WorldWideScience

Sample records for storage system modeling

  1. An Empirical Model for Energy Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosewater, David Martin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Scott, Paul [TransPower, Poway, CA (United States)

    2016-03-17

    Improved models of energy storage systems are needed to enable the electric grid’s adaptation to increasing penetration of renewables. This paper develops a generic empirical model of energy storage system performance agnostic of type, chemistry, design or scale. Parameters for this model are calculated using test procedures adapted from the US DOE Protocol for Uniformly Measuring and Expressing the Performance of Energy Storage. We then assess the accuracy of this model for predicting the performance of the TransPower GridSaver – a 1 MW rated lithium-ion battery system that underwent laboratory experimentation and analysis. The developed model predicts a range of energy storage system performance based on the uncertainty of estimated model parameters. Finally, this model can be used to better understand the integration and coordination of energy storage on the electric grid.

  2. Modeling leaks from liquid hydrogen storage systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winters, William Stanley, Jr.

    2009-01-01

    This report documents a series of models for describing intended and unintended discharges from liquid hydrogen storage systems. Typically these systems store hydrogen in the saturated state at approximately five to ten atmospheres. Some of models discussed here are equilibrium-based models that make use of the NIST thermodynamic models to specify the states of multiphase hydrogen and air-hydrogen mixtures. Two types of discharges are considered: slow leaks where hydrogen enters the ambient at atmospheric pressure and fast leaks where the hydrogen flow is usually choked and expands into the ambient through an underexpanded jet. In order to avoid the complexities of supersonic flow, a single Mach disk model is proposed for fast leaks that are choked. The velocity and state of hydrogen downstream of the Mach disk leads to a more tractable subsonic boundary condition. However, the hydrogen temperature exiting all leaks (fast or slow, from saturated liquid or saturated vapor) is approximately 20.4 K. At these temperatures, any entrained air would likely condense or even freeze leading to an air-hydrogen mixture that cannot be characterized by the REFPROP subroutines. For this reason a plug flow entrainment model is proposed to treat a short zone of initial entrainment and heating. The model predicts the quantity of entrained air required to bring the air-hydrogen mixture to a temperature of approximately 65 K at one atmosphere. At this temperature the mixture can be treated as a mixture of ideal gases and is much more amenable to modeling with Gaussian entrainment models and CFD codes. A Gaussian entrainment model is formulated to predict the trajectory and properties of a cold hydrogen jet leaking into ambient air. The model shows that similarity between two jets depends on the densimetric Froude number, density ratio and initial hydrogen concentration.

  3. Detailed modeling of superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, L.; Liu, Y.; Arsoy, A.B.; Ribeiro, P.F.; Steurer, M.; Iravani, M.R.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed model for simulation of a Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) system. SMES technology has the potential to bring real power storage characteristic to the utility transmission and distribution systems. The principle of SMES system operation is reviewed in

  4. Numerical modeling of underground storage system for natural gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, J.; Wang, S.

    2017-12-01

    Natural gas is an important type of base-load energy, and its supply needs to be adjusted according to different demands in different seasons. For example, since natural gas is increasingly used to replace coal for winter heating, the demand for natural gas in winter is much higher than that in other seasons. As storage systems are the essential tools for balancing seasonal supply and demand, the design and simulation of natural gas storage systems form an important research direction. In this study, a large-scale underground storage system for natural gas is simulated based on theoretical analysis and finite element modeling.It is proven that the problem of axi-symmetric Darcy porous flow of ideal gas is governed by the Boussinesq equation. In terms of the exact solution to the Boussinesq equation, the basic operating characteristics of the underground storage system is analyzed, and it is demonstrated that the propagation distance of the pore pressure is proportional to the 1/4 power of the mass flow rate and to the 1/2 power of the propagation time. This quantitative relationship can be used to guide the overall design of natural gas underground storage systems.In order to fully capture the two-way coupling between pore pressure and elastic matrix deformation, a poro-elastic finite element model for natural gas storage is developed. Based on the numerical model, the dynamic processes of gas injection, storage and extraction are simulated, and the corresponding time-dependent surface deformations are obtained. The modeling results not only provide a theoretical basis for real-time monitoring for the operating status of the underground storage system through surface deformation measurements, but also demonstrate that a year-round balance can be achieved through periodic gas injection and extraction.This work is supported by the CAS "100 talents" Program and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41371090).

  5. Model calibration and beam control systems for storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbett, W.J.; Lee, M.J.; Ziemann, V.

    1993-04-01

    Electron beam storage rings and linear accelerators are rapidly gaining worldwide popularity as scientific devices for the production of high-brightness synchrotron radiation. Today, everybody agrees that there is a premium on calibrating the storage ring model and determining errors in the machine as soon as possible after the beam is injected. In addition, the accurate optics model enables machine operators to predictably adjust key performance parameters, and allows reliable identification of new errors that occur during operation of the machine. Since the need for model calibration and beam control systems is common to all storage rings, software packages should be made that are portable between different machines. In this paper, we report on work directed toward achieving in-situ calibration of the optics model, detection of alignment errors, and orbit control techniques, with an emphasis on developing a portable system incorporating these tools

  6. Multi-views storage model and access methods of conversation history in converged IP messaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Meilian; Yang, Dong; Zhou, Xing

    2013-03-01

    Based on the analysis of the requirements of conversation history storage in CPM (Converged IP Messaging) system, a Multi-views storage model and access methods of conversation history are proposed. The storage model separates logical views from physical storage and divides the storage into system managed region and user managed region. It simultaneously supports conversation view, system pre-defined view and user-defined view of storage. The rationality and feasibility of multi-view presentation, the physical storage model and access methods are validated through the implemented prototype. It proves that, this proposal has good scalability, which will help to optimize the physical data storage structure and improve storage performance.

  7. Mathematical modelling of thermal storage systems for the food industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, A.; Lacarra, G. [Universidad Publica de Navarra Campus Arrosadia, Pamplona (Spain). Area de Tecnologia de Alimentos

    1999-07-01

    Dynamic mathematical models of two thermal storage systems used in the food industry to produce chilled water are presented; an ice-bank system and a holding tank system. The variability of the refrigeration demand with time was taken into account in the model. A zoned approach using mass and energy balances was applied. Heat transfer phenomena in the evaporator were modelled using empirical correlations. The experimental validation of the mathematical models on an ice-bank system at pilot plant scale, and a centralized refrigeration system with a holding tank in a winery, showed accurate prediction. Simple models are adequate to predict the dynamic behaviour of these refrigeration systems under variable heat loads. (Author)

  8. Modeling of battery energy storage in the National Energy Modeling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaminathan, S.; Flynn, W.T.; Sen, R.K. [Sentech, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) developed by the U.S. Department of Energy`s Energy Information Administration is a well-recognized model that is used to project the potential impact of new electric generation technologies. The NEMS model does not presently have the capability to model energy storage on the national grid. The scope of this study was to assess the feasibility of, and make recommendations for, the modeling of battery energy storage systems in the Electricity Market of the NEMS. Incorporating storage within the NEMS will allow the national benefits of storage technologies to be evaluated.

  9. System level permeability modeling of porous hydrogen storage materials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanouff, Michael P.; Dedrick, Daniel E.; Voskuilen, Tyler (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN)

    2010-01-01

    A permeability model for hydrogen transport in a porous material is successfully applied to both laboratory-scale and vehicle-scale sodium alanate hydrogen storage systems. The use of a Knudsen number dependent relationship for permeability of the material in conjunction with a constant area fraction channeling model is shown to accurately predict hydrogen flow through the reactors. Generally applicable model parameters were obtained by numerically fitting experimental measurements from reactors of different sizes and aspect ratios. The degree of channeling was experimentally determined from the measurements and found to be 2.08% of total cross-sectional area. Use of this constant area channeling model and the Knudsen dependent Young & Todd permeability model allows for accurate prediction of the hydrogen uptake performance of full-scale sodium alanate and similar metal hydride systems.

  10. Optimization of Experimental Model Parameter Identification for Energy Storage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Morello

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The smart grid approach is envisioned to take advantage of all available modern technologies in transforming the current power system to provide benefits to all stakeholders in the fields of efficient energy utilisation and of wide integration of renewable sources. Energy storage systems could help to solve some issues that stem from renewable energy usage in terms of stabilizing the intermittent energy production, power quality and power peak mitigation. With the integration of energy storage systems into the smart grids, their accurate modeling becomes a necessity, in order to gain robust real-time control on the network, in terms of stability and energy supply forecasting. In this framework, this paper proposes a procedure to identify the values of the battery model parameters in order to best fit experimental data and integrate it, along with models of energy sources and electrical loads, in a complete framework which represents a real time smart grid management system. The proposed method is based on a hybrid optimisation technique, which makes combined use of a stochastic and a deterministic algorithm, with low computational burden and can therefore be repeated over time in order to account for parameter variations due to the battery’s age and usage.

  11. Numerical modeling of aquifer thermal energy storage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jongchan [Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Geothermal Resources Department, 92 Gwahang-no, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Kongju National University, Department of Geoenvironmental Sciences, 182 Singwan-dong, Gongju-si, Chungnam 314-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Youngmin [Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Geothermal Resources Department, 92 Gwahang-no, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Woon Sang; Jeon, Jae Soo [nexGeo Inc., 134-1 Garak 2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul 138-807 (Korea, Republic of); Koo, Min-Ho; Keehm, Youngseuk [Kongju National University, Department of Geoenvironmental Sciences, 182 Singwan-dong, Gongju-si, Chungnam 314-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    The performance of the ATES (aquifer thermal energy storage) system primarily depends on the thermal interference between warm and cold thermal energy stored in an aquifer. Additionally the thermal interference is mainly affected by the borehole distance, the hydraulic conductivity, and the pumping/injection rate. Thermo-hydraulic modeling was performed to identify the thermal interference by three parameters and to estimate the system performance change by the thermal interference. Modeling results indicate that the thermal interference grows as the borehole distance decreases, as the hydraulic conductivity increases, and as the pumping/injection rate increases. The system performance analysis indicates that if {eta} (the ratio of the length of the thermal front to the distance between two boreholes) is lower than unity, the system performance is not significantly affected, but if {eta} is equal to unity, the system performance falls up to {proportional_to}22%. Long term modeling for a factory in Anseong was conducted to test the applicability of the ATES system. When the pumping/injection rate is 100 m{sup 3}/day, system performances during the summer and winter after 3 years of operation are estimated to be {proportional_to}125 kW and {proportional_to}110 kW, respectively. Therefore, 100 m{sup 3}/day of the pumping/injection rate satisfies the energy requirements ({proportional_to}70 kW) for the factory. (author)

  12. Model Predictive Control for Distributed Microgrid Battery Energy Storage Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morstyn, Thomas; Hredzak, Branislav; Aguilera, Ricardo P.

    2018-01-01

    , and converter current constraints to be addressed. In addition, nonlinear variations in the charge and discharge efficiencies of lithium ion batteries are analyzed and included in the control strategy. Real-time digital simulations were carried out for an islanded microgrid based on the IEEE 13 bus prototypical......This brief proposes a new convex model predictive control (MPC) strategy for dynamic optimal power flow between battery energy storage (ES) systems distributed in an ac microgrid. The proposed control strategy uses a new problem formulation, based on a linear $d$ – $q$ reference frame voltage...... feeder, with distributed battery ES systems and intermittent photovoltaic generation. It is shown that the proposed control strategy approaches the performance of a strategy based on nonconvex optimization, while reducing the required computation time by a factor of 1000, making it suitable for a real...

  13. Numerical Modeling of a Shallow Borehole Thermal Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catolico, N.; Ge, S.; Lu, N.; McCartney, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    Borehole thermal energy storage (BTES) combined with solar thermal energy harvesting is an economic technological system to garner and store energy as well as an environmentally-sustainable alternative for the heating of buildings. The first community-scale BTES system in North America was installed in 2007 in the Drake Landing Solar Community (DLSC), about 35 miles south of Calgary, Canada. The BTES system involves direct circulation of water heated from solar thermal panels in the summer into a storage tank, after which it is circulate within an array of 144 closed-loop geothermal heat exchangers having a depth of 35 m and a spacing of 2.5 m. In the winter the circulation direction is reversed to supply heat to houses. Data collection over a six year period indicates that this system can supply more than 90% of the winter heating energy needs for 52 houses in the community. One major challenge facing the BTES system technology is the relatively low annual efficiency, i.e., the ratio of energy input and output is in the range of 15% to 40% for the system in Drake Landing. To better understand the working principles of BTES and to improve BTES performance for future applications at larger scales, a three-dimensional transient coupled fluid and heat transfer model is established using TOUGH2. The time-dependent injection temperatures and circulation rate measured over the six years of monitoring are used as model input. The simulations are calibrated using soil temperature data measured at different locations over time. The time-dependent temperature distributions within the borehole region agree well with the measured temperatures for soil with an intrinsic permeability of 10e-19 m2, an apparent thermal conductivity of 2.03 W/m°C, and a volumetric heat capacity of 2.31 MJ/m-3°C. The calibrated model serves as the basis for a sensitivity analysis of soil and operational parameters on BTES system efficiency preformed with TOUGH2. Preliminary results suggest 1) BTES

  14. Modeling, hybridization, and optimal charging of electrical energy storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvini, Yasha

    The rising rate of global energy demand alongside the dwindling fossil fuel resources has motivated research for alternative and sustainable solutions. Within this area of research, electrical energy storage systems are pivotal in applications including electrified vehicles, renewable power generation, and electronic devices. The approach of this dissertation is to elucidate the bottlenecks of integrating supercapacitors and batteries in energy systems and propose solutions by the means of modeling, control, and experimental techniques. In the first step, the supercapacitor cell is modeled in order to gain fundamental understanding of its electrical and thermal dynamics. The dependence of electrical parameters on state of charge (SOC), current direction and magnitude (20-200 A), and temperatures ranging from -40°C to 60°C was embedded in this computationally efficient model. The coupled electro-thermal model was parameterized using specifically designed temporal experiments and then validated by the application of real world duty cycles. Driving range is one of the major challenges of electric vehicles compared to combustion vehicles. In order to shed light on the benefits of hybridizing a lead-acid driven electric vehicle via supercapacitors, a model was parameterized for the lead-acid battery and combined with the model already developed for the supercapacitor, to build the hybrid battery-supercapacitor model. A hardware in the loop (HIL) setup consisting of a custom built DC/DC converter, micro-controller (muC) to implement the power management strategy, 12V lead-acid battery, and a 16.2V supercapacitor module was built to perform the validation experiments. Charging electrical energy storage systems in an efficient and quick manner, motivated to solve an optimal control problem with the objective of maximizing the charging efficiency for supercapacitors, lead-acid, and lithium ion batteries. Pontryagins minimum principle was used to solve the problems

  15. Modeling and analysing storage systems in agricultural biomass supply chain for cellulosic ethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebadian, Mahmood; Sowlati, Taraneh; Sokhansanj, Shahab; Townley-Smith, Lawrence; Stumborg, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Studied the agricultural biomass supply chain for cellulosic ethanol production. ► Evaluated the impact of storage systems on different supply chain actors. ► Developed a combined simulation/optimization model to evaluate storage systems. ► Compared two satellite storage systems with roadside storage in terms of costs and emitted CO 2 . ► SS would lead to a more cost-efficient supply chain compared to roadside storage. -- Abstract: In this paper, a combined simulation/optimization model is developed to better understand and evaluate the impact of the storage systems on the costs incurred by each actor in the agricultural biomass supply chain including farmers, hauling contractors and the cellulosic ethanol plant. The optimization model prescribes the optimum number and location of farms and storages. It also determines the supply radius, the number of farms required to secure the annual supply of biomass and also the assignment of farms to storage locations. Given the specific design of the supply chain determined by the optimization model, the simulation model determines the number of required machines for each operation, their daily working schedule and utilization rates, along with the capacities of storages. To evaluate the impact of the storage systems on the delivered costs, three storage systems are molded and compared: roadside storage (RS) system and two satellite storage (SS) systems including SS with fixed hauling distance (SF) and SS with variable hauling distance (SV). In all storage systems, it is assumed the loading equipment is dedicated to storage locations. The obtained results from a real case study provide detailed cost figures for each storage system since the developed model analyses the supply chain on an hourly basis and considers time-dependence and stochasticity of the supply chain. Comparison of the storage systems shows SV would outperform SF and RS by reducing the total delivered cost by 8% and 6%, respectively

  16. System modelling and energy management for grid connected PV systems associated with storage

    OpenAIRE

    Riffonneau , Yann; DELAILLE , Arnaud; Barruel , Franck; Bacha , Seddik

    2008-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents the modelling and energy management of a grid connected PV system associatedwith storage. Within the economic, energetic and environmental context, objective of the system is to ensure loadssupply at the least cost by optimising the use of solar power. Therefore, due to the complicated operating patterns, anenergy management system which decides on energy flow for any moment is necessary. First, we present the systemstudied. Based on an AC bus typol...

  17. "Method, system and storage medium for generating virtual brick models"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    An exemplary embodiment is a method for generating a virtual brick model. The virtual brick models are generated by users and uploaded to a centralized host system. Users can build virtual models themselves or download and edit another user's virtual brick models while retaining the identity...

  18. Energy system investment model incorporating heat pumps with thermal storage in buildings and buffer tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedegaard, Karsten; Balyk, Olexandr

    2013-01-01

    Individual compression heat pumps constitute a potentially valuable resource in supporting wind power integration due to their economic competitiveness and possibilities for flexible operation. When analysing the system benefits of flexible heat pump operation, effects on investments should be taken into account. In this study, we present a model that facilitates analysing individual heat pumps and complementing heat storages in integration with the energy system, while optimising both investments and operation. The model incorporates thermal building dynamics and covers various heat storage options: passive heat storage in the building structure via radiator heating, active heat storage in concrete floors via floor heating, and use of thermal storage tanks for space heating and hot water. It is shown that the model is well qualified for analysing possibilities and system benefits of operating heat pumps flexibly. This includes prioritising heat pump operation for hours with low marginal electricity production costs, and peak load shaving resulting in a reduced need for peak and reserve capacity investments. - Highlights: • Model optimising heat pumps and heat storages in integration with the energy system. • Optimisation of both energy system investments and operation. • Heat storage in building structure and thermal storage tanks included. • Model well qualified for analysing system benefits of flexible heat pump operation. • Covers peak load shaving and operation prioritised for low electricity prices

  19. Simulation model for wind energy storage systems. Volume I. Technical report. [SIMWEST code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, A.W.; Edsinger, R.W.; Chan, Y.K.

    1977-08-01

    The effort developed a comprehensive computer program for the modeling of wind energy/storage systems utilizing any combination of five types of storage (pumped hydro, battery, thermal, flywheel and pneumatic). An acronym for the program is SIMWEST (Simulation Model for Wind Energy Storage). The level of detail of SIMWEST is consistent with a role of evaluating the economic feasibility as well as the general performance of wind energy systems. The software package consists of two basic programs and a library of system, environmental, and load components. Volume I gives a brief overview of the SIMWEST program and describes the two NASA defined simulation studies.

  20. Virtual model of an automated system for the storage of collected waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enciu George

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the problems identified in waste collection integrated systems is the storage space. The design process of an automated system for the storage of collected waste includes finding solutions for the optimal exploitation of the limited storage space, seen that the equipment for the loading, identification, transport and transfer of the waste covers most of the available space inside the integrated collection system. In the present paper a three-dimensional model of an automated storage system designed by the authors for a business partner is presented. The storage system can be used for the following types of waste: plastic and glass recipients, aluminium cans, paper, cardboard and WEEE (waste electrical and electronic equipment. Special attention has been given to the transfer subsystem, specific for the storage system, which should be able to transfer different types and shapes of waste. The described virtual model of the automated system for the storage of collected waste will be part of the virtual model of the entire integrated waste collection system as requested by the beneficiary.

  1. Modeling and optimization of energy storage system for microgrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xin

    The vanadium redox flow battery (VRB) is well suited for the applications of microgrid and renewable energy. This thesis will have a practical analysis of the battery itself and its application in microgrid systems. The first paper analyzes the VRB use in a microgrid system. The first part of the paper develops a reduced order circuit model of the VRB and analyzes its experimental performance efficiency during deployment. The statistical methods and neural network approximation are used to estimate the system parameters. The second part of the paper addresses the implementation issues of the VRB application in a photovoltaic-based microgrid system. A new dc-dc converter was proposed to provide improved charging performance. The paper was published on IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, Vol. 5, No. 4, July 2014. The second paper studies VRB use within a microgrid system from a practical perspective. A reduced order circuit model of the VRB is introduced that includes the losses from the balance of plant including system and environmental controls. The proposed model includes the circulation pumps and the HVAC system that regulates the environment of the VRB enclosure. In this paper, the VRB model is extended to include the ESS environmental controls to provide a model that provides a more realistic efficiency profile. The paper was submitted to IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy. Third paper discussed the optimal control strategy when VRB works with other type of battery in a microgird system. The work in first paper is extended. A high level control strategy is developed to coordinate a lead acid battery and a VRB with reinforcement learning. The paper is to be submitted to IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid.

  2. Feasibility Study of Energy Storage Systems in Wind/Diesel Applications Using the HOMER Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Stiel

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available With an increased focus on solutions to the ensuing “climate crisis”, the need for energy storage systems is becoming increasingly important as a means to increase the penetration of renewable technologies such as wind energy. The Vanadium Redox Battery is one such energy storage system showing considerable potential owing to its flexibility in power output and capacity, high efficiency and long operating life. This study models the use of the Vanadium Redox Battery as an integration technology in realistic large-scale remote wind/diesel power systems using the HOMER Micropower Optimization Model computer program developed by the US National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Results from this modelling demonstrate the significant financial and environmental benefits to be gained in installing energy storage in a wind farm. The storage system considered here was a Vanadium Redox Battery.

  3. A systems evaluation model for selecting spent nuclear fuel storage concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postula, F.D.; Finch, W.C.; Morissette, R.P.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes a system evaluation approach used to identify and evaluate monitored, retrievable fuel storage concepts that fulfill ten key criteria for meeting the functional requirements and system objectives of the National Nuclear Waste Management Program. The selection criteria include health and safety, schedules, costs, socio-economic factors and environmental factors. The methodology used to establish the selection criteria, develop a weight of importance for each criterion and assess the relative merit of each storage system is discussed. The impact of cost relative to technical criteria is examined along with experience in obtaining relative merit data and its application in the model. Topics considered include spent fuel storage requirements, functional requirements, preliminary screening, and Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) system evaluation. It is concluded that the proposed system evaluation model is universally applicable when many concepts in various stages of design and cost development need to be evaluated

  4. Energy Storage in Power System Operation: The Power Nodes Modeling Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heussen, Kai; Koch, Stephan; Ulbig, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    for designing operation strategies for power systems based on ubiquitous energy storage, for example to buer non-dispatchable generation, as well as for the evaluation of the operational performance in terms of energy eciency, reliability and cost. After introducing the modeling approach and a categorization......In this paper, a novel concept for the description of energy storage in power systems with dispatchable and non-dispatchable generators and loads is presented. It is based on a system-perspective consideration of energy storage, generation and consumption. This means that grid-relevant aspects...

  5. Sharing economy as a new business model for energy storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombardi, P.; Schwabe, F.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Sharing economy as new business model for Energy Storage Operators. • More attractiveness of Battery Storage Systems. • Optimal Dimensioning of Battery Storage Systems for sharing economy application. - Abstract: Energy storage systems (ESS) are the candidate solution to integrate the high amount of electric power generated by volatile renewable energy sources into the electric grid. However, even though the investment costs of some ESS technologies have decreased over the last few years, few business models seem to be attractive for investors. In most of these models, ESS are applied only for one use case, such as primary control reserve. In this study, a business model based on the sharing economy principle has been developed and analyzed. In this model, the energy storage operator offers its storage system to different kinds of customers. Each customer uses the ESS for their single use case. A set of different use cases has been identified to make the operation of the ESS profitable (e.g. peak shaving, self-consumption and day-ahead market participation). Different kinds of stationary batteries (lithium-ion, sodium-sulfur and vanadium redox-flow) have been considered as energy storage technologies, which differ both in their investment costs and their technical properties, such as round-trip efficiency. The simulation of the business model developed showed that a sharing economy-based model may increase the profitability of operating a battery storage system compared to the single use case business model. Additionally, larger battery dimensions regarding power and capacity were found to be profitable and resulted in an increased revenue stream.

  6. Simulation of interim spent fuel storage system with discrete event model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Wan Ki; Song, Ki Chan; Lee, Jae Sol; Park, Hyun Soo

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes dynamic simulation of the spent fuel storage system which is described by statistical discrete event models. It visualizes flow and queue of system over time, assesses the operational performance of the system activities and establishes the system components and streams. It gives information on system organization and operation policy with reference to the design. System was tested and analyzed over a number of critical parameters to establish the optimal system. Workforce schedule and resources with long processing time dominate process. A combination of two workforce shifts a day and two cooling pits gives the optimal solution of storage system. Discrete system simulation is an useful tool to get information on optimal design and operation of the storage system. (Author)

  7. System-level modeling for geological storage of CO2

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yingqi; Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Finsterle, Stefan; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.

    2006-01-01

    One way to reduce the effects of anthropogenic greenhouse gases on climate is to inject carbon dioxide (CO2) from industrial sources into deep geological formations such as brine formations or depleted oil or gas reservoirs. Research has and is being conducted to improve understanding of factors affecting particular aspects of geological CO2 storage, such as performance, capacity, and health, safety and environmental (HSE) issues, as well as to lower the cost of CO2 capture and related p...

  8. An expanded system simulation model for solar energy storage (technical report), volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, A. W.

    1979-01-01

    The simulation model for wind energy storage (SIMWEST) program now includes wind and/or photovoltaic systems utilizing any combination of five types of storage (pumped hydro, battery, thermal, flywheel and pneumatic) and is available for the UNIVAC 1100 series and the CDC 6000 series computers. The level of detail is consistent with a role of evaluating the economic feasibility as well as the general performance of wind and/or photovoltaic energy systems. The software package consists of two basic programs and a library of system, environmental, and load components. The first program is a precompiler which generates computer models (in FORTRAN) of complex wind and/or photovoltaic source/storage/application systems, from user specifications using the respective library components. The second program provides the techno-economic system analysis with the respective I/0, the integration of system dynamics, and the iteration for conveyance of variables.

  9. Modeling of Single and Dual Reservoir Porous Media Compressed Gas (Air and CO2) Storage Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenburg, C. M.; Liu, H.; Borgia, A.; Pan, L.

    2017-12-01

    Intermittent renewable energy sources are causing increasing demand for energy storage. The deep subsurface offers promising opportunities for energy storage because it can safely contain high-pressure gases. Porous media compressed air energy storage (PM-CAES) is one approach, although the only facilities in operation are in caverns (C-CAES) rather than porous media. Just like in C-CAES, PM-CAES operates generally by injecting working gas (air) through well(s) into the reservoir compressing the cushion gas (existing air in the reservoir). During energy recovery, high-pressure air from the reservoir is mixed with fuel in a combustion turbine to produce electricity, thereby reducing compression costs. Unlike in C-CAES, the storage of energy in PM-CAES occurs variably across pressure gradients in the formation, while the solid grains of the matrix can release/store heat. Because air is the working gas, PM-CAES has fairly low thermal efficiency and low energy storage density. To improve the energy storage density, we have conceived and modeled a closed-loop two-reservoir compressed CO2 energy storage system. One reservoir is the low-pressure reservoir, and the other is the high-pressure reservoir. CO2 is cycled back and forth between reservoirs depending on whether energy needs to be stored or recovered. We have carried out thermodynamic and parametric analyses of the performance of an idealized two-reservoir CO2 energy storage system under supercritical and transcritical conditions for CO2 using a steady-state model. Results show that the transcritical compressed CO2 energy storage system has higher round-trip efficiency and exergy efficiency, and larger energy storage density than the supercritical compressed CO2 energy storage. However, the configuration of supercritical compressed CO2 energy storage is simpler, and the energy storage densities of the two systems are both higher than that of PM-CAES, which is advantageous in terms of storage volume for a given

  10. Seasonal Thermal-Energy Storage: A Critical Review on BTES Systems, Modeling, and System Design for Higher System Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Lanahan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Buildings consume approximately ¾ of the total electricity generated in the United States, contributing significantly to fossil fuel emissions. Sustainable and renewable energy production can reduce fossil fuel use, but necessitates storage for energy reliability in order to compensate for the intermittency of renewable energy generation. Energy storage is critical for success in developing a sustainable energy grid because it facilitates higher renewable energy penetration by mitigating the gap between energy generation and demand. This review analyzes recent case studies—numerical and field experiments—seen by borehole thermal energy storage (BTES in space heating and domestic hot water capacities, coupled with solar thermal energy. System design, model development, and working principle(s are the primary focus of this analysis. A synopsis of the current efforts to effectively model BTES is presented as well. The literature review reveals that: (1 energy storage is most effective when diurnal and seasonal storage are used in conjunction; (2 no established link exists between BTES computational fluid dynamics (CFD models integrated with whole building energy analysis tools, rather than parameter-fit component models; (3 BTES has less geographical limitations than Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES and lower installation cost scale than hot water tanks and (4 BTES is more often used for heating than for cooling applications.

  11. Experimental Testing Procedures and Dynamic Model Validation for Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Storage System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baccino, Francesco; Marinelli, Mattia; Nørgård, Per Bromand

    2013-01-01

    The paper aims at characterizing the electrochemical and thermal parameters of a 15 kW/320 kWh vanadium redox flow battery (VRB) installed in the SYSLAB test facility of the DTU Risø Campus and experimentally validating the proposed dynamic model realized in Matlab-Simulink. The adopted testing...... efficiency of the battery system. The test procedure has general validity and could also be used for other storage technologies. The storage model proposed and described is suitable for electrical studies and can represent a general model in terms of validity. Finally, the model simulation outputs...

  12. System-level modeling for economic evaluation of geological CO2 storage in gas reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yingqi; Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Finsterle, Stefan; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.

    2007-01-01

    One way to reduce the effects of anthropogenic greenhouse gases on climate is to inject carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from industrial sources into deep geological formations such as brine aquifers or depleted oil or gas reservoirs. Research is being conducted to improve understanding of factors affecting particular aspects of geological CO 2 storage (such as storage performance, storage capacity, and health, safety and environmental (HSE) issues) as well as to lower the cost of CO 2 capture and related processes. However, there has been less emphasis to date on system-level analyses of geological CO 2 storage that consider geological, economic, and environmental issues by linking detailed process models to representations of engineering components and associated economic models. The objective of this study is to develop a system-level model for geological CO 2 storage, including CO 2 capture and separation, compression, pipeline transportation to the storage site, and CO 2 injection. Within our system model we are incorporating detailed reservoir simulations of CO 2 injection into a gas reservoir and related enhanced production of methane. Potential leakage and associated environmental impacts are also considered. The platform for the system-level model is GoldSim [GoldSim User's Guide. GoldSim Technology Group; 2006, http://www.goldsim.com]. The application of the system model focuses on evaluating the feasibility of carbon sequestration with enhanced gas recovery (CSEGR) in the Rio Vista region of California. The reservoir simulations are performed using a special module of the TOUGH2 simulator, EOS7C, for multicomponent gas mixtures of methane and CO 2 . Using a system-level modeling approach, the economic benefits of enhanced gas recovery can be directly weighed against the costs and benefits of CO 2 injection

  13. Retrieval-travel-time model for free-fall-flow-rack automated storage and retrieval system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metahri, Dhiyaeddine; Hachemi, Khalid

    2018-03-01

    Automated storage and retrieval systems (AS/RSs) are material handling systems that are frequently used in manufacturing and distribution centers. The modelling of the retrieval-travel time of an AS/RS (expected product delivery time) is practically important, because it allows us to evaluate and improve the system throughput. The free-fall-flow-rack AS/RS has emerged as a new technology for drug distribution. This system is a new variation of flow-rack AS/RS that uses an operator or a single machine for storage operations, and uses a combination between the free-fall movement and a transport conveyor for retrieval operations. The main contribution of this paper is to develop an analytical model of the expected retrieval-travel time for the free-fall flow-rack under a dedicated storage assignment policy. The proposed model, which is based on a continuous approach, is compared for accuracy, via simulation, with discrete model. The obtained results show that the maximum deviation between the continuous model and the simulation is less than 5%, which shows the accuracy of our model to estimate the retrieval time. The analytical model is useful to optimise the dimensions of the rack, assess the system throughput, and evaluate different storage policies.

  14. Simulation model for wind energy storage systems. Volume III. Program descriptions. [SIMWEST CODE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, A.W.; Edsinger, R.W.; Burroughs, J.D.

    1977-08-01

    The effort developed a comprehensive computer program for the modeling of wind energy/storage systems utilizing any combination of five types of storage (pumped hydro, battery, thermal, flywheel and pneumatic). An acronym for the program is SIMWEST (Simulation Model for Wind Energy Storage). The level of detail of SIMWEST is consistent with a role of evaluating the economic feasibility as well as the general performance of wind energy systems. The software package consists of two basic programs and a library of system, environmental, and load components. Volume III, the SIMWEST program description contains program descriptions, flow charts and program listings for the SIMWEST Model Generation Program, the Simulation program, the File Maintenance program and the Printer Plotter program. Volume III generally would not be required by SIMWEST user.

  15. A Bilevel Model for Participation of a Storage System in Energy and Reserve Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nasrolahpour, Ehsan; Kazempour, Jalal; Zareipour, Hamidreza

    2017-01-01

    We develop a decision-making tool based on a bilevel complementarity model for a merchant price-maker energy storage system to determine the most beneficial trading actions in pool-based markets, including day-ahead (as joint energy and reserve markets) and balancing settlements. The uncertainty...... of net load deviation in real-time is incorporated into the model using a set of scenarios generated from the available forecast in the day-ahead. The objective of this energy storage system is to maximize its expected profit. The day-ahead products of energy storage system include energy as well...... system into clearing process of multiple markets and enables such a facility to possibly affect the outcomes of those markets to its own benefit through strategic price and quantity offers. The validity of the proposed approach is evaluated using a numerical study....

  16. A control-oriented model for combined building climate comfort and aquifer thermal energy storage system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rostampour Samarin, Vahab; Bloemendal, J.M.; Jaxa-Rozen, M.; Keviczky, T.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a control-oriented model for combined building climate comfort and aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system. In particular, we first provide a description of building operational systems together with control framework variables. We then focus on the derivation of an

  17. A nuclear fuel cycle system dynamic model for spent fuel storage options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinton, Samuel; Kazimi, Mujid

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Used nuclear fuel management requires a dynamic system analysis study due to its socio-technical complexity. • Economic comparison of local, regional, and national storage options is limited due to the public financial information. • Local and regional options of used nuclear fuel management are found to be the most economic means of storage. - Abstract: The options for used nuclear fuel storage location and affected parameters such as economic liabilities are currently a focus of several high level studies. A variety of nuclear fuel cycle system analysis models are available for such a task. The application of nuclear fuel cycle system dynamics models for waste management options is important to life-cycle impact assessment. The recommendations of the Blue Ribbon Committee on America’s Nuclear Future led to increased focus on long periods of spent fuel storage [1]. This motivated further investigation of the location dependency of used nuclear fuel in the parameters of economics, environmental impact, and proliferation risk. Through a review of available literature and interactions with each of the programs available, comparisons of post-reactor fuel storage and handling options will be evaluated based on the aforementioned parameters and a consensus of preferred system metrics and boundary conditions will be provided. Specifically, three options of local, regional, and national storage were studied. The preliminary product of this research is the creation of a system dynamics tool known as the Waste Management Module (WMM) which provides an easy to use interface for education on fuel cycle waste management economic impacts. Initial results of baseline cases point to positive benefits of regional storage locations with local regional storage options continuing to offer the lowest cost

  18. Modelling the long-term deployment of electricity storage in the global energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despres, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    The current development of wind and solar power sources calls for an improvement of long-term energy models. Indeed, high shares of variable wind and solar productions have short- and long-term impacts on the power system, requiring the development of flexibility options: fast-reacting power plants, demand response, grid enhancement or electricity storage. Our first main contribution is the modelling of electricity storage and grid expansion in the POLES model (Prospective Outlook on Long-term Energy Systems). We set up new investment mechanisms, where storage development is based on several combined economic values. After categorising the long-term energy models and the power sector modelling tools in a common typology, we showed the need for a better integration of both approaches. Therefore, the second major contribution of our work is the yearly coupling of POLES to a short-term optimisation of the power sector operation, with the European Unit Commitment and Dispatch model (EUCAD). The two-way data exchange allows the long-term coherent scenarios of POLES to be directly backed by the short-term technical detail of EUCAD. Our results forecast a strong and rather quick development of the cheapest flexibility options: grid interconnections, pumped hydro storage and demand response programs, including electric vehicle charging optimisation and vehicle-to-grid storage. The more expensive battery storage presumably finds enough system value in the second half of the century. A sensitivity analysis shows that improving the fixed costs of batteries impacts more the investments than improving their efficiency. We also show the explicit dependency between storage and variable renewable energy sources. (author) [fr

  19. A modeling of dynamic storage assignment for order picking in beverage warehousing with Drive-in Rack system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, M. Z.; Djatna, T.; Sugiarto

    2018-04-01

    This paper develops a dynamic storage assignment model to solve storage assignment problem (SAP) for beverages order picking in a drive-in rack warehousing system to determine the appropriate storage location and space for each beverage products dynamically so that the performance of the system can be improved. This study constructs a graph model to represent drive-in rack storage position then combine association rules mining, class-based storage policies and an arrangement rule algorithm to determine an appropriate storage location and arrangement of the product according to dynamic orders from customers. The performance of the proposed model is measured as rule adjacency accuracy, travel distance (for picking process) and probability a product become expiry using Last Come First Serve (LCFS) queue approach. Finally, the proposed model is implemented through computer simulation and compare the performance for different storage assignment methods as well. The result indicates that the proposed model outperforms other storage assignment methods.

  20. Simulation model for wind energy storage systems. Volume II. Operation manual. [SIMWEST code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, A.W.; Edsinger, R.W.; Burroughs, J.D.

    1977-08-01

    The effort developed a comprehensive computer program for the modeling of wind energy/storage systems utilizing any combination of five types of storage (pumped hydro, battery, thermal, flywheel and pneumatic). An acronym for the program is SIMWEST (Simulation Model for Wind Energy Storage). The level of detail of SIMWEST is consistent with a role of evaluating the economic feasibility as well as the general performance of wind energy systems. The software package consists of two basic programs and a library of system, environmental, and load components. Volume II, the SIMWEST operation manual, describes the usage of the SIMWEST program, the design of the library components, and a number of simple example simulations intended to familiarize the user with the program's operation. Volume II also contains a listing of each SIMWEST library subroutine.

  1. Seven Operation Modes and Simulation Models of Solar Heating System with PCM Storage Tank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Zhao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A physical model and dynamic simulation models of a solar phase-change heat storage heating system with a plate solar collector, phase-change material (PCM storage tank, plate heat exchanger, and auxiliary heat sources were established. A control strategy and numerical models for each of seven different operation modes that cover the entire heating season of the system were developed for the first time. The seven proposed operation modes are Mode 1: free cooling; Mode 2: reservation of heat absorbed by the solar collector in the PCM storage tank when there is no heating demand; Mode 3: direct supply of the heating demand by the solar collector; Mode 4: use of the heat absorbed by the solar collector to meet the heating demands, with the excess heat stored in the PCM storage tank; Mode 5: use of heat stored in the PCM storage tank to meet the heating demands, Mode 6: combined use of heat stored in the PCM storage tank and the auxiliary heating sources to meet the heating demands; and Mode 7: exclusive use of the auxiliary heat sources in order to meet the heating demands. Mathematical models were established for each of the above seven operation modes, taking into consideration the effects of the outdoor meteorological parameters and terminal load on the heating system. The real-time parameters for the entire heating season of the system with respect to the different operation modes can be obtained by solving the simulation models, and used as reference for the optimal design and operation of the actual system.

  2. A Chance-Constrained Economic Dispatch Model in Wind-Thermal-Energy Storage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanzhe Hu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available As a type of renewable energy, wind energy is integrated into the power system with more and more penetration levels. It is challenging for the power system operators (PSOs to cope with the uncertainty and variation of the wind power and its forecasts. A chance-constrained economic dispatch (ED model for the wind-thermal-energy storage system (WTESS is developed in this paper. An optimization model with the wind power and the energy storage system (ESS is first established with the consideration of both the economic benefits of the system and less wind curtailments. The original wind power generation is processed by the ESS to obtain the final wind power output generation (FWPG. A Gaussian mixture model (GMM distribution is adopted to characterize the probabilistic and cumulative distribution functions with an analytical expression. Then, a chance-constrained ED model integrated by the wind-energy storage system (W-ESS is developed by considering both the overestimation costs and the underestimation costs of the system and solved by the sequential linear programming method. Numerical simulation results using the wind power data in four wind farms are performed on the developed ED model with the IEEE 30-bus system. It is verified that the developed ED model is effective to integrate the uncertain and variable wind power. The GMM distribution could accurately fit the actual distribution of the final wind power output, and the ESS could help effectively decrease the operation costs.

  3. Dynamic Modeling and Control of Electromechanical Coupling for Mechanical Elastic Energy Storage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The structural scheme of mechanical elastic energy storage (MEES system served by permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM and bidirectional converters is designed. The aim of the research is to model and control the complex electromechanical system. The mechanical device of the complex system is considered as a node in generalized coordinate system, the terse nonlinear dynamic model of electromechanical coupling for the electromechanical system is constructed through Lagrange-Maxwell energy method, and the detailed deduction of the mathematical model is presented in the paper. The theory of direct feedback linearization (DFL is applied to decouple the nonlinear dynamic model and convert the developed model from nonlinear to linear. The optimal control theory is utilized to accomplish speed tracking control for the linearized system. The simulation results in three different cases show that the proposed nonlinear dynamic model of MEES system is correct; the designed algorithm has a better control performance in contrast with the conventional PI control.

  4. Pumped storage system model and experimental investigations on S-induced issues during transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wei; Yang, Jiandong; Hu, Jinhong

    2017-06-01

    Because of the important role of pumped storage stations in the peak regulation and frequency control of a power grid, pump turbines must rapidly switch between different operating modes, such as fast startup and load rejection. However, pump turbines go through the unstable S region in these transition processes, threatening the security and stability of the pumped storage station. This issue has mainly been investigated through numerical simulations, while field experiments generally involve high risks and are difficult to perform. Therefore, in this work, the model test method was employed to study S-induced security and stability issues for a pumped storage station in transition processes. First, a pumped storage system model was set up, including the piping system, model units, electrical control systems and measurement system. In this model, two pump turbines with different S-shaped characteristics were installed to determine the influence of S-shaped characteristics on transition processes. The model platform can be applied to simulate any hydraulic transition process that occurs in real power stations, such as load rejection, startup, and grid connection. On the experimental platform, the S-shaped characteristic curves were measured to be the basis of other experiments. Runaway experiments were performed to verify the impact of the S-shaped characteristics on the pump turbine runaway stability. Full load rejection tests were performed to validate the effect of the S-shaped characteristics on the water-hammer pressure. The condition of one pump turbine rejecting its load after another defined as one-after-another (OAA) load rejection was performed to validate the possibility of S-induced extreme draft tube pressure. Load rejection experiments with different guide vane closing schemes were performed to determine a suitable scheme to adapt the S-shaped characteristics. Through these experiments, the threats existing in the station were verified, the

  5. Design and modelling of an innovative three-stage thermal storage system for direct steam generation CSP plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Pierre; Vuillerme, Valéry; Olcese, Marco; El Mourchid, Nadim

    2016-05-01

    Thermal Energy Storage systems (TES) for a Direct Steam Generation (DSG) solar plant feature preferably three stages in series including a latent heat storage module so that steam can be recovered with a limited temperature loss. The storage system designed within the Alsolen Sup project is characterized by an innovative combination of sensible and latent modules. A dynamic model of this three-stage storage has been developed and applied to size the storage system of the Alsolen Sup® plant demonstrator at CEA Cadarache. Results of this simulation show that this promising concept is an efficient way to store heat in DSG solar plants.

  6. Power System and Energy Storage Models for Laser Integration on Naval Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Power System and Energy Storage Models for Laser Integration on Naval Platforms A.L. Gattozzi, J.D. Herbst, R.E. Hebner Center for... Electromechanics , University of Texas Austin, Texas a.gattozzi@cem.utexas.edu J.A. Blau, K.R. Cohn, W.B. Colson, J.E. Sylvester, M.A. Woehrman Physics...emerging technologies present significant challenges to the electric power distribution and thermal management systems, particularly for

  7. Thermodynamic model of a thermal storage air conditioning system with dynamic behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, Evan; Wen, Shaoyi; Shi, Li; Silva, Alexandre K. da

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We developed an automotive thermal storage air conditioning system model. • The thermal storage unit utilizes phase change materials. • We use semi-analytic solution to the coupled phase change and forced convection. • We model the airside heat exchange using the NTU method. • The system model can incorporate dynamic inputs, e.g. variable inlet airflow. - Abstract: A thermodynamic model was developed to predict transient behavior of a thermal storage system, using phase change materials (PCMs), for a novel electric vehicle climate conditioning application. The main objectives of the paper are to consider the system’s dynamic behavior, such as a dynamic air flow rate into the vehicle’s cabin, and to characterize the transient heat transfer process between the thermal storage unit and the vehicle’s cabin, while still maintaining accurate solution to the complex phase change heat transfer. The system studied consists of a heat transfer fluid circulating between either of the on-board hot and cold thermal storage units, which we refer to as thermal batteries, and a liquid–air heat exchanger that provides heat exchange with the incoming air to the vehicle cabin. Each thermal battery is a shell-and-tube configuration where a heat transfer fluid flows through parallel tubes, which are surrounded by PCM within a larger shell. The system model incorporates computationally inexpensive semi-analytic solution to the conjugated laminar forced convection and phase change problem within the battery and accounts for airside heat exchange using the Number of Transfer Units (NTUs) method for the liquid–air heat exchanger. Using this approach, we are able to obtain an accurate solution to the complex heat transfer problem within the battery while also incorporating the impact of the airside heat transfer on the overall system performance. The implemented model was benchmarked against a numerical study for a melting process and against full system

  8. Benchmarking Cloud Storage Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xing

    2014-01-01

    With the rise of cloud computing, many cloud storage systems like Dropbox, Google Drive and Mega have been built to provide decentralized and reliable file storage. It is thus of prime importance to know their features, performance, and the best way to make use of them. In this context, we introduce BenchCloud, a tool designed as part of this thesis to conveniently and efficiently benchmark any cloud storage system. First, we provide a study of six commonly-used cloud storage systems to ident...

  9. Results from a workshop on research needs for modeling aquifer thermal energy storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drost, M. K.

    1990-08-01

    A workshop an aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system modeling was conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The goal of the workshop was to develop a list of high priority research activities that would facilitate the commercial success of ATES. During the workshop, participants reviewed currently available modeling tools for ATES systems and produced a list of significant issues related to modeling ATES systems. Participants assigned a priority to each issue on the list by voting and developed a list of research needs for each of four high-priority research areas; the need for a feasibility study model, the need for engineering design models, the need for aquifer characterization, and the need for an economic model. The workshop participants concluded that ATES commercialization can be accelerated by aggressive development of ATES modeling tools and made specific recommendations for that development.

  10. Variable mass energy transformation and storage (VMETS) system using NH3-H2O as working fluid. Part 2: Modeling and simulation under partial storage strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, S.M.; Zhang, L.; Liang, J.; Du, R.

    2007-01-01

    This paper is the second part of our study on a new variable mass energy transformation and storage (VMETS) system using NH 3 -H 2 O as working fluid. In the previous study, the working principle and flow of the new system have been introduced, whilst the dynamic models of the new system have been developed and the simulation under the full storage strategy has been done. Therefore, in this paper, the working process and dynamic models of the system operating under the partial storage strategy are briefly re-described first, and then, the dynamic processes of energy transformation and storage for cooling are numerically simulated under this strategy. The simulation and analysis results reveal the relationship between the working parameters and the system operation time and predict the system behavior under various loading conditions. It is found that when the system stores energy for cooling under the partial storage strategy, the average COP c1 and COP c2 can reach 3.90 and 3.64, respectively. In order to achieve better system performance, an improved VMETS system is proposed in this paper for partial storage operation. Finally, a conclusion is drawn for these series of research on the new VMETS system

  11. Life Prediction Model for Grid-Connected Li-ion Battery Energy Storage System: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Kandler A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Saxon, Aron R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keyser, Matthew A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lundstrom, Blake R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cao, Ziwei [SunPower Corporation; Roc, Albert [SunPower Corp.

    2017-08-25

    Life Prediction Model for Grid-Connected Li-ion Battery Energy Storage System: Preprint Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are being deployed on the electrical grid for a variety of purposes, such as to smooth fluctuations in solar renewable power generation. The lifetime of these batteries will vary depending on their thermal environment and how they are charged and discharged. To optimal utilization of a battery over its lifetime requires characterization of its performance degradation under different storage and cycling conditions. Aging tests were conducted on commercial graphite/nickel-manganese-cobalt (NMC) Li-ion cells. A general lifetime prognostic model framework is applied to model changes in capacity and resistance as the battery degrades. Across 9 aging test conditions from 0oC to 55oC, the model predicts capacity fade with 1.4 percent RMS error and resistance growth with 15 percent RMS error. The model, recast in state variable form with 8 states representing separate fade mechanisms, is used to extrapolate lifetime for example applications of the energy storage system integrated with renewable photovoltaic (PV) power generation.

  12. Dynamic Modelling of a Solar Water Pumping System with Energy Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Shatadru Biswas; M. Tariq Iqbal

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes the dynamic modelling of a system used for extraction of groundwater for irrigation using an alternative source of energy. The system is designed based on data of an existing project in Lalmonirhat, Bangladesh. The system comprises a 38.4 kWp solar photovoltaic array, inverter, AC motor, and pump set, which can discharge a maximum of 1,930 m3 of water per day. MATLAB simulation is performed with two types of energy storage system: (i) electric energy using a battery bank ...

  13. Energy system investment model incorporating heat pumps with thermal storage in buildings and buffer tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Karsten; Balyk, Olexandr

    2013-01-01

    Individual compression heat pumps constitute a potentially valuable resource in supporting wind power integration due to their economic competitiveness and possibilities for flexible operation. When analysing the system benefits of flexible heat pump operation, effects on investments should...... be taken into account. In this study, we present a model that facilitates analysing individual heat pumps and complementing heat storages in integration with the energy system, while optimising both investments and operation. The model incorporates thermal building dynamics and covers various heat storage...... of operating heat pumps flexibly. This includes prioritising heat pump operation for hours with low marginal electricity production costs, and peak load shaving resulting in a reduced need for peak and reserve capacity investments....

  14. Variable mass energy transformation and storage (VMETS) system using NH3-H2O as working fluid, Part 1: Modeling and simulation under full storage strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, S.M.; Zhang, L.; Liang, J.; Du, R.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a new variable mass energy transformation and storage (VMETS) system using ammonia-water solution (NH 3 -H 2 O) as working fluid. The system has a wide range of working temperature. It can be used to shift load with a diurnal energy storage system for cooling in summer, heating in winter, or hot water supplying all year long. It can also be used to store refrigerating energy for various industrial and commercial applications. The key to the system is to regulate the chemical potential by controlling the refrigerant mass fraction in the working fluid with respect to time. As a result, by using a solution storage tank and an ammonia storage tank, the energy transformation and storage can be performed at the desirable time to provide low cost cooling and heating efficiently. As the first part of our study, this paper presents the principle and dynamic models of the VMETS system and performs the numerical simulation when the system works in the cooling and heating modes, respectively, under the full storage strategy. The simulation predicts the dynamic behavior of the VMETS system under various operation conditions and shows that the VMETS system for cooling in summer is also suitable for heating in winter or for hot water supplying all year long by adjusting the initial solution concentration. The energy conversion efficiency of the system is larger than that of conventional thermal energy storage (TES) systems, especially under the condition of system operation for heating or hot water supplying in the heating mode. These simulation results are very helpful for detailed design and control of the system. To investigate the system performance under the partial storage strategy, modeling and numerical simulation will be performed in a subsequent paper

  15. A hybrid optimization model of biomass trigeneration system combined with pit thermal energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominković, D.F.; Ćosić, B.; Bačelić Medić, Z.; Duić, N.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Hybrid optimization model of biomass trigeneration system with PTES is developed. • Influence of premium feed-in tariffs on trigeneration systems is assessed. • Influence of total system efficiency on biomass trigeneration system with PTES is assessed. • Influence of energy savings on project economy is assessed. - Abstract: This paper provides a solution for managing excess heat production in trigeneration and thus, increases the power plant yearly efficiency. An optimization model for combining biomass trigeneration energy system and pit thermal energy storage has been developed. Furthermore, double piping district heating and cooling network in the residential area without industry consumers was assumed, thus allowing simultaneous flow of the heating and cooling energy. As a consequence, the model is easy to adopt in different regions. Degree-hour method was used for calculation of hourly heating and cooling energy demand. The system covers all the yearly heating and cooling energy needs, while it is assumed that all the electricity can be transferred to the grid due to its renewable origin. The system was modeled in Matlab© on hourly basis and hybrid optimization model was used to maximize the net present value (NPV), which was the objective function of the optimization. Economic figures become favorable if the economy-of-scale of both power plant and pit thermal energy storage can be utilized. The results show that the pit thermal energy storage was an excellent option for storing energy and shaving peaks in energy demand. Finally, possible switch from feed-in tariffs to feed-in premiums was assessed and possible subsidy savings have been calculated. The savings are potentially large and can be used for supporting other renewable energy projects

  16. Thermodynamic model of a thermal storage air conditioning system with dynamic behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, E; Wen, SY; Shi, L; da Silva, AK

    2013-12-01

    A thermodynamic model was developed to predict transient behavior of a thermal storage system, using phase change materials (PCMs), for a novel electric vehicle climate conditioning application. The main objectives of the paper are to consider the system's dynamic behavior, such as a dynamic air flow rate into the vehicle's cabin, and to characterize the transient heat transfer process between the thermal storage unit and the vehicle's cabin, while still maintaining accurate solution to the complex phase change heat transfer. The system studied consists of a heat transfer fluid circulating between either of the on-board hot and cold thermal storage units, which we refer to as thermal batteries, and a liquid-air heat exchanger that provides heat exchange with the incoming air to the vehicle cabin. Each thermal battery is a shell-and-tube configuration where a heat transfer fluid flows through parallel tubes, which are surrounded by PCM within a larger shell. The system model incorporates computationally inexpensive semianalytic solution to the conjugated laminar forced convection and phase change problem within the battery and accounts for airside heat exchange using the Number of Transfer Units (NTUs) method for the liquid-air heat exchanger. Using this approach, we are able to obtain an accurate solution to the complex heat transfer problem within the battery while also incorporating the impact of the airside heat transfer on the overall system performance. The implemented model was benchmarked against a numerical study for a melting process and against full system experimental data for solidification using paraffin wax as the PCM. Through modeling, we demonstrate the importance of capturing the airside heat exchange impact on system performance, and we investigate system response to dynamic operating conditions, e.g., air recirculation. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Wind power integration with heat pumps, heat storages, and electric vehicles - Energy systems analysis and modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedegaard, K.

