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Sample records for storage site sp

  1. Assessment of 222Rn occupational exposure at IPEN nuclear materials storage site, SP, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caccuri, Lilian Saueia

    2007-01-01

    In this study it was assessed the occupational exposure to 222 Rn at IPEN, SP, Brazil, nuclear materials storage site through the committed effective dose received by workers exposed to this radionuclide. The radiation dose was calculated through the radon concentrations at nuclear materials storage site. Radon concentrations were determined by passive detection method with solid state nuclear detectors (SSNTD). The SSNTD used in this study was the polycarbonate Makrofol E; each detector is a small square plastic of 1 cm 2 , placed into a diffusion chamber type KFK. It was monitored 14 points at nuclear materials storage site and one external point, over a period of 21 months, changing the detectors every three months, from December 2004 to September 2006. The 222 Rn concentrations varied from 196 ± 9 and 2048 ± 81 Bq·m -3 . The committed effective dose due to radon inhalation at IPEN nuclear materials storage site was obtained from radon activity incorporated and dose conversion factor, according to International Commission on Radiological Protection procedures. The effective committed dose received by workers is below 20 mSv·y -1 . This value is suggested as an annual effective dose limit for occupational exposure by ICRP 60. (author)

  2. Assessment of {sup 222}Rn occupational exposure at IPEN nuclear materials storage site, SP, Brazil; Avaliacao da exposicao ocupacional ao {sup 222}Rn no galpao da Salvaguardas do IPEN, SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caccuri, Lilian Saueia

    2007-07-01

    In this study it was assessed the occupational exposure to {sup 222}Rn at IPEN, SP, Brazil, nuclear materials storage site through the committed effective dose received by workers exposed to this radionuclide. The radiation dose was calculated through the radon concentrations at nuclear materials storage site. Radon concentrations were determined by passive detection method with solid state nuclear detectors (SSNTD). The SSNTD used in this study was the polycarbonate Makrofol E; each detector is a small square plastic of 1 cm{sup 2}, placed into a diffusion chamber type KFK. It was monitored 14 points at nuclear materials storage site and one external point, over a period of 21 months, changing the detectors every three months, from December 2004 to September 2006. The {sup 222}Rn concentrations varied from 196 {+-} 9 and 2048 {+-} 81 Bq{center_dot}m{sup -3}. The committed effective dose due to radon inhalation at IPEN nuclear materials storage site was obtained from radon activity incorporated and dose conversion factor, according to International Commission on Radiological Protection procedures. The effective committed dose received by workers is below 20 mSv{center_dot}y{sup -1}. This value is suggested as an annual effective dose limit for occupational exposure by ICRP 60. (author)

  3. Review of criterias for shallow burial sites and geohydrological evaluation around the site of temporary storage of low-level solid radioactive wastes of IPEN-CNEN/SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, U.; Marcelino, S.

    1986-01-01

    Some comments about norms of pollutants release from nuclear and other industries are made. For radioactive discharges, the strictly implemented national norms/criterias, are much more advanced technically than those existing for other pollutants. Based on the criterias of site selection and site evaluations, the site of IPEN for temporary storage of low level solid radioactive waster has been evaluated geohydrologically. Rainfall infiltration rate (297 cm/y) was determined by tritium labelling technique. Ground water velocity (max. 46.1 cm/d) and direction (to north) was determined by various radioactive (Br-82, I-131, Cr-51) tracers using single well techniques. (Author) [pt

  4. SP-100 Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, C.M.; Mahaffey, M.K.; Miller, W.C.

    1988-01-01

    Preparatory activities are well under way at Hanford to convert the 309 Containment Building and its associated service wing to a 2.5 MWt nuclear test facility for the SP-100 Ground Engineering System (GES) test. Preliminary design is complete, encompassing facility modifications, a secondary heat transport system, a large vacuum system to enclose the high temperature reactor, a test assembly cell and handling system, control and data processing systems, and safety and auxiliary systems. The design makes extensive use of existing equipment to minimize technical risk and cost. Refurbishment of this equipment is 75% complete. The facility has been cleared of obstructing equipment from its earlier reactor test. Current activities are focusing on definitive design and preparation of the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) aimed at procurement and construction approvals and schedules to achieve reactor criticality by January 1992. 6 refs

  5. Old radioactive waste storage sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    After a recall of the regulatory context for the management of old sites used for the storage of radioactive wastes with respect with their activity, the concerned products, the disposal or storage type, this document describes AREVA's involvement in the radioactive waste management process in France. Then, for the different kinds of sites (currently operated sites having radioactive waste storage, storage sites for uranium mineral processing residues), it indicates their location and name, their regulatory status and their control authority, the reference documents. It briefly presents the investigation on the long term impact of uranium mineral processing residues on health and environment, evokes some aspects of public information transparency, and presents the activities of an expertise group on old uranium mines. The examples of the sites of Bellezane (uranium mineral processing residues) and COMURHEX Malvesi (assessment of underground and surface water quality at the vicinity of this installation) are given in appendix

  6. Leaking Underground Storage Tank Sites in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Leaking Underground Storage Tank (LUST) sites where petroleum contamination has been found. There may be more than one LUST site per UST site.

  7. SP-A binding sites on bovine alveolar macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaga, S; Plattner, H; Schlepper-Schaefer, J

    1998-11-25

    Surfactant protein A (SP-A) binding to bovine alveolar macrophages was examined in order to characterize SP-A binding proteins on the cell surface and to isolate putative receptors from these cells that could be obtained in large amounts. Human SP-A, unlabeled or labeled with gold particles, was bound to freshly isolated macrophages and analyzed with ELISA or the transmission electron microscope. Binding of SP-A was inhibited by Ca2+ chelation, by an excess of unlabeled SP-A, or by the presence of 20 mg/ml mannan. We conclude that bovine alveolar macrophages expose binding sites for SP-A that are specific and that depend on Ca2+ and on mannose residues. For isolation of SP-A receptors with homologous SP-A as ligand we isolated SP-A from bovine lung lavage. SDS-PAGE analysis of the purified SP-A showed a protein of 32-36 kDa. Functional integrity of the protein was demonstrated. Bovine SP-A bound to Dynabeads was used to isolate SP-A binding proteins. From the fractionated and blotted proteins of the receptor preparation two proteins bound SP-A in a Ca2+-dependent manner, a 40-kDa protein showing mannose dependency and a 210-kDa protein, showing no mannose sensitivity. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  8. Radioactive waste on-site storage alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufrane, K.H.

    1983-01-01

    The first, most frequently evaluated approach for the large producer is the construction of a relatively expensive storage building. However, with the likely possibility that at least one disposal site will remain available and the building never used, such expenditures are difficult to justify. A low cost, but effective alternative, is the use of ''On-Site Storage Containers'' (OSSC) when and if required. Radwaste is only stored in the OSSC if a disposal site is not available. A small number of OSSC's would be purchased initially just to assure immediate access to storage. Only in the unlikely event of total disposal sites closure would additional OSSC's have to be obtained and even this is cost effective. With two or three months of storage available on site, production lead time is sufficient for the delivery of additional units at a rate faster than the waste can be produced. The recommended OSSC design would be sized and shielding optimized to meet the needs of the waste generator. Normally, this would duplicate the shipping containers (casks or vans) currently in use. The reinforced concrete design presented is suitable for outside storage, contains a leakproof polyethylene liner and has remote sampling capability. Licensing would be under 10CFR50.59 for interim storage with long-term storage under 10CFR30 not an impossibility. Cost comparisons of this approach vs. building construction show that for a typical reactor plant installation, the OSSC offers direct savings even under the worst case assumption that no disposal sites are available and the time value of money is zero

  9. Pyramid mountain diesel fuel storage site remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brolmsa, M.; Sandau, C. [Jacques Whitford Environment Ltd., Burnaby, BC (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Remediation activities during the decommissioning of a microwave tower facility where a tram line was used to transfer diesel fuel from the base of a mountain to its summit were described. As the site was leased from Parks Canada, federal guidelines were used to assess levels of contamination. Underground storage tanks (USTs) used for diesel storage had been replaced with aboveground storage tanks (AST) in 1994. Remediation was also complicated by the remote location and altitude of the site, as well as by extreme weather conditions. Hand auguring and test pitting were used at both the summit and base to allow characterization and preliminary delineation of impacted soils. A heavy lift helicopter was used to place demolition and excavation equipment on the summit. An excavator was used to remove hydrocarbon impacted soils. Following the remedial excavation for the summit diesel AST, residual soil impacts in excess of the applicable remediation guidelines were present at the bottom of the tank nest and under a floor slab. An environmental liner was installed, and a quantitative screening level risk assessment demonstrated the low level of risk for the area, as well as for waste oil impacted soils on the slope below the summit. Contaminants of potential concern were barium, zinc, naphthalene, and petroleum hydrocarbon fractions F1-F4. It was concluded that there are now no unacceptable ecological or human risks from residual impacts at the site. 1 tab., 19 figs.

  10. CPA ups storage at Lavera site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Back, R.

    1992-01-01

    Compagnie Parisienne des Asphaltes (CPA; Paris) and its subsidiary Pacsud -owned 65% by CPA and 35% by Shell Chimie (Paris) - have inaugurated their new chemicals storage site at Lavera, France, in the Europort South complex near Marseilles. The facilities, with 60,000-m.t./year capacity, also include a barreling plant that will have output of up to 250 bbl/hour when it comes onstream next spring. Total investment for these facilities amount to F122 million ($22.5 million), including F22 million for the barreling unit. CPA, France's number two storage specialist, after LB Chimie (Paris), is jointly owned by investment company Union Normandie (60%), Elf Aquitaine (Paris; 20%), and Total (Paris; 20%). Adding to its existing French storage sites at Dunkirk and Rouen, CPA says it decided to build on the Pacsud venture because it considered it attractive to invest in the petroleum and petrochemical complex of Fos-Berre-Lavera, particularly since the present trend in the oil and chemical industries is to subcontract all ancillary functions, especially logistics. CPA general manager Rafic Charles Rathle says that customer requirements and the role of the service provider are changing. With that in mid, CPA, in addition to providing storage terminals, converts its depots into distribution and packing centers. At Lavera the company has taken over storage, blending, and barreling operations for Pacsud and its direct customers. For example, Pacsud has a long-term contract with Shell Chimie for the latter's additive production at a 10,000-m.t./year rate. Another long-term contract is being negotiated, but the identity of the customer was not revealed

  11. Hanford Site Waste Storage Tank Information Notebook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husa, E.I.; Raymond, R.E.; Welty, R.K.; Griffith, S.M.; Hanlon, B.M.; Rios, R.R.; Vermeulen, N.J.

    1993-07-01

    This report provides summary data on the radioactive waste stored in underground tanks in the 200 East and West Areas at the Hanford Site. The summary data covers each of the existing 161 Series 100 underground waste storage tanks (500,000 gallons and larger). It also contains information on the design and construction of these tanks. The information in this report is derived from existing reports that document the status of the tanks and their materials. This report also contains interior, surface photographs of each of the 54 Watch List tanks, which are those tanks identified as Priority I Hanford Site Tank Farm Safety Issues in accordance with Public Law 101-510, Section 3137*

  12. Storage of intermediate level waste at UKAEA sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodill, D.R.; Tymons, B.J.

    1985-08-01

    This report describes the storage of wastes at UKAEA sites and accordingly contributes to the investigations conducted by the Department of the Environment into the Best Practicable Environmental Option (BPEO) for radioactive waste storage and/or disposal. This report on the storage of ILW should be read in conjunction with a similar NII funded CTS study for Licensed Sites in the UK. (author)

  13. Differential regulation of the human progesterone receptor gene through an estrogen response element half site and Sp1 sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petz, Larry N; Ziegler, Yvonne S; Schultz, Jennifer R; Kim, Hwajin; Kemper, J Kim; Nardulli, Ann M

    2004-02-01

    The progesterone receptor (PR) gene is regulated by estrogen in normal reproductive tissues and in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Although it is generally thought that estrogen responsiveness is mediated by interaction of the ligand-occupied estrogen receptor (ER) with estrogen response elements (EREs) in target genes, the human progesterone receptor (PR) gene lacks a palindromic ERE. Promoter A of the PR gene does, however, contain an ERE half site upstream of two adjacent Sp1 sites from +571 to +595, the +571 ERE/Sp1 site. We have examined the individual contributions of the ERE half site and the two Sp1 sites in regulating estrogen responsiveness. Transient transfection assays demonstrated that both Sp1 sites were critical for estrogen-mediated activation of the PR gene. Interestingly, rather than decreasing transcription, mutations in the ERE half site increased transcription substantially suggesting that this site plays a role in limiting transcription. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that Sp1 was associated with the +571 ERE/Sp1 site in the endogenous PR gene in the absence and in the presence of estrogen, but that ERalpha was only associated with this region of the PR gene after MCF-7 cells had been treated with estrogen. Our studies provide evidence that effective regulation of transcription through the +571 ERE/Sp1 site requires the binding of ERalpha and Sp1 to their respective cis elements and the appropriate interaction of ERalpha and Sp1 with other coregulatory proteins and transcription factors.

  14. CO2 Storage Feasibility: A Workflow for Site Characterisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nepveu Manuel

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present an overview of the SiteChar workflow model for site characterisation and assessment for CO2 storage. Site characterisation and assessment is required when permits are requested from the legal authorities in the process of starting a CO2 storage process at a given site. The goal is to assess whether a proposed CO2 storage site can indeed be used for permanent storage while meeting the safety requirements demanded by the European Commission (EC Storage Directive (9, Storage Directive 2009/31/EC. Many issues have to be scrutinised, and the workflow presented here is put forward to help efficiently organise this complex task. Three issues are highlighted: communication within the working team and with the authorities; interdependencies in the workflow and feedback loops; and the risk-based character of the workflow. A general overview (helicopter view of the workflow is given; the issues involved in communication and the risk assessment process are described in more detail. The workflow as described has been tested within the SiteChar project on five potential storage sites throughout Europe. This resulted in a list of key aspects of site characterisation which can help prepare and focus new site characterisation studies.

  15. Preliminary site design for the SP-100 ground engineering test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, C.M.; Miller, W.C.; Mahaffey, M.K.

    1986-04-01

    In November, 1985, Hanford was selected by the Department of Energy (DOE) as the preferred site for a full-scale test of the integrated nuclear subsystem for SP-100. The Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory, operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company, was assigned as the lead contractor for the Test Site. The nuclear subsystem, which includes the reactor and its primary heat transport system, will be provided by the System Developer, another contractor to be selected by DOE in late FY-1986. In addition to reactor operations, test site responsibilities include preparation of the facility plus design, procurement and installation of a vacuum chamber to house the reactor, a secondary heat transport system to dispose of the reactor heat, a facility control system, and postirradiation examination. At the conclusion of the test program, waste disposal and facility decommissioning are required. The test site must also prepare appropriate environmental and safety evaluations. This paper summarizes the preliminary design requirements, the status of design, and plans to achieve full power operation of the test reactor in September, 1990

  16. International Symposium on Site Characterization for CO2Geological Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2006-02-23

    Several technological options have been proposed to stabilize atmospheric concentrations of CO{sub 2}. One proposed remedy is to separate and capture CO{sub 2} from fossil-fuel power plants and other stationary industrial sources and to inject the CO{sub 2} into deep subsurface formations for long-term storage and sequestration. Characterization of geologic formations for sequestration of large quantities of CO{sub 2} needs to be carefully considered to ensure that sites are suitable for long-term storage and that there will be no adverse impacts to human health or the environment. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage (Final Draft, October 2005) states that ''Site characterization, selection and performance prediction are crucial for successful geological storage. Before selecting a site, the geological setting must be characterized to determine if the overlying cap rock will provide an effective seal, if there is a sufficiently voluminous and permeable storage formation, and whether any abandoned or active wells will compromise the integrity of the seal. Moreover, the availability of good site characterization data is critical for the reliability of models''. This International Symposium on Site Characterization for CO{sub 2} Geological Storage (CO2SC) addresses the particular issue of site characterization and site selection related to the geologic storage of carbon dioxide. Presentations and discussions cover the various aspects associated with characterization and selection of potential CO{sub 2} storage sites, with emphasis on advances in process understanding, development of measurement methods, identification of key site features and parameters, site characterization strategies, and case studies.

  17. Environmental assessment of SP-100 ground engineering system test site: Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to modify an existing reactor containment building (decommissioned Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) 309 Building) to provide ground test capability for the prototype SP-100 reactor. The 309 Building (Figure 1.1) is located in the 300 Area on the Hanford Site in Washington State. The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) requires that Federal agencies assess the potential impacts that their actions may have on the environment. This Environmental Assessment describes the consideration given to environmental impacts during reactor concept and test site selection, examines the environmental effects of the DOE proposal to ground test the nuclear subsystem, describes alternatives to the proposed action, and examines radiological risks of potential SP-100 use in space. 73 refs., 19 figs., 7 tabs.

  18. Definitive design status of the SP-100 Ground Engineering System Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renkey, E.J. Jr.; Bazinet, G.D.; Bitten, E.J.; Brackenbury, P.J.; Carlson, W.F.; Irwin, J.J.; Edwards, P.A.; Shen, E.J.; Titzler, P.A.

    1989-05-01

    The SP-100 reactor will be ground tested at the SP-100 Ground Engineering System (GES) Test Site on the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. Project direction and the flight system design evolution have resulted in a smaller reactor size and the consequential revision to Test Site features to accommodate the design changes and reduce Test Site costs. The significant design events since the completion of the Conceptual Design are discussed in this paper

  19. Definitive design status of the SP-100 Ground Engineering System Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renkey, E.J. Jr.; Bazinet, G.D.; Bitten, E.J.; Brackenbury, P.J.; Carlson, W.F.; Irwin, J.J.; Edwards, P.A.; Shen, E.J.; Titzler, P.A.

    1989-05-01

    The SP-100 reactor will be ground tested at the SP-100 Ground Engineering System (GES) Test Site on the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. Project direction and the flight system design evolution have resulted in a smaller reactor size and the consequential revision to Test Site features to accommodate the design changes and reduce Test Site costs. The significant design events since the completion of the Conceptual Design are discussed in this paper.

  20. Building arrangement and site layout design guides for on site low level radioactive waste storage facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMullen, J.W.; Feehan, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    Many papers have been written by AE's and utilities describing their onsite storage facilities, why they are needed, NRC regulations, and disposal site requirements. This paper discusses a typical storage facility and address the design considerations and operational aspects that are generally overlooked when designing and siting a low level radioactive waste storage facility. Some topics to be addressed are: 1. Container flexibility; 2. Modular expansion capabilities; 3. DOT regulations; 4. Meterological requirements; 5. OSHA; 6. Fire protection; 7. Floods; 8. ALARA

  1. Mulberry (Morus sp. leaf moisture in storage enviroments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio José Porto

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Mulberry leaves (IZ 56/4 cultivar in the pos-harvest, had been taken to the laboratory and submitted to six storage environments (8 hours in open ambient-O, 8 hours in cover ambient- C, 1hO/7hC, 2hO/6hC, 3hO/5hC and 4hO/4hC, aiming to evaluate moisture exchange capacity . It was utilized the experimental design split plot with five replications (blocks, six principal treatments (parcels and nine secondary treatments (sub parcels, weighing of hour in hour, of 08h00min. until 16h00min.. In the period of eight hours of experimentation mulberry leaves moisturedevreased in all the ambients evaluated. However, for cover leaves with wet cloth, for all periods, the water purport (74,63% was maintained close to the original value (08h00min.- 76,07%, demonstrating the efficiency technique in the conservation of the humidity of leaves for feeding silkworm.

  2. Risk management guidelines for petroleum storage tank sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-10-01

    These guidelines provide a site management process designed particularly for soil and groundwater pollution originating from existing or former petroleum storage tank (PST) facilities and provide uniform standards for the remediation of polluted PST sites in Alberta. The numerical criteria, risk management objectives and technical information described in this document were compiled from four documents including Remediation Guidelines for Petroleum Storage Tank Sites 1994, the Canada-Wide Standards for Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Soil, Alberta Soil and Water Quality Guidelines for Hydrocarbons at Upstream Oil and Gas Facilities, and Guidelines for Managing Risks at Contaminated Sites in Alberta. The changes in these updated guidelines reflect new remediation criteria and provide a process for determining alternate site-specific management objectives for more petroleum storage tank sites. The guidelines were developed using a risk-based approach that ensures the protection of human health, safety and the environment. The guidelines apply to aboveground and underground storage tank facilities that contain gasoline, diesel, heating oil, and aviation fuel. The guidelines specify requirements by Alberta Environment and the Alberta Fire Code. The chapter on risk management process included information on site investigation, determination of soil type, pollution source removal, land use assessment, selection of exposure pathways, depth of remediation, human inhalation and groundwater protection pathways, and verification of remediation. figs, 4 tabs., 2 appendices.

  3. Final storage site for radioactive waste. Gorleben mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-02-01

    Out of more than 20 salt stocks, the Gorleben salt stock was chosen. In addition to the preliminary information available on its size and depth, detailed exploratory investigations were carried out in order to test its suitability as a site for ultimate storage of all types of radioactive waste. (orig.) [de

  4. Perry Nuclear Plant's Plans for on-site storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratchen, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    Because of current radwaste disposal legislation and the eventual denial of access to the Barnwell, Richland, and Beatty burial sites, it was imperative for the Perry nuclear power plant to develop alternative means for handling its generated radioactive waste. The previous radwaste facilities at Perry were developed for processing, packaging, short-term storage, and shipment for burial. In order to meet the changing needs, new facilities have been constructed to handle the processing, packaging, and 5-yr interim storage of both dry active waste (DAW) and dewatered or solidified resin, filter media, etc

  5. Techno-Economic Assessment of Four CO2 Storage Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gruson J.-F.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS should be a key technology in order to achieve a decline in the CO2 emissions intensity of the power sector and other intensive industry, but this potential deployment could be restricted by cost issues as the International Energy Agency (IEA in their last projections (World Energy Outlook 2013 has considered only around 1% of global fossil fuel-fired power plants could be equipped with CCS by 2035. The SiteChar project funded by 7th Framework Programme of European Commission gives the opportunity to evaluate the most influential parameters of techno-economic evaluations of four feasible European projects for CO2 geological storage located onshore and offshore and related to aquifer storage or oil and gas reservoirs, at different stages of characterization. Four potential CO2 storage sites have been assessed in terms of storage costs per tonne of CO2 permanently stored (equivalent cost based. They are located offshore UK, onshore Denmark, offshore Norway and offshore Italy. The four SiteChar techno-economic evaluations confirm it is not possible to derive any meaningful average cost for a CO2 storage site. The results demonstrate that the structure of costs for a project is heterogeneous and the storage cost is consequently site dependent. The strategy of the site development is fundamental, the technical choices such as the timing, rate and duration of injection are also important. The way monitoring is managed, using observation wells and logging has a strong impact on the estimated monitoring costs. Options to lower monitoring costs, such as permanent surveys, exist and should be further investigated. Table 1 below summarizes the cost range in Euro per tonne (Discount Rate (DR at 8% for the different sites, which illustrates the various orders of magnitude due to the specificities of each site. These figures have how to be considered with care. In particular the Italian and Norwegian sites present very specific

  6. Monitored retrievable storage facility site screening and evaluation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-05-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 directs the Department of Energy to ''complete a detailed study of the need for and feasibility of, and to submit to the Congress a proposal for, the construction of one or more monitored retrievable storage facilities for high level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.'' The Act directs that the proposal includes site specific designs. Further, the proposal is to include, ''for the first such facility, at least three alternative sites and at least five alternative combinations of such proposed site and facility designs...'' as well as a recommendation of ''the combination among the alternatives that the Secretary deems preferable.'' An MRS Site Screening Task Force has been formed to help identify and evaluated potential MRS facility sites within a preferred region and with the application of a siting process and criteria developed by the DOE. The activities of the task force presented in this report includes: site screening (Sections 3, 4, and 5), the MRS facilities which are to be sited are described; the criteria, process and outcome of the screening process is presented; and descriptions of the candidate MRS facility sites are given, and site evaluations (Sections 6 through 9) where the rational for the site evaluations are presented, along with each evaluation and findings of the Task Force

  7. Monitored retrievable storage facility site screening and evaluation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1985-05-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 directs the Department of Energy to complete a detailed study of the need for and feasibility of, and to submit to the Congress a proposal for, the construction of one or more monitored retrievable storage facilities for high level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.'' The Act directs that the proposal includes site specific designs. Further, the proposal is to include, for the first such facility, at least three alternative sites and at least five alternative combinations of such proposed site and facility designs...'' as well as a recommendation of the combination among the alternatives that the Secretary deems preferable.'' An MRS Site Screening Task Force has been formed to help identify and evaluated potential MRS facility sites within a preferred region and with the application of a siting process and criteria developed by the DOE. The activities of the task force presented in this report includes: site screening (Sections 3, 4, and 5), the MRS facilities which are to be sited are described; the criteria, process and outcome of the screening process is presented; and descriptions of the candidate MRS facility sites are given, and site evaluations (Sections 6 through 9) where the rational for the site evaluations are presented, along with each evaluation and findings of the Task Force.

  8. Niagara Falls Storage Site, Lewiston, New York: geologic report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-06-01

    This report is one of a series of engineering and environmental reports planned for the US Department of Energy's properties at Niagara Falls, New York. It describes the essential geologic features of the Niagara Falls Storage Site. It is not intended to be a definitive statement of the engineering methods and designs required to obtain desired performance features for any permanent waste disposal at the site. Results are presented of a geological investigation that consisted of two phases. Phase 1 occurred during July 1982 and included geologic mapping, geophysical surveys, and a limited drilling program in the vicinity of the R-10 Dike, planned for interim storage of radioactive materials. Phase 2, initiated in December 1982, included excavation of test pits, geophysical surveys, drilling, observation well installation, and field permeability testing in the South Dike Area, the Northern Disposal Area, and the K-65 Tower Area

  9. Niagara Falls Storage Site, Lewiston, New York: geologic report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-06-01

    This report is one of a series of engineering and environmental reports planned for the US Department of Energy's properties at Niagara Falls, New York. It describes the essential geologic features of the Niagara Falls Storage Site. It is not intended to be a definitive statement of the engineering methods and designs required to obtain desired performance features for any permanent waste disposal at the site. Results are presented of a geological investigation that consisted of two phases. Phase 1 occurred during July 1982 and included geologic mapping, geophysical surveys, and a limited drilling program in the vicinity of the R-10 Dike, planned for interim storage of radioactive materials. Phase 2, initiated in December 1982, included excavation of test pits, geophysical surveys, drilling, observation well installation, and field permeability testing in the South Dike Area, the Northern Disposal Area, and the K-65 Tower Area.

  10. Monitored retrievable storage facility site screening and evaluation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-05-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 directs the Department of Energy to ''complete a detailed study of the need for and feasibility of, and to submit to the Congress a proposal for, the construction of one or more monitored retrievable storage facilities for high level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.'' The Act directs that the proposal includes site specific designs. Further, the proposal is to include, ''for the first such facility, at least three alternative sites and at least five alternative combinations of such proposed sites and facility designs hor-ellipsis'' as well as a recommendation of ''the combination among the alternatives that the Secretary deems preferable.'' An MRS Site Screening Task Force has been formed to help identify and evaluate potential MRS facility sites within a preferred region and with the application of a siting process and criteria developed by the DOE. The activities of the Task Force presented in this report include: site evaluations (sections 10 through 12) where the rationale for the site evaluations are presented, along with each evaluation and findings of the Task Force. This in Volume 2 of a three volume document

  11. Monitored Retrievable Storage facility site screening and evaluation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-05-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 directs the Department of Energy to ''complete a detailed study of the need for and feasibility of, and to submit to the Congress a proposal for, the construction of one or more monitored retrievable storage facilities for high level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.'' The Act directs that the proposal includes site specific designs. Further, the proposal is to include, ''for the first such facility, at least three alternative sites and at least five alternative combinations of such proposed sites and facility designs hor-ellipsis'' as well as a recommendation of ''the combination among the alternatives that the Secretary deems preferable.'' An MRS Site Screening Task Force has been formed to help identify and evaluate potential MRS facility sites within a preferred region and with the application of a siting process and criteria developed by the DOE. The activities of the Task Force presented in this report, all site evaluations (sections 13 through 16) where the rationale for the site evaluations are presented, along with each evaluation and findings of the Task Force. This is Volume 3 of a three volume document. References are also included in this volume

  12. Monitored retrievable storage facility site screening and evaluation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1985-05-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 directs the Department of Energy to complete a detailed study of the need for and feasibility of, and to submit to the Congress a proposal for, the construction of one or more monitored retrievable storage facilities for high level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.'' The Act directs that the proposal includes site specific designs. Further, the proposal is to include, for the first such facility, at least three alternative sites and at least five alternative combinations of such proposed sites and facility designs{hor ellipsis}'' as well as a recommendation of the combination among the alternatives that the Secretary deems preferable.'' An MRS Site Screening Task Force has been formed to help identify and evaluate potential MRS facility sites within a preferred region and with the application of a siting process and criteria developed by the DOE. The activities of the Task Force presented in this report include: site evaluations (sections 10 through 12) where the rationale for the site evaluations are presented, along with each evaluation and findings of the Task Force. This in Volume 2 of a three volume document.

  13. Monitored Retrievable Storage facility site screening and evaluation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1985-05-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 directs the Department of Energy to complete a detailed study of the need for and feasibility of, and to submit to the Congress a proposal for, the construction of one or more monitored retrievable storage facilities for high level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.'' The Act directs that the proposal includes site specific designs. Further, the proposal is to include, for the first such facility, at least three alternative sites and at least five alternative combinations of such proposed sites and facility designs {hor ellipsis}'' as well as a recommendation of the combination among the alternatives that the Secretary deems preferable.'' An MRS Site Screening Task Force has been formed to help identify and evaluate potential MRS facility sites within a preferred region and with the application of a siting process and criteria developed by the DOE. The activities of the Task Force presented in this report, all site evaluations (sections 13 through 16) where the rationale for the site evaluations are presented, along with each evaluation and findings of the Task Force. This is Volume 3 of a three volume document. References are also included in this volume.

  14. Geological Storage of CO2. Site Selection Criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, C.; Martinez, R.; Recreo, F.; Prado, P.; Campos, R.; Pelayo, M.; Losa, A. de la; Hurtado, A.; Lomba, L.; Perez del Villar, L.; Ortiz, G.; Sastre, J.; Zapatero, M. A.; Suarez, I.; Arenillas, A.

    2007-01-01

    In year 2002 the Spanish Parliament unanimously passed the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol, signed December 1997, compromising to limiting the greenhouse gas emissions increase. Later on, the Environment Ministry submitted the Spanish National Assignment Emissions Plan to the European Union and in year 2005 the Spanish Greenhouse Gas market started working, establishing taxes to pay in case of exceeding the assigned emissions limits. So, the avoided emissions of CO2 have now an economic value that is promoting new anthropogenic CO2 emissions reduction technologies. Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) are among these new technological developments for mitigating or eliminate climate change. CO2 can be stored in geological formations such as depleted oil or gas fields, deep permeable saline water saturated formations and unmailable coal seams, among others. This report seeks to establish the selection criteria for suitable geological formations for CO2 storage in the Spanish national territory, paying attention to both the operational and performance requirements of these storage systems. The report presents the physical and chemical properties and performance of CO2 under storage conditions, the transport and reaction processes of both supercritical and gaseous CO2, and CO2 trapping mechanisms in geological formations. The main part of the report is devoted to geological criteria at watershed, site and formation scales. (Author) 100 refs

  15. Geological Storage of CO2. Site Selection Criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, C.; Martinez, R.; Recreo, F.; Prado, P.; Campos, R.; Pelayo, M.; Losa, A. de la; Hurtado, A.; Lomba, L.; Perez del Villar, L.; Ortiz, G.; Sastre, J.

    2006-01-01

    In year 2002 the Spanish Parliament unanimously passed the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol, signed December 1997, compromising to limiting the greenhouse gas emissions increase. Later on, the Environment Ministry submitted the Spanish National Assignment Emissions Plan to the European Union and in year 2005 the Spanish Greenhouse Gas market started working, establishing taxes to pay in case of exceeding the assigned emissions limits. So, the avoided emissions of CO2 have now an economic value that is promoting new anthropogenic CO2 emissions reduction technologies. Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) are among these new technological developments for mitigating or eliminate climate change. CO2 can be stored in geological formations such as depleted oil or gas fields, deep permeable saline water saturated formations and unmineable coal seams, among others. This report seeks to establish the selection criteria for suitable geological formations for CO2 storage in the Spanish national territory, paying attention to both the operational and performance requirements of these storage systems. The report presents the physical and chemical properties and performance of CO2 under storage conditions, the transport and reaction processes of both supercritical and gaseous CO2, and CO2 trapping mechanisms in geological formations. The main part of the report is devoted to geological criteria at watershed, site and formation scales. (Author) 100 ref

  16. Contaminated site investigation using nuclear technique: a case study of temporary transformer storage sites in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanu, J. K.

    2013-07-01

    Recent introduction of man-made toxic chemicals, and the massive relocation of natural materials to different environmental compartment like soil, ground water and atmosphere, has resulted in severe pressure on the self- cleansing capacity of recipient ecosystems. Various accomulated pollutants and contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are of much concern relative to both human and ecosystemm exposure and potential health impact. PCBs which are resistant to degradation and bioremediation accumulated in different niches of the biosphere. This significantly affects the ecological balances and cause adverse health effect on both human and the environment. Temporal transformer storage sites at four locations in Ghana (Tema, Temale, Bolgatanga and Wa) were investigated for PCB contamination using nuclear techniques. Analysis of soil samples from four temporal transformer storage sites revealed that the soil samples from Tema, Tamale, Bolgatanga and Wa were generally sandy with pH and EC ranging between 6.24 - 7.29 and 44.60 - 188.30 respectively. The PCB levels detected in the soil samples from the various locations varied considerably with mean ranging between 7.69 and 51.92 mg/kg. The highest mean PCB level was recorded at the Tema temporal transformer storage site (51.92 mg/kg), whilst the least mean level of 7.69 mg/kg was recorded at Wa storage site. At Tamale the individual levels range between 3.57 mg/kg and 38.70 mg/kg while at Bolgatanga it was 6.85 - 16.30 mg/kg and Wa, 6.08 - 14.70mg/kg. About 9% of soil samples from temporal transformer storage sites analysed had total PCBs concentrations above the 25mg/kg and 33 mg/kg level recommended by the Canadian Council of Ministers of environment (CCME) and EPA Ghana respectively for the protection of environment and human health. Generally, the Levels of PCBs in soil samples were found to decrease with increasing depth at all the temporal transformer storage sites. Results obtained using the EPA's L

  17. Shaft sealing issue in CO2 storage sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieudonné, A.-C.; Charlier, R.; Collin, F.

    2012-04-01

    Carbon capture and storage is an innovating approach to tackle climate changes through the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Deep saline aquifers, depleted oil and gas reservoirs and unmineable coal seams are among the most studied reservoirs. However other types of reservoir, such as abandonned coal mines, could also be used for the storage of carbon dioxide. In this case, the problem of shaft sealing appears to be particularly critical regarding to the economic, ecologic and health aspects of geological storage. The purpose of the work is to study shaft sealing in the framework of CO2 storage projects in abandoned coal mines. The problem of gas transfers around a sealing system is studied numerically using the finite elements code LAGAMINE, which has been developped for 30 years at the University of Liege. A coupled hydro-mechanical model of unsaturated geomaterials is used for the analyses. The response of the two-phase flow model is first studied through a simple synthetic problem consisting in the injection of gas in a concrete-made column. It stands out of this first modeling that the advection of the gas phase represents the main transfer mechanism of CO2 in highly unsaturated materials. Furthermore the setting of a bentonite barrier seal limits considerably the gas influx into the biosphere. A 2D axisymetric hydromechanical modeling of the Anderlues natural gas storage site is then performed. The geological and hydrogeological contexts of the site are used to define the problem, for the initial and boundary conditions, as well as the material properties. In order to reproduce stress and water saturation states in the shale before CO2 injection in the mine, different phases corresponding to the shaft sinking, the mining and the set up of the sealing system are simulated. The system efficiency is then evaluated by simulating the CO2 injection with the imposed pressure at the shaft wall. According to the modeling, the low water saturation of concrete and

  18. Magnox Swarf Storage Silo Liquor Effluent Management -Sellafield Site, Cumbria, UK - Legacy radioactive waste storage - 59271

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Clere, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The Sellafield Magnox Swarf Storage Silo (MSSS) was constructed to provide an underwater storage facility for irradiated magnox cladding metal Swarf, as well as miscellaneous beta-gamma waste from several sources. Liquid effluent arisings from hazard reduction activities at this facility represent the toughest effluent treatment challenge within the company's Legacy Ponds and Silos portfolio. The key requirement for hazard reduction has generated many substantial challenges as the facility is readied for decommissioning. This has demanded the production of carefully thought out strategies for managing, and overcoming, the key difficulties to be encountered as hazard reduction progresses. The complexity associated with preparing for waste retrievals from the Magnox Swarf Storage Silo, has also generated the demand for a mix of creativity and perseverance to meet the challenges and make progress. Challenging the status quo and willingness to accept change is not easy and the road to overall hazard reduction for the high hazard MSSS facility will demand the skills and investment of individuals, teams, and entire facility work-forces. The first steps on this road have been taken with the successful introduction of liquor management operations, however much more is yet to be achieved. Clear communication, investing in stakeholder management, perseverance in the face of difficulty and a structured yet flexible programme delivery approach, will ensure the continued success of tackling the complex challenges of treating liquid effluent from a legacy fuel storage silo at the Sellafield Site. (authors)

  19. Identifying suitable piercement salt domes for nuclear waste storage sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kehle, R.; e.

    1980-08-01

    Piercement salt domes of the northern interior salt basins of the Gulf of Mexico are being considered as permanent storage sites for both nuclear and chemically toxic wastes. The suitable domes are stable and inactive, having reached their final evolutionary configuration at least 30 million years ago. They are buried to depths far below the level to which erosion will penetrate during the prescribed storage period and are not subject to possible future reactivation. The salt cores of these domes are themselves impermeable, permitting neither the entry nor exit of ground water or other unwanted materials. In part, a stable dome may be recognized by its present geometric configuration, but conclusive proof depends on establishing its evolutionary state. The evolutionary state of a dome is obtained by reconstructing the growth history of the dome as revealed by the configuration of sedimentary strata in a large area (commonly 3,000 square miles or more) surrounding the dome. A high quality, multifold CDP reflection seismic profile across a candidate dome will provide much of the necessary information when integrated with available subsurface control. Additional seismic profiles may be required to confirm an apparent configuration of the surrounding strata and an interpreted evolutionary history. High frequency seismic data collected in the near vicinity of a dome are also needed as a supplement to the CDP data to permit accurate depiction of the configuration of shallow strata. Such data must be tied to shallow drill hole control to confirm the geologic age at which dome growth ceased. If it is determined that a dome reached a terminal configuration many millions of years ago, such a dome is incapable of reactivation and thus constitutes a stable storage site for nuclear wastes

  20. Wayne Interim Storage Site annual environmental report for calendar year 1991, Wayne, New Jersey. [Wayne Interim Storage Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1992-09-01

    This document describes the envirormental monitoring program at the Wayne Interim Storage Site (WISS) and surrounding area, implementation of the program, and monitoring results for 1991. Environmental monitoring of WISS and surrounding area began in 1984 when Congress added the site to the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). FUSRAP is a DOE program to decontaminate or otherwise control sites where residual radioactive materials remain from the early years of the nation's atomic energy program or from commercial operations causing conditions that Congress has authorized DOE to remedy. WISS is a National Priorities List site. The environmental monitoring program at WISS includes sampling networks for radon and thoron concentrations in air; external gamma radiation exposure; and radium-226, radium-228, thorium-232, and total uranium concentrations in surface water, sediment, and groundwater. Several nonradiological parameters are also measured in groundwater. Monitoring results are compared with applicable Environmental Protection Agency standards, DOE derived concentration guides, dose limits, and other requirements in DOE orders. Environmental standards are established to protect public health and the environment.

  1. Analysis of carbohydrate storage granules in the diazotrophic cyanobacterium Cyanothece sp. PCC 7822

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welkie, David G. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Sherman, Debra M. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Chrisler, William B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Orr, Galya [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sherman, Louis A. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2013-10-19

    The unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacteria of the genus Cyanothece demonstrate oscillations in nitrogenase activity and H2 production when grown under 12h light-12h dark cycles. We established that Cyanothece sp. PCC 7822 allows for the construction of knock-out mutants and our objective was to improve the growth characteristics of this strain and to identify the nature of the intracellular storage granules. We report the physiological and morphological effects of reduction in nitrate and phosphate concentrations in BG-11 media on this strain. We developed a series of BG-11-derived growth media and monitored batch culture growth, nitrogenase activity and nitrogenase-mediated hydrogen production, culture synchronicity, and intracellular storage content. Reduction in NaNO3 and K2HPO4 concentrations from 17.6 and 0.23 mM to 4.41 and 0.06 mM, respectively, improved growth characteristics such as cell size and uniformity, and enhanced the rate of cell division. Cells grown in this low NP BG-11 were less complex, a parameter that related to the composition of the intracellular storage granules. Cells grown in low NP BG-11 had less polyphosphate, fewer polyhydroxybutyrate granules and many smaller granules became evident. Biochemical analysis and transmission electron microscopy using the histocytochemical PATO technique demonstrated that these small granules contained glycogen. The glycogen levels and the number of granules per cell correlated nicely with a 2.3 to 3.3-fold change from the minimum at L0 to the maximum at D0. The differences in granule morphology and enzymes between Cyanothece ATCC 51142 and Cyanothece PCC 7822 provide insights into the formation of large starch-like granules in some cyanobacteria.

  2. Niagara Falls Storage Site annual environmental report for calendar year 1991, Lewiston, New York. [Niagara Falls Storage Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-01

    This document describes the environmental monitoring program at the Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS) and surrounding area, implementation of the program, and monitoring results for 1991. Environmental monitoring at NFSS began in 1981. The site is owned by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and is assigned to the DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). FUSRAP is a program to decontaminate or otherwise control sites where residual radioactive materials remain from the early years of the nation's atomic energy program or from commercial operations causing conditions that Congress has authorized DOE to remedy. The environmental monitoring program at NFSS includes sampling networks for radon concentrations in air; external gamma radiation exposure; and total uranium and radium-226 concentrations in surface water, sediments, and groundwater. Additionally, several nonradiological parameters including seven metals are routinely measured in groundwater. Monitoring results are compared with applicable Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards, DOE derived concentration guides (DCGs), dose limits, and other requirements in DOE orders. Environmental standards are established to protect public health and the environment.

  3. Maywood Interim Storage Site annual environmental report for calendar year 1991, Maywood, New Jersey. [Maywood Interim Storage Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1992-09-01

    This document describes the environmental monitoring program at the Maywood Interim Storage Site (MISS) and surrounding area, implementation of the program, and monitoring results for 1991. Environmental monitoring of MISS began in 1984 when congress added the site to the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). FUSRAP is a DOE program to identify and decontaminate or otherwise control sites where residual radioactive materials remain from the early years of the nation's atomic energy program or from commercial operations causing conditions that Congress has authorized DOE to remedy. The environmental monitoring program at MISS includes sampling networks for radon and thoron concentrations in air; external gamma radiation-exposure; and total uranium, radium-226, radium-228, thorium-232, and thorium-230 concentrations in surface water, sediment, and groundwater. Additionally, several nonradiological parameters are measured in surface water, sediment, and groundwater. Monitoring results are compared with applicable Environmental Protection Agency standards, DOE derived concentration guides (DCGs), dose limits, and other requirements in DOE orders. Environmental standards are established to protect public health and the environment.

  4. SP-A-enriched surfactant for treatment of rat lung transplants with SP-A deficiency after storage and reperfusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erasmus, ME; Hofstede, GJH; Petersen, AH; Batenburg, JJ; Haagsman, HP; Oetomo, SB; Prop, J

    2002-01-01

    Background. The function of pulmonary surfactant is affected by lung transplantation, contributing to impaired lung transplant function. A decreased amount of surfactant protein-A (SP-A) after reperfusion is believed to contribute to the impaired surfactant function. Surfactant treatment has been

  5. On-site interim storage of spent nuclear fuel: Emerging public issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, D.L.; Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN

    1992-01-01

    Failure to consummate plans for a permanent repository or above- ground interim Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility for spent nuclear fuel has spurred innovative efforts to ensure at-reactor storage in an environmentally safe and secure manner. This article examines the institutional and socioeconomic impacts of Dry Cask Storage Technology (DCST)-an approach to spent fuel management that is emerging as the preferred method of on-site interim spent fuel storage by utilities that exhaust existing storage capacity

  6. On-site waste storage assuring the success of on-site, low-level nuclear waste storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preston, E.L.

    1986-01-01

    Waste management has reached paramount importance in recent years. The successful management of radioactive waste is a key ingredient in the successful operation of any nuclear facility. This paper discusses the options available for on-site storage of low-level radioactive waste and those options that have been selected by the Department of Energy facilities operated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The focus of the paper is on quality assurance (QA) features of waste management activities such as accountability and retrievability of waste materials and waste packages, retrievability of data, waste containment, safety and environmental monitoring. Technical performance and careful documentation of that performance are goals which can be achieved only through the cooperation of numerous individuals from waste generating and waste managing organizations, engineering, QA, and environmental management

  7. Site characterization data for Solid Waste Storage Area 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boegly, W.J. Jr.

    1984-12-01

    Currently, the only operating shallow land burial site for low-level radioactive waste at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is Solid Waste Storage Area No. 6 (SWSA-6). In 1984, the US Department of Energy (DOE) issued Order 5820.2, Radioactive Waste Management, which establishes policies and guidelines by which DOE manages its radioactive waste, waste by-products, and radioactively contaminated surplus facilities. The ORNL Operations Division has given high priority to characterization of SWSA-6 because of the need for continued operation under DOE 5820.2. The purpose of this report is to compile existing information on the geologic and hydrologic conditions in SWSA-6 for use in further studies related to assessing compliance with 5820.2. Burial operations in SWSA-6 began in 1969 on a limited scale, and full operation was initiated in 1973. Since that time, ca. 29,100 m 3 of low-level waste containing ca. 251,000 Ci of activity has been buried in SWSA-6. No transuranic waste has been disposed of in SWSA-6; rather this waste is retrievably stored in SWSA-5. Estimates of the remaining usable space in SWSA-6 vary; however, in 1982 sufficient useful land was reported for about 10 more years of operation. Analysis of the information available on SWSA-6 indicates that more information is required to evaluate the surface water hydrology, the geology at depths below the burial trenches, and the nature and extent of soils within the site. Also, a monitoring network will be required to allow detection of potential contaminant movement in groundwater. Although these are the most obvious needs, a number of specific measurements must be made to evaluate the spatial heterogeneity of the site and to provide background information for geohydrological modeling. Some indication of the nature of these measurements is included

  8. Construction management at the SP-100 ground engineering system test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burchell, G.P.; Wilson, L.R.

    1991-01-01

    Contractors under the U.S. Department of Energy management have implemented a comprehensive approach to the management of design and construction of the complex facility modifications at the SP-100 Ground Engineering System Test Site on the Hanford Reservation. The SP-100 Test Site employs a multi-organizational integrated management approach with clearly defined responsibilities to assure success. This approach allows for thorough planning and analysis before the project kick off, thus minimizing the number and magnitude of problems which arise during the course of the project. When combined with a comprehensive cost and schedule/project management reporting system the problems which do occur are recognized early enough to assure timely intervention and resolution

  9. SiteChar – Methodology for a Fit-for-Purpose Assessment of CO2 Storage Sites in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delprat-Jannaud F.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The FP7-funded SiteChar project examined the entire CO2 geological storage site characterisation process, from the initial feasibility studies through to the final stage of application for a CO2 storage permit based on criteria defined by the relevant European legislation. The SiteChar workflow for CO2 geological storage site characterisation provides a description of all elements of a site characterisation study, as well as guidance to streamline the site characterisation process and make sure that the output covers the aspects mentioned in the European Community (EC Storage Directive. Five potential European storage sites, representative of prospective geological contexts, were considered as test sites for the research work: a North Sea multi-store site (hydrocarbon field and aquifer offshore Scotland; an onshore aquifer in Denmark; an onshore gas field in Poland; an aquifer offshore in Norway; and an aquifer in the Southern Adriatic Sea. This portfolio combines complementary sites that allowed to encompass the different steps of the characterisation workflow. A key innovation was the development of internal ‘dry-run’ permit applications at the Danish and Scottish sites and their review by relevant regulatory authorities. This process helped to refine the site characterisation workflow, and aimed to identify remaining gaps in site-specific characterisation, needed to secure storage permits under the EC Storage Directive as implemented in ‘host’ Member States. SiteChar considered the important aspect of the public awareness and public opinions of these new technologies, in parallel to technical issues, on the onshore Polish and offshore Scottish sites. A new format to assist public opinion-forming processes was tested involving a small sample of local communities. Generic as well as site-specific information was made available to the general and local public via the internet and at information meetings. These exercises provide insight

  10. CCS acceptability: social site characterization and advancing awareness at prospective storage sites in Poland and Scotland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunsting, Suzanne; Mastop, Jessanne; Kaiser, Marta; Zimmer, Rene; Shackley, Simon; Mabon, Leslie; Howell, Rhys

    2015-01-01

    This paper summarizes the work on the social dimension conducted within the EU FP7 SiteChar project. The most important aim of the research was to advance public awareness and draw lessons for successful public engagement activities when developing a CO 2 storage permit application. To this end, social site characterization (e.g. representative surveys) and public participation activities (focus conference) were conducted at two prospective Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) sites: an onshore site in Poland and an offshore site in Scotland. The research consisted of four steps over a time period of 1.5 year, from early 2011 to mid-2012. The first step consisted of four related qualitative and quantitative research activities to provide a social characterization of the areas: desk research, stakeholder interviews, media analyses, and a survey among representative samples of the local community. The aim was to identify: - stakeholders or interested parties; - factors that may drive their perceptions of and attitudes towards CCS. Results were used to as input for the second step, in which a new format for public engagement named 'focus conferences' was tested at both sites involving a small sample of the local community. The third step consisted of making available generic as well as site-specific information to the general and local public, by: - setting up a bilingual set of information pages on the project web site suitable for a lay audience; - organizing information meetings at both sites that were open to all who took interest. The fourth step consisted of a second survey among a new representative sample of the local community. The survey was largely identical to the survey in step 1 to enable the monitoring of changes in awareness, knowledge and opinions over time. Results provide insight in the way local CCS plans may be perceived by the local stakeholders, how this can be reliably assessed at early stage without raising unnecessary concerns, and how

  11. Hazelwood Interim Storage Site annual site environmental report: Calendar year 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    During 1986, the environmental monitoring program was continued at the Hazelwood Interim Storage Site (HISS), a US Department of Energy (DOE) facility located in the City of Hazelwood, Missouri. Originally known as the Cotter Corporation site on Latty Avenue in Hazelwood, the HISS is presently used for the storage of soils contaminated with residual radioactive material. As part of the decontamination research and development project authorized by Congress under the 1984 Energy and Water Appropriations Act, remedial action and environmental monitoring program are being conducted at the site and at vicinity properties by Bechtel National, Inc., Project Management Contractor for FUSRAP. The monitoring program at the HISS measures radon gas concentrations in air; external gamma radiation levels; and uranium, radium, and thorium concentrations in surface water, groundwater, and sediment. To verify that the site is in compliance with the DOE radiation protection standard (100 mrem/yr) and assess its potential effect on public health, the radiation dose was calculated for the maximally exposed individual. Based on the scenario described in this report, the maximally exposed individual at the HISS would receive an annual external exposure approximately equivalent to 2% of the DOE radiation protection standard of 100 mrem/yr. This exposure is less than the exposure a person would receive during a round-trip flight from New York to Los Angeles. The cumulative dose to the population within an 80-km (50-mi) radius of the HISS that would result from radioactive materials present at the site would be indistinguishable from the dose that the same population would receive from naturally occurring radioactive sources. Results of the 1986 monitoring show that the HISS is in compliance with the DOE radiation protection standard. 11 refs., 6 figs., 10 tabs

  12. Unsaturated zone investigation at the radioactive waste storage facility site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuratovic, Zana; Mazeika, Jonas; Petrosius, Rimantas; Jakimaviciute-Maseliene, Vaidote [Nature Research Centre, Akademijos St. 2, LT-08412, Vilnius (Lithuania); Klizas, Petras; Mokrik, Robert [Vilnius University, M.K. Ciurlionio St. 21/27, LT-03101 Vilnius (Lithuania)

    2014-07-01

    Unsaturated zone is an important part of water circulation cycle and an integral part of many hydrological and hydrogeological factors and processes. The soils of unsaturated zone are regarded as the first natural barrier to a large extent able to limit the spread of contaminants. Nuclear waste disposal site (Maisiagala radioactive waste storage facility site) was analysed in terms of the moisture movement through the unsaturated zone. Extensive data sets of the hydraulic properties, water content and isotope composition have been collected and summarized. The main experimental and observational tasks included the collection of soil samples; determination of the physical properties and the hydraulic conductivity values of soil samples, moisture extraction from the soil sample for isotopic studies; observation of the groundwater dynamics at the Maisiagala piezometer; groundwater sampling for isotopic analysis ({sup 3}H, {sup 18}O/{sup 16}O, {sup 2}H/{sup 1}H ); and monthly precipitation isotopic analysis. Distribution features of globally widespread radionuclide tritium ({sup 3}H) and the water molecule tracer isotopes in precipitation, unsaturated zone soil moisture profiles and groundwater were determined. It was used the well-known unsaturated flow and transport model of HYDRUS-1D (Simunek et al., 2008). In this study, van Genuchten equations for the retention and conductivity estimations have been used. The retention characteristics and van Genuchten model parameters were estimated internally by HYDRUS based on the empirical equations involved in the program. Basic inputs of the tritium transport simulation are the tritium input function and meteorological variables (precipitation and potential evapotranspiration). In order to validate the representativeness of the hydraulic parameters, the model has been used to estimate the tritium distribution in the unsaturated zone, which properly represents the dynamics of the unsaturated zone. The uniformity of the daily

  13. Storage pool water condition of multipurpose compact 60Co irradiator of IPEN-CNEN/SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, Yasko; Rela, Paulo R.

    2008-01-01

    A new type compact gamma irradiator was developed and installed at IPEN-CNEN/SP, it is classified as category IV irradiator according to International Atomic Energy Agency-IAEA. The originality of its design remains on the rotating concrete door, which integrates the shielding system with the product handling system, permitting the input and output of the products in a continuous way, without the necessity to lower the sources and open the irradiator chamber to change the batch. The licensed capacity of this irradiator is 37 P Bq (1 MCi) and the water pool liner, manufactured in stainless steel, has 7.0 m deep and 2.7 m diameter. A sealed radiation source may be defined as a quantity of radioactive material sealed within non-radioactive material, which the confining barrier is intended to prevent leakage or escape of the radioactive material under normal handling conditions and also under foreseeable mishaps. The use of cobalt-60 radiation sources in a wet storage environment requires care in the control of that environment to avoid the potential for deterioration of the stainless steel. In the literature, the tests performed demonstrated that stainless steel had excellent performance under controlled environment conditions. The inspection includes assessing the condition of storage pool water and measuring the pool water conductivity. The demineralized water normally used in storage pools is usually an effective and secure medium in which to store stainless steel. However, there are certain constituents and contaminants in the water which can affect this behaviour. For instance, the pH has a small but definite effect on the tendency for pitting corrosion. Nevertheless, there is also evidence that both strongly alkaline and strongly acid environments can encourage pitting corrosion. In general, an around neutral pH is recommended. The conductivity is used as a measure of the extent to which ionic species are present in the pool water. International recommendations

  14. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 134: Aboveground Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 134 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as 'Aboveground Storage Tanks' and consists of the following four Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Areas 3, 15, and 29 of the Nevada Test Site: (1) CAS 03-01-03, Aboveground Storage Tank; (2) CAS 03-01-04, Tank; (3) CAS 15-01-05, Aboveground Storage Tank; and (4) CAS 29-01-01, Hydrocarbon Stain

  15. Maywood Interim Storage Site: Annual site environmental report, Maywood, New Jersey, Calendar year 1986: Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1987-06-01

    During 1986, the environmental monitoring program was continued at the Maywood Interim Storage Site (MISS), a US Department of Energy (DOE) facility located in the Borough of Maywood and the Township of Rochelle Park, New Jersey. The MISS is presently used for the storage of low-level radioactively contaminated soils. The MISS is part of the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). As part of the decontamination research and development project authorized by Congress under the 1984 Energy and Water Appropriations Act, remedial action and environmental monitoring programs are being conducted at this site and at vicinity properties by Bechtel National, Inc., Project Management Contractor for FUSRAP. The monitoring program at the MISS measures thoron and radon gas concentrations in air; external gamma radiation levels; and thorium, uranium, and radium concentrations in surface water, groundwater, and sediment. To verify that the site is in compliance with the DOE radiation protection standard (100 mrem/y) and to assess the potential effect on public health, the radiation dose was calculated for the maximally exposed individual. Based on the conservative scenario described in the report, the maximally exposed individual would receive an annual external exposure approximately equivalent to 1% of the DOE radiation protection standard of 100 mrem/y. This exposure is less than the exposure a person would receive during a round-trip flight from New York to Los Angeles (due to greater amounts of cosmic radiation at higher altitudes). The cumulative dose to the population within an 80-km (50-mi) radius of the MISS that would result from radioactive materials present at the site would be indistinguishable from the dose the same population would receive from naturally occurring radioactive sources. Results of the 1986 monitoring show that the MISS is in compliance with the DOE radiation protection standard. 16 refs., 8 figs., 15 tabs.

  16. SP Transcription Factor Paralogs and DNA-Binding Sites Coevolve and Adaptively Converge in Mammals and Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Ken Daigoro; Pollock, David D.

    2012-01-01

    Functional modification of regulatory proteins can affect hundreds of genes throughout the genome, and is therefore thought to be almost universally deleterious. This belief, however, has recently been challenged. A potential example comes from transcription factor SP1, for which statistical evidence indicates that motif preferences were altered in eutherian mammals. Here, we set out to discover possible structural and theoretical explanations, evaluate the role of selection in SP1 evolution, and discover effects on coregulatory proteins. We show that SP1 motif preferences were convergently altered in birds as well as mammals, inducing coevolutionary changes in over 800 regulatory regions. Structural and phylogenic evidence implicates a single causative amino acid replacement at the same SP1 position along both lineages. Furthermore, paralogs SP3 and SP4, which coregulate SP1 target genes through competitive binding to the same sites, have accumulated convergent replacements at the homologous position multiple times during eutherian and bird evolution, presumably to preserve competitive binding. To determine plausibility, we developed and implemented a simple model of transcription factor and binding site coevolution. This model predicts that, in contrast to prevailing beliefs, even small selective benefits per locus can drive concurrent fixation of transcription factor and binding site mutants under a broad range of conditions. Novel binding sites tend to arise de novo, rather than by mutation from ancestral sites, a prediction substantiated by SP1-binding site alignments. Thus, multiple lines of evidence indicate that selection has driven convergent evolution of transcription factors along with their binding sites and coregulatory proteins. PMID:23019068

  17. Hazelwood interim storage site: Annual site environmental report, Hazelwood, Missouri, Calendar Year 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-04-01

    The monitoring program at Hazelwood Interim Storage Site (HISS) measures radon concentrations in air; external gamma radiation levels; and uranium, radium, and thorium, concentrations in surface water, groundwater and sediment. To verify that the site is in compliance with the DOE radiation protection standard (100 mrem/yr) and assess its potential effect or public health, the radiation dose was calculated for a hypothetical maximally exposed individual. Based on the scenario described in this report, this hypothetical individual at HISS would receive an annual external exposure approximately equivalent to 1 percent of the DOE radiation protection standard. This exposure is less than the exposure a person receives during a flight from New York to Los Angeles (because of the greater amounts of cosmic radiation at higher altitudes). The cumulative dose to the population within an 80-km (50-mi) radius of HISS that results from radioactive materials present at the site is indistinguishable from the dose that the same population receives from naturally occurring radioactive sources. The results of 1988 monitoring show that HISS is in compliance with the DOE radiation protection standard. 15 refs., 16 figs., 13 tabs

  18. Functions for fission yeast splicing factors SpSlu7 and SpPrp18 in alternative splice-site choice and stress-specific regulated splicing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetha Melangath

    Full Text Available Budding yeast spliceosomal factors ScSlu7 and ScPrp18 interact and mediate intron 3'ss choice during second step pre-mRNA splicing. The fission yeast genome with abundant multi-intronic transcripts, degenerate splice signals and SR proteins is an apt unicellular fungal model to deduce roles for core spliceosomal factors in alternative splice-site choice, intron retention and to study the cellular implications of regulated splicing. From our custom microarray data we deduce a stringent reproducible subset of S. pombe alternative events. We examined the role of factors SpSlu7 or SpPrp18 for these splice events and investigated the relationship to growth phase and stress. Wild-type log and stationary phase cells showed ats1+ exon 3 skipped and intron 3 retained transcripts. Interestingly the non-consensus 5'ss in ats1+ intron 3 caused SpSlu7 and SpPrp18 dependent intron retention. We validated the use of an alternative 5'ss in dtd1+ intron 1 and of an upstream alternative 3'ss in DUF3074 intron 1. The dtd1+ intron 1 non-canonical 5'ss yielded an alternative mRNA whose levels increased in stationary phase. Utilization of dtd1+ intron 1 sub-optimal 5' ss required functional SpPrp18 and SpSlu7 while compromise in SpSlu7 function alone hampered the selection of the DUF3074 intron 1 non canonical 3'ss. We analysed the relative abundance of these splice isoforms during mild thermal, oxidative and heavy metal stress and found stress-specific splice patterns for ats1+ and DUF3074 intron 1 some of which were SpSlu7 and SpPrp18 dependent. By studying ats1+ splice isoforms during compromised transcription elongation rates in wild-type, spslu7-2 and spprp18-5 mutant cells we found dynamic and intron context-specific effects in splice-site choice. Our work thus shows the combinatorial effects of splice site strength, core splicing factor functions and transcription elongation kinetics to dictate alternative splice patterns which in turn serve as an additional

  19. Thermococcus guaymasensis sp. nov. and Thermococcus aggregans sp. nov., two novel thermophilic archaea isolated from the Guaymas Basin hydrothermal vent site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canganella, F; Jones, W J; Gambacorta, A; Antranikian, G

    1998-10-01

    Thermococcus strains TYST and TYT isolated from the Guaymas Basin hydrothermal vent site and previously described were compared by DNA-DNA hybridization analysis with the closest Thermococcus species in terms of physiology and nutritional aspects. On the basis of the new data and taking into consideration the molecular, physiological and morphological traits published previously, it is proposed that strains TYT and TYST should be classified as new species named Thermococcus aggregans sp. nov. and Thermococcus guaymasensis sp. nov., respectively. The type strain of T. aggregans is strain TYT (= DSM 10597T) and the type strain of T. guaymasensis is strain TYST (= DSM 11113T).

  20. Fuel Assemblies Thermal Analysis in the New Spent Fuel Storage Facility at Inshass Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattab, M.; Mariy, Ahmed

    1999-01-01

    New Wet Storage Facility (NSF) is constructed at Inshass site to solve the problem of spent fuel storage capacity of ETRR-1 reactor . The Engineering Safety Heat Transfer Features t hat characterize the new facility are presented. Thermal analysis including different scenarios of pool heat load and safety limits are discussed . Cladding temperature limit during handling and storage process are specified for safe transfer of fuel

  1. The dry spent RBMK fuel cask storage site at the Ignalina NPP in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penkov, V.V.; Diersch, R.

