-cycle infection format. Infection was quantified by using a range of assay read-outs including extra- or intra-cellular p24 antigen detection, luciferase, beta-galactosidase or green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene expression. Using TriMab, results of Phase I and Phase II were generally in agreement for six of the eight viruses tested and confirmed that the PSV assay is more sensitive than PBMC (p = 0.014). Comparisons with the polyclonal reagents showed that sensitivities were dependent on both virus and plasma. Here we further demonstrate clear differences in assay sensitivities that were dependent on both the neutralizing reagent and the virus. Consistent with the Phase I study, we recommend

  13. Longitudinal Relationships among Internalization of the Media Ideal, Peer Social Comparison, and Body Dissatisfaction: Implications for the Tripartite Influence Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Rachel F.; McLean, Siân A.; Paxton, Susan J.

    2015-01-01

    Sociocultural theory of body dissatisfaction posits that internalization of the media ideal and appearance comparison are predictors of body dissatisfaction, a key risk factor for eating disorders. However, no data exist regarding the longitudinal relationships between these variables. The aim of this study was to explore longitudinal…

  14. Internal audit function: a comparison between private and public sector in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Madawaki Abdulkadir; Ahmi Aidi; Nasibah Ahmad Halimah

    2017-01-01

    This study compares the internal audit functions between private and the public sector. Features examined include hierarchical rank of internal audit function, internal audit transfer, outsourcing of internal audit services and working relationship of internal audit with external auditor. The study is based on a survey of internal audit managers and chief internal auditors in private and public sector entities in Nigeria. The results revealed that there is no much difference in hierarchical r...

  15. Buyer-seller negotiations: a comparison of domestic and international conditions in a pilot study with international business students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurtsever, Gülçimen; Kurt, Gizem; Hacioglu, Gungor

    2010-06-01

    This study examined the differences and similarities between domestic and international negotiations, using Kelley's Negotiation Game to measure the profit achieved. There were 58 participants in the international negotiation sample, 29 Turkish and 29 European students. There were 62 Turkish students in the domestic negotiations. All participants studied business or related topics at a university in Izmir. Student t tests indicated statistically significant differences in scores on misrepresentation of information, interpersonal attraction, peer evaluation of misrepresentation information, and satisfaction between domestic and international negotiations.

  16. International Standard Problem 40 - Aerosol Deposition and Resuspension. Final Comparison Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Los Reyes, Alfredo Castelo; Areia Capitao, Joaquim; De Santi, Giovanni

    1999-02-01

    -October 1997 and the deadline for submission of the results of this second phase was the end of January 1998. A first draft of this comparison report was produced in March 1998, followed by a workshop in Ispra in mid-March. Two errors in the supplied data had been detected and were communicated to the participants in this workshop, one concerning the steam flow rate in the deposition phase of the exercise and the other the size distribution of the resuspended aerosols in the resuspension phase. The decision whether or not to re-do their calculations was left to the each ISP participant and the deadline for the submission of new results, with these or other modifications relative to the previous ones, was the end of May 1998. These new calculations, having been performed in open conditions, are presented separately in this report. The final draft of the comparison report was distribute in June 1998, followed by a final workshop in Ispra the same month. This report is divided into six main sections, one concerning the experimental set-up and results, two each for the deposition and resuspension phases of the International Standard Problem (blind and open calculations), and one on general conclusions and recommendations. According to the opinion of the ISP participants, the results in the two sections on the deposition and resuspension exercises are listed by computer code and, for each code, by organisation. The calculations submitted by the Joint Research Centre are included together with the others. Although the JRC staff who performed the calculations did not have access to the experimental results before submitting their results, their knowledge of the facility puts their calculations in a separate class

  17. Comparison of internal radiation doses estimated by MIRD and voxel techniques for a ''family'' of phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, T.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to use a new system of realistic voxel phantoms, based on computed tomography scanning of humans, to assess its ability to specify the internal dosimetry of selected human examples in comparison with the well-established MIRD system of mathematical anthropomorphic phantoms. Differences in specific absorbed fractions between the two systems were inferred by using organ dose estimates as the end point for comparison. A ''family'' of voxel phantoms, comprising an 8-week-old baby, a 7-year-old child and a 38-year-old adult, was used and a close match to these was made by interpolating between organ doses estimated for pairs of the series of six MIRD phantoms. Using both systems, doses were calculated for up to 22 organs for four radiopharmaceuticals with widely differing biodistribution and emission characteristics (technetium-99m pertechnetate, administered without thyroid blocking; iodine-123 iodide; indium-111 antimyosin; oxygen-15 water). Organ dose estimates under the MIRD system were derived using the software MIRDOSE 3, which incorporates specific absorbed fraction (SAF) values for the MIRD phantom series. The voxel system uses software based on the same dose calculation formula in conjunction with SAF values determined by Monte Carlo analysis at the GSF of the three voxel phantoms. Effective doses were also compared. Substantial differences in organ weights were observed between the two systems, 18% differing by more than a factor of 2. Out of a total of 238 organ dose comparisons, 5% differed by more than a factor of 2 between the systems; these included some doses to walls of the GI tract, a significant result in relation to their high tissue weighting factors. Some of the largest differences in dose were associated with organs of lower significance in terms of radiosensitivity (e.g. thymus). In this small series, voxel organ doses tended to exceed MIRD values, on average, and a 10% difference was significant when all 238 organ doses

  18. Hemodialysis practice patterns in the Russia Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS), with international comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikbov, Boris; Bieber, Brian; Andrusev, Anton; Tomilina, Natalia; Zemchenkov, Alexander; Zhao, Junhui; Port, Friedrich; Robinson, Bruce; Pisoni, Ronald

    2017-07-01

    There is little comparable information about hemodialysis (HD) practices in low- and middle income countries, including Russia. Evaluation of HD in Russia and its international comparisons could highlight factors providing opportunities for improvement. We examined treatment patterns for 481 prevalent HD patients in 20 Russian facilities, and compared them to contemporary data for 8512 patients from 311 facilities in seven European countries, Japan, and North America. Data were collected according to the uniform methodology of the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study, phase 5. Compared to other regions, Russian patients were younger (mean age 53.4 years), had a lower percent of males (52.5%), higher arteriovenous fistula use (89.7%), and longer treatment time (mean: 252 minutes, SD: 37 minutes). Mean single pool Kt/V was 1.49 (SD 0.58). Prescription of dialysate calcium 3.5 mEq/L and aluminum-based phosphate binders were high (15.2% and 17.6% of patients, respectively), while intravenous vitamin D and cinacalcet were low (3.3% and 2.2%, respectively). The percents with parathyroid hormone >600 pg/mL (30.9%) and serum phosphate >1.78 mmol/L (37.7%) were high. Use of erythropoetin stimulating agents (78%) was lower, but hemoglobin, ferritin, and transferrin saturation were generally comparable to North America and Europe. These detailed data for hemodialysis in Russia demonstrate that many practice patterns contrasted sharply to those in Europe, Japan, and North America, while other features were similar. Our analysis revealed several positive and some less favorable treatment patterns in Russia that represent opportunities for improving patient care and outcomes. © 2016 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  19. Reconciliation of international administrative coding systems for comparison of colorectal surgery outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munasinghe, A; Chang, D; Mamidanna, R; Middleton, S; Joy, M; Penninckx, F; Darzi, A; Livingston, E; Faiz, O

    2014-07-01

    Significant variation in colorectal surgery outcomes exists between different countries. Better understanding of the sources of variable outcomes using administrative data requires alignment of differing clinical coding systems. We aimed to map similar diagnoses and procedures across administrative coding systems used in different countries. Administrative data were collected in a central database as part of the Global Comparators (GC) Project. In order to unify these data, a systematic translation of diagnostic and procedural codes was undertaken. Codes for colorectal diagnoses, resections, operative complications and reoperative interventions were mapped across the respective national healthcare administrative coding systems. Discharge data from January 2006 to June 2011 for patients who had undergone colorectal surgical resections were analysed to generate risk-adjusted models for mortality, length of stay, readmissions and reoperations. In all, 52 544 case records were collated from 31 institutions in five countries. Mapping of all the coding systems was achieved so that diagnosis and procedures from the participant countries could be compared. Using the aligned coding systems to develop risk-adjusted models, the 30-day mortality rate for colorectal surgery was 3.95% (95% CI 0.86-7.54), the 30-day readmission rate was 11.05% (5.67-17.61), the 28-day reoperation rate was 6.13% (3.68-9.66) and the mean length of stay was 14 (7.65-46.76) days. The linkage of international hospital administrative data that we developed enabled comparison of documented surgical outcomes between countries. This methodology may facilitate international benchmarking. Colorectal Disease © 2014 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  20. Comparison between Ultroid and Rubber Band Ligation in Treatment of Internal Hemorrhoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasoul Azizi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available "nHemorrhoid is one of the most common surgical diseases and different methods are available for its treatment. This study is a comparison between two methods of treatment of internal hemorrhoid, Monopolar low voltage instrument (Ultroid and Rubber Band Ligation. This method has been carried out prospectively in which 50 patients who were treated with rubber band ligation and 50 patients with Ultroid were compared according to the incidence of complications, post-operative pain and treatment response. According to this study complete success rate with Ultroid was 82% and partial success rate was 10% and no response to treatment was seen in 8%. In Rubber Band method the complete response rate was 94% (P=0.2. With Ultroid, 74% of patient reported no postoperative pain, 24% reported mild and moderate pain and 2% of patients complained of severe pain. With Rubber band ligation, 72% of patients reported no post-operative pain, 26% reported mild and moderate pain and 1% complained of severe pain (P=0.00. Rubber Band ligation and Ultroid are both considered as outpatient procedures for treatment of hemorrhoids. Both methods are mostly used for grade 1, 2 and sometime grade 3 hemorrhoids. In Ultroid method the operator is required to hold the probe for a period of time, and in most cases, the surgeon should spend between 20-25 minutes for the coagulation of three piles. Some surgeons do not have patience for this modality of internal hemorrhoid treatment. In this study we achieved acceptable results comparable with those of other techniques.

  1. International comparisons of energy and environmental efficiency in the road transport sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Abdallah, Khaled; Belloumi, Mounir; De Wolf, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The present work provides an international comparison of the energy intensity and the carbon dioxide intensity in road transport for a group of 90 countries over the period 1980–2012. This paper attempts to perform a comparative analysis to find the most appropriate mapping of the energy performance in road transport taking into account the three dimensions of sustainable energy development, namely road transport-related energy consumption, economic growth and carbon dioxide emissions. An important result of the study is the inverse relationship between energy efficiency and environmental efficiency. Through the calculated Theil coefficient, our empirical findings highlight the existence of spatial and temporal disparities between countries. In 2012, Tunisia occupies the 48th and the 38th rank respectively in terms of energy and environmental efficiency. Based on a general index of energy performance in the road transport sector, it is deemed to have a medium–high energy performance by occupying the 34th rank. The study shows the importance of enhancing a number of policies for the road transport system through the joint improvement of the fuel price policy, of the road infrastructure policy and of the fuel-efficient road vehicles policy, in order to maintain sustainable energy road transport. - Highlights: • The paper presents an international comparative analysis of the energy performance. • The road transport is analyzed for a group of 90 countries over the period 1980–2012. • There is no convergence between energy and environmental efficiencies. • Tunisia has a medium-high energy performance by occupying the 34th rank in 2012. • The findings show the importance of enhancing some policies for the road transport.

  2. Students' Preference for Science Careers: International comparisons based on PISA 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjærnsli, Marit; Lie, Svein

    2011-01-01

    This article deals with 15-year-old students' tendencies to consider a future science-related career. Two aspects have been the focus of our investigation. The first is based on the construct called 'future science orientation', an affective construct consisting of four Likert scale items that measure students' consideration of being involved in future education and careers in science-related areas. Due to the well-known evidence for Likert scales providing culturally biased estimates, the aim has been to go beyond the comparison of simple country averages. In a series of regression and correlation analyses, we have investigated how well the variance of this construct in each of the participating countries can be accounted for by other Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) student data. The second aspect is based on a question about students' future jobs. By separating science-related jobs into what we have called 'soft' and 'hard' science-related types of jobs, we have calculated and compared country percentages within each category. In particular, gender differences are discussed, and interesting international patterns have been identified. The results in this article have been reported not only for individual countries, but also for groups of countries. These cluster analyses of countries are based on item-by-item patterns of (residual values of) national average values for the combination of cognitive and affective items. The emerging cluster structure of countries has turned out to contribute to the literature of similarities and differences between countries and the factors behind the country clustering both in science education and more generally.

  3. KEY COMPARISON: CCEM.RF-K9: International comparison of thermal noise standards between 12.4 GHz and 18 GHz (GT-RF/99-1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allal, Djamel; Achkar, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    An international comparison of thermal noise-power measurements has been carried out among five national metrology institutes between 12.4 GHz and 18 GHz. Four transfer standards were measured. The following national institutes participated: BNM-LCIE (France), NPL (United Kingdom), PTB (Germany), NIST (United States of America) and VNIIFTRI (Russia). The Bureau National de Métrologie-Laboratoire Central des Industries Electriques (France) acted as the pilot laboratory for the comparison. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCEM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  4. International practices in the provision of teratology information: a survey of international teratogen information programmes and comparisons with the North American model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Rebecca L; Ungar, Wendy J; Einarson, Adrienne; Koren, Gideon

    2010-10-01

    Teratology Information Services (TIS) provide health care professionals and the public with information regarding the safety and/or risk of exposures during pregnancy and lactation, mainly via telephone consultations. An international comparison of clinical practices at TIS has never been conducted. The survey objective was to compare international TIS to North American TIS, with an aim to identify strengths and challenges that can lead to service improvement. Twenty-two international TIS were approached for participation during an international conference. TIS were surveyed on information in six categories: services, staffing, operations, data collection, knowledge transfer activities and additional information. Data were summarized using descriptive statistics. Statistical tests were conducted using SPSS®. Sixteen TIS from 12 countries participated. Survey results were compared with previously reported results from a similar survey of North American TIS (16 US, two Canadian). TIS exist in a variety of departments and settings, but most commonly are in university hospitals. Pregnant women were the most commonly counselled group worldwide. International TIS spent significantly more time fielding inquiries regarding medications, while North American TIS had a wider variety of inquiry categories. All TIS could improve budget tracking. Overall, service practices and goals were similar, although international TIS conducted more follow-up with service users than North American TIS. This report offers TIS the first ever opportunity to compare practices. Increased dialogue between TIS encourages sharing of best practices and improves the ability of these important public health programmes to support women and health care providers. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Raman Lidar Measurements During the International H2O Project. 2; Instrument Comparisons and Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, D. N.; Demoz, B.; DiGirolamo, P.; Corner, J.; Veselovskii, I.; Evans, K.; Wang, Z.; Sabatino, D.; Schwemmer, G.; Gentry, B.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA/GSFC Scanning Raman Lidar (SRL) participated in the International H2O Project (IHOP) that occurred in May and June, 2002 in the midwestern part of the U. S. The SRL system configuration and methods of data analysis were described in part I of this paper. In this second part, comparisons of SRL water vapor measurements and those of chilled mirror radiosonde and LASE airborne water vapor lidar are performed. Two case studies are presented; one for daytime and one for nighttime. The daytime case study is of a convectively driven boundary layer event and is used to characterize the SRL water vapor random error characteristics. The nighttime case study is of a thunderstorm-generated cirrus cloud case that is studied in it s meteorological context. Upper tropospheric humidification due to precipitation from the cirrus cloud is quantified as is the cirrus cloud ice water content and particle depolarization ratio. These detailed cirrus cloud measurements are being used in a cirrus cloud modeling study.

  6. Comparison of respiratory surrogates for gated lung radiotherapy without internal fiducials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korreman, S.; Mostafavi, H.; Le, Q.T.; Boyer, A.

    2006-01-01

    An investigation was carried out to compare the ability of two respiratory surrogates to mimic actual lung tumor motion during audio coaching. The investigation employed video clips acquired after patients had had fiducial markers implanted in lung tumors to be used for image-guided stereoscopic radiotherapy. The positions of the markers in the clips were measured within the video frames and used as the standard for tumor volume motion. An external marker was tracked optically during the fluoroscopic acquisitions. An image correlation technique was developed to compute a gating signal from the fluoroscopic images. The correlation gating trace was similar to the optical gating trace in the phase regions of the respiratory cycle used for gating. A cross correlation analysis and comparison of the external optical marker gating with internal fluoroscopic gating was performed. The fluoroscopic image correlation surrogate was found to be superior to the external optical surrogate in the AP-views in four out of six cases. In one of the remaining two cases, the two surrogates performed comparably, while in the last case, the external fiducial trace performed best. It was concluded that fluoroscopic gating based on correlation of native image features in the fluoroscopic images will be adequate for respiratory gating

  7. Comparison of respiratory surrogates for gated lung radiotherapy without internal fiducials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korreman, S. [Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Mostafavi, H. [Varian Medical Systems, Mountain View, CA (United States). Gintzon Technology Center; Le, Q.T.; Boyer, A. [Stanford Univ. School of Medicine, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2006-09-15

    An investigation was carried out to compare the ability of two respiratory surrogates to mimic actual lung tumor motion during audio coaching. The investigation employed video clips acquired after patients had had fiducial markers implanted in lung tumors to be used for image-guided stereoscopic radiotherapy. The positions of the markers in the clips were measured within the video frames and used as the standard for tumor volume motion. An external marker was tracked optically during the fluoroscopic acquisitions. An image correlation technique was developed to compute a gating signal from the fluoroscopic images. The correlation gating trace was similar to the optical gating trace in the phase regions of the respiratory cycle used for gating. A cross correlation analysis and comparison of the external optical marker gating with internal fluoroscopic gating was performed. The fluoroscopic image correlation surrogate was found to be superior to the external optical surrogate in the AP-views in four out of six cases. In one of the remaining two cases, the two surrogates performed comparably, while in the last case, the external fiducial trace performed best. It was concluded that fluoroscopic gating based on correlation of native image features in the fluoroscopic images will be adequate for respiratory gating.

  8. International variation in ethics committee requirements: comparisons across five Westernised nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nachson Israel

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethics committees typically apply the common principles of autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence and justice to research proposals but with variable weighting and interpretation. This paper reports a comparison of ethical requirements in an international cross-cultural study and discusses their implications. Discussion The study was run concurrently in New Zealand, UK, Israel, Canada and USA and involved testing hypotheses about believability of testimonies regarding alleged child sexual abuse. Ethics committee requirements to conduct this study ranged from nil in Israel to considerable amendments designed to minimise participant harm in New Zealand. Assessment of minimal risk is a complex and unreliable estimation further compounded by insufficient information on probabilities of particular individuals suffering harm. Estimating potential benefits/ risks ratio and protecting participants' autonomy similarly are not straightforward exercises. Summary Safeguarding moral/humane principles should be balanced with promotion of ethical research which does not impede research posing minimal risk to participants. In ensuring that ethical standards are met and research has scientific merit, ethics committees have obligations to participants (to meet their rights and protect them from harm; to society (to ensure good quality research is conducted; and to researchers (to treat their proposals with just consideration and respect. To facilitate meeting all these obligations, the preferable focus should be promotion of ethical research, rather than the prevention of unethical research, which inevitably results in the impediment of researchers from doing their work. How the ethical principles should be applied and balanced requires further consideration.

  9. Second international comparison on measuring techniques of tritium production rate for fusion neutronics experiments (ICMT-2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Fujio; Maekawa, Hiroshi

    1993-02-01

    An second international comparison on measuring techniques of tritium production rates for fusion neutronics experiments (ICMT-2) has been performed. The purpose is to evaluate the measurement accuracy of tritium production rates in the current measurement techniques. Two 14 MeV neutron source facilities, FNS at JAERI-Japan and LOTUS at EPFL-Switzerland, were used for this purpose. Nine groups out of seven countries participated in this program. A fusion simulated blanket assembly of simple-geometry was served as the test bed at each facility, in which Li-containing samples from the participants were irradiated in an uniform neutron field. The tritium production rates were determined by the participants using their own ways by using the liquid scintillation counting method. Tritiated water sample with unknown but the same concentration was also distributed and its concentration was measured to make a common reference. The standard deviation of measured tritium production rates among participants was about 10 % for both FNS and LOTUS irradiation levels: 4x10 -13 T-atoms/Li-atom and 1.6x10 -12 T-atoms/Li-atom at a sample, respectively. This standard deviation exceeds the expected deviation of 5 % in this program. It is presumed that the deviation of 10 % is caused mainly by the systematic and unknown errors in a process of tritium extraction from the irradiated samples depending on each organization. (author)

  10. Comparison of Knowledge of Medical and Paramedical Intern about of CPR, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastoor Bekhradian

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Every day a number of people from the heart stops beating for most of them that this early cessation of heartbeat. With operations of CPR in 4 to 6 minutes of cardiopulmonary arrest and before the onset of brain death can be established circulation and survival for patients with the death of 2 to 4 folds. The aim of this study was to Comparison of knowledge of medical and paramedical intern about of CPCR, 2015. This descriptive analytical and sampling method was census. Restore their data using a standard questionnaire with Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.82 .Spss20 data using statistical software analysis and descriptive statistics and Chi-square test was used. The mean score of 3/6 students that showed poor knowledge of students participating in the study. The lowest score of zero and the highest score was 12. Was found between gender and level of knowledge (p=0/05. Between education and the knowledge of the relationship was not statistically significant (p=0/764. The knowledge of medical and paramedical students groups scheduled for next semester as part of the treatment system personnel are working poor and require special attention in order to provide guidelines for planning authorities to increase the awareness of students.

  11. Factors of Public Procurement: Evaluation of an Influence into the International Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melnikov Vladimir, V.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available There was a tendency to expand the using of state regulation tools and increasing the scale of the public sector of economy In XX century. Statistically, it is characterized by increasing of indicators of public expenditures and procurement of products for public use. The amazing thing is that countries which are different from each other in terms of the formed institutional environment, reflect the same trends of maintaining the scale of public purchases market. Analysis of the factors influencing on purchases for public use, allows to identify the causes of the government’s interests in expanding of government intervention in the economy and the use of this tool in the development of economic policy. In the paper reviewed the impact of a number of institutional and technological factors such as The Corruption Perceptions Index, government debt, the percentage of water surface area, Gini coefficient, unemployment and Ease of Doing Business Index on public purchases. Assessment of the impact of these factors was carried out on the volume of public purchases in the framework of an international comparison of procurement practices. Justification of the results was suggested in terms of the existing approaches to macroeconomic policy.

  12. The 4th international comparison on EPR dosimetry with tooth enamel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fattibene, P., E-mail: paola.fattibene@iss.it [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Department of Technology and Health, Viale Regina Elena 299, I-00162 Rome (Italy); Wieser, A. [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Neuherberg D-85764 (Germany); Adolfsson, E. [Linkoeping University, SE-58185 Linkoeping (Sweden); Benevides, L.A. [Naval Dosimetry Center, Bethesda MD 20889-5600 (United States); Brai, M. [University of Palermo, I-90128 Palermo (Italy); Callens, F. [Ghent University, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Chumak, V. [Research Center for Radiation Medicine AMS, 04050 Kiev (Ukraine); Ciesielski, B. [Medical University of Gdansk, 80-211 Gdansk (Poland); Della Monaca, S. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Department of Technology and Health, Viale Regina Elena 299, I-00162 Rome (Italy); Regina Elena Institute, I-00144 Rome (Italy); Emerich, K. [Medical University of Gdansk, 80-211 Gdansk (Poland); Department of Paediatric Dentistry, 80-208 Gdansk (Poland); Gustafsson, H. [Linkoeping University, SE-58185 Linkoeping (Sweden); Hirai, Y. [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 732-0815 (Japan); Hoshi, M. [Hiroshima University, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8553 (Japan); Israelsson, A. [Linkoeping University, SE-58185 Linkoeping (Sweden); Ivannikov, A. [Medical Radiological Research Center, Obninsk, Kaluga region (Russian Federation); Ivanov, D. [Institute of Metal Physics, Yekaterinburg 620041 (Russian Federation); Kaminska, J. [Medical University of Gdansk, 80-211 Gdansk (Poland); Ke, Wu [Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing 100850 (China); Lund, E. [Linkoeping University, SE-58185 Linkoeping (Sweden); Marrale, M. [University of Palermo, I-90128 Palermo (Italy)

    2011-09-15

    This paper presents the results of the 4th International Comparison of in vitro electron paramagnetic resonance dosimetry with tooth enamel, where the performance parameters of tooth enamel dosimetry methods were compared among sixteen laboratories from all over the world. The participating laboratories were asked to determine a calibration curve with a set of tooth enamel powder samples provided by the organizers. Nine molar teeth extracted following medical indication from German donors and collected between 1997 and 2007 were prepared and irradiated at the Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen. Five out of six samples were irradiated at 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 Gy air kerma; and one unirradiated sample was kept as control. The doses delivered to the individual samples were unknown to the participants, who were asked to measure each sample nine times, and to report the EPR signal response, the mass of aliquots measured, and the parameters of EPR signal acquisition and signal evaluation. Critical dose and detection limit were calculated by the organizers on the basis of the calibration-curve parameters obtained at every laboratory. For calibration curves obtained by measuring every calibration sample three times, the mean value of the detection limit was 205 mGy, ranging from 56 to 649 mGy. The participants were also invited to provide the signal response and the nominal dose of their current dose calibration curve (wherever available), the critical dose and detection limit of which were also calculated by the organizers.

  13. Fostering a renewable energy technology industry: an international comparison of wind industry policy support mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, J.I.; Wiser, R.H.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the importance of national and sub-national policies in supporting the development of successful global wind turbine manufacturing companies. We explore the motivations behind establishing a local wind power industry, and the paths that different countries have taken to develop indigenous large wind turbine manufacturing industries within their borders. This is done through a cross-country comparison of the policy support mechanisms that have been employed to directly and indirectly promote wind technology manufacturing in 12 countries. We find that in many instances there is a clear relationship between a manufacturer's success in its home country market and its eventual success in the global wind power market. Whether new wind turbine manufacturing entrants are able to succeed will likely depend in part on the utilization of their turbines in their own domestic market, which is turn will be influenced by the annual size and stability of that market. Consequently, policies that support a sizable, stable market for wind power, in conjunction with policies that specifically provide incentives for wind power technology to be manufactured locally, are most likely to result in the establishment of an internationally competitive wind industry. (author)

  14. Fostering a renewable energy technology industry: An international comparison of wind industry policy support mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, Joanna I.; Wiser, Ryan H.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the importance of national and sub-national policies in supporting the development of successful global wind turbine manufacturing companies. We explore the motivations behind establishing a local wind power industry, and the paths that different countries have taken to develop indigenous large wind turbine manufacturing industries within their borders. This is done through a cross-country comparison of the policy support mechanisms that have been employed to directly and indirectly promote wind technology manufacturing in 12 countries. We find that in many instances there is a clear relationship between a manufacturer's success in its home country market and its eventual success in the global wind power market. Whether new wind turbine manufacturing entrants are able to succeed will likely depend in part on the utilization of their turbines in their own domestic market, which in turn will be influenced by the annual size and stability of that market. Consequently, policies that support a sizable, stable market for wind power, in conjunction with policies that specifically provide incentives for wind power technology to be manufactured locally, are most likely to result in the establishment of an internationally competitive wind industry

  15. An International Comparison of Tax Assistance for Research and Development: Estimates and Policy Implication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Lester

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Business spending on research and development (R&D is generally recognized as a private activity providing broader economic benefits that justify government support. But subsidizing R&D has costs as well as benefits, and governments need to exercise judgement to ensure that subsidies are set at a level that results in a net economic benefit for society as a whole, not just for the recipients of the assistance. A key finding of the international comparison undertaken in this paper is that Canada and nine other of the 36 countries in the comparison group are providing R&D subsidies that are likely too high to generate a net economic benefit. Subsidy rates in this group of countries range from 25 to 45 per cent. The risk of excessive subsidization is confined to small firms in Canada, which receive a subsidy of almost 41 per cent through the tax system. Canada’s subsidy rate for small firms is the third highest, behind Chile and France. Other countries providing subsidy rates close to 40 per cent are Spain and India. This paper also assesses several design features of tax assistance measures, including enhanced benefits for small and young firms, refundability of benefits and incentives based on increases in R&D spending above a base level. While the best policy for R&D subsidies may be a uniform rate for all businesses regardless of age or size, the case for favouring young firms is somewhat stronger than for favouring all small firms. Focusing on young firms avoids providing benefits to small firms that are not growth-oriented; but, it is difficult to design a program that can be completely restricted to young firms since entrepreneurs would have an incentive to create new firms to avoid losing higher benefits. Even with this “leakage”, however, an age-dependent incentive could be more cost-effective than size-dependent enhanced benefits. There is a particularly strong case for providing refundability to young firms, which are unlikely to

  16. First results from the International Urban Energy Balance Model Comparison: Model Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackett, M.; Grimmond, S.; Best, M.

    2009-04-01

    A great variety of urban energy balance models has been developed. These vary in complexity from simple schemes that represent the city as a slab, through those which model various facets (i.e. road, walls and roof) to more complex urban forms (including street canyons with intersections) and features (such as vegetation cover and anthropogenic heat fluxes). Some schemes also incorporate detailed representations of momentum and energy fluxes distributed throughout various layers of the urban canopy layer. The models each differ in the parameters they require to describe the site and the in demands they make on computational processing power. Many of these models have been evaluated using observational datasets but to date, no controlled comparisons have been conducted. Urban surface energy balance models provide a means to predict the energy exchange processes which influence factors such as urban temperature, humidity, atmospheric stability and winds. These all need to be modelled accurately to capture features such as the urban heat island effect and to provide key information for dispersion and air quality modelling. A comparison of the various models available will assist in improving current and future models and will assist in formulating research priorities for future observational campaigns within urban areas. In this presentation we will summarise the initial results of this international urban energy balance model comparison. In particular, the relative performance of the models involved will be compared based on their degree of complexity. These results will inform us on ways in which we can improve the modelling of air quality within, and climate impacts of, global megacities. The methodology employed in conducting this comparison followed that used in PILPS (the Project for Intercomparison of Land-Surface Parameterization Schemes) which is also endorsed by the GEWEX Global Land Atmosphere System Study (GLASS) panel. In all cases, models were run

  17. International Comparison of Water Resources Utilization Efficiency in the Silk Road Economic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Long; Ma, Jing; Deng, Wei; Wang, Yong

    2018-03-01

    In order to get knowledge of the standard of water utilization of the Silk Road Economic Belt from international point of view, the paper analyzes the annual variation of water resources utilization in the Silk Road Economic Belt, and compares with other typical countries. The study shows that Water resources utilization efficiency has been greatly improved in recent 20 years and the water consumption per USD 10000 of GDP has been declined 87.97%. the improvement of industrial water consumption efficiency is the key driving factors for substantial decrease in water consumption.The comparison of water utilization and human development shows that the higher HDI the country is, the more efficient water utilization the country has. water consumption per USD 10000 of GDP in country with HDI>0.9 is 194m³, being 8.5% of that in country with HDI from 0.5 to 0.6. On the premise of maintaining the stable economic and social development of the Silk Road Economic Belt, the realization of the control target of total water consumption must depend on the strict control over the disorderly expansion of irrigated area, the change in the mode of economic growth, the implementation of the development strategy for new industrialization and urbanization, vigorous development of the processing industry with low water consumption as well as the high-tech and high value-added industry. Only in this way, the control target of total water consumption can be realized in the process of completing the industrialization task.

  18. An international comparison of stakeholder motivation to implement liver cancer control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, John F P; Joy, Susan M; Blauvelt, Barri M; Yan, Weili; Marsteller, Jill A

    2015-06-01

    The World Health Organization offers clear guidance on the development of national cancer control programmes based on a country's level of resources, yet the motivation to implement such programmes may be driven by factors other than resources. To compare stakeholder motivation to implement a national liver cancer control programme and assess if variation in motivation was associated with stakeholder characteristics or with national indicators of need and resources. Relevant stakeholders were purposively selected from 13 countries (Australia, China, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Nigeria, South Korea, Spain, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey and USA) to participate in a structured survey on liver cancer control. Respondents included 12 individuals working in clinical, 5 in policy and 3 in advocacy roles from each country. Stakeholders' motivation was measured using a scale grounded in expectancy theory and knowledge gained during previous qualitative interviews. Comparisons across countries and respondent characteristics were conducted using hierarchical regression. Country level motivation scores, holding constant individual level covariates, were correlated with indicators of need and resources and tested using Pearson's correlation coefficients. In total, 260 stakeholders, equally drawn from the study countries, completed the survey (45% response rate). At the national level, motivation was highest in Nigeria, Thailand and China (P motivation was observed among stakeholders working at the international level relative to the local level (P = 0.017). Motivation was positively associated with a country's relative burden of liver cancer (P = 0.015) and negatively associated with their level of resources (P = 0.018). This study provides the first empirical evidence on the motivation of stakeholders to implement national cancer control programmes. Furthermore, we demonstrate that motivation is more clearly associated with a country's cancer control needs rather than resources

  19. What can we learn from international comparisons of costs by DRG?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirson, M; Schenker, L; Martins, D; Dung, Duong; Chalé, J J; Leclercq, P

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this study was to compare costs data by diagnosis related group (DRG) between Belgium and Switzerland. Our hypotheses were that differences between countries can probably be explained by methodological differences in cost calculations, by differences in medical practices and by differences in cost structures within the two countries. Classifications of DRG used in the two countries differ (AP-DRGs version 1.7 in Switzerland and APR-DRGs version 15.0 in Belgium). The first step of this study was to transform Belgian summaries into Swiss AP-DRGs. Belgian and Swiss data were calculated with a clinical costing methodology (full costing). Belgian and Swiss costs were converted into US$ PPP (purchasing power parity) in order to neutralize differences in purchasing power between countries. The results of this study showed higher costs in Switzerland despite standardization of cost data according to PPP. The difference is not explained by the case-mix index because this was similar for inliers between the two countries. The length of stay (LOS) was also quite similar for inliers between the two countries. The case-mix index was, however, higher for high outliers in Belgium, as reflected in a higher LOS for these patients. Higher costs in Switzerland are thus probably explained mainly by the higher number of agency staff by service in this country or because of differences in medical practices. It is possible to make international comparisons but only if there is standardization of the case-mix between countries and only if comparable accountancy methodologies are used. Harmonization of DRGs groups, nomenclature and accountancy is thus required.

  20. Relative productivity levels, 1947-1973: an international comparison. [US and eight major trading partners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, L.R. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison); Cummings, D.; Jorgenson, D.W.

    1981-05-01

    This paper provides an international comparison of levels of output, input, and productivity for the US and 8 of its major trading partners - Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom. It first compares levels of output per capita in 1970 and allocates differences in these levels among differences in levels of capital and labor input per capita and differences in total factor productivity. Output per capita relative to the US in 1970 varied from 0.101 for Korea to 0.811 for Canada. For the industrialized countries except Canada, the range was from 0.460 for Italy to 0.721 for Germany. Variations in capital input per capita relative to the US were greater than for output, running from 0.082 for Korea to 0.920 for Canada. Again, excluding Canada, the range for industrialized countries was from 0.325 for Japan to 0.709 for Germany. Differences between levels of total factor productivity in the US and the eight remaining countries in 1970 were much smaller than differences in output per capita. Secondly, relative levels of output, input, and productivity are compared among all 9 countries for the period 1947 to 1973. The time-series results show that relative levels of output per capita between the US and its 8 trading partners have narrowed substantially during the postwar period. Levels of capital per capita have also narrowed throughout the postwar period for all countries relative to the US. Finally, relative productivity levels between the US and its major trading partners have narrowed substantially over the postwar period. For the 7 industrialized countries relative productivity levels in 1973 fell within the narrow range of 0.775 for the United Kingdom to 0.907 for Canada. For Korea the productivity gap remained very substantial; its level relative to the United States was 0.348. 46 references, 14 tables.

  1. A Comparison of Internal Dispositions and Career Trajectories after Collaborative versus Apprenticed Research Experiences for Undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantz, Kyle J; Demetrikopoulos, Melissa K; Britner, Shari L; Carruth, Laura L; Williams, Brian A; Pecore, John L; DeHaan, Robert L; Goode, Christopher T

    2017-01-01

    Undergraduate research experiences confer benefits on students bound for science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) careers, but the low number of research professionals available to serve as mentors often limits access to research. Within the context of our summer research program (BRAIN), we tested the hypothesis that a team-based collaborative learning model (CLM) produces student outcomes at least as positive as a traditional apprenticeship model (AM). Through stratified, random assignment to conditions, CLM students were designated to work together in a teaching laboratory to conduct research according to a defined curriculum led by several instructors, whereas AM students were paired with mentors in active research groups. We used pre-, mid-, and postprogram surveys to measure internal dispositions reported to predict progress toward STEM careers, such as scientific research self-efficacy, science identity, science anxiety, and commitment to a science career. We are also tracking long-term retention in science-related career paths. For both short- and longer-term outcomes, the two program formats produced similar benefits, supporting our hypothesis that the CLM provides positive outcomes while conserving resources, such as faculty mentors. We discuss this method in comparison with course-based undergraduate research and recommend its expansion to institutional settings in which mentor resources are scarce. © 2017 K. J. Frantz et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2017 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  2. Towards valid 'serious non-fatal injury' indicators for international comparisons based on probability of admission estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cryer, Colin; Miller, Ted R; Lyons, Ronan A

    2017-01-01

    in regions of Canada, Denmark, Greece, Spain and the USA. International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-9 or ICD-10 4-digit/character injury diagnosis-specific ED attendance and inpatient admission counts were provided, based on a common protocol. Diagnosis-specific and region-specific PrAs with 95% CIs...... diagnoses with high estimated PrAs. These diagnoses can be used as the basis for more valid international comparisons of life-threatening injury, based on hospital discharge data, for countries with well-developed healthcare and data collection systems....

  3. Results of an international comparison for the determination of radionuclide activity in bilberry material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wätjen, U.; Altzitzoglou, T.; Ceccatelli, A.; Dikmen, H.; Emteborg, H.; Ferreux, L.; Frechou, C.; La Rosa, J.; Luca, A.; Moreno, Y.; Oropesa, P.; Pierre, S.; Schmiedel, M.

    2012-01-01

    Radioactivity found in wild food products has assumed greater importance when assessing the total exposure of the population. For this reason, IRMM has been developing a reference material for the activity concentration of three radionuclides in bilberry samples. In order to characterise this new material, a CCRI(II) supplementary comparison was organised. The difficulties encountered in this comparison are discussed, in particular the efficiency calibration for volume sources of gamma-ray emitters, and comparison reference values for 137 Cs and 40 K are calculated. - Highlights: ► CCRI(II) supplementary comparison for Cs-137 and K-40 in bilberry matrix completed. ► Fundamentally different methods used to establish link to SI traceable standards and SIR. ► Variation of results higher than in CCRI(II) key comparisons. ► Comparison reference values will be robust property values of IRMM reference material. ► Certified reference material for radioactivity in food developed.

  4. Internal audit function: a comparison between private and public sector in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madawaki Abdulkadir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the internal audit functions between private and the public sector. Features examined include hierarchical rank of internal audit function, internal audit transfer, outsourcing of internal audit services and working relationship of internal audit with external auditor. The study is based on a survey of internal audit managers and chief internal auditors in private and public sector entities in Nigeria. The results revealed that there is no much difference in hierarchical rank of internal audit function in both sectors. While the results showed that differences exist in the reporting status between internal audit in the two sectors with private sector internal audit reporting to audit committee and chief executive officer and public sector internal audit reporting to chief executive officer and chief financial officer. Almost a similar amount of work is outsourced, and private sector entities are more likely to outsource than those in public sector. There is slight difference between internal audit activities and interaction with external auditor in the two sectors with private sector more likely to coordinate in the area of access to audit working papers.

  5. Comparison of cold-knife optical internal urethrotomy and holmium:YAG laser internal urethrotomy in bulbar urethral strictures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenice, Mustafa Gurkan; Sam, Emre; Colakoglu, Yunus; Atar, Feyzi Arda; Sahin, Selcuk; Simsek, Abdulmuttalip; Tugcu, Volkan

    2017-01-01

    Introduction To compare the results of cold-knife optical internal urethrotomy (OIU) and Holmium:YAG laser internal urethrotomy (HIU) in primary bulbar urethral strictures. Material and methods A total of 63 patients diagnosed with primary bulbar urethral stricture between August 2014 and September 2015 were assigned to the OIU (n = 29) and HIU (n = 34) groups. The demographic variables, biochemistry panels, and preoperative and postoperative uroflowmetry results including the maximum flow rate (Qmax) and mean flow rate (Qmean) values, retrograde urethrography, and diagnostic flexible urethroscopy findings were recorded prospectively. Demographic features and preoperative values were not statistically different between groups (p >0.05). Mean surgical times were 18.4 ±2.3 min for OIU and 21.9 ±3.8 min for HIU groups, which was statistically significant (p 0.05). There was no recurrence in the first 3 months in either group. The urethral stricture recurrence rate up to month 12 was not statistically significant for the OIU group (n = 6, 20.7%) as compared to the HIU group (n = 11, 32.4%; p = 0.299). At follow-up, the SFR and IFR was 96% and 88% at 3-months, and 82% and 71% at 12-months, respectively (p method to OIU, and it has similar success rates in the treatment of short segment bulbar urethral strictures. PMID:29732217

  6. Universal neonatal hearing screening program in Shanghai, China: An inter-regional and international comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xingang; Li, Xi; Zhang, Qi; Wan, Jin; Sun, Mei; Chang, Fengshui; Lü, Jun; Chen, Gang

    2016-11-01

    By comparing the Universal Neonatal Hearing Screening (UNHS) program as implemented in Shanghai and other regions in China and countries around the world, this study makes an assessment of the Shanghai model and summarizes the experiences implementing the UNHS program, so as to provide a valuable reference for other countries or regions to carry out UNHS more effectively. Since Shanghai is one of the most developed regions in China, we also examined the relationship between economic development and the UNHS starting year and coverage rate. The study conducted a systematic review of published studies in Chinese and English on the program status of neonatal hearing screening to compare and analyze the implementation of the UNHS program in 20 cities or provinces in China and 24 regions or countries around the world. The literature search in Chinese was conducted in the three most authoritative publication databases, CNKI (China National Knowledge Infrastructure), WANFANGDATA, and CQVIP (http://www.cqvip.com/). We searched all publications in those databases with the keywords "neonatal hearing screening" (in Chinese) between 2005 and 2014. English literature was searched using the same keywords (in English). The publication database included Medline and Web of Science, and the search time period was 2000-2014. Shanghai was one of the first regions in China to implement UNHS, and its coverage rate was among the top regions by international comparison. The starting time of the UNHS program had no relationship with the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita in the same year. Economic level serves as a threshold for carrying out UNHS but is not a linear contributor to the exact starting time of such a program. The screening coverage rate generally showed a rising trend with the increasing GDP per capita in China, but it had no relationship with the area's GDP per capita in selected regions and countries around the world. The system design of UNHS is the key factor

  7. Comparison of risk scoring systems for patients presenting with upper gastrointestinal bleeding: international multicentre prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Adrian J; Laine, Loren; Dalton, Harry R; Ngu, Jing H; Schultz, Michael; Abazi, Roseta; Zakko, Liam; Thornton, Susan; Wilkinson, Kelly; Khor, Cristopher J L; Murray, Iain A; Laursen, Stig B

    2017-01-04

     To compare the predictive accuracy and clinical utility of five risk scoring systems in the assessment of patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding.  International multicentre prospective study.  Six large hospitals in Europe, North America, Asia, and Oceania.  3012 consecutive patients presenting over 12 months with upper gastrointestinal bleeding.  Comparison of pre-endoscopy scores (admission Rockall, AIMS65, and Glasgow Blatchford) and post-endoscopy scores (full Rockall and PNED) for their ability to predict predefined clinical endpoints: a composite endpoint (transfusion, endoscopic treatment, interventional radiology, surgery, or 30 day mortality), endoscopic treatment, 30 day mortality, rebleeding, and length of hospital stay. Optimum score thresholds to identify low risk and high risk patients were determined.  The Glasgow Blatchford score was best (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) 0.86) at predicting intervention or death compared with the full Rockall score (0.70), PNED score (0.69), admission Rockall score (0.66, and AIMS65 score (0.68) (all P<0.001). A Glasgow Blatchford score of ≤1 was the optimum threshold to predict survival without intervention (sensitivity 98.6%, specificity 34.6%). The Glasgow Blatchford score was better at predicting endoscopic treatment (AUROC 0.75) than the AIMS65 (0.62) and admission Rockall scores (0.61) (both P<0.001). A Glasgow Blatchford score of ≥7 was the optimum threshold to predict endoscopic treatment (sensitivity 80%, specificity 57%). The PNED (AUROC 0.77) and AIMS65 scores (0.77) were best at predicting mortality, with both superior to admission Rockall score (0.72) and Glasgow Blatchford score (0.64; P<0.001). Score thresholds of ≥4 for PNED, ≥2 for AIMS65, ≥4 for admission Rockall, and ≥5 for full Rockall were optimal at predicting death, with sensitivities of 65.8-78.6% and specificities of 65.0-65.3%. No score was helpful at predicting rebleeding or length

  8. International comparison of comparative effectiveness research in five jurisdictions: insights for the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Adrian R; Mitton, Craig; Johnston, Karissa M; Harrigan, Brian; Briggs, Andrew H

    2010-01-01

    ' interests, in that the turn-around time for assessments must be minimized, transparency must be maximized, the process must be considered fair using universally agreed standards and the process must be modifiable based on stakeholders' requirements; (ii) the assessment of medical technologies other than drugs may present different challenges and is managed separately in other HTA organizations; (iii) because of the link between HTA and reimbursement decisions, completion of the HTA process following regulatory approval can delay market access to new technologies, thus closer integration between regulatory approval and HTA processes is being explored internationally; (iv) there is a direct or indirect link to reimbursement in the jurisdictions explored - without this link the role of CER in the US will remain advisory; (v) each jurisdiction reviewed benefits from a single payer that is informed by the process - given the diverse multipayer environment in the US, CER in the US may usefully focus on generating comparative effectiveness evidence; (vi) a common metric for assessing intended and unintended effects of treatment allows comparison across different technologies; and (vii) one stated focus of CER is on therapeutic benefit among 'high-priority populations', including specific demographic groups (the elderly and children, racial and ethnic minorities) and individuals with disabilities, multiple chronic conditions and specific genomic factors. This will be difficult to achieve because epidemiological evidence of differences in therapeutic benefit among subgroups is detected through effect modification, or more specifically, statistical evidence of effect measure modification, typically on relative measures of effect. Few randomized trials have enough power to detect effect modification and these have been uncommon in the scientific literature. As consideration is given to the development of a publicly funded CER body in the US, much can be learned from the international

  9. Sharing hydrological knowledge: an international comparison of hydrological models in the Meuse River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouaziz, Laurène; Sperna Weiland, Frederiek; Drogue, Gilles; Brauer, Claudia; Weerts, Albrecht

    2015-04-01

    International collaboration between institutes and universities working and studying the same transboundary basin is needed for consensus building around possible effects of climate change and climate adaptation measures. Education, experience and expert knowledge of the hydrological community have resulted in the development of a great variety of model concepts, calibration and analysis techniques. Intercomparison could be a first step into consensus modeling or an ensemble based modeling strategy. Besides these practical objectives, such an intercomparison offers the opportunity to explore different ranges of models and learn from each other, hopefully increasing the insight into the hydrological processes that play a role in the transboundary basin. In this experiment, different international research groups applied their rainfall-runoff model in the Ourthe, a Belgium sub-catchment of the Meuse. Data preparation involved the interpolation of hourly precipitation station data collected and owned by the Service Public de Wallonie1 and the freely available E-OBS dataset for daily temperature (Haylock et al., 2008). Daily temperature was disaggregated to hourly values and potential evaporation was derived with the Hargreaves formula. The data was made available to the researchers through an FTP server. The protocol for the modeling involved a split-sample calibration and validation for pre-defined periods. Objective functions for calibration were fixed but the calibration algorithm was a free choice of the research groups. The selection of calibration algorithm was considered model dependent because lumped as well as computationally less efficient distributed models were used. For each model, an ensemble of best performing parameter sets was selected and several performance metrics enabled to assess the models' abilities to simulate discharge. The aim of this experiment is to identify those model components and structures that increase model performance and may best

  10. Comparison of Outcomes of Operatively Treated Bicondylar Tibial Plateau Fractures by External Fixation and Internal Fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CC Chan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The outcome of bicondylar tibial plateau fractures treated with either external fixation (35 patients or internal fixation (24 patients was reviewed. Outcome measures included the Rasmussen score, clinical complications, development of osteoarthritis and the requirement for total knee replacement (TKR. Twenty-two (92% anatomical reductions were achieved in the internal fixation group compared to 27 (77% in the external fixation group. Infective complications were more common in the external fixation group (9 patients, 26% due to pin tract infection. There were no deep infections in the internal fixation group. The mean Rasmussen score was not significantly different (mean score 32 in external fixation and 29 in internal fixation between the two groups and the incidence of osteoarthritis was the same in both groups. Four patients in the external fixation group underwent a TKR compared to 5 patients in the internal fixation group. Bicondylar tibial plateau fractures have similar outcomes following external or internal fixation.

  11. Ultrasound comparison of external and internal neck anatomy with the LMA Unique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Steven M; Wojtczak, Jacek A; Cattano, Davide

    2017-12-01

    Internal neck anatomy landmarks and their relation after placement of an extraglottic airway devices have not been studied extensively by the use of ultrasound. Based on our group experience with external landmarks as well as internal landmarks evaluation with other techniques, we aimed use ultrasound to analyze the internal neck anatomy landmarks and the related changes due to the placement of the Laryngeal Mask Airway Unique. Observational pilot investigation. Non-obese adult patients with no evidence of airway anomalies, were recruited. External neck landmarks were measured based on a validated and standardized method by tape. Eight internal anatomical landmarks, reciprocal by the investigational hypothesis to the external landmarks, were also measured by ultrasound guidance. The internal landmarks were re-measured after optimal placement and inflation of the extraglottic airway devices cuff Laryngeal Mask Airway Unique. Six subjects were recruited. Ultrasound measurements of hyoid-mental distance, thyroid-cricoid distance, thyroid height, and thyroid width were found to be significantly ( p internal neck anatomy. The induced changes and respective specific internal neck anatomy landmarks could help to design devices that would modify their shape accordingly to areas of greatest displacement. Also, while external neck landmark measurements overestimate their respective internal neck landmarks, as we previously reported, the concordance of each measurement and their respective conversion factor could continue to be of help in sizing extraglottic airway devices. Due to the pilot nature of the study, more investigations are warranted.

  12. A comparison of internal versus external risk-adjustment for monitoring clinical outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetsier, Antonie; de Keizer, Nicolette; Peek, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Internal and external prognostic models can be used to calculate severity of illness adjusted mortality risks. However, it is unclear what the consequences are of using an external model instead of an internal model when monitoring an institution's clinical performance. Theoretically, using an

  13. Absolute determination of 75Se for international comparison of activity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iglicki, F.A.; Arenillas, P.A.; Furnari, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    An international intercomparison of absolute activity measurements of a solution of Se-75, organized by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, France, in 1992, has been carried out. The methodology and results are presented. Source preparation, experimental techniques and measurement system are described. (author). 2 refs

  14. International Test Score Comparisons and Educational Policy: A Review of the Critiques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnoy, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Stanford education professor Martin Carnoy examines four main critiques of how international test results are used in policymaking. Of particular interest are critiques of the policy analyses published by the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA). Using average PISA scores as a comparative measure of student achievement is misleading…

  15. International Students' Motivation and Learning Approach: A Comparison with Local Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chue, Kah Loong; Nie, Youyan

    2016-01-01

    Psychological factors contribute to motivation and learning for international students as much as teaching strategies. 254 international students and 144 local students enrolled in a private education institute were surveyed regarding their perception of psychological needs support, their motivation and learning approach. The results from this…

  16. Advancing the Use of Passive Sampling in Risk Assessment and Management of Sediments Contaminated with Hydrophobic Organic Chemicals: Results of an International Ex Situ Passive Sampling Interlaboratory Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    This work presents the results of an international interlaboratory comparison on ex situ passive sampling in sediments. The main objectives were to map the state of the science in passively sampling sediments, identify sources of variability, provide recommendations and practica...