    2013-09-15

    This PhD investigates to which extent heat pumps, heat storages, and electric vehicles can support the integration of wind power. Considering the gaps in existing research, the main focus is put on individual heat pumps in the residential sector (one-family houses) and the possibilities for flexible operation, using the heat storage options available. Several energy systems analyses are performed using the energy system models, Balmorel, developed at the former TSO, ElkraftSystem, and, EnergyPLAN, developed at Aalborg University. The Danish energy system towards 2030, with wind power penetrations of up to 60 %, is used as a case study in most of the analyses. Both models have been developed further, resulting in an improved representation of individual heat pumps and heat storages. An extensive model add-on for Balmorel renders it possible to optimise investment and operation of individual heat pumps and different types of heat storages, in integration with the energy system. Total costs of the energy system are minimised in the optimisation. The add-on incorporates thermal building dynamics and covers various different heat storage options: intelligent heat storage in the building structure for houses with radiator heating and floor heating, respectively, heat accumulation tanks on the space heating circuit, as well as hot water tanks. In EnergyPLAN, some of the heat storage options have been modelled in a technical optimisation that minimises fuel consumption of the energy system and utilises as much wind power as possible. The energy systems analyses reveal that in terms of supporting wind power integration, the installation of individual heat pumps is an important step, while adding heat storages to the heat pumps is less influential. When equipping the heat pumps with heat storages, only moderate system benefits can be gained. Hereof, the main system benefit is that the need for peak/reserve capacity investments can be reduced through peak load shaving; in

  18. System for secure storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2005-01-01

    A system (100) comprising read means (112) for reading content data and control logic data from a storage medium (101), the control logic data being uniquely linked to the storage medium (101), processing means (113-117), for processing the content data and feeding the processed content data to an

  19. Dynamic modeling of а heating system using geothermal energy and storage tank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Predrag D.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes a greenhouse heating system using geothermal energy and storage tank and the possibility of utilization of insufficient amount of heat from geothermal sources during the periods with low outside air temperatures. Crucial for these analyses is modelling of the necessary yearly energy requirements for greenhouse heating. The results of these analyses enable calculation of an appropriate storage tank capacity so that the energy efficiency of greenhouse heating system with geothermal energy could be significantly improved. [Acknowledgement. This work was supported by Ministry of Science and Technology Development of the Republic of Serbia through the National Energy Efficiency Program (Grant 18234 A. The authors are thankful to the stuff and management of the Company “Farmakom MB PIK 7. juli - Debrc” for their assistance during the realization of this project.

  20. Warehousing in the Global Supply Chain Advanced Models, Tools and Applications for Storage Systems

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    With increased globalization and offshore sourcing, global supply chain management is becoming an important issue for many businesses as it involves a company's worldwide interests and suppliers rather than simply a local or national orientation. The storage systems significantly affect the level of quality of products, the customer’s service level, and the global logistic cost. The mission of warehousing systems design, control and optimization is to effectively ship products in the right place, at the right time, and in the right quantity (i.e. in any configuration) without any damages or alterations, and minimizing costs. Warehousing in the Global Supply Chain presents and discusses a set of models, tools and real applications, including a few case studies rarely presented with a sufficient detail by other literature, to illustrate the main challenges in warehousing activities. This includes all warehouse operations (from receiving to shipping), problems and issues (e.g. storage allocation, assignment,...

  1. Medical chilling device designed for hypothermic hydration graft storage system: Design, thermohydrodynamic modeling, and preliminary testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Jung Hwan [Hongik University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Hypothermic hydration graft storage is essential to reduce the metabolic demand of cells in vitro. The alleviated metabolic demands reduce the emergence rate of anaerobic metabolism generating adenosine triphosphate (ATP) energy that creates free radicals. The cessive free radicals can damage cells and tissues due to their highly oxidative power with molecules. Current cooling systems such as a conventional air cooling system and an ice pack system are inappropriate for chilling cell tissues in vitro because of inconvenience in use and inconsistent temperature sustainability caused by large size and progressive melting, respectively. Here, we develop a medical chilling device (MCD) for hypothermic hydration graft storage based on thermo-hydrodynamic modeling and thermal electric cooling technology. Our analysis of obtained hydrodynamic thermal behavior of the MCD revealed that the hypothermic condition of 4 .deg. C was continuously maintained, which increased the survival rates of cells in vitro test by reduced free radicals. The validated performance of the MCD promises future development of an optimal hypothermic hydration graft storage system designed for clinical use.

  2. Modeling Chilled-Water Storage System Components for Coupling to a Small Modular Reactor in a Nuclear Hybrid Energy System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misenheimer, Corey Thomas

    The intermittency of wind and solar power puts strain on electric grids, often forcing carbonbased and nuclear sources of energy to operate in a load-follow mode. Operating nuclear reactors in a load-follow fashion is undesirable due to the associated thermal and mechanical stresses placed on the fuel and other reactor components. Various Thermal Energy Storage (TES) elements and ancillary energy applications can be coupled to nuclear (or renewable) power sources to help absorb grid instabilities caused by daily electric demand changes and renewable intermittency, thereby forming the basis of a candidate Nuclear Hybrid Energy System (NHES). During the warmer months of the year in many parts of the country, facility air-conditioning loads are significant contributors to the increase in the daily peak electric demand. Previous research demonstrated that a stratified chilled-water storage tank can displace peak cooling loads to off-peak hours. Based on these findings, the objective of this work is to evaluate the prospect of using a stratified chilled-water storage tank as a potential TES reservoir for a nuclear reactor in a NHES. This is accomplished by developing time-dependent models of chilled-water system components, including absorption chillers, cooling towers, a storage tank, and facility cooling loads appropriate for a large office space or college campus, as a callable FORTRAN subroutine. The resulting TES model is coupled to a high-fidelity mPower-sized Small Modular Reactor (SMR) Simulator, with the goal of utilizing excess reactor capacity to operate several sizable chillers in order to keep reactor power constant. Chilled-water production via single effect, lithium bromide (LiBr) absorption chillers is primarily examined in this study, although the use of electric chillers is briefly explored. Absorption chillers use hot water or low-pressure steam to drive an absorption-refrigeration cycle. The mathematical framework for a high-fidelity dynamic

  3. Modeling and sizing a Storage System coupled with intermittent renewable power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridier, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    This thesis aims at presenting an optimal management and sizing of an Energy Storage System (ESS) paired up with Intermittent Renewable Energy Sources (IReN). Firstly, we developed a technical-economic model of the system which is associated with three typical scenarios of utility grid power supply: hourly smoothing based on a one-day-ahead forecast (S1), guaranteed power supply (S2) and combined scenarios (S3). This model takes the form of a large-scale non-linear optimization program. Secondly, four heuristic strategies are assessed and lead to an optimized management of the power output with storage according to the reliability, productivity, efficiency and profitability criteria. This ESS optimized management is called 'Adaptive Storage Operation' (ASO). When compared to a mixed integer linear program (MILP), this optimized operation that is practicable under operational conditions gives rapidly near-optimal results. Finally, we use the ASO in ESS optimal sizing for each renewable energy: wind, wave and solar (PV). We determine the minimal sizing that complies with each scenario, by inferring the failure rate, the viable feed-in tariff of the energy, and the corresponding compliant, lost or missing energies. We also perform sensitivity analysis which highlights the importance of the ESS efficiency and of the forecasting accuracy and the strong influence of the hybridization of renewables on ESS technical-economic sizing. (author) [fr

  4. Resource Storage Management Model For Ensuring Quality Of Service In The Cloud Archive Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Kapanowski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, service providers offer a lot of IT services in the public or private cloud. The client can buy various kinds of services like SaaS, PaaS, etc. Recently there was introduced Backup as a Service (BaaS as a variety of SaaS. At the moment there are available several different BaaSes for archiving the data in the cloud, but they provide only a basic level of service quality. In the paper we propose a model which ensures QoS for BaaS and some  methods for management of storage resources aimed at achieving the required SLA. This model introduces a set of parameters responsible for SLA level which can be offered on the basic or higher level of quality. The storage systems (typically HSM, which are distributed between several Data Centres,  are built based on disk arrays, VTLs, and tape libraries. The RSMM model does not assume bandwidth reservation or control, but is rather focused on the management of storage resources.

  5. More with thermal energy storage. Report 5. Modelling systems. Effects of thermal energy storage systems on the environment. Modelling individual projects. Final report; Meer met bodemenergie. Rapport 5. Modellering systemen. Effecten van bodemenergiesystemen op hun omgeving. Modellering individuele projecten. Eindrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drijver, B.; De Jonge, H. [IF Technology, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    2012-03-30

    The project More With Thermal Energy Storage (MMB, abbreviated in Dutch) focuses on knowledge gaps and potential opportunities regarding open systems. The main questions to be answered are: (1) What effects (hydrological, thermal, microbiological and chemical) occur in the soil system by application of thermal energy storage; (2) Which technical options are available for a sustainable integration of thermal energy storage in the water and energy chain?; (3) Is it possible to achieve multiple objectives by using smart combinations? The project is organized in different work packages. In work package 2, the effects of individual and collective thermal energy storage storage systems on subsoils and the environment are determined. In work package 3 the opportunities for thermal energy storage and soil remediation are examined, while in work package 4 the focus is on new sustainable combinations of heat and cold storage. Work package 1 is the umbrella part where communication and policy of and participation in MMB are the main subjects. This report describes the results of the modeling of three existing thermal energy storage projects in the framework of the MMB project. The aim of the modeling of these projects is to gain insight in the reliability of the predicted hydrological and thermal effects, the causes of any deviations and improvements that are possible to improve the reliability of the predictions [Dutch] Het project Meer Met Bodemenergie (MMB) richt zich op het invullen van kennisleemtes en mogelijke kansen ten aanzien van open systemen. De belangrijkste vragen waarop het onderzoeksprogramma MMB antwoord geeft zijn: (1) Welke effecten (hydrologisch, thermisch, microbiologisch en chemisch) treden op in het bodemsysteem bij toepassing van bodemenergie?; (2) Welke technische mogelijkheden zijn er voor het duurzaam inpassen van bodem-energie in de water- en energieketen?; (3) Is het mogelijk om meerdere doelstellingen tegelijk te verwezenlijken door slimme

  6. Modeling, Design and Simulation of Stand-Alone Photovoltaic Power Systems with Battery Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd Essalam BADOUD

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Stand alone renewable energy based on photovoltaic systems accompanied with battery storage system are beginning to play an important role over the world to supply power to remote areas. The objective of the study reported in this paper is to elaborate and design a bond graphs model for sizing stand-alone domestic solar photovoltaic electricity systems and simulating the performance of the systems in a tropical climate. The systems modelled consist of an array of PV modules, a lead-acid battery, and a number of direct current appliances. This paper proposes the combination of lead acid battery system with a typical stand alone photovoltaic energy system under variable loads. The main activities of this work purpose to establish library graphical models for each individual component of standalone photovoltaic system. Control strategy has been considered to achieve permanent power supply to the load via photovoltaic/battery based on the power available from the sun. The complete model was simulated under two testing including sunny and cloudy conditions. Simulation of the system using Symbols software was performed and the results of simulation show the superior stable control system and high efficiency. These results have been contrasted with real measured data from a measurement campaign plant carried on electrical engineering laboratory of Grenoble using various interconnection schemes are presented.

  7. A Review on Concepts, Applications, and Models of Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Sang Lee

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Being a heat source or sink, aquifers have been used to store large quantities of thermal energy to match cooling and heating supply and demand on both a short-term and long-term basis. The current technical, economic, and environmental status of aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES is promising. General information on the basic operation principles, design, and construction of ATES systems is discussed in this paper. Numerous projects in operation around the world are summarized to illustrate the present status of ATES. Hydrogeological-thermal simulation has become an integral part of predicting ATES system performance. Numerical models which are available to simulate an ATES system by modeling mass and heat transport in the aquifer have been summarized. This paper also presents an example of numerical simulation and thermohydraulic evaluation of a two-well, ATES system operating under a continuous flow regime.

  8. Influence of Li-ion Battery Models in the Sizing of Hybrid Storage Systems with Supercapacitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinto, Claudio; Barreras, Jorge Varela; de Castro, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative study of the influence of different aggregated electrical circuit battery models in the sizing process of a hybrid energy storage system (ESS), composed by Li-ion batteries and supercapacitors (SCs). The aim is to find the number of cells required to propel...... a certain vehicle over a predefined driving cycle. During this process, three battery models will be considered. The first consists in a linear static zeroeth order battery model over a restricted operating window. The second is a non-linear static model, while the third takes into account first......-order dynamics of the battery. Simulation results demonstrate that the adoption of a more accurate battery model in the sizing of hybrid ESSs prevents over-sizing, leading to a reduction in the number of cells of up to 29%, and a cost decrease of up to 10%....

  9. Modeling and Nonlinear Control of Fuel Cell / Supercapacitor Hybrid Energy Storage System for Electric Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El Fadil, Hassan; Giri, Fouad; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of controlling hybrid energy storage system (HESS) for electric vehicle. The storage system consists of a fuel cell (FC), serving as the main power source, and a supercapacitor (SC), serving as an auxiliary power source. It also contains a power block for energy...

  10. Adsorption thermal energy storage for cogeneration in industrial batch processes: Experiment, dynamic modeling and system analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, Heike; Graf, Stefan; Lanzerath, Franz; Bardow, André

    2015-01-01

    Adsorption thermal energy storage is investigated for heat supply with cogeneration in industrial batch processes. The feasibility of adsorption thermal energy storage is demonstrated with a lab-scale prototype. Based on these experiments, a dynamic model is developed and successfully calibrated to measurement data. Thereby, a reliable description of the dynamic behavior of the adsorption thermal energy storage unit is achieved. The model is used to study and benchmark the performance of adsorption thermal energy storage combined with cogeneration for batch process energy supply. As benchmark, we consider both a peak boiler and latent thermal energy storage based on a phase change material. Beer brewing is considered as an example of an industrial batch process. The study shows that adsorption thermal energy storage has the potential to increase energy efficiency significantly; primary energy consumption can be reduced by up to 25%. However, successful integration of adsorption thermal storage requires appropriate integration of low grade heat: Preferentially, low grade heat is available at times of discharging and in demand when charging the storage unit. Thus, adsorption thermal energy storage is most beneficial if applied to a batch process with heat demands on several temperature levels. - Highlights: • A highly efficient energy supply for industrial batch processes is presented. • Adsorption thermal energy storage (TES) is analyzed in experiment and simulation. • Adsorption TES can outperform both peak boilers and latent TES. • Performance of adsorption TES strongly depends on low grade heat temperature.

  11. An Optimization Scheduling Model for Wind Power and Thermal Power with Energy Storage System considering Carbon Emission Trading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan-huan Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind power has the characteristics of randomness and intermittence, which influences power system safety and stable operation. To alleviate the effect of wind power grid connection and improve power system’s wind power consumptive capability, this paper took emission trading and energy storage system into consideration and built an optimization model for thermal-wind power system and energy storage systems collaborative scheduling. A simulation based on 10 thermal units and wind farms with 2800 MW installed capacity verified the correctness of the models put forward by this paper. According to the simulation results, the introduction of carbon emission trading can improve wind power consumptive capability and cut down the average coal consumption per unit of power. The introduction of energy storage system can smooth wind power output curve and suppress power fluctuations. The optimization effects achieve the best when both of carbon emission trading and energy storage system work at the same time.

  12. Unified System-Level Modeling of Intermittent Renewable Energy Sources and Energy Storage for Power System Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heussen, Kai; Koch, Stephan; Ulbig, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    The system-level consideration of inter- mittent renewable energy sources and small-scale en- ergy storage in power systems remains a challenge as either type is incompatible with traditional operation concepts. Non-controllability and energy-constraints are still considered contingent cases...... in market-based operation. The design of operation strategies for up to 100 % renewable energy systems requires an explicit consideration of non-dispatchable generation and stor- age capacities, as well as the evaluation of operational performance in terms of energy eciency, reliability, environmental...... impact and cost. By abstracting from technology-dependent and physical unit properties, the modeling framework presented and extended in this pa- per allows the modeling of a technologically diverse unit portfolio with a unied approach, whilst establishing the feasibility of energy-storage consideration...

  13. Heat transfer modelling in a spent-fuel dry storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritz, J.B.; Le Bonhomme, S.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a numerical modelling of heat transfers in a Spent-Fuel horizontal dry storage. The horizontal dry storage is an interesting issue to momentary store spent fuel containers before the final storage. From a thermal point of view, the cooling of spent fuel container by natural convection is a suitable and inexpensive process but it necessitates to well define the dimensions of the concept due to the difficulty to control the thermal environment. (author)

  14. Energy Storage Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, David

    2017-07-01

    As renewable energy use expands there will be a need to develop ways to balance its variability. Storage is one of the options. Presently the main emphasis is for systems storing electrical power in advanced batteries (many of them derivatives of parallel developments in the electric vehicle field), as well as via liquid air storage, compressed air storage, super-capacitors and flywheels, and, the leader so far, pumped hydro reservoirs. In addition, new systems are emerging for hydrogen generation and storage, feeding fuel cell power production. Heat (and cold) is also a storage medium and some systems exploit thermal effects as part of wider energy management activity. Some of the more exotic ones even try to use gravity on a large scale. This short book looks at all the options, their potentials and their limits. There are no clear winners, with some being suited to short-term balancing and others to longer-term storage. The eventual mix adopted will be shaped by the pattern of development of other balancing measures, including smart-grid demand management and super-grid imports and exports.

  15. HEAT STORAGE SYSTEM WITH PHASE CHANGE MATERIALS IN COGENERATION UNITS: STUDY OF PRELIMINARY MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Caprara

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The continuous increase in the mechanization of farm activities, the rise in fuel prices and the environmental aspects concerning gas emissions are the main driving forces behind efforts toward more effective use of renewable energy sources and cogeneration systems even in agricultural and cattle farms. Nevertheless these systems are still not very suitable for this purpose because of their little flexibility in following the changing energy demand as opposed to the extremely various farm load curves, both in daytime and during the year. In heat recovery systems, the available thermal energy supply is always linked to power production, thus it does not usually coincide in time with the heat demand. Hence some form of thermal energy storage (TES is necessary in order to reach the most effective utilization of the energy source. This study deals with the modelling of a packed bed latent heat TES unit, integrating a cogeneration system made up of a reciprocating engine. The TES unit contains phase change materials (PCMs filled in spherical capsules, which are packed in an insulated cylindrical storage tank. Water is used as heat transfer fluid (HTF to transfer heat from the tank to the final uses, and exhausts from the engine are used as thermal source. PCMs are considered especially for their large heat storage capacity and their isothermal behaviour during the phase change processes. Despite their high energy storage density, most of them have an unacceptably low thermal conductivity, hence PCMs encapsulation technique is adopted in order to improve heat transfer. The special modular configuration of heat exchange tubes and the possibility of changing water flow through them allow to obtain the right amount of thermal energy from the tank, according to the hourly demand of the day. The model permits to choose the electrical load of the engine, the dimensions of the tank and the spheres, thickness and diameter of heat exchanger and the nature of

  16. Life Prediction Model for Grid-Connected Li-ion Battery Energy Storage System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Kandler A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Saxon, Aron R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keyser, Matthew A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lundstrom, Blake R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cao, Ziwei [SunPower Corporation; Roc, Albert [SunPower Corporation

    2017-09-06

    Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are being deployed on the electrical grid for a variety of purposes, such as to smooth fluctuations in solar renewable power generation. The lifetime of these batteries will vary depending on their thermal environment and how they are charged and discharged. To optimal utilization of a battery over its lifetime requires characterization of its performance degradation under different storage and cycling conditions. Aging tests were conducted on commercial graphite/nickel-manganese-cobalt (NMC) Li-ion cells. A general lifetime prognostic model framework is applied to model changes in capacity and resistance as the battery degrades. Across 9 aging test conditions from 0oC to 55oC, the model predicts capacity fade with 1.4% RMS error and resistance growth with 15% RMS error. The model, recast in state variable form with 8 states representing separate fade mechanisms, is used to extrapolate lifetime for example applications of the energy storage system integrated with renewable photovoltaic (PV) power generation.

  17. Kinetic energy storage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeggi, M.; Folini, P.

    1983-09-03

    A flywheel system for the purpose of energy storage in decentral solar- or wind energy plants is introduced. The system comprises a rotor made out of plastic fibre, a motor/generator serving as electro-mechanical energy converter and a frequency-voltage transformer serving as electric adapter. The storable energy quantity amounts to several kWh.

  18. Temperature distribution by the effect of groundwater flow in an aquifer thermal energy storage system model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, B.

    2005-12-01

    Aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) can be a cost-effective and renewable energy source, depending on site-specific thermohydraulic conditions. To design an effective ATES system, the understanding of thermohydraulic processes is necessary. The heat transfer phenomena of an aquifer heat storage system are simulated with the scenario of heat pump operation of pumping and waste water reinjection in a two layered confined aquifer model having the effect of groundwater movement. Temperature distribution of the aquifer model is generated, and hydraulic heads and temperature variations are monitored at both wells during simulation days. The average groundwater velocities are determined with two assumed hydraulic gradients set by boundary conditions, and the effect of groundwater flow are shown at the generated thermal distributions at three different depth slices. The generated temperature contour lines at the hydraulic gradient of 0.001 are shaped circular, and the center is moved less than 5 m to the east in 365 days. However at the hydraulic gradient of 0.01, the contour centers of the east well at each depth slice are moved near the east boundary and the movement of temperature distribution is increased at the lower aquifer. By the analysis of thermal interference data between two wells the efficiency of a heat pump operation model is validated, and the variation of heads is monitored at injection, pumping and stabilized state. The thermal efficiency of the ATES system model is represented as highly depended on groundwater flow velocity and direction. Therefore the hydrogeologic condition for the system site should be carefully surveyed.

  19. Energy storage connection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Eric L.; Borland, Nicholas P.; Dale, Magdelena; Freeman, Belvin; Kite, Kim A.; Petter, Jeffrey K.; Taylor, Brendan F.

    2012-07-03

    A power system for connecting a variable voltage power source, such as a power controller, with a plurality of energy storage devices, at least two of which have a different initial voltage than the output voltage of the variable voltage power source. The power system includes a controller that increases the output voltage of the variable voltage power source. When such output voltage is substantially equal to the initial voltage of a first one of the energy storage devices, the controller sends a signal that causes a switch to connect the variable voltage power source with the first one of the energy storage devices. The controller then causes the output voltage of the variable voltage power source to continue increasing. When the output voltage is substantially equal to the initial voltage of a second one of the energy storage devices, the controller sends a signal that causes a switch to connect the variable voltage power source with the second one of the energy storage devices.

  20. SIMWEST: A simulation model for wind and photovoltaic energy storage systems (CDC user's manual), volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, A. W.; Esinger, A. W.

    1979-01-01

    Procedures are given for using the SIMWEST program on CDC 6000 series computers. This expanded software package includes wind and/or photovoltaic systems utilizing any combination of five types of storage (pumped hydro, battery, thermal, flywheel, and pneumatic).

  1. A double-superconducting axial bearing system for an energy storage flywheel model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Z.; Lin, Q.; Ma, G.; Zheng, J.; Zhang, Y.; Wang, S.; Wang, J.

    2008-02-01

    The bulk high temperature superconductors (HTSCs) with unique flux-pinning property have been applied to fabricate two superconducting axial bearings for an energy storage flywheel model. The two superconducting axial bearings are respectively fixed at two ends of the vertical rotational shaft, whose stator is composed of seven melt-textured YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) bulks with diameter of 30 mm, height of 18 mm and rotor is made of three cylindrical axial-magnetized NdFeB permanent magnets (PM) by superposition with diameter of 63 mm, height of 27 mm. The experimental results show the total levitation and lateral force produced by the two superconducting bearings are enough to levitate and stabilize the 2.4 kg rotational shaft. When the two YBCO stators were both field cooled to the liquid nitrogen temperature at respective axial distances above or below the PM rotor, the shaft could be automatically levitated between the two stators without any contact. In the case of a driving motor, it can be stably rotated along the central axis besides the resonance frequency. This double-superconducting axial bearing system can be used to demonstrate the flux-pinning property of bulk HTSC for stable levitation and suspension and the principle of superconducting flywheel energy storage system to visitors.

  2. Modelling study, efficiency analysis and optimisation of large-scale Adiabatic Compressed Air Energy Storage systems with low-temperature thermal storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Xing; Wang, Jihong; Krupke, Christopher; Wang, Yue; Sheng, Yong; Li, Jian; Xu, Yujie; Wang, Dan; Miao, Shihong; Chen, Haisheng

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The paper presents an A-CAES system thermodynamic model with low temperature thermal energy storage integration. • The initial parameter value ranges for A-CAES system simulation are identified from the study of a CAES plant in operation. • The strategies of system efficiency improvement are investigated via a parametric study with a sensitivity analysis. • Various system configurations are discussed for analysing the efficiency improvement potentials. - Abstract: The key feature of Adiabatic Compressed Air Energy Storage (A-CAES) is the reuse of the heat generated from the air compression process at the stage of air expansion. This increases the complexity of the whole system since the heat exchange and thermal storage units must have the capacities and performance to match the air compression/expansion units. Thus it raises a strong demand in the whole system modelling and simulation tool for A-CAES system optimisation. The paper presents a new whole system mathematical model for A-CAES with simulation implementation and the model is developed with consideration of lowing capital cost of the system. The paper then focuses on the study of system efficiency improvement strategies via parametric analysis and system structure optimisation. The paper investigates how the system efficiency is affected by the system component performance and parameters. From the study, the key parameters are identified, which give dominant influences in improving the system efficiency. The study is extended onto optimal system configuration and the recommendations are made for achieving higher efficiency, which provides a useful guidance for A-CAES system design.

  3. Dynamic Modelling of a Solar Water Pumping System with Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shatadru Biswas

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the dynamic modelling of a system used for extraction of groundwater for irrigation using an alternative source of energy. The system is designed based on data of an existing project in Lalmonirhat, Bangladesh. The system comprises a 38.4 kWp solar photovoltaic array, inverter, AC motor, and pump set, which can discharge a maximum of 1,930 m3 of water per day. MATLAB simulation is performed with two types of energy storage system: (i electric energy using a battery bank and (ii stored water in a large water tank. A large battery bank and a transformer are needed in the former one, which turns out as a costly solution. The latter one requires a boost converter and a large water tank to store around 2,000 m3 of water, which is also a costly solution. A combination of both systems yields an efficient and economical solution. The effectiveness of these three systems is compared with conventional diesel engine system.

  4. Modeling and experimental validation of a Hybridized Energy Storage System for automotive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorenti, Simone; Guanetti, Jacopo; Guezennec, Yann; Onori, Simona

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents the development and experimental validation of a dynamic model of a Hybridized Energy Storage System (HESS) consisting of a parallel connection of a lead acid (PbA) battery and double layer capacitors (DLCs), for automotive applications. The dynamic modeling of both the PbA battery and the DLC has been tackled via the equivalent electric circuit based approach. Experimental tests are designed for identification purposes. Parameters of the PbA battery model are identified as a function of state of charge and current direction, whereas parameters of the DLC model are identified for different temperatures. A physical HESS has been assembled at the Center for Automotive Research The Ohio State University and used as a test-bench to validate the model against a typical current profile generated for Start&Stop applications. The HESS model is then integrated into a vehicle simulator to assess the effects of the battery hybridization on the vehicle fuel economy and mitigation of the battery stress.

  5. Simulation models developed for voltage control in a distribution network using energy storage systems for PV penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mihet-Popa, Lucian; Bindner, Henrik W.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the development of simulation models for DER components in a distribution network, with focus on voltage controllers using energy storage systems for PV penetration. The Vanadium Redox Battery (VRB) system model, used as an energy storage system, was implemented in MATLAB....../Simulink and DIgSILENT PowerFactory, based on the efficiency of different components-such as: cell stacks, electrolytes, pumps and power converters, whilst power losses were also taken into account. The simulation results have been validated against measurements using experimental facility of a distributed power...

  6. Economics of dry storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, G.R.; Winders, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    This paper postulates a dry storage application suitable as a regional away-from-reactor storage (AFR), develops an economical system design concept and estimates system costs. The system discussed uses the experience gained in the dry storage research activities and attempts to present a best foot forward system concept. The major element of the system is the Receiving and Packaging Building. In this building fuel assemblies are removed from transportation casks and encapsulated for storage. This facility could be equally applicable to silo, vault, or caisson storage. However the caisson storage concept has been chosen for discussion purposes

  7. Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    SatCon Technology Corporation developed the drive train for use in the Chrysler Corporation's Patriot Mark II, which includes the Flywheel Energy Storage (FES) system. In Chrysler's experimental hybrid- electric car, the hybrid drive train uses an advanced turboalternator that generates electricity by burning a fuel; a powerful, compact electric motor; and a FES that eliminates the need for conventional batteries. The FES system incorporates technology SatCon developed in more than 30 projects with seven NASA centers, mostly for FES systems for spacecraft attitude control and momentum recovery. SatCon will continue to develop the technology with Westinghouse Electric Corporation.

  8. Water Curtain System Pre-design for Crude Oil Storage URCs : A Numerical Modeling and Genetic Programming Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghotbi Ravandi, Ebrahim; Rahmannejad, Reza; Karimi-Nasab, Saeed; Sarrafi, Amir; Raoof, Amir

    In this paper the main criteria of the water curtain system for unlined rock caverns (URCs) is described. By the application of numerical modeling and genetic programming (GP), a method for water curtain system pre-design for Iranian crude oil storage URCs (common dimension worldwide) is presented.

  9. Modeling and simulation to determine the potential energy savings by implementing cold thermal energy storage system in office buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rismanchi, B.; Saidur, R.; Masjuki, H.H.; Mahlia, T.M.I.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Simulating the CTES system behavior based on Malaysian climate. • Almost 65% of power is used for cooling for cooling the office buildings, every day. • The baseline shows an acceptable match with real data from the fieldwork. • Overall, the energy used for full load storage is much than the conventional system. • The load levelling storage strategy has 3.7% lower energy demand. - Abstract: In Malaysia, air conditioning (AC) systems are considered as the major energy consumers in office buildings with almost 57% share. During the past decade, cold thermal energy storage (CTES) systems have been widely used for their significant economic benefits. However, there were always doubts about their energy saving possibilities. The main objective of the present work is to develop a computer model to determine the potential energy savings of implementing CTES systems in Malaysia. A case study building has been selected to determine the energy consumption pattern of an office building. In the first step the building baseline model was developed and validated with the recorded data from the fieldwork. Once the simulation results reach an acceptable accuracy, different CTES system configuration was added to the model to predict their energy consumption pattern. It was found that the overall energy used by the full load storage strategy is considerably more than the conventional system. However, by applying the load leveling storage strategy, and considering its benefits to reduce the air handling unit size and reducing the pumping power, the overall energy usage was almost 4% lower than the non-storage system. Although utilizing CTES systems cannot reduce the total energy consumption considerably, but it has several outstanding benefits such as cost saving, bringing balance in the grid system, reducing the overall fuel consumption in the power plants and consequently reducing to total carbon footprint

  10. Fundamental Challenges for Modeling Electrochemical Energy Storage Systems at the Atomic Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groß, Axel

    2018-04-23

    There is a strong need to improve the efficiency of electrochemical energy storage, but progress is hampered by significant technological and scientific challenges. This review describes the potential contribution of atomic-scale modeling to the development of more efficient batteries, with a particular focus on first-principles electronic structure calculations. Numerical and theoretical obstacles are discussed, along with ways to overcome them, and some recent examples are presented illustrating the insights into electrochemical energy storage that can be gained from quantum chemical studies.

  11. TEXT Energy Storage System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weldon, W.F.; Rylander, H.G.; Woodson, H.H.

    1977-01-01

    The Texas Experimental Tokamak (TEXT) Enery Storage System, designed by the Center for Electromechanics (CEM), consists of four 50 MJ, 125 V homopolar generators and their auxiliaries and is designed to power the toroidal and poloidal field coils of TEXT on a two-minute duty cycle. The four 50 MJ generators connected in series were chosen because they represent the minimum cost configuration and also represent a minimal scale up from the successful 5.0 MJ homopolar generator designed, built, and operated by the CEM

  12. PC-Cluster based Storage System Architecture for Cloud Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Yee, Tin Tin; Naing, Thinn Thu

    2011-01-01

    Design and architecture of cloud storage system plays a vital role in cloud computing infrastructure in order to improve the storage capacity as well as cost effectiveness. Usually cloud storage system provides users to efficient storage space with elasticity feature. One of the challenges of cloud storage system is difficult to balance the providing huge elastic capacity of storage and investment of expensive cost for it. In order to solve this issue in the cloud storage infrastructure, low ...

  13. Short-term bulk energy storage system scheduling for load leveling in unit commitment: modeling, optimization, and sensitivity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmati, Reza; Saboori, Hedayat

    2016-05-01

    Energy storage systems (ESSs) have experienced a very rapid growth in recent years and are expected to be a promising tool in order to improving power system reliability and being economically efficient. The ESSs possess many potential benefits in various areas in the electric power systems. One of the main benefits of an ESS, especially a bulk unit, relies on smoothing the load pattern by decreasing on-peak and increasing off-peak loads, known as load leveling. These devices require new methods and tools in order to model and optimize their effects in the power system studies. In this respect, this paper will model bulk ESSs based on the several technical characteristics, introduce the proposed model in the thermal unit commitment (UC) problem, and analyze it with respect to the various sensitive parameters. The technical limitations of the thermal units and transmission network constraints are also considered in the model. The proposed model is a Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) which can be easily solved by strong commercial solvers (for instance CPLEX) and it is appropriate to be used in the practical large scale networks. The results of implementing the proposed model on a test system reveal that proper load leveling through optimum storage scheduling leads to considerable operation cost reduction with respect to the storage system characteristics.

  14. Short-term bulk energy storage system scheduling for load leveling in unit commitment: modeling, optimization, and sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmati, Reza; Saboori, Hedayat

    2016-01-01

    Energy storage systems (ESSs) have experienced a very rapid growth in recent years and are expected to be a promising tool in order to improving power system reliability and being economically efficient. The ESSs possess many potential benefits in various areas in the electric power systems. One of the main benefits of an ESS, especially a bulk unit, relies on smoothing the load pattern by decreasing on-peak and increasing off-peak loads, known as load leveling. These devices require new methods and tools in order to model and optimize their effects in the power system studies. In this respect, this paper will model bulk ESSs based on the several technical characteristics, introduce the proposed model in the thermal unit commitment (UC) problem, and analyze it with respect to the various sensitive parameters. The technical limitations of the thermal units and transmission network constraints are also considered in the model. The proposed model is a Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) which can be easily solved by strong commercial solvers (for instance CPLEX) and it is appropriate to be used in the practical large scale networks. The results of implementing the proposed model on a test system reveal that proper load leveling through optimum storage scheduling leads to considerable operation cost reduction with respect to the storage system characteristics. PMID:27222741

  15. Process modeling of a reversible solid oxide cell (r-SOC) energy storage system utilizing commercially available SOC reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottaghizadeh, Pegah; Santhanam, Srikanth; Heddrich, Marc P.; Friedrich, K. Andreas; Rinaldi, Fabio

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • An electric energy storage system was developed based on a commercially available SOC reactor. • Heat generated in SOFC mode of r-SOC is utilized in SOEC operation of r-SOC using latent heat storage. • A round trip efficiency of 54.3% was reached for the reference system at atmospheric pressure. • An improved process system design achieved a round-trip efficiency of 60.4% at 25 bar. - Abstract: The increase of intermittent renewable energy contribution in power grids has urged us to seek means for temporal decoupling of electricity production and consumption. A reversible solid oxide cell (r-SOC) enables storage of surplus electricity through electrochemical reactions when it is in electrolysis mode. The reserved energy in form of chemical compounds is then converted to electricity when the cell operates as a fuel cell. A process system model was implemented using Aspen Plus® V8.8 based on a commercially available r-SOC reactor experimentally characterized at DLR. In this study a complete self-sustaining system configuration is designed by optimal thermal integration and balance of plant. Under reference conditions a round trip efficiency of 54.3% was achieved. Generated heat in fuel cell mode is exploited by latent heat storage tanks to enable endothermic operation of reactor in its electrolysis mode. In total, out of 100 units of thermal energy stored in heat storage tanks during fuel cell mode, 90% was utilized to offset heat demand of system in its electrolysis mode. Parametric analysis revealed the significance of heat storage tanks in thermal management even when reactor entered its exothermic mode of electrolysis. An improved process system design demonstrates a system round-trip efficiency of 60.4% at 25 bar.

  16. A Comparison of Three Data Models for Text Storage and Retrieval Systems: The Relational Model Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten

    1994-01-01

    : (1) the text model, also known as the inverted file approach, (2) the hypertext model, and (3) the relational model. In the design of the relational model changeability was a key consideration, but more often it is sacrificed to save development resources or improve performance. As it is not uncommon...... to see successful TSARS exist for 15-20 years and be subject to manifold changes during their lifetime, it is the relational model which is considered for use in the unified toolkit. It seems as if the relational model can be enhanced to incorporate the text model and the hypertext model...

  17. Wind turbine storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, H.; Ilinca, A.; Perron, J.

    2005-01-01

    Electric power is often produced in locations far from the point of utilization which creates a challenge in stabilizing power grids, particularly since electricity cannot be stored. The production of decentralized electricity by renewable energy sources offers a greater security of supply while protecting the environment. Wind power holds the greatest promise in terms of environmental protection, competitiveness and possible applications. It is known that wind energy production is not always in phase with power needs because of the uncertainty of wind. For that reason, energy storage is the key for the widespread integration of wind energy into the power grids. This paper proposed various energy storage methods that can be used in combination with decentralized wind energy production where an imbalance exists between electricity production and consumption. Energy storage can play an essential role in bringing value to wind energy, particularly if electricity is to be delivered during peak hours. Various types of energy storage are already in use or are being developed. This paper identified the main characteristics of various electricity storage techniques and their applications. They include stationary or embarked storage for long or short term applications. A comparison of characteristics made it possible to determine which types of electricity storage are best suited for wind energy. These include gravity energy; thermal energy; compressed air energy; coupled storage with natural gas; coupled storage with liquefied gas; hydrogen storage for fuel cells; chemical energy storage; storage in REDOX batteries; storage by superconductive inductance; storage in supercondensers; and, storage as kinetic energy. 21 refs., 21 figs

  18. The thermal impact of aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) systems: a case study in the Netherlands, combining monitoring and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Philip W.; Kooi, Henk; Stuyfzand, Pieter J.

    2015-05-01

    Results are presented of a comprehensive thermal impact study on an aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system in Bilthoven, the Netherlands. The study involved monitoring of the thermal impact and modeling of the three-dimensional temperature evolution of the storage aquifer and over- and underlying units. Special attention was paid to non-uniformity of the background temperature, which varies laterally and vertically in the aquifer. Two models were applied with different levels of detail regarding initial conditions and heterogeneity of hydraulic and thermal properties: a fine-scale heterogeneity model which construed the lateral and vertical temperature distribution more realistically, and a simplified model which represented the aquifer system with only a limited number of homogeneous layers. Fine-scale heterogeneity was shown to be important to accurately model the ATES-impacted vertical temperature distribution and the maximum and minimum temperatures in the storage aquifer, and the spatial extent of the thermal plumes. The fine-scale heterogeneity model resulted in larger thermally impacted areas and larger temperature anomalies than the simplified model. The models showed that scattered and scarce monitoring data of ATES-induced temperatures can be interpreted in a useful way by groundwater and heat transport modeling, resulting in a realistic assessment of the thermal impact.

  19. Radiation Heat Transfer Modeling Improved for Phase-Change, Thermal Energy Storage Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerslake, Thomas W.; Jacqmin, David A.

    1998-01-01

    Spacecraft solar dynamic power systems typically use high-temperature phase-change materials to efficiently store thermal energy for heat engine operation in orbital eclipse periods. Lithium fluoride salts are particularly well suited for this application because of their high heat of fusion, long-term stability, and appropriate melting point. Considerable attention has been focused on the development of thermal energy storage (TES) canisters that employ either pure lithium fluoride (LiF), with a melting point of 1121 K, or eutectic composition lithium-fluoride/calcium-difluoride (LiF-20CaF2), with a 1040 K melting point, as the phase-change material. Primary goals of TES canister development include maximizing the phase-change material melt fraction, minimizing the canister mass per unit of energy storage, and maximizing the phase-change material thermal charge/discharge rates within the limits posed by the container structure.

  20. Frequency Transient Suppression in Hybrid Electric Ship Power Systems: A Model Predictive Control Strategy for Converter Control with Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viknash Shagar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to understand how the common phenomenon of fluctuations in propulsion and service load demand contribute to frequency transients in hybrid electric ship power systems. These fluctuations arise mainly due to changes in sea conditions resulting in significant variations in the propulsion load demand of ships. This leads to poor power quality for the power system that can potentially cause hazardous conditions such as blackout on board the ship. Effects of these fluctuations are analysed using a hybrid electric ship power system model and a proposed Model Predictive Control (MPC strategy to prevent propagation of transients from the propellers into the shipboard power system. A battery energy storage system, which is directly connected to the DC-link of the frequency converter, is used as the smoothing element. Case studies that involve propulsion and service load changes have been carried out to investigate the efficacy of the proposed solution. Simulation results show that the proposed solution with energy storage and MPC is able to contain frequency transients in the shipboard power system within the permissible levels stipulated by the relevant power quality standards. These findings will help ship builders and operators to consider using battery energy storage systems controlled by advanced control techniques such as MPC to improve the power quality on board ships.

  1. Fixed-speed and Variable-speed Pumped Storage Dispatch Model in Power Systems with High Renewable Penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Bo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available According to different operating characteristics of pumped storage fixed speed unit and variable speed unit, a joint dispatching model of pumped storage unit and other types of units based on mixed integer linear optimization is constructed. The model takes into account the operating conditions, reservoir capacity, cycle type and other pumped storage unit constraints, but also consider the frequent start and stop and the stability of the operation of the unit caused by the loss. Using the Cplex solver to solve the model, the empirical example of the provincial power grid shows that the model can effectively arrange the pumping storage speed and the dispatching operation of the variable speed unit under the precondition of economic life of the unit, and give full play to the function of peak shaving and accommodating new energy. Because of its more flexible regulation characteristics of power generation and pumping conditions, the variable speed unit can better improve the operating conditions of other units in the system and promote the new energy dissipation.

  2. Fixed-speed and Variable-speed Pumped Storage Dispatch Model in Power Systems with High Renewable Penetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Bo; Zong, Jin; Xu, Zhicheng

    2018-06-01

    According to different operating characteristics of pumped storage fixed speed unit and variable speed unit, a joint dispatching model of pumped storage unit and other types of units based on mixed integer linear optimization is constructed. The model takes into account the operating conditions, reservoir capacity, cycle type and other pumped storage unit constraints, but also consider the frequent start and stop and the stability of the operation of the unit caused by the loss. Using the Cplex solver to solve the model, the empirical example of the provincial power grid shows that the model can effectively arrange the pumping storage speed and the dispatching operation of the variable speed unit under the precondition of economic life of the unit, and give full play to the function of peak shaving and accommodating new energy. Because of its more flexible regulation characteristics of power generation and pumping conditions, the variable speed unit can better improve the operating conditions of other units in the system and promote the new energy dissipation.

  3. Gas hydrate cool storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ternes, M.P.; Kedl, R.J.

    1984-09-12

    The invention presented relates to the development of a process utilizing a gas hydrate as a cool storage medium for alleviating electric load demands during peak usage periods. Several objectives of the invention are mentioned concerning the formation of the gas hydrate as storage material in a thermal energy storage system within a heat pump cycle system. The gas hydrate was formed using a refrigerant in water and an example with R-12 refrigerant is included. (BCS)

  4. Optimal Real-Time Scheduling for Hybrid Energy Storage Systems and Wind Farms Based on Model Predictive Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Xiong

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Energy storage devices are expected to be more frequently implemented in wind farms in near future. In this paper, both pumped hydro and fly wheel storage systems are used to assist a wind farm to smooth the power fluctuations. Due to the significant difference in the response speeds of the two storages types, the wind farm coordination with two types of energy storage is a problem. This paper presents two methods for the coordination problem: a two-level hierarchical model predictive control (MPC method and a single-level MPC method. In the single-level MPC method, only one MPC controller coordinates the wind farm and the two storage systems to follow the grid scheduling. Alternatively, in the two-level MPC method, two MPC controllers are used to coordinate the wind farm and the two storage systems. The structure of two level MPC consists of outer level and inner level MPC. They run alternatively to perform real-time scheduling and then stop, thus obtaining long-term scheduling results and sending some results to the inner level as input. The single-level MPC method performs both long- and short-term scheduling tasks in each interval. The simulation results show that the methods proposed can improve the utilization of wind power and reduce wind power spillage. In addition, the single-level MPC and the two-level MPC are not interchangeable. The single-level MPC has the advantage of following the grid schedule while the two-level MPC can reduce the optimization time by 60%.

  5. The state of the Primary Degradation Factors and Models of Concrete Cask in Spent Fuel Dry Storage System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. S.; Lee, K. S.; Choi, J. W.; Kwon, S.

    2010-01-01

    In South Korea, a total of twenty nuclear reactors are in operation; the cumulative amount of spent fuel is estimated to be 10,490 MTU in 2009. The full capacity of the waste storage is expected to be saturated in around 2016. However, a national strategy for spent fuel management has not yet been set down and high level waste (HLW) such as spent fuel will have to be stored at-reactor (AR) by re-racking. Recently an worldwide interest on the dry storage has increased especially around U.S. With a perspective of the material of the spent fuel dry storage cask, the system can be divided into two types of metal and concrete casks. The concrete type cask is a very attractive option because of the cost competitiveness of concrete material and its relatively long-term durability. Although the type of metal cask is chosen, the use of cementitious material is inevitable at least for the cask foundation and the facilities for the protection of dry storage structures. Upon being placed, the performance of concrete begins to deteriorate from the intrinsic change of cement and the physical/ chemical environmental conditions. Thus it is necessary to evaluate the durability of a concrete for the increase of reliability and safety of the whole system during the designed life time. Considering the dry storage system of spent fuel is the item which can create a lot of added value, the development of a dry storage cask is usually initiated by private enterprises among developed countries. The detail research results and specific design criteria for the safety assessment of a concrete cask have not been revealed to the public well. In this paper, the major expected degradation factors and related degradation models of concrete casks were investigated as part of the safety assessment by taking account of the site where Korea industrial nuclear power plants are located

  6. Electrochemical hydrogen Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Digby Macdonald

    2010-08-09

    As the global need for energy increases, scientists and engineers have found a possible solution by using hydrogen to power our world. Although hydrogen can be combusted as a fuel, it is considered an energy carrier for use in fuel cells wherein it is consumed (oxidized) without the production of greenhouse gases and produces electrical energy with high efficiency. Chemical storage of hydrogen involves release of hydrogen in a controlled manner from materials in which the hydrogen is covalently bound. Sodium borohydride and aminoborane are two materials given consideration as chemical hydrogen storage materials by the US Department of Energy. A very significant barrier to adoption of these materials as hydrogen carriers is their regeneration from 'spent fuel,' i.e., the material remaining after discharge of hydrogen. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) formed a Center of Excellence for Chemical Hydrogen Storage, and this work stems from that project. The DOE has identified boron hydrides as being the main compounds of interest as hydrogen storage materials. The various boron hydrides are then oxidized to release their hydrogen, thereby forming a 'spent fuel' in the form of a lower boron hydride or even a boron oxide. The ultimate goal of this project is to take the oxidized boron hydrides as the spent fuel and hydrogenate them back to their original form so they can be used again as a fuel. Thus this research is essentially a boron hydride recycling project. In this report, research directed at regeneration of sodium borohydride and aminoborane is described. For sodium borohydride, electrochemical reduction of boric acid and sodium metaborate (representing spent fuel) in alkaline, aqueous solution has been investigated. Similarly to literature reports (primarily patents), a variety of cathode materials were tried in these experiments. Additionally, approaches directed at overcoming electrostatic repulsion of borate anion from the cathode, not

  7. Electrochemical hydrogen Storage Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, Digby

    2010-01-01

    As the global need for energy increases, scientists and engineers have found a possible solution by using hydrogen to power our world. Although hydrogen can be combusted as a fuel, it is considered an energy carrier for use in fuel cells wherein it is consumed (oxidized) without the production of greenhouse gases and produces electrical energy with high efficiency. Chemical storage of hydrogen involves release of hydrogen in a controlled manner from materials in which the hydrogen is covalently bound. Sodium borohydride and aminoborane are two materials given consideration as chemical hydrogen storage materials by the US Department of Energy. A very significant barrier to adoption of these materials as hydrogen carriers is their regeneration from 'spent fuel,' i.e., the material remaining after discharge of hydrogen. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) formed a Center of Excellence for Chemical Hydrogen Storage, and this work stems from that project. The DOE has identified boron hydrides as being the main compounds of interest as hydrogen storage materials. The various boron hydrides are then oxidized to release their hydrogen, thereby forming a 'spent fuel' in the form of a lower boron hydride or even a boron oxide. The ultimate goal of this project is to take the oxidized boron hydrides as the spent fuel and hydrogenate them back to their original form so they can be used again as a fuel. Thus this research is essentially a boron hydride recycling project. In this report, research directed at regeneration of sodium borohydride and aminoborane is described. For sodium borohydride, electrochemical reduction of boric acid and sodium metaborate (representing spent fuel) in alkaline, aqueous solution has been investigated. Similarly to literature reports (primarily patents), a variety of cathode materials were tried in these experiments. Additionally, approaches directed at overcoming electrostatic repulsion of borate anion from the cathode, not described in the

  8. Measurement-based harmonic current modeling of mobile storage for power quality study in the distribution system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenge Christoph

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Electric vehicles (EVs can be utilized as mobile storages in a power system. The use of battery chargers can cause current harmonics in the supplied AC system. In order to analyze the impact of different EVs with regardto their number and their emission of current harmonics, a generic harmonic current model of EV types was built and implemented in the power system simulation tool PSS®NETOMAC. Based on the measurement data for different types of EVs three standardized harmonic EV models were developed and parametrized. Further, the identified harmonic models are used by the computation of load flow in a modeled, German power distribution system. As a benchmark, a case scenario was studied regarding a high market penetration of EVs in the year 2030 for Germany. The impact of the EV charging on the power distribution system was analyzed and evaluated with valid power quality standards.

  9. Battery storage for supplementing renewable energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The battery storage for renewable energy systems section of the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations describes structures and models to support the technical and economic status of emerging renewable energy options for electricity supply.

  10. Hybrid model predictive control of a residential HVAC system with on-site thermal energy generation and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorentini, Massimo; Wall, Josh; Ma, Zhenjun; Braslavsky, Julio H.; Cooper, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A comprehensive approach to managing thermal energy in residential buildings. • Solar-assisted HVAC system with on-site energy generation and storage. • Mixed logic-dynamical building model identified using experimental data. • Design and implementation of a logic-dynamical model predictive control strategy. • MPC applied to the Net-Zero Energy house winner of the Solar Decathlon China 2013. - Abstract: This paper describes the development, implementation and experimental investigation of a Hybrid Model Predictive Control (HMPC) strategy to control solar-assisted heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems with on-site thermal energy generation and storage. A comprehensive approach to the thermal energy management of a residential building is presented to optimise the scheduling of the available thermal energy resources to meet a comfort objective. The system has a hybrid nature with both continuous variables and discrete, logic-driven operating modes. The proposed control strategy is organized in two hierarchical levels. At the high-level, an HMPC controller with a 24-h prediction horizon and a 1-h control step is used to select the operating mode of the HVAC system. At the low-level, each operating mode is optimised using a 1-h rolling prediction horizon with a 5-min control step. The proposed control strategy has been practically implemented on the Building Management and Control System (BMCS) of a Net Zero-Energy Solar Decathlon house. This house features a sophisticated HVAC system comprising of an air-based photovoltaic thermal (PVT) collector and a phase change material (PCM) thermal storage integrated with the air-handling unit (AHU) of a ducted reverse-cycle heat pump system. The simulation and experimental results demonstrated the high performance achievable using an HMPC approach to optimising complex multimode HVAC systems in residential buildings, illustrating efficient selection of the appropriate operating modes

  11. 2D Petroleum System Modeling in Support of Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage in the Northeast Texas Panhandle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gragg, E.; Van Wijk, J. W.; Balch, R. S.

    2016-12-01

    A 40 mile long 2D petroleum system model has been constructed and simulated along a 2D reflection seismic line in the western Anadarko Basin. Petroleum system models are useful for predicting carbon storage capacity, characterizing regional CO2 plume migration risks, predicting how future fields may respond to CO2-EOR via hydrocarbon compositional estimations and characterizing the petroleum system that make sites attractive for storage. This work is part of the Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration Phase III large scale injection operation at Farnsworth Unit Ochiltree Co., Texas. Farnsworth Unit is a mature oil field producing from Morrowan Sandstone incised valley deposits. The project goal is to evaluate the injection and storage of 1 million metric tons of man-made CO2. Geologic carbon storage and utilization via CO2-enhanced oil recovery operations is a method under active research which aims to mitigate climate change via emission reductions while meeting current energy demands. The 2D model was constructed using 2D regional reflection seismic data, geophysical logs and core data. Simulations are forward modeled over 542 Ma of the Anadarko Basins geologic history. The research illustrates (1) in the unlikely case of CO2 leakage out of the reservoir, buoyancy driven regional migration risk is to the northwest-northeast (2) Morrowan play hydrocarbons in the Northeast Texas Panhandle dominantly migrated from the Thirteen Finger Limestone further basinward (3) the regions tectonic evolution has played an important role on the pressure and hydraulic history of reservoirs. Farnsworth's reservoir was discovered as under-pressured, the exact process(s) giving rise to this condition are not well-understood and need further investigation. Moreover, the heat flow model used in this study will aid understanding of the diagenetic evolution of the reservoir and caprocks better. The petroleum system modeling conducted here has accurately predicted 1st order

  12. Modelling and analysis of a novel compressed air energy storage system for trigeneration based on electrical energy peak load shifting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv, Song; He, Wei; Zhang, Aifeng; Li, Guiqiang; Luo, Bingqing; Liu, Xianghua

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A new CAES system for trigeneration based on electrical peak load shifting is proposed. • The theoretical models and the thermodynamics process are established and analyzed. • The relevant parameters influencing its performance have been discussed and optimized. • A novel energy and economic evaluation methods is proposed to evaluate the performance of the system. - Abstract: The compressed air energy storage (CAES) has made great contribution to both electricity and renewable energy. In the pursuit of reduced energy consumption and relieving power utility pressure effectively, a novel trigeneration system based on CAES for cooling, heating and electricity generation by electrical energy peak load shifting is proposed in this paper. The cooling power is generated by the direct expansion of compressed air, and the heating power is recovered in the process of compression and storage. Based on the working principle of the typical CAES, the theoretical analysis of the thermodynamic system models are established and the characteristics of the system are analyzed. A novel method used to evaluate energy and economic performance is proposed. A case study is conducted, and the economic-social and technical feasibility of the proposed system are discussed. The results show that the trigeneration system works efficiently at relatively low pressure, and the efficiency is expected to reach about 76.3% when air is compressed and released by 15 bar. The annual monetary cost saving annually is about 53.9%. Moreover, general considerations about the proposed system are also presented.

  13. Tribology of magnetic storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhushan, Bharat

    1992-01-01

    The construction and the materials used in different magnetic storage devices are defined. The theories of friction and adhesion, interface temperatures, wear, and solid-liquid lubrication relevant to magnetic storage systems are presented. Experimental data are presented wherever possible to support the relevant theories advanced.

  14. Optimal Active Power Control of A Wind Farm Equipped with Energy Storage System based on Distributed Model Predictive Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Haoran; Wu, Qiuwei; Guo, Qinglai

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the Distributed Model Predictive Control (D-MPC) of a wind farm equipped with fast and short-term Energy Storage System (ESS) for optimal active power control using the fast gradient method via dual decomposition. The primary objective of the D-MPC control of the wind farm...... is power reference tracking from system operators. Besides, by optimal distribution of the power references to individual wind turbines and the ESS unit, the wind turbine mechanical loads are alleviated. With the fast gradient method, the convergence rate of the DMPC is significantly improved which leads...