    1999-01-01

    At present, there are about 15,000 spent RBMK fuel assemblies stored in the water pools near the reactors at the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (INPP). Part of them are cut in two bundles and stored in standardized baskets in the pools. Each basket is loaded with 102 bundles. For long-term interim storage of this fuel, it was decided to use dry storage in casks. For this reason, the total activity to be stored is split into individual units (casks). Each cask represents a closed and independent safety system, fulfilling all safety-relevant requirements for both normal operational and hypothetical accidental conditions. The main safety relevant features of the storage cask system are: (1) Inherent safety system; (2) Double barrier system; (3) Passive cooling by natural convection; (4) Safety against accidents. The cask dry storage system is a cost effective and multi-functional system for storage, transport after the operation time and final disposal under consideration of additional protective elements. From an economical point of view, cask storage has a number of advantages. Two cask types have been intended for the INPP storage site: (1) The CASTOR RBMK cask made of ductile cast iron; (2) The CONSTOR RBMK sandwich cask made of an inner and outer steel shell and reinforced heavy concrete. The CASTOR RBMK and the CONSTOR RBMK casks are designed to withstand severe storage site accidents and with help of impact limiters - to fulfil the IAEA test criteria for type B(U)F packages. The INPP spent RBMK fuel storage site is designed as an open air storage for an operational time of 50 years. The casks are arranged on the concrete storage pad. The site is equipped with a crane for cask handling and technological buildings and security systems. The safety analyses for fuel and cask handling and for cask handling and for cask technology at the site have been made and accepted by the Lithuanian Competent Authority. (author)

  2. A Bookless Library, Part I: Relocating Print Materials to Off-Site Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewell, Bethany B.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of the feasibility of a bookless library in a research setting. As spaces for collections are being converted for increased study and community spaces, many libraries have been moving low-use collections to off-site storage. Issues regarding the types of storage spaces available are addressed. Concerns and…

  3. The National Institute on Aging Genetics of Alzheimer’s Disease Data Storage Site (NIAGADS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Institute on Aging Genetics of Alzheimer's Disease Data Storage Site (NIAGADS) is a national genetics data repository facilitating access to genotypic...

  4. Flexible OSSC or the on-site storage alternative and how it grew

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufrane, K.H.

    1986-01-01

    The On-Site Storage Container (OSSC) is an accepted and proven concept currently in widespread use for both operations and the storage of low level radioactive waste. In addition, it represents a very attractive enhancement to a geological low-level waste disposal site. Use of the proven OSSC concept at a site can provide additional safety to the environment by combining the benefits of an engineered storage facility with the proven safety of a sound geological repository. The concept of flexibility which was built into the OSSC concept for the temporary above ground storage of low-level waste is directly applicable to a permanent storage facility. Manufacturing costs, size flexibility, handling systems, and real-world operational advantages are well known and proven. This background provides a high confidence level for adapting this technology to a disposal site while keeping in mind the significance of both operational economics, safety to the environment, and ALARA principles. The development, design and cost effectiveness features of the OSSC as a temporary storage facility are discussed in detail. The flexible OSSC provides significant economic advantages over a permanent storage building. The application of the OSSC to a permanent geological disposal site provides the environmental advantages of an engineered facility while maintaining the inherent operational and economic benefits of the flexible OSSC concept

  5. Initial Operation of the Savannah River Site Advanced Storage Monitoring Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCurry, D.R.

    2001-01-01

    An advanced storage monitoring facility has been constructed at the Savannah River Site capable of storing sensitive nuclear materials (SNM) with access to monitoring information available over the Internet. This system will also have monitoring information available over the Internet to appropriate users. The programs will ultimately supply authenticated and encrypted data from the storage sites to certified users to demonstrate the capability of using the Internet as a safe and secure communications medium for remote monitoring of sensitive items

  6. On-site concrete cask storage system for spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, P.A.; Haelsig, R.T.; Kent, J.D.; Schmoker, D.S.

    1989-01-01

    A method is described of storing spent nuclear fuel assemblies including the steps of: transferring the fuel assemblies from a spent-fuel pool to a moveable concrete storage cask located outside the spent-fuel pool; maintaining a barrier between the fuel and the concrete in the cask to prevent contamination of the concrete by the fuel; maintaining the concrete storage cask containing the spent-fuel on site at the reactor complex for some predetermined period; transferring the fuel assemblies from the concrete storage cask to a shipping container; and, recycling the concrete storage cask

  7. Hanford Site existing irradiated fuel storage facilities description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willis, W.L.

    1995-01-11

    This document describes facilities at the Hanford Site which are currently storing spent nuclear fuels. The descriptions provide a basis for the no-action alternatives of ongoing and planned National Environmental Protection Act reviews.

  8. Using RFID to Enhance Security in Off-Site Data Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Carmona, Miguel A.; Marsa-Maestre, Ivan; de la Hoz, Enrique; Velasco, Juan R.

    2010-01-01

    Off-site data storage is one of the most widely used strategies in enterprises of all sizes to improve business continuity. In medium-to-large size enterprises, the off-site data storage processes are usually outsourced to specialized providers. However, outsourcing the storage of critical business information assets raises serious security considerations, some of which are usually either disregarded or incorrectly addressed by service providers. This article reviews these security considerations and presents a radio frequency identification (RFID)-based, off-site, data storage management system specifically designed to address security issues. The system relies on a set of security mechanisms or controls that are arranged in security layers or tiers to balance security requirements with usability and costs. The system has been successfully implemented, deployed and put into production. In addition, an experimental comparison with classical bar-code-based systems is provided, demonstrating the system’s benefits in terms of efficiency and failure prevention. PMID:22163638

  9. Using RFID to enhance security in off-site data storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Carmona, Miguel A; Marsa-Maestre, Ivan; de la Hoz, Enrique; Velasco, Juan R

    2010-01-01

    Off-site data storage is one of the most widely used strategies in enterprises of all sizes to improve business continuity. In medium-to-large size enterprises, the off-site data storage processes are usually outsourced to specialized providers. However, outsourcing the storage of critical business information assets raises serious security considerations, some of which are usually either disregarded or incorrectly addressed by service providers. This article reviews these security considerations and presents a radio frequency identification (RFID)-based, off-site, data storage management system specifically designed to address security issues. The system relies on a set of security mechanisms or controls that are arranged in security layers or tiers to balance security requirements with usability and costs. The system has been successfully implemented, deployed and put into production. In addition, an experimental comparison with classical bar-code-based systems is provided, demonstrating the system's benefits in terms of efficiency and failure prevention.

  10. Natural phenomena evaluations of the K-25 site UF6 cylinder storage yards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fricke, K.E.

    1996-01-01

    The K-25 Site UF 6 cylinder storage yards are used for the temporary storage of UF 6 normal assay cylinders and long-term storage of other UF 6 cylinders. The K-25 Site UF 6 cylinder storage yards consist of six on-site areas: K-1066-B, K-1066-E, K-1066-F, K-1066-J, K-1066-K and K-1066-L. There are no permanent structures erected on the cylinder yards, except for five portable buildings. The operating contractor for the K-25 Site is preparing a Safety Analysis Report (SAR) to examine the safety related aspects of the K-25 Site UF 6 cylinder storage yards. The SAR preparation encompasses many tasks terminating in consequence analysis for the release of gaseous and liquid UF 6 , one of which is the evaluation of natural phenomena threats, such as earthquakes, floods, and winds. In support of the SAR, the six active cylinder storage yards were evaluated for vulnerabilities to natural phenomena, earthquakes, high winds and tornados, tornado-generated missiles, floods (local and regional), and lightning. This report summarizes those studies. 30 refs

  11. Site Specific Waste Management Instruction for the 116-F-4 soil storage unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, G.G.

    1996-08-01

    This Site Specific Waste Management Instruction provides guidance for management of waste generated during the excavation and remediation of soil and debris from the 116-4 soil storage unit located at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. This document outlines the waste management practices that will be performed in the field to implement federal, state, and US Department of Energy requirements

  12. Geological setting of the Novi Han radioactive waste storage site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evstatiev, D.; Kozhukharov, D.

    2000-01-01

    The geo environment in the area of the only operating radioactive waste repository in Bulgaria has been analysed. The repository is intended for storage of all kinds of low and medium level radioactive wastes with the exception of these from nuclear power production. The performed investigations prove that the 30 years of operation have not caused pollution of the geo environment. Meanwhile the existing complex geological settings does not provide prerequisites to rely on the natural geological safety barriers. The studies performed so far are considered to be incomplete since they do not provide the necessary information for the development of a model describing the radionuclide migration as well as for understanding of the neotectonic circumstances. The tasks of the future activities are described in order to obtain more detailed information about the geology in the area. (authors)

  13. How to characterize a potential site for CO2 storage with sparse data coverage - a Danish onshore site case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, Carsten Moller; Frykman, Peter; Dalhoff, Finn

    2015-01-01

    The paper demonstrates how a potential site for CO 2 storage can be evaluated up to a sufficient level of characterization for compiling a storage permit application, even if the site is only sparsely explored. The focus of the paper is on a risk driven characterization procedure. In the initial state of a site characterization process with sparse data coverage, the regional geological and stratigraphic understanding of the area of interest can help strengthen a first model construction for predictive modeling. Static and dynamic modeling in combination with a comprehensive risk assessment can guide the different elements needed to be evaluated for fulfilling a permit application. Several essential parameters must be evaluated; the storage capacity for the site must be acceptable for the project life of the operation, the trap configuration must be efficient to secure long term containment, the injectivity must be sufficient to secure a longstanding stable operation and finally a satisfactory and operational measuring strategy must be designed. The characterization procedure is demonstrated for a deep onshore aquifer in the northern part of Denmark, the Vedsted site. The site is an anticlinal structural closure in an Upper Triassic - Lower Jurassic sandstone formation at 1 800-1 900 m depth. (authors)

  14. CLOSURE REPORT FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 204: STORAGE BUNKERS, NEVADA TEST SITE, NEVADA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 330 consists of four Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 6, 22, and 23 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The unit is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) as CAU 330: Areas 6, 22, and 23 Tanks and Spill Sites. CAU 330 consists of the following CASs: CAS 06-02-04, Underground Storage Tank (UST) and Piping CAS 22-99-06, Fuel Spill CAS 23-01-02, Large Aboveground Storage Tank (AST) Farm CAS 23-25-05, Asphalt Oil Spill/Tar Release

  15. Comprehensive characterization and hazard assessment of the DOE-Niagara Falls storage site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, T.L.; Dettorre, J.F.; Jackson, D.R.; Ausmus, B.S.

    1981-06-01

    A comprehensive radioecological and nonradiological characterization and hazards assessment was conducted on DOE-Niagara Falls Storage Site. Pitchblende residues and other low-level nuclear waste have been stored on the site since 1944. The most highly radioactive residues were stored in four abandoned buildings, while other wastes were deposited in pits or piled on surface soils on the Site. Several ditches were constructed on the Site to facilitate drainage or excess precipitation. Results of the study will permit the US DOE to form an appropriate remedial action plan for the Site

  16. Criticality Safety Evaluation of Hanford Site High Level Waste Storage Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ROGERS, C.A.

    2000-02-17

    This criticality safety evaluation covers operations for waste in underground storage tanks at the high-level waste tank farms on the Hanford site. This evaluation provides the bases for criticality safety limits and controls to govern receipt, transfer, and long-term storage of tank waste. Justification is provided that a nuclear criticality accident cannot occur for tank farms operations, based on current fissile material and operating conditions.

  17. Criticality Safety Evaluation of Hanford Site High-Level Waste Storage Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ROGERS, C.A.

    2000-01-01

    This criticality safety evaluation covers operations for waste in underground storage tanks at the high-level waste tank farms on the Hanford site. This evaluation provides the bases for criticality safety limits and controls to govern receipt, transfer, and long-term storage of tank waste. Justification is provided that a nuclear criticality accident cannot occur for tank farms operations, based on current fissile material and operating conditions

  18. Environmental Assessment: Relocation and storage of TRIGA reg-sign reactor fuel, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    In order to allow the shutdown of the Hanford 308 Building in the 300 Area, it is proposed to relocate fuel assemblies (101 irradiated, three unirradiated) from the Mark I TRIGA Reactor storage pool. The irradiated fuel assemblies would be stored in casks in the Interim Storage Area in the Hanford 400 Area; the three unirradiated ones would be transferred to another TRIGA reactor. The relocation is not expected to change the offsite exposure from all Hanford Site 300 and 400 Area operations

  19. Distributed Energy Resources On-Site Optimization for Commercial Buildings with Electric and Thermal Storage Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacommare, Kristina S H; Stadler, Michael; Aki, Hirohisa; Firestone, Ryan; Lai, Judy; Marnay, Chris; Siddiqui, Afzal

    2008-01-01

    The addition of storage technologies such as flow batteries, conventional batteries, and heat storage can improve the economic as well as environmental attractiveness of on-site generation (e.g., PV, fuel cells, reciprocating engines or microturbines operating with or without CHP) and contribute to enhanced demand response. In order to examine the impact of storage technologies on demand response and carbon emissions, a microgrid's distributed energy resources (DER) adoption problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear program that has the minimization of annual energy costs as its objective function. By implementing this approach in the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS), the problem is solved for a given test year at representative customer sites, such as schools and nursing homes, to obtain not only the level of technology investment, but also the optimal hourly operating schedules. This paper focuses on analysis of storage technologies in DER optimization on a building level, with example applications for commercial buildings. Preliminary analysis indicates that storage technologies respond effectively to time-varying electricity prices, i.e., by charging batteries during periods of low electricity prices and discharging them during peak hours. The results also indicate that storage technologies significantly alter the residual load profile, which can contribute to lower carbon emissions depending on the test site, its load profile, and its adopted DER technologies

  20. Preliminary site requirements and considerations for a monitored retrievable storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-08-01

    This report presents preliminary requirements and considerations for siting monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility. It purpose is to provide guidance for assessing the technical suitability of potential sites for the facility. It has been reviewed by the NRC staff, which stated that this document is suitable for ''guidance in making preliminary determinations concerning MRS site suitability.'' The MRS facility will be licensed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. It will receive spent fuel from commercial nuclear power plants and provide a limited amount of storage for this spent fuel. When a geologic repository starts operations, the MRS facility will also stage spent-fuel shipments to the repository. By law, storage at the MRS facility is to be temporary, with permanent disposal provided in a geologic repository to be developed by the DOE

  1. Site dose calculations for the INEEL/TMI-2 storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, K.B.

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is licensing an independent spent-fuel storage installation (ISFSI) for the Three Mile Island unit 2 (TMI-2) core debris to be constructed at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) site at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) using the NUHOMS spent-fuel storage system. This paper describes the site dose calculations, performed in support of the license application, that estimate exposures both on the site and for members of the public. These calculations are unusual for dry-storage facilities in that they must account for effluents from the system in addition to skyshine from the ISFSI. The purpose of the analysis was to demonstrate compliance with the 10 CFR 20 and 10 CFR 72.104 exposure limits

  2. Generation, on-site storage; handling and processing of industrial waste of Tehran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abduli, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes out the present status of generation, on-site handling, processing and storage of industrial waste in Tehran. In this investigation, 67 large scale factories of different industrial groups were randomly selected. Above cited functional elements of these factories were surveyed. In this investigation a close contact with each factory was required, thus a questionnaire was prepared and distributed among these factories. The relationship between daily weight of the industrial waste (Y) and number of employer of each factory (x) is found to be Y=547.4 + 0.58 x. The relationship between daily volume of industrial waste (V), and daily weight of waste generated in each factory (Y) can be described by V=1.56 + 0.00078 Y. About 68% of the factories have their own interim storage site and the rest of the factories do not possess any on-site storage facility

  3. Site safety progress review of spent fuel central interim storage facility. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurpinar, A.; Serva, L.; Giuliani

    1995-01-01

    Following the request of the Czech Power Board (CEZ) and within the scope of the Technical Cooperation Project CZR/9/003, a progress review of the site safety of the Spent Fuel Central Interim Storage Facility (SFCISF) was performed. The review involved the first two stages of the works comprising the regional survey and identification of candidate sites for the underground and surface storage options. Five sites have been identified as a result of the previous works. The following two stages will involved the identification of the preferred candidate sites for the two options and the final site qualification. The present review had the purpose of assessing the work already performed and making recommendations for the next two stages of works

  4. Rigorous Screening Technology for Identifying Suitable CO2 Storage Sites II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George J. Koperna Jr.; Vello A. Kuuskraa; David E. Riestenberg; Aiysha Sultana; Tyler Van Leeuwen

    2009-06-01

    This report serves as the final technical report and users manual for the 'Rigorous Screening Technology for Identifying Suitable CO2 Storage Sites II SBIR project. Advanced Resources International has developed a screening tool by which users can technically screen, assess the storage capacity and quantify the costs of CO2 storage in four types of CO2 storage reservoirs. These include CO2-enhanced oil recovery reservoirs, depleted oil and gas fields (non-enhanced oil recovery candidates), deep coal seems that are amenable to CO2-enhanced methane recovery, and saline reservoirs. The screening function assessed whether the reservoir could likely serve as a safe, long-term CO2 storage reservoir. The storage capacity assessment uses rigorous reservoir simulation models to determine the timing, ultimate storage capacity, and potential for enhanced hydrocarbon recovery. Finally, the economic assessment function determines both the field-level and pipeline (transportation) costs for CO2 sequestration in a given reservoir. The screening tool has been peer reviewed at an Electrical Power Research Institute (EPRI) technical meeting in March 2009. A number of useful observations and recommendations emerged from the Workshop on the costs of CO2 transport and storage that could be readily incorporated into a commercial version of the Screening Tool in a Phase III SBIR.

  5. IMPACT OF AMARANTH (AMARANTH SP. ON TECHNOLOGICAL QUALITY OF BAKERY PRODUCTS DURING FROZEN STORAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Bojňanská

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Frozen baking semi-finished meals and dough bring to consumer daily fresh products with the added value from the point of view of comfort and storage, as well as fresh products of comparable quality with baking yeasts products. The aim of this study was to observe the impact of adding 30% of flour from amaranth to the wheat flour T 650 on the quality of immediately baked products stored one, three and six months in a freezer at the temperature of -18°. The overall quality of baked loaves from frozen dough was declining gradually depending on the length of storage in the freezing box, while the highest decline in quality was recorded after three and six months of storage. Specifically, after one month there was a decline in the loaf volume - the one of the most important indicators for bakery quality - by 10.5% and after three and six months by 26.3% in comparison to fresh loaves. The decline in bakery quality was caused mainly by decreasing activity of yeast cells which were damaged by crystals of ice, by the afterward loss of their ability to yeast and by gradual decrease of dough firmness.

  6. Description of a Multipurpose Processing and Storage Complex for the Hanford Site's radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyman, D.H.; Wolfe, B.A.; Hoertkorn, T.R.

    1993-05-01

    The mission of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site has changed from defense nuclear materials production to that of waste management/disposal and environmental restoration. ne Multipurpose Processing and Storage Complex (MPSC) is being designed to process discarded waste tank internal hardware contaminated with mixed wastes, failed melters from the vitrification plant, and other Hanford Site high-level solid waste. The MPSC also will provide interim storage of other radioactive materials (irradiated fuel, canisters of vitrified high-level waste [HLW], special nuclear material [SNM], and other designated radioactive materials)

  7. Site Characteristics For Long Term Storage in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Hemamy, S.T.

    2008-01-01

    This work deals with the establishment of a new guideline for a new disposal for low and intermediate radioactive waste in Egypt. It is only permitted in natural geological formations with acceptable seismic and tectonic parameters. The representative parameters applied for this evaluation are related to the release process of the strain energy. The examined parameters are magnitude M2, equivalent to the mean annual total strain energy release, and magnitude M3, analogous to the maximum strain energy which may be accumulated and released in a region. Empirical relation between M3 and M2 is obtained and the result shows that it has a worldwide validity. The quantity Dt, showing the time difference per year between the upper bound line (in the energy diagram) and the time since the last seismic activity (strain energy accumulation) is suggested here. An effort is made to forecast the approximate time of the next earthquake occurrence with magnitude less or equal to the maximum strain energy release. Finally, it clears that the Western Desert are a suitable region for establishing the site of radioactive waste repository

  8. Hanford Site waste treatment/storage/disposal integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MCDONALD, K.M.

    1999-01-01

    In 1998 Waste Management Federal Services of Hanford, Inc. began the integration of all low-level waste, mixed waste, and TRU waste-generating activities across the Hanford site. With seven contractors, dozens of generating units, and hundreds of waste streams, integration was necessary to provide acute waste forecasting and planning for future treatment activities. This integration effort provides disposition maps that account for waste from generation, through processing, treatment and final waste disposal. The integration effort covers generating facilities from the present through the life-cycle, including transition and deactivation. The effort is patterned after the very successful DOE Complex EM Integration effort. Although still in the preliminary stages, the comprehensive onsite integration effort has already reaped benefits. These include identifying significant waste streams that had not been forecast, identifying opportunities for consolidating activities and services to accelerate schedule or save money; and identifying waste streams which currently have no path forward in the planning baseline. Consolidation/integration of planned activities may also provide opportunities for pollution prevention and/or avoidance of secondary waste generation. A workshop was held to review the waste disposition maps, and to identify opportunities with potential cost or schedule savings. Another workshop may be held to follow up on some of the long-term integration opportunities. A change to the Hanford waste forecast data call would help to align the Solid Waste Forecast with the new disposition maps

  9. Modeling the accumulation of As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in grasses (Agrotis sp. and Poa sp. and stinging nettle (Urtica dioica on selected sites taking into account soil physico-chemical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boshoff M.C.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of soil properties on the accumulation of metals in two vegetation types was evaluated at 10 sites with a wide variation in soil physicochemical properties pH, organic carbon, clay percentage , total soil metal concentration and exchangeable soil metal content. Accumulation modeling was conducted for grasses (Agrostis sp. and Poa sp. and stinging nettle (Urtica dioica.

  10. Modeling the accumulation of As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in grasses (Agrotis sp. and Poa sp. and stinging nettle (Urtica dioica on selected sites taking into account soil physico-chemical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boshoff M. C.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of soil properties on the accumulation of metals in two vegetation types was evaluated at 10 sites with a wide variation in soil physicochemical properties pH, organic carbon, clay percentage , total soil metal concentration and exchangeable soil metal content. Accumulation modeling was conducted for grasses (Agrostis sp. and Poa sp. and stinging nettle (Urtica dioica.

  11. Remediation and assessment of the national radioactive waste storage and disposal site in Tajikistan - 59110

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buriev, Nazirzhon T.; Abdushukurov, Dzhamshed A.; Vandergraaf, Tjalle T.

    2012-01-01

    The National Radioactive Waste Storage and Disposal Site was established in 1959 in the Faizabad region approximately 50 km east of the capital, Dushanbe. The site is located on the southern flank of the Fan Mountains facing the Gissar Valley in a sparsely populated agricultural area, with the nearest villages located a few km from the site. The site was initially designed to accept a wide range of contaminated materials, including obsolete smoke detectors, sealed radioactive sources, waste from medical institutions, and radioactive liquids. Between 1962 and 1976, 363 tonnes and 1146 litres of material, contaminated with a range of radionuclides were shipped to the site. Between 1972 - 1980 and 1985 - 1991, ∼4.8 x 10 14 and 2 x 10 13 Bq, respectively, were shipped to the site. An additional 7 x 10 14 Bq was shipped to the site in 1996. Partly as a result of the dissolution of the former Soviet Union, the disposal site had fallen into disrepair and currently presents both an environmental hazard and a potential for the proliferation of radionuclides that could potentially be used for illicit purposes. Remediation of the disposal site was started in 2005. New security fences were erected and a new superstructure over an in-ground storage site constructed. A central alarm monitoring and observation station has been constructed and is now operational. The geology, flora, and fauna of the region have been documented. Radiation surveys of the buildings and the storage and disposal sites have been carried out. Samples of soil, surface water and vegetation have been taken and analyzed by gamma spectrometry. Results show a slight extent of contamination of soils near the filling ports of the underground liquid storage container where a Cs-137 concentration of 2.3 x 104 Bq/kg was obtained. Similar values were obtained for Ra- 226. Radiation fields of the in-ground storage site were generally 3 . Most of the activity appears to be associated with the sediments in the tank

  12. Colonie Interim Storage Site annual site environmental report for calendar year 1989, Colonie, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-05-01

    IN 1984, Congress assigned the cleanup of the National Lead (NL) Industries site in Colonie, New York, to the Department of Energy (DOE) as part of a decontamination research and development project under the 1984 Energy and Water Appropriations Act. DOE then included the site in the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP), an existing DOE program to decontaminate or otherwise control sites where residual radioactive materials remain for the early years of the nation's atomic energy program. DOE instituted an environmental monitoring program at the site in 1984. Results are presented annually in reports such as this. Under FUSRAP, the first environmental monitoring report for this site presented data for calendar year 1984. This report presents the findings of the environmental monitoring program conducted during calendar year 1989. 16 refs., 17 figs., 14 tabs

  13. Colonie Interim Storage Site annual site environmental report for calendar year 1989, Colonie, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-05-01

    IN 1984, Congress assigned the cleanup of the National Lead (NL) Industries site in Colonie, New York, to the Department of Energy (DOE) as part of a decontamination research and development project under the 1984 Energy and Water Appropriations Act. DOE then included the site in the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP), an existing DOE program to decontaminate or otherwise control sites where residual radioactive materials remain for the early years of the nation's atomic energy program. DOE instituted an environmental monitoring program at the site in 1984. Results are presented annually in reports such as this. Under FUSRAP, the first environmental monitoring report for this site presented data for calendar year 1984. This report presents the findings of the environmental monitoring program conducted during calendar year 1989. 16 refs., 17 figs., 14 tabs.

  14. Identification and capacity quantification of CO{sub 2} storage sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachu, Stefan [Energy Resources Conservation Board (Canada)

    2008-07-15

    In this presentation the subject of scales of evaluation of the sites of CO{sub 2} storage is commented. Also the criteria to identify river basins and sites appropriated for the CO{sub 2} storage are analyzed and finally the matter of the estimation of the capacities of CO{sub 2} storage is analyzed. [Spanish] En esta presentacion se comenta sobre las escalas de evaluacion de los sitios de almacenamiento de CO{sub 2}. Tambien se analizan los criterios para identificar cuencas y lugares adecuados para el almacenamiento de CO{sub 2} y por ultimo se habla sobre la estimacion de las capacidades de almacenamiento de CO{sub 2}.

  15. General safety guidelines for looking for a low mass activity-long life waste storage site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this document is to define general guidelines which must be followed during the stages of search for a site and stages of design of a storage facility for low activity-long life radioactive wastes, in order to ensure its safety after closure. After having specified the considered wastes, geological shapes, and situations, this document defines the fundamental objective and the associated criteria (protection against chemical risk, radioprotection). It presents the design aspects related to safety (safety principles and functions, waste packages, public works engineering, geological environment, storage concepts). The last part deals with the safety demonstration after site closure which includes the control of some components, the assessment of disturbances in the storage facility or due to its presence, the taking of uncertainty and sensitivity studies into account, the influence of natural events

  16. Site specific comparison of H2, CH4 and compressed air energy storage in porous formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilmann Pfeiffer, Wolf; Wang, Bo; Bauer, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    The supply of energy from renewable sources like wind or solar power is subject to fluctuations determined by the climatic and weather conditions, and shortage periods can be expected on the order of days to weeks. Energy storage is thus required if renewable energy dominates the total energy production and has to compensate the shortages. Porous formations in the subsurface could provide large storage capacities for various energy carriers, such as hydrogen (H2), synthetic methane (CH4) or compressed air (CAES). All three energy storage options have similar requirements regarding the storage site characteristics and consequently compete for suitable subsurface structures. The aim of this work is to compare the individual storage methods for an individual storage site regarding the storage capacity as well as the achievable delivery rates. This objective is pursued using numerical simulation of the individual storage operations. In a first step, a synthetic anticline with a radius of 4 km, a drop of 900 m and a formation thickness of 20 m is used to compare the individual storage methods. The storage operations are carried out using -depending on the energy carrier- 5 to 13 wells placed in the top of the structure. A homogeneous parameter distribution is assumed with permeability, porosity and residual water saturation being 500 mD, 0.35 and 0.2, respectively. N2 is used as a cushion gas in the H2 storage simulations. In case of compressed air energy storage, a high discharge rate of 400 kg/s equating to 28.8 mio. m³/d at surface conditions is required to produce 320 MW of power. Using 13 wells the storage is capable of supplying the specified gas flow rate for a period of 31 hours. Two cases using 5 and 9 wells were simulated for both the H2 and the CH4 storage operation. The target withdrawal rates of 1 mio. sm³/d are maintained for the whole extraction period of one week in all simulations. However, the power output differs with the 5 well scenario producing

  17. Environmental impact assessment of decommissioning treatment about radioactive model plant waste ore storage site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bei Xinyu

    2012-01-01

    Aiming at decommissioning treatment project of radioactive model plant waste ore storage site, based on the detailed investigations of source terms and project description, systematic environmental impacts have been identified. The environmental impacts both during decommissioning treatment, radioactive waste transportation and after treatment are assessed. Some specific environmental protection measures are proposed so as to minimize the adverse environmental impacts. (author)

  18. Radioactive solid waste inventories at United States Department of Energy burial and storage sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, T.

    1987-06-01

    Radioactive solid waste inventories are given for United States Department of Energy (DOE) burial and storage sites. These data are obtained from the Solid Waste Information Management System (SWIMS) and reflect the inventories as of the end of the calendar year 1986. 4 figs., 7 tabs

  19. Conceptual design report for regional low-level waste interim storage site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bird, M.V.; Thompson, J.D.

    1981-08-01

    An interim storage site design concept was developed for receiving 100,000 ft 3 low-level waste per year, in the form of solidified wastes in 55-gallon drums with a dose rate of < 200 mrem per hour at contact

  20. GHGT-10 : Assessing the integrity of fault- and top seals at CO2 storage sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orlic, B.; Heege J.H. ter; Wassing, B.

    2011-01-01

    Induced stress changes due to CO2 injection into geological reservoirs can mechanically damage bounding fault- and top seals creating preferential pathways for CO2 migration from the containment or trigger existing faults causing seismic activity at storage sites. In this paper we present

  1. Methodology of site generation for evaluation of the behaviour of radioactive waste storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz Rivas, C.; Eguilior Diez, S.

    1997-01-01

    The present report summarizes the purpose of methodology for the site generation in the evaluation of high-level radioactive waste storage for long-term. This work is developed into the project Safety analysis long-term of high-level radioactive waste. This project is carried on for CIEMAT and ENRESA

  2. Bacillus sp.CDB3 isolated from cattle dip-sites possesses two ars gene clusters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Somanath Bhat; Xi Luo; Zhiqiang Xu; Lixia Liu; Ren Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Contamination of soil and water by arsenic is a global problem.In Australia, the dipping of cattle in arsenic-containing solution to control cattle ticks in last centenary has left many sites heavily contaminated with arsenic and other toxicants.We had previously isolated five soil bacterial strains (CDB1-5) highly resistant to arsenic.To understand the resistance mechanism, molecular studies have been carried out.Two chromosome-encoded arsenic resistance (ars) gene clusters have been cloned from CDB3 (Bacillus sp.).They both function in Escherichia coli and cluster 1 exerts a much higher resistance to the toxic metalloid.Cluster 2 is smaller possessing four open reading frames (ORFs) arsRorf2BC, similar to that identified in Bacillus subtilis Skin element.Among the eight ORFs in cluster 1 five are analogs of common ars genes found in other bacteria, however, organized in a unique order arsRBCDA instead of arsRDABC.Three other putative genes are located directly downstream and designated as arsTIP based on the homologies of their theoretical translation sequences respectively to thioredoxin reductases, iron-sulphur cluster proteins and protein phosphatases.The latter two are novel of any known ars operons.The arsD gene from Bacillus species was cloned for the first time and the predict protein differs from the well studied E.coli ArsD by lacking two pairs of C-terrninal cysteine residues.Its functional involvement in arsenic resistance has been confirmed by a deletion experiment.There exists also an inverted repeat in the intergenic region between arsC and arsD implying some unknown transcription regulation.

  3. Maywood Interim Storage Site environmental report for calendar year 1989, Maywood, New Jersey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-05-01

    The environmental monitoring program, which began in 1984, was continued in 1989 at the Maywood Interim Storage Site (MISS), a US Department of Energy (DOE) facility located in the Borough of Maywood and the Township of Rochelle Park, New Jersey. MISS is currently used for storage of soils contaminated with low-level radioactivity. MISS is part of the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP), a DOE program to identify and decontaminate or otherwise control sites where residual radioactive materials are present. The monitoring program at MISS measures thoron and radon concentrations in air; external gamma radiation levels; and thorium, uranium, and radium concentrations in surface water, groundwater, and sediment. Additionally, several nonradiological parameters are measured in groundwater. The radiation dose was calculated for a hypothetical maximally exposed individual to verify that the site is in compliance with the DOE radiation protection standard (100 mrem/yr) and to assess its potential effects on public health. This report presents the results of the environmental monitoring program conducted at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Maywood Interim Storage Site (MISS) during calendar year 1989. Environmental monitoring began at MISS in 1984. 19 refs., 23 figs., 14 tabs

  4. Maywood Interim Storage Site environmental report for calendar year 1989, Maywood, New Jersey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-05-01

    The environmental monitoring program, which began in 1984, was continued in 1989 at the Maywood Interim Storage Site (MISS), a US Department of Energy (DOE) facility located in the Borough of Maywood and the Township of Rochelle Park, New Jersey. MISS is currently used for storage of soils contaminated with low-level radioactivity. MISS is part of the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP), a DOE program to identify and decontaminate or otherwise control sites where residual radioactive materials are present. The monitoring program at MISS measures thoron and radon concentrations in air; external gamma radiation levels; and thorium, uranium, and radium concentrations in surface water, groundwater, and sediment. Additionally, several nonradiological parameters are measured in groundwater. The radiation dose was calculated for a hypothetical maximally exposed individual to verify that the site is in compliance with the DOE radiation protection standard (100 mrem/yr) and to assess its potential effects on public health. This report presents the results of the environmental monitoring program conducted at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Maywood Interim Storage Site (MISS) during calendar year 1989. Environmental monitoring began at MISS in 1984. 19 refs., 23 figs., 14 tabs.

  5. The prototype HIV-1 maturation inhibitor, bevirimat, binds to the CA-SP1 cleavage site in immature Gag particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Albert T

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bevirimat, the prototype Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1 maturation inhibitor, is highly potent in cell culture and efficacious in HIV-1 infected patients. In contrast to inhibitors that target the active site of the viral protease, bevirimat specifically inhibits a single cleavage event, the final processing step for the Gag precursor where p25 (CA-SP1 is cleaved to p24 (CA and SP1. Results In this study, photoaffinity analogs of bevirimat and mass spectrometry were employed to map the binding site of bevirimat to Gag within immature virus-like particles. Bevirimat analogs were found to crosslink to sequences overlapping, or proximal to, the CA-SP1 cleavage site, consistent with previous biochemical data on the effect of bevirimat on Gag processing and with genetic data from resistance mutations, in a region predicted by NMR and mutational studies to have α-helical character. Unexpectedly, a second region of interaction was found within the Major Homology Region (MHR. Extensive prior genetic evidence suggests that the MHR is critical for virus assembly. Conclusions This is the first demonstration of a direct interaction between the maturation inhibitor, bevirimat, and its target, Gag. Information gained from this study sheds light on the mechanisms by which the virus develops resistance to this class of drug and may aid in the design of next-generation maturation inhibitors.

  6. Fires at storage sites of organic materials, waste fuels and recyclables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Muhammad Asim; Alriksson, Stina; Kaczala, Fabio; Hogland, William

    2013-09-01

    During the last decade, the European Union has enforced the diversion of organic wastes and recyclables to waste management companies operating incineration plants, composting plants and recycling units instead of landfills. The temporary storage sites have been established as a buffer against fluctuations in energy demand throughout the year. Materials also need to be stored at temporary storage sites before recovery and recycling. However, regulations governing waste fuel storage and handling have not yet been developed, and, as a result, companies have engaged in risky practices that have resulted in a high number of fire incidents. In this study, a questionnaire survey was distributed to 249 of the 400 members of Avfall Sverige (Swedish Waste Management Association), which represents the waste management of 95% of the Swedish population. Information regarding 122 storage facilities owned by 69 companies was obtained; these facilities were responsible for the storage of 47% of the total treated waste (incineration + digestion + composting) in 2010 in Sweden. To identify factors related to fire frequency, the questionnaire covered the amounts of material handled and burnt per year, financial losses due to fires, storage duration, storage method and types of waste. The results show that 217 fire incidents corresponded to 170 kilotonnes of material burnt and cumulative losses of 49 million SEK (€4.3 million). Fire frequency and amount of material burnt per fire was found to be dependent upon type of management group (waste operator). Moreover, a correlation was found between fire frequency and material recycled during past years. Further investigations of financial aspects and externalities of fire incidents are recommended.

  7. (Per)chlorate reduction by an acetogenic bacterium, Sporomusa sp., isolated from an underground gas storage.

    KAUST Repository

    Balk, Melike; Mehboob, Farrakh; van Gelder, Antonie H; Rijpstra, W Irene C; Damsté , Jaap S Sinninghe; Stams, Alfons J M

    2010-01-01

    A mesophilic bacterium, strain An4, was isolated from an underground gas storage reservoir with methanol as substrate and perchlorate as electron acceptor. Cells were Gram-negative, spore-forming, straight to curved rods, 0.5-0.8 microm in diameter, and 2-8 microm in length, growing as single cells or in pairs. The cells grew optimally at 37 degrees C, and the pH optimum was around 7. Strain An4 converted various alcohols, organic acids, fructose, acetoin, and H(2)/CO(2) to acetate, usually as the only product. Succinate was decarboxylated to propionate. The isolate was able to respire with (per)chlorate, nitrate, and CO(2). The G+C content of the DNA was 42.6 mol%. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain An4 was most closely related to Sporomusa ovata (98% similarity). The bacterium reduced perchlorate and chlorate completely to chloride. Key enzymes, perchlorate reductase and chlorite dismutase, were detected in cell-free extracts.

  8. (Per)chlorate reduction by an acetogenic bacterium, Sporomusa sp., isolated from an underground gas storage.

    KAUST Repository

    Balk, Melike

    2010-08-03

    A mesophilic bacterium, strain An4, was isolated from an underground gas storage reservoir with methanol as substrate and perchlorate as electron acceptor. Cells were Gram-negative, spore-forming, straight to curved rods, 0.5-0.8 microm in diameter, and 2-8 microm in length, growing as single cells or in pairs. The cells grew optimally at 37 degrees C, and the pH optimum was around 7. Strain An4 converted various alcohols, organic acids, fructose, acetoin, and H(2)/CO(2) to acetate, usually as the only product. Succinate was decarboxylated to propionate. The isolate was able to respire with (per)chlorate, nitrate, and CO(2). The G+C content of the DNA was 42.6 mol%. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain An4 was most closely related to Sporomusa ovata (98% similarity). The bacterium reduced perchlorate and chlorate completely to chloride. Key enzymes, perchlorate reductase and chlorite dismutase, were detected in cell-free extracts.

  9. Technical factors in the site selection for a radioactive wastes storage of low and intermediate level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badillo A, V. E.; Ramirez S, J. R.; Palacios H, J. C.

    2009-10-01

    The storage on surface or near surface it is viable for wastes of low and intermediate level which contain radio nuclides of short half life that would decay at insignificant levels of radioactivity in some decades and also radio nuclides of long half life but in very low concentrations. The sites selection, for the construction of radioactive waste storages, that present an appropriate stability at long term, a foreseeable behavior to future and a capacity to fulfill other operational requirements, is one of the great tasks that confront the waste disposal agencies. In the selection of potential sites for the construction of a radioactive wastes storage of low and intermediate level, several basic judgments should be satisfied that concern to physiography, climatology, geologic, geo-hydrology, tectonic and seismic aspects; as well as factors like the population density, socioeconomic develops and existent infrastructure. the necessary technician-scientific investigations for the selection of a site for the construction of radioactive waste storages are presented in this work and they are compared with the pre-selection factors realized in specify areas in previous studies in different regions of the Mexican Republic. (Author)

  10. Using RFID to Enhance Security in Off-Site Data Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique de la Hoz

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Off-site data storage is one of the most widely used strategies in enterprises of all sizes to improve business continuity. In medium-to-large size enterprises, the off-site data storage processes are usually outsourced to specialized providers. However, outsourcing the storage of critical business information assets raises serious security considerations, some of which are usually either disregarded or incorrectly addressed by service providers. This article reviews these security considerations and presents a radio frequency identification (RFID-based, off-site, data storage management system specifically designed to address security issues. The system relies on a set of security mechanisms or controls that are arranged in security layers or tiers to balance security requirements with usability and costs. The system has been successfully implemented, deployed and put into production. In addition, an experimental comparison with classical bar-code-based systems is provided, demonstrating the system’s benefits in terms of efficiency and failure prevention.

  11. Probabilistic Assessment of Above Zone Pressure Predictions at a Geologic Carbon Storage Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Namhata, Argha; Oladyshkin, Sergey; Dilmore, Robert M.; Zhang, Liwei; Nakles, David V.

    2016-12-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) storage into geological formations is regarded as an important mitigation strategy for anthropogenic CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. This study first simulates the leakage of CO2 and brine from a storage reservoir through the caprock. Then, we estimate the resulting pressure changes at the zone overlying the caprock also known as Above Zone Monitoring Interval (AZMI). A data-driven approach of arbitrary Polynomial Chaos (aPC) Expansion is then used to quantify the uncertainty in the above zone pressure prediction based on the uncertainties in different geologic parameters. Finally, a global sensitivity analysis is performed with Sobol indices based on the aPC technique to determine the relative importance of different parameters on pressure prediction. The results indicate that there can be uncertainty in pressure prediction locally around the leakage zones. The degree of such uncertainty in prediction depends on the quality of site specific information available for analysis. The scientific results from this study provide substantial insight that there is a need for site-specific data for efficient predictions of risks associated with storage activities. The presented approach can provide a basis of optimized pressure based monitoring network design at carbon storage sites.

  12. SiteChar. Characterisation of European CO2 storage. Deliverable D8.1. Qualitative and quantitative social site characterisations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunsting, S.; Pol, M.; Paukovic, M. [ECN Policy Studies, Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kaiser, M.; Zimmer, R. [Unabhaengiges Institut fuer Umweltfragen UfU, Berlin (Germany); Shackley, S.; Mabon, L. [Scottish Carbon Capture and Storage SCCS, Edinburg, Scotland (United Kingdom); Hepplewhite, F.; Loveridge, R. [Energy Markets Unit, Scottish Government, Edinburg, Scotland (United Kingdom); Mazurowski, M.; Polak-Osiniak, D. [Polish Oil and Gas Company PGNiG, Warszawa (Poland); Rybicki, C. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Krakow (Poland)

    2012-10-15

    At local level, public support has proven crucial to the implementation of CO2 capture and storage (CCS) demonstration projects. Whereas no method exists to guarantee public acceptability of any project, a constructive stakeholder engagement process does increase the likelihood thereof. Social site characterisation can be used as an instrument to explore, plan and evaluate a process of active and constructive local stakeholder engagement in a prospective CCS project as a parallel activity to technical site characterisation. It roughly consists of a formative research phase to get acquainted with the area followed by a series of public information and engagement activities. This deliverable presents results from the first phase for the social site characterisations of a prospective CCS site in Poland (onshore) and the UK (offshore), using qualitative as well as quantitative research methods, as a first step to planning of local public engagement activities and evaluation of these activities that will be undertaken by this consortium at both sites in the near future. Although the term social site characterisation actually refers to the entire process of formative research and subsequent public outreach, and hence to the complete package of awareness work undertaken as part of SiteChar, in the present deliverable the term only refers to the formative research activities as undertaken up to now and as described in this deliverable. The qualitative part of the social site characterisation consisted of (1) a description of relevant social site characteristics such as local history; (2) interviews with relevant local stakeholders; (3) a media analysis of local newspapers. The quantitative part of the social site characterisation consisted of surveys using representative samples to characterise the local population in terms of awareness, knowledge and perceptions of CCS, felt involvement in decision making, extent of local activism, level of trust in representatives and

  13. Report on site-independent environmental impacts of radioactive waste storage and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-10-01

    The organisation responsible for radioactive wastes in the Netherlands is COVRA: Centrale Organisatie Voor Radioactief Afval. It deals especially with storage and management of these wastes. For that purpose, COVRA will build a waste managing and storage facility at a central site in the Netherlands. In this report, environmental impacts of these activities are studied, that are independent of the location. The report is readable and useful for a broad audience. In the main report, the general features are outlined starting from figures and tables on environmental effects. In a separate volume, detailed numerical data are presented. (G.J.P.)

  14. Feasibility studies for pump and treat technology at leaking underground storage tank sites in Michigan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, J.M.; Pekas, B.S.

    1993-01-01

    Releases from underground storage tanks have resulted in impacts to groundwater at thousands of sites across the US. Investigations of these sites were initiated on a national basis with the implementation of federal laws that became effective December 22, 1989 (40 CFR 280). Completion of these investigations has led to a wave of design and installation of pump and treat aquifer restoration systems where impacts to groundwater have been confirmed. The purpose of this paper is to provide managers with a demonstration of some of the techniques that can be used by the consulting industry in evaluating the feasibility of pump and treat systems. With knowledge of these tools, managers can better evaluate proposals for system design and their cost effectiveness. To evaluate the effectiveness of typical pump and treat systems for leaking underground storage tank (LUST) sites in Michigan, ten sites where remedial design had been completed were randomly chosen for review. From these ten, two sites were selected that represented the greatest contrast in the types of site conditions encountered. A release of gasoline at Site 1 resulted in contamination of groundwater and soil with benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes

  15. U.S. Department of Energy's site screening, site selection, and initial characterization for storage of CO2 in deep geological formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodosta, T.D.; Litynski, J.T.; Plasynski, S.I.; Hickman, S.; Frailey, S.; Myer, L.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is the lead Federal agency for the development and deployment of carbon sequestration technologies. As part of its mission to facilitate technology transfer and develop guidelines from lessons learned, DOE is developing a series of best practice manuals (BPMs) for carbon capture and storage (CCS). The "Site Screening, Site Selection, and Initial Characterization for Storage of CO2 in Deep Geological Formations" BPM is a compilation of best practices and includes flowchart diagrams illustrating the general decision making process for Site Screening, Site Selection, and Initial Characterization. The BPM integrates the knowledge gained from various programmatic efforts, with particular emphasis on the Characterization Phase through pilot-scale CO2 injection testing of the Validation Phase of the Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (RCSP) Initiative. Key geologic and surface elements that suitable candidate storage sites should possess are identified, along with example Site Screening, Site Selection, and Initial Characterization protocols for large-scale geologic storage projects located across diverse geologic and regional settings. This manual has been written as a working document, establishing a framework and methodology for proper site selection for CO2 geologic storage. This will be useful for future CO2 emitters, transporters, and storage providers. It will also be of use in informing local, regional, state, and national governmental agencies of best practices in proper sequestration site selection. Furthermore, it will educate the inquisitive general public on options and processes for geologic CO2 storage. In addition to providing best practices, the manual presents a geologic storage resource and capacity classification system. The system provides a "standard" to communicate storage and capacity estimates, uncertainty and project development risk, data guidelines and analyses for adequate site characterization, and

  16. Niagara Falls Storage Site, Annual site environmental report, Lewiston, New York, Calendar year 1986: Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    During 1986, the environmental monitoring program was continued at the Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS), a US Department of Energy (DOE) surplus facility located in Niagara County, New York, presently used for the interim storage of radioactive residues and contaminated soils and rubble. The monitoring program is being conducted by Bechtel National, Inc. The monitoring program at the NFSS measures radon gas concentrations in air; external gamma radiation levels; and uranium and radium concentrations in surface water, groundwater, and sediment. To verify that the site is in compliance with the DOE radiation protection standard and to assess its potential effect on public health, the radiation dose was calculated for the maximally exposed individual. Based on the conservative scenario described in the report, this individual would receive an annual external exposure approximately equivalent to 6% of the DOE radiation protection standard of 100 mrem/yr. By comparison, the incremental dose received from living in a brick house versus a wooden house is 10 mrem/yr above background. The cumulative dose to the population within an 80-km (50-mi) radius of the NFSS that would result from radioactive materials present at the site would be indistinguishable from the dose that the same population would receive from naturally occurring radioactive sources. Results of the 1986 monitoring show that the NFSS is in compliance with the DOE radiation protection standard. 14 refs., 11 figs., 14 tabs

  17. Niagara Falls Storage Site, Annual site environmental report, Lewiston, New York, Calendar year 1986: Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-06-01

    During 1986, the environmental monitoring program was continued at the Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS), a US Department of Energy (DOE) surplus facility located in Niagara County, New York, presently used for the interim storage of radioactive residues and contaminated soils and rubble. The monitoring program is being conducted by Bechtel National, Inc. The monitoring program at the NFSS measures radon gas concentrations in air; external gamma radiation levels; and uranium and radium concentrations in surface water, groundwater, and sediment. To verify that the site is in compliance with the DOE radiation protection standard and to assess its potential effect on public health, the radiation dose was calculated for the maximally exposed individual. Based on the conservative scenario described in the report, this individual would receive an annual external exposure approximately equivalent to 6% of the DOE radiation protection standard of 100 mrem/yr. By comparison, the incremental dose received from living in a brick house versus a wooden house is 10 mrem/yr above background. The cumulative dose to the population within an 80-km (50-mi) radius of the NFSS that would result from radioactive materials present at the site would be indistinguishable from the dose that the same population would receive from naturally occurring radioactive sources. Results of the 1986 monitoring show that the NFSS is in compliance with the DOE radiation protection standard. 14 refs., 11 figs., 14 tabs.

  18. Lessons learned from the Siting Process of an Interim Storage Facility in Spain - 12024

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamolla, Meritxell Martell [MERIENCE Strategic Thinking, 08734 Olerdola, Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-07-01

    On 29 December 2009, the Spanish government launched a site selection process to host a centralised interim storage facility for spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste. It was an unprecedented call for voluntarism among Spanish municipalities to site a controversial facility. Two nuclear municipalities, amongst a total of thirteen municipalities from five different regions, presented their candidatures to host the facility in their territories. For two years the government did not make a decision. Only in November 30, 2011, the new government elected on 20 November 2011 officially selected a non-nuclear municipality, Villar de Canas, for hosting this facility. This paper focuses on analysing the factors facilitating and hindering the siting of controversial facilities, in particular the interim storage facility in Spain. It demonstrates that involving all stakeholders in the decision-making process should not be underestimated. In the case of Spain, all regional governments where there were candidate municipalities willing to host the centralised interim storage facility, publicly opposed to the siting of the facility. (author)

  19. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 135: Areas 25 Underground Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. H. Cox

    2001-06-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 135, Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks, was closed in accordance with the approved Corrective Action Plan (DOE/NV, 2000). CAU 135 consists of three Corrective Action Sites (CAS). Two of these CAS's were identified in the Corrective Action Investigation Data Quality Objective meeting as being improperly identified as underground storage tanks. CAS 25-02-03 identified as the Deluge Valve Pit was actually an underground electrical vault and CAS 25-02-10 identified as an Underground Storage Tank was actually a former above ground storage tank filled with demineralized water. Both of these CAS's are recommended for a no further action closure. CAS 25-02-01 the Underground Storage Tanks commonly referred to as the Engine Maintenance Assembly and Disassembly Waste Holdup Tanks and Vault was closed by decontaminating the vault structure and conducting a radiological verification survey to document compliance with the Nevada Test Site unrestricted use release criteria. The Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks, (CAS 25-02-01), referred to as the Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (E-MAD) Waste Holdup Tanks and Vault, were used to receive liquid waste from all of the radioactive and cell service area drains at the E-MAD Facility. Based on the results of the Corrective Action Investigation conducted in June 1999, discussed in ''The Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 135: Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada'' (DOE/NV, 199a), one sample from the radiological survey of the concrete vault interior exceeded radionuclide preliminary action levels. The analytes from the sediment samples exceeded the preliminary action levels for polychlorinated biphenyls, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, total petroleum hydrocarbons as diesel-range organics, and radionuclides. The CAU 135 closure activities consisted of scabbling radiological ''hot spots

  20. Overview of the spent nuclear fuel storage facilities at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Jay

    1999-01-01

    The May 1996 Record of Decision on a Proposed Nuclear Weapons Nonproliferation Policy concerning Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel initiated a 13 year campaign renewing a policy to support the return of spent nuclear fuel containing uranium of U.S.-origin from foreign research reactors to the United States. As of July 1999, over 18% of the approximately 13,000 spent nuclear fuel assemblies from participating countries have been returned to the Savannah River Site (SRS). These 2400 assemblies are currently stored in two dedicated SRS wet storage facilities. One is the Receiving Basin for Off-site Fuels (RBOF) and the other as L-Basin. RBOF, built in the early 60's to support the 'Atoms for Peace' program, has been receiving off-site fuel for over 35 years. RBOF has received approximately 1950 casks since startup and has the capability of handling all of the casks currently used in the FRR program. However, RBOF is 90% filled to capacity and is not capable of storing all of the fuel to be received in the program. L-Basin was originally used as temporary storage for materials irradiated in SRS's L-Reactor. New storage racks and other modifications were completed in 1996 that improved water quality and allowed L-Basin to receive, handle and store spent nuclear fuel assemblies and components from off-site. The first foreign cask was received into L-Area in April 1997 and approximately 86 foreign and domestic casks have been received since that time. This paper provides an overview of activities related to fuel receipt and storage in both the Receiving Basin for Off-site Fuels (RBOF) and L-Basin facilities. It will illustrate each step of the fuel receipt program from arrival of casks at SRS through cask unloading and decontamination. It will follow the fuel handling process, from fuel unloading, through the cropping and bundling stages, and final placement in the wet storage rack. Decontamination methods and equipment will be explained to show how the empty

  1. Overview of the spent nuclear fuel storage facilities at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conatser, E.R.; Thomas, J.E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2000-07-01

    The May 1996 Record of Decision on a Proposed Nuclear Weapons Nonproliferation Policy concerning Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel initiated a 13 year campaign renewing a policy to support the return of spent nuclear fuel containing uranium of U.S. origin from foreign research reactors to the United States. As of December 1999, over 22% of the approximately 13,000 spent nuclear fuel assemblies from participating countries have been returned to the Savannah River Site (SRS). These {approx}2650 assemblies are currently stored in two dedicated SRS wet storage facilities. One is the Receiving Basin for Off-site Fuels (RBOF) and the other as L-Basin. RBOF, built in the early 60's to support the 'Atoms for Peace' program, has been receiving off-site fuel for over 35 years. RBOF has received approximately 1950 casks since startup and has the capability of handling all of the casks currently used in the FRR program. However, RBOF is 90% filled to capacity and is not capable of storing all of the fuel to be received in the program. L-Basin was originally used as temporary storage for materials irradiated in SRS's L-Reactor. New storage racks and other modifications were completed in 1996 that improved water quality and allowed the L-Basin to receive, handle and store spent nuclear fuel assemblies and components from off-site. The first foreign cask was received into the L-Area in April 1997 and approximately 105 foreign and domestic casks have been received since that time. This paper provides an overview of activities related to fuel receipt and storage in both the Receiving Basin for Off-site Fuels (RBOF) and L-Basin facilities. It will illustrate each step of the fuel receipt program from arrival of casks at SRS through cask unloading and decontamination. It will follow the fuel handling process, from fuel unloading, through the cropping and bundling stages, and final placement in the wet storage rack. Decontamination methods and equipment

  2. Overview of the spent nuclear fuel storage facilities at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conatser, E.R.; Thomas, J.E.

    2000-01-01

    The May 1996 Record of Decision on a Proposed Nuclear Weapons Nonproliferation Policy concerning Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel initiated a 13 year campaign renewing a policy to support the return of spent nuclear fuel containing uranium of U.S. origin from foreign research reactors to the United States. As of December 1999, over 22% of the approximately 13,000 spent nuclear fuel assemblies from participating countries have been returned to the Savannah River Site (SRS). These ∼2650 assemblies are currently stored in two dedicated SRS wet storage facilities. One is the Receiving Basin for Off-site Fuels (RBOF) and the other as L-Basin. RBOF, built in the early 60's to support the 'Atoms for Peace' program, has been receiving off-site fuel for over 35 years. RBOF has received approximately 1950 casks since startup and has the capability of handling all of the casks currently used in the FRR program. However, RBOF is 90% filled to capacity and is not capable of storing all of the fuel to be received in the program. L-Basin was originally used as temporary storage for materials irradiated in SRS's L-Reactor. New storage racks and other modifications were completed in 1996 that improved water quality and allowed the L-Basin to receive, handle and store spent nuclear fuel assemblies and components from off-site. The first foreign cask was received into the L-Area in April 1997 and approximately 105 foreign and domestic casks have been received since that time. This paper provides an overview of activities related to fuel receipt and storage in both the Receiving Basin for Off-site Fuels (RBOF) and L-Basin facilities. It will illustrate each step of the fuel receipt program from arrival of casks at SRS through cask unloading and decontamination. It will follow the fuel handling process, from fuel unloading, through the cropping and bundling stages, and final placement in the wet storage rack. Decontamination methods and equipment will be explained to show

  3. Testing in support of on-site storage of residues in the Pipe Overpack Container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammerman, D.J.; Bobbe, J.G.; Arviso, M.

    1997-02-01

    The disposition of the large back-log of plutonium residues at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Rocky Flats) will require interim storage and subsequent shipment to a waste repository. Current plans call for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and the transportation to WIPP in the TRUPACT-II. The transportation phase will require the residues to be packaged in a container that is more robust than a standard 55-gallon waste drum. Rocky Flats has designed the Pipe Overpack Container to meet this need. It is desirable to use this same waste packaging for interim on-site storage in non-hardened buildings. To meet the safety concerns for this storage the Pipe Overpack Container has been subjected to a series of tests at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. In addition to the tests required to qualify the Pipe Overpack Container as a waste container for shipment in the TRUPACT-II several tests were performed solely for the purpose of qualifying the container for interim storage. This report will describe these tests and the packages response to the tests. 12 figs., 3 tabs

  4. The Cabril: The Spanish Storage Site for Low and medium Level Radioactive Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuloaga, P.

    1993-01-01

    The new installations at El Cabril are one of the most modern storage sites for low and medium level radioactive wastes worldwide. The site was conceived in such a way that it is possible its reutilization without any radiological restriction after its current surveillance period of 300 years. Additionally, the installations have enough of a capacity to store all the medium and low level wastes to be produced in Spain during the next 30 years plus all the already gathered ones at the three old installations. In order to achieve all the objectives a storage system, a control network and installations for sewage water treatment are available. An incinerator to burn biological and organic wastes from hospitals and a laboratory of wastes characterization complete the variety of installations

  5. Weldon Spring storage site environmental-monitoring report for 1979 and 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidner, R.B.; Boback, M.W.

    1982-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Weldon Spring Site consists of two separate radioactive waste storage properties: a 52-acre site which is a remnant of the Weldon Spring Feed Materials Plant; and a 9-acre abandoned rock quarry. The larger property has four pits which contain settled sludge from uranium and thorium processing operations. At the quarry, part of the excavation contains contaminated building rubble, scrap, and various residues. During 1979 and 1980 these storage locations were managed by NLO, Inc., contract operator of the DOE Feed Materials Production Center. Air and water samples were collected to provide information about the transfer of radionuclides in the offsite environment. Monitoring results show that uranium and radium concentrations in offsite surface and well water were within DOE Guide values for uncontrolled areas. At offsite locations, radon-222 concentrations in air were well within the Guide value

  6. Radioactive solid waste inventories at United States Department of Energy burial and storage sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, T.

    1986-06-01

    Radioactive solid waste inventories are given for United States Department of Energy (DOE) burial and storage sites. These data are obtained from the Solid Waste Information Management System (SWIMS) and reflect the inventories as of the end of the calendar year 1985. This report differs from previous issues in that the data cutoff date is December 31, 1985, rather than the fiscal year end. Another difference from previous issues is that data for the TRU categories 1 and 6 have been omitted

  7. Spent fuel handling system for a geologic storage test at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, J.E.; House, P.A.; Wright, G.W.

    1980-01-01

    The Lawrence Livermore Laboratory is conducting a test of the geologic storage of encapsulated spent commercial reactor fuel assemblies in a granitic rock at the Nevada Test Site. The test, known as the Spent Fuel Test-Climax (SFT-C), is sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office. Eleven pressurized-water-reactor spent fuel assemblies are stored retrievably for three to five years in a linear array in the Climax stock at a depth of 420 m

  8. Screening and identification of sites for a proposed Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-04-01

    The Director, Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), Department of Energy (DOE), has identified the Clinch River Breeder Reactor site, the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation and the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Hartsville Nuclear Plant site as preferred and alternative sites, respectively, for development of site-specific designs as part of the proposal for construction of an integrated Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) Facility. The proposal, developed pursuant to Section 141 (b) of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, will be submitted to Congress in January 1986. The Director expects to propose to Congress that an MRS be constructed at the perferred site. His judgment could change based on information to be developed between now and January 1986. The decision to construct an MRS facility and final site selection are reserved by Congress for itself. The Director's judgment is based on the results of a rigorous site screening and evaluation process described in this report. The three sites were selected from among eleven sites evaluated in detail. The Clinch River Breeder Reactor site, owned by the Tennessee Valley Authority, was identified as the preferred site. It has several particularly desirable features including: (1) federal ownership and control by the Department of Energy; (2) particularly good transportation access (five miles to the nearest interstate highway and direct rail access); (3) site characteristics and current data base judged by the NRC in 1983 as sufficient for granting a limited work authorization for the now cancelled breeder reactor; and (4) a technical community in the vicinity of site which can provide experienced nuclear facility support functions. 6 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Final storage high-level radioactive waste in Sweden - the way to the 2009 siting decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Horst

    2010-01-01

    In Sweden, high-level radioactive waste producing heat, i.e. spent fuel, is to be emplaced for final storage on the site of Forsmark, which also holds three reactor units. The siting decision was taken in June 2009. A 100 percent private company, a merger of the commercial nuclear power plant operators as producers of the waste, is responsible for the siting decision as well as for waste storage. Major impulses were given to the back-end fuel cycle policy in the early 1970s. Sweden practically gave up the reprocessing option very soon, but kept on pursuing final storage in deep geologic formations. Between 1977, when legislation was adopted with conditions relating to repository storage, and 2009, when the decision in favour of the Forsmark site was taken, the path followed was not always a straight line. The boundary conditions, such as the organization of the repository and procedural and safety criteria established by the government, are interesting with regard to their influence on the siting decision, if any. For this reason, the approaches chosen and their connections with government criteria and with geological conditions in Sweden, including their impacts on the repository concept chosen, will be examined. After a summary review of developments in Sweden, filing of the licensing application and the accompanying documents up to commissioning of the repository, a short comparison will be made with the situation in Germany, especially the status reached of the Gorleben salt dome, highlighting and evaluating important criteria and parameters. Sweden as a model is important especially in these respects: A repository site was found by a private company in consensus with the local government within the framework of government criteria, and with ultimate responsibility resting with the government; the local government of a place not winning the siting decision is disappointed although it will have the conditioning plant and receive higher grants; it was not only

  10. Niagara Falls Storage Site environmental surveillance report for calendar year 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    This report summarizes the results of environmental surveillance activities conducted at the Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS) during calendar year 1993. It includes an overview of site operations, the basis for radiological and nonradiological monitoring, a summary of the results, and the estimated dose to the offsite population. Environmental surveillance activities were conducted in accordance with the site environmental monitoring plan, which describes the rationale and design criteria for the surveillance program, the frequency of sampling and analysis, specific sampling and analysis procedures, and quality assurance requirements. NFSS is in compliance with National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) Subpart H of the Clean Air Act as well as the requirements of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) under the Clean Water Act. Located in northwestern New York, the site covers 191 acres. From 1944 to the present, the primary use of NFSS has been storage of radioactive residues that were by-products of uranium production. Most onsite areas of residual radioactivity above regulatory guidelines were remediated during the early 1980s. Additional isolated areas of onsite contamination were remediated in 1989, and the materials were consolidated into the waste containment structure in 1991. Remediation of the site has now been completed

  11. Wayne Interim Storage Site: Annual environmental report for calendar year 1990, Wayne, New Jersey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    Environmental monitoring of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Wayne Interim Storage Site (WISS) (a National Priorities List site) and surrounding area began in 1984. WISS is part of the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP), a DOE program to decontaminate or otherwise control sites where residual radioactive materials remain from the early years of the nation's atomic energy program or from commercial operations causing conditions that Congress has authorized DOE to remedy. The environmental monitoring program at WISS includes sampling networks for radon and thoron concentrations in air; external gamma radiation exposure; and radium-226, thorium-232, and total uranium concentrations in surface water, sediment, and groundwater. Sediment samples were also analyzed for thorium-230, and several nonradiological parameters were measured in groundwater. 16 refs., 12 figs., 23 tabs

  12. An economic analysis of a monitored retrievable storage site for Tennessee. Final report and appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, W.F.; Mayo, J.W.; Hansen, L.T.; Quindry, K.E.