  17. Comparison and Interpretation Report of the OECD International Standard Problem No. 45 - Exercise (QUENCH-06)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hering, W.; Homann, Ch.; Lamy, J.S.; Miassoedov, A.; Schanz, G.; Sepold, L.; Steinbrueck, M.

    2002-10-01

    The International Standard Problem (ISP) No. 45 is part of the overall ISP program of the OECD/NEA and is dedicated to the behavior of heat-up and delayed reflood of fuel elements in nuclear reactors during a hypothetical accident. ISP-45 is related to the out-of-pile bundle quench experiment QUENCH-06, performed at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (FZK), Germany, on December 13, 2000. Special attention was paid to hydrogen production. To assess the ability of severe accident codes to simulate processes during core heat-up and reflood at temperatures above 2000 K, the behavior of the bundle during the whole experiment should be calculated on the basis of the necessary experimental initial and boundary conditions, but without knowing further experimental details. In this so-called blind phase 21 participants from 15 nations contributed with 8 different code systems (ATHLET-CD, ICARE/CATHARE, IMPACT/SAMPSON, GENFLO, MAAP, MELCOR, SCDAPSIM, SCDAP-3D). Additionally, posttest calculations using the in-house version SCDAP/RELAP5 mod3.2.irs are used for comparison. After the end of the blind phase all measured data were made available and the participants were invited to deliver a second calculation, where this knowledge could be used (so-called open phase). In this report, results of the blind calculations are presented, analyzed, and compared to experimental data. During heat-up most results do not deviate significantly from one another, except as a consequence of some obvious user errors, so that a definition of a mainstream is justified. For the quench phase the lack of adequate hydraulic modeling becomes obvious: some participants could not match the observed cool-down rates, others had to use very fine meshes to compensate code deficiencies. To overcome this insufficiency some newly developed reflood models were used in MAAP and MELCOR. In QUENCH-06, oxide layers were thick enough to protect the cladding from melting and failure below 2200 K, so that no massive hydrogen

  18. Determination of lead in red wine for CCQM-K30 international comparison by using ID-ICPMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Tao; Wang Jun; Lu Hai; Zhao Motian

    2007-01-01

    The content of lead in red wine for CCQM-K30 international key comparison is determined by using isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS). This test almost reach detect limit of the method because the content of lead in red wine was only 3 ng/g and the procedure blank was about 0.3 ng. The comparison results indicate that it is easy to achieve agreements using IDMS. In uncertainty analysis, all of the factors about IDMS method were considered. But, procedure blank took great inference to experiment precision and enlarged the total uncertainty. Therefore the controls of procedure blank were very important for the analysis of ultra-trace concentration of samples. (authors)

  19. Principles for social impact assessment: A critical comparison between the international and US documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanclay, Frank

    2006-01-01

    The 'International Principles for Social Impact Assessment' and the 'Principles and Guidelines for Social Impact Assessment in the USA', both developed under the auspices of the International Association for Impact Assessment and published in 2003, are compared. Major differences in the definition and approach to social impact assessment (SIA) are identified. The US Principles and Guidelines is shown to be positivist/technocratic while the International Principles is identified as being democratic, participatory and constructivist. Deficiencies in both documents are identified. The field of SIA is changing to go beyond the prevention of negative impacts, to include issues of building social capital, capacity building, good governance, community engagement and social inclusion

  20. Comparison of internal friction in high Tc superconductors and CuO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gzowski, O.; Davoli, I.; Stizza, S.; Mancini, G.; Kusz, B.; Barczynski, R.; Gazda, M.; Sadowski, W.; Murawski, L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the internal friction and shielding effect in CuO, superconducting yttrium and bismuth ceramics and yttrium monocrystal that have been measured. Several features, some of them common for all specimens, have been found

  1. Recommendations for international gambling harm-minimisation guidelines: comparison with effective public health policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gainsbury, Sally M.; Blankers, Matthijs; Wilkinson, Claire; Schelleman-Offermans, Karen; Cousijn, Janna

    2014-01-01

    Problem gambling represents a significant public health problem, however, research on effective gambling harm-minimisation measures lags behind other fields, including other addictive disorders. In recognition of the need for consistency between international jurisdictions and the importance of

  2. Recommendations for international gambling harm-minimisation guidelines : comparison with effective public health policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gainsbury, Sally M; Blankers, Matthijs; Wilkinson, Claire; Schelleman-Offermans, Karen; Cousijn, Janna

    2014-01-01

    Problem gambling represents a significant public health problem, however, research on effective gambling harm-minimisation measures lags behind other fields, including other addictive disorders. In recognition of the need for consistency between international jurisdictions and the importance of

  3. International comparison on radioactive releases of PWR between 1975 and 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedittini, M.; Tabare, M.

    1990-02-01

    This report presents the main results of a comparison on radioactive releases from 135 PWRs in the following countries: Belgium, Federal Republic of Germany, Finland, France, Japan, Sweden, Switzerland and the United States. For liquid releases, distinctions have been undertaken between tritium and no tritium activities and for gaseous releases between noble gases and halogens-aerosols. Data has been collected from literature published or by contacting utilities administrative staff or authorities in order to constitute a data base. As regards this comparison however, reactors, the commercial operation of which started prior to July 1974, have been excluded [fr

  4. Comparison of different chemical kinetic mechanisms of methane combustion in an internal combustion engine configuration

    OpenAIRE

    Ennetta Ridha; Hamdi Mohamed; Said Rachid

    2008-01-01

    Three chemical kinetic mechanisms of methane combustion were tested and compared using the internal combustion engine model of Chemkin 4.02 [1]: one-step global reaction mechanism, four-step mechanism, and the standard detailed scheme GRIMECH 3.0. This study shows good concordances, especially between the four-step and the detailed mechanisms in the prediction of temperature and main species profiles. But reduced schemes were incapables to predict pollutant emissions in an internal combustion...

  5. Ultrasound comparison of external and internal neck anatomy with the LMA Unique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M. Lee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Internal neck anatomy landmarks and their relation after placement of an extraglottic airway devices have not been studied extensively by the use of ultrasound. Based on our group experience with external landmarks as well as internal landmarks evaluation with other techniques, we aimed use ultrasound to analyze the internal neck anatomy landmarks and the related changes due to the placement of the Laryngeal Mask Airway Unique. Methods: Observational pilot investigation. Non-obese adult patients with no evidence of airway anomalies, were recruited. External neck landmarks were measured based on a validated and standardized method by tape. Eight internal anatomical landmarks, reciprocal by the investigational hypothesis to the external landmarks, were also measured by ultrasound guidance. The internal landmarks were re-measured after optimal placement and inflation of the extraglottic airway devices cuff Laryngeal Mask Airway Unique. Results: Six subjects were recruited. Ultrasound measurements of hyoid-mental distance, thyroid-cricoid distance, thyroid height, and thyroid width were found to be significantly (p < 0.05 overestimated using a tape measure. Sagittal neck landmark distances such as thyroid height, sternal-mental distance, and thyroid-cricoid distance significantly decreased after placement of the Laryngeal Mask Airway Unique. Conclusion: The laryngeal mask airway Unique resulted in significant changes in internal neck anatomy. The induced changes and respective specific internal neck anatomy landmarks could help to design devices that would modify their shape accordingly to areas of greatest displacement. Also, while external neck landmark measurements overestimate their respective internal neck landmarks, as we previously reported, the concordance of each measurement and their respective conversion factor could continue to be of help in sizing extraglottic airway devices. Due to the pilot nature of the study, more

  6. The gender pay gap in Europe: an international comparison with matched employer-employee data

    OpenAIRE

    Simón Pérez, Hipólito J.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the origin of the gender wage gap and of its cross-country heterogeneity using unique harmonized international matched employer-employee microdata for nine representative European countries. Evidence obtained uncovers that female segregation into low-paying workplaces is by and large an outstanding origin of both the gender pay gap in every European economy and of international differences in its magnitude. Empirical results also suggest that, in contrast with the findings...

  7. An international comparison of models and approaches for the estimation of the radiological exposure of non-human biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beresford, Nicholas A.; Balonov, Mikhail; Beaugelin-Seiller, Karine; Brown, Justin; Copplestone, David; Hingston, Joanne L.; Horyna, Jan; Hosseini, Ali; Howard, Brenda J.; Kamboj, Sunita; Nedveckaite, Tatjana; Olyslaegers, Geert; Sazykina, Tatiana; Vives i Batlle, Jordi; Yankovich, Tamara L.; Yu, Charley

    2008-01-01

    Over the last decade a number of models and approaches have been developed for the estimation of the exposure of non-human biota to ionising radiations. In some countries these are now being used in regulatory assessments. However, to date there has been no attempt to compare the outputs of the different models used. This paper presents the work of the International Atomic Energy Agency's EMRAS Biota Working Group which compares the predictions of a number of such models in model-model and model-data inter-comparisons

  8. International comparison of safety criteria applied to radwaste repositories. Safety aspects of the post-operational phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baltes, B.

    1994-01-01

    There is a generally accepted system of framework safety conditions governing the construction, operation, and post-operational monitoring of radwaste repositories. Although the development of these framework conditions may vary from country to country, the resulting criteria are based on the commonly accepted system of priciples and purposes established for ultimate radioactive waste disposal. The experience accumulated by GRS in the course of the plan approval procedure for the Konrad mine site and the safety-relevant studies performed for the planned Morsleben repository clearly show demand for further development of the safety criteria. In Germany, it is especially the safety criteria and detailed requirements filling the framework safety conditions that need revision and in-depth definition, as well as comparison and harmonisation with internationally applied criteria. These activities will particularly consider the international convention on radioactive waste management currently in preparation under the auspieces of the IAEA. (orig.) [de

  9. Comparison of predictions from internationally recognized assessment models for the transfer of selected radionuclides through terrestrial food chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, F.O.; Bergstroem, U.; Gyllander, C.; Wilkens, A.B.

    1984-01-01

    Six internationally recognized terrestrial food-chain models developed in Sweden, the United States, the United Kingdom, the Federal Republic of Germany, and the International Atomic Energy Agency are compared. This comparison includes the data bases and predictions for the transfer of Co-60, Sr-90, I-131, and Cs-137 into milk, and leafy and nonleafy vegetables from a hypothetical 30-yr continuous rate of atmospheric deposition onto agricultural systems. Model predictions are compared against United Nations summaries of empirical relationships between atmospheric deposition and concentrations in food of Sr-90 and Cs-137. The results of statistical analyses of the effect of parameter uncertainties on model predictions are also included for Sr-90, Cs-137, and I-131. Discrepancies among model predictions vary between factors of 6 and 30. These results reflect differences in model assumptions rather than uncertainties in model parameters

  10. Mind the gap! International Comparisons of Productivity in Services and Goods Production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inklaar, Robert; Timmer, Marcel; van Ark, Bart

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we make a comparison of industry output, inputs and productivity growth and levels between seven advanced economies (Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Netherlands, UK and U.S.). Our industry-level growth accounts make use of input data on labour quantity (hours) and composition

  11. A Comparison of Danish and International Findings on Intergenerational Earnings Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Jens; Azhar, Hussain; D. Munk, Martin

    a comparison with analyses on a Danish register data set. The earnings mobility between fathers/mothers and their sons/daughters is investigated, and shows that the father-son earnings persistence effect is found to be smaller in Denmark, Finland and Sweden than in the United States, but higher than in Norway....

  12. International comparison of economic and technical indexes of nuclear power plant construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majer, P.; Fialova, H.

    1988-01-01

    The comparison of capital costs of the construction of nuclear power plants takes into consideration the following aspects: the delineation of the installation, the determination of costs and their break-down, the impact of the time factor, the conversion of the costs to a comparable unit. Power plants are always compared with roughly the same power capacity, this even when conditions for construction are not fully comparable. Construction costs may be divided into, e.g., pre-construction costs, direct capital costs, indirect capital costs, interest during construction. The time factor is manifest in the duration of construction and in the concrete year of construction for which the comparison is being made. The inflationary rise in prices and interests are increasing capital costs by roughly 5 - 8% per annum. The comparison of costs expressed in different currencies is made either by conversion using the rate of exchange or by comparing the time expended for the construction of the power plant. Various methods of comparison are discussed. (J.B.). 7 refs

  13. Final report on international comparison CCQM-K83: Halocarbons in dry whole air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoderick, George; Guenther, Franklin; Duewer, David; Lee, Jeongsoon; Moon, Dongmin; Lee, Jinbok; Lim, Jeongsik; Seog Kim, Jin

    2014-01-01

    The growing awareness of climate change/global warming and continuing concerns regarding stratospheric ozone depletion will require future measurements and standards for many compounds, in particular halocarbons that are linked to these issues. In order to track and control the emissions of these species globally in the atmosphere, it is necessary to demonstrate measurement equivalence at the highest levels of accuracy for assigned values of standards. This report describes the results of a key comparison for several of the more important halocarbons at atmospheric concentration levels. The comparison includes the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC 12), trichlorofluoromethane (CFC 11), and 1,1,2 trichlorotrifluoroethane (CFC 113); the hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) chlorodifluoromethane (HCFC 22) and 1-chloro-1,1-difluoroethane (HCFC 142b); and the hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) 1,1,1,2 tetrafluoroethane (HFC 134a), all in a dried whole air sample. The objective of this key comparison is to compare the measurement capabilities of the participants for these halocarbons at trace atmospheric levels. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  14. GGDC Productivity Level Database : International Comparisons of Output, Inputs and Productivity at the Industry Level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inklaar, Robert; Timmer, Marcel P.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we introduce the GGDC Productivity Level database. This database provides comparisons of output, inputs and productivity at a detailed industry level for a set of thirty OECD countries. It complements the EU KLEMS growth and productivity accounts by providing comparative levels and

  15. International comparison of systems to determine entitlements to medical specialist care: performance and organizational issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A. Stolk (Elly); A.A. de Bont (Antoinette); M.J. Poley (Marten); S. Jerak (Sonja); M. Stroet (Mary); F.F.H. Rutten (Frans)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractSummary Objective: CVZ has asked us to provide a comparison of criteria and procedures that different countries use to determine entitlements to medical specialist care. This question was asked within the context of the recent introduction of the DBC (diagnosis treatment combinations)

  16. Comparison of implant component fractures in external and internal type: A 12-year retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Yuseung; Koak, Jai-Young; Kim, Seong-Kyun; Lee, Shin-Jae; Heo, Seong-Joo

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the fracture of implant component behavior of external and internal type of implants to suggest directions for successful implant treatment. Data were collected from the clinical records of all patients who received WARANTEC implants at Seoul National University Dental Hospital from February 2002 to January 2014 for 12 years. Total number of implants was 1,289 and an average of 3.2 implants was installed per patient. Information about abutment connection type, implant locations, platform sizes was collected with presence of implant component fractures and their managements. SPSS statistics software (version 24.0, IBM) was used for the statistical analysis. Overall fracture was significantly more frequent in internal type. The most frequently fractured component was abutment in internal type implants, and screw fracture occurred most frequently in external type. Analyzing by fractured components, screw fracture was the most frequent in the maxillary anterior region and the most abutment fracture occurred in the maxillary posterior region and screw fractures occurred more frequently in NP (narrow platform) and abutment fractures occurred more frequently in RP (regular platform). In external type, screw fracture occurred most frequently, especially in the maxillary anterior region, and in internal type, abutment fracture occurred frequently in the posterior region. placement of an external type implant rather than an internal type is recommended for the posterior region where abutment fractures frequently occur.

  17. Comparison of Marginal Bone Loss Between Implants with Internal and External Connections: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios-Garzón, Natalia; Mauri-Obradors, Elisabeth; Roselló-LLabrés, Xavier; Estrugo-Devesa, Albert; Jané-Salas, Enric; López-López, José

    The objective of this systematic review was to compare the loss of marginal bone between implants with internal and external connections by analyzing results reported in studies published after 2010. A literature search in MEDLINE with the keywords "dental implant connections, external internal implant connection, bone loss implant designs, internal and external connection implant studies in humans" was conducted. Clinical trials on human beings, comparing both connections and published in English, from 2010 to 2016 were selected. Their methodologic quality was assessed using the Jadad scale. From the initial search, 415 articles were obtained; 32 were chosen as potentially relevant based on their titles and abstracts. Among them, only 10 finally met the inclusion criteria. A total of 1,523 patients with 3,965 implants were analyzed. Six out of 10 studies observed that internal connections showed significantly less bone loss compared with external connections. The remaining four articles did not find statistically significant differences between the two connections. According to this systematic review and considering its limitation due to the degree of heterogeneity between the included studies, both internal and external connections present high survival rates. To assess whether marginal bone loss differs significantly between the two connections, more homogenous clinical studies are needed with identical implant characteristics, larger samples, and longer follow-up periods. Studies included in this review and characterized by long-term follow-ups showed that the external connection is a reliable connection on a long-term basis.

  18. Comparison of Several Methods for Determining the Internal Resistance of Lithium Ion Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Georg Schweiger

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The internal resistance is the key parameter for determining power, energy efficiency and lost heat of a lithium ion cell. Precise knowledge of this value is vital for designing battery systems for automotive applications. Internal resistance of a cell was determined by current step methods, AC (alternating current methods, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and thermal loss methods. The outcomes of these measurements have been compared with each other. If charge or discharge of the cell is limited, current step methods provide the same results as energy loss methods.

  19. Participation in the international comparison of probabilistic consequence assessment codes organized by OECD/NEA and CEC. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, J.

    1994-02-01

    Probabilistic Consequence Assessment (PCA) methods are exploited not only in risk evaluation but also to study alternative design features, reactor siting recommendations and to obtain acceptable dose criteria by the radiation safety authorities. The models are programmed into computer codes for these kind of assessment. To investigate the quality and competence of different models, OECD/NEA and CEC organized the international code comparison exercise, which was participated by the organizations from 15 countries. There were seven codes participating in the exercise. The objectives of the code comparison exercise were to compare the results by the codes, to contribute to PCA code quality assurance, to harmonize the codes, to provide a forum for discussion on various approaches and to produce the report on the exercise. The project started in 1991 and the results of the calculations were completed in autumn 1992. The international report consists of two parts: the Overview Report for decision makers and the supporting detailed Technical Report. The results of the project are reviewed as an user of the ARANO-programme of VTT and trends of it's further development are indicated in this report. (orig.) (11 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs.)

  20. Comparison of evaluated data for chromium-52, iron-56 and nickel-58 - International Evaluation Co-operation Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, C.Y.; Larson, Duane C.; Hetrick, David M.; Vonach, Herbert; Maino, G.; Menapace, Enzo; Mengoni, I.; Asami, T.; Chiba, Satoshi; Shibata, Keiichi Kanagawa; Iijima, S.; Yamamuro, N.; Kopecky, J.

    1992-01-01

    A Working Party on International Evaluation Co-operation was established under the sponsorship of the OECD/NEA Nuclear Science Committee (NSC) to promote the exchange of information on nuclear data evaluations, validation, and related topics. Its aim is also to provide a framework for co-operative activities between members of the major nuclear data evaluation projects. This includes the possible exchange of scientists in order to encourage co-operation. Requirements for experimental data resulting from this activity are compiled. The Working Party determines common criteria for evaluated nuclear data files with a view to assessing and improving the quality and completeness of evaluated data. The Parties to the project are: ENDF (United States), JEFF/EFF (NEA Data Bank Member countries), and JENDL (Japan). Co-operation with evaluation projects of non-OECD countries are organised through the Nuclear Data Section of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). This report is issued by a Subgroup investigating discrepancies in different evaluations of the major structural materials. The isotopes selected are Chromium-52, Iron-56 and Nickel-58. Graphical overlay comparisons between cross-sections, and also energy-angle correlated particle distributions, in different evaluated libraries was performed. Benefits from these comparisons include information useful for improving structural material evaluations in individual data libraries, for assessing differences associated with present-day evaluation techniques and for development of techniques for graphical representation of the energy-angle correlated data

  1. Comparison of the socioeconomic impacts of international fuel service centers versus dispersed nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braid, R.B. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The paper investigates a variety of community impacts including: public services, fiscal issues, economic matters, land and water use, political and social cohesion, and legal considerations. Comparisons of socioeconomic impacts of colocated versus dispersed sites are made on the basis of the size of the impacted communities, the size and type of nuclear facility, and the facility's construction time frame. The paper concludes that, under similar circumstances, most of the socioeconomic impacts of colocated nuclear facilities would be somewhat less than the sum of the impacts associated with equivalent dispersed sites. While empirical data is non-existent, the paper contends, however, that because the socioeconomic impacts of colocated facilities are so great and readily identifiable to a public unskilled in making comparisons with the dispersed alternative, the facilities will likely generate so much public opposition that IFSCs will probably prove infeasible

  2. International

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    This rubric reports on 10 short notes about international economical facts about nuclear power: Electricite de France (EdF) and its assistance and management contracts with Eastern Europe countries (Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria); Transnuclear Inc. company (a 100% Cogema daughter company) acquired the US Vectra Technologies company; the construction of the Khumo nuclear power plant in Northern Korea plays in favour of the reconciliation between Northern and Southern Korea; the delivery of two VVER 1000 Russian reactors to China; the enforcement of the cooperation agreement between Euratom and Argentina; Japan requested for the financing of a Russian fast breeder reactor; Russia has planned to sell a floating barge-type nuclear power plant to Indonesia; the control of the Swedish reactor vessels of Sydkraft AB company committed to Tractebel (Belgium); the renewal of the nuclear cooperation agreement between Swiss and USA; the call for bids from the Turkish TEAS electric power company for the building of the Akkuyu nuclear power plant answered by three candidates: Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), Westinghouse (US) and the French-German NPI company. (J.S.)

  3. International Comparisons of Income Inequality: Tests for Lorenz Dominance across Nine Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Bishop, John; Smith, W. James; Formby, John

    1989-01-01

    This paper examines income inequality across nine countries using the Luxembourg Income Study data set. New statistical tests and comparability of data provide an exceptionally clear picture of relative income inequality. Only 4 comparisons out of a possible 108 cannot be ranked. In most cases, differences in the definition of the recipient unit make little difference in the rankings. Irrespective of recipient units, Sweden, Norway, and Germany come out at the top of the ordinal Lorenz rankin...

  4. Space commerce in a global economy - Comparison of international approaches to commercial space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Barbara A.; Kleber, Peter

    1992-01-01

    A historical perspective, current status, and comparison of national government/commercial space industry relationships in the United States and Europe are presented. It is noted that space technology has been developed and used primarily to meet the needs of civil and military government initiatives. Two future trends of space technology development include new space enterprises, and the national drive to achieve a more competitive global economic position.

  5. Building a University Brand from within: A Comparison of Coaches' Perspectives of Internal Branding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judson, Kimberly M.; Gorchels, Linda; Aurand, Timothy W.

    2006-01-01

    Branding efforts have typically focused on external promotional strategies to develop brand image. Recently, the brand messages conveyed to employees of an organization have been recognized as being equally as important as the brand messages sent to external stakeholders. This study investigates the internal communication of the university brand…

  6. International Assistance and Media Democratization in the Western Balkans: A Cross-National Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Irion

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available International media assistance programs accompanied the democratic media transition in Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, Macedonia and Serbia with varying intensity. These countries untertook a range of media reforms to conform with accession requirements of the European Union (EU and the standards of the Council of Europe, among others. This article explores the nexus between the democratic transformation of the media and international media assistance (IMA as constrained by the local political conditions in the five countries of the Western Balkans. It aims to enhance the understanding of conditions and factors that influence media institution building in the region and evaluates the role of international assistance programs and conditionality mechanisms herein. The cross-national analysis concludes that the effects of IMA are highly constrained by the local context. A decade of IMA of varying intensity is not sufficient to construct media institutions when, in order to function properly, they have to outperform their local context. From today’s vantage point it becomes obvious, that in the short-term scaling-up IMA does not necessarily improve outcomes. The experiences in the region suggest that imported solutions have not been sufficiently cognitive of all aspects of local conditions and international strategies have tended to be rather schematic and have lacked strategic approaches to promote media policy stability, credible media reform and implementation. To a certain extent, the loss of IMA effectiveness is also self-inflicted.

  7. Student Success through Leadership Self-Efficacy: A Comparison of International and Domestic Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, David H. K.

    2016-01-01

    There is scarce research that examines the leadership experiences of international students on campus. Leadership capacity and efficacy are important indicators of success in higher education and are linked to important academic, career, and life benefits, such as career and leadership aspirations, work performance, the ability to cope and…

  8. Comparison of characteristics of international and national databases for rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gvozdenović, E.; Koevoets, R.; Langenhoff, J.; Allaart, C. F.; Landewé, R. B. M.

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate current (inter)national registers and observational cohorts in Europe, and to compare inclusion criteria, aims, collected data, and participation in the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) repository. We performed a systematic search strategy in six literature databases for

  9. Verbal monitoring in Parkinson’s disease: A comparison between internal and external monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Jolien; Mariën, Peter; Santens, Patrick; Pickut, Barbara A.; Hartsuiker, Robert J.

    2017-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) display a variety of impairments in motor and non-motor language processes; speech is decreased on motor aspects such as amplitude, prosody and speed and on linguistic aspects including grammar and fluency. Here we investigated whether verbal monitoring is impaired and what the relative contributions of the internal and external monitoring route are on verbal monitoring in patients with PD relative to controls. Furthermore, the data were used to investigate whether internal monitoring performance could be predicted by internal speech perception tasks, as perception based monitoring theories assume. Performance of 18 patients with Parkinson’s disease was measured on two cognitive performance tasks and a battery of 11 linguistic tasks, including tasks that measured performance on internal and external monitoring. Results were compared with those of 16 age-matched healthy controls. PD patients and controls generally performed similarly on the linguistic and monitoring measures. However, we observed qualitative differences in the effects of noise masking on monitoring and disfluencies and in the extent to which the linguistic tasks predicted monitoring behavior. We suggest that the patients differ from healthy subjects in their recruitment of monitoring channels. PMID:28832595

  10. Preventing Suicide in Prisons, Part II International Comparisons of Suicide Prevention Services in Correctional Facilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diagle, M.S.; Daniel, A.E.; Dear, G.E.; Frottier, P.; Hayes, H.M.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.; Konrad, N.; Liebling, A.; Sarchiapone, M.

    2007-01-01

    The International Association for Suicide Prevention created a Task Force on Suicide in Prisons to better disseminate the information in this domain. One of its objectives was to summarize suicide-prevention activities in the prison systems. This study of the Task Force uncovered many differences

  11. The standardization of 133Ba: international comparison of results (June 1984)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, B.R.

    1985-01-01

    Participation in an international intercomparison of measurements of the activity of a 133 Ba solution is described. The 4π (LS) -γ coincidence extrapolation method was used. Results for two different γ-channels were obtained. A graphical representation of the results obtained by the different participating laboratories is given

  12. International Network for Comparison of HIV Neutralization Assays: The NeutNet Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fenyö, Eva Maria; Heath, Alan; Dispinseri, Stefania; Holmes, Harvey; Lusso, Paolo; Zolla-Pazner, Susan; Donners, Helen; Heyndrickx, Leo; Alcami, Jose; Bongertz, Vera; Jassoy, Christian; Malnati, Mauro; Montefiori, David; Moog, Christiane; Morris, Lynn; Osmanov, Saladin; Polonis, Victoria; Sattentau, Quentin; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Sutthent, Ruengpung; Wrin, Terri; Scarlatti, Gabriella

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neutralizing antibody assessments play a central role in human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) vaccine development but it is unclear which assay, or combination of assays, will provide reliable measures of correlates of protection. To address this, an international collaboration

  13. Internal validation of risk models in clustered data: a comparison of bootstrap schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwmeester, W.; Moons, K.G.M.; Kappen, T.H.; van Klei, W.A.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Eijkemans, M.J.C.; Vergouwe, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Internal validity of a risk model can be studied efficiently with bootstrapping to assess possible optimism in model performance. Assumptions of the regular bootstrap are violated when the development data are clustered. We compared alternative resampling schemes in clustered data for the estimation

  14. High-Speed Measurement of the Internal Diameter of Tubes: A Comparison of Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundtoft, Hans Erik; Agerup, C.C.; Nielsen, N.

    1974-01-01

    The authors have compared various methods of tube measurement and have made the striking conclusion that the continuous measurement of the internal diameter of precision tubes with an air gauge is often useless in practice. The methods selected for experiment were all contactless and so included...

  15. International Comparisons of Foundation Phase Number Domain Mathematics Knowledge and Practice Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human, Anja; van der Walt, Marthie; Posthuma, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Poor mathematics performance in schools is both a national and an international concern. Teachers ought to be equipped with relevant subject matter knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge as one way to address this problem. However, no mathematics knowledge and practice standards have as yet been defined for the preparation of Foundation Phase…

  16. The Luneburg Sustainable University Project in International Comparison: An Assessment against North American Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beringer, Almut

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the Luneburg Sustainable University Project (the Project) in a non-European international context; to relate the project scholarly approach to selected scholarly and practice-oriented North American sustainability in higher education (SHE) methods; to analyze project innovations against North American initiatives.…

  17. A Comparison of Pedagogical Practices and Beliefs in International and Domestic Mathematics Teaching Assistants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minsu

    2014-01-01

    International and domestic mathematics teaching assistants (MTAs) are a critical part of mathematics education because they teach a substantial portion of low-level mathematics courses at research institutions. Even if there are several factors to build on MTAs' pedagogical practices, MTAs' beliefs significantly influence the MTAs' practices. The…

  18. International Student Migration: A Comparison of UK and Indian Students' Motivations for Studying Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Russell; Sondhi, Gunjan

    2018-01-01

    This paper breaks new ground in its comparative analysis of two international student migration (ISM) streams, one from the Global South to the Global North (India to developed Anglophone countries), and the other within the Global North (UK to North America, Europe and Australia). These two ISM movements reflect different positionalities within…

  19. Comparison of Edge and Internal Transport Barriers in Drift Wave Predictive Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiland, J.; Crombe, K.; Mantica, P.

    2011-01-01

    We have simulated the formation of an internal transport barrier on JET including a self-consistent treatment of ion and electron temperatures and poloidal and toroidal momentum. Similar simulations of edge transport barriers, including the L-H transition have also been made. However, here only p...... for the internal barrier. For the edge barrier the edge density was varied and it turned out that a lower edge density gave a stronger barrier. Electromagnetic and nonlocal effects were important for both types of barriers. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]......We have simulated the formation of an internal transport barrier on JET including a self-consistent treatment of ion and electron temperatures and poloidal and toroidal momentum. Similar simulations of edge transport barriers, including the L-H transition have also been made. However, here only...... polodal momentum and the temperatures were simulated. The internal barrier included an anomalous spinup of poloidal momentum similar to that in the experiment. Also the edge barrier was accompanied by a spinup of poloidal momentum. The experimental density (with no barrier) was used and kept fixed...

  20. Engagement in Learning: A Comparison between Asian and European International University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Yusuke; Parpala, Anna; Pyhältö, Kirsi; Lindblom-Ylänne, Sari

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on research on both engagement in learning and approaches to learning, we examine the associations between international students' approaches to learning, factors in the teaching/learning environment and self-assessed academic outcomes. A total of 307 students responded to our survey. Their experience of the purposefulness of their course…

  1. Comparison of calculated energy flux of internal tides with microstructure measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Falahat

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Vertical mixing caused by breaking of internal tides plays a major role in maintaining the deep-ocean stratification. This study compares observations of dissipation from microstructure measurements to calculations of the vertical energy flux from barotropic to internal tides, taking into account the temporal variation due to the spring-neap tidal cycle. The dissipation data originate from two surveys in the Brazil Basin Tracer Release Experiment (BBTRE, and one over the LArval Dispersal along the Deep East Pacific Rise (LADDER3, supplemented with a few stations above the North-Atlantic Ridge (GRAVILUCK and in the western Pacific (IZU. A good correlation is found between logarithmic values of energy flux and local dissipation in BBTRE, suggesting that the theory is able to predict energy fluxes. For the LADDER3, the local dissipation is much smaller than the calculated energy flux, which is very likely due to the different topographic features of BBTRE and LADDER3. The East Pacific Rise consists of a few isolated seamounts, so that most of the internal wave energy can radiate away from the generation site, whereas the Brazil Basin is characterised by extended rough bathymetry, leading to a more local dissipation. The results from all four field surveys support the general conclusion that the fraction of the internal-tide energy flux that is dissipated locally is very different in different regions.

  2. International Comparisons through Simultaneous and Conjunct Analysis: A Search for General Relationships across Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lietz, Petra

    1996-01-01

    The six chapters of this theme issue explore data collected by the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement to investigate crucial issues in reading comprehension. Simultaneous analysis and conjunct analysis are used to examine models as structured combinations of factors in the search for relationships among…

  3. Direct Signal-to-Noise Quality Comparison between an Electronic and Conventional Stethoscope aboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshburn, Thomas; Cole, Richard; Ebert, Doug; Bauer, Pete

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Evaluation of heart, lung, and bowel sounds is routinely performed with the use of a stethoscope to help detect a broad range of medical conditions. Stethoscope acquired information is even more valuable in a resource limited environments such as the International Space Station (ISS) where additional testing is not available. The high ambient noise level aboard the ISS poses a specific challenge to auscultation by stethoscope. An electronic stethoscope's ambient noise-reduction, greater sound amplification, recording capabilities, and sound visualization software may be an advantage to a conventional stethoscope in this environment. Methods: A single operator rated signal-to-noise quality from a conventional stethoscope (Littman 2218BE) and an electronic stethoscope (Litmann 3200). Borborygmi, pulmonic, and cardiac sound quality was ranked with both stethoscopes. Signal-to-noise rankings were preformed on a 1 to 10 subjective scale with 1 being inaudible, 6 the expected quality in an emergency department, 8 the expected quality in a clinic, and 10 the clearest possible quality. Testing took place in the Japanese Pressurized Module (JPM), Unity (Node 2), Destiny (US Lab), Tranquility (Node 3), and the Cupola of the International Space Station. All examinations were conducted at a single point in time. Results: The electronic stethoscope's performance ranked higher than the conventional stethoscope for each body sound in all modules tested. The electronic stethoscope's sound quality was rated between 7 and 10 in all modules tested. In comparison, the traditional stethoscope's sound quality was rated between 4 and 7. The signal to noise ratio of borborygmi showed the biggest difference between stethoscopes. In the modules tested, the auscultation of borborygmi was rated between 5 and 7 by the conventional stethoscope and consistently 10 by the electronic stethoscope. Discussion: This stethoscope comparison was limited to a single operator. However, we

  4. Comparison of German and international clearance regulations - chances and limits for harmonization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thierfeldt, S.; Schartmann, F.

    2005-01-01

    The regulations on clearance in the German nuclear regulatory framework (especially sect. 29 and Annexes III and IV of the Radiation Protection Ordinance) are comprehensive and well founded. Germany has developed some of its clearance levels in advance of recommendations issued by the EC. Therefore, there are differences between the German and international clearance regulations. That has been investigated by a working group on clearance of the German Commission on Radiological Protection (SSK) which has performed an analysis of differences and their reasons for clearance levels in Germany and other countries (UK, The Netherlands, Sweden, USA and others). Differences can mainly be explained by country specific approaches in scenarios. Differences especially for the most relevant nuclides are not significant from a radiological point of view. The level of radiological protection (trivial dose range, a few 10 μSv/a) is guaranteed in all countries. The international discussion on the international harmonisation of clearance levels (mainly within the scope of the OECD/NEA and IAEA) can be enlightened on the basis of these results. This discussion concentrates on the question how far a harmonisation of clearance level values is actually necessary and possible. The IAEA Safety Guide RS-G-1.7 'Application of the concepts of exclusion, exemption and clearance' is of particular importance, because it proposes a set of values which might in the long-term take the role of international unconditional clearance levels. International harmonisation is only relevant for unconditional clearance of those materials, which are traded in large quantities among countries, in particular metal scrap. Harmonisation of the values to the same order of magnitude is sufficient. (orig.)

  5. Prevalence of obesity among Arab school children in Nazareth, Israel: comparison with national (Jewish) and international data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, E; Marcus, O; Joubran, S; Abdo, B; Asal, N R

    2013-12-01

    Lack of published data. Absence of Ethnic specific data. Lack of focus on obesity prevention in Arab schools. First set of data on obesity for Arab children. Data will be used as reference data. Alert health/school official for intervention. Objective The objective is to produce the first set of obesity prevalence data and use the data as reference values of body mass index (BMI) trends for Arab children in Israel and compare with Jewish and international data. Methods A prevalence study was carried out in 2009 in which 4130 children aged 6-12, were selected from eight Arab sector schools representing the Nazareth Municipality. Height, weight and BMI measurements were obtained and presented by age, mean age, size, weight, gender and percentile. Appropriate epidemiological and statistical methods used for comparison. Results The obesity and overweight prevalence rates in Arab children by age ranges from 0% to 2.6% and 0% to 11.2%, respectively. Comparison with international and Jewish data revealed differences in almost all age groups but higher rates in Arabs, especially boys. Discussion The higher rates/trends in Arab children may be explained by more Arab women entering the workforce, increase in single-parent families and changes in food and physical activity environments. Conclusion Based on our data, we recommend either an ethnic-specific BMI reference curves and/or inclusion of Arab data in the Israeli data system. Research need to focus on reasons for the increase and interventions to reverse/slow the trend. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  6. [Comparison of external fixation with or without limited internal fixation for open knee fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, K N; Lan, H; He, Z Y; Wang, X J; Yuan, J; Zhao, P; Mu, J S

    2018-03-01

    Objective: To explore the characteristics and methods of different fixation methods and prevention of open knee joint fracture. Methods: The data of 86 cases of open knee joint fracture admitted from January 2002 to December 2015 in Department of Orthopaedics, Affiliated Hospital of Chengdu University were analyzed retrospectively.There were 65 males and 21 females aged of 38.6 years. There were 38 cases treated with trans articular external fixation alone, 48 cases were in the trans articular external fixation plus auxiliary limited internal fixation group. All the patients were treated according to the same three stages except for different fixation methods. Observation of external fixation and fracture fixation, fracture healing, wound healing and treatment, treatment and related factors of infection control and knee function recovery. χ(2) test was used to analyze data. Results: Eleven patients had primary wound healing, accounting for 12.8%. Seventy-five patients had two wounds healed, accounting for 87.2%. Only 38 cases of trans articular external fixator group had 31 cases of articular surface reduction, accounting for 81.6%; Five cases of trans articular external fixator assisted limited internal fixation group had 5 cases of poor reduction, accounting for 10.4%; There was significant difference between the two groups (χ(2)=44.132, P external fixation group, a total of 23 cases of patients with infection, accounted for 60.5% of external fixation group; trans articular external fixation assisted limited internal fixation group there were 30 cases of patients with infection, accounting for the assistance of external fixator and limited internal fixation group 62.5%; There was significant difference between the two groups(χ(2)=0.035, P >0.05). Five cases of fracture nonunion cases of serious infection, patients voluntarily underwent amputation. The Lysholm Knee Scale: In the external fixation group, 23 cases were less than 50 points, accounting for 60

  7. Comparison of National and International Standards of Good Egg Production Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GP Sousa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Egg production is an important economic activity in Brazil, with about 697 million eggs produced annually. The conventional cage system is commonly used for egg production. However, there has been a growing concern for the welfare of laying hens around the world. In this context, many countries have issued laws, protocols, and other normative technical specifications to ensure the welfare of layers. This study aims at identifying similarities and differences between international standards and Brazilian protocols using the Comparative Law perspective. This article reports an analytical study of selected protocols, performing three analyses using the Comparative Law method. The research concludes that some items of the Brazilian protocols of good egg production practices, such as farm inspection, treatment of diseases, temperature, ventilation, beak trimming, feed and water supply, correspond to international specifications, whereas others, such as housing, freedom movement, use of equipment, and transport, are less strict.

  8. Comparison of Y-jet and OIL effervescent atomizers based on internal and external two-phase flow characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mlkvik Marek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Presented paper focuses on spraying of two viscous liquids (μ = 60 and 143 mPa·s by two types of twinfluid atomizers with internal mixing. We compared the well-known Y-jet atomizer with the less known, “outside in liquid” (OIL, configuration of the effervescent atomizer. The required liquid viscosity was achieved by using the water-maltodextrin solutions of different concentrations. Both the liquids were sprayed at two gas inlet pressures (Δp = 0.14 and 0.28 MPa and various gas-to-liquid ratios (GLR = 2.5%, 5%, 10% and 20%. The comparison was focused on four characteristics: liquid flow-rate (for the same working regimes, defined by Δp and GLR, internal flow regimes, Weber numbers of a liquid breakup (We and droplet sizes. A high-speed camera and Malvern Spraytec laser diffraction system were used to obtain necessary experimental data. Comparing the results of our experiments, we can state that for both the liquids the OIL atomizer reached higher liquid flow-rates at corresponding working regimes, it was typical by annular internal flow and higher We in the near-nozzle region at all the working regimes. As a result, it produced considerably smaller droplets than the second tested atomizing device, especially for GLR < 10%.

  9. Comparison of Y-jet and OIL effervescent atomizers based on internal and external two-phase flow characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlkvik, Marek; Zaremba, Matous; Jedelsky, Jan; Jicha, Miroslav

    2016-03-01

    Presented paper focuses on spraying of two viscous liquids (μ = 60 and 143 mPa·s) by two types of twinfluid atomizers with internal mixing. We compared the well-known Y-jet atomizer with the less known, "outside in liquid" (OIL), configuration of the effervescent atomizer. The required liquid viscosity was achieved by using the water-maltodextrin solutions of different concentrations. Both the liquids were sprayed at two gas inlet pressures (Δp = 0.14 and 0.28 MPa) and various gas-to-liquid ratios (GLR = 2.5%, 5%, 10% and 20%). The comparison was focused on four characteristics: liquid flow-rate (for the same working regimes, defined by Δp and GLR), internal flow regimes, Weber numbers of a liquid breakup (We) and droplet sizes. A high-speed camera and Malvern Spraytec laser diffraction system were used to obtain necessary experimental data. Comparing the results of our experiments, we can state that for both the liquids the OIL atomizer reached higher liquid flow-rates at corresponding working regimes, it was typical by annular internal flow and higher We in the near-nozzle region at all the working regimes. As a result, it produced considerably smaller droplets than the second tested atomizing device, especially for GLR < 10%.

  10. Verification of the Danish emission inventory data by national and international data comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fauser, P.; Thomsen, Marianne; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Winther, M.; Gyldenkaerne, S.; Hoffmann, L.; Lyck, E.; Boll Illerup, J.

    2007-08-15

    Danish emission intensity values, activity values and implied emission factors for identified key source categories are compared with corresponding values for the EU-15 countries (excluding Luxemburg). The emission values for all countries are based on national greenhouse gas inventories for the years 1990 (base year), 1997 and 2003 provided by the UNFCCC. The comparison is based on a proposed verification procedure that is designed for identifying emission indicators and evaluating data consistency and reliability for the energy and industry sectors. For all sectors the method gives good possibility for checking emission levels and consistency in time trends. (au)

  11. A Comparison Among Plastic Deformation Capacities of RC Members According to International Codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripepi, C.; Failla, G.; Santini, A.; Nucera, F.

    2008-01-01

    The aim is to compare plastic deformation capacities of flexure-controlled reinforced concrete members, as predicted by the Italian Seismic Code, Eurocode 8 and FEMA356. For completeness, recent studies in the literature are also referred to. The comparison is pursued in context with a nonlinear static analysis run on 2D frame structures. This allows to assess whether and to which extent plastic deformation capacities may be affected by variations in those quantities, such as shear span and/or axial load, depending on which plastic deformation capacities are generally given

  12. The availability of German nuclear power plants in an international comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehndrich, W.; Kutsch, W.

    1975-01-01

    The availability of German nuclear power stations is discussed in comparison with European and American light-water nuclear power stations. Furthermore, the availability or utilization is shown as a function of the year of operation and of the unit size (the latter only for the USA), and the trends observed during the last 4 years are made evident. The unscheduled shutdowns of light-water nuclear power stations during the past 4 years are analysed on the basis of publications of the IAEA in Vienna and the ABE-Committees of the German Atomforum with special emphasis on the affected systems. (orig.) [de

  13. Safety and risk, a comparison on an international scale with regard to society, law and economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compes, P.C.

    1987-01-01

    More than 130 experts of different nations and different fields of science met to discuss the following subjects: Traffic and transport, labour and employment, products and commodities, energy and environment (safety concepts for fossil-fuel and nuclear power plants, international harmonisation of nuclear technical standards, harmonisation of environmental law in a European context). All contributions are presented in their original language, with abstracts in German, English, and French. (HP) [de

  14. A comparison of possibilities of using methods of internal corporate education - coaching and mentoring

    OpenAIRE

    Kolmistrová, Aneta

    2013-01-01

    This thesis examines the application of two educational methods - coaching and mentoring - in an internal corporate education system. Attention is first drawn to the concept of corporate education, while terms such as education effectiveness and procedures of actual implementation are clarified. Thereafter, both examined methods are defined and goals to achieve through these methods are presented. Both methods are then compared, with the emphasis on their similarities and differences. The the...

  15. The international comparison of radioactivity measurements on a solution of cesium-139

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steyn, J.; Botha, S.M.; Van Staden, J.C.

    1976-03-01

    The participation by the NPRL in an intercomparison of radioactivity measurements as organised by the BIPM is fully described. The radioisotope involved, cesium 139, was made available to the BIPM by the NPRL in carrier-free form. The NPRL used the 4π gamma coincidence counting method with an internal liquid scintillation counter as 4π detector. The preliminary results released by the BIPM show the presence of relatively large systematic errors [af

  16. Gender Gaps in Indigenous Socioeconomic Outcomes: Australian Regional Comparisons and International Possibilities

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas Biddle; Mandy Yap

    2010-01-01

    International literature clearly demonstrates the potential for gender-based inequalities to constrain development processes. In the United Nations Development Programme Gender-related Development Index, Australia ranks in the top five across 177 countries, suggesting that the loss of human development due to gender inequality is minor. However, such analysis has not been systematically applied to the Indigenous Australian population, at least in a quantitative sense. Using the 2006 Australia...

  17. "Intergovernmental Allocation of Value Added Tax in Japan: International comparison" (in Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    Nobuki Mochida

    2001-01-01

    There seems to be broad consensus in the literature that comprehensive VATs are most appropriately assigned to the central level of government. Japan's Local Consumption Tax is unique in the sense that it combines origin-based piggy backing on the national VAT with a clearing system that is intended to reflect the destination principle indirectly. This paper seeks to assess LCT in the light of general criteria; equity, efficiency and administrative simplicity. Studying international experienc...

  18. [Feeling of Liberty and Internalized Stigma: Comparison of Inpatient and Outpatient Cases Receiving Psychiatric Treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamışlı, Songül; Dil, Satı; Daştan, Leyla; Eni, Nurhayat

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated whether liberty-restricting and other factors can predict internalized stigma among psychiatric inpatients and outpatients. The study sample comprised of 129 inpatients, admitted at least once to psychiatry ward, and 100 outpatients who have never been hospitalized, receiving psychiatric treatment. In addition to demographic and clinical features, patients were evaluated for perceived deprivation of liberty and internalized stigma levels. Patients stated that their liberty was restrained mostly due to involuntary treatment, communication problems, side effects of medical treatment and inability to choose their treatment team. Regression analysis showed that internalized stigma was predicted by perceived deprivation of liberty, marital status and number of admissions to ward. Stigma was related to marital status and admissions to the psychiatry ward. Perceived deprivation of liberty predicts stigma regardless of the disease severity CONCLUSION: Perception of stigma leads to self-isolation, behavioral avoidance and refusal of aid-seeking. Our study indicated that perceived deprivation of liberty is one of the most important factors that lead to increased stigma. Based on our findings, we can say that as patients experience less perceived deprivation of liberty, they would have less stigma and thus, their compliance would increase.

  19. Comparison of microscopic and endoscopic view of the internal acoustic meatus: A cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montibeller, Guilherme Ramina; Hendrix, Philipp; Fries, Fabian N; Becker, Kurt W; Oertel, Joachim

    2018-04-01

    The endoscope is thought to provide an improved exposure of the internal acoustic meatus after retrosigmoid craniotomy for microsurgical resection of intrameatal tumors. The aim of this study is to quantify the differences in internal acoustic meatus (IAM) exposure comparing microscopic and endoscopic visualization. A retrosigmoid approach was performed on 5 cadaver heads. A millimeter gauge was introduced into the internal acoustic meatus, and examinations with a surgical microscope and 0°, 30° and 70° rigid endoscopes were performed. The extent of IAM depth visualized with the microscope and the different angled endoscopes were analyzed. The microscopic view allowed an average IAM depth visualization of 2.8 mm. The endoscope allowed an improved exposure of IAM in all cases. The 0°, 30° and 70° endoscopes permitted an exposure that was respectively 96% (5.5 mm), 139% (6.7 mm) and 200% (8.4 mm) more lateral than the microscopic view. Angled optics, however, provided an image distortion, specifically the 70° endoscope. The endoscope provides a superior visualization of the IAM compared to the microscope when using a retrosigmoid approach. The 30° endoscope represented an ideal compromise of superior visualization with marginal image distortion. Additional implementation of the endoscope into microsurgery of intrameatal tumors likely facilitates complete tumor removal and might spare facial and vestibulocochlear function. Clin. Anat. 31:398-403, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Recommendations for international gambling harm-minimisation guidelines: comparison with effective public health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainsbury, Sally M; Blankers, Matthijs; Wilkinson, Claire; Schelleman-Offermans, Karen; Cousijn, Janna

    2014-12-01

    Problem gambling represents a significant public health problem, however, research on effective gambling harm-minimisation measures lags behind other fields, including other addictive disorders. In recognition of the need for consistency between international jurisdictions and the importance of basing policy on empirical evidence, international conventions exist for policy on alcohol, tobacco, and illegal substances. This paper examines the evidence of best practice policies to provide recommendations for international guidelines for harm-minimisation policy for gambling, including specific consideration of the specific requirements for policies on Internet gambling. Evidence indicates that many of the public health policies implemented for addictive substances can be adapted to address gambling-related harms. Specifically, a minimum legal age of at least 18 for gambling participation, licensing of gambling venues and activities with responsible gambling and consumer protection strategies mandated, and brief interventions should be available for those at-risk for and experiencing gambling-related problems. However, there is mixed evidence on the effectiveness of limits on opening hours and gambling venue density and increased taxation to minimise harms. Given increases in trade globalisation and particularly the global nature of Internet gambling, it is recommended that jurisdictions take actions to harmonise gambling public health policies.

  1. Framing energy efficiency and renewable energy policies: An international comparison between Mexico and China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenzuela, Jose Maria; Qi, Ye

    2012-01-01

    This essay compares national strategies on mitigation of GHG emissions for Mexico and China. This state-centered analysis stresses the importance of the interaction between international commitments, the disposition of internal interest of economy-wide actors, and the legacies of policy making and institutions, particularly in relation to economic development and central–local government relations. This research does not attempt to classify institutions according to their effectives to foster climate change policies, but rather explores specific circumstances for climate change policy making on developing countries. Contrary to international proposal to find a generic optimal policy choice, the research explored the relevance of certain political and economic institutions that can be present in other national cases. It shows that the legacies on liberalization and state retreat undermine the state ability to effectively engage with the economic actors on decisions and management. Likewise regular engagement with them undermines the state affinity towards pursuing economic efficient solutions. The relevance of adequate system of incentives for local government to engage in an agenda that is, by nature, adopted by the central government. - Highlights: ► We compared China and Mexico CO 2 emissions potentials and strategies on energy. ► Cost abatement curves were used to induce societal interest. ► Policies on management decision are effective but not clearly efficient. ► Policies that stress efficiency face serious limitations of scope. ► Centrally provided incentives are highly required for local governments action.