  15. OPTIMUM HEAT STORAGE DESIGN FOR SDHW SYSTEMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Louise Jivan; Furbo, Simon

    1997-01-01

    Two simulation models have been used to analyse the heat storage design’s influence on the thermal performance of solar domestic hot water (SDHW) systems. One model is especially designed for traditional SDHW systems based on a heat storage design where the solar heat exchanger is a built-in spiral....... The other model is especially designed for low flow SDHW systems based on a mantle tank.The tank design’s influence on the thermal performance of the SDHW systems has been investigated in a way where only one tank parameter has been changed at a time in the calculations. In this way a direct analysis...

  16. Volatile liquid storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laverman, R.J.; Winters, P.J.; Rinehart, J.K.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a method of collecting and abating emission from a volatile liquid in an above ground storage tank. It comprises the liquid storage tank having a bottom, a vertical cylindrical circular wall having a lower edge portion joined to the bottom, and an external fixed roof, the tank having an internal floating roof floating on a volatile liquid stored in the tank, and air vent means in the tank in communication with a vapor space in the tank constituting at least the space above the floating roof when the floating roof floats on a predetermined maximum volume of volatile liquid in the tank; permitting ambient air; pumping emission laden air from the tank vapor space above the floating roof; and by means of the emissions abatement apparatus eliminating most of the emission from the emissions laden air with formation of a gaseous effluent and then discharging the resulting gaseous effluent to the atmosphere

  17. Experimental investigation of the dynamic behavior of a large-scale refrigeration – PCM energy storage system. Validation of a complete model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jing; Tremeac, Brice; Terrier, Marie-France; Charni, Mehdi; Gagnière, Emilie; Couenne, Françoise; Hamroun, Boussad; Jallut, Christian

    2016-01-01

    In the area of buildings refrigeration, the use of thermal energy storages coupled with heat pumps is a significant way for reducing the operating costs and optimizing the design of equipment. In this paper, a prototype of large-scale refrigeration - PCM (Phase Change Material) energy storage system is described, from which experimental results on transient behavior are obtained. A dynamic model for transient simulation of the coupled system is presented. The fluid flows through the heat exchangers and the storage tank are represented by a cascade of Continuous Stirred Tank Reactors (CSTRs). Switching procedures between different model configurations associated to phase transitions within heat exchangers and PCM storage tank are mathematically performed by matrix operations. The compressor, the expansion valve and the pressure drop across the evaporator are represented by static models based on empirical correlations. A PI controller for the expansion valve opening is integrated in the heat pump model to maintain the superheat at evaporator exit. The model is validated by a complete and detailed comparison between simulation and experimental results. - Highlights: • Experimental investigation of a refrigeration-PCM storage system is presented. • A detailed dynamic model for the coupled system is proposed. • Fluid flows in heat exchangers and PCM storage are represented by a cascade of CSTRs. • Phase transitions events according to time and space within heat exchangers and PCM storage are considered in the model. • Complete comparisons between experimental and simulation results are carried out.

  18. Grand Challenges facing Storage Systems

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    In this talk, we will discuss the future of storage systems. In particular, we will focus on several big challenges which we are facing in storage, such as being able to build, manage and backup really massive storage systems, being able to find information of interest, being able to do long-term archival of data, and so on. We also present ideas and research being done to address these challenges, and provide a perspective on how we expect these challenges to be resolved as we go forward.

  19. Effects of certain polyphenols and extracts on furans and acrylamide formation in model system, and total furans during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral, Rasim Alper; Dogan, Mahmut; Sarioglu, Kemal

    2014-01-01

    Using a glucose-glycine and asparagine-fructose system as a Maillard reaction model, the effects of seven polyphenols and solid phase extracts of three plants on the formation of furans and acrylamide were investigated. The polyphenols and extracts were used in biscuit formulation and acrylamide formation was observed. They were used for the storage of the glycine-glucose model system at three different temperatures. The addition of some of the extracts and polyphenols significantly decreased furan formation to different extents. All phenolic compounds and plant extracts decreased in the range of 30.8-85% in the model system except for oleuropein, and all of them decreased in the range of 10.3-19.2% in biscuit. Total furan formation was inhibited by caffeic acid, punicalagin, epicatechin, ECE and PPE during storage. This study evaluated and found the inhibitory effect on the formation of furans and acrylamide in Maillard reactions by the use of some plant extracts and polyphenols. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. An Optimization Model for Large–Scale Wind Power Grid Connection Considering Demand Response and Energy Storage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongfu Tan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available To reduce the influence of wind power output uncertainty on power system stability, demand response (DRPs and energy storage systems (ESSs are introduced while solving scheduling optimization problems. To simulate wind power scenarios, this paper uses Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS to generate the initial scenario set and constructs a scenario reduction strategy based on Kantorovich distance. Since DRPs and ESSs can influence the distribution of demand load, this paper constructs a joint scheduling optimization model for wind power, ESSs and DRPs under the objective of minimizing total coal cost, and constraints of power demand and supply balance, users’ demand elasticity, thermal units’ startup-shutdown, thermal units’ output power climbing and wind power backup service. To analyze the influences of ESSs and DRPs on system wind power consumption capacity, example simulation is made in a 10 thermal units system with a 1000 MW wind farm and 400 MW energy storage systems under four simulation scenarios. The simulation results show that the introduction of DRPs and ESSs could promote system wind power consumption capacity with significantly economic and environment benefits, which include less coal consumption and less pollutant emission; and the optimization effect reaches the optimum when DRPs and ESSs are both introduced.

  1. Storage Policies and Optimal Shape of a Storage System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaerpour, N.; De Koster, René; Yu, Yugang

    2013-01-01

    The response time of a storage system is mainly influenced by its shape (configuration), the storage assignment and retrieval policies, and the location of the input/output (I/O) points. In this paper, we show that the optimal shape of a storage system, which minimises the response time for single

  2. Modeling nurses' attitude toward using automated unit-based medication storage and distribution systems: an extension of the technology acceptance model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar-Rodríguez, Tomás; Romero-Alonso, María Mercedes

    2013-05-01

    This article analyzes the attitude of nurses toward the use of automated unit-based medication storage and distribution systems and identifies influencing factors. Understanding these factors provides an opportunity to explore actions that might be taken to boost adoption by potential users. The theoretical grounding for this research is the Technology Acceptance Model. The Technology Acceptance Model specifies the causal relationships between perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, attitude toward using, and actual usage behavior. The research model has six constructs, and nine hypotheses were generated from connections between these six constructs. These constructs include perceived risks, experience level, and training. The findings indicate that these three external variables are related to the perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness of automated unit-based medication storage and distribution systems, and therefore, they have a significant influence on attitude toward the use of these systems.

  3. Photovoltaic power systems energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buldini, P.L.

    1991-01-01

    Basically, the solar photovoltaic power system consists of: Array of solar panels; Charge/voltage stabilizer; Blocking diode and Storage device. The storage device is a very important part of the system due to the necessity to harmonize the inevitable time shift between energy supply and demand. As energy storage, different devices can be utilized, such as hydropumping, air or other gas compression, flywheel, superconducting magnet, hydrogen generation and so on, but actually secondary (rechargeable) electrochemical cells appear to be the best storage device, due to the direct use for recharge of the d.c. current provided by the solar panels, without any intermediate step of energy transformation and its consequent loss of efficiency

  4. Hydrogen storage and delivery system development: Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handrock, J.L. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Hydrogen storage and delivery is an important element in effective hydrogen utilization for energy applications and is an important part of the FY1994-1998 Hydrogen Program Implementation Plan. This project is part of the Field Work Proposal entitled Hydrogen Utilization in Internal Combustion Engines (ICE). The goal of the Hydrogen Storage and Delivery System Development Project is to expand the state-of-the-art of hydrogen storage and delivery system design and development. At the foundation of this activity is the development of both analytical and experimental evaluation platforms. These tools provide the basis for an integrated approach for coupling hydrogen storage and delivery technology to the operating characteristics of potential hydrogen energy use applications. Results of the analytical model development portion of this project will be discussed. Analytical models have been developed for internal combustion engine (ICE) hybrid and fuel cell driven vehicles. The dependence of hydride storage system weight and energy use efficiency on engine brake efficiency and exhaust temperature for ICE hybrid vehicle applications is examined. Results show that while storage system weight decreases with increasing engine brake efficiency energy use efficiency remains relatively unchanged. The development, capability, and use of a recently developed fuel cell vehicle storage system model will also be discussed. As an example of model use, power distribution and control for a simulated driving cycle is presented. Model calibration results of fuel cell fluid inlet and exit temperatures at various fuel cell idle speeds, assumed fuel cell heat capacities, and ambient temperatures are presented. The model predicts general increases in temperature with fuel cell power and differences between inlet and exit temperatures, but under predicts absolute temperature values, especially at higher power levels.

  5. Modelling transient temperature distribution for injecting hot water through a well to an aquifer thermal energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shaw-Yang; Yeh, Hund-Der; Li, Kuang-Yi

    2010-10-01

    Heat storage systems are usually used to store waste heat and solar energy. In this study, a mathematical model is developed to predict both the steady-state and transient temperature distributions of an aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system after hot water is injected through a well into a confined aquifer. The ATES has a confined aquifer bounded by aquicludes with different thermomechanical properties and geothermal gradients along the depth. Consider that the heat is transferred by conduction and forced convection within the aquifer and by conduction within the aquicludes. The dimensionless semi-analytical solutions of temperature distributions of the ATES system are developed using Laplace and Fourier transforms and their corresponding time-domain results are evaluated numerically by the modified Crump method. The steady-state solution is obtained from the transient solution through the final-value theorem. The effect of the heat transfer coefficient on aquiclude temperature distribution is appreciable only near the outer boundaries of the aquicludes. The present solutions are useful for estimating the temperature distribution of heat injection and the aquifer thermal capacity of ATES systems.

  6. Robust holographic storage system design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takahiro; Watanabe, Minoru

    2011-11-21

    Demand is increasing daily for large data storage systems that are useful for applications in spacecraft, space satellites, and space robots, which are all exposed to radiation-rich space environment. As candidates for use in space embedded systems, holographic storage systems are promising because they can easily provided the demanded large-storage capability. Particularly, holographic storage systems, which have no rotation mechanism, are demanded because they are virtually maintenance-free. Although a holographic memory itself is an extremely robust device even in a space radiation environment, its associated lasers and drive circuit devices are vulnerable. Such vulnerabilities sometimes engendered severe problems that prevent reading of all contents of the holographic memory, which is a turn-off failure mode of a laser array. This paper therefore presents a proposal for a recovery method for the turn-off failure mode of a laser array on a holographic storage system, and describes results of an experimental demonstration. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  7. Decentralized model for distributed storage system%去中心化的分布式存储模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝琨; 信俊昌; 黄达; 王国仁

    2017-01-01

    In the distributed storage systems, the metadata stored on the central node, which is prone to a single point of failure and is easily modified by malicious ones. Although the problem can be avoided to some extent by using backup nodes, the synchronization and handover between the nodes are less efficient. At the same time, nodes that store metadata can agree on modifying metadata, which is lacking credibility. For the problems of distributed storage system, a decentral-ized data storage model is proposed, namely DMB(Decentralized Metadata Blockchain), which combines with the charac-teristics of blockchain. The DMB model guarantees metadata integrity by saving metadata in blocks, redundant storage for blockchain, and collaboration validation. The model is divided into two phases which are storage phase and verifica-tion phase. In the storage phase, the model sends the user's signature and locations of data to verification nodes, and uses the signature and data locations to generate metadata block. In the verification phase, the verification nodes check whether the local and global states of the metadata block chain are the same. If they are not the same, the DMB model performs the synchronization of the state, and then the verification nodes retrieve local the metadata blockchain to verify the integrity of metadata. The theoretical and experimental results show that the DMB model can guarantee the retrievability and possession of the metadata, and has better concurrent processing ability, which has little effect on the efficiency of the data stored.%分布式数据存储过程中的元数据保存在中心节点上,容易造成单点故障和易被恶意修改,安全性较差.虽然,通过引入备份节点可以一定程度上避免该问题,但节点之间的同步和切换效率较低.同时,存储元数据的节点可以达成共识修改元数据,缺乏可信性.针对传统分布式存储中存在的问题,结合区块链的特点,提出一种去中心化

  8. Load Shifting and Storage of Cooling Energy through Ice Bank or Ice Slurry Systems: modelling and experimental analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grozdek, Marino

    2009-10-15

    Ice based Cool Thermal Energy Storage (CTES) systems have attracted much attention during last few decades. The reasons are mainly of economical and environmental nature. Compared to conventional refrigeration and air-conditioning systems without cool thermal energy storage, implementation of CTES will increase environmental standards and overall efficiency of the energy systems as it contributes to the phase-out of synthetic refrigerants and reduces peak loads in electricity grids. For the application of a cool thermal energy storages in refrigeration installations and HVAC systems in industry and building sector, it is necessary to have appropriate design tools in order to sufficiently accurate predict their performance. In this thesis theoretical and experimental investigations of two ice based cool thermal energy storage systems, namely static, indirect, external melt, ice-on-coil, i.e. ice bank system and dynamic, ice slurry cool thermal energy storage system are carried out. An ice bank storage technology for cooling purposes is known for a long time. The main drawbacks which are hindering its wider use are the system complexity, high first costs, system efficiency which is highly dependant on design, control and monitoring of the system, etc. On the other hand, ice slurry technology was not well studied until recently, while in the current scientific literature there are still differences between results and conclusions reported by different investigators. The aim of the present thesis is to extend the knowledge in the field of ice based CTES systems, thereby contributing in the development and wider utilization of those systems. In the first part of the thesis a computer application, named 'BankaLeda' is presented. It enables simulation of an ice bank system performance. In order to verify developed simulation model an experimental evaluation has been performed. Field measurements have been conducted on a two module silo which was installed as a

  9. Modeling and optimization of energy generation and storage systems for thermal conditioning of buildings targeting conceptual building design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grahovac, Milica

    2012-11-29

    The thermal conditioning systems are responsible for almost half of the energy consump-tion by commercial buildings. In many European countries and in the USA, buildings account for around 40% of primary energy consumption and it is therefore vital to explore further ways to reduce the HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning) system energy consumption. This thesis investigates the relationship between the energy genera-tion and storage systems for thermal conditioning of buildings (shorter: primary HVAC systems) and the conceptual building design. Certain building design decisions irreversibly influence a building's energy performance and, conversely, many generation and storage components impose restrictions on building design and, by their nature, cannot be introduced at a later design stage. The objective is, firstly, to develop a method to quantify this influence, in terms of primary HVAC system dimensions, its cost, emissions and energy consumption and, secondly, to enable the use of the developed method by architects during the conceptual design. In order to account for the non-stationary effects of the intermittent renewable energy sources (RES), thermal storage and for the component part load efficiencies, a time domain system simulation is required. An abstract system simulation method is proposed based on seven pre-configured primary HVAC system models, including components such as boil-ers, chillers and cooling towers, thermal storage, solar thermal collectors, and photovoltaic modules. A control strategy is developed for each of the models and their annual quasi-stationary simulation is performed. The performance profiles obtained are then used to calculate the energy consumption, carbon emissions and costs. The annuity method has been employed to calculate the cost. Optimization is used to automatically size the HVAC systems, based on their simulation performance. Its purpose is to identify the system component dimensions that provide

  10. Modeling and optimization of energy generation and storage systems for thermal conditioning of buildings targeting conceptual building design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grahovac, Milica

    2012-11-29

    The thermal conditioning systems are responsible for almost half of the energy consump-tion by commercial buildings. In many European countries and in the USA, buildings account for around 40% of primary energy consumption and it is therefore vital to explore further ways to reduce the HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning) system energy consumption. This thesis investigates the relationship between the energy genera-tion and storage systems for thermal conditioning of buildings (shorter: primary HVAC systems) and the conceptual building design. Certain building design decisions irreversibly influence a building's energy performance and, conversely, many generation and storage components impose restrictions on building design and, by their nature, cannot be introduced at a later design stage. The objective is, firstly, to develop a method to quantify this influence, in terms of primary HVAC system dimensions, its cost, emissions and energy consumption and, secondly, to enable the use of the developed method by architects during the conceptual design. In order to account for the non-stationary effects of the intermittent renewable energy sources (RES), thermal storage and for the component part load efficiencies, a time domain system simulation is required. An abstract system simulation method is proposed based on seven pre-configured primary HVAC system models, including components such as boil-ers, chillers and cooling towers, thermal storage, solar thermal collectors, and photovoltaic modules. A control strategy is developed for each of the models and their annual quasi-stationary simulation is performed. The performance profiles obtained are then used to calculate the energy consumption, carbon emissions and costs. The annuity method has been employed to calculate the cost. Optimization is used to automatically size the HVAC systems, based on their simulation performance. Its purpose is to identify the system component dimensions that provide minimal

  11. A model predictive framework of Ground Source Heat Pump coupled with Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage System in heating and cooling equipment of a building

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rostampour Samarin, V.; Bloemendal, J.M.; Keviczky, T.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a complete model of a building heating and cooling equipment and a ground source heat pump (GSHP) coupled with an aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system. This model contains detailed
    mathematical representations of building thermal dynamics, ATES system dynamics, heat

  12. Safety considerations for compressed hydrogen storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleason, D.

    2006-01-01

    An overview of the safety considerations for various hydrogen storage options, including stationary, vehicle storage, and mobile refueling technologies. Indications of some of the challenges facing the industry as the demand for hydrogen fuel storage systems increases. (author)

  13. Model of a thermal energy storage device integrated into a solar assisted heat pump system for space heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badescu, Viorel

    2003-01-01

    Details about modelling a sensible heat thermal energy storage (TES) device integrated into a space heating system are given. The two main operating modes are described. Solar air heaters provide thermal energy for driving a vapor compression heat pump. The TES unit ensures a more efficient usage of the collected solar energy. The TES operation is modeled by using two non-linear coupled partial differential equations for the temperature of the storage medium and heat transfer fluid, respectively. Preliminary results show that smaller TES units provide a higher heat flux to the heat pump vaporiser. This makes the small TES unit discharge more rapidly during time periods with higher thermal loads. The larger TES units provide heat during longer time periods, even if the heat flux they supply is generally smaller. The maximum heat flux is extracted from the TES unit during the morning. Both the heat pump COP and exergy efficiency decrease when the TES unit length increases. Also, the monthly thermal energy stored by the TES unit and the monthly energy necessary to drive the heat pump compressor are increased by increasing the TES unit length

  14. Hydrogen storage and generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dentinger, Paul M.; Crowell, Jeffrey A. W.

    2010-08-24

    A system for storing and generating hydrogen generally and, in particular, a system for storing and generating hydrogen for use in an H.sub.2/O.sub.2 fuel cell. The hydrogen storage system uses the beta particles from a beta particle emitting material to degrade an organic polymer material to release substantially pure hydrogen. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, beta particles from .sup.63Ni are used to release hydrogen from linear polyethylene.

  15. Storage monitoring system - 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mickelsen, B.; Nilsen, C.; Kinzel, R.; Davidson, B.; Pollock, R.

    1999-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has several ongoing projects in the area of nuclear materials management. These projects establish a core capability in monitoring stored nuclear materials. The overarching goal of these projects is to get the right sensor information to the right user to enhance the safety, security and to verify the legitimacy of use 1 of stored nuclear materials. An effort has been initiated to merge these projects into a common system. This paper provides an overview of several of these projects and the integration activities between them. (author)

  16. Storage monitoring system - 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mickelsen, B.; Nilsen, C.; Kinzel, R.; Davidson, B.; Pollock, R.

    1997-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has several ongoing projects in the area of nuclear materials management. These projects establish a core capability in monitoring stored nuclear materials. The overarching goal of these projects is to get the right sensor information to the right user to enhance the safety, security and to verify the legitimacy of use of stored nuclear materials. An effort has been initiated to merge these projects into a common system. This paper provides an overview of several of these projects and the integration activities between them

  17. VALORA: data base system for storage significant information used in the behavior modelling in the biosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdes R, M.; Aguero P, A.; Perez S, D.; Cancio P, D.

    2006-01-01

    The nuclear and radioactive facilities can emit to the environment effluents that contain radionuclides, which are dispersed and/or its accumulate in the atmosphere, the terrestrial surface and the surface waters. As part of the evaluations of radiological impact, it requires to be carried out qualitative and quantitative analysis. In many of the cases it doesn't have the real values of the parameters that are used in the modelling, neither it is possible to carry out their measure, for that to be able to carry out the evaluation it needs to be carried out an extensive search of that published in the literature about the possible values of each parameter, under similar conditions to the object of study, this work can be extensive. In this work the characteristics of the VALORA Database System developed with the purpose of organizing and to automate significant information that it appears in different sources (scientific or technique literature) of the parameters that are used in the modelling of the behavior of the pollutants in the environment and the values assigned to these parameters that are used in the evaluation of the radiological impact potential is described; VALORA allows the consultation and selection of the characteristic parametric data of different situations and processes that are required by the calculation pattern implemented. The software VALORA it is a component of a group of tools computer that have as objective to help to the resolution of dispersion models and transfer of pollutants. (Author)

  18. Charge Equalization Controller Algorithm for Series-Connected Lithium-Ion Battery Storage Systems: Modeling and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahammad A. Hannan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to develop an accurate model of a charge equalization controller (CEC that manages individual cell monitoring and equalizing by charging and discharging series-connected lithium-ion (Li-ion battery cells. In this concept, an intelligent control algorithm is developed to activate bidirectional cell switches and control direct current (DC–DC converter switches along with pulse width modulation (PWM generation. Individual models of an electric vehicle (EV-sustainable Li-ion battery, optimal power rating, a bidirectional flyback DC–DC converter, and charging and discharging controllers are integrated to develop a small-scale CEC model that can be implemented for 10 series-connected Li-ion battery cells. Results show that the charge equalization controller operates at 91% efficiency and performs well in equalizing both overdischarged and overcharged cells on time. Moreover, the outputs of the CEC model show that the desired balancing level occurs at 2% of state of charge difference and that all cells are operated within a normal range. The configuration, execution, control, power loss, cost, size, and efficiency of the developed CEC model are compared with those of existing controllers. The proposed model is proven suitable for high-tech storage systems toward the advancement of sustainable EV technologies and renewable source of applications.

  19. Modeling and Control System Design for an Integrated Solar Generation and Energy Storage System with a Ride-Through Capability: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X.; Yue, M.; Muljadi, E.

    2012-09-01

    This paper presents a generic approach for PV panel modeling. Data for this modeling can be easily obtained from manufacturer datasheet, which provides a convenient way for the researchers and engineers to investigate the PV integration issues. A two-stage power conversion system (PCS) is adopted in this paper for the PV generation system and a Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) can be connected to the dc-link through a bi-directional dc/dc converter. In this way, the BESS can provide some ancillary services which may be required in the high penetration PV generation scenario. In this paper, the fault ride-through (FRT) capability is specifically focused. The integrated BESS and PV generation system together with the associated control systems is modeled in PSCAD and Matlab platforms and the effectiveness of the controller is validated by the simulation results.

  20. Capacity Expansion Modeling for Storage Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, Elaine; Stoll, Brady; Mai, Trieu

    2017-04-03

    The Resource Planning Model (RPM) is a capacity expansion model designed for regional power systems and high levels of renewable generation. Recent extensions capture value-stacking for storage technologies, including batteries and concentrating solar power with storage. After estimating per-unit capacity value and curtailment reduction potential, RPM co-optimizes investment decisions and reduced-form dispatch, accounting for planning reserves; energy value, including arbitrage and curtailment reduction; and three types of operating reserves. Multiple technology cost scenarios are analyzed to determine level of deployment in the Western Interconnection under various conditions.

  1. A simplified model to study the location impact of latent thermal energy storage in building cooling heating and power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yin; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Yinping; Zhuo, Siwen

    2016-01-01

    Introducing the thermal energy storage (TES) equipment into the building cooling heating and power (BCHP) system proves to be an effective way to improve the part load performance of the whole system and save the primary energy consumption. The location of TES in BCHP has a great impact on the thermal performance of the whole system. In this paper, a simplified model of TES-BCHP system composed of a gas turbine, an absorption chiller/an absorption heat pump, and TES equipment with phase change materials (PCM) is presented. In order to minimize the primary energy consumption, the performances of BCHP systems with different PCM-TES locations (upstream and downstream) are analyzed and compared, for a typical hotel and an office building respectively. Moreover, the influence of the thermal performance of PCM-TES equipment on the energy saving effect of the whole system is investigated. The results confirm that PCM-TES can improve the energy efficiency and reduce the installed capacities of energy supply equipment, and that the optimal TES location in BCHP highly depends on the thermal performance of the TES equipment and the user load characteristics. It also indicates that: 1) the primary energy saving ratio of PCM-TES-BCHP increases with increasing NTU of TES; 2) for the studied cases, downstream TES location becomes more preferable when user loads fluctuate greatly; 3) only downstream TES can reduce the installed capacities of absorption chiller/absorption heat pump. This work can provide guidance for PCM-TES-BCHP system design. - Highlights: • A simplified model of the PCM-TES-BCHP system is established. • TES can increase energy efficiency and decrease installed capacity of equipment. • Primary energy saving ratio increases with increasing NTU of TES. • Downstream TES location is more preferable when user loads fluctuate greatly. • Optimal TES location depends on equipment performances and load characteristics.

  2. Molecular structure, dynamics and hydration studies of soybean storage proteins and model systems by nuclear magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakalis, L.T.

    1989-01-01

    The potential of high-resolution 13 C NMR for the characterization of soybean storage proteins was explored. The spectra of a commercial soy protein isolate as well as those of alkali-denatured 7S and 11S soybean globulins were well resolved and tentatively assigned. Relaxation measurements indicated fast motion for several side chains and the protein backbone. Protein fractions (11S and 7S) were also investigated at various states of molecular association. The large size of the multisubunit soybean storage proteins affected adversely both the resolution and the sensitivity of their 13 C NMR spectra. A comparison of 17 O and 2 H NMR relaxation rates of water in solutions of lysozyme (a model system) as a function of concentration, pH and magnetic field suggested that only 17 O monitors directly the hydration of lysozyme. Analysis of 17 O NMR lysozyme hydration data in terms of a two-state, fast-exchange, anisotropic model resulted in hydration parameters which are consistent with the protein's physico-chemical properties. The same model was applied to the calculation of the amount and mobility of bound water in soy protein dispersions by means of 17 O NMR relaxation measurements as a function of protein concentration. The protein concentration dependences of 1 H transverse NMR relaxation measurements at various pH and ionic strength values were fitted by a viral expansion. The interpretation of the data was based on the effects of protein aggregation, salt binding and protein group ionization on the NMR measurements. In all cases, relaxation rates showed a linear dependence on protein activity

  3. Compressed gas fuel storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, John J.; Tiller, Dale B.; Wienhold, Paul D.; Hildebrand, Richard J.

    2001-01-01

    A compressed gas vehicle fuel storage system comprised of a plurality of compressed gas pressure cells supported by shock-absorbing foam positioned within a shape-conforming container. The container is dimensioned relative to the compressed gas pressure cells whereby a radial air gap surrounds each compressed gas pressure cell. The radial air gap allows pressure-induced expansion of the pressure cells without resulting in the application of pressure to adjacent pressure cells or physical pressure to the container. The pressure cells are interconnected by a gas control assembly including a thermally activated pressure relief device, a manual safety shut-off valve, and means for connecting the fuel storage system to a vehicle power source and a refueling adapter. The gas control assembly is enclosed by a protective cover attached to the container. The system is attached to the vehicle with straps to enable the chassis to deform as intended in a high-speed collision.

  4. Modelling of a solar stove: small scale concentrating system with heat storage: potential for cooking in rural areas, Zimbabwe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chikukwa, Actor

    2007-10-15

    programme is to simulate the heat transfer mechanisms taking place within the fibrous receiver during operation. The predicted results are then presented and discussed in detail. The transportation of the hot air from the receiver, the ceding of its sensible energy to rockbed thermal storage and insulation are deliberated in chapter 5. Another major computer programme that models these processes is written, in which case, results for different inputs are discussed and compared. The need to devise an airpump capable of adjusting the mass flow rate in order to sustain a constant inlet air temperature to the storage is highlighted. Chapter 6 describes the design of the hotplates and their incorporation to the storage unit. The premise on which the third major computer model in this work is discussed in detail. This simulation programme attempts to model a cooking process, in which case, the thermal storage is simultaneously discharged. The results are presented and an overview of the merits of a successful system are briefly discussed. Finally, major conclusions, recommendations and areas for further study are given(Author). refs., figs., tabs

  5. Modelling of a solar stove: small scale concentrating system with heat storage: potential for cooking in rural areas, Zimbabwe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chikukwa, Actor

    2007-10-15

    programme is to simulate the heat transfer mechanisms taking place within the fibrous receiver during operation. The predicted results are then presented and discussed in detail. The transportation of the hot air from the receiver, the ceding of its sensible energy to rockbed thermal storage and insulation are deliberated in chapter 5. Another major computer programme that models these processes is written, in which case, results for different inputs are discussed and compared. The need to devise an airpump capable of adjusting the mass flow rate in order to sustain a constant inlet air temperature to the storage is highlighted. Chapter 6 describes the design of the hotplates and their incorporation to the storage unit. The premise on which the third major computer model in this work is discussed in detail. This simulation programme attempts to model a cooking process, in which case, the thermal storage is simultaneously discharged. The results are presented and an overview of the merits of a successful system are briefly discussed. Finally, major conclusions, recommendations and areas for further study are given(Author). refs., figs., tabs

  6. Modeling and Experimental Studies for the Thermal Performance of a Ground Heat Storage System Integrated with a Greenhouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kooli, Sami; Lazaar, Mariem; Hazami, Majdi; Farhat, Abdelhamid; Belghith, Ali

    2009-01-01

    A thermal model has been developed to investigate the potential of using the stored thermal energy of the ground for greenhouse heating and cooling with the help of a ground heat storage system (GHSS) integrated with the greenhouse located in the premises of CRTEn, Tunis, Tunisia. Experiments were conducted extensively throughout the years 2006-2007, and the developed model was validated against several consecutive arbitrary days experiments. The predicted and measured values of the greenhouse air temperatures and humidities that were verified, in terms of root mean square deviation and correlation coefficient, exhibited fair agreement. The results of this study showed that the GHS system kept the inside air temperature 1-3 degree higher than that of outside air at nighttime. The main reason for this low efficiency is due to the weak heat transfer area of the water-air heat exchanger. The simulation results indicate that the GHSS does not yield any significant effect for cooling greenhouses during sunny daytime. The GHSS fulfils its full potential for a heat transfer area of 150 m 2 . With this area, there occurs 4-6 degree rise of temperature in greenhouse as compared to the temperatures without GHSS and respectively 5-7.5 degree rise in greenhouse as compared to outside air

  7. Combined solar collector and energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, R. N. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A combined solar energy collector, fluid chiller and energy storage system is disclosed. A movable interior insulated panel in a storage tank is positionable flush against the storage tank wall to insulate the tank for energy storage. The movable interior insulated panel is alternately positionable to form a solar collector or fluid chiller through which the fluid flows by natural circulation.

  8. Solar hydrogen hybrid system with carbon storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zini, G.; Marazzi, R.; Pedrazzi, S.; Tartarini, P.

    2009-01-01

    A complete solar hydrogen hybrid system has been developed to convert, store and use energy from renewable energy sources. The theoretical model has been implemented in a dynamic model-based software environment and applied to real data to simulate its functioning over a one-year period. Results are used to study system design and performance. A photovoltaic sub-system directly drives a residential load and, if a surplus of energy is available, an electrolyzer to produce hydrogen which is stored in a cluster of nitrogen-cooled tanks filled with AX-21 activated carbons. When the power converted from the sun is not sufficient to cover load needs, hydrogen is desorbed from activated carbon tanks and sent to the fuel-cell sub-system so to obtain electrical energy. A set of sub-systems (bus-bar, buck- and boost-converters, inverter, control circuits), handle the electrical power according to a Programmable Logic Control unit so that the load can be driven with adequate Quality of Service. Hydrogen storage is achieved through physisorption (weak van der Waals interactions) between carbon atoms and hydrogen molecules occurring at low temperature (77 K) in carbon porous solids at relatively low pressures. Storage modeling has been developed using a Langmuir-Freundlich 1st type isotherm and experimental data available in literature. Physisorption storage provides safer operations along with good gravimetric (10.8% at 6 MPa) and volumetric (32.5 g/l at 6 MPa) storage capacities at costs that can be comparable to, or smaller than, ordinary storage techniques (compression or liquefaction). Several test runs have been performed on residential user data-sets: the system is capable of providing grid independence and can be designed to yield a surplus production of hydrogen which can be used to recharge electric car batteries or fill tanks for non-stationary uses. (author)

  9. Predicting Formation Damage in Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage Systems Utilizing a Coupled Hydraulic-Thermal-Chemical Reservoir Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Daniel; Regenspurg, Simona; Milsch, Harald; Blöcher, Guido; Kranz, Stefan; Saadat, Ali

    2014-05-01

    In aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) systems, large amounts of energy can be stored by injecting hot water into deep or intermediate aquifers. In a seasonal production-injection cycle, water is circulated through a system comprising the porous aquifer, a production well, a heat exchanger and an injection well. This process involves large temperature and pressure differences, which shift chemical equilibria and introduce or amplify mechanical processes. Rock-fluid interaction such as dissolution and precipitation or migration and deposition of fine particles will affect the hydraulic properties of the porous medium and may lead to irreversible formation damage. In consequence, these processes determine the long-term performance of the ATES system and need to be predicted to ensure the reliability of the system. However, high temperature and pressure gradients and dynamic feedback cycles pose challenges on predicting the influence of the relevant processes. Within this study, a reservoir model comprising a coupled hydraulic-thermal-chemical simulation was developed based on an ATES demonstration project located in the city of Berlin, Germany. The structural model was created with Petrel, based on data available from seismic cross-sections and wellbores. The reservoir simulation was realized by combining the capabilities of multiple simulation tools. For the reactive transport model, COMSOL Multiphysics (hydraulic-thermal) and PHREEQC (chemical) were combined using the novel interface COMSOL_PHREEQC, developed by Wissmeier & Barry (2011). It provides a MATLAB-based coupling interface between both programs. Compared to using COMSOL's built-in reactive transport simulator, PHREEQC additionally calculates adsorption and reaction kinetics and allows the selection of different activity coefficient models in the database. The presented simulation tool will be able to predict the most important aspects of hydraulic, thermal and chemical transport processes relevant to

  10. Tests of Cloud Computing and Storage System features for use in H1 Collaboration Data Preservation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Łobodziński, Bogdan

    2011-01-01

    Based on the currently developing strategy for data preservation and long-term analysis in HEP tests of possible future Cloud Computing based on the Eucalyptus Private Cloud platform and the petabyte scale storage open source system CEPH were performed for the H1 Collaboration. Improvements in computing power and strong development of storage systems suggests that a single Cloud Computing resource supported on a given site will be sufficient for analysis requirements beyond the end-date of experiments. This work describes our test-bed architecture which could be applied to fulfill the requirements of the physics program of H1 after the end date of the Collaboration. We discuss the reasons why we choose the Eucalyptus platform and CEPH storage infrastructure as well as our experience with installations and support of these infrastructures. Using our first test results we will examine performance characteristics, noticed failure states, deficiencies, bottlenecks and scaling boundaries.

  11. Online mass storage system detailed requirements document

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The requirements for an online high density magnetic tape data storage system that can be implemented in a multipurpose, multihost environment is set forth. The objective of the mass storage system is to provide a facility for the compact storage of large quantities of data and to make this data accessible to computer systems with minimum operator handling. The results of a market survey and analysis of candidate vendor who presently market high density tape data storage systems are included.

  12. Design of annual storage solar space heating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooper, F C; Cook, J D

    1979-11-01

    Design considerations for annual storage solar space heating systems are discussed. A simulation model for the performance of suh systems is described, and a method of classifying system configurations is proposed. It is shown that annual systems sized for unconstrained performance, with no unused collector or storage capacity, and no rejected heat, minimize solar acquisition costs. The optimal performance corresponds to the condition where the marginal storage-to-collector sizing ratio is equal to the corresponding marginal cost ratio.

  13. Storage Integration in Energy Systems: A New Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faure-Schuyer, Aurelie

    2016-06-01

    Energy storage is partly an 'old story' and a new one. Energy storage is an essential stabilizing factor in existing electrical systems. Looking forward, energy storage is being considered as a key element of the transformation of energy systems, given the higher shares of renewable generation integrating the systems and demand-side management offered to end-customers. Today, the cost of electricity produced from battery storage is approaching parity with electricity bought from the grid. For this trend to gain strength and energy storage to be part of new business models, energy policies and regulatory frameworks need to be adapted. (author)

  14. Use of GRACE Terrestrial Water Storage Retrievals to Evaluate Model Estimates by the Australian Water Resources Assessment System

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, A. I. J. M.; Renzullo, L. J.; Rodell, M.

    2011-01-01

    Terrestrial water storage (TWS) estimates retrievals from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission were compared to TWS modeled by the Australian Water Resources Assessment (AWRA) system. The aim was to test whether differences could be attributed and used to identify model deficiencies. Data for 2003 2010 were decomposed into the seasonal cycle, linear trends and the remaining de-trended anomalies before comparing. AWRA tended to have smaller seasonal amplitude than GRACE. GRACE showed a strong (greater than 15 millimeter per year) drying trend in northwest Australia that was associated with a preceding period of unusually wet conditions, whereas weaker drying trends in the southern Murray Basin and southwest Western Australia were associated with relatively dry conditions. AWRA estimated trends were less negative for these regions, while a more positive trend was estimated for areas affected by cyclone Charlotte in 2009. For 2003-2009, a decrease of 7-8 millimeter per year (50-60 cubic kilometers per year) was estimated from GRACE, enough to explain 6-7% of the contemporary rate of global sea level rise. This trend was not reproduced by the model. Agreement between model and data suggested that the GRACE retrieval error estimates are biased high. A scaling coefficient applied to GRACE TWS to reduce the effect of signal leakage appeared to degrade quantitative agreement for some regions. Model aspects identified for improvement included a need for better estimation of rainfall in northwest Australia, and more sophisticated treatment of diffuse groundwater discharge processes and surface-groundwater connectivity for some regions.

  15. Thermocline thermal storage systems for concentrated solar power plants: One-dimensional numerical model and comparative analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Modi, Anish; Pérez-Segarra, Carlos David

    2014-01-01

    Concentrated solar power plants have attracted increasing interest from researchers and governments all over the world in recent years. An important part of these plants is the storage system which improves dispatchability and makes the plant more reliable. In this paper, a one-dimensional transi...

  16. Energy storage systems impact on the short-term frequency stability of distributed autonomous microgrids, an analysis using aggregate models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serban, Ioan; Teodorescu, Remus; Marinescu, Corneliu

    2013-01-01

    This study analyses the integration impact of battery energy storage systems (BESSs) on the short-term frequency control in autonomous microgrids (MGs). Short-term frequency stability relates with the primary or speed control level, as defined in the regulations of the classical grids. The focus...

  17. Modelling of solar distillation system with phase change material (PCM storage medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Hamadani Ali A.F.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental investigation on a passive solar still with myristic acid as phase change material (PCM is carried out to examine the effect of both the mass of PCM and basin water on the daily distillate output and efficiency of the system under indoor simulated condition. Basic energy balance equations are written to predict the water and glass temperatures, daily distillate output and instantaneous efficiency of the single slope solar distillation system with PCM. It is found that the higher mass of PCM with lower mass of water in the solar still basin significantly increases the daily yield and efficiency, but when the amount of PCM exceeds 20 kg productivity reduces. Therefore, a novel and simple of solar stills with PCM is proposed to enhance the overall productivity of the distillation system. The new solar still has increased the distillate output by 35-40%. The use of inner glass cover temperature for productivity prediction has also been investigated, and the prediction shows relatively better agreement with the experimental data.

  18. High Density Digital Data Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kenneth D., II; Gray, David L.; Rowland, Wayne D.

    1991-01-01

    The High Density Digital Data Storage System was designed to provide a cost effective means for storing real-time data from the field-deployable digital acoustic measurement system. However, the high density data storage system is a standalone system that could provide a storage solution for many other real time data acquisition applications. The storage system has inputs for up to 20 channels of 16-bit digital data. The high density tape recorders presently being used in the storage system are capable of storing over 5 gigabytes of data at overall transfer rates of 500 kilobytes per second. However, through the use of data compression techniques the system storage capacity and transfer rate can be doubled. Two tape recorders have been incorporated into the storage system to produce a backup tape of data in real-time. An analog output is provided for each data channel as a means of monitoring the data as it is being recorded.

  19. Fast multichannel analog storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freytag, D.R.

    1982-11-01

    A Multichannel Analog Storage System based on a commercial 32-channel parallel in/serial out (PISO) analog shift register is described. The basic unit is a single width CAMAC module containing 512 analog cells and the associated logic for data storage and subsequent readout. At sampling rates of up to 30 MHz the signals are strobed directly into the PISO. At higher rates signals are strobed into a fast presampling stage and subsequently transferred in block form into an array of PISO's. Sampling rates of 300 MHz have been achieved with the present device and 1000 MHz are possible with improved signal drivers. The system is well suited for simultaneous handling of many signal channels with moderate numbers of samples in each channel. RMS noise over full scale signal has been measured as 1:3000 (approx. = 11 bit). However, nonlinearities in the response and differences in sensitivity of the analog cells require an elaborate calibration system in order to realize 11 bit accuracy for the analog information

  20. Research on an IP disaster recovery storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Dong; Wang, Yusheng; Zhu, Jianfeng

    2008-12-01

    According to both the Fibre Channel (FC) Storage Area Network (SAN) switch and Fabric Application Interface Standard (FAIS) mechanism, an iSCSI storage controller is put forward and based upon it, an internet Small Computer System Interface (iSCSI) SAN construction strategy for disaster recovery (DR) is proposed and some multiple sites replication models and a closed queue performance analysis method are also discussed in this paper. The iSCSI storage controller lies in the fabric level of the networked storage infrastructure, and it can be used to connect to both the hybrid storage applications and storage subsystems, besides, it can provide virtualized storage environment and support logical volume access control, and by cooperating with the remote peerparts, a disaster recovery storage system can be built on the basis of the data replication, block-level snapshot and Internet Protocol (IP) take-over functions.

  1. Locally Minimum Storage Regenerating Codes in Distributed Cloud Storage Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Wang; Wei Luo; Wei Liang; Xiangyang Liu; Xiaodai Dong

    2017-01-01

    In distributed cloud storage sys-tems, inevitably there exist multiple node fail-ures at the same time. The existing methods of regenerating codes, including minimum storage regenerating (MSR) codes and mini-mum bandwidth regenerating (MBR) codes, are mainly to repair one single or several failed nodes, unable to meet the repair need of distributed cloud storage systems. In this paper, we present locally minimum storage re-generating (LMSR) codes to recover multiple failed nodes at the same time. Specifically, the nodes in distributed cloud storage systems are divided into multiple local groups, and in each local group (4, 2) or (5, 3) MSR codes are constructed. Moreover, the grouping method of storage nodes and the repairing process of failed nodes in local groups are studied. The-oretical analysis shows that LMSR codes can achieve the same storage overhead as MSR codes. Furthermore, we verify by means of simulation that, compared with MSR codes, LMSR codes can reduce the repair bandwidth and disk I/O overhead effectively.

  2. Modeling and Coordinated Control Strategy of Large Scale Grid-Connected Wind/Photovoltaic/Energy Storage Hybrid Energy Conversion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingguo Kong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An AC-linked large scale wind/photovoltaic (PV/energy storage (ES hybrid energy conversion system for grid-connected application was proposed in this paper. Wind energy conversion system (WECS and PV generation system are the primary power sources of the hybrid system. The ES system, including battery and fuel cell (FC, is used as a backup and a power regulation unit to ensure continuous power supply and to take care of the intermittent nature of wind and photovoltaic resources. Static synchronous compensator (STATCOM is employed to support the AC-linked bus voltage and improve low voltage ride through (LVRT capability of the proposed system. An overall power coordinated control strategy is designed to manage real-power and reactive-power flows among the different energy sources, the storage unit, and the STATCOM system in the hybrid system. A simulation case study carried out on Western System Coordinating Council (WSCC 3-machine 9-bus test system for the large scale hybrid energy conversion system has been developed using the DIgSILENT/Power Factory software platform. The hybrid system performance under different scenarios has been verified by simulation studies using practical load demand profiles and real weather data.

  3. The Design of Distributed Micro Grid Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ya-feng; Wang, Yan-ping

    2018-03-01

    Distributed micro-grid runs in island mode, the energy storage system is the core to maintain the micro-grid stable operation. For the problems that it is poor to adjust at work and easy to cause the volatility of micro-grid caused by the existing energy storage structure of fixed connection. In this paper, an array type energy storage structure is proposed, and the array type energy storage system structure and working principle are analyzed. Finally, the array type energy storage structure model is established based on MATLAB, the simulation results show that the array type energy storage system has great flexibility, which can maximize the utilization of energy storage system, guarantee the reliable operation of distributed micro-grid and achieve the function of peak clipping and valley filling.

  4. Wind power integration with heat pumps, heat storages, and electric vehicles – Energy systems analysis and modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Karsten

    The fluctuating and only partly predictable nature of wind challenges an effective integration of large wind power penetrations. This PhD thesis investigates to which extent heat pumps, heat storages, and electric vehicles can support the integration of wind power. Considering the gaps in existing...... in an energy system context. Energy systems analyses reveal that the heat pumps can even without flexible operation contribute significantly to facilitating larger wind power investments and reducing system costs, fuel consumption, and CO2 emissions. When equipping the heat pumps with heat storages, only...... moderate additional benefits are achieved. Hereof, the main benefit is that the need for investing in peak/reserve capacities can be reduced through peak load shaving. It is more important to ensure flexible operation of electric vehicles than of individual heat pumps, due to differences in the load...

  5. Microbiological and environmental effects of aquifer thermal energy storage - studies at the Stuttgart man-made aquifer and a large-scale model system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adinolfi, M.; Ruck, W.

    1993-01-01

    The storage of thermal energy, either heat or cold, in natural or artificial aquifers creates local perturbations of the indigenous microflora and the environmental properties. Within an international working group of the International Energy Agency (IEA Annex VI) possible environmental impacts of ATES-systems were recognized and investigated. Investigations of storage systems on natural sites, man-made aquifers and large-scale models of impounded aquifers showed changes in microbial populations, but until now no adverse microbiological processes associated with ATES-systems could be documented. However, examinations with a model system indicate an increased risk of environmental impact. Therefore, the operation of ATES-systems should be accompanied by chemical and biological investigations. (orig.) [de

  6. Modeling and numerical simulation of a novel solar-powered absorption air conditioning system driven by a bubble pump with energy storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Jia; LIANG Jian; CHEN GuangMing; DU RuXu

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a novel solar-powered absorption air conditioning system driven by a bubble pump with energy storage. It solves the problem of unreliable solar energy supply by storing the working fluids and hence, functions 24 h per day. First, the working principles are described and the dynamic models for the primary energy storage components are developed. Then, the system is evaluated based on a numerical simulation. Based on the meteorological data of a typical day in a subtropical area, with the area of a solar collector being set at 19.15 m2, whilst the initial charging mass, mass fraction and temperature of the solution are respectively set at 379.5 kg, 54.16% and 34.5 ℃, it is found that the respective coefficients of performance (COP) of the air conditioning system and the en-tire system (including the solar panel) are 0.7771 and 0.4372. In particular, the energy storage density of the system is 206.69 MJ/m3 which is much greater than those of chilled water or hot water storage systems under comparable conditions. This makes the new system much more compact and efficient. Finally, an automatic control strategy is given to achieve the highest COP when solar energy fluctuates.

  7. Economic analysis of using above ground gas storage devices for compressed air energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinchao; Zhang, Xinjing; Xu, Yujie; Chen, Zongyan; Chen, Haisheng; Tan, Chunqing

    2014-12-01

    Above ground gas storage devices for compressed air energy storage (CAES) have three types: air storage tanks, gas cylinders, and gas storage pipelines. A cost model of these gas storage devices is established on the basis of whole life cycle cost (LCC) analysis. The optimum parameters of the three types are determined by calculating the theoretical metallic raw material consumption of these three devices and considering the difficulties in manufacture and the influence of gas storage device number. The LCCs of the three types are comprehensively analyzed and compared. The result reveal that the cost of the gas storage pipeline type is lower than that of the other two types. This study may serve as a reference for designing large-scale CAES systems.

  8. Economic models for battery energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reckrodt, R.C.; Anderson, M.D.; Kluczny, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    While the technology required to produce viable Battery Energy Storage System exists, the economic feasibility (cost vs. benefits) of building these systems requires justification. First, a generalized decision diagram was developed to ensure that all of the economic factors were considered and properly related for the customer-side-of-the meter. Next, two economic models that had consistently given differing results were compared. One was the McKinney model developed at UM-Rolla in 1987; the second was the SYSPLAN model developed by Battelle. Differences were resolved on a point by point basis with reference to the current economic environment. The economic model was upgraded to include the best of both models based on the resolution of these differences. The upgrades were implemented as modifications to the original SYSPLAN (1986 version) to preserve user friendliness. In this paper four specific cases are evaluated and compared. The results are as predicted, since comparison was made with two known models

  9. A control model for district heating networks with storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, Tjeert; De Persis, Claudio; Tesi, Pietro

    2014-01-01

    In [1] pressure control of hydraulic networks is investigated. We extend this work to district heating systems with storage capabilities and derive a model taking the topology of the network into account. The goal for the derived model is that it should allow for control of the storage level and

  10. Modeling electric load and water consumption impacts from an integrated thermal energy and rainwater storage system for residential buildings in Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upshaw, Charles R.; Rhodes, Joshua D.; Webber, Michael E.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Hydronic integrated rainwater thermal storage (ITHERST) system concept presented. • ITHERST system modeled to assess peak electric load shifting and water savings. • Case study shows 75% peak load reduction and 9% increase in energy consumption. • Potable rainwater collection could provide ∼50–90% of water used for case study. - Abstract: The United States’ built environment is a significant direct and indirect consumer of energy and water. In Texas, and other parts of the Southern and Western US, air conditioning loads, particularly from residential buildings, contribute significantly to the peak electricity load on the grid, straining transmission. In parallel, water resources in these regions are strained by growing populations and shrinking supplies. One potential method to address both of these issues is to develop integrated thermal energy and auxiliary water (e.g. rainwater, greywater, etc.) storage and management systems that reduce peak load and freshwater consumption. This analysis focuses on a proposed integrated thermal energy and rainwater storage (ITHERST) system that is incorporated into a residential air-source chiller/heat pump with hydronic distribution. This paper describes a step-wise hourly thermodynamic model of the thermal storage system to assess on-peak performance, and a daily volume-balance model of auxiliary water collection and consumption to assess water savings potential. While the model is generalized, this analysis uses a case study of a single family home in Austin, Texas to illustrate its capabilities. The results indicate this ITHERST system could reduce on-peak air conditioning electric power demand by over 75%, with increased overall electric energy consumption of approximately 7–9%, when optimally sized. Additionally, the modeled rainwater collection reduced municipal water consumption by approximately 53–89%, depending on the system size.

  11. Thermodynamic analysis of a compressed carbon dioxide energy storage system using two saline aquifers at different depths as storage reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hui; He, Qing; Borgia, Andrea; Pan, Lehua; Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A compressed CO_2 energy storage system using two storage reservoirs is presented. • Compressed CO_2 energy storage density is higher than that of CAES. • The effects of storage reservoir pressure on the system performance are studied. - Abstract: Compressed air energy storage (CAES) is one of the leading large-scale energy storage technologies. However, low thermal efficiency and low energy storage density restrict its application. To improve the energy storage density, we propose a two-reservoir compressed CO_2 energy storage system. We present here thermodynamic and parametric analyses of the performance of an idealized two-reservoir CO_2 energy storage system under supercritical and transcritical conditions using a steady-state mathematical model. Results show that the transcritical compressed CO_2 energy storage system has higher round-trip efficiency and exergy efficiency, and larger energy storage density than the supercritical compressed CO_2 energy storage. However, the configuration of supercritical compressed CO_2 energy storage is simpler, and the energy storage densities of the two systems are both higher than that of CAES, which is advantageous in terms of storage volume for a given power rating.

  12. An advanced joint inversion system for CO2 storage modeling with large date sets for characterization and real-time monitoring-enhancing storage performance and reducing failure risks under uncertainties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitanidis, Peter [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2016-04-30

    As large-scale, commercial storage projects become operational, the problem of utilizing information from diverse sources becomes more critically important. In this project, we developed, tested, and applied an advanced joint data inversion system for CO2 storage modeling with large data sets for use in site characterization and real-time monitoring. Emphasis was on the development of advanced and efficient computational algorithms for joint inversion of hydro-geophysical data, coupled with state-of-the-art forward process simulations. The developed system consists of (1) inversion tools using characterization data, such as 3D seismic survey (amplitude images), borehole log and core data, as well as hydraulic, tracer and thermal tests before CO2 injection, (2) joint inversion tools for updating the geologic model with the distribution of rock properties, thus reducing uncertainty, using hydro-geophysical monitoring data, and (3) highly efficient algorithms for directly solving the dense or sparse linear algebra systems derived from the joint inversion. The system combines methods from stochastic analysis, fast linear algebra, and high performance computing. The developed joint inversion tools have been tested through synthetic CO2 storage examples.

  13. Economic Modeling of Compressed Air Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Bo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to the variable nature of wind resources, the increasing penetration level of wind power will have a significant impact on the operation and planning of the electric power system. Energy storage systems are considered an effective way to compensate for the variability of wind generation. This paper presents a detailed production cost simulation model to evaluate the economic value of compressed air energy storage (CAES in systems with large-scale wind power generation. The co-optimization of energy and ancillary services markets is implemented in order to analyze the impacts of CAES, not only on energy supply, but also on system operating reserves. Both hourly and 5-minute simulations are considered to capture the economic performance of CAES in the day-ahead (DA and real-time (RT markets. The generalized network flow formulation is used to model the characteristics of CAES in detail. The proposed model is applied on a modified IEEE 24-bus reliability test system. The numerical example shows that besides the economic benefits gained through energy arbitrage in the DA market, CAES can also generate significant profits by providing reserves, compensating for wind forecast errors and intra-hour fluctuation, and participating in the RT market.

  14. Optimal Investment Planning of Bulk Energy Storage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Khastieva

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Many countries have the ambition to increase the share of renewable sources in electricity generation. However, continuously varying renewable sources, such as wind power or solar energy, require that the power system can manage the variability and uncertainty of the power generation. One solution to increase flexibility of the system is to use various forms of energy storage, which can provide flexibility to the system at different time ranges and smooth the effect of variability of the renewable generation. In this paper, we investigate three questions connected to investment planning of energy storage systems. First, how the existing flexibility in the system will affect the need for energy storage investments. Second, how presence of energy storage will affect renewable generation expansion and affect electricity prices. Third, who should be responsible for energy storage investments planning. This paper proposes to assess these questions through two different mathematical models. The first model is designed for centralized investment planning and the second model deals with a decentralized investment approach where a single independent profit maximizing utility is responsible for energy storage investments. The models have been applied in various case studies with different generation mixes and flexibility levels. The results show that energy storage system is beneficial for power system operation. However, additional regulation should be considered to achieve optimal investment and allocation of energy storage.

  15. Nuclear power reactors and hydrogen storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim Aly Mahmoud El Osery.

