WorldWideScience

Sample records for storage market feasibility

  1. Battery energy storage market feasibility study

    Kraft, S. [Frost and Sullivan, Mountain View, CA (United States); Akhil, A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Energy Storage Systems Analysis and Development Dept.

    1997-07-01

    Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy`s Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage Systems Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) contracted Frost and Sullivan to conduct a market feasibility study of energy storage systems. The study was designed specifically to quantify the energy storage market for utility applications. This study was based on the SNL Opportunities Analysis performed earlier. Many of the groups surveyed, which included electricity providers, battery energy storage vendors, regulators, consultants, and technology advocates, viewed energy storage as an important enabling technology to enable increased use of renewable energy and as a means to solve power quality and asset utilization issues. There are two versions of the document available, an expanded version (approximately 200 pages, SAND97-1275/2) and a short version (approximately 25 pages, SAND97-1275/1).

  2. Battery energy storage market feasibility study

    Kraft, S.; Akhil, A.

    1997-07-01

    Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy's Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage Systems Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) contracted Frost and Sullivan to conduct a market feasibility study of energy storage systems. The study was designed specifically to quantify the energy storage market for utility applications. This study was based on the SNL Opportunities Analysis performed earlier. Many of the groups surveyed, which included electricity providers, battery energy storage vendors, regulators, consultants, and technology advocates, viewed energy storage as an important enabling technology to enable increased use of renewable energy and as a means to solve power quality and asset utilization issues. There are two versions of the document available, an expanded version (approximately 200 pages, SAND97-1275/2) and a short version (approximately 25 pages, SAND97-1275/1)

  3. Battery energy storage market feasibility study - Expanded report

    Kraft, S.; Akhil, A.

    1997-09-01

    Under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy's Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage Systems Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) contracted Frost and Sullivan to conduct a market feasibility study of energy storage systems. The study was designed specifically to quantify the battery energy storage market for utility applications. This study was based on the SNL Opportunities Analysis performed earlier. Many of the groups surveyed, which included electricity providers, battery energy storage vendors, regulators, consultants, and technology advocates, viewed battery storage as an important technology to enable increased use of renewable energy and as a means to solve power quality and asset utilization issues. There are two versions of the document available, an expanded version (approximately 200 pages, SAND97-1275/2) and a short version (approximately 25 pages, SAND97-1275/1)

  4. Battery energy storage market feasibility study -- Expanded report

    Kraft, S. [Frost and Sullivan, Mountain View, CA (United States); Akhil, A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Energy Storage Systems Analysis and Development Dept.

    1997-09-01

    Under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy`s Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage Systems Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) contracted Frost and Sullivan to conduct a market feasibility study of energy storage systems. The study was designed specifically to quantify the battery energy storage market for utility applications. This study was based on the SNL Opportunities Analysis performed earlier. Many of the groups surveyed, which included electricity providers, battery energy storage vendors, regulators, consultants, and technology advocates, viewed battery storage as an important technology to enable increased use of renewable energy and as a means to solve power quality and asset utilization issues. There are two versions of the document available, an expanded version (approximately 200 pages, SAND97-1275/2) and a short version (approximately 25 pages, SAND97-1275/1).

  5. Feasibility of a subsurface storage

    1998-11-01

    This report analyses the notion of subsurface storage under the scientifical, technical and legal aspects. This reflection belongs to the studies about long duration storage carried out in the framework of the axis 3 of the December 30, 1991 law. The report comprises 3 parts. The first part is a synthesis of the complete subsurface storage study: definitions, aim of the report, very long duration storage paradigm, description files of concepts, thematic synthesis (legal aspects, safety, monitoring, sites, seismicity, heat transfers, corrosion, concretes, R and works, handling, tailings and dismantlement, economy..), multi-criteria/multi-concept cross-analysis. The second part deals with the technical aspects of the subsurface storage: safety approach (long duration impact, radiation protection, mastery of effluents), monitoring strategy, macroscopic inventory of B-type waste packages, inventory of spent fuels, glasses, hulls and nozzles, geological contexts in the French territory (sites selection and characterization), on-site activities, hydrogeological and geochemical aspects, geo-technical works and infrastructures organization, subsurface seismic effects, cooling modes (ventilation, heat transfer with the geologic environment), heat transfer research programs (convection, poly-phase cooling in porous media), handling constraints, concretes (use, behaviour, durability), corrosion of metallic materials, technical-economical analysis, international context (experience feedback from Sweden (CLAB) and the USA (Yucca Mountain), other European and French facilities). The last part of the report is a graphical appendix with 3-D views and schemes of the different concepts. (J.S.)

  6. Northern New Mexico regional airport market feasibility

    Drake, R.H.; Williams, D.S.

    1998-06-01

    This report is about the market for airline travel in northern New Mexico. Interest in developing a northern New Mexico regional airport has periodically surfaced for a number of years. The New Mexico State Legislature passed a memorial during the 1998 Second Session calling for the conduct of a study to determine the feasibility of building a new regional airport in NNM. This report is a study of the passenger market feasibility of such an airport. In addition to commercial passenger market feasibility, there are other feasibility issues dealing with siting, environmental impact, noise, economic impact, intermodal transportation integration, region-wide transportation services, airport engineering requirements, and others. These other feasibility issues are not analyzed in any depth in this report although none were discovered to be show-stoppers as a by-product of the authors doing research on the passenger market itself. Preceding the need for a detailed study of these other issues is the determination of the basic market need for an airport with regular commercial airline service in the first place. This report is restricted to an in-depth look at the market for commercial passenger air service in NNM. 20 figs., 8 tabs.

  7. Economic feasibility of thermal energy storage systems

    Habeebullah, B.A. [Faculty of Engineering, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    2007-07-01

    This paper investigates the economic feasibility of both building an ice thermal storage and structure a time of rate tariff for the unique air conditioning (A/C) plant of the Grand Holy Mosque of Makkah, Saudi Arabia. The features of the building are unique where the air-conditioned 39,300 m{sup 2} zone is open to the atmosphere and the worshippers fully occupy the building five times a day, in addition hundreds of thousands of worshippers attend the blessed weekend's prayer at noontime, which escalates the peak electricity load. For economic analysis, the objective function is the daily electricity bill that includes the operation cost and the capital investment of the ice storage system. The operation cost is function of the energy imported for operating the plant in which the tariff structure, number of operating hours and the ambient temperature are parameters. The capital recovery factor is calculated for 10% interest rate and payback period of 10 years. Full and partial load storage scenarios are considered. The results showed that with the current fixed electricity rate (0.07 $/kWh), there is no gain in introducing ice storage systems for both storage schemes. Combining energy storage and an incentive time structured rate showed reasonable daily bill savings. For base tariff of 0.07 $/kWh during daytime operation and 0.016 $/kWh for off-peak period, savings were achieved for full load storage scenario. Different tariff structure is discussed and the break-even nighttime rate was determined (varies between 0.008 and 0.03 $/kWh). Partial load storage scenario showed to be unattractive where the savings for the base structured tariff was insignificant. (author)

  8. Which way for Europe's gas storage market?

    Hureau, Geoffroy; Cornot-Gandolphe, Sylvie

    2013-06-01

    This slide show presents in a first part the 2013 Situation of the European gas storage market (Capacity, Gas Demand vs. Gas Storage, Spreads and Volatility, LNG effect, Storage Price, Utilization of Storage Facilities, Security of supply). The future of European Gas Demand and Supply are presented in a second part (Demand and Supply Factors, Market Liberalization, Estimates of European UGS Needs by 2030, Planned Working Gas Capacities in Europe)

  9. Opportunities for electricity storage in deregulating markets

    Graves, F.; Jenkin, T.; Murphy, D.

    1999-01-01

    This article addresses the value of electricity storage and its ability to take advantage of emerging energy arbitrage opportunities: buying power when it is inexpensive, and reselling it at a higher price. The focus of this article is on electricity markets and the opportunities they present for a merchant storage device, rather than on storage technologies themselves. There are a number of existing and emerging storage technologies: pumped hydro, various batteries, compressed air energy storage (CAES), superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES), flywheels--even conventional hydro has storage-like properties. However, all these technologies operated on the same basic principle of exploiting short-term differentials in electricity prices: buy low, sell high (a strategy that is actually meaningful in electricity markets, unlike in financial markets). The object of this article is to develop and demonstrate a means for assessing the potential value of storage in different electricity markets, rather than to attempt to assess the prospects of a particular technology. The approach taken here is to look at price data from a number of actual electricity markets to determine what opportunities they might offer to a generic storage device. A storage technology is described here by its basic performance parameters--charge and generate capacity, energy inventory limits, and efficiency--which are sufficient to assess the basic economic potential of storage in a given market. The authors look primarily at US markets, but also compare and contrast findings with the situation in foreign markets in the U.K., Norway, Canada, and Australia, and discuss how market structure can influence the value of storage. Moreover, the authors use empirically observed relationships between hourly and 5 x 16 blocked prices to infer a rule for adjusting the value of storage assets in regions where only blocked price information is available

  10. Market power and storage in electricity markets

    Skaar, Jostein

    2004-05-01

    Market power in liberalised electricity markets dominated by hydropower is analyzed in four chapters. The existing literature on competition in hydropower markets is briefly presented and examined. Chapter 1 discusses the effects of market power in the context of acquisitions in a situation where transmission capacity is constrained. Chapter 2 and 3 elaborate on the issue of competition and market power when water inflow is uncertain, and finally Chapter 4 focuses on the supply function equilibrium model in the context of a hydropower market

  11. Economic feasibility of pipe storage and underground reservoir storage options for power-to-gas load balancing

    Budny, Christoph; Madlener, Reinhard; Hilgers, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Study of cost effectiveness of power-to-gas and storage of H 2 and renewable methane. • NPV analysis and Monte Carlo simulation to address fuel and electricity price risks. • Gas sale is compared with power and gas market arbitrage and balancing market gains. • Power-to-gas for linking the balancing markets for power and gas is not profitable. • Pipe storage is the preferred option for temporal arbitrage and balancing energy. - Abstract: This paper investigates the economic feasibility of power-to-gas (P2G) systems and gas storage options for both hydrogen and renewable methane. The study is based on a techno-economic model in which the net present value (NPV) method and Monte Carlo simulation of risks and price forward curves for the electricity and the gas market are used. We study three investment cases: a Base Case where the gas is directly sold in the market, a Storage & Arbitrage Case where temporal arbitrage opportunities between the electricity and the gas market are exploited, and a Storage & Balancing Case where the balancing markets (secondary reserve market for electricity, external balancing market for natural gas) are addressed. The optimal type and size of different centralized and decentralized storage facilities are determined and compared with each other. In a detailed sensitivity and cost analysis, we identify the key factors which could potentially improve the economic viability of the technological concepts assessed. We find that the P2G system used for bridging the balancing markets for power and gas cannot be operated profitably. For both, temporal arbitrage and balancing energy, pipe storage is preferred. Relatively high feed-in tariffs (100 € MW −1 for hydrogen, 130 € MW −1 for methane) are required to render pipe storage for P2G economically viable

  12. Commercial storage and marketing trials of irradiated Onions

    Nouchpramool, K.; Charoen, S.; Prachasitthisak, Y.

    1997-06-01

    Pilot scale storage tests were carried out in co-operation with commercial onions traders in the years 1986 and 1987 to evaluate the efficacy of irradiation for sprout inhibition of onions under actual commercial stored in commercial cold storage at 1-10 degrees C and 70-90% relative humidity. The results show that irradiation reduce sprouting in onions by 11 and 40 per cent and weight loss by 3 and 5 per cent after 5 and 6 months of storage, respectively. Storage losses are minimum when radiation is applied within two weeks of harvest. A maximum storage life of six months as against five months for controls is attained. Post cold storage life at ambient temperature for irradiated onions after withdrawal from cold storage is one week longer than that of non-irradiated controls. The radio inhibition process is technically feasible and economically justified as a profit can be made during the extended storage period. Marketing trials of irradiated onions conducted during and after termination of storage revealed no adverse comments from consumers and retailers/wholesalers. Wholesalers.retailers and consumers preferred irradiated onions because of their better physical quality and longer marketable life

  13. Staging and storage facility feasibility study. Final report

    Swenson, C.E.

    1995-02-01

    This study was performed to investigate the feasibility of adapting the design of the HWVP Canister Storage Building (CSB) to meet the needs of the WHC Spent Nuclear Fuel Project for Staging and Storage Facility (SSF), and to develop Rough Order of Magnitude (ROM) cost and schedule estimates

  14. Feasibility study: Assess the feasibility of siting a monitored retrievable storage facility

    King, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of phase one of this study are: To understand the waste management system and a monitored retrievable storage facility; and to determine whether the applicant has real interest in pursuing the feasibility assessment process. Contents of this report are: Generating electric power; facts about exposure to radiation; handling storage, and transportation techniques; description of a proposed monitored retrievable storage facility; and benefits to be received by host jurisdiction

  15. Feasibility study: Assess the feasibility of siting a monitored retrievable storage facility. Phase 1

    King, J.W.

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of phase one of this study are: To understand the waste management system and a monitored retrievable storage facility; and to determine whether the applicant has real interest in pursuing the feasibility assessment process. Contents of this report are: Generating electric power; facts about exposure to radiation; handling storage, and transportation techniques; description of a proposed monitored retrievable storage facility; and benefits to be received by host jurisdiction.

  16. Mined salt storage feasibility: Engineering study report

    1987-07-01

    This study addresses a method of eliminating the surface storage of mined salt at the Deaf Smith repository site. It provides rough estimates of the logistics and costs of transporting 3.7 million tons of salt from the repository to the salt disposal site near Carlsbad, New Mexico and returning it to the repository for decommissioning backfill. The study assumes that a railcar/truck system will be installed and that the excavated salt will be transported from the repository to an existing potash mine located near Carlsbad, New Mexico approximately 300 miles from the repository. The 3.7 million tons of salt required for repository decommissioning backfill can be stored in the potash mines along with the excess salt, with no additional capital costs required for either a railcar or a truck transportation system. The capital cost for facilities to reclaim the 3.7 million tons of salt from the potash mine is estimated to be $4,400,000 with either a rail or truck transportation system. Segregating the 3.7 million tons of backfill salt in a surface storage area at the potash mine requires a capital cost of $13,900,000 with a rail system or $11,400,000 with a truck system. Transportation costs are estimated at $0.08/ton-mile for rail and $0.13/ton-mile for truck. 2 figs., 5 tabs

  17. Economic and technical feasibility study of compressed air storage

    1976-03-01

    The results of a study of the economic and technical feasibility of compressed air energy storage (CAES) are presented. The study, which concentrated primarily on the application of underground air storage with combustion turbines, consisted of two phases. In the first phase a general assessment of the technical alternatives, economic characteristics and the institutional constraints associated with underground storage of compressed air for utility peaking application was carried out. The goal of this assessment was to identify potential barrier problems and to define the incentive for the implementation of compressed air storage. In the second phase, the general conclusions of the assessment were tested by carrying out the conceptual design of a CAES plant at two specific sites, and a program of further work indicated by the assessment study was formulated. The conceptual design of a CAES plant employing storage in an aquifer and that of a plant employing storage in a conventionally excavated cavern employing a water leg to maintain constant pressure are shown. Recommendations for further work, as well as directions of future turbo-machinery development, are made. It is concluded that compressed air storage is technically feasible for off-peak energy storage, and, depending on site conditions, CAES plants may be favored over simple cycle turbine plants to meet peak demands. (LCL)

  18. The European Market for Seasonal Gas Storage

    Mahan, A.

    2006-02-01

    European demand for gas will grow in the years to come. Simultaneously, gas production in Europe will decrease and imported gas will be needed to replace indigenous production. Gas demand is not constant during the year. There are variations in demand on different timescales ranging from seasonal to hourly. Variations in demand are characterised by two main parameters: working volume and deliverability. Working volume - the amount of gas that can be supplied above the baseload production volume during a long (cold) period- is primarily needed to cope with the summer-winter pattern of gas consumption. Most of the summer-winter pattern comes from the temperature sensitive gas consumption by households and service industries. Gas usage by industry and the power sector are more evenly spread throughout the year and need less working volume. Deliverability - the amount of gas per hour that can be generated on a (very) cold day above the baseload capacity - is the ability to produce large volumes during short periods, e.g. for extremely cold days, or during peak periods during a day. In this paper we argue that a large amount of additional working volume will be required over the coming years. First, flexible European production will be replaced by long-distance import gas, and second, the gas market is expected to grow further. Todays market appears focus mainly on cavems for storage volume. Cavems have little working volume but are ideal for trading purposes. Consequently, Europe may be facing a deficit in working volume, i.e. the ability to cope with seasonal changes in demand. This paper aims to widen the discussion of this matter and give rise to this concern by setting out a broad analysis, exploring the market drivers for seasonal storage and identifying the public interest issues for this market. Chapter 2 gives an overview of demand for and supply characteristics of gas flexibility. Chapter 3 describes the role of gas storage facilities in the gas market

  19. Technical and economic feasibility of thermal storage. Final report

    Shelpuk, B.; Joy, P.; Crouthamel, M.

    1977-06-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of various thermal energy storage alternatives is determined by comparing the system performance and annualized cost which result from each storage alternative operating with the same solar collector model, the same building load model, and the same heating system and controls model. Performance and cost calculations are made on the basis of an hour-by-hour time step using actual weather bureau data for Albuquerque, N. M., and New York City for a single six-month heating season. The primary approach to comparing various storage alternatives is to allow the collector area and storage mass to vary until a minimum cost combination is achieved. In the Albuquerque location collector area of 325 ft/sup 2/, water storage mass of 12.5 lb/ft/sup 2/ of collector area, and phase change mass of 6.25 lb/ft/sup 2/ of collector area results in minimum cost systems, each of which delivers about 50% of the total building demand. The primary conclusion is that, using current costs for materials and containers, water is the cheapest storage alternative for heating applications in both Albuquerque and New York City. The cost of containing or encapsulating phase change materials, coupled with their small system performance advantage, is the main reason for this conclusion. The use of desiccant materials for thermal storage is considered to be impractical due to irreversibilities in thermal cycling.

  20. A feasibility demonstration program for superconducting magnetic energy storage

    Filios, P.G.

    1988-01-01

    The Defense Nuclear Agency, as the agent of the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) Office, has begun a program to build an engineering test model (ETM) of a superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) system. The ETM will serve to demonstrate the feasibility of using SMES technology to meet both SDI and public utility requirements for electric energy storage. SMES technology characteristics are reviewed and related to SDI and electric utility requirements. Program structure and schedule are related to specific objectives, and critical issues are defined

  1. Using energy storage for strategic advantage in competitive electricity markets

    Hurwitch, J.W.; Symons, P.

    1998-01-01

    Energy storage products are emerging for use in power quality, electric transmission and distribution, and renewable energy applications. Despite this emergence into high-value markets, widespread market penetration will only occur when the value of the services that energy storage products can deliver are clearly delineated. The emergence of competitive electricity markets will more clearly define the flexible benefits of energy storage devices. This paper presents a summary of the ESA's position of the status of energy storage technologies, the market barriers, and steps the ESA is undertaking to reduce these barriers. (author)

  2. On the Feasibility of Decentralized Derivatives Markets

    Eskandari, Shayan; Clark, Jeremy; Sundaresan, Vignesh; Adham, Moe

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we present Velocity, a decentralized market deployed on Ethereum for trading a custom type of derivative option. To enable the smart contract to work, we also implement a price fetching tool called PriceGeth. We present this as a case study, noting challenges in development of the system that might be of independent interest to whose working on smart contract implementations. We also apply recent academic results on the security of the Solidity smart contract language in valida...

  3. Feasibility of beam crystallization in a cooler storage ring

    Yosuke Yuri

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available It has been known theoretically that a charged-particle beam circulating in a storage ring exhibits an “ordered” configuration at the space-charge limit. Such an ultimate state of matter is called a crystalline beam whose emittance is ideally equal to zero except for quantum noise. This paper discusses how close one can come to various ordered states by employing currently available accelerator technologies. The dynamic nature of ultracold beams and conditions required for crystallization are briefly reviewed. Molecular dynamics simulations are performed to study the feasibility of this unique phenomenon, considering practical situations in general cooling experiments. It is pointed out that several essential obstacles must be overcome to reach a three-dimensional crystalline state in a storage ring. Doppler laser cooling of ion beams is also numerically simulated to explore the possibility of beam crystallization in an existing machine.

  4. On the Feasibility of a Network Coded Mobile Storage Cloud

    Sipos, Marton A.; Fitzek, Frank; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2015-01-01

    Conventional cloud storage services offer relatively good reliability and performance in a cost-effective manner. However, they are typically structured in a centralized and highly controlled fashion. In more dynamic storage scenarios, these centralized approaches are unfeasible and developing...... to provide an effective and flexible erasure correcting code. This paper identifies and answers key questions regarding the feasibility of such a system. We show that the mobile cloud has sufficient network resources to adapt to changes in node numbers and also study the redundancy level needed to maintain...... data availability. We have found that as little as 75% redundancy is enough to offer 99.28% availability for the examined period and essentially 100% availability is achieved when using 50% redundancy along with high-availability nodes. We have leveraged traces from a popular P2P mobile application...

  5. Electrical Energy Storage Systems Feasibility; the Case of Terceira Island

    Ana Rodrigues

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Azores Regional Government, through the Sustainable Energy Action Plan for the Azorean Islands, assumed that by the year 2018, 60% of electricity would be generated from renewable energy sources. Nevertheless, by increasing renewable energy sources share in the electricity mix, peak energy that exceeds grid capacity cannot be used unless when considering energy storage systems. Therefore, this article aims at determining, among batteries and Pumped Hydro Systems, the most cost-effective energy storage system to deploy in Terceira Island, along with geothermal, wind, thermal and bio waste energy, while considering demand and supply constraints. It is concluded that a pumped hydro system sited in Serra do Morião-Nasce Água is the best option for storage of the excess generated energy when compared with batteries. However, further studies should analyze environmental constraints. It is demonstrated that by increasing the storage power capacity, a pumped hydro system improves its cost efficiency when compared with batteries. It is also demonstrated that, to ensure quality, economic feasibility, reliability and a reduction of external costs, it is preferable to replace fuel-oil by wind to generate electricity up to a conceivable technical limit, while building a pumped hydro system, or dumping the excess peak energy generated.

  6. Technical and economic feasibility of thermal energy storage. Annual report

    Glenn, D.R.

    1976-02-01

    This study provides a first-look at the system elements involved in: (1) creating a market; (2) understanding and deriving the requirements; (3) performing analytical effort; (4) specifying equipment; and (5) synthesizing applications for a thermal energy storage (TES) function. The work reviews implicated markets, energy consumption patterns, TES technologies, and applications. Further, several concepts are developed and evaluated in some detail. Key findings are: (1) there are numerous technical opportunities for TES in the residential and industrial market sectors; (2) apart from sensible heat storage and transfer, significant R and D is required to fully exploit the superior heat densities of latent heat-based TES systems, particularly at temperatures above 600/sup 0/F; (3) industrial energy conservation can be favorably impacted by TES where periodic or batch-operated unit functions characterize product manufacturing processes, i.e. bricks, steel, and ceramics; and (4) a severe data shortage exists for describing energy consumption rates in real time as related to plant process operations--a needed element in designing TES systems.

  7. The economics of energy storage in 14 deregulated power markets

    Figueiredo, F.C.; Flynn, P.C.; Cabral, E.A.