    1985-12-17

    The United States Department of Energy is charged with the task of identifying potential sites for a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) Facility and reporting the results of its analysis to Congress by January 1986. DOE chose three finalist sites from 11 sites DOE analysts evaluated earlier. All three are in Tennessee, including two in Oak Ridge and one in Trousdale/Smith Counties. This paper is a summary of research undertaken on the economic effects of establishing the MRS facility in Tennessee. All three locations were considered in the analysis, but on some occasions attention is focused on the site preferred by DOE. The research was undertaken by the Center for Business and Economic Research (CBER), College of Business Administration, the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, under contract with the Tennessee Department of Economic and Community Development.

  13. An economic analysis of a monitored retrievable storage site for Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, W.F.; Mayo, J.W.; Hansen, L.T.; Quindry, K.E.

    1985-12-17

    The United States Department of Energy is charged with the task of identifying potential sites for a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) Facility and reporting the results of its analysis to Congress by January 1986. DOE chose three finalist sites from 11 sites DOE analysts evaluated earlier. All three are in Tennessee, including two in Oak Ridge and one in Trousdale/Smith Counties. This paper is a summary of research undertaken on the economic effects of establishing the MRS facility in Tennessee. All three locations were considered in the analysis, but on some occasions attention is focused on the site preferred by DOE. The research was undertaken by the Center for Business and Economic Research (CBER), College of Business Administration, the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, under contract with the Tennessee Department of Economic and Community Development.

  14. Finding of no significant impact. Consolidation and interim storage of special nuclear material at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA), DOE/EA -- 1060, for the consolidation, processing, and interim storage of Category I and II special nuclear material (SNM) in Building 371 at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (hereinafter referred to as Rocky Flats or Site), Golden, Colorado. The scope of the EA included alternatives for interim storage including the no action alternative, the construction of a new facility for interim storage at Rocky Flats, and shipment to other DOE facilities for interim storage.

  15. Finding of no significant impact. Consolidation and interim storage of special nuclear material at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA), DOE/EA -- 1060, for the consolidation, processing, and interim storage of Category I and II special nuclear material (SNM) in Building 371 at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (hereinafter referred to as Rocky Flats or Site), Golden, Colorado. The scope of the EA included alternatives for interim storage including the no action alternative, the construction of a new facility for interim storage at Rocky Flats, and shipment to other DOE facilities for interim storage

  16. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 166: Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2009-08-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 166 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as 'Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials' and consists of the following seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Areas 2, 3, 5, and 18 of the Nevada Test Site: CAS 02-42-01, Condo Release Storage Yd - North; CAS 02-42-02, Condo Release Storage Yd - South; CAS 02-99-10, D-38 Storage Area; CAS 03-42-01, Conditional Release Storage Yard; CAS 05-19-02, Contaminated Soil and Drum; CAS 18-01-01, Aboveground Storage Tank; and CAS 18-99-03, Wax Piles/Oil Stain. Closure activities were conducted from March to July 2009 according to the FF ACO (1996, as amended February 2008) and the Corrective Action Plan for CAU 166 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2007b). The corrective action alternatives included No Further Action and Clean Closure. Closure activities are summarized. CAU 166, Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials, consists of seven CASs in Areas 2, 3, 5, and 18 of the NTS. The closure alternatives included No Further Action and Clean Closure. This CR provides a summary of completed closure activities, documentation of waste disposal, and confirmation that remediation goals were met. The following site closure activities were performed at CAU 166 as documented in this CR: (1) At CAS 02-99-10, D-38 Storage Area, approximately 40 gal of lead shot were removed and are currently pending treatment and disposal as MW, and approximately 50 small pieces of DU were removed and disposed as LLW. (2) At CAS 03-42-01, Conditional Release Storage Yard, approximately 7.5 yd{sup 3} of soil impacted with lead and Am-241 were removed and disposed as LLW. As a BMP, approximately 22 ft{sup 3} of asbestos tile were removed from a portable building and disposed as ALLW, approximately 55 gal of oil were drained from accumulators and are currently pending disposal as HW, the portable building was removed and

  17. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 166: Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 166 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as 'Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials' and consists of the following seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Areas 2, 3, 5, and 18 of the Nevada Test Site: CAS 02-42-01, Condo Release Storage Yd - North; CAS 02-42-02, Condo Release Storage Yd - South; CAS 02-99-10, D-38 Storage Area; CAS 03-42-01, Conditional Release Storage Yard; CAS 05-19-02, Contaminated Soil and Drum; CAS 18-01-01, Aboveground Storage Tank; and CAS 18-99-03, Wax Piles/Oil Stain. Closure activities were conducted from March to July 2009 according to the FF ACO (1996, as amended February 2008) and the Corrective Action Plan for CAU 166 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2007b). The corrective action alternatives included No Further Action and Clean Closure. Closure activities are summarized. CAU 166, Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials, consists of seven CASs in Areas 2, 3, 5, and 18 of the NTS. The closure alternatives included No Further Action and Clean Closure. This CR provides a summary of completed closure activities, documentation of waste disposal, and confirmation that remediation goals were met. The following site closure activities were performed at CAU 166 as documented in this CR: (1) At CAS 02-99-10, D-38 Storage Area, approximately 40 gal of lead shot were removed and are currently pending treatment and disposal as MW, and approximately 50 small pieces of DU were removed and disposed as LLW. (2) At CAS 03-42-01, Conditional Release Storage Yard, approximately 7.5 yd 3 of soil impacted with lead and Am-241 were removed and disposed as LLW. As a BMP, approximately 22 ft 3 of asbestos tile were removed from a portable building and disposed as ALLW, approximately 55 gal of oil were drained from accumulators and are currently pending disposal as HW, the portable building was removed and disposed as LLW, and

  18. Method of impact evaluation of storage sites for uranium ore tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Servant, A.C.; Cessac, B.

    2001-11-01

    Mining and ore processing generate liquid effluents and solid waste ( tailings) in important quantities. On fifty years exploitation, 50 millions tons of tailings have been stored on twenty sites in France. From a radiological point of view, the uranium tailings contain only natural radioisotopes, daughters of 238 U and 235 U families and for a low part daughter's of 232 Th family. Their activity stay low to very low, under the ore activity. It decreases very slowly because of the long period of some radionuclides ( 230 Th, 75 000 years, 226 Ra, 1600 years). generally stored on the exploitation site, these tailings constitute a radiological source term of which it is necessary to evaluate the impact on man and environment. At close-down of an uranium ore exploitation site, the operator is required to give to the prefect of his region a file of rehabilitation with the dispositions to take to limit the radiological impact of the storage. It is in this frame that the direction of pollutions and risks prevention (D.P.P.R.) from the Minister of Territory landscaping and the Institute of protection and nuclear safety (I.R.S.N.) established a convention, reference 56/2000, relative to investigations in matter of radiological impact evaluation of uranium tailings storage sites, in order to supply a document allowing to judge the pertinence of the different files made by Cogema in the frame of tailings storage of uranium ore processing. The present document constitutes the report planned at the 3. article ( 3. paragraph) of the convention. It gives the information necessary to the evaluation of impact studies for the sites in question. (N.C.)

  19. Environmental audit of the Maywood Site: Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, Maywood Interim Storage Site vicinity properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    This report presents the results of the Environmental Audit of the Maywood Site managed by the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). The Audit was carried out from November 7 through 16, 1990. The Audit Team found overall technical competence and knowledge of management and staff to be excellent. This applies to DOE as well as to Bechtel National, Incorporated (BNI). In particular, there was excellent knowledge of federal, state, and local environmental regulations, as well as analysis for applicability of these regulations to FUSRAP. Project management of the Maywood Site is also excellent. BNI and DOE project staff have made frequent contact with members of the community, and all removal actions and remedial investigation activities have been planned, scheduled, and accomplished with competence and attention to total quality principles. To date, all actions taken for the Maywood Site cleanup have been completed ahead of schedule and on or under budget. Weakness noted include self-assessment efforts by DOE, failure to fully implement DOE Order requirements throughout the program, and some discrepancies in formally documenting and reviewing procedures. 7 figs., 10 tabs.

  20. Comparing CO2 Storage and Advection Conditions at Night at Different Carboeuroflux Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubinet, M.; Berbigier, P.; Bernhofer, Ch.; et al.

    Anemometer and CO2 concentration data from temporary campaigns performed at six CARBOEUROFLUX forest sites were used to estimate the importance of non-turbulent fluxes in nighttime conditions. While storage was observed to be significant only during periods of both low turbulence and low advection, the advective fluxes strongly influence the nocturnal CO2 balance, with the exception of almost flat and highly homogeneous sites. On the basis of the main factors determining the onset of advective fluxes, the ‘advection velocity’, which takes net radiation and local topography into account, was introduced as a criterion to characterise the conditions of storage enrichment/depletion. Comparative analyses of the six sites showed several common features of the advective fluxes but also some substantial differences. In particular, all sites where advection occurs show the onset of a boundary layer characterised by a downslope flow, negative vertical velocities and negative vertical CO2 concentration gradients during nighttime. As a consequence, vertical advection was observed to be positive at all sites, which corresponds to a removal of CO2 from the ecosystem. The main differences between sites are the distance from the ridge, which influences the boundary-layer depth, and the sign of the mean horizontal CO2 concentration gradients, which is probably determined by the source/sink distribution. As a consequence, both positive and negative horizontal advective fluxes (corresponding respectively to CO2 removal from the ecosystem and to CO2 supply to the ecosystem) were observed. Conclusive results on the importance of non-turbulent components in the mass balance require, however, further experimental investigations at sites with different topographies, slopes, different land covers, which would allow a more comprehensive analysis of the processes underlying the occurrence of advective fluxes. The quantification of these processes would help to better quantify nocturnal

  1. Social Site Characterisation for CO2 storage operations to inform public engagement in Poland and Scotland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunsting, S.; Pol, M.; Mastop, J. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands); Kaiser, M.; Zimmer, R. [UfU - Independent Institute for Environmental Issues, Berlin (Germany); Shackley, S.; Mabon, L.; Howell, R. [The University of Edinburgh - School of Geosciences, Edinburgh, Scotland (United Kingdom); Hepplewhite, F.; Loveridge, R. [Scottish Government, Edinburgh, Scotland (United Kingdom); Mazurowski, M. [PGNiG - Polskie Gornictwo Naftowe i Gazownictwo SA, Warszawa (Poland); Rybicki, C. [AGH - University of Science and Technology, Krakow (Poland)

    2013-05-01

    Public support has proven crucial to the implementation of CO2 capture and storage (CCS) demonstration projects. Whereas no method exists to guarantee local public acceptability of any project, a constructive stakeholder engagement process does increase the likelihood thereof. Social site characterisation can be used as an instrument to plan and evaluate an approach for actively engaging local stakeholders. Social site characterisation is the process of repeatedly investigating local public awareness and opinions of a specific CCS project, changes therein over time, and underlying factors shaping public opinion as a parallel activity to technical site characterization. This paper presents results from the EU FP7 SiteChar project in which social site characterisation (a.o. surveys) and public participation activities (focus conferences) were conducted by a multidisciplinary team at two prospective CCS sites in in Poland (onshore) and Scotland (offshore). Results demonstrate that social site characterization and focus conferences are powerful tools to raise public awareness about complex issues such as CCS and to initiate local discussion and planning processes with the appropriate type of information, through appropriate media, and involving all relevant stakeholders. Application and the duration of effects in real-life project settings will be discussed.

  2. Corrosion surveillance program of aluminum spent fuel elements in wet storage sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linardi, E; Haddad, R

    2012-01-01

    Due to different degradation issues observed in aluminum-clad spent fuel during long term storage in water, the IAEA implemented in 1996 a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) and a Regional Project for Latin America, on Corrosion of Research Reactor Aluminum Clad Spent Fuel in Water. Argentine has been among the participant countries of these projects, carrying out spent fuel corrosion surveillance activities in its storage facilities. As a result of the research a large database on corrosion of aluminum-clad fuel has been generated. It was determined that the main types of corrosion affecting the spent fuel are pitting and galvanic corrosion due to contact with stainless steel. It was concluded that the quality of the water is the critical factor to control in a spent fuel storage facility. Another phase of the program is being conducted currently, which began in 2011 with the immersion of test racks in the RA1 reactor pool, and in the Research Reactor Spent Fuel Storage Facility (FACIRI), located in Ezeiza Atomic Center. This paper presents the results of the chemical analysis of the water performed so far, and its relationship with the examination of the coupons extracted from the sites (author)

  3. Analysis of the interim safe storage of reactors at the Hanford site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hailiang

    2014-01-01

    The nine production reactors, i.e. B, C, D, DR, F, H, KE, KW and N, at the Hanford site are all water-cooled and graphite-moderated reactors with natural uranium fuel. In 1993, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) decided to put eight production reactors (except for B) into Interim Safe Storage (ISS) for 75 years followed by deferred one-piece removal. Reactor B will remain as a national historical landmark. By the end of 2013, six reactors C, F, D, DR, H and N had been successfully put into the ISS. Reactors KE and KW will be put into the ISS in the coming years. Taking reactor C as an example, this paper mainly talks about how to put the production reactors in the Interim Safe Storage, e.g. how to make site preparation, how to construct the safe storage enclosure (SSE) and how to perform surveillance and maintenance during the ISS period, etc. (authors)

  4. Siting-selection study for the Soyland Power Cooperative, Inc. , compressed-air energy-storage system (CAES)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    A method used for siting a compressed air energy storage (CAES) system using geotechnical and environmental criteria is explained using the siting of a proposed 220 MW water-compensated CAES plant in Illinois as an example. Information is included on the identification and comparative ranking of 28 geotechnically and environmental sites in Illinois, the examination of fatal flaws, e.g., mitigation, intensive studies, costly studies, permit denials, at 7 sites; and the selection of 3 sites for further geological surveying. (LCL)

  5. On-site storage of high level nuclear waste: attitudes and perceptions of local residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, G W; Jenkins-Smith, H C; Silva, C

    1996-06-01

    No public policy issue has been as difficult as high-level nuclear waste. Debates continue regarding Yucca Mountain as a disposal site, and-more generally-the appropriateness of geologic disposal and the need to act quickly. Previous research has focused on possible social, political, and economic consequences of a facility in Nevada. Impacts have been predicted to be potentially large and to emanate mainly from stigmatization of the region due to increased perceptions of risk. Analogous impacts from leaving waste at power plants have been either ignored or assumed to be negligible. This paper presents survey results on attitudes of residents in three counties where nuclear waste is currently stored. Topics include perceived risk, knowledge of nuclear waste and radiation, and impacts on jobs, tourism, and housing values from leaving waste on site. Results are similar to what has been reported for Nevada; the public is concerned about possible adverse effects from on-site storage of waste.

  6. Safety and optimization aspects of radioactive waste long-term storage at the ''Vector'' site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokarevs'kij, O.V.; Kondrat'jev, S.M.; Aleksjejeva, Z.M.; Ribalka, N.V.

    2015-01-01

    The paper analyzes links between the final disposal option and needs for long-term storage of radioactive waste taking into proposals on possible changes in radwaste classification as regards disposal. It considers the conceptual approach to design facilities for long-term storage of long-lived radioactive waste at the Vector site and approaches to apply requirements of regulatory documents, radiation safety principles and criteria for long-term storage of radwaste and safety assessment.

  7. Niagara falls storage site: Annual site environmental report, Lewiston, New York, Calendar Year 1988: Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-04-01

    The monitoring program at the Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS) measures radon concentrations in air; external gamma radiation levels; and uranium and radium concentrations in surface water, groundwater, and sediment. To verify that the site is in compliance with the DOE radiation protection standard and to assess its potential effect on public health, the radiation dose was calculated for a hypothetical maximally exposed individual. Based on the conservative scenario described in this report, this hypothetical individual receives an annual external exposure approximately equivalent to 6 percent of the DOE radiation protection standard of 100 mrem/yr. This exposure is less than a person receives during two round-trip flights from New York to Los Angeles (because of the greater amounts of cosmic radiation at higher altitudes). The cumulative dose to the population within an 80-km (50-mi) radius of the NFSS that results from radioactive materials present at the site is indistinguishable from the dose that the same population receives from naturally occurring radioactive sources. Results of the 1988 monitoring show that the NFSS is in compliance with applicable DOE radiation protection standards. 17 refs., 31 figs., 20 tabs

  8. Site selection experience for a new low-level radioactive waste storage/disposal facility at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Towler, O.A.; Cook, J.R.; Helton, B.D.

    1985-10-01

    Preliminary performance criteria and site selection guides specific to the Savannah River Plant, were developed for a new low-level radioactive waste storage/disposal facility. These site selection guides were applied to seventeen potential sites identified at SRP. The potential site were ranked based on how well they met a set of characteristics considered important in site selection for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. The characteristics were given a weighting factor representing its relative importance in meeting site performance criteria. A candidate site was selected and will be the subject of a site characterization program

  9. Effects of CO2 gas as leaks from geological storage sites on agro-ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patil, Ravi; Colls, Jeremy J; Steven, Michael D

    2010-01-01

    Carbon capture and storage in geological formations has potential risks in the long-term safety because of the possibility of CO2 leakage. Effects of leaking gas, therefore, on vegetation, soil, and soil-inhabiting organisms are critical to understand. An artificial soil gassing and response...... detection field facility developed at the University of Nottingham was used to inject CO2 gas at a controlled flow rate (1 l min-1) into soil to simulate build-up of soil CO2 concentrations and surface fluxes from two land use types: pasture grassland, and fallow followed by winter bean. Mean soil CO2....... This study showed adverse effects of CO2 gas on agro-ecosystem in case of leakage from storage sites to surface....

  10. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 121: Storage Tanks and Miscellaneous Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-01-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan identifies the activities required for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 121, Storage Tanks and Miscellaneous Sites. CAU 121 is currently listed in Appendix III of the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO, 1996) and consists of three Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Area 12 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS): CAS 12-01-01, Aboveground Storage Tank; CAS 12-01-02, Aboveground Storage Tank; and CAS 12-22-26, Drums; 2 AST's. CASs 12-01-01 and 12-01-02 are located to the west of the Area 12 Camp, and CAS 12-22-26 is located near the U-12g Tunnel, also known as G-tunnel, in Area 12 (Figure 1). The aboveground storage tanks (ASTs) present at CASs 12-01-01 and 12-01-02 will be removed and disposed of at an appropriate facility. Soil below the ASTs will be sampled to identify whether it has been impacted with chemicals or radioactivity above action levels. If impacted soil above action levels is present, the soil will be excavated and disposed of at an appropriate facility. The CAS 12-22-26 site is composed of two overlapping areas, one where drums had formerly been stored, and the other where an AST was used to dispense diesel for locomotives used at G-tunnel. This area is located above an underground radioactive materials area (URMA), and within an area that may have elevated background radioactivity because of containment breaches during nuclear tests and associated tunnel reentry operations. CAS 12-22-26 does not include the URMA or the elevated background radioactivity. An AST that had previously been used to store liquid magnesium chloride (MgCl) was properly disposed of several years ago, and releases from this tank are not an environmental concern. The diesel AST will be removed and disposed of at an appropriate facility. Soil at the former drum area and the diesel AST area will be sampled to identify whether it has been impacted by releases, from the drums or the

  11. The potential of near-surface geophysical methods in a hierarchical monitoring approach for the detection of shallow CO2 seeps at geological storage sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, U.; Schuetze, C.; Dietrich, P.

    2013-12-01

    The MONACO project (Monitoring approach for geological CO2 storage sites using a hierarchic observation concept) aims to find reliable monitoring tools that work on different spatial and temporal scales at geological CO2 storage sites. This integrative hierarchical monitoring approach based on different levels of coverage and resolutions is proposed as a means of reliably detecting CO2 degassing areas at ground surface level and for identifying CO2 leakages from storage formations into the shallow subsurface, as well as CO2 releases into the atmosphere. As part of this integrative hierarchical monitoring concept, several methods and technologies from ground-based remote sensing (Open-path Fourier-transform infrared (OP-FTIR) spectroscopy), regional measurements (near-surface geophysics, chamber-based soil CO2 flux measurement) and local in-situ measurements (using shallow boreholes) will either be combined or used complementary to one another. The proposed combination is a suitable concept for investigating CO2 release sites. This also presents the possibility of adopting a modular monitoring concept whereby our monitoring approach can be expanded to incorporate other methods in various coverage scales at any temporal resolution. The link between information obtained from large-scale surveys and local in-situ monitoring can be realized by sufficient geophysical techniques for meso-scale monitoring, such as geoelectrical and self-potential (SP) surveys. These methods are useful for characterizing fluid flow and transport processes in permeable near-surface sedimentary layers and can yield important information concerning CO2-affected subsurface structures. Results of measurements carried out a natural analogue site in the Czech Republic indicate that the hierarchical monitoring approach represents a successful multidisciplinary modular concept that can be used to monitor both physical and chemical processes taking place during CO2 migration and seepage. The

  12. Carbon storage as affected by different site preparation techniques two years after mixed forest stand installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, F.; Figueiredo, T. de; Martins, A.

    2014-06-01

    Aim of study: This study aims at evaluating the impact of site preparation techniques prior to plantation on carbon storage and distribution in a young mixed stand of Pseudotsuga menziesii (PM) and Castanea sativa (CS). Area of study: The experimental field was established near Macedo de Cavaleiros, Northern Portugal, at 700 m elevation, mean annual temperature 12 degree centigrade and mean annual rainfall 678 mm. Material and methods: The experimental layout includes three replicates, where the different treatments corresponding to different tillage intensities were randomly distributed (high, moderate and slight intensity), in plots with an area of 375 m{sup 2} each. Twenty six months after forest stand installation, samples of herbaceous vegetation (0.49 m{sup 2} quadrat), forest species (8 PM and 8 CS) and mineral soil (at 0-5, 5-15, 15-30 and 30-60 cm depth) were collected in 15 randomly selected points in each treatment, processed in laboratory and analyzed for carbon by elemental carbon analyzer. Main results: The results obtained showed that: (i) more than 90% of the total carbon stored in the system is located in the soil, increasing in depth with tillage intensity; (ii) the contribution of herbaceous vegetation and related roots to the carbon storage is very low; (iii) the amount of carbon per tree is higher in CS than in PM; (iv) the global carbon storage was affected by soil tillage generally decreasing with the increase of tillage intensity. Accordingly, carbon storage capacity as affected by the application of different site preparation techniques should be a decision support tool in afforestation schemes. (Author)

  13. The Cigeo project: an industrial storage site for radioactive wastes in deep underground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieguer, Jean-Marie

    2017-01-01

    In 2006, France has decided to store its high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes, mostly issued from the nuclear industry, in a deep geological underground disposal site. This document presents the Cigeo project, a deep underground disposal site (located in the East of France) for such radioactive wastes, which construction is to be started in 2021 (subject to authorization in 2018). After a brief historical review of the project, started 20 years ago, the document presents the radioactive waste disposal context, the ethical choice of underground storage (in France and elsewhere) for these types of radioactive wastes, the disposal site safety and financing aspects, the progressive development of the underground facilities and, of most importance, its reversibility. In a second part, the various works around the site are presented (transport, buildings, water and power supply, etc.) together with a description of the various radioactive wastes (high and intermediate level and long-lived wastes and their packaging) that will be disposed in the site. The different steps of the project are then reviewed (the initial design and initial construction phases, the pilot industrial phase (expected in 2030), the operating phase, and the ultimate phases that will consist in the definitive closure of the site and its monitoring), followed by an extensive description of the various installations of surface and underground facilities, their architecture and their equipment

  14. Hazelwood Interim Storage Site environmental surveillance report for calendar year 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    This report summarizes the results of environmental surveillance activities conducted at the Hazelwood Interim Storage Site (HISS) during calendar year 1993. It includes an overview of site operations, the basis for monitoring for radioactive and non-radioactive parameters, summaries of environmental program at HISS, a summary of the results, and the calculated hypothetical radiation dose to the offsite population. Environmental surveillance activities were conducted in accordance with the site environmental monitoring plan, which describes the rationale and design criteria for the surveillance program, the frequency of sampling and analysis, specific sampling and analysis procedures, and quality assurance requirements. The US Department of Energy (DOE) began environmental monitoring of HISS in 1984, when the site was assigned to DOE by Congress through the energy and Water Development Appropriations Act and subsequent to DOE's Formerly Utilized Sites Remediation Action Program (FUSRAP). Contamination at HISS originated from uranium processing work conducted at Mallinckrodt Chemical Works at the St. Louis Downtown Site (SLDS) from 1942 through 1957

  15. Colonie Interim Storage Site environmental surveillance report for calendar year 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    This report summarizes the results of environmental surveillance activities conducted at the Colonie Interim Storage Site (CISS) during calendar year 1993. It includes an overview of site operations, the basis for radiological and nonradiological monitoring, dose to the offsite population, and summaries of environmental programs at CISS. Environmental surveillance activities were conducted in accordance with the site environmental monitoring plan, which describes the rationale and design criteria for the surveillance program, the frequency of sampling and analysis, specific sampling and analysis procedures, and quality assurance requirements. Appendix A contains a discussion of the nature of radiation, the way it is measured, and common sources of it. The primary environmental guidelines and limits applicable to CISS are given in US Department of Energy (DOE) orders and mandated by six federal acts: the Clean Air Act; the Clean Water Act; the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA); the Toxic Substances Control Act; the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA); and the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). DOE began environmental monitoring of CISS in 1984 when DOE was authorized by Congress through the Energy and Water Development Appropriations Act to conduct a decontamination research and development program at the site. The site was subsequently assigned to DOE's Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP)

  16. Housekeeping Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 119: Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order was entered into by the State of Nevada, US Department of Energy, and US Department of Defense to identify sites of potential historical contamination and implement corrective actions based on public health and environmental considerations. The facilities subject to this agreement include the Nevada Test Site (NTS), parts of the Tonopah Test Range, parts to the Nellis Air Force Range, the Central Nevada Test Area, and the Project Shoal Area. Corrective Action Sites (CASs) are areas potentially requiring corrective actions and may include solid waste management units, individual disposal, or release sites. Based on geography, technical similarity, agency responsibility, or other appropriate reasons, CASs are grouped together into Corrective Action Units (CAUs) for the purpose of determining appropriate corrective actions. This report contains the Closure Verification Forms for cleanup activities that were performed at 19 CASs with in CAU 119 on the NTS. The form for each CAS provides the location, directions to the site, general description, and photographs of the site before and after cleanup activities. Activities included verification of the prior removal of both aboveground and underground gas/oil storage tanks, gas sampling tanks, pressure fuel tanks, tank stands, trailers, debris, and other material. Based on these former activities, no further action is required at these CASs

  17. Hazelwood Interim Storage Site, Hazelwood, Missouri: Annual site environmental report, Calendar year 1987: Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-04-01

    The monitoring program at the HISS measures radon concentrations in air; external gamma radiation levels; and uranium, radium, and thorium concentrations in surface water, groundwater, and sediment. To verify that the site is in compliance with the DOE radiation protection standard (100 mrem/yr) and assess its potential effect on public health, the radiation dose was calculated for the maximally exposed individual. Based on the scenario described in this report, the maximally exposed individual at the HISS would receive an annual external exposure approximately equivalent to 1 percent of the DOE radiation protection standard of 100 mrem/yr. This exposure is less than the exposure a person would receive during a round-trip flight from New York to Los Angeles (because of the greater amounts of cosmic radiation at higher altitudes). The cumulative dose to the population within an 80-km (50-mi) radius of the HISS that would result from radioactive materials present at the site would be indistinguishable from the dose that the same population would receive from naturally occurring radioactive sources. The results of 1987 monitoring show that the HISS is in compliance with the DOE radiation protection standard. 12 refs., 6 figs., 11 tabs

  18. Colonie Interim Storage Site: Annual site environmental report, Colonie, New York, Calendar year 1986: Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    During 1986, the environmental monitoring program continued at the Colonie Interim Storage Site (CISS), a US Department of Energy (DOE) facility located in Colonie, New York. The CISS is part of the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP), a DOE program to decontaminate or otherwise control sites where residual radioactive materials remain from the early years of the nation's atomic energy program or from commercial operations causing conditions that Congress has mandated DOE to remedy. As part of the decontamination research and development project authorized by Congress under the 1984 Energy and Water Appropriations Act, remedial action is being conducted at the site and at vicinity properties by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI), Project Management Contractor for FUSRAP. The environmental monitoring program is also carried out by BNI. The monitoring program at the CISS measures external gamma radiation levels as well as uranium and radium-226 concentrations in surface water, groundwater, and sediment. To verify that the site is in compliance with the DOE radiation protection standard and to assess the potential effect of the site on public health, the radiation dose was calculated for the maximally exposed individual. Based on the conservative scenario described in the report, the maximally exposed individual would receive an annual external exposure approximately equivalent to 5% of the DOE radiation protection standard of 100 mrem/y. Results of 1986 monitoring show that the CISS is in compliance with the DOE radiation protection standard. 14 refs., 9 figs., 9 tabs

  19. Surface decontamination in the old storage shed number 99 of the General Plan of IPEN/CNEN-SP, containing production equipment of natural uranium hexafluoride (UF6), aiming at its decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Claudio C. de; Cambises, Paulo B.S.; Paiva, Julio E. de; Paiva, Julio E. de; Silva, Teresina M.; Rodrigues, Demerval L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the steps adopted in the operation planned for the decontamination of surfaces in the old storage shed number 99 the general layout of the Energy Research and Nuclear IPEN-CNEN/SP, Brazil, and contained various types of equipment originating from production hexafluoride natural uranium (UF6). This operation involved the planning, training of operators of the facility, analysis of workplaces and radiometric surveys for monitoring of external radiation and surface contamination. The training involved the procedures for decontamination of surfaces, segregation of materials and practical procedures for individual monitoring of contamination outside of the body. Were also established rules for the transport of radioactive materials in the internal and external facility and release of material and sites already decontaminated

  20. Silver Niobate Lead-Free Antiferroelectric Ceramics: Enhancing Energy Storage Density by B-Site Doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Gao, Jing; Liu, Qing; Zhang, Shujun; Li, Jing-Feng

    2018-01-10

    Lead-free dielectric ceramics with high recoverable energy density are highly desired to sustainably meet the future energy demand. AgNbO 3 -based lead-free antiferroelectric ceramics with double ferroelectric hysteresis loops have been proved to be potential candidates for energy storage applications. Enhanced energy storage performance with recoverable energy density of 3.3 J/cm 3 and high thermal stability with minimal energy density variation (<10%) over a temperature range of 20-120 °C have been achieved in W-modified AgNbO 3 ceramics. It is revealed that the W 6+ cations substitute the B-site Nb 5+ and reduce the polarizability of B-site cations, leading to the enhanced antiferroelectricity, which is confirmed by the polarization hysteresis and dielectric tunability. It is believed that the polarizability of B-site cations plays a dominant role in stabilizing the antiferroelectricity in AgNbO 3 system, in addition to the tolerance factor, which opens up a new design approach to achieve stable antiferroelectric materials.

  1. Niagara Falls Storage Site environmental report for calendar year 1989, Lewiston, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-05-01

    The environmental monitoring program, which began in 1981, was continued during 1989 at the Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS), a United States Department of Energy (DOE) surplus facility located in Niagara County, New York, that is currently used for interim storage of radioactive residues, contaminated soils, and rubble. The monitoring program is being conducted by Bechtel National, Inc. The monitoring program at NFSS measures radon concentrations in air; external gamma radiation levels; and uranium and radium concentrations in surface water, groundwater, and sediment. Additionally, several nonradiological parameters are measured in groundwater. To verify that the site is in compliance with the DOE radiation protection standard and to assess its potential effect on public health, the radiation dose was calculated for a hypothetical maximally exposed individual. Based on the conservative scenario described in this report, this hypothetical individual receives an annual external exposure equivalent to approximately 2 percent of the DOE radiation protection standard of 100 mrem/yr. This exposure is less than a person receives during a one-way flight from New York to Los Angeles (because of the greater amounts of cosmic radiation at higher altitudes). The cumulative dose to the population within an 80-km (50-mi) radius of NFSS that results from radioactive materials present at the site is indistinguishable from the dose that the same population receives from naturally occurring radioactive sources. Results of the 1989 monitoring show that NFSS is in compliance with applicable DOE radiation protection standards. 18 refs., 26 figs., 18 tabs

  2. The Niagara Falls Storage Site Remedial Action Project. Status update and summary of special features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, L.F.; Coxon, G.D.

    1986-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its Project Management Contractor, Bechtel National, Inc., are conducting remedial action at the Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS) near Lewiston, New York to stabilize low-level radioactive wastes stored at the site and to decontaminate over two dozen contaminated vicinity properties. Over the past 4 years a 10-acre interim waste containment facility has been developed at the site to hold the approximately 250,000 yd/sup 3/ of contaminated soil and rubble from the cleanup operations. Several existing buildings were demolished or modified for burial inside the containment area. In addition, residues inside a 165-ft-high concrete tower were transferred to one of the buildings inside the containment area using hydraulic mining techniques. The residues were dewatered and covered with clay to minimize radom emanation; the tower was demolished and the rubble disposed of in the containment area. Environmental monitoring will continue throughout the interim storage period. In addition, the surface and subsurface condition of the containment structure will be monitored to ensure that undesirable trends are detected in time for corrective action to be taken. The DOE Record of Decision on the long-term disposition of the NFSS is expected to be made by the end of April, 1986

  3. Spent-fuel storage - MRS and/or on-site?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuierer, A.A.

    1991-01-01

    The US government through the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is seeking by the use of an authorized negotiator a site for a monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility. Based on a public information document provided by the office of the negotiator, the MRS will be an integral part of the federal system for safe and permanent disposal of the nation's high-level radioactive wastes. It is planned that the MRS will accept and store spent fuel above ground until a repository opens and spent fuel that has been stored is shipped from the MRS to the repository. Additional spent fuel stored at reactor sites will be shipped to the MRS, which will be used as a staging area to assemble dedicated trains for shipment to the repository. The intent of the MRS is to reduce utilities' needs to expand on-site storage of spent fuel. A utility viewpoint may emphasize an alternate set of priorities. The waste management system must be considered as an overall system involving both the utility and DOE that begins with the first discharge of spent nuclear fuel from a commercial reactor and ends with high-level waste in a final repository. Many studies have been made on individual components of a waste system. This study, with the benefit of past hands-on experience as a guide, looks at costs and reliability for a total system concept with particular emphasis on the interface between the utility and Department of Energy

  4. Priority and construction sites of water storage in a watershed in response to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cheng-Yu; Zhang, Wen-Yan; Lin, Chao-Yuan

    2014-05-01

    Taiwan is located at the Eastern Asia Monsoon climate zone. Typhoons and/or convectional rains occur frequently and result in high intensity storms in the summer season. Once the detention facilities are shortage or soil infiltration rate become worse in a watershed due to land use, surface runoff is easily to concentrate and threaten the protected areas. Therefore, it is very important to examine the functionality of water storage for a watershed. The purpose of this study is to solve the issue of flooding in the Puzi Creek. A case study of Yizen Bridge Watershed, in which the SCS curve number was used as an index to extract the spatial distribution of the strength of water storage, and the value of watershed mean CN along the main channel was calculated using area-weighting method. Therefore, the hotspot management sites were then derived and the priority method was applied to screen the depression sites for the reference of management authorities in detention ponds placement. The results show that the areas of subzone A with the characteristics of bad condition in topography and soil, which results in poor infiltration. However, the areas are mostly covered with forest and are difficult to create the artificial water storage facilities. Detention dams are strongly recommended at the site of depression in the river channel to decrease discharge velocity and reduce impact from flood disaster. The areas of subzone B are mainly located at the agriculture slope land. The topographic depressions in the farmland are the suitable places to construct the farm ponds for the use of flood detention and sediment deposition in the rainy seasons and irrigation in the dry seasons. Areas of subzone C are mainly occupied the gentle slope land with a better ability in water storage due to low CN value. Farm ponds constructed in the riparian to bypass the nearby river channel can create multifunctional wetland to effectively decrease the peak discharge in the downstream during

  5. Geochemical information for sites contaminated with low-level radioactive wastes: II. St. Louis Airport Storage Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeley, F.G.; Kelmers, A.D.

    1985-01-01

    The St. Louis Airport Storage Site (SLASS) became radioactively contaminated as a result of wastes that were being stored from operations to recover uranium from pitchblende ores in the 1940s and 1950s. The US Department of Energy is considering various remedial action options for the SLASS under the Formerly Utilized Site Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). This report describes the results of geochemical investigations, carried out to support the FUSRAP activities and to aid in quantifying various remedial action options. Soil and groundwater samples from the site were characterized, and sorption ratios for uranium and radium and apparent concentration limit values for uranium were measured in soil/groundwater systems by batch contact methodology. The uranium and radium concentrations in soil samples were significantly above background near the old contaminated surface horizon (now at the 0.3 - to 0.9 - m depth); the maximum values were 1566 μg/g and 101 pCi/g, respectively. Below about the 6 - m depth, the concentrations appeared to be typical of those naturally present in soils of this area (3.8 +- 1.2 μg/g and 3.1 +- 0.6 pCi/g). Uranium sorption ratios showed stratigraphic trends but were generally moderate to high (100 to 1000 L/kg). The sorption isotherm suggested an apparent uranium concentration limit of about 200 mg/L. This relatively high solubility can probably be correlated with the carbonate content of the soil/groundwater systems. The lower sorption ratio values obtained from the sorption isotherm may have resulted from changes in the experimental procedure or the groundwater used. The SLASS appears to exhibit generally favorable behavior for the retardation of uranium solubilized from waste in the site. Parametric tests were conducted to estimate the sensitivity of uranium sorption and solubility to the pH and carbonate content of the system

  6. Risk assessment-led characterisation of the SiteChar UK north sea site for the geological storage of CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhurst, Maxine; Hannis, Sarah D.; Quinn, Martyn F.; Long, David; Shi, Ji-Quan; Koenen, Marielle; Pluymaekers, Maarten; Delprat-Jannaud, Florence; Lecomte, Jean-Claude; Bossie-Codreanu, Daniel; Nagy, Stanislaw; Klimkowski, Lukas; Gei, Davide

    2015-01-01

    Risk assessment-led characterisation of a site for the geological storage of CO 2 in the UK northern North Sea was performed for the EU SiteChar research project as one of a portfolio of sites. Implementation and testing of the SiteChar project site characterisation work-flow has produced a 'dry-run' storage permit application that is compliant with regulatory requirements. A site suitable for commercial-scale storage was characterised, compatible with current and future industrial carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) sources in the northern UK. Pre-characterisation of the site, based on existing information acquired during hydrocarbon exploration and production, has been achieved from publicly available data. The project concept is to store captured CO 2 at a rate of 5 Mt per year for 20 years in the Blake Oil Field and surrounding Captain Sandstone saline aquifer. This commercial-scale storage of 100 Mt CO 2 can be achieved through a storage scenario combining injection of CO 2 into the oil field and concurrent water production down-dip of the field. There would be no encroachment of supercritical phase CO 2 for more than two kilometres beyond the field boundary and no adverse influence on operating hydrocarbon fields provided there is pressure management. Components of a storage permit application for the site are presented, developed as far as possible within a research project. Characterisation and technical investigations were guided by an initial assessment of perceived risks to the prospective site and a need to provide the information required for the storage permit application. The emphasis throughout was to reduce risks and uncertainty on the subsurface containment of stored CO 2 , particularly with respect to site technical performance, monitoring and regulatory issues, and effects on other resources. The results of selected risk assessment-led site characterisation investigations and the subsequent risk reassessments are described together with their

  7. Description of INR-Pitesti own strategy for on site radioactive solid waste storage concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuturici, I.L.; Toma, V.; Bujoreanu, D.; Prava, M.

    1993-01-01

    The Post Irradiation Examination Laboratory (PIEL) produces and will produce the majority of institute's alpha-contaminated solid radioactive waste, generated by the process of examination of irradiated CANDU-600 type nuclear fuel. The wastes will be divided into three categories: low-level, medium-level, and high-level general process trash (LLGPT, MLGPT, and HLGPT). The paper describes the strategy adopted for immobilization, conditioning and on-site long-term storage of these wastes. The proposed strategy is based on the best experience acquired by other nuclear centers, confronted with same problems. (Author)

  8. Geological characterization of CO{sub 2} storage sites: lessons from Sleipner, Northern North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.A. Chadwick; P. Zweigel; U. Gregersen; G.A. Kirby; S. Holloway; P.N. Johannessen [British Geological Survey, Keyworth (United Kingdom). Kingsley Dunham Centre

    2003-07-01

    The paper aims to draw some generic conclusions on reservoir characterization based on the Sleipner operation in the North Sea where CO{sub 2} is being injected into the Utsira Sand, a saline aquifer. Regional mapping and petrophysical characterization of the reservoir, based on 2D seismic and well data, enable gross storage potential to be evaluated. Site specific injection studies, however, require precision depth mapping based on 3D seismic data and detailed knowledge of reservoir stratigraphy. Stratigraphical and structural permeability barriers, difficult to detect prior to CO{sub 2} injection, can radically affect CO{sub 2} migration within the aquifer. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  9. Polyvalent intermediate storage: first step in the cleaning of the Cogema Marcoule site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabe, J.M. [Cogema, 30 - Marcoule (France); Seurat, Ph. [Societe Generale pour les Techniques Nouvelles, SGN, 30 - Bagnols sur Ceze (France)

    1998-07-01

    Cleaning operations of Marcoule site consist, beside the permanent stop and the dismantling of the Cogema 's nuclear fuel reprocessing plant U.P.1., in assuring waste retaking and conditioning not dispatched to C.S.M., for the moment stored on production or pretreatment facilities, under a stabilized form. The Polyvalent Intermediate Storage (E.I.P.) receives preconditioned waste before treatment and reconditioning, receives storing over about 50 years conditioned waste before a permanent repository. Its main function is to wait for the construction of long term repository. (N.C.)

  10. Polyvalent intermediate storage: first step in the cleaning of the Cogema Marcoule site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabe, J.M.; Seurat, Ph.

    1998-01-01

    Cleaning operations of Marcoule site consist, beside the permanent stop and the dismantling of the Cogema 's nuclear fuel reprocessing plant U.P.1., in assuring waste retaking and conditioning not dispatched to C.S.M., for the moment stored on production or pretreatment facilities, under a stabilized form. The Polyvalent Intermediate Storage (E.I.P.) receives preconditioned waste before treatment and reconditioning, receives storing over about 50 years conditioned waste before a permanent repository. Its main function is to wait for the construction of long term repository. (N.C.)

  11. Design report for the interim waste containment facility at the Niagara Falls Storage Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    Low-level radioactive residues from pitchblende processing and thorium- and radium-contaminated sand, soil, and building rubble are presently stored at the Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS) in Lewiston, New York. These residues and wastes derive from past NFSS operations and from similar operations at other sites in the United States conducted during the 1940s by the Manhattan Engineer District (MED) and subsequently by the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). The US Department of Energy (DOE), successor to MED/AEC, is conducting remedial action at the NFSS under two programs: on-site work under the Surplus Facilities Managemnt Program and off-site cleanup of vicinity properties under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. On-site remedial action consists of consolidating the residues and wastes within a designated waste containment area and constructing a waste containment facility to prevent contaminant migration. The service life of the system is 25 to 50 years. Near-term remedial action construction activities will not jeopardize or preclude implementation of any other remedial action alternative at a later date. Should DOE decide to extend the service life of the system, the waste containment area would be upgraded to provide a minimum service life of 200 years. This report describes the design for the containment system. Pertinent information on site geology and hydrology and on regional seismicity and meteorology is also provided. Engineering calculations and validated computer modeling studies based on site-specific and conservative parameters confirm the adequacy of the design for its intended purposes of waste containment and environmental protection

  12. Effect of gamma-irradiation and refrigerated storage on mold growth and keeping quality of strawberry (Fragaria sp) cv 'Confitura'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, P.R.; Meena, R.S.; Dar, M.A.; Wani, A.M.; Mir, M.A.; Shafi, F.

    2007-01-01

    Gamma-irradiation of fresh matured strawberries at 0.5-2.0 kGy and storage under ambient and refrigerated conditions was tested for delaying the mold appearance and extension of storage life. Radiation dose of 2.0 kGy was effective in extending the storage life of fresh strawberries by 2 days under ambient conditions. Samples irradiated at 1.5 and 2.0 kGy followed by refrigerated storage delayed the mold growth significantly (p≤0.05) and extended the storage life by 8 days. (author)

  13. Site-specific investigations of aquifer thermal energy storage for space and process cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) that has completed three preliminary site-specific feasibility studies that investigated aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) for reducing space and process cooling costs. Chilled water stored in an ATES system could be used to meet all or part of the process and/or space cooling loads at the three facilities investigated. Seasonal or diurnal chill ATES systems could be significantly less expensive than a conventional electrically-driven, load-following chiller system at one of the three sites, depending on the cooling water loop return temperature and presumed future electricity escalation rate. For the other two sites investigated, a chill ATES system would be economically competitive with conventional chillers if onsite aquifer characteristics were improved. Well flow rates at one of the sites were adequate, but the expected thermal recovery efficiency was too low. The reverse of this situation was found at the other site, where the thermal recovery efficiency was expected to be adequate, but well flow rates were too low

  14. Wayne Interim Storage Site annual environmental report for calendar year 1991, Wayne, New Jersey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    This document describes the envirormental monitoring program at the Wayne Interim Storage Site (WISS) and surrounding area, implementation of the program, and monitoring results for 1991. Environmental monitoring of WISS and surrounding area began in 1984 when Congress added the site to the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). FUSRAP is a DOE program to decontaminate or otherwise control sites where residual radioactive materials remain from the early years of the nation's atomic energy program or from commercial operations causing conditions that Congress has authorized DOE to remedy. WISS is a National Priorities List site. The environmental monitoring program at WISS includes sampling networks for radon and thoron concentrations in air; external gamma radiation exposure; and radium-226, radium-228, thorium-232, and total uranium concentrations in surface water, sediment, and groundwater. Several nonradiological parameters are also measured in groundwater. Monitoring results are compared with applicable Environmental Protection Agency standards, DOE derived concentration guides, dose limits, and other requirements in DOE orders. Environmental standards are established to protect public health and the environment

  15. Colonie Interim Storage Site environmental report for calendar year 1992, 1130 Central Avenue, Colonie, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    This report describes the environmental surveillance program at the Colonie Interim Storage Site (CISS) and provides the results for 1992. The site is located in eastern New York State, approximately 6.4 km (4.0 mi) northwest of downtown Albany. From 1958 to 1984, National Lead (NL) Industries used the facility to manufacture various components from depleted and enriched uranium natural thorium. Environmental monitoring of CISS began in 1984 when Congress added, the site to the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). FUSRAP is a program established to identify and decontaminate or otherwise control sites where residual radioactive materials remain from the early years of the nation's atomic energy program or from commercial operations causing conditions that Congress has authorized DOE to remedy. The environmental surveillance program at CISS includes sampling networks for external gamma radiation exposure and for thorium-232 and total uranium concentrations in surface water, sediment, and groundwater. Several chemical parameters are also measured in groundwater, including total metals, volatile organics, and water quality parameters. This surveillance program assists in fulfilling the DOE policy of measuring and monitoring effluents from DOE activities and calculating hypothetical doses. Results are compared with applicable Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) standards, DOE derived concentration guides (DCGs), dose limits, and other DOE requirements

  16. Feasibility assessment grants in support of volunteer siting of a monitored retrievables storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, A.; Weisman, N.M.; Morgan, W.

    1993-01-01

    The Monitored Retrievable Storage facility (MRS) is an integral component of the planned Federal radioactive waste management system. The MRS will temporarily store spent fuel from commercial nuclear power plants prior to shipment to a geologic repository for permanent disposal. To facilitate voluntary siting of an MRS facility, Congress, in 1987, authorized the award of feasibility assessment grants by the Department of Energy to assist potentially interested jurisdictions to consider the possibility of hosting an MRS. This paper addresses the experience with MRS feasibility assessment grants to date, reviewing the current status of grant applications and presenting observations on the grant program and the voluntary siting approach, which it supports. The authors note that although the voluntary siting process has yet to identify an MRS host, the feasibility assessment grants have been successful in generating interest and active consideration and debate regarding MRS siting among States, Indian Tribes, and affected units of local government. Continued information efforts about the grant process and more proactive DOE support for and participation in the voluntary siting process are among the recommendations offered

  17. Analysis of superconducting magnetic energy storage applications at a proposed wind farm site near Browning, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaustad, K. L.; Desteese, J. G.

    1993-07-01

    A computer program was developed to analyze the viability of integrating superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) with proposed wind farm scenarios at a site near Browning, Montana. The program simulated an hour-by-hour account of the charge/discharge history of a SMES unit for a representative wind-speed year. Effects of power output, storage capacity, and power conditioning capability on SMES performance characteristics were analyzed on a seasonal, diurnal, and hourly basis. The SMES unit was assumed to be charged during periods when power output of the wind resource exceeded its average value. Energy was discharged from the SMES unit into the grid during periods of low wind speed to compensate for below-average output of the wind resource. The option of using SMES to provide power continuity for a wind farm supplemented by combustion turbines was also investigated. Levelizing the annual output of large wind energy systems operating in the Blackfeet area of Montana was found to require a storage capacity too large to be economically viable. However, it appears that intermediate-sized SMES economically levelize the wind energy output on a seasonal basis.

  18. Niagara Falls Storage Site environmental report for calendar year 1992, 1397 Pletcher Road, Lewiston, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    This report describes the environmental surveillance program at the Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS) and provides the results for 1992. From 1944 to the present, the primary use of NFSS has been storage of radioactive residues produced as a by-product of uranium production. All onsite areas of residual radioactivity above guidelines have been remediated. Materials generated during remediation are stored onsite in the 4-ha (10-acre) waste containment structure (WCS). The WCS is a clay-lined, clay-capped, and grass-covered storage pile. The environmental surveillance program at NFSS includes sampling networks for radon concentrations in air; external gamma radiation exposure; and total uranium and radium-226 concentrations in surface water, sediments, and groundwater. Several chemical parameters, including seven metals, are also routinely measured in groundwater. This surveillance program assists in fulfilling the DOE policy of measuring and monitoring effluents from DOE activities and calculating hypothetical doses. Monitoring results are compared with applicable Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) standards, DOE derived concentration guides (DCGs), dose limits, and other DOE requirements. Results of environmental monitoring during 1992 indicate that levels of the parameters measured were in compliance with all but one requirement: Concentrations of iron and manganese in groundwater were above NYSDEC groundwater quality standards. However, these elements occur naturally in the soils and groundwater associated with this region. In 1992 there were no environmental occurrences or reportable quantity releases

  19. Procedures for the site location of an storage centre of medium and low level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena G, P.; Garcia B, M.

    2001-01-01

    In order to establish the procedures for the location of a new and definitive storage center for medium and low level radioactive wastes which will be the place where confining, controlling and keeping those waste products of radioactive materials which were used in the hospitable centers, clinics and institutions (research and techniques development) as well as those obtained from industry. The site studies for nuclear facilities, require the participation of a several professionals with different specialities to be able to make use of competence in different disciplines. The result is the exclusion of unacceptable zones followed them by a pre-selection, a selection and a systematic comparison of those sites which are in the remaining zones considered as acceptable. (Author)

  20. Colonie Interim Storage Site: Annual environmental report for calendar year 1990, Colonie, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    Environmental monitoring of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Colonie Interim Storage Site (CISS) and surrounding area began in 1984. CISS is part of the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP), a DOE program to decontaminate or otherwise control sties where residual radioactive materials remain from the early years of the nation's atomic energy program or from commercial operations causing conditions that Congress has authorized DOE to remedy. The routine environmental monitoring program at CISS includes sampling networks for external gamma radiation exposures and for radium-226, throium-232, an total uranium concentrations in surface water, sediment, and groundwater. Additionally, the nonradiological parameters volatile and semivolatile organics, pesticides/polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), metals, total organic carbon (TOC), total organic halides (TOX), specific conductivity, and pH are measured in groundwater. 14 refs., 20 figs., 25 tabs

  1. Use of artificial barriers in a site for surface storage of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gros, J.C.; Madoz-Escande, C.; Metivier, J.M.; Grimaud, P.

    1990-01-01

    The objective is the on site study of the influence of an injection screen on the flow in a water table of a porous medium, in order to improve the safety of a surface radioactive waste storage site. A hydrodispersive study has provided information for the definition of the role of the screen: the transfer times of the pollutant in the water table are increased by a factor of 2 and, in comparison, the concentration are clearly reduced by a factor of 10. The implantation of an injection screen in the ground should result in an improvement in the restrictive quality of the barrier and the contamination of an aquifer should be slower without interruption to the flow

  2. Biologic overview for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, E.; O'Farrell, T.P.; Rhoads, W.A.

    1982-01-01

    The Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations project study area includes five major vegetation associations characteristic of the transition between the northern extent of the Mojave Desert and the southern extent of the Great Basin Desert. A total of 32 species of reptiles, 66 species of birds, and 46 species of mammals are known to occur within these associations elsewhere on the Nevada Test Site. Ten species of plants, and the mule deer, wild horse, feral burro, and desert tortoise were defined as possible sensitive species because they are protected by federal and state regulations, or are being considered for such protection. The major agricultural resources of southern Nye County included 737,000 acres of public grazing land managed by the Bureau of Land Management, and 9500 acres of irrigated crop land located in the Beatty/Oasis valleys, the Amargosa Valley, and Ash Meadows. Range lands are of poor quality. Alfalfa and cotton are the major crops along with small amounts of grains, Sudan grass, turf, fruits, and melons. The largest impacts to known ecosystems are expected to result from: extensive disturbances associated with construction of roads, seismic lines, drilling pads, and surface facilities; storage and leaching of mined spoils; disposal of water; off-road vehicle travel; and, over several hundred years, elevated soil temperatures. Significant impacts to off-site areas such as Ash Meadows are anticipated if new residential developments are built there to accommodate an increased work force. Several species of concern and their essential habitats are located at Ash Meadows. Available literature contained sufficient baseline information to assess potential impacts of the proposed project on an area-wide basis. It was inadequate to support analysis of potential impacts on specific locations selected for site characterization studies, mining an exploratory shaft, or the siting and operation of a repository

  3. Initial ORNL site assessment report on the storage of 233U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bereolos, P.J.; Yong, L.K.; Sadlowe, A.R.; Ramey, D.W.; Krichinsky, A.M.

    1998-03-01

    The 233 U storage facility at ORNL is Building 3019. The inventory stored in Building 3019 consists of 426.5 kg of 233 U contained in 1,387.1 kg of total uranium. The inventory is primarily in the form of uranium oxides; however, uranium metal and other compounds are also stored. Over 99% of the inventory is contained in 1,007 packages stored in tube vaults within the facility. A tank of thorium nitrate solution, the P-24 Tank, contains 0.13 kg of 233 U in ∼ 4,000 gal. of solution. The facility is receiving additional 233 U for storage from the remediation of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) at ORNL. Consolidation of material from sites with small holdings is also adding to the 233 U inventory. Additionally, small quantities ( 233 U are in other research facilities at ORNL. A risk assessment process was chosen to evaluate the stored material and packages based on available package records. The risk scenario was considered the failure of a package (or a group of similar packages) in the Building 3019 inventory. The probability of such a failure depends on packaging factors such as the age and material of construction of the containers. The consequence of such a failure depends on the amount and form of the material within the packages. One thousand seven packages were categorized with this methodology resulting in 859 low-risk packages, 147 medium-risk packages, and 1 high-risk package. This initial assessment also documents the status of the evaluation of the Building 3019 and its systems for safe storage of 233 U. The final assessment report for ORNL storage of 233 U is scheduled for June 1999. The report will document the facility assessments, the specific package inspection plan, and the results of initial package inspections

  4. Groundwater geochemistry near the storage sites of low-level radioactive waste: Implications for uranium migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaskova, Olga L.; Boguslavsky, Anatoly E. [Institute of Geology and Mineralogy SB RAS, Ac. Koptyug prosp. 3, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents results of detailed sampling of groundwater and surface water near the storage sites of radioactive waste from the Electrochemical Plant ECP (Zelenogorsk, Krasnoyarsk region, Russia) and the Angarsk Electrolysis Chemical Complex AEC (Angarsk, Irkutsk region, Russia), both of which have produced enriched uranium since 1960's. The liquid (LRW) and solid (SRW) radioactive wastes belong to the category of low-level activity waste. The main result is that the uranium is below the recommended MPC for drinking waters in all types of groundwater around the sludge of ECP and AEC. But alkaline nitrate solutions have been penetrating and spreading into the aquifers under the LRW sludge pits. According to our calculations, redox conditions in the groundwater influenced by discharge are controlled by the couple NO{sub 3}{sup -}/NO{sub 2}{sup -} that facilitates U(VI) migration. The groundwater under SRW repositories is distinguished by its low mineralization and neutral pH. Co-contaminants, such as Mo, V, and Zr may serve as markers of techno-genous contamination in storage sites of the LRW sludge. (authors)

  5. Cast iron transport, storage and disposal containers for use in UK nuclear licensed sites - 59412

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viermann, Joerg; Messer, Matthias P.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Ductile Cast Iron Containers of the types GCVI (UK trademark -GNS YELLOW BOX R ) and MOSAIK R have been in use in Germany for transport, storage and disposal of intermediate level radioactive waste (ILW) for more than two decades. In 2009 a number of containers of these types were delivered to various Magnox sites as so called pathfinders to test their suitability for Magnox waste streams. The results were encouraging. Therefore the Letter of Compliance (LoC) procedure was started to prove the suitability of packages using these types of containers for the future UK Geological Disposal Facility (GDF) and a conceptual Letter of Compliance (cLoC) was obtained from RWMD in 2010. Waste stream specific applications for Interim Stage Letters of Compliance (ILoC) for a number of waste streams from different Magnox sites and from the UK's only pressurised water reactor, Sizewell B are currently being prepared and discussed with RWMD. In order to achieve a package suitable for interim storage and disposal the contents of a Ductile Cast Iron Container only has to be dried. Mobile drying facilities are readily available. Containers and drying facilities form a concerted system

  6. Isolation and characterization of Staphylococcus sp. strain NBRIEAG-8 from arsenic contaminated site of West Bengal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, Shubhi; Singh, Namrata; Singh, Nandita [CSIR - National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow, UP (India). Eco-auditing Lab.; Verma, Praveen C.; Singh, Ankit; Mishra, Manisha [CSIR - National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow, UP (India). Plant Molecular Biology and Genetic Engineering; Sharma, Neeta [Lucknow Univ., UP (India). Plant Pathology Lab.

    2012-09-15

    Arsenic contaminated rhizospheric soils of West Bengal, India were sampled for arsenic resistant bacteria that could transform different arsenic forms. Staphylococcus sp. NBRIEAG-8 was identified by16S rDNA ribotyping, which was capable of growing at 30,000 mg l{sup -1} arsenate [As(V)] and 1,500 mg l{sup -1} arsenite [As(III)]. This bacterial strain was also characterized for arsenical resistance (ars) genes which may be associated with the high-level resistance in the ecosystems of As-contaminated areas. A comparative proteome analysis was conducted with this strain treated with 1,000 mg l{sup -1} As(V) to identify changes in their protein expression profiles. A 2D gel analysis showed a significant difference in the proteome of arsenic treated and untreated bacterial culture. The change in pH of cultivating growth medium, bacterial growth pattern (kinetics), and uptake of arsenic were also evaluated. After 72 h of incubation, the strain was capable of removing arsenic from the culture medium amended with arsenate and arsenite [12% from As(V) and 9% from As(III)]. The rate of biovolatilization of As(V) was 23% while As(III) was 26%, which was determined indirectly by estimating the sum of arsenic content in bacterial biomass and medium. This study demonstrates that the isolated strain, Staphylococcus sp., is capable for uptake and volatilization of arsenic by expressing ars genes and 8 new upregulated proteins which may have played an important role in reducing arsenic toxicity in bacterial cells and can be used in arsenic bioremediation. (orig.)

  7. Isolation and characterization of a chromium-resistant bacterium Serratia sp. Cr-10 from a chromate-contaminated site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kundi; Li, Fuli

    2011-05-01

    A novel bacterium, Cr-10, was isolated from a chromium-contaminated site and capable of removing toxic chromium species from solution by reducing hexavalent chromium to an insoluble precipitate. Sequence analysis of 16S rRNA gene of strain Cr-10 showed that it was most closely related to Serratia rubidaea JCM 1240(T) (97.68%). Physiological and chemotaxonomic data also supported that strain Cr-10 was identified as Serratia sp., a genus which was never specially reported chromate-resistant before. Serratia sp., Cr-10 was tolerant to a concentration of 1,500 mg Cr(VI) L(-1), which was the highest level reported until now. The optimum pH and temperature for reduction of Cr(VI) by Serratia sp. Cr-10 were found to be 7.0 and 37 °C, respectively. The Cr(VI) reduction was significantly influenced by additional carbon sources, and among them fructose and lactose offered maximum reduction, with a rate of 0.28 and 0.25 mg Cr(VI) L(-1) h(-1), respectively. The cell-free extracts and filtrate of the culture were able to reduce Cr(VI) while concentration of total chromium remained stable in the process, indicating that the enzyme-catalyzed mechanism was applied in Cr(VI) reduction by the isolate. Additionally, it was found that there was hardly any chromium on the cell surface of the strain, further supporting that reduction, rather than bioadsorption, plays a major role in the Cr(VI) removal.

  8. Isolation and characterization of a chromium-resistant bacterium Serratia sp. Cr-10 from a chromate-contaminated site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Kundi; Li, Fuli [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao (China). Qingdao Inst. of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology

    2011-05-15

    A novel bacterium, Cr-10, was isolated from a chromium-contaminated site and capable of removing toxic chromium species from solution by reducing hexavalent chromium to an insoluble precipitate. Sequence analysis of 16S rRNA gene of strain Cr-10 showed that it was most closely related to Serratia rubidaea JCM 1240{sup T} (97.68%). Physiological and chemotaxonomic data also supported that strain Cr-10 was identified as Serratia sp., a genus which was never specially reported chromate-resistant before. Serratia sp., Cr-10 was tolerant to a concentration of 1,500 mg Cr(VI) L{sup -1}, which was the highest level reported until now. The optimum pH and temperature for reduction of Cr(VI) by Serratia sp. Cr-10 were found to be 7.0 and 37 C, respectively. The Cr(VI) reduction was significantly influenced by additional carbon sources, and among them fructose and lactose offered maximum reduction, with a rate of 0.28 and 0.25 mg Cr(VI) L{sup -1} h{sup -1}, respectively. The cell-free extracts and filtrate of the culture were able to reduce Cr(VI) while concentration of total chromium remained stable in the process, indicating that the enzyme-catalyzed mechanism was applied in Cr(VI) reduction by the isolate. Additionally, it was found that there was hardly any chromium on the cell surface of the strain, further supporting that reduction, rather than bioadsorption, plays a major role in the Cr(VI) removal. (orig.)

  9. On-site storage of spent nuclear fuel assemblies in German nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banck, J.