  2. Comparison of Climate Preferences for Domestic and International Beach Holidays: A Case Study of Canadian Travelers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Rutty

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Coastal tourism is the largest segment of global leisure tourism and it is firmly linked to the destination’s natural resources—with climatic resources chief among them. Through observations and survey responses of beach users, studies have evaluated climatic resources for coastal tourism by quantifying optimal and unacceptable conditions. However, these studies have not taken into consideration that different forms of holidays (e.g., daytrips, short trips, main annual holiday, “once-in-a-lifetime” trip may have varying degrees of resilience to climatic conditions. This is the first study to explore whether ideal and unacceptable climatic conditions vary between domestic and international tourists. Using an in situ survey, Canadian beach users traveling domestically (n = 359 and internationally (n = 120 were examined. Key findings include statistically significant differences (p ≤ 0.05 between the two sample groups for every climate variable, with the international sample more resilient to a broader range of weather conditions, including a greater acceptance for warm temperatures, longer rainfall durations, higher wind speeds, and greater cloud cover. This study adds further insight into the complexities of evaluating climate for tourism, with implications for the demand response of tourists to climate change.

  3. Comparison of the internalization of targeted dendrimers and dendrimer-entrapped gold nanoparticles into cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiangyang; Wang, Su He; Lee, Inhan; Shen, Mingwu; Baker, James R

    2009-11-01

    Dendrimer-based nanotechnology significantly advances the area of targeted cancer imaging and therapy. Herein, we compared the difference of surface acetylated fluorescein isocyanate (FI) and folic acid (FA) modified generation 5 (G5) poly(amidoamine) dendrimers (G5.NHAc-FI-FA), and dendrimer-entrapped gold nanoparticles with similar modifications ([(Au(0))(51.2)-G5.NHAc-FI-FA]) in terms of their specific internalization to FA receptor (FAR)-overexpressing cancer cells. Confocal microscopic studies show that both G5.NHAc-FI-FA and [(Au(0))(51.2-)G5.NHAc-FI-FA] exhibit similar internalization kinetics regardless of the existence of Au nanoparticles (NPs). Molecular dynamics simulation of the two different nanostructures reveals that the surface area and the FA moiety distribution from the center of the geometry are slightly different. This slight difference may not be recognized by the FARs on the cell membrane, consequently leading to similar internalization kinetics. This study underlines the fact that metal or inorganic NPs entrapped within dendrimers interact with cells in a similar way to that of dendrimers lacking host NPs. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. COMMUNICATION TOPICS AND STRATEGIES IN E-MAIL CONSULTATION: COMPARISON BETWEEN AMERICAN AND INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigrun Biesenbach-Lucas

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available On today's "wired" college campuses, students avail themselves in increasing numbers of electronic channels, most notably e-mail, as a means to consult with their professors. While some research has investigated the purposes for which university students communicate with their instructors via e-mail, little research has examined differences in e-mail use between American and international students. In the present study, e-mail messages sent by American and international students enrolled in a teacher-preparation program to their professor were collected over the course of one semester. The messages were examined for three major communication topics (facilitative, substantive, relational and communication strategies (requesting, negotiating, reporting. Results indicate quantitative and qualitative differences in American and international students' e-mail topics and strategies, suggesting, similar to findings for face-to-face academic advising sessions, that American students demonstrate greater initiative and ability to adapt to the spatial and temporal remoteness between interlocutors in e-mail interaction, especially when using e-mail to solicit face-to-face appointments and input on projects. Findings also show that messages from both groups of students contained substantial relational communication, perhaps in an attempt to compensate for the lack of visual and paralinguistic clues in the e-mail medium.

  5. Global Learning Communities: A Comparison of Online Domestic and International Science Class Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerlin, Steven C.; Carlsen, William S.; Kelly, Gregory J.; Goehring, Elizabeth

    2013-08-01

    The conception of Global Learning Communities (GLCs) was researched to discover potential benefits of the use of online technologies that facilitated communication and scientific data sharing outside of the normal classroom setting. 1,419 students in 635 student groups began the instructional unit. Students represented the classrooms of 33 teachers from the USA, 6 from Thailand, 7 from Australia, and 4 from Germany. Data from an international environmental education project were analyzed to describe grades 7-9 student scientific writing in domestic US versus international-US classroom online partnerships. The development of an argument analytic and a research model of exploratory data analysis followed by statistical testing were used to discover and highlight different ways students used evidence to support their scientific claims about temperature variation at school sites and deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Findings show modest gains in the use of some evidentiary discourse components by US students in international online class partnerships compared to their US counterparts in domestic US partnerships. The analytic, research model, and online collaborative learning tools may be used in other large-scale studies and learning communities. Results provide insights about the benefits of using online technologies and promote the establishment of GLCs.

  6. Comparison of Internal Fixations for Distal Clavicular Fractures Based on Loading Tests and Finite Element Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Sakai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is difficult to apply strong and stable internal fixation to a fracture of the distal end of the clavicle because it is unstable, the distal clavicle fragment is small, and the fractured region is near the acromioclavicular joint. In this study, to identify a superior internal fixation method for unstable distal clavicular fracture, we compared three types of internal fixation (tension band wiring, scorpion, and LCP clavicle hook plate. Firstly, loading tests were performed, in which fixations were evaluated using bending stiffness and torsional stiffness as indices, followed by finite element analysis to evaluate fixability using the stress and strain as indices. The bending and torsional stiffness were significantly higher in the artificial clavicles fixed with the two types of plate than in that fixed by tension band wiring (P<0.05. No marked stress concentration on the clavicle was noted in the scorpion because the arm plate did not interfere with the acromioclavicular joint, suggesting that favorable shoulder joint function can be achieved. The stability of fixation with the LCP clavicle hook plate and the scorpion was similar, and plate fixations were stronger than fixation by tension band wiring.

  7. A Comparison of Traffic Operations among Beijing and Several International Megacities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanzhou Yang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available High-Efficient traffic system is very important for economy and society of cities. Previous studies on the traffic comparison mostly took a city as a whole, but ignored the differences among areas inside the city. But in fact, the traffic congestion in different areas with a city is mostly different. Taking typical mega cities like Beijing, London, New York, and Tokyo as objects, this paper makes cross-comparison in the traffic operation and performance based on intelligent algorithm. Transportation infrastructure and travel demand data are discussed and unbalanced transport system is found in Beijing because of the conflict between too much traffic demand and defect road networks. From the aspects of traffic load, operational efficiency and safety, indexes including traffic v/c ratio, average vehicle speed and accident rate are selected to assess the performance of road traffic. It is concluded that road networks of Beijing have the worst performance compared with other three mega-cities and the primary reasons are the inappropriate distribution of utilization rate among the freeways, arterials, and local streets, and the high traffic concentration in urban area. So, several measures are recommended to improve the operation efficiency of traffic in Beijing especially for the green intelligent traffic system. Keywords: Traffic operation; Operational efficiency; Intelligent traffic system (ITS; Traffic load; traffic safety; Intelligent algorithm.

  8. Comparison of international guideline programs to evaluate and update the Dutch program for clinical guideline development in physical therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Wees, Philip J; Hendriks, Erik J M; Custers, Jan W H; Burgers, Jako S; Dekker, Joost; de Bie, Rob A

    2007-11-23

    Clinical guidelines are considered important instruments to improve quality in health care. Since 1998 the Royal Dutch Society for Physical Therapy (KNGF) produced evidence-based clinical guidelines, based on a standardized program. New developments in the field of guideline research raised the need to evaluate and update the KNGF guideline program. Purpose of this study is to compare different guideline development programs and review the KNGF guideline program for physical therapy in the Netherlands, in order to update the program. Six international guideline development programs were selected, and the 23 criteria of the AGREE Instrument were used to evaluate the guideline programs. Information about the programs was retrieved from published handbooks of the organizations. Also, the Dutch program for guideline development in physical therapy was evaluated using the AGREE criteria. Further comparison the six guideline programs was carried out using the following elements of the guideline development processes: Structure and organization; Preparation and initiation; Development; Validation; Dissemination and implementation; Evaluation and update. Compliance with the AGREE criteria of the guideline programs was high. Four programs addressed 22 AGREE criteria, and two programs addressed 20 AGREE criteria. The previous Dutch program for guideline development in physical therapy lacked in compliance with the AGREE criteria, meeting only 13 criteria. Further comparison showed that all guideline programs perform systematic literature searches to identify the available evidence. Recommendations are formulated and graded, based on evidence and other relevant factors. It is not clear how decisions in the development process are made. In particular, the process of translating evidence into practice recommendations can be improved. As a result of international developments and consensus, the described processes for developing clinical practice guidelines have much in common

  9. Comparison of international guideline programs to evaluate and update the Dutch program for clinical guideline development in physical therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burgers Jako S

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical guidelines are considered important instruments to improve quality in health care. Since 1998 the Royal Dutch Society for Physical Therapy (KNGF produced evidence-based clinical guidelines, based on a standardized program. New developments in the field of guideline research raised the need to evaluate and update the KNGF guideline program. Purpose of this study is to compare different guideline development programs and review the KNGF guideline program for physical therapy in the Netherlands, in order to update the program. Method Six international guideline development programs were selected, and the 23 criteria of the AGREE Instrument were used to evaluate the guideline programs. Information about the programs was retrieved from published handbooks of the organizations. Also, the Dutch program for guideline development in physical therapy was evaluated using the AGREE criteria. Further comparison the six guideline programs was carried out using the following elements of the guideline development processes: Structure and organization; Preparation and initiation; Development; Validation; Dissemination and implementation; Evaluation and update. Results Compliance with the AGREE criteria of the guideline programs was high. Four programs addressed 22 AGREE criteria, and two programs addressed 20 AGREE criteria. The previous Dutch program for guideline development in physical therapy lacked in compliance with the AGREE criteria, meeting only 13 criteria. Further comparison showed that all guideline programs perform systematic literature searches to identify the available evidence. Recommendations are formulated and graded, based on evidence and other relevant factors. It is not clear how decisions in the development process are made. In particular, the process of translating evidence into practice recommendations can be improved. Conclusion As a result of international developments and consensus, the described processes

  10. The dynamics in the international commercial changes in globalization terms-Comparison situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph. D. Ion Gr. Ionescu

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The bigest weight of commercial changing of the country analysis have the manufactured products like: automobiles and industrial utilities, informatic products, ways of transportation,chimical products, thextile and footwear, this have 80% from total exports and 76% from total import. This fact is the consequence of recession of the working divizion , of speciality in industrial product, on branch and sub branch, on the type of products and subansanble of an morale abrasion for the product majority.The products of base have a low ponder in the exports and imports of this countries, they present a commercial balance and pasive for the raw metals and fuel, as the export of alimentary products, this country plais a role very important.So if it’s affected by the period of crisis, the international trade it has an important role in the sustain of economic growth of them. The sustain of this project are convinced that the introduction of the new coin will have positive feedback for the worldwide economy, confronted now with one of the most sedate crisis. And the european economy it will have, only to win from the project and the investitors can drop the unsure marketing from other continents for the investment in a stable region. With all of this the growth ot the european economy can be late, however, makes it doubt the succes of the „euro” project. The International Monetary Fond have seen that the eleven european countries that adopted euro at the 1st of January 2006, a growth of the Intern Brute Porduct (IBP of 2,4% (same as for European Union, 2,6% in spring with 0,4% less then 2005, the growth that classifies as „solid and continuous”.

  11. A comparison of medical litigation filed against obstetrics and gynecology, internal medicine, and surgery departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamasaki, Tomoko; Hagihara, Akihito

    2015-10-24

    The aim of this study was to review the typical factors related to physician's liability in obstetrics and gynecology departments, as compared to those in internal medicine and surgery, regarding a breach of the duty to explain. This study involved analyzing 366 medical litigation case reports from 1990 through 2008 where the duty to explain was disputed. We examined relationships between patients, physicians, variables related to physician's explanations, and physician's breach of the duty to explain by comparing mean values and percentages in obstetrics and gynecology, internal medicine, and surgical departments with the t-test and χ(2) test. When we compared the reasons for decisions in cases where the patient won, we found that the percentage of cases in which the patient's claim was recognized was the highest for both physician negligence, including errors of judgment and procedural mistakes, and breach of the duty to explain, in obstetrics and gynecology departments; breach of the duty to explain alone in internal medicine departments; and mistakes in medical procedures alone in surgical departments (p = 0.008). When comparing patients, the rate of death was significantly higher than that of other outcomes in precedents where a breach of the duty to explain was acknowledged (p = 0.046). The proportion of cases involving obstetrics and gynecology departments, in which care was claimed to be substandard at the time of treatment, and that were not argued as breach of a duty to explain, was significantly higher than those of other evaluated departments (p duty to explain had been breached when seeking patient approval (or not) was significantly higher than in other departments (p = 0.002). It is important for physicians working in obstetrics and gynecology departments to carefully explain the risk of death associated with any planned procedure, and to obtain genuinely informed patient consent.

  12. Comparison of the thermodynamic and correlation criteria for internal standard selection in laser-induced breakdown spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labutin, Timur A.; Zaytsev, Sergey M.; Popov, Andrey M.; Seliverstova, Irina V.; Bozhenko, Sergey E.; Zorov, Nikita B.

    2013-01-01

    The use of the reference line of an internal standard in LIBS is a usual way to eliminate or reduce the fluctuations of plasma parameters from pulse to pulse as well as from sample to sample. Thermodynamic criterion, i.e. closeness of excitation potentials of the analytical line and the reference one, is often used to select an appropriate reference line. In this work, we propose an alternative criterion based on searching the best correlated pairs of lines under the variations of laser energy. Two criteria were compared for high-alloy steels and soils of different origins. The discrepancy among the values of plasma temperature calculated from Fe I, Mn I and Cr I transitions was found under the conditions of slightly changed laser fluence on steel samples. On the other hand, the agreement between plasma temperatures, obtained for Fe I and Mn I transitions, was demonstrated in plasma on soil samples. Calibration results obtained for manganese in steels and lead in soils show that thermodynamic criterion can be an appropriate way for choosing an internal standard only under LTE conditions. Two lines of Mn I at 403.07 nm and 404.14 nm and Pb I at 405.78 nm were the analytical lines for the quantification of manganese in steels and lead in soils, respectively. The use of the correlative criterion seems to be suitable for internal standardization under LTE or non-LTE conditions. Probable limitations of the correlative criterion and its possibilities to identify weak lines are discussed in the article. - Highlights: • Novel criterion for internal standard selection, based on the correlation of analytical line and reference one • Comparison of correlation and thermodynamic criteria • Correlation analysis of the spectrum can be useful for atomic line identification. • Correlation approach can be used in LTE and non-LTE conditions

  13. Comparison of external and internal implant-abutment connections for implant supported prostheses. A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Cleidiel Aparecido Araujo; Verri, Fellippo Ramos; Bonfante, Estevam Augusto; Santiago Júnior, Joel Ferreira; Pellizzer, Eduardo Piza

    2018-03-01

    The systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to answer the PICO question: "Do patients that received external connection implants show similar marginal bone loss, implant survival and complication rates as internal connection implants?". Meta-analyses of marginal bone loss, survival rates of implants and complications rates were performed for the included studies. Study eligibility criteria included (1) randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and/or prospective, (2) studies with at least 10 patients, (3) direct comparison between connection types and (4) publications in English language. The Cochrane risk of bias tool was used to assess the quality and risk of bias in RCTs, while Newcastle-Ottawa scale was used for non-RCTs. A comprehensive search strategy was designed to identify published studies on PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, and The Cochrane Library databases up to October 2017. The search identified 661 references. Eleven studies (seven RCTs and four prospective studies) were included, with a total of 530 patients (mean age, 53.93 years), who had received a total of 1089 implants (461 external-connection and 628 internal-connection implants). The internal-connection implants exhibited lower marginal bone loss than external-connection implants (PInternal connections had lower marginal bone loss when compared to external connections. However, the implant-abutment connection had no influence on the implant's survival and complication rates. Based on the GRADE approach the evidence was classified as very low to moderate due to the study design, inconsistency, and publication bias. Thus, future research is highly encouraged. Internal connection implants should be preferred over external connection implants, especially when different risk factors that may contribute to increased marginal bone loss are present. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A comparison of two tools to screen potentially inappropriate medication in internal medicine patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, A-L; Spasojevic, S; Leszek, A; Théodoloz, M; Bonnabry, P; Fumeaux, T; Schaad, N

    2018-04-01

    Potentially inappropriate medication (PIM) is an important issue for inpatient management; it has been associated with safety problems, such as increases in adverse drugs events, and with longer hospital stays and higher healthcare costs. To compare two PIM-screening tools-STOPP/START and PIM-Check-applied to internal medicine patients. A second objective was to compare the use of PIMs in readmitted and non-readmitted patients. A retrospective observational study, in the general internal medicine ward of a Swiss non-university hospital. We analysed a random sample of 50 patients, hospitalized in 2013, whose readmission within 30 days of discharge had been potentially preventable, and compared them to a sample of 50 sex- and age-matched patients who were not readmitted. PIMs were screened using the STOPP/START tool, developed for geriatric patients, and the PIM-Check tool, developed for internal medicine patients. The time needed to perform each patient's analysis was measured. A clinical pharmacist counted and evaluated each PIM detected, based on its clinical relevance to the individual patient's case. The rates of screened and validated PIMs involving readmitted and non-readmitted patients were compared. Across the whole population, PIM-Check and STOPP/START detected 1348 and 537 PIMs, respectively, representing 13.5 and 5.4 PIMs/patient. Screening time was substantially shorter with PIM-Check than with STOPP/START (4 vs 10 minutes, respectively). The clinical pharmacist judged that 45% and 42% of the PIMs detected using PIM-Check and STOPP/START, respectively, were clinically relevant to individual patients' cases. No significant differences in the rates of detected and clinically relevant PIM were found between readmitted and non-readmitted patients. Internal medicine patients are frequently prescribed PIMs. PIM-Check's PIM detection rate was three times higher than STOPP/START's, and its screening time was shorter thanks to its electronic interface. Nearly

  15. Impact of Market Regulations on the Development of Wind Power - An International Comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackermann, Thomas; Soeder, Lennart

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents and briefly evaluates the most important existing market regulations and market schemes regarding its influence on the development of wind power. The evaluation of the existing market regulations focuses on the incentives provided by the various instruments to reduce production costs. The instruments and schemes are: Feed-in Tariffs, Net Metering, Bidding Process, Fixed Quotas, Green Certificate Trading, Green Power Exchange, Green Pricing. In addition, the impact of market regulations for international electricity markets with a power exchange are investigated. The analysis showed that new wind power generation can faces significant market barriers. (author)

  16. [Planned home versus planned hospital births: adverse outcomes comparison by reviewing the international literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucon, C; Brillac, T

    2013-06-01

    To assess the safety of planned home birth compared to hospital birth, in low-risk pregnancies. An international literature review was conducted. Mortality, adverse outcomes and medical interventions were compared. Home birth was not associated with higher mortality rates, but with lower maternal adverse outcomes. Perinatal adverse outcomes are not significantly different at home and in hospital. Medical interventions are more frequent in hospital births. Home birth attended by a well-trained midwife is not associated with increased mortality and morbidity rates, but with less medical interventions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. International comparison of requirements for connection of wind turbines to power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jauch, C. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark). Dept. of Wind Energy; Matevosyan, J.; Ackermann, T. [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Bolik, S. [Vestas Wind Systems A/S, Ringkoebing (Denmark)

    2005-07-01

    Power production from wind turbines has increased considerably during the last decade. Therefore today's wind turbines, which are typically set up in wind farms, have a significant influence on the operation of power systems. The efficient and secure operation of power systems is supported by grid codes, which are sets of requirements for all network users (suppliers, customers, etc.). In Europe, several transmission network operators have introduced special grid connection requirements for wind farms. These requirements are mainly based on existing grid codes, initially written for conventional power plants usually equipped with synchronous generators. This article presents a comparison of grid connection requirements for wind farms issued, or proposed as a draft, by transmission network operators in Denmark, Sweden, Germany, Scotland and Ireland. (author)

  18. Indicators for the international comparison of energy consumption and greenhouse-gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohmann, R.; Steiner, S.; Koch, P.

    2007-11-01

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) examines the energy consumption and greenhouse-gas emissions of various Swiss economical sectors including industry, services, households and traffic. Comparisons are made with the corresponding areas in the European Union and other countries. In spite of the relatively good situation in the Swiss industrial sector, further investigation is recommended. Room for improvement in the services sector is mentioned and average performance as far as energy consumption in households is concerned is noted. It is estimated that a considerable potential for improvement is available in this sector. Motorised traffic is quoted as being the main source of greenhouse-gas emissions, Switzerland being the second worst European country in this respect. Estimates are made concerning the potential for emission reductions in the various areas

  19. International nuclear model code comparison study of Hauser-Feshbach calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgson, P.E.

    1991-03-01

    The present comparison concerns Hauser-Feshbach calculations with and without the width fluctuation correction. Participants were invited to calculate the elastic and inelastic scattering of neutrons from a fictitious nucleus Co60 (Z=27, N=33) at incident laboratory energies of 0.2, 0.5, 1 and 2 MeV. The optical potential was specified. The differential shape elastic, compound elastic and inelastic cross-sections were tabulated. Among the twenty-five sets of results, twelve were sufficiently consistent with each other to be accepted as benchmark values. These fell into two sets, corresponding to calculations with and without the width fluctuation correction. The differences between the results corresponding to different forms of the width fluctuation correction were less than 2 percent

  20. Optical PIV and LDV Comparisons of Internal Flow Investigations in SHF Impeller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Wuibaut

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a comparison between two sets of experimental results in a centrifugal flow pump. The tested impeller is the so-called SHF impeller for which many experimental data have been continuously produced to built databases for CFD code validations with various levels of approximation. Measurements have been performed using optical techniques: 2D particle image velocimetry (PIV technique on an air test model and 2D laser doppler velocimetry (LDV technique on a water model, both for different flow rates. For the present study, results obtained by these optical techniques are compared together in terms of phase averaged velocity and velocity fluctuations inside the impeller flow passage for design flow rate.

  1. Safety Performance Indicator for alcohol in road accidents--international comparison, validity and data quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assum, Terje; Sørensen, Michael

    2010-03-01

    Safety Performance Indicators, SPIs, are developed for various areas within road safety such as speed, car occupant protection, alcohol and drugs, vehicle safety, etc. SPIs can be used to indicate the road safety situation and to compare road safety performance between countries and over time and to understand the process leading to accidents, helping to select the measures to reduce them. This article describes an alcohol SPI defined as the percentage of fatalities resulting from accidents involving at least one driver impaired by alcohol. The calculation of the alcohol SPI for 26 European countries shows that the SPI varies from 4.4% in Bulgaria to 72.2% in Italy. These results raise the question if the results reflect the real situation or if there is a methodological explanation. To answer this question three different studies were carried out: comparison with other alcohol SPIs, in-depth studies of data quality in seven selected countries, and a study of correlations between the SPI and influencing factors. These studies indicate clearly that there is a need to improve quality of the data used for the alcohol SPI. Most importantly, the total number of drivers involved in fatal accidents, the number tested for alcohol and the number not tested, should be reported, in addition to the number of alcohol positive and negative drivers among those tested. Until these improvements are made, the validity of this SPI seems poor and comparison of the alcohol SPI results across countries should be made with caution. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Brazilian scientific production on phytoplankton studies: national determinants and international comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabout, J C; Carneiro, F M; Borges, P P; Machado, K B; Huszar, V L M

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we determined the temporal trends of publications by Brazilian authors on phytoplankton and compared these trends to those of other Latin American countries as well as to the 14 countries ranking ahead of Brazil in terms of scientific publication. To do this, we investigated phytoplankton studies published in an international database (Thomson-ISI). The data showed that Brazil plays an important role among other Latin American countries in the publication of these studies. Moreover, the trend of studies published on phytoplankton in Brazil was similar to trends recorded in the developed countries of the world. We conclude that studies can be more deliberately targeted to reduce national and international asymmetries by focusing on projects with large spatial scales and projects that concentrate on less-studied geographic regions, thus encouraging increased productivity in remote areas of the country. Associated with this is a necessary increase in high-impact journal publications, increasing the quantity and quality of Brazilian scientific studies on phytoplankton and, consequently, their global visibility.

  3. Evolution of chemical specifications following the working group of international inter-comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leduc-Brunet, Murielle; Gressier, F.; Mole, D.; Massias, O.; Marescot, O.; Bretelle, Jean Luc

    2012-09-01

    As part of a continuous improvement process and the inclusion of Experience Feedback, EDF has launched a working group to analyse its reference of Chemical Specifications with regard to the guidelines of EPRI and VGB.. As a result of the analysis of over 1000 lines of specifications, a large number of recommendations were issued, referring either to control of new chemical parameters or to an enhancement of measurement frequencies. These recommendations are to be developed by preliminary studies which will provide supporting evidence for future decisions. To implement these recommendations, EDF launched a dedicated project in 2011, whose main objectives were to: - raise the requirements of chemical specifications in line with international standards and compare the technical basis of the different international standards, - strengthen monitoring and anticipation of corrective actions in the field of plant chemistry with a view to extending nuclear plant lifetime to 60 years. This project, scheduled for 2011 to 2016, covers the following activities: - studies on the technical background of the specifications (2011-14), - study of the possibility of adopting an 'Actions Levels' approach in EDF's own specifications (2012-14), - new propositions evolution of the specifications (2015-16). (authors)

  4. Comparison of Directionally Solidified Samples Solidified Terrestrially and Aboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angart, S.; Lauer, M.; Tewari, S. N.; Grugel, R. N.; Poirier, D. R.

    2014-01-01

    This article reports research that has been carried out under the aegis of NASA as part of a collaboration between ESA and NASA for solidification experiments on the International Space Station (ISS). The focus has been on the effect of convection on the microstructural evolution and macrosegregation in hypoeutectic Al-Si alloys during directional solidification (DS). Terrestrial DS-experiments have been carried out at Cleveland State University (CSU) and under microgravity on the International Space Station (ISS). The thermal processing-history of the experiments is well defined for both the terrestrially processed samples and the ISS-processed samples. As of this writing, two dendritic metrics was measured: primary dendrite arm spacings and primary dendrite trunk diameters. We have observed that these dendrite-metrics of two samples grown in the microgravity environment show good agreements with models based on diffusion controlled growth and diffusion controlled ripening, respectively. The gravity-driven convection (i.e., thermosolutal convection) in terrestrially grown samples has the effect of decreasing the primary dendrite arm spacings and causes macrosegregation. Dendrite trunk diameters also show differences between the earth- and space-grown samples. In order to process DS-samples aboard the ISS, the dendritic seed crystals were partially remelted in a stationary thermal gradient before the DS was carried out. Microstructural changes and macrosegregation effects during this period are described and have modeled.

  5. A comparison study of instruction between international school and state school of middle school level in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamelasari, S. D.; Nurkhalisa, S.; Laksmana, S. I.

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents a comparison between the instruction in international school and state school in the middle level in Indonesia to find out the strength and weakness of each school in order to identify some professional development needs. The observation and interview were conducted to see the instruction of each school. Some pedagogy aspects consisting of attitude, strategy, and practice were observed to get the overview of instruction. Through this study, it has been found that the teachers apply an active learning approach that created an enthusiastic atmosphere of students’ participation. However, the different circumstance found is in the aspect of the number of students, the language of instruction and students’ characteristics between those schools.

  6. International Organization of Standardization (ISO) and Cambridge Filter Test (CFT) Smoking Regimen Data Comparisons in Tobacco Product Marketing Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Changyu; Walters, Matthew J; Holman, Matthew R

    2017-07-01

    We investigated the differences in TNCO (tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide) smoke yields generated under the International Organization of Standardization (ISO) and Federal Trade Commission (FTC) Cambridge Filter Test (CFT) smoking regimens. Twenty-nine commercial cigarette products from the US marketplace were acquired in 2015 and tested by measuring the TNCO smoke yields generated under these 2 nonintense smoking regimens. Data obtained demonstrated a linear relationship between the TNCO yields produced under the 2 smoking regimens (R 2 > 0.99). TNCO yields produced by each product were higher under the CFT smoking regimen than the ISO smoking regimen. We found that tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide yields were consistently 10% to 13% higher under the CFT smoking regimen than under the ISO smoking regimen. This strong correlation indicates that the 2 smoking regimens can be used to apply a correlation correction to CFT TNCO data and allow its comparison to ISO TNCO data in tobacco product marketing applications.

  7. Comparison of ex-USSR norms and current international practice in design of seismic resistant nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauptenbuchner, B.; David, M.

    1995-01-01

    Seismic hazard has been estimated according to ex-USSR norms in the original designs of WWER type Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) in former Soviet Union as well as in all former east European countries. For some steps of the design the national standards has been also taken into account. The original ex-USSR norms and instructions has been several times changed and improved during the time. This contribution is dealing with the development of ex-USSR norms and regulations with the aim to recognise some most important differentiations in comparison with corresponding western or international ones from point of view of civil structures. The understanding of relations of these documents is very important for seismic qualification and upgrading of WWER-type, NPPs. The main Soviet/Russian Standards and Regulations related to the seismic design and qualification of NPP structures as SNiP II-A.12-69, VSN 15-78, SNiP II-7-81, PiNAE G-7-002-86, NTD SEV etc. have been taken into consideration and compared with western or international standards as IAEA 50-SG-S1, IAEA 50-SG-D15, KTA 2201.1-6, ASCE 4-86 etc. The numerical examples of structural seismic qualification has been elaborated according to different standards for better understanding and in order to determine the degree of safety referring to corresponding standards. The authors has tried also to take into account the way of application of ex-USSR norms. The comparison of different norms and regulations has been analysed and corresponding conclusions and recommendations have been derived. These conclusions and recommendations can be helpful by the seismic qualification and upgrading of WWER-type NPPs. (author)

  8. Comparison of diet consumption, body composition and lipoprotein lipid values of Kuwaiti fencing players with international norms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajji Salman

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background No published data is currently available that describes the dietary patterns or physiological profiles of athletes participating on the Kuwaiti national fencing team and its potential impact on health and physical performance. The purpose of this investigation was to: 1 collect baseline data on nutrient intake 2 collect, analyze and report baseline for body composition, plasma lipid and lipoprotein concentrations during the competitive season, 3 compare the results with the international norms, 4 and provide necessary health and nutritional information in order to enhance the athletes' performance and skills. Methods Fifteen national-class fencers 21.5 ± 2.6 years of age participated in this study. Food intake was measured using a 3-day food record. Body composition was estimated using both the BOD POD and Body Mass Index (BMI. Total blood lipid profiles and maximum oxygen consumption was measured for each of the subjects during the competitive season. Results The results of the present study showed significant differences in dietary consumption in comparison with the recommended dietary allowances (RDA. The blood lipids profile and body composition (BMI and % body fat were in normal range in comparison with international norms However, the average VO2 max value was less than the value of the other fencers. Conclusion Due to the results of the research study, a dietary regimen can be designed that would better enhance athletic performance and minimize any health risks associated with nutrition. Percent body fat and BMI will also be categorized for all players. In addition, the plasma blood tests will help to determine if any of the players have an excessive level of lipids or any blood abnormalities. The outcomes of present study will have a direct impact on the players health and therefore their skills and athletic performance.

  9. The descriptive epidemiology of sitting. A 20-country comparison using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Adrian; Ainsworth, Barbara E; Sallis, James F; Hagströmer, Maria; Craig, Cora L; Bull, Fiona C; Pratt, Michael; Venugopal, Kamalesh; Chau, Josephine; Sjöström, Michael

    2011-08-01

    Recent epidemiologic evidence points to the health risks of prolonged sitting, that are independent of physical activity, but few papers have reported the descriptive epidemiology of sitting in population studies with adults. This paper reports the prevalence of "high sitting time" and its correlates in an international study in 20 countries. Representative population samples from 20 countries were collected 2002-2004, and a question was asked on usual weekday hours spent sitting. This question was part of the International Prevalence Study, using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). The sitting measure has acceptable reliability and validity. Daily sitting time was compared among countries, and by age group, gender, educational attainment, and physical activity. Data were available for 49,493 adults aged 18-65 years from 20 countries. The median reported sitting time was 300 minutes/day, with an interquartile range of 180-480 minutes. Countries reporting the lowest amount of sitting included Portugal, Brazil, and Colombia (medians ≤180 min/day), whereas adults in Taiwan, Norway, Hong Kong, Saudi Arabia, and Japan reported the highest sitting times (medians ≥360 min/day). In adjusted analyses, adults aged 40-65 years were significantly less likely to be in the highest quintile for sitting than adults aged 18-39 years (AOR=0.796), and those with postschool education had higher sitting times compared with those with high school or less education (OR=1.349). Physical activity showed an inverse relationship, with those reporting low activity on the IPAQ three times more likely to be in the highest-sitting quintile compared to those reporting high physical activity. Median sitting time varied widely across countries. Assessing sitting time is an important new area for preventive medicine, in addition to assessing physical activity and sedentary behaviors. Population surveys that monitor lifestyle behaviors should add measures of sitting time to

  10. Comparison of international guidelines for regenerative medicine: Knee cartilage repair and replacement using human-derived cells and tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Kuni; Kano, Shingo

    2016-07-01

    Regenerative medicine (RM) is an emerging field using human-derived cells and tissues (HCT). Due to the complexity and diversity of HCT products, each country has its own regulations for authorization and no common method has been applied to date. Individual regulations were previously clarified at the level of statutes but no direct comparison has been reported at the level of guidelines. Here, we generated a new analytical framework that allows comparison of guidelines independent from local definitions of RM, using 2 indicators, product type and information type. The guidelines for products for repair and replacement of knee cartilage in Japan, the United States of America, and Europe were compared and differences were detected in both product type and information type by the proposed analytical framework. Those findings will be critical not only for the product developers to determine the region to initiate the clinical trials but also for the regulators to assess and build their regulations. This analytical framework is potentially expandable to other RM guidelines to identify gaps, leading to trigger discussion of global harmonization in RM regulations. Copyright © 2016 International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Growth failure associated with early neglect: pilot comparison of neglected US children and international adoptees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Bradley S; Spratt, Eve G; Himes, John H; Condon, Doreen; Summer, Andrea; Papa, Carrie E; Brady, Kathleen T

    2015-01-01

    The long-lasting impact of different neglectful environments on growth in children is not well studied. Three groups of children, 3-10 years old, were recruited (n=60): previously institutionalized international adoptees living in stable home environments for at least 2 years (IA; n=15), children with a history of neglect born in the USA (USN; n=17), and controls (n=28). Children underwent physical examination, anthropometry, and collection of serum for growth parameters. Mean height standard deviation scores (SDS) were different (pneglected children. IGF-1 adjusted for age and weight SDS were different (pneglect groups. The degree of growth failure in height and HC in IAs was more severe than neglected US children. These findings may reflect differences between the impact of chronic and intermittent deprivation on the growth hormone system.

  12. Comparison of MRI findings with clinical symptoms in temporomandibular joint internal derangement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Ki Jeong [Chonbuk National University College of Medicine, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-06-15

    To determine the clinical correlation of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of temporomandibular joint internal derangements. The MR images of 150 TMJs in 75 patients were analyzed. The clinical symptoms were pain in the pre auricular area and masticatory muscles and TMJ sounds. There was a statistically significant relationship between the MRI diagnoses of different types of disc displacements and clinical findings of pain, clicking, and crepitus. The risk of TMJ pain was increased when the disc displacement without reduction occurred at the same time in combination with the osteoarthrosis and effusion. Regardless of the results, the data indicate that each of these MR imaging variables may not be regarded as the unique and dominant factor in defining TMJ pain occurrence.

  13. Relative deprivation and internal migration in the United States: A comparison of black and white men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flippen, Chenoa

    2013-01-01

    While the link between geographic and social mobility has long been a cornerstone of sociological approaches to migration, recent research has cast doubt on the economic returns to internal U.S. migration. Moreover, important racial disparities in migration patterns remain poorly understood. Drawing on data from the 2000 census, I reappraise the link between migration and social mobility by taking relative deprivation into consideration. I examine the association between migration, disaggregated by region of origin and destination, and absolute and relative earnings and occupational prestige, separately by race. Findings lend new insight into the theoretical and stratification implications of growing racial disparities in migration patterns; while both blacks and whites who move north-south generally average lower absolute incomes than their stationary northern peers, they enjoy significantly higher relative social position. Moreover, the relative “gains” to migration are substantially larger for blacks than whites. The opposite patterns obtain for south-north migration. PMID:24391221

  14. Emission factors of Austrian industry production and international comparison. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turi, K.

    1997-05-01

    During the last few years a number of measures have been implemented in the Austrian industries to reduce air pollution and energy use. Therefore specific emissions in the various sectors were changed considerably during this period. The aim of this research project was to better characterize air pollutant emissions of the Austrian industry. Emission data as measured by the Austrian industry was compared with published emission factors from international literature. The results show that the emission factors of the Austrian industry are generally lower than literature emission factors. This is because on the one hand many older data from the literature do not reflect current state of the knowledge, and on the other hand because emission reduction measures and new technologies were introduced in the Austrian industry. (author)

  15. A comparison of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health to the disability tax credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti-Becker, Angela; Doralp, Samantha; Fayed, Nora; Kean, Crystal; Lencucha, Raphael; Leyshon, Rhysa; Mersich, Jackie; Robbins, Shawn; Doyle, Phillip C

    2007-01-01

    The Disability Tax Credit (DTC) Certification is an assessment tool used to provide Canadians with disability tax relief The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) provides a universal framework for defining disability. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the DTC and familiarize occupational therapists with the process of mapping measures to the ICF classification system. Concepts within the DTC were identified and mapped to appropriate ICF codes (Cieza et al., 2005). The DTC was linked to 45 unique ICF codes (16 Body Functions, 19 Activities and Participation, and 8 Environmental Factors). The DTC encompasses various domains of the ICF; however, there is no consideration of Personal Factors, Body Structures, and key aspects of Activities and Participation. Refining the DTC to address these aspects will provide an opportunity for fair and just determinations for those who experience disability.

  16. Comparison of Different Internal Dosimetry Systems for Selected Radionuclides Important to Nuclear Power Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leggett, Richard Wayne [ORNL; Eckerman, Keith F [ORNL; Manger, Ryan P [ORNL

    2013-08-01

    This report compares three different radiation dosimetry systems currently applied by various U.S. Federal agencies and dose estimates based on these three dosimetry systems for a set of radionuclides often identified in power reactor effluents. These dosimetry systems were developed and applied by the International Commission on Radiological Protection at different times over the past six decades. Two primary modes of intake of radionuclides are addressed: ingestion in drinking water and inhalation. Estimated doses to individual organs and to the whole body based on each dosimetry system are compared for each of four age groups: infant, child, teenager, and adult. Substantial differences between dosimetry systems in estimated dose per unit intake are found for some individual radionuclides, but differences in estimated dose per unit intake generally are modest for mixtures of radionuclides typically found in nuclear power plant effluents.

  17. Cohort mortality study of garment industry workers exposed to formaldehyde: update and internal comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Alysha R; Pinkerton, Lynne E; Hein, Misty J

    2013-09-01

    To further evaluate the association between formaldehyde and leukemia, we extended follow-up through 2008 for a cohort mortality study of 11,043 US formaldehyde-exposed garment workers. We computed standardized mortality ratios and standardized rate ratios stratified by year of first exposure, exposure duration, and time since first exposure. Associations between exposure duration and rates of leukemia and myeloid leukemia were further examined using Poisson regression models. Compared to the US population, myeloid leukemia mortality was elevated but overall leukemia mortality was not. In internal analyses, overall leukemia mortality increased with increasing exposure duration and this trend was statistically significant. We continue to see limited evidence of an association between formaldehyde and leukemia. However, the extended follow-up did not strengthen previously observed associations. In addition to continued epidemiologic research, we recommend further research to evaluate the biological plausibility of a causal relation between formaldehyde and leukemia. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Undergraduate prosthetics and orthotics teaching methods: A baseline for international comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminian, Gholamreza; O'Toole, John M; Mehraban, Afsoon Hassani

    2015-08-01

    Education of Prosthetics and Orthotics is a relatively recent professional program. While there has been some work on various teaching methods and strategies in international medical education, limited publication exists within prosthetics and orthotics. To identify the teaching and learning methods that are used in Bachelor-level prosthetics and orthotics programs that are given highest priority by expert prosthetics and orthotics instructors from regions enjoying a range of economic development. Mixed method. The study partly documented by this article utilized a mixed method approach (qualitative and quantitative methods) within which each phase provided data for other phases. It began with analysis of prosthetics and orthotics curricula documents, which was followed by a broad survey of instructors in this field and then a modified Delphi process. The expert instructors who participated in this study gave high priority to student-centered, small group methods that encourage critical thinking and may lead to lifelong learning. Instructors from more developed nations placed higher priority on student's independent acquisition of prosthetics and orthotics knowledge, particularly in clinical training. Application of student-centered approaches to prosthetics and orthotics programs may be preferred by many experts, but there appeared to be regional differences in the priority given to different teaching methods. The results of this study identify the methods of teaching that are preferred by expert prosthetics and orthotics instructors from a variety of regions. This treatment of current instructional techniques may inform instructor choice of teaching methods that impact the quality of education and improve the professional skills of students. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2014.

  19. Assessment of the threat from diverted radioactive material and 'orphan sources' - An international comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhausler, F.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Multiple international activities have been undertaken to contain the trafficking of weapons-usable material in order to reduce the risk from the proliferation of such material. In addition, over the past decade the issue of unintended handling and transport of radioactive material has become increasingly important. Concurrent with the growing number of radioactive sources in industry, medicine, agriculture and research, the probability for losing control over such sources increases as well ('orphan sources'). The potential impact on society and the environment from these two categories of threat has been documented extensively in the literature. In this study representatives from 11 countries in the Americas, Europe and Asia-Pacific formed a network to exchange information concerning nuclear and other radioactive material on the following topic areas: Legislation and regulatory practices for the production, processing, handling, use, holding, storage, transport, import, and export; History of site-specific non-compliance and enforcement actions, as well as punitive actions; National approach for handling the issue of orphan sources; The role of national security forces; Managerial and technical procedures to ensure material inventory control and accountancy; Aspects of physical protection on-site and during transport; Technical/scientific expertise and equipment available at the national level to detect, identify and quantify such material in the field; Level of practical implementation of technical equipment to detect such material at border crossings, airports, railway stations, and mail distribution centres; Cases of seizure of nuclear and contaminated materials, illegal sales and fraud; Training programmes available for preventing, detecting and responding to the loss of control. The results of the analysis show that, despite several international consensus documents and supporting legislation, in several cases major additional efforts are needed

  20. Using Objective Structured Clinical Examinations to Assess Intern Orthopaedic Physical Examination Skills: A Multimodal Didactic Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Donna; Pean, Christian A; Allen, Kathleen; Zuckerman, Joseph; Egol, Kenneth

    Patient care is 1 of the 6 core competencies defined by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME). The physical examination (PE) is a fundamental skill to evaluate patients and make an accurate diagnosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate 3 different methods to teach PE skills and to assess the ability to do a complete PE in a simulated patient encounter. Prospective, uncontrolled, observational. Northeastern academic medical center. A total of 32 orthopedic surgery residents participated and were divided into 3 didactic groups: Group 1 (n = 12) live interactive lectures, demonstration on standardized patients, and textbook reading; Group 2 (n = 11) video recordings of the lectures given to Group 1 and textbook reading alone; Group 3 (n = 9): 90-minute modules taught by residents to interns in near-peer format and textbook reading. The overall score for objective structured clinical examinations from the combined groups was 66%. There was a trend toward more complete PEs in Group 1 taught via live lectures and demonstrations compared to Group 2 that relied on video recording. Near-peer taught residents from Group 3 significantly outperformed Group 2 residents overall (p = 0.02), and trended toward significantly outperforming Group 1 residents as well, with significantly higher scores in the ankle (p = 0.02) and shoulder (p = 0.02) PE cases. This study found that orthopedic interns taught musculoskeletal PE skills by near-peers outperformed other groups overall. An overall score of 66% for the combined didactic groups suggests a baseline deficit in first-year resident musculoskeletal PE skills. The PE should continue to be taught and objectively assessed throughout residency to confirm that budding surgeons have mastered these fundamental skills before going into practice. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. An international comparison of commercial nuclear power plant staffing regulations and practice, 1980--1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melber, B.; Hauth, J.; Terrill, E.; Berk, B.; Gore, B.

    1994-03-01

    In this report an international review of regulatory and industry practices is provided in the area of nuclear power plant staffing during the 1980s in Canada, France, Germany, Japan, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. The objective of this review is to highlight trends in staffing regulatory approaches, industry practices, and issues of concern in other countries that have potential relevance to nuclear power plant staffing issues in the United States. The decade of the 1980s was marked by a great deal of growth in nuclear power operations internationally; however, growth of nuclear power is not expected to continue in the 1990s except in France and Japan. A continuum of regulatory approaches to staffing was identified, ranging from prescribed regulations that are applied to all licensees (Germany is most similar to the United States in this regard), to indirect staffing regulations where the regulatory authority oversees plant operating practices that are agreed to in the plant operating license (most notably, France and the United Kingdom). Most of the changes observed in staffing regulations and practices in the early 1980s were made in response to the accident at the Three Mile Island Unit 2 nuclear power plant (TMI) in 1979. These changes included the widespread issuance of new operator and licensing requirements and the establishment of national training centers. After the post-TMI changes were implemented, a period of relative stability followed. Changes in the latter half of the 1980s have focused on continuing improvements and additions to training curricula and methods, most notably increased reliance on simulator training

  2. VENOUS SAMPLING FOR CUSHING DISEASE: COMPARISON OF INTERNAL JUGULAR VEIN AND INFERIOR PETROSAL SINUS SAMPLING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radvany, Martin G; Quinones-Hinojosa, Alfredo; Gallia, Gary L; Wand, Gary S; Salvatori, Roberto

    2016-09-01

    Because magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) fails to detect many adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-secreting pituitary adenomas, inferior petrosal sinus sampling (IPSS) is considered the gold standard to differentiate Cushing disease (CD) from ectopic ACTH secretion syndrome (EAS). Some authors have suggested internal jugular vein sampling (IJVS) as an alternative to IPSS. We simultaneously compared IJVS to IPSS in 30 consecutive patients referred for ACTH-dependent Cushing syndrome and equivocal MRI exams. Five sites were simultaneously sampled in each patient (right and left IPS, right and left IJV, and femoral vein) before and after the administration of corticotrophin-releasing hormone or desmopressin. The test was considered consistent with CD when the IPS to peripheral ratio was >2 at baseline or >3 after stimulus and the IJV to peripheral ratio was >1.7 at baseline or >2 after stimulus. In 27 of 30 patients, IPSS results were consistent with a central source of ACTH. Two of the other 3 patients had EAS (one lung carcinoid and one occult), and 1 patient had pathology-proven CD. The sensitivity of IPSS was 96.4%. Only 64.2% of these patients had results meeting criteria for a central source of ACTH by IJVS criteria. Twenty patients with centralizing IPPS have undergone pituitary surgery. Of these, the central origin of excessive ACTH was confirmed with certainty in 16 patients. Among these 16 patients, the IPSS sensitivity was 93.8%, whereas 5 patients had false-negative IJVS (68.7% sensitivity). These results do not support the routine use of IJVS in establishing if the pituitary is the source of excessive ACTH. ACTH = adrenocorticotropic hormone CD = Cushing disease CRH = corticotrophin-releasing hormone CS = Cushing syndrome DDAVP = desmopressin EAS = ectopic ACTH secretion IJVS = internal jugular vein sampling IPSS = inferior petrosal sinus sampling JVS = jugular venous sampling MRI = magnetic resonance imaging.

  3. An international comparison of risk factors between two regions with distinct differences in asthma prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, K; Vlaski, E; Rennie, D C; Sears, M; Lawson, J A

    2018-03-24

    Investigation of the geographic variation in asthma prevalence can improve our understanding of asthma etiology and management. The purpose of our investigation was to compare the prevalence of asthma and wheeze among adolescents living in two distinct international regions and to investigate reasons for observed differences. A cross-sectional survey of 13-14 year olds was completed in Saskatoon, Canada (n=1200) and Skopje, Republic of Macedonia (n=3026), as part of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) Phase 3 study. Surveys were self-completed by students following the ISAAC protocol. Multiple logistic regression models were used to investigate associations with reports of asthma and current wheeze. A mediation analysis was then completed. Asthma prevalence was much higher in Saskatoon than Skopje (21.3% vs. 1.7%) as was the prevalence of current wheeze (28.2% vs. 8.8%). Higher paracetamol (acetaminophen) use was a consistent risk factor for asthma and wheeze in both locations and showed dose-response relationships. In both countries, paracetamol use and physical activity mediated some of the association for both asthma and wheeze. In Saskatoon, among those with current wheeze, 42.6% reported ever having a diagnosis of asthma compared to 10.2% among Skopje adolescents. The results suggest that the variation in risk factors between the two locations may explain some of the differences in the prevalence of asthma and wheeze between these two study sites. However, diagnostic labeling patterns should not be ruled out as another potential explanatory factor. Copyright © 2018 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparison of low-level waste disposal programs of DOE and selected international countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meagher, B.G.; Cole, L.T.

    1996-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to examine and compare the approaches and practices of selected countries for disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) with those of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The report addresses the programs for disposing of wastes into engineered LLW disposal facilities and is not intended to address in-situ options and practices associated with environmental restoration activities or the management of mill tailings and mixed LLW. The countries chosen for comparison are France, Sweden, Canada, and the United Kingdom. The countries were selected as typical examples of the LLW programs which have evolved under differing technical constraints, regulatory requirements, and political/social systems. France was the first country to demonstrate use of engineered structure-type disposal facilities. The UK has been actively disposing of LLW since 1959. Sweden has been disposing of LLW since 1983 in an intermediate-depth disposal facility rather than a near-surface disposal facility. To date, Canada has been storing its LLW but will soon begin operation of Canada's first demonstration LLW disposal facility

  5. International comparisons of productivity and its determinants in the natural gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tai-Yoo; Lee, Jeong-Dong; Park, Yearn H.; Kim, Boyoung

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to evaluate the performance of the natural gas industry using an inter-country comparison of productivity level and its determinants. Three methodologies: multilateral Toernqvist productivity analysis; managerial index system analysis; and non-parametric efficiency analysis, are employed to make a methodological cross-checking and to perform diversified analysis. From the empirical results, we identified the level and growth rate of productivity of individual firms. The results also indicated that the Korean gas industry has shown a relatively low level of productivity. From the results of managerial performance index analysis, we found that during the recent years of regulatory changes, the final price of gas has decreased dramatically while the productivity growth has not been enough to offset the effect of decreased output price, which has resulted in decreased profit. We also examine the extent of the allocative, scale, and managerial efficiency as source components of the overall efficiency based on the performance of best-practiced. With the results of this study, an effective policy measure could be established to improve the productivity and the overall managerial performance in the natural gas industry

  6. Health impact assessment: A comparison of 45 local, national, and international guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebert, Katherine A.; Wendel, Arthur M.; Kennedy, Sarah K.; Dannenberg, Andrew L.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides a comparison of health impact assessment (HIA) guidelines from around the world and for multiple geographic scales. We identify commonalities and differences within HIA guides to discuss the plausibility of consensus guidelines and to inform guideline development. The practice of HIA has grown over the last two decades with a concurrent growth of HIA guides. This study expands on earlier review work and includes guides published since 2007 (Mindell, Boltong and Forde, 2008). From April 2010 to October 2011, 45 HIA guides were identified through an internet search and review of previous research. Common characteristics, key features, and the HIA process were analyzed. The 45 documents recommended similar but not identical processes for conducting HIAs. These analyses suggest that guidelines for HIAs are similar in many areas of the world and that new HIA practitioners can use these findings to inform their approach. Further discussion is needed to determine if the approaches established in these guidelines are followed and if one set of common guidelines could be written for use in numerous countries and regions. - Highlights: ► We analyze 45 health impact assessment (HIA) guidelines worldwide. ► We examine similarities and unique attributes of each guideline. ► We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of developing consensus guidelines. ► Identifying additional guidelines aides in future HIA work and evaluation.