    2006-01-01

    In regulated power markets, electricity is stored to better utilize existing generation and to defer costly investment in generation. The justification is a reduction in the overall regulated price of power compared to the alternative investment in new primary generation. However, any storage of electrical power also involves a capital investment and incurs the cost of inefficiency. In deregulated energy markets, the sale of electricity or ancillary services from pumped storage can be evaluated based on each individual project. The economic basis for power storage is that power is purchased during periods of low price and resold during periods of high price. This study used historical power price data from 14 deregulated markets around the world to evaluate the economic incentive to use pumped storage for electrical energy. Each market was shown to have a unique average diurnal power price profile that results in a unique price spread for pumped storage. The diurnal price pattern and efficiency of storage was used to assess the net income potential from energy sales from pumped storage for each market. The markets were ranked in terms of the incentive to invest in pumped energy storage as well as on available revenue, and on potential return on investment. An optimal operating profile was illustrated in detail based on historical price patterns for one of the markets. The net income potential was then combined with the capital and operating cost of pumped storage. The adequacy of return on investment for pumped storage was analyzed by two different methods. The differences between markets stem from different diurnal power price patterns that reflect the generation mix, market design and participant behaviours. 17 refs., 7 tabs., 7 figs., 1 appendix

  8. Carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and storage : Canadian market development

    Hendriks, A.

    2006-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is used to extend the life of light oil reservoirs in Canada. An additional 13 per cent of original oil in place is typically recovered using CO 2 flooding processes. However, a carbon capture and storage (CCS) market is needed in order to commercialize CO 2 flooding technologies. CO 2 can be obtained from naturally-occurring accumulations in underground reservoirs, electrical and coal-fired generation plants, petrochemical facilities, and upstream oil and gas processing facilities. CO 2 is sequestered in EOR processes, in sour gas disposal processes, solvent recovery processes, and in coalbed methane (CBM) extraction. It is also disposed in depleted fields and aquifers. While CCS technologies are mature, project economics remain marginal. However, CCS in EOR is commercially feasible at current high oil prices. No transportation infrastructure is in place to transport sources of CO 2 in the high volumes needed to establish a market. While governments have created a favourable public policy environment for CCS, governments will need to address issues related to infrastructure, public perception of CCS, and stakeholder engagement with CCS projects. It was concluded that CCS and CO 2 flooding techniques have the capacity to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions while helping to sustain light oil production. tabs., figs

  9. Large-scale CO2 storage — Is it feasible?

    Johansen H.

    2013-06-01

    close to the reservoir, the general pressure build up, and the reactive nature of CO2, have created a need for new research and knowledge, to be used in conjunction with operating competence from the oil and gas industry. Experimental work on fluid flow, deformation and reaction, as well as simulations to predict the future performance of the injected CO2, are much more important in connection with CO2 storage, as compared with conventional oil and gas production. To conclude this overview of the CO2 storage challenge, the technical feasibility of large-scale CO2 storage has been demonstrated. The cost is however going to be significant, especially in the initial phase. The public acceptance of CCS, and the willingness to pay the bill, will depend on several important factors: a serious acceptance of the climate problem, economic and political regulations that are globally fair, and the willingness of each and one of us to accept a higher price for energy.

  10. Large-scale CO2 storage — Is it feasible?

    Johansen, H.

    2013-06-01

    reservoir, the general pressure build up, and the reactive nature of CO2, have created a need for new research and knowledge, to be used in conjunction with operating competence from the oil and gas industry. Experimental work on fluid flow, deformation and reaction, as well as simulations to predict the future performance of the injected CO2, are much more important in connection with CO2 storage, as compared with conventional oil and gas production. To conclude this overview of the CO2 storage challenge, the technical feasibility of large-scale CO2 storage has been demonstrated. The cost is however going to be significant, especially in the initial phase. The public acceptance of CCS, and the willingness to pay the bill, will depend on several important factors: a serious acceptance of the climate problem, economic and political regulations that are globally fair, and the willingness of each and one of us to accept a higher price for energy.

  11. Hybrid Storage Market Assessment: A JISEA White Paper

    Ericson, Sean J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rose, Eric [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jayaswal, Harshit [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cole, Wesley J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Engel-Cox, Jill [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Logan, Jeffery [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McLaren, Joyce A. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Anderson, Katherine H [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Arent, Douglas J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Glassmire, John [HOMER Energy, Boulder, CO (United States); Klawiter, Steffi [HOMER Energy, Boulder, CO (United States); Rajasekaran, Dhiwaakar [HOMER Energy, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-10-09

    This white paper evaluates which markets are best suited for battery storage and storage hybrids and reviews regulations and incentives that support or impede the implementation of standalone storage and battery hybrids. The costs of battery storage technologies have dropped in recent years, resulting in a seven-fold increase in installed capacity over the last decade (1). These technologies offer an attractive rate of return in some locations; however, cost and regulatory barriers still limit the market for storage. Hybridizing a battery (combining the battery with a generator) can in some instances reduce total system costs and increase value compared to separate installations. The fast ramping and dispatchability of a battery can complement the generator to provide services that neither battery nor generator could provide alone. Battery hybrids also benefit from some policy incentives and may be better able to meet market and regulatory requirements.

  12. Introduction to energy storage with market analysis and outlook

    Schmid, Robert [Institut für Experimentelle Physik, Technische Universität Bergakademie Freiberg, Leipziger Straße 23, 09596 Freiberg (Germany); Pillot, Christophe [AVICENNE Energy, LITWIN Building, 10 rue Jean-Jaurès, La Défense 11, Puteaux Cedex (France)

    2014-06-16

    At first, the rechargeable battery market in 2012 will be described by technology - lead acid, NiCd, NiMH, lithium ion - and application - portable electronics, power tools, e-bikes, automotive, energy storage. This will be followed by details of the lithium ion battery market value chain from the raw material to the final application. The lithium ion battery market of 2012 will be analyzed and split by applications, form factors and suppliers. There is also a focus on the cathode, anode, electrolyte and separator market included. This report will also give a forecast for the main trends and the market in 2020, 2025. To conclude, a forecast for the rechargeable battery market by application for 2025 will be presented. Since energy storage plays an important role for the growing Electric Vehicle (EV) market, this EV issue is closely considered throughout this analysis.

  13. Introduction to energy storage with market analysis and outlook

    Schmid, Robert; Pillot, Christophe

    2014-06-01

    At first, the rechargeable battery market in 2012 will be described by technology - lead acid, NiCd, NiMH, lithium ion - and application - portable electronics, power tools, e-bikes, automotive, energy storage. This will be followed by details of the lithium ion battery market value chain from the raw material to the final application. The lithium ion battery market of 2012 will be analyzed and split by applications, form factors and suppliers. There is also a focus on the cathode, anode, electrolyte and separator market included. This report will also give a forecast for the main trends and the market in 2020, 2025. To conclude, a forecast for the rechargeable battery market by application for 2025 will be presented. Since energy storage plays an important role for the growing Electric Vehicle (EV) market, this EV issue is closely considered throughout this analysis.

  14. Introduction to energy storage with market analysis and outlook

    Schmid, Robert; Pillot, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    At first, the rechargeable battery market in 2012 will be described by technology - lead acid, NiCd, NiMH, lithium ion - and application - portable electronics, power tools, e-bikes, automotive, energy storage. This will be followed by details of the lithium ion battery market value chain from the raw material to the final application. The lithium ion battery market of 2012 will be analyzed and split by applications, form factors and suppliers. There is also a focus on the cathode, anode, electrolyte and separator market included. This report will also give a forecast for the main trends and the market in 2020, 2025. To conclude, a forecast for the rechargeable battery market by application for 2025 will be presented. Since energy storage plays an important role for the growing Electric Vehicle (EV) market, this EV issue is closely considered throughout this analysis

  15. Technical and economic feasibility of thermal energy storage. Thermal energy storage application to the brick/ceramic industry. Final report

    Glenn, D.R.

    1976-10-01

    An initial project to study the technical and economic feasibility of thermal energy storage (TES) in the three major consumer markets, namely, the residential, commercial and industrial sectors is described. A major objective of the study was to identify viable TES applications from which a more concise study could be launched, leading to a conceptual design and in-depth validation of the TES energy impacts. This report documents one such program. The brick/ceramic industries commonly use periodic kilns which by their operating cycle require time-variant energy supply and consequently variable heat rejection. This application was one of the numerous TES opportunities that emerged from the first study, now available from the ERDA Technical Information Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, identified as Report No. COO-2558-1.

  16. The characteristics of electricity storage, renewables and markets

    Waterson, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This paper accepts the widespread view that as electricity generation systems transition towards a greater proportion of renewables provision, there will be an increasing need for storage facilities. However, it differs from most such studies in contrasting the private incentives of a storage operator with the public desirability of bulk storage. A key factor in the context of a market such as Britain, where renewable energy largely means wind generation, is the nature of wind generation itself. The problem of wind's high variance and intermittent nature is explored. It is argued that not only is there a missing money and a missing market issue in providing secure energy supplies, there is also a missing informational issue. A key opportunity for new storage is participation in a capacity market, if the setting is right. - Highlights: • Considers both the public and private incentives for developing energy storage. • Consideration of the intermittency of wind as a factor influencing storage. • Arbitrage analysed alongside other earning streams. • Impact of market design on extent of storage.

  17. Uranium retrieval support, storage, and marketing

    Jackson, J.D.; Marshall, E.M.

    2001-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy is implementing a stewardship approach to management of uranium assets. This life-cycle approach to managing uranium addresses current needs in the context of a long-term strategy. In June 1998, the United States Department of Energy established the Uranium Management Group. The mission of the UMG is to safely collect and store commercially viable uranium from various DOE facilities at a central location. The Oak Ridge Operations Office, in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, was given the task to establish a facility for the storage of these uranium materials. Materials collected are non-waste uranium and packaged to allow transport and long-term storage. Coordination of uranium management under the Uranium Management Group offers significant opportunities for sayings through improved planning and efficiency and creates an environmentally sound approach for the storage and reuse of excess uranium. (author)

  18. Uranium retrieval support, storage, and marketing

    Jackson, J.D.; Marshall, E.M. [U.S. Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The United States Department of Energy is implementing a stewardship approach to management of uranium assets. This life-cycle approach to managing uranium addresses current needs in the context of a long-term strategy. In June 1998, the United States Department of Energy established the Uranium Management Group. The mission of the UMG is to safely collect and store commercially viable uranium from various DOE facilities at a central location. The Oak Ridge Operations Office, in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, was given the task to establish a facility for the storage of these uranium materials. Materials collected are non-waste uranium and packaged to allow transport and long-term storage. Coordination of uranium management under the Uranium Management Group offers significant opportunities for sayings through improved planning and efficiency and creates an environmentally sound approach for the storage and reuse of excess uranium. (author)

  19. Hydropower generation and storage, transmission constraints and market power

    Johnsen, T.A.

    2001-01-01

    We study hydropower generation and storage in the presence of uncertainty about future inflows, market power and limited transmission capacity to neighboring regions. Within our simple two-period model, market power leads to too little storage. The monopolist finds it profitable to produce more than the competitive amount in the first period and thereby stores little water in the first of two periods in order to become import constrained in the second period. In addition, little storage reduces the probability of becoming export constrained in the second period, even if the second period exhibits large inflow. Empirical findings for an area in the western part of Norway with only hydropower and high ownership concentration at the supply side, fit well to our theoretical model. We apply a numerical model to examine various policies to reduce the inefficiencies created by the local monopoly. Transmission investments have two effects. First, the export possibilities in the first period increase. More export leads to lower storage in the first period. Second, larger import capacity reduces the market power problem in the second period. The two opposite effects of transmission investments in a case with market power may be unique to hydropower systems. Introducing financial transmission rights enhance the market power of the monopolist in our model. Price caps in both or in the second period only, reduce the strategic value of water storage. (Author)

  20. Energy storage systems: power grid and energy market use cases

    Komarnicki Przemysław

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Current power grid and market development, characterized by large growth of distributed energy sources in recent years, especially in Europa, are according energy storage systems an increasingly larger field of implementation. Existing storage technologies, e.g. pumped-storage power plants, have to be upgraded and extended by new but not yet commercially viable technologies (e.g. batteries or adiabatic compressed air energy storage that meet expected demands. Optimal sizing of storage systems and technically and economically optimal operating strategies are the major challenges to the integration of such systems in the future smart grid. This paper surveys firstly the literature on the latest niche applications. Then, potential new use case and operating scenarios for energy storage systems in smart grids, which have been field tested, are presented and discussed and subsequently assessed technically and economically.

  1. Market and Policy Barriers to Energy Storage Deployment

    Bhatnagar, Dhruv [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Currier, Aileen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hernandez, Jacquelynne [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ma, Ookie [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy; Kirby, Brendan [Consultant

    2013-09-01

    Electric energy storage technologies can provide numerous grid services; there are a number of factors that restrict their current deployment. The most significant barrier to deployment is high capital costs, though several recent deployments indicate that capital costs are decreasing and energy storage may be the preferred economic alternative in certain situations. However, a number of other market and regulatory barriers persist, limiting further deployment. These barriers can be categorized into regulatory barriers, market (economic) barriers, utility and developer business model barriers, cross-cutting barriers and technology barriers.

  2. Hydrogen Storage Needs for Early Motive Fuel Cell Markets

    Kurtz, J.; Ainscough, C.; Simpson, L.; Caton, M.

    2012-11-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) objective for this project is to identify performance needs for onboard energy storage of early motive fuel cell markets by working with end users, manufacturers, and experts. The performance needs analysis is combined with a hydrogen storage technology gap analysis to provide the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cell Technologies Program with information about the needs and gaps that can be used to focus research and development activities that are capable of supporting market growth.

  3. Market and policy barriers to energy storage deployment :

    Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Currier, Aileen B.; Hernandez, Jacquelynne; Ma, Ookie; Kirby, Brendan

    2013-09-01

    Electric energy storage technologies have recently been in the spotlight, discussed as essential grid assets that can provide services to increase the reliability and resiliency of the grid, including furthering the integration of variable renewable energy resources. Though they can provide numerous grid services, there are a number of factors that restrict their current deployment. The most significant barrier to deployment is high capital costs, though several recent deployments indicate that capital costs are decreasing and energy storage may be the preferred economic alternative in certain situations. However, a number of other market and regulatory barriers persist, limiting further deployment. These barriers can be categorized into regulatory barriers, market (economic) barriers, utility and developer business model barriers, crosscutting barriers and technology barriers. This report, through interviews with stakeholders and review of regulatory filings in four regions roughly representative of the United States, identifies the key barriers restricting further energy storage development in the country. The report also includes a discussion of possible solutions to address these barriers and a review of initiatives around the country at the federal, regional and state levels that are addressing some of these issues. Energy storage could have a key role to play in the future grid, but market and regulatory issues have to be addressed to allow storage resources open market access and compensation for the services they are capable of providing. Progress has been made in this effort, but much remains to be done and will require continued engagement from regulators, policy makers, market operators, utilities, developers and manufacturers.

  4. CO2 Storage Feasibility: A Workflow for Site Characterisation

    Nepveu Manuel

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present an overview of the SiteChar workflow model for site characterisation and assessment for CO2 storage. Site characterisation and assessment is required when permits are requested from the legal authorities in the process of starting a CO2 storage process at a given site. The goal is to assess whether a proposed CO2 storage site can indeed be used for permanent storage while meeting the safety requirements demanded by the European Commission (EC Storage Directive (9, Storage Directive 2009/31/EC. Many issues have to be scrutinised, and the workflow presented here is put forward to help efficiently organise this complex task. Three issues are highlighted: communication within the working team and with the authorities; interdependencies in the workflow and feedback loops; and the risk-based character of the workflow. A general overview (helicopter view of the workflow is given; the issues involved in communication and the risk assessment process are described in more detail. The workflow as described has been tested within the SiteChar project on five potential storage sites throughout Europe. This resulted in a list of key aspects of site characterisation which can help prepare and focus new site characterisation studies.

  5. Assessment of market potential of compressed air energy storage systems

    Boyd, D. W.; Buckley, O. E.; Clark, C. E., Jr.

    1983-12-01

    This report describes an assessment of potential roles that EPRI might take to facilitate the commercial acceptance of compressed air energy storage (CAES) systems. The assessment is based on (1) detailed analyses of the market potential of utility storage technologies, (2) interviews with representatives of key participants in the CAES market, and (3) a decision analysis synthesizing much of the information about market and technology status. The results indicate a large potential market for CAES systems if the overall business environment for utilities improves. In addition, it appears that EPRI can have a valuable incremental impact in ensuring that utilities realize the potential of CAES by (1) continuing an aggressive information dissemination and technology transfer program, (2) working to ensure the success of the first United States CAES installation at Soyland Power Cooperative, (3) developing planning methods to allow utilities to evaluate CAES and other storage options more effectively and more realistically, and (4) supporting R and D to resolve residual uncertainties in first-generation CAES cost and performance characteristics. Previously announced in STAR as N83-25121

  6. A thermal storage capacity market for non dispatchable renewable energies

    Bennouna, El Ghali; Mouaky, Ammar; Arrad, Mouad; Ghennioui, Abdellatif; Mimet, Abdelaziz

    2017-06-01

    Due to the increasingly high capacity of wind power and solar PV in Germany and some other European countries and the high share of variable renewable energy resources in comparison to fossil and nuclear capacity, a power reserve market structured by auction systems was created to facilitate the exchange of balance power capacities between systems and even grid operators. Morocco has a large potential for both wind and solar energy and is engaged in a program to deploy 2000MW of wind capacity by 2020 and 3000 MW of solar capacity by 2030. Although the competitiveness of wind energy is very strong, it appears clearly that the wind program could be even more ambitious than what it is, especially when compared to the large exploitable potential. On the other hand, heavy investments on concentrated solar power plants equipped with thermal energy storage have triggered a few years ago including the launching of the first part of the Nour Ouarzazate complex, the goal being to reach stable, dispatchable and affordable electricity especially during evening peak hours. This paper aims to demonstrate the potential of shared thermal storage capacity between dispatchable and non dispatchable renewable energies and particularly CSP and wind power. Thus highlighting the importance of a storage capacity market in parallel to the power reserve market and the and how it could enhance the development of both wind and CSP market penetration.

  7. Technical feasibility of krypton-85 storage in sodalite

    Benedict, R.W.; Christensen, A.B.; Del Debbio, J.A.; Keller, J.H.; Knecht, D.A.

    1979-01-01

    Based on these experimental results, the process that is technically feasible for a reference 2000 metric ton of heavy metal (MTHM) per year reprocessing plant producing approx. 17 MCi or approx. 190 m 3 at STP would encapsulate krypton at approx. 20 cm 3 /g from krypton at temperatures greater than 575 0 C and pressures greater than 1600 atm with one batch a day in a 58-L high pressure vessel. Based on preliminary measurements at 500 0 C, the same process also would be feasible for a 70% krypton and 30% xenon mixture. 7 figures

  8. Feasibility study for the partial conversion of a hydropower plant into a pumped-storage power plant: a case study of hydroelectric power plant La Barca (Asturias, Spain

    E. Antuña Yudego

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy sources have reported an unprecedented increase of global installed renewable power capacity. Against the advantages provided by this renewable power generation technology it should be taken into account an important issue: these intermittent energy sources supply a fluctuating output which is difficult to manage. Pumped-storage hydro power plants reappear in these circumstances as an efficient form of energy storage which allows to use reserves when necessary, enabling power generation output to cover continuously this energy demand. The present paper shows a simplified feasibility study of the partial conversion of hydropower plant La Barca, in Asturias, into a reversible storage through the development of an algorithm to simulate its operation according to electricity market prices. For this purpose, the operation in the deviation management market is considered and the technical modifications required for the conversion are shown. The estimation of costs and incomes present a feasible scenario.

  9. Feasibility study and economic analysis of pumped hydro storage and battery storage for a renewable energy powered island

    Ma, Tao; Yang, Hongxing; Lu, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Batteries and pumped hydro storage schemes are examined. • Sizing procedure for each option is investigated in detail. • The two schemes are compared in terms of life cycle cost and technical viability. • Sensitivity analyses are conducted on five key input parameters. - Abstract: This study examined and compared two energy storage technologies, i.e. batteries and pumped hydro storage (PHS), for the renewable energy powered microgrid power supply system on a remote island in Hong Kong. The problems of energy storage for off-grid renewable energy were analyzed. The sizing methods and economic models were developed, and finally applied in the real project (case study). The results provide the most suitable energy storage scheme for local decision-makers. The two storage schemes were further divided into 4 options. Accordingly, the life-cycle costs (LCC), levelized costs for the renewable energy storage system (LCRES) and the LCC ratios between all options were calculated and compared. It was found that the employment of conventional battery (Option 2) had a higher LCC value than the advanced deep cycle battery (Option 1), indicating that using deep cycle batteries is more suitable for a standalone renewable power supply system. The pumped storage combined with battery bank option (Option 3) had only 55% LCC of that of Option 1, making this combined option more cost-competitive than the sole battery option. The economic benefit of pumped storage is even more significant in the case of purely pumped storage with a hydraulic controller (Option 4), with the lowest LCC among all options at 29–48% of Option 1. Sensitivity analysis demonstrates that PHS is even more cost competitive by controlling some adjustments such as increasing energy storage capacity and days of autonomy. Therefore, the renewable energy system coupled with pumped storage presents technically feasible opportunities and practical potential for continuous power supply in remote

  10. Feasibility study on conversion and storage of solar energy

    Senghaphan, W; Tunsiri, P; Trivijitkasem, P; Ratanathammaphan, K

    1982-01-01

    A study has been conducted on the energy conversion system from solar energy to mechanical energy and on the efficiency of energy storage by an ordinary battery. The conversion system makes use of a thermal cycle, that is to say, the solar energy is collected as heat, and this heat makes suitable working substances evaporate into vapor with volume and pressure which can be used to drive the turbine resulting in mechanical energy. The vapor which passes through the turbine will have reduced pressure and reduced temperature and will be recondensed into liquid after passing through a suitable radiator. This liquid can be pumped back into the hot part of the conversion system with little energy. It is found by this study that the turbine could be operated by using acetone as working substance with a 80-90/sup 0/C source of heat. In the energy conversion system from solar energy to electrical energy, it is essential to provide for an energy storage, so that energy can be used in the absence of sunshine. To store energy by using a batter is one of the convenient methods. Therefore the efficiency of the batteries has been studied. Owing to incompleteness of the researched system, a conventional DC power supply has been used for charging the batteries. It is found that the efficiency of the charging and discharging cycle of batteries is about 40-60%.

  11. Feasibility report on criticality issues associated with storage of K Basin sludge in tanks farms

    Vail, T.S.

    1997-05-29

    This feasibility study provides the technical justification for conclusions about K Basin sludge storage options. The conclusions, solely based on criticality safety considerations, depend on the treatment of the sludge. The two primary conclusions are, (1) untreated sludge must be stored in a critically safe storage tank, and (2) treated sludge (dissolution, precipitation and added neutron absorbers) can be stored in a standard Double Contained Receiver Tank (DCRT) or 241-AW-105 without future restrictions on tank operations from a criticality safety perspective.

  12. Feasibility report on criticality issues associated with storage of K Basin sludge in tanks farms

    Vail, T.S.