    1999-01-01

    The selection of back-end strategies for spent fuel assemblies is influenced by a number of different factors depending on the given situation in any specific country. In Germany, the back-end strategy implemented in the past was almost exclusively reprocessing. This strategy was required by the German Atomic Energy Act. Since 1994, when the Atomic Energy Act was amended, the option of direct final disposal has been granted the equivalent status by law to that afforded to reprocessing (and reuse of valuable materials). As a result, German utilities may now choose between these two alternatives. Another important condition for optimizing the back-end policy is the fact that fuel cycle costs in Germany are directly dependent on spent fuel volumes (in contrast to the US, for example, such costs are related to the amount of power generated). Another boundary condition for German utilities with respect to spent fuel management is posed by the problems with militant opponents of nuclear energy during transportation of spent fuel to interim storage sites. These facts have given rise to a reconsideration of the fuel cycle back-end, which has resulted in a change in strategy by most German utilities in favour of the following: Preference for long-term storage and maximized use of on-site storage capacity; Reduction in the amount of spent fuel by increasing burnup as much as possible. These decisions have also been driven by the deregulation of energy markets in Europe, where utilities are now permitted to sell electric power to consumers beyond their original supply network and must therefore offer electric power on a very cost competitive basis. (author)

  10. Loads imposed on dual purpose casks in German on-site-storage facilities for long term intermediate storage of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetzel, N.; Rabe, O. [TUeV NORD EnSys Hannover GmbH und Co. KG, Hanover (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    In accordance with recent changes of the atomic energy act and in order to secure reliable removal of spent fuel from the nuclear power plants' fuel storage ponds the German utilities filed license applications for a total of 12 onsite- storage facilities for spent fuel assemblies. By the end of 2003 the last of these storage facilities were licensed and are currently under construction. The first on-site-storage facility of that line became operational in late 2002. There are several design lines of storage facilities with different handling procedures or possible accident conditions. Short term interim storage facilities for a few casks are characterized by individual concrete hoods shielding the casks in horizontal position whereas long term intermediate storage facilities currently erected for large numbers of casks typically feature a condensed pattern of casks stored in upright position and massive structures of reinforced concrete. TUeV Hannover/Sachsen-Anhalt e. V. (now TUeV NORD EnSys Hannover GmbH and Co. KG) has been contracted as a body of independent experts for the assessment of all related safety requirements on behalf of the national licensing authority, the federal office for radiation protection (BfS).

  11. Loads imposed on dual purpose casks in German on-site-storage facilities for long term intermediate storage of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetzel, N.; Rabe, O.

    2004-01-01

    In accordance with recent changes of the atomic energy act and in order to secure reliable removal of spent fuel from the nuclear power plants' fuel storage ponds the German utilities filed license applications for a total of 12 onsite- storage facilities for spent fuel assemblies. By the end of 2003 the last of these storage facilities were licensed and are currently under construction. The first on-site-storage facility of that line became operational in late 2002. There are several design lines of storage facilities with different handling procedures or possible accident conditions. Short term interim storage facilities for a few casks are characterized by individual concrete hoods shielding the casks in horizontal position whereas long term intermediate storage facilities currently erected for large numbers of casks typically feature a condensed pattern of casks stored in upright position and massive structures of reinforced concrete. TUeV Hannover/Sachsen-Anhalt e. V. (now TUeV NORD EnSys Hannover GmbH and Co. KG) has been contracted as a body of independent experts for the assessment of all related safety requirements on behalf of the national licensing authority, the federal office for radiation protection (BfS)

  12. Hazelwood Interim Storage Site annual environmental report for calendar year 1991, Hazelwood, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    This document describes the environmental monitoring program at the Hazelwood Interim Storage Site (HISS) and surrounding area, implementation of the program, and monitoring results for 1991. Environmental monitoring of HISS began in 1984 when the site was assigned to the US Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the decontamination research and development project authorized by Congress under the 1984 Energy and Water Development Appropriations Act. DOE placed responsibility for HISS under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP), a DOE program to decontaminate or otherwise control sites where residual radioactive materials remain from the early years of the nation's atomic energy program or from commercial operations causing conditions that Congress has authorized DOE to remedy. The environmental monitoring program at HISS includes sampling networks for radon concentrations in air; external gamma radiation exposure; and radium-226, thorium-230, and total uranium concentrations in surface water, sediment, and groundwater. Additionally, several nonradiological parameters are measured in groundwater. Monitoring results are compared with applicable Environmental Protection Agency standards, DOE derived concentration guides (DCGs), dose limits, and other requirements in DOE orders. Environmental standards and DCGs are established to protect public health and the environment

  13. Hazelwood Interim Storage Site environmental report for calendar year 1992, 9200 Latty Avenue, Hazelwood, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    This report describes the environmental surveillance program at the Hazelwood Interim storage Site (HISS) and surrounding area, provides the results for 1992, and discusses applicable environmental standards and requirements with which the results were compared. HISS is located in eastern Missouri in the City of Hazelwood (St. Louis County) and occupies approximately 2.2 ha (5.5 acres). Environmental monitoring of HISS began in 1984 when the site was assigned to the US Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the decontamination research and development project authorized by Congress under the 1984 Energy and Water Development Appropriations Act. DOE placed responsibility for HISS under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP), which was established to identify and decontaminate or otherwise control sites where residual radioactive materials remain from the early years of the nation`s atomic energy program or from commercial operations causing conditions that Congress has authorized DOE to remedy. In 1992 there were no environmental occurrences or unplanned contaminant releases as defined in DOE requirements and in the Superfund Amendment and Reauthorization Act (SARA) Title III of CERCLA.

  14. Niagara Falls Storage Site annual environmental report for calendar year 1991, Lewiston, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    This document describes the environmental monitoring program at the Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS) and surrounding area, implementation of the program, and monitoring results for 1991. Environmental monitoring at NFSS began in 1981. The site is owned by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and is assigned to the DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). FUSRAP is a program to decontaminate or otherwise control sites where residual radioactive materials remain from the early years of the nation's atomic energy program or from commercial operations causing conditions that Congress has authorized DOE to remedy. The environmental monitoring program at NFSS includes sampling networks for radon concentrations in air; external gamma radiation exposure; and total uranium and radium-226 concentrations in surface water, sediments, and groundwater. Additionally, several nonradiological parameters including seven metals are routinely measured in groundwater. Monitoring results are compared with applicable Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards, DOE derived concentration guides (DCGs), dose limits, and other requirements in DOE orders. Environmental standards are established to protect public health and the environment

  15. Hazelwood Interim Storage Site environmental report for calendar year 1992, 9200 Latty Avenue, Hazelwood, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    This report describes the environmental surveillance program at the Hazelwood Interim storage Site (HISS) and surrounding area, provides the results for 1992, and discusses applicable environmental standards and requirements with which the results were compared. HISS is located in eastern Missouri in the City of Hazelwood (St. Louis County) and occupies approximately 2.2 ha (5.5 acres). Environmental monitoring of HISS began in 1984 when the site was assigned to the US Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the decontamination research and development project authorized by Congress under the 1984 Energy and Water Development Appropriations Act. DOE placed responsibility for HISS under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP), which was established to identify and decontaminate or otherwise control sites where residual radioactive materials remain from the early years of the nation's atomic energy program or from commercial operations causing conditions that Congress has authorized DOE to remedy. In 1992 there were no environmental occurrences or unplanned contaminant releases as defined in DOE requirements and in the Superfund Amendment and Reauthorization Act (SARA) Title III of CERCLA

  16. Results of the radiological survey at the former ore storage site, Palmerton, Pennsylvania (PP001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cottrell, W.D.; Quillen, J.L.; Crutcher, J.W.

    1990-12-01

    As part of the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP), the US Department of Energy (DOE) is implementing a radiological survey program to determine the radiological conditions at sites that were used by the department's predecessor agencies. The radiological survey discussed in this report for the former ore storage site in Palmerton, Pennsylvania, is part of the FUSRAP effort and was conducted at the request of DOE by members of the Measurement Applications and Development group of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in 1988. In 1953 and 1954 the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) established an ore stockpile on the property of the New Jersey Zinc Corporation in Palmerton, Pennsylvania. Approximately 57 truckloads of ore (about 360 tons) were stored at this site and remained there until 1973, when the AEC initiated a clean-up program. The 1988 ORNL radiological survey included a gamma scan at the ground surface, gamma measurements at discrete locations at the surface and at 1 m above the surface, gamma logging of 80 auger holes, and collection of 161 surface and subsurface soil samples. Of these 161 soil samples, 98% were below DOE guidelines for 226 Ra concentration in soil. Interpretation of the data suggests small, isolated spots of residual ore. The data indicate that it is highly unlikely that an individual living or working on this site could receive a radiation dose approaching the 100 mrem annual limit. However, it is suggested that DOE evaluate potential exposures at this site to ensure compliance with their policy that all exposures to radiation are reduced to levels that are as low as reasonably achievable. 4 refs., 88 figs., 4 tabs

  17. Shelf-life extension of packed mushroom (Agaricus sp.) by a combination of gamma radiation and low temperature storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautam, S.; Sharma, Arun; Thomas, Paul

    1997-01-01

    Gamma irradiation to a dose of 2 kGy coupled with storage at 10 degC was found to provide 2-3 fold enhancement in the shelf-life of button mushrooms with reduced energy requirement for storage. The study shows possible commercial application of this technology. (author). 6 refs., 3 figs

  18. Analysis of long-term impacts of TRU waste remaining at generator/storage sites for No Action Alternative 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, J.W.; Bagaasen, L.M.; Bergeron, M.P.; Streile, G.P.

    1997-09-01

    This report is a supplement to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Disposal-Phase Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS-II). Described herein are the underlying information, data, and assumptions used to estimate the long-term human-health impacts from exposure to radionuclides and hazardous chemicals in transuranic (TRU) waste remaining at major generator/storage sites after loss of institutional control under No Action Alternative 2. Under No Action Alternative 2, TRU wastes would not be emplaced at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) but would remain at generator/storage sites in surface or near-surface storage. Waste generated at smaller sites would be consolidated at the major generator/storage sites. Current TRU waste management practices would continue, but newly generated waste would be treated to meet the WIPP waste acceptance criteria. For this alternative, institutional control was assumed to be lost 100 years after the end of the waste generation period, with exposure to radionuclides and hazardous chemicals in the TRU waste possible from direct intrusion and release to the surrounding environment. The potential human-health impacts from exposure to radionuclides and hazardous chemicals in TRU waste were analyzed for two different types of scenarios. Both analyses estimated site-specific, human-health impacts at seven major generator/storage sites: the Hanford Site (Hanford), Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), and Savannah River Site (SRS). The analysis focused on these seven sites because 99 % of the estimated TRU waste volume and inventory would remain there under the assumptions of No Action Alternative 2

  19. Engineering evaluation of alternatives for the disposition of Niagara Falls Storage Site, its residues and wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The final disposition scenarios selected by DOE for assessment in this document are consistent with those stated in the Notice of Intent to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS) (DOE, 1983d) and the modifications to the alternatives resulting from the public scoping process. The scenarios are: take no action beyond interim remedial measures other than maintenance and surveillance of the NFSS; retain and manage the NFSS as a long-term waste management facility for the wastes and residues on the site; decontaminate, certify, and release the NFSS for other use, with long-term management of the wastes and residues at other DOE sites; and partially decontaminate the NFSS by removal and transport off site of only the more radioactive residues, and upgrade containment of the remaining wastes and residues on site. The objective of this document is to present to DOE the conceptual engineering, occupational radiation exposure, construction schedule, maintenance and surveillance requirements, and cost information relevant to design and implementation of each of the four scenarios. The specific alternatives within each scenario used as the basis for discussion in this document were evaluated on the bases of engineering considerations, technical feasibility, and regulatory requirements. Selected alternatives determined to be acceptable for each of the four final disposition scenarios for the NFSS were approved by DOE to be assessed and costed in this document. These alternatives are also the subject of the EIS for the NFSS currently being prepared by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). 40 figures, 38 tables

  20. Streamlined approach for environmental restoration closure report for Corrective Action Unit 464: Historical underground storage tank release sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-04-01

    This report addresses the site characterization of two historical underground storage tank petroleum hydrocarbon release sites identified by Corrective Action Site (CAS) Numbers 02-02-03 and 09-02-01. The sites are located at the Nevada Test Site in Areas 2 and 9 and are concrete bunker complexes (Bunker 2-300, and 9-300). Characterization was completed using drilling equipment to delineate the extent of petroleum hydrocarbons at release site 2-300-1 (CAS 02-02-03). Based on site observations, the low hydrocarbon concentrations detected, and the delineation of the vertical and lateral extent of subsurface hydrocarbons, an ''A through K'' evaluation was completed to support a request for an Administrative Closure of the site

  1. Streamlined approach for environmental restoration closure report for Corrective Action Unit 464: Historical underground storage tank release sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This report addresses the site characterization of two historical underground storage tank petroleum hydrocarbon release sites identified by Corrective Action Site (CAS) Numbers 02-02-03 and 09-02-01. The sites are located at the Nevada Test Site in Areas 2 and 9 and are concrete bunker complexes (Bunker 2-300, and 9-300). Characterization was completed using drilling equipment to delineate the extent of petroleum hydrocarbons at release site 2-300-1 (CAS 02-02-03). Based on site observations, the low hydrocarbon concentrations detected, and the delineation of the vertical and lateral extent of subsurface hydrocarbons, an ``A through K`` evaluation was completed to support a request for an Administrative Closure of the site.

  2. Geostatistical characterisation of geothermal parameters for a thermal aquifer storage site in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo-Ilarri, J.; Li, T.; Grathwohl, P.; Blum, P.; Bayer, P.

    2009-04-01

    The design of geothermal systems such as aquifer thermal energy storage systems (ATES) must account for a comprehensive characterisation of all relevant parameters considered for the numerical design model. Hydraulic and thermal conductivities are the most relevant parameters and its distribution determines not only the technical design but also the economic viability of such systems. Hence, the knowledge of the spatial distribution of these parameters is essential for a successful design and operation of such systems. This work shows the first results obtained when applying geostatistical techniques to the characterisation of the Esseling Site in Germany. In this site a long-term thermal tracer test (> 1 year) was performed. On this open system the spatial temperature distribution inside the aquifer was observed over time in order to obtain as much information as possible that yield to a detailed characterisation both of the hydraulic and thermal relevant parameters. This poster shows the preliminary results obtained for the Esseling Site. It has been observed that the common homogeneous approach is not sufficient to explain the observations obtained from the TRT and that parameter heterogeneity must be taken into account.

  3. Sampling and analysis plan for Wayne Interim Storage Site (WISS), Wayne, New Jersey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.S.; Murray, M.E.; Rodriguez, R.E.

    1998-10-01

    This field sampling plan describes the methodology to perform an independent radiological verification survey and chemical characterization of a remediated area of the subpile at the Wayne Interim Storage Site, Wayne, New Jersey.Data obtained from collection and analysis of systematic and biased soil samples will be used to assess the status of remediation at the site and verify the final radiological status. The objective of this plan is to describe the methods for obtaining sufficient and valid measurements and analytical data to supplement and verify a radiological profile already established by the Project Remediation Management Contractor (PMC). The plan describes the procedure for obtaining sufficient and valid analytical data on soil samples following remediation of the first layer of the subpile. Samples will be taken from an area of the subpile measuring approximately 30 m by 80 m from which soil has been excavated to a depth of approximately 20 feet to confirm that the soil beneath the excavated area does not exceed radiological guidelines established for the site or chemical regulatory limits for inorganic metals. After the WISS has been fully remediated, the Department of Energy will release it for industrial/commercial land use in accordance with the Record of Decision. This plan provides supplemental instructions to guidelines and procedures established for sampling and analysis activities. Procedures will be referenced throughout this plan as applicable, and are available for review if necessary

  4. On-site storage of high level nuclear waste: Attitudes and perceptions of local residents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassett, G.W. Jr.; Jenkins-Smith, H.C.; Silva, C.

    1996-01-01

    No public policy issue has been as difficult as high-level nuclear waste. Debates continue regarding Yucca Mountain as a disposal site, and - more generally - the appropriateness of geologic disposal and the need to act quickly. Previous research has focused on possible social, political, and economic consequences of a facility in Nevada. Impacts have been predicted to be potentially large and to emanate mainly from stigmatization of the region due to increased perceptions of risk. Analogous impacts from leaving waste at power plants have been either ignored or assumed to be negligible. This paper presents survey results on attitudes of residents in three countries where nuclear waste is currently stored. Topics include perceived risk, knowledge of nuclear waste and radiation, and impacts on jobs, tourism, and housing values from leaving waste on site. Results are similar to what has been reported for Nevada; the public is concerned about possible adverse effects from on-site storage of waste. 24 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs

  5. Regulatory supervision of sites for spent fuel and radioactive waste storage in the Russian northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shandala, N K; Sneve, M K; Smith, G M; Kiselev, M F; Kochetkov, O A; Savkin, M N; Simakov, A V; Novikova, N Ya; Titov, A V; Romanov, V V; Seregin, V A; Filonova, A V; Semenova, M P

    2008-12-01

    In the 1960s two technical bases for the Northern Fleet were created in the Russian northwest at Andreeva Bay in the Kola Peninsula and Gremikha village on the coast of the Barents Sea. They maintained nuclear submarines, receiving and storing radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel. No further waste was received after 1985, and the technical bases have since been re-categorised as temporary storage sites. The handling of these materials to put them into a safe condition is especially hazardous because of their degraded state. This paper describes regulatory activities which have been carried out to support the supervision of radiological protection during recovery of waste and spent fuel, and to support regulatory decisions on overall site remediation. The work described includes: an assessment of the radiation situation on-site; the development of necessary additional regulatory rules and standards for radiation protection assurance for workers and the public during remediation; and the completion of an initial threat assessment to identify regulatory priorities. Detailed consideration of measures for the control of radiation exposure of workers and radiation exposure of the public during and after operations and emergency preparedness and response are complete and provided in sister papers. The continuing requirements for regulatory activities relevant to the development and implementation of on-going and future remediation activities are also outlined. The Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority supports the work, as part of the Norwegian Government's plan of action to promote improvements in radiation protection and nuclear safety in northwest Russia.

  6. Regulatory supervision of sites for spent fuel and radioactive waste storage in the Russian Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shandala, N K; Kochetkov, O A; Savkin, M N; Simakov, A V; Novikova, N Ya; Titov, A V; Seregin, V A; Filonova, A V; Semenova, M P [Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Centre, Moscow (Russian Federation); Sneve, M K [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Oslo (Norway); Smith, G M [GMS Abingdon Ltd (United Kingdom); Kiselev, M F; Romanov, V V [Federal Medical-Biological Agency, Moscow (Russian Federation)], E-mail: shandala@srcibph.ru

    2008-12-15

    In the 1960s two technical bases for the Northern Fleet were created in the Russian northwest at Andreeva Bay in the Kola Peninsula and Gremikha village on the coast of the Barents Sea. They maintained nuclear submarines, receiving and storing radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel. No further waste was received after 1985, and the technical bases have since been re-categorised as temporary storage sites. The handling of these materials to put them into a safe condition is especially hazardous because of their degraded state. This paper describes regulatory activities which have been carried out to support the supervision of radiological protection during recovery of waste and spent fuel, and to support regulatory decisions on overall site remediation. The work described includes: an assessment of the radiation situation on-site; the development of necessary additional regulatory rules and standards for radiation protection assurance for workers and the public during remediation; and the completion of an initial threat assessment to identify regulatory priorities. Detailed consideration of measures for the control of radiation exposure of workers and radiation exposure of the public during and after operations and emergency preparedness and response are complete and provided in sister papers. The continuing requirements for regulatory activities relevant to the development and implementation of on-going and future remediation activities are also outlined. The Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority supports the work, as part of the Norwegian Government's plan of action to promote improvements in radiation protection and nuclear safety in northwest Russia.

  7. Environmental concern-based site screening of carbon dioxide geological storage in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Bofeng; Li, Qi; Liu, Guizhen; Liu, Lancui; Jin, Taotao; Shi, Hui

    2017-08-08

    Environmental impacts and risks related to carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) capture and storage (CCS) projects may have direct effects on the decision-making process during CCS site selection. This paper proposes a novel method of environmental optimization for CCS site selection using China's ecological red line approach. Moreover, this paper established a GIS based spatial analysis model of environmental optimization during CCS site selection by a large database. The comprehensive data coverage of environmental elements and fine 1 km spatial resolution were used in the database. The quartile method was used for value assignment for specific indicators including the prohibited index and restricted index. The screening results show that areas classified as having high environmental suitability (classes III and IV) in China account for 620,800 km 2 and 156,600 km 2 , respectively, and are mainly distributed in Inner Mongolia, Qinghai and Xinjiang. The environmental suitability class IV areas of Bayingol Mongolian Autonomous Prefecture, Hotan Prefecture, Aksu Prefecture, Hulunbuir, Xilingol League and other prefecture-level regions not only cover large land areas, but also form a continuous area in the three provincial-level administrative units. This study may benefit the national macro-strategic deployment and implementation of CCS spatial layout and environmental management in China.

  8. Los Alamos National Laboratory Site Integrated Management plan, uranium 233 storage and disposition. Volume 1: Project scope and description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, J.B.; Erickson, R.

    1997-01-01

    This Site Integration Management plan provides the Los Alamos Response to the Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 97-1. This recommendation addresses the safe storage and management of the Departments uranium 233 ( 233 U) inventory. In the past, Los Alamos has used 233 U for a variety of different weapons related projects. The material was used at a variety of sites in varying quantities. Now, there is a limited need for this material and the emphasis has shifted from use to storage and disposition of the material. The Los Alamos program to address the DNFSB Recommendation 97-1 has two emphases. First, take corrective action to address near term deficiencies required to provide safe interim storage of 233 U. Second, provide a plan to address long term storage and disposition of excess inventory at Los Alamos

  9. Effectiveness of interim remedial actions at the Niagara Falls Storage Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devgun, J.S.; Beskid, N.J.; Seay, W.M.; McNamee, E.

    1990-01-01

    There are 190,000 m 3 of contaminated soils, wastes, and residues stored at the Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS). The residues have a volume of 18,000 m 3 and contain about 1,930 Ci of 226 Ra, which accounts for most of the radioactivity. Since 1980, actions have been taken to minimize potential radiological risks and prevent radionuclide migration. Interim actions included capping vents, sealing pipes, relocating the perimeter fence (to limit radon risk), transferring and consolidating wastes, upgrading storage buildings, constructing a clay cutoff wall (to limit potential ground-water transport of contaminants), treating and releasing contaminated water, using a synthetic liner, and using an interim clay cap. An interim waste containment facility was completed in 1986. Environmental monitoring showed a decrease in radon concentrations and in external gamma radiation from 1982 to 1986; levels have been stable since 1986. Uranium and radium concentrations in surface water have decreased; very low concentrations have been detected in stream sediments, and concentrations in ground water have remained stable. Recent monitoring showed that NFSS is in compliance with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) radiation protection standards

  10. Social assessment of siting a low-level radioactive waste storage facility in Michigan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoffle, R.W.; Traugott, M.J.; Stone, J.V.; McIntyre, P.D.; Davidson, C.C.; Jensen, F.V.; Coover, G.E.

    1990-01-01

    This report presents findings from a social assessment of siting a low-level radioactive waste storage facility in Michigan. Social assessments derive from direct interaction between researchers and study participants. The report is organized into five chapters. Chapter One, Summary of Findings, focuses on key findings from the statewide telephone surveys and the in-depth ethnographic study conducted by the SNR/ISR study team. These and additional findings are discussed in greater detail in the three subsequent chapters. Chapter Two, Statewide Telephone Survey Findings, presents the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs statewide residents have regarding the LLRW project. Chapter Three, Statewide Demographic Findings, presents a detailed examination of differences among various demographic groups and includes regional analysis. Chapter Four, Hillsdale-area Ethnographic Study Findings, discusses perceived impacts of the proposed LLRW storage facility on local residents who mistakenly came to believe that their area had been specially selected as the location for the facility. Specifically, the chapter presents the development, spread, shape and persistence of what is termed a risk perception shadow in the greater Hillsdale area. Possible causes of the shadow also are discussed, and comparisons are made between statewide and Hillsdale-area survey populations. Chapter Five, Research Methods, presents a discussion of the social assessment research methods used to derive these findings

  11. Effects of CO2 gas as leaks from geological storage sites on agro-ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, Ravi H.; Colls, Jeremy J.; Steven, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    Carbon capture and storage in geological formations has potential risks in the long-term safety because of the possibility of CO 2 leakage. Effects of leaking gas, therefore, on vegetation, soil, and soil-inhabiting organisms are critical to understand. An artificial soil gassing and response detection field facility developed at the University of Nottingham was used to inject CO 2 gas at a controlled flow rate (1 l min -1 ) into soil to simulate build-up of soil CO 2 concentrations and surface fluxes from two land use types: pasture grassland, and fallow followed by winter bean. Mean soil CO 2 concentrations was significantly higher in gassed pasture plots than in gassed fallow plots. Germination of winter bean sown in gassed fallow plots was severely hindered and the final crop stand was reduced to half. Pasture grass showed stress symptoms and above-ground biomass was significantly reduced compared to control plot. A negative correlation (r = -0.95) between soil CO 2 and O 2 concentrations indicated that injected CO 2 displaced O 2 from soil. Gassing CO 2 reduced soil pH both in grass and fallow plots (p = 0.012). The number of earthworm castings was twice as much in gassed plots than in control plots. This study showed adverse effects of CO 2 gas on agro-ecosystem in case of leakage from storage sites to surface.

  12. NRC perspective on extended on-site storage of low-level radioactive waste after 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remick, Forrest J.

    1992-01-01

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (LLRWPAA) requires that each State, which has not provided for disposal capacity by January 1, 1993, must take title and possession of the low-level radioactive wastes generated in the State. If the states do not take title and possession of the wastes, the rebates to which the states would have been entitled to would be returned to the waste generators. in considering the matter, the Commission solicited comments from States) low-level radioactive waste compacts, local governments, and the general public so that the public's views could be factored into the Commission's deliberations on this issue. This paper addresses the current status of NRC positions on the adequacy of the NRC's existing regulatory framework associated with the title transfer provisions of the LLRWPAA and the Commission's views on extended on-site storage of low-level radioactive wastes after the 1993 and 1996 milestones. (author)

  13. Ground deformation monitoring using RADARSAT-2 DInSAR-MSBAS at the Aquistore CO2 storage site in Saskatchewan (Canada)

    OpenAIRE

    Czarnogorska, M.; Samsonov, S.; White, D.

    2014-01-01

    The research objectives of the Aquistore CO2 storage project are to design, adapt, and test non-seismic monitoring methods for measurement, and verification of CO2 storage, and to integrate data to determine subsurface fluid distributions, pressure changes and associated surface deformation. Aquistore site is located near Estevan in Southern Saskatchewan on the South flank of the Souris River and west of the Boundary Dam Power Station and the historical part of Estevan coal mine in s...

  14. CPP-603 Underwater Fuel Storage Facility Site Integrated Stabilization Management Plan (SISMP), Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denney, R.D.

    1995-10-01

    The CPP-603 Underwater Fuel Storage Facility (UFSF) Site Integrated Stabilization Management Plan (SISMP) has been constructed to describe the activities required for the relocation of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from the CPP-603 facility. These activities are the only Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) actions identified in the Implementation Plan developed to meet the requirements of the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 94-1 to the Secretary of Energy regarding an improved schedule for remediation in the Defense Nuclear Facilities Complex. As described in the DNFSB Recommendation 94-1 Implementation Plan, issued February 28, 1995, an INEL Spent Nuclear Fuel Management Plan is currently under development to direct the placement of SNF currently in existing INEL facilities into interim storage, and to address the coordination of intrasite SNF movements with new receipts and intersite transfers that were identified in the DOE SNF Programmatic and INEL Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Environmental Impact Statement Record, of Decision. This SISMP will be a subset of the INEL Spent Nuclear Fuel Management Plan and the activities described are being coordinated with other INEL SNF management activities. The CPP-603 relocation activities have been assigned a high priority so that established milestones will be meet, but there will be some cases where other activities will take precedence in utilization of available resources. The Draft INEL Site Integrated Stabilization Management Plan (SISMP), INEL-94/0279, Draft Rev. 2, dated March 10, 1995, is being superseded by the INEL Spent Nuclear Fuel Management Plan and this CPP-603 specific SISMP

  15. Benthic macroinvertebrates as bioindicators of water quality in Billings Reservoir fishing sites (SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Baroldi Ciqueto Gargiulo

    Full Text Available Abastract: Aim The Billings Reservoir is the largest reservoir in the metropolitan region of São Paulo and has multiple uses, including artisanal fishing. Its surroundings present intense occupation, resulting in various environmental impacts. Although the water is degraded, affecting the composition and quality of the fish, this reservoir supports artisanal fishermen who survive through this activity. This study aimed to analyze the water quality in the main sites of artisanal fishing activity, with an emphasis on the benthic community as a bioindicator. Methods Three sampling sites were selected, in which water and zoobenthos samples were collected monthly from April 2012 to March 2013. Water analyses consisted of the determination of pH, temperature, conductivity, turbidity, total dissolved solids, dissolved oxygen, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and trophic state as well as a principal components analysis. The zoobenthos analysis consisted of determining the relative abundance and total density of taxa, the Shannon-Weaver diversity index, taxa richness, uniformity, Simpson’s dominance index, and the benthic community index and conducting a canonical correspondence analysis. The non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test followed by the Student-Newman-Keuls test were used to investigate the existence of significant differences in the abiotic and biotic variables among the sites. Results The studied sites showed a high degree of eutrophication, with nitrogen and phosphorus totals levels above the limits defined by current Brazilian legislation. Taquacetuba (P1 showed the best environmental conditions for the development of fishing activity, with the presence of sensitive organisms (Polymitarcyidae and higher levels of dissolved oxygen. Alvarenga (P2 had the worst water quality, with a predominance of tolerant organisms (Oligochaeta and lower levels of dissolved oxygen. Conclusion In conclusion, the benthic community in association with abiotic

  16. Safety issues in construction of facilities for long-term storage of radioactive waste at vector site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokarevskyi, O.; Alekseeva, Z.; Kondratiev, S. [State Scientific and Technical Center for Nuclear and Radiation Safety, Kyiv (Ukraine); Rybalka, N. [State Nuclear Regulatory Inspectorate of Ukraine, Kyiv (Ukraine)

    2013-07-01

    In Ukraine, it is planned to create a number of near-surface facilities for disposal of short-lived RW and long-term (up to 100 years) storage of long-lived RW at the Vector site in the Chernobyl exclusion zone. The expected streams of long-lived RW are analyzed in the paper. According to the analysis of RW streams, in particular, issues are considered on development of RW acceptance criteria, admissible radiological impacts during preparation of RW for long-term storage, reliability of barriers (RW packages, modules and structures, etc.) during long-term storage of RW. (orig.)

  17. Intervention in independent spent fuel storage facility license application proceedings for storage on the power plant site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, J.

    1992-01-01

    This presentation summarizes the intervention in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensing process for currently operating Independent Spent fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI) projects at Carolina Power and Light's Company's H.B. Robinson, Duke Power Company's Oconee, and Virginia Power Company's Surry. In addition, intervention at dry storage facilities that are currently under development are also described. The utilities and reactors include Baltimore Gas and Electric Company's Calvert Cliffs, Public Service Company of Colorado's Fort St. Vrain plant, Northern States Power Company's Prairie Island, Wisconsin Electric Power Company's Point Beach, and Consumers Power Company's Palisades

  18. Measurement of residual CO2 saturation at a geological storage site using hydraulic tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rötting, T. S.; Martinez-Landa, L.; Carrera, J.; Russian, A.; Dentz, M.; Cubillo, B.

    2012-12-01

    Estimating long term capillary trapping of CO2 in aquifers remains a key challenge for CO2 storage. Zhang et al. (2011) proposed a combination of thermal, tracer, and hydraulic experiments to estimate the amount of CO2 trapped in the formation after a CO2 push and pull test. Of these three types of experiments, hydraulic tests are the simplest to perform and possibly the most informative. However, their potential has not yet been fully exploited. Here, a methodology is presented to interpret these tests and analyze which parameters can be estimated. Numerical and analytical solutions are used to simulate a continuous injection in a porous medium where residual CO2 has caused a reduction in hydraulic conductivity and an increase in storativity over a finite thickness (a few meters) skin around the injection well. The model results are interpreted using conventional pressure build-up and diagnostic plots (a plot of the drawdown s and the logarithmic derivative d s / d ln t of the drawdown as a function of time). The methodology is applied using the hydraulic parameters estimated for the Hontomin site (Northern Spain) where a Technology Demonstration Plant (TDP) for geological CO2 storage is planned to be set up. The reduction of hydraulic conductivity causes an increase in observed drawdowns, the increased storativity in the CO2 zone causes a delay in the drawdown curve with respect to the reference curve measured before CO2 injection. The duration (characteristic time) of these effects can be used to estimate the radius of the CO2 zone. The effects of reduced permeability and increased storativity are well separated from wellbore storage and natural formation responses, even if the CO2-brine interface is inclined (i.e. the CO2 forms a cone around the well). We find that both skin hydraulic conductivity and storativity (and thus residual CO2 saturation) can be obtained from the water injection test provided that water flow rate is carefully controlled and head build

  19. A General Catalyst for Site-Selective C(sp(3))-H Bond Amination of Activated Secondary over Tertiary Alkyl C(sp(3))-H Bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scamp, Ryan J; Jirak, James G; Dolan, Nicholas S; Guzei, Ilia A; Schomaker, Jennifer M

    2016-06-17

    The discovery of transition metal complexes capable of promoting general, catalyst-controlled and selective carbon-hydrogen (C-H) bond amination of activated secondary C-H bonds over tertiary alkyl C(sp(3))-H bonds is challenging, as substrate control often dominates when reactive nitrene intermediates are involved. In this letter, we report the design of a new silver complex, [(Py5Me2)AgOTf]2, that displays general and good-to-excellent selectivity for nitrene insertion into propargylic, benzylic, and allylic C-H bonds over tertiary alkyl C(sp(3))-H bonds.

  20. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 321: Area 22 Weather Station Fuel Storage, Nevada Test Site, Nevada; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV); the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP); and the US Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The CAIP is a document that provides or references all of the specific information for investigation activities associated with Corrective Action Units (CAUs) or Corrective Action Sites (CASs). According to the FFACO (1996), CASs are sites potentially requiring corrective action(s) and may include solid waste management units or individual disposal or release sites. A CAU consists of one or more CASs grouped together based on geography, technical similarity, or agency responsibility for the purpose of determining corrective actions. This CAIP contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at the CAU 321 Area 22 Weather Station Fuel Storage, CAS 22-99-05 Fuel Storage Area. For purposes of this discussion, this site will be referred to as either CAU 321 or the Fuel Storage Area. The Fuel Storage Area is located in Area 22 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The NTS is approximately 105 kilometers (km) (65 miles[mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1) (DOE/NV, 1996a). The Fuel Storage Area (Figure 1-2) was used to store fuel and other petroleum products necessary for motorized operations at the historic Camp Desert Rock facility which was operational from 1951 to 1958 at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada. The site was dismantled after 1958 (DOE/NV, 1996a)

  1. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehlecke, Robert

    2004-01-01

    The six bunkers included in CAU 204 were primarily used to monitor atmospheric testing or store munitions. The 'Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada' (NNSA/NV, 2002a) provides information relating to the history, planning, and scope of the investigation; therefore, it will not be repeated in this CADD. This CADD identifies potential corrective action alternatives and provides a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for each CAS within CAU 204. The evaluation of corrective action alternatives is based on process knowledge and the results of investigative activities conducted in accordance with the CAIP (NNSA/NV, 2002a) that was approved prior to the start of the Corrective Action Investigation (CAI). Record of Technical Change (ROTC) No. 1 to the CAIP (approval pending) documents changes to the preliminary action levels (PALs) agreed to by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) and DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). This ROTC specifically discusses the radiological PALs and their application to the findings of the CAU 204 corrective action investigation. The scope of this CADD consists of the following: (1) Develop corrective action objectives; (2) Identify corrective action alternative screening criteria; (3) Develop corrective action alternatives; (4) Perform detailed and comparative evaluations of corrective action alternatives in relation to corrective action objectives and screening criteria; and (5) Recommend and justify a preferred corrective action alternative for each CAS within CAU 204

  2. Operational Implementation of the MARSSIM Process at the Wayne Interim Storage Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hays, D. C. Jr.; Trujillo, P. A. IV.; Zoller, S. G.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the methodologies behind the operational implementation of the Multi Agency Radiation Site Survey and Investigation Manual (MARSSIM) process at the Wayne Interim Storage Site (WISS). The United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) and Environmental Chemical Corporation (ECC) have implemented the MARSSIM process using various surveys producing raw data. The final remedial status of a survey unit is derived through data reduction, while maintaining a high degree of efficiency in the construction aspects of the remedial action. Data reduction of field measurements is accomplished by merging the data outputs of a Digital Global Positioning System, an exposure rate meter, and laboratory analyses to produce maps which present exposure rates, elevations, survey unit boundaries, direct measurement locations, and sampling locations on a single map. The map serves as a data-posting plot and allows the project team to easily judge the survey unit's remedial status. The operational implementation of the MARSSIM process has been successful in determining the eligibility of survey units for final status surveys at the WISS and also in demonstrating final status radiological and chemical conditions while maintaining an efficient remedial action effort

  3. The influence of small-mammal burrowing activity on water storage at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landeen, D.S.

    1994-01-01

    This paper summarizes the activities that were conducted in support of the long-term surface barrier development program by Westinghouse Hanford Company to determine the degree that small-mammal burrow systems affect the loss or retention of water in the soils at the Hanford Site in Washington state. An animal intrusion lysimeter facility was constructed, consisting of two outer boxes buried at grade, which served as receptacles for six animal intrusion lysimeters. Small burrowing animals common the Hanford Site were introduced over a 3- to 4-month period. Supplemental precipitation was added monthly to three of the lysimeters with a rainfall simulator (rainulator). Information collected from the five tests indicated that (1) during summer months, water was lost in all the lysimeters, including the supplemental precipitation added with the rainulator; and (2) during winter months, all lysimeters gained water. The data indicate little difference in the amount of water stored between control and animal lysimeters. The overall water loss was attributed to surface evaporation, a process that occurred equally in control and treatment lysimeters. Other causes of water loss are a result of (1) constant soil turnover and subsequent drying, and (2) burrow ventilation effects. This suggests that burrow systems will not contribute to any significant water storage at depth and, in fact, may enhance the removal of water from the soil

  4. Occupational radiation dose assessment for a non site specific spent fuel storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadley, J.; Eble, R.G. Jr.

    1997-01-01

    To expedite the licensing process of the non site specific Centralized Interim Storage Facility (CISF) the Department of Energy has completed a phase I CISF Topical Safety Analysis Report (TSAR). The TSAR will be used in licensing the phase I CISF if a site is designated. An occupational radiation does assessment of the facility operations is performed as part of the phase I CISF design. The first phase of the CISF has the capability to receive, transfer, and store SNF in dual-purpose cask/canister systems (DPC's). Currently there are five vendor technologies under consideration. The preliminary dose assessment is based on estimated occupational exposures using traditional power plant ISFSI and transport cask handling processes. The second step in the process is to recommend ALARA techniques to reduce potential exposures. A final dose assessment is completed implementing the ALARA techniques and a review is performed to ensure that the design is in compliance with regulatory criteria. The dose assessment and ALARA evaluation are determined using the following input information: Dose estimates from vendor SAR's; ISFSI experience with similar systems; Traditional methods of operations; Expected CISF cask receipt rates; and feasible ALARA techniques. 5 refs., 1 tab

  5. Environmental surveillance results for 1995 for the Hazelwood Interim Storage Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCague, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    This memorandum presents and interprets analytical results and measurements obtained as part of the 1995 environmental surveillance program for the Hazelwood Interim Storage Site (HISS) under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). The discussion provides a comparative analysis of average historical background conditions and applicable regulatory criteria to the 1995 results reported for external gamma radiation and for samples from the media investigated (air, surface water, sediment, groundwater, and stormwater). Results from the 1995 environmental surveillance program at HISS indicate that, with the exception of thorium-230 in streambed sediment, applicable US Department of Energy (DOE) guidelines were not exceeded for any measured parameter or for any dose calculated for potentially exposed members of the general public. In the absence of sediment guidelines, DOE soil guidelines serve as a standard of comparison for data obtained from stream bed sediment; two samples from downstream locations contained concentrations of thorium-230 that exceeded DOE soil guidelines. All stormwater sample results were in compliance with permit-specified limits. Other radioactive materials include radium 226 and natural uranium

  6. Small constrained SP1-7 analogs bind to a unique site and promote anti-allodynic effects following systemic injection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, A; Fransson, R; Haramaki, Y; Skogh, A; Brolin, E; Watanabe, H; Nordvall, G; Hallberg, M; Sandström, A; Nyberg, F

    2015-07-09

    Previous results have shown that the substance P (SP) N-terminal fragment SP1-7 may attenuate hyperalgesia and produce anti-allodynia in animals using various experimental models for neuropathic pain. The heptapeptide was found to induce its effects through binding to and activating specific sites apart from any known neurokinin or opioid receptor. Furthermore, we have applied a medicinal chemistry program to develop lead compounds mimicking the effect of SP1-7. The present study was designed to evaluate the pharmacological effect of these compounds using the mouse spared nerve injury (SNI) model of chronic neuropathic pain. Also, as no comprehensive screen with the aim to identify the SP1-7 target has yet been performed we screened our lead compound H-Phe-Phe-NH2 toward a panel of drug targets. The extensive target screen, including 111 targets, did not reveal any hit for the binding site among a number of known receptors or enzymes involved in pain modulation. Our animal studies confirmed that SP1-7, but also synthetic analogs thereof, possesses anti-allodynic effects in the mouse SNI model of neuropathic pain. One of the lead compounds, a constrained H-Phe-Phe-NH2 analog, was shown to exhibit a significant anti-allodynic effect. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Niagara Falls storage site annual environmental report for calendar year 1990, Lewiston, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-08-01

    Environmental monitoring of the US DOE Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS) and surrounding area began in 1981. NFSS is part of a DOE program to decontaminate or otherwise control sites where residual radioactive materials remain from the early years of the nation's atomic energy program or from commercial, operations causing conditions the Congress has authorized DOE to remedy. Environmental monitoring systems at NFSS include sampling networks for radon concentrations in air; external gamma radiation exposure; and total uranium and radium-226 concentrations in surface water sediments, and groundwater. Additionally, several nonradiological parameters are routinely measured in groundwater. During 1990, the average ambient air radon concentration (including background) at NFSS ranged from 0.3 to 0.7 pCi/L (0.01 to 0.03 Bq/L); the maximum at any location for any quarter was 1.6 pCi/L (0.06 Bq/L). The average on-site external gamma radiation exposure level was 69 mR/yr; the average at the property line was 68 mR/yr (including background). The average background radiation level in the area was 66 mR/yr. Average annual concentrations of radium-226 and total uranium in surface water ranged from 0.4E-9 to 0.9E-9 μCi/m1 (0.02 to 0.03 Bq/L) and from 5E-9 to 9E-9 μCi/m1 (0.2 to 0.3 Bq/L), respectively. Routine analyses of groundwater samples from NFSS included the indicator parameters total organic carbon, total organic halides, pH, and specific conductivity

  8. Niagara Falls storage site annual environmental report for calendar year 1990, Lewiston, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-08-01

    Environmental monitoring of the US DOE Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS) and surrounding area began in 1981. NFSS is part of a DOE program to decontaminate or otherwise control sites where residual radioactive materials remain from the early years of the nation's atomic energy program or from commercial, operations causing conditions the Congress has authorized DOE to remedy. Environmental monitoring systems at NFSS include sampling networks for radon concentrations in air; external gamma radiation exposure; and total uranium and radium-226 concentrations in surface water sediments, and groundwater. Additionally, several nonradiological parameters are routinely measured in groundwater. During 1990, the average ambient air radon concentration (including background) at NFSS ranged from 0.3 to 0.7 pCi/L (0.01 to 0.03 Bq/L); the maximum at any location for any quarter was 1.6 pCi/L (0.06 Bq/L). The average on-site external gamma radiation exposure level was 69 mR/yr; the average at the property line was 68 mR/yr (including background). The average background radiation level in the area was 66 mR/yr. Average annual concentrations of radium-226 and total uranium in surface water ranged from 0.4E-9 to 0.9E-9 {mu}Ci/m1 (0.02 to 0.03 Bq/L) and from 5E-9 to 9E-9 {mu}Ci/m1 (0.2 to 0.3 Bq/L), respectively. Routine analyses of groundwater samples from NFSS included the indicator parameters total organic carbon, total organic halides, pH, and specific conductivity.

  9. Colonie Interim Storage Site annual environmental report for calendar year 1991, Colonie, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    This document describes the environmental monitoring program at the Colonie Interim Storage Site (CISS) and surrounding area, implementation of the program, and monitoring results for 1991. Environmental monitoring at CISS began in 1984 when Congress added the site to the US Department of Energy's Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. CISS property and surrounding areas were radioactively contaminated by operations conducted by National Lead Industries, which manufactured various components from uranium and thorium from 1958 to 1984. The environmental monitoring program at CISS includes sampling networks for external gamma radiation exposure and for radium-226, thorium-232, and total uranium concentrations in surface water, sediment, and groundwater. Additionally, several nonradiological parameters are measured in groundwater. In 1992 the program will also include sampling networks for radioactive and chemical contaminants in stormwater to meet permit application requirements under the Clean Water Act. Monitoring results are compared with applicable Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards, DOE derived concentration guides (DCGs), dose limits, and other requirements in DOE.orders. Environmental standards are established to protect public health and the environment. Results of environmental monitoring during 1991 indicate that average concentrations of radioactive contaminants of concern were well below applicable standards and DCGS. Concentrations of some chemical contaminants in groundwater were above-the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (Class GA) and EPA guidelines for drinking water. The potential annual radiation exposure (excluding background) calculated for a hypothetical maximally exposed individual is 0.23 mrem (milliroentgen equivalent man), which is less than an individual would receive while traveling in an airplane at 12,000 meters (39,000 feet) for one hour

  10. An Applied Study of the Storage for Old Intermediate Level Waste at the Studsvik Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoeblom, Rolf; Lindskog, Staffan

    2004-02-01

    The Storage for Old Intermediate Level Waste (SOILW) at Studsvik has been used for interim storage of intermediate and high level radioactive waste from various activities at the Studsvik site including post irradiation investigations. The SOILW facility was in operation during the years 1961 - 1984. The waste was stored in tube positions in concrete blocks and in concrete vaults. In some instances, radioactive debris and liquid has contaminated the storage positions as well as the underlying ventilation space. The primary purpose of the present work is to improve and extend the present knowledge basis for cost estimates for decommissioning, with the ACSF facility as an example. The main objective has been to explore the possibilities to improve the reliability and accuracy of capital budgeting for decommissioning costs at SOILW. In this study, the present international status of decommissioning, planning and cost estimation has been compiled. The various relevant guidance documents of the IAEA are also compiled, and their emphasis on the necessity of radiological and other surveying as well as technical planning and method selection is reiterated. Cost calculation schemes for new plants and for decommissioning are compiled. It is emphasized that the calculations should be carried out differently at different stages. At the early stages of decommissioning, there should be more emphasis on comparison, and at later stages the emphasis should be more oriented towards summation. The error/uncertainty in a cost calculation is strongly dependent on the selection of methodology, which, in turn, is strongly dependent on the radiological condition. The magnitude of the level of uncertainty has been illustrated by the example of concrete surface removal, and advice is provided on how to identify alternative measures that will enable more sure decisions. An example is also given on a rather similar decontamination and dismantling involving highly contaminated tubes in a

  11. Geological evaluation of spent fuel storage and low-intermediate level radwaste disposal in the site of NPP candidate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sucipta; Yatim, S.; Martono, H.; Pudyo, A.

    1997-01-01

    Based on the consideration of techno-economy and environmental safety, the radioactive waste treatment installation (RWI), interim storage of spen fuel (ISSF) and low-intermediate level disposal shall be sited in the surrounding of NPP area. The land suitability of NPP's site candidate at Muria Peninsula as spent fuel storage and low-intermediate level radwaste disposal need to be studied. Site selection was conducted by overlay method and scoring method, and based on safety criteria which include geological and environmental aspects. Land evaluation by overlay method has given result a potential site which have highest suitable land at surrounding of borehole L-15 about 17.5 hectares. Land evaluation by scoring method has given result two land suitability classes, i.e. moderate suitability class (includes 14 borehole) and high suitability class, include borehole L-2, L-14 and L-15 (author)

  12. Planning, Coordinating, and Managing Off-Site Storage is an Area of Increasing, Professional Responsibility for Special Collections Departments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Goertzen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To measure the use of off-site storage for special collections materials and to examine how this use impacts core special collections activities. Design – Survey questionnaire containing both structured and open ended questions. Follow-up interviews were also conducted. Setting – Association of Research Libraries (ARL member institutions in the United States of America. Subjects – 108 directors of special collections. Methods – Participants were recruited via email; contact information was compiled through professional directories, web searches, and referrals from professionals at ARL member libraries. The survey was sent out on October 31, 2013, and two reminder emails were distributed before it closed three weeks later. The survey was created and distributed using Qualtrics, a research software that supports online data collection and analysis. All results were analyzed using Microsoft Excel and Qualtrics. Main Results – The final response rate was 58% (63 out of 108. The majority (51 participants, or 81% reported use of off-site storage for library collections. Of this group, 91% (47 out of 51 house a variety of special collections in off-site storage. The criteria most frequently utilized to designate these materials to off-site storage are use (87%, size (66%, format (60%, and value (57%. The authors found that special collections directors are most likely to send materials to off-site storage facilities that are established and in use by other departments at their home institution; access to established workflows, especially those linked to transit and delivery, and space for expanding collections are benefits. In regard to core special collections activities, results indicated that public service was most impacted by off-site storage. The authors discussed challenges related to patron use and satisfaction. In regard to management and processing, directors faced challenges using the same level of staff to maintain

  13. Radionuclide migration at sites of temporary storage of SNF and RW in North-West Russia - Contribution to regulatory development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sneve, M.K.; Shandala, N.K.; Orlova, E.I.; Titov, A.V.; Kochetkov, O.A.; Smith, G.M.; Barraclough, I.M.

    2007-01-01

    Two technical bases of the Northern Fleet were created in the Russian northwest in the 1960s at Andreeva in the Kola Bay and Gremikha village on the coast of the Barents Sea. They maintained nuclear submarines, performing receipt and storage of radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel. No further stored material was received after 1985. These technical bases have since been re-categorised as sites of temporary storage. It is necessary to note that, during the storage of RW and SNF, certain conditions arose which resulted in failure of the storage barrier system, resulting in release of radionuclides. Remediation activities at the site focus on reduction of major risks associated with most hazardous radioactive source terms. In addition, the long term management of the sites includes consideration of how to remediate contaminated areas, not only because they affect continuing work at the site, but also because this work will influence final radiological status of the sites. The optimum approach to remediation will be affected by how quickly radionuclides could move, both during the remediation works and, so far as any residual activity is concerned, after the works are completed. Present investigations reported here are directed to determination of sorption-desorption parameters of radionuclides in the studied areas, which will affect their underground migration, with the purpose of accounting for regional peculiarities in optimization process of the STSs remediation. The work is being carried out by the TSO State Research Centre - Institute of Biophysics, of Russian Federation, with assistance from western experts. The work forms part of a regulatory collaboration programme on-going between the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority and the Federal Medical-Biological Agency which is designed to support the development of norms and standards to be applied in the remediation of these sites of temporary storage. (author)

  14. The Donald C. Cook Nuclear Plant's experience with on-site storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacRae, W.T.

    1993-01-01

    The Donald C. Cook nuclear plant is located in Bridgman, Michigan. As such, no low-level radioactive waste from the facility has been sent to burial since November 1990. The only option is storage. The plant is well prepared for storage. A new facility was built, so the plant now has >2265 M3 (80 000 ft 3 ) of storage capacity. There are a number of issues that have had to be addressed during the period of storage. These items include storage capacity and waste generation rates, the waste form and the packages used, and the regulatory issues

  15. Off-Site Storage and Special Collections: A Study in Use and Impact in ARL Libraries in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priddle, Charlotte; McCann, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Special collections libraries collect and preserve materials of intellectual and cultural heritage, providing access to unique research resources. As their holdings continue to expand, special collections in research libraries confront increased space pressures. Off-site storage facilities, used frequently by research libraries for general…

  16. Development of in-structure design spectra for dome mounted equipment on underground waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julyk, L.J.

    1995-09-01

    In-structure response spectra for dome mounted equipment on underground waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site are developed on the basis of recent soil-structure-interaction analyses. Recommended design spectra are provided for various locations on the tank dome

  17. Modifications to an existing waste containment structure at Niagara Falls Storage Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paez-Restrepo, A.; Darby, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    The Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS), located near Lewiston, New York, is an interim waste containment facility for low-level radioactive waste. The facility was completed in 1986 and is managed for the Department of Energy (DOE) by Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI) as part of the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). The waste containment structure (WCS) at NFSS is approximately 297 m (975 ft) long and 137 m (450 ft) wide and reaches a maximum height of 10.4 m (34 ft). The peripheral slopes rise at an angle of 3:1 (h:v) for a width of about 16.8 m (55 ft), where the inclination decreases to 7.5%. The apex of the pile is higher at the south end, sloping about 1.2 m (4 ft) to the north. The interim layered cap consists of 0.9 m (3 ft) of clay overlain by 0.45 m (1.5 ft) of topsoil. The uppermost 15 cm (6 in.) of soil was loosely compacted to permit the development of a grass cover. In the summer of 1991, approximately 2,677 m 3 (3,500 yd 3 ) of additional contaminated soil and material in temporary storage elsewhere at NFSS was incorporated into the WCS. To accommodate the waste, a portion of the cap roughly centered with the pile [including 0.45 m (1.5 ft) of topsoil and 0.6 m (2 ft) of clay cap] was removed from an area 99 m (325 ft) long and 58.5 m (192 ft) wide, leaving a minimum of 0.3 m (I ft) of clay over the old waste as a radiation and radon barrier. The newly incorporated waste forms a layer 0.6 m (2 ft) thick, replacing the clay portion of the excavated cap. The waste is contained laterally by the old cap and sealed by a new cap, which also consists of 0.9 m (3 ft) of compacted clay and 0.45 m (1.5 ft) of topsoil. A transition zone about 6.1 m (20 ft) wide feathers the new cap to the old cap (see Fig. 3). Except for the uppermost 10.5 to 15.2 cm (4 to 6 in.) of vegetated topsoil, the excavated cap materials were stockpiled and reused in constructing the new cap. Additional material required to complete cap construction was imported from

  18. The influence of small mammal burrowing activity on water storage at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landeen, D.S.

    1994-09-01

    The amount and rate at which water may penetrate a protective barrier and come into contact with buried radioactive waste is a major concern. Because burrowing animals eventually will reside on the surface of any protective barrier, the effect these burrow systems may have on the loss or retention of water needs to be determined. The first section of this document summarizes the known literature relative to small mammals and the effects that burrowing activities have on water distribution, infiltration, and the overall impact of burrows on the ecosystem. Topics that are summarized include burrow air pressures, airflow, burrow humidity, microtopography, mounding, infiltration, climate, soil evaporation, and discussions of large pores relative to water distribution. The second section of this document provides the results of the study that was conducted at the Hanford Site to determine what effect small mammal burrows have on water storage. This Biointrusion task is identified in the Permanent Isolation Surface Barrier Development Plan in support of protective barriers. This particular animal intrusion task is one part of the overall animal intrusion task identified in Animal Intrusion Test Plan

  19. CHARACTERIZING DOE HANFORD SITE WASTE ENCAPSULATION STORAGE FACILITY CELLS USING RADBALL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Coleman, R.

    2011-03-31

    RadBall{trademark} is a novel technology that can locate and quantify unknown radioactive hazards within contaminated areas, hot cells, and gloveboxes. The device consists of a colander-like outer tungsten collimator that houses a radiation-sensitive polymer semi-sphere. The collimator has a number of small holes with tungsten inserts; as a result, specific areas of the polymer are exposed to radiation becoming increasingly more opaque in proportion to the absorbed dose. The polymer semi-sphere is imaged in an optical computed tomography scanner that produces a high resolution 3D map of optical attenuation coefficients. A subsequent analysis of the optical attenuation data using a reverse ray tracing or backprojection technique provides information on the spatial distribution of gamma-ray sources in a given area forming a 3D characterization of the area of interest. RadBall{trademark} was originally designed for dry deployments and several tests, completed at Savannah River National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, substantiate its modeled capabilities. This study involves the investigation of the RadBall{trademark} technology during four submerged deployments in two water filled cells at the DOE Hanford Site's Waste Encapsulation Storage Facility.

  20. Streamlined approach for environmental restoration closure report for Corrective Action Unit No. 456: Underground storage tank release site 23-111-1, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-04-01

    The underground storage tank (UST) release site 23-111-1 is located in Mercury, Nevada. The site is in Area 23 of the Nevada Test Site, (NTS) located on the north side of Building 111. The tank associated with the release was closed in place using cement grout on September 6, 1990. The tank was not closed by removal due to numerous active underground utilities, a high-voltage transformer pad, and overhead power lines. Soil samples collected below the tank bottom at the time of tank closure activities exceeded the Nevada Administrative Code Action Level of 100 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) for petroleum hydrocarbons. Maximum concentrations detected were 119 mg/kg. Two passive venting wells were subsequently installed at the tank ends to monitor the progress of biodegradation at the site. Quarterly air sampling from the wells was completed for approximately one year, but was discontinued since data indicated that considerable biodegradation was not occurring at the site

  1. Verification of geomechanical integrity and prediction of long-term mineral trapping for the Ketzin CO2 storage pilot site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempka, Thomas; De Lucia, Marco; Kühn, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Static and dynamic numerical modelling generally accompany the entire CO2 storage site life cycle. Thereto, it is required to match the employed models with field observations on a regular basis in order to predict future site behaviour. We investigated the coupled processes at the Ketzin CO2 storage pilot site [1] using a model coupling concept focusing on the temporal relevance of processes involved (hydraulic, chemical and mechanical) at given time-scales (site operation, abandonment and long-term stabilization). For that purpose, long-term dynamic multi-phase flow simulations [2], [3] established the basis for all simulations discussed in the following. Hereby, pressure changes resulting in geomechanical effects are largest during site operation, whereas geochemical reactions are governed by slow kinetics resulting in a long-term stabilization. To account for mechanical integrity, which may be mainly affected during site operation, we incorporated a regional-scale coupled hydro-mechanical model. Our simulation results show maximum ground surface displacements of about 4 mm, whereas shear and tensile failure are not observed. Consequently, the CO2 storage operation at the Ketzin pilot site does not compromise reservoir, caprock and fault integrity. Chemical processes responsible for mineral trapping are expected to mainly occur during long-term stabilization at the Ketzin pilot site [4]. Hence, our previous assessment [3] was extended by integrating two long-term mineral trapping scenarios. Thereby, mineral trapping contributes to the trapping mechanisms with 11.7 % after 16,000 years of simulation in our conservative and with 30.9 % in our maximum reactivity scenarios. Dynamic flow simulations indicate that only 0.2 % of the CO2 injected (about 67,270 t CO2 in total) is in gaseous state, but structurally trapped after 16,000 years. Depending on the studied long-term scenario, CO2 dissolution is the dominating trapping mechanism with 68.9 % and 88

  2. Streamlined approach for environmental restoration closure report for Corrective Action Unit 452: Historical underground storage tank release sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-04-01

    This report addresses the site characterization of three historical underground storage tank (UST) petroleum hydrocarbon release sites identified as 25-3101-1, 25-3102-3, and 25-3152-1. The sites are located within the Nevada Test Site in Area 25 at Buildings 3101, 3102, and 3152. The characterization was completed to support administrative closure of the sites. Characterization was completed using drilling equipment to delineate the extent of hydrocarbon impact. Clean closure had been previously attempted at each of these sites using backhoe equipment without success due to adjacent structures, buried utilities, or depth restrictions associated with each site. Although the depth and extent of hydrocarbon impact was determined to be too extensive for clean closure, it was verified through drilling that the sites should be closed through an administrative closure. The Nevada Administrative Code ''A Through K'' evaluation completed for each site supports that there is no significant risk to human health or the environment from the impacted soils remaining at each site

  3. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 124, Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada with Errata Sheet, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfred Wickline

    2008-01-01

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 124, Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada. This report complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management (FFACO, 1996; as amended January 2007). This CR provides documentation and justification for the closure of CAU 124 without further corrective action. This justification is based on process knowledge and the results of the investigative activities conducted in accordance with the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 124: Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (NNSA/NSO, 2007). The SAFER Plan provides information relating to site history as well as the scope and planning of the investigation. Therefore, this information will not be repeated in this CR.

  4. Carbon storage in a heavy clay soil landfill site after biosolid application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolan, N.S., E-mail: Nanthi.Bolan@unisa.edu.au [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation (CERAR), University of South Australia, SA 5095 (Australia); Cooperative Research Centre for Contaminants Assessment and Remediation of the Environment (CRC CARE), University of South Australia, SA 5095 (Australia); Kunhikrishnan, A. [Chemical Safety Division, Department of Agro-Food Safety, National Academy of Agricultural Science, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do 441-707 (Korea, Republic of); Naidu, R. [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation (CERAR), University of South Australia, SA 5095 (Australia); Cooperative Research Centre for Contaminants Assessment and Remediation of the Environment (CRC CARE), University of South Australia, SA 5095 (Australia)

    2013-11-01

    Applying organic amendments including biosolids and composts to agricultural land could increase carbon (C) storage in soils and contribute significantly to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Although a number of studies have examined the potential value of biosolids as a soil conditioner and nutrient source, there has been only limited work on the impact of biosolid application on C sequestration in soils. The objective of this study was to examine the potential value of biosolids in C sequestration in soils. Two types of experiments were conducted to examine the effect of biosolid application on C sequestration. In the first laboratory incubation experiment, the rate of decomposition of a range of biosolid samples was compared with other organic amendments including composts and biochars. In the second field experiment, the effect of biosolids on the growth of two bioenergy crops, Brassica juncea (Indian mustard) and Helianthus annuus (sunflower) on a landfill site was examined in relation to biomass production and C sequestration. The rate of decomposition varied amongst the organic amendments, and followed: composts > biosolids > biochar. There was a hundred fold difference in the rate of decomposition between biochar and other organic amendments. The rate of decomposition of biosolids decreased with increasing iron (Fe) and aluminum (Al) contents of biosolids. Biosolid application increased the dry matter yield of both plant species (by 2–2.5 fold), thereby increasing the biomass C input to soils. The rate of net C sequestration resulting from biosolid application (Mg C ha{sup −1} yr{sup −1} Mg{sup −1} biosolids) was higher for mustard (0.103) than sunflower (0.087). Biosolid application is likely to result in a higher level of C sequestration when compared to other management strategies including fertilizer application and conservation tillage, which is attributed to increased microbial biomass, and Fe and Al oxide-induced immobilization of C

  5. Carbon storage in a heavy clay soil landfill site after biosolid application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolan, N.S.; Kunhikrishnan, A.; Naidu, R.