  7. Characterization of plaque in the internal carotid artery. Comparison neuroradiological findings with pathological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, Misao; Nishio, Akimasa; Takami, Toshihiro; Goto, Takeo; Ueda, Makiko; Hara, Mitsuhiro

    2006-01-01

    We evaluate the morphology of the carotid plaque using echogram, CT scan and MRI and compare those neuroradiological findings with histological findings of the plaque. We evaluated 14 cases operated with carotid endoarterectomy for carotid stenosis. We estimated the findings of the echogram, enhanced CT scan and black blood MRI (BB MRI), in comparison with the histological findings of the carotid plaque. Echogram, enhanced CT scan and MRI clearly demonstrated the plaque in cervical carotid stenosis. In most cases, echograms could show the plaque, but in some cases could not due to the back shadow caused by plaque calcification. Enhanced CT scan clearly demonstrated the calcification and the neovasculization in plaque. BB MRI clearly showed the carotid plaque. Low-intensity lesions in T1 and T2 weighted images showed hard and fibrous plaque. High-intensity lesions in T1 and T2 weighted images showed soft plaque with lipoprotein and/or hemorrhage. This study demonstrates the potential of a systemic approach to atherosclerotic plaque with enhanced CT scan and BB MRI compared with histological findings of the carotid plaque. These estimations elucidate the growth mechanism of carotid plaque. (author)

  8. Cost Model Comparison: A Study of Internally and Commercially Developed Cost Models in Use by NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Garima

    2011-01-01

    NASA makes use of numerous cost models to accurately estimate the cost of various components of a mission - hardware, software, mission/ground operations - during the different stages of a mission's lifecycle. The purpose of this project was to survey these models and determine in which respects they are similar and in which they are different. The initial survey included a study of the cost drivers for each model, the form of each model (linear/exponential/other CER, range/point output, capable of risk/sensitivity analysis), and for what types of missions and for what phases of a mission lifecycle each model is capable of estimating cost. The models taken into consideration consisted of both those that were developed by NASA and those that were commercially developed: GSECT, NAFCOM, SCAT, QuickCost, PRICE, and SEER. Once the initial survey was completed, the next step in the project was to compare the cost models' capabilities in terms of Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) elements. This final comparison was then portrayed in a visual manner with Venn diagrams. All of the materials produced in the process of this study were then posted on the Ground Segment Team (GST) Wiki.

  9. Energy use in Poland, 1970--1991: Sectoral analysis and international comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, S.; Schipper, L.; Salay, J.

    1993-07-01

    This report provides an analysis of how and why energy use has changed in Poland since the 1970s, with particular emphasis on changes since the country began its transition from a centrally planned to a market economy in 1989. The most important factors behind the large decline in Polish energy use in 1990 were a sharp fall in industrial output and a huge drop in residential coal use driven by higher prices. The structural shift away from heavy industry was slight. Key factors that worked to increase energy use were the rise in energy intensity in many heavy industries and the shift toward more energy intensive modes of transport. The growth in private activities in 1991 was nearly sufficient to balance out continued decline in industrial energy use in that year. We compared energy use in Poland and the factors that shape it with similar elements in the West. We made a number of modifications to the Polish energy data to bring it closer to a Western energy accounting framework, and augmented these with a variety of estimates in order to construct a sufficiently detailed portrait of Polish energy use to allow comparison with Western data. Per capita energy use in Poland was not much below W. European levels despite Poland`s much lower GDP per capita. Poland has comparatively high energy intensities in manufacturing and residential space heating, and a large share of heavy industries in manufacturing output, all factors that contribute to higher energy use per capita. The structure of passenger and freight transportation and the energy intensity of automobiles contribute to lower energy use per capita in Poland than in Western Europe, but the patterns in Poland are moving closer to those that prevail in the West.

  10. Pain experience during internal spermatic vein embolization for varicocele: comparison of two cyanoacrylate glues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heye, Sam; Maleux, Geert; Wilms, Guido [University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Department of Radiology, Leuven (Belgium)

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate possible pain sensation differences in patients after retrograde varicocele embolization either with n-butyl-(2)-cyanoacrylate (NBCA) or with n-butyl-(2)-cyanoacrylate + methacryloxysulfolane (NBCA-MS). Transcatheter varicocele embolization was performed in 64 consecutive patients (62 left, two bilateral). Embolization was done with NBCA (n=32) or NBCA-MS (n=32). Immediately after the procedure, patients were asked to evaluate pain during embolization using a visual analog scale (VAS). Statistical analysis was done with Student's t test. Mean pain score on VAS was 3.23 (range: 0-8) for NBCA and 3.28 (range 0-9) for NBCA-MS. This difference was not significant (P=0.932). Independently of the type of glue, no difference in pain sensation (P value 0.421) was found between patients younger than 18 (n=29) and patients older than 18 years of age (n=35) (younger than18, mean 3.52; older than 18, mean 3.05). No difference in mean pain experience level (P=0.323) was seen in 11 patients with vessel wall perforation (23.4%) during the procedure (3.89; range: 0-8.5) in comparison with those without perforation (mean pain sensation level: 3.13; range: 0-9). No difference in pain experience was found after transcatheter varicocele embolization either with NBCA or NBCA-MS. Age and vessel wall perforation have no influence on pain sensation independently of the type of glue. (orig.)

  11. International comparison of the factors influencing reimbursement of targeted anti-cancer drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Carol Sunghye; Lee, Yun-Gyoo; Koh, Youngil; Heo, Dae Seog

    2014-11-29

    Reimbursement policies for anti-cancer drugs vary among countries even though they rely on the same clinical evidence. We compared the pattern of publicly funded drug programs and analyzed major factors influencing the differences. We investigated reimbursement policies for 19 indications with targeted anti-cancer drugs that are used variably across ten countries. The available incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) data were retrieved for each indication. Based on the comparison between actual reimbursement decisions and the ICERs, we formulated a reimbursement adequacy index (RAI): calculating the proportion of cost-effective decisions, either reimbursement of cost-effective indications or non-reimbursement of cost-ineffective indications, out of the total number of indications for each country. The relationship between RAI and other indices were analyzed, including governmental dependency on health technology assessment, as well as other parameters for health expenditure. All the data used in this study were gathered from sources publicly available online. Japan and France were the most likely to reimburse indications (16/19), whereas Sweden and the United Kingdom were the least likely to reimburse them (5/19 and 6/19, respectively). Indications with high cost-effectiveness values were more likely to be reimbursed (ρ = -0.68, P = 0.001). The three countries with high RAI scores each had a healthcare system that was financed by general taxation. Although reimbursement policies for anti-cancer drugs vary among countries, we found a strong correlation of reimbursements for those indications with lower ICERs. Countries with healthcare systems financed by general taxation demonstrated greater cost-effectiveness as evidenced by reimbursement decisions of anti-cancer drugs.

  12. Pain experience during internal spermatic vein embolization for varicocele: comparison of two cyanoacrylate glues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heye, Sam; Maleux, Geert; Wilms, Guido

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate possible pain sensation differences in patients after retrograde varicocele embolization either with n-butyl-(2)-cyanoacrylate (NBCA) or with n-butyl-(2)-cyanoacrylate + methacryloxysulfolane (NBCA-MS). Transcatheter varicocele embolization was performed in 64 consecutive patients (62 left, two bilateral). Embolization was done with NBCA (n=32) or NBCA-MS (n=32). Immediately after the procedure, patients were asked to evaluate pain during embolization using a visual analog scale (VAS). Statistical analysis was done with Student's t test. Mean pain score on VAS was 3.23 (range: 0-8) for NBCA and 3.28 (range 0-9) for NBCA-MS. This difference was not significant (P=0.932). Independently of the type of glue, no difference in pain sensation (P value 0.421) was found between patients younger than 18 (n=29) and patients older than 18 years of age (n=35) (younger than18, mean 3.52; older than 18, mean 3.05). No difference in mean pain experience level (P=0.323) was seen in 11 patients with vessel wall perforation (23.4%) during the procedure (3.89; range: 0-8.5) in comparison with those without perforation (mean pain sensation level: 3.13; range: 0-9). No difference in pain experience was found after transcatheter varicocele embolization either with NBCA or NBCA-MS. Age and vessel wall perforation have no influence on pain sensation independently of the type of glue. (orig.)

  13. $Nb_{3}Sn macrostructure, microstructure, and property comparisons for bronze and internal Sn process strands

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, P J; Larbalestier, D C

    2000-01-01

    The variation in irreversibility field, B*(T), with temperature has been measured for Nb/sub 3/Sn superconducting strands manufactured for ITER using vibrating sample and SQUID magnetometers. The high performance strands were developed for both high transport critical current density, J/sub c/, and low hysteresis loss. Despite a wide variety of designs and components, the strands could be split into two distinctive groups, based on the extrapolated irreversibility fields, which lie about 10% lower than the upper critical field. "Bronze-process" strands exhibited consistently higher B*(T) (28 T to 31 T) compared with "internal Sn" process (24 T to 26 T) conductors. The intrinsic critical current density of the superconductor, J/sub c (sc)/, and the specific pinning force of the grain boundaries, Q/sub gb/, were evaluated using the measured J/sub c/, and image analysis of the macro- and micro-structures. A bronze-processed Nb(-Ta)/sub 3 /Sn was found to have a higher J/sub c(sc)/ but lower Q/sub gb/ than Nb/sub...

  14. The care dependency scale for measuring basic human needs: an international comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Ate; Yönt, Gülendam Hakverdioğlu; Korhan, Esra Akin; Muszalik, Marta; Kędziora-Kornatowska, Kornelia; Suzuki, Mizue

    2012-10-01

    To report a study conducted to compare the utility of the care dependency scale across four countries. The care dependency scale provides a framework for assessing the needs of institutionalized patients for nursing care. Henderson's components of nursing care have been used to specify the variable aspects of the concept of care dependency and to develop the care dependency scale items. The study used a cross-cultural survey design. Patients were recruited from four different countries: Japan, The Netherlands, Poland and Turkey. In each of the participating countries, basic human needs were assessed by nurses using a translated version of the original Dutch care dependency scale. Psychometric properties in terms of reliability and validity of the care dependency scale have been assessed using Cronbach's alpha, Guttman's lambda-2, inter-item correlation and principal components analysis. Data were collected in 2008 and 2009. High internal consistency values were demonstrated. Principal component analysis confirmed the one-factor model reported in earlier studies. Outcomes confirm Henderson's idea that human needs are fundamental appearing in every patient-nurse relationship, independent of the patient's age, the type of care setting and/or cultural background. The psychometric characteristics of the care dependency scale make this instrument very useful for comparative research across countries. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. International comparison of the definition and the practical application of health technology assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draborg, Eva; Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte; Poulsen, Peter Bo; Horder, Mogens

    2005-01-01

    Health Technology Assessment (HTA) is defined as a policy research approach that examines the short- and long-term social consequences of the application or use of technology. Internationally different institutions have translated this definition to local contexts. In Denmark, HTA is comprehensive with focus on four aspects of the problem in question (technology [clinical evidence], economy, patient, and organization). The objective of this study is to study how the application of HTA differs across leading countries and to study the extent to which Danish HTA reports differ from foreign HTAs. A sample of 433 HTA reports published in the period 1989--2002 by eleven leading institutions or agencies in Denmark and eight other countries were reviewed. We looked at the characteristics of the HTA with respect to focus on the four main aspects and the manner in which each aspect has been approached. The study shows health technology procedures to be the most common type of health technology assessed in HTAs and literature review to be the most often used method of analysis. Policy recommendations are only present in approximately half of the HTA reports. In the HTAs one generally sees a great focus on the clinical aspect of health technologies, leaving the economic, the patient-related, and the organizational aspect much more unanalyzed. The Danish HTAs generally have a wider scope than HTAs produced in other countries and tend to focus more frequently on patient-related and organizational dimensions.

  16. Gender Gaps in Indigenous Socioeconomic Outcomes: Australian Regional Comparisons and International Possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Biddle

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available International literature clearly demonstrates the potential for gender-based inequalities to constrain development processes. In the United Nations Development Programme Gender-related Development Index, Australia ranks in the top five across 177 countries, suggesting that the loss of human development due to gender inequality is minor. However, such analysis has not been systematically applied to the Indigenous Australian population, at least in a quantitative sense. Using the 2006 Australian Census, this paper provides an analysis across three dimensions of socioeconomic disparity: Indigeneity, gender, and geography. This paper also explores the development of a similar gender-related index as a tool to enable a relative ranking of the performance of Indigenous males and females at the regional level across a set of socioeconomic outcomes.The initial findings suggest that although there is a substantial development gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians, the development loss from gender-related inequality for Indigenous Australians is relatively small. Higher life expectancy and education attainment for Indigenous females balances out their slightly lower earnings to a large extent. At the regional level, Indigenous females tend to fare better than Indigenous males for the set of indicators chosen; and, this is particularly true in capital cities.

  17. Comparison of Journal Self-Citation Rates between Some Chinese and Non-Chinese International Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zu-Guo; Gao, Feng; Zhang, Chun-Ting

    2012-01-01

    Background The past 3 decades have witnessed a boost in science development in China; in parallel, more and more Chinese scientific journals are indexed by the Journal Citation Reports issued by Thomson Reuters (SCI). Evaluation of the performance of these Chinese SCI journals is necessary and helpful to improve their quality. This study aimed to evaluate these journals by calculating various journal self-citation rates, which are important parameters influencing a journal impact factor. Methodology/Principal Findings We defined three journal self-citation rates, and studied these rates for 99 Chinese scientific journals, almost exhausting all Chinese SCI journals currently available. Likewise, we selected 99 non-Chinese international (abbreviated as ‘world’) journals, with each being in the same JCR subject category and having similar impact factors as their Chinese counterparts. Generally, Chinese journals tended to be higher in all the three self-citation rates than world journal counterparts. Particularly, a few Chinese scientific journals had much higher self-citation rates. Conclusions/Significance Our results show that generally Chinese scientific journals have higher self-citation rates than those of world journals. Consequently, Chinese scientific journals tend to have lower visibility and are more isolated in the relevant fields. Considering the fact that sciences are rapidly developing in China and so are Chinese scientific journals, we expect that the differences of journal self-citation rates between Chinese and world scientific journals will gradually disappear in the future. Some suggestions to solve the problems are presented. PMID:23173041

  18. Concrete blocks. Analysis of UNE, ISO en standards and comparison with other international standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvarez Alonso, Marina

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to describe the recently approved UNE standards through a systematic analysis of the main specifications therein contained and the values considered for each of them, as well as the drafts for ISO and EN concrete block standards. Furthermore, the study tries to place the set of ISO standards in the international environment through a comparative analysis against a representative sample of the standards prevailing in various geographical regions of the globe to determine the analogies and differences among them. PALABRAS CLAVE: albañilería, análisis de sistemas, bloque de hormigón, muros de fábrica, normativa KEY WORDS: masonry, system analysis, concrete blocks, masonry walls, standards

    En este trabajo se pretende describir la reciente aprobada normativa UNE, analizando sistemáticamente las principales prescripciones contempladas y los valores considerados para cada una de ellas, así como los proyectos de Norma ISO, y EN sobre bloques de hormigón. Asimismo se intenta situar la normativa UNE en al ámbito internacional, haciendo un análisis comparativo con una representación de Normas de distintas regiones geográficas del mundo, determinando sus analogías y diferencias.

  19. Calibration campaign against the international prototype of the kilogram in anticipation of the redefinition of the kilogram part I: comparison of the international prototype with its official copies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Michael; Barat, Pauline; Davis, Richard S.; Picard, Alain; Milton, Martin J. T.

    2015-04-01

    This report presents the results of the first phase of the campaign of calibration carried out with respect to the international prototype of the kilogram (IPK) in anticipation of the redefinition of the kilogram (Extraordinary Calibrations). The definition of the kilogram was realized according to the procedure outlined in the 8th Edition of the SI Brochure. Thus the IPK and its six official copies have been cleaned and washed following the BIPM procedure. The mass comparisons carried out during this campaign showed a very good repeatability. The pooled standard deviation of repeated weighings of the prototypes was 0.4 µg. The effect of cleaning and washing of the IPK was to remove a mass of 16.8 µg. The effect of cleaning and washing of the six official copies was found to be very similar, giving an average mass removed from the seven prototypes of 15 µg with a standard deviation of 2 µg. The differences in mass between the IPK and the official copies have changed by an average of 1 µg since the 3rd Periodic Verification of National Prototypes of the Kilogram (1988-1992). These results do not confirm the trend for the masses of the six official copies to diverge from the mass of the IPK that was observed during the 2nd and 3rd Periodic Verifications. All BIPM working standards and the prototypes reserved for special use have been calibrated with respect to the IPK as part of this campaign. All of them were found to have lower masses than when they were calibrated during the 3rd Periodic Verification. As a consequence, the BIPM ‘as-maintained’ mass unit in 2014 has been found to be offset by 35 µg with respect to the IPK. This result will be analyzed in a further publication.

  20. Space use optimisation and sustainability-environmental comparison of international cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wilde, Sebastiaan; van den Dobbelsteen, Andy

    2004-11-01

    As a follow-up to our first paper in this journal, this paper discusses projects involving intensive and multiple use of space recently completed or still being developed around railway stations in London (Broadgate and Canary Wharf), Paris (Seine Rive Gauche and La Défense) and Amsterdam (Zuidas and Bijlmer). The cases were compared on the basis of spatial, functional and environmental indicators, as treated in our first paper. The environmental performance of each of the cases was determined through comparison with a theoretic reference project for an equal number of users, yet with average West-European urban values for spatial, functional and environmental properties. The case studies revealed that a high floor space index is easily achievable in urban plans, implying efficient use of land and preservation of green area outside the city. For a mono-functional office area it is easier to achieve a high FSI than for a functionally diverse area with, e.g. apartments and shops. Therefore, with respect to a reference functionally equal to the cases, the predominant office character of Canary Wharf, Broadgate and La Défense results in good environmental performance. However, on the basis of a functionally diverse reference, for which monofunctional cases were enlarged with additional area for housing and amenities, the varied areas of Zuidas and Seine Rive Gauche perform best. With respect to average urban plans, the cases achieved environmental improvement of factor 1.5. This performance is restricted by the energy consumption of buildings, which has by far the most influence on the end result. The impact of stacking on the use of building materials and energy consumption of buildings is limited, and specific sustainability measures on the building scale were not involved in the calculations. The environmental benefits of intensive and multiple use of space are mainly demonstrated by the great improvement factors for the green area preserved and transport fuel

  1. Prevalence of thinness in children and adolescents in the Seychelles: comparison of two international growth references.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovet, Pascal; Kizirian, Nathalie; Madeleine, George; Blössner, Monika; Chiolero, Arnaud

    2011-06-09

    Thinness in children and adolescents is largely under studied, a contrast with abundant literature on under-nutrition in infants and on overweight in children and adolescents. The aim of this study is to compare the prevalence of thinness using two recently developed growth references, among children and adolescents living in the Seychelles, an economically rapidly developing country in the African region. Weight and height were measured every year in all children of 4 grades (age range: 5 to 16 years) of all schools in the Seychelles as part of a routine school-based surveillance program. In this study we used data collected in 16,672 boys and 16,668 girls examined from 1998 to 2004. Thinness was estimated according to two growth references: i) an international survey (IS), defining three grades of thinness corresponding to a BMI of 18.5, 17.0 and 16.0 kg/m2 at age 18 and ii) the WHO reference, defined here as three categories of thinness (-1, -2 and -3 SD of BMI for age) with the second and third named "thinness" and "severe thinness", respectively. The prevalence of thinness was 21.4%, 6.4% and 2.0% based on the three IS cut-offs and 27.7%, 6.7% and 1.2% based on the WHO cut-offs. The prevalence of thinness categories tended to decrease according to age for both sexes for the IS reference and among girls for the WHO reference. The prevalence of the first category of thinness was larger with the WHO cut-offs than with the IS cut-offs while the prevalence of thinness of "grade 2" and thinness of "grade 3" (IS cut-offs) was similar to the prevalence of "thinness" and "severe thinness" (WHO cut-offs), respectively.

  2. Prevalence of thinness in children and adolescents in the Seychelles: comparison of two international growth references

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine George

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thinness in children and adolescents is largely under studied, a contrast with abundant literature on under-nutrition in infants and on overweight in children and adolescents. The aim of this study is to compare the prevalence of thinness using two recently developed growth references, among children and adolescents living in the Seychelles, an economically rapidly developing country in the African region. Methods Weight and height were measured every year in all children of 4 grades (age range: 5 to 16 years of all schools in the Seychelles as part of a routine school-based surveillance program. In this study we used data collected in 16,672 boys and 16,668 girls examined from 1998 to 2004. Thinness was estimated according to two growth references: i an international survey (IS, defining three grades of thinness corresponding to a BMI of 18.5, 17.0 and 16.0 kg/m2 at age 18 and ii the WHO reference, defined here as three categories of thinness (-1, -2 and -3 SD of BMI for age with the second and third named "thinness" and "severe thinness", respectively. Results The prevalence of thinness was 21.4%, 6.4% and 2.0% based on the three IS cut-offs and 27.7%, 6.7% and 1.2% based on the WHO cut-offs. The prevalence of thinness categories tended to decrease according to age for both sexes for the IS reference and among girls for the WHO reference. Conclusion The prevalence of the first category of thinness was larger with the WHO cut-offs than with the IS cut-offs while the prevalence of thinness of "grade 2" and thinness of "grade 3" (IS cut-offs was similar to the prevalence of "thinness" and "severe thinness" (WHO cut-offs, respectively.

  3. Le tendenze dell'occupazione: un confronto internazionale. (Employment trends: an international comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. DELL’ARINGA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available L'interesse per le previsioni di tendenza di occupazione è cresciuto significativamente negli ultimi anni, in particolare quelli relativi al lungo termine . Ciò che sorprende è la grande differenze nelle tendenze che emergono da paese a paese , anche dalle stime delle organizzazioni internazionali che mettono a confronto le esperienze dei vari paesi . Non è chiaro se le ragioni di tali differenze si trovanonegli effetti dei fenomeni generali che caratterizzano l' esperienza di tutti i paesi , come ad esempio il progresso tecnico , o fenomeni piuttosto specifici propri di ogni paese differente . Ciò che sembra chiaro, tuttavia , è la natura estrapolativa delle previsioni . La presente nota analizza il difficile compito di individuare le determinanti storiche dell'evoluzione del rapporto di lavoro nel lungo periodo , al fine di comprendere meglio il modo in cui le previsioni sono concepiti oggi .Interest in employment trend forecasts has grown significantly in recent years, especially those related to the long term. What is surprising is the large differences in trends that emerge from country to country, even from estimates by international organisations that compare the experiences of various countries. It is unclear if the reasons for such differences lie in differing effects of general phenomena that characterise the experience of all countries, such as technical progress, or rather specific phenomena peculiar to each country. What seems clear, however, is the extrapolative nature of the forecasts. The present note looks at the difficult task of identifying the historical determinants of the evolution of employment in the long run, in order to better understand the way in which forecasts are devised today.JEL: E24, E27, J21

  4. International perception of lung sounds: a comparison of classification across some European borders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviles-Solis, Juan Carlos; Vanbelle, Sophie; Halvorsen, Peder A; Francis, Nick; Cals, Jochen W L; Andreeva, Elena A; Marques, Alda; Piirilä, Päivi; Pasterkamp, Hans; Melbye, Hasse

    2017-01-01

    Lung auscultation is helpful in the diagnosis of lung and heart diseases; however, the diagnostic value of lung sounds may be questioned due to interobserver variation. This situation may also impair clinical research in this area to generate evidence-based knowledge about the role that chest auscultation has in a modern clinical setting. The recording and visual display of lung sounds is a method that is both repeatable and feasible to use in large samples, and the aim of this study was to evaluate interobserver agreement using this method. With a microphone in a stethoscope tube, we collected digital recordings of lung sounds from six sites on the chest surface in 20 subjects aged 40 years or older with and without lung and heart diseases. A total of 120 recordings and their spectrograms were independently classified by 28 observers from seven different countries. We employed absolute agreement and kappa coefficients to explore interobserver agreement in classifying crackles and wheezes within and between subgroups of four observers. When evaluating agreement on crackles (inspiratory or expiratory) in each subgroup, observers agreed on between 65% and 87% of the cases. Conger's kappa ranged from 0.20 to 0.58 and four out of seven groups reached a kappa of ≥0.49. In the classification of wheezes, we observed a probability of agreement between 69% and 99.6% and kappa values from 0.09 to 0.97. Four out of seven groups reached a kappa ≥0.62. The kappa values we observed in our study ranged widely but, when addressing its limitations, we find the method of recording and presenting lung sounds with spectrograms sufficient for both clinic and research. Standardisation of terminology across countries would improve international communication on lung auscultation findings.

  5. Monitoring of international normalized ratios: comparison of community nurses with family physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Max A; Shao, Wei; Klein, Douglas

    2012-08-01

    To determine whether community-based, nurse-led monitoring of the international normalized ratio (INR) in patients requiring long-term warfarin therapy was comparable to traditional physician monitoring. A retrospective cohort analysis of patients taking long-term warfarin therapy. The study used data gathered from 3 family medicine clinics in a primary care network in Edmonton, Alta. Medical records of patients currently taking warfarin were examined. Implementation of nurse-led monitoring in a primary care network in place of standard family physician INR monitoring. The degree of INR control before and after the implementation of nurse-run INR monitoring was assessed. The average proportion of time spent outside of therapeutic INR ranges, as well as the average number of days between successive INR readings, was calculated and compared. The degree of control placed patients into either a good-control group (out of range ≤ 25% of the time) or a moderate-control group (out of range > 25% of the time) and these groups were compared. Before nurse monitoring, INR values were out of range 20.4% of the time; after nurse monitoring they were out of range 19.2% of the time (P = .115); the time between sequential INR readings also did not differ before and after implementation of nurse monitoring (23.9 vs 21.6 days, P = .789). Nurse-led monitoring of INR is as effective as traditional physician monitoring. Advantages of nurse-led monitoring might include freeing family physicians to see more patients or to spend less time at work. It might also represent potential cost savings.

  6. Comparison of Early and Delayed Open Reduction and Internal Fixation for Treating Closed Tibial Pilon Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xin; Liu, Lei; Tu, Chong-qi; Li, Jian; Li, Qi; Pei, Fu-xing

    2014-07-01

    The timing of surgery for osteosynthesis of type C pilon (AO/OTA) fractures remains controversial. The aim of this study was to determine the outcome of early and delayed open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) for treating closed type C pilon fractures. Forty-six patients with closed type C pilon fractures matched according to age, gender, soft tissue conditions, and fracture pattern were divided into group A (early group: underwent surgery within 36 hours of the injury) or group B (delayed group: underwent surgery 10 days to 3 weeks postinjury after the soft tissue swelling subsided). In the delayed group, 9 patients were treated first by temporary external fixation. All the closed fractures were managed by ORIF with locking plates. At follow-up, the clinical and radiographic results were retrospectively analyzed. The mean follow-up time was 25.8 months (range, 14 to 48 months) in group A and 26.0 months (range, 15 to 44 months) in group B. There was no significant difference (P > .05) between the 2 groups regarding the rate of soft tissue complication, the rate of fracture union, and the final functional score. The patients in group A had a significantly shorter mean time to fracture union (21.5 ± 4.0 weeks vs 23.3 ± 3.7 weeks, P fractures can be safe and effective, with similar rates of wound complication, fracture union, and final good functional recovery but shorter operative time, union time, and hospital stay. These results favorably compare with delayed ORIF treatment. Level III, retrospective comparative study. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. A comparison of the contractile properties of smooth muscle from pig urethra and internal anal sphincter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalingam, Thanesan; Durlu-Kandilci, N Tugba; Brading, Alison F

    2010-09-01

    Smooth muscles from the urethra and internal anal sphincter (IAS) play an essential role in the maintenance of urinary and fecal continence. Any damage in these muscles may cause serious problems. The aim of this study was to directly compare the contractile properties of pig urethra and IAS taken from the same animal. Smooth muscle strips of urethra and IAS dissected from the same pig were transferred to organ baths superfused with Krebs' solution, loaded with 1 g tension and equilibrated for 1 hr. Carbachol and phenylephrine response curves and EFS responses were elicited in the absence and presence of inhibitors. Both tissues developed tone during the 1 hr equilibration period. Carbachol (3 × 10(-6)-10(-3) M) contracted urethra whilst relaxing IAS. Guanethidine (10(-6) M) inhibited the carbachol responses in both tissues. L-NOARG (10(-4) M) decreased carbachol responses in IAS, but not in urethra. Phenylephrine (3 × 10(-6)-10(-2) M) contracted both tissues. EFS (1-40 Hz) induced a contractile response in urethra which was decreased with guanethidine (10(-6) M) and further blocked by atropine (10(-6) M). In the presence of both, a relaxation response was observed that is sensitive to NOS inhibitors especially at low frequencies. EFS induced a relaxation followed by a contraction in IAS strips. This contraction was blocked by guanethidine but not by atropine, and the remaining relaxation at 20 Hz was decreased with L-NOARG and increased with L-arginine. There are differences between urethra and IAS in terms of muscarinic activation and neural innervation, relevant for pharmacotherapy. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Comparison of botox and lateral internal sphincterotomy treatment outcomes in chronic anal fissures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolga Dinç

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Both botox and lateral internal sfinkterotomi are treatment technics used in chronic anal fissure; provide the relaxation of anal sphincter and as a result of this, healing occurs. Aim of this study is to compare efficacy of botox and LIS treatment in chronic anal fissure and discussing with the literature. Methods: 60 of 66 patients who has chronic anal fissure, that we reached, treated but not healed with medical therapy, appealed to the Dr. Sami Ulus Hospital included the study. Gender, age, fissure localization, complaints (pain, bleeding, itching, constipation, complaint length, recurrences after treatment, continence conditions and complications of patients were registered. Results: Sixty patients were enrolled the study. Of the 60 patients; 38(63.3% were male and 22 (27.7% were female. Mean age of all patients was 35.93 ± 11.45 (21 -60. Pain was the common complaint of the all patients. 10 (32.3% recurrence were detected in botox treatment group (Group-I, only 1 (3.4% recurrence was in LIS group (Group-II. There was no complication as an incontinence in group-I but 3 cases with incontinence (10.39% were obtained in group-II. In the evaluation of these 3 cases by Cleveland Clinic Continence Scoring System, 2 cases classified as gas incontinence and 1 case as moderate fecal incontinence. Conclusion: Although botulinum toxin injection seen as an alternative treatment method with low complication rates such as incontinence, high recurrence is an important shortcoming of this technic. LIS performed by experienced surgeons remained the most popular treatment modality with low complication rates and great deal of healing success.

  9. Comparison report of RPV pressurised thermal shock - international comparative assessment study (PTS ICAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    A summary of the recently completed International Comparative Assessment Study of Pressurized- Thermal-Shock in Reactor Pressure Vessels (RPV PTS ICAS) is presented here to record the results in actual and comparative fashions. The ICAS Project brought together an international group of experts from research, utility and regulatory organizations to perform a comparative evaluation of analysis methodologies employed in the assessment of RPV integrity under PTS loading conditions. The Project was sponsored jointly by Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS), Koeln, Germany, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), USA, with assistance from the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)/Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA)/Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI)/Principal Working Group (PWG) No. 3 (Integrity of Components and Structures). The ICAS Project grew out of a strong interest expressed by participants in the previous FALSIRE II Project to proceed with further evaluations of analysis methods used in RPV integrity assessment. A Launch Meeting for the ICAS Project was held at GRS-Koeln, during June 1996, where an emphasis was placed on identifying the different approaches to RPV integrity assessment being employed within the international nuclear technology community. Also a Problem Statement was drafted that defined a Western type four-loop RPV with cladding on the inner surface. Also, a detailed task matrix was defined that included a set of transient thermal-mechanical loading conditions postulated to result from loss-of-coolant accidents. The primary focus of the analyses was on the behaviour of relatively shallow cracks under these conditions. The assessment activities based on the Problem Statement were divided under three tasks: deterministic fracture mechanics (DFM), probabilistic fracture mechanics (PFM) and thermal-hydraulic mixing (THM). An Intermediate Workshop was held at OECD/NEA-Paris during June 1997, to

  10. An International Comparison of Female and Male Students' Attitudes to the Use of Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Clive; Izmirli, Serdar; Aldavood, Javid; Alonso, Marta; Choe, Bi; Hanlon, Alison; Handziska, Anastasija; Illmann, Gudrun; Keeling, Linda; Kennedy, Mark; Lee, Gwi; Lund, Vonne; Mejdell, Cecilie; Pelagic, Veselinas; Rehn, Therese

    2011-01-01

    Simple Summary We surveyed university students in 11 Eurasian countries for their attitudes to animals, using an internet-based questionnaire to which 1,902 female and 1,530 male student responded from 102 universities. Across countries female students had greater concern for animal welfare and rights than males, but especially so in more gender empowered countries. One contributing factor appeared to be the greater association of females than males with pets, and a possible outcome was greater female avoidance of meat consumption, especially red meat. Abstract Previous research has demonstrated that in households where the male partner is more dominant, there is convergence in male and female attitudes towards animals, whereas if the female partner is empowered they exhibit greater empathy towards animals than the male partner. We tested this theory of ‘female empowered empathy’ internationally in a survey of female and male students' attitudes towards use of animals, conducted in 11 Eurasian countries: China, Czech Republic, Great Britain, Iran, Ireland, South Korea, Macedonia, Norway, Serbia, Spain and Sweden. Gender empowerment was estimated for each country using the Gender Empowerment Measure designed by the United Nations. The survey was administered via the internet in universities within countries, and 1,902 female and 1,530 male student responses from 102 universities were received. Respondents rated the acceptability of 43 major concerns about human use of animals, and the importance of 13 world social issues, including animal protection, environmental protection and sustainable development. Females had greater concern for animal welfare and rights than males. There was a positive correlation between the Gender Empowerment Measure and the ratio of female to male concern for animal welfare and rights, but not for other world issues. Thus in countries where females were more empowered, principally Sweden, Norway and Great Britain, females had much

  11. International network for comparison of HIV neutralization assays: the NeutNet report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenyö, Eva Maria; Heath, Alan; Dispinseri, Stefania; Holmes, Harvey; Lusso, Paolo; Zolla-Pazner, Susan; Donners, Helen; Heyndrickx, Leo; Alcami, Jose; Bongertz, Vera; Jassoy, Christian; Malnati, Mauro; Montefiori, David; Moog, Christiane; Morris, Lynn; Osmanov, Saladin; Polonis, Victoria; Sattentau, Quentin; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Sutthent, Ruengpung; Wrin, Terri; Scarlatti, Gabriella

    2009-01-01

    Neutralizing antibody assessments play a central role in human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) vaccine development but it is unclear which assay, or combination of assays, will provide reliable measures of correlates of protection. To address this, an international collaboration (NeutNet) involving 18 independent participants was organized to compare different assays. Each laboratory evaluated four neutralizing reagents (TriMab, 447-52D, 4E10, sCD4) at a given range of concentrations against a panel of 11 viruses representing a wide range of genetic subtypes and phenotypes. A total of 16 different assays were compared. The assays utilized either uncloned virus produced in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) (virus infectivity assays, VI assays), or their Env-pseudotyped (gp160) derivatives produced in 293T cells (PSV assays) from molecular clones or uncloned virus. Target cells included PBMC and genetically-engineered cell lines in either a single- or multiple-cycle infection format. Infection was quantified by using a range of assay read-outs that included extracellular or intracellular p24 antigen detection, RNA quantification and luciferase and beta-galactosidase reporter gene expression. PSV assays were generally more sensitive than VI assays, but there were important differences according to the virus and inhibitor used. For example, for TriMab, the mean IC50 was always lower in PSV than in VI assays. However, with 4E10 or sCD4 some viruses were neutralized with a lower IC50 in VI assays than in the PSV assays. Inter-laboratory concordance was slightly better for PSV than for VI assays with some viruses, but for other viruses agreement between laboratories was limited and depended on both the virus and the neutralizing reagent. The NeutNet project demonstrated clear differences in assay sensitivity that were dependent on both the neutralizing reagent and the virus. No single assay was capable of detecting the entire spectrum of neutralizing

  12. International network for comparison of HIV neutralization assays: the NeutNet report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Maria Fenyö

    Full Text Available Neutralizing antibody assessments play a central role in human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1 vaccine development but it is unclear which assay, or combination of assays, will provide reliable measures of correlates of protection. To address this, an international collaboration (NeutNet involving 18 independent participants was organized to compare different assays.Each laboratory evaluated four neutralizing reagents (TriMab, 447-52D, 4E10, sCD4 at a given range of concentrations against a panel of 11 viruses representing a wide range of genetic subtypes and phenotypes. A total of 16 different assays were compared. The assays utilized either uncloned virus produced in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs (virus infectivity assays, VI assays, or their Env-pseudotyped (gp160 derivatives produced in 293T cells (PSV assays from molecular clones or uncloned virus. Target cells included PBMC and genetically-engineered cell lines in either a single- or multiple-cycle infection format. Infection was quantified by using a range of assay read-outs that included extracellular or intracellular p24 antigen detection, RNA quantification and luciferase and beta-galactosidase reporter gene expression.PSV assays were generally more sensitive than VI assays, but there were important differences according to the virus and inhibitor used. For example, for TriMab, the mean IC50 was always lower in PSV than in VI assays. However, with 4E10 or sCD4 some viruses were neutralized with a lower IC50 in VI assays than in the PSV assays. Inter-laboratory concordance was slightly better for PSV than for VI assays with some viruses, but for other viruses agreement between laboratories was limited and depended on both the virus and the neutralizing reagent.The NeutNet project demonstrated clear differences in assay sensitivity that were dependent on both the neutralizing reagent and the virus. No single assay was capable of detecting the entire spectrum of

  13. Effective policy for sustainable behavior. An international comparison; Effectief beleid voor duurzaam gedrag. Een internationale vergelijking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunsting, S.; Uyterlinde, M.; Pol, M. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands); Breukers, S.; Mourik, R.; Backhaus, J.; Mathijsen, T. [DuneWorks, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2013-07-15

    This international comparative case study (the Netherlands, Germany, Sweden, United Kingdom) compares policy themes (household energy, food, mobility, household waste) and cases of interventions aims at more sustainable behaviours. It investigates how national policy can contribute to sustainable behaviour in these four themes. The study focuses on policy contexts and concrete 'best practice examples' (both policy -initiated and society-driven initiatives), paying attention to the extent to which social scientific insights have been utilised to conduct and evaluate the interventions. The conceptual approach in this study regards individual behaviour not in isolation but as embedded in institutional, social and physical contexts. In line with this, the evaluation of best practice examples focuses on how the following dimensions have been addressed in order to enable, support and sustain behavioural changes: the policy environment and institutional environment, individual behaviour, social norms a nd the physical environment. In this discussion, the Netherlands is both the starting point and the point of return, enabling us to draw lessons for Dutch policy. We conclude that a more proactive, dynamic and supportive role would fit national policy if it aims at encouraging the spread of more sustainable behaviours in society. Dutch policy could learn from the experiences of other countries and attempt at (among others): showing explicit commitment, connecting initiatives at different levels, and facilitating platforms for exchange of knowledge, experience and expertise, across sectors and departments, in order to arrive at a more integrated approach towards encouraging sustainable behaviours [Dutch] Als achtergrondstudie voor het advies Duurzame gedragspatronen zijn twee onderzoeken uitgevoerd naar effectief beleid voor duurzaam gedrag (1) in Nederland en (2) internationaal. De twee rapporten beschrijven een aantal beleidscases die vanuit gedragskundig

  14. Effective policy for sustainable behavior. An international comparison; Effectief beleid voor duurzaam gedrag. Een internationale vergelijking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunsting, S.; Uyterlinde, M.; Pol, M. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands); Breukers, S.; Mourik, R.; Backhaus, J.; Mathijsen, T. [DuneWorks, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2013-07-15

    This international comparative case study (the Netherlands, Germany, Sweden, United Kingdom) compares policy themes (household energy, food, mobility, household waste) and cases of interventions aims at more sustainable behaviours. It investigates how national policy can contribute to sustainable behaviour in these four themes. The study focuses on policy contexts and concrete 'best practice examples' (both policy -initiated and society-driven initiatives), paying attention to the extent to which social scientific insights have been utilised to conduct and evaluate the interventions. The conceptual approach in this study regards individual behaviour not in isolation but as embedded in institutional, social and physical contexts. In line with this, the evaluation of best practice examples focuses on how the following dimensions have been addressed in order to enable, support and sustain behavioural changes: the policy environment and institutional environment, individual behaviour, social norms a nd the physical environment. In this discussion, the Netherlands is both the starting point and the point of return, enabling us to draw lessons for Dutch policy. We conclude that a more proactive, dynamic and supportive role would fit national policy if it aims at encouraging the spread of more sustainable behaviours in society. Dutch policy could learn from the experiences of other countries and attempt at (among others): showing explicit commitment, connecting initiatives at different levels, and facilitating platforms for exchange of knowledge, experience and expertise, across sectors and departments, in order to arrive at a more integrated approach towards encouraging sustainable behaviours [Dutch] Als achtergrondstudie voor het advies Duurzame gedragspatronen zijn twee onderzoeken uitgevoerd naar effectief beleid voor duurzaam gedrag (1) in Nederland en (2) internationaal. De twee rapporten beschrijven een aantal beleidscases die vanuit gedragskundig perspectief

  15. The Planck Constant, the International System of Units, and the 2012 North American Watt Balance Absolute Gravity Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, D. B.

    2012-12-01

    As outlined in Resolution 1 of the 24th Meeting of the General Conference on Weights and Measures (CGPM) on the future revision of the International System of Units (SI) [1], the current four SI base units the kilogram, the ampere, the kelvin and the mole, will be redefined in terms of invariants of nature. The new definitions will be based on fixed numerical values of the Planck constant (h), the elementary charge (e), the Boltzmann constant (k), and the Avogadro constant (NA), respectively. While significant progress has been made towards providing the necessary experimental results for the redefinition, some disagreement among the relevant data remain. Among the set of discrepant data towards the redefinition of the SI are the determinations of the Planck constant from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) watt balance [2] and the recent result from the National Research Council Canada (NRC) watt balance [3], with the discrepancy of roughly 2.5 parts in 107 being significantly outside the reported uncertainties. Of major concern is that the watt balance experiment is seen as a key component of a mise en pratique for the new kilogram definition, once such a redefinition takes place. The basic operational principle of a watt balance relates the Planck constant to mass, length, and time through h = mgvC, where m is the mass of an artifact mass standard, g is the local acceleration of gravity, v is a velocity, and C is a combination of frequencies and scalar constants. With the total uncertainty goal for the watt balance on the order of a few parts in 108, g needs to be determined at the location of the mass standard to parts in 109 such that its uncertainty is negligible in the final watt balance result. NIST and NRC have formed a collaborative effort to reconcile the relevant discrepant data and provide further progress towards preparing and testing a mise en pratique for the new kilogram definition. As an initial step, direct comparisons of

  16. International comparisons of He-Ne lasers stabilized with (sup. 127) I (sub 2) at [lambda] approximately equals 633 nm (July 1993 to September 1995). Part IV: Comparison of Western European lasers at [lambda] approximately equals 633 nm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darnedde, H.; Rowley, W.R.C.; Bertinetto, F.; Millerioux, Y.; Haitjema, H.; Wetzels, S.F.C.L.; Piree, H.; Prieto, E.; Perez, M.Mar; Vaucher, B.; Chartier, A.; Chartier, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports the fourth set of results of a series of grouped laser comparisons from national laboratories undertaken by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) at the request of the Comite Consultatif pour la Definition du Metre (CCDM; now the Consultative Committee for Length,

  17. A new comparison between the life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of battery electric vehicles and internal combustion vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Hongrui; Balthasar, Felix; Tait, Nigel; Riera-Palou, Xavier; Harrison, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Electric vehicles have recently been gaining increasing worldwide interest as a promising potential long-term solution to sustainable personal mobility; in particular, battery electric vehicles (BEVs) offer zero tailpipe emissions. However, their true ability to contribute to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions can only be properly assessed by comparing a life cycle assessment of their GHG emissions with a similar assessment for conventional internal combustion vehicles (ICVs). This paper presents an analysis for vehicles typically expected to be introduced in 2015 in two example markets (the UK and California), taking into account the impact of three important factors: •Like-for-like vehicle comparison and effect of real-world driving conditions. •Accounting for the GHG emissions associated with meeting the additional electricity demand for charging the batteries. •GHG emissions associated with vehicle manufacture, disposal, etc. This work demonstrates that all of these factors are important and emphasises that it is therefore crucial to clearly define the context when presenting conclusions about the relative GHG performance of BEVs and ICVs – such relative performance depends on a wide range of factors, including the marginal regional grid GHG intensity, vehicle size, driving pattern, loading, etc. - Highlights: ► Develops new insights into the life cycle GHG emissions of electric vehicles. ► Addresses like-for-like vehicle comparison and effect of real-world driving. ► Accounts for marginal GHG intensity of the electricity used to charge EVs. ► Accounts for the GHG emissions associated with vehicle manufacture and disposal.

  18. Time-variable gravity potential components for optical clock comparisons and the definition of international time scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voigt, C.; Denker, H.; Timmen, L.

    2016-01-01

    The latest generation of optical atomic clocks is approaching the level of one part in 10 18 in terms of frequency stability and uncertainty. For clock comparisons and the definition of international time scales, a relativistic redshift effect of the clock frequencies has to be taken into account at a corresponding uncertainty level of about 0.1 m 2 s -2 and 0.01 m in terms of gravity potential and height, respectively. Besides the predominant static part of the gravity potential, temporal variations must be considered in order to avoid systematic frequency shifts. Time-variable gravity potential components induced by tides and non-tidal mass redistributions are investigated with regard to the level of one part in 10 18 . The magnitudes and dominant time periods of the individual gravity potential contributions are investigated globally and for specific laboratory sites together with the related uncertainty estimates. The basics of the computation methods are presented along with the applied models, data sets and software. Solid Earth tides contribute by far the most dominant signal with a global maximum amplitude of 4.2 m 2 s -2 for the potential and a range (maximum-to-minimum) of up to 1.3 and 10.0 m 2 s -2 in terms of potential differences between specific laboratories over continental and intercontinental scales, respectively. Amplitudes of the ocean tidal loading potential can amount up to 1.25 m 2 s -2 , while the range of the potential between specific laboratories is 0.3 and 1.1 m 2 s -2 over continental and intercontinental scales, respectively. These are the only two contributors being relevant at a 10 -17 level. However, several other time-variable potential effects can particularly affect clock comparisons at the 10 -18 level. Besides solid Earth pole tides, these are non-tidal mass redistributions in the atmosphere, the oceans and the continental water storage. (authors)

  19. Thin-Ideal Internalization and Comparison Process as Mediators of Social Influence and Psychological Functioning in the Development of Disturbed Eating Habits in Croatian College Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Pokrajac-Bulian

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the role of internalization and comparison as mediators of relationships between socio-cultural pressures to be thin, psychological factors, restrictive and bulimic behaviours in college females. Participants were 262 Croatian college females (mean age = 21.22 ± 1.47 years who completed self-report questionnaires. Regression analysis was used to test a model in which internalization and social comparison mediated the impact of socio-cultural pressure (parents and peers dieting, teasing, pressure to be thin, media influences, self-esteem, anxiety, depression, and perfectionism in restrictive and bulimic behaviours. Internalization is a significant mediator of the relationships between all predictors included in this research and disturbed eating habits. Social comparison is relevant as a mediator between social influence, negative affect, self-esteem, perfectionism and restrictive behaviour but does not mediate bulimic behaviour. These findings could be seful in understanding processes that may predispose young women to develop eating dysfunctions and indicate the need for prevention programs that incorporate formative influences and processes such as internalization of societal norms and comparison in the construction of therapeutic strategies.

  20. Normative static grip strength of population of Turkey, effects of various factors and a comparison with international norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekşioğlu, Mahmut

    2016-01-01

    Normative data are of importance in ergonomics and clinical settings. Applying normative data internationally is questionable. To this end, this study aimed to establish gender- and age-specific reference values for static (isometric) hand grip strength of normal population of Turkey with special regard to occupational demand, and compare them with the international norms. The secondary aims were to investigate the effects of gender, age-group, weight-group, job-group, hand and several anthropometric variables on static grip strength. A sample of 211 (128 male and 83 female) volunteers aged between 18 and 69 with various occupations participated in the study. Grip strength data were collected using a Jamar dynamometer with standard testing position, protocol and instructions. The mean and std deviation of maximum voluntary static grip strength values (in N) for dominant and non-dominant hands respectively were 455.2 ± 73.6 and 441.5 ± 72.6 for males, and 258 ± 46.1 and 246.2 ± 49.1 for females. The mean female strength was about 57% of the mean male strength value for both dominant and non-dominant hands. There was a curvilinear relationship of grip strength to age, significant differences between genders, hands, and some age-groups, and a correlation to height, body-mass, BMI and hand dimensions depending on the gender. The comparisons with the norms of other world populations indicate that there are cross-national grip strength variations among some nations but not all. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  1. School-level predictors for the use of ICT in schools and students’ CIL in international comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Gerick

    2017-01-01

    the more specific findings for the considered countries, the international comparison presented in this paper reveals both strengths and developmental potential for the selected education systems.

  2. International Space Station Centrifuge Rotor Models A Comparison of the Euler-Lagrange and the Bond Graph Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Louis H.; Ramakrishnan, Jayant; Granda, Jose J.

    2006-01-01

    The assembly and operation of the International Space Station (ISS) require extensive testing and engineering analysis to verify that the Space Station system of systems would work together without any adverse interactions. Since the dynamic behavior of an entire Space Station cannot be tested on earth, math models of the Space Station structures and mechanical systems have to be built and integrated in computer simulations and analysis tools to analyze and predict what will happen in space. The ISS Centrifuge Rotor (CR) is one of many mechanical systems that need to be modeled and analyzed to verify the ISS integrated system performance on-orbit. This study investigates using Bond Graph modeling techniques as quick and simplified ways to generate models of the ISS Centrifuge Rotor. This paper outlines the steps used to generate simple and more complex models of the CR using Bond Graph Computer Aided Modeling Program with Graphical Input (CAMP-G). Comparisons of the Bond Graph CR models with those derived from Euler-Lagrange equations in MATLAB and those developed using multibody dynamic simulation at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) are presented to demonstrate the usefulness of the Bond Graph modeling approach for aeronautics and space applications.

  3. Comparison in stress of caring mothers of children with developmental, external and internal disorders and normal children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Zamani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available However, having a baby brings positive emotions such as happiness, sense of maturity and proud, parenting's issue could cause high level of stress and child's characteristics was a detrimental factor which can effect on parent's stress, so the aim of this research was comparison of stress of caring in mothers of children with developmental, external, and internal disorders and normal children. The study population included all mothers of children with developmental, emotional, and disruptive behavior disorders, and mothers with normal children in Hamadan (a city in Iran. 240 mothers (4 groups include 60 mothers were chosen based on simple random sampling. Family inventory of life events and changes Mc Cubbin, Patterson & Wilson was used for assessing participants. The results showed that maternal stress in mothers with children who have diagnosis of disruptive behavior disorders were significantly more than of mothers of children with developmental disorders, emotional and mothers of normal children. The present study showed that disruptive behavior disorders in children have a greater impact on their mothers. So, we suggest approved psychological interventions for helping mothers of children with psychological problems, particularly children with external disorders.

  4. Systemic sclerosis in Argentina: evaluation of a large cohort from a single centre and comparison with other international series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scolnik, M; Lancioni, E; Saucedo, C; Marin, J; Sabelli, M; Bedran, Z; Soriano, E R; Catoggio, L J

    2014-01-01

    Prevalence of systemic sclerosis (SSc) and different clinical subsets varies across the world. Few data have been published on SSc patients in Latin America. Our objective was to describe a SSc cohort in Argentina and to compare clinical findings, disease subsets and antibodies with other international SSc populations. Patients with SSc (n=234) seen at the Rheumatology section of the Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires between 2000-2011 were retrospectively analysed. Data on clinical manifestations, disease subsets and antibodies were obtained. Patients were classified into diffuse cutaneous (dc) and limited cutaneous (lc) subsets. Comparison with other cohorts (France, United States, Germany, Italy, Mexico, EUSTAR and Brazil) was made based on published information. A higher female:male ratio (12:1) and a higher limited subset prevalence (76.1%) was found in this Argentine cohort comparing with others. We also found a lower prevalence of diffuse disease, anti Scl-70 (antitopoisomerase) and nucleolar pattern antinuclear antibodies. Within each subset, clinical findings were similar with other SSc populations except for a very low prevalence in renal crisis (0.02% of dc SS). With slight variations perhaps due to genetic, environmental or referral factors, SSc in this cohort appears to be similar to that described in other parts of the world.