    1997-01-01

    This feasibility study provides the technical justification for conclusions about K Basin sludge storage options. The conclusions, solely based on criticality safety considerations, depend on the treatment of the sludge. The two primary conclusions are, (1) untreated sludge must be stored in a critically safe storage tank, and (2) treated sludge (dissolution, precipitation and added neutron absorbers) can be stored in a standard Double Contained Receiver Tank (DCRT) or 241-AW-105 without future restrictions on tank operations from a criticality safety perspective

  13. Strategic sizing of energy storage facilities in electricity markets

    Nasrolahpour, Ehsan; Kazempour, Seyyedjalal; Zareipour, Hamidreza

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a model to determine the optimasize of an energy storage facility from a strategic investor’s perspective. This investor seeks to maximize its profit through making strategic planning, i.e., storage sizing, and strategic operational, i.e., offering and bidding, decisions. We...... consider the uncertainties associated with rival generators’ offering strategies and future load levels in the proposed model. The strategic investment decisions include the sizes of charging device, discharging device and energy reservoir. The proposed model is a stochastic bi-level optimization problem......; the planning and operation decisions are made in the upper-level, and market clearing is modeled in the lower-level under different operating scenarios. To make the proposed model computationally tractable, an iterative solution technique based on Benders’ decomposition is implemented. This provides a master...

  14. The Use of Market Feasibility Studies in the Restaurant Industry for Small and Medium-sized Restaurants

    Kolster, Maria

    2017-01-01

    The goals of this thesis are to provide the reader with new information about market feasibility studies in the restaurant industry and to design a market feasibility template for the international restaurant industry which can be used for small and medium-sized restaurants before entering the market. The objectives are to define the ideal factors of a market feasibility study for the international restaurant industry, to learn and become an expert in feasibility studies for the restaurant i...

  15. Role of Pumped Storage Hydro Resources in Electricity Markets and System Operation: Preprint

    Ela, E.; Kirby, B.; Botterud, A.; Milostan, C.; Krad, I.; Koritarov, V.

    2013-05-01

    The most common form of utility- sized energy storage system is the pumped storage hydro system. Originally, these types of storage systems were economically viable simply because they displace more expensive generating units. However, over time, as those expensive units became more efficient and costs declined, pumped hydro storage units no longer have the operational edge. As a result, in the current electricity market environment, pumped storage hydro plants are struggling. To offset this phenomenon, certain market modifications should be addressed. This paper will introduce some of the challenges faced by pumped storage hydro plants in today's markets and purpose some solutions to those problems.

  16. Assessment of feasible strategies for seasonal underground hydrogen storage in a saline aquifer

    Sáinz-García, Alvaro; Abarca, Elena; Rubí, Violeta; Grandia, Fidel

    2017-04-01

    Renewable energies are unsteady, which results in temporary mismatches between demand and supply. The conversion of surplus energy to hydrogen and its storage in geological formations is one option to balance this energy gap. This study evaluates the feasibility of seasonal storage of hydrogen produced from wind power in Castilla-León region (northern Spain). A 3D multiphase numerical model is used to test different extraction well configurations during three annual injection-production cycles in a saline aquifer. Results demonstrate that underground hydrogen storage in saline aquifers can be operated with reasonable recovery ratios. A maximum hydrogen recovery ratio of 78%, which represents a global energy efficiency of 30%, has been estimated. Hydrogen upconing emerges as the major risk on saline aquifer storage. However, shallow extraction wells can minimize its effects. Steeply dipping geological structures are key for an efficient hydrogen storage.

  17. Information on the feasibility study for the reracking in the fuel storage pools of the Juragua Nuclear Power Plant

    Rodriguez, J.M.; Rodriguez, I.; Lopez, D.; Guerra, R.; Rodriguez, M.; Garcia, F.

    1995-01-01

    During 1993, in the Juragua Nuclear Power Plants as engineering evaluation programme was initiated in the storage area of irradiated nuclear fuel, where work in order to determine the feasibility of capacity increase for storage of irradiated nuclear fuel at the fuel storage pools using poisoned compact close racks instead of the originally designed racks. The feasibility study is a fundamental activity of this programme for the 1994-1995 period. According to this study the prospects of assimilation of compact storage conditions in the fuel storage pools in unit number one and prolonged fuel storage pool are investigated

  18. Is a liquid and competitive wholesale market feasible in BC?

    El-Ramly, A.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation outlined the principle market movements that helped build the electric power industry in British Columbia, from 1860 to the present. Today, British Columbia is a major player in interconnected and disconnected western markets that include Alberta, the gateway to California, California and the southwest. A profile of these markets was presented with reference to programs, regulations and services that have been launched since 1988. The impetus for change was discussed with reference to load resource balance in British Columbia; the drive for private investment; an improved provincial economy; and price stability, reduced volatility and low prices which are allowing market participants to focus on new developments. It was noted that the momentum is in place to take progressive measures in opening the regulatory process regarding power transmission and opening new markets to the east and south. The bad market powers at play were also described with reference to policy that dilutes innovation, heritage contracts, and the lack of interest by industrial customers in an open access market. This presentation also included a mid-term Alberta Power Pool price forecast and BC transmission activity. It was noted that in dollar terms, British Columbia has been a net importer from the United States since the third quarter in 2004 because of its supply shortage and unexpectedly high demand growth. BC has maintained a surplus with respect to Alberta, by arbitraging between the on-peak and off-peak hours. This trend presents opportunities for independent power producers (IPP). It was concluded that the BC power industry is in much better shape than any of the deregulated markets. Its heritage contract protects rate payers and the market is opening up cautiously. tabs., figs

  19. Assessing aquifer storage and recovery feasibility in the Gulf Coastal Plains of Texas

    W. Benjamin Smith

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Study region: The Gulf Coast and Carrizo-Wilcox aquifer systems in the Gulf Coastal Plains of Texas. Study focus: Aquifer storage and recovery is a water storage alternative that is underutilized in Texas, a state with both long periods of drought and high intensity storms. Future water storage plans in Texas almost exclusively rely on surface reservoirs, subject to high evaporative losses. This study seeks to identify sites where aquifer storage and recovery (ASR may be successful, especially in recovery of injected waters, by analyzing publicly-available hydrogeologic data. Transmissivity, hydraulic gradient, well density, depth to aquifer, and depth to groundwater are used in a GIS-based index to determine feasibility of implementing an ASR system in the Gulf Coast and Carrizo-Wilcox aquifer systems. New hydrological insights for the region: Large regions of the central and northern Gulf Coast and the central and southern Carrizo-Wilcox aquifer systems are expected to be hydrologically feasible regions for ASR. Corpus Christi, Victoria, San Antonio, Bryan, and College Station are identified as possible cities where ASR would be a useful water storage strategy. Keywords: Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR, GIS, Gulf coast, Carrizo-Wilcox, Managed aquifer recharge (MAR

  20. 18 CFR 284.505 - Market-based rates for storage providers without a market-power determination.

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Market-based rates for storage providers without a market-power determination. 284.505 Section 284.505 Conservation of Power and... UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND RELATED AUTHORITIES Applications for Market-Based Rates for...

  1. A "New" Approach to Local Labor Market Analysis: A Feasibility Study.

    Goldfarb, Robert; Hamermesh, Daniel

    This report describes research on the New Haven labor market carried out during the summer and fall of 1969 and the spring of 1970. The aims of the research were to develop further the theoretical approach to micro-labor economics in a local labor market and to test the feasibility of collecting data from local firms which could be used to test…

  2. Report on technical feasibility of underground pumped hydroelectric storage in a marble quarry site in the Northeast United States

    Chas. T. Main, Inc.

    1982-03-01

    The technical and economic aspects of constructing a very high head underground hydroelectric pumped storage were examined at a prefeasibility level. Excavation of existing caverns in the West Rutland Vermont marble quarry would be used to construct the underground space. A plant capacity of 1200 MW and 12 h of continuous capacity were chosen as plant operating conditions. The site geology, plant design, and electrical and mechanical equipment required were considered. The study concluded that the cost of the 1200 MW underground pumped storage hydro electric project at this site even with the proposed savings from marketable material amounts to between $581 and $595 per kilowatt of installed capacity on a January 1982 pricing level. System studies performed by the planning group of the New England Power System indicate that the system could economically justify up to about $442 per kilowatt on an energy basis with no credit for capacity. To accommodate the plant with the least expensive pumping energy, a coal and nuclear generation mix of approximately 65% would have to be available before the project becomes feasible. It is not expected that this condition can be met before the year 2000 or beyond. It is therefore concluded that the West Rutland underground pumped storage facility is uneconomic at this time. Several variables however could have marked influence on future planning and should be examined on periodic basis.

  3. Establishing politically feasible water markets: a multi-criteria approach.

    Ballestero, Enrique; Alarcón, Silverio; García-Bernabeu, Ana

    2002-08-01

    A multiple criteria decision-making (MCDM) model to simulate the establishment of water markets is developed. The environment is an irrigated area governed by a non-profit agency, which is responsible for water production, allocation, and pricing. There is a traditional situation of historical rights, average-cost pricing for water allocation, large quantities of water used, and inefficiency. A market-oriented policy could be implemented by accounting for ecological and political objectives such as saving groundwater and safeguarding historical rights while promoting economic efficiency. In this paper, a problem is solved by compromise programming, a multi-criteria technique based on the principles of Simonian logic. The model is theoretically developed and applied to the Lorca region in Spain near the Mediterranean Sea.

  4. Dual technology energy storage system applied to two complementary electricity markets using a weekly differentiated approach

    Ferreira, H.L.; Staňková, K.; Peças Lopes, J.; Slootweg, J.G.; Kling, W.L.

    2017-01-01

    This paper deals with integration of energy storage systems into electricity markets. We explain why the energy storage systems increase flexibility of both power systems and energy markets and why such flexibility is desirable, particularly when variable renewable energy sources are being used in

  5. Maize flour fortification in Africa: markets, feasibility, coverage, and costs.

    Fiedler, John L; Afidra, Ronald; Mugambi, Gladys; Tehinse, John; Kabaghe, Gladys; Zulu, Rodah; Lividini, Keith; Smitz, Marc-Francois; Jallier, Vincent; Guyondet, Christophe; Bermudez, Odilia

    2014-04-01

    The economic feasibility of maize flour and maize meal fortification in Kenya, Uganda, and Zambia is assessed using information about the maize milling industry, households' purchases and consumption levels of maize flour, and the incremental cost and estimated price impacts of fortification. Premix costs comprise the overwhelming share of incremental fortification costs and vary by 50% in Kenya and by more than 100% across the three countries. The estimated incremental cost of maize flour fortification per metric ton varies from $3.19 in Zambia to $4.41 in Uganda. Assuming all incremental costs are passed onto the consumer, fortification in Zambia would result in at most a 0.9% increase in the price of maize flour, and would increase annual outlays of the average maize flour-consuming household by 0.2%. The increases for Kenyans and Ugandans would be even less. Although the coverage of maize flour fortification is not likely to be as high as some advocates have predicted, fortification is economically feasible, and would reduce deficiencies of multiple micronutrients, which are significant public health problems in each of these countries. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

  6. The value of electricity storage in energy-only electricity markets

    McConnell, D.; Forcey, T.; Sandiford, M.

    2015-12-01

    Price volatility and the prospect of increasing renewable energy generation have raised interest in the potential opportunities for storage technologies in energy-only electricity markets. In this paper we explore the value of a price-taking storage device in such a market, the National Electricity Market (NEM) in Australia. Our analysis suggests that under optimal operation, there is little value in having more than six hours of storage in this market. However, the inability to perfectly forecast wholesale prices, particularly extreme price spikes, may warrant some additional storage. We found that storage devices effectively provide a similar service as peak generators (such as Open Cycle Gas Turbines) and are similarly dependent on and exposed to extreme price events, with revenue for a merchant generator highly skewed to a few days of the year. In contrast to previous studies, this results in the round trip efficiency of the storage being relatively insignificant. Financing using hedging strategies similar to a peak generator effectively reduces the variability of revenue and exposure of storage to extreme prices. Our case study demonstrates that storage may have a competitive advantage over other peaking generators on the NEM, due to its ability to earn revenue outside of extreme peak events. As a consequence the outlook for storage options on the NEM is dependent on volatility, in turn dependent on capacity requirements. Further to this, increased integration of renewable energy may both depend on storage and improve the outlook for storage in technologies in electricity markets.

  7. Geological Feasibility of Underground Oil Storage in Jintan Salt Mine of China

    Xilin Shi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of large underground oil storage spaces will be constructed in deep salt mines in China in the coming years. According to the general geological survey, the first salt cavern oil storage base of China is planned to be built in Jintan salt mine. In this research, the geological feasibility of the salt mine for oil storage is identified in detail as follows. (1 The characteristics of regional structure, strata sediment, and impermeable layer distribution of Jintan salt mine were evaluated and analyzed. (2 The tightness of cap rock was evaluated in reviews of macroscopic geology and microscopic measuring. (3 According to the geological characteristics of Jintan salt mine, the specific targeted formation for building underground oil storage was chosen, and the sealing of nonsalt interlayers was evaluated. (4 Based on the sonar measuring results of the salt caverns, the characteristics of solution mining salt caverns were analyzed. In addition, the preferred way of underground oil storage construction was determined. (5 Finally, the results of closed well observation in solution mining salt caverns were assessed. The research results indicated that Jintan salt mine has the basic geological conditions for building large-scale underground oil storage.

  8. Electricity demand response in China: Status, feasible market schemes and pilots

    Li, Weilin; Xu, Peng; Lu, Xing; Wang, Huilong; Pang, Zhihong

    2016-01-01

    Demand Response (DR) has been extensively developed and implemented in the US and Europe. However, DR hardly exists in many developing countries for similar problems such as rigid power market and state monopoly. With the increasing imbalance between supply and demand in China's power industry, the government has issued new policies on DR and approved the first batch of pilot cities. China is setting a good example of how to encourage DR under monopolistic electric market and open up the market to aggregators and DR suppliers. This paper summarizes the current DR status, feasible DR market schemes and DR pilot projects in China. First, electric power system reform, renewable energy policies and power industry development are reviewed, highlighting the problems associated with the current dispatch mechanisms of DR policies and markets. New DR programs and DR-related policies are also introduced. On this basis, the driving forces and challenges associated with DR in China are analyzed. The major challenge is the lack of a suitable market mechanism for the current Chinese power industry. Hence, this paper presents six feasible strategies that fully utilize the existing policies. Additionally, the latest DR applications in different pilot cities are summarized and analyzed. - Highlights: • Summarize the status, feasible market schemes and pilot projects of DR in China. • Highlight the problems of the current dispatch mechanisms of DR policies and market. • Analyze the driving forces and challenges associated with DR in China. • Present six feasible strategies that fully utilize the existing policies. • Summarize and analyze the latest DR applications in different pilot cities.

  9. ANALYSIS OF AMMONIA REMOVAL FROM WASTEWATER MARKET: FEASIBILITY OF SALTWORKS INTRODUCING NEW TECHNOLOGY

    Nicholas Roch

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the market for removing ammonia from wastewater to assess its attractiveness and confirm the feasibility of Saltworks developing and launching its promising new ammonia removal technology. After an introduction, the paper qualitatively analyses the opportunity for Saltworks to enter the ammonia removal market using a SWOT analysis. The author’s personal experiences, Saltworks documentation, and interviews with Saltworks staff provide insight into the company...

  10. Preliminary market analysis for customer side of the meter thermal-energy storage

    None

    1979-12-31

    An examination is made of the potential market size for thermal energy storage space heating, water heating, and air conditioning in the residential and commercial sector. It is concluded that a significant market for TES could develop over the next 20 years; the analysis considers the electric utility perspective, the perspective, and the expected market in detail. (MCW)

  11. A feasibility study of a neutrino source based on a muon storage ring

    Finley, D

    2001-01-01

    We present the results of a study commissioned by the Fermilab Director on the feasibility of an intense neutrino source, based on a muon storage ring. Muon colliders have been discussed as an alternate route to very high-energy lepton colliders. As a by-product, such a collider would produce very intense neutrino beams because of the decaying muons circulating in the storage ring. In a dedicated storage ring, these neutrino beams could be produced in long straight sections which would point towards long, medium or short baseline detectors, opening up a whole new class of neutrino physics experiments because of the enormous neutrino flux that, in principle, could be achieved in such a facility as compared to more standard fixed target sources. Intense pion sources in combination with powerful emittance cooling strategies for the comparatively large muon emittance are necessary to make this type of neutrino source as well as a muon collider, feasible for a possible future high energy physics facility. The Neut...

  12. Emissions impacts of wind and energy storage in a market environment.

    Sioshansi, Ramteen

    2011-12-15

    This study examines the emissions impacts of adding wind and energy storage to a market-based electric power system. Using Texas as a case study, we demonstrate that market power can greatly effect the emissions benefits of wind, due to most of the coal-fired generation being owned by the two dominant firms. Wind tends to have less emissions benefits when generators exercise market power, since coal-fired generation is withheld from the market and wind displaces natural gas-fired generators. We also show that storage can have greater negative emissions impacts in the presence of wind than if only storage is added to the system. This is due to wind increasing on- and off-peak electricity price differences, which increases the amount that storage and coal-fired generation are used. We demonstrate that this effect is exacerbated by market power.

  13. Impact of product mix and markets on the economic feasibility of hardwood thinning

    John E. Baumgras; Chris B. LeDoux

    1989-01-01

    Results demonstrate how the economic feasibility of commercial hardwood thinning is impacted by tree diameter, product mix, and primary product markets. These results indicate that multiproduct harvesting can increase revenues by $0.01/ft³ to $0.32/ft³; and that small shifts in price levels or haul distance can postpone commercial thinning...

  14. The Chinese Society of Rare Earth is Studying The Feasibility of Marketing Rare Earth Futures

    2015-01-01

    Lin Donglu,secretary-general of the Chinese Society of Rare Earth recently said,the Chinese Society of Rare Earth undertook the research on subject of the National Social Science Fund Foundation on the reform of Chinese rare earth trading pricing mechanism on promoting RMB globalization,and is focusing on studying the feasibility of marketing rare earth futures variety.

  15. A Feasibility Study for Mobile Marketing and Distribution Occupational Laboratories in North Dakota.

    Kohns, Donald P.

    A study determined the feasibility of a mobile laboratory for marketing and distribution in North Dakota. It attempted to answer four questions: (1) What types of staffing, equipment, curriculum, and delivery systems are presently being utilized in mobile laboratories throughout the nation? (2) What significant information obtained from mobile…

  16. Stochastic coordination of joint wind and photovoltaic systems with energy storage in day-ahead market

    Gomes, I.L.R.; Pousinho, H.M.I.; Melício, R.; Mendes, V.M.F.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an optimal bid submission in a day-ahead electricity market for the problem of joint operation of wind with photovoltaic power systems having an energy storage device. Uncertainty not only due to the electricity market price, but also due to wind and photovoltaic powers is one of the main characteristics of this submission. The problem is formulated as a two-stage stochastic programming problem. The optimal bids and the energy flow in the batteries are the first-stage variables and the energy deviation is the second stage variable of the problem. Energy storage is a way to harness renewable energy conversion, allowing the store and discharge of energy at conveniently market prices. A case study with data from the Iberian day-ahead electricity market is presented and a comparison between joint and disjoint operations is discussed. - • Joint wind and PV systems with energy storage. • Electricity markets. • Stochastic optimization. • Day-ahead market.

  17. Acoustic imaging of underground storage tank wastes: A feasibility study. Final report

    Turpening, R.; Zhu, Z.; Caravana, C.; Matarese, J.

    1995-01-01

    The objectives for this underground storage tank (UST) imaging investigation are: (1) to assess the feasibility of using acoustic methods in UST wastes, if shown to be feasible, develop and assess imaging strategies; (2) to assess the validity of using chemical simulants for the development of acoustic methods and equipment. This investigation examined the velocity of surrogates, both salt cake and sludge surrogates. In addition collected seismic cross well data in a real tank (114-TX) on the Hanford Reservation. Lastly, drawing on the knowledge of the simulants and the estimates of the velocities of the waste in tank 114-TX the authors generated a hypothetical model of waste in a tank and showed that non-linear travel time tomographic imaging would faithfully image that stratigraphy

  18. Feasibility of CO{sub 2} geological storage in the Xingou oil field, Jianghan Basin, China

    Peng, Sanxi [School of Environmental Studies, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, 430074 (China); Changsha Engineering and Research Institute Ltd. of Nonferrous Metallurgy, Changsha, 410001 (China); Shana, Huimei; Li, Yilian [School of Environmental Studies, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, 430074 (China); Yang, Zhen; Zhong, Zhaohong [Changsha Engineering and Research Institute Ltd. of Nonferrous Metallurgy, Changsha, 410001 (China)

    2013-07-01

    Geological storage of CO{sub 2} as an effective way of reducing CO{sub 2} output to the atmosphere receives growing attention worldwide. To evaluate the feasibility of this technique in the Xingou oil field of Jianghan Basin in China, 2D and 3D models of CO{sub 2} geological storage were established using TOUGH2 software. Results showed that CO{sub 2} gas can be stored in the deepest reservoir through continuous injection over 50 years, and will remain effectively confined within the space under the second cap-rock during its diffusion over 500 years. Compared with 2D models, 3D models showed that the diffusion process of CO{sub 2} gas in the reservoir will create a mushroom-shaped zone of influence. (authors)

  19. The economics of electric energy storage and its interaction with market regulations

    He, X.

    2012-01-01

    This paper seeks to expose the interaction between the economics of EES and market regulation. An exhaustive investigation of relevant market regulations for the business of storage is conducted by examining (a) spot and futures markets, (b) ancillary services' procurement and (c) possible capacity enhancement. It is concluded that market regulation can be and should be improved in a number of ways to better recognize the value of EES. (author)

  20. The Evaluation of Feasibility of Thermal Energy Storage System at Riga TPP-2

    Ivanova, P.; Linkevics, O.; Cers, A.

    2015-12-01

    The installation of thermal energy storage system (TES) provides the optimisation of energy source, energy security supply, power plant operation and energy production flexibility. The aim of the present research is to evaluate the feasibility of thermal energy system installation at Riga TPP-2. The six modes were investigated: four for non-heating periods and two for heating periods. Different research methods were used: data statistic processing, data analysis, analogy, forecasting, financial method and correlation and regression method. In the end, the best mode was chosen - the increase of cogeneration unit efficiency during the summer.

  1. Forbearance, Regulation, and Market Power in Natural Gas Storage: The Case of Ontario

    Brown, D.; Ware, R.; Wetston, H.

    2007-07-01

    In late 2006 the Ontario Energy Board rendered a landmark decision to forbear from the price regulation of natural gas storage services. This paper examines the key issues and provides some economic analysis of the evidence. The decision followed a proceeding during which evidence was given on whether the market for storage is competitive or is subject to significant market power possessed by dominant and incumbent utility firms in the province. Intervenors in the proceeding were in broad agreement on the use of standard concepts from North American antitrust analysis of merger reviews: identification of the relevant product and geographic markets, analysis of market structure within the relevant market, and assessment of barriers to entry. A critical issue at the hearing was the extent of the geographic market; a broad market encompassing U.S. storage facilities in neighbouring states supports a finding of competition, whereas a narrower geographic market restricted to Ontario makes market power more likely. Since gas storage is only as functional as the pipelines connected to it, evidence was directed at assessing the availability of pipeline capacity in both primary and secondary markets. (auth)

  2. The Economic Feasibility of Residential Energy Storage Combined with PV Panels: The Role of Subsidies in Italy

    Federica Cucchiella

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A solar photovoltaic system produces electricity by converting energy from the sun. By the end of 2016, the global installed solar photovoltaic capacity reached 305 GW. Its growth is impressive in the last years; in fact, it was only equal to 41 GW in 2010. However, Europe has installed only 6.9 GW in 2016 (−1.7 GW in comparison to previous year and this annual power installed is equal to 9% of global one in according to data released by Solar Power Europe. The profitability of PV systems in mature markets depends on the harmonization between demanded energy and produced one residential energy storage when combined with photovoltaic panels is able to increase the share of self-consumption. This work proposes a mathematical model, in which a Discounted Cash Flow analysis is conducted to evaluate the financial feasibility of photovoltaic-integrated lead acid battery systems in Italy. The indicator used is Net Present Value. Furthermore, a break-even point analysis, in terms of an increase of self-consumption, is conducted. The residential sector is investigated and energy storage system investment is incentivized by fiscal deduction and regional subsidies. The analysis provides several case studies, determined by combinations of the following variables: photovoltaic plant size, battery capacity, the increase of the share of self-consumption, and the useful lifetime of energy storage system. The same case studies are proposed also in four alternative scenarios, where is the modified the structure of subsidies. Results confirm that the profitability can be reached in presence of subsidies.