    2013-01-01

    Applying organic amendments including biosolids and composts to agricultural land could increase carbon (C) storage in soils and contribute significantly to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Although a number of studies have examined the potential value of biosolids as a soil conditioner and nutrient source, there has been only limited work on the impact of biosolid application on C sequestration in soils. The objective of this study was to examine the potential value of biosolids in C sequestration in soils. Two types of experiments were conducted to examine the effect of biosolid application on C sequestration. In the first laboratory incubation experiment, the rate of decomposition of a range of biosolid samples was compared with other organic amendments including composts and biochars. In the second field experiment, the effect of biosolids on the growth of two bioenergy crops, Brassica juncea (Indian mustard) and Helianthus annuus (sunflower) on a landfill site was examined in relation to biomass production and C sequestration. The rate of decomposition varied amongst the organic amendments, and followed: composts > biosolids > biochar. There was a hundred fold difference in the rate of decomposition between biochar and other organic amendments. The rate of decomposition of biosolids decreased with increasing iron (Fe) and aluminum (Al) contents of biosolids. Biosolid application increased the dry matter yield of both plant species (by 2–2.5 fold), thereby increasing the biomass C input to soils. The rate of net C sequestration resulting from biosolid application (Mg C ha −1 yr −1 Mg −1 biosolids) was higher for mustard (0.103) than sunflower (0.087). Biosolid application is likely to result in a higher level of C sequestration when compared to other management strategies including fertilizer application and conservation tillage, which is attributed to increased microbial biomass, and Fe and Al oxide-induced immobilization of C. - Graphical

  6. Feasibility study: Assess the feasibility of siting a monitored retrievable storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of phase one of this study are: To understand the waste management system and a monitored retrievable storage facility; and to determine whether the applicant has real interest in pursuing the feasibility assessment process. Contents of this report are: Generating electric power; facts about exposure to radiation; handling storage, and transportation techniques; description of a proposed monitored retrievable storage facility; and benefits to be received by host jurisdiction

  7. Feasibility study: Assess the feasibility of siting a monitored retrievable storage facility. Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, J.W.

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of phase one of this study are: To understand the waste management system and a monitored retrievable storage facility; and to determine whether the applicant has real interest in pursuing the feasibility assessment process. Contents of this report are: Generating electric power; facts about exposure to radiation; handling storage, and transportation techniques; description of a proposed monitored retrievable storage facility; and benefits to be received by host jurisdiction.

  8. Risks and mitigation options for on-site storage of wastewater from shale gas and tight oil development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwayama, Yusuke; Roeshot, Skyler; Krupnick, Alan; Richardson, Nathan; Mares, Jan

    2017-01-01

    We provide a critical review of existing research and information regarding the sources of risk associated with on-site shale gas and tight oil wastewater storage in the United States, the gaps that exist in knowledge regarding these risks, policy and technology options for addressing the risks, and the relative merits of those options. Specifically, we (a) identify the potential risks to human and ecological health associated with on-site storage of shale gas and tight oil wastewater via a literature survey and analysis of data on wastewater spills and regulatory violations, (b) provide a detailed description of government regulations or industry actions that may mitigate these risks to human and ecological health, and (c) provide a critical review of this information to help generate progress toward concrete action to make shale gas and tight oil development more sustainable and more acceptable to a skeptical public, while keeping costs down. - Highlights: • We review current research/information on shale gas and tight oil wastewater storage. • Pit overflows, tank overfills, and liner malfunctions are common spill causes. • Tanks lead to smaller and less frequent spills than pits, but are not a magic bullet. • State regulations for on-site oil and gas wastewater storage are very heterogeneous.

  9. Site characterization of the highest-priority geologic formations for CO2 storage in Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surdam, Ronald C. [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Bentley, Ramsey [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Campbell-Stone, Erin [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Dahl, Shanna [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Deiss, Allory [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Ganshin, Yuri [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Jiao, Zunsheng [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Kaszuba, John [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Mallick, Subhashis [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); McLaughlin, Fred [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Myers, James [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Quillinan, Scott [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)

    2013-12-07

    This study, funded by U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory award DE-FE0002142 along with the state of Wyoming, uses outcrop and core observations, a diverse electric log suite, a VSP survey, in-bore testing (DST, injection tests, and fluid sampling), a variety of rock/fluid analyses, and a wide range of seismic attributes derived from a 3-D seismic survey to thoroughly characterize the highest-potential storage reservoirs and confining layers at the premier CO2 geological storage site in Wyoming. An accurate site characterization was essential to assessing the following critical aspects of the storage site: (1) more accurately estimate the CO2 reservoir storage capacity (Madison Limestone and Weber Sandstone at the Rock Springs Uplift (RSU)), (2) evaluate the distribution, long-term integrity, and permanence of the confining layers, (3) manage CO2 injection pressures by removing formation fluids (brine production/treatment), and (4) evaluate potential utilization of the stored CO2

  10. Using Geographic Information Systems to Determine Site Suitability for a Low-Level Radioactive Waste Storage Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Charles A; Matthews, Kennith; Pulsipher, Allan; Wang, Wei-Hsung

    2016-02-01

    Radioactive waste is an inevitable product of using radioactive material in education and research activities, medical applications, energy generation, and weapons production. Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) makes up a majority of the radioactive waste produced in the United States. In 2010, over two million cubic feet of LLW were shipped to disposal sites. Despite efforts from several states and compacts as well as from private industry, the options for proper disposal of LLW remain limited. New methods for quickly identifying potential storage locations could alleviate current challenges and eventually provide additional sites and allow for adequate regional disposal of LLW. Furthermore, these methods need to be designed so that they are easily communicated to the public. A Geographic Information Systems (GIS) based method was developed to determine suitability of potential LLW disposal (or storage) sites. Criteria and other parameters of suitability were based on the Code of Federal Regulation (CFR) requirements as well as supporting literature and reports. The resultant method was used to assess areas suitable for further evaluation as prospective disposal sites in Louisiana. Criteria were derived from the 10 minimum requirements in 10 CFR Part 61.50, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Regulatory Guide 0902, and studies at existing disposal sites. A suitability formula was developed permitting the use of weighting factors and normalization of all criteria. Data were compiled into GIS data sets and analyzed on a cell grid of approximately 14,000 cells (covering 181,300 square kilometers) using the suitability formula. Requirements were analyzed for each cell using multiple criteria/sub-criteria as well as surrogates for unavailable datasets. Additional criteria were also added when appropriate. The method designed in this project proved to be sufficient for initial screening tests in determining the most suitable areas for prospective disposal (or storage

  11. Verification of criticality safety in on-site spent fuel storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, R.W.

    1989-01-01

    On February 15, 1984, Duke Power Company received approval for a two-region, burnup credit, spent fuel storage rack design at both Units 1 and 2 of the McGuire Nuclear Station. Duke also hopes to obtain approval by January of 1990 for a dry spent fuel storage system at the Oconee Nuclear Station, which will incorporate the use of burnup credit in the criticality analysis governing the design of the individual storage units. While experiences in burnup verification for criticality safety for their dry storage system at Oconee are in the future, the methods proposed for burnup verification will be similar to those currently used at the McGuire Nuclear Station in the two-region storage racks installed in both pools. In conclusion, the primary benefit of the McGuire rerack effort has obviously been the amount of storage expansion it provided. A total increase of about 2,000 storage cells was realized, 1,000 of which were the result of pursuing the two-region rather than the conventional poison rack design. Less impacting, but equally as important, however, has been the experience gained during the planning, installation, and operation of these storage racks. This experience should prove useful for future rerack efforts likely to occur at Duke's Catawba Nuclear Station as well as for the current dry storage effort underway for the Oconee Nuclear Station

  12. Decommissioning of the 105-F and 105-H fuel storage basin in the 100 Area at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, P.W.

    1991-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) owns the eight surplus production reactors at the Hanford Site north of Richland, Washington. The fuel storage basins at the 105-F and 105-H reactors were filled with equipment, associated with the operation of the basins and clean fill in 1970. This was done to stabilize the residual sediment and a few feet of water in the reactors' fuel storage basins. This project investigates the subject basins to locate and remove overlooked fuel elements left in the basins

  13. Referenced-site environmental document for a Monitored Retrievable Storage facility: backup waste management option for handling 1800 MTU per year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silviera, D.J.; Aaberg, R.L.; Cushing, C.E.; Marshall, A.; Scott, M.J.; Sewart, G.H.; Strenge, D.L.

    1985-06-01

    This environmental document includes a discussion of the purpose of a monitored retrievable storage facility, a description of two facility design concepts (sealed storage cask and field drywell), a description of three reference sites (arid, warm-wet, and cold-wet), and a discussion and comparison of the impacts associated with each of the six site/concept combinations. This analysis is based on a 15,000-MTU storage capacity and a throughput rate of up to 1800 MTU per year

  14. Referenced-site environmental document for a Monitored Retrievable Storage facility: backup waste management option for handling 1800 MTU per year

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silviera, D.J.; Aaberg, R.L.; Cushing, C.E.; Marshall, A.; Scott, M.J.; Sewart, G.H.; Strenge, D.L.

    1985-06-01

    This environmental document includes a discussion of the purpose of a monitored retrievable storage facility, a description of two facility design concepts (sealed storage cask and field drywell), a description of three reference sites (arid, warm-wet, and cold-wet), and a discussion and comparison of the impacts associated with each of the six site/concept combinations. This analysis is based on a 15,000-MTU storage capacity and a throughput rate of up to 1800 MTU per year.

  15. Transfer of Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Plant and N Reactor irradiated fuel for storage at the 105-KE and 105-KW fuel storage basins, Hanford Site, Richland Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) needs to remove irradiated fuel from the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant and N Reactor at the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington, to stabilize the facilities in preparation for decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) and to reduce the cost of maintaining the facilities prior to D ampersand D. DOE is proposing to transfer approximately 3.9 metric tons (4.3 short tons) of unprocessed irradiated fuel, by rail, from the PUREX Plant in the 200 East Area and the 105 N Reactor (N Reactor) fuel storage basin in the 100 N Area, to the 105-KE and 105-KW fuel storage basins (K Basins) in the 100 K Area. The fuel would be placed in storage at the K Basins, along with fuel presently stored, and would be dispositioned in the same manner as the other existing irradiated fuel inventory stored in the K Basins. The fuel transfer to the K Basins would consolidate storage of fuels irradiated at N Reactor and the Single Pass Reactors. Approximately 2.9 metric tons (3.2 short tons) of single-pass production reactor, aluminum clad (AC) irradiated fuel in four fuel baskets have been placed into four overpack buckets and stored in the PUREX Plant canyon storage basin to await shipment. In addition, about 0.5 metric tons (0.6 short tons) of zircaloy clad (ZC) and a few AC irradiated fuel elements have been recovered from the PUREX dissolver cell floors, placed in wet fuel canisters, and stored on the canyon deck. A small quantity of ZC fuel, in the form of fuel fragments and chips, is suspected to be in the sludge at the bottom of N Reactor's fuel storage basin. As part of the required stabilization activities at N Reactor, this sludge would be removed from the basin and any identifiable pieces of fuel elements would be recovered, placed in open canisters, and stored in lead lined casks in the storage basin to await shipment. A maximum of 0.5 metric tons (0.6 short tons) of fuel pieces is expected to be recovered

  16. Final Oak Ridge National Laboratory Site Assessment Report on the Storage of 233U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bereolos, P.J.; Yong, L.K.

    1999-01-01

    This assessment characterizes the 233 U inventories and storage facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This assessment is a commitment in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Implementation Plan (IP), ''Safe Storage of Uranium-233,'' in response to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board's Recommendation 97-1

  17. Storage sites in seeds of Caesalpinia echinata and C. ferrea (Leguminosae with considerations on nutrients flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone de Pádua Teixeira

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The seeds of Caesalpinia echinata and C. ferrea behaved as typical endospermic seeds, despite their different morphological classification (exendospermic seeds were described for C. echinata and endospermic seeds for C. ferrea. Then, the aim of this work was to compare, under ultrastructural and histochemical terms, the nature of the storage substances and their accumulation sites, as well as the nutrient flow in seeds of these species. Cotyledons in C. echinata accumulate carbohydrates, lipids and proteins, which are mobilized from the outer to the inner parts as revealed by the position of plasmodesmata. Endosperm in C. ferrea accumulates carbohydrates and in C. echinata accumulates substances during the initial embryogenic phases. Such tissue develops a chalazal haustorium that is responsible for the transport of substances into the endosperm itself and from it into the embryo, confirmed by the presence of transference cells.As sementes de Caesalpinia echinata e C. ferrea comportam-se como endospérmicas, apesar de descritas na literatura como exendospérmicas e endospérmicas, respectivamente. Desta forma, o objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar, em termos ultra-estrutural e histoquímico, a natureza das substâncias de reserva e seus tecidos acumuladores, bem como o fluxo de nutrientes nas sementes destas espécies. Os cotilédones em C. echinata acumulam carboidratos, lipídios e proteínas, mobilizados da periferia para o centro, como visto pelo posicionamento dos plasmodesmas. O endosperma em C. ferrea acumula carboidratos e lipídios, e em C. echinata, acumula substâncias nos estádios iniciais da embriogênese. Este tecido desenvolve um haustório calazal agressivo, que transporta substâncias para o endosperma propriamente dito e deste para o embrião, fato confirmado pela presença de células de transferência no endosperma.

  18. The search for a storage site for low-level and long-life wastes. December 2008 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    After having recalled the methodology and approach implemented for the search and selection of radioactive waste storage sites, this report proposes a brief synthesis of contacts taken during the call for candidates. It comments the results of this call, describes the project technical constraints (waste inventory, studied solutions, graphite and radiferous wastes, programmed investigations on preselected sites), gives the results of the geological analysis (methodology, geological context, site ranking), of the environmental analysis (context and principles, collected information), and of the socio-economic analysis of the candidate sites. The last chapter discusses the identification of possible preselected sites. Some more detailed information are available in appendix: candidate list, geological sheets and maps, environmental and socio-economic analysis of candidate towns or districts

  19. SiteChar. Characterisation of European CO2 storage. Deliverable 8.4. Quantitative social site characterisations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunsting, S.; Mastop, E.A. [ECN Policy Studies, Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kaiser, M.; Zimmer, R. [Unabhaengiges Institut fuer Umweltfragen UfU, Berlin (Germany)

    2013-06-15

    This report describes the results of the last stage of the in-depth social site characterisation activities at two prospective CCS sites as part of the SiteChar project: a CCS onshore site and a CCS offshore site. The onshore site is the Zalecze and Zuchlow site application (Poland - WP5) and the offshore site is the North Sea Moray Firth site (UK - WP3). This deliverable describes the results from a repeated quantitative measurement of local awareness, knowledge, and perceptions of CCS at both sites using representative surveys. For comparison and discussion of all SiteChar WP8 results we refer to the final summary report D8.5. The 2nd survey showed some interesting results. First of all, awareness of CCS was still very low. While in the UK around half of the respondents had at least heard of local plans for CCS, in Poland this was only 21%. It seems that awareness in the UK was mostly induced by specific plans in the area that were abandoned in the course of the SiteChar project. Second, it seems that on the whole the local publics were rather positive about CCS. Most respondents expected a positive impact of CCS on the region. In the UK, arguments for that were mainly economic, while in Poland arguments were mainly related to environmental concerns. Although there are some worries about risks of leakage, especially at the onshore site in Poland, people think that authorities will properly regulate CCS and monitor the safety of CCS. Expectations were mostly that it would be good for the country and that it will help reach international targets for CO2 reduction and buy time to develop renewable energy. Respondents seemed uncertain about the costs of using CCS and whether the technique is ready for widespread use. Especially in Poland people seemed to agree that CCS is essential for tackling climate change. Most differences between the two sites may be attributed to the proximity of the site to the local community. The Polish site is onshore and therefore much

  20. Investigation of Pumped Storage Hydropower Power-Off Transient Process Using 3D Numerical Simulation Based on SP-VOF Hybrid Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daqing Zhou

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The transient characteristic of the power-off process is investigated due to its close relation to hydraulic facilities’ safety in a pumped storage hydropower (PSH. In this paper, power-off transient characteristics of a PSH station in pump mode was studied using a three-dimensional (3D unsteady numerical method based on a single-phase and volume of fluid (SP-VOF coupled model. The computational domain covered the entire flow system, including reservoirs, diversion tunnel, surge tank, pump-turbine unit, and tailrace tunnel. The fast changing flow fields and dynamic characteristic parameters, such as unit flow rate, runner rotate speed, pumping lift, and static pressure at measuring points were simulated, and agreed well with experimental results. During the power-off transient process, the PSH station underwent pump mode, braking mode, and turbine mode, with the dynamic characteristics and inner flow configurations changing significantly. Intense pressure fluctuation occurred in the region between the runner and guide vanes, and its frequency and amplitude were closely related to the runner’s rotation speed and pressure gradient, respectively. While the reversed flow rate of the PSH unit reached maximum, some parameters, such as static pressure, torque, and pumping lift would suddenly jump significantly, due to the water hammer effect. The moment these marked jumps occurred was commonly considered as the most dangerous moment during the power-off transient process, due to the blade passages being clogged by vortexes, and chaos pressure distribution on the blade surfaces. The results of this study confirm that 3D SP-VOF hybrid simulation is an effective method to reveal the hydraulic mechanism of the PSH transient process.

  1. Managing the process for storage and disposal of immobilized high- and low-level tank waste at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murkowski, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation (LMHC) is one of six subcontractors under Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc., the Management and Integration contractor for the Project Hanford Management Contract working for the US Department of Energy. One of LMHC's responsibilities is to prepare storage and disposal facilities to receive immobilized high and low-level tank waste by June of 2002. The immobilized materials are to be produced by one or more vendors working under a privatization contract. The immobilized low-activity waste is to be permanently disposed of at the Hanford Site while the immobilized high-level waste is to be stored at the Hanford Site while awaiting shipment to the offsite repository. Figure 1 is an overview of the entire cleanup mission with the disposal portion of the mission. Figure 2 is a representation of major activities required to complete the storage and disposal mission. The challenge for the LNIHC team is to understand and plan for accepting materials that are described in the Request for Proposal. Private companies will submit bids based on the Request for Proposal and other Department of Energy requirements. LMHC, however, must maintain sufficient flexibility to accept modifications that may occur during the privatization bid/award process that is expected to be completed by May 1998. Fundamental to this planning is to minimize the risks of stand-by costs if storage and disposal facilities are not available to receive the immobilized waste. LMHC has followed a rigorous process for the identification of the functions and requirements of the storage/disposal facilities. A set of alternatives to meet these functions and requirements were identified and evaluated. The alternatives selected were (1) to modify four vaults for disposal of immobilized low-activity waste, and (2) to retrofit a portion of the Canister Storage Building for storage of immobilized high-level waste

  2. An optimization of the ALICE XRootD storage cluster at the Tier-2 site in Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamova, D; Horky, J

    2012-01-01

    ALICE, as well as the other experiments at the CERN LHC, has been building a distributed data management infrastructure since 2002. Experience gained during years of operations with different types of storage managers deployed over this infrastructure has shown, that the most adequate storage solution for ALICE is the native XRootD manager developed within a CERN - SLAC collaboration. The XRootD storage clusters exhibit higher stability and availability in comparison with other storage solutions and demonstrate a number of other advantages, like support of high speed WAN data access or no need for maintaining complex databases. Two of the operational characteristics of XRootD data servers are a relatively high number of open sockets and a high Unix load. In this article, we would like to describe our experience with the tuning/optimization of machines hosting the XRootD servers, which are part of the ALICE storage cluster at the Tier-2 WLCG site in Prague, Czech Republic. The optimization procedure, in addition to boosting the read/write performance of the servers, also resulted in a reduction of the Unix load.

  3. Annotated bibliography for biologic overview for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, E.; O'Farrell, T.P.; Rhoads, W.A.

    1981-12-01

    This annotated bibliography was compiled to accompany the Biologic Overview for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, EG and G, Santa Barbara Operations Report No. EGG 1183-2443, which documents and synthesizes important biotic information related to Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI). As such, it is an important part of the NNWSI screening process that was designed to include a systematic, traceable, defensible, and documented basis for a decision to proceed or not with site-specific phases on NTS. Included are all published, and available but unpublished, baseline information on life histories, habitat requirements, distributions, and ecological relationships of the flora and fauna of the region. Special effort was made to include information on endangered, threatened, or sensitive species. 131 references

  4. Site-specific issues related to structural/seismic design of an underground independent spent fuel storage installation (ISFSI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, B.P.

    2005-01-01

    Utilities owning and operating commercial nuclear power plants (NPP) in USA may choose to build an underground Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI) to store the spent nuclear fuels. The regulatory requirements and other guidance are based on 10 CFR Part 72, Regulatory Guide RG 3.73, Standard Review Plans NUREG-1536 and NUREG-1567, and Interim staff Guidance (ISG) documents as applicable. Structures, Systems, and Components (SSCs) classified as important to safety are designed to withstand the effects of site-specific environmental conditions and natural phenomena such as earthquake, tornado, flood, etc. An underground ISFSI for storage of spent nuclear fuel, presents some unique analysis and design challenges. This paper will briefly address some of these challenges and discuss site-specific loads, including seismic for the ISFSI design. (authors)

  5. Characterization and reclamation assessment for the Central Shops Diesel Storage Facility, Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fliermans, C.B.; Hazen, T.C.; Bledsoe, H.

    1993-10-01

    The contamination of subsurface terrestrial environments by organic contaminants is a global phenomenon. The remediation of such environments requires innovative assessment techniques and strategies for successful clean-ups. Central Shops Diesel Storage Facility at Savannah River Site was characterized to determine the extent of subsurface diesel fuel contamination using innovative approaches and effective bioremediation techniques for clean-up of the contaminant plume have been established.

  6. Streamlined approach for environmental restoration closure report for Corrective Action Unit 454: Historical underground storage tank release sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-04-01

    This report addresses the characterization of three historical underground storage tank (UST) petroleum hydrocarbon release sites identified as 12-B-1, 12-B-3, and 12-COMM-1. The sites are located within the Nevada Test Site in Area 12 at B Tunnel and a former Communications/Power Maintenance Shop. Release Site 12-B-1 was not able to be clean-closed as proposed in the SAFER Plan. However, hydrocarbon impacted soils were excavated down to bedrock. Release Site 12-B-3 was evaluated to verify that the identified release was not associated with the UST removed from the site. Analytical results support the assumption that wood or possibly a roof sealant used as part of the bunker construction could have been the source of hydrocarbons detected. Release Site 12-COMM-1 was not clean closed as proposed in the SAFER Plan. The vertical extent of impacted soils was determined not to extend below a depth of 2.7 m (9 ft) below ground surface (bgs). The lateral extent could not be defined due to the presence of a discontinuous lens of hydrocarbon-impacted soil

  7. Streamlined approach for environmental restoration closure report for Corrective Action Unit 454: Historical underground storage tank release sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This report addresses the characterization of three historical underground storage tank (UST) petroleum hydrocarbon release sites identified as 12-B-1, 12-B-3, and 12-COMM-1. The sites are located within the Nevada Test Site in Area 12 at B Tunnel and a former Communications/Power Maintenance Shop. Release Site 12-B-1 was not able to be clean-closed as proposed in the SAFER Plan. However, hydrocarbon impacted soils were excavated down to bedrock. Release Site 12-B-3 was evaluated to verify that the identified release was not associated with the UST removed from the site. Analytical results support the assumption that wood or possibly a roof sealant used as part of the bunker construction could have been the source of hydrocarbons detected. Release Site 12-COMM-1 was not clean closed as proposed in the SAFER Plan. The vertical extent of impacted soils was determined not to extend below a depth of 2.7 m (9 ft) below ground surface (bgs). The lateral extent could not be defined due to the presence of a discontinuous lens of hydrocarbon-impacted soil.

  8. Microalgal biomass production and on-site bioremediation of carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxide and sulfur dioxide from flue gas using Chlorella sp. cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Sheng-Yi; Kao, Chien-Ya; Huang, Tzu-Ting; Lin, Chia-Jung; Ong, Seow-Chin; Chen, Chun-Da; Chang, Jo-Shu; Lin, Chih-Sheng

    2011-10-01

    The growth and on-site bioremediation potential of an isolated thermal- and CO₂-tolerant mutant strain, Chlorella sp. MTF-7, were investigated. The Chlorella sp. MTF-7 cultures were directly aerated with the flue gas generated from coke oven of a steel plant. The biomass concentration, growth rate and lipid content of Chlorella sp. MTF-7 cultured in an outdoor 50-L photobioreactor for 6 days was 2.87 g L⁻¹ (with an initial culture biomass concentration of 0.75 g L⁻¹), 0.52 g L⁻¹ d⁻¹ and 25.2%, respectively. By the operation with intermittent flue gas aeration in a double-set photobioreactor system, average efficiency of CO₂ removal from the flue gas could reach to 60%, and NO and SO₂ removal efficiency was maintained at approximately 70% and 50%, respectively. Our results demonstrate that flue gas from coke oven could be directly introduced into Chlorella sp. MTF-7 cultures to potentially produce algal biomass and efficiently capture CO₂, NO and SO₂ from flue gas. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Compressed air energy storage: preliminary design and site development program in an aquifer. Final draft, Task 2: Volume 2 of 3. Characterize and explore potential sites and prepare research and development plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-12-01

    The characteristics of sites in Indiana and Illinois which are being investigated as potential sites for compressed air energy storage power plants are documented. These characteristics include geological considerations, economic factors, and environmental considerations. Extensive data are presented for 14 specific sites and a relative rating on the desirability of each site is derived. (LCL)

  10. Revised corrective action plan for underground storage tank 2331-U at the Building 9201-1 Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohrman, D.E.; Ingram, E.M.

    1993-09-01

    This document represents the Corrective Action Plan for underground storage tank (UST) 2331-U, previously located at Building 9201-1, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Tank 2331-U, a 560-gallon UST, was removed on December 14, 1988. This document presents a comprehensive summary of all environmental assessment investigations conducted at the Building 9201-1 Site and the corrective action measures proposed for remediation of subsurface petroleum product contamination identified at the site. This document is written in accordance with the regulatory requirements of the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) Rule 1200-1-15-.06(7)

  11. Cancer mortality and incidence survey around the Aube's low- and medium-activity radioactive waste storage site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This report presents the main results of a survey performed in 2010 to describe the health status of the population around the Aube's low- and medium-activity radioactive waste storage site. The aim of this survey was to determine whether the frequencies of death and hospitalization on account of cancer are different for this population (15 km around the site) with respect to two reference populations (the population of the Champagne-Ardennes region and the French metropolitan population). Results of mortality, hospitalization, and lung cancer are presented under the form of maps and tables giving global data or data for males, females, adults, or children

  12. DSND report on radio-ecological monitoring of INBS and management of radioactive waste old storage sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    In its first part, this report describes the radiological monitoring of secret base nuclear installations (INBS): applicable arrangements and actors in terms of transparency and information on nuclear safety, regulatory arrangements related to surveillance of underground and surface water quality, assessment of the application of regulatory arrangements, arrangements in terms of public information, and actions of the ASND. The second part describes the management of nuclear waste old storage sites: INBS coming under the ministry of defence (air force sites, military harbors), INBS coming under the minister in charge of energy

  13. SAVANNAH RIVER SITE INCIPIENT SLUDGE MIXING IN RADIOACTIVE LIQUID WASTE STORAGE TANKS DURING SALT SOLUTION BLENDING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leishear, R.; Poirier, M.; Lee, S.; Steeper, T.; Fowley, M.; Parkinson, K.

    2011-01-12

    This paper is the second in a series of four publications to document ongoing pilot scale testing and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of mixing processes in 85 foot diameter, 1.3 million gallon, radioactive liquid waste, storage tanks at Savannah River Site (SRS). Homogeneous blending of salt solutions is required in waste tanks. Settled solids (i.e., sludge) are required to remain undisturbed on the bottom of waste tanks during blending. Suspension of sludge during blending may potentially release radiolytically generated hydrogen trapped in the sludge, which is a safety concern. The first paper (Leishear, et. al. [1]) presented pilot scale blending experiments of miscible fluids to provide initial design requirements for a full scale blending pump. Scaling techniques for an 8 foot diameter pilot scale tank were also justified in that work. This second paper describes the overall reasons to perform tests, and documents pilot scale experiments performed to investigate disturbance of sludge, using non-radioactive sludge simulants. A third paper will document pilot scale CFD modeling for comparison to experimental pilot scale test results for both blending tests and sludge disturbance tests. That paper will also describe full scale CFD results. The final paper will document additional blending test results for stratified layers in salt solutions, scale up techniques, final full scale pump design recommendations, and operational recommendations. Specifically, this paper documents a series of pilot scale tests, where sludge simulant disturbance due to a blending pump or transfer pump are investigated. A principle design requirement for a blending pump is UoD, where Uo is the pump discharge nozzle velocity, and D is the nozzle diameter. Pilot scale test results showed that sludge was undisturbed below UoD = 0.47 ft{sup 2}/s, and that below UoD = 0.58 ft{sup 2}/s minimal sludge disturbance was observed. If sludge is minimally disturbed, hydrogen will not be

  14. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 145: Wells and Storage Holes, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David A. Strand

    2004-09-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains project-specific information for conducting site investigation activities at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 145: Wells and Storage Holes. Information presented in this CAIP includes facility descriptions, environmental sample collection objectives, and criteria for the selection and evaluation of environmental samples. Corrective Action Unit 145 is located in Area 3 of the Nevada Test Site, which is 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 145 is comprised of the six Corrective Action Sites (CASs) listed below: (1) 03-20-01, Core Storage Holes; (2) 03-20-02, Decon Pad and Sump; (3) 03-20-04, Injection Wells; (4) 03-20-08, Injection Well; (5) 03-25-01, Oil Spills; and (6) 03-99-13, Drain and Injection Well. These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation (CAI) prior to evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. One conceptual site model with three release scenario components was developed for the six CASs to address all releases associated with the site. The sites will be investigated based on data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on June 24, 2004, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture; and Bechtel Nevada. The DQOs process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 145.

  15. Enhancement of the catalytic activity of ferulic acid decarboxylase from Enterobacter sp. Px6-4 through random and site-directed mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunji; Park, Jiyoung; Jung, Chaewon; Han, Dongfei; Seo, Jiyoung; Ahn, Joong-Hoon; Chong, Youhoon; Hur, Hor-Gil

    2015-11-01

    The enzyme ferulic acid decarboxylase (FADase) from Enterobacter sp. Px6-4 catalyzes the decarboxylation reaction of lignin monomers and phenolic compounds such as p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, and ferulic acid into their corresponding 4-vinyl derivatives, that is, 4-vinylphenol, 4-vinylcatechol, and 4-vinylguaiacol, respectively. Among various ferulic acid decarboxylase enzymes, we chose the FADase from Enterobacter sp. Px6-4, whose crystal structure is known, and produced mutants to enhance its catalytic activity by random and site-directed mutagenesis. After three rounds of sequential mutations, FADase(F95L/D112N/V151I) showed approximately 34-fold higher catalytic activity than wild-type for the production of 4-vinylguaiacol from ferulic acid. Docking analyses suggested that the increased activity of FADase(F95L/D112N/V151I) could be due to formation of compact active site compared with that of the wild-type FADase. Considering the amount of phenolic compounds such as lignin monomers in the biomass components, successfully bioengineered FADase(F95L/D112N/V151I) from Enterobacter sp. Px6-4 could provide an ecofriendly biocatalytic tool for producing diverse styrene derivatives from biomass.

  16. Surface decontamination in the old storage shed number 99 of the General Plan of IPEN/CNEN-SP, containing production equipment of natural uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}), aiming at its decommissioning; Descontaminacao de superficies no antigo galpao de estocagem numero 99 da planta geral do IPEN/CNEN-SP, contendo equipamentos da producao de hexafluoreto de uranio natural, (UF{sub 6}), visando seu descomissionamento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Claudio C. de; Cambises, Paulo B.S.; Paiva, Julio E. de; Paiva, Julio E. de; Silva, Teresina M.; Rodrigues, Demerval L., E-mail: calmeida@ipen.br, E-mail: cambises@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents the steps adopted in the operation planned for the decontamination of surfaces in the old storage shed number 99 the general layout of the Energy Research and Nuclear IPEN-CNEN/SP, Brazil, and contained various types of equipment originating from production hexafluoride natural uranium (UF6). This operation involved the planning, training of operators of the facility, analysis of workplaces and radiometric surveys for monitoring of external radiation and surface contamination. The training involved the procedures for decontamination of surfaces, segregation of materials and practical procedures for individual monitoring of contamination outside of the body. Were also established rules for the transport of radioactive materials in the internal and external facility and release of material and sites already decontaminated.

  17. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 166: Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David Strand

    2006-01-01

    Corrective Action Unit 166 is located in Areas 2, 3, 5, and 18 of the Nevada Test Site, which is 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 166 is comprised of the seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs) listed below: (1) 02-42-01, Cond. Release Storage Yd - North; (2) 02-42-02, Cond. Release Storage Yd - South; (3) 02-99-10, D-38 Storage Area; (4) 03-42-01, Conditional Release Storage Yard; (5) 05-19-02, Contaminated Soil and Drum; (6) 18-01-01, Aboveground Storage Tank; and (7) 18-99-03, Wax Piles/Oil Stain. These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation (CAI) before evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on February 28, 2006, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture; and Bechtel Nevada. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 166. Appendix A provides a detailed discussion of the DQO methodology and the DQOs specific to each CAS. The scope of the CAI for CAU 166 includes the following activities: (1) Move surface debris and/or materials, as needed, to facilitate sampling. (2) Conduct radiological surveys. (3) Perform field screening. (4) Collect and submit environmental samples for laboratory analysis to determine if

  18. Screening of prospective sites for geological storage of CO{sub 2} in the Southern Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vernon, R.; O' Neil, N.; Pasquali, R. [SLR Consulting, Dublin (Ireland); Nieminen, M.

    2013-05-15

    The BASTOR project focuses on identifying and characterising potential sites for CO{sub 2} storage in the southern Baltic Sea region. A compilation of available digital data from well logs, seismic line data interpretations, mapped structure outlines and published material from existing hydrocarbon fields and identified and mapped structures from Sweden, Poland, Latvia, Lithuania and Kaliningrad have been incorporated into a regional GIS for the Baltic Sea region. A detailed screening of regional sedimentary basins identified the Slupsk Border Zone as having suitable structures for storage of CO{sub 2} in depleted oil and gas fields or saline aquifers. Cambrian sandstone saline aquifers below 900 m have been identified as the principal regional potential storage target with the Dalders Monocline as the most promising area. Eight individual structures were identified as having greatest potential. Detailed 3D geological static models were developed for three of these structures located in offshore Latvia (E6 and E7) and one cross-border structure (Dalders Structure). A theoretical regional CO{sub 2} storage capacity calculation based on the GeoCapacity methodology was undertaken. A regional storage capacity for Cambrian sandstones below 900 m was estimated at a total of 16 Gt, with 2 Gt for the Dalders Monocline. Theoretical storage estimates for individual structures for the Baltic Sea regions includes 760 Mt for the Latvian structures and the Dalders Structure, 9.1 Mt for the structures located in Poland, 31 Mt in Lithuania and 170 Mt in Kaliningrad. These estimates are based on the best available data at the time of writing. However these estimates will be improved upon as new data becomes available from other sources. (orig.)

  19. Preliminary site characterization radiological monitoring plan for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project, Yucca Mountain Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-03-01

    The activities described in this plan occur in the early phases of site characterization. This document presents the Preliminary Site Characterization Radiological Monitoring Plan (PSCRMP) for collecting and evaluating data in support of the NNWSI Project. The PSCRMP defines and identifies control procedures for the monitoring activities. The PSCRMP activity will utilize integrating radon monitoring devices, a continuous radon monitor, and a particulate air sampler. These instruments will be used to establish the baseline radioactivity and/or radioactivity released due to early site characterization activities. The sections that follow provide a general project description, the specifics of the monitoring program, and the practices that will be employed to ensure the validity of the collected data by integrating quality assurance into all activities. Section 2 of this document describes the regulatory base of this document. Section 3 describes the site characterization activities which may lead to release of radioactivity. Section 4 provides a description of the potential sources of radioactivity that site characterization could generate. Section 5 summarizes the sampling and monitoring methodology, which will be used to monitor the potential sources of radioactivity. The network of sampling and monitoring equipment is described in Section 6, and Section 7 summarizes the systems operation activities. The data reporting activities are described in Section 8. Finally, a description of the Quality Assurance (QA) and Quality Control (QC) activities is provided in Section 9. Appendix A contains a summary of the procedures to be used in this program, and Appendix B contains technical specification on equipment and services. 20 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Geological Storage of CO2. Site Selection Criteria; Almacenamiento Geologico de CO2. Criterios de Selecci0n de Emplazamientos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, C; Martinez, R; Recreo, F; Prado, P; Campos, R; Pelayo, M; Losa, A de la; Hurtado, A; Lomba, L; Perez del Villar, L; Ortiz, G; Sastre, J; Zapatero, M A; Suarez, I; Arenillas, A

    2007-09-18

    In year 2002 the Spanish Parliament unanimously passed the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol, signed December 1997, compromising to limiting the greenhouse gas emissions increase. Later on, the Environment Ministry submitted the Spanish National Assignment Emissions Plan to the European Union and in year 2005 the Spanish Greenhouse Gas market started working, establishing taxes to pay in case of exceeding the assigned emissions limits. So, the avoided emissions of CO2 have now an economic value that is promoting new anthropogenic CO2 emissions reduction technologies. Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) are among these new technological developments for mitigating or eliminate climate change. CO2 can be stored in geological formations such as depleted oil or gas fields, deep permeable saline water saturated formations and unmailable coal seams, among others. This report seeks to establish the selection criteria for suitable geological formations for CO2 storage in the Spanish national territory, paying attention to both the operational and performance requirements of these storage systems. The report presents the physical and chemical properties and performance of CO2 under storage conditions, the transport and reaction processes of both supercritical and gaseous CO2, and CO2 trapping mechanisms in geological formations. The main part of the report is devoted to geological criteria at watershed, site and formation scales. (Author) 100 refs.

  1. Geological Storage of CO2. Site Selection Criteria; Almacenamiento Geologico de CO2. Criterios de Seleccion de Emplazamientos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, C; Martinez, R; Recreo, F; Prado, P; Campos, R; Pelayo, M; Losa, A de la; Hurtado, A; Lomba, L; Perez del Villar, L; Ortiz, G; Sastre, J

    2006-07-01

    In year 2002 the Spanish Parliament unanimously passed the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol, signed December 1997, compromising to limiting the greenhouse gas emissions increase. Later on, the Environment Ministry submitted the Spanish National Assignment Emissions Plan to the European Union and in year 2005 the Spanish Greenhouse Gas market started working, establishing taxes to pay in case of exceeding the assigned emissions limits. So, the avoided emissions of CO2 have now an economic value that is promoting new anthropogenic CO2 emissions reduction technologies. Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) are among these new technological developments for mitigating or eliminate climate change. CO2 can be stored in geological formations such as depleted oil or gas fields, deep permeable saline water saturated formations and unmineable coal seams, among others. This report seeks to establish the selection criteria for suitable geological formations for CO2 storage in the Spanish national territory, paying attention to both the operational and performance requirements of these storage systems. The report presents the physical and chemical properties and performance of CO2 under storage conditions, the transport and reaction processes of both supercritical and gaseous CO2, and CO2 trapping mechanisms in geological formations. The main part of the report is devoted to geological criteria at watershed, site and formation scales. (Author) 100 ref.

  2. Report on technical feasibility of underground pumped hydroelectric storage in a marble quarry site in the Northeast United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chas. T. Main, Inc.

    1982-03-01

    The technical and economic aspects of constructing a very high head underground hydroelectric pumped storage were examined at a prefeasibility level. Excavation of existing caverns in the West Rutland Vermont marble quarry would be used to construct the underground space. A plant capacity of 1200 MW and 12 h of continuous capacity were chosen as plant operating conditions. The site geology, plant design, and electrical and mechanical equipment required were considered. The study concluded that the cost of the 1200 MW underground pumped storage hydro electric project at this site even with the proposed savings from marketable material amounts to between $581 and $595 per kilowatt of installed capacity on a January 1982 pricing level. System studies performed by the planning group of the New England Power System indicate that the system could economically justify up to about $442 per kilowatt on an energy basis with no credit for capacity. To accommodate the plant with the least expensive pumping energy, a coal and nuclear generation mix of approximately 65% would have to be available before the project becomes feasible. It is not expected that this condition can be met before the year 2000 or beyond. It is therefore concluded that the West Rutland underground pumped storage facility is uneconomic at this time. Several variables however could have marked influence on future planning and should be examined on periodic basis.

  3. Evaluation of Final Radiological Conditions at Areas of the Niagara Falls Storage Site Remediated under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program -12184

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, Christopher [U.S Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC; Kothari, Vijendra [U.S Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management, Morgantown, West Virginia; Starr, Ken [U.S Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management, Westminster, Colorado; Widdop, Michael; Gillespie, Joey [SM Stoller Corporation, Grand Junction, Colorado

    2012-02-26

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) methods and protocols allow evaluation of remediation and final site conditions to determine if remediated sites remain protective. Two case studies are presented that involve the Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS) and associated vicinity properties (VPs), which are being remediated under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). These properties are a part of the former Lake Ontario Ordnance Works (LOOW). In response to stakeholders concerns about whether certain remediated NFSS VPs were putting them at risk, DOE met with stakeholders and agreed to evaluate protectiveness. Documentation in the DOE records collection adequately described assessed and final radiological conditions at the completed VPs. All FUSRAP wastes at the completed sites were cleaned up to meet DOE guidelines for unrestricted use. DOE compiled the results of the investigation in a report that was released for public comment. In conducting the review of site conditions, DOE found that stakeholders were also concerned about waste from the Separations Process Research Unit (SPRU) at the Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) that was handled at LOOW. DOE agreed to determine if SPRU waste remained at that needed to be remediated. DOE reviewed records of waste characterization, historical handling locations and methods, and assessment and remediation data. DOE concluded that the SPRU waste was remediated on the LOOW to levels that pose no unacceptable risk and allow unrestricted use and unlimited exposure. This work confirms the following points as tenets of an effective long-term surveillance and maintenance (LTS&M) program: Stakeholder interaction must be open and transparent, and DOE must respond promptly to stakeholder concerns. DOE, as the long-term custodian, must collect and preserve site records in order to demonstrate that remediated sites pose no unacceptable risk. DOE must continue to maintain constructive relationships with the U

  4. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 214: Bunkers and Storage Areas Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 214 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Areas 5, 11, and 25 of the Nevada Test Site, CAU 214 consists of nine Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 05-99-01, Fallout Shelters; 11-22-03, Drum; 25-99-12, Fly Ash Storage; 25-23-01, Contaminated Materials; 25-23-19, Radioactive Material Storage; 25-99-18, Storage Area; 25-34-03, Motor Dr/Gr Assembly (Bunker); 25-34-04, Motor Dr/Gr Assembly (Bunker); and 25-34-05, Motor Dr/Gr Assembly (Bunker). These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives (CAAs). The suspected contaminants and critical analyte s for CAU 214 include oil (total petroleum hydrocarbons-diesel-range organics [TPH-DRO], polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs]), pesticides (chlordane, heptachlor, 4,4-DDT), barium, cadmium, chronium, lubricants (TPH-DRO, TPH-gasoline-range organics [GRO]), and fly ash (arsenic). The land-use zones where CAU 214 CASs are located dictate that future land uses will be limited to nonresidential (i.e., industrial) activities. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the corrective action decision document

  5. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 135: Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, D. H.

    2000-01-01

    The Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks site Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 135 will be closed by unrestricted release decontamination and verification survey, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consert Order (FFACO, 1996). The CAU includes one Corrective Action Site (CAS). The Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks, (CAS 25-02-01), referred to as the Engine-Maintenance Assembly and Disassembly (E-MAD) Waste Holdup Tanks and Vault, were used to receive liquid waste from all of the radioactive drains at the E-MAD Facility. Based on the results of the Corrective Action Investigation conducted in June 1999 discussed in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 135: Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (DOE/NV,1999a), one sample from the radiological survey of the concrete vault interior exceeded radionuclide preliminary action levels. The analytes from the sediment samples that exceeded the preliminary action levels are polychlorinated biphenyls, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, total petroleum hydrocarbons as diesel-range organics, and radionuclides. Unrestricted release decontamination and verification involves removal of concrete and the cement-lined pump sump from the vault. After verification that the contamination has been removed, the vault will be repaired with concrete, as necessary. The radiological- and chemical-contaminated pump sump and concrete removed from the vault would be disposed of at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site. The vault interior will be field surveyed following removal of contaminated material to verify that unrestricted release criteria have been achieved

  6. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 135: Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. H. Cox

    2000-07-01

    The Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks site Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 135 will be closed by unrestricted release decontamination and verification survey, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consert Order (FFACO, 1996). The CAU includes one Corrective Action Site (CAS). The Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks, (CAS 25-02-01), referred to as the Engine-Maintenance Assembly and Disassembly (E-MAD) Waste Holdup Tanks and Vault, were used to receive liquid waste from all of the radioactive drains at the E-MAD Facility. Based on the results of the Corrective Action Investigation conducted in June 1999 discussed in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 135: Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (DOE/NV,1999a), one sample from the radiological survey of the concrete vault interior exceeded radionuclide preliminary action levels. The analytes from the sediment samples that exceeded the preliminary action levels are polychlorinated biphenyls, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, total petroleum hydrocarbons as diesel-range organics, and radionuclides. Unrestricted release decontamination and verification involves removal of concrete and the cement-lined pump sump from the vault. After verification that the contamination has been removed, the vault will be repaired with concrete, as necessary. The radiological- and chemical-contaminated pump sump and concrete removed from the vault would be disposed of at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site. The vault interior will be field surveyed following removal of contaminated material to verify that unrestricted release criteria have been achieved.

  7. Drinking Water Quality Criterion - Based site Selection of Aquifer Storage and Recovery Scheme in Chou-Shui River Alluvial Fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H. E.; Liang, C. P.; Jang, C. S.; Chen, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    Land subsidence due to groundwater exploitation is an urgent environmental problem in Choushui river alluvial fan in Taiwan. Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR), where excess surface water is injected into subsurface aquifers for later recovery, is one promising strategy for managing surplus water and may overcome water shortages. The performance of an ASR scheme is generally evaluated in terms of recovery efficiency, which is defined as percentage of water injected in to a system in an ASR site that fulfills the targeted water quality criterion. Site selection of an ASR scheme typically faces great challenges, due to the spatial variability of groundwater quality and hydrogeological condition. This study proposes a novel method for the ASR site selection based on drinking quality criterion. Simplified groundwater flow and contaminant transport model spatial distributions of the recovery efficiency with the help of the groundwater quality, hydrological condition, ASR operation. The results of this study may provide government administrator for establishing reliable ASR scheme.

  8. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 481: Area 12 T-Tunnel Conditional Release Storage Yard, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 481 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as Area 12 T-Tunnel Conditional Release Storage Yard. CAU 481 is located in Area 12 of the Nevada Test Site, which is approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. This CAU consists of one Corrective Action Site (CAS), CAS 12-42-05, Housekeeping Waste. CAU 481 closure activities were conducted by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency from August 2007 through July 2008 according to the FFACO and Revision 3 of the Sectored Clean-up Work Plan for Housekeeping Category Waste Sites. Closure activities included removal and disposal of construction debris and low-level waste. Drained fluids, steel, and lead was recycled as appropriate. Waste generated during closure activities was appropriately managed and disposed.

  9. Colonie Interim Storage Site environmental report for calendar year 1992, 1130 Central Avenue, Colonie, New York. Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    This report describes the environmental surveillance program at the Colonie Interim Storage Site (CISS) and provides the results for 1992. The site is located in eastern New York State, approximately 6.4 km (4.0 mi) northwest of downtown Albany. From 1958 to 1984, National Lead (NL) Industries used the facility to manufacture various components from depleted and enriched uranium natural thorium. Environmental monitoring of CISS began in 1984 when Congress added, the site to the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). FUSRAP is a program established to identify and decontaminate or otherwise control sites where residual radioactive materials remain from the early years of the nation`s atomic energy program or from commercial operations causing conditions that Congress has authorized DOE to remedy. The environmental surveillance program at CISS includes sampling networks for external gamma radiation exposure and for thorium-232 and total uranium concentrations in surface water, sediment, and groundwater. Several chemical parameters are also measured in groundwater, including total metals, volatile organics, and water quality parameters. This surveillance program assists in fulfilling the DOE policy of measuring and monitoring effluents from DOE activities and calculating hypothetical doses. Results are compared with applicable Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) standards, DOE derived concentration guides (DCGs), dose limits, and other DOE requirements.

  10. Maywood Interim Storage Site environmental report for calendar year 1992, 100 West Hunter Avenue, Maywood, New Jersey. Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    This report describes the environmental surveillance program at the Maywood Interim Storage Site (MISS) and provides the results for 1992. Environmental monitoring of MISS began in 1984, when the site was assigned to DOE by Congress through the Energy and Water Development Appropriations Act and was placed under DOE`s Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). FUSRAP was established to identify and decontaminate or otherwise control sites where residual radioactive materials remain from the early years of the nation`s atomic energy program or from commercial operations causing conditions that Congress has authorized DOE to remedy. MISS is part of a National Priorities List (NPL) site. The environmental surveillance program at MISS includes sampling networks for radon and thoron in air; external gamma radiation exposure; and radium-226, radium-228, thorium-232, and total uranium in surface water, sediment, and groundwater. Additionally, chemical analysis includes metals and organic compounds in surface water and groundwater and metals in sediments. This program assists in fulfilling the DOE objective of measuring and monitoring effluents from DOE activities and calculating hypothetical doses to members of the general public. Monitoring results are compared with applicable Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state standards, DOE derived concentration guides (DCGs), dose limits, and other DOE requirements. Environmental standards are established to protect public health and the environment. The radiological data for all media sampled support the conclusion that doses to the public are not distinguishable from natural background radiation.

  11. Comparing CO2 storage and advection conditions at night at different carboeuroflux sites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aubinet, M.; Berbigier, P.; Bernhofer, Ch.; Cescatti, A.; Feigenwinter, C.; Granier, A.; Grunwald, TH; Havránková, Kateřina; Heinesch, B.; Longdoz, B.; Marcolla, B.; Montagnani, L.; Sedlák, Pavel

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 116, č. 1 (2005), s. 63-94 ISSN 0006-8314 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : advection * CO2 storage * forest ecosystems Subject RIV: GK - Forestry Impact factor: 1.414, year: 2005

  12. Niagara Falls Storage Site environmental report for calendar year 1992, 1397 Pletcher Road, Lewiston, New York. Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    This report describes the environmental surveillance program at the Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS) and provides the results for 1992. From 1944 to the present, the primary use of NFSS has been storage of radioactive residues produced as a by-product of uranium production. All onsite areas of residual radioactivity above guidelines have been remediated. Materials generated during remediation are stored onsite in the 4-ha (10-acre) waste containment structure (WCS). The WCS is a clay-lined, clay-capped, and grass-covered storage pile. The environmental surveillance program at NFSS includes sampling networks for radon concentrations in air; external gamma radiation exposure; and total uranium and radium-226 concentrations in surface water, sediments, and groundwater. Several chemical parameters, including seven metals, are also routinely measured in groundwater. This surveillance program assists in fulfilling the DOE policy of measuring and monitoring effluents from DOE activities and calculating hypothetical doses. Monitoring results are compared with applicable Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) standards, DOE derived concentration guides (DCGs), dose limits, and other DOE requirements. Results of environmental monitoring during 1992 indicate that levels of the parameters measured were in compliance with all but one requirement: Concentrations of iron and manganese in groundwater were above NYSDEC groundwater quality standards. However, these elements occur naturally in the soils and groundwater associated with this region. In 1992 there were no environmental occurrences or reportable quantity releases.

  13. Structure of a highly acidic β-lactamase from the moderate halophile Chromohalobacter sp. 560 and the discovery of a Cs{sup +}-selective binding site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arai, Shigeki; Yonezawa, Yasushi; Okazaki, Nobuo; Matsumoto, Fumiko; Shibazaki, Chie; Shimizu, Rumi; Yamada, Mitsugu; Adachi, Motoyasu; Tamada, Taro [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirakata-shirane, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Kawamoto, Masahide [Kyushu Synchrotron Light Research Center, 8-7 Yayoigaoka, Tosu, Saga 841-0005 (Japan); Tokunaga, Hiroko; Ishibashi, Matsujiro [Faculty of Agriculture, Kagoshima University, 1-21-24 Korimoto, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan); Blaber, Michael [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirakata-shirane, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Florida State University, 1115 West Call Street, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4300 (United States); Tokunaga, Masao [Faculty of Agriculture, Kagoshima University, 1-21-24 Korimoto, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan); Kuroki, Ryota, E-mail: kuroki.ryota@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirakata-shirane, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

    2015-03-01

    The tertiary structure of a β-lactamase derived from the halobacterium Chromohalobacter sp. 560 (HaBLA) was determined by X-ray crystallography. Three unique Sr{sup 2+}-binding sites and one Cs{sup +}-binding site were discovered in the HaBLA molecule. Environmentally friendly absorbents are needed for Sr{sup 2+} and Cs{sup +}, as the removal of the radioactive Sr{sup 2+} and Cs{sup +} that has leaked from the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant is one of the most important problems in Japan. Halophilic proteins are known to have many acidic residues on their surface that can provide specific binding sites for metal ions such as Cs{sup +} or Sr{sup 2+}. The crystal structure of a halophilic β-lactamase from Chromohalobacter sp. 560 (HaBLA) was determined to resolutions of between 1.8 and 2.9 Å in space group P3{sub 1} using X-ray crystallography. Moreover, the locations of bound Sr{sup 2+} and Cs{sup +} ions were identified by anomalous X-ray diffraction. The location of one Cs{sup +}-specific binding site was identified in HaBLA even in the presence of a ninefold molar excess of Na{sup +} (90 mM Na{sup +}/10 mM Cs{sup +}). From an activity assay using isothermal titration calorimetry, the bound Sr{sup 2+} and Cs{sup +} ions do not significantly affect the enzymatic function of HaBLA. The observation of a selective and high-affinity Cs{sup +}-binding site provides important information that is useful for the design of artificial Cs{sup +}-binding sites that may be useful in the bioremediation of radioactive isotopes.

  14. Structure of a highly acidic β-lactamase from the moderate halophile Chromohalobacter sp. 560 and the discovery of a Cs+-selective binding site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Shigeki; Yonezawa, Yasushi; Okazaki, Nobuo; Matsumoto, Fumiko; Shibazaki, Chie; Shimizu, Rumi; Yamada, Mitsugu; Adachi, Motoyasu; Tamada, Taro; Kawamoto, Masahide; Tokunaga, Hiroko; Ishibashi, Matsujiro; Blaber, Michael; Tokunaga, Masao; Kuroki, Ryota

    2015-01-01

    The tertiary structure of a β-lactamase derived from the halobacterium Chromohalobacter sp. 560 (HaBLA) was determined by X-ray crystallography. Three unique Sr 2+ -binding sites and one Cs + -binding site were discovered in the HaBLA molecule. Environmentally friendly absorbents are needed for Sr 2+ and Cs + , as the removal of the radioactive Sr 2+ and Cs + that has leaked from the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant is one of the most important problems in Japan. Halophilic proteins are known to have many acidic residues on their surface that can provide specific binding sites for metal ions such as Cs + or Sr 2+ . The crystal structure of a halophilic β-lactamase from Chromohalobacter sp. 560 (HaBLA) was determined to resolutions of between 1.8 and 2.9 Å in space group P3 1 using X-ray crystallography. Moreover, the locations of bound Sr 2+ and Cs + ions were identified by anomalous X-ray diffraction. The location of one Cs + -specific binding site was identified in HaBLA even in the presence of a ninefold molar excess of Na + (90 mM Na + /10 mM Cs + ). From an activity assay using isothermal titration calorimetry, the bound Sr 2+ and Cs + ions do not significantly affect the enzymatic function of HaBLA. The observation of a selective and high-affinity Cs + -binding site provides important information that is useful for the design of artificial Cs + -binding sites that may be useful in the bioremediation of radioactive isotopes

  15. Preliminary evaluation of 30 potential granitic rock sites for a radioactive waste storage facility in southern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boardman, C.R.; Knutson, C.F.

    1978-02-15

    Results of preliminary study are presented which was performed under subtask 2.7 of the NTS Terminal Waste Storage Program Plan for 1978. Subtask 2.7 examines the feasibility of locating a nuclear waste repository in a granitic stock or pluton in southern Nevada near the Nevada Test Site (NTS). It is assumed for the purposes of this study that such a repository cannot be located at NTS. This assumption may or may not be correct. This preliminary report does not identify a particular site as being a suitable location for a repository. Nor does it absolutely eliminate a particular site from further consideration. It does, however, answer the basic question of probable suitability of some of the sites and present a systematic method for site evaluation. Since the findings of this initial study have been favorable, it will be followed by more exhaustive and detailed studies of the original 30 sites and perhaps others. In future studies some of the evaluation criteria used in the preliminary study may be modified or eliminated, and new criteria may be introduced.

  16. Preliminary evaluation of 30 potential granitic rock sites for a radioactive waste storage facility in southern Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boardman, C.R.; Knutson, C.F.

    1978-01-01

    Results of preliminary study are presented which was performed under subtask 2.7 of the NTS Terminal Waste Storage Program Plan for 1978. Subtask 2.7 examines the feasibility of locating a nuclear waste repository in a granitic stock or pluton in southern Nevada near the Nevada Test Site (NTS). It is assumed for the purposes of this study that such a repository cannot be located at NTS. This assumption may or may not be correct. This preliminary report does not identify a particular site as being a suitable location for a repository. Nor does it absolutely eliminate a particular site from further consideration. It does, however, answer the basic question of probable suitability of some of the sites and present a systematic method for site evaluation. Since the findings of this initial study have been favorable, it will be followed by more exhaustive and detailed studies of the original 30 sites and perhaps others. In future studies some of the evaluation criteria used in the preliminary study may be modified or eliminated, and new criteria may be introduced

  17. Operation Iraqi Freedom: DOD Should Apply Lessons Learned Concerning the Need for Security over Conventional Munitions Storage Sites to Future Operations Planning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    D'Agostino, Davi M

    2007-01-01

    The Government Accountability Office (GAO) is releasing a report today on lessons learned concerning the need for security over conventional munitions storage sites that provides the basis for this testimony...

  18. Monitoring of injected CO2 at two commercial geologic storage sites with significant pressure depletion and/or re-pressurization histories: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayanand Saini

    2017-03-01

    The monitoring technologies that have been used/deployed/tested at both the normally pressured West Hastings and the subnormally pressured Bell Creek storage sites appear to adequately address any of the potential “out of zone migration” of injected CO2 at these sites. It would be interesting to see if any of the collected monitoring data at the West Hastings and the Bell Creek storage sites could also be used in future to better understand the viability of initially subnormally pressured and subsequently depleted and re-pressurized oil fields as secure geologic CO2 storage sites with relatively large storage CO2 capacities compared to the depleted and re-pressurized oil fields that were initially discovered as normally pressured.

  19. Potential for a process-based monitoring method above geologic carbon storage sites using dissolved gases in freshwater aquifers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanak, Katherine [Gulf Coast Carbon Center, Bureau of Economic Geology, The University of Texas at Austin, TX 78713 (United States); Dobeck, Laura; Spangler, Lee [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Dixon, Tim [IEA Greenhouse Gas R and D Programme, Cheltenham GL52 7RZ (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    The process-based method is a new technique for monitoring CO{sub 2} storage permanence in the vadose zone above geologic carbon storage (GCS) sites. This method uses ratios of coexisting gas species to understand geochemical processes rather than comparing CO{sub 2} concentrations with large baseline data sets, thereby making monitoring more efficient. In the vadose zone, ratios among coexisting gases (CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, N{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}) have been used to distinguish biologic respiration, water-rock-CO{sub 2} interaction, and methane oxidation from a leakage signal. We report the preliminary results of a feasibility test conducted in July 2012 at the Zero Emission Research and Technology Center (ZERT) controlled release site in Montana, USA to discern whether the method could be applied to dissolved gases in groundwater, thereby enhancing groundwater monitoring. Preliminary results are favorable, making the process-based approach potentially useful for monitoring shallow freshwater aquifers above GCS sites. (authors)

  20. Lack of Phosphatidylglycerol Inhibits Chlorophyll Biosynthesis at Multiple Sites and Limits Chlorophyllide Reutilization in Synechocystis sp Strain PCC 6803

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopečná, Jana; Pilný, Jan; Krynická, Vendula; Tomčala, Aleš; Kis, M.; Gombos, Z.; Komenda, Josef; Sobotka, Roman

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 169, č. 2 (2015), s. 1307-1317 ISSN 0032-0889 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1416; GA MŠk EE2.3.30.0059; GA ČR GBP501/12/G055 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : II REACTION-CENTER * PHOTOSYSTEM-II * SP PCC-6803 Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 6.280, year: 2015

  1. Public Responses to CO2 Storage Sites. Lessons from Five European Cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oltra, C.; Boso, A. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Upham, P. [Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki and Centre for Integrated Energy Research, University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom); Riesch, H. [Centre for Environmental Policy, Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); Brunsting, S. [ECN Policy Studies, Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Duetschke, E. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung ISI, Karlsruhe (Germany); Lis, A. [Department of Sociology and Social Anthropology, Central European University, Budapest (Hungary)

    2012-05-24

    Studies of the factors involved in public perceptions of CO2 storage projects reveal a level of complexity and diversity that arguably confounds a comprehensive theoretical account. To some extent, a conceptual approach that simply organises the relevant social scientific knowledge thematically, rather than seeking an integrated explanation, is as useful as any single account that fails to do justice to the contingencies involved. This paper reviews and assembles such knowledge in terms of six themes and applies these themes to five European cases of carbon capture and storage (CCS) implementation. We identify the main factors involved in community responses to CCS as relating to: the characteristics of the project; the engagement process; risk perceptions; the actions of the stakeholders; the characteristics of the community, and the socio-political context.

  2. Multipurpose interim storage facility: first step in cleanup of the Cogema Marcoule site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabe, J.M.; Themines, R.; Pasquale, B. [Cogema, 30 - Marcoule (France); Misraki, J. [CIE CODEM Paniscoule, 30 - Bagnols sur Ceze (France); Seurat, Ph. [SGN 30 - Bagnols sur Ceze (France)

    2000-07-01

    The COGEMA's graphite-gas fuel reprocessing plant UP1, located in Marcoule (Gard department in France) as been started up in the late fifties. UP1 has been in the final shutdown process since 1998. The function of the Multi-purpose Interim Storage (EIP) is to receive waste - before treatment and reconditioning, - already treated, waiting for a decision on the final disposal according to the law of december 30. 1991. For the purpose, the design was based on a system of modular storage compartments by kinds of waste and a variety of multi-purpose handling means consistent with the reception of different types of packages. The installation has been designed for a lifetime of 50 years as from the basic design phase. (authors)

  3. Multipurpose interim storage facility: first step in cleanup of the Cogema Marcoule site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabe, J.M.; Themines, R.; Pasquale, B.; Misraki, J.; Seurat, Ph.