    1980-01-01

    Among conclusions and results come by, a nuclear-electric-hydrogen integrated power system was suggested as a way to prevent the energy crisis. It was shown that the hydrogen power system using nuclear power as a leading energy resource would hold an advantage in the current international situation as well as for the long-term future. Results reported provide designers of integrated nuclear-electric-hydrogen systems with computation models and routines which will allow them to explore the optimal solution in coupling power reactors to hydrogen producing systems, taking into account the specific characters of hydrogen storage systems. The models were meant for average computers of a type easily available in developing countries. (author)

  16. Technoeconomic Modeling of Battery Energy Storage in SAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiOrio, Nicholas [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dobos, Aron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Janzou, Steven [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Nelson, Austin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lundstrom, Blake [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Detailed comprehensive lead-acid and lithium-ion battery models have been integrated with photovoltaic models in an effort to allow System Advisor Model (SAM) to offer the ability to predict the performance and economic benefit of behind the meter storage. In a system with storage, excess PV energy can be saved until later in the day when PV production has fallen, or until times of peak demand when it is more valuable. Complex dispatch strategies can be developed to leverage storage to reduce energy consumption or power demand based on the utility rate structure. This document describes the details of the battery performance and economic models in SAM.

  17. Energy Storage Management in Grid Connected Solar Photovoltaic System

    OpenAIRE

    Vidhya M.E

    2015-01-01

    The penetration of renewable sources in the power system network in the power system has been increasing in the recent years. One of the solutions being proposed to improve the reliability and performance of these systems is to integrate energy storage device into the power system network. This paper discusses the modeling of photo voltaic and status of the storage device such as lead acid battery for better energy management in the system. The energy management for the grid conne...

  18. Electromechanical Storage Systems for Application to Isolated Wind Energy Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avia Aranda, F.; Cruz Cruz, I.

    1999-01-01

    Substantial technology advances have occurred during the last decade that have had and appreciated impact on performance and feasibility of the Electromechanical Storage Systems. Improvements in magnetic bearings, composite materials, power conversion systems, microelectronic control systems and computer simulation models have increased flywheel reliability, and energy storage capacity, while decreasing overall system size, weight and cost. These improvements have brought flywheels to the forefront in the quest for alternate systems. The result of the study carried out under the scope of the SEDUCTOR, about the state of art of the Electromechanical Storage Systems is presented in this report. (Author) 15 refs

  19. A model of the dose rate calculation for a spent fuel storage structure by Monte Carlo method using the modulated code system SCALE 4.4a

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantazi, D.; Mateescu, S.; Stanciu, M.; Mete, M.

    2001-01-01

    The modulated code system SCALE is used to perform a standardized shielding analysis for any facility containing spent fuel: handling devices, transport cask, intermediate and final storage facility. The neutron and gamma sources as well as the dose rates can be obtained using either discrete-ordinates or Monte Carlo methods. The shielding analysis control modules (SAS1, SAS2H and SAS4) provide a general procedure for cross-section preparation, fuel depletion/decay calculation and general onedimensional or multi-dimensional shielding analysis. The module SAS4 used in the analysis presented in this paper, is a three-dimensional Monte Carlo shielding analysis module, which uses an automated biasing procedure specialized for a nuclear fuel transport or storage container. The Spent Fuel Interim Storage Facility in our country is projected to be a parallelepiped concrete monolithic module, consisting of an external reinforced concrete structure with vertical storage cylinders (pits) arranged in a rectangular array. A pit is filled with sealed cylindrical baskets of stainless steel arranged in a stack, and with each basket containing spent fuel bundles in vertical position. The pit is closed with a concrete plug. The cylindrical geometry model is used in the shielding evaluation for a spent fuel storage structure (pit), and only the active parts of the superposed bundles is considered. The dose rates have been calculated in both the axial and radial directions using SAS4.(author)

  20. Management issues for high performance storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louis, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Burris, R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Managing distributed high-performance storage systems is complex and, although sharing common ground with traditional network and systems management, presents unique storage-related issues. Integration technologies and frameworks exist to help manage distributed network and system environments. Industry-driven consortia provide open forums where vendors and users cooperate to leverage solutions. But these new approaches to open management fall short addressing the needs of scalable, distributed storage. We discuss the motivation and requirements for storage system management (SSM) capabilities and describe how SSM manages distributed servers and storage resource objects in the High Performance Storage System (HPSS), a new storage facility for data-intensive applications and large-scale computing. Modem storage systems, such as HPSS, require many SSM capabilities, including server and resource configuration control, performance monitoring, quality of service, flexible policies, file migration, file repacking, accounting, and quotas. We present results of initial HPSS SSM development including design decisions and implementation trade-offs. We conclude with plans for follow-on work and provide storage-related recommendations for vendors and standards groups seeking enterprise-wide management solutions.

  1. The influence of the ocean circulation state on ocean carbon storage and CO2 drawdown potential in an Earth system model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ödalen, Malin; Nycander, Jonas; Oliver, Kevin I. C.; Brodeau, Laurent; Ridgwell, Andy

    2018-03-01

    During the four most recent glacial cycles, atmospheric CO2 during glacial maxima has been lowered by about 90-100 ppm with respect to interglacials. There is widespread consensus that most of this carbon was partitioned in the ocean. It is, however, still debated which processes were dominant in achieving this increased carbon storage. In this paper, we use an Earth system model of intermediate complexity to explore the sensitivity of ocean carbon storage to ocean circulation state. We carry out a set of simulations in which we run the model to pre-industrial equilibrium, but in which we achieve different states of ocean circulation by changing forcing parameters such as wind stress, ocean diffusivity and atmospheric heat diffusivity. As a consequence, the ensemble members also have different ocean carbon reservoirs, global ocean average temperatures, biological pump efficiencies and conditions for air-sea CO2 disequilibrium. We analyse changes in total ocean carbon storage and separate it into contributions by the solubility pump, the biological pump and the CO2 disequilibrium component. We also relate these contributions to differences in the strength of the ocean overturning circulation. Depending on which ocean forcing parameter is tuned, the origin of the change in carbon storage is different. When wind stress or ocean diapycnal diffusivity is changed, the response of the biological pump gives the most important effect on ocean carbon storage, whereas when atmospheric heat diffusivity or ocean isopycnal diffusivity is changed, the solubility pump and the disequilibrium component are also important and sometimes dominant. Despite this complexity, we obtain a negative linear relationship between total ocean carbon and the combined strength of the northern and southern overturning cells. This relationship is robust to different reservoirs dominating the response to different forcing mechanisms. Finally, we conduct a drawdown experiment in which we investigate

  2. The influence of the ocean circulation state on ocean carbon storage and CO2 drawdown potential in an Earth system model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ödalen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available During the four most recent glacial cycles, atmospheric CO2 during glacial maxima has been lowered by about 90–100 ppm with respect to interglacials. There is widespread consensus that most of this carbon was partitioned in the ocean. It is, however, still debated which processes were dominant in achieving this increased carbon storage. In this paper, we use an Earth system model of intermediate complexity to explore the sensitivity of ocean carbon storage to ocean circulation state. We carry out a set of simulations in which we run the model to pre-industrial equilibrium, but in which we achieve different states of ocean circulation by changing forcing parameters such as wind stress, ocean diffusivity and atmospheric heat diffusivity. As a consequence, the ensemble members also have different ocean carbon reservoirs, global ocean average temperatures, biological pump efficiencies and conditions for air–sea CO2 disequilibrium. We analyse changes in total ocean carbon storage and separate it into contributions by the solubility pump, the biological pump and the CO2 disequilibrium component. We also relate these contributions to differences in the strength of the ocean overturning circulation. Depending on which ocean forcing parameter is tuned, the origin of the change in carbon storage is different. When wind stress or ocean diapycnal diffusivity is changed, the response of the biological pump gives the most important effect on ocean carbon storage, whereas when atmospheric heat diffusivity or ocean isopycnal diffusivity is changed, the solubility pump and the disequilibrium component are also important and sometimes dominant. Despite this complexity, we obtain a negative linear relationship between total ocean carbon and the combined strength of the northern and southern overturning cells. This relationship is robust to different reservoirs dominating the response to different forcing mechanisms. Finally, we conduct a drawdown experiment

  3. Aquifer thermal-energy-storage modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaetzle, W. J.; Lecroy, J. E.

    1982-09-01

    A model aquifer was constructed to simulate the operation of a full size aquifer. Instrumentation to evaluate the water flow and thermal energy storage was installed in the system. Numerous runs injecting warm water into a preconditioned uniform aquifer were made. Energy recoveries were evaluated and agree with comparisons of other limited available data. The model aquifer is simulated in a swimming pool, 18 ft by 4 ft, which was filled with sand. Temperature probes were installed in the system. A 2 ft thick aquifer is confined by two layers of polyethylene. Both the aquifer and overburden are sand. Four well configurations are available. The system description and original tests, including energy recovery, are described.

  4. Building a mass storage system for physics applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, H.; Loken, S.

    1991-03-01

    The IEEE Mass Storage Reference Model and forthcoming standards based on it provide a standardized architecture to facilitate designing and building mass storage systems, and standard interfaces so that hardware and software from different vendors can interoperate in providing mass storage capabilities. A key concept of this architecture is the separation of control and data flows. This separation allows a smaller machine to provide control functions, while the data can flow directly between high-performance channels. Another key concept is the layering of the file system and the storage functions. This layering allows the designers of the mass storage system to focus on storage functions, which can support a variety of file systems, such as the Network File System, the Andrew File System, and others. The mass storage system provides location-independent file naming, essential if files are to be migrated to different storage devices without requiring changes in application programs. Physics data analysis applications are particularly challenging for mass storage systems because they stream vast amounts of data through analysis applications. Special mechanisms are required, to handle the high data rates and to avoid upsetting the caching mechanisms commonly used for smaller, repetitive-use files. High data rates are facilitated by direct channel connections, where, for example, a dual-ported drive will be positioned by the mass storage controller on one channel, then the data will flow on a second channel directly into the user machine, or directly to a high capacity network, greatly reducing the I/O capacity required in the mass storage control computer. Intelligent storage allocation can be used to bypass the cache devices entirely when large files are being moved

  5. Six-dimensional modeling of coherent bunch instabilities and related freedback systems in storage rings with power-series maps for the lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengtsson, J.; Briggs, D.; Meddahi, M.

    1994-06-01

    The authors have developed 6-dimensional phase-space code that tracks macroparticles for the study of coherent bunch instabilities and related feedback systems. The model is based on power-series maps to represent the lattice, and allows for straightforward inclusion of effects such as amplitude dependent tune shift, chromaticity, synchrotron oscillations, and synchrotron radiation. It simulates long range wake fields such as resistive-wall effects as well as the higher order modes in cavities. The model has served to study the dynamics relevant to the transverse feedback system currently being commissioned for the Advanced Light Source (ALS). Current work integrates earlier versions into a modular system that includes models for transverse and longitudinal feedback systems. It is designed to provide a modular approach to the dynamics and diagnostics, allowing a user to modify the model of a storage ring at run-time without recompilation

  6. Thermochemical Heat Storage: from Reaction Storage Density to System Storage Density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, A.J. de; Vliet, L.D. van; Hoegaerts, C.L.G.; Roelands, C.P.M.; Cuypers, R.

    2016-01-01

    Long-term and compact storage of solar energy is crucial for the eventual transition to a 100% renewable energy economy. For this, thermochemical materials provide a promising solution. The compactness of a long-term storage system is determined by the thermochemical reaction, operating conditions,

  7. Compressed air energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Frederick W.; Kartsounes, George T.

    1981-01-01

    An internal combustion reciprocating engine is operable as a compressor during slack demand periods utilizing excess power from a power grid to charge air into an air storage reservoir and as an expander during peak demand periods to feed power into the power grid utilizing air obtained from the air storage reservoir together with combustible fuel. Preferably the internal combustion reciprocating engine is operated at high pressure and a low pressure turbine and compressor are also employed for air compression and power generation.

  8. Seasonal energy storage - PV-hydrogen systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leppaenen, J. [Neste Oy/NAPS (Finland)

    1998-10-01

    PV systems are widely used in remote areas e.g. in telecommunication systems. Typically lead acid batteries are used as energy storage. In northern locations seasonal storage is needed, which however is too expensive and difficult to realise with batteries. Therefore, a PV- battery system with a diesel backup is sometimes used. The disadvantages of this kind of system for very remote applications are the need of maintenance and the need to supply the fuel. To overcome these problems, it has been suggested to use hydrogen technologies to make a closed loop autonomous energy storage system

  9. High efficient heat pump system using storage tanks to increase COP by means of the ISEC concept - Part 1: Model validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothuizen, Erasmus; Elmegaard, Brian; Markussen, Wiebke B.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the ISEC concept is to provide a high-efficient heat pump system for hot water production.The ISEC concept uses two storage tanks for the water, one discharged and one charged. Hot water for theindustrial process is tapped from the charged tank, while the other tank is charging....... This result in a lower condensingtemperature than if the water was heated in one step. Two test setups were built, one to test the performanceof the heat pump gradually heating the water and one to investigate the stratification in the storage tanks.Furthermore, a dynamic model of the system was implemented....... Charging is done bycirculating the water in the tank through the condenser of a heat pump several times and thereby graduallyheating the water. The charging is done with a higher mass flow rate than the discharging to reach severalcirculations of the water during the time frame of one discharging...

  10. Hybrid Hydro Renewable Energy Storage Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Asit Kr

    2018-01-01

    This paper aims at presenting wind & tidal turbine pumped-storage solutions for improving the energy efficiency and economic sustainability of renewable energy systems. Indicated a viable option to solve problems of energy production, as well as in the integration of intermittent renewable energies, providing system flexibility due to energy load’s fluctuation, as long as the storage of energy from intermittent sources. Sea water storage energy is one of the best and most efficient options in terms of renewable resources as an integrated solution allowing the improvement of the energy system elasticity and the global system efficiency.

  11. Energy Storage and Smart Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Østergaard, Poul Alberg; Connolly, David

    2016-01-01

    It is often highlighted how the transition to renewable energy supply calls for significant electricity storage. However, one has to move beyond the electricity-only focus and take a holistic energy system view to identify optimal solutions for integrating renewable energy. In this paper......, an integrated cross-sector approach is used to determine the most efficient and least-cost storage options for the entire renewable energy system concluding that the best storage solutions cannot be found through analyses focusing on the individual sub-sectors. Electricity storage is not the optimum solution...... to integrate large inflows of fluctuating renewable energy, since more efficient and cheaper options can be found by integrating the electricity sector with other parts of the energy system and by this creating a Smart Energy System. Nevertheless, this does not imply that electricity storage should...

  12. Energy Storage and Smart Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poul Alberg Østergaard

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available It is often highlighted how the transition to renewable energy supply calls for significant electricity storage. However, one has to move beyond the electricity-only focus and take a holistic energy system view to identify optimal solutions for integrating renewable energy. In this paper, an integrated cross-sector approach is used to determine the most efficient and least-cost storage options for the entire renewable energy system concluding that the best storage solutions cannot be found through analyses focusing on the individual sub-sectors. Electricity storage is not the optimum solution to integrate large inflows of fluctuating renewable energy, since more efficient and cheaper options can be found by integrating the electricity sector with other parts of the energy system and by this creating a Smart Energy System. Nevertheless, this does not imply that electricity storage should be disregarded but that it will be needed for other purposes in the future.

  13. Federal Tax Incentives for Energy Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Katherine H [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Elgqvist, Emma M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Settle, Donald E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-16

    Investments in renewable energy are more attractive due to the contribution of two key federal tax incentives. The investment tax credit (ITC) and the Modified Accelerated Cost Recovery System (MACRS) depreciation deduction may apply to energy storage systems such as batteries depending on who owns the battery and how the battery is used. The guidelines in this fact sheet apply to energy storage systems installed at the same time as the renewable energy system.

  14. Distributed energy systems with wind power and energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korpaas, Magnus

    2004-07-01

    The topic of this thesis is the study of energy storage systems operating with wind power plants. The motivation for applying energy storage in this context is that wind power generation is intermittent and generally difficult to predict, and that good wind energy resources are often found in areas with limited grid capacity. Moreover, energy storage in the form of hydrogen makes it possible to provide clean fuel for transportation. The aim of this work has been to evaluate how local energy storage systems should be designed and operated in order to increase the penetration and value of wind power in the power system. Optimization models and sequential and probabilistic simulation models have been developed for this purpose. Chapter 3 presents a sequential simulation model of a general wind hydrogen energy system. Electrolytic hydrogen is used either as a fuel for transportation or for power generation in a stationary fuel cell. The model is useful for evaluating how hydrogen storage can increase the penetration of wind power in areas with limited or no transmission capacity to the main grid. The simulation model is combined with a cost model in order to study how component sizing and choice of operation strategy influence the performance and economics of the wind-hydrogen system. If the stored hydrogen is not used as a separate product, but merely as electrical energy storage, it should be evaluated against other and more energy efficient storage options such as pumped hydro and redox flow cells. A probabilistic model of a grid-connected wind power plant with a general energy storage unit is presented in chapter 4. The energy storage unit is applied for smoothing wind power fluctuations by providing a firm power output to the grid over a specific period. The method described in the chapter is based on the statistical properties of the wind speed and a general representation of the wind energy conversion system and the energy storage unit. This method allows us to

  15. Development of vitrified waste storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namiki, S.; Tani, Y.

    1993-01-01

    The authors have developed the radioactive waste vitrification technology and the vitrified waste storage technology. Regarding the vitrified waste storage system development, the authors have completed the design of two types of storage systems. One is a forced convection air cooling system, and the other is a natural convection air cooling system. They have carried out experiments and heat transfer analysis, seismic analysis, vitrified waste dropping and radiation shielding, etc. In this paper, the following three subjects, are discussed: the cooling air flow experiment, the wind effect experiment on the cooling air flow pattern, using a wind tunnel apparatus and the structural integrity evaluation on the dropping vitrified waste

  16. Kinetic Storage as an Energy Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Tabares, L.

    2007-01-01

    The possibility of storing energy is increasingly important and necessary. The reason is that storage modifies the basic equation of the energy production balance which states that the power produced should equal the power consumed. When there is a storage device in the grid, this equation is modified such that, in the new balance, the energy produced should equal the algebraic sum of the energy consumed and the energy stored (positive in storage phase and negative when released). This means that the generation profile can be uncoupled from the consumption profile, with the resulting improvement of efficiency. Even small-sized storage systems can be very effective. (Author) 10 refs

  17. Evaporative cooling enhanced cold storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, P.

    1991-10-15

    The invention provides an evaporatively enhanced cold storage system wherein a warm air stream is cooled and the cooled air stream is thereafter passed into contact with a cold storage unit. Moisture is added to the cooled air stream prior to or during contact of the cooled air stream with the cold storage unit to effect enhanced cooling of the cold storage unit due to evaporation of all or a portion of the added moisture. Preferably at least a portion of the added moisture comprises water condensed during the cooling of the warm air stream. 3 figures.

  18. Pumped storage in systems with very high wind penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuohy, A.; O'Malley, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the operation of the Irish power system with very high levels of wind energy, with and without pumped storage. A unit commitment model which accounts for the uncertainty in wind power is used. It is shown that as wind penetration increases, the optimal operation of storage depends on wind output as well as load. The main benefit from storage is shown to be a decrease in wind curtailment. The economics of the system are examined to find the level at which storage justifies its capital costs and inefficiencies. It is shown that the uncertainty of wind makes the option of storage more attractive. The size of the energy store has an impact on results. At lower levels of installed wind (up to approximately 50% of energy from wind in Ireland), the reduction in curtailment is insufficient to justify building storage. At greater levels of wind, storage reduces curtailment sufficiently to justify the additional capital costs. It can be seen that if storage replaces OCGTs in the plant mix instead of CCGTs, then the level at which it justifies itself is lower. Storage increases the level of carbon emissions at wind penetration below 60%. - Research highlights: → Examines operation of pumped storage unit in a system with levels of wind from 34%-68% of energy. → High capital cost of storage is not justified until system has high (approx. 45%) wind penetration. → Results are driven by the amount of wind curtailment avoided and plant mix of system. → Other flexible options (e.g. interconnection) offer many of the same benefits as storage.

  19. Energy storage for power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ter-Gazarian, Andrei

    2011-01-01

    The supply of energy from primary sources is not constant and rarely matches the pattern of demand from consumers. Electricity is also difficult to store in significant quantities. Therefore, secondary storage of energy is essential to increase generation capacity efficiency and to allow more substantial use of renewable energy sources that only provide energy intermittently. Lack of effective storage has often been cited as a major hurdle to substantial introduction of renewable energy sources into the electricity supply network.This 2nd edition, without changing the existing structure of the

  20. The Size Advantage Model of Sex Allocation in the Protandrous Sex-Changer Crepidula fornicata: Role of the Mating System, Sperm Storage, and Male Mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broquet, Thomas; Barranger, Audrey; Billard, Emmanuelle; Bestin, Anastasia; Berger, Rémy; Honnaert, Gaelle; Viard, Frédérique

    2015-09-01

    Sequential hermaphroditism is adaptive when the reproductive value of an individual varies with size or age, and this relationship differs between males and females. In this case, theory shows that the lifetime reproductive output of an individual is increased by changing sex (a hypothesis referred to as the size-advantage model). Sex-linked differences in size-fitness curves can stem from differential costs of reproduction, the mating system, and differences in growth and mortality between sexes. Detailed empirical data is required to disentangle the relative roles of each of these factors within the theory. Quantitative data are also needed to explore the role of sperm storage, which has not yet been considered with sequential hermaphrodites. Using experimental rearing and paternity assignment, we report relationships between size and reproductive success of Crepidula fornicata, a protandrous (male-first) gastropod. Male reproductive success increased with size due to the polygamous system and stacking behavior of the species, but females nonetheless had greater reproductive success than males of the same size, in agreement with the size-advantage theory. Sperm storage appeared to be a critical determinant of success for both sexes, and modeling the effect of sperm storage showed that it could potentially accelerate sex change in protandrous species.

  1. Application of large underground seasonal thermal energy storage in district heating system : a model-based energy performance assessment of a pilot system in Chifeng, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, L.; Torrens Galdiz, J.I.; Guo, F.; Yang, X.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    Seasonal thermal energy storage (STES) technology is a proven solution to resolve the seasonal discrepancy between heating energy generation from renewables and building heating demands. This research focuses on the performance assessment of district heating (DH) systems powered by low-grade energy

  2. Advanced compressed hydrogen fuel storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeary, B.

    2000-01-01

    Dynetek was established in 1991 by a group of private investors, and since that time efforts have been focused on designing, improving, manufacturing and marketing advanced compressed fuel storage systems. The primary market for Dynetek fuel systems has been Natural Gas, however as the automotive industry investigates the possibility of using hydrogen as the fuel source solution in Alternative Energy Vehicles, there is a growing demand for hydrogen storage on -board. Dynetek is striving to meet the needs of the industry, by working towards developing a fuel storage system that will be efficient, economical, lightweight and eventually capable of storing enough hydrogen to match the driving range of the current gasoline fueled vehicles

  3. Horizontal modular dry irradiated fuel storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Larry E.; McInnes, Ian D.; Massey, John V.

    1988-01-01

    A horizontal, modular, dry, irradiated fuel storage system (10) includes a thin-walled canister (12) for containing irradiated fuel assemblies (20), which canister (12) can be positioned in a transfer cask (14) and transported in a horizontal manner from a fuel storage pool (18), to an intermediate-term storage facility. The storage system (10) includes a plurality of dry storage modules (26) which accept the canister (12) from the transfer cask (14) and provide for appropriate shielding about the canister (12). Each module (26) also provides for air cooling of the canister (12) to remove the decay heat of the irradiated fuel assemblies (20). The modules (26) can be interlocked so that each module (26) gains additional shielding from the next adjacent module (26). Hydraulic rams (30) are provided for inserting and removing the canisters (12) from the modules (26).

  4. Research on high-performance mass storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Yaodong; Wang Lu; Huang Qiulan; Zheng Wei

    2010-01-01

    With the enlargement of scientific experiments, more and more data will be produced, which brings great challenge to storage system. Large storage capacity and high data access performance are both important to Mass storage system. This paper firstly reviews some kinds of popular storage systems including network storage system, SAN-based sharing system, WAN File system, object-based parallel file system, hierarchical storage system and cloud storage systems. Then some key technologies are presented. Finally, this paper takes BES storage system as an example and introduces its requirements, architecture and operation results. (authors)

  5. Storage system architectures and their characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarandrea, Bryan M.

    1993-01-01

    Not all users storage requirements call for 20 MBS data transfer rates, multi-tier file or data migration schemes, or even automated retrieval of data. The number of available storage solutions reflects the broad range of user requirements. It is foolish to think that any one solution can address the complete range of requirements. For users with simple off-line storage requirements, the cost and complexity of high end solutions would provide no advantage over a more simple solution. The correct answer is to match the requirements of a particular storage need to the various attributes of the available solutions. The goal of this paper is to introduce basic concepts of archiving and storage management in combination with the most common architectures and to provide some insight into how these concepts and architectures address various storage problems. The intent is to provide potential consumers of storage technology with a framework within which to begin the hunt for a solution which meets their particular needs. This paper is not intended to be an exhaustive study or to address all possible solutions or new technologies, but is intended to be a more practical treatment of todays storage system alternatives. Since most commercial storage systems today are built on Open Systems concepts, the majority of these solutions are hosted on the UNIX operating system. For this reason, some of the architectural issues discussed focus around specific UNIX architectural concepts. However, most of the architectures are operating system independent and the conclusions are applicable to such architectures on any operating system.

  6. Research on Multi - Person Parallel Modeling Method Based on Integrated Model Persistent Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, MingCheng; Wu, XiangHu; Tao, YongChao; Liu, Ying

    2018-03-01

    This paper mainly studies the multi-person parallel modeling method based on the integrated model persistence storage. The integrated model refers to a set of MDDT modeling graphics system, which can carry out multi-angle, multi-level and multi-stage description of aerospace general embedded software. Persistent storage refers to converting the data model in memory into a storage model and converting the storage model into a data model in memory, where the data model refers to the object model and the storage model is a binary stream. And multi-person parallel modeling refers to the need for multi-person collaboration, the role of separation, and even real-time remote synchronization modeling.

  7. Energy storage system for a pulsed DEMO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, J.; Cortes, M.; Mendez, P.; Hayward, J.; Maisonnier, D.

    2007-01-01

    Several designs have been proposed for the DEMO fusion reactor. Some of them are working in a non-steady state mode. Since a power plant should be able to deliver to the grid a constant power, this challenge must be solved. Energy storage is required at a level of 250 MWh e with the capability of delivering a power of 1 GWe. A review of different technologies for energy storage is made. Thermal energy storage (TES), fuel cells and other hydrogen storage, compressed air storage, water pumping, batteries, flywheels and supercapacitors are the most promising solutions to energy storage. Each one is briefly described in the paper, showing its basis, features, advantages and disadvantages for this application. The conclusion of the review is that, based on existing technology, thermal energy storage using molten salts and a system based on hydrogen storage are the most promising candidates to meet the requirements of a pulsed DEMO. These systems are investigated in more detail together with an economic assessment of each

  8. Thermal energy storage devices, systems, and thermal energy storage device monitoring methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugurlan, Maria; Tuffner, Francis K; Chassin, David P.

    2016-09-13

    Thermal energy storage devices, systems, and thermal energy storage device monitoring methods are described. According to one aspect, a thermal energy storage device includes a reservoir configured to hold a thermal energy storage medium, a temperature control system configured to adjust a temperature of the thermal energy storage medium, and a state observation system configured to provide information regarding an energy state of the thermal energy storage device at a plurality of different moments in time.

  9. Water-storage-tube systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemker, P.

    1981-12-24

    Passive solar collection/storage/distribution systems were surveyed, designed, fabricated, and mechanically and thermally tested. The types studied were clear and opaque fiberglass tubes, metal tubes with plastic liners, and thermosyphoning tubes. (MHR)

  10. Status of electrical energy storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This report presents an overview of the status of electrical storage systems in the light of the growing use of renewable energy sources and distributed generation (DG) in meeting emission targets and in the interest of the UK electricity supply industry. Examples of storage technologies, their applications and current status are examined along with technical issues and possible activities by UK industries. Details are given of development opportunities in the fields of flow cells, advanced batteries - lithium batteries, high temperature batteries, flywheels, and capacitors. Power conversion systems and system integration, the all-electric ship project, and compressed air energy storage are discussed. Opportunities for development and deployment, small scale systems, demonstration programmes, and research and development issues are considered. An outline of the US Department of Energy Storage programme is given in the Annex to the report.

  11. Biodigester as an energy storage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges Neto, M.R.; Lopes, L.C.N. [Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Sertao Pernambucano (IFSertao-PE), Petrolina, PE (Brazil)], Emails: rangel@cefetpet.br; Pinheiro Neto, J.S.; Carvalho, P.C.M. [Federal University of Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. of Electrical Engineering], Emails: neto@tbmtextil.com.br, carvalho@dee.ufc.br; Silveira, G.C.; Moreira, A.P.; Borges, T.S.H. [Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Ceara (IFCE), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)], Emails: gcsilveira@cefet-ce.br, apmoreira@ifce.edu.br, thatyanys@yahoo.com.br

    2009-07-01

    Electricity supply for rural and remote areas is becoming an increasing priority to developing countries. The high initial cost of renewable energy based unities usually needs an energy storage system; due its operational and even replacement cost contributes to a higher final cost. The choice of energy storage systems depends on the sort and size of adopted power supply. This paper has a main goal to introduce a renewable energy based storage system weakly explored in Brazil: biogas from anaerobic digestion. It also brings a review of the main energy storage systems applied to electrical energy generation. As reference an experiment with an adapted Indian digester of 5 m{sup 3} that produced nearly 2m{sup 3} of biogas daily. The obtained biogas met the consumption of at least 4 typical Brazilian low income households with installed load of 500 W each and was enough to replace the use of 420 Ah lead-acid batteries. (author)

  12. Modelling a reliable wind/PV/storage power system for remote radio base station sites without utility power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitterlin, Ian F [Emerson Network Power Ltd., Globe Park, Marlow, SL7 1YG (United Kingdom)

    2006-11-22

    The development of photovoltaic (PV) cells has made steady progress from the early days, when only the USA space program could afford to deploy them, to now, seeing them applied to roadside applications even in our Northern European climes. The manufacturing cost per watt has fallen and the daylight-to-power conversion efficiency increased. At the same time, the perception that the sun has to be directly shining on it for a PV array to work has faded. On some of those roadside applications, particularly for remote emergency telephones or for temporary roadwork signage where a utility electrical power connection is not practical, the keen observer will spot, usually in addition to a PV array, a small wind-turbine and an electrical cabinet quite obviously (by virtue of its volume) containing a storage battery. In the UK, we have the lions share (>40%) of Europe's entire wind power resource although, despite press coverage of the 'anti-wind' lobby to the contrary, we have hardly started to harvest this clean and free energy source. Taking this (established and proven) roadside solution one step further, we will consider higher power applications. A cellular phone system is one where a multitude of remote radio base stations (RBS) are required to provide geographical coverage. With networks developing into the so called '3G' technologies the need for base stations has tripled, as each 3G cell covers only 1/3 the geographical area of its '2G' counterpart. To cover >90% of the UK's topology (>97% population coverage) with 3G cellular technology will requires in excess of 12,000 radio base stations per operator network. In 2001, there were around 25,000 established sites and, with an anticipated degree of collocation by necessity, that figure is forecast to rise to >47,000. Of course, the vast majority of these sites have a convenient grid connection. However, it is easy to see that the combination of wind and PV power generation and an energy storage system may be an

  13. APS storage ring vacuum system performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noonan, J.R.; Gagliano, J.; Goeppner, G.A.

    1997-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring was designed to operated with 7-GeV, 100-mA positron beam with lifetimes > 20 hours. The lifetime is limited by residual gas scattering and Touschek scattering at this time. Photon-stimulated desorption and microwave power in the rf cavities are the main gas loads. Comparison of actual system gas loads and design calculations will be given. In addition, several special features of the storage ring vacuum system will be presented

  14. Energy, exergy and sustainability analyses of hybrid renewable energy based hydrogen and electricity production and storage systems: Modeling and case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caliskan, Hakan; Dincer, Ibrahim; Hepbasli, Arif

    2013-01-01

    In this study, hybrid renewable energy based hydrogen and electricity production and storage systems are conceptually modeled and analyzed in detail through energy, exergy and sustainability approaches. Several subsystems, namely hybrid geothermal energy-wind turbine-solar photovoltaic (PV) panel, inverter, electrolyzer, hydrogen storage system, Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC), battery and loading system are considered. Also, a case study, based on hybrid wind–solar renewable energy system, is conducted and its results are presented. In addition, the dead state temperatures are considered as 0 °C, 10 °C, 20 °C and 30 °C, while the environment temperature is 30 °C. The maximum efficiencies of the wind turbine, solar PV panel, electrolyzer, PEMFC are calculated as 26.15%, 9.06%, 53.55%, and 33.06% through energy analysis, and 71.70%, 9.74%, 53.60%, and 33.02% through exergy analysis, respectively. Also, the overall exergy efficiency, ranging from 5.838% to 5.865%, is directly proportional to the dead state temperature and becomes higher than the corresponding energy efficiency of 3.44% for the entire system. -- Highlights: ► Developing a three-hybrid renewable energy (geothermal–wind–solar)-based system. ► Undertaking a parametric study at various dead state temperatures. ► Investigating the effect of dead state temperatures on exergy efficiency

  15. Monitored Retrievable Storage System Requirements Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    This Monitored Retrievable Storage System Requirements Document (MRS-SRD) describes the functions to be performed and technical requirements for a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility subelement and the On-Site Transfer and Storage (OSTS) subelement. The MRS facility subelement provides for temporary storage, at a Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) operated site, of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) contained in an NRC-approved Multi-Purpose Canister (MPC) storage mode, or other NRC-approved storage modes. The OSTS subelement provides for transfer and storage, at Purchaser sites, of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) contained in MPCs. Both the MRS facility subelement and the OSTS subelement are in support of the CRWMS. The purpose of the MRS-SRD is to define the top-level requirements for the development of the MRS facility and the OSTS. These requirements include design, operation, and decommissioning requirements to the extent they impact on the physical development of the MRS facility and the OSTS. The document also presents an overall description of the MRS facility and the OSTS, their functions (derived by extending the functional analysis documented by the Physical System Requirements (PSR) Store Waste Document), their segments, and the requirements allocated to the segments. In addition, the top-level interface requirements of the MRS facility and the OSTS are included. As such, the MRS-SRD provides the technical baseline for the MRS Safety Analysis Report (SAR) design and the OSTS Safety Analysis Report design

  16. Choosing a spent fuel interim storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roland, V.; Hunter, I.

    2001-01-01

    The Transnucleaire Group has developed different modular solutions to address spent fuel interim storage needs of NPP. These solutions, that are present in Europe, USA and Asia are metal casks (dual purpose or storage only) of the TN 24 family and the NUHOMS canister based system. It is not always simple for an operator to sort out relevant choice criteria. After explaining the basic designs involved on the examples of the TN 120 WWER dual purpose cask and the NUHOMS 56 WWER for WWER 440 spent fuel, we shall discuss the criteria that govern the choice of a given spent fuel interim storage system from the stand point of the operator. In conclusion, choosing and implementing an interim storage system is a complex process, whose implications can be far reaching for the long-term success of a spent fuel management policy. (author)

  17. Optimum Design and Operation of Cyclic Storage Systems; Lumped Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Ostadrahimi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Conjunctive use of surface and groundwater resources is a preferred approach in water resources management. Compared to dam construction, groundwater has certain advantages, among which are less costs, less sedimentation and evaporation, fewer water quality problems, and less social and cultural problems. To reduce the major problems associated with the development of large-scale surface impoundment systems, cyclic storage systems can be used as an alternative. A cyclic storage system (CYCS is an integrated interactive system consisting of two subsystems of surface water storage (reservoir and groundwater; this system together with artificial recharge is able to satisfy the predefined demands with rather high reliability. In order to optimize these systems, one must consider the hydraulic interactions between all the components, but unfortunately it has been neglected in many studies. In this article, a nonlinear optimization model for design and operation of cyclic storage systems has been developed using the lumped approach. In order to evaluate the model, its results have been compared with the results of a model in which distributed approach had been deployed, and so the efficiency of lumped models to solve the problems of cyclic storage systems has been investigated.

  18. Security for cloud storage systems

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Kan

    2014-01-01

    Cloud storage is an important service of cloud computing, which offers service for data owners to host their data in the cloud. This new paradigm of data hosting and data access services introduces two major security concerns. The first is the protection of data integrity. Data owners may not fully trust the cloud server and worry that data stored in the cloud could be corrupted or even removed. The second is data access control. Data owners may worry that some dishonest servers provide data access to users that are not permitted for profit gain and thus they can no longer rely on the servers

  19. A concept of an electricity storage system with 50 MWh storage capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Paska

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Electricity storage devices can be divided into indirect storage technology devices (involving electricity conversion into another form of energy, and direct storage (in an electric or magnetic fi eld. Electricity storage technologies include: pumped-storage power plants, BES Battery Energy Storage, CAES Compressed Air Energy Storage, Supercapacitors, FES Flywheel Energy Storage, SMES Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage, FC Fuel Cells reverse or operated in systems with electrolysers and hydrogen storage. These technologies have diff erent technical characteristics and economic parameters that determine their usability. This paper presents two concepts of an electricity storage tank with a storage capacity of at least 50 MWh, using the BES battery energy storage and CAES compressed air energy storage technologies.

  20. Modeling of greenhouse with PCM energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najjar, Atyah; Hasan, Afif

    2008-01-01

    Greenhouses provide a controlled environment that is suitable for plants growth and cultivation. In this paper the maximum temperature change inside the greenhouse is to be reduced by the use of energy storage in a phase change material PCM. A mathematical model is developed for the storage material and for the greenhouse. The coupled models are solved using numerical methods and Java code program. The effect of different parameters on the inside greenhouse temperature is investigated. The temperature swing between maximum and minimum values during 24 h can be reduced by 3-5 deg. C using the PCM storage. This can be improved further by enhancing the heat transfer between the PCM storage and the air inside the greenhouse

  1. Modeling of greenhouse with PCM energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najjar, Atyah [Computation Science, Birzeit University, Birzeit (PS); Hasan, Afif [Mechanical Engineering Department, Birzeit University, Birzeit (PS)

    2008-11-15

    Greenhouses provide a controlled environment that is suitable for plants growth and cultivation. In this paper the maximum temperature change inside the greenhouse is to be reduced by the use of energy storage in a phase change material PCM. A mathematical model is developed for the storage material and for the greenhouse. The coupled models are solved using numerical methods and Java code program. The effect of different parameters on the inside greenhouse temperature is investigated. The temperature swing between maximum and minimum values during 24 h can be reduced by 3-5 C using the PCM storage. This can be improved further by enhancing the heat transfer between the PCM storage and the air inside the greenhouse. (author)

  2. Composition Modeling and Equivalence of an Integrated Power Generation System of Wind, Photovoltaic and Energy Storage Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Haohuai; TANG Yong; HOU Junxian; ZOU Jiangfeng; LIANGShuang; SU Feng

    2011-01-01

    The characteristic of wind and solar generation is random and fluctuant. In order to improve their generation performance, the integrated power generation of wind, photovoltaic (PV) and energy storage is a focus in the study. In this paper,

  3. Combined solar collector and storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norton, B.; Smyth, M.; Eames, P.; Lo, S.N.G.

    2000-01-01

    The article discusses reasons why fossil-fuelled water heating systems are included in new houses but solar systems are not. The technology and market potential for evacuated tube systems and integral collector storage systems (ICSS) are explained. The challenge for the designers of ICSSWH has been how to reduce heat loss without compromising solar energy collection. A new concept for enhanced energy storage is described in detail and input/output data are given for two versions of ICSSWH units. A table compares the costs of ICSSWH in houses compared with other (i.e. fossil fuel) water heating systems

  4. Storage functions for dissipative linear systems are quadratic state functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trentelman, Harry L.; Willems, Jan C.

    1997-01-01

    This paper deals with dissipative dynamical systems. Dissipative dynamical systems can be used as models for physical phenomena in which energy exchange with their environment plays a role. In a dissipative dynamical system, the book-keeping of energy is done via the supply rate and a storage

  5. Putative storage root specific promoters from cassava and yam: cloning and evaluation in transgenic carrots as a model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arango, Jacobo; Salazar, Bertha; Welsch, Ralf; Sarmiento, Felipe; Beyer, Peter; Al-Babili, Salim

    2010-06-01

    A prerequisite for biotechnological improvements of storage roots is the availability of tissue-specific promoters enabling high expression of transgenes. In this work, we cloned two genomic fragments, pMe1 and pDJ3S, controlling the expression of a gene with unknown function from cassava (Manihot esculenta) and of the storage protein dioscorin 3 small subunit gene from yam (Dioscorea japonica), respectively. Using beta-glucuronidase as a reporter, the activities of pMe1 and pDJ3S were evaluated in independent transgenic carrot lines and compared to the constitutive CaMV35S and the previously described cassava p15 promoters. Activities of pMe1 and pDJ3S in storage roots were assessed using quantitative GUS assays that showed pDJ3S as the most active one. To determine organ specificities, uidA transcript levels in leaves, stems and roots were measured by real-time RT-PCR analyses showing highest storage root specificity for pDJ3S. Root cross sections revealed that pMe1 was highly active in secondary xylem. In contrast, pDJ3S was active in all root tissues except for the central xylem. The expression patterns caused by the cassava p15 promoter in carrot storage roots were consistent with its previously described activities for the original storage organ. Our data demonstrate that the pDJ3S and, to a lesser extent, the pMe1 regulatory sequences represent feasible candidates to drive high and preferential expression of genes in carrot storage roots.

  6. Force balanced magnetic energy storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mawardi, O.K.; Nara, H.; Grabnic, M.

    1979-01-01

    A novel scheme of constructing coils suited for inductive storage system is described. By means of a force-compensating method, the reinforcement structure can be made considerably smaller than that needed for conventional coils. The economics of this system is shown to be capable of achieving savings of upwards of 40% when compared to a conventional system

  7. Energy storage systems cost update : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenung, Susan M. (Longitude 122 West, Menlo Park, CA)

    2011-04-01

    This paper reports the methodology for calculating present worth of system and operating costs for a number of energy storage technologies for representative electric utility applications. The values are an update from earlier reports, categorized by application use parameters. This work presents an update of energy storage system costs assessed previously and separately by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Storage Systems Program. The primary objective of the series of studies has been to express electricity storage benefits and costs using consistent assumptions, so that helpful benefit/cost comparisons can be made. Costs of energy storage systems depend not only on the type of technology, but also on the planned operation and especially the hours of storage needed. Calculating the present worth of life-cycle costs makes it possible to compare benefit values estimated on the same basis.

  8. High Tc superconducting energy storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werfel, Frank [Adelwitz Technologiezentrum GmbH (ATZ), Arzberg-Adelwitz (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Electric energy is basic to heat and light our homes, to power our businesses and to transport people and goods. Powerful storage techniques like SMES, Flywheel, Super Capacitor, and Redox - Flow batteries are needed to increase the overall efficiency, stability and quality of electrical grids. High-Tc superconductors (HTS) possess superior physical and technical properties and can contribute in reducing the dissipation and losses in electric machines as motors and generators, in electric grids and transportation. The renewable energy sources as solar, wind energy and biomass will require energy storage systems even more as a key technology. We survey the physics and the technology status of superconducting flywheel energy storage (FESS) and magnetic energy storage systems (SMES) for their potential of large-scale commercialization. We report about a 10 kWh / 250 kW flywheel with magnetic stabilization of the rotor. The progress of HTS conductor science and technological engineering are basic for larger SMES developments. The performance of superconducting storage systems is reviewed and compared. We conclude that a broad range of intensive research and development in energy storage is urgently needed to produce technological options that can allow both climate stabilization and economic development.

  9. Bulk energy storage increases United States electricity system emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hittinger, Eric S; Azevedo, Inês M L

    2015-03-03

    Bulk energy storage is generally considered an important contributor for the transition toward a more flexible and sustainable electricity system. Although economically valuable, storage is not fundamentally a "green" technology, leading to reductions in emissions. We model the economic and emissions effects of bulk energy storage providing an energy arbitrage service. We calculate the profits under two scenarios (perfect and imperfect information about future electricity prices), and estimate the effect of bulk storage on net emissions of CO2, SO2, and NOx for 20 eGRID subregions in the United States. We find that net system CO2 emissions resulting from storage operation are nontrivial when compared to the emissions from electricity generation, ranging from 104 to 407 kg/MWh of delivered energy depending on location, storage operation mode, and assumptions regarding carbon intensity. Net NOx emissions range from -0.16 (i.e., producing net savings) to 0.49 kg/MWh, and are generally small when compared to average generation-related emissions. Net SO2 emissions from storage operation range from -0.01 to 1.7 kg/MWh, depending on location and storage operation mode.

  10. Maximizing the energy storage performance of phase change thermal storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amin, N.A.M.; Bruno, F.; Belusko, M. [South Australia Univ., Mawson Lakes, South Australia (Australia). Inst. for Sustainable Systems and Technologies

    2009-07-01

    The demand for electricity in South Australia is highly influenced by the need for refrigeration and air-conditioning. An extensive literature review has been conducted on the use of phase change materials (PCMs) in thermal storage systems. PCMs use latent heat at the solid-liquid phase transition point to store thermal energy. They are considered to be useful as a thermal energy storage (TES) material because they can provide much higher energy storage densities compared to conventional sensible thermal storage materials. This paper reviewed the main disadvantages of using PCMs for energy storage, such as low heat transfer, super cooling and system design issues. Other issues with PCMs include incongruence and corrosion of heat exchanger surfaces. The authors suggested that in order to address these problems, future research should focus on maximizing heat transfer by optimizing the configuration of the encapsulation through a parametric analysis using a PCM numerical model. The effective conductivity in encapsulated PCMs in a latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES) system can also be increased by using conductors in the encapsulation that have high thermal conductivity. 47 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

  11. Technology for national asset storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Robert A.; Hulen, Harry; Watson, Richard

    1993-01-01

    An industry-led collaborative project, called the National Storage Laboratory, was organized to investigate technology for storage systems that will be the future repositories for our national information assets. Industry participants are IBM Federal Systems Company, Ampex Recording Systems Corporation, General Atomics DISCOS Division, IBM ADSTAR, Maximum Strategy Corporation, Network Systems Corporation, and Zitel Corporation. Industry members of the collaborative project are funding their own participation. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory through its National Energy Research Supercomputer Center (NERSC) will participate in the project as the operational site and the provider of applications. The expected result is an evaluation of a high performance storage architecture assembled from commercially available hardware and software, with some software enhancements to meet the project's goals. It is anticipated that the integrated testbed system will represent a significant advance in the technology for distributed storage systems capable of handling gigabyte class files at gigabit-per-second data rates. The National Storage Laboratory was officially launched on 27 May 1992.

  12. ACCEPTABILITY ENVELOPE FOR METAL HYDRIDE-BASED HYDROGEN STORAGE SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, B.; Corgnale, C.; Tamburello, D.; Garrison, S.; Anton, D.

    2011-07-18

    The design and evaluation of media based hydrogen storage systems requires the use of detailed numerical models and experimental studies, with significant amount of time and monetary investment. Thus a scoping tool, referred to as the Acceptability Envelope, was developed to screen preliminary candidate media and storage vessel designs, identifying the range of chemical, physical and geometrical parameters for the coupled media and storage vessel system that allow it to meet performance targets. The model which underpins the analysis allows simplifying the storage system, thus resulting in one input-one output scheme, by grouping of selected quantities. Two cases have been analyzed and results are presented here. In the first application the DOE technical targets (Year 2010, Year 2015 and Ultimate) are used to determine the range of parameters required for the metal hydride media and storage vessel. In the second case the most promising metal hydrides available are compared, highlighting the potential of storage systems, utilizing them, to achieve 40% of the 2010 DOE technical target. Results show that systems based on Li-Mg media have the best potential to attain these performance targets.

  13. Hydrogen Storage Technologies for Future Energy Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preuster, Patrick; Alekseev, Alexander; Wasserscheid, Peter

    2017-06-07

    Future energy systems will be determined by the increasing relevance of solar and wind energy. Crude oil and gas prices are expected to increase in the long run, and penalties for CO 2 emissions will become a relevant economic factor. Solar- and wind-powered electricity will become significantly cheaper, such that hydrogen produced from electrolysis will be competitively priced against hydrogen manufactured from natural gas. However, to handle the unsteadiness of system input from fluctuating energy sources, energy storage technologies that cover the full scale of power (in megawatts) and energy storage amounts (in megawatt hours) are required. Hydrogen, in particular, is a promising secondary energy vector for storing, transporting, and distributing large and very large amounts of energy at the gigawatt-hour and terawatt-hour scales. However, we also discuss energy storage at the 120-200-kWh scale, for example, for onboard hydrogen storage in fuel cell vehicles using compressed hydrogen storage. This article focuses on the characteristics and development potential of hydrogen storage technologies in light of such a changing energy system and its related challenges. Technological factors that influence the dynamics, flexibility, and operating costs of unsteady operation are therefore highlighted in particular. Moreover, the potential for using renewable hydrogen in the mobility sector, industrial production, and the heat market is discussed, as this potential may determine to a significant extent the future economic value of hydrogen storage technology as it applies to other industries. This evaluation elucidates known and well-established options for hydrogen storage and may guide the development and direction of newer, less developed technologies.

  14. Energy storage systems: a strategic road-book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Dealing with the development and deployment of thermal and electric energy storage systems, this report first identifies four main challenges: to take environmental challenges into account during all the storage system life (design, production, use, end of life), to integrate the issue of economic valorization of the device into its design phase, to promote the development of standards, to make an institutional and legal framework emerge. It defines the geographical scope and the time horizon for the development of these systems. It evokes research and development programs in the United States, Japan, China, Germany and the European Union. These programs concern: mobile electric storage systems, electric storage systems in support of energy networks and renewable energies, heat storage systems. The authors outline that business models are now favourable to the deployment of storage systems. They discuss some key technological and economical parameters. They propose some prospective visions by 2050 with different possible orientations for this sector. They also identify and discuss the possible technological and socio-economical obstacles, research priorities, and stress the importance of implementing experimental platforms and research demonstrators

  15. Phase change thermal storage for a solar total energy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, R. E.; Cohen, B. M.

    1978-01-01

    An analytical and experimental program is being conducted on a one-tenth scale model of a high-temperature (584 K) phase-change thermal energy storage system for installation in a solar total energy test facility at Albuquerque, New Mexico, U.S.A. The thermal storage medium is anhydrous sodium hydroxide with 8% sodium nitrate. The program will produce data on the dynamic response of the system to repeated cycles of charging and discharging simulating those of the test facility. Data will be correlated with a mathematical model which will then be used in the design of the full-scale system.

  16. Modeling Pumped Thermal Energy Storage with Waste Heat Harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abarr, Miles L. Lindsey

    This work introduces a new concept for a utility scale combined energy storage and generation system. The proposed design utilizes a pumped thermal energy storage (PTES) system, which also utilizes waste heat leaving a natural gas peaker plant. This system creates a low cost utility-scale energy storage system by leveraging this dual-functionality. This dissertation first presents a review of previous work in PTES as well as the details of the proposed integrated bottoming and energy storage system. A time-domain system model was developed in Mathworks R2016a Simscape and Simulink software to analyze this system. Validation of both the fluid state model and the thermal energy storage model are provided. The experimental results showed the average error in cumulative fluid energy between simulation and measurement was +/- 0.3% per hour. Comparison to a Finite Element Analysis (FEA) model showed heat transfer. The system model was used to conduct sensitivity analysis, baseline performance, and levelized cost of energy of a recently proposed Pumped Thermal Energy Storage and Bottoming System (Bot-PTES) that uses ammonia as the working fluid. This analysis focused on the effects of hot thermal storage utilization, system pressure, and evaporator/condenser size on the system performance. This work presents the estimated performance for a proposed baseline Bot-PTES. Results of this analysis showed that all selected parameters had significant effects on efficiency, with the evaporator/condenser size having the largest effect over the selected ranges. Results for the baseline case showed stand-alone energy storage efficiencies between 51 and 66% for varying power levels and charge states, and a stand-alone bottoming efficiency of 24%. The resulting efficiencies for this case were low compared to competing technologies; however, the dual-functionality of the Bot-PTES enables it to have higher capacity factor, leading to 91-197/MWh levelized cost of energy compared to 262

  17. On a Model of Associative Memory with Huge Storage Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demircigil, Mete; Heusel, Judith; Löwe, Matthias; Upgang, Sven; Vermet, Franck

    2017-07-01

    In Krotov et al. (in: Lee (eds) Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems, Curran Associates, Inc., Red Hook, 2016) Krotov and Hopfield suggest a generalized version of the well-known Hopfield model of associative memory. In their version they consider a polynomial interaction function and claim that this increases the storage capacity of the model. We prove this claim and take the "limit" as the degree of the polynomial becomes infinite, i.e. an exponential interaction function. With this interaction we prove that model has an exponential storage capacity in the number of neurons, yet the basins of attraction are almost as large as in the standard Hopfield model.

  18. Optimizing Storage and Renewable Energy Systems with REopt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elgqvist, Emma M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Anderson, Katherine H. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cutler, Dylan S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); DiOrio, Nicholas A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Laws, Nicholas D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Olis, Daniel R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Walker, H. A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-12-27

    Under the right conditions, behind the meter (BTM) storage combined with renewable energy (RE) technologies can provide both cost savings and resiliency. Storage economics depend not only on technology costs and avoided utility rates, but also on how the technology is operated. REopt, a model developed at NREL, can be used to determine the optimal size and dispatch strategy for BTM or off-grid applications. This poster gives an overview of three applications of REopt: Optimizing BTM Storage and RE to Extend Probability of Surviving Outage, Optimizing Off-Grid Energy System Operation, and Optimizing Residential BTM Solar 'Plus'.

  19. Improved design model for the multi-bed system in the storage and delivery system at ITER: Effects of decay of hydriding and dehydriding rate of a getter bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae-Uk [Department of Chemical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, San 31, Hyoja-Dong, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Min Ho; Yun, Sei-Hun [National Fusion Research Institute, 169-148-gil Kwahak-ro, Yusong-gu, Daejon 34133 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Euy Soo, E-mail: eslee@dongguk.edu [Department of Chemical & Biochemical Engineering, Dongguk University, Seoul 100-715 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, In-Beum [Department of Chemical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, San 31, Hyoja-Dong, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    This paper proposes an improved design model for the multi-bed system in the Storage and Delivery System considering that the hydriding and dehydriding rates of a getter bed decay over time. More specifically, the hydriding and dehydriding rates are influenced by the amount of remaining inventory in the getter bed and time simultaneously. Therefore, we formulate the rate decays mathematically to consider these features in the design model. The optimization problem is formulated as a mixed integer nonlinear program (MINLP) model with nonlinear constraints. Inductive operation scenario is presented to illustrate the applicability of the proposed model.

  20. Improved design model for the multi-bed system in the storage and delivery system at ITER: Effects of decay of hydriding and dehydriding rate of a getter bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae-Uk; Chang, Min Ho; Yun, Sei-Hun; Lee, Euy Soo; Lee, In-Beum

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes an improved design model for the multi-bed system in the Storage and Delivery System considering that the hydriding and dehydriding rates of a getter bed decay over time. More specifically, the hydriding and dehydriding rates are influenced by the amount of remaining inventory in the getter bed and time simultaneously. Therefore, we formulate the rate decays mathematically to consider these features in the design model. The optimization problem is formulated as a mixed integer nonlinear program (MINLP) model with nonlinear constraints. Inductive operation scenario is presented to illustrate the applicability of the proposed model.