  3. Optimal allocation of energy storage in a co-optimized electricity market: Benefits assessment and deriving indicators for economic storage ventures

    Krishnan, Venkat; Das, Trishna

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a framework for optimally allocating storage technologies in a power system. This decision support tool helps in quantitatively answering the questions on “where to and how much to install” considering the profits from arbitrage opportunities in a co-optimized electricity market. The developed framework is illustrated on a modified IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) 24 bus RTS (Reliability Test System), and the framework finds the optimal allocation solution and the revenues storage earns at each of these locations. Bulk energy storage, CAES (compressed air energy storage) is used as the representative storage technology, and the benefits of optimally allocated storage integration onto the grid are compared with transmission expansion solution. The paper also discusses about system-level indicators to identify candidate locations for economical storage ventures, which are derived based on the optimal storage allocation solution; and applies the market price based storage venture indicators on MISO (Mid-continental Independent System Operator) and PJM (Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland Interconnection) electricity markets. - Highlights: • Storage optimal allocation framework based on high-fidelity storage dispatch model. • Storage with transmission addresses energy and ancillary issues under high renewables. • Bulk storage earns higher revenues from co-optimization (∼10× energy only market). • Grid offers distributed opportunities for investing in a strategic mix of storage. • Storage opportunities depend on cross-arbitrage, as seen from MISO (Mid-continental Independent System Operator) and PJM (Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland Interconnection) markets

  4. E-marketing plan : case: Security Shredding & Storage Company, UK

    Olyazaeva, Baina

    2015-01-01

    The Internet has immensely changed the way information is shared, and has had a serious impact on marketing. Online marketing is becoming more powerful every day by providing value and good results for both businesses and people around the world. In the business world, the Internet is likely to be at the heart of a marketing strategy. It allows to decrease costs in traditional marketing, to create more effective ways to reach customers and to make businesses more competitive and responsive. S...

  5. Studies on the Storage Stability and Feasibility of Radurization of Indian Mackerel (Rastrelliger Kanagurta)

    Ghadi, S. V.; Alur, M. D.; Venugopal, V.; Doke, S. N.; Ghosh, S. K.; Lewis, N. F.; Nadkarni, G. B. [Biochemistry and Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India)

    1978-04-15

    Mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta) is one of the commercially important varieties of fish in India, preferred by the consumer in a fresh condition. Due to its short storage life, large portions of the catch are either sun-dried or cured with salt, yielding products that fetch a very low price. The conservation of fresh fish would facilitate better distribution in the interior of the country. Radurization of mackerel offers a potential for extending the shelf-life in ice by a factor of three. A dose of 150 krad was observed to be optimal to enhance the storage life to 25-28 days from 10 -12 days without inducing undesirable changes in the organoleptic attributes. Time-temperature-tolerance (TTT) between 0-20 Degree-Sign C of the radurized and unirradiated mackerel was ascertained with reference to physico-chemical, microbiological and organoleptic parameters. The rate of spoilage of unirradiated mackerel was 3-fold higher than that of radurized samples when the storage temperature did not exceed 5 Degree-Sign C. It was observed that alterations in shear force, water-holding capacity and plasticity index were less in radurized samples, pointing to the retention of textural attributes during the extended storage. The microflora of mackerel during storage revealed that the terminal flora of the unirradiated mackerel were predominantly gram-negative including Pseudomonas and Enterobacteria spp. while that of radurized fish comprised mainly Bacillus and Micrococcus spp. The spores of Bacillus sp. 128 isolated from radurized mackerel were observed to exhibit exceptionally high resistance to both u.v. and gamma radiation. Packaging and transportation have also been examined to ascertain the feasibility of this process for general application. (author)

  6. Battery Energy Storage Market: Commercial Scale, Lithium-ion Projects in the U.S.

    McLaren, Joyce; Gagnon, Pieter; Anderson, Kate; Elgqvist, Emma; Fu, Ran; Remo, Tim

    2016-10-01

    This slide deck presents current market data on the commercial scale li-ion battery storage projects in the U.S. It includes existing project locations, cost data and project cost breakdown, a map of demand charges across the U.S. and information about how the ITC and MACRS apply to energy storage projects that are paired with solar PV technology.

  7. U. K. storage market improves after difficult start to year

    Kingston, J

    1979-07-15

    According to J. Kingston of PD Oil and Chemical Storage Ltd., the present shortage of oil and product supplies has raised storage capacity rates and some tankage expansion is being considered, but there is no prospect of new terminal construction in the short-term without considerable hardening of storage tariffs. The few tanks under construction are for the specific requirements of certain chemical producers. PD Oil and Chemical operates three storage facilities at Barry, South Wales, where many tanks are specially lined for handling difficult products, Ipswich, and Purfleet, U.K., which have a total capacity of 733,600 cu m, as well as seven others in South Africa, Australia, Spain, France, the U.S., Canary Islands, and Cape Verde Islands in conjunction with subsidiary or associated companies. A table lists PD Oil and Chemical's facilities in the U.K., including location, type of storage, capacity, and accessibility.

  8. Feasibility study of a Green Power Plant. Final report. [Offshore pumped hydro storage

    NONE

    2013-03-15

    This project is a technical evaluation and a feasibility study of a concept called the Green Power Plant (GPP), developed by Seahorn Energy Aps. The Green Power Plant is an offshore pumped hydro storage facility constructed from prefabricated elements and with integrated renewable energy production. Pumped hydro storage is a known technology with a proven roundtrip energy storage efficiency of 80%. The focus of the GPP project is on simplifying and industrializing the construction of the reservoir wall, thereby achieving a cost efficient solution. The reservoir structure is dependent on the site on which the reservoir is established, thus Kriegers Flak in the Baltic Sea has been chosen as basis for the technical evaluation. As soil conditions vary, the technical evaluations have been based on a general soil profile. A water depth of 25m has been chosen as basis for the evaluation. A reservoir with a diameter of 2 km has been evaluated as baseline scenario. Feasibility of the GPP was evaluated based on the cost and income estimates. For the baseline scenario an internal rate of return of 6.6% was found for a period of 35 years. A sensitivity analysis reveals internal rates of return over 35 years varying from 4.9% to 10.9%. Especially larger reservoir diameters increase profitability of the GPP. The results from this project will be utilized in raising funds for further development of the GPP concept. Seahorn Energy Aps aims at optimizing the wind turbine integration, the steel pile wall structure and the pump-turbine integration in a future project towards construction of a demonstration facility. (LN)

  9. Feasibility assessment grants in support of volunteer siting of a monitored retrievables storage facility

    Benson, A.; Weisman, N.M.; Morgan, W.

    1993-01-01

    The Monitored Retrievable Storage facility (MRS) is an integral component of the planned Federal radioactive waste management system. The MRS will temporarily store spent fuel from commercial nuclear power plants prior to shipment to a geologic repository for permanent disposal. To facilitate voluntary siting of an MRS facility, Congress, in 1987, authorized the award of feasibility assessment grants by the Department of Energy to assist potentially interested jurisdictions to consider the possibility of hosting an MRS. This paper addresses the experience with MRS feasibility assessment grants to date, reviewing the current status of grant applications and presenting observations on the grant program and the voluntary siting approach, which it supports. The authors note that although the voluntary siting process has yet to identify an MRS host, the feasibility assessment grants have been successful in generating interest and active consideration and debate regarding MRS siting among States, Indian Tribes, and affected units of local government. Continued information efforts about the grant process and more proactive DOE support for and participation in the voluntary siting process are among the recommendations offered

  10. Feasibility study on utilization of radiation from spent fuel in storage facility

    Wataru, Masumi; Sakamoto, Kazuaki; Saegusa, Toshiari; Sakaya, Tadatsugu; Fujiwara, Hiroaki.

    1997-01-01

    Spent fuels of nuclear power plant are stored safely until reprocessing because they are radioactive in addition to energy resources. It is foreseen that the amount of the stored spent fuel increases in the long term. Therefore, in the government, discussion on the storage away from reactor is in progress as well as one at reactor. Spent fuel emits a radioactive ray for a long time. In the storage facility, radiation is shielded not to have a detrimental influence upon the health and environment. If radioactive ray is incorrectly handled, it is hazardous for the health and the environment. But, it is very useful if it is properly utilized under a careful management. In the industry, radioactive ray by isotopes (e.g. Co-60) is used widely. In a view of the effective utilization of energy, the promotion of the siting, the regional development and the creation of employment opportunities of local inhabitants, it is preferable to make use of radiation from the spent fuel. In this study, feasibility of utilization of radiation energy from the spent fuel in a storage facility was evaluated. (author)

  11. Feasibility and potential of thermal demand side management in residential buildings considering different developments in the German energy market

    Wolisz, Henryk; Punkenburg, Carl; Streblow, Rita; Müller, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A scenario analysis for the German energy market in the year 2030 is performed. • Growing demand for flexible electric capacities is identified in all scenarios. • Significant potential for domestic demand side management is identified. • A distinct potential for dynamic operation of domestic supply systems is found. • The necessity for a quick introduction of smart metering and control is found. - Abstract: A transition in the electricity market is required to manage the volatility of increasing renewable energy generation. These fluctuations can be faced with flexible consumption through Demand Side Management (DSM), establishment of further centralized storage capacities and provisioning of dynamic back up generation capacities. At least the latter two options can impose large establishment and operation costs upon the electricity market. Therefore, the feasibility and the resulting potential of coupling the electricity grid with the thermal supply of residential buildings is analysed in this paper. Thereby, inexpensive and widespread thermal storage capacities could be used to improve the integration of dynamic renewable electricity generation. In this paper the technical and economical key impact factors for such thermal DSM approach are elaborated. Based on a literature review, the identified key factors are aggregated to form consistent scenarios of the German “Energiewende” (turnaround in energy policy). The practicability and possible magnitude of the intended DSM is then analysed based on the identified scenarios. All resulting scenarios highlight the growing demand for a flexible electricity market. Especially in scenarios with strong growth of renewable electricity generation, up to 45 GW of flexible electric capacities would be required in Germany by the year 2030. Furthermore, the analysis demonstrates that independently of the energy market development, it is very likely that electricity coupled supply systems will

  12. Feasibility study and marketing strategy for climate compensated products; Haalbaarheidsonderzoek en marketingstrategie voor klimaatgecompenseerde producten

    Schneider, H.C.; Van Boetzelaer, J.C.S.

    2000-05-01

    Energy conservation and other options to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases are important aspects in climatic change policy. In order to offer consumers choices for such options the Dutch Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and Environment (VROM) a number of tools and ideas have been developed. In this report the feasibility of so-called climatic change compensation for consumer products is determined and a marketing communication strategy elaborated for two products: 'green' (i.e. environment-friendly) petrol and a 'climate broker', who can help suppliers of consumer products to buy and sell (marketing) climate compensated products. 13 refs.

  13. Storage, Collection and Disposal of Kariakoo Market Wastes in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania

    Yhdego, Michael

    1992-01-01

    waste management in Kariakoo market, Dar es Salaam. The main problems identified were poor market design and lack of a well organized waste storage, collection and disposal systems. Two-thirds of the waste consists of vegetable matter. Proposals for improved design of storage and collection facilities......In many developing countries, the market is still the most important source of commerce for traders and provisions for the general public. The transmission of disease in the market place involves factors relating to the host, the agent and the environment. This study examines the quality of solid...... are described. Experiments revealed wastes from the market are readily decomposable by composting. A change in the design of covered markets and improvements in waste handling are essential to reduce the potential health hazards in developing countries....

  14. Feasibility study of a hybrid wind turbine system – Integration with compressed air energy storage

    Sun, Hao; Luo, Xing; Wang, Jihong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A new hybrid wind turbine system is proposed and feasibility study if conducted. • A complete mathematical model is developed and implemented in a software environment. • Multi-mode control strategy is investigated to ensure the system work smoothly and efficiently. • A prototype for implementing the proposed mechanism is built and tested as proof of the concept. • The proposed system is proved to be technically feasible with energy efficiency around 50%. - Abstract: Wind has been recognized as one of major realistic clean energy sources for power generation to meet the continuously increased energy demand and to achieve the carbon emission reduction targets. However, the utilisation of wind energy encounters an inevitable challenge resulting from the nature of wind intermittency. To address this, the paper presents the recent research work at Warwick on the feasibility study of a new hybrid system by integrating a wind turbine with compressed air energy storage. A mechanical transmission mechanism is designed and implemented for power integration within the hybrid system. A scroll expander is adopted to serve as an “air-machinery energy converter”, which can transmit additional driving power generalized from the stored compressed air to the turbine shaft for smoothing the wind power fluctuation. A mathematical model for the complete hybrid process is developed and the control strategy is investigated for corresponding cooperative operations. A prototype test rig for implementing the proposed mechanism is built for proof of the concept. From the simulated and experimental studies, the energy conversion efficiency analysis is conducted while the system experiences different operation conditions and modes. It is proved that the proposed hybrid wind turbine system is feasible technically

  15. The feasibility of Chinese restaurant chains’ internationalization: a study on United Kingdom market

    ZHU, TONG

    2014-01-01

    Chinese food chain companies have strong desires in participating in the outward FDI trend and competing in an international market. However, few brands have succeeded in operating Chinese food chain restaurants worldwide. Blank of pioneers leaves the question whether Chinese restaurant chains could succeed in internationalization or not. This dissertation aims to answer the question ‘How feasible is Chinese restaurant chain industry’s internationalization’. 3 research questions are raised fo...

  16. Bidding strategy for pumped-storage plant in pool-based electricity market

    Kanakasabapathy, P.; Shanti Swarup, K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper develops optimal bidding strategies for a pumped-storage plant in a pool-based electricity market. In the competitive regime, when compared to simple hydroelectric generator, profit of the pumped-storage plant is maximized by operating it as a generator when market clearing price is high and as a pump when the price is low. Based on forecasted hourly market clearing price, a multistage looping algorithm to maximize the profit of a pumped-storage plant is developed, considering both the spinning and non-spinning reserve bids and meeting the technical operating constraints of the plant. The proposed model is adaptive for the nonlinear three-dimensional relationship between the power produced, the energy stored, and the head of the associated reservoir. Different operating cycles for a realistic pumped-storage plant are considered and simulation results are reported and compared. (author)

  17. A Bilevel Model for Participation of a Storage System in Energy and Reserve Markets

    Nasrolahpour, Ehsan; Kazempour, Jalal; Zareipour, Hamidreza

    2017-01-01

    We develop a decision-making tool based on a bilevel complementarity model for a merchant price-maker energy storage system to determine the most beneficial trading actions in pool-based markets, including day-ahead (as joint energy and reserve markets) and balancing settlements. The uncertainty...... of net load deviation in real-time is incorporated into the model using a set of scenarios generated from the available forecast in the day-ahead. The objective of this energy storage system is to maximize its expected profit. The day-ahead products of energy storage system include energy as well...... system into clearing process of multiple markets and enables such a facility to possibly affect the outcomes of those markets to its own benefit through strategic price and quantity offers. The validity of the proposed approach is evaluated using a numerical study....

  18. Feasibility of applying cathodic protection to double-wall waste storage tanks

    Moore, E.L.

    1977-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the feasibility of applying impressed current cathodic protection to double-wall storage tanks containing terminal waste solutions. Norton Corrosion Limited concluded that such a system could be designed for installation on the tanks. Under their direction, Battelle Northwest Laboratories conducted a laboratory study to develop necessary data for design of the system. A separate study conducted by Battelle Columbus Laboratories indicated that, while terminal waste solutions by themselves do not promote stress corrosion cracking, cathodic protection may promote this type of corrosion under certain conditions. As a result of these findings, the recommendation was made not to install cathodic protection on the double-wall tanks containing terminal waste solutions

  19. Aquifer thermal energy storage - A feasibility study for large scale demonstration

    Skinner, W. V.; Supkow, D. J.

    Engineering procedures necessary for aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES), based on studies of the Magothy Aquifer on Long Island, NY, are presented, with chilled winter water pumped into the aquifer and reclaimed in summer months for air conditioning. The choice of aquifer involves necessary volume, flow rate, efficiency of thermal recovery, and avoidance of conflict with other users; utilization depends on choice of appropriate piping, heat exchangers, and well construction to prevent degradation of the aquifer. The methods employed to probe the Magothy for suitability are described, including drilling an asymmetric well cluster for observation, and 48 hr pumping and 8 hr recovery. Transmissivity was found to vary from 8,000 to 29,000 sq ft/day. A doublet well was then drilled and water withdrawn, chilled, and returned. Later withdrawal indicated a 46% thermal recovery, with computer models projecting 80% with additional cycling. The study verified the feasibility of ATES, which can be expanded with additional demand.

  20. Preliminary Feasibility Study of a Hybrid Solar and Modular Pumped Storage Hydro System at Biosphere 2

    Lansey, Kevin [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Hortsman, Chris [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the preliminary feasibility of a hybrid solar and modular pumped storage system designed for high energy independence at Biosphere 2 is assessed. The system consists of an array of solar PV panels that generate electricity during the day to power both Biosphere 2 and a pump that sends water through a pipe to a tank at a high elevation. When solar power is not available, the water is released back down the pipe towards a tank at a lower elevation, where it passes through a hydraulic water turbine to generate hydroelectricity to power Biosphere 2. The hybrid system is sized to generate and store enough energy to enable Biosphere 2 to operate without a grid interconnection on an average day.

  1. Technical Feasibility Study of Thermal Energy Storage Integration into the Conventional Power Plant Cycle

    Jacek D. Wojcik

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The current load balance in the grid is managed mainly through peaking fossil-fuelled power plants that respond passively to the load changes. Intermittency, which comes from renewable energy sources, imposes additional requirements for even more flexible and faster responses from conventional power plants. A major challenge is to keep conventional generation running closest to the design condition with higher load factors and to avoid switching off periods if possible. Thermal energy storage (TES integration into the power plant process cycle is considered as a possible solution for this issue. In this article, a technical feasibility study of TES integration into a 375-MW subcritical oil-fired conventional power plant is presented. Retrofitting is considered in order to avoid major changes in the power plant process cycle. The concept is tested based on the complete power plant model implemented in the ProTRAX software environment. Steam and water parameters are assessed for different TES integration scenarios as a function of the plant load level. The best candidate points for heat extraction in the TES charging and discharging processes are evaluated. The results demonstrate that the integration of TES with power plant cycle is feasible and provide a provisional guidance for the design of the TES system that will result in the minimal influence on the power plant cycle.

  2. Final report on the public involvement process phase 1, Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility Feasibility Study

    Moore, L.; Shanteau, C.

    1992-12-01

    This report summarizes the pubic involvement component of Phase 1 of the Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility (NM) Feasibility Study in San Juan County, Utah. Part of this summary includes background information on the federal effort to locate a voluntary site for temporary storage of nuclear waste, how San Juan County came to be involved, and a profile of the county. The heart of the report, however, summarizes the activities within the public involvement process, and the issues raised in those various forums. The authors have made every effort to reflect accurately and thoroughly all the concerns and suggestions expressed to us during the five month process. We hope that this report itself is a successful model of partnership with the citizens of the county -- the same kind of partnership the county is seeking to develop with its constituents. Finally, this report offers some suggestions to both county officials and residents alike. These suggestions concern how decision-making about the county's future can be done by a partnership of informed citizens and listening decision-makers. In the Appendix are materials relating to the public involvement process in San Juan County

  3. Mines as lower reservoir of an UPSH (Underground Pumping Storage Hydroelectricity): groundwater impacts and feasibility

    Bodeux, Sarah; Pujades, Estanislao; Orban, Philippe; Dassargues, Alain

    2016-04-01

    The energy framework is currently characterized by an expanding use of renewable sources. However, their intermittence could not afford a stable production according to the energy demand. Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity (PSH) is an efficient possibility to store and release electricity according to the demand needs. Because of the topographic and environmental constraints of classical PSH, new potential suitable sites are rare in countries whose topography is weak or with a high population density. Nevertheless, an innovative alternative is to construct Underground Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity (UPSH) plants by using old underground mine works as lower reservoir. In that configuration, large amount of pumped or injected water in the underground cavities would impact the groundwater system. A representative UPSH facility is used to numerically determine the interactions with surrounding aquifers Different scenarios with varying parameters (hydrogeological and lower reservoir characteristics, boundaries conditions and pumping/injection time-sequence) are computed. Analysis of the computed piezometric heads around the reservoir allows assessing the magnitude of aquifer response and the required time to achieve a mean pseudo-steady state under cyclic solicitations. The efficiency of the plant is also evaluated taking the leakage into the cavity into account. Combining these two outcomes, some criterions are identified to assess the feasibility of this type of projects within potential old mine sites from a hydrogeological point of view.

  4. Technical feasibility and financial analysis of hybrid wind-photovoltaic system with hydrogen storage for Cooma

    Shakya, B.D.; Aye, L. [Melbourne Univ., Victoria (Australia). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Musgrave, P. [Snowy Hydro Ltd., Cooma, NSW (Australia)

    2005-01-01

    The feasibility of a stand-alone hybrid wind-photovoltaic (PV) system incorporating compressed hydrogen gas storage was studied for Cooma (Australia). Cooma has an average annual solar and wind energy availability of 1784 and 932 kWh/m{sup 2}, respectively. A system with 69 kWh{sub e}/day (load) and 483 kWh{sub e}(storage) was studied. Hydrogen is generated in electrolysers using excess electricity from the system. The system components were selected according to their availability and cost. The 'discounted cash flow' method, with the 'levelized energy cost' (LEC) as a financial indicator was used for analysis. Configurations with PV% of 100, 60, 12 and zero were analysed. The lowest LEC of AU $2.52/kWh{sub e} was found for 100% PV. The cost of hydrogen generation from 100% PV was AU $692/GJ of hydrogen. Fifty-two percent of the total project costs were due to the electrolyser. Hence, a reduction in the electrolyser cost would reduce the cost of the overall system. (Author)

  5. Final report on the public involvement process phase 1, Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility Feasibility Study

    Moore, L.; Shanteau, C.

    1992-12-01

    This report summarizes the pubic involvement component of Phase 1 of the Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility (NM) Feasibility Study in San Juan County, Utah. Part of this summary includes background information on the federal effort to locate a voluntary site for temporary storage of nuclear waste, how San Juan County came to be involved, and a profile of the county. The heart of the report, however, summarizes the activities within the public involvement process, and the issues raised in those various forums. The authors have made every effort to reflect accurately and thoroughly all the concerns and suggestions expressed to us during the five month process. We hope that this report itself is a successful model of partnership with the citizens of the county -- the same kind of partnership the county is seeking to develop with its constituents. Finally, this report offers some suggestions to both county officials and residents alike. These suggestions concern how decision-making about the county's future can be done by a partnership of informed citizens and listening decision-makers. In the Appendix are materials relating to the public involvement process in San Juan County.