    2000-01-01

    The COGEMA's graphite-gas fuel reprocessing plant UP1, located in Marcoule (Gard department in France) as been started up in the late fifties. UP1 has been in the final shutdown process since 1998. The function of the Multi-purpose Interim Storage (EIP) is to receive waste - before treatment and reconditioning, - already treated, waiting for a decision on the final disposal according to the law of december 30. 1991. For the purpose, the design was based on a system of modular storage compartments by kinds of waste and a variety of multi-purpose handling means consistent with the reception of different types of packages. The installation has been designed for a lifetime of 50 years as from the basic design phase. (authors)

  4. SiteChar. Characterisation of European CO2 storage. Deliverable D8.2. Trust building and raising public awareness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunsting, S.; Pol, M.; Mastop, E.A. [ECN Policy Studies, Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kaiser, M.; Zimmer, R. [Unabhaengiges Institut fuer Umweltfragen UfU, Berlin (Germany); Shackley, S.; Mabon, L.; Howell, R. [Scottish Carbon Capture and Storage SCCS, Edinburg, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2012-08-15

    At local level, public support has proven crucial to the implementation of CO2 capture and storage (CCS) demonstration projects. Whereas no method exists to guarantee public acceptability of any project, a constructive stakeholder and community engagement process does increase the likelihood thereof. This deliverable is a follow-up to deliverable D8.1 'Social site characterisation'. Social site characterisation can be used as an instrument to explore, plan and evaluate a process of active and constructive local stakeholder and citizen engagement in a prospective CCS project as a parallel activity to technical site characterisation. It serves as an analytical tool to describe the local social circumstances in the area and to design and evaluate stakeholder and community engagement efforts with the aims of building trust and raising public awareness. Using results from the social site characterisation of the area, the present deliverable focuses on the second purpose. It presents results from public engagement activities designed to raise public awareness and inform public opinion of a prospective CCS site in Poland (onshore) and the UK (offshore): focus conferences. Furthermore, by initiating an enhanced cooperation in planning of new storage sites between project developers, authorities and the local public, focus conferences aim to serve as a 'hinge' between social site characterisation as a research effort and application to real-life project settings. The focus conferences are part of a range of public engagement activities including the setup of public information websites on generic and site-specific CCS, information meetings. A second survey eventually shall evaluate the results of the public engagement activities. The aim of the focus conferences was to raise public awareness and assist public opinion forming processes of a prospective CCS site in Poland (onshore) and the UK (offshore). At the same time, it aimed to present and test a

  5. Radiological criteria for the remediation of sites for spent fuel and radioactive waste storage in the Russian Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shandala, N K; Sneve, M K; Titov, A V; Smith, G M; Novikova, N Ya; Romanov, V V; Seregin, V A

    2008-12-01

    In the 1960s, two technical bases of the Northern Fleet were created in Northwest Russia, at Andreeva Bay in the Kola Peninsula and Gremikha village on the coast of the Barents Sea. They maintained nuclear submarines, performing receipt and storage of radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel, and are now designated sites of temporary storage (STSs). An analysis of the radiation situation at these sites demonstrates that substantial long-term remediation work will be required after the removal of the waste and spent nuclear fuel. Regulatory guidance is under development to support this work. Having in mind modern approaches to guaranteeing radiation safety, the primary regulatory focus is on a justification of dose constraints for determining acceptable residual contamination which might lead to exposure to workers and the public. For these sites, four principal options for remediation have been considered-renovation, conversion, conservation and liquidation. This paper describes a system of recommended dose constraints and derived control levels formulated for each option. The unconditional guarantee of long-term radioecological protection provides the basis for criteria development. Non-exceedance of these dose constraints and control levels implies compliance with radiological protection objectives related to the residual contamination. Dose reduction below proposed dose constraint values must also be carried out according to the optimisation principle. The developed criteria relate to the condition of the facilities and the STS areas after the termination of remediation activities. The proposed criteria for renovation, conversion, conservation and liquidation are entirely within the dose limits adopted in Russia for the management of man-made radiation sources, and are consistent with ICRP recommendations and national practice in other countries. The proposed criteria for STS remediation and new industrial (non-radiation-hazardous) facilities and buildings on

  6. Comparing CO2 Storage and Advection Conditions at Night at Different Carboeuroflux Sites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aubinet, M.; Berbigier, P.; Bernhofer, C.; Cescatti, A.; Feigenwinter, C.; Granier, A.; Grünwald, T.; Havránková, Kateřina; Heinesch, B.; Longdoz, B.; Marcolla, B.; Montagnani, L.; Sedlák, Pavel

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 116, - (2005), s. 63-94 ISSN 0006-8314 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB3087301 Grant - others:Carboeuroflux(XE) EVK-2-CT-1999-00032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517; CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : Advection * CO2 storage * Forest ecosystems Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.414, year: 2005

  7. Wayne Interim Storage Site environmental report for calendar year 1992, 868 Black Oak Ridge Road, Wayne, New Jersey. Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    This report describes the environmental surveillance program at the Wayne Interim Storage Site (WISS) and provides the results for 1992. The fenced, site, 32 km (20 mi) northwest of Newark, New Jersey, was used between 1948 and 1971 for commercial processing of monazite sand to separate natural radioisotopes - predominantly thorium. Environmental surveillance of WISS began in 1984 in accordance with Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 when Congress added the site to DOE`s Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). The environmental surveillance program at WISS includes sampling networks for radon and thoron in air; external gamma radiation exposure; radium-226, radium-228, thorium-230, thorium-232, total uranium, and several chemicals in surface water and sediment; and total uranium, radium-226, radium-228, thorium-230, thorium-232, and organic and inorganic chemicals in groundwater. Monitoring results are compared with applicable Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state standards, DOE derived concentration guides (DCGs), dose limits, and other DOE requirements. This monitoring program assists in fulfilling the DOE policy of measuring and monitoring effluents from DOE activities and calculating hypothetical doses. Results for environmental surveillance in 1992 show that the concentrations of all radioactive and most chemical contaminants were below applicable standards.

  8. The US Department of Energy's attempt to site the Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility (MRS) in Tennessee, 1985--1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzgerald, M.R.; McCabe, A.S.

    1988-05-01

    This report is concerned with how America's public sector is handling the challenge of implementing a technical, environmental policy, that of managing the nation's high-level nuclear waste, as reflected in the attempt of the US Department of Energy (DOE) to site a Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility (MRS) for high-level radioactive waste in Tennessee. It has been observed that ''radioactive wastes present some of societies' most complex and vexing choices.'' There is deep and abiding disagreement about almost every aspect of radioactive waste management (RWM)

  9. Geothermal-energy files in computer storage: sites, cities, and industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Dea, P.L.

    1981-12-01

    The site, city, and industrial files are described. The data presented are from the hydrothermal site file containing about three thousand records which describe some of the principal physical features of hydrothermal resources in the United States. Data elements include: latitude, longitude, township, range, section, surface temperature, subsurface temperature, the field potential, and well depth for commercialization. (MHR)

  10. Determination of Optimum Tropic Storage and Exposure Sites. Report 2. Empirical Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-03-01

    at the Fort Sherman site and the oldest at Gamboa. A taxonomic listing of trees, shrubs, vines and ground cover plants for each of these sites is...tibourbou X Avicennia nitida X Cordia alliodora X Cupania sylvatica X Hieronyma lax iflora X Laguncularia racemosa X Luehea seemanji X Ormosia

  11. A mutation in a functional Sp1 binding site of the telomerase RNA gene (hTERC promoter in a patient with Paroxysmal Nocturnal Haemoglobinuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mason Philip J

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mutations in the gene coding for the RNA component of telomerase, hTERC, have been found in autosomal dominant dyskeratosis congenita (DC and aplastic anemia. Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH is a clonal blood disorder associated with aplastic anemia and characterized by the presence of one or more clones of blood cells lacking glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI anchored proteins due to a somatic mutation in the PIGA gene. Methods We searched for mutations in DNA extracted from PNH patients by amplification of the hTERC gene and denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (dHPLC. After a mutation was found in a potential transcription factor binding site in one patient electrophoretic mobility shift assays were used to detect binding of transcription factors to that site. The effect of the mutation on the function of the promoter was tested by transient transfection constructs in which the promoter is used to drive a reporter gene. Results Here we report the finding of a novel promoter mutation (-99C->G in the hTERC gene in a patient with PNH. The mutation disrupts an Sp1 binding site and destroys its ability to bind Sp1. Transient transfection assays show that mutations in this hTERC site including C-99G cause either up- or down-regulation of promoter activity and suggest that the site regulates core promoter activity in a context dependent manner in cancer cells. Conclusions These data are the first report of an hTERC promoter mutation from a patient sample which can modulate core promoter activity in vitro, raising the possibility that the mutation may affect the transcription of the gene in hematopoietic stem cells in vivo, and that dysregulation of telomerase may play a role in the development of bone marrow failure and the evolution of PNH clones.

  12. Advanced and Integrated Petrophysical Characterization for CO2 Storage: Application to the Ketzin Site Caractérisation pétrophysique intégrée pour le stockage de CO2 : application au site de Ketzin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleury M.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Advanced and Integrated Petrophysical Characterization for CO2 Storage: Application to the Ketzin Site — Reservoir simulations and monitoring of CO2 storage require specific petrophysical data. We show a workflow that can be applied to saline aquifers and caprocks in order to provide the minimum data set for realistic estimations of storage potential and perform pertinent simulations of CO2 injection. The presented series of experiments are fully integrated with quantitative log data analysis to estimate porosity, irreducible saturation, drainage capillary pressure and water relative permeability, residual gas saturation, resistivity-saturation relationships and caprock transport properties (permeability and diffusivity. The case considered is a saline aquifer of the Triassic Stuttgart formation studied in the framework of the CO2SINK onshore research storage, the first in situ testing site of CO2 injection in Germany located near the city of Ketzin. We used petrophysical methods that can provide the required data in a reasonable amount of time while still being representative of the in situ injection process. For two phase transport properties, we used the centrifuge technique. For resistivity measurements, we used the Fast Resistivity Index Measurement (FRIM method in drainage and imbibition, at ambient and storage conditions. For caprock characterization, we used a fast NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance deuterium tracer technique to measure diffusivity and a modified steady state innovative technique to determine permeability. Entry pressure has also been evaluated using several methods. Resistivity and NMR logs were analyzed to provide a continuous estimation of irreducible saturation for the entire storage zone and to judge on the representativity of the samples analyzed in the laboratory. For the Ketzin site, the storage zone is a clayey sandstone of fluvial origin locally highly cemented, with porosity around 30% and permeability ranging

  13. Maywood Interim Storage Site environmental report for calendar year 1992, 100 West Hunter Avenue, Maywood, New Jersey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    This report describes the environmental surveillance program at the Maywood Interim Storage Site (MISS) and provides the results for 1992. Environmental monitoring of MISS began in 1984, when the site was assigned to DOE by Congress through the Energy and Water Development Appropriations Act and was placed under DOE's Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). FUSRAP was established to identify and decontaminate or otherwise control sites where residual radioactive materials remain from the early years of the nation's atomic energy program or from commercial operations causing conditions that Congress has authorized DOE to remedy. MISS is part of a National Priorities List (NPL) site. The environmental surveillance program at MISS includes sampling networks for radon and thoron in air; external gamma radiation exposure; and radium-226, radium-228, thorium-232, and total uranium in surface water, sediment, and groundwater. Additionally, chemical analysis includes metals and organic compounds in surface water and groundwater and metals in sediments. This program assists in fulfilling the DOE objective of measuring and monitoring effluents from DOE activities and calculating hypothetical doses to members of the general public. Monitoring results are compared with applicable Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state standards, DOE derived concentration guides (DCGs), dose limits, and other DOE requirements. Environmental standards are established to protect public health and the environment. The radiological data for all media sampled support the conclusion that doses to the public are not distinguishable from natural background radiation

  14. Surface-downhole and crosshole geoelectrics for monitoring of brine injection at the Ketzin CO2 storage site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippe, Dennis; Bergmann, Peter; Labitzke, Tim; Wagner, Florian; Schmidt-Hattenberger, Cornelia

    2016-04-01

    The Ketzin pilot site in Germany is the longest operating on-shore CO2 storage site in Europe. From June 2008 till August 2013, a total of ˜67,000 tonnes of CO2 were safely stored in a saline aquifer at depths of 630 m to 650 m. The storage site has now entered the abandonment phase, and continuation of the multi-disciplinary monitoring as part of the national project "CO2 post-injection monitoring and post-closure phase at the Ketzin pilot site" (COMPLETE) provides the unique chance to participate in the conclusion of the complete life cycle of a CO2 storage site. As part of the continuous evaluation of the functionality and integrity of the CO2 storage in Ketzin, from October 12, 2015 till January 6, 2015 a total of ˜2,900 tonnes of brine were successfully injected into the CO2 reservoir, hereby simulating in time-lapse the natural backflow of brine and the associated displacement of CO2. The main objectives of this brine injection experiment include investigation of how much of the CO2 in the pore space can be displaced by brine and if this displacement of CO2 during the brine injection differs from the displacement of formation fluid during the initial CO2 injection. Geophysical monitoring of the brine injection included continuous geoelectric measurements accompanied by monitoring of pressure and temperature conditions in the injection well and two adjacent observation wells. During the previous CO2 injection, the geoelectrical monitoring concept at the Ketzin pilot site consisted of permanent crosshole measurements and non-permanent large-scale surveys (Kiessling et al., 2010). Time-lapse geoelectrical tomographies derived from the weekly crosshole data at near-wellbore scale complemented by six surface-downhole surveys at a scale of 1.5 km showed a noticeable resistivity signature within the target storage zone, which was attributed to the CO2 plume (Schmidt-Hattenberger et al., 2011) and interpreted in terms of relative CO2 and brine saturations (Bergmann

  15. Soil structure interaction analysis for the Hanford Site 241-SY-101 double-shell waste storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giller, R.A.; Weiner, E.O.

    1991-09-01

    The 241-SY-101 tank is a double-shell waste storage tank buried in the 241-SY tank farm in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. This analysis addresses the effects of seismic soil-structure interaction on the tank structure and includes a parametric soil-structure interaction study addressing three configurations: two-dimensional soil structure, a two-dimensional structure-soil-structure, and a three-dimensional soil-structure interaction. This study was designed to determine an optimal method for addressing seismic-soil effects on underground storage tanks. The computer programs calculate seismic-soil pressures on the double-shell tank walls and and seismic acceleration response spectra in the tank. The results of this soil-structure interaction parametric study as produced by the computer programs are given in terms of seismic soil pressures and response spectra. The conclusions of this soil-structure interaction evaluation are that dynamically calculated soil pressures in the 241-SY-101 tank are significantly reduce from those using standard hand calculation methods and that seismic evaluation of underground double-shell waste storage tanks must consider soil-structure interaction effects in order to predict conservative structural response. Appendixes supporting this study are available in Volume 2 of this report

  16. Summary of treatment, storage, and disposal facility usage data collected from U.S. Department of Energy sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, A.; Oswald, K.; Trump, C.

    1995-04-01

    This report presents an analysis for the US Department of Energy (DOE) to determine the level and extent of treatment, storage, and disposal facility (TSDF) assessment duplication. Commercial TSDFs are used as an integral part of the hazardous waste management process for those DOE sites that generate hazardous waste. Data regarding the DOE sites' usage have been extracted from three sets of data and analyzed in this report. The data are presented both qualitatively and quantitatively, as appropriate. This information provides the basis for further analysis of assessment duplication to be documented in issue papers as appropriate. Once the issues have been identified and adequately defined, corrective measures will be proposed and subsequently implemented

  17. Technical concept for a test of geologic storage of spent reactor fuel in the climax granite, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramspott, L.D.; Ballou, L.B.; Carlson, R.C.; Montan, D.N.; Butkovich, T.R.; Duncan, J.E.; Patrick, W.C.; Wilder, D.G.; Brough, W.G.; Mayr, M.C.

    1979-01-01

    We plan to emplace spent fuel assemblies from an operating commercial nuclear reactor in the Climax granite at the US Department of Energy's Nevada Test Site. In this generic test, 11 canisters of spent fuel will be emplaced with 6 electrical simulator canisters in a storage drift 420 m below in surface and their effects compared. Two adjacent drifts will contain electrical heaters, operated to simulate the temperature-stress-displacement fields of a large repository. We describe the test objectives, the technical issues, the site, the preoperational measurement program, thermal and mechanical response calculations, the characteristics of the spent fuel, the field instrumentation and data-acquisition systems, and the system for handling the spent fuel

  18. Technical concept for test of geologic storage of spent reactor fuel in the Climax granite, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramspott, L.D.; Ballou, L.B.; Carlson, R.C.; Montan, D.N.; Butkovich, T.R.; Duncan, J.E.; Patrick, W.C.; Wilder, D.G.; Brough, W.G.; Mayr, M.C.

    1979-01-01

    The Spent Fuel Test in the Climax granite at the Nevada Test Site is a generic test in which spent fuel assemblies from an operating commercial nuclear reactor are emplaced at, and retrieved from, a plausible waste repository depth in a typical granite. Eleven canisters of spent fuel are emplaced in a storage drift 420 m below the surface along with six electrical simulator canisters. Two adjacent drifts contain electrical heaters which are operated so as to simulate the initial five years of the temperature-stress-displacement fields of a large repository. The site is described, and the pre-operational measurement program and characteristics of the spent fuel are given. Both thermal and mechanical response calculations are summarized. The field instrumentation and data acquisition systems are described, as well as the system for handling the spent fuel

  19. Green Remediation Best Management Practices: Sites with Leaking Underground Storage Tank Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Principles for Greener Cleanups outline the Agency's policy for evaluating and minimizing the environmental 'footprint' of activities undertaken when cleaning up a contaminated site.

  20. Radiation effects issues related to US DOE site remediation and nuclear waste storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, W.J.; Ewing, R.C.

    1994-10-01

    Site restoration activities at DOE facilities and the permanent disposal of nuclear waste generated at the same DOE facilities involve working with and within various types and levels of radiation fields. Radionuclide decay and the associated radiation fields lead to physical and chemical changes that can degrade or enhance material properties. This paper reviews the impact of radiation fields on site restoration activities and on the release rate of radionuclides to the biosphere from nuclear waste forms

  1. Sll0528, a Site-2-Protease, Is Critically Involved in Cold, Salt and Hyperosmotic Stress Acclimation of Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haijin Lei

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Site-2-proteases (S2Ps mediated proteolysis of transmembrane transcriptional regulators is a conserved mechanism to regulate transmembrane signaling. The universal presence of S2P homologs in different cyanobacterial genomes suggest conserved and fundamental functions, though limited data has been available. Here we provide the first evidence that Sll0528, a site-2-protease in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 is crucial for salt, cold and hyperosmotic stress acclimation. Remarkable induction of sll0528 gene expression was observed under salt, cold and hyperosmotic stress, much higher than induction of the other three S2Ps. Knock-out of sll0528 gene in wild type Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 increased their sensitivity to salt, cold and hyperosmotic stress, as revealed by retarded growth, reduced pigments and disrupted photosystems. The sll0528 gene was induced to a much smaller extent by high light and mixotrophic growth with glucose. Similar growth responses of the sll0528 knockout mutant and wild type under high light and mixotrophic growth indicated that sll0528 was dispensable for these conditions. Recombinant Sll0528 protein could cleave beta-casein into smaller fragments. These results together suggest that the Sll0528 metalloprotease plays a role in the stress response and lays the foundation for further investigation of its mechanism, as well as providing hints for the functional analysis of other S2Ps in cyanobacteria.

  2. VM-based infrastructure for simulating different cluster and storage solutions used on ATLAS Tier-3 sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belov, S; Kadochnikov, I; Korenkov, V; Kutouski, M; Oleynik, D; Petrosyan, A

    2012-01-01

    The current ATLAS Tier-3 infrastructure consists of a variety of sites of different sizes and with a mix of local resource management systems (LRMS) and mass storage system (MSS) implementations. The Tier-3 monitoring suite, having been developed in order to satisfy the needs of Tier-3 site administrators and to aggregate Tier-3 monitoring information on the global VO level, needs to be validated for various combinations of LRMS and MSS solutions along with the corresponding Ganglia plugins. For this purpose the testbed infrastructure, which allows simulation of various computational cluster and storage solutions, had been set up at JINR (Dubna, Russia). This infrastructure provides the ability to run testbeds with various LRMS and MSS implementations, and with the capability to quickly redeploy particular testbeds or their components. Performance of specific components is not a critical issue for development and validation, whereas easy management and deployment are crucial. Therefore virtual machines were chosen for implementation of the validation infrastructure which, though initially developed for Tier-3 monitoring project, can be exploited for other purposes. Load generators for simulation of the computing activities at the farm were developed as a part of this task. The paper will cover concrete implementation, including deployment scenarios, hypervisor details and load simulators.

  3. Model environmental assessment for a property-cleanup/interim-storage remedial action at a formerly utilized site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merry-Libby, P.

    1982-07-01

    This document has been prepared as a model for the preparation of an Environmental Assessment (EA) for a property-cleanup/interim-storage type of remedial action under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). For major federal actions significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) must be prepared to aid DOE in making its decision. However, when it is not clear that an action is major and the impacts are significant, an EA may be prepared to determine whether to prepare an EIS or a finding of no significant impact (FONSI). If it is likely that an action may be major and the impacts significant, it is usually more cost-effective and timely to directly prepare an EIS. If it is likely that a FONSI can be reached after some environmental assessment, as DOE believes may be the case for most property-cleanup/interim-storage remedial actions, preparation of site-specific EAs is an effective means of compliance with NEPA

  4. Hybrid model predictive control of a residential HVAC system with on-site thermal energy generation and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorentini, Massimo; Wall, Josh; Ma, Zhenjun; Braslavsky, Julio H.; Cooper, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A comprehensive approach to managing thermal energy in residential buildings. • Solar-assisted HVAC system with on-site energy generation and storage. • Mixed logic-dynamical building model identified using experimental data. • Design and implementation of a logic-dynamical model predictive control strategy. • MPC applied to the Net-Zero Energy house winner of the Solar Decathlon China 2013. - Abstract: This paper describes the development, implementation and experimental investigation of a Hybrid Model Predictive Control (HMPC) strategy to control solar-assisted heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems with on-site thermal energy generation and storage. A comprehensive approach to the thermal energy management of a residential building is presented to optimise the scheduling of the available thermal energy resources to meet a comfort objective. The system has a hybrid nature with both continuous variables and discrete, logic-driven operating modes. The proposed control strategy is organized in two hierarchical levels. At the high-level, an HMPC controller with a 24-h prediction horizon and a 1-h control step is used to select the operating mode of the HVAC system. At the low-level, each operating mode is optimised using a 1-h rolling prediction horizon with a 5-min control step. The proposed control strategy has been practically implemented on the Building Management and Control System (BMCS) of a Net Zero-Energy Solar Decathlon house. This house features a sophisticated HVAC system comprising of an air-based photovoltaic thermal (PVT) collector and a phase change material (PCM) thermal storage integrated with the air-handling unit (AHU) of a ducted reverse-cycle heat pump system. The simulation and experimental results demonstrated the high performance achievable using an HMPC approach to optimising complex multimode HVAC systems in residential buildings, illustrating efficient selection of the appropriate operating modes

  5. Safe interim storage of Hanford tank wastes, draft environmental impact statement, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    This Draft EIS is prepared pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the Washington State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA). DOE and Ecology have identified the need to resolve near-term tank safety issues associated with Watchlist tanks as identified pursuant to Public Law (P.L.) 101-510, Section 3137, ''Safety Measures for Waste Tanks at Hanford Nuclear Reservation,'' of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1991, while continuing to provide safe storage for other Hanford wastes. This would be an interim action pending other actions that could be taken to convert waste to a more stable form based on decisions resulting from the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) EIS. The purpose for this action is to resolve safety issues concerning the generation of unacceptable levels of hydrogen in two Watchlist tanks, 101-SY and 103-SY. Retrieving waste in dilute form from Tanks 101-SY and 103-SY, hydrogen-generating Watchlist double shell tanks (DSTs) in the 200 West Area, and storage in new tanks is the preferred alternative for resolution of the hydrogen safety issues

  6. Safe interim storage of Hanford tank wastes, draft environmental impact statement, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    This Draft EIS is prepared pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the Washington State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA). DOE and Ecology have identified the need to resolve near-term tank safety issues associated with Watchlist tanks as identified pursuant to Public Law (P.L.) 101-510, Section 3137, ``Safety Measures for Waste Tanks at Hanford Nuclear Reservation,`` of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1991, while continuing to provide safe storage for other Hanford wastes. This would be an interim action pending other actions that could be taken to convert waste to a more stable form based on decisions resulting from the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) EIS. The purpose for this action is to resolve safety issues concerning the generation of unacceptable levels of hydrogen in two Watchlist tanks, 101-SY and 103-SY. Retrieving waste in dilute form from Tanks 101-SY and 103-SY, hydrogen-generating Watchlist double shell tanks (DSTs) in the 200 West Area, and storage in new tanks is the preferred alternative for resolution of the hydrogen safety issues.

  7. Large-site air-storage gas-turbine plants in electricity networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbst, H C

    1980-08-01

    The article gives a detailed description of the construction and the operation of the 290 MW air-storage gas-turbine power station at the town of Huntorf. The cavities of a 300,000 cbm storage capacity needed for accomodating compressed air have been solution-mined in a salt dome at a depth of c. 700 m. The air-mass-flow-controlled gas turbine consists of a 6-stage HP part and a 5-stage LP part with a combustion chamber each. The turbine is used to cover peak loads, whereas slack periods are covered by the generator which drives to air compressors connected in series to refill the underground compressed-air stores. Since December 1978, the plant has been in operation. As a gas turbine, it has attained a high level of start frequency, indeed, with its 400 starts within the first 5 months. Energy cost of this power station range within the optimum (between half and full load) at about 70% of the energy cost required by a conventionally natural-gas-fired turbine.

  8. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision 0, Including Errata Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2004-04-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's corrective action alternative recommendation for each of the corrective action sites (CASs) within Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. An evaluation of analytical data from the corrective action investigation, review of current and future operations at each CAS, and a detailed comparative analysis of potential corrective action alternatives were used to determine the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. There are six CASs in CAU 204, which are all located between Areas 1, 2, 3, and 5 on the NTS. The No Further Action alternative was recommended for CASs 01-34-01, 02-34-01, 03-34-01, and 05-99-02; and a Closure in Place with Administrative Controls recommendation was the preferred corrective action for CASs 05-18-02 and 05-33-01. These alternatives were judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated as well as applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the sites and will eliminate potential future exposure pathways to the contaminated media at CAU 204.

  9. An Extended VIKOR-Based Approach for Pumped Hydro Energy Storage Plant Site Selection with Heterogeneous Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunna Wu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The selection of a desirable site for constructing a pumped hydro energy storage plant (PHESP plays a vital important role in the whole life cycle. However, little research has been done on the site selection of PHESP, which affects the rapid development of PHESP. Therefore, this paper aims to select the most ideal PHESP site from numerous candidate alternatives using the multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM technique. Firstly, a comprehensive evaluation criteria system is established for the first time. Then, considering quantitative and qualitative criteria coexist in this system, multiple types of representations, including crisp numerical values (CNVs, triangular intuitionistic fuzzy numbers (TIFNs, and 2-dimension uncertain linguistic variables (2DULVs, are employed to deal with heterogeneous criteria information. To determine the weight of criteria and fully take the preference of the decision makers (DMs into account, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP method is applied for criteria weighting. After that, an extended Vlsekriterijumska Optimizacija I Kompromisno Resenje (VIKOR method is utilized to provide compromise solutions for the PHESP site considering such heterogeneous information. At last, the proposed model is then applied in a case study of Zhejiang province, China to illustrate its practicality and efficiency. The result shows the Changlongshan should be selected as the optimal PHESP.

  10. Wayne Interim Storage Site environmental report for calendar year 1992, 868 Black Oak Ridge Road, Wayne, New Jersey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    This report describes the environmental surveillance program at the Wayne Interim Storage Site (WISS) and provides the results for 1992. The fenced, site, 32 km (20 mi) northwest of Newark, New Jersey, was used between 1948 and 1971 for commercial processing of monazite sand to separate natural radioisotopes - predominantly thorium. Environmental surveillance of WISS began in 1984 in accordance with Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 when Congress added the site to DOE's Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). The environmental surveillance program at WISS includes sampling networks for radon and thoron in air; external gamma radiation exposure; radium-226, radium-228, thorium-230, thorium-232, total uranium, and several chemicals in surface water and sediment; and total uranium, radium-226, radium-228, thorium-230, thorium-232, and organic and inorganic chemicals in groundwater. Monitoring results are compared with applicable Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state standards, DOE derived concentration guides (DCGs), dose limits, and other DOE requirements. This monitoring program assists in fulfilling the DOE policy of measuring and monitoring effluents from DOE activities and calculating hypothetical doses. Results for environmental surveillance in 1992 show that the concentrations of all radioactive and most chemical contaminants were below applicable standards

  11. Preliminary geologic site selection factors for the National Waste Terminal Storage Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-06-01

    The geologic considerations and the associated factors that have to be addressed in the selection of repository sites in deep geologic formations are listed and described. In addition a description is given of the information necessary to assess the geologic factors. The methods of obtaining this information are described. An illustration is given of a general approach of how the geologic factors could be applied and integrated to assess the acceptability of candidate sites. No consideration is given to a detailed description of the application of integration of the geologic factors. The criteria associated with each factor that will be used are not defined

  12. Mooring system for a permanently moored storage vessel at an offshore site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flory, J.F.

    1983-01-24

    A vessel, e.g. a storage vessel, is permanently moored by means such as a yoke pivoted on the forecastle of the vessel to a mooring leg, e.g. a riser or anchor chain, which is attached to a base located on the ocean floor. Mounted on the vessel are tension, exerting means e.g. counterweights, springs, winches, etc., operably connected with the mooring leg for applying tension e.g. by lifting the yoke. The top of the mooring leg is connected to the end of the yoke through a mooring swivel and gimbaled mooring table or a universal joint. A fluid swivel may be located above the mooring table or about a load-carrying shaft connected to the mooring leg.

  13. Radioecological condition assessment and remediation criteria for sites of spent fuel and radioactive waste storage in the russian northwest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shandala, Nataliya; Titov, Alex; Novikova, Natalia; Kiselev, Mikhail; Romanov, Vladimir; Sneve, Malgorzata; Smith, Graham

    2008-01-01

    The Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority and the Federal Medical-Biological Agency of the Russian Federation have a regulatory cooperation programme which is concerned with management of the nuclear legacy in northwest Russia, and, in particular, the remediation of facilities for spent fuel and radioactive waste management at the former Shore Technical Bases at Andreeva Bay and Gremikha Village. New regulatory guidance documents have been developed, necessary because of the special abnormal situation at these sites, now designated as Sites of Temporary Storage, but also because of the transition from military to civilian regulatory supervision and the evolving regulatory system in the Russian Federation. This paper presents the progress made and on-going projects in 2008 which involve development of the radio-ecological basis for identifying radiation supervision area boundaries and a system of recommended dose constraints and derived control levels for protection of workers and the public. Unconditional guarantee of long-term radioecological protection serves as the basis for criteria development. Non-exceedance of these dose constraints and control levels implies compliance with radiological protection objectives related to the residual contamination. Dose reduction below proposed dose constraint values must also be carried out according to the optimization principle. A number of remediation strategies are considered, corresponding to different future land use assumptions, including interim continued use in a nuclear context. The developed criteria relate to conditions of facilities and surrounding areas at the sites of temporary storage after completion of their remediation, and during the interim stages of remediation, depending upon the remediation strategy adopted. (author)

  14. Hanford Site River Protection Project (RPP) High-Level Waste Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KRISTOFZSKI, J.G.

    2000-01-01

    The CH2M HILL Hanford Group (CHG) conducts business to achieve the goals of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of River Protection at the Hanford Site. The CHG is organized to manage and perform work to safely store, retrieve, etc

  15. Recent wet storage solutions and costs at NPS sites in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salo, J.P.; Tormala, V.P.

    1987-01-01

    In Finland the power companies have chosen the wet storing method when building the two recent interim spent fuel stores at Olkiluoto and Loviisa NPS sites. These decisions were based on extensive comparison studies of different storing methods and designs. TVO's and IVO's stores started operation F Y 1987 and 1984. One of them was built as an away-from-reactor on the NPS site, the other one as an at-reactor-store, wall-to-wall to the NPS process building. The capacity of the Olkiluoto store will be enough for all the spent fuel arising from the 30 years operation of units TVO I and TVO II, 1270-1400 tHM. The stores are unmanned. The vital process systems of both stores and doubled. The project timetables were kept very well. The investment costs were considerably less than generally mentioned in literature, in spite of the severe climatic conditions of the store sites. The costs of the stores added up to 40 and 50 USD/kgU in 1986 currency, without construction time interest costs. The actual operating and maintenance costs of the Loviisa store have been very low during the first three years of operation. It has been estimated that the operating costs of the independent TVO-KPA-STORE will be less than 1.3 million USD/a

  16. Accidental Release of Chlorine from a Storage Facility and an On-Site Emergency Mock Drill: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambalathumpara Raman Soman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current industrial scenario there is a serious need for formulating strategies to handle hazardous substances in the safest way. Manufacture, storage, and use of hazardous substances pose a serious risk to industry, people, and the environment. Accidental release of toxic chemicals can lead to emergencies. An emergency response plan (ERP is inevitable to minimize the adverse effects of such releases. The on-site emergency plan is an integral component of any process safety and risk management system. This paper deals with an on-site emergency response plan for a chlorine manufacturing industry. It was developed on the basis of a previous study on chlorine release and a full scale mock drill has been conducted for testing the plan. Results indicated that properly trained personnel can effectively handle each level of incidents occurring in the process plant. As an extensive guideline to the district level government authorities for off-site emergency planning, risk zone has also been estimated with reference to a chlorine exposure threshold of 3 ppm.

  17. Assessment of Risk Due to Chemicals Transferred in a Watershed: A Case of an Aquifer Storage Transfer and Recovery Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyon Wook Ji

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the potential risks of chemicals that can affect an aquifer storage transfer and recovery (ASTR site. ASTR is a water supply system that injects surface water into an aquifer and then extracts naturally filtered groundwater. The pilot site of the ASTR supplying drinking water is located downstream of the Nakdong River in South Korea. Hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP was adopted to ensure suitable water quality in response to the deteriorated water quality of the Nakdong River. HACCP is a proactive management system for ensuring consistent confidence in food (or water. Hazard analysis, the first of the seven principles of HACCP, assesses physical, microbial, chemical, and radioactive hazards. This study focuses on the chemicals that are most likely to be involved in major hazardous events. Pollutant release and transfer register (PRTR data were used to analyze potential risks of chemicals. A PRTR is a national environmental database of potentially hazardous chemicals. Potential risk analysis considers the total amount of chemicals transferred off-site for treatment or disposal. Fifty-five cities and the top 10 chemicals released in the Nakdong River basin were investigated. Potential risk was defined as a function of total transfers, the relative distance, and toxicity. The top 10 cities with high potential risks were identified, and the city with the highest potential risk turned out to be Ulju.

  18. Storage for the Fast Flux Test Facility unirradiated fuel in the Plutonium Finishing Plant Complex, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This Environmental Assessment evaluates the proposed action to relocate and store unirradiated Fast Flux Test Facility fuel in the Plutonium Finishing Plant Complex on the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. The US Department of Energy has decided to cease fuel fabrication activities in the 308 Building in the 300 Area. This decision was based on a safety concern over the ability of the fuel fabrication portion of the 308 Building to withstand a seismic event. The proposed action to relocate and store the fuel is based on the savings that could be realized by consolidating security costs associated with storage of the fuel. While the 308 Building belowgrade fuel storage areas are not at jeopardy by a seismic event, the US Department of Energy is proposing to cease storage operations along with the related fabrication operations. The US Department of Energy proposes to remove the unirradiated fuel pins and fuel assemblies from the 308 Building and store them in Room 192A, within the 234-5Z Building, a part of the Plutonium Finishing Plant Complex, located in the 200 West Area. Minor modifications to Room 192A would be required to accommodate placement of the fuel. The US Department of Energy estimates that removing all of the fuel from the 308 Building would save $6.5 million annually in security expenditures for the Fast Flux Test Facility. Environmental impacts of construction, relocation, and operation of the proposed action and alternatives were evaluated. This evaluation concluded that the proposed action would have no significant impacts on the human environment

  19. Design cost scoping studies. Nevada Test Site Terminal Waste Storage Program, Subtask 1.3: facility hardening studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanev, P.I.; Owen, G.N.

    1978-04-01

    As part of a program being conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, to determine the feasibility of establishing a terminal waste storage repository at the Nevada Test Site, URS/John A. Blume and Associates, Engineers, made approximate determinations of the additional costs required to provide protection of structures against seismic forces. A preliminary estimate is presented of the added costs required to harden the surface structures, underground tunnels and storage rooms, and vertical shafts of the repository against ground motion caused by earthquakes and underground nuclear explosions (UNEs). The conceptual design of all of the structures was adapted from proposed bedded-salt waste-isolation repositories. Added costs for hardening were calculated for repositories in three candidate geological materials (Eleana argillite, Climax Stock granite, and Jackass Flats tuff) for several assumed peak ground accelerations caused by earthquakes (0.3g, 0.5g, and 0.7g) and by UNEs (0.5g, 0.7g, and 1.0g). Hardening procedures to protect the tunnels, storage rooms, and shafts against incremental seismic loadings were developed from (1) qualitative considerations of analytically determined seismic stresses and (2) engineering evaluations of the dynamic response of the rock mass and the tunnel support systems. The added costs for seismic hardening of the surface structures were found to be less than 1% of the estimated construction cost of the surface structures. For the underground structures, essentially no hardening was required for peak ground accelerations up to 0.3g; however, added costs became significant at 0.5g, with a possible increase in structural costs for the underground facilities of as much as 35% at 1.0g

  20. Analysis of Dust Samples Collected from an In-Service Interim Storage System at the Maine Yankee Nuclear Site.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, Charles R.; Enos, David

    2016-10-01

    In July, 2016, the Electric Power Research Institute and industry partners performed a field test at the Maine Yankee Nuclear Site, located near Wiscasset, Maine. The primary goal of the field test was to evaluate the use of robots in surveying the surface of an in-service interim storage canister within an overpack; however, as part of the demonstration, dust and soluble salt samples were collected from horizontal surfaces within the interim storage system. The storage system is a vertical system made by NAC International, consisting of a steel-lined concrete overpack containing a 304 stainless steel (SS) welded storage canister. The canister did not contain spent fuel but rather greater-than-class-C waste, which did not generate significant heat, limiting airflow through the storage system. The surfaces that were sampled for deposits included the top of the shield plug, the side of the canister, and a shelf at the bottom of the overpack, just below the level of the pillar on which the canister sits. The samples were sent to Sandia National Laboratories for analysis. This report summarizes the results of those analyses. Because the primary goal of the field test was to evaluate the use of robots in surveying the surface of the canister within the overpack, collection of dust samples was carried out in a qualitative fashion, using paper filters and sponges as the sampling media. The sampling focused mostly on determining the composition of soluble salts present in the dust. It was anticipated that a wet substrate would more effectively extract soluble salts from the surface that was sampled, so both the sponges and the filter paper were wetted prior to being applied to the surface of the metal. Sampling was accomplished by simply pressing the damp substrate against the metal surface for two minutes, and then removing it. It is unlikely that the sampling method quantitatively collected dust or salts from the metal surface; however, both substrates did extract a

  1. Storage of non-defense production reactor spent nuclear fuel at the Department of Energy's Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, A.B.

    1998-01-01

    In 1992, the US Department of Energy (DOE) established a program at the Hanford Site for management of DOE-owned spent nuclear fuel (SNF) until final disposition. Currently, the DOE-owned SNF Program is developing and implementing plans to assure existing storage, achieve interim storage, and prepare DOE-owned SNF for final disposition. Program requirements for management of the SNF are delineated in the DOE-owned SNF Program Plan.(DOE 1995a) and the DOE Spent Fuel Program's Requirements Document (DOE 1994a). Major program requirements are driven by the following: commitments established in the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 94-1 Implementation Plan (DOE 1995b); corrective action plans for resolving vulnerabilities identified in the DOE Spent Fuel Working Group's Report on Health, Safety, and Environmental Vulnerabilities for Reactor Irradiated Nuclear Materials (DOE 1993); the settlement agreement between the US Department of Navy, the US Department of Energy, and the State of Idaho on the record of decision (ROD) from the DOE Programmatic SNF Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs Environmental Impact Statement (DOE Programmatic SNF EIS) (Idaho, 1995)

  2. Ground deformation monitoring using RADARSAT-2 DInSAR-MSBAS at the Aquistore CO2 storage site in Saskatchewan (Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnogorska, M.; Samsonov, S.; White, D.

    2014-11-01

    The research objectives of the Aquistore CO2 storage project are to design, adapt, and test non-seismic monitoring methods for measurement, and verification of CO2 storage, and to integrate data to determine subsurface fluid distributions, pressure changes and associated surface deformation. Aquistore site is located near Estevan in Southern Saskatchewan on the South flank of the Souris River and west of the Boundary Dam Power Station and the historical part of Estevan coal mine in southeastern Saskatchewan, Canada. Several monitoring techniques were employed in the study area including advanced satellite Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (DInSAR) technique, GPS, tiltmeters and piezometers. The targeted CO2 injection zones are within the Winnipeg and Deadwood formations located at > 3000 m depth. An array of monitoring techniques was employed in the study area including advanced satellite Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (DInSAR) with established corner reflectors, GPS, tiltmeters and piezometers stations. We used airborne LIDAR data for topographic phase estimation, and DInSAR product geocoding. Ground deformation maps have been calculated using Multidimensional Small Baseline Subset (MSBAS) methodology from 134 RADARSAT-2 images, from five different beams, acquired during 20120612-20140706. We computed and interpreted nine time series for selected places. MSBAS results indicate slow ground deformation up to 1 cm/year not related to CO2 injection but caused by various natural and anthropogenic causes.

  3. CIS as a successor of the Soviet Union: who is financially responsible for the uranium waste storage sites in Kyrgyzstan?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajtmatova, J.

    2001-05-01

    weapons' arsenal. Yet, the newly independent Kyrgyz Republic was left alone with an enormous amount of uranium waste, which was extracted on the Kyrgyz territory to produce these nuclear armaments. As a consequence of the Soviet policy, uranium waste storage sites represent a direct danger to the environment of present-day Kyrgyzstan. Therefore, Russia as the official successor of the Soviet Empire should help the Kyrgyz Republic to deal with this costly and extensive problem. These environmental issues serve as a basis for the given work. In turn, research will be primarily concentrated on several the most problematic radioactive waste storage sites, namely, the Mailuu-Suu, Kadji-Say, Kara-Balta, and Ak-Tuz uranium storages. Today, Kyrgyzstan has 50 radioactive waste storage sites, located throughout its territory and contained altogether about 300 million tons of wastes. In general, it could be suggested that the financial responsibility could be delegated to the Kyrgyz government; the Central Asian Community; Russia. It is clear with the first instance, the Kyrgyz government, as it ought to deal with the environmental problems of its country. The situation is more sophisticated and arguable in terms of second and third instance, namely, the Central Asian Community and, particularly, Russia. This paper is designed to prove not only the necessity for their involvement, but rather their responsibility for the present-day situation with the Kyrgyz storage sites. As regards the other Central Asian States, it is in their interests since they are under immediate threat of being affected. Concerning Russia, it is rather a moral right to demand its assistance than a legally legitimate one. All information, related to uranium, its extraction and further utilization was totally classified and only revealed after the Soviet Union's dissolution. Only in 1994 did the Kyrgyz public become acquainted with the truly poor environmental conditions of the newly fledged Republic. Yet, no

  4. Report on the performance monitoring system for the interim waste containment at the Niagara Falls Storage Site, Lewiston, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-10-01

    The Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS) is an interim storage site for low-level radioactive waste, established by the US Department of Energy (DOE) at Lewiston, New York. The waste containment structure for encapsulating low-level radioactive waste at the NFSS has been designed to minimize infiltration of rainfall, prevent pollution of groundwater, preclude formation of leachate, and prevent radon emanation. Accurately determining the performance of the main engineered elements of the containment structure will be important in establishing confidence in the ability of the structure to retain the wastes. For this purpose, a waste containment performance monitoring system has been developed to verify that these elements are functioning as intended. The key objective of the performance monitoring system is the early detection of trends that could be indicative of weaknesses developing in the containment structure so that corrective action can be taken before the integrity of the structure is compromised. Consequently, subsurface as well as surface monitoring techniques will be used. After evaluating several types of subsurface instrumentation, it was determined that vibrating wire pressure transducers, in combination with surface monitoring techniques, would satisfactorily monitor the parameters of concern, such as water accumulation inside the containment facility, waste settlement, and shrinkage of the clay cover. Surface monitoring will consist of topographic surveys based on predetermined gridlines, walkover surveys, and aerial photography to detect vegetative stress or other changes not evident at ground level. This report details the objectives of the performance monitoring system, identifies the elements of the containment design whose performance will be monitored, describes the monitoring system recommended, and outlines the costs associated with the monitoring system. 5 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Objective thermo-hydro-mechanical modelling of the damaged zone around a radioactive waste storage site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinelli, Ferdinando

    2013-01-01

    We present two different approaches to describe the hydro-mechanical behaviour of geo-materials. In the first approach the porous media is studied through an equivalent continuum media where the interaction between the fluid and solid phases characterize the coupling behaviour at the macro-scale. We take into account this approach to model experimental tests performed over a hollow cylinder sample of clay rock (Boom Clay), considered for nuclear waste storage. The experimental results clearly show that the mechanical behaviour of the material is strongly anisotropic. For this reason we chose an elasto-plastic model based on Drucker-Prager criterion where the elastic part is characterized by cross anisotropy. The numerical results of boundary value problem clearly show localised strains around the inner hollow section. In order to regularize the numerical problem we consider a second gradient local continuum media with an enriched kinematic where an internal length can be introduced making the results mesh independent. The uniqueness study is carried out showing that changing the temporal discretization of the problem leads to different solutions. In the second approach we study the hydro-mechanical behaviour of a porous media that it is characterised by the microstructure of the material. The microstructure taken into account is composed by elastic grains, cohesive interfaces and a network of fluid channels. Using a periodic media a numerical homogenization (square finite element method) is considered to compute mass flux, stress and density of the mixture. In this way a pure numerical constitutive law is built from the microstructure of the media. This method has been implemented into a finite element code (Lagamine, Universite de Liege) to obtain results at the macro-scale. A validation of this implementation is performed for a pure mechanical boundary value problem and for a hydro-mechanical one. (author)

  6. Maywood Interim Storage Site, Maywood, New Jersey: Annual site environmental report, Calendar year 1987: Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1988-04-01

    The monitoring program at the MISS measures thoron and radon gas concentrations in air; external gamma radiation levels; and throium, uranium, and radium concentrations in surface water, groundwater, and sediment. To verify that the site is in compliance with the DOE radiation protection standard (100 mrem/yr) and to assess the potential effect on public health, the radiation dose was calculated for the maximally exposed individual. Based on the conservative scenario described in this report, the maximally exposed individual would receive an annual external exposure approximately equivalent to 1% of the DOE radiation protection standard of 100 mrem/yr. This exposure is less than the exposure a person would receive during a round-trip flight from New York to Los Angeles (because of the greater amounts of cosmic radiation present at higher altitudes). The cumulative dose to the population within an 80-km (50 mile) radium of the MISS that would result from radioactive materials present at the site would be indistinguishable from the dose the same population would receive from naturally occurring radioactive sources. Results of the 1987 monitoring show that the MISS is in compliance with the DOE radiation protection standard. 17 refs., 8 figs., 15 tabs.

  7. Changes in competence of public authorities in connection with final storage pursuant to the omnibus law on site selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keienburg, Bettina

    2012-01-01

    The omnibus law on site finding and selection for a repository for radioactive waste generating heat, and with amendments to other laws, of June 13, 2012 is to reshuffle fundamentally the competences of public authorities for final storage. The federal government is to assume more responsibilities from former federal state competences. Moreover, most of the existing competences of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection are to be transferred to a federal agency yet to be founded, which is called Federal Office for Nuclear Safety in the present draft legislation. The Federal Office for Radiation Protection will only retain its responsibility as project agent for repositories, and that only in the phases of site exploration and licensing. Afterwards, the duty of final storage in the draft legislation is transferred to a 3rd party. Again in the version of the draft legislation, and unlike present regulations, this 3rd party may only be a company whose sole owner is the federal government, which also is to strengthen the influence of the federal government under aspects of company law. Legislative efforts seeking to strengthen the federal government and its competences by assigning licensing duties for repositories to federal agencies are understandable under feasibility aspects and may even be in the emotional interest of the states and their competent representatives in public authorities who, merely because their work is connected with the disputed topic of final storage, often face attacks and accusations by the public. Nevertheless, the transfer to federal agencies of administrative duties is subject to constitutional limits which must be observed. These constitutional aspects are highlighted in the publication. It is left to the reader to assess the meaningfulness of establishing another independent high-level federal agency in the area of responsibility of the Federal Ministry of the Environment (BMU), i.e. a Federal Office for Nuclear Safety, alongside the

  8. Targeted Health Assessment for Wastes Contained at the Niagara Falls Storage Site to Guide Planning for Remedial Action Alternatives - 13428

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busse, John; Keil, Karen; Staten, Jane; Miller, Neil; Barker, Michelle [U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Buffalo District, 1776 Niagara Street, Buffalo, NY (United States); MacDonell, Margaret; Peterson, John; Chang, Young-Soo; Durham, Lisa [Argonne National Laboratory, Environmental Science Division, 9700 S. Cass Ave., Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is evaluating potential remedial alternatives at the 191-acre Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS) in Lewiston, New York, under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). The Manhattan Engineer District (MED) and Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) brought radioactive wastes to the site during the 1940's and 1950's, and the U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE) consolidated these wastes into a 10-acre interim waste containment structure (IWCS) in the southwest portion of the site during the 1980's. The USACE is evaluating remedial alternatives for radioactive waste contained within the IWCS at the NFSS under the Feasibility Study phase of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) process. A preliminary evaluation of the IWCS has been conducted to assess potential airborne releases associated with uncovered wastes, particularly during waste excavation, as well as direct exposures to uncovered wastes. Key technical issues for this assessment include: (1) limitations in waste characterization data; (2) representative receptors and exposure routes; (3) estimates of contaminant emissions at an early stage of the evaluation process; (4) consideration of candidate meteorological data and air dispersion modeling approaches; and (5) estimates of health effects from potential exposures to both radionuclides and chemicals that account for recent updates of exposure and toxicity factors. Results of this preliminary health risk assessment indicate if the wastes were uncovered and someone stayed at the IWCS for a number of days to weeks, substantial doses and serious health effects could be incurred. Current controls prevent such exposures, and the controls that would be applied to protect onsite workers during remedial action at the IWCS would also effectively protect the public nearby. This evaluation provides framing context for the upcoming development and detailed

  9. Geochemical monitoring for detection of CO_{2} leakage from subsea storage sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ibáñez, Maribel I.; Omar, Abdirahman M.; Johannessen, Truls

    2017-04-01

    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) in subsea geological formations is a promising large-scale technology for mitigating the increases of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere. However, detection and quantification of potential leakage of the stored CO2 remains as one of the main challenges of this technology. Geochemical monitoring of the water column is specially demanding because the leakage CO2 once in the seawater may be rapidly dispersed by dissolution, dilution and currents. In situ sensors capture CO2 leakage signal if they are deployed very close to the leakage point. For regions with vigorous mixing and/or deep water column, and for areas far away from the leakage point, a highly sensitive carbon tracer (Cseep tracer) was developed based on the back-calculation techniques used to estimate anthropogenic CO2 in the water column. Originally, the Cseep tracer was computed using accurate discrete measurements of total dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and total alkalinity (AT) in the Norwegian Sea to isolate the effect of natural submarine vents in the water column. In this work we assess the effect of measurement variables on the performance of the method by computing the Cseep tracer twice: first using DIC and AT, and second using partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) and pH. The assessment was performed through the calculation of the signal to noise ratios (STNR). We found that the use of the Cseep tracer increases the STNR ten times compared to the raw measurement data, regardless of the variables used. Thus, while traditionally the pH-pCO2 pair generates the greatest uncertainties in the oceanic CO2 system, it seems that the Cseep technique is insensitive to that issue. On the contrary, the use of the pCO2-pH pair has the highest CO2 leakage detection and localization potential due to the fact that both pCO2 and pH can currently be measured at high frequency and in an autonomous mode.

  10. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No. 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Boehlecke

    2004-04-01

    The six bunkers included in CAU 204 were primarily used to monitor atmospheric testing or store munitions. The ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada'' (NNSA/NV, 2002a) provides information relating to the history, planning, and scope of the investigation; therefore, it will not be repeated in this CADD. This CADD identifies potential corrective action alternatives and provides a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for each CAS within CAU 204. The evaluation of corrective action alternatives is based on process knowledge and the results of investigative activities conducted in accordance with the CAIP (NNSA/NV, 2002a) that was approved prior to the start of the Corrective Action Investigation (CAI). Record of Technical Change (ROTC) No. 1 to the CAIP (approval pending) documents changes to the preliminary action levels (PALs) agreed to by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) and DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). This ROTC specifically discusses the radiological PALs and their application to the findings of the CAU 204 corrective action investigation. The scope of this CADD consists of the following: (1) Develop corrective action objectives; (2) Identify corrective action alternative screening criteria; (3) Develop corrective action alternatives; (4) Perform detailed and comparative evaluations of corrective action alternatives in relation to corrective action objectives and screening criteria; and (5) Recommend and justify a preferred corrective action alternative for each CAS within CAU 204.

  11. Storage of radioactive wastes in geological formations. Technical criteria for site selection. Report by the work-group chaired by Professor Goguel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goguel, Jean; Candes, Pierre; Izabel, Cecile; Autran, Albert; Barthoux, Alain; Baudin, Guy; Devillers, Christian; Habib, Pierre; Lafuma, Jacques; Lefevre, Jean; Peaudecerf, Pierre; Pradel, Jacques; Salle, Claude; Treuil, Michel; Lebrun, Patrick; Tissier, Marie-Solange

    1985-06-01

    This document is the result of a prospective mission on the long term storage of radioactive wastes containing long-period emitters (wastes of B and C categories), and notably on a definitive storage in deep continental geological formations. After a presentation of hypotheses (brief description of the storage concept, main safety principles, objectives in terms of radiological safety, safety options, time-related considerations), the authors addressed the following issues: safety before closing during the exploitation period, and safety after closure (after backfilling and sealing of all underground cavities). For the first issue, they discuss the impacts of works on safety and thermal effects during exploitation. For the second issue, they discuss the site natural hydro-geological context, the disturbances brought by the storage (access of water to the storage, and return of water into the biosphere), and the influence of external factors (geological phenomena, human intrusion). Then, the authors make recommendations regarding reconnaissance programs and studies for the selection and qualification of a site. They finally propose technical criteria and main recommendations for site selection. Appendices propose a list of hearings, a presentation of the storage concept, a report on the impact of works, a report on the presence of mineralisation in granite massifs, reports on radiological consequences of intrusions in salt formations and in granite massif containing storage of radioactive wastes or vitrified wastes, a report on the characterization of unsteady parts of the French continental construction, a presentation of the evolution of climate and icings, and a study of seismic movements in the case of deep storages

  12. Characterization and assessment for the Weldon Spring Quarry low-level radioactive waste storage site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-09-01

    The Weldon Spring Quarry is located approximately 4 miles from the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant and 20 miles west of St. Louis. Originally a limestone and sand quarry, the 9 acre site was later used for the disposal of TNT-contaminated soils during the 1940's and the disposal of low-level radioactive waste during the 1960's. The most important potential hazards posed by the quarry are contamination of groundwater, radiation exposure and contamination of trespassers, and contamination of surface waters. The potential for groundwater contamination was identified at an early date by the US Department of Energy (DOE) as the most important of these potential hazards. Particular concern exists for the future of the municipal well field located between the quarry and the Missouri River. At the present time the well field supplies drinking water for the area from Weldon Spring up to and including parts of the city of St. Charles. Chapters are devoted to geology, waste inventory, hydrology, investigations of radionuclide migration from the quarry, numerical modeling of engineering options, and raffinate pits. 40 references, 182 figures, 49 tables, 7 appendixes

  13. Keratinolytic activities of alkaliphilic Bacillus sp. MBRL 575 from a novel habitat, limestone deposit site in Manipur, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kshetri, Pintubala; Ningthoujam, Debananda S

    2016-01-01

    Microbial degradation of keratinous wastes is preferred over physicochemical methods as the latter is costlier and not eco-friendly. Novel habitats are promising for discovery of new microbial strains. Towards discovery of novel keratinolytic bacteria, screening of bacterial strains from a novel limestone habitat in Hundung, Manipur, India was done and a promising isolate, MBRL 575, was found to degrade native chicken feather efficiently. It could grow over a broad pH range (Langeveld et al. in J Infect Dis 188:1782-1789, 2003; Park and Son in Microbiol Res 164:478-485, 2009; Zaghloul et al. in Biodegradation 22:111-128, 2011; Takami et al. in Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 56:1667-1669, 1992; Riffel et al. in J Biotechnol 128:693-703, 2007; Wang et al. in Bioresour Technol 99:5679-5686, 2008) and in presence of 0-15 % NaCl. Based on phenotypic characterization and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the new keratinolytic limestone isolate was identified as Bacillus sp. MBRL 575. It produced 305 ± 12 U/ml keratinase and liberated 120 ± 5.5 mg of soluble peptides and 158 ± 4 mg of amino acids per gram of feather after 48 h of incubation at 30 °C in chicken feather medium. The strain could also degrade feathers of other species besides chicken. The cell-free enzyme was also able to degrade feather. Citrate and soybean meal were found to be the best carbon and nitrogen supplements for enhanced enzyme, soluble peptide and amino acid production. In addition to keratinolytic activity, MBRL 575 also exhibited antagonistic activity against two major rice fungal pathogens, Rhizoctonia oryzae-sativae (65 %) and Rhizoctonia solani (58 %).

  14. Site selection methods for nuclear waste storage in sub-schistic granites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alsac, C.; Chantraine, J.; Chevremont, P.

    1984-02-01

    Intrusive granites in schists, where most of the roof is at a depth of several hundred metres can be regarded as favourable sites for storing radioactive waste since the schistic cover has extremely low permeability. This configuration exists in various parts of France. In this paper the authors describe methods which can be applied to the study of such structures, taking a region in the Armorican Massif as a reference example. The geological evidence here showed an extensive zone with a slight gravimetric anomaly around a few granite outcrops dispersed in the schists. This structure gave reason to believe that a shallow granite mass would be found under the schistic cover, and geological and gravimetric surface studies did indeed prove that this supposition was correct. Apart from the slight gravimetric anomaly, the extent of which has been confirmed and the outlines determined, the transformations (contact metamorphism and hydrothermalism) of the enclosing schists are particularly indicative of the presence of granite. The gravimetric model shows that the thickness of the granite is at least 2.3 km and provides an initial representation of the shape and depth of the roof. These results, together with those of the structural analysis, can be used to demarcate a favourable region for investigations at depth which will make it possible: to monitor the geological structures; to define the geotechnical characteristics of the formations; to analyse and model the hydrogeological behaviour, at present known only from surface studies which do not appear to indicate any circulation of water upwards towards the surface

  15. Final environmental assessment for the U.S. Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Operations receipt and storage of uranium materials from the Fernald Environmental Management Project site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    Through a series of material transfers and sales agreements over the past 6 to 8 years, the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) has reduced its nuclear material inventory from 14,500 to approximately 6,800 metric tons of uranium (MTU). This effort is part of the US Department of energy`s (DOE`s) decision to change the mission of the FEMP site; it is currently shut down and the site is being remediated. This EA focuses on the receipt and storage of uranium materials at various DOE-ORO sites. The packaging and transportation of FEMP uranium material has been evaluated in previous NEPA and other environmental evaluations. A summary of these evaluation efforts is included as Appendix A. The material would be packaged in US Department of Transportation-approved shipping containers and removed from the FEMP site and transported to another site for storage. The Ohio Field Office will assume responsibility for environmental analyses and documentation for packaging and transport of the material as part of the remediation of the site, and ORO is preparing this EA for receipt and storage at one or more sites.

  16. Final environmental assessment for the U.S. Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Operations receipt and storage of uranium materials from the Fernald Environmental Management Project site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Through a series of material transfers and sales agreements over the past 6 to 8 years, the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) has reduced its nuclear material inventory from 14,500 to approximately 6,800 metric tons of uranium (MTU). This effort is part of the US Department of energy's (DOE's) decision to change the mission of the FEMP site; it is currently shut down and the site is being remediated. This EA focuses on the receipt and storage of uranium materials at various DOE-ORO sites. The packaging and transportation of FEMP uranium material has been evaluated in previous NEPA and other environmental evaluations. A summary of these evaluation efforts is included as Appendix A. The material would be packaged in US Department of Transportation-approved shipping containers and removed from the FEMP site and transported to another site for storage. The Ohio Field Office will assume responsibility for environmental analyses and documentation for packaging and transport of the material as part of the remediation of the site, and ORO is preparing this EA for receipt and storage at one or more sites

  17. Effects of CO{sub 2} gas as leaks from geological storage sites on agro-ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, Ravi H.; Colls, Jeremy J. [Division of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, NG7 2RD, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Steven, Michael D. [School of Geography, University of Nottingham, NG7 2RD, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-15

    Carbon capture and storage in geological formations has potential risks in the long-term safety because of the possibility of CO{sub 2} leakage. Effects of leaking gas, therefore, on vegetation, soil, and soil-inhabiting organisms are critical to understand. An artificial soil gassing and response detection field facility developed at the University of Nottingham was used to inject CO{sub 2} gas at a controlled flow rate (1 l min{sup -1}) into soil to simulate build-up of soil CO{sub 2} concentrations and surface fluxes from two land use types: pasture grassland, and fallow followed by winter bean. Mean soil CO{sub 2} concentrations was significantly higher in gassed pasture plots than in gassed fallow plots. Germination of winter bean sown in gassed fallow plots was severely hindered and the final crop stand was reduced to half. Pasture grass showed stress symptoms and above-ground biomass was significantly reduced compared to control plot. A negative correlation (r = -0.95) between soil CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2} concentrations indicated that injected CO{sub 2} displaced O{sub 2} from soil. Gassing CO{sub 2} reduced soil pH both in grass and fallow plots (p = 0.012). The number of earthworm castings was twice as much in gassed plots than in control plots. This study showed adverse effects of CO{sub 2} gas on agro-ecosystem in case of leakage from storage sites to surface. (author)

  18. Modelling the long-term isolation performance of natural and engineered geologic CO{sub 2} storage sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J.W.; Nitao, J.J.; Morris, J.P. [California Univ., Livermore, CA (United States). Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    2005-07-01

    Caprock integrity is an important constraint on the long-term performance of natural and engineered carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration sites. Influxes of CO{sub 2} can lead to concomitant geochemical alteration and geomechanical deformation of the caprock and degrade seal integrity. In this study, reactive transport modelling was used to assess the evolution of caprock permeability. The model was based on mathematical models of the coupled physical and chemical processes catalyzed by an influx event, along with supporting geochemical databases and a distinct-element geomechanical model. Geomechanical contribution was evaluated within a full system analysis of coupled hydrological and geochemical processes for Sleipner-like settings, and then analyzed as a function of hydrological processes, key reservoir properties, and CO{sub 2} influx parameters. The net effect of the geomechanical and geomechanical contributions on caprock integrity was then evaluated for both natural and engineered storage scenarios. Results of the study showed that CO{sub 2} influx-triggered geochemical and geomechanical processes act in opposition to enhance and degrade hydrodynamic seal capacity through aperture narrowing and widening of microfractures. The extent of geochemical enhancement was independent of the reservoir characteristics that distinguished saline-aquifer from enhanced oil recovery and CO{sub 2} sequestration settings. However, while the extent of geochemical alteration was nearly independent of the filling mode, geomechanical deformation processes were more pronounced in engineered storage scenarios. Results suggested that the secure caprocks of natural CO{sub 2} accumulation settings may be incapable of providing effective seals for engineered injection processes. The pressure increase associated with CO{sub 2} accumulation in any compartmentalized system resulted in the net geomechanical aperture widening of caprock microfractures. It was concluded that the

  19. Lower Colorado River GRP Underground Storage Tank Sites (Closed), Nevada, 2012, Nevada Division of Environmental Protection Bureau of Corrective Actions

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The BCA layers are derived from a database for Federally Regulated Underground Storage Tanks (UST) and a database for Remediation and Leaking Underground Storage...

  20. Lower Colorado River GRP Underground Storage Tank Sites (Open), Nevada, 2012, Nevada Division of Environmental Protection Bureau of Corrective Actions

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The BCA layers are derived from a database for Federally Regulated Underground Storage Tanks (UST) and a database for Remediation and Leaking Underground Storage...

  1. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 166: Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site, Nevada with Errata Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant Evenson

    2007-03-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 166, Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (1996). The corrective action sites (CASs) are located in Areas 2, 3, 5, and 18 of the Nevada Test Site, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 166 is comprised of the following CASs: • 02-42-01, Cond. Release Storage Yd - North • 02-42-02, Cond. Release Storage Yd - South • 02-99-10, D-38 Storage Area • 03-42-01, Conditional Release Storage Yard • 05-19-02, Contaminated Soil and Drum • 18-01-01, Aboveground Storage Tank • 18-99-03, Wax Piles/Oil Stain The purpose of this CADD is to identify and provide the rationale for the recommendation of a corrective action alternative (CAA) for the seven CASs within CAU 166. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from July 31, 2006, through February 28, 2007, as set forth in the CAU 166 Corrective Action Investigation Plan (NNSA/NSO, 2006).