  5. A comparison of important international and national standards for limiting exposure to EMF including the scientific rationale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Colin R; Martin, Lindsay J

    2007-06-01

    A comparison of Eastern (from Russia, Hungary, Bulgaria, Poland, and the Czech Republic) and Western (represented by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection guidelines and the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers standards) radiofrequency standards reveals key differences. The Eastern approach is to protect against non-thermal effects caused by chronic exposure to low level exposure, and the occupational basic restriction is power load (the product of intensity and exposure duration). In contrast, the Western approach is to protect against established acute biological effects that could signal an adverse health effect, and the principal basic restriction is the specific absorption rate to protect against thermal effects. All of the standards are science-based, but a fundamental difference arises from a lack of agreement on the composition of the reference scientific database and of which adverse effect needs to be protected against. However, differences also exist between the ICNIRP and IEEE standards. An additional complication arises when standards are derived or modified using a precautionary approach. For ELF the differences between ICNIRP and IEEE are more fundamental; namely, differences in the basic restriction used (induced current; in-situ electric field) and the location of breakpoints in the strength-frequency curves result in large differences. In 2006, ICNIRP will initiate the review of their ELF and radiofrequency guidelines, and this will provide an opportunity to address differences in standards and the move towards harmonization of EMF standards and guidelines.

  6. Psychometric Comparisons of Benevolent and Corrective Humor across 22 Countries: The Virtue Gap in Humor Goes International.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heintz, Sonja; Ruch, Willibald; Platt, Tracey; Pang, Dandan; Carretero-Dios, Hugo; Dionigi, Alberto; Argüello Gutiérrez, Catalina; Brdar, Ingrid; Brzozowska, Dorota; Chen, Hsueh-Chih; Chłopicki, Władysław; Collins, Matthew; Ďurka, Róbert; Yahfoufi, Najwa Y El; Quiroga-Garza, Angélica; Isler, Robert B; Mendiburo-Seguel, Andrés; Ramis, TamilSelvan; Saglam, Betül; Shcherbakova, Olga V; Singh, Kamlesh; Stokenberga, Ieva; Wong, Peter S O; Torres-Marín, Jorge

    2018-01-01

    Recently, two forms of virtue-related humor, benevolent and corrective, have been introduced. Benevolent humor treats human weaknesses and wrongdoings benevolently, while corrective humor aims at correcting and bettering them. Twelve marker items for benevolent and corrective humor (the BenCor) were developed, and it was demonstrated that they fill the gap between humor as temperament and virtue. The present study investigates responses to the BenCor from 25 samples in 22 countries (overall N = 7,226). The psychometric properties of the BenCor were found to be sufficient in most of the samples, including internal consistency, unidimensionality, and factorial validity. Importantly, benevolent and corrective humor were clearly established as two positively related, yet distinct dimensions of virtue-related humor. Metric measurement invariance was supported across the 25 samples, and scalar invariance was supported across six age groups (from 18 to 50+ years) and across gender. Comparisons of samples within and between four countries (Malaysia, Switzerland, Turkey, and the UK) showed that the item profiles were more similar within than between countries, though some evidence for regional differences was also found. This study thus supported, for the first time, the suitability of the 12 marker items of benevolent and corrective humor in different countries, enabling a cumulative cross-cultural research and eventually applications of humor aiming at the good.

  7. Psychometric Comparisons of Benevolent and Corrective Humor across 22 Countries: The Virtue Gap in Humor Goes International

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Heintz

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently, two forms of virtue-related humor, benevolent and corrective, have been introduced. Benevolent humor treats human weaknesses and wrongdoings benevolently, while corrective humor aims at correcting and bettering them. Twelve marker items for benevolent and corrective humor (the BenCor were developed, and it was demonstrated that they fill the gap between humor as temperament and virtue. The present study investigates responses to the BenCor from 25 samples in 22 countries (overall N = 7,226. The psychometric properties of the BenCor were found to be sufficient in most of the samples, including internal consistency, unidimensionality, and factorial validity. Importantly, benevolent and corrective humor were clearly established as two positively related, yet distinct dimensions of virtue-related humor. Metric measurement invariance was supported across the 25 samples, and scalar invariance was supported across six age groups (from 18 to 50+ years and across gender. Comparisons of samples within and between four countries (Malaysia, Switzerland, Turkey, and the UK showed that the item profiles were more similar within than between countries, though some evidence for regional differences was also found. This study thus supported, for the first time, the suitability of the 12 marker items of benevolent and corrective humor in different countries, enabling a cumulative cross-cultural research and eventually applications of humor aiming at the good.

  8. Methods to stimulate national and sub-national benchmarking through international health system performance comparisons: a Canadian approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veillard, Jeremy; Moses McKeag, Alexandra; Tipper, Brenda; Krylova, Olga; Reason, Ben

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents, discusses and evaluates methods used by the Canadian Institute for Health Information to present health system performance international comparisons in ways that facilitate their understanding by the public and health system policy-makers and can stimulate performance benchmarking. We used statistical techniques to normalize the results and present them on a standardized scale facilitating understanding of results. We compared results to the OECD average, and to benchmarks. We also applied various data quality rules to ensure the validity of results. In order to evaluate the impact of the public release of these results, we used quantitative and qualitative methods and documented other types of impact. We were able to present results for performance indicators and dimensions at national and sub-national levels; develop performance profiles for each Canadian province; and show pan-Canadian performance patterns for specific performance indicators. The results attracted significant media attention at national level and reactions from various stakeholders. Other impacts such as requests for additional analysis and improvement in data timeliness were observed. The methods used seemed attractive to various audiences in the Canadian context and achieved the objectives originally defined. These methods could be refined and applied in different contexts. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. The nurses' self-concept instrument (NSCI): a comparison of domestic and international student nurses' professional self-concepts from a large Australian University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Elizabeth; Craven, Rhonda; Denson, Nida

    2012-08-01

    Professional self-concept is a critical driver of job satisfaction. In Australia, as international nursing enrolments rise, nursing is increasingly characterised by a professional body of international nurses who may differ from domestic Australian nurses in their nursing self-concept. At present, little is known about the extent to which domestic and international students nurses' self-concepts may differ. The present study aimed to elucidate and contrast domestic and international nursing students' self-concepts from one large Australian university. A total of 253 domestic (n=218) and international (n=35) undergraduate nursing students from a large public university in Sydney, Australia completed the Nurses' Self-Concept Instrument (NSCI). Multiple-Indicator-Multiple-Indicator-Cause (MIMIC) modelling was used to assess the effects of student group (domestic and international) on the latent self-concept factors of the NSCI. Domestic and international students' professional self-concepts were similarly high. MIMIC modelling demonstrated that domestic students had a higher patient care self-concept in comparison to international students. Results imply that it may be useful for Australian universities to foster strategies that enhance specific domains of self-concepts (e.g., care) which may be underdeveloped for at least some cultural groups within the international nursing student population compared with domestic nursing students. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Some international comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackay, G.A.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to highlight the policy differences with respect to North Sea oil and gas resource development between the United Kingdom and other North Sea countries, particularly Norway. A number of policy objectives can be identified. These include: domestic oil and gas production; improving the balance of payments; increasing government revenue; employment creation; regional development; building up domestic industrial capabilities; minimising negative impacts on existing industries; establishing a strong state oil company. A simple ranking of these objectives in the UK, Norway and the Netherlands is given. Although maximisation of government revenue has probably been the most important objective in each of the three countries, thereafter there are substantial variations in the rankings. In general terms, the UK has placed greater importance on macroeconomic objectives such as improving the balance of payments. For Norway, microeconomic and local objectives have been much more important though deterioration in other sectors of the economy have led in recent years to greater emphasis being put on increasing government revenue and exports. In the Netherlands, there has been a recent change towards the encouragement of gas exports, rather than maintaining the reserves for future domestic consumption. Support for domestic firms to export their North Sea expertise has also increased significantly in the light of problems in the traditional shipbuilding sector. (UK)

  11. A Dosimetric Comparison of Breast Radiotherapy Techniques to Treat Locoregional Lymph Nodes Including the Internal Mammary Chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranger, A; Dunlop, A; Hutchinson, K; Convery, H; Maclennan, M K; Chantler, H; Twyman, N; Rose, C; McQuaid, D; Amos, R A; Griffin, C; deSouza, N M; Donovan, E; Harris, E; Coles, C E; Kirby, A

    2018-06-01

    Radiotherapy target volumes in early breast cancer treatment increasingly include the internal mammary chain (IMC). In order to maximise survival benefits of IMC radiotherapy, doses to the heart and lung should be minimised. This dosimetry study compared the ability of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy, arc therapy and proton beam therapy (PBT) techniques with and without breath-hold to achieve target volume constraints while minimising dose to organs at risk (OARs). In 14 patients' datasets, seven IMC radiotherapy techniques were compared: wide tangent (WT) three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy, volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and PBT, each in voluntary deep inspiratory breath-hold (vDIBH) and free breathing (FB), and tomotherapy in FB only. Target volume coverage and OAR doses were measured for each technique. These were compared using a one-way ANOVA with all pairwise comparisons tested using Bonferroni's multiple comparisons test, with adjusted P-values ≤ 0.05 indicating statistical significance. One hundred per cent of WT(vDIBH), 43% of WT(FB), 100% of VMAT(vDIBH), 86% of VMAT(FB), 100% of tomotherapy FB and 100% of PBT plans in vDIBH and FB passed all mandatory constraints. However, coverage of the IMC with 90% of the prescribed dose was significantly better than all other techniques using VMAT(vDIBH), PBT(vDIBH) and PBT(FB) (mean IMC coverage ± 1 standard deviation = 96.0% ± 4.3, 99.8% ± 0.3 and 99.0% ± 0.2, respectively). The mean heart dose was significantly reduced in vDIBH compared with FB for both the WT (P FB). Simple WT radiotherapy delivered in vDIBH achieves satisfactory coverage of the IMC while meeting heart and lung dose constraints. However, where higher isodose coverage is required, VMAT(vDIBH) is the optimal photon technique. The lowest OAR doses are achieved by PBT, in which the use of vDIBH does not improve dose statistics. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of internal dose estimates obtained using organ-level, voxel S value, and Monte Carlo techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimes, Joshua, E-mail: grimes.joshua@mayo.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver V5Z 1L8 (Canada); Celler, Anna [Department of Radiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver V5Z 1L8 (Canada)

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: The authors’ objective was to compare internal dose estimates obtained using the Organ Level Dose Assessment with Exponential Modeling (OLINDA/EXM) software, the voxel S value technique, and Monte Carlo simulation. Monte Carlo dose estimates were used as the reference standard to assess the impact of patient-specific anatomy on the final dose estimate. Methods: Six patients injected with{sup 99m}Tc-hydrazinonicotinamide-Tyr{sup 3}-octreotide were included in this study. A hybrid planar/SPECT imaging protocol was used to estimate {sup 99m}Tc time-integrated activity coefficients (TIACs) for kidneys, liver, spleen, and tumors. Additionally, TIACs were predicted for {sup 131}I, {sup 177}Lu, and {sup 90}Y assuming the same biological half-lives as the {sup 99m}Tc labeled tracer. The TIACs were used as input for OLINDA/EXM for organ-level dose calculation and voxel level dosimetry was performed using the voxel S value method and Monte Carlo simulation. Dose estimates for {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 131}I, {sup 177}Lu, and {sup 90}Y distributions were evaluated by comparing (i) organ-level S values corresponding to each method, (ii) total tumor and organ doses, (iii) differences in right and left kidney doses, and (iv) voxelized dose distributions calculated by Monte Carlo and the voxel S value technique. Results: The S values for all investigated radionuclides used by OLINDA/EXM and the corresponding patient-specific S values calculated by Monte Carlo agreed within 2.3% on average for self-irradiation, and differed by as much as 105% for cross-organ irradiation. Total organ doses calculated by OLINDA/EXM and the voxel S value technique agreed with Monte Carlo results within approximately ±7%. Differences between right and left kidney doses determined by Monte Carlo were as high as 73%. Comparison of the Monte Carlo and voxel S value dose distributions showed that each method produced similar dose volume histograms with a minimum dose covering 90% of the volume (D90

  13. A Critique of Singaporean Internal Tertiary Education Programmes offered by Private Colleges: A Brief Comparison with Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherin Batcha

    2015-06-01

    cases where QA procedures are not implemented, there can be little confidence among stakeholders in respect of the quality of the programme and standards may be arbitrary. Quality assurance of Irish higher education is coordinated through Qualifications and Quality Ireland (QQI, a state body responsible for the review of institutions who usually operate their own quality assurance systems. In some cases, QQI takes direct responsibility for quality assurance within smaller institutions, while also taking direct responsibility in other education sectors, such as the further education sector. There is a widely held perception amongst stakeholders in higher education in Singapore that internal programmes in tertiary education offer lower quality than the external tertiary programmes which are affiliated to well-established, mainly British, universities. Many factors have influenced this view, leading to its reinforcement and wide acceptance. These factors are discussed here and a simple but telling case study is offered. The practices of private colleges running their own internal Diploma and Advanced Diploma programmes are evaluated by observing specific situations. Comparisons are made with similar practices of colleges that run external Diploma and Advanced Diploma programmes under the auspices of UK universities and practices followed in private colleges and institutes of technology in Ireland. In conclusion, the need for uniform quality procedures across the Singaporean higher education system is highlighted and some necessary steps in achieving this requirement are advanced.

  14. Comparison of internal dosimetry factors for three classes of adult computational phantoms with emphasis on I-131 in the thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamart, Stephanie; Simon, Steven L; Lee, Choonsik; Bouville, Andre; Eckerman, Keith F; Melo, Dunstana

    2011-01-01

    The S values for 11 major target organs for I-131 in the thyroid were compared for three classes of adult computational human phantoms: stylized, voxel and hybrid phantoms. In addition, we compared specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) with the thyroid as a source region over a broader photon energy range than the x- and gamma-rays of I-131. The S and SAF values were calculated for the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) reference voxel phantoms and the University of Florida (UF) hybrid phantoms by using the Monte Carlo transport method, while the S and SAF values for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) stylized phantoms were obtained from earlier publications. Phantoms in our calculations were for adults of both genders. The 11 target organs and tissues that were selected for the comparison of S values are brain, breast, stomach wall, small intestine wall, colon wall, heart wall, pancreas, salivary glands, thyroid, lungs and active marrow for I-131 and thyroid as a source region. The comparisons showed, in general, an underestimation of S values reported for the stylized phantoms compared to the values based on the ICRP voxel and UF hybrid phantoms and relatively good agreement between the S values obtained for the ICRP and UF phantoms. Substantial differences were observed for some organs between the three types of phantoms. For example, the small intestine wall of ICRP male phantom and heart wall of ICRP female phantom showed up to eightfold and fourfold greater S values, respectively, compared to the reported values for the ORNL phantoms. UF male and female phantoms also showed significant differences compared to the ORNL phantom, 4.0-fold greater for the small intestine wall and 3.3-fold greater for the heart wall. In our method, we directly calculated the S values without using the SAFs as commonly done. Hence, we sought to confirm the differences observed in our S values by comparing the SAFs among the phantoms with the thyroid as a

  15. Comparison of internal dosimetry factors for three classes of adult computational phantoms with emphasis on I-131 in the thyroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamart, Stephanie; Bouville, Andre; Simon, Steven L.; Eckerman, Keith F.; Melo, Dunstana; Lee, Choonsik

    2011-11-01

    The S values for 11 major target organs for I-131 in the thyroid were compared for three classes of adult computational human phantoms: stylized, voxel and hybrid phantoms. In addition, we compared specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) with the thyroid as a source region over a broader photon energy range than the x- and gamma-rays of I-131. The S and SAF values were calculated for the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) reference voxel phantoms and the University of Florida (UF) hybrid phantoms by using the Monte Carlo transport method, while the S and SAF values for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) stylized phantoms were obtained from earlier publications. Phantoms in our calculations were for adults of both genders. The 11 target organs and tissues that were selected for the comparison of S values are brain, breast, stomach wall, small intestine wall, colon wall, heart wall, pancreas, salivary glands, thyroid, lungs and active marrow for I-131 and thyroid as a source region. The comparisons showed, in general, an underestimation of S values reported for the stylized phantoms compared to the values based on the ICRP voxel and UF hybrid phantoms and relatively good agreement between the S values obtained for the ICRP and UF phantoms. Substantial differences were observed for some organs between the three types of phantoms. For example, the small intestine wall of ICRP male phantom and heart wall of ICRP female phantom showed up to eightfold and fourfold greater S values, respectively, compared to the reported values for the ORNL phantoms. UF male and female phantoms also showed significant differences compared to the ORNL phantom, 4.0-fold greater for the small intestine wall and 3.3-fold greater for the heart wall. In our method, we directly calculated the S values without using the SAFs as commonly done. Hence, we sought to confirm the differences observed in our S values by comparing the SAFs among the phantoms with the thyroid as a

  16. Resilience, internalized stigma, self-esteem, and hopelessness among people with schizophrenia: Cultural comparison in Austria and Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Alex; Mizuno, Yuya; Frajo-Apor, Beatrice; Kemmler, Georg; Suzuki, Takefumi; Pardeller, Silvia; Welte, Anna-Sophia; Sondermann, Catherine; Mimura, Masaru; Wartelsteiner, Fabienne; Fleischhacker, W Wolfgang; Uchida, Hiroyuki

    2016-03-01

    Resilience is becoming an important topic in people with schizophrenia since there is evidence that it increases the probability for long-term recovery. The current study investigated transcultural differences in resilience across schizophrenia patients from two different geographical regions, Austria and Japan. Another objective was to examine transcultural differences in internalized stigma, self-esteem, and hopelessness, which can be expected to be relevant in this context, as well as the interrelations between these subjective elements of recovery and symptom severity. To this end, patients from outpatient mental health services in Innsbruck, Austria (N=52) and Tokyo, Japan (N=60) as well as 137 healthy comparison subjects from both countries were included into this cross-sectional study. Notably, we detected a significant country effect with markedly lower resilience (F=74.4, pself-esteem scores (F=226.0, pself-esteem (F=51.8, p<0.001), and hope (F=29.5, p<0.001) compared to healthy control subjects. The inter-correlations between subjective elements of recovery were comparable in size in the two patient samples, but the inter-correlations between these issues and residual symptoms of schizophrenia as objective domains of recovery were markedly higher in Austrian subjects. This suggests that schizophrenia patients from Western European and Japanese cultures may have different needs to achieve recovery. In conclusion, it will be critical to develop culture-specific psychosocial programs and to examine their feasibility and effectiveness among these patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. External and internal accidents in PWR power plants. Comparison of current regulations in Belgium, United States, France, Federal Republic of Germany and United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maere, G. de; Roch, M.; Cavaco, A.; Preat, M.

    1986-01-01

    In this report a comparison is made of the rules and practices applied in various countries (Belgium, France, Federal Republic of Germany, United Kingdom and United States of America) in designing PWR plants to resist natural hazards (first part of the report) and hazards associated with human activities (second part). The third part of the report deals with the practices in different countries concerning the protection against accidents of internal origin [fr

  18. International Students: A Comparison of Health Status and Physical Health before and after Coming to the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msengi, Clementine M.; Msengi, Israel G.; Harris, Sandra; Hopson, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the health status and physical health of international students at five American universities. International students in the United States were asked to compare the status of their health before and after coming to the United States. Findings suggested that health status of international students declined…

  19. Comparison of marginal and internal adaptation of copings fabricated from three different fabrication techniques: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aman Arora

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: Marginal and internal discrepancies of all the three casting techniques were within clinically acceptable values. Marginal fit of DMLS was superior as compared to other two techniques, whereas when internal fit was evaluated, conventional technique showed the best internal fit.

  20. Firearm Homicide in Australia, Canada, and New Zealand: What Can We Learn from Long-Term International Comparisons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhedran, Samara; Baker, Jeanine; Singh, Pooja

    2011-01-01

    Although firearm homicide remains a topic of interest within criminological and policy discourse, existing research does not generally undertake longitudinal comparisons between countries. However, cross-country comparisons provide insight into whether "local" trends (e.g., declines in firearm homicide in one particular country) differ…

  1. An International Comparison of Tax Assistance for R&D: 2017 Update and Extension to Patent Boxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Lester

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Business investment in research and development (R&D is widely recognized as providing benefits to the broader economy that exceed the benefits to the firms that perform the R&D. As a result of this externality or spillover, most governments provide support for R&D in order to encourage more of it. In 2017, 29 of the 35 members of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD provided tax incentives for spending on R&D. That’s up slightly since 2014, when we last prepared an international comparison of tax assistance for R&D. On the other hand, average support levels edged down from 2014 to 2017. In addition to these expenditure-based measures, 15 OECD countries provide preferential tax treatment for the income generated by commercializing R&D and other innovative activities. These income-based measures are often described as patent boxes, since they first applied to income realized from patented products and processes. In most cases, the qualifying patents did not have to be based on R&D performed in the country offering the incentive, so patent boxes were criticized for creating an incentive to shift taxable income without encouraging additional R&D. Recently, however, most countries have accepted the OECD recommendation that both the R&D and the income from its commercialization must be located in the same jurisdiction before an income-based incentive can be provided. With this linkage, income-based incentives can be a useful policy tool, particularly for large firms. Income- and expenditure-based incentives are likely to have similar impacts on the amount of R&D undertaken by large firms, but income-based measures have the advantage of providing a greater incentive to commercialize R&D in the implementing jurisdiction. They also blunt the incentive to shift the taxable income generated by commercializing R&D to lower-tax jurisdictions. However, smaller firms, who are more likely to be cashflow constrained, will respond

  2. Comparison of fractional flow reserve of composite Y-grafts with saphenous vein or right internal thoracic arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glineur, David; Boodhwani, Munir; Poncelet, Alain; De Kerchove, Laurent; Etienne, Pierre Yves; Noirhomme, Philippe; Deceuninck, Paul; Michel, Xavier; El Khoury, Gebrine; Hanet, Claude

    2010-09-01

    Composite Y-grafts, using the left internal thoracic artery as the inflow, allow a more efficient use of conduits without the need to touch a diseased ascending aorta. Among other conduits, the saphenous vein graft may be an alternative to the radial artery in elderly patients. We evaluated the hemodynamic characteristics of 17 composite Y-grafts made with the left internal thoracic artery anastomosed to the left anterior descending coronary artery in all cases and with either the free right internal thoracic artery (RITA group, n = 10) or a saphenous vein graft (SVG group, n = 7) implanted proximally to the left internal thoracic artery and distally to the circumflex territory 6 months after the operation. At baseline, the pressure gradient measured with a 0.014-inch pressure wire was minimal between the aorta and the internal thoracic artery stem (2 +/- 1 mm Hg), the internal thoracic artery and left anterior descending (4 +/- 2 mm Hg), the internal thoracic artery and left circumflex (3 +/- 1 mm Hg), and the saphenous vein graft and left circumflex (2 +/- 2 mm Hg). During hyperemia induced by adenosine, the pressure gradient increased significantly to 6 +/- 2 mm Hg in the internal thoracic artery stem, 9 +/- 4 mm Hg in the internal thoracic artery and left anterior descending artery, 9 +/- 3 mm Hg in the internal thoracic artery and left circumflex, and 7 +/- 4 mm Hg in the saphenous vein graft and left circumflex. Fractional flow reserve was 0.94 +/- 0.02 in internal thoracic artery stem, 0.90 +/- 0.04 mm Hg in the internal thoracic artery and left anterior descending, 0.91 +/- 0.03 mm Hg in the internal thoracic artery and left circumflex, and 0.92 +/- 0.06 mm Hg in the saphenous vein graft and left circumflex. No difference between the two types of composite Y-grafts was observed for pressure gradients or fractional flow reserve measured in internal thoracic artery stem or in distal branches. Composite Y-grafts with saphenous vein or right internal thoracic

  3. [MusiQol: international questionnaire investigating quality of life in multiple sclerosis: validation results for the German subpopulation in an international comparison].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flachenecker, P; Vogel, U; Simeoni, M C; Auquier, P; Rieckmann, P

    2011-10-01

    The existing health-related quality of life questionnaires on multiple sclerosis (MS) only partially reflect the patient's point of view on the reduction of activities of daily living. Their development and validation was not performed in different languages. That is what prompted the development of the Multiple Sclerosis International Quality of Life (MusiQoL) Questionnaire as an international multidimensional measurement instrument. This paper presents this new development and the results of the German subgroup versus the total international sample. A total of 1,992 MS patients from 15 countries, including 209 German patients, took part in the study between January 2004 and February 2005. The patients took the MusiQoL survey at baseline and at 21±7 days as well as completing a symptom-related checklist and the SF-36 short form survey. Demographics, history and MS classification data were also generated. Reproducibility, sensitivity, convergent and discriminant validity were analysed. Convergent and discriminant validity and reproducibility were satisfactory for all dimensions of the MusiQoL. The dimensional scores correlated moderately but significantly with the SF-36 scores, but showed a discriminant validity in terms of gender, socioeconomic status and health status that was more pronounced in the overall population than in the German subpopulation. The highest correlations were observed between the MusiQoL dimension of activities of daily living and the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). The results of this study confirm the validity and reliability of MusiQoL as an instrument for measuring the quality of life of German and international MS patients.

  4. Credit Card Misuse, Money Attitudes, and Compulsive Buying Behaviors: A Comparison of Internal and External Locus of Control (LOC) Consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Stevie

    2009-01-01

    This study examined attitudinal and behavioral differences between internal and external locus of control (LOC) consumers on credit card misuse, the importance of money, and compulsive buying. Using multiple analysis of variance and separate analyses of variance, internal LOC consumers were found to have lower scores on credit card misuse and…

  5. Academic and social integration of international and local students at five business schools, a cross-institutional comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rienties, Bart; Grohnert, Therese; Kommers, Piet; Niemantsverdriet, Susan; Nijhuis, Jan; van den Bossche, Piet; Gijselaers, Wim. H.; Miller, Richard G.

    2011-01-01

    An increasing number of students choose to study at a university in a foreign country. A common belief among educators is that international students are insufficiently academically adjusted. Recent research has found a mixed picture on whether international students underperform in academic

  6. COMPARISON OF EXPERIMENTS TO CFD MODELS FOR MIXING USING DUAL OPPOSING JETS IN TANKS WITH AND WITHOUT INTERNAL OBSTRUCTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leishear, R.; Poirier, M.; Lee, S.; Fowley, M.

    2012-06-26

    This paper documents testing methods, statistical data analysis, and a comparison of experimental results to CFD models for blending of fluids, which were blended using a single pump designed with dual opposing nozzles in an eight foot diameter tank. Overall, this research presents new findings in the field of mixing research. Specifically, blending processes were clearly shown to have random, chaotic effects, where possible causal factors such as turbulence, pump fluctuations, and eddies required future evaluation. CFD models were shown to provide reasonable estimates for the average blending times, but large variations -- or scatter -- occurred for blending times during similar tests. Using this experimental blending time data, the chaotic nature of blending was demonstrated and the variability of blending times with respect to average blending times were shown to increase with system complexity. Prior to this research, the variation in blending times caused discrepancies between CFD models and experiments. This research addressed this discrepancy, and determined statistical correction factors that can be applied to CFD models, and thereby quantified techniques to permit the application of CFD models to complex systems, such as blending. These blending time correction factors for CFD models are comparable to safety factors used in structural design, and compensate variability that cannot be theoretically calculated. To determine these correction factors, research was performed to investigate blending, using a pump with dual opposing jets which re-circulate fluids in the tank to promote blending when fluids are added to the tank. In all, eighty-five tests were performed both in a tank without internal obstructions and a tank with vertical obstructions similar to a tube bank in a heat exchanger. These obstructions provided scale models of vertical cooling coils below the liquid surface for a full scale, liquid radioactive waste storage tank. Also, different jet

  7. International standard problem (ISP) No. 43 Rapid boron-dilution transient tests for code verification. Comparison report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-03-01

    International Standard Problem No. 43 (ISP 43) addresses the nuclear industries present capabilities of simulating fluid dynamics aspects of a subset of rapid boron dilution transients. Specifically, the exercise focuses on the sequence involving the transport of a boron-dilute slug through the actuation of a pump. The slug is formed on the primary side of the steam generator as a consequence of in interfacing system leak from the secondary un-borated coolant. Experimental data was collected using the University of Maryland 2 x 4 Thermalhydraulic Loop (UM 2 x 4 Loop) and the Boron-mixing Visualization Facility. Two blind test series were proposed during the first workshop (October 1998) and refined using participant input. The first series, test series A, deals with the injection of a front, i.e., a single interface between borated and dilute fluids. The second blind series, test series B, is the more realistic injection of a slug, i.e., a dilute fluid volume preceded and followed by the borated coolant of the primary system. Data are collected in the UM 2 x 4 Loop and refined details are obtained from the Visualization Facility, which represents a replica of the Loop.s vessel downcomer. In the Loop experimental program, the dilute volume is simulated by cold water and the borated primary coolant is simulated by hot water. The Visualization Facility uses dye to mark the diluted front or slug. The measured boundary conditions for both test series include the initial temperature of the primary system, the front/slug injection flowrate and temperature, and the pressure drop across the core. Temperature data is collected at 185 thermocouple positions in the downcomer and 38 positions in the lower plenum. The advancement of the front/slug through the system is monitored at discrete horizontal levels that contain the thermocouples. The performance of codes is measured relative to a set of figures of merit. During the first workshop, the principal figure of merit was

  8. Comparison of Analytical and Numerical Performance Predictions for a Regenerative Heat Exchanger in the International Space Station Node 3 Internal Active Thermal Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Stephen A.; Holt, James M.; Turner, Larry D. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The complexity of International Space Station (ISS) systems modeling often necessitates the concurrence of various dissimilar, parallel analysis techniques to validate modeling. This was the case with a feasibility and performance study of the ISS Node 3 Regenerative Heat Exchanger (RHX). A thermo-hydraulic network model was created and analyzed in SINDA/FLUINT. A less complex, closed form solution of the system dynamics was created using Excel. The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief description of the modeling processes utilized, the results and benefits of each to the ISS Node 3 RHX study.

  9. Comparison of Analytical and Numerical Performance Predictions for an International Space Station Node 3 Internal Active Thermal Control System Regenerative Heat Exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Stephen A.; Holt, James M.

    2002-01-01

    The complexity of International Space Station (ISS) systems modeling often necessitates the concurrence of various dissimilar, parallel analysis techniques to validate modeling. This was the case with a feasibility and performance study of the ISS Node 3 Regenerative Heat Exchanger (RHX). A thermo-hydraulic network model was created and analyzed in SINDA/FLUINT. A less complex, closed form solution of the systems dynamics was created using an Excel Spreadsheet. The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief description of the modeling processes utilized, the results and benefits of each to the ISS Node 3 RHX study.

  10. International comparison. High-precision comparison of voltages generated by SINIS and SIS Josephson junction arrays at the 10 mV level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpov, O.V.; Koutovoi, V.D.; Sherstobitov, S.V. [Institute for Physical-Technical and Radiotechnical Measurements, VNIIFTRI, Gostandart of Russia, Mendeleevo, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Niemeyer, J. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, PTB, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    A high-precision comparison of dc voltages generated by a 10 GHz SINIS (superconductor/insulator/normal/insulator/superconductor) Josephson non-hysteretic junction array and a 70 GHz SIS (superconductor/insulator/superconductor) Josephson junction array is described. The paper also describes a method of minimizing the Type A measurement uncertainty. The measurements were carried out at the 10 mV level. The agreement between both output voltages was determined to 0.2 nV with a Type A uncertainty of 0.5 nV. (authors)

  11. Fairness reactions to personnel selection methods: An international comparison between the Netherlands, the United States, France, Spain, Portugal, and Singapore

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, N.; Witvliet, C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports reactions to employee selection methods in the Netherlands and compares these findings internationally against six other previously published samples covering the United States, France, Spain, Portugal, and Singapore. A sample of 167 participants rated 10 popular assessment

  12. Continuing to Confront COPD International Surveys : comparison of patient and physician perceptions about COPD risk and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menezes, Ana M.; Landis, Sarah H.; Han, MeiLan K.; Muellerova, Hana; Aisanov, Zaurbek; van der Molen, Thys; Oh, Yeon-Mok; Ichinose, Masakazu; Mannino, David M.; Davis, Kourtney J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Using data from the Continuing to Confront COPD International Physician and Patient Surveys, this paper describes physicians' attitudes and beliefs regarding chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) prognosis, and compares physician and patient perceptions with respect to COPD. Methods:

  13. Students’ oral involvement in the Chinese university classroom: A comparison between classes of Chinese and international students

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Abid Malik; Guoyuan Sang

    2017-01-01

    The current research investigates the notion that Chinese students are orally less involved in the classroom as compared to international students. Most of the previous research on this topic focuses on the Chinese students in English language classes or those studying in other countries where the language barrier and foreign culture might influence such behaviour. Using observations, this research compares two Chinese and two international classes in a Chinese university to investigate this ...

  14. Comparison of the perceived relevance of oral biology reported by students and interns of a Pakistani dental college.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, I; Ali, S

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse and compare the perceived relevance of oral biology with dentistry as reported by dental students and interns and to investigate the most popular teaching approach and learning resource. A questionnaire aiming to ask about the relevance of oral biology to dentistry, most popular teaching method and learning resource was utilised in this study. Study groups encompassed second-year dental students who had completed their course and dental interns. The data were obtained and analysed statistically. The overall response rate for both groups was 60%. Both groups reported high relevance of oral biology to dentistry. Perception of dental interns regarding the relevance of oral biology to dentistry was higher than that of students. Both groups identified student presentations as the most important teaching method. Amongst the most important learning resources, textbooks were considered most imperative by interns, whereas lecture handouts received the highest importance score by students. Dental students and interns considered oral biology to be relevant to dentistry, although greater relevance was reported by interns. Year-wise advancement in dental education and training improves the perception of the students about the relevance of oral biology to dentistry. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Multi-model comparison of the economic and energy implications for China and India in an international climate regime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johansson, D.J.A.; Lucas, P.L.; Weitzel, M.; Ahlgren, E.O.; Bazaz, A.B.; Chen, W.; den Elzen, M.G.J.; Ghosh, J.; Grahn, M.; Liang, Q.M.; Peterson, S.; Pradhan, B.K.; van Ruijven, B.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304834521; Shukla, P.R.; van Vuuren, D.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/11522016X; Wei, Y.M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a modeling comparison on how stabilization of global climate change at about 2 °C above the pre-industrial level could affect economic and energy systems development in China and India. Seven General Equilibrium (CGE) and energy system models on either the global or national

  16. Dimensional comparison theory : an extension of the internal/external frame of reference effect on academic self-concept formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marsh, Herbert W.; Kuyper, Hans; Seaton, Marjorie; Parker, Philip D.; Morin, Alexandre J. S.; Moeller, Jens; Abduljabbar, Adel S.

    2014-01-01

    In a comprehensive study (15,356 Dutch 9th grade students from 651 classes in 95 schools) we empirically tested the dimensional comparison theory (DCT) propositions formulated by Moller & Marsh (2013) as an extension of I/E theory, exploring methodological, theoretical, and substantive insights.

  17. A Comparison of Rhetorical Move Structure of Applied Linguistics Research Articles Published in International and National Thai Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wannaruk, Anchalee; Amnuai, Wirada

    2016-01-01

    The rhetorical organization of research articles has attracted extensive attention in genre study, and the focus of move-based analysis is on the textual function. The primary aim of the present study was the comparison of the rhetorical moves of English research articles in the field of Applied Linguistics written by Thai first authors and…

  18. Comparison of marginal and internal adaptation of copings fabricated from three different fabrication techniques: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Aman; Yadav, Avneet; Upadhyaya, Viram; Jain, Prachi; Verma, Mrinalini

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the marginal and internal adaptation of cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) copings fabricated from conventional wax pattern, three-dimensional (3D)-printed resin pattern, and laser sintering technique. A total of thirty copings were made, out of which ten copings were made from 3D-printed resin pattern (Group A), ten from inlay wax pattern (Group B), and ten copings were obtained from direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) technique (Group C). All the thirty samples were seated on their respective dies and sectioned carefully using a laser jet cutter and were evaluated for marginal and internal gaps at the predetermined areas using a stereomicroscope. The values were then analyzed using one-way ANOVA test and post hoc Bonferroni test. One-way ANOVA showed lowest mean marginal discrepancy for DMLS and highest value for copings fabricated from inlay wax. The values for internal discrepancy were highest for DMLS (169.38) and lowest for 3D-printed resin pattern fabricated copings (133.87). Post hoc Bonferroni test for both marginal and internal discrepancies showed nonsignificant difference when Group A was compared to Group B ( P > 0.05) and significant when Group A was compared with Group C ( P < 0.05). Group B showed significant difference ( P < 0.05) when compared with Group C. Marginal and internal discrepancies of all the three casting techniques were within clinically acceptable values. Marginal fit of DMLS was superior as compared to other two techniques, whereas when internal fit was evaluated, conventional technique showed the best internal fit.

  19. Benefits, Barriers, and Motivators to Training Dietetic Interns in Clinical Settings: A Comparison between Preceptors and Nonpreceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbuSabha, Rayane; Muller, Colette; MacLasco, Jacqueline; George, Mary; Houghton, Erica; Helm, Alison

    2018-03-01

    The shortage of supervised practice sites in dietetics is associated with fewer numbers of preceptors available to supervise interns, especially in the clinical setting. To identify clinical dietitians' perceived benefits and challenges of training dietetic interns and to determine key motivators that would entice nonpreceptors to volunteer for the role. Registered dietitian nutritionists working in clinical settings completed a semi-structured, audiotaped interview followed by a brief questionnaire. Clinical dietitians working in hospitals, long-term care facilities, and outpatient clinics (n=100) participated: 54 preceptors and 46 nonpreceptors. Qualitative analysis was conducted using an iterative process to identify and code common themes. T tests were used to compare mean differences between the opinions of preceptors and nonpreceptors. Preceptors had approximately 5 more years of experience (mean=14.27±12.09 years) than nonpreceptors (mean=8.83±9.72 years) (Pmotivator for taking on interns. Incentive programs should be developed to entice nonpreceptors to take on interns. These programs should include extensive training on the preceptor role and how to alleviate the burden of time spent supervising interns and should provide a significant number of CPEUs to make the added workload worthwhile. Copyright © 2018 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. International marine and aviation bunker fuel. Trends, ranking of countries and comparison with national CO2 emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivier, J.G.J.; Peters, J.A.H.W.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarises and characterises fuel consumption and associated CO2 emissions from international transport based on energy statistics compiled by the International Energy Agency (IEA). Shares in 1990 and 1970-1995 trends in national and global bunker fuel consumption and associated CO2 emissions are analysed for marine and air transport. Also, the global total of international transport emissions are compared with national emissions and domestic transport emissions. During the last 25 years the average global annual increase was for marine bunkers about 0.8% and for aviation emissions about 3.3%. Annual variations per country of marine bunker fuel use larger than of aviation fuel use, sometimes more than 50%. However, the distinction between fuel use for domestic and for international aviation is more difficult to monitor. The dominant fuel in marine bunker fuel consumption is residual fuel oil ('heavy fuel oil'). The share of diesel oil has slowly increased from 11% in 1970 to 20% in 1990. Aviation fuels sold are predominantly jet fuel ('jet kerosene'). The small share of aviation gasoline is slowly decreasing: from about 4% in 1970 to 1.3% in 1990. Carbon dioxide emissions from combustion of international marine bunker fuels and aviation contributed in 1990 globally about 1.8% and 2.4% expressed as percentage of global total anthropogenic emissions (excluding deforestation). However, aviation emissions include an unknown part of domestic aviation. When comparing with total transport emissions, then international transport has a share of 20%. For both marine and aviation bunker fuel, the Top-10 of largest consuming countries account for about 2/3 of the global total; the Top-25 countries cover already 85% or more of global total CO2 emissions

  1. INTERNATIONAL COMPARISON OF RESIDENTIAL ENERGY USE: INDICATORS OF RESIDENTIAL ENERGY USE AND EFFICIENCY PART ONE: THE DATA BASE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schipper, L.; Ketoff, A.; Meyers, S.

    1981-05-01

    This summary report presents information on the end-uses of energy in the residential sector of seven major OECD countries over the period 1960-1978. Much of the information contained herein has never been published before. We present data on energy consumption by energy type and end-use for three to five different years for each country. Each year table is complemented by a set of indicators, which are assembled for the entire 20-year period at the end of each country listing. Finally, a set of key indicators from each country is displayed together in a table, allowing comparison for three periods: early (1960-63), pre-embargo (1970-73), and recent (1975-78). Analysis of these results, smoothing and interpolation of the data, addition of further data, and analytical comparison of in-country and cross-country trends will follow in the next phase of our work.

  2. Comparison of normal tissue dose with three-dimensional conformal techniques for breast cancer irradiation including the internal mammary nodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Laan, Hans Paul; Dolsma, Willemtje; van t Veld, Aart; Bijl, HP; Langendijk, JA

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare the Para Mixed technique for irradiation of the internal mammary nodes (IMN) with three commonly used strategies, by analyzing the dose to the heart and other organs at risk. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Four different three-dimensional conformal dose plans were created for 30 breast

  3. Confirmation of synthetic glucocorticoids with liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry: Organization and results of an international interlaboratory comparison test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hauwe, O. van den; Campbell, K.; Crooks, S.R.H.; Schilt, R.; Peteghem, C.H. van

    2005-01-01

    Within the framework of a European Union (EU) research project entitled "Food Safety Screening: Synthetic Glucocorticoids (QLK1-1999-00122)," an international interlaboratory ring test was organized to compare and evaluate different liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) confirmatory

  4. Comparison of parental socio-demographic factors in children and adolescents presenting with internalizing and externalizing disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Nazanin; Roberts, Nasreen; DeGrace, Elizabeth

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to: (a) examine parental socio-demographic factors in children and adolescents referred to an outpatient service for internalizing and externalizing disorders, and (b) compare the demographic variables and diagnoses for the two diagnostic groups. Parents of all children who were referred to the child and adolescent outpatient service were asked to participate. Following their informed consent, they completed a socio-demographic questionnaire for themselves and a Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) for their child. The CBCL scores and the diagnoses assigned by the psychiatrists were then recorded for each child. Diagnoses were classified as internalizing or externalizing based on the primary DSM-IV diagnosis assigned by the psychiatrists. Data for the two groups were compared for study variables using Pearson correlation, t-tests, one-way ANOVA and logistic regression. Children who had externalizing disorders tended to live with unemployed single parents who had lower education levels and lived in rented or assisted housing. Children with internalizing problems tended to live in owned homes with employed parents. There was no significant association between age or gender for either group. Previous literature has reported an association between low SES and more mental health problems; however, the relationship between different indicators of SES and diagnosis is not clear. Despite small numbers, our study revealed significant differences between the parental socio-demographic factors for externalizing compared with internalizing disorders.

  5. Comparison of infection between internal-external and external percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage in treating patients with malignant obstructive jaundice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chuan; Huang, Xin-En; Wang, Shu-Xiang; Lv, Peng-Hua; Sun, Ling; Wang, Fu-An

    2015-01-01

    Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) is a form of palliative care for patients with malignant obstructive jaundice. We here compared the infection incidence between internal-external and external drainage for patients with malignant obstructive jaundice. Patients with malignant obstructive jaundice without infection before surgery receiving internal-external or external drainage from January 2008 to July 2014 were recruited. According to percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC), if the guide wire could pass through the occlusion and enter the duodenum, we recommended internal-external drainage, and external drainage biliary drainage was set up if the occlusion was not crossed. All patients with infection after procedure received a cultivation of blood and a bile bacteriological test. Among 110 patients with malignant obstructive jaundice, 22 (52.4%) were diagnosed with infection after the procedure in the internal-external drainage group, whereas 19 (27.9%) patients were so affected in the external drainage group, the difference being significant (pinternal-external group infection was controlled, as compared to 12 (63.1%) in the external group (pinternal-external group in one month was 42.8%, while this rate in external group was 28.6% (pExternal drainage is a good choice, which could significantly reduce the chance of biliary infection caused by bacteria, and decrease the mortality rate at one month and improve the long-term prognosis.

  6. Does Varying Attentional Focus Affect Skill Acquisition in Children? A Comparison of Internal and External Focus Instructions and Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agar, Charles; Humphries, Charlotte A.; Naquin, Millie; Hebert, Edward; Wood, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    Recently, researchers have concluded that motor skill performance is enhanced when learners adopt an external attentional focus, compared to adopting an internal focus. We extended the line of inquiry to children and examined if skill learning in children was differentially affected by providing instructions and feedback that direct attentional…

  7. An international comparison of productivity change in the textile and clothing industry: a bootstrapped Malmquist index approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kapelko, M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Firms in the textile and clothing industry operate in competitive international markets characterized by the liberalized trade after the removal of multi-fiber agreement quotas in 2005, and have to address rapid changes in consumer preferences and production technology. Hence, improving

  8. Breast radiotherapy with inclusion of internal mammary nodes: a comparison of techniques with three-dimensional planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severin, Diane; Connors, Sherry; Thompson, Heather; Rathee, Satyapal; Stavrev, Pavel; Hanson, John

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the partially wide tangent (PWT) technique of breast and internal mammary chain irradiation with photon/electron (P/E) and standard tangent (ST) techniques in terms of dose homogeneity within breast and the dose to critical structures such as the heart and lung. Methods and Materials: Sixteen left breast cancer patients underwent CT simulation. The breasts, lungs, heart, and internal mammary chain were contoured and treatment plans generated on a three-dimensional planning system (Helax-TMS). Results: The mean dose to the left breast volume with the ST, P/E, and PWT techniques was 94.7%, 98.4%, and 96.5%, respectively (p=0.029). The left lung received the lowest mean dose with the ST technique (13.9%) compared with PWT (22.8%) and P/E (24.3%). The internal mammary chain volume was most consistently treated with the PWT (mean dose 99%) vs. P/E (86%) and ST (38.4%) techniques. The heart received the least dose with ST (mean dose 6.7%) vs. PWT (10.3%) and P/E (19%). The PWT treated the greatest amount of contralateral breast (mean dose 5.8%) vs. ST (3.2%) vs. P/E (2.8%). Conclusion: The PWT technique treats the internal mammary chain with acceptable toxicity to major organs, especially the heart, and with reasonable dose homogeneity in patients with mastectomy or intact breasts

  9. Public Interests in the International Court of Justice—A Comparison Between Nuclear Arms Race and South West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venzke, I.

    2017-01-01

    In the present essay I compare the 2016 judgment of the International Court of Justice (ICJ) in Nuclear Arms Race (Marshall Islands v. United Kingdom) with the Court's 1966 judgment in South West Africa (Ethiopia v. South Africa; Liberia v. South Africa). A series of similarities between the two

  10. Distinction between externally vs. internally guided decision-making: Operational differences, meta-analytical comparisons and their theoretical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi eNakao

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Most experimental studies of decision-making have specifically examined situations in which a single less-predictable correct answer exists (externally guided decision-making under uncertainty. Along with such externally guided decision-making, there are instances of decision making in which no correct answer based on external circumstances is available for the subject (internally guided decision-making. Such decisions are usually made in the context of moral decision making as well as in preference judgment, where the answer depends on the subject’s own, i.e. internal, preferences rather than on external, i.e. circumstantial, criteria. The neuronal and psychological mechanisms that allow guidance of decisions based on more internally oriented criteria in the absence of external ones remain unclear. This study was undertaken to compare decision making of these two kinds empirically and theoretically. First, we reviewed studies of decision making to clarify experimental–operational differences between externally guided and internally guided decision-making. Second, using MKDA, a whole-brain-based quantitative meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies was performed. Our meta-analysis revealed that the neural network used predominantly for internally guided decision-making differs from that for externally guided decision-making under uncertainty. This result suggests that studying only externally guided decision-making under uncertainty is insufficient to account for decision-making processes in the brain. Finally, based on the review and results of the meta-analysis, we discuss the differences and relations between decision making of these two types in terms of their operational, neuronal, and theoretical characteristics.

  11. Comparison of posterior internal anal sphincter myectomy and intrasphincteric botulinum toxin injection for treatment of internal anal sphincter achalasia: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmacher, Florian; Puri, Prem

    2012-08-01

    Internal anal sphincter (IAS) achalasia is a clinical condition with presentation similar to Hirschsprung's disease, but with the presence of ganglion cells on rectal suction biopsy (RSB). The diagnosis is made by anorectal manometry (ARM), which demonstrates the absence of the rectosphincteric reflex on rectal balloon inflation. The recommended treatment of choice is posterior IAS myectomy. Recently, intrasphincteric botulinum toxin (Botox) injection has been effectively used for treatment of IAS achalasia. The aim of this meta-analysis was to compare the efficacy of posterior IAS myectomy with intrasphincteric Botox injection for treatment of IAS achalasia. A systematic literature search for relevant articles was conducted using the following databases: MEDLINE( ® ), EMBASE(®), ISI Web of Science(SM) and the Cochrane Library. A meta-analysis was performed with the studies where IAS achalasia was diagnosed based on the results of ARM and RSB. Odds ratio (OR) with 95 % confidence intervals were calculated. Sixteen prospective and retrospective studies, published from 1973 to 2009, were identified. A total of 395 patients with IAS achalasia were included in this meta-analysis. Fifty-eight percent of patients underwent IAS myectomy and 42 % Botox injection. Regular bowel movements were significantly more frequent after IAS myectomy (OR 0.53, [95 % CI 0.29-0.99]; p = 0.04). There was no significant difference in continued use of laxatives or rectal enemas (OR 0.92, [95 % CI 0.34-2.53], p = 0.89) and in overall complication rates between both procedures (OR 0.68, [95 % CI 0.38-1.21]; p = 0.19). Looking at specific complications, the rate of transient faecal incontinence was significantly higher after Botox injection (OR 0.07, [95 % CI 0.01-0.54]; p IAS myectomy (OR 0.56, [95 % CI 0.32-0.97]; p = 0.04 and OR 0.25, [95 % CI 0.15-0.41]; p IAS achalasia, posterior IAS myectomy appears to be a more effective treatment option compared to intrasphincteric

  12. Comparison of marginal bone loss between internal- and external-connection dental implants in posterior areas without periodontal or peri-implant disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Hyun; Kim, Hyun Ju; Kim, Sungtae; Koo, Ki-Tae; Kim, Tae-Il; Seol, Yang-Jo; Lee, Yong-Moo; Ku, Young; Rhyu, In-Chul

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study with 4-12 years of follow-up was to compare the marginal bone loss (MBL) between external-connection (EC) and internal-connection (IC) dental implants in posterior areas without periodontal or peri-implant disease on the adjacent teeth or implants. Additional factors influencing MBL were also evaluated. This retrospective study was performed using dental records and radiographic data obtained from patients who had undergone dental implant treatment in the posterior area from March 2006 to March 2007. All the implants that were included had follow-up periods of more than 4 years after loading and satisfied the implant success criteria, without any peri-implant or periodontal disease on the adjacent implants or teeth. They were divided into 2 groups: EC and IC. Subgroup comparisons were conducted according to splinting and the use of cement in the restorations. A statistical analysis was performed using the Mann-Whitney U test for comparisons between 2 groups and the Kruskal-Wallis test for comparisons among more than 2 groups. A total of 355 implants in 170 patients (206 EC and 149 IC) fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were analyzed in this study. The mean MBL was 0.47 mm and 0.15 mm in the EC and IC implants, respectively, which was a statistically significant difference ( P <0.001). Comparisons according to splinting (MBL of single implants: 0.34 mm, MBL of splinted implants: 0.31 mm, P =0.676) and cement use (MBL of cemented implants: 0.27 mm, MBL of non-cemented implants: 0.35 mm, P =0.178) showed no statistically significant differences in MBL, regardless of the implant connection type. IC implants showed a more favorable bone response regarding MBL in posterior areas without peri-implantitis or periodontal disease.