  6. Final report on the public involvement process phase 1, Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility Feasibility Study

    Moore, L.; Shanteau, C.

    1992-12-01

    This report summarizes the pubic involvement component of Phase 1 of the Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility (NM) Feasibility Study in San Juan County, Utah. Part of this summary includes background information on the federal effort to locate a voluntary site for temporary storage of nuclear waste, how San Juan County came to be involved, and a profile of the county. The heart of the report, however, summarizes the activities within the public involvement process, and the issues raised in those various forums. The authors have made every effort to reflect accurately and thoroughly all the concerns and suggestions expressed to us during the five month process. We hope that this report itself is a successful model of partnership with the citizens of the county -- the same kind of partnership the county is seeking to develop with its constituents. Finally, this report offers some suggestions to both county officials and residents alike. These suggestions concern how decision-making about the county`s future can be done by a partnership of informed citizens and listening decision-makers. In the Appendix are materials relating to the public involvement process in San Juan County.

  7. Feasibility studies for pump and treat technology at leaking underground storage tank sites in Michigan

    O'Brien, J.M.; Pekas, B.S.

    1993-01-01

    Releases from underground storage tanks have resulted in impacts to groundwater at thousands of sites across the US. Investigations of these sites were initiated on a national basis with the implementation of federal laws that became effective December 22, 1989 (40 CFR 280). Completion of these investigations has led to a wave of design and installation of pump and treat aquifer restoration systems where impacts to groundwater have been confirmed. The purpose of this paper is to provide managers with a demonstration of some of the techniques that can be used by the consulting industry in evaluating the feasibility of pump and treat systems. With knowledge of these tools, managers can better evaluate proposals for system design and their cost effectiveness. To evaluate the effectiveness of typical pump and treat systems for leaking underground storage tank (LUST) sites in Michigan, ten sites where remedial design had been completed were randomly chosen for review. From these ten, two sites were selected that represented the greatest contrast in the types of site conditions encountered. A release of gasoline at Site 1 resulted in contamination of groundwater and soil with benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes

  8. Feasibility study on the business of collection and storage of waste from small producer of radioactive waste

    Ishiguro, Hideharu; Hayashi, Masaru; Senda, Masaki

    2008-01-01

    Radioactive Waste Management and Nuclear Facility Decommissioning Technology Center (RANDEC) has investigated the feasibility study on the business of collection and storage of many kinds of low level radioactive waste in radioactive facilities. This works include the total volume of waste, conceptual design of storage facility and cost estimation of construction and operation of this business. This paper describes the some points of the results of this study. (author)

  9. Energy storage: feasibility study to collect, store and release energy from solar origin, using a kinetic battery stockage

    Tatry, B

    1976-02-01

    The feasibility of using solar energy to feed an autonomous station providing electric current continuously was studied. As an energy storage device a 'superflywheel' (rotor with composite fibers - magnetic bearings) would be used. Results show that such an experiment can be reasonably envisaged only in highly sunny countries and that it becomes non profitable at our latitudes, despite the very good performance of the flywheel storage device.

  10. Operation and sizing of energy storage for wind power plants in a market system

    Korpaas, M.; Holen, A.T.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a method for the scheduling and operation of energy storage for wind power plants in electricity markets. A dynamic programming algorithm is employed to determine the optimal energy exchange with the market for a specified scheduling period, taking into account transmission constraints. During operation, the energy storage is used to smooth variations in wind power production in order to follow the scheduling plan. The method is suitable for any type of energy storage and is also useful for other intermittent energy resources than wind. An application of the method to a case study is also presented, where the impact of energy storage sizing and wind forecasting accuracy on system operation and economics are emphasized. Simulation results show that energy storage makes it possible for owners of wind power plants to take advantage of variations in the spot price, by thus increasing the value of wind power in electricity markets. With present price estimates, energy storage devices such as reversible fuel cells are likely to be a more expensive alternative than grid expansions for the siting of wind farms in weak networks. However, for areas where grid expansions lead to unwanted interference with the local environment, energy storage should be considered as a reasonable way to increase the penetration of wind power. (author)

  11. Breaking into the Cellulosic Ethanol Market: Capacity and Storage Strategies

    Darby, Paul M.; Mark, Tyler B.; Salassi, Michael E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the possibilities of breaking into the cellulosic ethanol market in south Louisiana via strategic feedstock choices and the leveraging of the area’s competitive advantages. A small plant strategy is devised whereby the first-mover problem might be solved, and several scenarios are tested using Net Present Value analysis.

  12. Flexible LNG supply, storage and price formation in a global natural gas market

    Hayes, Mark Hanley

    The body of work included in this dissertation explores the interaction of the growing, flexible liquefied natural gas (LNG) trade with the fundamentals of pipeline gas supply, gas storage, and gas consumption. By nature of its uses---largely for residential heating and electric power generation---the consumption of natural gas is highly variable both seasonally and on less predictable daily and weekly timescales. Flexible LNG trade will interconnect previously isolated regional gas markets, each with non-correlated variability in gas demand, differing gas storage costs, and heterogeneous institutional structures. The dissertation employs a series of analytical models to address key issues that will affect the expansion of the LNG trade and the implications for gas prices, investment and energy policy. First, I employ an optimization model to evaluate the fundamentals of seasonal LNG swing between markets with non-correlated gas demand (the U.S. and Europe). The model provides insights about the interaction of LNG trade with gas storage and price formation in interconnected regional markets. I then explore how random (stochastic) variability in gas demand will drive spot cargo movements and covariation in regional gas prices. Finally, I analyze the different institutional structures of the gas markets in the U.S. and Europe and consider how managed gas markets in Europe---without a competitive wholesale gas market---may effectively "export" supply and price volatility to countries with more competitive gas markets, such as the U.S.

  13. Feasibility of maintaining in-plane polarization for a storage ring EDM search

    Stephenson, Edward; Storage Ring EDM Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    A search for an electric dipole moment (EDM) on charged particles using a storage ring requires beam polarization lifetimes approaching 1000 s for in-plane polarization. A feasibility study using beam bunching and sextupole field adjustment is underway with a 0.97-GeV/c vector-polarized deuteron beam at COSY. The polarimeter consists of a thick carbon target positioned at the edge of the beam and the EDDA scintillation detectors. The DAQ system assigns a clock time to each polarimeter event. Once calibrated against the RF-cavity, the clock time is used to select events associated with a maximal sideways polarization (precessing at 120 kHz). With this tool, the in-plane polarization magnitude is tracked versus time. Electron cooling reduces the depolarization from finite emittance and second-order momentum spread acting through synchrotron oscillations. Further lifetime improvement to the level of hundreds of seconds is achieved by adjusting sextupole fields located in the COSY ring arcs at places of large transverse beta functions and dispersion. The dependence of the reciprocal of the lifetime on sextupole field strength is nearly linear, permitting an easy location of the best field values. These typically occur near loci of zero chromaticity. A search for an electric dipole moment (EDM) on charged particles using a storage ring requires beam polarization lifetimes approaching 1000 s for in-plane polarization. A feasibility study using beam bunching and sextupole field adjustment is underway with a 0.97-GeV/c vector-polarized deuteron beam at COSY. The polarimeter consists of a thick carbon target positioned at the edge of the beam and the EDDA scintillation detectors. The DAQ system assigns a clock time to each polarimeter event. Once calibrated against the RF-cavity, the clock time is used to select events associated with a maximal sideways polarization (precessing at 120 kHz). With this tool, the in-plane polarization magnitude is tracked versus time. Electron

  14. Mescalero Apache Tribe Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS). Phase 1 feasibility study report

    Peso, F.

    1992-03-13

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended, authorizes the siting, construction and operation of a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility. The MRS is intended to be used for the temporary storage of spent nuclear fuel from the nation`s nuclear power plants beginning as early as 1998. Pursuant to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act, the Office of the Nuclear Waste Negotiator was created. On October 7, 1991, the Nuclear Waste Negotiator invited the governors of states and the Presidents of Indian tribes to apply for government grants in order to conduct a study to assess under what conditions, if any, they might consider hosting an MRS facility. Pursuant to this invitation, on October 11, 1991 the Mescalero Apache Indian Tribe of Mescalero, NM applied for a grant to conduct a phased, preliminary study of the safety, technical, political, environmental, social and economic feasibility of hosting an MRS. The preliminary study included: (1) An investigative education process to facilitate the Tribe`s comprehensive understanding of the safety, environmental, technical, social, political, and economic aspects of hosting an MRS, and; (2) The development of an extensive program that is enabling the Tribe, in collaboration with the Negotiator, to reach an informed and carefully researched decision regarding the conditions, (if any), under which further pursuit of the MRS would be considered. The Phase 1 grant application enabled the Tribe to begin the initial activities necessary to determine whether further consideration is warranted for hosting the MRS facility. The Tribe intends to pursue continued study of the MRS in order to meet the following objectives: (1) Continuing the education process towards a comprehensive understanding of the safety, environmental, technical, social and economic aspects of the MRS; (2) Conducting an effective public participation and information program; (3) Participating in MRS meetings.

  15. Feasibility study of D-mannitol as phase change material for thermal storage

    Rocío Bayón

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of D-mannitol as PCM for latent heat storage has been studied by keeping it melted at 180 ºC in air for up to 16 days. During this period of time, down to 80% initial mass was lost and sample appearance changed to a dark-brown-sticky paste. The strong mass decrease implies that not only water but also carbon containing volatile species are produced. These results indicate that D-mannitol undergoes thermal degradation which can be associated to caramelization processes similar to the ones occurring in sugars. Such processes involve complex reactions like dehydrations, condensations and polymerizations, which lead to a great variety of volatile and non-volatile products. Various characterization techniques have been applied in order to study both kinetics and reaction products. From the kinetic point of view thermal degradation of D-mannitol proceeds much faster and at lower temperatures than predicted by the models found in the literature. In relation to the degradation products, the analyses with liquid chromatography indicate the formation of three compounds although their stoichiometry could not be fully elucidated with the characterization techniques applied in this work. However it seems that some of the products are polymeric species that contain carbonyl groups and that are the responsible for the sample browning, the strong absorption in the 200 nm–500 nm range, the two bands at 1730 cm–1–1645 cm–1 observed in infrared spectra and also for the occurrence of a glass transition. Therefore this study proves that D-mannitol undergoes strong and fast degradation at temperatures close to its melting point which should be enough reason for avoiding its use as PCM in any latent heat storage application unless it is somehow stabilized.

  16. Feasibility of irradiating Washington fruits and vegetables for Asian export markets

    Eakin, D.E.; Hazelton, R.F.; Young, J.K.; Prenguber, B.A.; O' Rourke, A.D.; Heim, M.N.

    1987-05-01

    US agricultural export marketing opportunities are limited by the existence of trade barriers in many overseas countries. For example, Japan and South Korea do not permit the importation of apples due to their stated concern over codling moth infestation. One of the purposes of this study was to evaluate the potential of exporting irradiated fruits and vegetables from Washington State to overcome existing trade barriers and prevent the establishment of future barriers. The Asian countries specifically evaluated in this study are Japan, Hong Kong and Singapore. Another purpose of this project was to determine the feasibility of locating an irradiation facility in Washington State. Advantages that irradiated agricultural products would bring in terms of price and quality in export markets were also evaluated.

  17. Redesign Electricity Market for the Next Generation Power System of Renewable Energy and Distributed Storage Technologies

    Feng, Donghan; Xu, Zhao; Østergaard, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a stochastic time-series based method to simulate the volatility of intermittent renewable generation and distributed storage devices along timeline. The proposed method can calculate the optimal timeline for different electricity markets and power systems. In practice......, the proposed method is potentially useful for designing market rules and evaluating different design options. Following works is underway on application and simulation of proposed method using the realistic distribution system of Bornholm Island in Denmark....

  18. Market potential of utility-purpose energy storage in Japan up to the year 2050

    Tanaka, T.; Kurihara, I.

    1998-01-01

    The market potential of future energy storage in power network systems in Japan is estimated by using the linear programming method under two main scenarios for the years 2030 and 2050. One is a base scenario in which the power demand and associated performances are simply extrapolated from the present to the future year of interest. The other is a modified scenario under which they are influenced by foreseeable changes in social structure and introduction of demand-side energy storage. This estimation indicates that the optimum capacity of energy storage will be about 10 to 15% of the total generation capacity. (author)

  19. Electric energy storage systems in a market-based economy. Comparison of emerging and traditional technologies

    Kazempour, S. Jalal; Moghaddam, M. Parsa; Haghifam, M.R.; Yousefi, G.R.

    2009-01-01

    Unlike markets for storable commodities, electricity markets depend on the real-time balance of supply and demand. Although much of the present-day grid operate effectively without storage technologies, cost-effective ways of storing electrical energy can make the grid more efficient and reliable. This work addresses an economic comparison between emerging and traditional Electric Energy Storage (EES) technologies in a competitive electricity market. In order to achieve this goal, an appropriate Self-Scheduling (SS) approach must first be developed for each of them to determine their maximum potential of expected profit among multi-markets such as energy and ancillary service markets. Then, these technologies are economically analyzed using Internal Rate of Return (IRR) index. Finally, the amounts of needed financial supports are determined for choosing the emerging technologies when an investor would like to invest on EES technologies. Among available EES technologies, we consider NaS battery (Natrium Sulfur battery) and pumped-storage plants as emerging and traditional technologies, respectively. (author)

  20. Feasibility analysis of a hydrogen backup power system for Russian telecom market

    Borzenko, V. I.; Dunikov, D. O.

    2017-11-01

    We performed feasibility analysis of 10 kW hydrogen backup power system (H2BS) consisting of a water electrolyzer, a metal hydride hydrogen storage and a fuel cell. Capital investments in H2BS are mostly determined by the costs of the PEM electrolyzer, the fuel cell and solid state hydrogen storage materials, for single unit or small series manufacture the cost of AB5-type intermetallic compound can reach 50% of total system cost. Today the capital investments in H2BS are 3 times higher than in conventional lead-acid system of the same capacity. Wide distribution of fuel cell hydrogen vehicles, development of hydrogen infrastructure, and mass production of hydrogen power systems will for sure lower capital investments in fuel cell backup power. Operational expenditures for H2BS is only 15% from the expenditures for lead acid systems, and after 4-5 years of exploitation the total cost of ownership will become lower than for batteries.

  1. Feasibility study of an aeration treatment system in a raw water storage reservoir used as a potable water source

    Fronk, Robert Charles

    1996-01-01

    The systems engineering process has been utilized to determine the feasibility of an aeration treatment system for a raw water storage reservoir used as a potable water source. This system will be used to ensure a consistently high quality of raw water by the addition of dissolved oxygen into the reservoir. A needs analysis establishes the importance and requirements for a consistently high quality of raw water used as a source for a potable water treatment facility. This s...

  2. Preliminary analytical study on the feasibility of using reinforced concrete pile foundations for renewable energy storage by compressed air energy storage technology

    Tulebekova, S.; Saliyev, D.; Zhang, D.; Kim, J. R.; Karabay, A.; Turlybek, A.; Kazybayeva, L.

    2017-11-01

    Compressed air energy storage technology is one of the promising methods that have high reliability, economic feasibility and low environmental impact. Current applications of the technology are mainly limited to energy storage for power plants using large scale underground caverns. This paper explores the possibility of making use of reinforced concrete pile foundations to store renewable energy generated from solar panels or windmills attached to building structures. The energy will be stored inside the pile foundation with hollow sections via compressed air. Given the relatively small volume of storage provided by the foundation, the required storage pressure is expected to be higher than that in the large-scale underground cavern. The high air pressure typically associated with large temperature increase, combined with structural loads, will make the pile foundation in a complicated loading condition, which might cause issues in the structural and geotechnical safety. This paper presents a preliminary analytical study on the performance of the pile foundation subjected to high pressure, large temperature increase and structural loads. Finite element analyses on pile foundation models, which are built from selected prototype structures, have been conducted. The analytical study identifies maximum stresses in the concrete of the pile foundation under combined pressure, temperature change and structural loads. Recommendations have been made for the use of reinforced concrete pile foundations for renewable energy storage.

  3. The market of energy storage. Stakes and perspectives by 2020 - Analysis of the competitive landscape

    2013-01-01

    Within a context of lack of regulatory framework, of existence of technological deadlocks, and of absence of any defined business model, this publication reports a study of the emerging market of energy storage. It examines the role public authorities can play to promote investments in this sector, what are the opportunities for operators, and which are the perspectives on the middle term for the French market. In order to highlight recent and future evolutions of stationary and embarked storage, the authors propose an analysis of the main market growth drivers and brakes, a focus on the impact of regulatory, legal, economic, tax-related, technological, and social-cultural factors on sector stakeholders. They also propose an overview of the market status for the cases of stationary and embarked storage, and of the main challenges for these both segments. A panorama of existing actors is given with an analysis of their position, strengths and weaknesses, and of the main axis of development for 4 categories of actors (industries, battery manufacturers, energy operators, and start ups)

  4. Feasibility and economic consequences of retrievable storage of radioactive waste in the deep underground

    Prij, J.; Heijdra, J.J.

    1995-01-01

    The economic consequences of retrievable storage have been investigated by comparing two extreme options of retrievable storage. In one option the storage facility is kept in operation using minimal backfill of the storage galleries. In the other option the storage facility is completely backfilled, sealed and abandoned. In the second option construction of a new mine will be necessary in case of retrieval. The point in time has been determined when the second option will be cheaper than the first. This has been done for clay, granite and rock salt as host formation, and both for vitrified waste and spent fuel. (authors)

  5. Electricity storages - optimised operation based on spot market prices; Stromspeicher. Optimierte Fahrweise auf Basis der Spotmarktpreise

    Bernhard, Dominik; Roon, Serafin von [FfE Forschungsstelle fuer Energiewirtschaft e.V., Muenchen (Germany)

    2010-06-15

    With its integrated energy and climate package the last federal government set itself ambitious goals for the improvement of energy efficiency and growth of renewable energy production. These goals were confirmed by the new government in its coalition agreement. However, they can only be realised if the supply of electricity from fluctuating renewable sources can be made to coincide with electricity demand. Electricity storages are therefore an indispensable component of the future energy supply system. This article studies the optimised operation of an electricity storage based on spot market prices and the influence of wind power production up to the year 2020.

  6. Thermal energy storage for electricity-driven space heating in a day-ahead electricity market

    Pensini, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    Thermal Energy Storage (TES) in a space heating (SH) application was investigated. The study aimed to determine the economic benefits of introducing TES into an electricity-driven SH system under a day-ahead electricity market. The performance of the TES was assessed by comparing the cost...... of electricity in a system with a TES unit to the case where no storage is in use and the entire heat requirement is fulfilled by purchasing electricity according to the actual load. The study had two goals: 1. Determining how the size – in terms of electricity input (Pmax) and energy capacity (Emax...

  7. Sensory Evaluation and Feasibility Report of Plantain Sandwich for Nigerian Market

    Olu Malomo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein-energy malnutrition is a common nutritional disorder in developing countries and constitutes a major public health problem in young children and elderly people. This project is aimed at evaluating the acceptability of plantain-peanut sandwich and roasted at different temperatures. A plantain-peanut sandwich consists of minced protein stuffed into a carbohydrate source made into a roll as a food product. The plantain was roasted at two different temperatures than later enriched with 5%, 10% and 15% peanut butter. The crude protein and crude fibre contents of the plantain samples roasted at 200oC and 240oC showed no significant difference (P˃0.05 while the ash, fat and carbohydrate contents showed that there was a significant difference (P˂0.05. The results of the proximate composition showed that there was a significant difference (P˂0.05 at the two different roasting temperatures of 200oC and 240oC when enriched at 5%, 10% and 15% levels with peanut butter. This pattern of significant increase was also observed with the amino acid profiles at the two different roasting temperature levels. The sensory evaluation recorded shows that the mean scores for the appearance, taste, colour, aroma, mouth feel and overall acceptability of the enriched roasted samples varied, but the plantain roasted at 240oC enriched with 15% peanut butter had the highest acceptability level. A feasibility study was carried out to investigate the possibility of producing and marketing a plantain-peanut sandwich. The study revealed that a starting point of 60 packs at 4 fingers per pack sold at 600 Naira per day gave an estimated turnover of 9 million Naira per annum. A breakeven point analysis revealed that a price breakeven point of 19.14% is feasible while a product breakeven of 18.04% of the estimated annual sales of 15,000 packs is also feasible.

  8. CHP plant Legionowo Poland. Description of the electricity market in Poland/CHP-feasibility analysis

    NONE

    2003-04-01

    In 1997, a new energy law was passed in Poland. An important element of the law is that local energy is made obligatory. The law describes obligatory tasks and procedures for the Polish municipalities related to planning and organisation of the energy sector. With the objective of supporting the Polish municipalities in their obligations according to the energy law, the project 'Energy Planning in Poland at Municipal Level - Support to Decision Makers' was launched. As part of the project, Municipal Guideline Reports have been elaborated for three model municipalities. These guidelines present the basis for energy supply plans in the three municipalities. For the city of Legionowo, the following was recommended: 1. The planning processes initiated during the project should be continued/followed up, 2. Master Plan for the district heating system should be prepared, 3. The possibilities of establishment of a major natural gas-fired CHP plant of the combined cycle type should be investigated. The present report describes the electricity market in Poland, the market in which a CHP plant in Legionowo will have to operate. Furthermore the report presents the results of the feasibility analysis carried out for a new CHP plant in Legionowo. (BA)

  9. The role of co-located storage for wind power producers in conventional electricity markets

    Bitar, E.

    2011-06-01

    In this paper we study the problem of optimizing contract offerings for an independent wind power producer (WPP) participating in conventional day-ahead forward electricity markets for energy. As wind power is an inherently variable source of energy and is difficult to predict, we explore the extent to which co-located energy storage can be used to improve expected profit and mitigate the the financial risk associated with shorting on the offered contracts. Using a simple stochastic model for wind power production and a model for the electricity market, we show that the problem of determining optimal contract offerings for a WPP with co-located energy storage can be solved using convex programming.

  10. Economic Optimal Operation of Community Energy Storage Systems in Competitive Energy Markets

    Arghandeh, Reza; Woyak, Jeremy; Onen, Ahmet; Jung, Jaesung; Broadwater, Robert P.

    2014-01-01

    Distributed, controllable energy storage devices offer several benefits to electric power system operation. Three such benefits include reducing peak load, providing standby power, and enhancing power quality. These benefits, however, are only realized during peak load or during an outage, events that are infrequent. This paper presents a means of realizing additional benefits by taking advantage of the fluctuating costs of energy in competitive energy markets. An algorithm for optimal charge...

  11. The transition from monopoly to competition on natural gas markets in europe. The strategic stakes of underground storage

    Esnault, B.

    2000-01-01

    The liberalization of the natural gas market permits to the actors the use of the existing distribution networks, which remain managed by ancient monopolies. To manage efficiently a variable demand in spite of the importations and the bottleneck on canalizations, the monopolies have to install storages near the consumption areas. Meanwhile the storages are a rare resource owned by the historical operators, thus it reinforces their market power. The european directive proposes to define an access right to the storage. What kind of legislation should we applied? This thesis analyses the process of deregulation and the storage needs of the different actors. Propositions of regulations are presented. (A.L.B.)