  1. Considerations for Disposition of Dry Cask Storage System Materials at End of Storage System Life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, Rob; Van den Akker, Bret

    2014-01-01

    Dry cask storage systems are deployed at nuclear power plants for used nuclear fuel (UNF) storage when spent fuel pools reach their storage capacity and/or the plants are decommissioned. An important waste and materials disposition consideration arising from the increasing use of these systems is the management of the dry cask storage systems' materials after the UNF proceeds to disposition. Thermal analyses of repository design concepts currently under consideration internationally indicate that waste package sizes for the geologic media under consideration may be significantly smaller than the canisters being used for on-site dry storage by the nuclear utilities. Therefore, at some point along the UNF disposition pathway, there could be a need to repackage fuel assemblies already loaded into the dry storage canisters currently in use. In the United States, there are already over 1650 of these dry storage canisters deployed and approximately 200 canisters per year are being loaded at the current fleet of commercial nuclear power plants. There is about 10 cubic meters of material from each dry storage canister system that will need to be dispositioned. The concrete horizontal storage modules or vertical storage overpacks will need to be reused, re-purposed, recycled, or disposed of in some manner. The empty metal storage canister/cask would also have to be cleaned, and decontaminated for possible reuse or recycling or disposed of, likely as low-level radioactive waste. These material disposition options can have impacts of the overall used fuel management system costs. This paper will identify and explore some of the technical and interface considerations associated with managing the dry cask storage system materials. (authors)

  2. Economic feasibility of thermal energy storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habeebullah, B.A. [Faculty of Engineering, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    2007-07-01

    This paper investigates the economic feasibility of both building an ice thermal storage and structure a time of rate tariff for the unique air conditioning (A/C) plant of the Grand Holy Mosque of Makkah, Saudi Arabia. The features of the building are unique where the air-conditioned 39,300 m{sup 2} zone is open to the atmosphere and the worshippers fully occupy the building five times a day, in addition hundreds of thousands of worshippers attend the blessed weekend's prayer at noontime, which escalates the peak electricity load. For economic analysis, the objective function is the daily electricity bill that includes the operation cost and the capital investment of the ice storage system. The operation cost is function of the energy imported for operating the plant in which the tariff structure, number of operating hours and the ambient temperature are parameters. The capital recovery factor is calculated for 10% interest rate and payback period of 10 years. Full and partial load storage scenarios are considered. The results showed that with the current fixed electricity rate (0.07 $/kWh), there is no gain in introducing ice storage systems for both storage schemes. Combining energy storage and an incentive time structured rate showed reasonable daily bill savings. For base tariff of 0.07 $/kWh during daytime operation and 0.016 $/kWh for off-peak period, savings were achieved for full load storage scenario. Different tariff structure is discussed and the break-even nighttime rate was determined (varies between 0.008 and 0.03 $/kWh). Partial load storage scenario showed to be unattractive where the savings for the base structured tariff was insignificant. (author)

  3. Designing Microporus Carbons for Hydrogen Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan C. Cooper

    2012-05-02

    An efficient, cost-effective hydrogen storage system is a key enabling technology for the widespread introduction of hydrogen fuel cells to the domestic marketplace. Air Products, an industry leader in hydrogen energy products and systems, recognized this need and responded to the DOE 'Grand Challenge' solicitation (DOE Solicitation DE-PS36-03GO93013) under Category 1 as an industry partner and steering committee member with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in their proposal for a center-of-excellence on Carbon-Based Hydrogen Storage Materials. This center was later renamed the Hydrogen Sorption Center of Excellence (HSCoE). Our proposal, entitled 'Designing Microporous Carbons for Hydrogen Storage Systems,' envisioned a highly synergistic 5-year program with NREL and other national laboratory and university partners.

  4. The impact of low-temperature seasonal aquifer thermal energy storage (SATES) systems on chlorinated solvent contaminated groundwater: Modeling of spreading and degradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuurbier, K.G.; Hartog, N.; Valstar, J.; Post, V.E.A.; Breukelen, B.M. van

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater systems are increasingly used for seasonal aquifer thermal energy storage (SATES) for periodic heating and cooling of buildings. Its use is hampered in contaminated aquifers because of the potential environmental risks associated with the spreading of contaminated groundwater, but

  5. High organic inputs explain shallow and deep SOC storage in a long-term agroforestry system – combining experimental and modeling approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Cardinael

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Agroforestry is an increasingly popular farming system enabling agricultural diversification and providing several ecosystem services. In agroforestry systems, soil organic carbon (SOC stocks are generally increased, but it is difficult to disentangle the different factors responsible for this storage. Organic carbon (OC inputs to the soil may be larger, but SOC decomposition rates may be modified owing to microclimate, physical protection, or priming effect from roots, especially at depth. We used an 18-year-old silvoarable system associating hybrid walnut trees (Juglans regia  ×  nigra and durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum and an adjacent agricultural control plot to quantify all OC inputs to the soil – leaf litter, tree fine root senescence, crop residues, and tree row herbaceous vegetation – and measured SOC stocks down to 2 m of depth at varying distances from the trees. We then proposed a model that simulates SOC dynamics in agroforestry accounting for both the whole soil profile and the lateral spatial heterogeneity. The model was calibrated to the control plot only. Measured OC inputs to soil were increased by about 40 % (+ 1.11 t C ha−1 yr−1 down to 2 m of depth in the agroforestry plot compared to the control, resulting in an additional SOC stock of 6.3 t C ha−1 down to 1 m of depth. However, most of the SOC storage occurred in the first 30 cm of soil and in the tree rows. The model was strongly validated, properly describing the measured SOC stocks and distribution with depth in agroforestry tree rows and alleys. It showed that the increased inputs of fresh biomass to soil explained the observed additional SOC storage in the agroforestry plot. Moreover, only a priming effect variant of the model was able to capture the depth distribution of SOC stocks, suggesting the priming effect as a possible mechanism driving deep SOC dynamics. This result questions the potential of soils to

  6. High organic inputs explain shallow and deep SOC storage in a long-term agroforestry system - combining experimental and modeling approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinael, Rémi; Guenet, Bertrand; Chevallier, Tiphaine; Dupraz, Christian; Cozzi, Thomas; Chenu, Claire

    2018-01-01

    Agroforestry is an increasingly popular farming system enabling agricultural diversification and providing several ecosystem services. In agroforestry systems, soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks are generally increased, but it is difficult to disentangle the different factors responsible for this storage. Organic carbon (OC) inputs to the soil may be larger, but SOC decomposition rates may be modified owing to microclimate, physical protection, or priming effect from roots, especially at depth. We used an 18-year-old silvoarable system associating hybrid walnut trees (Juglans regia × nigra) and durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum) and an adjacent agricultural control plot to quantify all OC inputs to the soil - leaf litter, tree fine root senescence, crop residues, and tree row herbaceous vegetation - and measured SOC stocks down to 2 m of depth at varying distances from the trees. We then proposed a model that simulates SOC dynamics in agroforestry accounting for both the whole soil profile and the lateral spatial heterogeneity. The model was calibrated to the control plot only. Measured OC inputs to soil were increased by about 40 % (+ 1.11 t C ha-1 yr-1) down to 2 m of depth in the agroforestry plot compared to the control, resulting in an additional SOC stock of 6.3 t C ha-1 down to 1 m of depth. However, most of the SOC storage occurred in the first 30 cm of soil and in the tree rows. The model was strongly validated, properly describing the measured SOC stocks and distribution with depth in agroforestry tree rows and alleys. It showed that the increased inputs of fresh biomass to soil explained the observed additional SOC storage in the agroforestry plot. Moreover, only a priming effect variant of the model was able to capture the depth distribution of SOC stocks, suggesting the priming effect as a possible mechanism driving deep SOC dynamics. This result questions the potential of soils to store large amounts of carbon, especially at depth. Deep

  7. Energy Storage System for a Pulsed DEMO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, J.; Cortes, M.; Mendez, P.; Maisonnier, D.; Hayward, J.

    2006-01-01

    Several designs have been proposed for DEMO, some of which will operate in pulsed mode. Since a fusion power plant will be required to deliver continuous output, this challenge must be solved. For the reference DEMO, energy storage is required at a level of 250 MWhe with a capability of delivering a power of 1 GWe. Although DEMO is scheduled to be built in about 30 years, the design of the energy storage system must be based on current technology, focusing on commercially available products and on their expected future trends. From a thorough review of the different technologies available, thermal energy storage, compressed air energy storage, water pumping, fuel cells, batteries, flywheels and ultracapacitors are the most promising solutions to energy storage for a pulsed DEMO. An outline of each of these technologies is described in the paper, showing its basis, features, advantages and disadvantages for this application. Following this review, the most suitable methods capable of storing the required energy are examined. Fuel cells are not suitable due to the power requirement. Compressed air energy storage has a lower efficiency than the required one. Thermal energy storage, based on molten salts, so more energy can be stored with a better efficiency, and water pumping are shown as the main solutions, based on existing technology. However, those are not the only solutions capable of solving our challenge. Hydrogen production, using water electrolysis, hydrogen storage and combustion in a combined cycle can achieve our energy and power requirements with an acceptable efficiency. All these solutions are studied in detail and described, evaluating their current cost and efficiency in order to compare them all. (author)

  8. Use of imitation mathematical model of phosphorus system for analysis of rates of production-destruction processes in reservoir of the Zagorsk pumped-storage plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonov, A.V.; Margolina, G.L.; Sokolov, A.G.

    1993-01-01

    The rates of production-destruction processes in water media are traditionally measured for investigation of the conditions of operation of water-ecology systems and to study the role of microorganisms in the transformation of substances of different origins. One possibility for investigation of the production-destruction process is the use of numerical analytic methods and, in particular, of imitation mathematical modeling. The task of this investigation consisted of evaluation, from observations carried out in 1989, of the rates of production-destruction processes in the water of the reservoir of the Zagorsk pumped-storage plant by means of an imitation mathematical model of a phosphorus system. The model was based on a study of the characteristics of transformation of phosphorus in the water media, as well as by comparison of evaluations of the rates of the above-mentioned processes by two methods -- an experimental one (a modification of the oxygen flask method) and an analytical one (an imitation model of a phosphorus system). 7 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs

  9. Influence of geologic layering on heat transport and storage in an aquifer thermal energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridger, D. W.; Allen, D. M.

    2014-01-01

    A modeling study was carried out to evaluate the influence of aquifer heterogeneity, as represented by geologic layering, on heat transport and storage in an aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system in Agassiz, British Columbia, Canada. Two 3D heat transport models were developed and calibrated using the flow and heat transport code FEFLOW including: a "non-layered" model domain with homogeneous hydraulic and thermal properties; and, a "layered" model domain with variable hydraulic and thermal properties assigned to discrete geological units to represent aquifer heterogeneity. The base model (non-layered) shows limited sensitivity for the ranges of all thermal and hydraulic properties expected at the site; the model is most sensitive to vertical anisotropy and hydraulic gradient. Simulated and observed temperatures within the wells reflect a combination of screen placement and layering, with inconsistencies largely explained by the lateral continuity of high permeability layers represented in the model. Simulation of heat injection, storage and recovery show preferential transport along high permeability layers, resulting in longitudinal plume distortion, and overall higher short-term storage efficiencies.

  10. Evaluation of impact limiter performance during end-on and slapdown drop tests of a one-third scale model storage/transport cask system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, H.R.; Bronowski, D.R.; Uncapher, W.L.; Attaway, S.W.; Bateman, V.I.; Carne, T.G.; Gregory, D.L.; Huerta, M.

    1990-12-01

    This report describes drop testing of a one-third scale model shipping cask system. Two casks were designed and fabricated by Transnuclear, Inc., to ship spent fuel from the former Nuclear Fuel Services West Valley reprocessing facility in New York to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for a long-term spent fuel dry storage demonstration project. As part of the NRC's regulatory certification process, one-third scale model tests were performed to obtain experimental data on impact limiter performance during impact testing. The objectives of the testing program were to (1) obtain deceleration and displacement information for the cask and impact limiter system, (2) obtain dynamic force-displacement data for the impact limiters, (3) verify the integrity of the impact limiter retention system, and (4) examine the crush behavior of the limiters. Two 30-ft (9-m) drop tests were conducted on a mass model of the cask body and scaled balsa and redwood-filled impact limiters. This report describes the results of both tests in terms of measured decelerations, posttest deformation measurements, and the general structural response of the system. 3 refs., 32 figs

  11. Gray-box modelling approach for description of storage tunnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harremoës, Poul; Carstensen, Jacob

    1999-01-01

    The dynamics of a storage tunnel is examined using a model based on on-line measured data and a combination of simple deterministic and black-box stochastic elements. This approach, called gray-box modeling, is a new promising methodology for giving an on-line state description of sewer systems...... of the water in the overflow structures. The capacity of a pump draining the storage tunnel is estimated for two different rain events, revealing that the pump was malfunctioning during the first rain event. The proposed modeling approach can be used in automated online surveillance and control and implemented...

  12. Prototype thermochemical heat storage with open reactor system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zondag, H.A.; Kikkert, B.; Smeding, S.F.; Boer, de R.; Bakker, M.

    2013-01-01

    Thermochemical (TC) heat storage is an interesting technology for future seasonal storage of solar heat in the built environment. This technology enables high thermal energy storage densities and low energy storage losses. A small-scale laboratory prototype TC storage system has been realized at

  13. Mass storage system by using broadcast technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Hirofumi; Itoh, Ryosuke; Manabe, Atsushi; Miyamoto, Akiya; Morita, Youhei; Nozaki, Tadao; Sasaki, Takashi; Watase, Yoshiyuko; Yamasaki, Tokuyuki

    1996-01-01

    There are many similarities between data recording systems for high energy physics and broadcast systems; the data flow is almost one-way, requires real-time recording; requires large-scale automated libraries for 24-hours operation, etc. In addition to these functional similarities, the required data-transfer and data-recording speeds are also close to those for near future experiments. For these reasons, we have collaborated with SONY Broadcast Company to study the usability of broadcast devices for our data storage system. Our new data storage system consists of high-speed data recorders and tape-robots which are originally based on the digital video-tape recorder and the tape-robot for broadcast systems. We are also studying the possibility to use these technologies for the online data-recording system for B-physics experiment at KEK. (author)

  14. High-performance mass storage system for workstations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, T.; Tang, Y.; Gupta, L.; Cooperman, S.

    1993-01-01

    media, and the tapes are used as backup media. The storage system is managed by the IEEE mass storage reference model-based UniTree software package. UniTree software will keep track of all files in the system, will automatically migrate the lesser used files to archive media, and will stage the files when needed by the system. The user can access the files without knowledge of their physical location. The high-performance mass storage system developed by Loral AeroSys will significantly boost the system I/O performance and reduce the overall data storage cost. This storage system provides a highly flexible and cost-effective architecture for a variety of applications (e.g., realtime data acquisition with a signal and image processing requirement, long-term data archiving and distribution, and image analysis and enhancement).

  15. Lessons Learned from the Puerto Rico Battery Energy Storage System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOYES, JOHN D.; DE ANA, MINDI FARBER; TORRES, WENCESLANO

    1999-09-01

    The Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA) installed a distributed battery energy storage system in 1994 at a substation near San Juan, Puerto Rico. It was patterned after two other large energy storage systems operated by electric utilities in California and Germany. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Storage Systems Program at Sandia National Laboratories has followed the progress of all stages of the project since its inception. It directly supported the critical battery room cooling system design by conducting laboratory thermal testing of a scale model of the battery under simulated operating conditions. The Puerto Rico facility is at present the largest operating battery storage system in the world and is successfully providing frequency control, voltage regulation, and spinning reserve to the Caribbean island. The system further proved its usefulness to the PREPA network in the fall of 1998 in the aftermath of Hurricane Georges. The owner-operator, PREPA, and the architect/engineer, vendors, and contractors learned many valuable lessons during all phases of project development and operation. In documenting these lessons, this report will help PREPA and other utilities in planning to build large energy storage systems.

  16. Development of a seasonal thermochemical storage system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuypers, R.; Maraz, N.; Eversdijk, J.; Finck, C.J.; Henquet, E.M.P.; Oversloot, H.P.; Spijker, J.C. van 't; Geus, A.C. de

    2012-01-01

    In our laboratories, a seasonal thermochemical storage system for dwellings and offices is being designed and developed. Based on a thermochemical sorption reaction, space heating, cooling and generation of domestic hot water will be achieved with up to 100% renewable energy, by using solar energy

  17. Stochastic Sizing of Energy Storage Systems for Wind Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. D. Le

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present an optimal capacity decision model for energy storage systems (ESSs in combined operation with wind energy in power systems. We use a two-stage stochastic programming approach to take into account both wind and load uncertainties. The planning problem is formulated as an AC optimal power flow (OPF model with the objective of minimizing ESS installation cost and system operation cost. Stochastic wind and load inputs for the model are generated from historical data using clustering technique. The model is tested on the IEEE 39-bus system.

  18. Graphene-Based Systems for Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Carlos I.; Mackey, Paul J.; Johansen, Michael R.; Phillips, James, III; Hogue, Michael; Kaner, Richard B.; El-Kady, Maher

    2016-01-01

    Development of graphene-based energy storage devices based on the Laser Scribe system developed by the University of California Los Angeles. These devices These graphene-based devices store charge on graphene sheets and take advantage of the large accessible surface area of graphene (2,600 m2g) to increase the electrical energy that can be stored. The proposed devices should have the electrical storage capacity of thin-film-ion batteries but with much shorter charge discharge cycle times as well as longer lives The proposed devices will be carbon-based and so will not have the same issues with flammability or toxicity as the standard lithium-based storage cells.

  19. Energy storage in future power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Claus Nygaard; Østergaard, Jacob; Divya, K. C.

    2011-01-01

    Most sources of renewable power are characterised by uncontrollable and chaotic variations in power output. We here look at how energy storage may benefit renewable power generation by making it available in periods with little or no intermittent generation and thereby prevent additional conventi......Most sources of renewable power are characterised by uncontrollable and chaotic variations in power output. We here look at how energy storage may benefit renewable power generation by making it available in periods with little or no intermittent generation and thereby prevent additional...... conventional generation form being used. In addition to this, one of the strongest concerns in relation to renewable power is the instability in the electric power system that it may introduce as a result of large and relatively fast power fluctuations. An additional benefit of energy storage is therefore its...

  20. Materials used in refrigerated storage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abakians, H

    1970-09-01

    Applications of cryogenic technology have increased at a phenomenal rate during the past decade. With the installation of a number of refrigerated storage tanks in Iran, e.g., LPG storage at Bandar Mah Shahr and Kharg Is., and ammonia storage at Bandar Shahpour, it is appropriate to review the materials used in constructing low temperature storage systems. In order to have an economical fully refrigerated storage installation without assuming the risk of brittle fracture, appropriate notch-tough material should be selected for the important and highly stressed components. In general, the lower the operating temperature, the more expensive is the material to be used. Hence, care should be taken to select the required material in such a manner that it will be suitable for the operating temperature and not lower. The most economical materials for low temperatures are steels. Ordinary carbon steel can be used down to -20$F and the Killed carbon steel down to -50$F. Nickel steels (2 1/4%) can be used down to -75$ to 100$F, Nickel steels (3 1/2%) down to -150$F, and 9% nickel steels down to 1,320$F. Stainless and aluminum alloys can be used down to -423$F. Tabular data give some commonly used materials in low temperature and cryogenic services with their lowest allowable temperature, tensile strength, and relative cost.

  1. Exascale Storage Systems the SIRIUS Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klasky, S. A.; Abbasi, H.; Ainsworth, M.; Choi, J.; Curry, M.; Kurc, T.; Liu, Q.; Lofstead, J.; Maltzahn, C.; Parashar, M.; Podhorszki, N.; Suchyta, E.; Wang, F.; Wolf, M.; Chang, C. S.; Churchill, M.; Ethier, S.

    2016-10-01

    As the exascale computing age emerges, data related issues are becoming critical factors that determine how and where we do computing. Popular approaches used by traditional I/O solution and storage libraries become increasingly bottlenecked due to their assumptions about data movement, re-organization, and storage. While, new technologies, such as “burst buffers”, can help address some of the short-term performance issues, it is essential that we reexamine the underlying storage and I/O infrastructure to effectively support requirements and challenges at exascale and beyond. In this paper we present a new approach to the exascale Storage System and I/O (SSIO), which is based on allowing users to inject application knowledge into the system and leverage this knowledge to better manage, store, and access large data volumes so as to minimize the time to scientific insights. Central to our approach is the distinction between the data, metadata, and the knowledge contained therein, transferred from the user to the system by describing “utility” of data as it ages.

  2. Storage monitoring systems for the year 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsen, C.; Pollock, R.

    1997-01-01

    In September 1993, President Clinton stated the US would ensure that its fissile material meet the highest standards of safety, security, and international accountability. Frequent human inspection of the material could be used to ensure these standards. However, it may be more effective and less expensive to replace these manual inspections with virtual inspections via remote monitoring technologies. To prepare for this future, Sandia National Laboratories has developed several monitoring systems, including the Modular Integrated Monitoring System (MIMS) and Project Straight-Line. The purpose of this paper is to describe a Sandia effort that merges remote monitoring technologies into a comprehensive storage monitoring system that will meet the near-term as well as the long-term requirements for these types of systems. Topics discussed include: motivations for storage monitoring systems to include remote monitoring; an overview of the needs and challenges of providing a storage monitoring system for the year 2000; an overview of how the MIMS and Straight-Line can be enhanced so that together they create an integrated and synergistic information system by the end of 1997; and suggested milestones for 1998 and 1999 to assure steady progress in preparing for the needs of 2000

  3. Joint Planning Of Energy Storage and Transmission Considering Wind-Storage Combined System and Demand Side Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y.; Liu, B. Z.; Wang, K. Y.; Ai, X.

    2017-12-01

    In response to the new requirements of the operation mode of wind-storage combined system and demand side response for transmission network planning, this paper presents a joint planning of energy storage and transmission considering wind-storage combined system and demand side response. Firstly, the charge-discharge strategy of energy storage system equipped at the outlet of wind farm and demand side response strategy are analysed to achieve the best comprehensive benefits through the coordination of the two. Secondly, in the general transmission network planning model with wind power, both energy storage cost and demand side response cost are added to the objective function. Not only energy storage operation constraints and but also demand side response constraints are introduced into the constraint condition. Based on the classical formulation of TEP, a new formulation is developed considering the simultaneous addition of the charge-discharge strategy of energy storage system equipped at the outlet of the wind farm and demand side response strategy, which belongs to a typical mixed integer linear programming model that can be solved by mature optimization software. The case study based on the Garver-6 bus system shows that the validity of the proposed model is verified by comparison with general transmission network planning model. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that the joint planning model can gain more economic benefits through setting up different cases.

  4. Long-term cryogenic space storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, R. A.; Chronic, W. L.

    1973-01-01

    Discussion of the design, fabrication and testing of a 225-cu ft spherical cryogenic storage system for long-term subcritical applications under zero-g conditions in storing subcritical cryogens for space vehicle propulsion systems. The insulation system design, the analytical methods used, and the correlation between the performance test results and analytical predictions are described. The best available multilayer insulation materials and state-of-the-art thermal protection concepts were applied in the design, providing a boiloff rate of 0.152 lb/hr, or 0.032% per day, and an overall heat flux of 0.066 Btu/sq ft hr based on a 200 sq ft surface area. A six to eighteen month cryogenic storage is provided by this system for space applications.

  5. A comparative study on the modeling of a latent heat energy storage system and evaluating its thermal performance in a greenhouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirahmad, A.; Sadrameli, S. M.

    2018-03-01

    Thermal Energy Storage (TES) systems can be compared with batteries. As batteries can be charged when electricity is available for using during the power failure, TES systems can do the same for the thermal energy, i.e., they can absorb the available heat in one cycle, called charge cycle, and release it in a consecutive cycle, called discharge cycle. Among different kinds of TES systems, Phase Change Materials (PCM) have drawn considerable attention, since by changing from one phase to another, they can exchange a significant amount of energy in a small temperature difference. In this quest, a one dimensional mathematical model is solved using two different techniques and the results are compared together; one method is based on the enthalpy and the other is based on the effective heat capacity as well. Secondly, through eight experiments designed by using factorial approach, effects of inlet air velocity and temperature on the outlet stream has been investigated. The results proved that having a determined temperature difference between the inlet air and the PCM in both hot and cold cycles can enhance the efficiency. Finally, the feasible applications of a LHTES system for reducing the temperature swing in a greenhouse is studied numerically and the results are compared with experimental values. As a result, by using this passive coolant system diurnal internal temperature can be reduced for 10 °C.

  6. Numerical model for the thermal behavior of thermocline storage tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehtiwesh, Ismael A. S.; Sousa, Antonio C. M.

    2018-03-01

    Energy storage is a critical factor in the advancement of solar thermal power systems for the sustained delivery of electricity. In addition, the incorporation of thermal energy storage into the operation of concentrated solar power systems (CSPs) offers the potential of delivering electricity without fossil-fuel backup even during peak demand, independent of weather conditions and daylight. Despite this potential, some areas of the design and performance of thermocline systems still require further attention for future incorporation in commercial CSPs, particularly, their operation and control. Therefore, the present study aims to develop a simple but efficient numerical model to allow the comprehensive analysis of thermocline storage systems aiming better understanding of their dynamic temperature response. The validation results, despite the simplifying assumptions of the numerical model, agree well with the experiments for the time evolution of the thermocline region. Three different cases are considered to test the versatility of the numerical model; for the particular type of a storage tank with top round impingement inlet, a simple analytical model was developed to take into consideration the increased turbulence level in the mixing region. The numerical predictions for the three cases are in general good agreement against the experimental results.

  7. Data backup security in cloud storage system

    OpenAIRE

    Атаян, Борис Геннадьевич; Национальный политехнический университет Армении; Багдасарян, Татевик Араевна; Национальный политехнический университет Армении

    2016-01-01

    Cloud backup system is proposed, which provides means for effective creation, secure storage and restore of backups inCloud. For data archiving new efficient SGBP file format is being used in the system, which is based on DEFLATE compressionalgorithm. Proposed format provides means for fast archive creation, which can contain significant amounts of data. Modernapproaches of backup archive protection are described in the paper. Also the SGBP format is compared to heavily used ZIP format(both Z...

  8. Incorporating the Impacts of Small Scale Rock Heterogeneity into Models of Flow and Trapping in Target UK CO2 Storage Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, S. J.; Reynolds, C.; Krevor, S. C.

    2017-12-01

    Predictions of the flow behaviour and storage capacity of CO2 in subsurface reservoirs are dependent on accurate modelling of multiphase flow and trapping. A number of studies have shown that small scale rock heterogeneities have a significant impact on CO2flow propagating to larger scales. The need to simulate flow in heterogeneous reservoir systems has led to the development of numerical upscaling techniques which are widely used in industry. Less well understood, however, is the best approach for incorporating laboratory characterisations of small scale heterogeneities into models. At small scales, heterogeneity in the capillary pressure characteristic function becomes significant. We present a digital rock workflow that combines core flood experiments with numerical simulations to characterise sub-core scale capillary pressure heterogeneities within rock cores from several target UK storage reservoirs - the Bunter, Captain and Ormskirk sandstone formations. Measured intrinsic properties (permeability, capillary pressure, relative permeability) and 3D saturations maps from steady-state core flood experiments were the primary inputs to construct a 3D digital rock model in CMG IMEX. We used vertical end-point scaling to iteratively update the voxel by voxel capillary pressure curves from the average MICP curve; with each iteration more closely predicting the experimental saturations and pressure drops. Once characterised, the digital rock cores were used to predict equivalent flow functions, such as relative permeability and residual trapping, across the range of flow conditions estimated to prevail in the CO2 storage reservoirs. In the case of the Captain sandstone, rock cores were characterised across an entire 100m vertical transect of the reservoir. This allowed analysis of the upscaled impact of small scale heterogeneity on flow and trapping. Figure 1 shows the varying degree to which heterogeneity impacted flow depending on the capillary number in the

  9. Sperm length, sperm storage and mating system characteristics in bumblebees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baer, Boris; Schmid-Hempel, Paul; Høeg, Jens Thorvald

    2003-01-01

    -term storage of sperm, using three bumblebee species with different mating systems as models. We show that individual males produce only one size-class of sperm, but that sperm length is highly variable among brothers, among unrelated conspecific males, and among males of different species. Males of Bombus...

  10. Modeling of CO2 storage in aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savioli, Gabriela B; Santos, Juan E

    2011-01-01

    Storage of CO 2 in geological formations is a means of mitigating the greenhouse effect. Saline aquifers are a good alternative as storage sites due to their large volume and their common occurrence in nature. The first commercial CO 2 injection project is that of the Sleipner field in the Utsira Sand aquifer (North Sea). Nevertheless, very little was known about the effectiveness of CO 2 sequestration over very long periods of time. In this way, numerical modeling of CO 2 injection and seismic monitoring is an important tool to understand the behavior of CO 2 after injection and to make long term predictions in order to prevent CO 2 leaks from the storage into the atmosphere. The description of CO 2 injection into subsurface formations requires an accurate fluid-flow model. To simulate the simultaneous flow of brine and CO 2 we apply the Black-Oil formulation for two phase flow in porous media, which uses the PVT data as a simplified thermodynamic model. Seismic monitoring is modeled using Biot's equations of motion describing wave propagation in fluid-saturated poroviscoelastic solids. Numerical examples of CO 2 injection and time-lapse seismics using data of the Utsira formation show the capability of this methodology to monitor the migration and dispersal of CO 2 after injection.

  11. Order Picking Optimization in Carousels Storage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong-zhi Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the order picking problem in a material handling system consisting of multiple carousels and one picker. Carousels are rotatable closed-loop storage systems for small items, where items are stored in bins along the loop. An order at carousels consists of n different items stored there. The objective is to find an optimal picking sequence to minimizing the total order picking time. After proving the problem to be strongly NP-hard and deriving two characteristics, we develop a dynamic programming algorithm (DPA for a special case (two-carousel storage system and an improved nearest items heuristics (INIH for the general problem. Experimental results verify that the solutions are quickly and steadily achieved and show their better performance.

  12. Safety Test Report for the SNF Dry Storage System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, K. S.; Seo, K. S.; Lee, J. H.; Lee, J. C.; Choi, W. S

    2008-11-15

    This is technical report conducted by KAERI under the contract with NETEC for safety test for the PWR S/F dry storage system. Leak Test was performed after drop test and turn-over test, the measured leakage rate was lower than allowable leakage rate. It is revealed that the containment integrity of the dry storage system is maintained. In the seismic test, the moving of the model was measured at SRTH seismic response of 0.4 g and 0.8 g. Therefore the seismic test results can be used fully to the test data for verification of the seismic analysis. In the thermal test, the direction of the inlet and outlet of the air has no effect on the heat transfer performance. The passive heat removal system of the horizontal storage module was designed well.

  13. Stable CSR in storage rings: A model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sannibale, Fernando; Byrd, John M.; Loftsdottir, Agusta; Venturini, Marco; Abo-Bakr, Michael; Feikes, Jorge; Holldack, Karsten; Kuske, Peter; Wustefeld, Godehart; Hubers, Heinz-Willerm; Warnock, Robert

    2005-01-01

    A comprehensive historical view of the work done on coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in storage rings is given in reference [1]. Here we want just to point out that even if the issue of CSR in storage rings was already discussed over 50 years ago, it is only recently that a considerable number of observations have been reported. In fact, intense bursts of coherent synchrotron radiation with a stochastic character were measured in the terahertz frequency range, at several synchrotron light source storage rings [2-8]. It has been shown [8-11], that this bursting emission of CSR is associated with a single bunch instability, usually referred as microbunching instability (MBI), driven by the fields of the synchrotron radiation emitted by the bunch itself. Of remarkably different characteristics was the CSR emission observed at BESSY II in Berlin, when the storage ring was tuned into a special low momentum compaction mode [12, 13]. In fact, the emitted radiation was not the quasi-random bursting observed in the other machines, but a powerful and stable flux of broadband CSR in the terahertz range. This was an important result, because it experimentally demonstrated the concrete possibility of constructing a stable broadband source with extremely high power in the terahertz region. Since the publication of the first successful experiment using the ring as a CSR source [14], BESSY II has regular scheduled user s shifts dedicated to CSR experiments. At the present time, several other laboratories are investigating the possibility of a CSR mode of operation [15-17] and a design for a new ring optimized for CSR is at an advanced stage [18]. In what follows, we describe a model that first accounts for the BESSY II observations and then indicates that the special case of BESSY II is actually quite general and typical when relativistic electron storage rings are tuned for short bunches. The model provides a scheme for predicting and optimizing the performance of ring

  14. Stable CSR in Storage Rings: A Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sannibale, F.

    2005-01-01

    A comprehensive historical view of the work done on coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in storage rings is given in reference [1]. Here we want just to point out that even if the issue of CSR in storage rings was already discussed over 50 years ago, it is only recently that a considerable number of observations have been reported. In fact, intense bursts of coherent synchrotron radiation with a stochastic character were measured in the terahertz frequency range, at several synchrotron light source storage rings [2-8]. It has been shown [8-11], that this bursting emission of CSR is associated with a single bunch instability, usually referred as microbunching instability (MBI), driven by the fields of the synchrotron radiation emitted by the bunch itself. Of remarkably different characteristics was the CSR emission observed at BESSY II in Berlin, when the storage ring was tuned into a special low momentum compaction mode [12, 13]. In fact, the emitted radiation was not the quasi-random bursting observed in the other machines, but a powerful and stable flux of broadband CSR in the terahertz range. This was an important result, because it experimentally demonstrated the concrete possibility of constructing a stable broadband source with extremely high power in the terahertz region. Since the publication of the first successful experiment using the ring as a CSR source [14], BESSY II has regular scheduled user's shifts dedicated to CSR experiments. At the present time, several other laboratories are investigating the possibility of a CSR mode of operation [15-17] and a design for a new ring optimized for CSR is at an advanced stage [18]. In what follows, we describe a model that first accounts for the BESSY II observations and then indicates that the special case of BESSY II is actually quite general and typical when relativistic electron storage rings are tuned for short bunches. The model provides a scheme for predicting and optimizing the performance of ring

  15. Optimal design of compressed air energy storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahrens, F. W.; Sharma, A.; Ragsdell, K. M.

    1979-01-01

    Compressed air energy storage (CAES) power systems are currently being considered by various electric utilities for load-leveling applications. Models of CAES systems which employ natural underground aquifer formations, and present an optimal design methodology which demonstrates their economic viability are developed. This approach is based upon a decomposition of the CAES plant and utility grid system into three partially-decoupled subsystems. Numerical results are given for a plant employing the Media, Illinois Galesville aquifer formation.

  16. Monitored Retrievable Storage conceptual system study: metal storage casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unterzuber, R.; Cross, T.E.; Krasicki, B.R.

    1983-08-01

    A description of the metal cask storage facility concept is presented with the operations required to handle the spent fuel or high-level wastes and transuranic wastes. A generic Receiving and Handling Facility, provided by PNL, has been used for this study. Modifications to the storage delivery side of the handling facility, necessary to couple the Receiving and Handling Facility with the storage facility, are described. The equipment and support facilities needed for the storage facility are also described. Two separate storage facilities are presented herein: one for all spent fuel storage, and one for storage of high-level waste (HLW) and transuranic waste (TRU). Each facility is described for the capacities and rates defined by PNL in the Concept Technical Performance Criteria and Base Assumptions (see Table 1.3-1). Estimates of costs and time-distributions of expenditures have been developed to construct, operate, and decommission the conceptual MRS facilities in mid-1983 dollars, for the base cases given using the cost categories and percentages provided by PNL. Cost estimates and time-distributions of expenditures have also been developed to expand the facility throughput rate from 1800 MTU to 3000 MTU, and to expand the facility storage capacity from 15,000 MTU to 72,00 MTU. The life cycle cost of the facility for the bounding cases of all spent fuel and all HLW and TRU, using the time-distributions of costs developed above and assuming a two percent per year discount rate, are also presented. 3 references, 16 figures, 18 tables

  17. A bi-level stochastic scheduling optimization model for a virtual power plant connected to a wind–photovoltaic–energy storage system considering the uncertainty and demand response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, Liwei; Tan, Zhongfu; Yuan, Jinyun; Tan, Qingkun; Li, Huanhuan; Dong, Fugui

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Our research focuses on Virtual Power Plant (VPP). • Virtual Power Plant consists of WPP, PV, CGT, ESSs and DRPs. • Robust optimization theory is introduced to analyze uncertainties. • A bi-level stochastic scheduling optimization model is proposed for VPP. • Models are built to measure the impacts of ESSs and DERPs on VPP operation. - Abstract: To reduce the uncertain influence of wind power and solar photovoltaic power on virtual power plant (VPP) operation, robust optimization theory (ROT) is introduced to build a stochastic scheduling model for VPP considering the uncertainty, price-based demand response (PBDR) and incentive-based demand response (IBDR). First, the VPP components are described including the wind power plant (WPP), photovoltaic generators (PV), convention gas turbine (CGT), energy storage systems (ESSs) and demand resource providers (DRPs). Then, a scenario generation and reduction frame is proposed for analyzing and simulating output stochastics based on the interval method and the Kantorovich distance. Second, a bi-level robust scheduling model is proposed with a double robust coefficient for WPP and PV. In the upper layer model, the maximum VPP operation income is taken as the optimization objective for building the scheduling model with the day-ahead prediction output of WPP and PV. In the lower layer model, the day-ahead scheduling scheme is revised with the actual output of the WPP and PV under the objectives of the minimum system net load and the minimum system operation cost. Finally, the independent micro-grid in a coastal island in eastern China is used for the simulation analysis. The results illustrate that the model can overcome the influence of uncertainty on VPP operations and reduce the system power shortage cost by connecting the day-ahead scheduling with the real-time scheduling. ROT could provide a flexible decision tool for decision makers, effectively addressing system uncertainties. ESSs could

  18. Using the Hadoop/MapReduce approach for monitoring the CERN storage system and improving the ATLAS computing model

    CERN Document Server

    Russo, Stefano Alberto; Lamanna, M

    The processing of huge amounts of data, an already fundamental task for the research in the elementary particle physics field, is becoming more and more important also for companies operating in the Information Technology (IT) industry. In this context, if conventional approaches are adopted several problems arise, starting from the congestion of the communication channels. In the IT sector, one of the approaches designed to minimize this congestion on is to exploit the data locality, or in other words, to bring the computation as closer as possible to where the data resides. The most common implementation of this concept is the Hadoop/MapReduce framework. In this thesis work I evaluate the usage of Hadoop/MapReduce in two areas: a standard one similar to typical IT analyses, and an innovative one related to high energy physics analyses. The first consists in monitoring the history of the storage cluster which stores the data generated by the LHC experiments, the second in the physics analysis of the latter, ...

  19. Final Report: Hydrogen Storage System Cost Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, Brian David [Strategic Analysis Inc., Arlington, VA (United States); Houchins, Cassidy [Strategic Analysis Inc., Arlington, VA (United States); Huya-Kouadio, Jennie Moton [Strategic Analysis Inc., Arlington, VA (United States); DeSantis, Daniel A. [Strategic Analysis Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    2016-09-30

    The Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO) has identified hydrogen storage as a key enabling technology for advancing hydrogen and fuel cell power technologies in transportation, stationary, and portable applications. Consequently, FCTO has established targets to chart the progress of developing and demonstrating viable hydrogen storage technologies for transportation and stationary applications. This cost assessment project supports the overall FCTO goals by identifying the current technology system components, performance levels, and manufacturing/assembly techniques most likely to lead to the lowest system storage cost. Furthermore, the project forecasts the cost of these systems at a variety of annual manufacturing rates to allow comparison to the overall 2017 and “Ultimate” DOE cost targets. The cost breakdown of the system components and manufacturing steps can then be used to guide future research and development (R&D) decisions. The project was led by Strategic Analysis Inc. (SA) and aided by Rajesh Ahluwalia and Thanh Hua from Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Lin Simpson at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Since SA coordinated the project activities of all three organizations, this report includes a technical description of all project activity. This report represents a summary of contract activities and findings under SA’s five year contract to the US Department of Energy (Award No. DE-EE0005253) and constitutes the “Final Scientific Report” deliverable. Project publications and presentations are listed in the Appendix.

  20. Aquifer storage and recovery: recent hydrogeological advances and system performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliva, Robert G; Guo, Weixing; Missimer, Thomas M

    2006-12-01

    Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) is part of the solution to the global problem of managing water resources to meet existing and future freshwater demands. However, the metaphoric "ASR bubble" has been burst with the realization that ASR systems are more physically and chemically complex than the general conceptualization. Aquifer heterogeneity and fluid-rock interactions can greatly affect ASR system performance. The results of modeling studies and field experiences indicate that more sophisticated data collection and solute-transport modeling are required to predict how stored water will migrate in heterogeneous aquifers and how fluid-rock interactions will affect the quality of stored water. It has been well-demonstrated, by historic experience, that ASR systems can provide very large volumes of storage at a lesser cost than other options. The challenges moving forward are to improve the success rate of ASR systems, optimize system performance, and set expectations appropriately.

  1. Energy storage for electrical systems in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Freeman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Energy storage is becoming increasingly important as renewable generation sources such as Wind Turbine and Photo Voltaic Solar are added to the mix in electrical power generation and distribution systems. The paper discusses the basic drivers for energy storage and provides brief descriptions of the various energy storage technologies available. The information summarizes current technical tradeoffs with different storage approaches and identifies issues surrounding deployment of large scale energy storage systems.

  2. Preparatory study of energy storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stortelder, B.J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Based on a literature survey, information from other institutes and interviews with KEMA-experts a state of the art is given of small-scale, medium-scale and large-scale energy storage systems. The results of the survey can be used to optimize the electric power supply. Attention is paid to the criteria capacity, efficiency, dynamic performance, economic aspects and the environmental impacts

  3. 36 CFR 910.18 - Vehicular circulation and storage systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... storage systems. 910.18 Section 910.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT... storage systems. (a) Improvement of the existing vehicular storage and circulation system is necessary in order to create the balanced transportation system called for in the Plan, which recognizes the need to...

  4. Laser surveillance systems for fuel storage pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeck, H.

    1985-06-01

    A Laser Surveillance System (LASSY) as a new safeguards device has been developed under the IAEA research contract No. 3458/RB at the Atominstitut Wien using earlier results by S. Fiarman. This system is designed to act as a sheet of light covering spent fuel assemblies in spent fuel storage pools. When movement of assemblies takes place, LASSY detects and locates the position of the movement in the pool and when interrogated, presents a list of pool positions and times of movement to the safeguards inspector. A complete prototype system was developed and built. Full scale tests showed the principal working capabilities of a LASSY underwater

  5. Optimal Scheduling of Residential Microgrids Considering Virtual Energy Storage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiliang Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The increasingly complex residential microgrids (r-microgrid consisting of renewable generation, energy storage systems, and residential buildings require a more intelligent scheduling method. Firstly, aiming at the radiant floor heating/cooling system widely utilized in residential buildings, the mathematical relationship between the operative temperature and heating/cooling demand is established based on the equivalent thermodynamic parameters (ETP model, by which the thermal storage capacity is analyzed. Secondly, the radiant floor heating/cooling system is treated as virtual energy storage system (VESS, and an optimization model based on mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP for r-microgrid scheduling is established which takes thermal comfort level and economy as the optimization objectives. Finally, the optimal scheduling results of two typical r-microgrids are analyzed. Case studies demonstrate that the proposed scheduling method can effectively employ the thermal storage capacity of radiant floor heating/cooling system, thus lowering the operating cost of the r-microgrid effectively while ensuring the thermal comfort level of users.

  6. Experimental investigation into a packed bed thermal storage solution for solar gas turbine systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Klein, P

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available High temperature thermal storage in randomly packed beds of ceramic particles is proposed as an effective storage solution for Solar Gas Turbine (SGT) cycles in the near term. Numerical modelling of these systems allows for optimised thermal storage...

  7. Failure Analysis of Storage Data Magnetic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortiz–Prado A.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the conclusions about the corrosion mechanics in storage data magnetic systems (hard disk. It was done from the inspection of 198 units that were in service in nine different climatic regions characteristic for Mexico. The results allow to define trends about the failure forms and the factors that affect them. In turn, this study has analyzed the causes that led to mechanical failure and those due to deterioration by atmospheric corrosion. On the basis of the results obtained from the field sampling, demonstrates that the hard disk failure is fundamentally by mechanical effects. The deterioration by environmental effects were found in read-write heads, integrated circuits, printed circuit boards and in some of the electronic components of the controller card of the device, but not in magnetic storage surfaces. There fore, you can discard corrosion on the surface of the disk as the main kind of failure due to environmental deterioration. To avoid any inconvenience in the magnetic data storage system it is necessary to ensure sealing of the system.

  8. Optimal scheduling for distributed hybrid system with pumped hydro storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusakana, Kanzumba

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Pumped hydro storage is proposed for isolated hybrid PV–Wind–Diesel systems. • Optimal control is developed to dispatch power flow economically. • A case study is conducted using the model for an isolated load. • Effects of seasons on the system’s optimal scheduling are examined through simulation. - Abstract: Photovoltaic and wind power generations are currently seen as sustainable options of in rural electrification, particularly in standalone applications. However the variable character of solar and wind resources as well as the variable load demand prevent these generation systems from being totally reliable without suitable energy storage system. Several research works have been conducted on the use of photovoltaic and wind systems in rural electrification; however most of these works have not considered other ways of storing energy except for conventional battery storage systems. In this paper, an energy dispatch model that satisfies the load demand, taking into account the intermittent nature of the solar and wind energy sources and variations in demand, is presented for a hybrid system consisting of a photovoltaic unit, a wind unit, a pumped hydro storage system and a diesel generator. The main purpose of the developed model is to minimize the hybrid system’s operation cost while optimizing the system’s power flow considering the different component’s operational constraints. The simulations have been performed using “fmincon” implemented in Matlab. The model have been applied to two test examples; the simulation results are analyzed and compared to the case where the diesel generator is used alone to supply the given load demand. The results show that using the developed control model for the proposed hybrid system, fuel saving can be achieved compared to the case where the diesel is used alone to supply the same load patters.

  9. Optimal sizing of a lithium battery energy storage system for grid-connected photovoltaic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Dulout , Jérémy; Anvari-Moghaddam , Amjad ,; Luna , Adriana; Jammes , Bruno; Alonso , Corinne; Guerrero , Josep ,

    2017-01-01

    International audience; This paper proposes a system analysis focused on finding the optimal operating conditions (nominal capacity, cycle depth, current rate, state of charge level) of a lithium battery energy storage system. The purpose of this work is to minimize the cost of the storage system in a renewable DC microgrid. Thus, main stress factors influencing both battery lifetime (calendar and cycling) and performances are described and modelled. Power and energy requirements are also dis...

  10. Thiamine losses during storage of pasteurised and sterilized model systems of minced chicken meat with addition of fresh and oxidized fat, and antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymandera-Buszka, Krystyna; Hęś, Marzanna; Waszkowiak, Katarzyna; Jędrusek-Golińska, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of pasteurisation and sterilization of model systems of minced chicken meat in the presence of low or high-oxidised pork lard, soy and sunflower oil, as well as casein hydrolysate and rosemary extract, on losses of thiamine in model systems. In the samples, the thiamine content was analysed periodically by thiochromium method, as well as rate of lipid oxidation based on measurement of peroxide value (PV) by iodometric method and p-anisidine value (AV) by spectrophotometric method. It was observed that the thiamine losses in model systems of minced chicken after pasteurisation (61-71%) were higher than after sterilization (57-67%). Introduction of high-oxidised fat increased the total thiamine losses both during thermal processing and storage of meat samples (to 23%). A strong relationship was established between thiamine losses and rate of fat oxidation. The lowest total thiamine losses were observed in the samples with low-oxidised pork lard. Antioxidant addition (rosemary extract or casein hydrolysate) into meat samples limited the thiamine losses. However, the effect depended on oxidation of fat that was mixed with meat. In the samples with low-oxidised fat, higher protective effect was found for rosemary extract (7-11%). In the samples with high-oxidised fat, casein hydrolysate was superior to rosemary extract (14%). In order to increase the stability of thiamine in pasteurized or sterilized meat products with fats, the influence of fat type and its oxidative stability should be taken under consideration. Moreover, the addition of rosemary extract or casein hydrolysate has impact on the thiamine losses since it slows down lipid oxidation to a significant extent.

  11. More with thermal energy storage. Report 7. Interference. Effects of thermal energy storage systems on the environment. Modelling of large-scale implementation in urban areas. Final report; Meer met bodemenergie. Rapport 7. Interferentie. Effecten van bodemenergiesystemen op hun omgeving. Modellering grootschalige inpassing in stedelijke gebieden. Eindrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Oostrom, N.; Bakr, M. [Deltares, Delft (Netherlands)

    2012-06-29

    The project More With Thermal Energy Storage (MMB, abbreviated in Dutch) focuses on knowledge gaps and potential opportunities regarding open systems. The main questions to be answered are: (1) What effects (hydrological, thermal, microbiological and chemical) occur in the soil system by application of thermal energy storage; (2) Which technical options are available for a sustainable integration of thermal energy storage in the water and energy chain?; (3) Is it possible to achieve multiple objectives by using smart combinations? The project is organized in different work packages. In work package 2, the effects of individual and collective thermal energy storage storage systems on subsoils and the environment are determined. In work package 3 the opportunities for thermal energy storage and soil remediation are examined, while in work package 4 the focus is on new sustainable combinations of heat and cold storage. Work package 1 is the umbrella part where communication and policy of and participation in MMB are the main subjects. The objective of this report is to gain insight in the mutual influencing of heat and cold storage systems in areas where several such systems occur close to each other. This insight might contribute to a policy and/or model approach to interference [Dutch] Het project Meer Met Bodemenergie (MMB) richt zich op het invullen van kennisleemtes en mogelijke kansen ten aanzien van open systemen. De belangrijkste vragen waarop het onderzoeksprogramma MMB antwoord geeft zijn: (1) Welke effecten (hydrologisch, thermisch, microbiologisch en chemisch) treden op in het bodemsysteem bij toepassing van bodemenergie?; (2) Welke technische mogelijkheden zijn er voor het duurzaam inpassen van bodem-energie in de water- en energieketen?; (3) Is het mogelijk om meerdere doelstellingen tegelijk te verwezenlijken door slimme combinaties te maken? Het project is ingericht met verschillende werkpakketten. In werkpakket 2 worden de effecten van individuele en

  12. Thermal analysis of the failed equipment storage vault system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerrell, J.; Lee, S.Y.; Shadday, A.

    1995-07-01

    A storage facility for failed glass melters is required for radioactive operation of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). It is currently proposed that the failed melters be stored in the Failed Equipment Storage Vaults (FESV's) in S area. The FESV's are underground reinforced concrete structures constructed in pairs, with adjacent vaults sharing a common wall. A failed melter is to be placed in a steel Melter Storage Box (MSB), sealed, and lowered into the vault. A concrete lid is then placed over the top of the FESV. Two melters will be placed within the FESV/MSB system, separated by the common wall. There is no forced ventilation within the vault so that the melter is passively cooled. Temperature profiles in the Failed Equipment Storage Vault Structures have been generated using the FLOW3D software to model heat conduction and convection within the FESV/MSB system. Due to complexities in modeling radiation with FLOW3D, P/THERMAL software has been used to model radiation using the conduction/convection temperature results from FLOW3D. The final conjugate model includes heat transfer by conduction, convection, and radiation to predict steady-state temperatures. Also, the FLOW3D software has been validated as required by the technical task request

  13. The NOAO Data Lab virtual storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Matthew J.; Fitzpatrick, Michael J.; Norris, Patrick; Mighell, Kenneth J.; Olsen, Knut; Stobie, Elizabeth B.; Ridgway, Stephen T.; Bolton, Adam S.; Saha, Abhijit; Huang, Lijuan W.

    2016-07-01

    Collaborative research/computing environments are essential for working with the next generations of large astronomical data sets. A key component of them is a distributed storage system to enable data hosting, sharing, and publication. VOSpace1 is a lightweight interface providing network access to arbitrary backend storage solutions and endorsed by the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA). Although similar APIs exist, such as Amazon S3, WebDav, and Dropbox, VOSpace is designed to be protocol agnostic, focusing on data control operations, and supports asynchronous and third-party data transfers, thereby minimizing unnecessary data transfers. It also allows arbitrary computations to be triggered as a result of a transfer operation: for example, a file can be automatically ingested into a database when put into an active directory or a data reduction task, such as Sextractor, can be run on it. In this paper, we shall describe the VOSpace implementations that we have developed for the NOAO Data Lab. These offer both dedicated remote storage, accessible as a local file system via FUSE, and a local VOSpace service to easily enable data synchronization.

  14. Development of Automotive Liquid Hydrogen Storage Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krainz, G.; Bartlok, G.; Bodner, P.; Casapicola, P.; Doeller, Ch.; Hofmeister, F.; Neubacher, E.; Zieger, A.

    2004-06-01

    Liquid hydrogen (LH2) takes up less storage volume than gas but requires cryogenic vessels. State-of-the-art applications for passenger vehicles consist of double-wall cylindrical tanks that hold a hydrogen storage mass of up to 10 kg. The preferred shell material of the tanks is stainless steel, since it is very resistant against hydrogen brittleness and shows negligible hydrogen permeation. Therefore, the weight of the whole tank system including valves and heat exchanger is more than 100 kg. The space between the inner and outer vessel is mainly used for thermal super-insulation purposes. Several layers of insulation foils and high vacuums of 10-3 Pa reduce the heat entry. The support structures, which keep the inner tank in position to the outer tank, are made of materials with low thermal conductivity, e.g. glass or carbon fiber reinforced plastics. The remaining heat in-leak leads to a boil-off rate of 1 to 3 percent per day. Active cooling systems to increase the stand-by time before evaporation losses occur are being studied. Currently, the production of several liquid hydrogen tanks that fulfill the draft of regulations of the European Integrated Hydrogen Project (EIHP) is being prepared. New concepts of lightweight liquid hydrogen storage tanks will be investigated.

  15. Beam position monitor system for storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, M.; Hinkson, J.A.

    1985-05-01

    Beam position monitors (BPM) for synchrotron light storage rings usually consist of beam pickup electrodes, coaxial relays and a narrowband receiver. While accurate, these systems are slow and of limited use in the commissioning of an accelerator. A beam position monitor is described which is intended to be a principal diagnostic during debug and routine running of a storage ring. It is capable of measuring the position of a single bunch on the first or nth orbit to an accuracy of a few percent. Stored beam position is more accurately measured with averaging techniques. Beam position changes can be studied in a bandwidth from DC to a few MHz. The beam monitor electronics consist of a separate amplification, detection, and sampling channel for each beam pickup electrode. Fast switches in each channel permit selection of the nth turn for measurement (single bunch mode). A calibration pulse is injected into each channel after beam measurement to permit gain offsets to be measured and removed from the final data. While initially more costly than the usual beam position monitor system, this sytem will pay for itself in reduced storage ring debug and trouble shooting time. 5 refs., 5 figs

  16. Dynamic characteristics of a pump-turbine during hydraulic transients of a model pumped-storage system: 3D CFD simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, X X; Cheng, Y G; Xia, L S; Yang, J D

    2014-01-01

    The runaway process in a model pumped-storage system was simulated for analyzing the dynamic characteristics of a pump-turbine. The simulation was adopted by coupling 1D (One Dimensional) pipeline MOC (Method of Characteristics) equations with a 3D (Three Dimensional) pump-turbine CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) model, in which the water hammer wave in the 3D zone was defined by giving a pressure dependent density. We found from the results that the dynamic performances of the pump-turbine do not coincide with the static operating points, especially in the S-shaped characteristics region, where the dynamic trajectories follow ring-shaped curves. Specifically, the transient operating points with the same Q 11 and M 11 in different moving directions of the dynamic trajectories give different n 11 . The main reason of this phenomenon is that the transient flow patterns inside the pump-turbine are influenced by the ones in the previous time step, which leads to different flow patterns between the points with the same Q 11 and M 11 in different moving directions of the dynamic trajectories

  17. Dynamic characteristics of a pump-turbine during hydraulic transients of a model pumped-storage system: 3D CFD simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X. X.; Cheng, Y. G.; Xia, L. S.; Yang, J. D.