  13. International comparison of interpolation procedures for the efficiency of germanium gamma-ray spectrometers (GAM83 exercise)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zijp, W.L.; Polle, A.N.; Nolthenius, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    Results are presented for the outcome of an international intercomparison of a particular gamma-ray spectrometric procedure. Laboratories were asked to determine full energy peak efficiencies and activities by means of their own procedures, starting from supplied peak-efficiency data. Four data sets for four different conditions of germanium detectors were distributed. The sets comprised: a high accuracy- (uncertainty > 1%) data set with a relatively large number of measured data (SET 1); a low accuracy- (uncertainty 3-5%) data set with a relatively small number of measured data (SET 2); a low energy-data set (SET 3); a high accuracy-data set with a relatively small number of measured data (SET 4). The intercomparison (coded GAM83) was organized and analyzed under auspices of the International Committee for Radionuclide Metrology (ICRM). The results comprise the analysis of the contributions of 41 participants

  14. International key comparison of free-field hydrophone calibrations in the frequency range 1 to 500 kHz

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Robinson, SP

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available South African Develop- ment Community Cooperation in Measurement TraceabilityH20850, and SIM H20849Sistema Interamericano de MetrologiaH20850. Also listed in Table I are the country codes used to identify the results in the graphical representations... in the database on the BIPM web- site also include tabulated data on the bilateral degrees of equivalence between the countries along with associated uncertainties. The data generated by the comparison are available on the BIPM website at H20855http...

  15. Comparison Of Internal Adaptation Of Fixed Restorations Fabricated From Four Different Materials By A Three Axis Mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-26

    COMP ARIS ON OF INTERNAL ADAPTATION OF FIXED RESTO RA TIO NS FABRICATED FROM FOUR DIFFERENT MATERIALS BY A THREE-AXIS MILL by Bryan Paul...MATERIALS BY A THREE-AXIS MILL is appropriately acknowledged and, beyond brief excerpts, is with the permission of the copyright owner. ~r2L~ Bryan Paul...RESTORATIONS FABRICATED FROM FOUR DIFFERENT MATERIALS BY A THREE-AXIS MILL LCDR Bryan Paul Rasmussen, DC USN Prosthodontics Dept., 2016 Directed by

  16. Buckling calculations with the CEASEMT system for elliptical heads subjected to an internal pressure. Comparison with the Saclay experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bung, Hariddh; Alix, Michel; Hoffmann, Alain.

    1980-06-01

    In this paper, Buckling calculations with the CEASEMT System (INCA) are compared with experimental results obtained on elliptical heads subjected to an internal pressure. Tests were performed with 18 ellipsoidal heads welded on cylinders made of carbon steel A 36-401, stainless steel Z6CN18-09 and aluminium-magnesium alloys (AG3). Experimental data are higher than calculated data, this leads to a good safety factor [fr

  17. Comparison of Patient Costs in Internal Medicine and Anaesthesiology Intensive Care Units in a Tertiary University Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, İskender; Yıldırım, Fatma; Başak, Dilek Yumuş; Küçük, Hamit; Türkoğlu, Melda; Aygencel, Gülbin; Katı, İsmail; Karabıyık, Lale

    2015-06-01

    The allocation of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) to health is limited, therefore it has made a need for professional management of health business. Hospital managers as well as employees are required to have sufficient knowledge about the hospital costs. Hospital facilities like intensive care units that require specialization and advanced technology have an important part in costs. For this purpose, cost analysis studies should be done in the general health business and special units separately. In this study we aimed to compare the costs of anaesthesiology and internal medicine intensive care units (ICU) roughly. After approval of this study by Gazi University Faculty of Medicine Ethics Committee, the costs of 855 patients that were hospitalized, examined and treated for at least 24 hours in internal medicine and anaesthesiology ICUs between January 2012-August 2013 (20 months period) were taken and analyzed from chief staff of the Department of Information Technology, Gazi University Hospital. At the end of the study, we observed clear differences between internal medicine and anaesthesiology ICUs arising from transactions and patient characteristics of units. We stated that these differences should be considered by Social Security Institution (SSI) for the reimbursement of the services. Further, we revealed that SSI payments do not meet the intensive care expenditure.

  18. Comparison of athlete-coach perceptions of internal and external load markers for elite junior tennis training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Alistair P; Duffield, Rob; Kellett, Aaron; Reid, Machar

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the discrepancy between coach and athlete perceptions of internal load and notational analysis of external load in elite junior tennis. Fourteen elite junior tennis players and 6 international coaches were recruited. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPEs) were recorded for individual drills and whole sessions, along with a rating of mental exertion, coach rating of intended session exertion, and athlete heart rate (HR). Furthermore, total stroke count and unforced-error count were notated using video coding after each session, alongside coach and athlete estimations of shots and errors made. Finally, regression analyses explained the variance in the criterion variables of athlete and coach RPE. Repeated-measures analyses of variance and interclass correlation coefficients revealed that coaches significantly (P coach and athlete. However, athlete drill RPE (P = .14; r = .71) and mental exertion (P = .44; r = .68) were comparable and substantially correlated. No significant differences in estimated stroke count were evident between athlete and coach (P = .21), athlete notational analysis (P = .06), or coach notational analysis (P = .49). Coaches estimated significantly greater unforced errors than either athletes or notational analysis (P coach RPE was explained by intended session exertion and coach drill RPE, while drill RPE and peak HR explained 45.3% of the variance in athlete session RPE. Coaches misinterpreted session RPE but not drill RPE, while inaccurately monitoring error counts. Improved understanding of external- and internal-load monitoring may help coach-athlete relationships in individual sports like tennis avoid maladaptive training.

  19. Dimensional metrology of lab-on-a-chip internal structures: a comparison of optical coherence tomography with confocal fluorescence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, D R; Halter, M; Hwang, J

    2015-07-01

    The characterization of internal structures in a polymeric microfluidic device, especially of a final product, will require a different set of optical metrology tools than those traditionally used for microelectronic devices. We demonstrate that optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging is a promising technique to characterize the internal structures of poly(methyl methacrylate) devices where the subsurface structures often cannot be imaged by conventional wide field optical microscopy. The structural details of channels in the devices were imaged with OCT and analyzed with an in-house written ImageJ macro in an effort to identify the structural details of the channel. The dimensional values obtained with OCT were compared with laser-scanning confocal microscopy images of channels filled with a fluorophore solution. Attempts were also made using confocal reflectance and interferometry microscopy to measure the channel dimensions, but artefacts present in the images precluded quantitative analysis. OCT provided the most accurate estimates for the channel height based on an analysis of optical micrographs obtained after destructively slicing the channel with a microtome. OCT may be a promising technique for the future of three-dimensional metrology of critical internal structures in lab-on-a-chip devices because scans can be performed rapidly and noninvasively prior to their use. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2015 Royal Microscopical Society.

  20. Comparison of local International Sensitivity Index calibration and 'Direct INR' methods in correction of locally reported International Normalized Ratios: an international study. On behalf of the European Action of Anticoagulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poller, L; Keown, M; Ibrahim, S

    2007-01-01

    collaborative study at 77 centers has compared local INR correction using the two alternative methods recommended in the Scientific and Standardization Committee of the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis guidelines: local ISI calibration and 'Direct INR'. METHODS: Success of INR correction...

  1. International Neurocognitive Normative Study: Neurocognitive Comparison Data in Diverse Resource Limited Settings: AIDS Clinical Trials Group A5271

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, K; Jiang, H; Evans, SR; Marra, CM; Berzins, B; Hakim, J; Sacktor, N; Silva, M Tulius; Campbell, TB; Nair, A; Schouten, J; Kumwenda, J; Supparatpinyo, K; Tripathy, S.; Kumarasamy, N; La Rosa, A; Montano, S; Mwafongo, A; Firnhaber, C; Sanne, I; Naini, L.; Amod, F; Walawander, A

    2016-01-01

    Summary ACTG A5271 collected neurocognitive normative comparison test data in 2400 at-risk HIV seronegative participants from Brazil, India, Malawi, Peru, South Africa, Thailand and Zimbabwe. The participants were enrolled in strata by site (10 levels), age (2 levels), education (2 levels), and gender (2 levels). These data provide necessary normative data infrastructure for future clinical research and care in these diverse resource limited settings. Infrastructure for conducting neurological research in resource limited settings (RLS) is limited. The lack of neurological and neuropsychological (NP) assessment, and normative data needed for clinical interpretation impede research and clinical care. Here we report on ACTG 5271, which provided neurological training of clinical site personnel, and collected neurocognitive normative comparison data in diverse settings. At 10 sites in seven RLS countries, we provided training for NP assessments. We collected normative comparison data on HIV- participants from Brazil (n=240), India (n=480), Malawi (n=481), Peru (n=239), South Africa (480), Thailand (n=240) and Zimbabwe (n=240). Participants had a negative HIV test within 30 days before standardized NP exams were administered at baseline, and 770 at six-months. Participants were enrolled in 8 strata, gender (female and male), education (<10 years and ≥ 10 years), and age (<35 years and ≥35 years). Of 2400 enrolled, 770 completed the six-month follow up. As expected, significant between-country differences were evident in all the neurocognitive test scores (p<.0001). There was variation between the age, gender and education strata on the neurocognitive tests. Age and education were important variables for all tests; older participants had poorer performance and those with higher education had better performance. Women had better performance on verbal learning/memory and speed of processing tests, while men performed better on motor tests. This study provides the

  2. An international comparison of occupational health guidelines for the management of mental disorders and stress-related psychological symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosen, Margot C W; Brouwers, Evelien P M; van Beurden, Karlijn M; Terluin, Berend; Ruotsalainen, Jani H; Woo, Jong-Min; Choi, Kyeong-Sook; Eguchi, Hisashi; Moriguchi, Jiro; van der Klink, Jac J L; van Weeghel, Jaap

    2015-05-01

    We compared available guidelines on the management of mental disorders and stress-related psychological symptoms in an occupational healthcare setting and determined their development and reporting quality. To identify eligible guidelines, we systematically searched National Guideline Clearinghouse, Guidelines International Network Library and PubMed. Members of the International Commission on Occupational Health (ICOH), were also consulted. Guidelines recommendations were compared and reporting quality was assessed using the AGREE II instrument. Of 2126 titles retrieved, 14 guidelines were included: 1 Japanese, 2 Finnish, 2 Korean, 2 British and 7 Dutch. Four guidelines were of high-reporting quality. Best described was the Scope and Purpose, and the poorest described were competing interests (Editorial independence) and barriers and facilitators for implementation (Applicability). Key recommendations were often difficult to identify. Most guidelines recommend employing an inventory of symptoms, diagnostic classification, performance problems and workplace factors. All guidelines recommend specific return-to-work interventions, and most agreed on psychological treatment and communication between involved stakeholders. Practice guidelines to address work disability due to mental disorders and stress-related symptoms are available in various countries around the world, however, these guidelines are difficult to find. To promote sharing, national guidelines should be accessible via established international databases. The quality of the guideline's developmental process varied considerably. To increase quality and applicability, guideline developers should adopt a common structure for the development and reporting of their guidelines, for example Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE) criteria. Owing to differences in social systems, developers can learn from each other through reviews of this kind. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited

  3. Differences in reporting of analyses in internal company documents versus published trial reports: comparisons in industry-sponsored trials in off-label uses of gabapentin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Swaroop Vedula

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Details about the type of analysis (e.g., intent to treat [ITT] and definitions (i.e., criteria for including participants in the analysis are necessary for interpreting a clinical trial's findings. Our objective was to compare the description of types of analyses and criteria for including participants in the publication (i.e., what was reported with descriptions in the corresponding internal company documents (i.e., what was planned and what was done. Trials were for off-label uses of gabapentin sponsored by Pfizer and Parke-Davis, and documents were obtained through litigation. METHODS AND FINDINGS: For each trial, we compared internal company documents (protocols, statistical analysis plans, and research reports, all unpublished, with publications. One author extracted data and another verified, with a third person verifying discordant items and a sample of the rest. Extracted data included the number of participants randomized and analyzed for efficacy, and types of analyses for efficacy and safety and their definitions (i.e., criteria for including participants in each type of analysis. We identified 21 trials, 11 of which were published randomized controlled trials, and that provided the documents needed for planned comparisons. For three trials, there was disagreement on the number of randomized participants between the research report and publication. Seven types of efficacy analyses were described in the protocols, statistical analysis plans, and publications, including ITT and six others. The protocol or publication described ITT using six different definitions, resulting in frequent disagreements between the two documents (i.e., different numbers of participants were included in the analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Descriptions of analyses conducted did not agree between internal company documents and what was publicly reported. Internal company documents provide extensive documentation of methods planned and used, and trial

  4. Survey of image quality and patient dose in simple radiographic examinations: establishing guidance levels and comparison with international standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manatrakul, N.; Bunsoong, T.; Krisanachinda, A.; Suwanpradit, P.; Rungruengthanakit, P.; Kanchart, S.; Chaiwong, Rajikorn; Tsapakig, V.A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate image quality and patient dose for commonly radiographic examinations in Thailand, to establish national reference or guidance levels (GL) and compare with international standards, as part of an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) project on Radiation Protection of Patients and Medical Exposure Control (RAS/9/034 and RAS/9/047). Materials and Methods: Film reject rate analysis, image quality and patient dose assessment before and after Quality Control (QC) implementation were investigated in 8 X-ray machines in 4 hospitals. Air kerma (in mGy) at 1 meter focus-detector-distance for different kVp settings for each X-ray machines were measured using an ionization chamber under standardized condition. The entrance skin air kerma (ESAK) for Chest PA, Lumbar spine AP, Lumbar spine LAT, Pelvis AP, Abdomen AP, Skull AP and Skull LAT were calculated for at least 10 adult patients of average body mass (60 to 80 kg) for each projection. The obtained values were compared with international standards. Results: The highest film rejection rate reduction recorded after corrective actions from 9.15% to 6.8%. Mean ESAK values were less than international standards both before and after QC implementation in all projections but Chest PA projection. Maximum ESAK in Chest PA projection before corrective action was 0.55 mGy which was higher than the IAEA GL of 0.2 mGy. However, it was reduced to 0.25 mGy after QC tests on X- ray machine and using high kilovoltage (kV) technique. Conclusion: Proposed national GL of Thailand were obtained by estimating the 3rd quartile of the whole sample: Chest PA: 0.1 mGy, Lumbar Spine AP: 2.1 mGy, Lumbar Spine LAT: 6.3 mGy, Pelvis AP: 1.8 mGy, Abdomen: 1.5 mGy, Skull PA: 1.3 mGy and Skull LAT: 0.9 mGy. (author)

  5. Economic context analysis in mental health care. Usability of health financing and cost of illness studies for international comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador-Carulla, L; Hernández-Peña, P

    2011-03-01

    This paper discusses an integrated approach to mental health studies on Financing of Illness (FoI) and health accounting, Cost of Illness (CoI) and Burden of Disease (BoD). In order to expand the mental health policies, the following are suggested: (a) an international consensus on the standard scope, methods to collect and to analyse mental health data, as well as to report comparative information; (b) mathematical models are also to be validated and tested in an integrated approach, (c) a better knowledge transfer between clinicians and knowledge engineers, and between researchers and policy makers to translate economic analysis into practice and health planning.

  6. Communication settings for the empowerment of communities: international comparison between networks of solidarity economy in Brazil and Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Guarascio

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a qualitative comparison between two communities in Brazil and Italy, which host a solidarity organization. These communities promote sustainable and local development, empowering their residents, building an alternative way of producing, in a form of plural economy. Financial sustainability comes from public and private aid, and this can affect the durability of communities by making them dependent on funds. This condition weakens the possibility of local development. To develop this research we used the qualitative approach, and data were collected through structured and unstructured interviews, in addition to the participatory observation. The results demonstrate that the method of communication between solidarity economy networks and investors is relevant, because sometimes those who offer funds can contribute to building development conditions that are not truly empowering for the community. It is concluded that an adequate method of communicating the information necessary for community development can contribute to local empowerment, including possible problems of financial sustainability.

  7. International perspectives on education, training, and practice in clinical neuropsychology: comparison across 14 countries around the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grote, Christopher L; Novitski, Julia I

    2016-11-01

    To review and summarize data provided by special issue authors regarding the education, training, and practice of neuropsychologists from 14 surveyed countries. A table was constructed to present an overview of variables of interest. There is considerable diversity among surveyed countries regarding the education and training required to enter practice as a clinical neuropsychologist. Clinical neuropsychologists are typically well compensated, at least in comparison to what constitutes an average salary in each country. Despite substantial variations in education and training pathways, and availability of neuropsychologists from country to country, two common areas for future development are suggested. First, identification, development, and measurement of core competencies for neuropsychological education and practice are needed that can serve as a unifying element for the world's clinical neuropsychologists. Second, greater emphasis on recognizing and addressing the need for assessment and treatment of diverse populations is needed if the world's citizens can hope to benefit from the expertise of practitioners in our field.

  8. Determination of Cd and Pb in human blood by isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry : International comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chang Joon; Suh, Jeong Ki; Lee, Sang Hwa

    1996-01-01

    Inorganic analytical laboratory of Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science participated in an interlaboratory comparison program operated by Quebec Toxicology Centre of Canada in 1994 and again in 1995. The objective of this program is to enable participating laboratories to assess reproducibility and accuracy of their analytical results for trace toxic elements in human biological fluids. This laboratory determined Cd and Pb concentrations in 3 levels of human blood samples by isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. 0.5 mL of blood sample is added to the digestion bomb together with 2 mL of nitric acid and enriched spike isotopes and then decomposed in the microwave digestion system. The decomposed sample is diluted to 10 mL and nebulized into ICP-MS. The Cd and Pb values reported by all participating laboratories are presented and compared. The values reported by this laboratory are within the acceptable range of target values. (author)

  9. An International Comparison of Attitudes Toward Traditional and Modern Medicine in a Chinese and an American Clinic Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Burke

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. International comparative research on traditional medicine (TM offers a useful method for examining differences in patient characteristics and can provide insight into: (i more universal characteristics which may cross cultures and international borders; (ii unique characteristics influenced by regional/national factors; and (iii cultural values of immigrant populations. To explore these issues TM patients from the United States and China were compared. Methods. Data collection took place at two TM college clinics. A convenience sample of 128 patients in China and 127 patients in the United States completed a 28-item questionnaire. Results. There was a marked similarity between the two patient groups in terms of the biological characteristics of age and gender. Musculoskeletal issues were the most common presenting complaints in the United States; while in China TM was used for a more diverse array of conditions. The majority of patients in both countries had initially used allopathic medicine (AM; significantly, more of the United States respondents stopped allopathic treatment after beginning traditional treatment. In comparing the two countries, patients in China were significantly more satisfied with AM and American patients significantly more satisfied with TM. In comparing the two medicines, the patient samples in both countries were significantly more satisfied with TM than AM. Discussion. Although treatment often originated with allopathic providers, many patients sought alternatives presumably to find the best solution to their problems. This tendency toward self-assignment suggests that a pluralistic healthcare system may provide the greatest satisfaction resulting from personal choice and improved outcomes.

  10. Comparison of two-staged ORIF and limited internal fixation with external fixator for closed tibial plafond fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Li, Ying; Huang, Lei; Wang, Manyi

    2010-10-01

    To compare the results of two-staged open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) and limited internal fixation with external fixator (LIFEF) for closed tibial plafond fractures. From January 2005 to June 2007, 56 patients with closed type B3 or C Pilon fractures were randomly allocated into groups I and II. Two-staged ORIF was performed in group I and LIFEF in group II. The outcome measures included bone union, nonunion, malunion, pin-tract infection, wound infection, osteomyelitis, ankle joint function, etc. These postoperative data were analyzed with Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) 13.0. Incidence of superficial soft tissue infection (involved in wound infection or pin-tract infection) in group I was lower than that in group II (P delayed union, and arthritis symptoms, with no statistical significance. Both groups resulted similar ankle joint function. Logistic regression analysis indicated that smoking and fracture pattern were the two factors significantly influencing the final outcomes. In the treatment of closed tibial plafond fractures, both two-staged ORIF and LIFEF offer similar results. Patients undergo LIFEF carry significantly greater radiation exposure and higher superficial soft tissue infection rate (usually occurs on pin tract and does not affect the final outcomes).

  11. Side-by-Side Comparison of Commonly Used Biomolecules That Differ in Size and Affinity on Tumor Uptake and Internalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leelawattanachai, Jeerapond; Kwon, Keon-Woo; Michael, Praveesuda; Ting, Richard; Kim, Ju-Young; Jin, Moonsoo M.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to use a systemically injected agent to image tumor is influenced by tumor characteristics such as permeability and vascularity, and the size, shape, and affinity of the imaging agent. In this study, six different imaging biomolecules, with or without specificity to tumor, were examined for tumor uptake and internalization at the whole body, ex-vivo tissue, and cellular levels: antibodies, antibody fragments (Fab), serum albumin, and streptavidin. The time of peak tumor uptake was dependent solely on the size of molecules, suggesting that molecular size is the major factor that influences tumor uptake by its effect on systemic clearance and diffusion into tumor. Affinity to tumor antigen failed to augment tumor uptake of Fab above non-specific accumulation, which suggests that Fab fragments of typical monoclonal antibodies may fall below an affinity threshold for use as molecular imaging agents. Despite abundant localization into the tumor, albumin and streptavidin were not found on cell surface or inside cells. By comparing biomolecules differing in size and affinity, our study highlights that while pharmacokinetics are a dominant factor in tumor uptake for biomolecules, affinity to tumor antigen is required for tumor binding and internalization. PMID:25901755

  12. Impact of the new international association for the study of lung cancer staging system in non-small cell lung cancer: With comparison to the union for international cancer control 6th tumor, node, metastasis edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myung Jae; Lee, So Won; Shim, Sung Shine; Ryu, Yon Ju; Kim, Yoo Kyung

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the impact of the proposed International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) tumor, node, metastasis (TNM) system on staging and outcome of non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). With a total of 501 NSCLC patients with staging according to Union for International Cancer Control (UICC), 6th TNM (TNM-6) were reclassified according to the IASLC proposed TNM staging (TNM-7). The impact of TNM-7 in comparison with TNM-6 was evaluated at three levels: change in substage, staging, and outcome. The outcome measure was to compare the stage-specific overall survival of NSCLC between the two groups of patients. A total of 214 (42.7%) patients had changed TNM staging, and 101 (20.2%) patients had changed stage groupings in TNM-7 compared to TNM-6. Among 100 patients showing changed stage grouping, 72 (14.4%) showed upstage and 29 (5.8%) demonstrated downstage. The TNM-7 system resulted in better separation of survival curves among stage-specific NSCLC than TNM-6 system, especially in separation of stage IIA vs. IIB (p 0.023) and stage IIIB vs. IV (p < 0.001). TNM-7 for lung cancer appears to be superior in defining stage-specific survival groups than TNM-6, especially between stage IIA vs. stage IIB and stage IIIB vs. stage IV.

  13. A comparison of the additional protocols of the five nuclear weapon states and the ensuing safeguards benefits to international nonproliferation efforts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uribe, Eva C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sandoval, M Analisa [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sandoval, Marisa N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Boyer, Brian D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Leitch, Rosalyn M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    With the 6 January 2009 entry into force of the Additional Protocol by the United States of America, all five declared Nuclear Weapon States that are part of the Nonproliferation Treaty have signed, ratified, and put into force the Additional Protocol. This paper makes a comparison of the strengths and weaknesses of the five Additional Protocols in force by the five Nuclear Weapon States with respect to the benefits to international nonproliferation aims. This paper also documents the added safeguards burden to the five declared Nuclear Weapon States that these Additional Protocols put on the states with respect to access to their civilian nuclear programs and the hosting of complementary access activities as part of the Additional Protocol.

  14. Comparison of chemical washing and physical cell-disruption approaches to assess the surface adsorption and internalization of cadmium by Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desaunay, Aurélien; Martins, Jean M.F., E-mail: jean.martins@ujf-grenoble.fr

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Subcellular distribution of cadmium in Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 cells. • Comparison of a chemical (EDTA washing) and a physical method (physical disruption). • EDTA washings strongly overestimated membrane-bound Cd concentrations. • The physical method revealed surprisingly over 80% of Cd internalization in the cells. • Metal biosorption by bacteria cannot be considered as a surface complexation process. - Abstract: Bacterial biosorption of heavy metals is often considered as a surface complexation process, without considering other retention compartments than cell walls. Although this approach gives a good description of the global biosorption process, it hardly permits the prediction of the fate of biosorbed metals in the environment. This study examines the subcellular distribution of cadmium (Cd) in the metal-tolerant bacterium Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 through the comparison of an indirect chemical method (washing cells with EDTA) and a direct physical method (physical disruption of cells). The chemical washing approach presented strong experimental biases leading to the overestimation of washed amount of Cd, supposedly bound to cell membranes. On the contrary, the physical disruption approach gave reproducible and robust results of Cd subcellular distribution. Unexpectedly, these results showed that over 80% of passively biosorbed Cd is internalized in the cytoplasm. In disagreement with the common concept of surface complexation of metals onto bacteria the cell wall was poorly reactive to Cd. Our results indicate that metal sorption onto bacterial surfaces is only a first step in metal management by bacteria and open new perspectives on metal biosorption by bacteria in the environment, with implications for soil bioremediation or facilitated transport of metals by bacteria.

  15. Application of k0-based internal monostandard NAA for large sample analysis of clay pottery. As a part of inter comparison exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acharya, R.; Dasari, K.B.; Pujari, P.K.; Swain, K.K.; Shinde, A.D.; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2014-01-01

    As a part of inter comparison exercise of an IAEA Coordinated Research Project on large sample neutron activation analysis, a large size and non standard geometry size pottery replica (obtained from Peru) was analyzed by k 0 -based internal monostandard neutron activation analysis (IM-NAA). Two large size sub samples (0.40 and 0.25 kg) were irradiated at graphite reflector position of AHWR Critical Facility in BARC, Trombay, Mumbai, India. Small samples (100-200 mg) were also analyzed by IM-NAA for comparison purpose. Radioactive assay was carried out using a 40 % relative efficiency HPGe detector. To examine homogeneity of the sample, counting was also carried out using X-Z rotary scanning unit. In situ relative detection efficiency was evaluated using gamma rays of the activation products in the irradiated sample in the energy range of 122-2,754 keV. Elemental concentration ratios with respect to Na of small size (100 mg mass) as well as large size (15 and 400 g) samples were used to check the homogeneity of the samples. Concentration ratios of 18 elements such as K, Sc, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Zn, As, Rb, Cs, La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Yb, Lu, Hf and Th with respect to Na (internal mono standard) were calculated using IM-NAA. Absolute concentrations were arrived at for both large and small samples using Na concentration, obtained from relative method of NAA. The percentage combined uncertainties at ±1 s confidence limit on the determined values were in the range of 3-9 %. Two IAEA reference materials SL-1 and SL-3 were analyzed by IM-NAA to evaluate accuracy of the method. (author)

  16. International comparisons of the technical efficiency of the hospital sector: panel data analysis of OECD countries using parametric and non-parametric approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varabyova, Yauheniya; Schreyögg, Jonas

    2013-09-01

    There is a growing interest in the cross-country comparisons of the performance of national health care systems. The present work provides a comparison of the technical efficiency of the hospital sector using unbalanced panel data from OECD countries over the period 2000-2009. The estimation of the technical efficiency of the hospital sector is performed using nonparametric data envelopment analysis (DEA) and parametric stochastic frontier analysis (SFA). Internal and external validity of findings is assessed by estimating the Spearman rank correlations between the results obtained in different model specifications. The panel-data analyses using two-step DEA and one-stage SFA show that countries, which have higher health care expenditure per capita, tend to have a more technically efficient hospital sector. Whether the expenditure is financed through private or public sources is not related to the technical efficiency of the hospital sector. On the other hand, the hospital sector in countries with higher income inequality and longer average hospital length of stay is less technically efficient. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison between theoretical and experimental results of the 1/6 scale concrete model under internal pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riviere, J.; Barbe, B.; Millard, A.; Koundy, V.

    1988-01-01

    The prevision of the behavior of the 1/6 scale concrete model under internal pressure was realized by means of two computations, the first one with an infinite soil rigidity, the second one with a soil rigidity equal to 61.26 MPa/m. These two computations, that assumed a perfectly axisymetric structure gave theoretical and experimental results in good agreement, except the raft of which the theoretical uplift was three times higher than the experimental one. The main conclusions of this study are as follow: the soil stiffness has no influence on the ultimate behavior of the model, the dead concrete rigidity decreases the raft uplift in an important way, the model is destroyed because the hoop stress reaches the ultimate strength

  18. Comparison of US Birth Weight References and the International Fetal and Newborn Growth Consortium for the 21st Century Standard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozuki, Naoko; Katz, Joanne; Christian, Parul

    2015-01-01

    ) status. OBJECTIVES: To compare the birth weight distributions of the INTERGROWTH-21st international standard to commonly used US references and examine the differences in the prevalence and neonatal mortality risk of SGA status (below the 10th percentile of a population reference). DESIGN, SETTING...... variance. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: We examine neonatal mortality (death within the first 28 days after birth) as the main outcome measure. RESULTS: The pooled SGA prevalence was 23.7% (95% CI, 16.5%-31.0%) using the INTERGROWTH-21st standard compared with 36.0% (95% CI, 27.0%-45.0%) with the US 2000...... and no significant change in the associated neonatal mortality risk, resulting in a decrease in the percentage of neonatal death attributable to SGA. Our study sheds light on how previously published studies on SGA status may be reinterpreted with the introduction of this new birth weight standard....

  19. FALSIRE Phase II. CSNI project for Fracture Analyses of Large-Scale International Reference Experiments (Phase II). Comparison report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sievers, J.; Schulz, H.; Bass, R.; Pugh, C.; Keeney, J.

    1996-11-01

    A summary of Phase II of the Project for Fracture Analysis of Large-Scale International Reference Experiments (FALSIRE) is presented. A FALSIRE II Workshop focused on analyses of reference fracture experiments. More than 30 participants representing 22 organizations from 12 countries took part in the workshop. Final results for 45 analyses of the reference experiments were received from the participating analysts. For each experiment, analysis results provided estimates of variables that include temperature, crack-mouth-opening displacement, stress, strain, and applied K and J values. The data were sent electronically to the Organizing Committee, who assembled the results into a comparative data base using a special-purpose computer program. A comparative assessment and discussion of the analysis results are presented in the report. Generally, structural responses of the test specimens were predicted with tolerable scatter bands. (orig./DG)

  20. Community Attitudes and Practices of Urban Residents Regarding Predation by Pet Cats on Wildlife: An International Comparison.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine M Hall

    Full Text Available International differences in practices and attitudes regarding pet cats' interactions with wildlife were assessed by surveying citizens from at least two cities in Australia, New Zealand, the UK, the USA, China and Japan. Predictions tested were: (i cat owners would agree less than non-cat owners that cats might threaten wildlife, (ii cat owners value wildlife less than non-cat owners, (iii cat owners are less accepting of cat legislation/restrictions than non-owners, and (iv respondents from regions with high endemic biodiversity (Australia, New Zealand, China and the USA state of Hawaii would be most concerned about pet cats threatening wildlife. Everywhere non-owners were more likely than owners to agree that pet cats killing wildlife were a problem in cities, towns and rural areas. Agreement amongst non-owners was highest in Australia (95% and New Zealand (78% and lowest in the UK (38%. Irrespective of ownership, over 85% of respondents from all countries except China (65% valued wildlife in cities, towns and rural areas. Non-owners advocated cat legislation more strongly than owners except in Japan. Australian non-owners were the most supportive (88%, followed by Chinese non-owners (80% and Japanese owners (79.5%. The UK was least supportive (non-owners 43%, owners 25%. Many Australian (62%, New Zealand (51% and Chinese owners (42% agreed that pet cats killing wildlife in cities, towns and rural areas was a problem, while Hawaiian owners were similar to the mainland USA (20%. Thus high endemic biodiversity might contribute to attitudes in some, but not all, countries. Husbandry practices varied internationally, with predation highest where fewer cats were confined. Although the risk of wildlife population declines caused by pet cats justifies precautionary action, campaigns based on wildlife protection are unlikely to succeed outside Australia or New Zealand. Restrictions on roaming protect wildlife and benefit cat welfare, so welfare is a

  1. Prevalence of Celiac Disease in 52,721 Youth With Type 1 Diabetes: International Comparison Across Three Continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Maria E; Prinz, Nicole; Boyle, Claire T; Campbell, Fiona M; Jones, Timothy W; Hofer, Sabine E; Simmons, Jill H; Holman, Naomi; Tham, Elaine; Fröhlich-Reiterer, Elke; DuBose, Stephanie; Thornton, Helen; King, Bruce; Maahs, David M; Holl, Reinhard W; Warner, Justin T

    2017-08-01

    Celiac disease (CD) has a recognized association with type 1 diabetes. We examined international differences in CD prevalence and clinical characteristics of youth with coexisting type 1 diabetes and CD versus type 1 diabetes only. Data sources were as follows: the Prospective Diabetes Follow-up Registry (DPV) (Germany/Austria); the T1D Exchange Clinic Network (T1DX) (U.S.); the National Paediatric Diabetes Audit (NPDA) (U.K. [England/Wales]); and the Australasian Diabetes Data Network (ADDN) (Australia). The analysis included 52,721 youths 1-2 years in 18% of youths, >3-5 years in 23% of youths, and >5 years in 17% of youths. CD prevalence ranged from 1.9% in the T1DX to 7.7% in the ADDN and was higher in girls than boys (4.3% vs. 2.7%, P < 0.001). Children with coexisting CD were younger at diabetes diagnosis compared with those with type 1 diabetes only (5.4 vs. 7.0 years of age, P < 0.001) and fewer were nonwhite (15 vs. 18%, P < 0.001). Height SDS was lower in those with CD (0.36 vs. 0.48, adjusted P < 0.001) and fewer were overweight/obese (34 vs. 37%, adjusted P < 0.001), whereas mean HbA 1c values were comparable: 8.3 ± 1.5% (67 ± 17 mmol/mol) versus 8.4 ± 1.6% (68 ± 17 mmol/mol). CD is a common comorbidity in youth with type 1 diabetes. Differences in CD prevalence may reflect international variation in screening and diagnostic practices, and/or CD risk. Although glycemic control was not different, the lower height SDS supports close monitoring of growth and nutrition in this population. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  2. Comparison and evaluation of marginal and internal gaps in cobalt-chromium alloy copings fabricated using subtractive and additive manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Yeon; Kim, Ji-Hwan; Kim, Hae-Young; Kim, Woong-Chul

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the marginal and internal gaps of cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) alloy copings fabricated using subtractive and additive manufacturing. A study model of an abutment tooth 46 was prepared by a 2-step silicone impression with dental stone. Fifteen stereolithography files for Co-Cr alloy copings were compiled using a model scanner and dental CAD software. Using the lost wax (LW), wax block (WB), soft metal block (SMB), microstereolithography (μ-SLA), and selected laser melting (SLM) techniques, 15 Co-Cr alloy copings were fabricated per group. The marginal and internal gaps of these Co-Cr alloy copings were measured using a digital microscope (160×), and the data obtained were analyzed using the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis H-test and post-hoc Mann-Whitney U-test with Bonferroni correction. The mean values of the marginal, axial wall, and occlusal gaps were 91.8, 83.4, and 163μm in the LW group; 94.2, 77.5, and 122μm in the WB group; 60.0, 79.4, and 90.8μm in the SMB group; 154, 72.4, and 258μm in the μ-SLA group; and 239, 73.6, and 384μm in the SLM group, respectively. The differences in the marginal and occlusal gaps between the 5 groups were statistically significant (P<.05). The marginal gaps of the LW, WB, and SMB groups were within the clinically acceptable limit, but further improvements in the μ-SLA and SLM approaches may be required prior to clinical implementation. Copyright © 2017 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Minimum energy requirements for desalination of brackish groundwater in the United States with comparison to international datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahdab, Yvana D.; Thiel, Gregory P.; Böhlke, John Karl; Stanton, Jennifer S.; Lienhard, John H.

    2018-01-01

    This paper uses chemical and physical data from a large 2017 U.S. Geological Surveygroundwater dataset with wells in the U.S. and three smaller international groundwater datasets with wells primarily in Australia and Spain to carry out a comprehensive investigation of brackish groundwater composition in relation to minimum desalinationenergy costs. First, we compute the site-specific least work required for groundwater desalination. Least work of separation represents a baseline for specific energy consumptionof desalination systems. We develop simplified equations based on the U.S. data for least work as a function of water recovery ratio and a proxy variable for composition, either total dissolved solids, specific conductance, molality or ionic strength. We show that the U.S. correlations for total dissolved solids and molality may be applied to the international datasets. We find that total molality can be used to calculate the least work of dilute solutions with very high accuracy. Then, we examine the effects of groundwater solute composition on minimum energy requirements, showing that separation requirements increase from calcium to sodium for cations and from sulfate to bicarbonate to chloride for anions, for any given TDS concentration. We study the geographic distribution of least work, total dissolved solids, and major ions concentration across the U.S. We determine areas with both low least work and high water stress in order to highlight regions holding potential for desalination to decrease the disparity between high water demand and low water supply. Finally, we discuss the implications of the USGS results on water resource planning, by comparing least work to the specific energy consumption of brackish water reverse osmosisplants and showing the scaling propensity of major electrolytes and silica in the U.S. groundwater samples.

  4. Community Attitudes and Practices of Urban Residents Regarding Predation by Pet Cats on Wildlife: An International Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Nigel A.; Bradley, J. Stuart; Bryant, Kate A.; Davis, Alisa A.; Fujita, Tsumugi; Pollock, Kenneth H.

    2016-01-01

    International differences in practices and attitudes regarding pet cats' interactions with wildlife were assessed by surveying citizens from at least two cities in Australia, New Zealand, the UK, the USA, China and Japan. Predictions tested were: (i) cat owners would agree less than non-cat owners that cats might threaten wildlife, (ii) cat owners value wildlife less than non-cat owners, (iii) cat owners are less accepting of cat legislation/restrictions than non-owners, and (iv) respondents from regions with high endemic biodiversity (Australia, New Zealand, China and the USA state of Hawaii) would be most concerned about pet cats threatening wildlife. Everywhere non-owners were more likely than owners to agree that pet cats killing wildlife were a problem in cities, towns and rural areas. Agreement amongst non-owners was highest in Australia (95%) and New Zealand (78%) and lowest in the UK (38%). Irrespective of ownership, over 85% of respondents from all countries except China (65%) valued wildlife in cities, towns and rural areas. Non-owners advocated cat legislation more strongly than owners except in Japan. Australian non-owners were the most supportive (88%), followed by Chinese non-owners (80%) and Japanese owners (79.5%). The UK was least supportive (non-owners 43%, owners 25%). Many Australian (62%), New Zealand (51%) and Chinese owners (42%) agreed that pet cats killing wildlife in cities, towns and rural areas was a problem, while Hawaiian owners were similar to the mainland USA (20%). Thus high endemic biodiversity might contribute to attitudes in some, but not all, countries. Husbandry practices varied internationally, with predation highest where fewer cats were confined. Although the risk of wildlife population declines caused by pet cats justifies precautionary action, campaigns based on wildlife protection are unlikely to succeed outside Australia or New Zealand. Restrictions on roaming protect wildlife and benefit cat welfare, so welfare is a

  5. Evaluating performance of local case-mix system by international comparison: a case study in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Wei-Yan; Lu, Ming; Cui, Tao; Hu, Mu

    2011-01-01

    Case-mix is an important tool for health planning and management in many countries. As a major developing country, China is considering the introduction of the case-mix system in the health reform. Beijing, the capital of China, developed a local case-mix version whose performance needs to be evaluated before utilization. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of the case-mix system developed in Beijing by comparing it with those used in Australia and the U.S.A. A total of 1.3 million inpatient records from 154 hospitals in Beijing in 2008 were grouped respectively using three case-mix systems: (i) Beijing Diagnosis Related Groups (BJ-DRGs); (ii) US-based All Patient DRGs; and (iii) Australian Refined DRGs. Coefficient of variation (CV) and reduction in variance (RIV) were used to measure the performance of DRGs system. The BJ-DRGs produced the best CV and RIV results for expenditure. However, at the level of Major Diagnostic Category (MDC), three MDCs of BJ-DRGs gave the poorest RIVs for both expenditure and length of stay. Although the performance of BJ-DRGs was acceptable, further revision and improvement is needed. Comparisons with other mature DRGs versions can assist in identifying the improvement priorities of the local version. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Automobile dependence in cities: An international comparison of urban transport and land use patterns with implications for sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenworthy, J.R.; Laube, F.B.

    1996-01-01

    Cities around the world are subject to increasing levels of environmental impact from dependence on the automobile. In the highly auto-dependent cities of the US and Australia, this is manifested in problems such as urban sprawl and its destruction of prime farming land and natural landscapes, photochemical smog that can be primarily attributed to auto emissions. On top of the more local impacts of the automobile, the global dimension should not be forgotten. Perhaps the two most pressing issues in this regard are the oil problem and the greenhouse problem. A comparison of global cities over the period 1980 to 1990 reveals large differences in automobile dependence with implications for the future sustainability of cities in different countries. This study explores some of the underlying land use, transport, and economic reasons for these different transport patterns. It briefly reviews what the sustainability agenda means for transport and land use patterns in cities and suggests a suite of targets or goals for sustainability by which cities might measure their current directions and plans

  7. International standard problem ISP37: VANAM M3 - A Multi compartment aerosol depletion test with hygroscopic aerosol material: comparison report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firnhaber, M.; Kanzleiter, T.F.; Schwarz, S.; Weber, G.

    1996-12-01

    This paper presents the results and assessment of the 'open' ISP37, which deals with the containment thermal-hydraulics and aerosol behavior during an unmitigated severe LWR accident with core melt-down and steam and aerosol release into the containment. Representatives of 22 organizations participated to the ISP37 using the codes CONTAIN, FIPLOC, MELCOR, RALOC, FUMO, MACRES, REMOVAL etc. The containment and aerosol behavior experiment VANAM M3 was selected as experimental comparison basis. The main phenomena investigated are the thermal behavior of a multi-compartment containment, e.g. pressure, temperature and the distribution and depletion of a soluble aerosol. The ISP37 has demonstrated that the codes used could calculate the thermal-hydraulic containment behavior in general with sufficient accuracy. But with respect to the needs of aerosol behavior analysis the accuracies, both analytical and experimental as well, for specific thermal-hydraulic variables should be improved. Although large progress has been made in the simulation of aerosol behavior in multi-compartment geometries the calculated local aerosol concentrations scatter widely. However, the aerosol source term to the environment is overestimated in general. The largest uncertainty concerning the aerosol results is caused by a limited number of thermal hydraulic variables like relative humidity, volume condensation rate and atmospheric flow rate. In some codes also a solubility model is missing

  8. An international comparison of women's occupational health issues in the Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, Canada, Hong Kong and Singapore: the CIDA-SEAGEP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bernard C K

    2005-10-01

    An international comparison study of women's occupational health issues was carried out in 2000 for the Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, Canada, Hong Kong and Singapore. The study was funded by the Canadian International Development Agency's Southeast Asia Gender Equity Program. The objective was to compare the issues, risk factors, social determinants, and challenges in women's occupational health, according to the status of economic development as defined by the World Bank. Data were collected through 27 key informant interviews of high-ranking government officials and senior researchers, self-administered questionnaires on country or regional statistics and 16 courtesy calls. Results indicated that women's occupational health problems common in these countries or regions included women's long hours of work (double workday), shift work and a caring role for family and friends. Problems reported in developing countries but not developed countries included poor access to training and protective equipment, and insufficient legislation to protect women's rights. Problems reported in developed countries but not in developing countries included obesity, smoking and not including women in health research. This paper provides insights into the changing environment in the workplace, such as increasing participation of women in the paid workforce and changes in gender differences due to the changing country economy, for improving women's occupational health.

  9. Internally gas-cooled radiofrequency applicators as an alternative to conventional radiofrequency and microwave ablation devices: An in vivo comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rempp, Hansjörg, E-mail: Hansjoerg.rempp@med.uni-tuebingen.de [Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen, Tübingen University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hoppe-Seyler-Straße 3, Tübingen, 72076 (Germany); Voigtländer, Matthias [ERBE Elektromedizin GmbH, Waldhörnlestraße 17, 72072 Tübingen (Germany); Schenk, Martin [Eberhard Karls University of Tuebingen, Tübingen University Hospital, Department of General, Visceral and Transplant Surgery, Hoppe-Seyler-Straße 3, 72076 Tübingen (Germany); Enderle, Markus D. [ERBE Elektromedizin GmbH, Waldhörnlestraße 17, 72072 Tübingen (Germany); Scharpf, Marcus [Eberhard Karls University of Tuebingen, Insitute of Pathology, Department on General Pathology and Pathological Anatomy, Liebermeisterstraße 8, 72076 Tübingen (Germany); Greiner, Tim O. [Eberhard Karls University of Tuebingen, Tübingen University Hospital, Department of General, Visceral and Transplant Surgery, Hoppe-Seyler-Straße 3, 72076 Tübingen (Germany); Neugebauer, Alexander [ERBE Elektromedizin GmbH, Waldhörnlestraße 17, 72072 Tübingen (Germany); and others

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: To test the efficacy of internally CO{sub 2}-cooled radiofrequency (RF) ablation in vivo and to compare its effectiveness to a standard water-cooled RF probe and to a gas-cooled microwave (MW) device. Method and materials: 49 ablations were performed on 15 pigs under general anesthesia using 15G monopolar CO{sub 2}-cooled RF applicators, 17G monopolar water-cooled RF applicators and 15G internally CO{sub 2}-cooled microwave devices. The power of the MW device was 45 W, the current of the gas-cooled RF device was 1200–1600 mA. At the water-cooled RF probe, maximum power of 200 W was set. Ablation time was 15 min. The short and long axes of the ablation zone were measured. Histological analyses and NADH-staining were performed. The diameters and the ablation volumes were compared using an analysis of variance. Results: No spots of untreated tissue were observed close to the cooled needle track in any of the ablation zones. The largest short axis diameter was 3.4 ± 0.5 cm achieved with the gas-cooled monopolar applicator. With the water-cooled applicators, short axis diameter was significantly smaller, reaching 2.5 ± 0.4 cm. Gas-cooled MW probes achieved 2.9 ± 1.0 cm. The largest ablation volume was 31.5 ± 12 ml (gas-cooled RF), and the smallest was 12.7 ± 4 ml (water-cooled RF). Short/long axis ratio was largest for gas-cooled RF probes with 0.73 ± 0.08 versus 0.64 ± 0.04 for the water-cooled probes and 0.49 ± 0.25 for the microwave applicator. Conclusion: Gas-cooled RF applicators may have a higher potential for effective destruction of liver lesions than comparable water-cooled RF systems, and may be an alternative to standard RF and MW ablation devices.

  10. Continuing to Confront COPD International Surveys: comparison of patient and physician perceptions about COPD risk and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menezes AM

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ana M Menezes,1 Sarah H Landis,2 MeiLan K Han,3 Hana Muellerova,2 Zaurbek Aisanov,4 Thys van der Molen,5 Yeon-Mok Oh,6 Masakazu Ichinose,7 David M Mannino,8 Kourtney J Davis9 1Federal University of Pelotas, Pelotas, Brazil; 2Worldwide Epidemiology, GlaxoSmithKline, Uxbridge, UK; 3Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; 4Pulmonology Research Institute, Moscow, Russia; 5University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands; 6University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, South Korea; 7Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan; 8University of Kentucky College of Public Health, Lexington, KY, USA; 9Worldwide Epidemiology, GlaxoSmithKline, Wavre, Belgium Purpose: Using data from the Continuing to Confront COPD International Physician and Patient Surveys, this paper describes physicians’ attitudes and beliefs regarding chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD prognosis, and compares physician and patient perceptions with respect to COPD. Methods: In 12 countries worldwide, 4,343 patients with COPD were identified through systematic screening of population samples, and 1,307 physicians who regularly saw patients with COPD were sampled from in-country professional databases. Both patients and physicians completed surveys about their COPD knowledge, beliefs, and perceptions; physicians answered further questions about diagnostic methods and treatment choices for COPD. Results: Most physicians (79% responded that the long-term health outlook for patients with COPD has improved over the past decade, largely attributed to the introduction of better medications. However, patient access to medication remains an issue in many countries, and some physicians (39% and patients (46% agreed/strongly agreed with the statement “there are no truly effective treatments for COPD”. There was strong concordance between physicians and patients

  11. Life cycle comparison of fuel cell vehicles and internal combustion engine vehicles for Canada and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamel, Nada; Li, Xianguo

    The objective of this study is to put forward a full analysis of the impact of the difference between the Canadian and American energy realities on the life cycle of fuel cell vehicles and internal combustion engine vehicles. Electricity is a major type of energy used in the transportation sector. Electricity is needed in the production of feedstock of fuel, the production of the fuel, the production of the vehicle material and the assembly of the vehicles. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the impact of the electricity mix difference between Canada and the United States. In the analysis, the life cycle of the fuel consists of obtaining the raw material, extracting the fuel from the raw material, transporting and storing the fuel as well as using the fuel in the vehicle. Four different methods of obtaining hydrogen were analyzed; using coal and nuclear power to produce electricity and extract hydrogen through electrolysis and via steam reforming of natural gas in a natural gas plant and in a hydrogen refueling station. It is found that fuel cell vehicle fuelled by hydrogen has lower energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions than internal combustion engine vehicle fuelled by conventional gasoline except for hydrogen production using coal as the primary energy source in Canada and the United States. Using the Canadian electricity mix will result in lower carbon dioxide emissions and energy consumption than using the American electricity mix. For the present vehicles, using the Canadian electricity mix will save up to 215.18 GJ of energy and 20.87 t of CO 2 on a per capita basis and 26.53 GJ of energy and 6.8 t of CO 2 on a per vehicle basis. Similarly, for the future vehicles, using the Canadian electricity mix will lower the total carbon dioxide emissions by 21.15 t and the energy consumed is reduced by 218.49 GJ on a per capita basis and 26.53 GJ of energy and 7.22 t of CO 2 on a per vehicle basis. The well-to-tank efficiencies are higher with the

  12. Sex genes for genomic analysis in human brain: internal controls for comparison of probe level data extraction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellis Steven P

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic studies of complex tissues pose unique analytical challenges for assessment of data quality, performance of statistical methods used for data extraction, and detection of differentially expressed genes. Ideally, to assess the accuracy of gene expression analysis methods, one needs a set of genes which are known to be differentially expressed in the samples and which can be used as a "gold standard". We introduce the idea of using sex-chromosome genes as an alternative to spiked-in control genes or simulations for assessment of microarray data and analysis methods. Results Expression of sex-chromosome genes were used as true internal biological controls to compare alternate probe-level data extraction algorithms (Microarray Suite 5.0 [MAS5.0], Model Based Expression Index [MBEI] and Robust Multi-array Average [RMA], to assess microarray data quality and to establish some statistical guidelines for analyzing large-scale gene expression. These approaches were implemented on a large new dataset of human brain samples. RMA-generated gene expression values were markedly less variable and more reliable than MAS5.0 and MBEI-derived values. A statistical technique controlling the false discovery rate was applied to adjust for multiple testing, as an alternative to the Bonferroni method, and showed no evidence of false negative results. Fourteen probesets, representing nine Y- and two X-chromosome linked genes, displayed significant sex differences in brain prefrontal cortex gene expression. Conclusion In this study, we have demonstrated the use of sex genes as true biological internal controls for genomic analysis of complex tissues, and suggested analytical guidelines for testing alternate oligonucleotide microarray data extraction protocols and for adjusting multiple statistical analysis of differentially expressed genes. Our results also provided evidence for sex differences in gene expression in the brain prefrontal cortex

  13. Comparison of FSE T2 W PROPELLER and 3D-FIESTA of 3 T MR for the internal auditory canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hai-Bo; Yuan, Hui-Shu; Ma, Furong; Zhao, Qiang

    The study compared the use of periodically rotated overlapping parallel lines with enhanced reconstruction (PROPELLER) technique fast spin echo (FSE) T2 W and the sequence of three-dimensional fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (3D-FIESTA) technique in the MRI of the internal auditory canal for overall image quality improvement. One hundred thirty-two patients undergoing FSE T2 W PROPELLER and 3D-FIESTA examinations of the internal auditory canal were included. All examinations were performed at 3.0 T with comparison of a sagittal oblique FSE T2 W sequence with the PROPELLER technique to 3D-FIESTA in the same reconstructed orientation with PROPELLER. Image quality was evaluated by two radiologists using a 4-point scale. The Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare the data of the two techniques. The image quality of FSE T2 W PROPELLER was significantly improved compared to the reconstructed images of 3D-FIESTA. Observer 1: median FSE T2 W with PROPELLER, 4 [mean, 3.455] versus median reconstructed 3D-FIESTA, 3 [mean, 3.15], (PW with PROPELLER, 4 [mean, 3.47] versus median reconstructed 3D-FIESTA, 3 [mean, 3.25], (PW PROPELLER technique for MRI of internal auditory canal reduced uncertainty caused by motion artifact and improved the quality of the image compared to the reconstructed 3D-FIESTA. It was affected by different parameters including the blade width, echo train length (ETL). This is explained by data oversampling at the center region of k-space, which requires additional imaging time over conventional MRI techniques. Increasing blade was expected to improve motion correction effects but also the signal-to-noise ratio. ETL increases the image sharpness and the overall image quality. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. An international comparison of legal frameworks for supported and substitute decision-making in mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Gavin; Brophy, Lisa; Campbell, Jim; Farrell, Susan J; Gooding, Piers; O'Brien, Ann-Marie

    2016-01-01

    There have been important recent developments in law, research, policy and practice relating to supporting people with decision-making impairments, in particular when a person's wishes and preferences are unclear or inaccessible. A driver in this respect is the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD); the implications of the CRPD for policy and professional practices are currently debated. This article reviews and compares four legal frameworks for supported and substitute decision-making for people whose decision-making ability is impaired. In particular, it explores how these frameworks may apply to people with mental health problems. The four jurisdictions are: Ontario, Canada; Victoria, Australia; England and Wales, United Kingdom (UK); and Northern Ireland, UK. Comparisons and contrasts are made in the key areas of: the legal framework for supported and substitute decision-making; the criteria for intervention; the assessment process; the safeguards; and issues in practice. Thus Ontario has developed a relatively comprehensive, progressive and influential legal framework over the past 30 years but there remain concerns about the standardisation of decision-making ability assessments and how the laws work together. In Australia, the Victorian Law Reform Commission (2012) has recommended that the six different types of substitute decision-making under the three laws in that jurisdiction, need to be simplified, and integrated into a spectrum that includes supported decision-making. In England and Wales the Mental Capacity Act 2005 has a complex interface with mental health law. In Northern Ireland it is proposed to introduce a new Mental Capacity (Health, Welfare and Finance) Bill that will provide a unified structure for all substitute decision-making. The discussion will consider the key strengths and limitations of the approaches in each jurisdiction and identify possible ways that further progress can be made in law, policy

  15. Proceedings of the NEACRP/IAEA Specialists meeting on the international comparison calculation of a large sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor at Argonne National Laboratory on February 7-9, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeSage, L.G.; McKnight, R.D.; Wade, D.C.; Freese, K.E.; Collins, P.J.