  12. Sizing energy storage systems to make PV tradable in the Iberian electricity market

    Beltram, H.; Perez, E.; Aparicio, N.; Vidal, R.; Belenguer, E. [Universitat Jaume I (UJI), Castello de la Plana (Spain). Electrical Engineering Area; Piqueres, T. [Energia Solar Aplicada (ESA), Valencia (Spain). Technical Dept.

    2012-07-01

    The work presented in this paper is intended to provide some reference values for the ratings required by an energy storage system, to be integrated in a large-scale PV power plant placed at any location of the Iberian Peninsula, to operate it according to an energy management strategy (EMS) whic allowed its participation in the Iberian electricity market while minimizing the economic penalties. The proposed EMS produces a constant-by-hours power reference to be tracked by the PV plant with storage and, in that way, mitigate the stochastic nature of the PV production. This operation mode will enable PV power plants to take part reliably in the different electricity markets, profiting the intraday market sessions to continuously refine the power production commitment. Different configurations of the EMS are analysed, introducing on each of them different meteorologically-based adjustments which allow minimizing the energy capacity required by the storage system. The proposals are analysed through one-year long simulations which use real-world data and PV power forecasting models extracted from solar databases. (orig.)

  13. Energy storage for the electricity grid : benefits and market potential assessment guide : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    Eyer, James M. (Distributed Utility Associates, Inc., Livermore, CA); Corey, Garth P. (KTech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-02-01

    This guide describes a high-level, technology-neutral framework for assessing potential benefits from and economic market potential for energy storage used for electric-utility-related applications. The overarching theme addressed is the concept of combining applications/benefits into attractive value propositions that include use of energy storage, possibly including distributed and/or modular systems. Other topics addressed include: high-level estimates of application-specific lifecycle benefit (10 years) in $/kW and maximum market potential (10 years) in MW. Combined, these criteria indicate the economic potential (in $Millions) for a given energy storage application/benefit. The benefits and value propositions characterized provide an important indication of storage system cost targets for system and subsystem developers, vendors, and prospective users. Maximum market potential estimates provide developers, vendors, and energy policymakers with an indication of the upper bound of the potential demand for storage. The combination of the value of an individual benefit (in $/kW) and the corresponding maximum market potential estimate (in MW) indicates the possible impact that storage could have on the U.S. economy. The intended audience for this document includes persons or organizations needing a framework for making first-cut or high-level estimates of benefits for a specific storage project and/or those seeking a high-level estimate of viable price points and/or maximum market potential for their products. Thus, the intended audience includes: electric utility planners, electricity end users, non-utility electric energy and electric services providers, electric utility regulators and policymakers, intermittent renewables advocates and developers, Smart Grid advocates and developers, storage technology and project developers, and energy storage advocates.

  14. The value of energy storage in South Korea’s electricity market: A Hotelling approach

    Shcherbakova, Anastasia; Kleit, Andrew; Cho, Joohyun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We evaluate lifetime economic potential for energy arbitrage in South Korea. • We simulate lifetime energy flows and profits for small price-taking NaS and Li-ion batteries. • We devise optimal battery operating strategy using Hotelling’s depletion rule. • Cumulative profits depend on intraday price differences and social discount rate. • At current electricity prices, neither battery generates enough arbitrage revenue to offset capital costs. - Abstract: In this study we evaluate the economic potential for energy arbitrage by simulating operation and resulting profits of a small price-taking storage device in South Korea’s electricity market. As demand for electricity continues to grow, maintaining a balanced power system at all times has become more challenging in Korea and other developed nations. Along with demand response programs and increased renewable energy utilization, energy storage devices may provide a viable way to contribute to diurnal peak demand shaving. In some parts of the U.S. storage arbitrage has proven to be profitable. Treating a battery’s ability to charge and discharge as a scarce resource, we apply the Hotelling (1931) rule to determine a strategy for maximizing the value of the battery. Results show that present market conditions in South Korea do not provide sufficient economic incentives for energy arbitrage using sodium–sulfur (NaS) or lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries, with the capital cost of the storage devices exceeding potential revenues

  15. Optimal operation and forecasting policy for pump storage plants in day-ahead markets

    Muche, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We investigate unit commitment deploying stochastic and deterministic approaches. • We consider day-ahead markets, its forecast and weekly price based unit commitment. • Stochastic and deterministic unit commitment are identical for the first planning day. • Unit commitment and bidding policy can be based on the deterministic approach. • Robust forecasting models should be estimated based on the whole planning horizon. - Abstract: Pump storage plants are an important electricity storage technology at present. Investments in this technology are expected to increase. The necessary investment valuation often includes expected cash flows from future price-based unit commitment policies. A price-based unit commitment policy has to consider market price uncertainty and the information revealing nature of electricity markets. For this environment stochastic programming models are suggested to derive the optimal unit commitment policy. For the considered day-ahead price electricity market stochastic and deterministic unit commitment policies are comparable suggesting an application of easier implementable deterministic models. In order to identify suitable unit commitment and forecasting policies, deterministic unit commitment models are applied to actual day-ahead electricity prices of a whole year. As a result, a robust forecasting model should consider the unit commitment planning period. This robust forecasting models result in expected cash flows similar to realized ones allowing a reliable investment valuation

  16. On the market of wind with hydro-pumped storage systems in autonomous Greek islands

    Caralis, G.; Zervos, A.; Rados, K.

    2010-01-01

    In autonomous islands, the wind penetration is restricted due to technical reasons related with the safe operation of the electrical systems. The combined use of wind energy with pumped storage (WPS) is considered as a mean to exploit the abundant wind potential, increase the wind installed capacity and substitute conventional peak supply. In this paper, the experience gained from the analysis of WPS in three specific islands is used towards the estimation of the WPS market in autonomous Greek islands. Parameterized diagrams and a methodology towards the pre-dimensioning and initial design of the WPS are proposed and used towards the estimation of the market in autonomous Greek islands. The objective is to make an initial general prefeasibility study of WPS prospects in the autonomous Greek islands. Results show that there is a significant market for WPS in Greece and the development cost of WPS is competitive to the fuel cost of local power stations in autonomous islands. (author)

  17. Feasibility of CO2 storage in geothermal reservoirs example of the Paris Basin - France. Final report

    Barbier, J.; Robelin, C.; Kervevan, C.; Thiery, D.; Menjoz, A.; Matray, J.M.; Cotiche, C.; Herbrich, B.

    2003-01-01

    This study is realized in the framework of GESCO project, which aims to provide the first documentation that, for emission sources within selected key areas, sufficient geological storage capacity is available. Then the BRGM/ANTEA/CFG took care to provide: an inventory of the CO 2 emitters in France, an inventory of the main deep aquifers present in the Paris basin, an evaluation of the storage capacities of CO 2 in one of the four principal case-study, technical solutions for CO 2 injection in geothermal aquifers and an evaluation of the cost of CO 2 storage in such an aquifer. (A.L.B.)

  18. The impact of carbon capture and storage on a decarbonized German power market

    Spiecker, S.; Eickholt, V.; Weber, C.

    2014-01-01

    The European energy policy is substantially driven by the target to reduce the CO 2 -emissions significantly and to mitigate climate change. Nevertheless European power generation is still widely based on fossil fuels. The carbon capture and storage technology (CCS) could be part of an approach to achieve ambitious CO 2 reduction targets without large scale transformations of the existing energy system. In this context the paper investigates on how far the CCS-technology could play a role in the European and most notably in the German electricity generation sector. To account for all the interdependencies with the European neighboring countries, the embedding of the German electricity system is modeled using a stochastic European electricity market model (E2M2s). After modeling the European side constraints, the German electricity system is considered in detail with the stochastic German Electricity market model (GEM2s). The focus is thereby on the location of CCS plant sites, the structure of the CO 2 -pipeline network and the regional distribution of storage sites. Results for three different European energy market scenarios are presented up to the year 2050. Additionally, the use of CCS with use of onshore and offshore sites is investigated. - Highlights: • We present a model framework for the evaluation of carbon capture and storage (CCS). • Different scenarios to analyze regional differences within Germany. • Interdependencies between CO 2 bound and demand are the main influencing factors. • A comprehensive investment in CCS power plants is not likely in the next decades. • Storage sites are no restricting factor but public acceptance is a crucial point

  19. Feasibility Study of Energy Storage Systems in Wind/Diesel Applications Using the HOMER Model

    Andrew Stiel

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available With an increased focus on solutions to the ensuing “climate crisis”, the need for energy storage systems is becoming increasingly important as a means to increase the penetration of renewable technologies such as wind energy. The Vanadium Redox Battery is one such energy storage system showing considerable potential owing to its flexibility in power output and capacity, high efficiency and long operating life. This study models the use of the Vanadium Redox Battery as an integration technology in realistic large-scale remote wind/diesel power systems using the HOMER Micropower Optimization Model computer program developed by the US National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Results from this modelling demonstrate the significant financial and environmental benefits to be gained in installing energy storage in a wind farm. The storage system considered here was a Vanadium Redox Battery.

  20. Feasibility of Radiation Processing for Post-Harvest Storage of Potatoes Under Tropical Conditions

    Thomas, P.; Srirangarajan, A. N.; Padwal-Desai, S. R.; Ghanekar, A. S.; Shirsat, S. G.; Pendharkar, M. B.; Nair, P. M.; Nadkarni, G. B. [Biochemistry and Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India)

    1978-04-15

    Storage changes after gamma irradiation (10 krad) of five commercial varieties of potatoes, Kufri Chandramukhi, K. Kuber, K. Alankar, K. Sheetman and K. Sinduri, grown in India were ascertained to arrive at optimal storage conditions. The radiation treatment could completely inhibit sprouting in all the varieties, irrespective of storage temperature, in addition to eliminating the tuber moth Pthorimaea operculella (Zeller). The temperature-dependent total losses could be attributed to microbial rotting and dehydration. The organisms causing soft rot at temperatures above 15 Degree-Sign C belonged to Erwinia spp., while the rot caused below 10 Degree-Sign C was essentially due to Micrococcus spp. Irradiation followed by storage at cool temperatures (10-15 Degree-Sign C) offers an alternative method, comparable with conventional refrigerated (2-4 Degree-Sign C) storage. The irradiated potatoes were not amenable to the attack of toxigenic fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus during storage. This could be attributed to phenolic compounds present in the tubers. Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), involved in the metabolism of phenolic compounds, showed enhancement in the irradiated potatoes. The extent of radiation induced activation of PAL is suggested as a biochemical parameter for identifying irradiated tubers. (author)

  1. Feasibility of radiation processing for post-harvest storage of potatoes under tropical conditions

    Thomas, P.; Srirangarajan, A.N.; Padwal-Desai, S.R.; Ghanekar, A.S.; Shirsat, S.G.; Pendharkar, M.B.; Nair, P.M.; Nadkarni, G.B.

    1978-01-01

    Storage changes after gamma irradiation (10krad) of five commercial varieties of potatoes, Kufri Chandramukhi, K. Kuber, K. Alankar, K. Sheetman and K. Sinduri, grown in India were ascertained to arrive at optimal storage conditions. The radiation treatment could completely inhibit sprouting in all the varieties, irrespective of storage temperature, in addition to eliminating the tuber moth Pthorimaea operculella (Zeller). The temperature-dependent total losses could be attributed to microbial rotting and dehydration. The organisms causing soft rot at temperatures above 15 0 C belonged to Erwinia spp., while the rot caused below 10 0 C was essentially due to Micrococcus spp. Irradiation followed by storage at cool temperatures (10-15 0 C) offers an alternative method, comparable with conventional refrigerated (2-4 0 C) storage. The irradiated potatoes were not amenable to the attack of toxigenic fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus during storage. This could be attributed to phenolic compounds present in the tubers. Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), involved in the metabolism of phenolic compounds, showed enhancement in the irradiated potatoes. The extent of radiation-induced activation of PAL is suggested as a biochemical parameter for identifying irradiated tubers. (author)

  2. 78 FR 4143 - Energy Storage Holdings, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    2013-01-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-752-000] Energy Storage... Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of Energy Storage Holdings, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate schedule...

  3. Transactive-Market-Based Operation of Distributed Electrical Energy Storage with Grid Constraints

    M. Nazif Faqiry

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In a transactive energy market, distributed energy resources (DERs such as dispatchable distributed generators (DGs, electrical energy storages (EESs, distribution-scale load aggregators (LAs, and renewable energy sources (RESs have to earn their share of supply or demand through a bidding process. In such a market, the distribution system operator (DSO may optimally schedule these resources, first in a forward market, i.e., day-ahead, and in a real-time market later on, while maintaining a reliable and economic distribution grid. In this paper, an efficient day-ahead scheduling of these resources, in the presence of interaction with wholesale market at the locational marginal price (LMP, is studied. Due to inclusion of EES units with integer constraints, a detailed mixed integer linear programming (MILP formulation that incorporates simplified DistFlow equations to account for grid constraints is proposed. Convex quadratic line and transformer apparent power flow constraints have been linearized using an outer approximation. The proposed model schedules DERs based on distribution locational marginal price (DLMP, which is obtained as the Lagrange multiplier of the real power balance constraint at each distribution bus while maintaining physical grid constraints such as line limits, transformer limits, and bus voltage magnitudes. Case studies are performed on a modified IEEE 13-bus system with high DER penetration. Simulation results show the validity and efficiency of the proposed model.

  4. Energy trading market evolution to the energy internet a feasibility review on the enabling internet of things (IoT) cloud technologies

    Agavanakis, Kyriakos; Papageorgas, Panagiotis G.; Vokas, Georgios A.; Ampatis, Dionysios; Salame, Chafic

    2018-05-01

    Energy trading market is a consequence of the grid evolution, which has been highly regulated and accessible to a small group of stakeholders so far. Being a fundamental part of national economies, the business models and the operating regulatory structures have been the subject of intense research and experimentation. At the same time, the increasing integration of distributed energy resources to the microgrid level changes the dependence of the grid infrastructure from fossil and nuclear to renewable energy sources, smart storage and smart management. In this paper, it is argued that this shift which marks the transformation towards the next industrial era, puts in the market foreground a big number of smaller producers and ultimately all the end users, in the form of actively engaged prosumers. Furthermore, it is shown that the computational resources and technology to support an open, widely accessible and fair peer-to-peer trading market, are already available. And that such an implementation is feasible and immediately achievable using just commercial products and a side-by-side approach in the place of unrealistic big-bang type grid upgrades.

  5. A feasibility study for the storage of plutonium pits in non-partitioned warehouse facilities

    James, D.; Parameswaren, S.; Nagendran, S.

    1999-02-01

    It is projected that up to 20,000 plutonium pits will be stored at Pantex for up to 50 years. The proposed storage system has to meet longevity, safety and cost requirements. Thermal, mechanical, chemical, nuclear criticality and safety performance characteristics of any proposed plutonium container design need to be formally analyzed. Plutonium generates thermal energy as it decays. The generated thermal energy may cause excessive rise of temperature. For safety and other considerations, it is important that the plutonium temperature remains relatively constant and no hot spots develop. Plutonium containers should not be disassembled for routine monitoring and there are various reasons for the need to monitor the plutonium non-obtrusively. Therefore, accurate predictions of the temperature distribution within the storage container based upon external monitoring within the storage facility needs to be developed. A heat transfer analysis of the storage container is required. The heat transfer analysis, however, requires the knowledge of the temperature and velocity of the air circulating around the containers in order to determine the heat transferred to the air from the containers by convection. Therefore, a complete flow field analysis is required prior to performing the conduction analysis of each pit. The objective of this research is, therefore, to develop and validate a numerical model to predict the temperature distribution within the plutonium storage container as a function of the ambient air temperature within the warehouse

  6. Feasibility of extending storage life of sheep-milk cheese using ionizing radiation

    Krcal, Z; Prekoppova, J; Slottova, A [Vyskumny Ustav Mliekarensky, Zilina (Czechoslovakia)

    1978-12-01

    3 types of winter full-fat sheep cheese were /sup 60/Co gamma irradiated with doses of 75, 100, 200, and 500 krads, this 48 hours after production. Within a week-long storage the organoleptic properties of the cheeses were repeatedly evaluated. The irradiation was found to significantly reduce all microorganism groups. Doses above 100 krads were found to be unsuitable; cheese taste deteriorated and was defined as ''scorched, strange, impure''. Although during storage these defects disappear, the individual main components of proteins and lipids decompose due to enzyme activity, which results in a rapid deterioration of the product. The dose of 75 krads did not cause any taste defects and storage life was extended by four days as against the stated guarantee period.

  7. Feasibility of extending storage life of sheep-milk cheese using ionizing radiation

    Krcal, Z.; Prekoppova, J.; Slottova, A.

    1978-01-01

    3 types of winter full-fat sheep cheese were 60 Co gamma irradiated with doses of 75, 100, 200, and 500 krads, this 48 hours after production. Within a week-long storage the organoleptic properties of the cheeses were repeatedly evaluated. The irradiation was found to significantly reduce all microorganism groups. Doses above 100 krads were found to be unsuitable; cheese taste deteriorated and was defined as ''scorched, strange, impure''. Although during storage these defects disappear, the individual main components of proteins and lipids decompose due to enzyme activity, which results in a rapid deterioration of the product. The dose of 75 krads did not cause any taste defects and storage life was extended by four days as against the stated guarantee period. (B.S.)

  8. Analysis of H2 storage needs for early market non-motive fuel cell applications.

    Johnson, Terry Alan; Moreno, Marcina; Arienti, Marco; Pratt, Joseph William; Shaw, Leo; Klebanoff, Leonard E.

    2012-03-01

    Hydrogen fuel cells can potentially reduce greenhouse gas emissions and the United States dependence on foreign oil, but issues with hydrogen storage are impeding their widespread use. To help overcome these challenges, this study analyzes opportunities for their near-term deployment in five categories of non-motive equipment: portable power, construction equipment, airport ground support equipment, telecom backup power, and man-portable power and personal electronics. To this end, researchers engaged end users, equipment manufacturers, and technical experts via workshops, interviews, and electronic means, and then compiled these data into meaningful and realistic requirements for hydrogen storage in specific target applications. In addition to developing these requirements, end-user benefits (e.g., low noise and emissions, high efficiency, potentially lower maintenance costs) and concerns (e.g., capital cost, hydrogen availability) of hydrogen fuel cells in these applications were identified. Market data show potential deployments vary with application from hundreds to hundreds of thousands of units.

  9. Need for and feasibility of monitored retrievable storage: a preliminary analysis

    1985-04-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 directed the Department of Energy (DOE) to complete a study of the need for, and the fesibility of, monitored retrievable storage (MRS). This study will form part of the basis for the Secretary's recommendation to Congress with regard to an MRS facility. This paper is the DOE's initial analysis of this important topic. 8 figs., 2 tabs

  10. West Angeles Community Development Corporation final technical report on export market feasibility planning and research for the solar medical autoclave

    Power, G.D.

    1998-04-20

    This report summarizes core findings from an investigation performed by the staff of West Angeles Community Development Corporation (CDC) regarding the feasibility of marketing the Solar Medical Autoclave (``autoclave``) in South Africa. The investigation was completed during 1997, the period prescribed by the Grant Award made by the U.S. Department of Energy on January 1, 1997, and was monitored by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

  11. Machine concept optimization for pumped-storage plants through combined dispatch simulation for wholesale and reserve markets

    Engels, Klaus; Harasta, Michaela; Braitsch, Werner; Moser, Albert; Schaefer, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    In Germany's energy markets of today, pumped-storage power plants offer excellent business opportunities due to their outstanding flexibility. However, the energy-economic simulation of pumped-storage plants, which is necessary to base the investment decision on a sound business case, is a highly complex matter since the plant's capacity must be optimized in a given plant portfolio and between two relevant markets: the scheduled wholesale and the reserve market. This mathematical optimization problem becomes even more complex when the question is raised as to which type of machine should be used for a pumped-storage new build option. For the first time, it has been proven possible to simulate the optimum dispatch of different pumped-storage machine concepts within two relevant markets - the scheduled wholesale and the reserve market - thereby greatly supporting the investment decision process. The methodology and findings of a cooperation study between E.ON and RWTH Aachen University in respect of the German pumped-storage extension project 'Waldeck 2+' are described, showing the latest development in dispatch simulation for generation portfolios. (authors)

  12. Monitored retrievable storage and multi-purpose canister robotic applications: Feasibility, dose savings and cost analysis

    Bennett, P.C.

    1995-01-01

    Robotic automation is examined as a possible alternative to manual spent nuclear fuel, transport cask and Multi-Purpose Canister (MPC) handling at a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility, and as an alternative to current MPC closure and welding methods at commercial nuclear reactor sites. Automation of key operational aspects is analyzed to determine equipment requirements, through-put times and equipment costs. The economic analysis approach is described, and economic and radiation dose impacts resulting from this automation are compared to manual handling methods. (author). 5 refs, 5 figs, 3 tabs

  13. Optimal Operation and Value Evaluation of Pumped Storage Power Plants Considering Spot Market Trading and Uncertainty of Bilateral Demand

    Takahashi, Kenta; Hara, Ryoichi; Kita, Hiroyuki; Hasegawa, Jun

    In recent years, as the deregulation in electric power industry has advanced in many countries, a spot market trading of electricity has been done. Generation companies are allowed to purchase the electricity through the electric power market and supply electric power for their bilateral customers. Under this circumstance, it is important for the generation companies to procure the required electricity with cheaper cost to increase their profit. The market price is volatile since it is determined by bidding between buyer and seller. The pumped storage power plant, one of the storage facilities is promising against such volatile market price since it can produce a profit by purchasing electricity with lower-price and selling it with higher-price. This paper discusses the optimal operation of the pumped storage power plants considering bidding strategy to an uncertain spot market. The volatilities in market price and demand are represented by the Vasicek model in our estimation. This paper also discusses the allocation of operational reserve to the pumped storage power plant.

  14. A Study of Demand Response Effect of Thermal Storage Air-Conditioning Systems in Consideration of Electricity Market Prices

    Omagari, Yuko; Sugihara, Hideharu; Tsuji, Kiichiro

    This paper evaluates the economic impact of the introduction of customer-owned Thermal Storage Air-conditioning (TSA) systems, in an electricity market, from the viewpoint of the load service entity. We perform simulations on the condition that several thousand customers install TSA systems and shift peak demand in an electricity market by one percent. Our numerical results indicate that the purchase cost of the LSE was reduced through load management of customers with TSA systems. The introduction of TSA systems also reduced the volatility of market clearing price and reduced the whole-trade cost in an electricity market.

  15. Evaluation of the feasibility and viability of modular pumped storage hydro (m-PSH) in the United States

    Witt, Adam M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hadjerioua, Boualem [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Martinez, Rocio [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bishop, Norm [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The viability of modular pumped storage hydro (m-PSH) is examined in detail through the conceptual design, cost scoping, and economic analysis of three case studies. Modular PSH refers to both the compactness of the project design and the proposed nature of product fabrication and performance. A modular project is assumed to consist of pre-fabricated standardized components and equipment, tested and assembled into modules before arrival on site. This technology strategy could enable m-PSH projects to deploy with less substantial civil construction and equipment component costs. The concept of m-PSH is technically feasible using currently available conventional pumping and turbine equipment, and may offer a path to reducing the project development cycle from inception to commissioning.

  16. Feasibility and reliability of a mobile tool to evaluate exposure to tobacco product marketing and messages using ecological momentary assessment.