  2. Safety Assessment Document for the Spent Reactor Fuel Geologic Storage Test in the Climax Granite Stock at the Nevada Test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The objective of the Spent Fuel Geologic Storage Test in the Climax Granite Stock is to evaluate the response of a granitic rock mass to the underground storage of encapsulated spent reactor fuel in a geometry that simulates a module of a large-scale geologic repository. This document reports an assessment of the safety of conducting this test. Descriptions are provided of the geography, meteorology, hydrology, geology, and seismology of the Climax Site; the effects of postulated natural phenomena and other activities at the nevada Test Site on the safety of the test; and the design and operation of the test facility and associated equipment. Evaluations are made of both the radiological and nonradiological impacts of normal operations, abnormal operations, and postulated accidents. It is concluded that conduct of the spent fuel test at the Climax Site will not result in any undue risk to the public, property, environment, or site employees

  3. Identification and determination of trapping parameters as key site parameters for CO2 storage for the active CO2 storage site in Ketzin (Germany) - Comparison of different experimental approaches and analysis of field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemke, Kornelia; Liebscher, Axel

    2015-04-01

    Petrophysical properties like porosity and permeability are key parameters for a safe long-term storage of CO2 but also for the injection operation itself. The accurate quantification of residual trapping is difficult, but very important for both storage containment security and storage capacity; it is also an important parameter for dynamic simulation. The German CO2 pilot storage in Ketzin is a Triassic saline aquifer with initial conditions of the target sandstone horizon of 33.5 ° C/6.1 MPa at 630 m. One injection and two observation wells were drilled in 2007 and nearly 200 m of core material was recovered for site characterization. From June 2008 to September 2013, slightly more than 67 kt food-grade CO2 has been injected and continuously monitored. A fourth observation well has been drilled after 61 kt injected CO2 in summer 2012 at only 25 m distance to the injection well and new core material was recovered that allow study CO2 induced changes in petrophysical properties. The observed only minor differences between pre-injection and post-injection petrophysical parameters of the heterogeneous formation have no severe consequences on reservoir and cap rock integrity or on the injection behavior. Residual brine saturation for the Ketzin reservoir core material was estimated by different methods. Brine-CO2 flooding experiments for two reservoir samples resulted in 36% and 55% residual brine saturation (Kiessling, 2011). Centrifuge capillary pressure measurements (pc = 0.22 MPa) yielded the smallest residual brine saturation values with ~20% for the lower part of the reservoir sandstone and ~28% for the upper part (Fleury, 2010). The method by Cerepi (2002), which calculates the residual mercury saturation after pressure release on the imbibition path as trapped porosity and the retracted mercury volume as free porosity, yielded unrealistic low free porosity values of only a few percent, because over 80% of the penetrated mercury remained in the samples after

  4. Engineering the metal sensitive sites in Macrolampis sp2 firefly luciferase and use as a novel bioluminescent ratiometric biosensor for heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Gabriele V M; Viviani, Vadim R

    2016-12-01

    Most luminescent biosensors for heavy metals are fluorescent and rely on intensity measurements, whereas a few are ratiometric and rely on spectral changes. Bioluminescent biosensors for heavy metals are less common. Firefly luciferases have been coupled to responsive promoters for mercury and arsenium, and used as light on biosensors. Firefly luciferase bioluminescence spectrum is naturally sensitive to heavy metal cations such as zinc and mercury and to pH. Although pH sensitivity of firefly luciferases was shown to be useful for ratiometric estimation of intracellular pH, its potential use for ratiometric estimation of heavy metals was never considered. Using the yellow-emitting Macrolampis sp2 firefly luciferase and site-directed mutagenesis, we show that the residues H310 and E354 constitute two critical sites for metal sensitivity that can be engineered to increase sensitivity to zinc, nickel, and mercury. A linear relationship between cation concentration and the ratio of bioluminescence intensities at 550 and 610 nm allowed, for the first time, the ratiometric estimation of heavy metals concentrations down to 0.10 mM, demonstrating the potential applicability of firefly luciferases as enzymatic and intracellular ratiometric metal biosensors.

  5. Reclamation of a lignite combustion waste disposal site with alders (Alnus sp.): assessment of tree growth and nutrient status within 10 years of the experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrzykowski, Marcin; Woś, Bartłomiej; Pająk, Marek; Wanic, Tomasz; Krzaklewski, Wojciech; Chodak, Marcin

    2018-06-01

    Combustion wastes are characterised by extremely low N contents. Therefore, introduction of nitrogen-fixing species at the first stage of their biological reclamation is required. This paper presents an assessment of the growth parameters of alders (Alnus sp.) 10 years after their introduction to a disposal site of lignite combustion waste in Central Poland. Black (Alnus glutinosa) and grey alders (Alnus incana) were planted directly in the combustion waste. The soil amendment included three variants: control with pure combustion waste, admixture of lignite culm and addition of acid sand. Both alder species displayed good growth parameters comparable to those of alders in natural habitats. However, black alder had better growth parameters, such as stand density index (SDI), diameter at breast height (DBH) and height (H) than grey alder. The lignite amendment exerted a positive effect on tree growth, reflected in a higher SDI and H, whereas the acid sand amendment did not affect any of the growth parameters of the studied alder species. Despite the good growth parameters, the measured N:P and N:K ratios in the alder leaves largely differed from the optimal values indicating insufficient P and K supply at the combustion waste disposal site. This may pose a threat to further development of the introduced tree plantings. The introduction of alders along with the lignite addition into the planting holes seems to be a successful method of combustion waste revegetation.

  6. Modelling a reliable wind/PV/storage power system for remote radio base station sites without utility power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitterlin, Ian F [Emerson Network Power Ltd., Globe Park, Marlow, SL7 1YG (United Kingdom)

    2006-11-22

    The development of photovoltaic (PV) cells has made steady progress from the early days, when only the USA space program could afford to deploy them, to now, seeing them applied to roadside applications even in our Northern European climes. The manufacturing cost per watt has fallen and the daylight-to-power conversion efficiency increased. At the same time, the perception that the sun has to be directly shining on it for a PV array to work has faded. On some of those roadside applications, particularly for remote emergency telephones or for temporary roadwork signage where a utility electrical power connection is not practical, the keen observer will spot, usually in addition to a PV array, a small wind-turbine and an electrical cabinet quite obviously (by virtue of its volume) containing a storage battery. In the UK, we have the lions share (>40%) of Europe's entire wind power resource although, despite press coverage of the 'anti-wind' lobby to the contrary, we have hardly started to harvest this clean and free energy source. Taking this (established and proven) roadside solution one step further, we will consider higher power applications. A cellular phone system is one where a multitude of remote radio base stations (RBS) are required to provide geographical coverage. With networks developing into the so called '3G' technologies the need for base stations has tripled, as each 3G cell covers only 1/3 the geographical area of its '2G' counterpart. To cover >90% of the UK's topology (>97% population coverage) with 3G cellular technology will requires in excess of 12,000 radio base stations per operator network. In 2001, there were around 25,000 established sites and, with an anticipated degree of collocation by necessity, that figure is forecast to rise to >47,000. Of course, the vast majority of these sites have a convenient grid connection. However, it is easy to see that the combination of wind and PV power generation and an energy storage system may be an

  7. Conference report: 2012 Repository Symposium. Final storage in Germany. New start - ways and consequences of the site selection procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kettler, John

    2012-01-01

    The Aachen Institute for Nuclear Training invited participants to the 3-day '2012 Repository Symposium - Final Storage in Germany' held in Bonn. The subtitle of the event, 'New Start - Ways and Consequences of the Site Selection Procedure,' expressed the organizers' summary that the Repository Finding Act currently under discussion did not give rise to any expectation of a repository for high-level radioactive waste before 2080. The symposium was attended by more than 120 persons from Germany and abroad. They discussed the basic elements of the site selection procedure and its consequences on the basis of the draft so far known to the public. While extensive public participation is envisaged for the stage of finding a repository, this does not apply to the draft legislation in the same way. The legal determinations are negotiated in a small circle by the political parties and the state governments. Michael Sailer (Oeko-Institut e.V.) holds that agreement on a repository finding act is urgent. Prof. Dr. Bruno Thomauske (RWTH Aachen) arrives at the conclusion mentioned above, that no repository for high-level radioactive waste can start operation before 2080 on the basis of the Repository Finding Act. Dr. Bettina Keienburg, attorney at law, in her paper drew attention to the points of dispute in the draft legislation with regard to changes in competency of public authorities. The draft law indicated a clear shift of competency for finding a repository from the Federal Office for Radiation Protection to a federal agency yet to be set up. Prof. Dr. Christoph Moench outlined the deficiencies of the draft legislation in matters of refinancing and the polluter-pays principle. Among the tentative solutions discussed it was above all the Swedish model which was acclaimed most widely. (orig.)

  8. Site-directed mutagenesis of α-L-rhamnosidase from Alternaria sp. L1 to enhance synthesis yield of reverse hydrolysis based on rational design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li; Liu, Xiaohong; Yin, Zhenhao; Liu, Qian; Lu, Lili; Xiao, Min

    2016-12-01

    The α-L-rhamnosidase catalyzes the hydrolytic release of rhamnose from polysaccharides and glycosides and is widely used due to its applications in a variety of industrial processes. Our previous work reported that a wild-type α-L-rhamnosidase (RhaL1) from Alternaria sp. L1 could synthesize rhamnose-containing chemicals (RCCs) though reverse hydrolysis reaction with inexpensive rhamnose as glycosyl donor. To enhance the yield of reverse hydrolysis reaction and to determine the amino acid residues essential for the catalytic activity of RhaL1, site-directed mutagenesis of 11 residues was performed in this study. Through rationally designed mutations, the critical amino acid residues which may form direct or solvent-mediated hydrogen bonds with donor rhamnose (Asp 252 , Asp 257 , Asp 264 , Glu 530 , Arg 548 , His 553 , and Trp 555 ) and may form the hydrophobic pocket in stabilizing donor (Trp 261 , Tyr 302 , Tyr 316 , and Trp 369 ) in active-site of RhaL1 were analyzed, and three positive mutants (W261Y, Y302F, and Y316F) with improved product yield stood out. From the three positive variants, mutant W261Y accelerated the reverse hydrolysis with a prominent increase (43.7 %) in relative yield compared to the wild-type enzyme. Based on the 3D structural modeling, we supposed that the improved yield of mutant W261Y is due to the adjustment of the spatial position of the putative catalytic acid residue Asp 257 . Mutant W261Y also exhibited a shift in the pH-activity profile in hydrolysis reaction, indicating that introducing of a polar residue in the active site cavity may affect the catalysis behavior of the enzyme.

  9. Heat transfer analysis of consolidated dry storage system for CANDU spent fuel considering environmental conditions of Wolsong site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K. H.; Yoon, J. H.; Choi, B. I.; Lee, H. Y.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to perform heat transfer analysis of the MACSTOR/KN-400 dry storage system for CANDU spent fuel in order to predict maximum concrete temperatures and temperature gradients. This module has twice the capacity of the existing MACSTOR-200, which is in operation at Gentilly-2. In the thermal design of the MACSTOR/KN-400, Thermal Insulation Panels(TIP) were introduced to reduce concrete temperatures and temperature gradients in the module caused by the high fuel heat loads. Environmental factors such as solar heat, daily temperature variations and ambient temperatures in summer and winter at Wolsong site and the assumed presence of hot baskets were taken into consideration in the simulations. Two cases were performed for the MACSTOR/KN-400: Off-normal cases in summer and winter. The maximum local concrete temperatures were predicted to be 63 .deg. C for the off-normal case. The temperature gradients in the concrete walls and roof are predicted to be 28C and 25C for off-normal operation in summer, incorporating a 3C uncertainty. In conclusion, this paper shows that the maximum temperature for the module is expected to meet the temperature limitations of ACI 349

  10. PARÁMETROS FISICOQUÍMICOS DURANTE EL ALMACENAMIENTO DE SALCHICHAS ELABORADAS A PARTIR DE TILAPIA ROJA (Oreochromis sp. PARÂMETROS FISICO-QUÍMICOS DURANTE O ARMAZENAMENTO DE SALSICHAS FEITAS DE TILAPIA VERMELHA (Oreochromis sp. PHYSICOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS DURING STORAGE OF SAUSAGES MADE FROM RED TILAPIA (Oreochromis sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ IGOR HLEAP Z.

    2012-06-01

    ísico-químicos. As salsichas foram preparadas seguindo o procedimento desenvolvido no Laboratório de Tecnologia de Carnes, da Universidade Nacional da Colômbia - Palmira de um colar de tilapia previamente preparado. Determinada umidade, proteína, carboidrato, gordura, cinzas, valor energético, pH, capacidade de retenção de umidade e atividade de água. As descobertas sugerem que o valor nutricional e funcional da salsicha não e alterada durante os primeiros 30 dias de armazenamento, que são consistentes com os dados relatados na literatura, para salsichas feitas de carne crua demais.The growth of aquaculture of red tilapia (Oreochromis sp. in Colombia has allowed the development of food products of higher added value. One of these products are sausages Frankfurt. The aim of this study was to analyze the physicochemical parameters that affect the shelf life of sausages, prepared with addition of sagu starch (Maranthaarundinacea as a binder or extender material. The raised design allowed evaluation of sausages packed under vacuum and under refrigeration (2 °C ± 2 °C at 0, 2, 6, 10, 15, 22, 27, 31, 45, 58, 100 and 120 days of storage for physicochemical parameters. The sausages were prepared following the procedure developed at the Laboratory of Meat Technology, National University of Colombia - Palmira from a previously prepared tilapia paste. Determined moisture, protein, fat carbohydrate, ash, energy, value, pH, moisture holding capacity and water activity. The findings suggest that the nutritional and functional value of the sausage is not altered during first 30 days of storage, which are consistent with data reported in the literature, for sausages made from other raw meat.

  11. Distribution pathways of hexachlorocyclohexane isomers in a soil-plant-air system. A case study with Cynara scolymus L. and Erica sp. plants grown in a contaminated site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvelo Pereira, R.; Monterroso, C.; Macias, F.; Camps-Arbestain, M.

    2008-01-01

    This study focuses on the main routes of distribution and accumulation of different hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers (mainly α-, β-, γ- and δ-HCH) in a soil-plant-air system. A field assay was carried out with two plant species, Cynara scolymus L. and Erica sp., which were planted either: (i) directly in the HCH-contaminated soil; or (ii) in pots filled with uncontaminated soil, which were placed in the HCH-contaminated soil. Both plant species accumulated HCH in their tissues, with relatively higher accumulation in above-ground biomass than in roots. The β-HCH isomer was the main isomer in all plant tissues. Adsorption of HCH by the roots from contaminated soil (soil → root pathway) and adsorption through the aerial biomass from either the surrounding air, following volatilization of the contaminant (soil → air → shoot pathway), and/or contact with air-suspended particles contaminated with HCH (soil particles → shoot pathway) were the main mechanisms of accumulation. These results may have important implications for the use of plants for reducing the transfer of contaminants via the atmosphere. - Hexachlorocyclohexane isomers are preferentially accumulated in above-ground tissues of plants grown in a heavily contaminated site

  12. Remediation Technology of Contaminated Areas with Organochlorines: A Preliminary Evaluation Seeking Potential Applications on the Site of Street Capua, Santo André - SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Silva Ruiz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed to analyze the use of remediation technologies for areas contaminated with organochlorine based on a literature review and discussions with specialists. The remediation technologies analyzed were bioremediation, phytoremediation, nanotechnology, chemical oxidation, and thermal desorption. The purpose is to identify and compare “key problems” for each of these technologies envisaging the use of one or more of these them f or the remediation of the Capua Street site in Santo André, SP. Four databases were used in the preliminary literature review: Scopus, SciELO, Web of Science, and Science Direct. A survey questionnaire was designed to gather information on publications of scientific papers and patents, specific uses of these technologies by companies, and cases of application. Since the quality of the data and information obtained from this questionnaire application was not satisfactory, a new research approach for complementing them was undertaken. For this purpose, the Web of Science was selected as the most adequate data basis to carry out this second survey. However, it was realized that even for this database - that is reference for evaluating academic institutions, researchers and maturity of technologies – bias coming from the original data source can affect the survey results. Moreover, as the number of keywords used in the research consisted of generic terms for each technology, it can also be assumed that if some authors have used very specific terms, a small amount of work published by them would possibly have been misrepresented in the final result.

  13. Continuous atmospheric monitoring of the injected CO2 behavior over geological storage sites using flux stations: latest technologies and resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burba, George; Madsen, Rodney; Feese, Kristin

    2014-05-01

    Flux stations have been widely used to monitor emission rates of CO2 from various ecosystems for climate research for over 30 years [1]. The stations provide accurate and continuous measurements of CO2 emissions with high temporal resolution. Time scales range from 20 times per second for gas concentrations, to 15-minute, hourly, daily, and multi-year periods. The emissions are measured from the upwind area ranging from thousands of square meters to multiple square kilometers, depending on the measurement height. The stations can nearly instantaneously detect rapid changes in emissions due to weather events, as well as changes caused by variations in human-triggered events (pressure leaks, control releases, etc.). Stations can also detect any slow changes related to seasonal dynamics and human-triggered low-frequency processes (leakage diffusion, etc.). In the past, station configuration, data collection and processing were highly-customized, site-specific and greatly dependent on "school-of-thought" practiced by a particular research group. In the last 3-5 years, due to significant efforts of global and regional CO2 monitoring networks (e.g., FluxNet, Ameriflux, Carbo-Europe, ICOS, etc.) and technological developments, the flux station methodology became fairly standardized and processing protocols became quite uniform [1]. A majority of current stations compute CO2 emission rates using the eddy covariance method, one of the most direct and defensible micrometeorological techniques [1]. Presently, over 600 such flux stations are in operation in over 120 countries, using permanent and mobile towers or moving platforms (e.g., automobiles, helicopters, and airplanes). Atmospheric monitoring of emission rates using such stations is now recognized as an effective method in regulatory and industrial applications, including carbon storage [2-8]. Emerging projects utilize flux stations to continuously monitor large areas before and after the injections, to locate and

  14. Tiechanshan-Tunghsiao anticline earthquake analysis: Implications for northwestern Taiwan potential carbon dioxide storage site seismic hazard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruey-Juin Rau

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the seismicity and earthquake focal mechanisms beneath the Tiechanshan-Tunghsiao (TCS-TH anticline over the last two decades for seismic hazard evaluation of a potential carbon dioxide storage site in northwestern Taiwan. Seismicity in the TCS-TH anticline indicates both spatial and temporal clustering at a depth range of 7 - 12 km. Thirteen 3.0 ≤ ML ≤ 5.2 earthquake focal mechanisms show a combination of thrust, strike-slip, and normal faulting mechanisms under the TCS-TH anticline. A 1992 ML 5.2 earthquake with a focal depth of ~10 km, the largest event ever recorded beneath the TCS-TH anticline during the last two decades, has a normal fault mechanism with the T-axis trending NNE-SSW and nodal planes oriented NNW-SSE, dipping either gently to the NNE or steeply to the SSW. Thrust fault mechanisms that occurred with mostly E-W or NWW-SEE striking P-axes and strike-slip faulting events indicate NWW-SEE striking P-axes and NNE-SSW trending T-axes, which are consistent with the regional plate convergence direction. For the strike-slip faulting events, if we take the N-S or NNW-SSE striking nodal planes as the fault planes, the strike-slip faults are sinistral motions and correspond to the Tapingting fault, which is a strike-slip fault reactivated from the inherited normal fault and intersects the Tiechanshan and Tunghsiao anticlines.

  15. Refraction and reflection seismic investigations for geological energy-storage site characterization: Dalby (Tornquist Zone), southwest Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malehmir, Alireza; Bergman, Bo; Andersson, Benjamin; Sturk, Robert; Johansson, Mattis

    2017-04-01

    Three high-resolution, 5 m shot and receiver spacing using 141-172 receivers, refraction and reflection seismic profiles for the planning of a major underground energy-storage site near the town of Dalby-Lund within the Scania Tornquist suture zone in southwest of Sweden were acquired during August 2015. The site is situated ca. 1 km north of the RFZ (Romeleåsen fault and flexure zone) with a complex geologic and tectonic history. Near vertical dikes are observed from several quarries in the area crosscutting granitic-gneissic-amphibiotic rocks and form clear magnetic lineaments. These dikes likely have also acted as surfaces on which further faulting have occurred. Although a major high-speed and traffic road runs in the middle of the study area, the seismic data show excellent quality particularly for the data along two profiles (profiles 2 and 3) perpendicular to the road, and slightly noisy, due to high wind, for the data along a profile (profile 4) parallel to the road. A bobcat-mounted drop hammer (500 kg) was used to generate the seismic signal. To provide continuity from one side of the road to another, 51 wireless recorders connected to 10 Hz geophones and operating in an autonomous mode were used. GPS times of the source impacts were used to extract the data from the wireless recorders and then merged with the data from the cabled recorders (also 10 Hz geophones). Three shot records per source position were generated and vertically stacked to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. First arrivals are clear in most shot gathers allowing them to be used for traditional refraction seismic data analysis and also for more advanced traveltime tomography. The velocity models obtained through traveltime tomography clearly depict bedrock surface and its undulations and in many places show good correlation with the boreholes recently drilled in the area. At places where bedrock is intersected at greater depths than usual, for example 25 m at one place, depression

  16. Determination of Optimum Tropic Storage and Exposure Sites. Report 1: Survey of Programs in Tropic Materials Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-04-01

    Micromonospora, Mycobacterium, Aspergillus, Penicillium , Pseudomonas, and Bacillus. Their activity was indicated by oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production...species of Cladosporium, Helminthosporium, Syncephalastrum, Penicillium , Margaronomyces, and Bacillus. This report confirmed the view that unvulcanized...found that the material was more resistant to Chaetomium globosum sp . than similar unexposed fabrics. Disregarding the strength loss due to weathering

  17. Final Report, 2011-2014. Forecasting Carbon Storage as Eastern Forests Age. Joining Experimental and Modeling Approaches at the UMBS AmeriFlux Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, Peter [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Bohrer, Gil [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Gough, Christopher [Virginia Commonwealth Univ., Richmond, VA (United States); Nadelhoffer, Knute [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2015-03-12

    At the University of Michigan Biological Station (UMBS) AmeriFlux sites (US-UMB and US-UMd), long-term C cycling measurements and a novel ecosystem-scale experiment are revealing physical, biological, and ecological mechanisms driving long-term trajectories of C cycling, providing new data for improving modeling forecasts of C storage in eastern forests. Our findings provide support for previously untested hypotheses that stand-level structural and biological properties constrain long-term trajectories of C storage, and that remotely sensed canopy structural parameters can substantially improve model forecasts of forest C storage. Through the Forest Accelerated Succession ExperimenT (FASET), we are directly testing the hypothesis that forest C storage will increase due to increasing structural and biological complexity of the emerging tree communities. Support from this project, 2011-2014, enabled us to incorporate novel physical and ecological mechanisms into ecological, meteorological, and hydrological models to improve forecasts of future forest C storage in response to disturbance, succession, and current and long-term climate variation

  18. Annotated bibliography: overview of energy and mineral resources for the Nevada nuclear-waste-storage investigations, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, E.J.; Larson, L.T.

    1982-09-01

    This Annotated Bibliography was prepared for the US Department of Energy as part of the Environmental Area Characterization for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). References were selected to specifically address energy resources including hydrocarbons, geothermal and radioactive fuel materials, mineral resources including base and precious metals and associated minerals, and industrial minerals and rock materials which occur in the vicinity of the NNWSI area

  19. METHODOLOGY AND CALCULATIONS FOR THE ASSIGNMENT OF WASTE GROUPS FOR THE LARGE UNDERGROUND WASTE STORAGE TANKS AT THE HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WEBER RA

    2009-01-16

    The Hanford Site contains 177 large underground radioactive waste storage tanks (28 double-shell tanks and 149 single-shell tanks). These tanks are categorized into one of three waste groups (A, B, and C) based on their waste and tank characteristics. These waste group assignments reflect a tank's propensity to retain a significant volume of flammable gases and the potential of the waste to release retained gas by a buoyant displacement gas release event. Assignments of waste groups to the 177 double-shell tanks and single-shell tanks, as reported in this document, are based on a Monte Carlo analysis of three criteria. The first criterion is the headspace flammable gas concentration following release of retained gas. This criterion determines whether the tank contains sufficient retained gas such that the well-mixed headspace flammable gas concentration would reach 100% of the lower flammability limit if the entire tank's retained gas were released. If the volume of retained gas is not sufficient to reach 100% of the lower flammability limit, then flammable conditions cannot be reached and the tank is classified as a waste group C tank independent of the method the gas is released. The second criterion is the energy ratio and considers whether there is sufficient supernatant on top of the saturated solids such that gas-bearing solids have the potential energy required to break up the material and release gas. Tanks that are not waste group C tanks and that have an energy ratio < 3.0 do not have sufficient potential energy to break up material and release gas and are assigned to waste group B. These tanks are considered to represent a potential induced flammable gas release hazard, but no spontaneous buoyant displacement flammable gas release hazard. Tanks that are not waste group C tanks and have an energy ratio {ge} 3.0, but that pass the third criterion (buoyancy ratio < 1.0, see below) are also assigned to waste group B. Even though the designation as

  20. METHODOLOGY AND CALCULATIONS FOR THE ASSIGNMENT OF WASTE GROUPS FOR THE LARGE UNDERGROUND WASTE STORAGE TANKS AT THE HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FOWLER KD

    2007-12-27

    This document categorizes each of the large waste storage tanks into one of several categories based on each tank's waste characteristics. These waste group assignments reflect a tank's propensity to retain a significant volume of flammable gases and the potential of the waste to release retained gas by a buoyant displacement event. Revision 7 is the annual update of the calculations of the flammable gas Waste Groups for DSTs and SSTs. The Hanford Site contains 177 large underground radioactive waste storage tanks (28 double-shell tanks and 149 single-shell tanks). These tanks are categorized into one of three waste groups (A, B, and C) based on their waste and tank characteristics. These waste group assignments reflect a tank's propensity to retain a significant volume of flammable gases and the potential of the waste to release retained gas by a buoyant displacement gas release event. Assignments of waste groups to the 177 double-shell tanks and single-shell tanks, as reported in this document, are based on a Monte Carlo analysis of three criteria. The first criterion is the headspace flammable gas concentration following release of retained gas. This criterion determines whether the tank contains sufficient retained gas such that the well-mixed headspace flammable gas concentration would reach 100% of the lower flammability limit if the entire tank's retained gas were released. If the volume of retained gas is not sufficient to reach 100% of the lower flammability limit, then flammable conditions cannot be reached and the tank is classified as a waste group C tank independent of the method the gas is released. The second criterion is the energy ratio and considers whether there is sufficient supernatant on top of the saturated solids such that gas-bearing solids have the potential energy required to break up the material and release gas. Tanks that are not waste group C tanks and that have an energy ratio < 3.0 do not have sufficient

  1. Environmental assessment: Solid waste retrieval complex, enhanced radioactive and mixed waste storage facility, infrastructure upgrades, and central waste support complex, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) needs to take action to: retrieve transuranic (TRU) waste because interim storage waste containers have exceeded their 20-year design life and could fail causing a radioactive release to the environment provide storage capacity for retrieved and newly generated TRU, Greater-than-Category 3 (GTC3), and mixed waste before treatment and/or shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP); and upgrade the infrastructure network in the 200 West Area to enhance operational efficiencies and reduce the cost of operating the Solid Waste Operations Complex. This proposed action would initiate the retrieval activities (Retrieval) from Trench 4C-T04 in the 200 West Area including the construction of support facilities necessary to carry out the retrieval operations. In addition, the proposed action includes the construction and operation of a facility (Enhanced Radioactive Mixed Waste Storage Facility) in the 200 West Area to store newly generated and the retrieved waste while it awaits shipment to a final disposal site. Also, Infrastructure Upgrades and a Central Waste Support Complex are necessary to support the Hanford Site`s centralized waste management area in the 200 West Area. The proposed action also includes mitigation for the loss of priority shrub-steppe habitat resulting from construction. The estimated total cost of the proposed action is $66 million.

  2. In vitro maturation of Drosophila melanogaster Spätzle protein with refolded Easter reveals a novel cleavage site within the prodomain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursel, Christian; Fandrich, Uwe; Hoffmann, Anita; Sieg, Torsten; Ihling, Christian; Stubbs, Milton T

    2013-08-01

    Dorsoventral patterning during Drosophila melanogaster embryogenesis is mediated by a well-defined gradient of the mature NGF-like ligand Spätzle. Easter, the ultimate protease of a ventrally-restricted serine protease cascade, plays a key role in the regulation of the morphogenic gradient, catalyzing the activation cleavage of proSpätzle. As a result of alternative splicing, proSpätzle exists in multiple isoforms, almost all of which differ only in their prodomain. Although this domain is unstructured in isolation, it has a stabilizing influence on the mature cystine knot domain and is involved in the binding to the Toll receptor. Here, we report the expression and refolding of Easter, and show that the renatured enzyme performs the activation cleavage of two Spätzle isoforms. We determine the affinity of the prodomain for the cystine knot domain, and show that Easter performs a previously unknown secondary cleavage in each prodomain.

  3. Techno-economic assessment of four CO2 storage sites = Évaluation technico-économique de quatre sites de stockage de CO2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gruson, J.F.; Serbutoviez, S.; Delprat-Jannaud, F.; Akhurst, M.; Nielsen, C.; Dalhoff, F.; Bergmo, P.; Bos, C.; Volpi, V.; Iacobellis, S.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) should be a key technology in order to achieve a decline in the CO2 emissions intensity of the power sector and other intensive industry, but this potential deployment could be restricted by cost issues as the International Energy Agency (IEA) in their last

  4. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 166: Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Strand

    2006-06-01

    Corrective Action Unit 166 is located in Areas 2, 3, 5, and 18 of the Nevada Test Site, which is 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 166 is comprised of the seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs) listed below: (1) 02-42-01, Cond. Release Storage Yd - North; (2) 02-42-02, Cond. Release Storage Yd - South; (3) 02-99-10, D-38 Storage Area; (4) 03-42-01, Conditional Release Storage Yard; (5) 05-19-02, Contaminated Soil and Drum; (6) 18-01-01, Aboveground Storage Tank; and (7) 18-99-03, Wax Piles/Oil Stain. These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation (CAI) before evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on February 28, 2006, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture; and Bechtel Nevada. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 166. Appendix A provides a detailed discussion of the DQO methodology and the DQOs specific to each CAS. The scope of the CAI for CAU 166 includes the following activities: (1) Move surface debris and/or materials, as needed, to facilitate sampling. (2) Conduct radiological surveys. (3) Perform field screening. (4) Collect and submit environmental samples for laboratory analysis to determine if

  5. Formerly utilized MED/AEC sites Remedial Action Program. Radiological survey of the St. Louis Airport Storage Site, St. Louis, Missouri. Final report. [U, Ra-bearing wastes stored in 1940-60's

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-09-01

    Results of two radiological surveys of the St. Louis-Lambert Airport property, formerly known as the Airport Storage Site, St. Louis, Missouri, are presented. Uranium- and radium-bearing waste materials were stored from the 1940's to the late 1960's in this area. The surveys included direct measurements of beta-gamma radiation; determination of uranium, actinium, and radium concentrations in soil samples and from bore holes; determination of radionuclide concentrations in groundwater and surface water; measurement of radon flux from the ground surface; and measurements of /sup 222/Rn in air near the site. Results indicate that some offsite drainage pathways are becoming contaminated, probably by runoff from the site; no migration of /sup 222/Rn from the site was observed.

  6. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 120: Areas 5 and 6 Aboveground Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison Urban

    1999-06-01

    This Closure Report provides documentation for the closure of Corrective Action Unit 120. CAU 120 consists of two Corrective Action Sites located in Areas 5 and 6 of the Nevada Test Site. CAS 05-01-01 is located in Area 5 and consists of three 45,800-liter aboveground storage tanks, piping, and debris associated with Well RNM-1. CAS 06-01-01 in Area 6 consists of two aboveground storage tanks and two tanker trailers All the CAU 120 items have been used to convey or contain radiologically contaminated fluid from post-nuclear event activities at the NTS> Closure of this CAU was completed by collecting samples to identify the appropriate method of disposal for tanks, piping, debris, and tankers in each CAS. Placing low-level radioactive waste into the appropriate containers and disposing of waste in the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, the Area 9 10C Landfill, and the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site.

  7. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 120: Areas 5 and 6 Aboveground Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison Urban

    1999-01-01

    This Closure Report provides documentation for the closure of Corrective Action Unit 120. CAU 120 consists of two Corrective Action Sites located in Areas 5 and 6 of the Nevada Test Site. CAS 05-01-01 is located in Area 5 and consists of three 45,800-liter aboveground storage tanks, piping, and debris associated with Well RNM-1. CAS 06-01-01 in Area 6 consists of two aboveground storage tanks and two tanker trailers All the CAU 120 items have been used to convey or contain radiologically contaminated fluid from post-nuclear event activities at the NTS> Closure of this CAU was completed by collecting samples to identify the appropriate method of disposal for tanks, piping, debris, and tankers in each CAS. Placing low-level radioactive waste into the appropriate containers and disposing of waste in the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, the Area 9 10C Landfill, and the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site

  8. Environmental assessment: Solid waste retrieval complex, enhanced radioactive and mixed waste storage facility, infrastructure upgrades, and central waste support complex, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) needs to take action to: retrieve transuranic (TRU) waste because interim storage waste containers have exceeded their 20-year design life and could fail causing a radioactive release to the environment provide storage capacity for retrieved and newly generated TRU, Greater-than-Category 3 (GTC3), and mixed waste before treatment and/or shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP); and upgrade the infrastructure network in the 200 West Area to enhance operational efficiencies and reduce the cost of operating the Solid Waste Operations Complex. This proposed action would initiate the retrieval activities (Retrieval) from Trench 4C-T04 in the 200 West Area including the construction of support facilities necessary to carry out the retrieval operations. In addition, the proposed action includes the construction and operation of a facility (Enhanced Radioactive Mixed Waste Storage Facility) in the 200 West Area to store newly generated and the retrieved waste while it awaits shipment to a final disposal site. Also, Infrastructure Upgrades and a Central Waste Support Complex are necessary to support the Hanford Site's centralized waste management area in the 200 West Area. The proposed action also includes mitigation for the loss of priority shrub-steppe habitat resulting from construction. The estimated total cost of the proposed action is $66 million

  9. Forest canopy uptake of atmospheric nitrogen deposition at eastern U.S. conifer sites: Carbon storage implications?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman Sievering; Ivan Fernandez; John Lee; John Hom; Lindsey Rustad

    2000-01-01

    Dry deposition determinations, along with wet deposition and throughfall (TF) measurements, at a spruce fir forest in central Maine were used to estimate the effect of atmospherically deposited nitrogen (N) uptake on forest carbon storage. Using nitric acid and particulate N as well as TF ammonium and nitrate data, the growing season (May-October) net canopy uptake of...

  10. Plutonium working group report on environmental, safety and health vulnerabilities associated with the department's plutonium storage. Volume II, Appendix B, Part 12: Pantex site assessment team report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The U.S. DOE Pantex Plant is located in the panhandle of Texas approximately 17 miles northeast of Amarillo. The Plant site was originally constructed in 1942 for conventional shell- and bomb-loading. In 1950, this Plant began to perform nuclear explosives operations. Today, the Pantex Plant is operated by Mason ampersand Hanger - Silas Mason Co., Inc. Pantex Plant functions include (1) final assembly of new nuclear explosives; (2) maintenance, modification, and quality assurance testing of nuclear explosives already in the military stockpile; (3) disassembly of nuclear explosives that are no longer required in the military stockpile; and (4) interim storage of nuclear explosives components. This report presents results of an environmental, safety, and health assessment of the Pantex Plant for the storage of plutonium

  11. Safety assessment document for spent fuel handling, packaging, and storage demonstrations at the E-MAD facility on the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-04-01

    The objectives for spent fuel handling and packaging demonstration are to develop the capability to satisfactorily encapsulate typical commercial nuclear reactor spent fuel assemblies and to establish the suitability of interim dry surface and near surface storage concepts. To accomplish these objectives, spent fuel assemblies from a pressurized water reactor have been received, encapsulated in steel canisters, and emplaced in on-site storage facilities and subjected to other tests. As an essential element of these demonstrations, a thorough safety assessment of the demonstration activities conducted at the E-MAD facility has been completed. This document describes the site location and characteristics, the existing E-MAD facility, and the facility modifications and equipment additions made specifically for the demonstrations. The document also summarizes the Quality Assurance Program utilized, and specifies the principal design criteria applicable to the facility modifications, equipment additions, and process operations. Evaluations have been made of the radiological impacts of normal operations, abnormal operations, and postulated accidents. Analyses have been performed to determine the affects on nuclear criticality safety of postulated accidents and credible natural phenomena. The consequences of postulated accidents resulting in fission product gas release have also been estimated. This document identifies the engineered safety features, procedures, and site characteristics that (1) prevent the occurrence of potential accidents or (2) assure that the consequences of postulated accidents are either insignificant or adequately mitigated

  12. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 127: Areas 25 and 26 Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2008-02-01

    CAU 127, Areas 25 and 26 Storage Tanks, consists of twelve CASs located in Areas 25 and 26 of the NTS. The closure alternatives included no further action, clean closure, and closure in place with administrative controls. The purpose of this Closure Report is to provide a summary of the completed closure activities, documentation of waste disposal, and analytical data to confirm that the remediation goals were met.

  13. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0 with ROTC 1, 2, and Errata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wickline, Alfred

    2004-04-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 204 Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE); and the U.S. Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The NTS is approximately 65 miles (mi) north of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). The Corrective Action Sites (CASs) within CAU 204 are located in Areas 1, 2, 3, and 5 of the NTS, in Nye County, Nevada (Figure 1-2). Corrective Action Unit 204 is comprised of the six CASs identified in Table 1-1. As shown in Table 1-1, the FFACO describes four of these CASs as bunkers one as chemical exchange storage and one as a blockhouse. Subsequent investigations have identified four of these structures as instrumentation bunkers (CASs 01-34-01, 02-34-01, 03-34-01, 05-33-01), one as an explosives storage bunker (CAS 05-99-02), and one as both (CAS 05-18-02). The six bunkers included in CAU 204 were primarily used to monitor atmospheric testing or store munitions. The ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada'' (NNSA/NV, 2002a) provides information relating to the history, planning, and scope of the investigation; therefore, it will not be repeated in this CADD. This CADD identifies potential corrective action alternatives and provides a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for each CAS within CAU 204. The evaluation of corrective action alternatives is based on process knowledge and the results of investigative activities conducted in accordance with the CAIP (NNSA/NV, 2002a) that was approved prior to the start of the Corrective Action Investigation (CAI). Record of Technical Change (ROTC) No. 1 to the CAIP (approval pending) documents changes to the preliminary action levels

  14. Streamlined approach for environmental restoration closure report for Corrective Action Unit 120: Areas 5 and 6 aboveground storage tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    This Closure Report provides documentation for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 120 of the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). CAU 120 consists of two Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 5 and 6 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), which are approximately 130 kilometers (80 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAS 05-01-01 is located in Area 5 and consists of three 45,800-liter (12,100-gallon) aboveground storage tanks (ASTs), piping, and debris associated with Well RNM-1. CAS 06-01-01 consists of two ASTs and two tanker trailers (all portable) that were originally located at the Area 6 Cp-50 Hot Park and which had been moved to the Area 6 Waste Handling Facility. All of the items in CAU 120 have been used to contain or convey radiologically contaminated fluid that was generated during post-nuclear event activities at the NTS.

  15. Streamlined approach for environmental restoration closure report for Corrective Action Unit 120: Areas 5 and 6 aboveground storage tanks Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    This Closure Report provides documentation for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 120 of the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). CAU 120 consists of two Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 5 and 6 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), which are approximately 130 kilometers (80 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAS 05-01-01 is located in Area 5 and consists of three 45,800-liter (12,100-gallon) aboveground storage tanks (ASTs), piping, and debris associated with Well RNM-1. CAS 06-01-01 consists of two ASTs and two tanker trailers (all portable) that were originally located at the Area 6 Cp-50 Hot Park and which had been moved to the Area 6 Waste Handling Facility. All of the items in CAU 120 have been used to contain or convey radiologically contaminated fluid that was generated during post-nuclear event activities at the NTS

  16. Underground Storage Tanks in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Underground storage tank (UST) sites which store petroleum in Iowa. Includes sites which have been reported to DNR, and have active or removed underground storage...

  17. Optimal Siting and Sizing of Energy Storage System for Power Systems with Large-scale Wind Power Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Haoran; Wu, Qiuwei; Huang, Shaojun

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes algorithms for optimal sitingand sizing of Energy Storage System (ESS) for the operationplanning of power systems with large scale wind power integration.The ESS in this study aims to mitigate the wind powerfluctuations during the interval between two rolling Economic......Dispatches (EDs) in order to maintain generation-load balance.The charging and discharging of ESS is optimized consideringoperation cost of conventional generators, capital cost of ESSand transmission losses. The statistics from simulated systemoperations are then coupled to the planning process to determinethe...

  18. Plutonium working group report on environmental, safety and health vulnerabilities associated with the department's plutonium storage. Volume II, Appendix B, Part 9: Oak Ridge site site team report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This report provides the input to and results of the Department of Energy (DOE) - Oak Ridge Operations (ORO) DOE Plutonium Environment, Safety and Health (ES ampersand H) Vulnerability Assessment (VA) self-assessment performed by the Site Assessment Team (SAT) for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL or X-10) and the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant (Y-12) sites that are managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (MMES). As initiated (March 15, 1994) by the Secretary of Energy, the objective of the VA is to identify and rank-order DOE-ES ampersand H vulnerabilities associated for the purpose of decision making on the interim safe management and ultimate disposition of fissile materials. This assessment is directed at plutonium and other co-located transuranics in various forms

  19. Pollution Prevention, Waste Minimization and Material Recycling Successes Realized during Savannah River Site's K Area Materials Storage (KAMS) Project, W226

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, M.S.

    2001-01-01

    As DOE continues to forge ahead and re-evaluate post cold war missions, facilities that were constructed and operated for DOE/DOD over the past 50+ years are coming to the end of their useful life span. These various facilities throughout the country had served a very useful purpose in our nations history; however, their time of Cold War materials production has come to an end. With this looming finalization comes a decision as to how to remedy their existence: D and R the facilities and return to ''Greenfield''; or, retrofit the existing facilities to accommodate the newer missions of the DOE Complex. The 105-K Reactor Building located at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina was retrofit on an accelerated project schedule for a new mission called K-Area Materials Storage (KAMS). Modifications to the former defense reactor's building and equipment will allow storage of Plutonium from the Rocky Flats Site in Colorado and other materials deemed necessary by the Department of Energy. Proper project planning and activity sequencing allowed the DOE and the Westinghouse Savannah River Company to realize savings from: the recycling and/or reuse of modified facility components; reduction and reclassification of waste; reduction in radiological area footprint (rollbacks)

  20. Streamlined approach for environmental restoration work plan for Corrective Action Unit 126: Closure of aboveground storage tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-07-01

    This plan addresses the closure of several aboveground storage tanks in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site. The unit is currently identified as Corrective Action Unit 126 in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order and is listed as having six Corrective Action Sites. This plan addresses the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration closure for five of the six sites. Four of the CASs are located at the Engine Test Stand complex and one is located in the Central Support Area. The sites consist of aboveground tanks, two of which were used to store diesel fuel and one stored Nalcool (an antifreeze mixture). The remaining tanks were used as part of a water demineralization process and stored either sulfuric acid or sodium hydroxide, and one was used as a charcoal adsorption furnace. Closure will be completed by removal of the associated piping, tank supports and tanks using a front end loader, backhoe, and/or crane. When possible, the tanks will be salvaged as scrap metal. The piping that is not removed will be sealed using a cement grout

  1. Nevada test site underground storage tank number 12-13-1: Nevada division of emergency management case number H931130E corrective action unit 450. Closure report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    The project site was identified as an abandoned Underground Storage Tank (UST) to be closed under the Department of Energy/Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) Environmental Restoration Division (ERD) Program during Fiscal Year 1993. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires that before permanent closure is completed an assessment of the site must take place. The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) requires assessment and corrective actions for a petroleum substance in the soil which exceeds 100 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg). Subsequent to the tank removal, a hydrocarbon release was identified at the site. The release was reported to the NDEP by DOE/NV on November 30, 1993. Nevada Division of Environmental Management (NDEM) Case Number H931130E was assigned. This final closure report documents the assessment and corrective actions taken for the hydrocarbon release identified at the site. The Notification of Closure, EPA Form 7530-1 dated March 22, 1994, is provided in Appendix A. A 45-day report documenting the notification for a hydrocarbon release was submitted to NDEP on April 6, 1994.

  2. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 140: Waste Dumps, Burn Pits, and Storage Area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, July 2002, Rev. No. 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 140 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 140 consists of nine Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 05-08-01, Detonation Pits; 05-08-02, Debris Pits; 05-17-01, Hazardous Waste Accumulation Site (Buried); 05-19-01, Waste Disposal Site; 05-23-01, Gravel Gertie; 05-35-01, Burn Pit; 05-99-04, Burn Pit; 22-99-04, Radioactive Waste Dump; 23-17-01, Hazardous Waste Storage Area. All nine of these CASs are located within Areas 5, 22, and 23 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nevada, approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas. This CAU is being investigated because disposed waste may be present without appropriate controls (i.e., use restrictions, adequate cover) and hazardous and/or radioactive constituents may be present or migrating at concentrations and locations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and the environment. The NTS has been used for various research and development projects including nuclear weapons testing. The CASs in CAU 140 were used for testing, material storage, waste storage, and waste disposal. A two-phase approach has been selected to collect information and generate data to satisfy needed resolution criteria and resolve the decision statements. Phase I will determine if contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) are present in concentrations exceeding preliminary action levels. This data will be evaluated at all CASs. Phase II will determine the extent of the contaminant(s) of concern (COCs). This data will only be evaluated for CASs with a COC identified during Phase I. Based on process knowledge, the COPCs for CAU 140 include volatile organics, semivolatile organics, petroleum hydrocarbons, explosive residues

  3. RCRA Part A Permit Application for Waste Management Activities at the Nevada Test Site, Part B Permit Application Hazardous Waste Storage Unit, Nevada Test Site, and Part B Permit Application - Explosives Ordnance Disposal Unit (EODU)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The Area 5 Hazardous Waste Storage Unit (HWSU) was established to support testing, research, and remediation activities at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), a large-quantity generator of hazardous waste. The HWSU, located adjacent to the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS), is a prefabricated, rigid steel-framed, roofed shelter used to store hazardous nonradioactive waste generated on the NTS. No offsite generated wastes are managed at the HWSU. Waste managed at the HWSU includes the following categories: Flammables/Combustibles; Acid Corrosives; Alkali Corrosives; Oxidizers/Reactives; Toxics/Poisons; and Other Regulated Materials (ORMs). A list of the regulated waste codes accepted for storage at the HWSU is provided in Section B.2. Hazardous wastes stored at the HWSU are stored in U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) compliant containers, compatible with the stored waste. Waste transfer (between containers) is not allowed at the HWSU and containers remain closed at all times. Containers are stored on secondary containment pallets and the unit is inspected monthly. Table 1 provides the metric conversion factors used in this application. Table 2 provides a list of existing permits. Table 3 lists operational Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) units at the NTS and their respective regulatory status.

  4. RCRA Part A Permit Application for Waste Management Activities at the Nevada Test Site, Part B Permit Application Hazardous Waste Storage Unit, Nevada Test Site, and Part B Permit Application - Explosives Ordnance Disposal Unit (EODU)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Programs

    2010-06-17

    The Area 5 Hazardous Waste Storage Unit (HWSU) was established to support testing, research, and remediation activities at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), a large-quantity generator of hazardous waste. The HWSU, located adjacent to the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS), is a prefabricated, rigid steel-framed, roofed shelter used to store hazardous nonradioactive waste generated on the NTS. No offsite generated wastes are managed at the HWSU. Waste managed at the HWSU includes the following categories: Flammables/Combustibles; Acid Corrosives; Alkali Corrosives; Oxidizers/Reactives; Toxics/Poisons; and Other Regulated Materials (ORMs). A list of the regulated waste codes accepted for storage at the HWSU is provided in Section B.2. Hazardous wastes stored at the HWSU are stored in U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) compliant containers, compatible with the stored waste. Waste transfer (between containers) is not allowed at the HWSU and containers remain closed at all times. Containers are stored on secondary containment pallets and the unit is inspected monthly. Table 1 provides the metric conversion factors used in this application. Table 2 provides a list of existing permits. Table 3 lists operational Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) units at the NTS and their respective regulatory status.

  5. PARÁMETROS FISICOQUÍMICOS DURANTE EL ALMACENAMIENTO DE SALCHICHAS ELABORADAS A PARTIR DE TILAPIA ROJA (Oreochromis sp.) PARÂMETROS FISICO-QUÍMICOS DURANTE O ARMAZENAMENTO DE SALSICHAS FEITAS DE TILAPIA VERMELHA (Oreochromis sp.) PHYSICOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS DURING STORAGE OF SAUSAGES MADE FROM RED TILAPIA (Oreochromis sp.)

    OpenAIRE

    JOSÉ IGOR HLEAP Z.; VIVIANA ANDREA VELASCO A.

    2012-01-01

    El crecimiento de la acuicultura de la tilapia roja (Oreochromis sp.) en Colombia ha permitido desarrollar productos alimenticios de mayor valor agregado. Uno de estos productos, son las salchichas tipo Frankfurt. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue, analizar los parámetros fisicoquímicos que afectan la vida de anaquel de las salchichas, elaboradas con adición de almidón de sagú (Maranthaarundinacea) como material ligante o extendedor. El diseño planteado permitió evaluar las salchichas empa...

  6. Energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter discusses the role that energy storage may have on the energy future of the US. The topics discussed in the chapter include historical aspects of energy storage, thermal energy storage including sensible heat storage, latent heat storage, thermochemical heat storage, and seasonal heat storage, electricity storage including batteries, pumped hydroelectric storage, compressed air energy storage, and superconducting magnetic energy storage, and production and combustion of hydrogen as an energy storage option

  7. Radiation situation dynamics at the Andreeva Bay site for temporary storage of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste over the period 2002-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizhov, K; Sneve, M K; Shandala, N; Siegien-Iwaniuk, K; Smith, G M; Krasnoschekov, A; Kosnikov, A; Grigoriev, A; Simakov, A; Kemsky, I; Kryuchkov, V

    2018-02-01

    The Coastal Technical Base (CTB) №569 at Andreeva Bay was established in the early 1960s and intended for the refueling of nuclear submarine reactors and temporary storage of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and radioactive waste (RW). In 2001, the base was transferred to the Russian Ministry for Atomic Energy and the site remediation began. The paper describes in detail the radiation situation change at the technical site in Andreeva Bay from 2002-2016, the period of preparation for the most critical phase of remedial work: removal of spent fuel assemblies. The analysis of aggregated indicators and data mining were used. The article suggests the best number and location of checkpoints needed to ensure sufficient accuracy of the radiation situation description. The fractal properties of the radiation field are studied using the Hurst index. The relationship between checkpoints was assessed using the method of searching for checkpoint communities. The decrease in the integral of the ambient dose equivalent rate (ADER) at the technical site was evaluated by the method of time series decomposition. Three components of time series were identified: trend, seasonal and residual. The trend of the ADER integral over the technical site is a monotonic decreasing function, where the initial and final values differ tenfold. Taking into account that 137 Cs dominates the radiation situation on-site, it is clear that the ADER due to the radionuclide decay will have decreased by 1.4 times. It is estimated that only a small proportion of 137 Cs has migrated off-site. Therefore, approximately a sevenfold decrease in dose rate is mainly due to remediation activities of personnel. During the year, the seasonal component varies the ADER integral by a factor of two, due to snowfall. The residual component reflects the uncertainty of the ADER integral calculation and phases of active SNF and RW management. The methods developed are used to support the optimization of remediation work as well

  8. Quantifying the benefit of wellbore leakage potential estimates for prioritizing long-term MVA well sampling at a CO2 storage site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzolina, Nicholas A; Small, Mitchell J; Nakles, David V; Glazewski, Kyle A; Peck, Wesley D; Gorecki, Charles D; Bromhal, Grant S; Dilmore, Robert M

    2015-01-20

    This work uses probabilistic methods to simulate a hypothetical geologic CO2 storage site in a depleted oil and gas field, where the large number of legacy wells would make it cost-prohibitive to sample all wells for all measurements as part of the postinjection site care. Deep well leakage potential scores were assigned to the wells using a random subsample of 100 wells from a detailed study of 826 legacy wells that penetrate the basal Cambrian formation on the U.S. side of the U.S./Canadian border. Analytical solutions and Monte Carlo simulations were used to quantify the statistical power of selecting a leaking well. Power curves were developed as a function of (1) the number of leaking wells within the Area of Review; (2) the sampling design (random or judgmental, choosing first the wells with the highest deep leakage potential scores); (3) the number of wells included in the monitoring sampling plan; and (4) the relationship between a well’s leakage potential score and its relative probability of leakage. Cases where the deep well leakage potential scores are fully or partially informative of the relative leakage probability are compared to a noninformative base case in which leakage is equiprobable across all wells in the Area of Review. The results show that accurate prior knowledge about the probability of well leakage adds measurable value to the ability to detect a leaking well during the monitoring program, and that the loss in detection ability due to imperfect knowledge of the leakage probability can be quantified. This work underscores the importance of a data-driven, risk-based monitoring program that incorporates uncertainty quantification into long-term monitoring sampling plans at geologic CO2 storage sites.

  9. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (December 2002, Revision No.: 0), Including Record of Technical Change No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NNSA/NSO

    2002-12-12

    The Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 204 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 204 is located on the Nevada Test Site approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. This CAU is comprised of six Corrective Action Sites (CASs) which include: 01-34-01, Underground Instrument House Bunker; 02-34-01, Instrument Bunker; 03-34-01, Underground Bunker; 05-18-02, Chemical Explosives Storage; 05-33-01, Kay Blockhouse; 05-99-02, Explosive Storage Bunker. Based on site history, process knowledge, and previous field efforts, contaminants of potential concern for Corrective Action Unit 204 collectively include radionuclides, beryllium, high explosives, lead, polychlorinated biphenyls, total petroleum hydrocarbons, silver, warfarin, and zinc phosphide. The primary question for the investigation is: ''Are existing data sufficient to evaluate appropriate corrective actions?'' To address this question, resolution of two decision statements is required. Decision I is to ''Define the nature of contamination'' by identifying any contamination above preliminary action levels (PALs); Decision II is to ''Determine the extent of contamination identified above PALs. If PALs are not exceeded, the investigation is completed. If PALs are exceeded, then Decision II must be resolved. In addition, data will be obtained to support waste management decisions. Field activities will include radiological land area surveys, geophysical surveys to identify any subsurface metallic and nonmetallic debris, field screening for applicable contaminants of potential concern, collection and analysis of surface and subsurface soil samples from biased locations

  10. Detection of CO2 leaks from carbon capture and storage sites with combined atmospheric CO2 and O-2 measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Charlotte; Meijer, Harro A. J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a transportable instrument that simultaneously measures the CO2 and (relative) O-2 concentration of the atmosphere with the purpose to aid in the detection of CO2 leaks from CCS sites. CO2 and O-2 are coupled in most processes on earth (e.g., photosynthesis, respiration and

  11. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 140: Waste Dumps, Burn Pits, and Storage Area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 1 with ROTC 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehlecke, Robert

    2004-01-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 140: Waste Dumps, Burn Pits, and Storage Area, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit 140 is located within Areas 5, 22, and 23 of the NTS and is comprised of the following corrective action sites (CASs): 05-08-01, Detonation Pits; 05-08-02, Debris Pits; 05-17-01, Hazardous Waste Accumulation Site (Buried); 05-19-01, Waste Disposal Site; 05-23-01, Gravel Gertie; 05-35-01, Burn Pit; 05-99-04, Burn Pit; 22-99-04, Radioactive Waste Dump; and 23-17-01, Hazardous Waste Storage Area. The purpose of this CADD is to identify and provide a rationale for the recommendation of a corrective action alternative for each CAS within CAU 140. Corrective action investigation activities were performed from November 13 through December 11, 2002. Additional sampling to delineate the extent of contaminants of concern (COCs) was conducted on February 4 and March 18 and 19, 2003. Corrective action investigation activities were performed as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for CAU 140. Analytes detected during the corrective action investigation were evaluated against appropriate preliminary action levels to identify COCs for each CAS. Assessment of the data generated from investigation activities revealed the following: (1) CAS 05-08-01 contains the COCs lead and the radioisotope thorium-234 in the surface soil at sample location A05. (2) CAS 05-23-01 did not have any COCs identified during the field investigation; however, based on historical knowledge of activities at this site, the interior of the Gravel Gertie is considered contaminated with uranium. (3) CAS 23-17-01 contains the COC total petroleum hydrocarbons (diesel-range organics) at location J20 at a depth of 9 to 10 feet below ground surface. (4) No COCs were identified at CASs 05-08-02, 05-17-01, 05-19-01, 05

  12. Hydrology and water resources overview for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada: annotated bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, R.H.; Elzeftawy, A.; Elliot, B.

    1984-06-01

    The literature available regarding hydrology and utilization of water resources in the southwestern Nevada Test Site area is reviewed. In the context of this annotated bibliography, hydrology is defined to include hydrometeorology, surface water resources, and groundwater resources. Water utilization includes water supply, demand and use; future supply, demand and use; and wastewater treatment and disposal. The bibliography is arranged in alphabetical order and indexed with both technical key words and geographical key words

  13. Site characterization plan: Conceptual design report, Volume 2: Chapters 4-9: Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDougall, H.R.; Scully, L.W.; Tillerson, J.R.

    1987-09-01

    This document presents a description of a prospective geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste to support the development of the Site Characterization Plan for the Yucca Mountain site. The target horizon for waste emplacement is a sloping bed of densely welded tuff more than 650 ft below the surface and typically more than 600 ft above the water table. The conceptual design described in this report is unique among repository designs in that it uses ramps in addition to shafts to gain access to the underground facility, the emplacement horizon is located above the water table, and it is possible that 300- to 400-ft-long horizontal waste emplacement boreholes will be used. This report summarizes the design bases (site and properties of the waste package), design and performance criteria, and the design analyses performed. The current status of meeting the preclosure performance objectives for licensing and of resolving the repository design and preclosure issues is presented. The repository design presented in this report will be expanded and refined during the advanced conceptual design, the license application design, and the final procurement and construction design phases. 147 refs., 145 figs., 83 tabs

  14. Herbicide Safeners Decrease Sensitivity to Herbicides Inhibiting Acetolactate-Synthase and Likely Activate Non-Target-Site-Based Resistance Pathways in the Major Grass Weed Lolium sp. (Rye-Grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Duhoux

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Herbicides are currently pivotal to control weeds and sustain food security. Herbicides must efficiently kill weeds while being as harmless as possible for crops, even crops taxonomically close to weeds. To increase their selectivity toward crops, some herbicides are sprayed in association with safeners that are bioactive compounds exacerbating herbicide-degrading pathways reputedly specifically in crops. However, exacerbated herbicide metabolism is also a key mechanism underlying evolved non-target-site-based resistance to herbicides (NTSR in weeds. This raised the issue of a possible role of safeners on NTSR evolution in weeds. We investigated a possible effect of the respective field rates of the two broadly used safeners cloquintocet-mexyl and mefenpyr-diethyl on the sensitivity of the troublesome global weed Lolium sp. (rye-grass to the major herbicides inhibiting acetolactate-synthase (ALS pyroxsulam and iodosulfuron + mesosulfuron, respectively. Three Lolium sp. populations were studied in three series of experiments. The first experiment series compared the frequencies of plants surviving application of each herbicide alone or in association with its safener. Safener co-application caused a net increase ranging from 5.0 to 46.5% in the frequency of plants surviving the field rate of their associated herbicide. In a second series of experiments, safener effect was assessed on individual plant sensitivity using vegetative propagation. A reduction in sensitivity to pyroxsulam and to iodosulfuron + mesosulfuron was observed for 44.4 and 11.1% of the plants in co-treatment with cloquintocet-mexyl and mefenpyr-diethyl, respectively. A third series of experiments investigated safener effect on the expression level of 19 Lolium sp. NTSR marker genes. Safeners showed an enhancing effect on the expression level of 10 genes. Overall, we demonstrated that cloquintocet-mexyl and mefenpyr-diethyl both reduced the sensitivity of Lolium sp. to their

  15. Herbicide Safeners Decrease Sensitivity to Herbicides Inhibiting Acetolactate-Synthase and Likely Activate Non-Target-Site-Based Resistance Pathways in the Major Grass Weed Lolium sp. (Rye-Grass).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duhoux, Arnaud; Pernin, Fanny; Desserre, Diane; Délye, Christophe

    2017-01-01

    Herbicides are currently pivotal to control weeds and sustain food security. Herbicides must efficiently kill weeds while being as harmless as possible for crops, even crops taxonomically close to weeds. To increase their selectivity toward crops, some herbicides are sprayed in association with safeners that are bioactive compounds exacerbating herbicide-degrading pathways reputedly specifically in crops. However, exacerbated herbicide metabolism is also a key mechanism underlying evolved non-target-site-based resistance to herbicides (NTSR) in weeds. This raised the issue of a possible role of safeners on NTSR evolution in weeds. We investigated a possible effect of the respective field rates of the two broadly used safeners cloquintocet-mexyl and mefenpyr-diethyl on the sensitivity of the troublesome global weed Lolium sp. (rye-grass) to the major herbicides inhibiting acetolactate-synthase (ALS) pyroxsulam and iodosulfuron + mesosulfuron, respectively. Three Lolium sp. populations were studied in three series of experiments. The first experiment series compared the frequencies of plants surviving application of each herbicide alone or in association with its safener. Safener co-application caused a net increase ranging from 5.0 to 46.5% in the frequency of plants surviving the field rate of their associated herbicide. In a second series of experiments, safener effect was assessed on individual plant sensitivity using vegetative propagation. A reduction in sensitivity to pyroxsulam and to iodosulfuron + mesosulfuron was observed for 44.4 and 11.1% of the plants in co-treatment with cloquintocet-mexyl and mefenpyr-diethyl, respectively. A third series of experiments investigated safener effect on the expression level of 19 Lolium sp. NTSR marker genes. Safeners showed an enhancing effect on the expression level of 10 genes. Overall, we demonstrated that cloquintocet-mexyl and mefenpyr-diethyl both reduced the sensitivity of Lolium sp. to their associated ALS

  16. METHODOLOGY & CALCULATIONS FOR THE ASSIGNMENT OF WASTE GROUPS FOR THE LARGE UNDERGROUND WASTE STORAGE TANKS AT THE HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BARKER, S.A.

    2006-07-27

    Waste stored within tank farm double-shell tanks (DST) and single-shell tanks (SST) generates flammable gas (principally hydrogen) to varying degrees depending on the type, amount, geometry, and condition of the waste. The waste generates hydrogen through the radiolysis of water and organic compounds, thermolytic decomposition of organic compounds, and corrosion of a tank's carbon steel walls. Radiolysis and thermolytic decomposition also generates ammonia. Nonflammable gases, which act as dilutents (such as nitrous oxide), are also produced. Additional flammable gases (e.g., methane) are generated by chemical reactions between various degradation products of organic chemicals present in the tanks. Volatile and semi-volatile organic chemicals in tanks also produce organic vapors. The generated gases in tank waste are either released continuously to the tank headspace or are retained in the waste matrix. Retained gas may be released in a spontaneous or induced gas release event (GRE) that can significantly increase the flammable gas concentration in the tank headspace as described in RPP-7771. The document categorizes each of the large waste storage tanks into one of several categories based on each tank's waste characteristics. These waste group assignments reflect a tank's propensity to retain a significant volume of flammable gases and the potential of the waste to release retained gas by a buoyant displacement event. Revision 5 is the annual update of the methodology and calculations of the flammable gas Waste Groups for DSTs and SSTs.