    2014-03-01

    The runaway process in a model pumped-storage system was simulated for analyzing the dynamic characteristics of a pump-turbine. The simulation was adopted by coupling 1D (One Dimensional) pipeline MOC (Method of Characteristics) equations with a 3D (Three Dimensional) pump-turbine CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) model, in which the water hammer wave in the 3D zone was defined by giving a pressure dependent density. We found from the results that the dynamic performances of the pump-turbine do not coincide with the static operating points, especially in the S-shaped characteristics region, where the dynamic trajectories follow ring-shaped curves. Specifically, the transient operating points with the same Q11 and M11 in different moving directions of the dynamic trajectories give different n11. The main reason of this phenomenon is that the transient flow patterns inside the pump-turbine are influenced by the ones in the previous time step, which leads to different flow patterns between the points with the same Q11 and M11 in different moving directions of the dynamic trajectories.

  18. Lithium batteries and other electrochemical storage systems

    CERN Document Server

    Glaize, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Lithium batteries were introduced relatively recently in comparison to lead- or nickel-based batteries, which have been around for over 100 years. Nevertheless, in the space of 20 years, they have acquired a considerable market share - particularly for the supply of mobile devices. We are still a long way from exhausting the possibilities that they offer. Numerous projects will undoubtedly further improve their performances in the years to come. For large-scale storage systems, other types of batteries are also worthy of consideration: hot batteries and redox flow systems, for example.

  19. Optimal routing in an automated storage/retrieval system with dedicated storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den J.P.; Gademann, A.J.R.M.

    1999-01-01

    We address the sequencing of requests in an automated storage/retrieval system with dedicated storage. We consider the block sequencing approach, where a set of storage and retrieval requests is given beforehand and no new requests come in during operation. The objective for this static problem is

  20. Entropy, pumped-storage and energy system finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakatsanis, Georgios

    2015-04-01

    Pumped-storage holds a key role for integrating renewable energy units with non-renewable fuel plants into large-scale energy systems of electricity output. An emerging issue is the development of financial engineering models with physical basis to systematically fund energy system efficiency improvements across its operation. A fundamental physically-based economic concept is the Scarcity Rent; which concerns the pricing of a natural resource's scarcity. Specifically, the scarcity rent comprises a fraction of a depleting resource's full price and accumulates to fund its more efficient future use. In an integrated energy system, scarcity rents derive from various resources and can be deposited to a pooled fund to finance the energy system's overall efficiency increase; allowing it to benefit from economies of scale. With pumped-storage incorporated to the system, water upgrades to a hub resource, in which the scarcity rents of all connected energy sources are denominated to. However, as available water for electricity generation or storage is also limited, a scarcity rent upon it is also imposed. It is suggested that scarcity rent generation is reducible to three (3) main factors, incorporating uncertainty: (1) water's natural renewability, (2) the energy system's intermittent components and (3) base-load prediction deviations from actual loads. For that purpose, the concept of entropy is used in order to measure the energy system's overall uncertainty; hence pumped-storage intensity requirements and generated water scarcity rents. Keywords: pumped-storage, integration, energy systems, financial engineering, physical basis, Scarcity Rent, pooled fund, economies of scale, hub resource, uncertainty, entropy Acknowledgement: This research was funded by the Greek General Secretariat for Research and Technology through the research project Combined REnewable Systems for Sustainable ENergy DevelOpment (CRESSENDO; grant number 5145)

  1. Storage system software solutions for high-end user needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Carole B.

    1992-01-01

    Today's high-end storage user is one that requires rapid access to a reliable terabyte-capacity storage system running in a distributed environment. This paper discusses conventional storage system software and concludes that this software, designed for other purposes, cannot meet high-end storage requirements. The paper also reviews the philosophy and design of evolving storage system software. It concludes that this new software, designed with high-end requirements in mind, provides the potential for solving not only the storage needs of today but those of the foreseeable future as well.

  2. 40 CFR 280.230 - Operating an underground storage tank or underground storage tank system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... underground storage tank or underground storage tank system. (a) Operating an UST or UST system prior to...) Operating an UST or UST system after foreclosure. The following provisions apply to a holder who, through..., the purchaser must decide whether to operate or close the UST or UST system in accordance with...

  3. Fuel Aging in Storage and Transportation (FAST): Accelerated Characterization and Performance Assessment of the Used Nuclear Fuel Storage System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDeavitt, Sean

    2016-01-01

    This Integrated Research Project (IRP) was established to characterize key limiting phenomena related to the performance of used nuclear fuel (UNF) storage systems. This was an applied engineering project with a specific application in view (i.e., UNF dry storage). The completed tasks made use of a mixture of basic science and engineering methods. The overall objective was to create, or enable the creation of, predictive tools in the form of observation methods, phenomenological models, and databases that will enable the design, installation, and licensing of dry UNF storage systems that will be capable of containing UNF for extended period of time.

  4. Fuel Aging in Storage and Transportation (FAST): Accelerated Characterization and Performance Assessment of the Used Nuclear Fuel Storage System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDeavitt, Sean [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    2016-08-02

    This Integrated Research Project (IRP) was established to characterize key limiting phenomena related to the performance of used nuclear fuel (UNF) storage systems. This was an applied engineering project with a specific application in view (i.e., UNF dry storage). The completed tasks made use of a mixture of basic science and engineering methods. The overall objective was to create, or enable the creation of, predictive tools in the form of observation methods, phenomenological models, and databases that will enable the design, installation, and licensing of dry UNF storage systems that will be capable of containing UNF for extended period of time.

  5. Performance Analysis of a Flywheel Energy Storage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ghedamsi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The flywheel energy storage systems (FESSs are suitable for improving the quality of the electric power delivered by the wind generators and to help these generators to contribute to the ancillary services. In this paper, a flywheel energy storage system associated to a grid connected variable speed wind generation (VSWG scheme using a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG is investigated. Therefore, the dynamic behavior of a wind generator, including models of the wind turbine (aerodynamic, DFIG, matrix converter, converter control (algorithm of VENTURINI and power control is studied. This paper investigates also, the control method of the FESS with a classical squirrel-cage induction machine associated to a VSWG using back-to-back AC/AC converter. Simulation results of the dynamic models of the wind generator are presented, for different operating points, to show the good performance of the proposed system.

  6. 40 CFR 280.220 - Ownership of an underground storage tank or underground storage tank system or facility or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... tank or underground storage tank system or facility or property on which an underground storage tank or underground storage tank system is located. 280.220 Section 280.220 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... underground storage tank or underground storage tank system or facility or property on which an underground...

  7. Compartmentalized storage tank for electrochemical cell system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piecuch, Benjamin Michael (Inventor); Dalton, Luke Thomas (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A compartmentalized storage tank is disclosed. The compartmentalized storage tank includes a housing, a first fluid storage section disposed within the housing, a second fluid storage section disposed within the housing, the first and second fluid storage sections being separated by a movable divider, and a constant force spring. The constant force spring is disposed between the housing and the movable divider to exert a constant force on the movable divider to cause a pressure P1 in the first fluid storage section to be greater than a pressure P2 in the second fluid storage section, thereby defining a pressure differential.

  8. Practical modeling approaches for geological storage of carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celia, Michael A; Nordbotten, Jan M

    2009-01-01

    The relentless increase of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions and the associated concerns about climate change have motivated new ideas about carbon-constrained energy production. One technological approach to control carbon dioxide emissions is carbon capture and storage, or CCS. The underlying idea of CCS is to capture the carbon before it emitted to the atmosphere and store it somewhere other than the atmosphere. Currently, the most attractive option for large-scale storage is in deep geological formations, including deep saline aquifers. Many physical and chemical processes can affect the fate of the injected CO2, with the overall mathematical description of the complete system becoming very complex. Our approach to the problem has been to reduce complexity as much as possible, so that we can focus on the few truly important questions about the injected CO2, most of which involve leakage out of the injection formation. Toward this end, we have established a set of simplifying assumptions that allow us to derive simplified models, which can be solved numerically or, for the most simplified cases, analytically. These simplified models allow calculation of solutions to large-scale injection and leakage problems in ways that traditional multicomponent multiphase simulators cannot. Such simplified models provide important tools for system analysis, screening calculations, and overall risk-assessment calculations. We believe this is a practical and important approach to model geological storage of carbon dioxide. It also serves as an example of how complex systems can be simplified while retaining the essential physics of the problem.

  9. An energy storage and regeneration system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

      The present invention relates to a method and a system for storing excess energy produced by an electric power plant during periods of lower energy demand than the power plant production capacity. The excess energy is stored by hydrolysis of water and storage of hydrogen and oxygen in underground...... caverns. When the energy demand exceeds the power production capacity of the plant, the stored gases are burned and the thermal energy is converted into electricity in gas turbine generators. The regenerated electrical power is then used to supplement the output of the electric power plant to meet...... the higher level of energy demand....

  10. Impact of Storage Technologies upon Power System Losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DULAU Lucian Ioan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the main characteristics of storage technologies. The most important storage technologies are the batteries, hydrogen, pumped hydro, flywheels, compressed air, super-capacitors and superconducting magnetic devices. The storage technologies can be classified based on the function principle into electrochemical, mechanical and electromagnetic devices. The storage systems can also be classified based on their capacity to store power into short and long term devices. A power flow analysis is performed for the situation with and without a storage unit. The storage unit is inserted into the IEEE 14 bus test system.

  11. Simulating grazing practices in a complete livestock system model: estimating soil carbon storage and greenhouse gas emissions in grazed versus un-grazed agroecosystems using the Manure-DNDC model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, E. E.; Dorich, C.; Contosta, A.; Varner, R. K.

    2017-12-01

    In livestock agroecosystems, the combined contributions of enteric fermentation, manure management, and livestock grazing and/or feed production play an important role in agroecosystem carbon (C) storage and GHG losses, with complete livestock system models acting as important tools to evaluate the full impacts of these complex systems. The Manure-DeNitrification-DeComposition (DNDC) model is one such example, simulating impacts on C and nitrogen cycling, estimating methane, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and ammonium dynamics in fields, manure storage, and enteric emissions. This allows the evaluation of differences in GHG and soil C impacts between conventional and organic dairy production systems, which differ in their use of grazed pasture versus confined feeding operations. However, Manure-DNDC has received limited testing in representing variations in grazed pasture management (i.e. intensive rotational grazing versus standard grazing practices). Using a set of forage biomass, soil C, and GHG emissions data collected at four sites across New England, we parameterized and validated Manure-DNDC estimations of GHG emissions and soil C in grazed versus un-grazed systems. Soil observations from these sites showed little effect from grazing practices, but larger soil carbon differences between farms. This may be due to spatial variation in SOC, making it difficult to measure and model, or due to controls of edaphic properties that make management moot. However, to further address these questions, model development will be needed to improve Manure-DNDC simulation of rotational grazing, as high stocking density grazing over short periods resulted in forage not re-growing sufficiently within the model. Furthermore, model simulations did not account for variation in interactions between livestock and soil given variability in field microclimates, perhaps requiring simulations that divide a single field into multiple paddocks to move towards more accurate evaluation of

  12. A fast multichannel analog storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freytag, D.R.

    1983-01-01

    A Multichannel Analog Storage System based on a commercial 32-channel parallel in/serial out (PISO) analog shift register is described. The basic unit is a single width CAMAC module containing 512 analog cells and the associated logic for data storage and subsequent readout. At sampling rates of up to 30 MHz the signals are strobed directly into the PISO. At higher rates signals are strobed into a fast presampling stage and subsequently transferred in block form into an array of PISO's. Sampling rates of 300 MHz have been achieved with the present device and 1000 MHz are possible with improved signal drivers. The system is well suited for simultaneous handling of many signal channels with moderate numbers of samples in each channel. RMS noise over full scale signal has been measured as 1:3000 (approx. =11 bit). However, nonlinearities in the response and differences in sensitivity of the analog cells require an elaborate calibration system in order to realize 11 bit accuracy for the analog information

  13. Pump Hydro Energy Storage systems (PHES) in groundwater flooded quarries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulain, Angélique; de Dreuzy, Jean-Raynald; Goderniaux, Pascal

    2018-04-01

    Pump storage hydroelectricity is an efficient way to temporarily store energy. This technique requires to store temporarily a large volume of water in an upper reservoir, and to release it through turbines to the lower reservoir, to produce electricity. Recently, the idea of using old flooded quarries as a lower reservoir has been evoked. However, these flooded quarries are generally connected to unconfined aquifers. Consequently, pumping or injecting large volumes of water, within short time intervals, will have an impact on the adjacent aquifers. Conversely, water exchanges between the quarry and the aquifer may also influence the water level fluctuations in the lower reservoir. Using numerical modelling, this study investigates the interactions between generic flooded open pit quarries and adjacent unconfined aquifers, during various pump-storage cyclic stresses. The propagation of sinusoidal stresses in the adjacent porous media and the amplitude of water level fluctuations in the quarry are studied. Homogeneous rock media and the presence of fractures in the vicinity of the quarry are considered. Results show that hydrological quarry - rock interactions must be considered with caution, when implementing pump - storage systems. For rock media characterized by high hydraulic conductivity and porosity values, water volumes exchanges during cycles may affect significantly the amplitude of the water level fluctuations in the quarry, and as a consequence, the instantaneous electricity production. Regarding the impact of the pump - storage cyclic stresses on the surrounding environment, the distance of influence is potentially high under specific conditions, and is enhanced with the occurrence of rock heterogeneities, such as fractures. The impact around the quarry used as a lower reservoir thus appears as an important constraining factor regarding the feasibility of pump - storage systems, to be assessed carefully if groundwater level fluctuations around the quarry

  14. Data storage and retrieval system abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Barbara

    1992-09-01

    The STX mass storage system design is intended for environments requiring high speed access to large volumes of data (terabyte and greater). Prior to commitment to a product design plan, STX conducted an exhaustive study of the commercially available off-the-shelf hardware and software. STX also conducted research into the area of emerging technologies in networks and storage media so that the design could easily accommodate new interfaces and peripherals as they came on the market. All the selected system elements were brought together in a demo suite sponsored jointly by STX and ALLIANT where the system elements were evaluated based on actual operation using a client-server mirror image configuration. Testing was conducted to assess the various component overheads and results were compared against vendor data claims. The resultant system, while adequate to meet our capacity requirements, fell short of transfer speed expectations. A product team lead by STX was assembled and chartered with solving the bottleneck issues. Optimization efforts yielded a 60 percent improvement in throughput performance. The ALLIANT computer platform provided the I/O flexibility needed to accommodate a multitude of peripheral interfaces including the following: up to twelve 25MB/s VME I/O channels; up to five HiPPI I/O full duplex channels; IPI-s, SCSI, SMD, and RAID disk array support; standard networking software support for TCP/IP, NFS, and FTP; open architecture based on standard RISC processors; and V.4/POSIX-based operating system (Concentrix). All components including the software are modular in design and can be reconfigured as needs and system uses change. Users can begin with a small system and add modules as needed in the field. Most add-ons can be accomplished seamlessly without revision, recompilation or re-linking of software.

  15. Aggregated Demand Modelling Including Distributed Generation, Storage and Demand Response

    OpenAIRE

    Marzooghi, Hesamoddin; Hill, David J.; Verbic, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    It is anticipated that penetration of renewable energy sources (RESs) in power systems will increase further in the next decades mainly due to environmental issues. In the long term of several decades, which we refer to in terms of the future grid (FG), balancing between supply and demand will become dependent on demand actions including demand response (DR) and energy storage. So far, FG feasibility studies have not considered these new demand-side developments for modelling future demand. I...

  16. Development of HF-systems for electron storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Androsov, V.P.; Karnaukhov, I.M.; Popkov, Yu.P.; Reva, S.N.; Telegin, Yu.N.

    1999-01-01

    Development of HF systems for electron storages is described. Its final task is construction of 100 kW HF station at 699,3 MHz frequency consisting from low-power HF system, klystron amplifier, wave line for HF power transmission and accelerating section. Functional parameters of HF station are given

  17. Integrated Building Energy Systems Design Considering Storage Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Stadler, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The addition of storage technologies such as flow batteries, conventional batteries, and heat storage can improve the economic, as well as environmental attraction of micro-generation systems (e.g., PV or fuel cells with or without CHP) and contribute to enhanced demand response. The interactions among PV, solar thermal, and storage systems can be complex, depending on the tariff structure, load profile, etc. In order to examine the impact of storage technologies on demand response and CO2 em...

  18. Efficient Journaling for the Spider Storage System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oral, H Sarp [ORNL; Wang, Feiyi [ORNL; Shipman, Galen M [ORNL; Dillow, David A [ORNL; Miller, Ross G [ORNL; Drokin, Oleg [ORNL

    2003-01-01

    Journaling is a widely used technique to increase file system robustness against meta data and/or data corruptions. While the overhead of journaling can be negligible for small-scale file systems, we found that two aspects of local back-end file system journaling significantly lower the overall performance of a large-scale parallel file system such as Lustre: extra head seeks and serialization of incoming client requests. Journal transactions reside on a separate area of the disk that the file data, and each commit of the journal requires a head seek. Incoming client requests become serialized and take a latency hit by waiting for a commit to occur before the reply is sent. In this paper we present two different approaches to increase the local back-end file system journaling efficiency, thus increasing the overall aggregate parallel file system efficiency. First, we present a hardware-based solution where a solid-state device is used as an external journaling device to minimize the disk head seek. Second, we introduce a software-based optimization to allow asynchronously commit multiple journal transactions on the local back-end file system to minimize the penalty of serialization. Both our solutions are experimentally tested on Oak Ridge National Laboratory's large-scale Spider storage system and our tests show that both methods nearly double the overall parallel write performance.

  19. Phase change energy storage for solar dynamic power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaramonte, F. P.; Taylor, J. D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a transient computer simulation that was developed to study phase change energy storage techniques for Space Station Freedom (SSF) solar dynamic (SD) power systems. Such SD systems may be used in future growth SSF configurations. Two solar dynamic options are considered in this paper: Brayton and Rankine. Model elements consist of a single node receiver and concentrator, and takes into account overall heat engine efficiency and power distribution characteristics. The simulation not only computes the energy stored in the receiver phase change material (PCM), but also the amount of the PCM required for various combinations of load demands and power system mission constraints. For a solar dynamic power system in low earth orbit, the amount of stored PCM energy is calculated by balancing the solar energy input and the energy consumed by the loads corrected by an overall system efficiency. The model assumes an average 75 kW SD power system load profile which is connected to user loads via dedicated power distribution channels. The model then calculates the stored energy in the receiver and subsequently estimates the quantity of PCM necessary to meet peaking and contingency requirements. The model can also be used to conduct trade studies on the performance of SD power systems using different storage materials.

  20. Carbon dioxide emissions effects of grid-scale electricity storage in a decarbonizing power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Michael T.; Jaramillo, Paulina; Hodge, Bri-Mathias

    2018-01-01

    While grid-scale electricity storage (hereafter ‘storage’) could be crucial for deeply decarbonizing the electric power system, it would increase carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in current systems across the United States. To better understand how storage transitions from increasing to decreasing system CO2 emissions, we quantify the effect of storage on operational CO2 emissions as a power system decarbonizes under a moderate and strong CO2 emission reduction target through 2045. Under each target, we compare the effect of storage on CO2 emissions when storage participates in only energy, only reserve, and energy and reserve markets. We conduct our study in the Electricity Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) system and use a capacity expansion model to forecast generator fleet changes and a unit commitment and economic dispatch model to quantify system CO2 emissions with and without storage. We find that storage would increase CO2 emissions in the current ERCOT system, but would decrease CO2 emissions in 2025 through 2045 under both decarbonization targets. Storage reduces CO2 emissions primarily by enabling gas-fired generation to displace coal-fired generation, but also by reducing wind and solar curtailment. We further find that the market in which storage participates drives large differences in the magnitude, but not the direction, of the effect of storage on CO2 emissions.

  1. Ultrasonic identity data storage and archival system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mc Kenzie, J.M.; Self, B.G.; Walker, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    Ultrasonic seals are being used to determine if an underwater stored spent fuel container has been compromised and can be used to determine if a nuclear material container has been compromised. The Seal Pattern Reader (SPAR) is a microprocessor controlled instrument which interrogates an ultrasonic seal to obtain its identity. The SPAR can compare the present identity with a previous identity, which it obtains from a magnetic bubble cassette memory. A system has been developed which allows an IAEA inspector to transfer seal information obtained at a facility by the SPAR to an IAEA-based data storage and retrieval system, using the bubble cassette memory. Likewise, magnetic bubbles can be loaded at the IAEA with seal signature data needed at a facility for comparison purposes. The archived signatures can be retrieved from the data base for relevant statistical manipulation and for plotting

  2. Solar energy collector/storage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettis, J.R.; Clearman, F.R.

    1983-05-24

    A solar energy collector/storage system which includes an insulated container having working fluid inlets and outlets and an opening, a light-transmitting member positioned over the opening, and a heat-absorbing member which is centrally situated, is supported in the container, and is made of a mixture of gypsum , lampblack, and water. A light-reflecting liner made of corrugated metal foil preferably is attached to the internal surface of the container. The opening of the container is positioned in optical alignment with a source of solar energy. A light-reflecting cover optionally can be hingedly attached to the container, and can be positioned such as to reflect solar energy rays into the container. The system is adaptable for use with a working gas (e.g., air) and/or a working liquid (e.g., water) in separated flows which absorb heat from the heat-absorbing member, and which are useable per se or in an associated storage and/or circulatory system that is not part of this invention. The heatabsorbing mixture can also contain glass fibers. The heatabsorbing member is of such great load-bearing strength that it can also be used simultaneously as a structural member, e.g., a wall or ceiling of a room; and, thereby, the system can be used to heat a room, if a window of the room is the light-transmitting member and is facing the sun, and if the heat-absorbing member is a wall and/or the ceiling of the room and receives solar energy through the window.

  3. Development of hydrogen storage systems using sodium alanate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozano Martinez, Gustavo Adolfo

    2010-12-06

    In this work, hydrogen storage systems based on sodium alanate were studied, modelled and optimised, using both experimental and theoretical approaches. The experimental approach covered investigations of the material from mg scale up to kg scale in demonstration test tanks, while the theoretical approach discussed modelling and simulation of the hydrogen sorption process in a hydride bed. Both approaches demonstrated the strong effect of heat transfer on the sorption behaviour of the hydride bed and led to feasible methods to improve and optimise the volumetric and gravimetric capacities of hydrogen storage systems. The applied approaches aimed at an optimal integration of sodium alanate material in practical hydrogen storage systems. First, it was experimentally shown that the size of the hydride bed influences the hydrogen sorption behaviour of the material. This is explained by the different temperature profiles that are developed inside the hydride bed during the sorptions. In addition, in a self-constructed cell it was possible to follow the hydrogen sorptions and the developed temperature profiles within the bed. Moreover, the effective thermal conductivity of the material was estimated in-situ in this cell, given very good agreement with reported values of ex-situ measurements. It was demonstrated that the effective thermal conductivity of the hydride bed can be enhanced by the addition of expanded graphite. This enhancement promotes lower temperature peaks during the sorptions due to faster heat conduction through the bed, which in addition allows faster heat transfer during sorption. Looking towards simulations and further evaluations, empirical kinetic models for both hydrogen absorption and desorption of doped sodium alanate were developed. Based on the results of the model, the optimal theoretical pressure-temperature conditions for hydrogen sorptions were determined. A new approach is proposed for the mass balance of the reactions when implementing

  4. Energy Storage Applications in Power Systems with Renewable Energy Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghofrani, Mahmoud

    In this dissertation, we propose new operational and planning methodologies for power systems with renewable energy sources. A probabilistic optimal power flow (POPF) is developed to model wind power variations and evaluate the power system operation with intermittent renewable energy generation. The methodology is used to calculate the operating and ramping reserves that are required to compensate for power system uncertainties. Distributed wind generation is introduced as an operational scheme to take advantage of the spatial diversity of renewable energy resources and reduce wind power fluctuations using low or uncorrelated wind farms. The POPF is demonstrated using the IEEE 24-bus system where the proposed operational scheme reduces the operating and ramping reserve requirements and operation and congestion cost of the system as compared to operational practices available in the literature. A stochastic operational-planning framework is also proposed to adequately size, optimally place and schedule storage units within power systems with high wind penetrations. The method is used for different applications of energy storage systems for renewable energy integration. These applications include market-based opportunities such as renewable energy time-shift, renewable capacity firming, and transmission and distribution upgrade deferral in the form of revenue or reduced cost and storage-related societal benefits such as integration of more renewables, reduced emissions and improved utilization of grid assets. A power-pool model which incorporates the one-sided auction market into POPF is developed. The model considers storage units as market participants submitting hourly price bids in the form of marginal costs. This provides an accurate market-clearing process as compared to the 'price-taker' analysis available in the literature where the effects of large-scale storage units on the market-clearing prices are neglected. Different case studies are provided to

  5. Data exchange system in cooler-storage-ring virtual accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wufeng; Qiao Weimin; Jing Lan; Guo Yuhui

    2009-01-01

    The data exchange system of the cooler-storage-ring (CSR) control system for heavy ion radiotherapy has been introduced for the heavy ion CSR at Lanzhou (HIRFL-CSR). Using techniques of Java, component object model (COM), Oracle, DSP and FPGA, this system can achieve real-time control of magnet power supplies sanctimoniously, and control beams and their switching in 256 energy levels. It has been used in the commissioning of slow extraction for the main CSR (CSRm), showing stable and reliable performance. (authors)

  6. Modular Energy Storage System for Alternative Energy Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Janice [Magna Electronics Inc., Auburn Hills, MI (United States); Ervin, Frank [Magna Electronics Inc., Auburn Hills, MI (United States)

    2012-05-15

    An electrical vehicle environment was established to promote research and technology development in the area of high power energy management. The project incorporates a topology that permits parallel development of an alternative energy delivery system and an energy storage system. The objective of the project is to develop technologies, specifically power electronics, energy storage electronics and controls that provide efficient and effective energy management between electrically powered devices in alternative energy vehicles plugin electric vehicles, hybrid vehicles, range extended vehicles, and hydrogen-based fuel cell vehicles. In order to meet the project objectives, the Vehicle Energy Management System (VEMS) was defined and subsystem requirements were obtained. Afterwards, power electronics, energy storage electronics and controls were designed. Finally, these subsystems were built, tested individually, and integrated into an electric vehicle system to evaluate and optimize the subsystems performance. Phase 1 of the program established the fundamental test bed to support development of an electrical environment ideal for fuel cell application and the mitigation of many shortcomings of current fuel cell technology. Phase 2, continued development from Phase 1, focusing on implementing subsystem requirements, design and construction of the energy management subsystem, and the integration of this subsystem into the surrogate electric vehicle. Phase 2 also required the development of an Alternative Energy System (AES) capable of emulating electrical characteristics of fuel cells, battery, gen set, etc. Under the scope of the project, a boost converter that couples the alternate energy delivery system to the energy storage system was developed, constructed and tested. Modeling tools were utilized during the design process to optimize both component and system design. This model driven design process enabled an iterative process to track and evaluate the impact

  7. Economic analyses of central solar heating systems with seasonal storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, P D; Keinonen, R.S.

    1986-10-01

    Economic optimization of large active community solar heating systems with annual thermal storage is discussed. The economic evaluation is based on a thermal performance simulation model employing one hour time steps and on detailed up-date data. Different system configurations and sub-system sizes have been considered. For Northern European weather conditions (60/sup 0/N) and with at least 400-500 residential units, the life-cycle cost of delivered solar heat was 6.5-7.5 c/kWh for 50% fraction of non-purchased energy. For a solar fraction of 70%, the solar energy price would be 8 c/kWh.

  8. Joint Optimal Design and Operation of Hybrid Energy Storage Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Ghiassi-Farrokhfal (Yashar); C. Rosenberg; S. Keshav (Srinivasam); M.-B. Adjaho (Marie-Benedicte)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThe wide range of performance characteristics of storage technologies motivates the use of a hybrid energy storage systems (HESS) that combines the best features of multiple technologies. However, HESS design is complex, in that it involves the choice of storage technologies, the

  9. Simulation study of an automated storage/retrieval system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den J.P.; Gademann, A.J.R.M.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we present a simulation study of an automated storage/retrieval system and examine a wide variety of control policies. We compare several storage location assignment policies. For the class-based storage policy, we apply a recent algorithm that enables us to evaluate the trade-off

  10. Battery Energy Storage Technology for power systems-An overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chandrashekhara, Divya K; Østergaard, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    the present status of battery energy storage technology and methods of assessing their economic viability and impact on power system operation. Further, a discussion on the role of battery storage systems of electric hybrid vehicles in power system storage technologies had been made. Finally, the paper...... suggests a likely future outlook for the battery technologies and the electric hybrid vehicles in the context of power system applications....

  11. Thermal analysis of near-isothermal compressed gas energy storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odukomaiya, Adewale; Abu-Heiba, Ahmad; Gluesenkamp, Kyle R.; Abdelaziz, Omar; Jackson, Roderick K.; Daniel, Claus; Graham, Samuel; Momen, Ayyoub M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel, high-efficiency, scalable, near-isothermal, energy storage system is introduced. • A comprehensive analytical physics-based model for the system is presented. • Efficiency improvement is achieved via heat transfer enhancement and use of waste heat. • Energy storage roundtrip efficiency (RTE) of 82% and energy density of 3.59 MJ/m"3 is shown. - Abstract: Due to the increasing generation capacity of intermittent renewable electricity sources and an electrical grid ill-equipped to handle the mismatch between electricity generation and use, the need for advanced energy storage technologies will continue to grow. Currently, pumped-storage hydroelectricity and compressed air energy storage are used for grid-scale energy storage, and batteries are used at smaller scales. However, prospects for expansion of these technologies suffer from geographic limitations (pumped-storage hydroelectricity and compressed air energy storage), low roundtrip efficiency (compressed air energy storage), and high cost (batteries). Furthermore, pumped-storage hydroelectricity and compressed air energy storage are challenging to scale-down, while batteries are challenging to scale-up. In 2015, a novel compressed gas energy storage prototype system was developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. In this paper, a near-isothermal modification to the system is proposed. In common with compressed air energy storage, the novel storage technology described in this paper is based on air compression/expansion. However, several novel features lead to near-isothermal processes, higher efficiency, greater system scalability, and the ability to site a system anywhere. The enabling features are utilization of hydraulic machines for expansion/compression, above-ground pressure vessels as the storage medium, spray cooling/heating, and waste-heat utilization. The base configuration of the novel storage system was introduced in a previous paper. This paper describes the results

  12. Value and cost analyses for solar thermal-storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luft, W.; Copeland, R.J.

    1983-04-01

    Value and cost data for thermal energy storage are presented for solar thermal central receiver systems for which thermal energy storage appears to be attractive. Both solar thermal electric power and industrial process heat applications are evaluated. The value of storage is based on the cost for fossil fuel and solar thermal collector systems in 1990. The costing uses a standard lifetime methodology with the storage capacity as a parameter. Both value and costs are functions of storage capacity. However, the value function depends on the application. Value/cost analyses for first-generation storage concepts for five central receiver systems (molten salt, water/steam, organic fluid, air, and liquid metal) established the reference against which new systems were compared. Some promising second-generation energy storage concepts have been identified, and some more advanced concepts have also been evaluated.

  13. Flywheel Energy Storage System Suspended by Hybrid Magnetic Bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Ansah, Prince; Hu, Yefa; Misbawu, Adam

    This work presents a prototype flywheel energy storage system (FESS) suspended by hybrid magnetic bearing (HMB) rotating at a speed of 20000rpm with a maximum storage power capacity of 30W with a maximum tip speed of 300m/s. The design presented is an improvement of most existing FESS, as the design incorporates a unique feature in that the upper and the lower rotor and stator core are tapered which enhances larger thrust and much lower radial force to be exerted on the system. Without any adverse effect being experienced by the model. The work also focuses on the description of developing a prototype FESS suspended by HMB using solid works as a basis of developing in the nearer future a more improved FESS suspended by HMB capable of injecting the ever increasing high energy demand situation in the 21st century and beyond.

  14. Pulsed rf systems for large storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, P.B.

    1979-03-01

    The possibility is considered that by using a pulsed rf system a substantial reduction can be made in the rf power requirement for the next generation of large storage rings. For a ring with a sufficiently large circumference, the time between bunch passages, T/sub b/, can exceed the cavity filling time, T/sub f/. As the ratio T/sub b//T/sub f/ increases, it is clear that at some point the average power requirement can be reduced by pulsing the rf to the cavities. In this mode of operation, the rf power is turned on a filling time or so before the arrival of a bunch and is switched off again at the time of bunch passage. There is no rf energy in the accelerating structure, and hence no power dissipation, for most of the period between bunches

  15. Self-regulating energy storage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenhaure, D.B.; Downer, J.R.; Bliamptis, T.E.; Oberbeck, G.A.; Hendrie, S.D.

    1986-10-14

    This patent describes a self-regulating energy storage system which consists of: an a.c. motor/generator including a rotor; a flywheel attached to the motor/generator; means for monitoring the position of the motor/generator rotor; means for resolving current to and from the motor/generator; a pulse width modulated bidirectional inverter interconnecting the motor/generator with a power supply bus having a voltage to be regulated; a summing circuit for determining differences between a reference voltage and the voltage on the power supply bus to be regulated; and a pulse width modulation switch control responsive to the summing circuit, to the means for monitoring, and to the means for resolving.

  16. Electrochemical energy storage systems for solar thermal applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauthamer, S.; Frank, H.

    1980-01-01

    Existing and advanced electrochemical storage and inversion/conversion systems that may be used with terrestrial solar-thermal power systems are evaluated. The status, cost and performance of existing storage systems are assessed, and the cost, performance, and availability of advanced systems are projected. A prime consideration is the cost of delivered energy from plants utilizing electrochemical storage. Results indicate that the five most attractive electrochemical storage systems are the: iron-chromium redox (NASA LeRC), zinc-bromine (Exxon), sodium-sulfur (Ford), sodium-sulfur (Dow), and zinc-chlorine (EDA).

  17. Design Tool for Estimating Chemical Hydrogen Storage System Characteristics for Light-Duty Fuel Cell Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, Kriston P.; Sprik, Sam; Tamburello, David; Thornton, Matthew

    2018-05-03

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a vehicle framework model to simulate fuel cell-based light-duty vehicle operation for various hydrogen storage systems. This transient model simulates the performance of the storage system, fuel cell, and vehicle for comparison to DOE’s Technical Targets using four drive cycles/profiles. Chemical hydrogen storage models have been developed for the Framework model for both exothermic and endothermic materials. Despite the utility of such models, they require that material researchers input system design specifications that cannot be easily estimated. To address this challenge, a design tool has been developed that allows researchers to directly enter kinetic and thermodynamic chemical hydrogen storage material properties into a simple sizing module that then estimates the systems parameters required to run the storage system model. Additionally, this design tool can be used as a standalone executable file to estimate the storage system mass and volume outside of the framework model and compare it to the DOE Technical Targets. These models will be explained and exercised with existing hydrogen storage materials.

  18. Solar Heating System with Building-Integrated Heat Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred

    1996-01-01

    Traditional solar heating systems cover between 5 and 10% of the heat demand fordomestic hot water and comfort heating. By applying storage capacity this share can beincreased much. The Danish producer of solar heating systems, Aidt-Miljø, markets such a system including storage of dry sand heated...... by PP-pipe heat exchanger. Heat demand is reduced due to direct solar heating, and due to storage. Heat demand is reduced due to direct solar heating, due to storage and due to lower heat losses through the ground. In theory, by running the system flow backwards through the sand storage, active heating...... can be achieved.The objective of the report is to present results from measured system evaluation andcalculations and to give guidelines for the design of such solar heating systems with building integrated sand storage. The report is aimed to non-technicians. In another report R-006 the main results...

  19. Energy storage systems program report for FY1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, P.C.

    1997-05-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Energy Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Utility Technologies. The goal of this program is to assist industry in developing cost-effective energy storage systems as a resource option by 2000. Sandia is responsible for the engineering analyses, contracted development, and testing of energy storage systems for stationary applications. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1996.

  20. Cost analysis of energy storage systems for electric utility applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhil, A. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swaminathan, S.; Sen, R.K. [R.K. Sen & Associates, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy, Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage System Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) conducted a cost analysis of energy storage systems for electric utility applications. The scope of the study included the analysis of costs for existing and planned battery, SMES, and flywheel energy storage systems. The analysis also identified the potential for cost reduction of key components.

  1. Pulsed power generators using an inductive energy storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, H.; Sueda, T.; Katschinski, U.; Katsuki, S.; Maeda, S.

    1996-01-01

    The pulsed power generators using an inductive energy storage system are extremely compact and lightweight in comparison with those using a capacitive energy storage system. The reliable and repetitively operated opening switch is necessary to realize the inductive pulsed power generator. Here, the pulsed power generators using the inductive energy storage system, which have been developed in Kumamoto University, are summarized. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  2. Thermal-hydraulic analysis of spent fuel storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rector, D.R.; Wheeler, C.L.; Lombardo, N.J.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the COBRA-SFS (Spent Fuel Storage) computer code, which is designed to predict flow and temperature distributions in spent nuclear fuel storage and transportation systems. The decay heat generated by spent fuel in a dry storage cask is removed through a combination of conduction, natural convection, and thermal radiation. One major advantage of COBRA-SFS is that fluid recirculation within the cask is computed directly by solving the mass and momentum conservation equations. In addition, thermal radiation heat transfer is modeled using detailed radiation exchange factors based on quarter-rod segments. The equations governing mass, momentum, and energy conservation for incompressible flows are presented, and the semi-implicit solution method is described. COBRA-SFS predictions are compared to temperature data from a spent fuel storage cask test and the effect of different fill media on the cladding temperature distribution is discussed. The effect of spent fuel consolidation on cask thermal performance is also investigated. 16 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Carbon Nanotubes as Future Energy Storage System

    OpenAIRE

    Vasu , V; Silambarasan , D

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Hydrogen is considered to be a clean energy carrier. At present the main drawback in using hydrogen as the fuel is the lack of proper hydrogen storage vehicle, thus ongoing research is focused on the development of advance hydrogen storage materials. Many alloys are able to store hydrogen reversibly, but the gravimetric storage density is too low for any practical applications. Theoretical studies have predicted that interaction of hydrogen with carbon nanotubes is by ...

  4. Design Tool for Estimating Chemical Hydrogen Storage System Characteristics for Light-Duty Fuel Cell Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, Matthew J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sprik, Samuel [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brooks, Kriston P. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Tamburello, David A. [Savannah River National Laboratory

    2018-04-07

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) developed a vehicle Framework model to simulate fuel cell-based light-duty vehicle operation for various hydrogen storage systems. This transient model simulates the performance of the storage system, fuel cell, and vehicle for comparison to Technical Targets established by DOE for four drive cycles/profiles. Chemical hydrogen storage models have been developed for the Framework for both exothermic and endothermic materials. Despite the utility of such models, they require that material researchers input system design specifications that cannot be estimated easily. To address this challenge, a design tool has been developed that allows researchers to directly enter kinetic and thermodynamic chemical hydrogen storage material properties into a simple sizing module that then estimates system parameters required to run the storage system model. Additionally, the design tool can be used as a standalone executable file to estimate the storage system mass and volume outside of the Framework model. These models will be explained and exercised with the representative hydrogen storage materials exothermic ammonia borane (NH3BH3) and endothermic alane (AlH3).

  5. A strategy for load balancing in distributed storage systems

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    Distributed storage systems are critical to the operation of the WLCG. These systems are not limited to fulfilling the long term storage requirements. They also serve data for computational analysis and other computational jobs. Distributed storage systems provide the ability to aggregate the storage and IO capacity of disks and tapes, but at the end of the day IO rate is still bound by the capabilities of the hardware, in particular the hard drives. Throughput of hard drives has increased dramatically over the decades, however for computational analysis IOPS is typically the limiting factor. To maximize return of investment, balancing IO load over available hardware is crucial. The task is made complicated by the common use of heterogeneous hardware and software environments that results from combining new and old hardware into a single storage system. This paper describes recent advances made in load balancing in the dCache distributed storage system. We describe a set of common requirements for load balan...

  6. Key-value Storage Systems (and Beyond with Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Web application developers often use RDBMS systems such as MySql or PostgreSql but there are many other types of databases out there. Key-value storage, schema and schema-less document storage, and column-oriented DBMS systems abound. These kind of database systems are becoming more popular when developing scalable web applications but many developers are unsure how to integrate them into their projects. This talk will focus on the key-value class of data storage systems, weigh the strengths and drawbacks of each and discuss typical use cases for key value storage.

  7. FACSIM/MRS [Monitored Retrievable Storage]-2: Storage and shipping model documentation and user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, H.D.; Chockie, A.D.; Hostick, C.J.; Otis, P.T.; Sovers, R.A.

    1987-06-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has developed a stochastic computer model, FACSIM/MRS, to assist in assessing the operational performance of the Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) waste-handling facility. This report provides the documentation and user's guide for FACSIM/MRS-2, which is also referred to as the back-end model. The FACSIM/MRS-2 model simulates the MRS storage and shipping operations, which include handling canistered spent fuel and secondary waste in the shielded canyon cells, in onsite yard storage, and in repository shipping cask loading areas

  8. Energy Storage System Safety: Plan Review and Inspection Checklist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Pam C (PNNL); Conover, David R (PNNL)

    2017-03-01

    Codes, standards, and regulations (CSR) governing the design, construction, installation, commissioning, and operation of the built environment are intended to protect the public health, safety, and welfare. While these documents change over time to address new technology and new safety challenges, there is generally some lag time between the introduction of a technology into the market and the time it is specifically covered in model codes and standards developed in the voluntary sector. After their development, there is also a timeframe of at least a year or two until the codes and standards are adopted. Until existing model codes and standards are updated or new ones are developed and then adopted, one seeking to deploy energy storage technologies or needing to verify the safety of an installation may be challenged in trying to apply currently implemented CSRs to an energy storage system (ESS). The Energy Storage System Guide for Compliance with Safety Codes and Standards1 (CG), developed in June 2016, is intended to help address the acceptability of the design and construction of stationary ESSs, their component parts, and the siting, installation, commissioning, operations, maintenance, and repair/renovation of ESS within the built environment.

  9. Comparative Analysis of Resonant Converters for Energy Storage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuchev Stoyan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The following paperwork presents a comparative analysis of multiphase resonant converters for applications in energy storage systems. Models of the examined converters are developed in the software environments of MATLAB and LTspice. Results from the simulation examination of the converters during charging of supercapacitors and rechargeable batteries are presented. These results are compared to results obtained from experimental examination of the converters via a laboratory stand. For the purposes of the experimental examination, a control system is developed on the base of a virtual instrument in LabVIEW. The advantages and disadvantages of the different converters are discussed.

  10. Thermal Modeling of NUHOMS HSM-15 and HSM-1 Storage Modules at Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Station ISFSI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suffield, Sarah R.; Fort, James A.; Adkins, Harold E.; Cuta, Judith M.; Collins, Brian A.; Siciliano, Edward R.

    2012-10-01

    As part of the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign of the Department of Energy (DOE), visual inspections and temperature measurements were performed on two storage modules in the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Station’s Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI). Detailed thermal models models were developed to obtain realistic temperature predictions for actual storage systems, in contrast to conservative and bounding design basis calculations.

  11. Sequencing dynamic storage systems with multiple lifts and shuttles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carlo, Hector J.; Vis, Iris F. A.

    2012-01-01

    New types of Automated Storage and Retrieval Systems (AS/RS) able to achieve high throughput are continuously being developed and require new control polices to take full advantage of the developed system. In this paper, a dynamic storage system has been studied as developed by Vanderlande

  12. The Impact Of Optical Storage Technology On Image Processing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garges, Daniel T.; Durbin, Gerald T.

    1984-09-01

    The recent announcement of commercially available high density optical storage devices will have a profound impact on the information processing industry. Just as the initial introduction of random access storage created entirely new processing strategies, optical technology will allow dramatic changes in the storage, retrieval, and dissemination of engineering drawings and other pictorial or text-based documents. Storage Technology Corporation has assumed a leading role in this arena with the introduction of the 7600 Optical Storage Subsystem, and the formation of StorageTek Integrated Systems, a subsidiary chartered to incorporate this new technology into deliverable total systems. This paper explores the impact of optical storage technology from the perspective of a leading-edge manufacturer and integrator.

  13. Cost and performance analysis of concentrating solar power systems with integrated latent thermal energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nithyanandam, K.; Pitchumani, R.

    2014-01-01

    Integrating TES (thermal energy storage) in a CSP (concentrating solar power) plant allows for continuous operation even during times when solar irradiation is not available, thus providing a reliable output to the grid. In the present study, the cost and performance models of an EPCM-TES (encapsulated phase change material thermal energy storage) system and HP-TES (latent thermal storage system with embedded heat pipes) are integrated with a CSP power tower system model utilizing Rankine and s-CO 2 (supercritical carbon-dioxide) power conversion cycles, to investigate the dynamic TES-integrated plant performance. The influence of design parameters of the storage system on the performance of a 200 MW e capacity power tower CSP plant is studied to establish design envelopes that satisfy the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative requirements, which include a round-trip annualized exergetic efficiency greater than 95%, storage cost less than $15/kWh t and LCE (levelized cost of electricity) less than 6 ¢/kWh. From the design windows, optimum designs of the storage system based on minimum LCE, maximum exergetic efficiency, and maximum capacity factor are reported and compared with the results of two-tank molten salt storage system. Overall, the study presents the first effort to construct and analyze LTES (latent thermal energy storage) integrated CSP plant performance that can help assess the impact, cost and performance of LTES systems on power generation from molten salt power tower CSP plant. - Highlights: • Presents technoeconomic analysis of thermal energy storage integrated concentrating solar power plants. • Presents a comparison of different storage options. • Presents optimum design of thermal energy storage system for steam Rankine and supercritical carbon dioxide cycles. • Presents designs for maximizing exergetic efficiency while minimizing storage cost and levelized cost of energy

  14. Selection and Performance-Degradation Modeling of LiMO2/Li4Ti5O12 and LiFePO4/C Battery Cells as Suitable Energy Storage Systems for Grid Integration With Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Stan, Ana-Irina

    2014-01-01

    Advances in the development of energy storage technologies are making them attractive for grid integration together with wind power plants. Thus, the new system, the virtual power plant, is able to emulate the characteristics of today’s conventional power plants. However, at present, energy stora......-degradation models were developed for the two most suitable Li–ion chemistries for the primary frequency regulation service: LiMO2 /Li4Ti5O12 and LiFePO4/C....

  15. Molten salt thermal energy storage systems: salt selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maru, H.C.; Dullea, J.F.; Huang, V.S.

    1976-08-01

    A research program aimed at the development of a molten salt thermal energy storage system commenced in June 1976. This topical report describes Work performed under Task I: Salt Selection is described. A total of 31 inorganic salts and salt mixtures, including 9 alkali and alkaline earth carbonate mixtures, were evaluated for their suitability as heat-of-fusion thermal energy storage materials at temperatures of 850 to 1000/sup 0/F. Thermophysical properties, safety hazards, corrosion, and cost of these salts were compared on a common basis. We concluded that because alkali carbonate mixtures show high thermal conductivity, low volumetric expansion on melting, low corrosivity and good stability, they are attractive as heat-of-fusion storage materials in this temperature range. A 35 wt percent Li/sub 2/CO/sub 3/-65 wt percent K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ (50 mole percent Li/sub 2/CO/sub 3/-50 mole percent K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/) mixture was selected as a model system for further experimental work. This is a eutectoid mixture having a heat of fusion of 148 Btu/lb (82 cal/g) that forms an equimolar compound, LiKCO/sub 3/. The Li/sub 2/CO/sub 3/-K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ mixture is intended to serve as a model system to define heat transfer characteristics, potential problems, and to provide ''first-cut'' engineering data required for the prototype system. The cost of a thermal energy storage system containing this mixture cannot be predicted until system characteristics are better defined. However, our comparison of different salts indicated that alkali and alkaline earth chlorides may be more attractive from a salt cost point of view. The long-term corrosion characteristics and the effects of volume change on melting for the chlorides should be investigated to determine their overall suitability as a heat-of-fusion storage medium.

  16. Construction of VLCC marine oil storage cost index system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Li, Yule; Lu, Jinshu; Wu, Wenfeng; Zhu, Faxin; Chen, Tian; Qin, Beichen

    2018-04-01

    VLCC as the research object, the basic knowledge of VLCC is summarized. According to the phenomenon that VLCC is applied to offshore oil storage gradually, this paper applies the theoretical analysis method to analyze the excess capacity from VLCC, the drop of oil price, the aging VLCC is more suitable for offshore storage The paper analyzes the reason of VLCC offshore oil storage from three aspects, analyzes the cost of VLCC offshore storage from the aspects of manpower cost and shipping cost, and constructs the cost index system of VLCC offshore oil storage.

  17. Research on Battery Energy Storage System Based on User Side

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Zhang, Yichi; Yun, Zejian; Wang, Xuguang; Zhang, Dong; Bian, Di

    2018-01-01

    This paper introduces the effect of user side energy storage on the user side and the network side, a battery energy storage system for the user side is designed. The main circuit topology of the battery energy storage system based on the user side is given, the structure is mainly composed of two parts: DC-DC two-way half bridge converter and DC-AC two-way converter, a control strategy combining battery charging and discharging characteristics is proposed to decouple the grid side and the energy storage side, and the block diagram of the charging and discharging control of the energy storage system is given. The simulation results show that the battery energy storage system of the user side can not only realize reactive power compensation of low-voltage distribution network, but also improve the power quality of the users.

  18. Energy storage systems: power grid and energy market use cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komarnicki Przemysław

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Current power grid and market development, characterized by large growth of distributed energy sources in recent years, especially in Europa, are according energy storage systems an increasingly larger field of implementation. Existing storage technologies, e.g. pumped-storage power plants, have to be upgraded and extended by new but not yet commercially viable technologies (e.g. batteries or adiabatic compressed air energy storage that meet expected demands. Optimal sizing of storage systems and technically and economically optimal operating strategies are the major challenges to the integration of such systems in the future smart grid. This paper surveys firstly the literature on the latest niche applications. Then, potential new use case and operating scenarios for energy storage systems in smart grids, which have been field tested, are presented and discussed and subsequently assessed technically and economically.

  19. Optimal Sizing of a Lithium Battery Energy Storage System for Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dulout, Jeremy; Jammes, Bruno; Alonso, Corinne

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a system analysis focused on finding the optimal operating conditions (nominal capacity, cycle depth, current rate, state of charge level) of a lithium battery energy storage system. The purpose of this work is to minimize the cost of the storage system in a renewable DC...... microgrid. Thus, main stress factors influencing both battery lifetime (calendar and cycling) and performances are described and modelled. Power and energy requirements are also discussed through a probabilistic analysis on some years of real data from the ADREAM photovoltaic building of the LAAS...

  20. Energy storage management system with distributed wireless sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Joseph C.; Bandhauer, Todd M.

    2015-12-08

    An energy storage system having a multiple different types of energy storage and conversion devices. Each device is equipped with one or more sensors and RFID tags to communicate sensor information wirelessly to a central electronic management system, which is used to control the operation of each device. Each device can have multiple RFID tags and sensor types. Several energy storage and conversion devices can be combined.

  1. Toxicity of systems for energy generation and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, M.H.

    1979-01-01

    This section contains summaries of research on assessment of health and environmental effects of electric storage systems, and the metabolism and toxicity of metal compounds associated with energy production and storage. The first project relates to the production and use of electric storage battery systems. The second project deals with the effects of pregnancy and lactation on the gastrointestinal absorption, tissue distribution, and toxic effects of metals (Cd). Also included in this study is work on the absorption of actinides ( 239 Pu)

  2. Development of evaluation method for heat removal design of dry storage facilities. pt. 1. Heat removal test on vault storage system of cross flow type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Kazuaki; Koga, Tomonari; Wataru, Masumi; Hattori, Yasuo

    1997-01-01

    The report describes the result of heat removal test of passive cooling vault storage system of cross flow type using 1/5 scale model. Based on a prospect of steady increase in the amount of spent fuel, it is needed to establish large capacity dry storage technologies for spent fuel. Air flow patterns, distributions of air temperature and velocity were measured, by which heat removal characteristics of the system were made clear. Air flow patterns in the storage module depended on the ratio of the buoyant force to the inertial force; the former generated by the difference of air temperatures and the height of the storage module, the latter by the difference of air densities between the outlet of the storage module and ambience and the height of the chimney of the storage facility. A simple method to estimate air flow patterns in the storage module was suggested, where Ri(Richardson) number was applied to represent the ratio. Moreover, heat transfer coefficient from a model of storage tube to cooling air was evaluated, and it was concluded that the generalized expression of heat transfer coefficient for common heat exchangers could be applied to the vault storage system of cross flow type, in which dozens of storage tubes were placed in a storage module. (author)

  3. Using Weather Radar to Optimise Operation of an Urban Drainage System with Distributed Rainwater Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael R.; Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Bentzen, Thomas Ruby

    2012-01-01

    and with passive local rainwater storage tanks are used as a reference. The results show that local rain water storage tanks reduce the CSO’s by 50% and lower the maximal water levels in the storm drainage system. The active control clearly outperforms the passive storage strategy.......The perspective of controlling the local rain water storage tanks for a small catchment is investigated to evaluate if a predictive control reduces the CSO from the storm drainage system. A weather radar based nowcast system is used to predict the actual precipitation two hours ahead. In case...... of more than 1 mm rain - the control strategy is set to empty all rainwater storage tanks down to 50% capacity in order to capture a significant part of the approaching rain. This strategy is evaluated though simulation with the MOUSE model. Simulations of scenarios without local storage tanks...

  4. Estimating the Competitive Storage Model with Trending Commodity Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Gouel , Christophe; LEGRAND , Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    We present a method to estimate jointly the parameters of a standard commodity storage model and the parameters characterizing the trend in commodity prices. This procedure allows the influence of a possible trend to be removed without restricting the model specification, and allows model and trend selection based on statistical criteria. The trend is modeled deterministically using linear or cubic spline functions of time. The results show that storage models with trend are always preferred ...

  5. Reliability-oriented energy storage sizing in wind power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Zian; Liserre, Marco; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    Energy storage can be used to suppress the power fluctuations in wind power systems, and thereby reduce the thermal excursion and improve the reliability. Since the cost of the energy storage in large power application is high, it is crucial to have a better understanding of the relationship...... between the size of the energy storage and the reliability benefit it can generate. Therefore, a reliability-oriented energy storage sizing approach is proposed for the wind power systems, where the power, energy, cost and the control strategy of the energy storage are all taken into account....... With the proposed approach, the computational effort is reduced and the impact of the energy storage system on the reliability of the wind power converter can be quantified....

  6. Viewing Systems for Large Underground Storage Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckendorn, F.M.; Robinson, C.W.; Anderson, E.K.; Pardini, A.F.