    Hébert, Emily T; Vandewater, Elizabeth A; Businelle, Michael S; Harrell, Melissa B; Kelder, Steven H; Perry, Cheryl L

    2017-10-01

    Existing measures of tobacco marketing and messaging exposure are limited, relying on recall, recognition, or proxy measures. This study aimed to determine the feasibility and reliability of a mobile application for the measurement of tobacco and e-cigarette marketing and message exposure using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Young adults from Austin, TX (n=181, ages 18-29) were instructed to use a mobile application to record all sightings of marketing or social media related to tobacco (including e-cigarettes) in real-time for 28days (Event EMAs). Tobacco product use and recall of message encounters were assessed daily using an app-initiated EMA (Daily EMAs). The mobile app was a feasible and acceptable method to measure exposure to tobacco messages. The majority of messages (45.0%) were seen on the Internet, and many were user-generated. Thirty-day recall of messages at baseline was poorly correlated with messages reported via Event EMA during the study period; however, the correlation between post-study 30-day recall and Event EMA was much stronger (r=0.603 for industry-sponsored messages, r=0.599 for user-generated messages). Correlations between Daily EMAs and 30-day recall of message exposure (baseline and post-study) were small (baseline: r=0.329-0.389) to large (post-study: r=0.656-0.766). These findings suggest that EMA is a feasible and reliable method for measuring tobacco message exposure, especially given the prevalence of messages encountered online and on social media. Recall measures are limited in their ability to accurately represent marketing exposure, but might be improved by a period of priming or clearer response categories. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Results of the remote sensing feasibility study for the uranium hexafluoride storage cylinder yard program

    Balick, L.K.; Bowman, D.R.

    1997-02-01

    The US DOE manages the safe storage of approximately 650,000 tons of depleted uranium hexafluoride remaining from the Cold War. This slightly radioactive, but chemically active, material is contained in more than 46,000 steel storage cylinders that are located at Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Paducah, Kentucky; and Portsmouth, Ohio. Some of the cylinders are more than 40 years old, and approximately 17,500 are considered problem cylinders because their physical integrity is questionable. These cylinders require an annual visual inspection. The remainder of the 46,000-plus cylinders must be visually inspected every four years. Currently, the cylinder inspection program is extremely labor intensive. Because these inspections are accomplished visually, they may not be effective in the early detection of leaking cylinders. The inspection program requires approximately 12--14 full-time-equivalent (FTE) employees. At the cost of approximately $125K per FTE, this translates to $1,500K per annum just for cylinder inspection. As part of the technology-development portion of the DOE Cylinder Management Program, the DOE Office of Facility Management requested the Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) to evaluate remote sensing techniques that have potential to increase the effectiveness of the inspection program and, at the same time, reduce inspection costs and personnel radiation exposure. During two site visits (March and May 1996) to the K-25 Site at Oak Ridge, TN, RSL personnel tested and characterized seven different operating systems believed to detect leakage, surface contamination, thickness and corrosion of cylinder walls, and general area contamination resulting from breached cylinders. The following techniques were used and their performances are discussed: Laser-induced fluorescent imaging; Long-range alpha detection; Neutron activation analysis; Differential gamma-ray attenuation; Compton scatterometry; Active infrared inspection; and Passive thermal infrared imaging

  18. Economic feasibility of stationary electrochemical storages for electric bill management applications: The Italian scenario

    Telaretti, E.; Graditi, G.; Ippolito, M.G.; Zizzo, G.

    2016-01-01

    Battery energy storage systems (BESSs) are expected to become a fundamental element of the electricity infrastructure, thanks to their ability to decouple generation and demand over time. BESSs can also be used to store electricity during low-price hours, when the demand is low, and to meet the demand during peak hours, thus leading to savings for the consumer. This work focuses on the economic viability of BESS from the point of view of the electricity customer. The analysis refers to a lithium-ion (Li-ion), an advanced lead-acid, a zinc-based, a sodium-sulphur (NaS) and a flow battery. The total investment and replacement costs are estimated in order to calculate the cumulated cash flow, the net present value (NPV) and the internal rate of return (IRR) of the investment. A parametric analysis is further carried out under two different assumptions: a) varying the difference between high and low electricity prices, b) varying the peak demand charges. The analysis reveals that some electrochemical technologies are more suitable than others for electric bill management applications, and that a profit for the customer can be reached only with a significant difference between high and low electricity prices or when high peak demand charges are applied. - Highlights: •We examine the convenience of using BESS to reduce customer electricity bill. •We make a comparison among different types of batteries for end-user applications. •We evaluate the convenience of using storage in presence of demand charges. •A parametric analysis changing the BESS cost, electricity prices and demand charges has been carried out. •A case study is performed to show the advantages/disadvantages of this approach.

  19. Energy storage facilities - an intelligent solution for the German market?; Stromspeicher als intelligente Loesung fuer den deutschen Markt?

    Einhellig, Ludwig [Deloitte, Muenchen (Germany); Eisfelder, Andreas [Siemens Energy Austral-Andina, Bogota (Colombia). Wind Power, Hydro and Solar

    2012-07-15

    In the beginning of this year the Federal Network Agency (BNetzA) published a benchmark paper on the topic of ''Smart Grid and Smart Market''. In this paper it calls on the professional community to profile the public debate on smart grids and smart markets. Particularly the use of intelligent, decentralised storage technologies could become essential to the integration of renewable energies into the electricity grid over the coming years. This article gives a summary of the most important storage concepts and describes the current perspectives and possible future paths of development.

  20. Preliminary feasibility study on storage of radioactive wastes in Columbia River basalts. Volume I

    1976-11-01

    Geologic, hydrologic, heat transfer and rock-waste compatibility studies conducted by the Atlantic Richfield Hanford Company to evaluate the feasibility of storing nuclear wastes in caverns mined out into the Columbia River basalts are discussed. The succession of Columbia River Plateau flood basalts was sampled at various outcrops and in core holes and the samples were analyzed to develop a stratigraphic correlation of the various basalt units and sedimentary interbeds. Hydrologic tests were made in one bore hole to assess the degree of isolation in the various deep aquifers separated by thick basalt accumulations. Earthquake and tectonic studies were conducted to assess the tectonic stability of the Columbia River Plateau. Studies were made to evaluate the extent of heat dissipation from stored radioactive wastes. Geochemical studies were aimed at evaluating the compatibility between the radioactive wastes and the basalt host rocks. Data obtained to-date have allowed development of a hydrostratigraphic framework for the Columbia River Plateau and a preliminary understanding of the deep aquifer systems. Finally, the compilation of this information has served as a basis for planning the studies necessary to define the effectiveness of the Columbia River basalts for permanently isolating nuclear wastes from the biosphere

  1. Feasibility of underground storage/disposal of noble gas fission products

    Winar, R.M.; Trevorrow, L.E.; Steindler, M.J.

    1979-08-01

    The quantities of 85 Kr that can be released to the environment from nuclear energy production are to be limited after 1983 by Federal regulations. Although procedures for collecting the 85 Kr released in the nuclear fuel cycle have been developed to the point that they are commercially available, procedures for terminal disposal of the collected gas are still being examined for their feasibility. In this work, the possibilities of underground disposal of 85 Kr by several techniques were evaluated. It was concluded that (1) disposal of 85 Kr as a solution in water or other solvents in deep wells would have the major disadvantages of liquid migration and the requirement of extremely large volumes of solvent; (2) disposal as bubbles entrained in cement grout injected underground presents the uncertainty of gaseous migration through permeable solid grout; (3) disposal by injection into abandoned oil fields would be favored by solubility of krypton in residual hydrocarbons, but has the disadvantages that such fields contain numerous shafts offering avenues of escape and also that the fields may be reworked in the future for their hydrocarbon residues; (4) underground retention of 85 Kr injected as a gas may be promising, given the right lithology, through entrapment in interstices between fine sand grains held together by the interfacial tension of wetted surfaces. 9 figures, 5 tables

  2. Impacts of compressed air energy storage plant on an electricity market with a large renewable energy portfolio

    Foley, A.; Díaz Lobera, I.

    2013-01-01

    Renewable energy generation is expected to continue to increase globally due to renewable energy targets and obligations to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Some renewable energy sources are variable power sources, for example wind, wave and solar. Energy storage technologies can manage the issues associated with variable renewable generation and align non-dispatchable renewable energy generation with load demands. Energy storage technologies can play different roles in each of the step of the electric power supply chain. Moreover, large scale energy storage systems can act as renewable energy integrators by smoothing the variability. Compressed air energy storage is one such technology. This paper examines the impacts of a compressed air energy storage facility in a pool based wholesale electricity market in a power system with a large renewable energy portfolio

  3. Ideal Operation of a Photovoltaic Power Plant Equipped with an Energy Storage System on Electricity Market

    Markku Järvelä

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available There is no natural inertia in a photovoltaic (PV generator and changes in irradiation can be seen immediately at the output power. Moving cloud shadows are the dominant reason for fast PV power fluctuations taking place typically within a minute between 20 to 100% of the clear sky value roughly 100 times a day, on average. Therefore, operating a utility scale grid connected PV power plant is challenging. Currently, in many regions, renewable energy sources such as solar and wind receive feed-in tariffs that ensure a certain price for the energy. On the other hand, electricity markets operate on a supply-demand principle and a typical imbalance settlement period is one hour. This paper presents the energy, power and corresponding requirements for an energy storage system in a solar PV power plant to feed the power to the grid meeting the electricity spot markets practices. An ideal PV energy production forecast is assumed to be available to define reference powers of the system for the studied imbalance settlement periods. The analysis is done for three different PV system sizes using the existing irradiance measurements of the Tampere University of Technology solar PV power station research plant.

  4. The Integrated Nordic End-User Electricity Market - Feasibility and identified obstacles

    2006-02-01

    The report identifies the various obstacles that currently exist which prevent the formation of a truly integrated Nordic electricity end-user market. The obstacles have been divided into three categories: technical, regulatory and commercial. NordREG proposes that to further integrate the Nordic end-user electricity markets, a number of differences of technical, legal and market nature ought to be gradually harmonized in order to facilitate market entry and cross-border trade. Technical obstacles: Especially the following problems related to the data and metering systems should be solved: Transferred messages, information and message timing should be harmonised; Message format should be decided; A common data transmission protocol should be specified. New solutions like web-based solutions should be studied; The identification of the final customers' metering point should be harmonised. Regulatory obstacles: The identified regulatory obstacles relate to three areas, namely the division of tasks between monopoly and competitive activities, the operation and duties of distribution network operators including how these are regulated, and the legal framework to provide protection for small end users. On the basis of the review of regulatory obstacles, the following recommendations are made: The principles of neutrality and the way these principles are being supervised by the regulator is a key issue to improve the functioning of the Nordic end-user market. Regulators should seek to harmonise regulation on neutrality and put it high on the agenda in a forthcoming process of market integration; The procedures for switching supplier should be as smooth, easy and quick as possible. It is also important that suppliers, especially the new market entrants, can participate in reliable, transparent and fluent switching practices, since this lowers the threshold for entering other than domestic electricity market. The switching model should be harmonised for the Nordic end

  5. The Integrated Nordic End-User Electricity Market - Feasibility and identified obstacles

    NONE

    2006-02-15

    The report identifies the various obstacles that currently exist which prevent the formation of a truly integrated Nordic electricity end-user market. The obstacles have been divided into three categories: technical, regulatory and commercial. NordREG proposes that to further integrate the Nordic end-user electricity markets, a number of differences of technical, legal and market nature ought to be gradually harmonized in order to facilitate market entry and cross-border trade. Technical obstacles: Especially the following problems related to the data and metering systems should be solved: Transferred messages, information and message timing should be harmonised; Message format should be decided; A common data transmission protocol should be specified. New solutions like web-based solutions should be studied; The identification of the final customers' metering point should be harmonised. Regulatory obstacles: The identified regulatory obstacles relate to three areas, namely the division of tasks between monopoly and competitive activities, the operation and duties of distribution network operators including how these are regulated, and the legal framework to provide protection for small end users. On the basis of the review of regulatory obstacles, the following recommendations are made: The principles of neutrality and the way these principles are being supervised by the regulator is a key issue to improve the functioning of the Nordic end-user market. Regulators should seek to harmonise regulation on neutrality and put it high on the agenda in a forthcoming process of market integration; The procedures for switching supplier should be as smooth, easy and quick as possible. It is also important that suppliers, especially the new market entrants, can participate in reliable, transparent and fluent switching practices, since this lowers the threshold for entering other than domestic electricity market. The switching model should be harmonised for the Nordic end

  6. Economic Feasibility and Market Readiness of Solar Technologies. Draft Final Report. Volume I.

    Flaim, Silvio J.; Buchanan, Deborah L.; Christmas, Susan; Fellhauer, Cheryl; Glenn, Barbara; Ketels, Peter A.; Levary, Arnon; Mourning, Pete; Steggerda, Paul; Trivedi, Harit; Witholder, Robert E.

    1978-09-01

    Systems descriptions, costs, technical and market readiness assessments are reported for ten solar technologies: solar heating and cooling of buildings (SHACOB), passive, agricultural and industrial process heat (A/IPH), biomass, ocean thermal (OTEC), wind (WECS), solar thermal electric, photovoltaics, satellite power station (SPS), and solar total energy systems (STES). Study objectives, scope, and methods. are presented. of Joint Task The cost and market analyses portion 5213/6103 will be used to make commercialization assessments in the conclusions of. the final report.

  7. Influence of feasibility constrains on the bidding strategy selection in a day-ahead electricity market session

    Borghetti, Alberto; Massucco, Stefano; Silvestro, Federico

    2009-01-01

    Large part of liberalized electricity markets, including the Italian one, features an auction mechanism, called day-ahead energy market, which matches producers' and buyers' simple bids, consisting of energy quantity and price pairs. The match is achieved by a merit-order economic dispatch procedure independently applied for each of the hours of the following day. Power plants operation should, however, take into account several technical constraints, such as maximum and minimum production bounds, ramp constraints and minimum up and downs times, as well as no-load and startup costs. The presence of these constraints forces to adjust the scheduling provided by the market in order to obtain a feasible scheduling. The paper presents an analysis of the possibility and the limits of taking into account the power plants technical constraints in the bidding strategy selection procedure of generating companies (Gencos). The analysis is carried out by using a computer procedure based both on a simple static game-theory approach and on a cost-minimization unit-commitment algorithm. For illustrative purposes, we present the results obtained for a system with three Gencos, each owning several power plants, trying to model the bidding behaviour of every generator in the system. This approach, although complex from the computational point of view, allows an analysis of both price and quantity bidding strategies and appears to be applicable to markets having different rules and features. (author)

  8. A new self-scheduling strategy for integrated operation of wind and pumped-storage power plants in power markets

    Varkani, Ali Karimi; Daraeepour, Ali; Monsef, Hassan

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A strategy for integrated operation of wind and pumped-storage plants is proposed. → Participation of both plants in energy and ancillary service markets is modeled. → The uncertainty of wind production is modeled by a novel probabilistic function. → The proposed strategy is tested on a real case in the Spanish electricity market. -- Abstract: Competitive structure of power markets causes various challenges for wind resources to participate in these markets. Indeed, production uncertainty is the main cause of their low income. Thus, they are usually supported by system operators, which is in contrast with the competitive paradigm of power markets. In this paper, a new strategy for increasing the profits of wind resources is proposed. In the suggested strategy, a Generation Company (GenCo), who owns both wind and pumped-storage plants, self-schedules the integrated operation of them regarding the uncertainty of wind power generation. For presenting an integrated self-schedule and obtaining a real added value of the strategy, participation of the GenCo in energy and ancillary service markets is modeled. The self-scheduling strategy is based on stochastic programming techniques. Outputs of the problem include generation offers in day-ahead energy market and ancillary service markets, including spinning and regulation reserve markets. A Neural Network (NN) based technique is used for modeling the uncertainty of wind power production. The proposed strategy is tested on a real wind farm in mainland, Spain. Moreover, added value of the strategy is presented in different conditions of the market.

  9. Feasibility and economic evaluation of low-cost evaporative cooling ...

    Feasibility and economic evaluation of low-cost evaporative cooling system in fruit and vegetables storage. ... on fruit and vegetables quality during harvesting, transportation, storage and marketing. ... The coolers were found to be effective in maintaining micro-environmental conditions for ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  10. Does the European natural gas market pass the competitive benchmark of the theory of storage? Indirect tests for three major trading points

    Stronzik, Marcus; Rammerstorfer, Margarethe; Neumann, Anne

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the first comparative analysis of the relationship between natural gas storage utilization and price patterns at three major European trading points. Using two indirect tests developed by that are applied in other commodity markets, we impose the no arbitrage condition to model the efficiency of the natural gas market. The results reveal that while operators of European storage facilities realize seasonal arbitrage profits, substantial arbitrage potentials remain. We suggest that the indirect approach is well suited to provide market insights for periods with limited data. We find that overall market performance differs substantially from the competitive benchmark of the theory of storage. (author)

  11. Fuel Cell Backup Power Unit Configuration and Electricity Market Participation: A Feasibility Study

    Ma, Zhiwen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eichman, Josh [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurtz, Jennifer [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-03-13

    This National Renewable Energy Laboratory industry-inspired Laboratory Directed Research and Development project evaluates the feasibility and economics of using fuel cell backup power systems in cell towers to provide grid services (e.g., balancing, ancillary services, demand response). The work is intended to evaluate the integration of thousands of under-utilized, clean, efficient, and reliable fuel cell systems that are already installed in cell towers for potential grid and ancillary services.

  12. Examining Feasibility of Mentoring Families at a Farmers' Market and Community Garden

    George, Daniel R.; Manglani, Monica; Minnehan, Kaitlin; Chacon, Alexander; Gundersen, Alexandra; Dellasega, Cheryl; Kraschnewski, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Fruit and vegetable prescription (FVRx) programs provide "prescriptions" for produce, but increased access to nutritional food may be insufficient for long-term behavior change. Purpose: We integrated nutritional education into an FVRx program at a farmers' market and community garden at Penn State Medical Center by pairing…

  13. Testing the feasibility of a hypothetical whaling-conservation permit market in Norway.

    Huang, Biao; Abbott, Joshua K; Fenichel, Eli P; Muneepeerakul, Rachata; Perrings, Charles; Gerber, Leah R

    2017-08-01

    A cap-and-trade system for managing whale harvests represents a potentially useful approach to resolve the current gridlock in international whale management. The establishment of whale permit markets, open to both whalers and conservationists, could reveal the strength of conservation demand, about which little is known. This lack of knowledge makes it difficult to predict the outcome of a hypothetical whale permit market. We developed a bioeconomic model to evaluate the influence of economic uncertainty about demand for whale conservation or harvest. We used simulations over a wide range of parameterizations of whaling and conservation demands to examine the potential ecological consequences of the establishment of a whale permit market in Norwegian waters under bounded (but substantial) economic uncertainty. Uncertainty variables were slope of whaling and conservation demand, participation level of conservationists and their willingness to pay for whale conservation, and functional forms of demand, including linear, quadratic, and log-linear forms. A whale-conservation market had the potential to yield a wide range of conservation and harvest outcomes, the most likely outcomes were those in which conservationists bought all whale permits. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  14. Feasibility and profitability of chain integration by NCPAK on flower sleeves products in European market

    Yan, X.

    2008-01-01

    In this report, the author describes that the EU flower sleeve wholesalers are the chain leader of the flower sleeve supply chain from China to the EU market. Their strategy changes can easily put NCpak, in full name, 'Sun Hing Plastic Bag Company', a Hong Kong enterprise based on Shenzhen City,

  15. Quantifying the Effects of Biomass Market Conditions and Policy Incentives on Economically Feasible Sites to Establish Dedicated Energy Crops

    Sandhya Nepal

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study used a spatially-explicit model to identify the amount and spatial distribution of economically feasible sites for establishing dedicated energy crops under various market and policy scenarios. A sensitivity analysis was performed for a biomass market with different discount rates and biomass prices as well as policy scenarios including propriety tax exemption, carbon offset payments, and the inclusion of farmland for biomass production. The model was applied to a four-county study area in Kentucky representing conditions commonly found in the Ohio River Valley. Results showed that both biomass price and discount rate have a can strongly influence the amount of economically efficient sites. Rising the biomass price by 5 $·t−1 and lowering discount rate by 1% from the baseline scenario (40 $·t−1 and 5% resulted in an over fourteen fold increment. Property tax exemption resulted in a fourfold increase, a carbon payment on only 1 $·t−1 caused a twelve fold increase and extending the landbase from marginal land to farmland only slightly increase the economically efficient sites. These results provide an objective evaluation of market and policy scenarios in terms of their potential to increase land availability for establishing dedicated energy crops and to promote the bioenergy industry.

  16. Optimal Sizing of Energy Storage Systems for the Energy Procurement Problem in Multi-Period Markets under Uncertainties

    Ryusuke Konishi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In deregulated electricity markets, minimizing the procurement costs of electricity is a critical problem for procurement agencies (PAs. However, uncertainty is inevitable for PAs and includes multiple factors such as market prices, photovoltaic system (PV output and demand. This study focuses on settlements in multi-period markets (a day-ahead market and a real-time market and the installation of energy storage systems (ESSs. ESSs can be utilized for time arbitrage in the day-ahead market and to reduce the purchasing/selling of electricity in the real-time market. However, the high costs of an ESS mean the size of the system needs to be minimized. In addition, when determining the size of an ESS, it is important to identify the size appropriate for each role. Therefore, we employ the concept of a “slow” and a “fast” ESS to quantify the size of a system’s role, based on the values associated with the various uncertainties. Because the problem includes nonlinearity and non-convexity, we solve it within a realistic computational burden by reformulating the problem using reasonable assumptions. Therefore, this study identifies the optimal sizes of ESSs and procurement, taking into account the uncertainties of prices in multi-period markets, PV output and demand.

  17. Bla-bla-bla: video chat service on the Internet - a market feasibility study

    Lindgreen, Adam; Antioco, Michael; Wetzels, Martin

    2004-01-01

    The Internet is changing the way that companies carry out their business and, in fact, constitutes an entirely new application domain, which makes product innovation possible. Moreover, it is a new medium for reaching consumers, which is a central preoccupation to organisations in the current business market. Here interest lies in video chatting on the Internet. This is a type of service that adds video support to chatting using a Web cam and is gradually attracting more Internet users. The p...

  18. Evaluation of food storage racks available on the Polish market in the hygienic context

    Grzesińska, Wiesława; Tomaszewska, Marzena; Bilska, Beata; Trafiałek, Joanna; Dziadek, Michał

    Providing safe food products to the consumer depends on the material and technology used and adherence to hygienic practices, throughout the production process. The degree of microbial contamination of a surface is an important indicator of equipment cleanliness and effectiveness of cleaning and disinfection. Used material, construction solutions and quality of the applied devices also have an effect on hygienic status. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of the design and construction material of selected food storage racks, available on the Polish market, on their hygienic status. The study was based on determination of the capability of microbial growth on the surface of the racks and the effectiveness of their cleaning. Microbiological cleanliness on the surface of the racks was monitored by the contact plates which are able to estimate the total number of icroorganisms. Examination of effectiveness of cleaning was conducted by the use of ATP bioluminescence method. This experiment has proven a significant influence of adopted construction solutions on the hygienic status of the examined racks. Presence of antibacterial layer and a choice of the appropriate construction material characterized by a low surface roughness impedes the microbial growth and increases the effectiveness of cleaning. Design solutions have significant impact on the hygienic status of shelves. Selection of a suitable material for the construction of racks can greatly reduce the possibility of the development of microorganism, despite the low efficiency of the cleaning. The application of antimicrobial coatings inhibits microbial growth.