  17. Assessment of the requirements for placing and maintaining Savannah River Site spent fuel storage basins under International Atomic Energy Agency safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amacker, O.P. Jr.; Curtis, M.M.; Delegard, C.H.; Hsue, S.T.; Whitesel, R.N.

    1997-03-01

    The United States is considering the offer of irradiated research reactor spent fuel (RRSF) for international safeguards applied by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The offer would be to add one or more spent fuel storage basins to the list of facilities eligible for IAEA safeguards. The fuel to be safeguarded would be stored in basins on the Savannah River Site (SRS). This RRSF potentially can include returns of Material Test Reactor (MTR) VAX fuel from Argentina, Brazil, and Chile (ABC); returns from other foreign research reactors; and fuel from domestic research reactors. Basins on the SRS being considered for this fuel storage are the Receiving Basin for Offsite Fuel (RBOF) and the L-Area Disassembly Basin (L-Basin). A working group of SRS, U.S. Department of Energy International Safeguards Division (NN-44), and National Laboratory personnel with experience in IAEA safeguards was convened to consider the requirements for applying the safeguards to this material. The working group projected the safeguards requirements and described alternatives

  18. CY2000 Hanford Site Mixed Waste Land Disposal Restrictions Report Vol. 1 Storage Report and Vol 2: Characterization and Treatment Report [SEC 1 thru SEC 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MCDONALD, K.M.

    2001-01-01

    This volume presents information about the storage and minimization of mixed waste and potential sources for the generation of additional mixed waste. This information is presented in accordance with Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) (Ecology et al. 1996) Milestone M-26-01K. It is Volume 1 of a two-volume report on the status of Hanford Site land-disposal-restricted mixed waste, other mixed waste, and other waste that the parties have agreed to include in this report. This volume also contains the approval page for both volumes and assumptions, accomplishments, and some other information that also pertains to waste characterization and treatment, which are addressed in Volume 2. Appendix A lists the land disposal restriction (LDR) reporting requirements and explains where they are addressed in this report. The reporting period for this document is from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2000

  19. Plutonium working group report on environmental, safety and health vulnerabilities associated with the Department's plutonium storage. Volume 2, Appendix B, Part 2: Hanford site assessment team report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The Hanford Site Self Assessment of Plutonium Environmental Safety and Health (ES and H) Vulnerabilities was conducted in accordance with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Secretary's directive of February 1994. The implementation plans to carry out this directive are contained in the Project Plan and the Assessment Plan. For this assessment, vulnerabilities are defined as conditions or weaknesses that may lead to unnecessary or increased radiation exposure of the workers, release of radioactive materials to the environment, or radiation exposure of the public. The purpose for the Assessment is to evaluate environmental, safety and health vulnerabilities from plutonium operations and storage activities. Acts of sabotage or diversion of plutonium which obviously may have ES and H implications are excluded from this study because separate DOE programs evaluate those issues on a continuing basis. Security and safeguards activities which may have negative impacts on safety are included in the evaluation

  20. Decommissioning of a grout- and waste-filled storage tank in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marske, S.G.

    1991-01-01

    A self-concentrating waste tank located at the Strontium Semiworks Facility in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site will be decommissioned following waste removal. During a previous decommissioning phase, the tank, thought to be empty, was filled with grout to prevent it from collapsing over time. Several years later, an agitator rod was pulled from within the tank and found to contain significant amounts of radiation, indicating there was still radioactive waste in the tank. Several alternative waste-removal options have been researched and evaluated. It is concluded that before the waste is to be disposed, the grout must be removed. This paper addresses that effort

  1. Long-term management of the existing radioactive wastes and residues at the Niagara Falls Storage Site. Draft Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-08-01

    The statement assesses and compares several alternatives for long-term management of the existing radioactive wastes and residues at the Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS), Lewiston, New York. The alternatives include: (1) no action (continued interim storage at NFSS within a diked and capped containment area), (2) long-term management at NFSS (improved containment, with or without modified form of the residues), (3) long-term management at other DOE sites (Hanford, Washington, or Oak Ridge, Tennessee), and (4) offsite management of the residues at Hanford or Oak Ridge and either leaving the wastes at NFSS or removing them for disposal in the ocean. In addition to alternatives analyzed in depth, several options are also considered, including: other modifications of residue form, modification of the basic conceptual designs, other containment design options, transportation routes, and transportation modes. The radiological health effects (primarily increased risk of cancer) associated with long-term management of the wastes and residues are expected to be smaller than the nonradiological risks of occupational and transportation-related injuries and deaths. During the action period, the risk is highest for workers if all wastes and residues are moved to Hanford. The risk is highest for the general public if the residues are moved to Hanford and the wastes are moved to the ocean. Dispersal of the slightly contaminated wastes in the ocean is not expected to result in any significant impacts on the ocean environment or pose any significant radiological risk to humans. For all alternatives, if controls ceased, there would be eventual dispersion of the radioactive materials to the environment. If it is assumed that all controls cease, predicted time for loss of covers over the buried materials ranges from several hundred years to more than two million years, depending on the use of the land surface

  2. METHODOLOGY & CALCULATIONS FOR THE ASSIGNMENT OF WASTE FOR THE LARGE UNDERGROUND WASTE STORAGE TANKS AT THE HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TU, T.A.

    2007-01-04

    Waste stored within tank farm double-shell tanks (DST) and single-shell tanks (SST) generates flammable gas (principally hydrogen) to varying degrees depending on the type, amount, geometry, and condition of the waste. The waste generates hydrogen through the radiolysis of water and organic compounds, thermolytic decomposition of organic compounds, and corrosion of a tank's carbon steel walls. Radiolysis and thermolytic decomposition also generates ammonia. Nonflammable gases, which act as dilutents (such as nitrous oxide), are also produced. Additional flammable gases (e.g., methane) are generated by chemical reactions between various degradation products of organic chemicals present in the tanks. Volatile and semi-volatile organic chemicals in tanks also produce organic vapors. The generated gases in tank waste are either released continuously to the tank headspace or are retained in the waste matrix. Retained gas may be released in a spontaneous or induced gas release event (GRE) that can significantly increase the flammable gas concentration in the tank headspace as described in RPP-7771, Flammable Gas Safety Isme Resolution. Appendices A through I provide supporting information. The document categorizes each of the large waste storage tanks into one of several categories based on each tank's waste and characteristics. These waste group assignments reflect a tank's propensity to retain a significant volume of flammable gases and the potential of the waste to release retained gas by a buoyant displacement event. Revision 6 is the annual update of the flammable gas Waste Groups for DSTs and SSTs.

  3. Site Characterization for CO2 Storage from Coal-fired Power Facilities in the Black Warrior Basin of Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Peter E. [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States); Pashin, Jack [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States); Carlson, Eric [Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States); Goodliffe, Andrew [Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States); McIntyre-Redden, Marcella [Geological Survey of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States); Mann, Steven D. [Geological Survey of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States); Thompson, Mason [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)

    2013-11-29

    Coal-fired power plants produce large quantities of carbon dioxide. In order to mitigate the greenhouse gas emissions from these power plants, it is necessary to separate and store the carbon dioxide. Saline formations provide a potential sink for carbon dioxide and delineating the capacity of the various known saline formations is a key part of building a storage inventory. As part of this effort, a project was undertaken to access the storage capacity of saline reservoirs in the Black Warrior Basin of Alabama. This basin has been a productive oil and gas reservoir that is well characterized to the west of the two major coal-fired power plants that are north of Birmingham. The saline zones were thought to extend as far east as the Sequatchie Anticline which is just east of the power plants. There is no oil or gas production in the area surrounding the power plants so little is known about the formations in that area. A geologic characterization well was drilled on the Gorgas Power Plant site, which is the farthest west of two power plants in the area. The well was planned to be drilled to approximately 8,000 feet, but drilling was halted at approximately 5,000 feet when a prolific freshwater zone was penetrated. During drilling, a complete set of cores through all of the potential injection zones and the seals above these zones were acquired. A complete set of openhole logs were run along with a vertical seismic profile (VSP). Before drilling started two approximately perpendicular seismic lines were run and later correlated with the VSP. While the zones that were expected were found at approximately the predicted depths, the zones that are typically saline through the reservoir were found to be saturated with a light crude oil. Unfortunately, both the porosity and permeability of these zones were small enough that no meaningful hydrocarbon production would be expected even with carbon dioxide flooding. While this part of the basin was found to be unsuitable for

  4. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 140: Waste Dumps, Burn Pits, and Storage Area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision No. 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2003-10-17

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 140: Waste Dumps, Burn Pits, and Storage Area, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Areas 5, 22, and 23 of the NTS, CAU 140 consists of nine corrective action sites (CASs). Investigation activities were performed from November 13 through December 11, 2002, with additional sampling to delineate the extent of contaminants of concern (COCs) conducted on February 4 and March 18 and 19, 2003. Results obtained from the investigation activities and sampling indicated that only 3 of the 9 CASs at CAU 140 had COCs identified. Following a review of existing data, future land use, and current operations at the NTS, the following preferred alternatives were developed for consideration: (1) No Further Action - six CASs (05-08-02, 05-17-01, 05-19-01, 05-35-01, 05-99-04, and 22-99-04); (2) Clean Closure - one CAS (05-08-01), and (3) Closure-in-Place - two CASs (05-23-01 and 23-17-01). These alternatives were judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated. Additionally, the alternatives meet all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the site and will eliminate potential future exposure pathways to the contaminated media at CAU 140.

  5. Characterization of solidified radioactive wastes produced at Montalto di Castro BWR plant with reference to the site storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donato, A.; Ricci, G.; Pace, A.

    1985-01-01

    The cement solidification of the Montalto di Castro BWR plant radwastes has been studied both from the point of view of the mixtures of formulation and of the product characterization. Five radwaste types and mixtures of them have been taken into consideration, determining the best chemical formulations starting from the compressive strenght as leading parameter. The solidified products have been characterized from the point of view of the freeze and thawing resistance, the water immersion resistance, the leachability, the dimensional changes and the free standing water. All the tests have been performed taking into account the real site conditions, so the leaching tests and the water immersion tests have been carried out using sea water and table water as leachant

  6. WHite paper on the proposed design, development, and implementation of a monitored retrievable storage module and the siting criteria for spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villarreal, B.; Knobeloch, D.

    1996-01-01

    Congress enacted the Nuclear Waste Policy (NWP) Act in 1982 as comprehensive legislation for the DOE to locate, build, and operate repositories to permanently dispose of spent nuclear fuel and other high-level wastes. In 1987, Congress amended the NWP Act and authorized the DOE to site, construct, and operate one Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility. The MRS facility was planned as a means to enhance the flexibility and reliability of the overall waste management system. This white paper presents a broad prospectus of the scientific and regulatory capabilities at Los Alamos National Laboratory and outlines the methodology to design and implement an MRS test module. This proposed module will incorporate the flexibility to store all types of spent nuclear fuel above or below ground level and will be fully monitored for the residence time of the spent fuel in the MRS module. The purpose of this test module is to define the parameters necessary to build a simple and economical MRS system. Demonstration of the proposed MRS test module will be important because it will form the basis for an integrated MRS site model

  7. HAZWOPER work plan and site safety and health plan for the Alpha characterization project at the solid waste storage area 4 bathtubbing trench at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    This work plan/site safety and health plan is for the alpha sampling project at the Solid Waste Storage Area 4 bathtubbing trench. The work will be conducted by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Environmental Sciences Division and associated ORNL environmental, safety, and health support groups. This activity will fall under the scope of 29 CFR 1910.120, Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response (HAZWOPER). The purpose of this document is to establish health and safety guidelines to be followed by all personnel involved in conducting work for this project. Work will be conducted in accordance with requirements as stipulated in the ORNL HAZWOPER Program Manual and applicable ORNL; Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc.; and U.S. Department of Energy policies and procedures. The levels of protection and the procedures specified in this plan are based on the best information available from historical data and preliminary evaluations of the area. Therefore, these recommendations represent the minimum health and safety requirements to be observed by all personnel engaged in this project. Unforeseeable site conditions or changes in scope of work may warrant a reassessment of the stated protection levels and controls. All adjustments to the plan must have prior approval by the safety and health disciplines signing the original plan

  8. Aquifer geochemistry at potential aquifer storage and recovery sites in coastal plain aquifers in the New York city area, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C.J.; Misut, P.E.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of injecting oxic water from the New York city (NYC) drinking-water supply and distribution system into a nearby anoxic coastal plain aquifer for later recovery during periods of water shortage (aquifer storage and recovery, or ASR) were simulated by a 3-dimensional, reactive-solute transport model. The Cretaceous aquifer system in the NYC area of New York and New Jersey, USA contains pyrite, goethite, locally occurring siderite, lignite, and locally varying amounts of dissolved Fe and salinity. Sediment from cores drilled on Staten Island and western Long Island had high extractable concentrations of Fe, Mn, and acid volatile sulfides (AVS) plus chromium-reducible sulfides (CRS) and low concentrations of As, Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu and U. Similarly, water samples from the Lloyd aquifer (Cretaceous) in western Long Island generally contained high concentrations of Fe and Mn and low concentrations of other trace elements such as As, Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu and U, all of which were below US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and NY maximum contaminant levels (MCLs). In such aquifer settings, ASR operations can be complicated by the oxidative dissolution of pyrite, low pH, and high concentrations of dissolved Fe in extracted water.The simulated injection of buffered, oxic city water into a hypothetical ASR well increased the hydraulic head at the well, displaced the ambient groundwater, and formed a spheroid of injected water with lower concentrations of Fe, Mn and major ions in water surrounding the ASR well, than in ambient water. Both the dissolved O2 concentrations and the pH of water near the well generally increased in magnitude during the simulated 5-a injection phase. The resultant oxidation of Fe2+ and attendant precipitation of goethite during injection provided a substrate for sorption of dissolved Fe during the 8-a extraction phase. The baseline scenario with a low (0.001M) concentration of pyrite in aquifer sediments, indicated that nearly 190% more water

  9. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 145: Wells and Storage Holes, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0, with ROTC No. 1 and Addendum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Strand

    2006-04-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 145, Wells and Storage Holes in Area 3 of the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit 145 is comprised of the following corrective action sites (CASs): (1) 03-20-01, Core Storage Holes; (2) 03-20-02, Decon Pad and Sump; (3) 03-20-04, Injection Wells; (4) 03-20-08, Injection Well; (5) 03-25-01, Oil Spills; and (6) 03-99-13, Drain and Injection Well. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document is to identify and provide the rationale for the recommendation of a corrective action alternative for the six CASs within CAU 145. Corrective action investigation activities were performed from August 1, 2005, through November 8, 2005, as set forth in the CAU 145 Corrective Action Investigation Plan and Record of Technical Change No. 1. Analytes detected during the Corrective Action Investigation (CAI) were evaluated against appropriate final action levels to identify the contaminants of concern for each CAS. The results of the CAI identified contaminants of concern at one of the six CASs in CAU 145 and required the evaluation of corrective action alternatives. Assessment of the data generated from investigation activities conducted at CAU 145 revealed the following: CASs 03-20-01, 03-20-02, 03-20-04, 03-20-08, and 03-99-13 do not contain contamination; and CAS 03-25-01 has pentachlorophenol and arsenic contamination in the subsurface soils. Based on the evaluation of analytical data from the CAI, review of future and current operations at the six CASs, and the detailed and comparative analysis of the potential corrective action alternatives, the following corrective actions are recommended for CAU 145. No further action is the preferred corrective action for CASs 03-20-01, 03-20-02, 03-20-04, 03-20-08, and 03-99-13. Close in place is the preferred corrective action

  10. The European FP7 ULTimateCO2 project: A comprehensive approach to study the long term fate of CO2 geological storage sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audigane, P.; Brown, S.; Dimier, A.; Pearce, J.; Frykman, P.; Maurand, N.; Le Gallo, Y.; Spiers, C. J.; Cremer, H.; Rutters, H.; Yalamas, T.

    2013-12-01

    The European FP7 ULTimateCO2 project aims at significantly advance our knowledge of specific processes that could influence the long-term fate of geologically stored CO2: i) trapping mechanisms, ii) fluid-rock interactions and effects on mechanical integrity of fractured caprock and faulted systems and iii) leakage due to mechanical and chemical damage in the well vicinity, iv) brine displacement and fluid mixing at regional scale. A realistic framework is ensured through collaboration with two demonstration sites in deep saline sandstone formations: the onshore former NER300 West Lorraine candidate in France (ArcelorMittal GeoLorraine) and the offshore EEPR Don Valley (former Hatfield) site in UK operated by National Grid. Static earth models have been generated at reservoir and basin scale to evaluate both trapping mechanisms and fluid displacement at short (injection) and long (post injection) time scales. Geochemical trapping and reservoir behaviour is addressed through experimental approaches using sandstone core materials in batch reactive mode with CO2 and impurities at reservoir pressure and temperature conditions and through geochemical simulations. Collection of data has been generated from natural and industrial (oil industry) analogues on the fluid flow and mechanical properties, structure, and mineralogy of faults and fractures that could affect the long-term storage capacity of underground CO2 storage sites. Three inter-related lines of laboratory experiments investigate the long-term evolution of the mechanical properties and sealing integrity of fractured and faulted caprocks using Opalinus clay of Mont Terri Gallery (Switzerland) (OPA), an analogue for caprock well investigated in the past for nuclear waste disposal purpose: - Characterization of elastic parameters in intact samples by measuring strain during an axial experiment, - A recording of hydraulic fracture flow properties by loading and shearing samples in order to create a 'realistic

  11. Geological and Geotechnical Site Investigation for the Design of a CO2 Rich Flue Gas Direct Injection and Storage Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metz, Paul; Bolz, Patricia

    2013-03-25

    With international efforts to limit anthropogenic carbon in the atmosphere, various CO{sub 2} sequestration methods have been studied by various facilities worldwide. Basalt rock in general has been referred to as potential host material for mineral carbonation by various authors, without much regard for compositional variations due to depositional environment, subsequent metamorphism, or hydrothermal alteration. Since mineral carbonation relies on the presence of certain magnesium, calcium, or iron silicates, it is necessary to study the texture, mineralogy, petrology, and geochemistry of specific basalts before implying potential for mineral carbonation. The development of a methodology for the characterization of basalts with respect to their susceptibility for mineral carbonation is proposed to be developed as part of this research. The methodology will be developed based on whole rock data, petrography and microprobe analyses for samples from the Caledonia Mine in Michigan, which is the site for a proposed small-scale demonstration project on mineral carbonation in basalt. Samples from the Keweenaw Peninsula will be used to determine general compositional trends using whole rock data and petrography. Basalts in the Keweenaw Peninsula have been subjected to zeolite and prehnite-pumpellyite facies metamorphism with concurrent native copper deposition. Alteration was likely due to the circulation of CO{sub 2}-rich fluids at slightly elevated temperatures and pressures, which is the process that is attempted to be duplicated by mineral carbonation.

  12. Site characterization plan: Conceptual design report: Volume 4, Appendices F-O: Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDougall, H R; Scully, L W; Tillerson, J R [comps.

    1987-09-01

    The site for the prospective repository is located at Yucca Mountain in southwestern Nevada, and the waste emplacement area will be constructed in the underlying volcanic tuffs. The target horizon for waste emplacement is a sloping bed of densely welded tuff more than 650 ft below the surface and typically more than 600 ft above the water table. The conceptual design described in this report is unique among repository designs in that it uses ramps in addition to shafts to gain access to the underground facility, the emplacement horizon is located above the water table, and it is possible that 300- to 400-ft-long horizontal waste emplacement boreholes will be used. This report summarizes the design bases, design and performance criteria, and the design analyses performed. The current status of meeting the preclosure performance objectives for licensing and of resolving the repository design and preclosure issues is presented. The repository design presented in this report will be expanded and refined during the advanced conceptual design, the license application design, and the final procurement and construction design phases. Volume 4 contains Appendices F to O.

  13. Tree mycorrhizal type predicts within-site variability in the storage and distribution of soil organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Matthew E; Turner, Benjamin L; Liang, Chao; Clay, Keith; Johnson, Daniel J; Phillips, Richard P

    2018-03-24

    Forest soils store large amounts of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N), yet how predicted shifts in forest composition will impact long-term C and N persistence remains poorly understood. A recent hypothesis predicts that soils under trees associated with arbuscular mycorrhizas (AM) store less C than soils dominated by trees associated with ectomycorrhizas (ECM), due to slower decomposition in ECM-dominated forests. However, an incipient hypothesis predicts that systems with rapid decomposition-e.g. most AM-dominated forests-enhance soil organic matter (SOM) stabilization by accelerating the production of microbial residues. To address these contrasting predictions, we quantified soil C and N to 1 m depth across gradients of ECM-dominance in three temperate forests. By focusing on sites where AM- and ECM-plants co-occur, our analysis controls for climatic factors that covary with mycorrhizal dominance across broad scales. We found that while ECM stands contain more SOM in topsoil, AM stands contain more SOM when subsoil to 1 m depth is included. Biomarkers and soil fractionations reveal that these patterns are driven by an accumulation of microbial residues in AM-dominated soils. Collectively, our results support emerging theory on SOM formation, demonstrate the importance of subsurface soils in mediating plant effects on soil C and N, and indicate that shifts in the mycorrhizal composition of temperate forests may alter the stabilization of SOM. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Site characterization plan: Conceptual design report: Volume 4, Appendices F-O: Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDougall, H.R.; Scully, L.W.; Tillerson, J.R.

    1987-09-01

    The site for the prospective repository is located at Yucca Mountain in southwestern Nevada, and the waste emplacement area will be constructed in the underlying volcanic tuffs. The target horizon for waste emplacement is a sloping bed of densely welded tuff more than 650 ft below the surface and typically more than 600 ft above the water table. The conceptual design described in this report is unique among repository designs in that it uses ramps in addition to shafts to gain access to the underground facility, the emplacement horizon is located above the water table, and it is possible that 300- to 400-ft-long horizontal waste emplacement boreholes will be used. This report summarizes the design bases, design and performance criteria, and the design analyses performed. The current status of meeting the preclosure performance objectives for licensing and of resolving the repository design and preclosure issues is presented. The repository design presented in this report will be expanded and refined during the advanced conceptual design, the license application design, and the final procurement and construction design phases. Volume 4 contains Appendices F to O

  15. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 127: Areas 25 and 26 Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (Rev. No.: 0, August 2002)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NNSA/NV

    2002-01-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Offices's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 127 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 127 is located on the Nevada Test Site approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. This CAU is comprised of 12 Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located at Test Cell C; the Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (E-MAD) Facility; the X-Tunnel in Area 25; the Pluto Disassembly Facility; the Pluto Check Station; and the Port Gaston Training Facility in Area 26. These CASs include: CAS 25-01-05, Aboveground Storage Tank (AST); CAS 25-02-02, Underground Storage Tank (UST); CAS 25-23-11, Contaminated Materials; CAS 25-12-01, Boiler; CAS 25-01-06, AST; CAS 25-01-07, AST; CAS 25-02-13, UST; CAS 26- 01-01, Filter Tank (Rad) and Piping; CAS 26-01-02, Filter Tank (Rad); CAS 26-99-01, Radioactively Contaminated Filters; CAS 26-02-01, UST; CAS 26-23-01, Contaminated Liquids Spreader. Based on site history, process knowledge, and previous field efforts, contaminants of potential concern for CAU 127 include radionuclides, metals, total petroleum hydrocarbons, volatile organic compounds, asbestos, and polychlorinated biphenyls. Additionally, beryllium may be present at some locations. The sources of potential releases are varied, but releases of contaminated liquids may have occurred and may have migrated into and impacted soil below and surrounding storage vessels at some of the CASs. Also, at several CASs, asbestos-containing materials may be present on the aboveground structures and may be friable. Exposure pathways are limited to ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact (adsorption) of soils/sediments or liquids, or inhalation of contaminants by site workers due to disturbance of

  16. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 127: Areas 25 and 26 Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (Rev. No.: 0, August 2002)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NNSA/NV

    2002-08-27

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Offices's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 127 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 127 is located on the Nevada Test Site approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. This CAU is comprised of 12 Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located at Test Cell C; the Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (E-MAD) Facility; the X-Tunnel in Area 25; the Pluto Disassembly Facility; the Pluto Check Station; and the Port Gaston Training Facility in Area 26. These CASs include: CAS 25-01-05, Aboveground Storage Tank (AST); CAS 25-02-02, Underground Storage Tank (UST); CAS 25-23-11, Contaminated Materials; CAS 25-12-01, Boiler; CAS 25-01-06, AST; CAS 25-01-07, AST; CAS 25-02-13, UST; CAS 26- 01-01, Filter Tank (Rad) and Piping; CAS 26-01-02, Filter Tank (Rad); CAS 26-99-01, Radioactively Contaminated Filters; CAS 26-02-01, UST; CAS 26-23-01, Contaminated Liquids Spreader. Based on site history, process knowledge, and previous field efforts, contaminants of potential concern for CAU 127 include radionuclides, metals, total petroleum hydrocarbons, volatile organic compounds, asbestos, and polychlorinated biphenyls. Additionally, beryllium may be present at some locations. The sources of potential releases are varied, but releases of contaminated liquids may have occurred and may have migrated into and impacted soil below and surrounding storage vessels at some of the CASs. Also, at several CASs, asbestos-containing materials may be present on the aboveground structures and may be friable. Exposure pathways are limited to ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact (adsorption) of soils/sediments or liquids, or inhalation of contaminants by site workers due to disturbance of

  17. Assessment of alternatives for long-term management of uranium ore residues and contaminated soils located at DOE's Niagara Falls Storage Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merry-Libby, P.

    1985-01-01

    About 11,000 m 3 of uranium ore residues and 180,000 m 3 of slightly contaminated soils (wastes) are consolidated within a diked containment area at the Niagara Falls Storage Site located about 30 km north of Buffalo, New York. The residues account for less than 6% of the total volume of contaminated materials but almost 99% of the radioactivity. The average radium-226 concentration in the residues is 67,000 pCi/g. The US Department of Energy is considering several alternatives for long-term management of the wastes and residues, including: improvement of the containment at NFSS, modification of the form of the residues, management of the residues separately from the wastes, management of the wastes and residues at another humid site (Oak Ridge, Tennessee) or an arid site (Hanford, Washington), and dispersal of the wastes in the ocean. Potential radiological risks associated with implementation of any of the alternatives are expected to be smaller than the nonradiological risks of occupational and transportation-related injuries and deaths. Dispersal of the slightly contaminated wastes in the ocean is not expected to result in any significant radiological risk to humans. The residues and wastes will remain hazardous for thousands of years. After controls cease, the radioactive materials will eventually be dispersed in the environment. Loss of the earthen covers over the buried materials is predicted to occur from several hundred to more than two million years, depending primarily on the use of the land surface. Groundwater will eventually be contaminated in all alternatives; however, the groundwater pathway is relatively insignificant with respect to radiological risks to the general population. 2 references, 2 figures, 6 tables

  18. Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, William W.

    Described are technological considerations affecting storage of energy, particularly electrical energy. The background and present status of energy storage by batteries, water storage, compressed air storage, flywheels, magnetic storage, hydrogen storage, and thermal storage are discussed followed by a review of development trends. Included are…

  19. SP. Pescado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Gendre

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Nell'occhiello di un articolo dal titolo Il Peru dei de[Jini rosa e de/la grande pioggia si legge: "da una partenza  in aereo al «pescado»  che ti  sfamera."1 Questa parola spagnola, giustamente chiusa tra caporali, a noi pare molto interes­ sante, perche, nonostante l'apparenza, non ha nulla da spartire sotto i1 profilo se­ mantico con l'it. pescato. lnfatti, tutti i piu importanti dizionari della lingua italiana, di ieri e di oggi, etimologici e non 2, registrano  accanto a pescata,  ii lemma pescato, 3 ma lo spiegano come "quantita di pesce catturato nel corso di una battuta o di una stagione di pesca",4 mentre lo sp. pescado  indica i1 "pesce (solo nel senso di: pesGe pescato da mangiare [...]".s

  20. Increased N2O emission by inhibited plant growth in the CO2 leaked soil environment: Simulation of CO2 leakage from carbon capture and storage (CCS) site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, You Jin; He, Wenmei; Ko, Daegeun; Chung, Haegeun; Yoo, Gayoung

    2017-12-31

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) concentrations is continuing to increase due to anthropogenic activity, and geological CO 2 storage via carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology can be an effective way to mitigate global warming due to CO 2 emission. However, the possibility of CO 2 leakage from reservoirs and pipelines exists, and such leakage could negatively affect organisms in the soil environment. Therefore, to determine the impacts of geological CO 2 leakage on plant and soil processes, we conducted a greenhouse study in which plants and soils were exposed to high levels of soil CO 2 . Cabbage, which has been reported to be vulnerable to high soil CO 2 , was grown under BI (no injection), NI (99.99% N 2 injection), and CI (99.99% CO 2 injection). Mean soil CO 2 concentration for CI was 66.8-76.9% and the mean O 2 concentrations in NI and CI were 6.6-12.7%, which could be observed in the CO 2 leaked soil from the pipelines connected to the CCS sites. The soil N 2 O emission was increased by 286% in the CI, where NO 3 - -N concentration was 160% higher compared to that in the control. This indicates that higher N 2 O emission from CO 2 leakage could be due to enhanced nitrification process. Higher NO 3 - -N content in soil was related to inhibited plant metabolism. In the CI treatment, chlorophyll content decreased and chlorosis appeared after 8th day of injection. Due to the inhibited root growth, leaf water and nitrogen contents were consistently lowered by 15% under CI treatment. Our results imply that N 2 O emission could be increased by the secondary effects of CO 2 leakage on plant metabolism. Hence, monitoring the environmental changes in rhizosphere would be very useful for impact assessment of CCS technology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Lower Colorado River GRP Leaking Underground Storage Tank Sites (Open), Nevada, 2012, Nevada Division of Environmental Protection Bureau of Corrective Actions

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The BCA layers are derived from a database for Federally Regulated Underground Storage Tanks (UST) and a database for Remediation and Leaking Underground Storage...

  2. Lower Colorado River GRP Leaking Underground Storage Tank Sites (Closed), Nevada, 2012, Nevada Division of Environmental Protection Bureau of Corrective Actions

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The BCA layers are derived from a database for Federally Regulated Underground Storage Tanks (UST) and a database for Remediation and Leaking Underground Storage...

  3. Specification of requirements to get a license for an Independent Spent Fuel Dry Storage Installation (ISFSI) at the site of the NPP-LV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano R, M. L.

    2015-09-01

    This article describes some of the work done in the Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias (CNSNS) to define specifically the requirements that the Federal Electricity Commission (CFE) shall meet to submit for consideration of CNSNS an operation request of an Independent Spent Fuel Dry Storage Installation (ISFSI). The project of a facility of this type arose from the need to provide storage capacity for spent nuclear fuel in the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde (NPP-LV) and to continue the operation at the same facility in a safe manner. The licensing of these facilities in the United States of America has two modes: specific license or general license. The characteristics of these licenses are described in this article. However, in Mexico the existing national legislation is not designed for such license types, in fact there is a lack of standards or regulations in this regard. The regulatory law of Article 27 of the Constitution in the nuclear matter, only generally establishes that this type of facility requires an authorization from the Ministry of Energy. For this reason and because there is not a national legislation, was necessary to use the legislation that provides the Nuclear Regulatory Commission of USA, the US NRC. However, it cannot be applied as is established, so was necessary that the CNSNS analyze one by one the requirements of both types of license and determine what would be required to NPP-LV to submit its operating license of ISFSI. The American regulatory applicable to an ISFSI, the 10-Cfr-72 of the US NRC, establishes the requirements for both types of licenses. Chapter 10-Cfr was analyzed in all its clauses and coupled to the laws, regulations and standards as well as to the requirements established by CNSNS, all associated with a store spent fuel on site; the respective certification of containers for spent fuel dry storage was not included in this article, even though the CNSNS also performed that activity under the

  4. Distribution pathways of hexachlorocyclohexane isomers in a soil-plant-air system. A case study with Cynara scolymus L. and Erica sp. plants grown in a contaminated site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, R Calvelo; Monterroso, C; Macías, F; Camps-Arbestain, M

    2008-09-01

    This study focuses on the main routes of distribution and accumulation of different hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers (mainly alpha-, beta-, gamma- and delta-HCH) in a soil-plant-air system. A field assay was carried out with two plant species, Cynara scolymus L. and Erica sp., which were planted either: (i) directly in the HCH-contaminated soil; or (ii) in pots filled with uncontaminated soil, which were placed in the HCH-contaminated soil. Both plant species accumulated HCH in their tissues, with relatively higher accumulation in above-ground biomass than in roots. The beta-HCH isomer was the main isomer in all plant tissues. Adsorption of HCH by the roots from contaminated soil (soil-->root pathway) and adsorption through the aerial biomass from either the surrounding air, following volatilization of the contaminant (soil-->air-->shoot pathway), and/or contact with air-suspended particles contaminated with HCH (soil particles-->shoot pathway) were the main mechanisms of accumulation. These results may have important implications for the use of plants for reducing the transfer of contaminants via the atmosphere.

  5. Quality of groundwater at and near an aquifer storage and recovery site, Bexar, Atascosa, and Wilson Counties, Texas, June 2004-August 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Cassi L.; Petri, Brian L.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the San Antonio Water System, did a study during 2004-08 to characterize the quality of native groundwater from the Edwards aquifer and pre- and post-injection water from the Carrizo aquifer at and near an aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) site in Bexar, Atascosa, and Wilson Counties, Texas. Groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for selected physical properties and constituents to characterize the quality of native groundwater from the Edwards aquifer and pre- and post-injection water from the Carrizo aquifer at and near the ASR site. Geochemical and isotope data indicated no substantial changes in major-ion, trace-element, and isotope chemistry occurred as the water from the Edwards aquifer was transferred through a 38-mile pipeline to the aquifer storage and recovery site. The samples collected from the four ASR recovery wells were similar in major-ion and stable isotope chemistry compared to the samples collected from the Edwards aquifer source wells and the ASR injection well. The similarity could indicate that as Edwards aquifer water was injected, it displaced native Carrizo aquifer water, or, alternatively, if mixing of Edwards and Carrizo aquifer waters was occurring, the major-ion and stable isotope signatures for the Carrizo aquifer water might have been obscured by the signatures of the injected Edwards aquifer water. Differences in the dissolved iron and dissolved manganese concentrations indicate that either minor amounts of mixing occurred between the waters from the two aquifers, or as Edwards aquifer water displaced Carrizo aquifer water it dissolved the iron and manganese directly from the Carrizo Sand. Concentrations of radium-226 in the samples collected at the ASR recovery wells were smaller than the concentrations in samples collected from the Edwards aquifer source wells and from the ASR injection well. The smaller radium-226 concentrations in the samples collected from the ASR

  6. Well-based stable carbon isotope leakage monitoring of an aquifer overlying the CO2 storage reservoir at the Ketzin pilot site, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Martin; Myrttinen, Anssi; Zimmer, Martin; van Geldern, Robert; Barth, Johannes A. C.

    2014-05-01

    At the pilot site for CO2 storage in Ketzin, a new well-based leakage-monitoring concept was established, comprising geochemical and hydraulic observations of the aquifer directly above the CO2 reservoir (Wiese et al., 2013, Nowak et al. 2013). Its purpose was to allow early detection of un-trapped CO2. Within this monitoring concept, we established a stable carbon isotope monitoring of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). If baseline isotope values of aquifer DIC (δ13CDIC) and reservoir CO2 (δ13CCO2) are known and distinct from each other, the δ13CDIC has the potential to serve as an an early indicator for an impact of leaked CO2 on the aquifer brine. The observation well of the overlying aquifer was equipped with an U-tube sampling system that allowed sampling of unaltered brine. The high alkaline drilling mud that was used during well drilling masked δ13CDIC values at the beginning of the monitoring campaign. However, subsequent monitoring allowed observing on-going re-equilibration of the brine, indicated by changing δ13CDIC and other geochemical values, until values ranging around -23 ‰ were reached. The latter were close to baseline values before drilling. Baselineδ13CDIC and δ13CCO2 values were used to derive a geochemical and isotope model that predicts evolution of δ13CDIC, if CO2 from the reservoir would leak into the aquifer. The model shows that equilibrium isotope fractionation would have to be considered if CO2 dissolves in the brine. The model suggests that stable carbon isotope monitoring is a suitable tool to assess the impact of injected CO2 in overlying groundwater aquifers. However, more data are required to close gaps of knowledge about fractionation behaviour within the CO2(g) - DIC system under elevated pressures and temperatures. Nowak, M., Myrttinen, A., Zimmer, M., Wiese, B., van Geldern, R., Barth, J.A.C., 2013. Well-based, Geochemical Leakage Monitoring of an Aquifer Immediately Above a CO2 Storage Reservoir by Stable Carbon

  7. ANÁLISIS DE LAS PROPIEDADES DE TEXTURA DURANTE EL ALMACENAMIENTO DE SALCHICHAS ELABORADAS A PARTIR DE TILAPIA ROJA (Oreochromis sp. ANALISE DAS PROPRIEDADES DE TEXTURA DURANTE O ARMAZENAMENTO DE SALSICHAS PREPARADO DE TILÁPIA VERMELHA (Oreochromis sp. ANALYSIS OF THE PROPERTIES OF TEXTURE DURING THE STORAGE OF SAUSAGE MADE FROM RED TILAPIA (Oreochromis sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ IGOR HLEAP

    2010-12-01

    . Estes foram feitos a partir de urna pasta chamada surimi e sob uma tecnologia desenvolvida no Laboratório de Tecnologia de Carnes da Universidade Nacional da Colômbia - Palmira. Uma vez desenvolvidas as salsichas foram embaladas a vácuo e mantidas sob refrigeração a2°C± 2. Foram determinadas usando um texturômetro universal Shimadzu Tester EZTest EZ-S, a dureza (kg m s-2, elasticidade (adimensionais, coesão (adimensionais, adesividade (kg m² s-2, gomosidade (kg m s-2 e mastigabilidade (kg.Para a força de cisalhamento foi utilizado uma faca como elemento de corte. Elasticidade, coesividade e adesividade não mostraram diferença significativa (α > 0,05 durante o tempo de armazenamento das salsichas enquanto gomosidade e mastigação mostraram diferença no dia 6 contra 100. Concluiu-se que durante o tempo de armazenagem, os parâmetros de perfil de textura e força de cisalhamento, mais não tinha diretamente influenciado variações nos tempos de armazenamento das salsichas mantidos sob as condições mencionadas.This research was conducted to determine the textural characteristics of sausages, made from red tilapia including sagú (Marantha arundinacea flour as binder or extender material, during the storage process. It raised a design that allowed foran assessmentat O, 2, 6, 10, 15, 22, 27, 31, 45, 58, 100 and 120 days after the preparation of sausages. These were prepared from a paste called surimi and under a technology developed in the laboratory of Meat Technology, National University of Colombia - Palmira. Once developed the sausages are vacuum packed and kept in refrigeraron at 2°C ± 2. Were determined using a Shimadzu Universal Tester texturometer EZT S EZ-est, the parameters of hardness (kgms-2, elasticity (dimensionless, cohesiveness (dimensionless, adhesiveness (kgm²s-2, gumminess (kgms-2 and mastication (kg. For the shear force was used as an adjunct sharp knife. Elasticity cohesiveness and adhesiveness showed no significant difference (

  8. Field demonstration of an active reservoir pressure management through fluid injection and displaced fluid extractions at the Rock Springs Uplift, a priority geologic CO2 storage site for Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao, Zunsheng [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)

    2017-04-05

    This report provides the results from the project entitled Field Demonstration of Reservoir Pressure Management through Fluid Injection and Displaced Fluid Extraction at the Rock Springs Uplift, a Priority Geologic CO2 Storage Site for Wyoming (DE-FE0026159 for both original performance period (September 1, 2015 to August 31, 2016) and no-cost extension (September 1, 2016 to January 6, 2017)).

  9. The search for a storage site for low-level and long-life wastes. A national project and a development opportunity for your town. A dossier for local communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    After a review of the program schedule, this document presents the project of a storage site for low-level and long life radioactive wastes as an opportunity for a district: it outlines the benefits of such a realisation for the dynamics of the local activity, specifies the main economical and financial characteristics associated with such a facility, and evokes the elements which are taken into account for the selection of the site. It describes the storage centre as a place of industrial activity, a monitored and controlled facility, an installation opened to the public. It describes the different stages of the life cycle of this future storage centre: pre-selection, on-site investigations, additional studies and administrative process for the selected site, building and starting, operation, shutting down, surveillance. The document indicates the legal frame related to this activity, specifies what are the different concerned wastes, and their present warehousing locations. It gives some details on the different safety principles for such a storage: environment and health protection, geological layer, public works engineering solutions, waste packages

  10. Plutonium working group report on environmental, safety and health vulnerabilities associated with the department's plutonium storage. Volume II, part 9, Oak Ridge Site working group assessment team report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The objective of the Plutonium Environmental Safety and Health (ES ampersand H) Vulnerability Assessment at the Oak Ridge (OR) Site was to conduct a comprehensive assessment of the ES ampersand H vulnerabilities arising from the storage and handling of its current plutonium holdings. The term open-quotes ES ampersand H Vulnerabilityclose quotes is defined for the purpose of this project to mean conditions or weaknesses that could lead to unnecessary or increased radiation exposure of workers, release of radioactive materials to the environment, or radiation exposure to the public. This assessment was intended to take a open-quotes snap-shotclose quotes of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Y-12 Plant's plutonium holdings and associated ES ampersand H vulnerabilities in the time frame of June 1 994. This vulnerability assessment process began with the OR Site Assessment Team (SAT) generating a self-assessment report including proposed vulnerabilities. The SAT identified 55 facilities which contain plutonium and other transuranics they considered might be in-scope for purposes of this study. The Working Group Assessment Team (WGAT), however, determined that 37 of the facilities actually contained only out-of-scope material (e.g., transuranic material not colocated with plutonium or transuranic (TRU) waste). The WGAT performed an independent assessment of the SATs report, conducted facility walkdowns, and reviewed reference documents such as Safety Analysis Reports (SARs), Operational Safety Requirements (OSRs), emergency preparedness plans, and procedures. The results of the WGAT review and open-quotes walkdownsclose quotes (a term as used here incorporating tours, document reviews, and detailed discussions with cognizant personnel) are discussed in Section 3.0. The ES ampersand H vulnerabilities that were identified are documented in Appendix A

  11. Evaluation through column leaching tests of metal release from contaminated estuarine sediment subject to CO2 leakages from Carbon Capture and Storage sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payán, M. Cruz; Galan, Berta; Coz, Alberto; Vandecasteele, Carlo; Viguri, Javier R.

    2012-01-01

    The pH change and the release of organic matter and metals from sediment, due to the potential CO 2 acidified seawater leakages from a CCS (Carbon Capture and Storage) site are presented. Column leaching test is used to simulate a scenario where a flow of acidified seawater is in contact with recent contaminated sediment. The behavior of pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and metals As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, with liquid to solid (L/S) ratio and pH is analyzed. A stepwise strategy using empirical expressions and a geochemical model was conducted to fit experimental release concentrations. Despite the neutralization capacity of the seawater-carbonate rich sediment system, important acidification and releases are expected at local scale at lower pH. The obtained results would be relevant as a line of evidence input of CCS risk assessment, in an International context where strategies to mitigate the climate change would be applied. - Highlights: ► Tier structured approach for assessment of the release of metals from sediment. ► Standard column leaching test to simulate CO 2 acidified seawater CCS leakages. ► Metal and DOC release from marine sediment in contact to CO 2 acidified seawater. ► From empirical to geochemical modeling approaches of DOC and metals release in column tests. ► Contamination line of evidence input of CCS risk assessment. - Column metal release from CO 2 acidified seawater leakages in contact with estuarine contaminated sediment in CCS sites

  12. Final predictions of ambient conditions along the east-west cross drift using the 3-D UZ site-scale model. Level 4 milestone SP33ABM4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritcey, A.C.; Sonnenthal, E.L.; Wu, Y.S.; Haukwa, C.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    1998-01-01

    In 1998, the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) is expected to continue construction of an East-West Cross Drift. The 5-meter diameter drift will extend from the North Ramp of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), near Station 19+92, southwest through the repository block, and over to and through the Solitario Canyon Fault. This drift is part of a program designed to enhance characterization of Yucca Mountain and to complement existing surface-based and ESF testing studies. The objective of this milestone is to use the three-dimensional (3-D) unsaturated zone (UZ) site-scale model to predict ambient conditions along the East-West Cross Drift. These predictions provide scientists and engineers with a priori information that can support design and construction of the East-West Cross Drift and associated testing program. The predictions also provide, when compared with data collected after drift construction, an opportunity to test and verify the calibration of the 3-D UZ site-scale model

  13. Decommissioning of a RCRA Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facility: A case study of the 216-A-29 ditch at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.L.; Hayward, W.M.

    1991-09-01

    The 216-A-29 ditch is located in the central portion of the Hanford Site with Operable Unit 200-PO-5. The ditch is classified under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 as a Treatment, Storage, and Disposal (TSD) Facility and as such, is to be removed from service in support of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order Tri-Party Agreement (Ecology et al. 1989) Milestone M-17-10, which states ''cease all liquid discharges to hazardous land disposal units unless such units have been clean closed in accordance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976''. The 216-A-29 ditch is one stream feeding the 216-B-3 Pond system, and its removal from service was necessary to support the closure strategy for the 216-B-3 Pond system. Interim stabilization of the 216-A-29 ditch is the first step required to comply with the Tri-Party Agreement (Ecology et al. 1989) and the eventual decommissioning of the entire B Pond system. Interim stabilization was required to maintain the 216-A-29 ditch in a stable configuration until closure actions have been determined and initiated. 4 refs., 3 figs

  14. Structural acceptance criteria for the evaulation of existing double-shell waste storage tanks located at the Hanford site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julyk, L.J.; Day, A.D.; Dyrness, A.D.; Moore, C.J.; Peterson, W.S.; Scott, M.A.; Shrivastava, H.P.; Sholman, J.S.; Watts, T.N.

    1995-09-01

    The structural acceptance criteria contained herein for the evaluation of existing underground double-shell waste storage tanks located at the Hanford Site is part of the Life Management/Aging Management Program of the Tank Waste Remediation System. The purpose of the overall life management program is to ensure that confinement of the waste is maintained over the required service life of the tanks. Characterization of the present condition of the tanks, understanding and characterization of potential degradation mechanisms, and development of tank structural acceptance criteria based on previous service and projected use are prerequisites to assessing tank integrity, to projecting the length of tank service, and to developing and applying prudent fixes or repairs. The criteria provided herein summarize the requirements for the analysis and structural qualification of the existing double-shell tanks for continued operation. Code reconciliation issues and material degradation under aging conditions are addressed. Although the criteria were developed for double-shell tanks, many of the provisions are equally applicable to single-shell tanks. However, the criteria do not apply to the evaluation of tank appurtenances and buried piping

  15. Performance monitoring report for the Niagara Falls Storage Site Waste Containment Structure, Lewiston, New York: Calendar year 1987 and January--June of 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanke, J.A.; Johnson, R.T.; Stanley, W.F.

    1989-01-01

    A performance monitoring program has been developed for the Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS) Waste Containment Structure (WCS). The WCS contains soils contaminated with residual radioactive materials, rubble, and radioactive residues removed from various areas of the NFSS and vicinity properties during remedial action conducted by the Department of Energy (DOE) from 1982 through 1986. The NFSS is a part of the DOE Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP). The purpose of the performance monitoring program is to verify that the WCS main engineering elements are functioning to minimize infiltration of rainfall; prevent pollution of groundwater; preclude formation of leachate; and prevent radon emanation. This report presents the findings of performance monitoring conducted at the WCS during calendar year 1987, and January through June of 1988. the data received during the initial performance monitoring period in 1986 (Ref. 3) established a baseline for interpretation contained in this report. The period covered by this report has been expanded to include 6 months in 1988 because the impact of the winter is most evident in the spring growing season. 5 refs., 12 figs., 8 tabs

  16. Light and scanning electron microscopy of Henneguya arapaima n. sp. (Myxozoa: Myxobolidae) and histology of infected sites in pirarucu (Arapaima gigas: Pisces: Arapaimidae) from the Araguaia River, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feijó, M M; Arana, S; Ceccarelli, P S; Adriano, E A

    2008-10-20

    In this report, we describe Henneguya arapaima n. sp., a parasite of the gill arch and gall bladder of Arapaima gigas (pirarucu) collected in the Araguaia River, in the municipality of Nova Crixás, Goiás State, central Brazil. The plasmodia were white, round or ellipsoidal and measured 200-600 microm. Parasite development was asynchronous and the mature spores were fusiform and had smooth wall. The spores measurements were (range, with means+/-S.D. in parentheses): total length-48.4-53.1 microm (51.6+/-3.4 microm), body length-13.5-15.2 microm (14.2+/-0.8 microm), body width-5.1-6.1 microm (5.7+/-0.5 microm), body thickness-4.7-5.3 microm (4.9+/-0.2 microm) and caudal process length-38.0-41.2 microm (38.3+/-2.9 microm). The polar capsules were elongated and of unequal size, with lengths of 6.3-6.8 microm (6.5+/-0.2) and 6.2-6.6 microm (6.3+/-0.1) for the longest and shortest axes, respectively. Capsule width was 1.4-1.6 microm (1.5+/-0.1). Histological analysis showed that the plasmodia occurred in the tunica adventitia of the gall bladder and were delimited by a thin capsule of connective tissue. In the gill arch, the plasmodia were also surrounded by connective tissue similar to the endomesium of striated skeletal muscle cells. Sixty-five juvenile specimens of A. gigas weighing 1.0-25.0 kg were examined, 17 (26.1%) of which were infected. Of these, 14 (82.3%) had cysts in the gall bladder, two (11.7%) had cysts in the gill arch and only one (5.9%) had cysts in both organs. When the fish were grouped by weight, the prevalence of infection in fish weighing up to 10.0 kg (20.7%) was significantly lower than in fish weighing 10.1-25.0 kg (50%) (G=3.93; d.f.=1; p<0.05).

  17. Potential function of added minerals as nucleation sites and effect of humic substances on mineral formation by the nitrate-reducing Fe(II)-oxidizer Acidovorax sp. BoFeN1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dippon, Urs; Pantke, Claudia; Porsch, Katharina; Larese-Casanova, Phil; Kappler, Andreas

    2012-06-19

    The mobility of toxic metals and the transformation of organic pollutants in the environment are influenced and in many cases even controlled by iron minerals. Therefore knowing the factors influencing iron mineral formation and transformation by Fe(II)-oxidizing and Fe(III)-reducing bacteria is crucial for understanding the fate of contaminants and for the development of remediation technologies. In this study we followed mineral formation by the nitrate-reducing Fe(II)-oxidizing strain Acidovorax sp. BoFeN1 in the presence of the crystalline Fe(III) (oxyhydr)oxides goethite, magnetite and hematite added as potential nucleation sites. Mössbauer spectroscopy analysis of minerals precipitated by BoFeN1 in (57)Fe(II)-spiked microbial growth medium showed that goethite was formed in the absence of mineral additions as well as in the presence of goethite or hematite. The presence of magnetite minerals during Fe(II) oxidation induced the formation of magnetite in addition to goethite, while the addition of humic substances along with magnetite also led to goethite but no magnetite. This study showed that mineral formation not only depends on the aqueous geochemical conditions but can also be affected by the presence of mineral nucleation sites that initiate precipitation of the same underlying mineral phases.

  18. Site-specific standard request for Underground Storage Tanks 1219-U, 1222-U, 2082-U, and 2068-U at the Rust Garage Facility Buildings 9754-1 and 9720-15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This document is a site-specific standard request for underground storage tanks located at the Rust Garage Facility. These standards are justified based on conclusion derived from the exposure assessment that indicates there is no current or forseeable future human health risk associated with petroleum contaminants on the site, that current and future ecological risks would be generally limited to subsurface species and plant life with roots extending into the area, and that most of the impacted area at the site is covered by asphalt or concrete. The vertical and horizontal extent of soil and ground water contamination are limited to immediate area of the Rust Garage Facility

  19. Plutonium working group report on environmental, safety and health vulnerabilities associated with the Department's plutonium storage. Volume 2, Appendix B, Part 4: Savannah River Site site assessment team report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The Plutonium Environmental, Safety, and Health (ES and H) Vulnerability Assessment is being conducted by the DOE Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (DOE-EH) to evaluate the ES and H vulnerabilities arising from the Department's storage and handling of its holdings of plutonium and other transuranic isotopes. This report on Savannah River Site (SRS) facilities and materials provides the results of a self-assessment for the purpose of identifying issues as potential vulnerabilities. The report provides data and analyses for the DOE-EH and independent Working Group Assessment Team, which will make the final determination as to ES and H vulnerabilities at SRS. The term ES and H vulnerabilities is defined for the purpose of this assessment to mean conditions that could lead to unnecessary or increased radiation exposure of workers, release of radioactive materials to the environment, or radiation exposure of the public. The self-assessment identifies and prioritizes candidate or potential vulnerabilities and issues for consideration by the Working Group Assessment Team, and will serve as an information base for identifying interim corrective actions and options for the safe management of fissile materials. It will also establish a foundation for decision making regarding the safe management and disposition of DOE plutonium

  20. Draft genome sequences of six neonatal meningitis-causing escherichia coli isolates (SP-4, SP-5, SP-13, SP-16, SP-46, and SP-65)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neonatal meningitis Escherichia coli isolates (SP-4, SP-5, SP-13, SP-16, SP-46, and SP-65) were recovered from infants in the Netherlands from 1989 to 1997. Here, we report the draft genome sequences for these six E. coli isolates, which are currently being used to validate food safety processing te...

  1. Bioaccessibilité et spéciation de l'arsenic des sols autour de l'ancien site minier de Salsigne

    OpenAIRE

    Tack , Karine; Mouton , Julia; Meunier , Laurent; Mestre-Pujol , Dominique; Denys , Sébastien

    2009-01-01

    National audience; La mine de Salsigne - La Combe du Saut, dans le département de l'Aude, exploitée depuis l'antiquité pour des métaux comme le fer, le cuivre, l'argent ou le plomb était connue en particulier pour l'or. Son extraction s'est avérée particulièrement polluante pour l'environnement d'une part par les fumées générées par le process mais également par les envols de poussières chargées en arsenic émises depuis les installations industrielles aux environs du site. Par ailleurs, lors ...

  2. Effects of faults as barriers or conduits to displaced brine flow on a putative CO2 storage site in the Southern North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannis, Sarah; Bricker, Stephanie; Williams, John

    2013-04-01

    The Bunter Sandstone Formation in the Southern North Sea is a potential reservoir being considered for carbon dioxide storage as a climate change mitigation option. A geological model of a putative storage site within this saline aquifer was built from 3D seismic and well data to investigate potential reservoir pressure changes and their effects on fault movement, brine and CO2 migration as a result of CO2 injection. The model is located directly beneath the Dogger Bank Special Area of Conservation, close to the UK-Netherlands median line. Analysis of the seismic data reveals two large fault zones, one in each of the UK and Netherlands sectors, many tens of kilometres in length, extending from reservoir level to the sea bed. Although it has been shown that similar faults compartmentalise gas fields elsewhere in the Netherlands sector, significant uncertainty remains surrounding the properties of the faults in our model area; in particular their cross- and along-fault permeability and geomechanical behaviour. Despite lying outside the anticipated CO2 plume, these faults could provide potential barriers to pore fluid migration and pressure dissipation, until, under elevated pressures, they provide vertical migration pathways for brine. In this case, the faults will act to enhance injectivity, but potential environmental impacts, should the displaced brine be expelled at the sea bed, will require consideration. Pressure gradients deduced from regional leak-off test data have been input into a simple geomechanical model to estimate the threshold pressure gradient at which faults cutting the Mesozoic succession will fail, assuming reactivation of fault segments will cause an increase in vertical permeability. Various 4D scenarios were run using a single-phase groundwater modelling code, calibrated to results from a multi-phase commercial simulator. Possible end-member ranges of fault parameters were input to investigate the pressure change with time and quantify brine

  3. The potential impact of microbial Fe(III) reduction on subsurface U(VI) mobility at a low level radioactive waste storage site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkins, M.J.; Livens, F.R.; Vaughan, D.J.; Lloyd, J.R.; Beadle, I.; Small, J.S.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Fe(III) oxy-hydroxides have the potential to be utilised as terminal electron acceptors by indigenous microbial communities in the British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL) low level radioactive waste storage site at Drigg (Cumbria, UK) and these organisms may have a critical control on the biogeochemical cycling of several environmentally important radionuclides. In terms of radiological impact at Drigg, uranium is the most significant contributor to radiological impact and it is strongly influenced by biogeochemical processes. In terms of mass (moles) it is also the most abundant radionuclide in the Drigg inventory. Thus, the potential biotic and abiotic effects of Fe(III) reduction on U(VI) mobility in the Drigg subsurface are of interest. Culture-dependent and molecular techniques showed that the sediments in and around the Drigg site contained a diversity of Fe(III)-reducing bacteria. A series of microcosm experiments were utilised to create environmentally relevant experimental conditions. Microcosms set up using Drigg sediment and synthetic ground water were spiked with 100 μM U(VI) and acetate as an electron donor. U(VI) concentrations in groundwater were measured using a chemical assay while total U levels were determined using ICP-MS. Fe(II) levels were determined using the ferrozine method. Sediment surface areas were measured using BET analysis. The low surface area of the sediments resulted in only a small proportion of the 100 μM U(VI) spike sorbing onto mineral surfaces. The addition of ferri-hydrite to some microcosms resulted in an immediate lowering of soluble U(VI) concentrations, suggesting that the formation of soluble U(VI) complexes were not responsible for the minimal adsorption. The presence of biogenic Fe(II) in the microcosms did not affect the soluble U(VI) concentration. Similarly, soluble U(VI) levels remained unchanged when sediments were spiked with U(VI) post-microbial Fe(III) reduction. However, a lowering in

  4. Comparison of thermal analysis, micro structural and compositional of archaeological indigenous ceramic (Caninhas site of Canas - SP) with actual clay/ceramic of region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, F.P.; Taguchi, S.P.; Matos, C.C.; Ribeiro, R.B.

    2009-01-01

    The ceramic material found at the archaeological site in Caninhas, shows funerary structures of combustion and various objects of Tupi-Guarani indigenous use. These pieces and fragments were saved and cataloged, in approximately 4000 units. The ceramics present a gradient of color, from ochre to dark gray, when from the surface to the center of the piece, indicating compositional variation caused by inefficient sintering carried out by indigenous people. The goal of this study was to observe the phase transition temperature, decomposition, mass variation and reactions that occur in the archaeological and nowadays ceramics (by DSC/TG), together with micro structural analysis (by SEM), phase analysis (by XRD) and chemical composition (by EDS). Ceramics nowadays are sintered with air, in a temperature ranging between 400-800 °C for one hour, and presents heterogeneous microstructure. The archaeological ceramics were identified by the illite, hydrated alumina, lutecite and quartz phase, and the caulinite, lutecite and quartz phase in clay produced today from that region differs in all characteristics and aspects according to time. The interaction between different areas of expertise is fundamental to aggregate knowledge: the use of ceramic material engineering to archaeological application. (author)

  5. Assessing storage adequacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amirault, P.

    2004-01-01

    Government policy encourages the use of natural gas. It is expected that liquefied natural gas (LNG) and Arctic gas will make up 20 to 25 per cent of supply. This presentation provided an outlook of storage value based on a technical analysis by the National Petroleum Counsel (NPC) report. A moderately robust growth is expected in the residential and commercial load which may be partially offset by robust growth in electricity. The net result is an increase in storage requirements. It was concluded that there is a strong case for growth in storage demand but a lack of good sites for additional capacity. This will lead to higher storage values. The NPC sees the need for 1 Tcf more storage use by 2025, of which 700 Bcf will need to come from new storage. In particular, current storage levels may not be sufficient to meet a colder than normal winter, and deliverability is affected by field inventory. Most storage capacity was built before 1985, mostly by regulated entities. It is expected that only 250 to 400 Bcf will be added over the next 25 years in North America. If storage becomes scarce, prices will move to the marginal cost of new additions, and the upper limit on price will be determined by salt cavern storage. An increase of $1.00 in the price of leasing storage would add about $0.11 to the average price of consumed gas. tabs., figs

  6. Plutonium storage criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, D. [Scientech, Inc., Germantown, MD (United States); Ascanio, X. [Dept. of Energy, Germantown, MD (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The Department of Energy has issued a technical standard for long-term (>50 years) storage and will soon issue a criteria document for interim (<20 years) storage of plutonium materials. The long-term technical standard, {open_quotes}Criteria for Safe Storage of Plutonium Metals and Oxides,{close_quotes} addresses the requirements for storing metals and oxides with greater than 50 wt % plutonium. It calls for a standardized package that meets both off-site transportation requirements, as well as remote handling requirements from future storage facilities. The interim criteria document, {open_quotes}Criteria for Interim Safe Storage of Plutonium-Bearing Solid Materials{close_quotes}, addresses requirements for storing materials with less than 50 wt% plutonium. The interim criteria document assumes the materials will be stored on existing sites, and existing facilities and equipment will be used for repackaging to improve the margin of safety.

  7. Genome-centric evaluation of Burkholderia sp. strain SRS-W-2-2016 resistant to high concentrations of uranium and nickel isolated from the Savannah River Site (SRS, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Pathak

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Savannah River Site (SRS, an approximately 800-km2 former nuclear weapons production facility located near Aiken, SC remains co-contaminated by heavy metals and radionuclides. To gain a better understanding on microbially-mediated bioremediation mechanisms, several bacterial strains resistant to high concentrations of Uranium (U and Nickel (Ni were isolated from the Steeds Pond soils located within the SRS site. One of the isolated strains, designated as strain SRS-W-2-2016, grew robustly on both U and Ni. To fully understand the arsenal of metabolic functions possessed by this strain, a draft whole genome sequence (WGS was obtained, assembled, annotated and analyzed. Genome-centric evaluation revealed the isolate to belong to the Burkholderia genus with close affiliation to B. xenovorans LB400, an aggressive polychlorinated biphenyl-degrader. At a coverage of 90×, the genome of strain SRS-W-2-2016 consisted of 8,035,584 bases with a total number of 7071 putative genes assembling into 191 contigs with an N50 contig length of 134,675 bases. Several gene homologues coding for resistance to heavy metals/radionuclides were identified in strain SRS-W-2-2016, such as a suite of outer membrane efflux pump proteins similar to nickel/cobalt transporter regulators, peptide/nickel transport substrate and ATP-binding proteins, permease proteins, and a high-affinity nickel-transport protein. Also noteworthy were two separate gene fragments in strain SRS-W-2-2016 homologous to the spoT gene; recently correlated with bacterial tolerance to U. Additionally, a plethora of oxygenase genes were also identified in the isolate, potentially involved in the breakdown of organic compounds facilitating the strain's successful colonization and survival in the SRS co-contaminated soils. The WGS project of Burkholderia sp. strain SRS-W-2-2016 is available at DDBJ/ENA/GenBank under the accession #MSDV00000000.

  8. RCRA Treatment, Disposal, and Storage Site Boundaries in Louisiana, Geographic NAD83, EPA (2002) [RCRA_TSD_LA_poly_EPA_2002)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a shapefile of RCRA Treatment, Storage, and Disposal facility boundaries developed by PRC Environmental Management, Inc (PRC) per a Work Assignment from the...

  9. Spent fuel storage and isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensky, M.S.; Kurzeka, W.J.; Bauer, A.A.; Carr, J.A.; Matthews, S.C.

    1979-02-01

    The principal spent fuel activities conducted within the commercial waste and spent fuel within the Commercial Waste and Spent Fuel Packaging Program are: simulated near-surface (drywell) storage demonstrations at Hanford and the Nevada Test Site; surface (sealed storage cask) and drywell demonstrations at the Nevada Test Site; and spent fuel receiving and packaging facility conceptual design. These investigations are described

  10. Tritium storage

    International Nuclear I