    1980-08-01

    The results of an international comparison calculation of a large (1250 MWe) LMFBR benchmark model are presented and discussed. Eight reactor configurations were calculated. Parameters included with the comparison were: eigenvalue, k/sub infinity/, neutron balance data, breeding reaction rate ratios, reactivity worths, central control rod worth, regional sodium void reactivity, core Doppler and effective delayed neutron fraction. Ten countries participated in the comparison, and sixteen solutions were contributed. The discussion focuses on the variation in parameter values, the degree of consistency among the various parameters and solutions, and the identification of unexpected results. The results are displayed and discussed both by individual participants and by groupings of participants

  16. Comparison of Percutaneous Cementoplasty with and Without Interventional Internal Fixation for Impending Malignant Pathological Fracture of the Proximal Femur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Qing-Hua, E-mail: ddqinghua-tian@163.com; He, Cheng-Jian, E-mail: tianhechengjian@163.com; Wu, Chun-Gen, E-mail: 649514608@qq.com; Li, Yong-Dong, E-mail: tianliyongdong@163.com; Gu, Yi-Feng, E-mail: tianyifenggu@163.com; Wang, Tao, E-mail: tianandwangtao@163.com; Xiao, Quan-Ping, E-mail: tianxiaoquanping@163.com; Li, Ming-Hua, E-mail: tianminghuali@163.com [Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People’s Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (China)

    2016-01-15

    PurposeTo compare the efficacy of percutaneous cementoplasty (PCP) with and without interventional internal fixation (IIF) on malignant impending pathological fracture of proximal femur.MethodsA total of 40 patients with malignant impending pathological fracture of proximal femur were selected for PCP and IIF (n = 19, group A) or PCP alone (n = 21, group B) in this non-randomized prospective study. Bone puncture needles were inserted into the proximal femur, followed by sequential installation of the modified trocar inner needles through the puncture needle sheath. Then, 15–45 ml cement was injected into the femur lesion.ResultsThe overall excellent and good pain relief rate during follow-ups were significantly higher in group A than that in group B (89 vs. 57 %, P = 0.034). The average change of VAS, ODI, KPS, and EFES in group A were significantly higher than those in group B at 1-, 3-, 6-month, 1-year (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, The stability of the treated femur was significantly higher in group A than that in group B (P < 0.05).ConclusionPCP and IIF were not only a safe and effective procedure, but resulted in greater pain relief, bone consolidation, and also reduced the risk of fracture than the currently recommended approach of PCP done on malignant proximal femoral tumor.

  17. Comparison of Percutaneous Cementoplasty with and Without Interventional Internal Fixation for Impending Malignant Pathological Fracture of the Proximal Femur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Qing-Hua; He, Cheng-Jian; Wu, Chun-Gen; Li, Yong-Dong; Gu, Yi-Feng; Wang, Tao; Xiao, Quan-Ping; Li, Ming-Hua

    2016-01-01

    PurposeTo compare the efficacy of percutaneous cementoplasty (PCP) with and without interventional internal fixation (IIF) on malignant impending pathological fracture of proximal femur.MethodsA total of 40 patients with malignant impending pathological fracture of proximal femur were selected for PCP and IIF (n = 19, group A) or PCP alone (n = 21, group B) in this non-randomized prospective study. Bone puncture needles were inserted into the proximal femur, followed by sequential installation of the modified trocar inner needles through the puncture needle sheath. Then, 15–45 ml cement was injected into the femur lesion.ResultsThe overall excellent and good pain relief rate during follow-ups were significantly higher in group A than that in group B (89 vs. 57 %, P = 0.034). The average change of VAS, ODI, KPS, and EFES in group A were significantly higher than those in group B at 1-, 3-, 6-month, 1-year (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, The stability of the treated femur was significantly higher in group A than that in group B (P < 0.05).ConclusionPCP and IIF were not only a safe and effective procedure, but resulted in greater pain relief, bone consolidation, and also reduced the risk of fracture than the currently recommended approach of PCP done on malignant proximal femoral tumor

  18. Systematic comparison and reconstruction of sea urchin (Echinoidea internal anatomy: a novel approach using magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mueller Susanne

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditional comparative morphological analyses and subsequent three-dimensional reconstructions suffer from a number of drawbacks. This is particularly evident in the case of soft tissue studies that are technically demanding, time-consuming, and often prone to produce artefacts. These problems can partly be overcome by employing non-invasive, destruction-free imaging techniques, in particular micro-computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Results Here, we employed high-field magnetic resonance imaging techniques to gather numerous data from members of a major marine invertebrate taxon, the sea urchins (Echinoidea. For this model study, 13 of the 14 currently recognized high-ranking subtaxa (orders of this group of animals were analyzed. Based on the acquired datasets, interactive three-dimensional models were assembled. Our analyses reveal that selected soft tissue characters can even be used for phylogenetic inferences in sea urchins, as exemplified by differences in the size and shape of the gastric caecum found in the Irregularia. Conclusion The main focus of our investigation was to explore the possibility to systematically visualize the internal anatomy of echinoids obtained from various museum collections. We show that, in contrast to classical preparative procedures, magnetic resonance imaging can give rapid, destruction-free access to morphological data from numerous specimens, thus extending the range of techniques available for comparative studies of invertebrate morphology.

  19. Numerical study with experimental comparison of pressure waves in the air intake system of an internal combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falcao, Carlos E.G.; Vielmo, Horacio A. [Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Mechanical Engineering Dept.], E-mails: vielmoh@mecanica.ufrgs.br; Hanriot, Sergio M. [Pontifical Catholic University of Minas Gerais (PUC-Minas), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Mechanical Engineering Dept.], E-mail: hanriot@pucminas.br

    2010-07-01

    The work investigates the pressure waves behavior in the intake system of an internal combustion engine. For the purpose of examining this problem, it was chosen an experimental study in order to validate the results of the present simulation. At the literature there are several experimental studies, and some numerical simulations, but the most of the numerical studies treat the problem only in one dimension in practical problems, or two dimensions in specific problems. Using a CFD code it is possible to analyze more complex systems, including tridimensional effects. The pulsating phenomenon is originated from the periodic movement of the intake valve, and produces waves that propagate within the system. The intake system studied was composed by a straight pipe connected to a 1000 cc engine with a single operating cylinder. The experiments were carried out in a flow bench. In the present work, the governing equations was discretized by Finite Volumes Method with an explicit formulation, and the time integration was made using the multi-stage Runge-Kutta time stepping scheme. The solution is independent of mesh or time step. The numerical analysis presents a good agreement with the experimental results. (author)

  20. Falsire: CSNI project for fracture analyses of large-scale international reference experiments (Phase 1). Comparison report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    A summary of the recently completed Phase I of the Project for Fracture Analysis of Large-Scale International Reference Experiments (Project FALSIRE) is presented. Project FALSIRE was created by the Fracture Assessment Group (FAG) of Principal Working Group No. 3 (PWG/3) of the OECD/NEA Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI), formed to evaluate fracture prediction capabilities currently used in safety assessments of nuclear vessel components. The aim of the Project FALSIRE was to assess various fracture methodologies through interpretive analyses of selected large-scale fracture experiments. The six experiments used in Project FALSIRE (performed in the Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the U.S.A.) were designed to examine various aspects of crack growth in reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels under pressurized-thermal-shock (PTS) loading conditions. The analysis techniques employed by the participants included engineering and finite-element methods, which were combined with Jr fracture methodology and the French local approach. For each experiment, analysis results provided estimates of variables such as crack growth, crack-mouth-opening displacement, temperature, stress, strain, and applied J and K values. A comparative assessment and discussion of the analysis results are presented; also, the current status of the entire results data base is summarized. Some conclusions concerning predictive capabilities of selected ductile fracture methodologies, as applied to RPVs subjected to PTS loading, are given, and recommendations for future development of fracture methodologies are made

  1. Do We Teach What We Preach? An International Comparison of Problem- and Project-Based Learning Courses in Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Brundiers

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Problem- and project-based learning (PPBL courses in sustainability address real-world sustainability problems. They are considered powerful educational settings for building students’ sustainability expertise. In practice, however, these courses often fail to fully incorporate sustainability competencies, participatory research education, and experiential learning. Only few studies exist that compare and appraise PPBL courses internationally against a synthesized body of the literature to create an evidence base for designing PPBL courses. This article introduces a framework for PPBL courses in sustainability and reviews PPBL practice in six programs around the world (Europe, North America, Australia. Data was collected through semi-structured qualitative interviews with course instructors and program officers, as well as document analysis. Findings indicate that the reviewed PPBL courses are of high quality and carefully designed. Each PPBL course features innovative approaches to partnerships between the university and private organizations, extended peer-review, and the role of knowledge brokers. Yet, the findings also indicate weaknesses including paucity of critical learning objectives, solution-oriented research methodology, and follow-up research on implementation. Through the comparative design, the study reveals improvement strategies for the identified challenges and provides guidance for design and redesign of PPBL courses.

  2. [The management of osteoarthritis by general practitioners in Germany: comparison of self-reported behaviour with international guidelines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosemann, T; Joos, S; Szecsenyi, J

    2008-01-01

    In most countries, guidelines for the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) are available. However, in Germany, no guideline for the primary care sector is available. The care provider of most patients is the general practitioner (GP). The aim of the study was to investigate the approaches in diagnosing and treating OA of German GPs and to assess adherence to international guidelines. Cross-sectional study using a structured questionnaire with a random sample of 144 GPs. Regarding diagnosis, the importance of X-rays was overestimated. Regarding treatment approaches, exercising and weight reduction were regarded as primary treatment targets. Pharmacological treatment approaches were somewhat guideline oriented, but conservative approaches such as physical therapy were overestimated as invasive treatments such as intra-articular injections were underestimated in its benefit. Establishing a guideline specifically for primary care and increasing guideline adherence could help to prevent the present overuse of X-rays and the high amount of referrals to orthopaedics, save costs and reduce inadequate treatments.

  3. ISP-31 OECD/NEA/CSNI International Standard Problem n.31. Cora-13 experiment on severe fuel damage. Comparison report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firnhaber, M.; Trambauer, K.; Hagen, S.; Hofmann, P.; Schanz, G.; Sepold, L.

    1993-07-01

    The severe fuel damage experiment CORA-13 has been offered as CSNI-International Standard Problem (ISP) No. 31. The out-of-pile experiment CORA-13 was executed in November 1990 at Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe. The major objectives of this experiment were to investigate the behavior of PWR fuel elements during early core degradation and fast cooldown due to refill. Measured quantities are boundary conditions, bundle temperatures, hydrogen generation and the final bundle configuration. The ISP was conducted as a blind exercise. Boundary conditions which could not be measured, but which are necessary for simplified test simulation (axial power profile, shroud insulation temperature, bundle refill flow) were estimated using ATHLET-CD. Results to the ISP were submitted by 9 participants using different versions of SCDAP/RELAP5, and codes such as FRAS-SFD, ICARE2, KESS-III, MELCOR. The thermal behavior up to significant oxidation has been predicted quite well by most of the codes. In general, the capability of the codes in calculating the main degradation phenomena has been clearly illustrated and weaknesses concerning the modelling of some degradation processes have been identified. Among the degradation phenomena involved in the test, the more severe limitations concern the UO 2 -ZrO 2 dissolution by molten Zr, the solubility limits in the resulting U-Zr-O mixture and the cladding failure by the molten mixture

  4. Comparison of International Normalized Ratio Measurement between CoaguChek XS Plus and STA-R Coagulation Analyzers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Hur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Point-of-care testing (POCT coagulometers are increasingly being used in the hospital setting. We investigated whether the prothrombin time international normalized ratio (INR results by CoaguChek XS Plus (Roche Diagnostics GmbH, Mannheim, Germany can be used reliably without being confirmed with the INR results by STA-R system (Diagnostica Stago S.A.S, Asnières sur Seine, France. Methods. A total of 118 INR measurements by CoaguChek XS Plus and STA-R were compared using Passing/Bablok regression analysis and Bland-Altman plot. Agreement of the INR measurements was further assessed in relation to dosing decision. Results. The correlation of INR measurements between CoaguChek XS Plus and STA-R was excellent (correlation coefficient = 0.964. The mean difference tended to increase as INR results increased and was 0.25 INR in the therapeutic range (2.0-3.0 INR. The overall agreement was fair to good (kappa = 0.679, and 21/118 (17.8% INR measurements showed a difference in dosing decision. Conclusion. The positive bias of CoaguChek XS Plus may be obvious even in the therapeutic INR range, and dosing decision based on the CoaguChek XS Plus INR results would be different from that based on the STA-R results. The INR measurements by POCT coagulometers still need to be confirmed with the laboratory INR measurements.

  5. Comparison of several inter-TSO compensation methods in the context of the internal electricity market of the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olmos Camacho, Luis [Instituto de Investigacion Tecnologica (IIT), ETSI ICAI, Universidad Pontificia Comillas, Alberto Aguilera 23, 28015 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: luis.olmos@iit.upcomillas.es; Perez-Arriaga, Ignacio J. [Instituto de Investigacion Tecnologica (IIT), ETSI ICAI, Universidad Pontificia Comillas, Alberto Aguilera 23, 28015 Madrid (Spain)

    2007-04-15

    Inter-TSO payment methods (ITC methods) provide the aggregate compensations and charges faced by countries in a region, because of the use that agents in each country make of the transmission grids of the other countries. These compensations and charges should modify local access charges in each country. The paper closely examines the most promising methods for computing ITCs presently considered in the Internal Electricity Market (IEM) of the European Union, namely the Average Participations (AP) method and the With and Without Transits (WWT) method. Some attention is also given to a third method that lies somewhere between the two previous ones: the Average Participations applied to Transits (APT) method. The performance of the AP, WWT and APT methods is compared with that of the temporary method presently applied to compute compensations in the IEM. The three methods are closely examined both from a conceptual point of view and taking into account the numerical results they produce. Based on this analysis, the AP method is proposed as the best option to compute ITCs in the European Union. The paper draws on research projects carried out for the European Commission and the Florence Regulatory Forum.

  6. Proposal of a model of system of identification for domestic animals: a comparison between brazilian and international laws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolau Cardoso Neto

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between humans and pets, especially dogs and cats is taking gigantic proportions, this can be seen by the data recently published by IBGE, where it was verified that the number of pets grows more than the number of child birth (IBGE, 2015. As so foreseen, the purpose of this study is to acknowledge which is the federal juridical basis related to the registration of Domestic Animals in Brazil, comparing them with the international legal standards that can be of reference, such as Canada, United States of America, Republic of Ireland and United Kingdom. This increase in pet population shows problems of many dimensions that relate to several causes in urban centers, especially when referring to zoonosis and conflicts that come from irresponsible ownership, bringing up a public health issue. The intension was to verify the possibility to adequate them to the reality encountered in Brazil, creating a model of identification for the Domestic Animals in urban areas in this country. As for that, the article addresses themes related to responsible ownership, animal welfare and models of registration already accomplished in the mentioned countries. At the end the article presents the proposal of a model for a system of identification of the Domestic Animals.

  7. Comparison of ICare and IOPen vs Goldmann applanation tonometry according to international standards 8612 in glaucoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlitzsch, Milena; Brünner, Jeanette; Gonnermann, Johannes; Maier, Anna-Karina B; Torun, Necip; Bertelmann, Eckart; Klamann, Matthias Kj

    2016-01-01

    To compare IOPen and ICare rebound tonometry to Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT) according to International Standards Organization (ISO) 8612 criteria. Totally 191 eyes ( n =107 individuals) were included. Criteria of ISO 8612 were fulfilled: 3 clusters of IOP, measured by GAT, were formed. The GAT results were given as mean±standard deviation. GAT (19.7±0.5 mm Hg) showed a significant correlation to ICare (19.8±0.5 mm Hg) ( r =0.547, P 0.5 mm Hg) ( r =0.526, P <0.001). According to ISO 8612 criteria in all 3 IOP groups the number of outliers (of the 95% limits of agreement) exceeded 5% for ICare and IOPen vs GAT: No.1 ( n =68) 29.4% and 22.1%, No.2 ( n =62) 35.5% and 37.1%, No.3 ( n =61) 26.2% and 42.6%, respectively. The strict requirements of the ISO 8612 are not fulfilled in a glaucoma collective by ICare and IOPen at present. As long as the Goldmann tonometry is applicable it should be used first of all for reproducible IOP readings. ICare and IOPen tonometry should be considered as an alternative tool, if application of Goldmann tonometry is not possible.

  8. Body mass index in Saudi Arabian children and adolescents: A national reference and comparison with international standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Herbish, Abdullah S; ElMouzan, Mohammed I; AlSalloum, Abdullah A; AlQureshi, Mansour M; AlOmar, Ahmed A; Fster, Peter J; Kecojevic, Tatjana

    2009-01-01

    Because there are no reference standards for body mass index (BMI) in Saudi children, we established BMI reference percentiles for normal Saudi Arabian children and adolescents and compared them with international standards. Data from a stratified multistage probability sample were collected from the 13 health regions in Saudi Arabia, as part of a nationwide health profile survey of Saudi Arabian children and adolescents conducted to establish normal physical growth references. Selected households were visited by a trained team. Weight and length/height were measured and recorded following the WHO recommended procedures using the same equipment, which were subjected to both calibration and intra/interobserver variations. Survey of 11 874 eligible households yielded 35 275 full-term and healthy children and adolescents who were subjected to anthropometric measurements. Four BMI curves were produced, from birth to 36 months and 2 to 19 years for girls and boys. The 3rd, 5th, 10th ,25th , 5oth , 75th ,85th , 90th , 95th , and 97th percentiles were produced and compared with the WHO and CDC BMI charts. In the higher percentiles, the Saudi children differed from Western counterparts, indicating that Saudi children have equal or higher BMIs. The BMI curves reflect statistically representative BMI values for Saudi Arabian children and adolescents. (author)

  9. Which characteristics of nursing home residents influence differences in malnutrition prevalence? An international comparison of The Netherlands, Germany and Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nie-Visser, Noémi C; Meijers, Judith; Schols, Jos; Lohrmann, Christa; Bartholomeyczik, Sabine; Spreeuwenberg, Marieke; Halfens, Ruud

    2014-03-28

    Prevalence rates of malnutrition vary considerably internationally, partly due to differences in measurement methodology and instruments. In the present study, the same measurement methodology and instruments were used in The Netherlands, Germany and Austria. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether resident characteristics influence possible differences in malnutrition prevalence between countries. The study followed a cross-sectional, multi-centre design that measured malnutrition in nursing home residents from The Netherlands, Germany and Austria. Resident data were gathered using a standardised questionnaire. Malnutrition was operationalised using BMI, unintentional weight loss and nutritional intake. Data were analysed using an association model. The prevalence rates of malnutrition in The Netherlands, Germany and Austria were 18·3, 20·1 and 22·5 %, respectively. The multivariate generalised estimating equation (GEE) logistic regression analysis showed that sex, age, care dependency, the mean number of diseases and some specific diseases were influencing factors for whether the resident was malnourished or not. The OR of malnutrition in the three countries declined after including the influencing factors resulting from the multivariate GEE analysis. The present study reveals that differences in the prevalence rates of malnutrition in nursing homes in The Netherlands, Germany and Austria are influenced by different resident characteristics. Since other country-related factors could also play an important role in influencing differences in the prevalence rates of malnutrition between the countries (structural and process factors of malnutrition care policy). We recommend the investigation of these factors in future studies.

  10. Comparison of several inter-TSO compensation methods in the context of the internal electricity market of the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olmos Camacho, Luis; Perez-Arriaga, Ignacio J.

    2007-01-01

    Inter-TSO payment methods (ITC methods) provide the aggregate compensations and charges faced by countries in a region, because of the use that agents in each country make of the transmission grids of the other countries. These compensations and charges should modify local access charges in each country. The paper closely examines the most promising methods for computing ITCs presently considered in the Internal Electricity Market (IEM) of the European Union, namely the Average Participations (AP) method and the With and Without Transits (WWT) method. Some attention is also given to a third method that lies somewhere between the two previous ones: the Average Participations applied to Transits (APT) method. The performance of the AP, WWT and APT methods is compared with that of the temporary method presently applied to compute compensations in the IEM. The three methods are closely examined both from a conceptual point of view and taking into account the numerical results they produce. Based on this analysis, the AP method is proposed as the best option to compute ITCs in the European Union. The paper draws on research projects carried out for the European Commission and the Florence Regulatory Forum

  11. Comparison of catalytic converter performance in internal combustion engine fueled with Ron 95 and Ron 97 gasoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leman, A. M.; Rahman, Fakhrurrazi; Jajuli, Afiqah; Feriyanto, Dafit; Zakaria, Supaat

    2017-09-01

    Generating ideal stability between engine performance, fuel consumption and emission is one of the main challenges in the automotive industry. The characteristics of engine combustion and creation of emission might simply change with different types of operating parameters. This study aims in investigating the relationship between two types of fuels on the performance and exhaust emission of internal combustion engine using ceramic and metallic catalytic converters. Experimental tests were performed on Mitsubishi 4G93 engine by applying several ranges of engine speeds to determine the conversion of pollutant gases released by the engine. The obtained results specify that the usage of RON 97 equipped with metallic converters might increase the conversion percentage of 1.31% for CO and 126 ppm of HC gases. The metallic converters can perform higher conversion compared to ceramic because in the high space velocities, metallic has higher surface geometry area and higher amount of transverse Peclet number (Pi). Ceramic converters achieved conversion at 2496 ppm of NOx gas, which is higher than the metallic converter.

  12. Comparison of platelet counts by sysmex XE 2100 and LH-750 with the international flow reference method in thrombocytopenic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Dadu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are several methods for counting platelets, of which the international flow reference method (IRM is considered to be the gold standard. We compared the platelet count given by this method to the count given by automated analyzers using other methods, such as optical fluorescence and impedance. Aims: The aim of this study is to compare the platelet counts obtained by Sysmex XE 2100 by Impedance (Sysmex-I, optical florescence (Sysmex-O and reported (Sysmex-R based on the switching algorithm and LH-750 by Impedance (LH-750 with the IRM in thrombocytopenic blood samples. To calculate the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV and negative predictive value (NPV of various technologies at the clinically relevant transfusion thresholds of 10 × 10 9 /l and 20 × 10 9 /l. Materials and Methods: A total of 118 blood samples with platelet count of <50 × 10 9 /l were selected for the study. Platelet counts of all samples were analyzed by all methods using the Sysmex analyzer, LH-750 and IRM in parallel within 6 h of collection. Statistical Analysis Used: Pearson correlation, bland Altman analysis, sensitivity and specificity, PPV and NPV. Results and Conclusions: Sysmex-R had the least Bias and 95% limits of agreement (95%LA range and thus correlated best with IRM values. LH-750 had a higher Bias compared to Sysmex-O and Sysmex-R, but a strikingly similar 95% LA ensures similar results in all three methods. In fact, in the oncology subset, it had the narrowest 95% LA, which made it the best performer in this subgroup. Of the three Sysmex results, Sysmex-I had the highest bias, widest 95% LA and highest potential risk of over transfusion. Hence, Sysmex-R and LH-750 were found to be reliable tools for estimation of platelet count in thrombocytopenic patients.

  13. Using Administrative Mental Health Indicators in Heart Failure Outcomes Research: Comparison of Clinical Records and International Classification of Disease Coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Miriam; Smith, Tyler C

    2016-01-01

    Use of mental indication in health outcomes research is of growing interest to researchers. This study, as part of a larger research program, quantified agreement between administrative International Classification of Disease (ICD-9) coding for, and "gold standard" clinician documentation of, mental health issues (MHIs) in hospitalized heart failure (HF) patients to determine the validity of mental health administrative data for use in HF outcomes research. A 13% random sample (n = 504) was selected from all unique patients (n = 3,769) hospitalized with a primary HF diagnosis at 4 San Diego County community hospitals during 2009-2012. MHI was defined as ICD-9 discharge diagnostic coding 290-319. Records were audited for clinician documentation of MHI. A total of 43% (n = 216) had mental health clinician documentation; 33% (n = 164) had ICD-9 coding for MHI. ICD-9 code bundle 290-319 had 0.70 sensitivity, 0.97 specificity, and kappa 0.69 (95% confidence interval 0.61-0.79). More specific ICD-9 MHI code bundles had kappas ranging from 0.44 to 0.82 and sensitivities ranging from 42% to 82%. Agreement between ICD-9 coding and clinician documentation for a broadly defined MHI is substantial, and can validly "rule in" MHI for hospitalized patients with heart failure. More specific MHI code bundles had fair to almost perfect agreement, with a wide range of sensitivities for identifying patients with an MHI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Improving detection of HIV-associated cognitive impairment: Comparison of the International HIV Dementia Scale and a Brief Screening Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Sergio Monteiro; Kamat, Rujvi; Cherner, Mariana; Umlauf, Anya; Ribeiro, Clea Elisa; de Pereira, Ana Paula; Franklin, Donald; Heaton, Robert K.; Ellis, Ronald J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS) was developed to screen for HIV-associated dementia (HAD), but it has been used more generally for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND). This study sought to examine the accuracy of the IHDS in a cohort of Brazilian HIV-infected individuals and compare its performance to an alternative screening battery for detecting HAND. Methods 108 participants (including 60 HIV-infected persons), completed the IHDS and a gold standard neuropsychological (NP) battery of 17 tests. As alternative screening method, all possible three-test combinations from the NP battery were examined and a superiority index (a marker of specificity and sensitivity) was calculated. Results Sensitivity and specificity to HAND using the standard IHDS cutpoint of 10 were 36% and 75% respectively. The best balance between sensitivity and specificity was accomplished with a modified cutpoint of 11.5, which yielded sensitivity of 72% and specificity of 58%. The top two most sensitive test combinations, compared to the gold standard NP battery, were Trail Making Test A, WAIS-III Digit Symbol (DS) and HVLT-R Total Recall (sensitivity 91%, specificity 96%), and DS, BVMT-R Total Recall and Grooved Pegboard Test-Dominant Hand (sensitivity 94%, specificity 91%). Conclusions Both test combinations can be administered in under 10 minutes and were more accurate than the IHDS in classifying HIV+ participants as NP impaired or unimpaired. These data suggest that demographically corrected T-scores from commonly used NP measures with modest time and material demands can improve identification of patients with HAND who may benefit from a more extensive NP examination. PMID:27828876

  15. A national comparison of burnout and work-life balance among internal medicine hospitalists and outpatient general internists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Daniel L; Shanafelt, Tait D; Dyrbye, Liselotte N; West, Colin P

    2014-03-01

    General internists suffer higher rates of burnout and lower satisfaction with work-life balance than most specialties, but the impact of inpatient vs outpatient practice location is unclear. Physicians in the American Medical Association Physician Masterfile were previously surveyed about burnout, depression, suicidal ideation, quality of life, fatigue, work-life balance, career plans, and health behaviors. We extracted and compared data for these variables for the 130 internal medicine hospitalists and 448 outpatient general internists who participated. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, hours worked, and practice setting. There were 52.3% of the hospitalists and 54.5% of the outpatient internists affected by burnout (P = 0.86). High scores on the emotional exhaustion subscale (43.8% vs 48.1%, P = 0.71) and on the depersonalization subscale (42.3% vs 32.7%, P = 0.17) were common but similar in frequency in the 2 groups. Hospitalists were more likely to score low on the personal accomplishment subscale (20.3% vs 9.6%, P = 0.04). There were no differences in symptoms of depression (40.3% for hospitalists vs 40.0% for outpatient internists, P = 0.73) or recent suicidality (9.2% vs 5.8%, P = 0.15). Rates of reported recent work-home conflict were similar (48.4% vs 41.3%, P = 0.64), but hospitalists were more likely to agree that their work schedule leaves enough time for their personal life and family (50.0% vs 42.0%, P = 0.007). Burnout was common among both hospitalists and outpatient general internists, although hospitalists were more satisfied with work-life balance. A better understanding of the causes of distress and identification of solutions for all internists is needed. © 2014 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  16. Temporal and bi-directional associations between sleep duration and physical activity/sedentary time in children: An international comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yingyi; Tremblay, Mark S; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Fogelholm, Mikael; Hu, Gang; Lambert, Estelle V; Maher, Carol; Maia, Jose; Olds, Timothy; Sarmiento, Olga L; Standage, Martyn; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Chaput, Jean-Philippe

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this multinational and cross-sectional study was to investigate whether nighttime sleep duration was associated with physical activity (PA) and sedentary time (SED) the following day, whether daytime PA/SED were associated with sleep duration the subsequent night, and whether the associations were modified by sex and study sites. Data from 5779 children aged 9-11years were analyzed. A waist-worn Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometer was used to assess children's 24-h movement behaviours for 7days, i.e. sleep duration, total SED, light-intensity physical activity (LPA), and moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA). Multilevel linear regression models were used to account for the repeated measures nested within participants (there were up to 7 sleep→PA/SED and PA/SED→sleep pairings per participant) and schools, and adjusted for covariates. To facilitate interpretation, all sleep and PA/SED variables were standardized. Results showed that the relationship between sleep and PA/SED is bi-directional in this international sample of children. Specifically, for each one standard deviation (SD) unit increase in sleep duration, SED the following day decreased by 0.04 SD units, while LPA and MVPA increased by 0.04 and 0.02 SD units, respectively. Sleep duration decreased by 0.02 SD units and increased by 0.04 SD units for each one SD unit increase in SED and MVPA, respectively. Sleep duration was not affected by changes in LPA. These associations differed across sex and study sites in both directions. However, since the observed effect sizes are subtle, public health initiatives should consider the clinical and practical relevance of these findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Treatment strategies and survival of older breast cancer patients - an international comparison between the Netherlands and Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiderlen, Mandy; Walsh, Paul M; Bastiaannet, Esther; Kelly, Maria B; Audisio, Riccardo A; Boelens, Petra G; Brown, Chris; Dekkers, Olaf M; de Craen, Anton J M; van de Velde, Cornelis J H; Liefers, Gerrit-Jan

    2015-01-01

    Forty percent of breast cancers occur among older patients. Unfortunately, there is a lack of evidence for treatment guidelines for older breast cancer patients. The aim of this study is to compare treatment strategy and relative survival for operable breast cancer in the elderly between The Netherlands and Ireland. From the Dutch and Irish national cancer registries, women aged ≥65 years with non-metastatic breast cancer were included (2001-2009). Proportions of patients receiving guideline-adherent locoregional treatment, endocrine therapy, and chemotherapy were calculated and compared between the countries by stage. Secondly, 5-year relative survival was calculated by stage and compared between countries. Overall, 41,055 patients from The Netherlands and 5,826 patients from Ireland were included. Overall, more patients received guideline-adherent locoregional treatment in The Netherlands, overall (80% vs. 68%, adjusted pNetherlands. In The Netherlands, only 6% received chemotherapy, as compared 24% in Ireland. But relative survival was poorer in Ireland (5 years relative survival 89% vs. 83%), especially in stage II (87% vs. 85%) and stage III (61% vs. 58%) patients. Treatment for older breast cancer patients differed significantly on all treatment modalities between The Netherlands and Ireland. More locoregional treatment was provided in The Netherlands, and more systemic therapy was provided in Ireland. Relative survival for Irish patients was worse than for their Dutch counterparts. This finding should be a strong recommendation to study breast cancer treatment and survival internationally, with the ultimate goal to equalize the survival rates for breast cancer patients across Europe.

  18. Complication incidence of two implant systems up to six years: a comparison between internal and external connection implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Sung-Wook; Kim, Young-Sung; Lee, Yong-Moo; Kim, Won-Kyung; Lee, Young-Kyoo; Kim, Su-Hwan

    2015-02-01

    This study was conducted to compare the cumulative survival rates (CSRs) and the incidence of postloading complications (PLCs) between a bone-level internal connection system (ICS-BL) and an external connection system (ECS). The medical records of patients treated with either a ICS-BL or ECS between 2007 and 2010 at Asan Medical Center were reviewed. PLCs were divided into two categories: biological and technical. Biological complications included >4 mm of probing pocket depth, thread exposure in radiographs, and soft tissue complications, whereas technical complications included chipping of the veneering material, fracture of the implant, fracture of the crown, loosening or fracture of the abutment or screw, loss of retention, and loss of access hole filling material. CSRs were determined by a life-table analysis and compared using the log-rank chi-square test. The incidence of PLC was compared with the Pearson chi-squared test. A total of 2,651 implants in 1,074 patients (1,167 ICS-BLs in 551 patients and 1,484 ECSs in 523 patients) were analyzed. The average observation periods were 3.4 years for the ICS-BLs and 3.1 years for the ECSs. The six-year CSR of all implants was 96.1% (94.9% for the ICS-BLs and 97.1% for the ECSs, P=0.619). Soft tissue complications were more frequent with the ECSs (P=0.005) and loosening or fracture of the abutment or screw occurred more frequently with the ICS-BLs (Plimitations of this study, the ICS-BL was more prone to technical complications while the ECS was more vulnerable to biological complications.

  19. Comparison of angiotensin II (Ang II) effects in the internal anal sphincter (IAS) and lower esophageal sphincter smooth muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattan, Satish; Fan, Ya-Ping; Puri, Rajinder N

    2002-03-22

    Studies were performed to compare the actions of Ang II in the internal anal sphincter (IAS) vs. lower esophageal sphincter (LES) smooth muscles in vitro, in opossum and rabbit. Studies also were carried out in isolated smooth muscle cells. In opossum, Ang II produced no discernible effects in the IAS, but did produce a concentration-dependent contraction in the LES. Conversely, in the rabbit, while Ang II caused a modest response in the LES, it caused a significant contraction in the IAS. The contractile responses of Ang II in the opossum LES were mostly resistant to different neurohumoral antagonists but were antagonized by AT1 antagonist losartan. AT2 antagonist PD 123,319, rather than inhibiting, prolonged the contractile action of Ang II. The contractile actions of Ang II in the opossum LES were not modified by the tyrosine kinase inhibitors (genistein and tyrphostin 1 x 10(-6) M) but were partially attenuated by the PKC inhibitor H-7 (1 x 10(-6) M), Ca2+ channel blocker nicardipine (1 x 10(-5) M), Rho kinase inhibitor HA-1077 (1 x 10(-7) M) or p(44/42) MAP kinase inhibitor PD 98059 (5 x 10(-5) M). The combination of HA-1077 and H-7 did not cause an additive attenuation of Ang II responses. Western blot analyses revealed the presence of both AT1 and AT2 receptors. We conclude that Ang lI-induced contraction of sphincteric smooth muscle occurs primarily by the activation of AT1 receptors at the smooth muscle cells and involves multiple pathways, influx of Ca2+, and PKC, Rho kinase and p(44/42) MAP kinase.

  20. Comparisons of foveal thickness and slope after macular hole surgery with and without internal limiting membrane peeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Kouichi; Sato, Atsuko; Senda, Nami; Fukui, Emi

    2018-01-01

    We have shown that the foveal contour was asymmetrical after idiopathic macular hole (MH) closure by pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) with internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling. The purpose of this study was to determine whether these morphological changes differ in eyes after PPV without ILM peeling. Ten eyes of 10 patients that underwent PPV without ILM peeling and 12 eyes of 11 patients with ILM peeling were studied. The MH in all eyes was 6 months after the surgery. The mean parafoveal retinal thickness in the non-peeled group was 367.1 µm in the nasal (N), 353.0 µm in the temporal (T), 366.9 µm in the superior (S), and 357.3 µm in the inferior (I) sectors. The T, S, and I sectors were significantly thicker than the corresponding sectors in the ILM peeled group ( p =0.0008, 0.003, and 0.03, respectively). The mean ganglion cell complex was thicker not only in the N sector but also in the T sector in the non-peeled group. The mean retinal slopes in the non-peeled group (N, 40.2°; T, 37.6°; S, 41.2°; I, 39.5°) were flatter than those in the peeled group (N, 52.3°; T, 43.6°; S, 50.8°; I, 51.9°; p =0.009, 0.09, 0.008, and 0.017, respectively). The symmetrical fovea after MH surgery in the non-ILM peeled eyes indicates that the asymmetrical fovea after ILM peeling was probably due to the ILM peeling.

  1. Switching bipolar hepatic radiofrequency ablation using internally cooled wet electrodes: comparison with consecutive monopolar and switching monopolar modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, J H; Woo, S; Hwang, E J; Hwang, I; Choi, W; Han, J K; Choi, B I

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate whether switching bipolar radiofrequency ablation (SB-RFA) using three internally cooled wet (ICW) electrodes can induce coagulations >5 cm in porcine livers with better efficiency than consecutive monopolar (CM) or switching monopolar (SM) modes. Methods: A total of 60 coagulations were made in 15 in vivo porcine livers using three 17-gauge ICW electrodes and a multichannel radiofrequency (RF) generator. RF energy (approximately 200 W) was applied in CM mode (Group A, n = 20) for 24 min, SM mode for 12 min (Group B, n = 20) or switching bipolar (SB) mode for 12 min (Group C, n = 20) in in vivo porcine livers. Thereafter, the delivered RFA energy, as well as the shape and dimension of coagulations were compared among the groups. Results: Spherical- or oval-shaped ablations were created in 30% (6/20), 85% (17/20) and 90% (18/20) of coagulations in the CM, SM and SB groups, respectively (p = 0.003). SB-RFA created ablations >5 cm in minimum diameter (Dmin) in 65% (13/20) of porcine livers, whereas SM- or CM-RFA created ablations >5 cm in only 25% (5/20) and 20% (4/20) of porcine livers, respectively (p = 0.03). The mean Dmin of coagulations was significantly larger in Group C than in Groups A and B (5.1 ± 0.9, 3.9 ± 1.2 and 4.4 ± 1.0 cm, respectively, p = 0.002) at a lower delivered RF energy level (76.8 ± 14.3, 120.9 ± 24.5 and 114.2 ± 18.3 kJ, respectively, p 5 cm in diameter with better efficiency than do SM- or CM-RFA. Advances in knowledge: SB-RFA can create large, regular ablation zones with better time–energy efficiency than do CM- or SM-RFA. PMID:25873479

  2. [Food Security in Europe: comparison between the "Hygiene Package" and the British Retail Consortium (BRC) & International Food Standard (IFS) protocols].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stilo, A; Parisi, S; Delia, S; Anastasi, F; Bruno, G; Laganà, P

    2009-01-01

    The birth of Hygiene Package and of the Reg. CE no 2073/2005 in the food production field signalled a change in Italy. This process started in Italy in 1997 with the legislative decree no 155 on Self-control but in reality, it was implemented in the UK in 1990 with the promulgation of the Food Safety Act. This legal act was influenced by some basic rules corresponding to the application of HACCP standards. Since 1990 the British chains of distribution (Retailers) have involved all aspects of the food line in this type of responsibility. Due to this growing awareness for a need for greater regulation, a protocol, edited by British Retail Consortium was created in 1998. This protocol acted as a "stamp" of approval for food products and it is now known as the BRC Global Food Standard. In July 2008, this protocol became effective in its fifth version. After the birth of BRC, also French and German Retailers have established a standard practically equivalent and perhaps more pertinent to safety food, that is International Food Standard (IFS). The new approach is specific to the food field and strictly applies criteria which will ensure "safety, quality and legality" of food products, similarly to ISO 22000:2005 (mainly based on BRC & IFS past experiences). New standards aim to create a sort of green list with fully "proper and fit" Suppliers only, because of comprehensible exigencies of Retailers. It is expected, as we have shown, that Auditor authorities who are responsible for ensuring that inspections are now carried out like the Hygiene Package, will find these new standards useful. The advantages of streamlining this system is that it will allow enterprises to diligently enforce food safety practices without fear of upset or legal consequence, to improve the quality (HACCP) of management & traceability system; to restrict wastes, reprocessing and withdrawal of products. However some discordances about the interpretation of certain sub-field norms (e.g., water

  3. Using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health to identify outcome domains for a core outcome set for aphasia: a comparison of stakeholder perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Sarah J; Worrall, Linda; Rose, Tanya; Le Dorze, Guylaine

    2017-11-12

    outcomes which related Mental functions; Communication; Services, systems, and policies; and Quality of life. A core outcome set for aphasia treatment research should include measures relating to: language, emotional wellbeing, communication, patient-reported satisfaction with treatment and impact of treatment, and quality of life. Coding using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health, presents a novel methodology for the comparison of stakeholder perspectives to inform recommendations for outcome constructs to be included in a core outcome set. Coding can be paired with qualitative data to ensure nuances of meaning are retained.

  4. Evaluation of local hospital discharge for thyroid cancer patients treated with Iodine-131; comparison with internationally accepted release criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stylianou-Markidou, E.; Peraticou, A.; Constantinou, C.; Giannos, A.; Aritkan, A.V.; Dimitriadou, D.; Frangos, S.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Aim: Patients with Thyroid Cancer treated with I-131 in our institution, stay in a shielded room for two days, or until they emit less than 40 μSv/hr at 1m, based on the Cyprus legislation for radiation protection. Other countries have different regulations and public dose limits, and their hospital discharge guidelines vary accordingly. The purpose of this study is to evaluate local hospital discharge regulations, make a comparison with other countries' accepted release criteria, and find where improvements can be made. Methods: 267 patients were treated with I-131 (activity 1.8-8.9GBq) from September 2001 to April 2007. The dose equivalent rate (DER) was measured within 30 min of the administration at a distance of 1 m from the patient. Measurements at 1m were also obtained before the release of the patient. For a group of these patients, measurements were also carried out a week after the treatment with I-131. The doses given to members of the public, from each of the above patients, were calculated using the Total Effective Dose Equivalent (TEDE) concept, which is based on the line source model. For 10% of these patients, measurements of the dose emitted to surroundings were taken, using two different methods. (a) Doses were measured with TLD dosimeters placed at specific points of the room during the two day restriction of the patient in the shielded room. These points were at bedside, at 1 m from the patient's bed, at 3m from the patient's bed, in the shower area, and at the side of the toilet. (b) On the day of release, personal dosimeters were given to a member of the immediate family (carer) of the patient for a minimum of five days. The skin dose and dose at approximately 10cm depth were measured by the National personnel monitoring for radiation protection authority of Cyprus. Results: Our calculation of the TEDE values indicated that, had the patients been released just after the administration of the radiopharmaceutical, members of the

  5. PILOT STUDY: An international comparison of mass fraction purity assignment of theophylline: CCQM Pilot Study CCQM-P20.e (Theophylline)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westwood, S.; Josephs, R.; Daireaux, A.; Wielgosz, R.; Davies, S.; Kang, M.; Ting, H.; Phillip, R.; Malz, F.; Shimizu, Y.; Frias, E.; Pérez, M.; Apps, P.; Fernandes-Whaley, M.; DeVos, B.; Wiangnon, K.; Ruangrittinon, N.; Wood, S.; Duewer, D.; Schantz, M.; Bedner, M.; Hancock, D.; Esker, J.

    2009-01-01

    Under the auspices of the Organic Analysis Working Group (OAWG) of the Comité Consultatif pour la Quantité de Matière (CCQM) a laboratory comparison, CCQM-P20.e, was coordinated by the Bureau International de Poids et Mesures (BIPM) in 2006/2007. Nine national measurement institutes, two expert laboratories and the BIPM participated in the comparison. Participants were required to assign the mass fraction of theophylline present as the main component in two separate study samples (CCQM-P20.e.1 and CCQM-P20.e.2). CCQM-P20.e.1 consisted of a high-purity theophylline material obtained from a commercial supplier. CCQM-P20.e.2 consisted of theophylline to which known amounts of the related structure compounds theobromine and caffeine were added in a homogenous, gravimetrically controlled fashion. For the CCQM-P20.e.2 sample it was possible to estimate gravimetric reference values both for the main component and for the two spiked impurities. In addition to assigning the mass fraction content of theophylline for both materials, participants were requested but not obliged to provide mass fraction estimates for the minor components they identified in each sample. The results reported by the study participants for the mass fraction content of theophylline in both materials showed good levels of agreement both with each other and with the gravimetric reference value assigned to the CCQM-P20.e.2 material. There was also satisfactory agreement overall, albeit at higher levels of uncertainty, in the quantification data reported for the minor components present in both samples. In the few cases where a significant deviation was observed from the consensus values reported by the comparison participants or gravimetric reference values where these where available, they appeared to arise from the use of non-optimal chromatographic separation conditions. The results demonstrate the feasibility for laboratories to assign mass fraction content with associated absolute expanded

  6. Experimental investigation of temperature rise in bone drilling with cooling: A comparison between modes of without cooling, internal gas cooling, and external liquid cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakouri, Ehsan; Haghighi Hassanalideh, Hossein; Gholampour, Seifollah

    2018-01-01

    Bone fracture occurs due to accident, aging, and disease. For the treatment of bone fractures, it is essential that the bones are kept fixed in the right place. In complex fractures, internal fixation or external methods are used to fix the fracture position. In order to immobilize the fracture position and connect the holder equipment to it, bone drilling is required. During the drilling of the bone, the required forces to chip formation could cause an increase in the temperature. If the resulting temperature increases to 47 °C, it causes thermal necrosis of the bone. Thermal necrosis decreases bone strength in the hole and, subsequently, due to incomplete immobilization of bone, fracture repair is not performed correctly. In this study, attempts have been made to compare local temperature increases in different processes of bone drilling. This comparison has been done between drilling without cooling, drilling with gas cooling, and liquid cooling on bovine femur. Drilling tests with gas coolant using direct injection of CO 2 and N 2 gases were carried out by internal coolant drill bit. The results showed that with the use of gas coolant, the elevation of temperature has limited to 6 °C and the thermal necrosis is prevented. Maximum temperature rise reached in drilling without cooling was 56 °C, using gas and liquid coolant, a maximum temperature elevation of 43 °C and 42 °C have been obtained, respectively. This resulted in decreased possibility of thermal necrosis of bone in drilling with gas and liquid cooling. However, the results showed that the values obtained with the drilling method with direct gas cooling are independent of the rotational speed of drill.

  7. Comparison of 3D displacements of screw-retained zirconia implant crowns into implants with different internal connections with respect to screw tightening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebeeah, Hanadi A; Yilmaz, Burak; Seidt, Jeremy D; McGlumphy, Edwin; Clelland, Nancy; Brantley, William

    2018-01-01

    Internal conical implant-abutment connections without horizontal platforms may lead to crown displacement during screw tightening and torque application. This displacement may affect the proximal contacts and occlusion of the definitive prosthesis. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the displacement of custom screw-retained zirconia single crowns into a recently introduced internal conical seal implant-abutment connection in 3D during hand and torque driver screw tightening. Stereolithic acrylic resin models were printed using computed tomography data from a patient missing the maxillary right central incisor. Two different internal connection implant systems (both ∼11.5 mm) were placed in the edentulous site in each model using a surgical guide. Five screw-retained single zirconia computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) crowns were fabricated for each system. A pair of high-resolution digital cameras was used to record the relationship of the crown to the model. The crowns were tightened according to the manufacturers' specifications using a torque driver, and the cameras recorded their relative position again. Three-dimensional image correlation was used to measure and compare crown positions, first hand tightened and then torque driven. The displacement test was repeated 3 times for each crown. Commercial image correlation software was used to extract the data and compare the amount of displacement vertically, mesiodistally, and buccolingually. Repeated-measures ANOVA calculated the relative displacements for all 5 specimens for each implant for both crown screw hand tightening and after applied torque. A Student t test with Bonferroni correction was used for pairwise comparison of interest to determine statistical differences between the 2 implants (α=.05). The mean vertical displacements were statistically higher than the mean displacements in the mesiodistal and buccolingual directions for both implants

  8. Advancing the Use of Passive Sampling in Risk Assessment and Management of Sediments Contaminated with Hydrophobic Organic Chemicals: Results of an International Ex Situ Passive Sampling Interlaboratory Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, Michiel T O; van der Heijden, Stephan A; Adelman, Dave; Apell, Jennifer N; Burgess, Robert M; Choi, Yongju; Fernandez, Loretta A; Flavetta, Geanna M; Ghosh, Upal; Gschwend, Philip M; Hale, Sarah E; Jalalizadeh, Mehregan; Khairy, Mohammed; Lampi, Mark A; Lao, Wenjian; Lohmann, Rainer; Lydy, Michael J; Maruya, Keith A; Nutile, Samuel A; Oen, Amy M P; Rakowska, Magdalena I; Reible, Danny; Rusina, Tatsiana P; Smedes, Foppe; Wu, Yanwen

    2018-03-20

    This work presents the results of an international interlaboratory comparison on ex situ passive sampling in sediments. The main objectives were to map the state of the science in passively sampling sediments, identify sources of variability, provide recommendations and practical guidance for standardized passive sampling, and advance the use of passive sampling in regulatory decision making by increasing confidence in the use of the technique. The study was performed by a consortium of 11 laboratories and included experiments with 14 passive sampling formats on 3 sediments for 25 target chemicals (PAHs and PCBs). The resulting overall interlaboratory variability was large (a factor of ∼10), but standardization of methods halved this variability. The remaining variability was primarily due to factors not related to passive sampling itself, i.e., sediment heterogeneity and analytical chemistry. Excluding the latter source of variability, by performing all analyses in one laboratory, showed that passive sampling results can have a high precision and a very low intermethod variability (sampling, irrespective of the specific method used, is fit for implementation in risk assessment and management of contaminated sediments, provided that method setup and performance, as well as chemical analyses are quality-controlled.