    1996-01-01

    Specialized remote video systems have been successfully developed and deployed in a number of large radiological Underground Storage Tanks (USTs)that tolerate the hostile tank interior, while providing high resolution video to a remotely located operator. The deployment is through 100 mm (4 in) tank openings, while incorporating full video functions of the camera, lights, and zoom lens. The usage of remote video minimizes the potential for personnel exposure to radiological and hazardous conditions, and maximizes the quality of the visual data used to assess the interior conditions of both tank and contents. The robustness of this type of remote system has a direct effect on the potential for radiological exposure that personnel may encounter. The USTs typical of the Savannah River and Hanford Department Of Energy - (DOE) sites are typically 4.5 million liter (1.2 million gal) units under earth. or concrete overburden with limited openings to the surface. The interior is both highly contaminated and radioactive with a wide variety of nuclear processing waste material. Some of the tanks are -flammable rated -to Class 1, Division 1,and personnel presence at or near the openings should be minimized. The interior of these USTs must be assessed periodically as part of the ongoing management of the tanks and as a step towards tank remediation. The systems are unique in their deployment technology, which virtually eliminates the potential for entrapment in a tank, and their ability to withstand flammable environments. A multiplicity of components used within a common packaging allow for cost effective and appropriate levels of technology, with radiation hardened components on some units and lesser requirements on other units. All units are completely self contained for video, zoom lens, lighting, deployment,as well as being self purging, and modular in construction

  7. Dry storage systems using casks for long term storage in an AFR and repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einfeld, K.; Popp, F.W.

    1986-01-01

    In conclusion it can be stated that two basic routes with respect to spent fuel storage casks are feasible. One is the Multiple Transport Cask, which with certain modifications can be upgraded to meet the criteria for intermediate storage. Its status is characterized by the licensing of several types of Castor Casks for an intermediate storage period of 30 years in the AFR Storage Facility of DWK at Gorleben in the FRG. The other one is the Final Disposal (Repository) Cask, which can be made suitable for long term storage before a final decision with respect to a repository application is taken. The licensing procedure for a Pilot Conditioning Facility with the Pollux Cask System as reference case will be initiated by DWK in the near future. Under the assumption that in addition to the present Multiple Transport/Storage Casks a license for a Final disposal Cask with respect to long term storage is available, the relative merits of different cask storage systems would have to be evaluated

  8. Development of climate data storage and processing model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okladnikov, I. G.; Gordov, E. P.; Titov, A. G.

    2016-11-01

    We present a storage and processing model for climate datasets elaborated in the framework of a virtual research environment (VRE) for climate and environmental monitoring and analysis of the impact of climate change on the socio-economic processes on local and regional scales. The model is based on a «shared nothings» distributed computing architecture and assumes using a computing network where each computing node is independent and selfsufficient. Each node holds a dedicated software for the processing and visualization of geospatial data providing programming interfaces to communicate with the other nodes. The nodes are interconnected by a local network or the Internet and exchange data and control instructions via SSH connections and web services. Geospatial data is represented by collections of netCDF files stored in a hierarchy of directories in the framework of a file system. To speed up data reading and processing, three approaches are proposed: a precalculation of intermediate products, a distribution of data across multiple storage systems (with or without redundancy), and caching and reuse of the previously obtained products. For a fast search and retrieval of the required data, according to the data storage and processing model, a metadata database is developed. It contains descriptions of the space-time features of the datasets available for processing, their locations, as well as descriptions and run options of the software components for data analysis and visualization. The model and the metadata database together will provide a reliable technological basis for development of a high- performance virtual research environment for climatic and environmental monitoring.

  9. Screening of metal hydride pairs for closed thermal energy storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aswin, N.; Dutta, Pradip; Murthy, S. Srinivasa

    2016-01-01

    Thermal energy storage systems based on metal/hydrides usually are closed systems composed of two beds of metal/alloy – one meant for energy storage and the other for hydrogen storage. It can be shown that a feasible operating cycle for such a system using a pair of metals/alloys operating between specified temperature values can be ensured if the equilibrium hydrogen intake characteristics satisfy certain criteria. In addition, application of first law of thermodynamics to an idealized operating cycle can provide the upper bounds of selected performance indices, namely volumetric energy storage density, energy storage efficiency and peak discharge temperature. This is demonstrated for a representative system composed of LaNi 4.7 Al 0.3 –LaNi 5 operating between 353 K and 303 K which gave values of about 56 kW h m −3 for volumetric storage density, about 85% for energy storage efficiency and 343 K for peak discharge temperature. A system level heat and mass transfer study considering the reaction kinetics, hydrogen flow between the beds and heat exchanger models is presented which gave second level estimates of about 40 kW h m −3 for volumetric energy storage density, 73% for energy storage efficiency and 334 K for peak temperature for the representative system. The results from such studies lead to identifying metal/alloy pairs which can be shortlisted for detailed studies.

  10. Integrated Bidding and Operating Strategies for Wind-Storage Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Huajie; Pinson, Pierre; Hu, Zechun

    2016-01-01

    Due to their flexible charging and discharging capabilities, energy storage systems (ESS) are considered a promising complement to wind farms (WFs) participating in electricity markets. This paper presents integrated day-ahead bidding and real-time operation strategies for a wind-storage system...

  11. System Specification for Immobilized High-Level Waste Interim Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CALMUS, R.B.

    2000-01-01

    This specification establishes the system-level functional, performance, design, interface, and test requirements for Phase 1 of the IHLW Interim Storage System, located at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The IHLW canisters will be produced at the Hanford Site by a Selected DOE contractor. Subsequent to storage the canisters will be shipped to a federal geologic repository

  12. Potential of Reversible Solid Oxide Cells as Electricity Storage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Di Giorgio

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Electrical energy storage (EES systems allow shifting the time of electric power generation from that of consumption, and they are expected to play a major role in future electric grids where the share of intermittent renewable energy systems (RES, and especially solar and wind power plants, is planned to increase. No commercially available technology complies with all the required specifications for an efficient and reliable EES system. Reversible solid oxide cells (ReSOC working in both fuel cell and electrolysis modes could be a cost effective and highly efficient EES, but are not yet ready for the market. In fact, using the system in fuel cell mode produces high temperature heat that can be recovered during electrolysis, when a heat source is necessary. Before ReSOCs can be used as EES systems, many problems have to be solved. This paper presents a new ReSOC concept, where the thermal energy produced during fuel cell mode is stored as sensible or latent heat, respectively, in a high density and high specific heat material and in a phase change material (PCM and used during electrolysis operation. The study of two different storage concepts is performed using a lumped parameters ReSOC stack model coupled with a suitable balance of plant. The optimal roundtrip efficiency calculated for both of the configurations studied is not far from 70% and results from a trade-off between the stack roundtrip efficiency and the energy consumed by the auxiliary power systems.

  13. Autonomous wind/solar power systems with battery storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Protogeropoulos, C I

    1993-12-31

    The performance of an autonomous hybrid renewable energy system consisting of combined photovoltaic/wind power generation with battery storage is under evaluation in this thesis. Detailed mathematical analysis of the renewable components and the battery was necessary in order to establish the theoretical background for accurate simulation results. Model validation was achieved through experimentation. The lack of a sizing method to combine both hybrid system total cost and long-term reliability level was the result of an extended literature survey. The new achievements which are described in this research work refer to: - simplified modelling for the performance of amorphous-silicon photovoltaic panels for all solar irradiance levels. -development of a new current-voltage expression with respect to wind speed for wind turbine performance simulation. -establishment of the battery storage state of voltage, SOV, simulation algorithm for long-term dynamic operational conditions. The proposed methodology takes into account 8 distinct cases covering steady state and transient effects and can be used for autonomous system reliability calculations. -techno-economic evaluation of the size of the hybrid system components by considering both reliability and economic criteria as design parameters. Two sizing scenarios for the renewable components are examined : the average year method and the ``worst renewable`` month method. (Author)

  14. Electrochemical modeling of hydrogen storage in hydride-forming electrodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ledovskikh, A.; Danilov, D.; Vermeulen, P.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2009-01-01

    An electrochemical kinetic model (EKM) is developed, describing the electrochemical hydrogen storage in hydride-forming materials under equilibrium conditions. This model is based on first principles of electrochemical reaction kinetics and statistical thermodynamics and describes the complex,

  15. Electric Machine Topologies in Energy Storage Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Santiago, Juan De; Oliveira, Janaina Goncalves de

    2010-01-01

    Energy storage development is essential if intermittent renewable energy generation is to increase. Pumped hydro, CAES and flywheels are environmentally friendly and economical storage alternatives that required electric motor/generators. The popularization of power electronics is relatively new and therefore the technology is still under development. There is not a clear winner when comparing technologies and therefore the optimal alternative depends on the specific requirements of the appli...

  16. Modular vault dry storage system for interim storage of irradiated fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cundill, B.R.; Ealing, C.J.; Agarwal, B.K.

    1988-01-01

    The Foster Wheeler Energy Application (FWEA) Modular Vault Dry Store (MVDS) is a dry storage concept for the storage of all types of irradiated reactor fuel. For applications in the US, FWEA submitted an MVDS Topical Report to the US NRC during 1986. Following NRC approval of the MVDS Topical Report concept for unconsolidated LWR fuel, US utilities have available a new, compact, economic and flexible system for the storage of irradiated fuel at the reactor site for time periods of at least 20 years (the period of the first license). The MVDS concept jointly developed by FWEA and GEC in the U.K., has other applications for large central away from reactor storage facilities such as a Monitorable Retrievable Storage (MRS) installation. This paper describes the licensed MVDS design, aspects of performance are discussed and capital costs compared with alternative concepts. Alternative configurations of MVDS are outlined

  17. Storage and balancing synergies in a fully or highly renewable pan-European power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, Morten Grud; Andresen, Gorm Bruun; Greiner, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Through a parametric time-series analysis of 8 years of hourly data, we quantify the storage size and balancing energy needs for highly and fully renewable European power systems for different levels and mixes of wind and solar energy. By applying a dispatch strategy that minimizes the balancing energy needs for a given storage size, the interplay between storage and balancing is quantified, providing a hard upper limit on their synergy. An efficient but relatively small storage reduces balancing energy needs significantly due to its influence on intra-day mismatches. Furthermore, we show that combined with a low-efficiency hydrogen storage and a level of balancing equal to what is today provided by storage lakes, it is sufficient to meet the European electricity demand in a fully renewable power system where the average power generation from combined wind and solar exceeds the demand by only a few percent. - Highlights: ► We model a wind and solar based European power system with storage and balancing. ► We find that storage needs peaks when average renewable generation matches load. ► We find strong synergetic effects when combining storage and balancing. ► We study the effects of a storage capable of storing 6 h average use. ► We find a realisable fully renewable scenario based on wind, solar and hydro power.

  18. Control of hybrid fuel cell/energy storage distributed generation system against voltage sag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajizadeh, Amin; Golkar, Masoud Aliakbar [Electrical Engineering Department, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Seyedkhandan, Dr. Shariati Ave, P.O. Box 16315-1355, Tehran (Iran)

    2010-06-15

    Fuel cell (FC) and energy storage (ES) based hybrid distributed power generation systems appear to be very promising for satisfying high energy and high power requirements of power quality problems in distributed generation (DG) systems. In this study, design of control strategy for hybrid fuel cell/energy storage distributed power generation system during voltage sag has been presented. The proposed control strategy allows hybrid distributed generation system works properly when a voltage disturbance occurs in distribution system and hybrid system stays connected to the main grid. Hence, modeling, controller design, and simulation study of a hybrid distributed generation system are investigated. The physical model of the fuel cell stack, energy storage and the models of power conditioning units are described. Then the control design methodology for each component of the hybrid system is proposed. Simulation results are given to show the overall system performance including active power control and voltage sag ride-through capability of the hybrid distributed generation system. (author)

  19. Carbon footprint reductions via grid energy storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, Trevor S. [Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center, 1100 23rd Avenue, Port Huenem, CA 93043 (United States); Department of Management, Marketing, and Business Administration, University of Houston - Downtown, Houston, Texas (United States); Weeks, Kelly [Department of Maritime Administration, Texas A and M University at Galveston, Galveston, TX 77553 (United States); Tucker, Coleman [Department of Management, Marketing, and Business Administration, University of Houston - Downtown, Houston, Texas 77002 (United States)

    2011-07-01

    This effort presents a framework for reducing carbon emissions through the use of large-scale grid-energy-storage (GES) systems. The specific questions under investigation herein are as follows: Is it economically sound to invest in a GES system and is the system at least carbon footprint neutral? This research will show the answer to both questions is in the affirmative. Scilicet, when utilized judiciously, grid energy storage systems can be both net present value positive as well as be total carbon footprint negative. The significant contribution herein is a necessary and sufficient condition for achieving carbon footprint reductions via grid energy storage systems.

  20. Battery energy storage systems life cycle costs case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaminathan, S.; Miller, N.F.; Sen, R.K. [SENTECH, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1998-08-01

    This report presents a comparison of life cycle costs between battery energy storage systems and alternative mature technologies that could serve the same utility-scale applications. Two of the battery energy storage systems presented in this report are located on the supply side, providing spinning reserve and system stability benefits. These systems are compared with the alternative technologies of oil-fired combustion turbines and diesel generators. The other two battery energy storage systems are located on the demand side for use in power quality applications. These are compared with available uninterruptible power supply technologies.

  1. Biomethane storage: Evaluation of technologies, end uses, business models, and sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budzianowski, Wojciech M.; Brodacka, Marlena

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Biomethane storage integrates the different energy subsystems. • It facilitates adoption of solar and wind energy sources. • It is essential to adequately match storages with their end uses and business models. • Business models must propose, create, and capture value linked with gas storage. • Sustainable is economically viable, environmentally benign, and socially beneficial. - Abstract: Biomethane is a renewable gas that can be turned into dispatchable resource through applying storage techniques. The storage enables the discharge of stored biomethane at any time and place it is required as gas turbine power, heat or transport fuel. Thus the stored biomethane could more efficiently serve various energy applications in the power, transport, heat, and gas systems as well as in industry. Biomethane storage may therefore integrate the different energy subsystems making the whole energy system more efficient. This work provides an overview and evaluation of biomethane storage technologies, end uses, business models and sustainability. It is shown that storage technologies are versatile, have different costs and efficiencies and may serve different end uses. Business models may be created or selected to fit regional spatial contexts, realistic demands for gas storage related services, and the level of available subsidies. By applying storage the sustainability of biomethane is greatly improved in terms of economic viability, reduced environmental impacts and greater social benefits. Stored biomethane may greatly facilitate adoption of intermittent renewable energy sources such as solar and wind. Other findings show that biomethane storage needs to be combined with grid services and other similar services to reduce overall storage costs.

  2. Performance enhancement of a subcooled cold storage air conditioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsiao, M.-J.; Cheng, C.-H.; Huang, M.-C.; Chen, S.-L.

    2009-01-01

    This article experimentally investigates the enhancement of thermal performance for an air conditioning system utilizing a cold storage unit as a subcooler. The cold storage unit is composed of an energy storage tank, liquid-side heat exchanger, suction-side heat exchanger and energy storage material (ESM), water. When the cooling load is lower than the nominal cooling capacity of the system, the cold storage unit can store extra cold energy of the system to subcool the condenser outlet refrigerant. Hence, both the cooling capacity and coefficient of performance (COP) of the system will be increased. This experiment tests the two operation modes: subcooled mode with energy storage and non-subcooled mode without energy storage. The results show that for fixed cooling loads at 3.05 kW, 3.5 kW and 3.95 kW, the COP of the subcooled mode are 16.0%, 15.6% and 14.1% higher than those of the non-subcooled mode, respectively. In the varied cooling load experiments, the COP of the subcooled cold storage air conditioning system is 15.3% higher than the conventional system.

  3. Control system design for robotic underground storage tank inspection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiebel, G.R.

    1994-09-01

    Control and data acquisition systems for robotic inspection and surveillance systems used in nuclear waste applications must be capable, versatile, and adaptable to changing conditions. The nuclear waste remediation application is dynamic -- requirements change as public policy is constantly re-examined and refocused, and as technology in this area advances. Control and data acquisition systems must adapt to these changing conditions and be able to accommodate future missions, both predictable and unexpected. This paper describes the control and data acquisition system for the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) System that is being developed for remote surveillance and inspection of underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site and other US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. It is a high-performance system which has been designed for future growth. The priority mission at the Hanford site is to retrieve the waste generated by 50 years of production from its present storage and process it for final disposal. The LDUA will help to gather information about the waste and the tanks it is stored in to better plan and execute the cleanup mission

  4. Induction Motors Most Efficient Operation Points in Pumped Storage Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busca-Forcos, Andreea; Marinescu, Corneliu; Busca, Cristian

    2015-01-01

    A clear focus is nowadays on developing and improving the energy storage technologies. Pumped storage is a well-established one, and is capable of enhancing the integration of renewable energy sources. Pumped storage has an efficiency between 70-80%, and each of its elements affects it. Increased...... efficiency is desired especially when operating with renewable energy systems, which present low energy conversion factor (up to 50% - performance coefficient for wind turbines, and efficiency up to 40% for photovoltaic systems). In this paper the most efficient operation points of the induction motors...... in pumped storage systems are established. The variable speed operation of the pumped storage systems and motor loading conditions for pump applications have been the key factors for achieving the purpose of the paper....

  5. Superconducting magnetic energy storage for electric utilities and fusion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, J.D.; Boenig, H.J.; Hassenzahl, W.V.

    1978-01-01

    Superconducting inductors provide a compact and efficient means of storing electrical energy without an intermediate conversion process. Energy storage inductors are under development for load leveling and transmission line stabilization in electric utility systems and for driving magnetic confinement and plasma heating coils in fusion energy systems. Fluctuating electric power demands force the electric utility industry to have more installed generating capacity than the average load requires. Energy storage can increase the utilization of base-load fossil and nuclear power plants for electric utilities. The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory and the University of Wisconsin are developing superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) systems, which will store and deliver electrical energy for load leveling, peak shaving, and the stabilization of electric utility networks. In the fusion area, inductive energy transfer and storage is being developed. Both 1-ms fast-discharge theta-pinch systems and 1-to-2-s slow energy transfer tokamak systems have been demonstrated. The major components and the method of operation of a SMES unit are described, and potential applications of different size SMES systems in electric power grids are presented. Results are given of a reference design for a 10-GWh unit for load leveling, of a 30-MJ coil proposed for system stabilization, and of tests with a small-scale, 100-kJ magnetic energy storage system. The results of the fusion energy storage and transfer tests are presented. The common technology base for the various storage systems is discussed

  6. Sizing Hydrogen Energy Storage in Consideration of Demand Response in Highly Renewable Generation Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mubbashir Ali

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available From an environment perspective, the increased penetration of wind and solar generation in power systems is remarkable. However, as the intermittent renewable generation briskly grows, electrical grids are experiencing significant discrepancies between supply and demand as a result of limited system flexibility. This paper investigates the optimal sizing and control of the hydrogen energy storage system for increased utilization of renewable generation. Using a Finnish case study, a mathematical model is presented to investigate the optimal storage capacity in a renewable power system. In addition, the impact of demand response for domestic storage space heating in terms of the optimal sizing of energy storage is discussed. Finally, sensitivity analyses are conducted to observe the impact of a small share of controllable baseload production as well as the oversizing of renewable generation in terms of required hydrogen storage size.

  7. New data storage and retrieval systems for JET data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Layne, Richard; Wheatley, Martin

    2002-01-01

    Since the start of the Joint European Torus (JET), an IBM mainframe has been the main platform for data analysis and storage (J. Comput. Phys. 73 (1987) 85). The mainframe was removed in June 2001 and Solaris and Linux are now the main data storage and analysis platforms. New data storage and retrieval systems have therefore been developed: the Data Warehouse, the JET pulse file server, and the processed pulse file system. In this paper, the new systems will be described, and the design decisions that led to the final systems will be outlined

  8. New data storage and retrieval systems for JET data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layne, Richard E-mail: richard.layne@ukaea.org.uk; Wheatley, Martin E-mail: martin.wheatley@ukaea.org.uk

    2002-06-01

    Since the start of the Joint European Torus (JET), an IBM mainframe has been the main platform for data analysis and storage (J. Comput. Phys. 73 (1987) 85). The mainframe was removed in June 2001 and Solaris and Linux are now the main data storage and analysis platforms. New data storage and retrieval systems have therefore been developed: the Data Warehouse, the JET pulse file server, and the processed pulse file system. In this paper, the new systems will be described, and the design decisions that led to the final systems will be outlined.

  9. Intelligent Power Management of hybrid Wind/ Fuel Cell/ Energy Storage Power Generation System

    OpenAIRE

    A. Hajizadeh; F. Hassanzadeh

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an intelligent power management strategy for hybrid wind/ fuel cell/ energy storage power generation system. The dynamic models of wind turbine, fuel cell and energy storage have been used for simulation of hybrid power system. In order to design power flow control strategy, a fuzzy logic control has been implemented to manage the power between power sources. The optimal operation of the hybrid power system is a main goal of designing power management strategy. The hybrid ...

  10. A model of ATL ground motion for storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolski, Andrzej; Walker, Nicholas J.

    2003-01-01

    Low emittance electron storage rings, such as those used in third generation light sources or linear collider damping rings, rely for their performance on highly stable alignment of the lattice components. Even if all vibration and environmental noise sources could be suppressed, diffusive ground motion will lead to orbit drift and emittance growth. Understanding such motion is important for predicting the performance of a planned accelerator and designing a correction system. A description (known as the ATL model) of ground motion over relatively long time scales has been developed and has become the standard for studies of the long straight beamlines in linear colliders. Here, we show how the model may be developed to include beamlines of any geometry. We apply the model to the NLC and TESLA damping rings, to compare their relative stability under different conditions

  11. Damsel: A Data Model Storage Library for Exascale Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koziol, Quincey [The HDF Group, Champaign, IL (United States)

    2014-11-26

    The goal of this project is to enable exascale computational science applications to interact conveniently and efficiently with storage through abstractions that match their data models. We will accomplish this through three major activities: (1) identifying major data model motifs in computational science applications and developing representative benchmarks; (2) developing a data model storage library, called Damsel, that supports these motifs, provides efficient storage data layouts, incorporates optimizations to enable exascale operation, and is tolerant to failures; and (3) productizing Damsel and working with computational scientists to encourage adoption of this library by the scientific community.

  12. Damsel - A Data Model Storage Library for Exascale Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samatova, Nagiza F

    2014-07-18

    The goal of this project is to enable exascale computational science applications to interact conveniently and efficiently with storage through abstractions that match their data models. We will accomplish this through three major activities: (1) identifying major data model motifs in computational science applications and developing representative benchmarks; (2) developing a data model storage library, called Damsel, that supports these motifs, provides efficient storage data layouts, incorporates optimizations to enable exascale operation, and is tolerant to failures; and (3) productizing Damsel and working with computational scientists to encourage adoption of this library by the scientific community.

  13. Modeling and Operational Testing of an Isolated Variable Speed PMSG Wind Turbine with Battery Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BAROTE, L.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the modeling and operational testing of an isolated permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG, driven by a small wind turbine with a battery energy storage system during wind speed and load variations. The whole system is initially modeled, including the PMSG, the boost converter and the storage system. The required power for the connected loads can be effectively delivered and supplied by the proposed wind turbine and energy storage systems, subject to an appropriate control method. Energy storage devices are required for power balance and power quality in stand alone wind energy systems. The main purpose is to supply 230 V / 50 Hz domestic appliances through a single-phase inverter. The experimental waveforms, compared to the simulation results, show a good prediction of the electrical variable parameters. Furthermore, it can be seen that the results validate the stability of the supply.

  14. Modeling, control, and simulation of battery storage photovoltaic-wave energy hybrid renewable power generation systems for island electrification in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samrat, Nahidul Hoque; Bin Ahmad, Norhafizan; Choudhury, Imtiaz Ahmed; Bin Taha, Zahari

    2014-01-01

    Today, the whole world faces a great challenge to overcome the environmental problems related to global energy production. Most of the islands throughout the world depend on fossil fuel importation with respect to energy production. Recent development and research on green energy sources can assure sustainable power supply for the islands. But unpredictable nature and high dependency on weather conditions are the main limitations of renewable energy sources. To overcome this drawback, different renewable sources and converters need to be integrated with each other. This paper proposes a standalone hybrid photovoltaic- (PV-) wave energy conversion system with energy storage. In the proposed hybrid system, control of the bidirectional buck-boost DC-DC converter (BBDC) is used to maintain the constant dc-link voltage. It also accumulates the excess hybrid power in the battery bank and supplies this power to the system load during the shortage of hybrid power. A three-phase complex vector control scheme voltage source inverter (VSI) is used to control the load side voltage in terms of the frequency and voltage amplitude. Based on the simulation results obtained from Matlab/Simulink, it has been found that the overall hybrid framework is capable of working under the variable weather and load conditions.

  15. Efficiency improvement for wind energy pumped storage systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forcos, A.; Marinescu, C.; Teodorescu, Remus

    2011-01-01

    Integrating wind energy into the grid may raise stability problems. Solutions for avoiding these situations are studied and energy storage methods are suitable for balancing the energy between the wind turbine and grid. In this paper, an autonomous wind turbine pumped storage system is presented...

  16. Global distribution of grid connected electrical energy storage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Buss

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article gives an overview of grid connected electrical energy storage systems worldwide, based on public available data. Technologies considered in this study are pumped hydroelectric energy storage (PHES, compressed air energy storage (CAES, sodium-sulfur batteries (NaS, lead-acid batteries, redox-flow batteries, nickel-cadmium batteries (NiCd and lithium-ion batteries. As the research indicates, the worldwide installed capacity of grid connected electrical energy storage systems is approximately 154 GW. This corresponds to a share of 5.5 % of the worldwide installed generation capacity. Furthermore, the article gives an overview of the historical development of installed and used storage systems worldwide. Subsequently, the focus is on each considered technology concerning the current storage size, number of plants and location. In summary it can be stated, PHES is the most commonly used technology worldwide, whereas electrochemical technologies are increasingly gaining in importance. Regarding the distribution of grid connected storage systems reveals the share of installed storage capacity is in Europe and Eastern Asia twice as high as in North America.

  17. Present states and views on vault storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, Eiji

    2003-01-01

    Storage capacity of spent nuclear fuel storage pools in nuclear power station is reaching to a condition near its limit, and under a condition inevitable on delay of the Pu-thermal utilization plan importance on interim storage of the spent nuclear fuels is further rising. In U.S.A., Germany, and so on, a condition incapable of presenting nuclear energy business itself without its intermediate storage is approaching, so in Japan it will also be a key to smoothly promote the nuclear energy business how the interim storage is used and operated. Under such condition, in Japan storage facilities using a system called by 'metal cask' are established at areas of nuclear power stations to begin their operations. As on the system expensive metal containers are used for storage in themselves, it has a demerit of its high cost. On the other hand, on foreign countries, a storing system called by concrete cask, horizontal silo, or vault is occupying its main stream. Here was introduced present states and future views on vault storage system. (G. K)

  18. Optimal sizing of energy storage system for microgrids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Microgrids (MGs) are Low Voltage distribution networks comprising various distributed generators (DG), storage devices and controllable loads that can operate either interconnected or isolated from the main distribution grid as a controlled entity. Energy storage system (ESS) is a vital part of an MG. In this paper, a ...

  19. Modeling photo-desorption in high current storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barletta, W.A.

    1991-01-01

    High luminosity flavor factories are characterized by high fluxes of synchrotron radiation that lead to thermal management difficulties. The associated photo-desorption from the vacuum chamber walls presents an additional design challenge, providing a vacuum system suitable for maintaining acceptable beam-gas lifetimes and low background levels of scattered radiation in the detector. Achieving acceptable operating pressures (1-10 nTorr) with practical pumping schemes requires the use of materials with low photodesorption efficiency operating in a radiation environment beyond that of existing storage rings. Extrapolating the existing photo-desorption data base to the design requirements of high luminosity colliders requires a physical model of the differential cleaning in the vacuum chamber. The authors present a simple phenomenological model of photodesorption that includes effects of dose dependence and diffuse photon reflection to compute the leveling of gas loads in beamlines of high current storage rings that typify heavy flavor factories. This model is also used to estimate chamber commissioning times

  20. Sulfur Deactivation of NOx Storage Catalysts: A Multiscale Modeling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rankovic N.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Lean NOx Trap (LNT catalysts, a promising solution for reducing the noxious nitrogen oxide emissions from the lean burn and Diesel engines, are technologically limited by the presence of sulfur in the exhaust gas stream. Sulfur stemming from both fuels and lubricating oils is oxidized during the combustion event and mainly exists as SOx (SO2 and SO3 in the exhaust. Sulfur oxides interact strongly with the NOx trapping material of a LNT to form thermodynamically favored sulfate species, consequently leading to the blockage of NOx sorption sites and altering the catalyst operation. Molecular and kinetic modeling represent a valuable tool for predicting system behavior and evaluating catalytic performances. The present paper demonstrates how fundamental ab initio calculations can be used as a valuable source for designing kinetic models developed in the IFP Exhaust library, intended for vehicle simulations. The concrete example we chose to illustrate our approach was SO3 adsorption on the model NOx storage material, BaO. SO3 adsorption was described for various sites (terraces, surface steps and kinks and bulk for a closer description of a real storage material. Additional rate and sensitivity analyses provided a deeper understanding of the poisoning phenomena.

  1. Enabling data-intensive science with Tactical Storage Systems

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Marquina, Miguel Angel

    2006-01-01

    Large scale scientific computing requires the ability to share and consume data and storage in complex ways across multiple systems. However, conventional systems constrain users to the fixed abstractions selected by the local system administrator. The result is that users must either move data manually over the wide area or simply be satisfied with the resources of a single cluster. To remedy this situation, we introduce the concept of a tactical storage system (TSS) that allows users to create, reconfigure, and destroy distributed storage systems without special privileges or complex configuration. We have deployed a prototype TSS of 200 disks and 8 TB of storage at the University of Notre Dame and applied it to several problems in astrophysics, high energy physics, and bioinformatics. This talk will focus on novel system structures that support data-intensive science. About the speaker: Douglas Thain is an Assistant Professor of Computer Science and Engineering at the University of Notre Dame. He received ...

  2. Output Current Ripple Reduction Algorithms for Home Energy Storage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Hyuk Park

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an output current ripple reduction algorithm using a proportional-integral (PI controller for an energy storage system (ESS. In single-phase systems, the DC/AC inverter has a second-order harmonic at twice the grid frequency of a DC-link voltage caused by pulsation of the DC-link voltage. The output current of a DC/DC converter has a ripple component because of the ripple of the DC-link voltage. The second-order harmonic adversely affects the battery lifetime. The proposed algorithm has an advantage of reducing the second-order harmonic of the output current in the variable frequency system. The proposed algorithm is verified from the PSIM simulation and experiment with the 3 kW ESS model.

  3. Influence of Hydrogen-Based Storage Systems on Self-Consumption and Self-Sufficiency of Residential Photovoltaic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Pötzinger

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the behavior of residential solar-powered electrical energy storage systems. For this purpose, a simulation model based on MATLAB/Simulink is developed. Investigating both short-time and seasonal hydrogen-based storage systems, simulations on the basis of real weather data are processed on a timescale of 15 min for a consideration period of 3 years. A sensitivity analysis is conducted in order to identify the most important system parameters concerning the proportion of consumption and the degree of self-sufficiency. Therefore, the influences of storage capacity and of storage efficiencies are discussed. A short-time storage system can increase the proportion of consumption by up to 35 percentage points compared to a self-consumption system without storage. However, the seasonal storing system uses almost the entire energy produced by the photovoltaic (PV system (nearly 100% self-consumption. Thereby, the energy drawn from the grid can be reduced and a degree of self-sufficiency of about 90% is achieved. Based on these findings, some scenarios to reach self-sufficiency are analyzed. The results show that full self-sufficiency will be possible with a seasonal hydrogen-based storage system if PV area and initial storage level are appropriate.

  4. A novel storage system for cryoEM samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scapin, Giovanna; Prosise, Winifred W; Wismer, Michael K; Strickland, Corey

    2017-07-01

    We present here a new CryoEM grid boxes storage system designed to simplify sample labeling, tracking and retrieval. The system is based on the crystal pucks widely used by the X-ray crystallographic community for storage and shipping of crystals. This system is suitable for any cryoEM laboratory, but especially for large facilities that will need accurate tracking of large numbers of samples coming from different sources. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Utility battery storage systems program report for FY 94

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, P.C.

    1995-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Utility Battery Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management. The goal of this program is to assist industry in developing cost-effective battery systems as a utility resource option by 2000. Sandia is responsible for the engineering analyses, contracted development, and testing of rechargeable batteries and systems for utility energy storage applications. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1994.

  6. Energy Storage Systems Program Report for FY98

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, P.C.

    1999-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Energy Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Power Technologies. The goal of this program is to collaborate with industry in developing cost-effective electric energy storage systems for many high-value stationary applications. Sandia National Laboratories is responsible for the engineering analyses, contracted development and testing of energy storage components and systems. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1998.

  7. Energy storage systems program report for FY97

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, P.C.

    1998-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Energy Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Utility Technologies. The goal of this program is to collaborate with industry in developing cost-effective electric energy storage systems for many high-value stationary applications. Sandia National Laboratories is responsible for the engineering analyses, contracted development, and testing of energy storage components and systems. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1997. 46 figs., 20 tabs.

  8. Energy Storage Systems Program Report for FY99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOYES,JOHN D.

    2000-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Energy Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Office of Power Technologies. The goal of this program is to develop cost-effective electric energy storage systems for many high-value stationary applications in collaboration with academia and industry. Sandia National Laboratories is responsible for the engineering analyses, contracted development, and testing of energy storage components and systems. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1999.

  9. Simulation-optimization model of reservoir operation based on target storage curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-bin Fang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new storage allocation rule based on target storage curves. Joint operating rules are also proposed to solve the operation problems of a multi-reservoir system with joint demands and water transfer-supply projects. The joint operating rules include a water diversion rule to determine the amount of diverted water in a period, a hedging rule based on an aggregated reservoir to determine the total release from the system, and a storage allocation rule to specify the release from each reservoir. A simulation-optimization model was established to optimize the key points of the water diversion curves, the hedging rule curves, and the target storage curves using the improved particle swarm optimization (IPSO algorithm. The multi-reservoir water supply system located in Liaoning Province, China, including a water transfer-supply project, was employed as a case study to verify the effectiveness of the proposed join operating rules and target storage curves. The results indicate that the proposed operating rules are suitable for the complex system. The storage allocation rule based on target storage curves shows an improved performance with regard to system storage distribution.

  10. Comparison of cask and drywell storage concepts for a monitored retrievable storage/interim storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, D.E.

    1982-12-01

    The Department of Energy, through its Richland Operations Office is evaluating the feasibility, timing, and cost of providing a federal capability for storing the spent fuel, high-level wastes, and transuranic wastes that DOE may be obligated by law to manage until permanent waste disposal facilities are available. Three concepts utilizing a monitored retrievable storage/interim storage (MRS/IS) facility have been developed and analyzed. The first concept, co-location with a reprocessing plant, has been developed by staff of Allied General Nuclear Services. the second concept, a stand-alone facility, has been developed by staff of the General Atomic Company. The third concept, co-location with a deep geologic repository, has been developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory with the assistance of the Westinghouse Hanford Company and Kaiser Engineers. The objectives of this study are: to develop preconceptual designs for MRS/IS facilities: to examine various issues such as transportation of wastes, licensing of the facilities, and environmental concerns associated with operation of such facilities; and to estimate the life-cycle costs of the facilities when operated in response to a set of scenarios that define the quantities and types of waste requiring storage in specific time periods, generally spanning the years 1989 to 2037. Three scenarios are examined to develop estimates of life-cycle costs for the MRS/IS facilities. In the first scenario, the reprocessing plant is placed in service in 1989 and HLW canisters are stored until a repository is opened in the year 1998. Additional reprocessing plants and repositories are placed in service at intervals as needed to meet the demand. In the second scenario, the reprocessing plants are delayed in starting operations by 10 years, but the repositories open on schedule. In the third scenario, the repositories are delayed 10 years, but the reprocessing plants open on schedule

  11. Comparison of cask and drywell storage concepts for a monitored retrievable storage/interim storage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, D.E.

    1982-12-01

    The Department of Energy, through its Richland Operations Office is evaluating the feasibility, timing, and cost of providing a federal capability for storing the spent fuel, high-level wastes, and transuranic wastes that DOE may be obligated by law to manage until permanent waste disposal facilities are available. Three concepts utilizing a monitored retrievable storage/interim storage (MRS/IS) facility have been developed and analyzed. The first concept, co-location with a reprocessing plant, has been developed by staff of Allied General Nuclear Services. the second concept, a stand-alone facility, has been developed by staff of the General Atomic Company. The third concept, co-location with a deep geologic repository, has been developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory with the assistance of the Westinghouse Hanford Company and Kaiser Engineers. The objectives of this study are: to develop preconceptual designs for MRS/IS facilities: to examine various issues such as transportation of wastes, licensing of the facilities, and environmental concerns associated with operation of such facilities; and to estimate the life-cycle costs of the facilities when operated in response to a set of scenarios that define the quantities and types of waste requiring storage in specific time periods, generally spanning the years 1989 to 2037. Three scenarios are examined to develop estimates of life-cycle costs for the MRS/IS facilities. In the first scenario, the reprocessing plant is placed in service in 1989 and HLW canisters are stored until a repository is opened in the year 1998. Additional reprocessing plants and repositories are placed in service at intervals as needed to meet the demand. In the second scenario, the reprocessing plants are delayed in starting operations by 10 years, but the repositories open on schedule. In the third scenario, the repositories are delayed 10 years, but the reprocessing plants open on schedule.

  12. Conception of modular hydrogen storage systems for portable applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paladini, V.; Miotti, P.; Manzoni, G.; Ozebec, J.

    2003-01-01

    Hydrogen, till now the most prominent candidate as a future sustainable energy carrier, yields a gravimetric energy density three times as high as liquid hydrocarbon. Furthermore it is proven to be the most environmentally friendly fuel. Unfortunately, a few components regarding storage and tank solutions have not yet reached a technology level required for broad use. Thus, we intend to propose solutions and device concepts for both devices everyday use and space applications. This contribution assesses both state of the art of storage materials and existing technologies of power generation systems for application in portable devices. The aim of this work is to define the characteristics of a modular system, being suitable for a wide range of different devices, operating on advanced metal hydrides as the active hydrogen supply component. The concept has been studied and modelled with respect to volumes, mass and power requirements of different devices. The smallest system developed is intended to run, for example, a mobile phone. Minor tuning and straightforward scale up of this power supply module should make it suitable for general applicability in any portable device. (author)

  13. Optimal controls of building storage systems using both ice storage and thermal mass – Part II: Parametric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajiah, Ali; Krarti, Moncef

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A detailed analysis is presented to assess the performance of thermal energy storage (TES) systems. ► Utility rates have been found to be significant in assessing the operation of TES systems. ► Optimal control strategies for TES systems can save up to 40% of total energy cost of office buildings. - Abstract: This paper presents the results of a series of parametric analysis to investigate the factors that affect the effectiveness of using simultaneously building thermal capacitance and ice storage system to reduce total operating costs (including energy and demand costs) while maintaining adequate occupant comfort conditions in buildings. The analysis is based on a validated model-based simulation environment and includes several parameters including the optimization cost function, base chiller size, and ice storage tank capacity, and weather conditions. It found that the combined use of building thermal mass and active thermal energy storage system can save up to 40% of the total energy costs when integrated optimal control are considered to operate commercial buildings.

  14. Computer modeling of ORNL storage tank sludge mobilization and mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrones, G.; Eyler, L.L.

    1993-09-01

    This report presents and analyzes the results of the computer modeling of mixing and mobilization of sludge in horizontal, cylindrical storage tanks using submerged liquid jets. The computer modeling uses the TEMPEST computational fluid dynamics computer program. The horizontal, cylindrical storage tank configuration is similar to the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST) at Oak Ridge National (ORNL). The MVST tank contents exhibit non-homogeneous, non-Newtonian rheology characteristics. The eventual goals of the simulations are to determine under what conditions sludge mobilization using submerged liquid jets is feasible in tanks of this configuration, and to estimate mixing times required to approach homogeneity of the contents of the tanks

  15. Embedded system of image storage based on fiber channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaodong; Su, Wanxin; Xing, Zhongbao; Wang, Hualong

    2008-03-01

    In domains of aerospace, aviation, aiming, and optic measure etc., the embedded system of imaging, processing and recording is absolutely necessary, which has small volume, high processing speed and high resolution. But the embedded storage technology becomes system bottleneck because of developing slowly. It is used to use RAID to promote storage speed, but it is unsuitable for the embedded system because of its big volume. Fiber channel (FC) technology offers a new method to develop the high-speed, portable storage system. In order to make storage subsystem meet the needs of high storage rate, make use of powerful Virtex-4 FPGA and high speed fiber channel, advance a project of embedded system of digital image storage based on Xilinx Fiber Channel Arbitrated Loop LogiCORE. This project utilizes Virtex- 4 RocketIO MGT transceivers to transmit the data serially, and connects many Fiber Channel hard drivers by using of Arbitrated Loop optionally. It can achieve 400MBps storage rate, breaks through the bottleneck of PCI interface, and has excellences of high-speed, real-time, portable and massive capacity.

  16. Performance analysis of a novel energy storage system based on liquid carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Mingkun; Zhao, Pan; Wu, Yi; Dai, Yiping

    2015-01-01

    Due to the intermittence and fluctuation of wind resource, the increasing penetration level of wind power will bring huge challenges to maintain the stability of power system. Integrating compressed air energy storage (CAES) system with wind farms can weaken this negative effect. However CAES system needs large caverns or mines to store compressed air, which is restricted in application. In this paper, a novel energy storage system based on liquid carbon dioxide is presented. The mathematical models of compressed liquid-carbon dioxide energy storage system are developed. The parametric analysis is conducted to examine the effect of some key thermodynamic parameters on the system performance. Compared with AA-CAES, the liquid carbon dioxide energy storage system has advantages such as a high energy density, high EVR. Moreover, the round trip efficiency of this system can reach about 56.64%, which is acceptable in consideration of the storage volume. Therefore, this proposed system has a good potential for storing wind power in large scale and offers an attractive solution to the challenges of the increasing penetration level of wind power. - Highlights: • A novel energy storage system based on liquid carbon dioxide is presented. • The effects of some key parameters on the system performance are studied. • The operation optimization is conducted by genetic algorithm. • Comparative analysis of AA-CAES and liquid carbon dioxide system is studied.

  17. Electrical Energy Storage for Renewable Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helms, C. R. [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States); Cho, K. J. [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States); Ferraris, John [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States); Balkus, Ken [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States); Chabal, Yves [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States); Gnade, Bruce [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States); Rotea, Mario [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States); Vasselli, John [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2012-08-31

    This program focused on development of the fundamental understanding necessary to significantly improve advanced battery and ultra-capacitor materials and systems to achieve significantly higher power and energy density on the one hand, and significantly lower cost on the other. This program spanned all the way from atomic-level theory, to new nanomaterials syntheses and characterization, to system modeling and bench-scale technology demonstration. This program not only delivered significant advancements in fundamental understanding and new materials and technology, it also showcased the power of the cross-functional, multi-disciplinary teams at UT Dallas and UT Tyler for such work. These teams are continuing this work with other sources of funding from both industry and government.

  18. Some models of spin coherence and decoherence in storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinemann, K.

    1997-09-01

    I present some simple exactly solvable models of spin diffusion caused by synchrotron radiation noise in storage rings. I am able to use standard stochastic differential equation and Fokker-Planck methods and I thereby introduce, and exploit, the polarization density. This quantity obeys a linear evolution equation of the Bloch type, which is, like the Fokker-Planck equation, universal in the sense that it is independent of the state of the system. I also briefly consider Bloch equations for other local polarization quantities derived from the polarization density. One of the models chosen is of relevance for some existing and proposed low energy electron (positron) storage rings which need polarization. I present numerical results for a ring with parameters typical of HERA and show that, where applicable, the results of my approach are in satisfactory agreement with calculations using SLIM. These calculations provide a numerical check of a basic tenet of the conventional method of calculating depolarization using the n-vector-axis. I also investigate the equilibrium behaviour of the spin ensemble when there is no synchrotron radiation. Finally, I summarize other results which I have obtained using the polarization density and which will be published separately. (orig.)

  19. Flexibility of the BNFL dry storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    To widen its range of spent fuel management services, BNFL entered the fuel storage market in 1995; entry was by acquisition rather than internal product development. The need for a transportable product was identified very early, but represents only the first phase of a philosophy of continuous improvement. Strong synergy exists between the new business area and existing fuel handling and transportation expertise, which has been of considerable assistance to the new business. (author)

  20. Nanostructured Electrodes Via Electrostatic Spray Deposition for Energy Storage System

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, C.; Agrawal, R.; Kim, T. K.; Li, X.; Chen, W.; Yu, Y.; Beidaghi, M.; Penmatsa, V.; Wang, C.

    2014-01-01

    Energy storage systems such as Li-ion batteries and supercapacitors are extremely important in today’s society, and have been widely used as the energy and power sources for portable electronics, electrical vehicles and hybrid electrical vehicles. A

  1. Optimal sizing of energy storage system for microgrids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    strategies and optimal allocation methods of the ESS devices are required for the MG. ... for the optimal design of systems managed optimally according to different .... Energy storage hourly operating and maintenance cost is defined as a ...

  2. Agency Secure Image And Storage Tracking System (ASIST)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — Agency Secure Image and Storage Tracking System (Missions): is a Documentum-based user interface developed and maintained by the USAID OCIO (formerly IRM) to improve...

  3. Designing Computer Systems with MEMS-Based Storage

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schlosser, Steven

    2000-01-01

    .... An exciting new storage technology based on microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) is poised to fill a large portion of this performance gap, significantly reduce power consumption, and enable many new classes of applications...

  4. 78 FR 70076 - Aging Management of Internal Surfaces, Fire Water Systems, Atmospheric Storage Tanks, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-22

    ... Systems, Atmospheric Storage Tanks, and Corrosion Under Insulation AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... Internal Surfaces, Fire Water Systems, Atmospheric Storage Tanks, and Corrosion Under Insulation.'' This LR... related to internal surface aging effects, fire water systems, atmospheric storage tanks, and corrosion...

  5. High temperature underground thermal energy storage system for solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    The activities feasibility of high temperature underground thermal storage of energy was investigated. Results indicate that salt cavern storage of hot oil is both technically and economically feasible as a method of storing huge quantities of heat at relatively low cost. One particular system identified utilizes a gravel filled cavern leached within a salt dome. Thermal losses are shown to be less than one percent of cyclically transferred heat. A system like this having a 40 MW sub t transfer rate capability and over eight hours of storage capacity is shown to cost about $13.50 per KWh sub t.

  6. Seismic behavior of steel storage pallet racking systems

    CERN Document Server

    Castiglioni, Carlo Andrea

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the main outcomes of the first European research project on the seismic behavior of adjustable steel storage pallet racking systems. In particular, it describes a comprehensive and unique set of full-scale tests designed to assess such behavior. The tests performed include cyclic tests of full-scale rack components, namely beam-to-upright connections and column base connections; static and dynamic tests to assess the friction factor between pallets and rack beams; full-scale pushover and pseudodynamic tests of storage racks in down-aisle and cross-aisle directions; and full-scale dynamic tests on two-bay, three-level rack models. The implications of the findings of this extensive testing regime on the seismic behavior of racking systems are discussed in detail, highlighting e.g. the confirmation that under severe dynamic conditions “sliding” is the main factor influencing rack response. This work was conceived during the development of the SEISRACKS project. Its outcomes will contribute...

  7. Modeling storage and demand management in power distribution grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Grahical abstract: The model informs an optimal investment sizing decision as regards specific 'smart grid' applications such as storage facilities and meters enabling load control. Results indicate that central storage facilities are a more promising option for generation cost reductions as compared to demand management. Highlights: → Stochastic versus deterministic model increases investment efficiency up to 5%. → Deterministic model under-estimates value of load control and storage. → Battery storage is beneficial at investment cost below 850 EUR/MW h. → Demand management equipment is not beneficial at cost beyond 200 EUR. → The stylized 10 kV grid constitutes no shortage factor. -- Abstract: Storage devices and demand control may constitute beneficial tools to optimize electricity generation with a large share of intermittent resources through inter-temporal substitution of load. This paper quantifies the related cost reductions in a simulation model of a simplified stylized medium-voltage grid (10 kV) under uncertain demand and wind output. Benders Decomposition Method is applied to create a two-stage stochastic optimization program. The model informs an optimal investment sizing decision as regards specific 'smart' applications such as storage facilities and meters enabling load control. Model results indicate that central storage facilities are a more promising option for generation cost reductions as compared to demand management. Grid extensions are not appropriate in any of the scenarios. A sensitivity analysis is applied with respect to the market penetration of uncoordinated Plug-In Electric Vehicles which are found to strongly encourage investment into load control equipment for 'smart' charging and slightly improve the case for central storage devices.

  8. A new compressed air energy storage refrigeration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shenglong; Chen Guangming; Fang Ming; Wang Qin

    2006-01-01

    In this study, a new compressed air energy storage (CAES) refrigeration system is proposed for electrical power load shifting application. It is a combination of a gas refrigeration cycle and a vapor compression refrigeration cycle. Thermodynamic calculations are conducted to investigate the performance of this system. Economic analysis is performed to study the operating cost of the system, and comparison is made with a vapor compression refrigeration system and an ice storage refrigeration system. The results indicate that the CAES refrigeration system has the advantages of simple structure, high efficiency and low operating cost

  9. Performance characteristics of solar-photovoltaic flywheel-storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvinen, P. O.; Brench, B. L.; Rasmussen, N. E.

    A solar photovoltaic energy flywheel storage and conversion system for residential applications was tested. Performance and efficiency measurements were conducted on the system, which utilizes low loss magnetic bearings, maximum power point tracking of the photovoltaic array, integrated permanent magnet motor generator, and output power conditioning sections of either the stand alone cycloconverter or utility interactive inverter type. The overall in/out electrical storage efficiency of the flywheel system was measured along with the power transfer efficiencies of the individual components and the system spin down tare losses. The system compares favorably with systems which use batteries and inverters.

  10. Damsel: A Data Model Storage Library for Exascale Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhary, Alok [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Liao, Wei-keng [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    2014-07-11

    Computational science applications have been described as having one of seven motifs (the “seven dwarfs”), each having a particular pattern of computation and communication. From a storage and I/O perspective, these applications can also be grouped into a number of data model motifs describing the way data is organized and accessed during simulation, analysis, and visualization. Major storage data models developed in the 1990s, such as Network Common Data Format (netCDF) and Hierarchical Data Format (HDF) projects, created support for more complex data models. Development of both netCDF and HDF5 was influenced by multi-dimensional dataset storage requirements, but their access models and formats were designed with sequential storage in mind (e.g., a POSIX I/O model). Although these and other high-level I/O libraries have had a beneficial impact on large parallel applications, they do not always attain a high percentage of peak I/O performance due to fundamental design limitations, and they do not address the full range of current and future computational science data models. The goal of this project is to enable exascale computational science applications to interact conveniently and efficiently with storage through abstractions that match their data models. The project consists of three major activities: (1) identifying major data model motifs in computational science applications and developing representative benchmarks; (2) developing a data model storage library, called Damsel, that supports these motifs, provides efficient storage data layouts, incorporates optimizations to enable exascale operation, and is tolerant to failures; and (3) productizing Damsel and working with computational scientists to encourage adoption of this library by the scientific community. The product of this project, Damsel library, is openly available for download from http://cucis.ece.northwestern.edu/projects/DAMSEL. Several case studies and application programming interface

  11. Ice Storage Air-Conditioning System Simulation with Dynamic Electricity Pricing: A Demand Response Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Chun Lo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an optimal dispatch model of an ice storage air-conditioning system for participants to quickly and accurately perform energy saving and demand response, and to avoid the over contact with electricity price peak. The schedule planning for an ice storage air-conditioning system of demand response is mainly to transfer energy consumption from the peak load to the partial-peak or off-peak load. Least Squares Regression (LSR is used to obtain the polynomial function for the cooling capacity and the cost of power consumption with a real ice storage air-conditioning system. Based on the dynamic electricity pricing, the requirements of cooling loads, and all technical constraints, the dispatch model of the ice-storage air-conditioning system is formulated to minimize the operation cost. The Improved Ripple Bee Swarm Optimization (IRBSO algorithm is proposed to solve the dispatch model of the ice storage air-conditioning system in a daily schedule on summer. Simulation results indicate that reasonable solutions provide a practical and flexible framework allowing the demand response of ice storage air-conditioning systems to demonstrate the optimization of its energy savings and operational efficiency and offering greater energy efficiency.

  12. Use of compressed-air storage systems; Einsatz von Druckluftspeichersystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cyphely, I.; Rufer, A.; Brueckmann, Ph.; Menhardt, W.; Reller, A.

    2004-07-01

    This final report issued by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) looks at the use of compressed air as a means of storing energy. Historical aspects are listed and compressed-air storage as an alternative to current ideas that use electrolysis and hydrogen storage is discussed. The storage efficiency advantages of compressed-air storage is stressed and the possibilities it offers for compensating the stochastic nature of electricity production from renewable energy sources are discussed. The so-called BOP (Battery with Oil-hydraulics and Pneumatics) principle for the storage of electricity is discussed and its function is described. The advantages offered by such a system are listed and the development focus necessary is discussed.

  13. Grid Converters for Stationary Battery Energy Storage Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trintis, Ionut

    The integration of renewable energy sources in the power system, with high percentage, is a well known challenge nowadays. Power sources like wind and solar are highly volatile, with uctuations on various time scales. One long term solution is to build a continentwide or worldwide supergrid....... Another solution is to use distributed energy storage units, and create virtual power plants. Stationary energy storage is a complementary solution, which can postpone the network expansion and can be optimized for dierent kind of grid services. As an energy storage solution with timing for few seconds...... multilevel converter structure with integrated energy storage is introduced. This converter structure is suitable to interface low and medium voltage energy storage units to medium and high voltage grids. It can also interconnect a DC and AC grid with bidirectional power ow, were both can be backed...

  14. Monitored Retrievable Storage System Requirements Document. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    This Monitored Retrievable Storage System Requirements Document (MRS-SRD) describes the functions to be performed and technical requirements for a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility subelement and the On-Site Transfer and Storage (OSTS) subelement. The MRS facility subelement provides for temporary storage, at a Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) operated site, of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) contained in an NRC-approved Multi-Purpose Canister (MPC) storage mode, or other NRC-approved storage modes. The OSTS subelement provides for transfer and storage, at Purchaser sites, of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) contained in MPCs. Both the MRS facility subelement and the OSTS subelement are in support of the CRWMS. The purpose of the MRS-SRD is to define the top-level requirements for the development of the MRS facility and the OSTS. These requirements include design, operation, and decommissioning requirements to the extent they impact on the physical development of the MRS facility and the OSTS. The document also presents an overall description of the MRS facility and the OSTS, their functions (derived by extending the functional analysis documented by the Physical System Requirements (PSR) Store Waste Document), their segments, and the requirements allocated to the segments. In addition, the top-level interface requirements of the MRS facility and the OSTS are included. As such, the MRS-SRD provides the technical baseline for the MRS Safety Analysis Report (SAR) design and the OSTS Safety Analysis Report design.