  9. Comparison of electron density profiles observed in China's low latitude station with that produced by the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI2001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Manlian; Shi Jiankui; Wang Xiao

    2003-01-01

    One month's data of ionograms observed by DPS-4 digisonde in China's low latitude station Hainan (19.4 deg N/109.0 deg E) for the high solar activity year 2002 is used to make a comparison study between the observational electron density profiles and that produced by the newly updated International Reference Ionosphere (IRI2001). The present study showed that for the month studied (April, 2002): (1) When B0-Tab value is used, profiles given by IRI2001 are in poor agreement with the observational results during daytime and nearby midnight hours when standard Ne(h) option is chosen, whereas when the LAY functions version is chosen, IRI2001 produces profiles with erroneous features during evening and nighttime hours, although it produces profiles in a reasonable good agreement with the observational ones during daytime hours. (2) In general, profiles produced by IRI2001 with B0-Gulyaeva choice is in better agreement with observational profiles than when B0-Tab is chosen. When the B0-Gulyaeva and LAY functions version of Ne(h) are both chosen, IRI2001 produced the best results when compared with the observational results. (3) The B0 parameter given by B0-Gulyaeva choice in IRI2001 is much closer to the observed (best fitted) one than that given by the B0-Tab choice is. (author)

  10. Influence of Inherent Surface and Internal Defects on Mechanical Properties of Additively Manufactured Ti6Al4V Alloy: Comparison between Selective Laser Melting and Electron Beam Melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fousová, Michaela; Vojtěch, Dalibor; Doubrava, Karel; Daniel, Matěj; Lin, Chiu-Feng

    2018-03-31

    Additive manufacture (AM) appears to be the most suitable technology to produce sophisticated, high quality, lightweight parts from Ti6Al4V alloy. However, the fatigue life of AM parts is of concern. In our study, we focused on a comparison of two techniques of additive manufacture-selective laser melting (SLM) and electron beam melting (EBM)-in terms of the mechanical properties during both static and dynamic loading. All of the samples were untreated to focus on the influence of surface condition inherent to SLM and EBM. The EBM samples were studied in the as-built state, while SLM was followed by heat treatment. The resulting similarity of microstructures led to comparable mechanical properties in tension, but, due to differences in surface roughness and specific internal defects, the fatigue strength of the EBM samples reached only half the value of the SLM samples. Higher surface roughness that is inherent to EBM contributed to multiple initiations of fatigue cracks, while only one crack initiated on the SLM surface. Also, facets that were formed by an intergranular cleavage fracture were observed in the EBM samples.

  11. Influence of Inherent Surface and Internal Defects on Mechanical Properties of Additively Manufactured Ti6Al4V Alloy: Comparison between Selective Laser Melting and Electron Beam Melting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Fousová

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Additive manufacture (AM appears to be the most suitable technology to produce sophisticated, high quality, lightweight parts from Ti6Al4V alloy. However, the fatigue life of AM parts is of concern. In our study, we focused on a comparison of two techniques of additive manufacture—selective laser melting (SLM and electron beam melting (EBM—in terms of the mechanical properties during both static and dynamic loading. All of the samples were untreated to focus on the influence of surface condition inherent to SLM and EBM. The EBM samples were studied in the as-built state, while SLM was followed by heat treatment. The resulting similarity of microstructures led to comparable mechanical properties in tension, but, due to differences in surface roughness and specific internal defects, the fatigue strength of the EBM samples reached only half the value of the SLM samples. Higher surface roughness that is inherent to EBM contributed to multiple initiations of fatigue cracks, while only one crack initiated on the SLM surface. Also, facets that were formed by an intergranular cleavage fracture were observed in the EBM samples.

  12. Comparison of Brazilian and American norms for the International Affective Picture System (IAPS Comparação entre normas brasileiras e norte-americanas do International Affective Picture System (IAPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Larsen Ribeiro

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present article compares Brazilian and American norms for the International Affective Picture System (IAPS, a set of normative emotional photographic slides for experimental investigations. METHODS: Subjects were 1,062 Brazilian university students (364 men and 698 women who rated 707 pictures from the IAPS in terms of pleasure, arousal, and dominance following the methodology of the original normative study in the US, enabling direct comparison of data from the two samples through Pearson product moment correlation and Student t test. RESULTS: All correlations were highly significant with the highest level for the pleasure dimension, followed by dominance and arousal. However, contrary to the American normative values, our data showed that Brazilian subjects generally assigned higher arousal ratings overall. CONCLUSION: Our findings confirm that this set of stimuli can be used in Brazil as an affective rating tool due to the high correlations found across the two populations, despite differences on the arousal dimension, which are discussed in detail.OBJETIVO: O presente artigo compara as normas obtidas no Brasil e nos EUA para o "International Affective Picture System" (IAPS, um conjunto de fotografias emocionais amplamente utilizado na investigação experimental. MÉTODOS: Os sujeitos foram 1.062 universitários brasileiros (364 homens e 698 mulheres que avaliaram as 707 fotografias do IAPS nas dimensões prazer, alerta e dominância, utilizando o mesmo procedimento do estudo normativo original realizado nos EUA, permitindo uma comparação direta dos dados através de correlações lineares de Pearson e testes t de Student. RESULTADOS: Todas as correlações entre as populações foram altamente significativas, sendo o maior coeficiente o da dimensão prazer, seguido da dimensão dominância e alerta. Entretanto, os brasileiros atribuíram maiores valores médios à dimensão alerta do que os norte-americanos. CONCLUSÃO: Os

  13. Unhealthy Behaviours: An International Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    In the current global economy, chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) have become the leading cause of death and a major health concern for both developed and developing countries. Among other factors, the worldwide spread of NCDs is driven by the globalisation of unhealthy habits. The purpose of this paper is to develop a simple statistic to measure, at the national level, the average population's exposure to the main NCDs modifiable risk factors. The approach and methodology followed by the United Nations Development Programme to compute the Human Development Index (HDI) is applied to four basic indicators of NCD-related preventable risk factors (alcohol consumption, excess caloric intake, non-balanced diet and tobacco use) in 112 countries worldwide in 2012-14. We obtain a summary composite index, which we call the Unhealthy Behaviour Index (UBI), which ranks countries by the average level of the unhealthy habits (drinking, eating and smoking) of their populations. We find that Belarus and Russian federation are the two countries with the unhealthiest NCD-related lifestyle. With the exception of Canada, the first twenty populations more exposed to the main NCDs preventable risk factors all live in European countries, and mainly in countries of Eastern Europe. Overall, the UBI tends to increase along with the level of human development. In medium, high and very high HDI countries, however, the same level of human development may be associated with very different kinds of NCD-related lifestyles. Finally, economic growth may push populations toward either more unhealthy or healthy habits, depending on the countries' level of development; the elasticity of unhealthy habits with respect to income per capita is positive (but less than one: on average 0.6) until $30,000, decreases as income rises, and becomes negative (around -0.3) in very high income countries.

  14. Unhealthy Behaviours: An International Comparison.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Ferretti

    Full Text Available In the current global economy, chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs have become the leading cause of death and a major health concern for both developed and developing countries. Among other factors, the worldwide spread of NCDs is driven by the globalisation of unhealthy habits. The purpose of this paper is to develop a simple statistic to measure, at the national level, the average population's exposure to the main NCDs modifiable risk factors. The approach and methodology followed by the United Nations Development Programme to compute the Human Development Index (HDI is applied to four basic indicators of NCD-related preventable risk factors (alcohol consumption, excess caloric intake, non-balanced diet and tobacco use in 112 countries worldwide in 2012-14. We obtain a summary composite index, which we call the Unhealthy Behaviour Index (UBI, which ranks countries by the average level of the unhealthy habits (drinking, eating and smoking of their populations. We find that Belarus and Russian federation are the two countries with the unhealthiest NCD-related lifestyle. With the exception of Canada, the first twenty populations more exposed to the main NCDs preventable risk factors all live in European countries, and mainly in countries of Eastern Europe. Overall, the UBI tends to increase along with the level of human development. In medium, high and very high HDI countries, however, the same level of human development may be associated with very different kinds of NCD-related lifestyles. Finally, economic growth may push populations toward either more unhealthy or healthy habits, depending on the countries' level of development; the elasticity of unhealthy habits with respect to income per capita is positive (but less than one: on average 0.6 until $30,000, decreases as income rises, and becomes negative (around -0.3 in very high income countries.

  15. Unhealthy Behaviours: An International Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    In the current global economy, chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) have become the leading cause of death and a major health concern for both developed and developing countries. Among other factors, the worldwide spread of NCDs is driven by the globalisation of unhealthy habits. The purpose of this paper is to develop a simple statistic to measure, at the national level, the average population’s exposure to the main NCDs modifiable risk factors. The approach and methodology followed by the United Nations Development Programme to compute the Human Development Index (HDI) is applied to four basic indicators of NCD-related preventable risk factors (alcohol consumption, excess caloric intake, non-balanced diet and tobacco use) in 112 countries worldwide in 2012–14. We obtain a summary composite index, which we call the Unhealthy Behaviour Index (UBI), which ranks countries by the average level of the unhealthy habits (drinking, eating and smoking) of their populations. We find that Belarus and Russian federation are the two countries with the unhealthiest NCD-related lifestyle. With the exception of Canada, the first twenty populations more exposed to the main NCDs preventable risk factors all live in European countries, and mainly in countries of Eastern Europe. Overall, the UBI tends to increase along with the level of human development. In medium, high and very high HDI countries, however, the same level of human development may be associated with very different kinds of NCD-related lifestyles. Finally, economic growth may push populations toward either more unhealthy or healthy habits, depending on the countries’ level of development; the elasticity of unhealthy habits with respect to income per capita is positive (but less than one: on average 0.6) until $30,000, decreases as income rises, and becomes negative (around -0.3) in very high income countries. PMID:26512717

  16. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Asparaginase Activity-Method Comparison of MAAT and AHA Test Used in the International AIEOP-BFM ALL 2009 Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanvers-Kaminsky, Claudia; Rüffer, Andrea; Würthwein, Gudrun; Gerss, Joachim; Zucchetti, Massimo; Ballerini, Andrea; Attarbaschi, Andishe; Smisek, Petr; Nath, Christa; Lee, Samiuela; Elitzur, Sara; Zimmermann, Martin; Möricke, Anja; Schrappe, Martin; Rizzari, Carmelo; Boos, Joachim

    2018-02-01

    In the international AIEOP-BFM ALL 2009 trial, asparaginase (ASE) activity was monitored after each dose of pegylated Escherichia coli ASE (PEG-ASE). Two methods were used: the aspartic acid β-hydroxamate (AHA) test and medac asparaginase activity test (MAAT). As the latter method overestimates PEG-ASE activity because it calibrates using E. coli ASE, method comparison was performed using samples from the AIEOP-BFM ALL 2009 trial. PEG-ASE activities were determined using MAAT and AHA test in 2 sets of samples (first set: 630 samples and second set: 91 samples). Bland-Altman analysis was performed on ratios between MAAT and AHA tests. The mean difference between both methods, limits of agreement, and 95% confidence intervals were calculated and compared for all samples and samples grouped according to the calibration ranges of the MAAT and the AHA test. PEG-ASE activity determined using the MAAT was significantly higher than when determined using the AHA test (P Wilcoxon signed-rank test). Within the calibration range of the MAAT (30-600 U/L), PEG-ASE activities determined using the MAAT were on average 23% higher than PEG-ASE activities determined using the AHA test. This complies with the mean difference reported in the MAAT manual. With PEG-ASE activities >600 U/L, the discrepancies between MAAT and AHA test increased. Above the calibration range of the MAAT (>600 U/L) and the AHA test (>1000 U/L), a mean difference of 42% was determined. Because more than 70% of samples had PEG-ASE activities >600 U/L and required additional sample dilution, an overall mean difference of 37% was calculated for all samples (37% for the first and 34% for the second set). Comparison of the MAAT and AHA test for PEG-ASE activity confirmed a mean difference of 23% between MAAT and AHA test for PEG-ASE activities between 30 and 600 U/L. The discrepancy increased in samples with >600 U/L PEG-ASE activity, which will be especially relevant when evaluating high PEG-ASE activities in

  17. Comparison of internal target volumes defined on 3-dimensional, 4-dimensonal, and cone-beam CT images of non-small-cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li F

    2016-11-01

    , and ITVMIP not included in ITVCBCT were 57.08%, 48.89%, and 20.04%, respectively. Conclusion: The use of the individual ITV derived from 4DCT merely based on bony registration in radiotherapy may result in a target miss. The ITVs derived from 3DCT with isotropic margins have a good coverage of the ITV from CBCT, but the use of those would result in a high proportion of normal tissue being irradiated unnecessarily. Keywords: non-small-cell lung cancer, cone-beam CT, four-dimensional CT, three-dimensional CT, internal target volume, volume comparison

  18. International drug price comparisons: quality assessment Comparación internacional de precios de medicamentos: evaluación de la calidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Machado

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To quantitatively summarize results (i.e., prices and affordability reported from international drug price comparison studies and assess their methodological quality. METHODS: A systematic search of the most relevant databases-Medline, Embase, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (IPA, and Scopus, from their inception to May 2009-was conducted to identify original research comparing international drug prices. International drug price information was extracted and recorded from accepted papers. Affordability was reported as drug prices adjusted for income. Study quality was assessed using six criteria: use of similar countries, use of a representative sample of drugs, selection of specific types of prices, identification of drug packaging, different weights on price indices, and the type of currency conversion used. RESULTS: Of the 1 828 studies identified, 21 were included. Only one study adequately addressed all quality issues. A large variation in study quality was observed due to the many methods used to conduct the drug price comparisons, such as different indices, economic parameters, price types, basket of drugs, and more. Thus, the quality of published studies was considered poor. Results varied across studies, but generally, higher income countries had higher drug prices. However, after adjusting drug prices for affordability, higher income countries had more affordable prices than lower income countries. CONCLUSIONS: Differences between drug prices and affordability in different countries were found. Low income countries reported less affordability of drugs, leaving room for potential problems with drug access, and consequently, a negative impact on health. The quality of the literature on this topic needs improvement.OBJETIVO: Resumir cuantitativamente los resultados (p. ej., precios y asequibilidad presentados en estudios de comparación internacional de precios de medicamentos y evaluar su calidad metodológica. M

  19. Metallic artifacts from internal scaphoid fracture fixation screws: comparison between C-arm flat-panel, cone-beam, and multidetector computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkenstaedt, Tim; Morsbach, Fabian; Calcagni, Maurizio; Vich, Magdalena; Pfirrmann, Christian W A; Alkadhi, Hatem; Runge, Val M; Andreisek, Gustav; Guggenberger, Roman

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare image quality and extent of artifacts from scaphoid fracture fixation screws using different computed tomography (CT) modalities and radiation dose protocols. Imaging of 6 cadaveric wrists with artificial scaphoid fractures and different fixation screws was performed in 2 screw positions (45° and 90° orientation in relation to the x/y-axis) using multidetector CT (MDCT) and 2 flat-panel CT modalities, C-arm flat-panel CT (FPCT) and cone-beam CT (CBCT), the latter 2 with low and standard radiation dose protocols. Mean cartilage attenuation and metal artifact-induced absolute Hounsfield unit changes (= artifact extent) were measured. Two independent radiologists evaluated different image quality criteria using a 5-point Likert-scale. Interreader agreements (Cohen κ) were calculated. Mean absolute Hounsfield unit changes and quality ratings were compared using Friedman and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Artifact extent was significantly smaller for MDCT and standard-dose FPCT compared with CBCT low- and standard-dose acquisitions (all P 0.05). Both MDCT and FPCT standard-dose protocols showed equal ratings for screw bone interface, fracture line, and trabecular bone evaluation (P = 0.06, 0.2, and 0.2, respectively) and performed significantly better than FPCT low- and CBCT low- and standard-dose acquisitions (all P < 0.05). Good interreader agreement was found for image quality comparisons (Cohen κ = 0.76-0.78). Both MDCT and FPCT standard-dose acquisition showed comparatively less metal-induced artifacts and better overall image quality compared with FPCT low-dose and both CBCT acquisitions. Flat-panel CT may provide sufficient image quality to serve as a versatile CT alternative for postoperative imaging of internally fixated wrist fractures.

  20. Computational modeling of the mathematical dummy of the Brazilian woman for calculations of internal dosimetry and ends of comparison of the fractions absorbed specific with the woman reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ximenes, Edmir

    2006-01-01

    Tools for dosimetric calculations are of the utmost importance for the basic principles of radiological protection, not only in nuclear medicine, but also in other scientific calculations. In this work a mathematical model of the Brazilian woman is developed in order to be used as a basis for calculations of Specific Absorbed Fractions (SAFs) in internal organs and in the skeleton, in accord with the objectives of diagnosis or therapy in nuclear medicine. The model developed here is similar in form to that of Snyder, but modified to be more relevant to the case of the Brazilian woman. To do this, the formalism of the Monte Carlo method was used by means of the ALGAM- 97 R computational code. As a contribution to the objectives of this thesis, we developed the computational system cSAF - consultation for Specific Absorbed Fractions (cFAE from Portuguese acronym) - which furnishes several 'look-up' facilities for the research user. The dialogue interface with the operator was planned following current practices in the utilization of event-oriented languages. This interface permits the user to navigate by means of the reference models, choose the source organ, the energy desired, and receive an answer through an efficient and intuitive dialogue. The system furnishes, in addition to the data referring to the Brazilian woman, data referring to the model of Snyder and to the model of the Brazilian man. The system makes available not only individual data to the SAFs of the three models, but also a comparison among them. (author)

  1. Comparison of Content on the American Board of Internal Medicine Maintenance of Certification Examination With Conditions Seen in Practice by General Internists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Bradley; Vandergrift, Jonathan; Lipner, Rebecca S; Green, Marianne M

    2017-06-13

    examination form) were administered and 3461 questions (96.1%) were mapped into the 186 study conditions (mean, 18.6 questions per condition). Comparison of the percentages of 186 categories of medical conditions seen in 13 832 office visits and 108 472 hospital stays with the percentages of 3461 questions on IM-MOC examinations revealed that 2389 examination questions (69.0%; 95% CI, 67.5%-70.6% involving 158 conditions) were categorized as concordant. For concordance between questions and office visits only, 2010 questions (58.08%; 95% CI, 56.43%-59.72% of all examination questions) involving 145 conditions were categorized as concordant. For concordance between questions and hospital stays only, 1456 questions (42.07%; 95% CI, 40.42%-43.71% of all examination questions) involving 122 conditions were categorized as concordant. Among questions on IM-MOC examinations from 2010-2013, 69% were concordant with conditions seen in general internal medicine practices, although some areas of discordance were identified.

  2. Postural stability in patients with knee osteoarthritis: comparison with controls and evaluation of relationships between postural stability scores and International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ru-Lan; Lee, Wen-Chung; Lo, Min-Tzu; Liao, Wei-Cheng

    2013-02-01

    To assess the differences in postural stability between patients with knee osteoarthritis and controls without knee osteoarthritis, and to evaluate possible relations between postural stability scores and International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) components. An age-matched, case-controlled trial with a cross-sectional design. A teaching hospital. Patients with knee osteoarthritis (n=73) and age-matched controls (n=60). Data on patients' postural stability and additional health-related variables were collected using various instruments. These included the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory, the World Health Organization Quality of Life Brief Version, the physical function test (chair-rising time), the Chinese version of the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index, the Chinese version of the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, and the Biodex Stability System. A comparison of postural stability in patients with knee osteoarthritis versus that of controls was performed. The relation between postural stability scores for patients with knee osteoarthritis and ICF components was evaluated. Pearson correlation tests were used to determine the variables that correlated with postural stability among these patients. Patients with knee osteoarthritis displayed lower overall postural stability than controls (scores of 0.7 vs. 0.5, P=.006) and scored lower on the environmental domain of the World Health Organization Quality of Life Brief Version (62.2 vs 66.8, P=.014). For patients with knee osteoarthritis, postural stability was weakly associated with the ICF components of body functions and structures, including pain (r=.33-.34, P=.004), physical fatigue (r=.28, P=.016), and reduced motivation (r=.30, P=.011). Weak to moderate associations between postural stability and the ICF components of activities and participation were found; the relevant ICF variables included

  3. Comparison of expected treatment outcomes, obtained using risk models and international guidelines, with observed treatment outcomes in a Dutch cohort of patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer treated with intravesical chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, Rianne J M; Palou, Joan; Witjes, Wim P J; Janzing-Pastors, Maria H D; Caris, Christien T M; Witjes, J Alfred

    2014-08-01

    To compare the risks according to the American Urological Association (AUA), EAU, European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) and Club Urológico Español de Tratamiento Oncologico (CUETO) classifications with real outcomes in a cohort of patients in the Netherlands, and to confirm that patients who were undertreated according to these risk models have worse outcomes than adequately treated patients. Patients treated with complete transurethral resection of bladder tumour and intravesical chemotherapy were included. Not all patients would have received intravesical chemotherapy had they been treated to current standards, and thus comparison of the observed outcomes in our Dutch cohort vs expected outcomes based on the EORTC risk tables and CUETO scoring model was possible. The cohort was reclassified according to the definitions of five index patients (IPs), as defined by the AUA guidelines, and three risk groups, defined according to the EAU guidelines, to compare the outcomes of undertreated patients with those of adequately treated patients. A total of 1001 patients were available for comparison with the AUA definitions and 728 patients were available for comparison with the EORTC and CUETO models. There was a large overlap between the observed outcomes and expected recurrence and progression probabilities when comparison was made using the EORTC risk tables. The observed recurrence outcomes were in general higher than the expected probabilities according to the CUETO risk classification, especially in the long term. No differences in progression were found when comparing these two models to the Dutch cohort. Patients who were undertreated according to the guidelines showed, in general, a higher risk of developing recurrence and progression. Limitations are i.a. its retrospective nature and the differences in grading system. Comparisons between the observed outcomes in our Dutch cohort and the expected outcomes based on EAU and CUETO risk

  4. International Trade. International Business

    OpenAIRE

    Мохнюк, А. М.; Mokhniuk, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Work programme of the study course “International Trade. International Business” was prepared in accordance with educational and vocational training program for bachelors of training direction 6.030601 “Management”.

  5. A Comparison of Characteristics and Food Insecurity Coping Strategies between International and Domestic Postsecondary Students Using a Food Bank Located on a University Campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanbazaza, Mahitab; Ball, Geoff D C; Farmer, Anna P; Maximova, Katerina; Farahbakhsh, Jasmine; Willows, Noreen D

    2017-12-01

    We compared food insecurity status, coping strategies, demographic characteristics, and self-rated health of international and domestic postsecondary students requesting emergency food hampers from a campus food bank (CFB). We collected data from a cross-sectional convenience sample of domestic and international students who accessed the CFB at the University of Alberta. Food insecurity was prevalent (international students: n = 26/27 (96.2%), domestic students: n = 31/31 (100%)). Compared with their domestic peers, international students were less likely to rate their mental health negatively (14.8% vs 38.7%, P = 0.04). The primary income source was government loans (54.8%) for domestic students and research assistantships (33.3%) for international students. To cope with not having enough money for food, the majority of both student groups delayed bill payments or buying university supplies, applied for loans or bursaries, purchased food on credit, or worked more. International students were less likely to ask friends or relatives for food (48.1% vs 77.4%, P = 0.02). Domestic and international students mostly used similar coping strategies to address food insecurity; however, they paid for their education using different income sources. Distinct strategies for international and domestic students are required to allow more students to cover their educational and living expenses.

  6. Curricula in Mathematics: A Comparison of Courses in the Countries Represented in the International Commission on the Teaching of Mathematics. Bulletin, 1914, No. 45. Whole Number 619

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J. C.

    1915-01-01

    The International Commission on the Teaching of Mathematics created by the International Congress of Mathematics at Rome, Italy, in 1908, submitted a large body of reports to the congress at Cambridge, England, in 1912. Those for the United States have been published as bulletins for the Bureau of Education. The material in this bulletin shows…

  7. Motivation, Self-Regulated Learning Efficacy, and Academic Achievement among International and Domestic Students at an Urban Community College: A Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hsiang-Ann; Ferdenzi, Anita Cuttita; Edlin, Margot

    2012-01-01

    This study is designed to examine how intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and self-regulated learning efficacy influence academic achievement of international and domestic community college students. Results show that for both international and domestic students, motivation did not directly affect academic achievement. Self-regulated…

  8. Incorporating International Business Topics into Every Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perreault, Heidi; Burchfield, Kathy

    2001-01-01

    Presents activities and resources for addressing international business in the curriculum, including e-mail partnerships, international document specifications, currency comparisons, marketing to other cultures, scavenger hunt, business lunch, and international telephone and travel etiquette. (SK)

  9. What factors help or hinder the achievement of low SES students? An international comparison using TIMSS 2011 8th grade science data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Justin L.

    Focusing on science from a cross-country perspective, this study explores the relationship between 8th grade science achievement and student, teacher, and school characteristics. More specifically, this study will pay special attention to low socio-economic status (SES) students and seek to understand why some disadvantaged students are able to have higher than expected achievement in science given their SES while other disadvantaged students are not able to achieve beyond what would be expected given their background. This study will explore the multi-level relationship between the characteristics of students, their teachers, their schools, and student achievement in science. While looking at students in classrooms and in schools, this work will create as precise as possible a measure of student SES by drawing on recommendations of an expert panel commissioned by the National Association of Educational Progress (NAEP) study. The study uses the most recent cycle (2011) of the Trends in International Math and Science Study (TIMSS), to strategically select a six-country sample from the 45 participating countries. This six-country sample was selected by using the country level achievement and the standard deviation of that achievement. This will create a sample that has a range of equality in achievement and strength in achievement. This allows for making comparisons both across and within countries to better understand variations in the factors of student performance, especially for disadvantaged students. This paper builds on the existing research around socio-economic status (SES) and achievement by exploring in more detail the conditions in schools and classrooms around the world that might magnify or reduce the effect of SES on student achievement. The analysis looks at these questions: "What conditions help low SES students achieve higher than what would be expected given their SES?" and "What conditions hinder low SES students to achieve at or below what would

  10. Selected techniques in radioecology: Model development and comparison for internal dosimetry of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and feasibiltiy assessment of reflectance spectroscopy use as a tool in phytoremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Nicole

    The first study in Part 1 examines the effects of lake tropic structure on the uptake of iodine-131 (131I) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and considers a simple computational model for the estimation of resulting radiation dose. Iodine-131 is a major component of the atmospheric releases following reactor accidents, and the passage of 131I through food chains from grass to human thyroids has been extensively studied. By comparison, the fate and effects of 131I deposition onto lakes and other aquatic systems has been less studied. In this study we reanalyze 1960s data from experimental releases of 131I into two small lakes and compare the effects of differences in lake trophic structures on 131I accumulation in fish. The largest concentrations in the thyroids of trout may occur from 8 to 32 days post initial release. DCFs for trout for whole body as well as thyroid were computed using Monte Carlo modeling with an anatomically-appropriate model of trout thyroid structure. Activity concentration data was used in conjunction with the calculated DCFs to estimate dose rates and ultimately determine cumulative radiation dose (Gy) to the thyroids after 32 days. The estimated cumulative thyroid doses at 32 days post-release ranged from 6 mGy to 18 mGy per 1 Bq mL-1 of initial 131I in the water, depending upon fish size. The subsequent studies in Part 1 seek to develop and compare different, increasingly detailed anatomical phantoms for O. mykiss for the purpose of estimating organ radiation dose and dose rates from 131I uptake and from molybdenum-99 (99Mo) uptake. Model comparison and refinement is important to the process of determining both dose rates and dose effects, and we develop and compare three models for O. mykiss: a simplistic geometry considering a single organ, a more specific geometry employing anatomically relevant organ size and location, and voxel reconstruction of internal anatomy obtained from CT imaging (referred to as CSUTROUT). Dose Conversion

  11. [Effectiveness comparison of suspension fixation plus hinged external fixator and double plate internal fixation in treatment of type C humeral intercondylar fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Lin, Xu; Zhong, Zeli; Wu, Chao; Tan, Lun

    2017-07-01

    To compare the effectiveness of suspension fixation plus hinged external fixator with double plate internal fixation in the treatment of type C humeral intercondylar fractures. Between January 2014 and April 2016, 30 patients with type C (Association for the Study of Internal Fixation, AO/ASIF) humeral intercondylar fractures were treated. Kirschner wire suspension fixation plus hinged external fixator was used in 14 cases (group A), and double plate internal fixation in 16 cases (group B). There was no significant difference in gender, age, injury cause, disease duration, injury side, and type of fracture between 2 groups ( P >0.05). There was no significant difference in operation time and hospitalization stay between 2 groups ( P >0.05). But the intraoperative blood loss in group A was significantly less than that in group B ( P internal fixation removal, the intraoperative blood loss, and VAS score at 1 day and 3 days after operation in group A were significant better than those in group B ( P external fixator and double plate internal fixation for the treatment of type C humeral intercondylar fractures have ideal outcome in elbow function. But the suspension fixation plus hinged external fixator is better than double plate internal fixation in intraoperative blood loss, postoperative VAS score, and time of internal fixation removal.

  12. Comparison of Monolateral External Fixation and Internal Fixation for Skeletal Stabilisation in the Management of Small Tibial Bone Defects following Successful Treatment of Chronic Osteomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yicun; Jiang, Hui; Deng, Zhantao; Jin, Jiewen; Meng, Jia; Wang, Jun; Zhao, Jianning; Sun, Guojing; Qian, Hongbo

    2017-01-01

    To compare the salvage rate and complication between internal fixation and external fixation in patients with small bone defects caused by chronic infectious osteomyelitis debridement. 125 patients with chronic infectious osteomyelitis of tibia fracture who underwent multiple irrigation, debridement procedure, and local/systemic antibiotics were enrolled. Bone defects, which were less than 4 cm, were treated with bone grafting using either internal fixation or monolateral external fixation. 12-month follow-up was conducted with an interval of 3 months to evaluate union of bone defect. Patients who underwent monolateral external fixation had higher body mass index and fasting blood glucose, longer time since injury, and larger bone defect compared with internal fixation. No significant difference was observed in incidence of complications (23.5% versus 19.3%), surgery time (156 ± 23 minutes versus 162 ± 21 minutes), and time to union (11.1 ± 3.0 months versus 10.9 ± 3.1 months) between external fixation and internal fixation. Internal fixation had no significant influence on the occurrence of postoperation complications after multivariate adjustment when compared with external fixation. Furthermore, patients who underwent internal fixation experienced higher level of daily living scales and lower level of anxiety. It was relatively safe to use internal fixation for stabilization in osteomyelitis patients whose bone defects were less than 4 cm and infection was well controlled.

  13. A randomized comparison of the Saphenous Vein Versus Right Internal Thoracic Artery as a Y-Composite Graft (SAVE RITA) trial: early results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Ho Young; Kim, Jun Sung; Oh, Se Jin; Kim, Ki-Bong

    2012-11-01

    The Saphenous Vein Versus Right Internal Thoracic Artery as a Y-Composite Graft trial was designed to evaluate the saphenous vein compared with the right internal thoracic artery as a Y-composite graft anastomosed to the side of the left internal thoracic artery. In this early analysis, we compared early angiographic patency rates and clinical outcomes. From September 2008 to October 2011, 224 patients with multivessel coronary artery disease were randomized prospectively to undergo off-pump revascularization using the saphenous vein group (n = 112) or the right internal thoracic artery group (n = 112) as Y-composite grafts. Early postoperative (1.4 ± 1.1 days) angiographic patency and clinical outcomes were compared. There was 1 operative death in the right internal thoracic artery group. No statistically significant differences in postoperative morbidities, including atrial fibrillation and acute renal failure, were observed between the groups. The number of distal anastomoses using the side-arm Y-composite graft (saphenous vein vs right internal thoracic artery) were 2.3 ± 0.8 and 1.9 ± 0.7 in the saphenous vein and right internal thoracic artery groups, respectively (P < .001). A third conduit was used in 44 patients (saphenous vein group vs right internal thoracic artery group, 4/109 vs 40/110; P < .001) to extend the side-arm Y-composite graft for complete revascularization. Early angiography demonstrated an overall patency rate of 99.4% (771 of 776 distal anastomoses). Patency rates of the side-arm Y-composite graft (saphenous vein vs right internal thoracic artery) were 98.8% (245 of 248) and 99.5% (207 of 208) in the saphenous vein and right internal thoracic artery groups, respectively (P = .629). A third conduit was needed to extend the right internal thoracic artery composite graft and reach the target vessels in 36.4% (40/110) of the patients. The saphenous vein composite graft was comparable with the right internal thoracic artery composite graft

  14. Validation of cytogenetic risk groups according to International Prognostic Scoring Systems by peripheral blood CD34+FISH: results from a German diagnostic study in comparison with an international control group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braulke, Friederike; Platzbecker, Uwe; Müller-Thomas, Catharina; Götze, Katharina; Germing, Ulrich; Brümmendorf, Tim H; Nolte, Florian; Hofmann, Wolf-Karsten; Giagounidis, Aristoteles A N; Lübbert, Michael; Greenberg, Peter L; Bennett, John M; Solé, Francesc; Mallo, Mar; Slovak, Marilyn L; Ohyashiki, Kazuma; Le Beau, Michelle M; Tüchler, Heinz; Pfeilstöcker, Michael; Nösslinger, Thomas; Hildebrandt, Barbara; Shirneshan, Katayoon; Aul, Carlo; Stauder, Reinhard; Sperr, Wolfgang R; Valent, Peter; Fonatsch, Christa; Trümper, Lorenz; Haase, Detlef; Schanz, Julie

    2015-02-01

    International Prognostic Scoring Systems are used to determine the individual risk profile of myelodysplastic syndrome patients. For the assessment of International Prognostic Scoring Systems, an adequate chromosome banding analysis of the bone marrow is essential. Cytogenetic information is not available for a substantial number of patients (5%-20%) with dry marrow or an insufficient number of metaphase cells. For these patients, a valid risk classification is impossible. In the study presented here, the International Prognostic Scoring Systems were validated based on fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses using extended probe panels applied to cluster of differentiation 34 positive (CD34(+)) peripheral blood cells of 328 MDS patients of our prospective multicenter German diagnostic study and compared to chromosome banding results of 2902 previously published patients with myelodysplastic syndromes. For cytogenetic risk classification by fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses of CD34(+) peripheral blood cells, the groups differed significantly for overall and leukemia-free survival by uni- and multivariate analyses without discrepancies between treated and untreated patients. Including cytogenetic data of fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses of peripheral CD34(+) blood cells (instead of bone marrow banding analysis) into the complete International Prognostic Scoring System assessment, the prognostic risk groups separated significantly for overall and leukemia-free survival. Our data show that a reliable stratification to the risk groups of the International Prognostic Scoring Systems is possible from peripheral blood in patients with missing chromosome banding analysis by using a comprehensive probe panel (clinicaltrials.gov identifier:01355913). Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  15. Validation of cytogenetic risk groups according to International Prognostic Scoring Systems by peripheral blood CD34+FISH: results from a German diagnostic study in comparison with an international control group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braulke, Friederike; Platzbecker, Uwe; Müller-Thomas, Catharina; Götze, Katharina; Germing, Ulrich; Brümmendorf, Tim H.; Nolte, Florian; Hofmann, Wolf-Karsten; Giagounidis, Aristoteles A. N.; Lübbert, Michael; Greenberg, Peter L.; Bennett, John M.; Solé, Francesc; Mallo, Mar; Slovak, Marilyn L.; Ohyashiki, Kazuma; Le Beau, Michelle M.; Tüchler, Heinz; Pfeilstöcker, Michael; Nösslinger, Thomas; Hildebrandt, Barbara; Shirneshan, Katayoon; Aul, Carlo; Stauder, Reinhard; Sperr, Wolfgang R.; Valent, Peter; Fonatsch, Christa; Trümper, Lorenz; Haase, Detlef; Schanz, Julie

    2015-01-01

    International Prognostic Scoring Systems are used to determine the individual risk profile of myelodysplastic syndrome patients. For the assessment of International Prognostic Scoring Systems, an adequate chromosome banding analysis of the bone marrow is essential. Cytogenetic information is not available for a substantial number of patients (5%–20%) with dry marrow or an insufficient number of metaphase cells. For these patients, a valid risk classification is impossible. In the study presented here, the International Prognostic Scoring Systems were validated based on fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses using extended probe panels applied to cluster of differentiation 34 positive (CD34+) peripheral blood cells of 328 MDS patients of our prospective multicenter German diagnostic study and compared to chromosome banding results of 2902 previously published patients with myelodysplastic syndromes. For cytogenetic risk classification by fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses of CD34+ peripheral blood cells, the groups differed significantly for overall and leukemia-free survival by uni- and multivariate analyses without discrepancies between treated and untreated patients. Including cytogenetic data of fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses of peripheral CD34+ blood cells (instead of bone marrow banding analysis) into the complete International Prognostic Scoring System assessment, the prognostic risk groups separated significantly for overall and leukemia-free survival. Our data show that a reliable stratification to the risk groups of the International Prognostic Scoring Systems is possible from peripheral blood in patients with missing chromosome banding analysis by using a comprehensive probe panel (clinicaltrials.gov identifier:01355913). PMID:25344522

  16. Comparison of fit accuracy and torque maintenance of zirconia and titanium abutments for internal tri-channel and external-hex implant connections

    OpenAIRE

    Siadat, Hakimeh; Beyabanaki, Elaheh; Mousavi, Niloufar; Alikhasi, Marzieh

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE This in vitro study aimed to evaluate the effect of implant connection design (external vs. internal) on the fit discrepancy and torque loss of zirconia and titanium abutments. MATERIALS AND METHODS Two regular platform dental implants, one with external connection (Br?nemark, Nobel Biocare AB) and the other with internal connection (Noble Replace, Nobel Biocare AB), were selected. Seven titanium and seven customized zirconia abutments were used for each connection design. Measurement...

  17. Comparison of debris environment models (MASTER-2005, 2001, ORDEM2000): For international standardization of process based implementation of meteoroid and debris environmental models

    OpenAIRE

    Fukushige, Shinya; Akahoshi, Yasuhiro; Kitazawa, Yukihito; Goka, Tateo; 福重 進也; 赤星 保浩; 北澤 幸人; 五家 建夫

    2007-01-01

    Space agencies of some countries have space debris environment model for design of spacecrafts. These models can estimate debris flux as a function of the size, relative impact velocity, and impact angle in a spacecraft orbit. However, it is known calculation results of models are not always consistent with each other. Therefore, international common implementation process of debris environment model is required. In this paper, as the first step of international standardization of implementat...

  18. Internal rotation of 1-Aryl-3,3-dialkyltriazenes. Comparison of semiempirical molecular orbital calculations with far-infrared, Raman, and NMR spectroscopic results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panitz, J.C.; Lippert, T.; Wokaun, A.

    1994-01-01

    PM3 and AM1 semiempirical molecular orbital techniques are used to establish a model for internal rotation about the N 2 -N 3 axis of 1-aryl-3,3-dialkyltriazines. The PM3 method is satisfactory for obtaining agreement between the experimental and calculated results, but the AM1 method has an artifact in the potential energy curve of internal rotation about the N 2 -N 3 axis. 24 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs

  19. Controlled Directional Solidification of Aluminum - 7 wt Percent Silicon Alloys: Comparison Between Samples Processed on Earth and in the Microgravity Environment Aboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grugel, Richard N.; Tewari, Surendra N.; Erdman, Robert G.; Poirier, David R.

    2012-01-01

    An overview of the international "MIcrostructure Formation in CASTing of Technical Alloys" (MICAST) program is given. Directional solidification processing of metals and alloys is described, and why experiments conducted in the microgravity environment aboard the International Space Station (ISS) are expected to promote our understanding of this commercially relevant practice. Microstructural differences observed when comparing the aluminum - 7 wt% silicon alloys directionally solidified on Earth to those aboard the ISS are presented and discussed.

  20. Critical evaluation of the Laboratory of Radionuclide Metrology results of the Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry - IRD in the international key comparisons of activity measurement of radioactive solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwahara, A.; Tauhata, L.; Silva, C.J. da

    2014-01-01

    The Radionuclide Metrology Laboratory (LMR) of LNMRI/IRD has been participating since 1984, in international key-comparisons of activity measurement of radioactive sources organized by BIPM and the Regional Metrology Organizations as EURAMET and APMP. The measured quantity is the activity of a radioactive solution, in becquerel (Bq), containing the radionuclide involved and the of measurement methods used are 4αβ-γ coincidence/anticoincidence, coincidence sum-peak and liquid scintillation. In this paper a summary of the methods used and a performance analysis of the results obtained are presented. (author)

  1. Comparison of attitudes and beliefs regarding the causes of low back pain between UK students and International students studying at Sheffield Hallam University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef Shanib

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aim Low Back Pain (LBP is a widespread problem. Very few past studies which focus on the attitudes and beliefs regarding the causes of LBP of UK and international students exist. This study compares attitudes and beliefs regarding the causes of low back pain between UK students and International students studying at Sheffield Hallam University. Methods The study involved 12 participants (6 UK and 6 international students studying at Sheffield Hallam University. Data was collected by conducting face to face semi structured, recorded interviews. Interviews were later transcribed verbatim. In order to analyse the data obtained, thematic analysis was carried out, using themes found in data transcriptions. Results Four main themes were identified from the data obtained from interviews. These were; personal health and medical related, work related, everyday day life and culture related and government policy and law related. Main themes identified consisted of other smaller themes. Conclusion Attitudes and beliefs belonging to UK and international students at Sheffield Hallam University are related to four main themes; personal health and medical, work, everyday day life and culture and government policy and law. The study identified differences in attitudes and beliefs between UK and International students. As students are the next generation of employees, the study could aid in increasing knowledge of causes of LBP of students in the UK and Internationally, therefore preventing low back pain incidences in the future.

  2. Comparison of fit accuracy and torque maintenance of zirconia and titanium abutments for internal tri-channel and external-hex implant connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siadat, Hakimeh; Beyabanaki, Elaheh; Mousavi, Niloufar; Alikhasi, Marzieh

    2017-08-01

    This in vitro study aimed to evaluate the effect of implant connection design (external vs. internal) on the fit discrepancy and torque loss of zirconia and titanium abutments. Two regular platform dental implants, one with external connection (Brånemark, Nobel Biocare AB) and the other with internal connection (Noble Replace, Nobel Biocare AB), were selected. Seven titanium and seven customized zirconia abutments were used for each connection design. Measurements of geometry, marginal discrepancy, and rotational freedom were done using video measuring machine. To measure the torque loss, each abutment was torqued to 35 Ncm and then opened by means of a digital torque wrench. Data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA and t-test at α=0.05 of significance. There were significant differences in the geometrical measurements and rotational freedom between abutments of two connection groups ( P internal and external connection implants in terms of rotational freedom ( P internal abutments but also customized external abutments did not have the exact geometry of prefabricated abutments ( P internal connection showed less rotational freedom. However, better marginal fit was observed in externally connected abutments. Also, customized abutments with either connection could not duplicate the exact geometry of their corresponding prefabricated abutment. However, neither abutment connection nor material affected torque loss values.

  3. Benefit Comparison of Captioned Online Courses for American, International, and Deaf/Hard of Hearing Students: From the Viewpoint of Individual Value and Total Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manako Yabe

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated benefits toward Captioned Online Courses (COC among American, International, and Deaf/Hard of Hearing students from two California universities.  As a result, COC were not just viewed as accommodations for DHH students, but also as providing benefits for American and International students.  Study results indicated that international students showed higher individual value for COC than the other groups, while American students had the smallest individual value but presented the larger total value toward COC than the other groups due to their comprising the largest population at both universities.  The aggregate total value for all groups was approximately $2,000,000.00, which would represent the cost of conducting 370 classes at the lowest price of $2.00 per minute.  These results indicate the possibility of expanding future COC as Universal Design model for postsecondary educational institutions.

  4. Comparison of Marginal and Internal Adaptation of Heat-Pressed and CAD/CAM Porcelain Laminate Veneers and a 2-Year Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuce, Mert; Ulusoy, Mubin; Turk, Ayse Gozde

    2017-12-22

    To compare marginal and internal adaptations of porcelain laminate veneers fabricated with heat-pressed and CAD/CAM techniques, and to evaluate the clinical performances 2 years after cementation. Thirty heat-pressed and 31 CAD/CAM porcelain laminate veneers were fabricated for 12 patients. Silicone replicas of each veneer were obtained. Replicas were sectioned into 4 parts to measure adaptations of the veneers. A stereomicroscope was used to measure from 3 locations of replicas for marginal, and 9 locations for internal adaptations at 40x magnification. Clinical evaluations were done at baseline and 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after cementation according to the modified United States Public Health Service (USPHS) criteria. Independent samples t-test compared the adaptation values between heat-pressed and CAD/CAM groups. Paired t-test was used to evaluate marginal and internal adaptations of each group. Differences between the modified USPHS criteria ratings of heat-pressed and CAD/CAM groups were determined by the Mann-Whitney U test. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to analyze the survival ratings of the veneers (p CAD/CAM veneers were 295 and 314.98 μm, respectively, and there was no statistically significant difference (p = 0.541). Internal adaptation values of groups were not statistically different either (201.82 μm for heat pressed; 195.47 μm for CAD/CAM p = 0.734). When marginal and internal adaptation values were compared within groups, there were significant differences both for heat-pressed (p CAD/CAM (p CAD/CAM or heat-pressed, had no effect on the marginal and internal adaptation of porcelain laminate veneers. The results showed that both fabrication techniques performed well after 2 years of clinical performance. © 2017 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  5. Accuracy of the ECG for differential diagnosis between hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and athlete's heart: comparison between the European Society of Cardiology (2010) and International (2017) criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzi, Alessandro; Calore, Chiara; Vio, Riccardo; Pelliccia, Antonio; Corrado, Domenico

    2018-05-01

    Interpretation of the athlete's ECG is based on differentiation between benign ECG changes and potentially pathological abnormalities. The aim of the study was to compare the 2010 European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and the 2017 International criteria for differential diagnosis between hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and athlete's heart. The study populations included 200 patients with HCM and 563 athletes grouped as follows: 'group 1', including normal ECG and isolated increase of QRS voltages, which are considered non-pathologic according to ESC and International criteria; 'group 2', including left atrial enlargement or left axis deviation in isolation and Q-waves with an amplitude ≥4 mm but <25% of the ensuing R-wave and a duration <0.04 s which are considered pathologic according to the ESC but not according to the International criteria; and 'group 3', including abnormalities which are considered pathologic according to ESC and International criteria. Overall, the 2010 ESC criteria showed a sensitivity of 95.5% and a specificity of 86.9%. Considering group 2 ECG changes as normal according to the International criteria led to a statistically significant (p<0.001) increase of specificity to 95.9%, associated with a non-significant (p=0.47) reduction of sensitivity to 93%. Among patients with HCM, there was a significant increase of maximal left ventricular wall thickness from group 1 to 3 (p=0.02). The use of 2017 International criteria is associated with a substantial increase in specificity and a marginal decrease in sensitivity for differential diagnosis between HCM and athlete's heart. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Comparison of Test Procedures and Energy Efficiency Criteria in Selected International Standards & Labeling Programs for Copy Machines, External Power Supplies, LED Displays, Residential Gas Cooktops and Televisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Nina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Zhou, Nan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-03-01

    This report presents a technical review of international minimum energy performance standards (MEPS), voluntary and mandatory energy efficiency labels and test procedures for five products being considered for new or revised MEPS in China: copy machines, external power supply, LED displays, residential gas cooktops and flat-screen televisions. For each product, an overview of the scope of existing international standards and labeling programs, energy values and energy performance metrics and description and detailed summary table of criteria and procedures in major test standards are presented.

  7. Comparison report of the OECD/CSNI international standard problem 21 (Piper-one experiment PO-SB-7). Volume 1 comparison report. Volume 2 evaluation of code accuracy in the prediction of ISP 21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-11-01

    The present report deals with the comparison of 6 blind predictions, submitted by 5 participants, and the experimental results measured during the test PO-SB-7 performed in PIPER-ONE facility. The PIPER-ONE apparatus is an experimental simulator of a General Electric BWR. The test PO-SB-7 simulates a SB-LOCA originated by a break in one recirculation line of the reference BWR-6 plant, without intervention of high pressure ECCS. The overall activity constitutes the CSNI ISP-21. The main parts of the report are: a) outline of the test facility and of the PO-SB-7 experiment; b) overview of input models used by participants; c) evaluation of participant predictions on the basis of one-by-one comparison with selected experimental trends; d) evaluation of present code capabilities and accuracy, on the basis of the overall comparison between measured data and participants double blind predictions. Finally, a judgement is given in relation to the overall value of the activity

  8. International key comparison of measurements of neutron source emission rate (1999-2005): CCRI(III)-K9.AmBe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, N.J.; Jones, L.N. [National Physical Laboratory (NPL), Teddington, (United Kingdom); Wang, Z.; Liu, Y.; Wang, Q.; Chen, X.; Luo, H.; Rong, C. [China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE), Beijing (China); Kralik, M. [Czech Metrology Institute (CMI), Praha, (Czech Republic); Park, H.; Choi, K.O. [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS), Daejeon, (Korea, Republic of); Pereira, W.W.; Da Fonseca, E.S. [National Laboratory of Metrology of Ionizing Radiation (LNMRI), Rio de Janeiro, (Brazil); Cassette, P. [Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel (LNE-LNHB), Paris, (France); Dewey, M.S. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, MD, (United States); Moiseev, N.N.; Kharitonov, I.A. [D I Mendeleyev Institute for Metrology (VNIIM), St Petersburg, (Russian Federation)

    2011-07-01

    Section III (neutron measurements) of the Comite Consultatif des Rayonnements Ionisants, CCRI, conducted a key comparison of primary measurements of the neutron emission rate of an {sup 241}Am-Be({alpha},n) radionuclide source. A single {sup 241}Am-Be({alpha},n) source was circulated to all the participants between 1999 and 2005. Eight laboratories participated - the CIAE (China), CMI (Czech Republic), KRISS (Republic of Korea), LNMRI (Brazil), LNE-LNHB (France), NIST (USA), NPL (UK) and the VNIIM (Russian Federation) - with the NPL making their measurements at the start and repeating them near the end of the exercise to verify the stability of the source. Each laboratory reported the emission rate into 4{pi} sr together with a detailed uncertainty budget. All participants used the manganese bath technique, with the VNIIM also making measurements using an associated particle technique. The CMI, KRISS, VNIIM, and later the NPL, also measured the anisotropy of the source although this was not a formal part of the comparison. The first draft report was released in May 2006 and having been discussed and modified by the participants and subsequently reviewed by the CCRI(III), the present paper is now the final report of the comparison. (authors)

  9. Linguistic Ecosystems for Foreign-Language Learning in Canada and Japan: An International Comparison of Where Language-Learning Beliefs Come from

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouritzin, Sandra; Nakagawa, Satoru

    2011-01-01

    We report on international research that compares linguistic ecosystems, that is, socially constructed public attitudes and ideologies concerned with foreign-language (FL) learning, in Canada and Japan. Analyzing responses to three interview questions from 125 interviews with five categories of respondent in each country, we suggest that there are…

  10. Country of Origin and Country of Service Delivery Effects in Transnational Higher Education: A Comparison of International Branch Campuses from Developed and Developing Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, Chiu Mei; Butt, Muhammad Mohsin; Wilkins, Stephen; Ong, Fon Sim

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, international branch campuses have been established by universities from developing countries as well as developed countries. Little research has been conducted into students' perceptions of branch campuses from different countries, or how universities from different countries compete in the increasingly competitive market. A…

  11. Comparison of fit accuracy and torque maintenance of zirconia and titanium abutments for internal tri-channel and external-hex implant connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siadat, Hakimeh; Beyabanaki, Elaheh; Mousavi, Niloufar

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE This in vitro study aimed to evaluate the effect of implant connection design (external vs. internal) on the fit discrepancy and torque loss of zirconia and titanium abutments. MATERIALS AND METHODS Two regular platform denta