  15. Entropy, pricing and macroeconomics of pumped-storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakatsanis, Georgios; Mamassis, Nikos; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris; Efstratiadis, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    We propose a pricing scheme for the enhancement of macroeconomic performance of pumped-storage systems, based on the statistical properties of both geophysical and economic variables. The main argument consists in the need of a context of economic values concerning the hub energy resource; defined as the resource that comprises the reference energy currency for all involved renewable energy sources (RES) and discounts all related uncertainty. In the case of pumped-storage systems the hub resource is the reservoir's water, as a benchmark for all connected intermittent RES. The uncertainty of all involved natural and economic processes is statistically quantifiable by entropy. It is the relation between the entropies of all involved RES that shapes the macroeconomic state of the integrated pumped-storage system. Consequently, there must be consideration on the entropy of wind, solar and precipitation patterns, as well as on the entropy of economic processes -such as demand preferences on either current energy use or storage for future availability. For pumped-storage macroeconomics, a price on the reservoir's capacity scarcity should also be imposed in order to shape a pricing field with upper and lower limits for the long-term stability of the pricing range and positive net energy benefits, which is the primary issue of the generalized deployment of pumped-storage technology. Keywords: Entropy, uncertainty, pricing, hub energy resource, RES, energy storage, capacity scarcity, macroeconomics

  16. FPGA-based prototype storage system with phase change memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gezi; Chen, Xiaogang; Chen, Bomy; Li, Shunfen; Zhou, Mi; Han, Wenbing; Song, Zhitang

    2016-10-01

    With the ever-increasing amount of data being stored via social media, mobile telephony base stations, and network devices etc. the database systems face severe bandwidth bottlenecks when moving vast amounts of data from storage to the processing nodes. At the same time, Storage Class Memory (SCM) technologies such as Phase Change Memory (PCM) with unique features like fast read access, high density, non-volatility, byte-addressability, positive response to increasing temperature, superior scalability, and zero standby leakage have changed the landscape of modern computing and storage systems. In such a scenario, we present a storage system called FLEET which can off-load partial or whole SQL queries to the storage engine from CPU. FLEET uses an FPGA rather than conventional CPUs to implement the off-load engine due to its highly parallel nature. We have implemented an initial prototype of FLEET with PCM-based storage. The results demonstrate that significant performance and CPU utilization gains can be achieved by pushing selected query processing components inside in PCM-based storage.

  17. Design of double containment canister cask storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asami, M.; Matsumoto, T.; Oohama, T.; Kuriyama, K.; Kawakami, K.

    2004-01-01

    Spent fuels discharged from Japanese LWR will be stored as recycled-fuel-resources in interim storage facilities. The concrete cask storage system is one of important forms for the spent fuel interim storage. In Japan, the interim storage facility will be located near the coast, therefore it is important to prevent SCC (Stress Corrosion Cracking) caused by sea salt particles and to assure the containment integrity of the canister which contains spent fuels. KEPCO, NFT and OCL have designed the double containment canister cask storage system that can assure the long-term containment integrity and monitor the containment performance without storage capacity decrease. Major features of the combined canister cask system are shown as follows: This system can survey containment integrity of dual canisters by monitoring the pressure of the gap between canisters. The primary canister has dual lids sealed by welding. The secondary canister has single lid tightened by bolts and sealed by metallic gaskets. The primary canister is contained in the transport cask during transportation, and the gap between the primary canister and the transport cask is filled with He gas. Under storage condition in the concrete cask, the primary canister is contained in the secondary canister, and the gap between these canisters is filled with helium gas. Hence this system can prevent the primary canister to contact sea salt particle in the air and from SCC. Decrease of cooling performance because of the double canister is compensated by fins fitted on the secondary canister surface. Then, this system can prevent the decrease of storage capacity determined by the fuel temperature limit. This system can assure that the primary canister will keep intact for long term storage. Therefore, in the case of pressure down of the gap between canisters, it can be considered that the secondary canister containment is damaged, and the primary canister will be transferred to another secondary canister at the

  18. Hydrogen based energy storage for solar energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanhanen, J.; Hagstroem, M.; Lund, P. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Advanced Energy Systems

    1998-10-01

    The main technical constraint in solar energy systems which operate around the year is the lack of suitable long-term energy storage. Conventional solutions to overcome the problem of seasonal storage in PV power systems are to use oversized batteries as a seasonal energy storage, or to use a diesel back-up generator. However, affordable lead-acid batteries are not very suitable for seasonal energy storage because of a high self-discharge rate and enhanced deterioration and divergence of the single cells during prolonged periods of low state of charge in times of low irradiation. These disadvantages can be avoided by a back-up system, e.g. a diesel generator, which car supply energy to the loads and charge the battery to the full state of charge to avoid the above mentioned disadvantages. Unfortunately, diesel generators have several disadvantages, e.g. poor starting reliability, frequent need for maintenance and noise

  19. Neutronic and thermal hydraulic of dry cask storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yavuz, U.

    2000-01-01

    Interim spent fuel storage systems must provide for the safe receipt, handling, retrieval and storage of spent nuclear fuel before reprocessing or disposal. In the context of achieving these objectives, the following features of the design are to be taken into consideration: to maintain fuel subcritical, to remove spent fuel residualheat, and to provide for radiation protection. These features in the design of a dry cask storage system were analyzed for normal operating conditions by employing COBRA-SFS, SCALE4.4 (ORIGEN, XSDOSE, CSAS6) codes. For a metal-shielded type storage system, appropriate designs, in accordance with safety assurance limits of IAEA, were obtained for spent fuel burned to 33000, 45000 and 55000 MW d/t and cooled for 5 and 10 years

  20. Autothermal hydrogen storage and delivery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pez, Guido Peter [Allentown, PA; Cooper, Alan Charles [Macungie, PA; Scott, Aaron Raymond [Allentown, PA

    2011-08-23

    Processes are provided for the storage and release of hydrogen by means of dehydrogenation of hydrogen carrier compositions where at least part of the heat of dehydrogenation is provided by a hydrogen-reversible selective oxidation of the carrier. Autothermal generation of hydrogen is achieved wherein sufficient heat is provided to sustain the at least partial endothermic dehydrogenation of the carrier at reaction temperature. The at least partially dehydrogenated and at least partially selectively oxidized liquid carrier is regenerated in a catalytic hydrogenation process where apart from an incidental employment of process heat, gaseous hydrogen is the primary source of reversibly contained hydrogen and the necessary reaction energy.

  1. Design of a Flywheel Storage System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavia Santos, S.; Garcia-Tabares Rodriguez, L.

    1998-01-01

    Storing mechanical kinetic energy for short time with flywheels has been known for centuries. However the applications of flywheels for longer storage times like electrochemical batteries is recent. Advanced flywheels have been possible thanks to the development from materials science with high tensile strength composite materials, and bearing technology with magnetic bearing, which suspend rotating shaft or rotor by magnetic forces. This summary report provides a study of the mechanics of flywheel, design considerations, material for advance flywheels, and magnetic bearing. Finally a brief description of a conventional flywheel prototype is given. (Author)

  2. 78 FR 73456 - List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks: HI-STORM 100 Cask System; Amendment No. 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ...-2012-0052] RIN 3150-AJ12 List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks: HI-STORM 100 Cask System; Amendment... International HI-STORM 100 Cask System listing within the ``List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks'' to... requirements for the HI-STORM 100U part of the HI-STORM 100 Cask System and updates the thermal model and...

  3. Thermoeconomic evaluation of air conditioning system with chilled water storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Hu; Li, Xin-hong; Cheng, Peng-sheng; Xu, Bu-gong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A new thermoeconomic evaluation methodology has been presented. • The relationship between thermodynamic and economic performances has been revealed. • A key point for thermal storage technology further application is discovered. • A system has been analyzed via the new method and EUD method. - Abstract: As a good load shifting technology for power grid, chilled energy storage has been paid more and more attention, but it always consumes more energy than traditional air conditioning system, and the performance analysis is mostly from the viewpoint of peak-valley power price to get cost saving. The paper presents a thermoeconomic evaluation methodology for the system with chilled energy storage, by which thermodynamic performance influence on cost saving has been revealed. And a system with chilled storage has been analyzed, which can save more than 15% of power cost with no energy consumption increment, and just certain difference between peak and valley power prices can make the technology for good economic application. The results show that difference between peak and valley power prices is not the only factor on economic performance, thermodynamic performance of the storage system is the more important factor, and too big price difference is a barrier for its application, instead of for more cost saving. All of these give a new direction for thermal storage technology application

  4. Model based, sensor directed remediation of underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, B.; Drotning, W.; Thunborg, S.

    1991-01-01

    Sensor rich, intelligent robots which function with respect to models of their environment have significant potential to reduce the time and cost for the cleanup of hazardous waste while increasing operator safety. Sandia National Laboratories is performing experimental investigations into the application of intelligent robot control technology to the problem of removing waste stored tanks. This paper describes the experimental environment employed at Saudi with particular attention to the computing and software control environment. Intelligent system control is achieved though the integration of extensive geometric and kinematic world models with real-time sensor based control. All operator interactions with the system are validate all operator commands before execution to provide a safe operation. Sensing is used to add information to the robot system's world model and to allow sensor based sensor control during selected operations. The results of a first Critical Feature Test are reported and the potential for applying advanced intelligent control concepts to the removal of waste in storage tanks is discussed

  5. Battery storage for PV power systems: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaurey, A; Deambi, S [Tata Energy Research Inst., New Delhi (India)

    1992-06-01

    Batteries used in photovoltaic applications are required to have particular properties in order to minimize the system cost, in addition to meeting stringent reliability requirements associated with PV system installations. The battery sizing, installations, operation and maintenance, thus, are fundamentally different from those used in several other energy storage applications. The current paper gives an overview of battery systems commonly used in PV installation, as well as several new options which are found suitable or have been modified suitably to meet PV energy storage requirements. The systems are discussed briefly with respect to their construction, performance characteristics and compatibility with PV systems. The battery sizing procedures are also reviewed. (Author).

  6. The Redox Flow System for solar photovoltaic energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odonnell, P.; Gahn, R. F.; Pfeiffer, W.

    1976-01-01

    The interfacing of a Solar Photovoltaic System and a Redox Flow System for storage was workable. The Redox Flow System, which utilizes the oxidation-reduction capability of two redox couples, in this case iron and titanium, for its storage capacity, gave a relatively constant output regardless of solar activity so that a load could be run continually day and night utilizing the sun's energy. One portion of the system was connected to a bank of solar cells to electrochemically charge the solutions, while a separate part of the system was used to electrochemically discharge the stored energy.

  7. modelling for optimal number of line storage reservoirs in a water

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    RESERVOIRS IN A WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM. By. B.U. Anyata. Department ... water distribution systems, in order to balance the ... distribution line storage systems to meet peak demands at .... Evaluation Method. The criteria ... Pipe + Energy Cost (N). 191, 772 ... Economic Planning Model for Distributed information ...

  8. Experimental investigation of thermal storage integrated micro trigeneration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johar, Dheeraj Kishor; Sharma, Dilip; Soni, Shyam Lal; Goyal, Rahul; Gupta, Pradeep K.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy Storage System is integrated with Micro trigeneration system. • Erythritol is used as Phase Change Material. • Maximum energy saved is 15.30%. • Combined systems are feasible to increase energy efficiency. - Abstract: In this study a 4.4 kW stationary compression ignition engine is coupled with a double pipe heat exchanger, vapour absorption refrigeration system and thermal energy storage system to achieve Trigeneration i.e. power, heating and cooling. A shell and tube type heat exchanger filled with erythritol is used to store thermal energy of engine exhaust. Various combinations of thermal energy storage system integrated micro-trigeneration were investigated and results related to performance and emissions are reported in this paper. The test results show that micro capacity (4.4 kW) stationary single cylinder diesel engine can be successfully modified to simultaneously produce power, heating and cooling and also store thermal energy.

  9. Probabilistic tools for planning and operating power systems with distributed energy storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klöckl, Bernd; Papaefthymiou, George; Pinson, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    Stochastic energy flows are an increasingly important phenomenon in today's power system planning and operation. They are – among other reasons – caused by large amounts of stochastic generation such as wind. The inclusion of energy storage devices, distributed in future systems (distributed energy...... owners are either the grid operators, the generation owners, or the energy traders. For the grid operators being the DES owners, storage operation will have to be integrated into the planning of the system, therefore multivariate nonparametric time series analysis and synthesis methods have to be applied...... to recorded data of stochastic energy resources. Together with suited storage models, the implications of DES on the planning of the system can then be assessed. For the producers or traders being the owners of the DES, the topic to be addressed is the real-time operation of each storage device in the power...

  10. DICOM implementation on online tape library storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komo, Darmadi; Dai, Hailei L.; Elghammer, David; Levine, Betty A.; Mun, Seong K.

    1998-07-01

    The main purpose of this project is to implement a Digital Image and Communications (DICOM) compliant online tape library system over the Internet. Once finished, the system will be used to store medical exams generated from U.S. ARMY Mobile ARMY Surgical Hospital (MASH) in Tuzla, Bosnia. A modified UC Davis implementation of DICOM storage class is used for this project. DICOM storage class user and provider are implemented as the system's interface to the Internet. The DICOM software provides flexible configuration options such as types of modalities and trusted remote DICOM hosts. Metadata is extracted from each exam and indexed in a relational database for query and retrieve purposes. The medical images are stored inside the Wolfcreek-9360 tape library system from StorageTek Corporation. The tape library system has nearline access to more than 1000 tapes. Each tape has a capacity of 800 megabytes making the total nearline tape access of around 1 terabyte. The tape library uses the Application Storage Manager (ASM) which provides cost-effective file management, storage, archival, and retrieval services. ASM automatically and transparently copies files from expensive magnetic disk to less expensive nearline tape library, and restores the files back when they are needed. The ASM also provides a crash recovery tool, which enable an entire file system restore in a short time. A graphical user interface (GUI) function is used to view the contents of the storage systems. This GUI also allows user to retrieve the stored exams and send the exams to anywhere on the Internet using DICOM protocols. With the integration of different components of the system, we have implemented a high capacity online tape library storage system that is flexible and easy to use. Using tape as an alternative storage media as opposed to the magnetic disk has the great potential of cost savings in terms of dollars per megabyte of storage. As this system matures, the Hospital Information Systems

  11. AnalyzeThis: An Analysis Workflow-Aware Storage System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, Hyogi [ORNL; Kim, Youngjae [ORNL; Vazhkudai, Sudharshan S [ORNL; Tiwari, Devesh [ORNL; Anwar, Ali [Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA; Butt, Ali R [Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA; Ramakrishnan, Lavanya [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)

    2015-01-01

    The need for novel data analysis is urgent in the face of a data deluge from modern applications. Traditional approaches to data analysis incur significant data movement costs, moving data back and forth between the storage system and the processor. Emerging Active Flash devices enable processing on the flash, where the data already resides. An array of such Active Flash devices allows us to revisit how analysis workflows interact with storage systems. By seamlessly blending together the flash storage and data analysis, we create an analysis workflow-aware storage system, AnalyzeThis. Our guiding principle is that analysis-awareness be deeply ingrained in each and every layer of the storage, elevating data analyses as first-class citizens, and transforming AnalyzeThis into a potent analytics-aware appliance. We implement the AnalyzeThis storage system atop an emulation platform of the Active Flash array. Our results indicate that AnalyzeThis is viable, expediting workflow execution and minimizing data movement.

  12. Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems -- Energy Storage (SEGIS-ES).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanley, Charles J.; Ton, Dan T. (U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.); Boyes, John D.; Peek, Georgianne Huff

    2008-07-01

    This paper describes the concept for augmenting the SEGIS Program (an industry-led effort to greatly enhance the utility of distributed PV systems) with energy storage in residential and small commercial applications (SEGIS-ES). The goal of SEGIS-ES is to develop electrical energy storage components and systems specifically designed and optimized for grid-tied PV applications. This report describes the scope of the proposed SEGIS-ES Program and why it will be necessary to integrate energy storage with PV systems as PV-generated energy becomes more prevalent on the nation's utility grid. It also discusses the applications for which energy storage is most suited and for which it will provide the greatest economic and operational benefits to customers and utilities. Included is a detailed summary of the various storage technologies available, comparisons of their relative costs and development status, and a summary of key R&D needs for PV-storage systems. The report concludes with highlights of areas where further PV-specific R&D is needed and offers recommendations about how to proceed with their development.

  13. Ceph, a distributed storage system for scientific computing

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    Ceph is a distributed storage system designed to providing high performance and reliability at scales of up to thousands of storage nodes. The system is based on a distributed object storage layer call RADOS that provides durability, availability, efficient data distribution, and rich object semantics. This storage can be consumed directly via an object-based interface, or via file, block, or REST-based object services that are built on top of it. Clusters are composed of commodity components to provide a reliable storage service serving multiple use-cases. This seminar will cover the basic architecture of Ceph, with a focus on how each service can be consumed in a research and infrastructure environment. About the speaker Sage Weil, Founder and current CTO of Inktank Inc, is the creator of the Ceph project. He originally designed it as part of his PhD research in Storage Systems at the University of California, Santa Cruz. Since graduating, he has continued to refine the system with the goal of providi...

  14. The Earth System Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeberl, Mark; Rood, Richard B.; Hildebrand, Peter; Raymond, Carol

    2003-01-01

    The Earth System Model is the natural evolution of current climate models and will be the ultimate embodiment of our geophysical understanding of the planet. These models are constructed from components - atmosphere, ocean, ice, land, chemistry, solid earth, etc. models and merged together through a coupling program which is responsible for the exchange of data from the components. Climate models and future earth system models will have standardized modules, and these standards are now being developed by the ESMF project funded by NASA. The Earth System Model will have a variety of uses beyond climate prediction. The model can be used to build climate data records making it the core of an assimilation system, and it can be used in OSSE experiments to evaluate. The computing and storage requirements for the ESM appear to be daunting. However, the Japanese ES theoretical computing capability is already within 20% of the minimum requirements needed for some 2010 climate model applications. Thus it seems very possible that a focused effort to build an Earth System Model will achieve succcss.

  15. Standard review plan for dry cask storage systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    The Standard Review Plan (SRP) For Dry Cask Storage Systems provides guidance to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff in the Spent Fuel Project Office for performing safety reviews of dry cask storage systems. The SRP is intended to ensure the quality and uniformity of the staff reviews, present a basis for the review scope, and clarification of the regulatory requirements. Part 72, Subpart B generally specifies the information needed in a license application for the independent storage of spent nuclear fuel and high level radioactive waste. Regulatory Guide 3.61 {open_quotes}Standard Format and Content for a Topical Safety Analysis Report for a Spent Fuel Dry Storage Cask{close_quotes} contains an outline of the specific information required by the staff. The SRP is divided into 14 sections which reflect the standard application format. Regulatory requirements, staff positions, industry codes and standards, acceptance criteria, and other information are discussed.

  16. Standard review plan for dry cask storage systems. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Standard Review Plan (SRP) For Dry Cask Storage Systems provides guidance to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff in the Spent Fuel Project Office for performing safety reviews of dry cask storage systems. The SRP is intended to ensure the quality and uniformity of the staff reviews, present a basis for the review scope, and clarification of the regulatory requirements. Part 72, Subpart B generally specifies the information needed in a license application for the independent storage of spent nuclear fuel and high level radioactive waste. Regulatory Guide 3.61 open-quotes Standard Format and Content for a Topical Safety Analysis Report for a Spent Fuel Dry Storage Caskclose quotes contains an outline of the specific information required by the staff. The SRP is divided into 14 sections which reflect the standard application format. Regulatory requirements, staff positions, industry codes and standards, acceptance criteria, and other information are discussed

  17. Superconducting magnetic energy storage for asynchronous electrical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boenig, Heinrich J.

    1986-01-01

    A superconducting magnetic energy storage coil connected in parallel between converters of two or more ac power systems provides load leveling and stability improvement to any or all of the ac systems. Control is provided to direct the charging and independently the discharging of the superconducting coil to at least a selected one of the ac power systems.

  18. Systems approach for design control at Monitored Retrievable Storage Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, P.N.; Williams, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the systems approach in establishing design control for the Monitored Retrievable Storage Project design development. Key elements in design control are enumerated and systems engineering aspects are detailed. Application of lessons learned from the Yucca Mountain Project experience is addressed. An integrated approach combining quality assurance and systems engineering requirements is suggested to practice effective design control

  19. Cooperative heat transfer and ground coupled storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, P.D.

    A cooperative heat transfer and ground coupled storage system wherein collected solar heat energy is ground stored and permitted to radiate into the adjacent ground for storage therein over an extended period of time when such heat energy is seasonally maximally available. Thereafter, when said heat energy is seasonally minimally available and has propagated through the adjacent ground a substantial distance, the stored heat energy may be retrieved by a circumferentially arranged heat transfer means having a high rate of heat transfer.

  20. A Model Describing Stable Coherent Synchrotron Radiation in Storage Rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sannibale, F.

    2004-01-01

    We present a model describing high power stable broadband coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in the terahertz frequency region in an electron storage ring. The model includes distortion of bunch shape from the synchrotron radiation (SR), which enhances higher frequency coherent emission, and limits to stable emission due to an instability excited by the SR wakefield. It gives a quantitative explanation of several features of the recent observations of CSR at the BESSY II storage ring. We also use this model to optimize the performance of a source for stable CSR emission

  1. A model describing stable coherent synchrotron radiation in storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sannibale, F.; Byrd, J.M.; Loftsdottir, A.; Venturini, M.; Abo-Bakr, M.; Feikes, J.; Holldack, K.; Kuske, P.; Wuestefeld, G.; Huebers, H.-W.; Warnock, R.

    2004-01-01

    We present a model describing high power stable broadband coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in the terahertz frequency region in an electron storage ring. The model includes distortion of bunch shape from the synchrotron radiation (SR), which enhances higher frequency coherent emission, and limits to stable emission due to an instability excited by the SR wakefield. It gives a quantitative explanation of several features of the recent observations of CSR at the BESSY II storage ring. We also use this model to optimize the performance of a source for stable CSR emission

  2. Small magnetic energy storage systems using high temperature superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, B.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on magnetic energy storage for power systems that has been considered for commercial utility power, air and ground mobile power sources, and spacecraft applications. Even at the current technology limits of energy storage (100 KJ/Kg*), superconducting magnetic energy storage inductors do not offer a strong advantage over state-of-the-art batteries. The commercial utility application does not have a weight and volume limitation, and is under intense study in several countries for diurnal cycle energy storage and high power delivery. The advent of high temperature superconductors has reduced one of the penalties of superconducting magnetic energy storage in that refrigeration and cryocontainers become greatly simplified. Still, structural and current density issues that limit the energy density and size of superconducting inductors do not change. Cold weather starting of aircraft engines is an application where these limitations are not as significant, and where current systems lack performance. The very cold environments make it difficult to achieve high power densities in state-of-the-art batteries and hydraulically activated starters. The same cold environments make it possible to cool superconducting systems for weeks using a single charge of liquid nitrogen. At the same, the ground carts can handle the size and weight of superconducting magnetic storage (SMES) devices

  3. Vertically Integrated Models for Carbon Storage Modeling in Heterogeneous Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandilla, K.; Celia, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    Numerical modeling is an essential tool for studying the impacts of geologic carbon storage (GCS). Injection of carbon dioxide (CO2) into deep saline aquifers leads to multi-phase flow (injected CO2 and resident brine), which can be described by a set of three-dimensional governing equations, including mass-balance equation, volumetric flux equations (modified Darcy), and constitutive equations. This is the modeling approach on which commonly used reservoir simulators such as TOUGH2 are based. Due to the large density difference between CO2 and brine, GCS models can often be simplified by assuming buoyant segregation and integrating the three-dimensional governing equations in the vertical direction. The integration leads to a set of two-dimensional equations coupled with reconstruction operators for vertical profiles of saturation and pressure. Vertically-integrated approaches have been shown to give results of comparable quality as three-dimensional reservoir simulators when applied to realistic CO2 injection sites such as the upper sand wedge at the Sleipner site. However, vertically-integrated approaches usually rely on homogeneous properties over the thickness of a geologic layer. Here, we investigate the impact of general (vertical and horizontal) heterogeneity in intrinsic permeability, relative permeability functions, and capillary pressure functions. We consider formations involving complex fluvial deposition environments and compare the performance of vertically-integrated models to full three-dimensional models for a set of hypothetical test cases consisting of high permeability channels (streams) embedded in a low permeability background (floodplains). The domains are randomly generated assuming that stream channels can be represented by sinusoidal waves in the plan-view and by parabolas for the streams' cross-sections. Stream parameters such as width, thickness and wavelength are based on values found at the Ketzin site in Germany. Results from the

  4. Lithium-Ion Battery Storage for the Grid—A Review of Stationary Battery Storage System Design Tailored for Applications in Modern Power Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger C. Hesse

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Battery energy storage systems have gained increasing interest for serving grid support in various application tasks. In particular, systems based on lithium-ion batteries have evolved rapidly with a wide range of cell technologies and system architectures available on the market. On the application side, different tasks for storage deployment demand distinct properties of the storage system. This review aims to serve as a guideline for best choice of battery technology, system design and operation for lithium-ion based storage systems to match a specific system application. Starting with an overview to lithium-ion battery technologies and their characteristics with respect to performance and aging, the storage system design is analyzed in detail based on an evaluation of real-world projects. Typical storage system applications are grouped and classified with respect to the challenges posed to the battery system. Publicly available modeling tools for technical and economic analysis are presented. A brief analysis of optimization approaches aims to point out challenges and potential solution techniques for system sizing, positioning and dispatch operation. For all areas reviewed herein, expected improvements and possible future developments are highlighted. In order to extract the full potential of stationary battery storage systems and to enable increased profitability of systems, future research should aim to a holistic system level approach combining not only performance tuning on a battery cell level and careful analysis of the application requirements, but also consider a proper selection of storage sub-components as well as an optimized system operation strategy.

  5. Exergy analysis of a gas-hydrate cool storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi, Yuehong; Liu, Xiao; Jiang, Minghe

    2014-01-01

    Based on exergy analysis of charging and discharging processes in a gas-hydrate cool storage system, the formulas for exergy efficiency at the sensible heat transfer stage and the phase change stage corresponding to gas-hydrate charging and discharging processes are obtained. Furthermore, the overall exergy efficiency expressions of charging, discharging processes and the thermodynamic cycle of the gas-hydrate cool storage system are obtained. By using the above expressions, the effects of number of transfer units, the inlet temperatures of the cooling medium and the heating medium on exergy efficiencies of the gas-hydrate cool storage system are emphatically analyzed. The research results can be directly used to evaluate the performance of gas-hydrate cool storage systems and design more efficient energy systems by reducing the sources of inefficiency in gas-hydrate cool storage systems. - Highlights: • Formulas for exergy efficiency at four stages are obtained. • Exergy efficiency expressions of two processes and one cycle are obtained. • Three mainly influencing factors on exergy efficiencies are analyzed. • With increasing the inlet temperature of cooling medium, exergy efficiency increases. • With decreasing the inlet temperature of heating medium, exergy efficiency increases

  6. Integrated spent fuel storage and transportation system using NUHOMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnert, R.; McConaghy, W.; Rosa, J.

    1990-01-01

    As utilities with nuclear power plants face increasing near term spent fuel store needs, various systems for dry storage such as the NUTECH Horizontal Modular Storage (NUHOMS) system are being implemented to augment existing spent fuel pool storage capacities. These decisions are based on a number of generic and utility specific considerations including both short term and long term economics. Since the US Department of Energy (DOE) is tasked by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act with the future responsibility of transporting spent fuel from commercial nuclear power plants to a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility anchor a permanent geologic repository, the interfaces between the utilities at-reactor dry storage system and the DOE's away-from-reactor transportation system become important. This paper presents a study of the interfaces between the current at-reactor NUHOMS system and the future away-from-reactor DOE transportation system being developed under the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) program. 7 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  7. Toward Transparent Data Management in Multi-layer Storage Hierarchy for HPC Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadhwa, Bharti [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Computer Science; Byna, Suren [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Butt, Ali R. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Computer Science

    2018-04-17

    Upcoming exascale high performance computing (HPC) systems are expected to comprise multi-tier storage hierarchy, and thus will necessitate innovative storage and I/O mechanisms. Traditional disk and block-based interfaces and file systems face severe challenges in utilizing capabilities of storage hierarchies due to the lack of hierarchy support and semantic interfaces. Object-based and semantically-rich data abstractions for scientific data management on large scale systems offer a sustainable solution to these challenges. Such data abstractions can also simplify users involvement in data movement. Here, we take the first steps of realizing such an object abstraction and explore storage mechanisms for these objects to enhance I/O performance, especially for scientific applications. We explore how an object-based interface can facilitate next generation scalable computing systems by presenting the mapping of data I/O from two real world HPC scientific use cases: a plasma physics simulation code (VPIC) and a cosmology simulation code (HACC). Our storage model stores data objects in different physical organizations to support data movement across layers of memory/storage hierarchy. Our implementation sclaes well to 16K parallel processes, and compared to the state of the art, such as MPI-IO and HDF5, our object-based data abstractions and data placement strategy in multi-level storage hierarchy achieves up to 7 X I/O performance improvement for scientific data.

  8. Proceedings of the DOE chemical energy storage and hydrogen energy systems contracts review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-02-01

    Sessions were held on electrolysis-based hydrogen storage systems, hydrogen production, hydrogen storage systems, hydrogen storage materials, end-use applications and system studies, chemical heat pump/chemical energy storage systems, systems studies and assessment, thermochemical hydrogen production cycles, advanced production concepts, and containment materials. (LHK)

  9. Experimental and numerical investigation of a scalable modular geothermal heat storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordbeck, Johannes; Bauer, Sebastian; Beyer, Christof

    2017-04-01

    Storage of heat will play a significant role in the transition towards a reliable and renewable power supply, as it offers a way to store energy from fluctuating and weather dependent energy sources like solar or wind power and thus better meet consumer demands. The focus of this study is the simulation-based design of a heat storage system, featuring a scalable and modular setup that can be integrated with new as well as existing buildings. For this, the system can be either installed in a cellar or directly in the ground. Heat supply is by solar collectors, and heat storage is intended at temperatures up to about 90°C, which requires a verification of the methods used for numerical simulation of such systems. One module of the heat storage system consists of a helical heat exchanger in a fully water saturated, high porosity cement matrix, which represents the heat storage medium. A lab-scale storage prototype of 1 m3 volume was set up in a thermally insulated cylinder equipped with temperature and moisture sensors as well as flux meters and temperature sensors at the inlet and outlet pipes in order to experimentally analyze the performance of the storage system. Furthermore, the experimental data was used to validate an accurate and spatially detailed high-resolution 3D numerical model of heat and fluid flow, which was developed for system design optimization with respect to storage efficiency and environmental impacts. Three experiments conducted so far are reported and analyzed in this work. The first experiment, consisting of cooling of the fully loaded heat storage by heat loss across the insulation, is designed to determine the heat loss and the insulation parameters, i.e. heat conductivity and heat capacity of the insulation, via inverse modelling of the cooling period. The average cooling rate experimentally found is 1.2 °C per day. The second experiment consisted of six days of thermal loading up to a storage temperature of 60°C followed by four days

  10. Clean energy storage technology in the making: An innovation systems perspective on flywheel energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicki, Samuel; Hansen, Erik G

    2017-09-20

    The emergence and diffusion of green and sustainable technologies is full of obstacles and has therefore become an important area of research. We are interested in further understanding the dynamics between entrepreneurial experimentation, market formation, and institutional contexts, together playing a decisive role for successful diffusion of such technologies. Accordingly, we study these processes by adopting a technological innovation system perspective focusing on actors, networks, and institutions as well as the functions provided by them. Using a qualitative case study research design, we focus on the high-speed flywheel energy storage technology. As flywheels are based on a rotating mass allowing short-term storage of energy in kinetic form, they represent an environmentally-friendly alternative to electrochemical batteries and therefore can play an important role in sustainable energy transitions. Our contribution is threefold: First , regarding the flywheel energy storage technology, our findings reveal two subsystems and related markets in which development took different courses. In the automotive sector, flywheels are developing well as a braking energy recovery technology under the influence of two motors of innovation. In the electricity sector, they are stagnating at the stage of demonstration projects because of two important system weaknesses that counteract demand for storage. Second , we contribute to the theory of technological innovation systems by better understanding the internal dynamics between different functions of an innovation system as well as between the innovation system and its (external) contextual structures. Our third contribution is methodological. According to our best knowledge, we are the first to use system dynamics to (qualitatively) analyze and visualize dynamics between the diverse functions of innovation systems with the aim of enabling a better understanding of complex and iterative system processes. The paper also

  11. Computational Analysis of Nanoparticles-Molten Salt Thermal Energy Storage for Concentrated Solar Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Vinod [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States)

    2017-05-05

    High fidelity computational models of thermocline-based thermal energy storage (TES) were developed. The research goal was to advance the understanding of a single tank nanofludized molten salt based thermocline TES system under various concentration and sizes of the particles suspension. Our objectives were to utilize sensible-heat that operates with least irreversibility by using nanoscale physics. This was achieved by performing computational analysis of several storage designs, analyzing storage efficiency and estimating cost effectiveness for the TES systems under a concentrating solar power (CSP) scheme using molten salt as the storage medium. Since TES is one of the most costly but important components of a CSP plant, an efficient TES system has potential to make the electricity generated from solar technologies cost competitive with conventional sources of electricity.

  12. High Density Hydrogen Storage System Demonstration Using NaAlH4 Based Complex Compound Hydrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel A. Mosher; Xia Tang; Ronald J. Brown; Sarah Arsenault; Salvatore Saitta; Bruce L. Laube; Robert H. Dold; Donald L. Anton

    2007-07-27

    This final report describes the motivations, activities and results of the hydrogen storage independent project "High Density Hydrogen Storage System Demonstration Using NaAlH4 Based Complex Compound Hydrides" performed by the United Technologies Research Center under the Department of Energy Hydrogen Program, contract # DE-FC36-02AL67610. The objectives of the project were to identify and address the key systems technologies associated with applying complex hydride materials, particularly ones which differ from those for conventional metal hydride based storage. This involved the design, fabrication and testing of two prototype systems based on the hydrogen storage material NaAlH4. Safety testing, catalysis studies, heat exchanger optimization, reaction kinetics modeling, thermochemical finite element analysis, powder densification development and material neutralization were elements included in the effort.

  13. Lessons Learned from the Puerto Rico Battery Energy Storage System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyes, John D.; De Anda, Mindi Farber; Torres, Wenceslao

    1999-08-11

    The Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA) installed a battery energy storage system in 1994 at a substation near San Juan, Puerto Rico. It was patterned after two other large energy storage systems operated by electric utilities in California and Germany. The Puerto Rico facility is presently the largest operating battery storage system in the world and has successfully provided frequency control, voltage regulation, and spinning reseme to the Caribbean island. The system further proved its usefulness to the PREPA network in the fall of 1998 in the aftermath of Hurricane Georges. However, the facility has suffered accelerated cell failures in the past year and PREPA is committed to restoring the plant to full capacity. This represents the first repowering of a large utility battery facility. PREPA and its vendors and contractors learned many valuable lessons during all phases of project development and operation, which are summarized in this paper.

  14. Design of digital voice storage and playback system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chao

    2018-03-01

    Based on STC89C52 chip, this paper presents a single chip microcomputer minimum system, which is used to realize the logic control of digital speech storage and playback system. Compared with the traditional tape voice recording system, the system has advantages of small size, low power consumption, The effective solution of traditional voice recording system is limited in the use of electronic and information processing.

  15. Primary frequency regulation supported by battery storage systems in power systems dominated by renewable energy sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turk, Ana; Sandelic, Monika; Noto, Giancarlo

    2018-01-01

    replaced by intermittent renewable generators. Therefore, maintaining system quality and stability in terms of power system frequency control is one of the major challenges that requires new resources and their system integration. Battery energy storage systems (BESS), as fast-acting energy storage systems...

  16. Utility battery storage systems. Program report for FY95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, P.C.

    1996-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Utility Battery Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Utility Technologies. The goal of this program is to assist industry in developing cost-effective battery systems as a utility resource option by 2000. Sandia is responsible for the engineering analyses, contracted development, and testing of rechargeable batteries and systems for utility energy storage applications. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1995.

  17. Air ejector augmented compressed air energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, F.W.; Kartsounes, G.T.

    Energy is stored in slack demand periods by charging a plurality of underground reservoirs with air to the same peak storage pressure, during peak demand periods throttling the air from one storage reservoir into a gas turbine system at a constant inlet pressure until the air presure in the reservoir falls to said constant inlet pressure, thereupon permitting air in a second reservoir to flow into said gas turbine system while drawing air from the first reservoir through a variable geometry air ejector and adjusting said variable geometry air ejector, said air flow being essentially at the constant inlet pressure of the gas turbine system.

  18. Hydrogen based energy storage for solar energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanhanen, J.P.; Hagstroem, M.T.; Lund, P.H. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Dept. of Engineering Physics and Mathematics; Leppaenen, J.R.; Nieminen, J.P. [Neste Oy (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    Hydrogen based energy storage options for solar energy systems was studied in order to improve their overall performance. A 1 kW photovoltaic hydrogen (PV-H2) pilot-plant and commercial prototype were constructed and a numerical simulation program H2PHOTO for system design and optimisation was developed. Furthermore, a comprehensive understanding of conversion (electrolysers and fuel cells) and storage (metal hydrides) technologies was acquired by the project partners. The PV-H{sub 2} power system provides a self-sufficient solution for applications in remote locations far from electric grids and maintenance services. (orig.)

  19. FLYWHEEL ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEMS WITH SUPERCONDUCTING BEARINGS FOR UTILITY APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Michael Strasik; Mr. Arthur Day; Mr. Philip Johnson; Dr. John Hull

    2007-10-26

    This project’s mission was to achieve significant advances in the practical application of bulk high-temperature superconductor (HTS) materials to energy-storage systems. The ultimate product was planned as an operational prototype of a flywheel system on an HTS suspension. While the final prototype flywheel did not complete the final offsite demonstration phase of the program, invaluable lessons learned were captured on the laboratory demonstration units that will lead to the successful deployment of a future HTS-stabilized, composite-flywheel energy-storage system (FESS).

  20. FLYWHEEL ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEMS WITH SUPERCONDUCTING BEARINGS FOR UTILITY APPLICATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dr. Michael Strasik; Mr. Arthur Day; Mr. Philip Johnson; Dr. John Hull

    2007-01-01

    This project's mission was to achieve significant advances in the practical application of bulk high-temperature superconductor (HTS) materials to energy-storage systems. The ultimate product was planned as an operational prototype of a flywheel system on an HTS suspension. While the final prototype flywheel did not complete the final offsite demonstration phase of the program, invaluable lessons learned were captured on the laboratory demonstration units that will lead to the successful deployment of a future HTS-stabilized, composite-flywheel energy-storage system (FESS)

  1. Thermal energy storage for a space solar dynamic power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faget, N. M.; Fraser, W. M., Jr.; Simon, W. E.

    1985-01-01

    In the past, NASA has employed solar photovoltaic devices for long-duration missions. Thus, the Skylab system has operated with a silicon photovoltaic array and a nickel-cadmium electrochemical system energy storage system. Difficulties regarding the employment of such a system for the larger power requirements of the Space Station are related to a low orbit system efficiency and the large weight of the battery. For this reason the employment of a solar dynamic power system (SDPS) has been considered. The primary components of an SDPS include a concentrating mirror, a heat receiver, a thermal energy storage (TES) system, a thermodynamic heat engine, an alternator, and a heat rejection system. The heat-engine types under consideration are a Brayton cycle engine, an organic Rankine cycle engine, and a free-piston/linear-alternator Stirling cycle engine. Attention is given to a system description, TES integration concepts, and a TES technology assessment.

  2. Optimal Time to Invest Energy Storage System under Uncertainty Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongma Moon

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a model to determine the optimal investment time for energy storage systems (ESSs in a price arbitrage trade application under conditions of uncertainty over future profits. The adoption of ESSs can generate profits from price arbitrage trade, which are uncertain because the future marginal prices of electricity will change depending on supply and demand. In addition, since the investment is optional, an investor can delay adopting an ESS until it becomes profitable, and can decide the optimal time. Thus, when we evaluate this investment, we need to incorporate the investor’s option which is not captured by traditional evaluation methods. In order to incorporate these aspects, we applied real option theory to our proposed model, which provides an optimal investment threshold. Our results concerning the optimal time to invest show that if future profits that are expected to be obtained from arbitrage trade become more uncertain, an investor needs to wait longer to invest. Also, improvement in efficiency of ESSs can reduce the uncertainty of arbitrage profit and, consequently, the reduced uncertainty enables earlier ESS investment, even for the same power capacity. Besides, when a higher rate of profits is expected and ESS costs are higher, an investor needs to wait longer. Also, by comparing a widely used net present value model to our real option model, we show that the net present value method underestimates the value for ESS investment and misleads the investor to make an investment earlier.

  3. Flexibility of a combined heat and power system with thermal energy storage for district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuytten, Thomas; Claessens, Bert; Paredis, Kristof; Van Bael, Johan; Six, Daan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A generic model for flexibility assessment of thermal systems is proposed. ► The model is applied to a combined heat and power system with thermal energy storage. ► A centrally located storage offers more flexibility compared to individual units. ► Increasing the flexibility requires both a more powerful CHP and a larger buffer. - Abstract: The trend towards an increased importance of distributed (renewable) energy resources characterized by intermittent operation redefines the energy landscape. The stochastic nature of the energy systems on the supply side requires increased flexibility at the demand side. We present a model that determines the theoretical maximum of flexibility of a combined heat and power system coupled to a thermal energy storage solution that can be either centralized or decentralized. Conventional central heating, to meet the heat demand at peak moments, is also available. The implications of both storage concepts are evaluated in a reference district. The amount of flexibility created in the district heating system is determined by the approach of the system through delayed or forced operation mode. It is found that the distinction between the implementation of the thermal energy storage as a central unit or as a collection of local units, has a dramatic effect on the amount of available flexibility

  4. Low-cost storage options for solar hydrogen systems for remote area power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhaib Muhammad Ali; John Andrews

    2006-01-01

    Equipment for storing hydrogen gas under pressure typically accounts for a significant proportion of the total capital cost of solar-hydrogen systems for remote area power supply (RAPS). RAPS remain a potential early market for renewable energy - hydrogen systems because of the relatively high costs of conventional energy sources in remote regions. In the present paper the storage requirements of PV-based solar-hydrogen RAPS systems employing PEM electrolysers and fuel cells to meet a range of typical remote area daily and annual demand profiles are investigated using a spread sheet-based simulation model. It is found that as the costs of storage are lowered the requirement for longer-term storage from summer to winter is increased with consequent potential gains in the overall economics of the solar-hydrogen system. In many remote applications, there is ample space for hydrogen storages with relatively large volumes. Hence it may be most cost-effective to store hydrogen at low to medium pressures achievable by using PEM electrolysers directly to generate the hydrogen at the pressures required, without a requirement for separate electrically-driven compressors. The latter add to system costs while requiring significant parasitic electricity consumption. Experimental investigations into a number of low-cost storage options including plastic tanks and low-to-medium pressure metal and composite cylinders are reported. On the basis of these findings, the economics of solar-hydrogen RAPS systems employing large-volume low-cost storage are investigated. (authors)

  5. Space Station thermal storage/refrigeration system research and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, W. G.; Karu, Z. S.

    1993-01-01

    Space Station thermal loading conditions represent an order of magnitude increase over current and previous spacecraft such as Skylab, Apollo, Pegasus III, Lunar Rover Vehicle, and Lockheed TRIDENT missiles. Thermal storage units (TSU's) were successfully used on these as well as many applications for ground based solar energy storage applications. It is desirable to store thermal energy during peak loading conditions as an alternative to providing increased radiator surface area which adds to the weight of the system. Basically, TSU's store heat by melting a phase change material (PCM) such as a paraffin. The physical property data for the PCM's used in the design of these TSU's is well defined in the literature. Design techniques are generally well established for the TSU's. However, the Space Station provides a new challenge in the application of these data and techniques because of three factors: the large size of the TSU required, the integration of the TSU for the Space Station thermal management concept with its diverse opportunities for storage application, and the TSU's interface with a two-phase (liquid/vapor) thermal bus/central heat rejection system. The objective in the thermal storage research and development task was to design, fabricate, and test a demonstration unit. One test article was to be a passive thermal storage unit capable of storing frozen food at -20 F for a minimum of 90 days. A second unit was to be capable of storing frozen biological samples at -94 F, again for a minimum of 90 days. The articles developed were compatible with shuttle mission conditions, including safety and handling by astronauts. Further, storage rack concepts were presented so that these units can be integrated into Space Station logistics module storage racks. The extreme sensitivity of spacecraft radiator systems design-to-heat rejection temperature requirements is well known. A large radiator area penalty is incurred if low temperatures are accommodated via a

  6. Hot Thermal Storage in a Variable Power, Renewable Energy System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    where cost effective, increase the utilization of distributed electric power generation through wind, solar, geothermal , and biomass renewable...characteristics and may not necessarily be available in all cases. Types of direct heat energy systems include solar thermal, waste heat, and geothermal ...of super capacitor energy storage system in microgrid,” in International Conference on Sustainable Power Generation and Supply, Janjing, China

  7. Energy: Systems for Control, Maintenance, and Storage. A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Gerald, Comp.; McKane, Irving, Comp.

    This publication is a bibliography of available periodical literature on specific aspects of energy and today's technology. The Applied Science and Technology Indexes were searched for articles that related to these specific areas: (1) Energy control systems; (2) Maintenance of Energy Systems; and (3) Energy storage. The articles and papers…

  8. Proton storage ring (PSR) diagnostics and control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clout, P.

    1983-01-01

    When any new accelerator or storage ring is built that advances the state of the art, the diagnostic system becomes extremely important in tuning the facility to full specification. This paper will discuss the various diagnostic devices planned or under construction for the PSR and their connection into the control system

  9. Thermodynamic analysis of a liquid air energy storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guizzi, Giuseppe Leo; Manno, Michele; Tolomei, Ludovica Maria; Vitali, Ruggero Maria

    2015-01-01

    The rapid increase in the share of electricity generation from renewable energy sources is having a profound impact on the power sector; one of the most relevant effects of this trend is the increased importance of energy storage systems, which can be used to smooth out peaks and troughs of production from renewable energy sources. Besides their role in balancing the electric grid, energy storage systems may provide also several other useful services, such as price arbitrage, stabilizing conventional generation, etc.; therefore, it is not surprising that many research projects are under way in order to explore the potentials of new technologies for electric energy storage. This paper presents a thermodynamic analysis of a cryogenic energy storage system, based on air liquefaction and storage in an insulated vessel. This technology is attractive thanks to its independence from geographical constraints and because it can be scaled up easily to grid-scale ratings, but it is affected by a low round-trip efficiency due to the energy intensive process of air liquefaction. The present work aims to assess the efficiency of such a system and to identify if and how it can achieve an acceptable round-trip efficiency (in the order of 50–60%).

  10. Numerical simulation on stir system of jet ballast in high level liquid waste storage tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Yingchun

    2012-01-01

    The stir system of jet ballast in high level liquid waste storage tank was simulation object. Gas, liquid and solid were air, sodium nitrate liquor and titanium whitening, respectively. The mathematic model based on three-fluid model and the kinetic theory of particles was established for the stir system of jet ballast in high level liquid waste storage tank. The CFD commercial software was used for solving this model. The detail flow parameters as three phase velocity, pressure and phase loadings were gained. The calculated results agree with the experimental results, so they can well define the flow behavior in the tank. And this offers a basic method for the scale-up and optimization design of the stir system of jet ballast in high level liquid waste storage tank. (author)

  11. submitter Simulation-Based Performance Analysis of the ALICE Mass Storage System

    CERN Document Server

    Vickovic, L; Celar, S

    2016-01-01

    CERN – the European Organization for Nuclear Research today, in the era of big data, is one of the biggest data generators in the world. Especially interesting is transient data storage system in the ALICE experiment. With the goal to optimize its performance this paper discusses a dynamic, discrete event simulation model of disk based Storage Area Network (SAN) and its usage for the performance analyses. Storage system model is based on modular, bottom up approach and the differences between measured and simulated values vary between 1.5 % and 4 % depending on the simulated component. Once finished, simulation model was used for detailed performance analyses. Among other findings it showed that system performances can be seriously affected if the array stripe size is larger than the size of cache on individual disks in the array, which so far has been completely ignored in the literature.

  12. Storage, transportation and disposal system for used nuclear fuel assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaglione, John M.; Wagner, John C.

    2017-01-10

    An integrated storage, transportation and disposal system for used fuel assemblies is provided. The system includes a plurality of sealed canisters and a cask sized to receive the sealed canisters in side by side relationship. The plurality of sealed canisters include an internal basket structure to receive a plurality of used fuel assemblies. The internal basket structure includes a plurality of radiation-absorbing panels and a plurality of hemispherical ribs generally perpendicular to the canister sidewall. The sealed canisters are received within the cask for storage and transportation and are removed from the cask for disposal at a designated repository. The system of the present invention allows the handling of sealed canisters separately or collectively, while allowing storage and transportation of high burnup fuel and damaged fuel to the designated repository.

  13. Dependable Benchmarking for Storage Systems in High-Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Fleri Soler, Edward

    2017-01-01

    In high-energy physics, storage systems play a crucial role to store and secure very valuable data produced by complex experiments. The effectiveness and efficiency of data acquisition systems of such experiments depends directly on those of these storage systems. Coping with present day rates and reliability requirements of such experiments implies operating high-performance hardware under the best possible conditions, with a broad set of hardware and software parameters existing along the hierarchical levels, from networks down to drives. An extensive number of tests are required for the tuning of parameters to achieve optimised I/O operations. Current approaches to I/O optimisation generally consist of manual test execution and result taking. This approach lacks appropriate modularity, durability and reproducibility, attainable through dedicated testing facilities. The aim of this project is to conceive a user-friendly, dedicated storage benchmarking tool for the improved comparison of I/O parameters in re...

  14. Optimal design and application of a compound cold storage system combining seasonal ice storage and chilled water storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, C.; Shi, W.; Li, X.; Zhao, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Seasonal cold storage using natural cold sources for cooling is a sustainable cooling technique. However, this technique suffers from limitations such as large storage space and poor reliability. Combining seasonal storage with short-term storage might be a promising solution while it is not

  15. Pulse thermal energy transport/storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weislogel, Mark M.

    1992-07-07

    A pulse-thermal pump having a novel fluid flow wherein heat admitted to a closed system raises the pressure in a closed evaporator chamber while another interconnected evaporator chamber remains open. This creates a large pressure differential, and at a predetermined pressure the closed evaporator is opened and the opened evaporator is closed. This difference in pressure initiates fluid flow in the system.

  16. Determining hyporheic storage using the rSAS model in urban restored streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, E.; Putnam, S. M.; Cosans, C.; Harman, C. J.

    2017-12-01

    One aim of stream restoration is to increase the connectivity of the stream with the hyporheic zone, which is important for processes like denitrification. This study analyzed transects of different restoration techniques in an urban stream, Stony Run in Baltimore, Maryland. The extent of the hyporheic zone was determined using a combination of salt slug injection tracer studies to determine the breakthrough curves and the rank StorAge Selection (rSAS) model. Previous studies using salt tracer injections have often focused on the shape of the breakthrough curve and the transit time distributions of streams to infer indicies correlated with hyporheic zone storage. This study uses the rSAS model to determine the volume of storage that must be turning over to produce the breakthrough curve. This study looked at transects of two different restoration techniques, one with floodplain rehabilitation and one without. Both transects had cross vanes and pool and riffle systems and only differed in the steepness of the banks surrounding the stream. The utility and accuracy of rSAS method was found to be heavily dependent on accurate flow rates. To avoid potential skew in the results, normalized, relatively flow rate-independent metric of storage were compared among transects to reduce error resulting from the flow rate. The results suggested that stream water was retained for longer in a larger storage volume in the transect that did not have floodplain rehabilitation. When compared to the storage of a natural stream with similar geomorphologic characteristics, the restored transect without floodplain rehabilitation had a larger storage volume than the natural stream. The restored transect with floodplain rehabilitation not only had a smaller storage volume than the restored section without rehabilitation, but also had a smaller storage volume than the natural stream with similar bank slopes. This suggests that the floodplain restoration does not significantly contribute to

  17. Dynamics of a Flywheel Energy Storage System Supporting a Wind Turbine Generator in a Microgrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair S, Gayathri; Senroy, Nilanjan

    2016-02-01

    Integration of an induction machine based flywheel energy storage system with a wind energy conversion system is implemented in this paper. The nonlinear and linearized models of the flywheel are studied, compared and a reduced order model of the same simulated to analyze the influence of the flywheel inertia and control in system response during a wind power change. A quantification of the relation between the inertia of the flywheel and the controller gain is obtained which allows the system to be considered as a reduced order model that is more controllable in nature. A microgrid setup comprising of the flywheel energy storage system, a two mass model of a DFIG based wind turbine generator and a reduced order model of a diesel generator is utilized to analyse the microgrid dynamics accurately in the event of frequency variations arising due to wind power change. The response of the microgrid with and without the flywheel is studied.

  18. Stable large-scale CO2 storage in defiance of an energy system based on renewable energy - Modelling the impact of varying CO2 injection rates on reservoir behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannach, Andreas; Hauer, Rene; Martin, Streibel; Stienstra, Gerard; Kühn, Michael

    2015-04-01

    The IPCC Report 2014 strengthens the need for CO2 storage as part of CCS or BECCS to reach ambitious climate goals despite growing energy demand in the future. The further expansion of renewable energy sources is a second major pillar. As it is today in Germany the weather becomes the controlling factor for electricity production by fossil fuelled power plants which lead to significant fluctuations of CO2-emissions which can be traced in injection rates if the CO2 were captured and stored. To analyse the impact of such changing injection rates on a CO2 storage reservoir. two reservoir simulation models are applied: a. An (smaller) reservoir model approved by gas storage activities for decades, to investigate the dynamic effects in the early stage of storage filling (initial aquifer displacement). b. An anticline structure big enough to accommodate a total amount of ≥ 100 Mega tons CO2 to investigate the dynamic effects for the entire operational life time of the storage under particular consideration of very high filling levels (highest aquifer compression). Therefore a reservoir model was generated. The defined yearly injection rate schedule is based on a study performed on behalf of IZ Klima (DNV GL, 2014). According to this study the exclusive consideration of a pool of coal-fired power plants causes the most intensive dynamically changing CO2 emissions and hence accounts for variations of a system which includes industry driven CO2 production. Besides short-term changes (daily & weekly cycles) seasonal influences are also taken into account. Simulation runs cover a variation of injection points (well locations at the top vs. locations at the flank of the structure) and some other largely unknown reservoir parameters as aquifer size and aquifer mobility. Simulation of a 20 year storage operation is followed by a post-operational shut-in phase which covers approximately 500 years to assess possible effects of changing injection rates on the long-term reservoir

  19. Chemical heat pump and chemical energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Edward C.; Huxtable, Douglas D.

    1985-08-06

    A chemical heat pump and storage system employs sulfuric acid and water. In one form, the system includes a generator and condenser, an evaporator and absorber, aqueous acid solution storage and water storage. During a charging cycle, heat is provided to the generator from a heat source to concentrate the acid solution while heat is removed from the condenser to condense the water vapor produced in the generator. Water is then stored in the storage tank. Heat is thus stored in the form of chemical energy in the concentrated acid. The heat removed from the water vapor can be supplied to a heat load of proper temperature or can be rejected. During a discharge cycle, water in the evaporator is supplied with heat to generate water vapor, which is transmitted to the absorber where it is condensed and absorbed into the concentrated acid. Both heats of dilution and condensation of water are removed from the thus diluted acid. During the discharge cycle the system functions as a heat pump in which heat is added to the system at a low temperature and removed from the system at a high temperature. The diluted acid is stored in an acid storage tank or is routed directly to the generator for reconcentration. The generator, condenser, evaporator, and absorber all are operated under pressure conditions specified by the desired temperature levels for a given application. The storage tanks, however, can be maintained at or near ambient pressure conditions. In another form, the heat pump system is employed to provide usable heat from waste process heat by upgrading the temperature of the waste heat.

  20. Self-control system in storage unit of PV plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Shaban, Saad; Mohmoud, Ali [Hadhramout Univ. of Science and Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Mukalla (Yemen)

    2000-04-01

    A new system for self-controlling of storage batteries being charged by PV plants has been developed. This provides enhanced system reliability, lower system cost, and simpler operation for the user. In this system, the only requirement is to design and select PV panels so that their voltage-sensitive region (on the I-V curve) coincides with that required for a simpler remote PV plant and for long periods. (Author)