  19. Capitalizing on new opportunities in Canada's emerging midstream : processing, transportation, marketing, NGL, storage : proceedings of a Canadian Institute conference

    1999-01-01

    Text or speaking notes used at a conference to examine the challenges and opportunities facing Canada's midstream petroleum and natural gas industry are contained in this volume. A total of eight 8 papers were presented, focusing on the wide range of business opportunities that do not fit into the core functions of the upstream business (exploration and production), or into the core functions of the downstream business (distribution and retail marketing). One of the biggest opportunities lies in the development of storage facilities for the natural gas industry. Other aspects of the midstream business addressed included processing, transportation, marketing, and natural gas liquids. tabs., figs

  20. The feasibility of miniaturizing the versatile portable speech prosthesis: A market survey of commercial products

    Walklet, T.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of a miniature versatile portable speech prosthesis (VPSP) was analyzed and information on its potential users and on other similar devices was collected. The VPSP is a device that incorporates speech synthesis technology. The objective is to provide sufficient information to decide whether there is valuable technology to contribute to the miniaturization of the VPSP. The needs of potential users are identified, the development status of technologies similar or related to those used in the VPSP are evaluated. The VPSP, a computer based speech synthesis system fits on a wheelchair. The purpose was to produce a device that provides communication assistance in educational, vocational, and social situations to speech impaired individuals. It is expected that the VPSP can be a valuable aid for persons who are also motor impaired, which explains the placement of the system on a wheelchair.

  1. Identifying Potential Markets for Behind-the-Meter Battery Energy Storage: A Survey of U.S. Demand Charges

    McLaren, Joyce A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gagnon, Pieter J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mullendore, Seth [Clean Energy Group, Montpelier, Vermont

    2017-08-07

    This paper presents the first publicly available comprehensive survey of the magnitude of demand charges for commercial customers across the United States -- a key predictor of the financial performance of behind-the-meter battery storage systems. Notably, the analysis estimates that there are nearly 5 million commercial customers in the United States who can subscribe to retail electricity tariffs that have demand charges in excess of $15 per kilowatt (kW), over a quarter of the 18 million commercial customers in total in the United States. While the economic viability of installing battery energy storage must be determined on a case-by-case basis, high demand charges are often cited as a critical factor in battery project economics. Increasing use of demand charges in utility tariffs and anticipated future declines in storage costs will only serve to unlock additional markets and strengthen existing ones.

  2. Technology and Manufacturing Readiness of Early Market Motive and Non-Motive Hydrogen Storage Technologies for Fuel Cell Applications

    Ronnebro, Ewa

    2012-06-16

    PNNL’s objective in this report is to provide DOE with a technology and manufacturing readiness assessment to identify hydrogen storage technologies’ maturity levels for early market motive and non-motive applications and to provide a path forward toward commercialization. PNNL’s Technology Readiness Assessment (TRA) is based on a combination of Technology Readiness Level (TRL) and Manufacturing Readiness Level (MRL) designations that enable evaluation of hydrogen storage technologies in varying levels of development. This approach provides a logical methodology and roadmap to enable the identification of hydrogen storage technologies, their advantages/disadvantages, gaps and R&D needs on an unbiased and transparent scale that is easily communicated to interagency partners. The TRA report documents the process used to conduct the TRA, reports the TRL and MRL for each assessed technology and provides recommendations based on the findings.

  3. Chance to apply energy storage systems in liberalised electricity markets. Chancen des Einsatzes von Energiespeichern im liberalisierten Strommarkt

    Birkner, P. (Lech-Elektrizitaetswerke AG, Augsburg (Germany). Abt. Netzbetrieb); Kuebler, B. (Piller Inc., Middletown, NY (United States))

    1999-05-17

    The liberalisation of the European and German electricity market causes an individual and customer specific evaluation of the various services offered by the single electricity supply company. In this connection energy storage systems are a modern technical device to guarantee extremely high customer demands concerning voltage quality. The following deals with the basic requirements to use energy storage systems and the possibilities that are offered by such systems. The installation of an energy storage system is compared with the classic gridbound measures to improve voltage quality. Furthermore, a non-technical attempt to settle the impact of quality deficiencies with the help of an insurance cover with a claim for compensation is discussed. (orig.)

  4. Implementation of Economic Value Added and Market Value Added Analysis as Valuation Tools of Invest Feasibility

    Achmad Daengs GS

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available For the investors, financial statement is a benchmark of investors in assessing the company's performance. In fact, investors are not always receiving the accurate company's financial statements information and its levels of fairness are in doubt. The financial statement analysis with using financial ratios is not enough. The investors may need to use alternatives financial statement analyses techniques that reflect the actual company's performance. Therefore, both of the investors and the prospective can use Economic Value Added (EVA and Market Value Added (MVA analysis. With these technical analyses, the investors may know the company's performance where they are invested or to be used as a place to invest whether it has value added or not. With the results of these analyses, it is the expected for the investors to be more confident in making decision whether to buy, sell or hold the ownership in the company.

  5. Market Feasibility of an Extension Campus of One State College in a Coastal Town in Bicol, Philippines

    Seth B. Barandon

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This descriptive-survey assessed the market feasibility of the establishment of an extension campus of Camarines Sur Polytechnic Colleges (CSPC in Balatan, Camarines Sur, Philippines. It determined the socio-economic profile of the households, demand for an extension campus, awareness of the existence of CSPC, and promotional activities. Random sampling was used for the respondents composed of 572 households and 722 high school students. The students set a high premium on education (99%, have the interest to enroll in college (91%, and enroll if given the opportunity to pursue college education (94% and doubt as to whether their parents would enroll them in college (16.3%. Financial constraints (50.4% are the possible reason if they will not enroll in college. Quality education (58% is the foremost reason in choosing a school, and considers attending in an extension campus if one were located in Balatan (88%.There is a market potential for an extension campus in Balatan, Camarines Sur.

  6. Price Variation of Tomatoes and Ginger in Giwa Market, Kaduna ...

    Jamila Rabe Mani

    ginger marketing an indication of principle of supply and demand. The feasibility for storage were 20.71% and 21.44% for tomato and ginger respectively, implying that the producers/marketers of both tomato and ginger will make highest returns if they stored and sold to other (urban/international) markets during periods of ...

  7. Economic Evaluation of Energy Storage Systems and their Impact on Electricity Markets in a Smart-grid Context

    Metz, Dennis

    which cannot be internalized by a private agent. Therefore, only commercial applications for energy storage will be considered. In the following, storage dispatch algorithms and an evaluation framework are developed. This allows defining the benefits that a storage device can provide, including barriers and drivers to its deployment. In order to consider uncertainty in the evaluation process, several assessment methodologies are introduced and adapted to the respective context. Furthermore, the impact of storage systems on the electric grid as well as on electricity markets is analyzed. The results of this research do not only provide a better understanding about potential business cases and related income streams of storage devices to investors, but also provide deep insights into the associated risks of such an investment. Furthermore, the results allow policy makers to identify the relevant parameters for promoting storage in order to facilitate the integration of additional renewable generation capacity. Last, this document gives traditional power producers as well as grid operators a better understanding about the impact of storage installations on generation and demand patterns as well as on the possible impacts on electricity markets. None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None

  8. Experimental and feasibility assessment of biogas production by anaerobic digestion of fruit and vegetable waste from Joburg Market.

    Masebinu, S O; Akinlabi, E T; Muzenda, E; Aboyade, A O; Mbohwa, C

    2018-05-01

    Substrate-induced instability of anaerobic digestion from fruit and vegetable waste (FVW) results in low biogas yield. In this study, substrate management through fruit to vegetable mix ratio in a two-stage semi-continuous digester was investigated as a pathway for optimality of yield. The experiment conducted over 105 days with 62.52 kg of FVWs sourced from Joburg Market, South Africa showed that a stable process was achieved at a fruit to vegetable waste mix ratio of 2.2:2.8. At this ratio, optimal organic loading rate ranged between 2.68 and 2.97 kg VS/m 3 -d which resulted in a specific biogas yield of 0.87 Nm 3 /kg VS with 57.58% methane on average. The results of the experimental study were used as a feasibility assessment for a full-scale 45 tonnes/d plant for Joburg Market considering three energy pathways. The plant will produce 1,605,455 Nm 3 /y of biogas with the potential for offsetting 15.2% of the Joburg Market energy demand. Conversion of all biogas to biomethane was the most economically attractive energy pathway with a net present value of $2,428,021, an internal rate of return of 16.90% and a simple payback period of 6.17 years. This route avoided the greenhouse gas emission of 12,393 tonnes CO 2 , eq. The study shows that the anaerobic digestion of FVWs as sole substrate is possible with financial and environmental attractiveness. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Risk-constrained dynamic self-scheduling of a pumped-storage plant in the energy and ancillary service markets

    Kazempour, S. Jalal; Moghaddam, M. Parsa; Haghifam, M.R.; Yousefi, G.R.

    2009-01-01

    This work addresses a new framework for self-scheduling of an individual price-taker pumped-storage plant in a day-ahead (DA) market. The goal is achieving the best trade-off between the expected profit and the risks when the plant participates in DA energy, spinning reserve and regulation markets. In this paper, a set of uncertainties including price forecasting errors and also the uncertainty of power delivery requests in the ancillary service markets are contemplated. Considering these uncertainties, a new approach is proposed which is called dynamic self-scheduling (DSS). This risk-constrained dynamic self-scheduling problem is therefore formulated and solved as a mixed integer programming (MIP) problem. Numerical results for a case study are discussed. (author)

  10. Feasibility and market potential of protein determination of wheat using californium-252

    Roberts, T.C. Jr.; Eckhoff, N.D.; Clack, R.W.; Roberts, T.C. Sr.

    1976-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of protein determination by capture gamma-ray analysis using californium-252 neutrons, an in-situ protein analysis system for use by grain handlers has been examined. Three 227 kilogram (approximately) lots of wheat were used to determine the amount of nitrogen present. Protein analyses by the Kjeldahl method were obtained from samples taken before and after the capture gamma-ray analyses. The 5.267-MeV gamma-ray was selected for use in this study as a compromise between efficiency and interference from other elements. The associated counting equipment was a multichannel analyzer with pulse shaping electronic and analysis computing equipment. A linear regression program was used to compare the regions of interest to the Kjeldahl protein averages. The counts composing each peak were summed and normalized using the total count of the hydrogen peak. The normalized nitrogen percentages indicate a significant correlation between the spectral regions and the Kjeldahl analyses. To a first approximation, the value of wheat is the wheat protein. At the present time, protein testing of wheat is destructive, cumbersome, and time-consuming as compared to the potential for capture gamma-ray analysis testing. Assuming that such a protein analysis unit can analyze 42 tonne of wheat per hour, over 120 units would be needed to monitor one-half the U.S. annual wheat production. A 0.5% improvement in processor realizations and grain throughput value of $167.00 per tonne will result in a projected savings of $150,000 per year per unit

  11. Optimal bidding in Turkey day ahead electricity market for wind energy and pumped storage hydro power plant

    Ceyhun Yıldız

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In electrical grid; when the demand power increases energy prices increase, when the demand decreases energy prices decrease. For this reason; to increase the total daily income, it is required to shift generations to the hours that high demand power values occurred. Wind Power Plants (WPP have unstable and uncontrollable generation characteristic. For this reason, energy storage systems are needed to shift the generations of WPPs in time scale. In this study, four wind power plants (WPP which are tied to the Turkish interconnected grid and a pumped hydro storage power plant (PSPP that meets the energy storage requirement of these power plants are investigated in Turkey day ahead energy market. An optimization algorithm is developed using linear programming technique to maximize the day ahead market bids of these plants which are going to generate power together. When incomes and generations of the plants that are operated with optimization strategy is analyzed, it is seen that annual income increased by 2.737% compared with WPPs ‘s alone operation and generations are substantially shifted to the high demand power occurred hours.

  12. A New Battery Energy Storage Charging/Discharging Scheme for Wind Power Producers in Real-Time Markets

    Minh Y Nguyen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Under a deregulated environment, wind power producers are subject to many regulation costs due to the intermittence of natural resources and the accuracy limits of existing prediction tools. This paper addresses the operation (charging/discharging problem of battery energy storage installed in a wind generation system in order to improve the value of wind power in the real-time market. Depending on the prediction of market prices and the probabilistic information of wind generation, wind power producers can schedule the battery energy storage for the next day in order to maximize the profit. In addition, by taking into account the expenses of using batteries, the proposed charging/discharging scheme is able to avoid the detrimental operation of battery energy storage which can lead to a significant reduction of battery lifetime, i.e., uneconomical operation. The problem is formulated in a dynamic programming framework and solved by a dynamic programming backward algorithm. The proposed scheme is then applied to the study cases, and the results of simulation show its effectiveness.

  13. Sustainable energy supply for mushroom cultivation. Application of underground energy storage. Application of a heat pump for heat production. Feasibility study; Duurzame energievoorziening paddestoelen kwekerij. toepassing van energieopslag in de bodem. Toepassing van warmtepomp voor warmteopwekking. Een haalbaarheidsstudie

    Koel, J.J. [EBS-Adviseurs, Veenendaal (Netherlands)

    2001-02-26

    The results of a feasibility study on the use of heat and cold storage and the use of an electric heat pump for the energy supply of a mushroom cultivation business (Verbruggen paddestoelen in Erp, Netherlands) are presented.

  14. The future of stationary electricity storages - niche market or multi-billion Euro business?; Stationaere Stromspeicher - zukuenftiger Nischenmarkt oder Milliardengeschaeft?

    Gatzen, Christoph [Frontier Economics Ltd., Koeln (Germany); Riechmann, Christoph [Frontier Economics Ltd, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-15

    The transformation process from conventional electricity production to a sustainable power generation system based on renewable energy confronts market protagonists and lawmakers with huge technical and economic challenges. The rapid proliferation of wind power and photovoltaic plants in particular will raise electricity price volatility and require large investments in the expansion of transmission and distribution networks. It will also place high demands on the flexibility of the remaining electricity network, which will have to smoothen both the long and short-term fluctuations in supply from wind and photovoltaic energy. In view of the growing signs of delay in network expansion, the political leadership has taken to welcoming electricity storages as the ultimate solution to numerous challenges, as we read for example in the Energy Concept of the German Federal Government. While there may be reason for optimism, it is equally right to critically question the role that electricity storages might realistically play in the future given the need for reasonable price levels.

  15. Feasibility study for the development and marketing of magnesium seats for motor coaches and other modes of public transit

    Bergeron, F. [IC-2 Technologies Inc., Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Audet, J.F. [J-F Audet Courtier Stratege, Carignan, PQ (Canada)

    2004-06-01

    Magnesium is currently used for seats in many minivans and luxury cars, as well as in some high speed trains. This paper addresses concerns about the use of magnesium in manufacturing seats for public transit vehicles. This paper aimed to validate the feasibility of magnesium and/or aluminum passenger seats and determine if they met weight and cost reduction objectives currently set by the public transportation industry. An assessment of the North American bus and motor coach market was made, and passenger seat design standards were reviewed. Additionally, magnesium samples were tested to ensure industry standards for material flammability and toxic fumes emissions during exposure to intense heat. Corrosion testing and a comparison with automobile industry tests were made. A number of manufacturing case studies were conducted, including life-cycle costs and comparisons with the manufacture of traditional steel seats. It was concluded that a lighter-weight seat is both technically possible and economically viable. In terms of flammability, magnesium seats met all required industry standards, and when combined with excellent seat design, increased the safety of seat occupants projected forward during collisions. In addition, magnesium's ability to absorb vibration was seen as a substantial benefit in terms of passenger comfort. In terms of manufacturing cost alone, a magnesium-aluminum hybrid was recommended. 15 refs., 25 tabs., 24 figs.

  16. Spent Fuel Test-Climax: An evaluation of the technical feasibility of geologic storage of spent nuclear fuel in granite: Final report

    Patrick, W.C.

    1986-01-01

    In the Climax stock granite on the Nevada Test Site, eleven canisters of spent nuclear reactor fuel were emplaced, and six electrical simulators were energized. When test data indicated that the test objectives were met during the 3-year storage phase, the spent-fuel canisters were retrieved and the thermal sources were de-energized. The project demonstrated the feasibility of packaging, transporting, storing, and retrieving highly radioactive fuel assemblies in a safe and reliable manner. In addition to emplacement and retrieval operations, three exchanges of spent-fuel assemblies between the SFT-C and a surface storage facility, conducted during the storage phase, furthered this demonstration. The test led to development of a technical measurements program. To meet these objectives, nearly 1000 instruments and a computer-based data acquisition system were deployed. Geotechnical, seismological, and test status data were recorded on a continuing basis for the three-year storage phase and six-month monitored cool-down of the test. This report summarizes the engineering and scientific endeavors which led to successful design and execution of the test. The design, fabrication, and construction of all facilities and handling systems are discussed, in the context of test objectives and a safety assessment. The discussion progresses from site characterization and experiment design through data acquisition and analysis of test data in the context of design calculations. 117 refs., 52 figs., 81 tabs

  17. Spent Fuel Test-Climax: An evaluation of the technical feasibility of geologic storage of spent nuclear fuel in granite: Final report

    Patrick, W.C. (comp.)

    1986-03-30

    In the Climax stock granite on the Nevada Test Site, eleven canisters of spent nuclear reactor fuel were emplaced, and six electrical simulators were energized. When test data indicated that the test objectives were met during the 3-year storage phase, the spent-fuel canisters were retrieved and the thermal sources were de-energized. The project demonstrated the feasibility of packaging, transporting, storing, and retrieving highly radioactive fuel assemblies in a safe and reliable manner. In addition to emplacement and retrieval operations, three exchanges of spent-fuel assemblies between the SFT-C and a surface storage facility, conducted during the storage phase, furthered this demonstration. The test led to development of a technical measurements program. To meet these objectives, nearly 1000 instruments and a computer-based data acquisition system were deployed. Geotechnical, seismological, and test status data were recorded on a continuing basis for the three-year storage phase and six-month monitored cool-down of the test. This report summarizes the engineering and scientific endeavors which led to successful design and execution of the test. The design, fabrication, and construction of all facilities and handling systems are discussed, in the context of test objectives and a safety assessment. The discussion progresses from site characterization and experiment design through data acquisition and analysis of test data in the context of design calculations. 117 refs., 52 figs., 81 tabs.

  18. Wind Power Development and Energy Storage under China’s Electricity Market Reform—A Case Study of Fujian Province

    Dunguo Mou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper, based on the Fujian provincial 500 kV grid and part of the 220 kV grid and the key power plants, including hydro, coal, nuclear, gas, wind and pumping and storage hydro powers (PSHP connected to the grid, constructs an independent electricity market model. Using data that are very close to reality about coal fired power production costs, along with data about power plants’ technical constraints, this paper studies the effect of wind power on Fujian’s provincial electricity market. Firstly, the paper analyzes the relationship between wind speed and wind power output and the effects of short-term power output fluctuation on frequency modulation and voltage regulation. Secondly, under supposition of the production costs following quadratic functions, the paper analyzes the effects of changes in wind power output on the electricity supply costs under optimal power flow. Thirdly, using the bidding model in the Australian Electricity Market Operator for reference and supposing that, in a competitive market, coal fired power plants can bid 6 price bands according to their capacity, the paper analyzes effects of wind power on electricity prices under optimal power flow, the stabilizing effects of PSHP and the minimum PSHP capacity needed to stabilize the electricity market. Finally, using a daily load curve, this paper simulates the electricity prices’ fluctuation under optimal power flow and PSHP’s stabilizing effect. The results show that, although PSHP has a large external social welfare effect, it can hardly make a profit. In the end, this paper puts forward some policy suggestions for Fujian province’s wind and nuclear power development, PSHP construction and electricity market development.

  19. An Economic Evalution of Demand-side Energy Storage Systems by using a Multi-agent based Electricity Market

    Furusawa, Ken; Sugihara, Hideharu; Tsuji, Kiichiro

    Opened wholesale electric power market in April 2005, deregulation of electric power industry in Japan has faced a new competitive environment. In the new environment, Independent Power Producer (: IPP), Power Producer and Supplier (: PPS), Load Service Entity (: LSE) and electric utility can trade electric energy through both bilateral contracts and single-price auction at the electricity market. In general, the market clearing price (: MCP) is largely changed by amount of total load demand in the market. The influence may cause price spike, and consequently the volatility of MCP will make LSEs and their customers to face a risk of revenue and cost. DSM is attracted as a means of load leveling, and has effect on decreasing MCP at peak load period. Introducing Energy Storage systems (: ES) is one of DSM in order to change demand profile at customer-side. In case that customers decrease their own demand at jumped MCP, a bidding strategy of generating companies may be changed their strategy. As a result, MCP is changed through such complex mechanism. In this paper the authors evaluate MCP by multi-agent. It is considered that customer-side ES has an effect on MCP fluctuation. Through numerical examples, this paper evaluates the influence on MCP by controlling customer-side ES corresponding to variation of MCP.

  20. The role of co-located storage for wind power producers in conventional electricity markets

    Bitar, E.; Rajagopal, R.; Khargonekar, P.; Poolla, K.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we study the problem of optimizing contract offerings for an independent wind power producer (WPP) participating in conventional day-ahead forward electricity markets for energy. As wind power is an inherently variable source of energy

  1. Optimal operation strategies of compressed air energy storage (CAES) on electricity spot markets with fluctuating prices

    Lund, Henrik; Salgi, Georges; Elmegaard, Brian

    2009-01-01

    on electricity spot markets by storing energy when electricity prices are low and producing electricity when prices are high. In order to make a profit on such markets, CAES plant operators have to identify proper strategies to decide when to sell and when to buy electricity. This paper describes three...... plants will not be able to achieve such optimal operation, since the fluctuations of spot market prices in the coming hours and days are not known. Consequently, two simple practical strategies have been identified and compared to the results of the optimal strategy. This comparison shows that...... independent computer-based methodologies which may be used for identifying the optimal operation strategy for a given CAES plant, on a given spot market and in a given year. The optimal strategy is identified as the one which provides the best business-economic net earnings for the plant. In practice, CAES...

  2. The transition to open-access storage in U.S. natural gas markets

    Schell, L.S.; Schlesinger, B.

    1990-01-01

    In their traditional role as merchants, interstate natural gas pipelines in the U.S. sold natural gas at an aggregate price that incorporated all gathering, storage, transmission, and gas costs in a bundled service. As a result of movements toward deregulation, U.S. gas users now enjoy open-access transportation on most interstate pipeline systems as an unbundled service at a relatively unbundled price, allowing them to contract for their own gas supplies, separate and apart from the system sales gas of traditional pipeline supplier(s). Open-access storage has been slower than open-access transportation service in evolving; its limited availability is a major factor limiting the comparability of service between transportation gas and system sales gas. Open access to storage offers gas users an important tool in managing gas costs, timing of gas purchases, and deliverability imbalances

  3. Market survey on products from the Tema Oil Refinery carried out as part of the feasibility study on the Tema Oil Refinery expansion project. Export trade information

    Anon.

    1991-10-01

    The Tema Oil Refinery (TOR), which was commissioned in 1963, is a simple hydroskimming plant which processes crude oil into LPG, gasoline, kerosene, gasoil, and fuel oil. It is the only petroleum refinery in Ghana. Over the years some of the equipment in the refinery has deteriorated or become obsolete necessitating major rehabilitation. A feasibility study is investigating the modernization and expansion of the refinery to meet projected market demands until the year 2005. The report presents the results of a market survey done on products from TOR

  4. Electric vehicle (EV) storage supply chain risk and the energy market: A micro and macroeconomic risk management approach

    Aguilar, Susanna D.

    As a cost effective storage technology for renewable energy sources, Electric Vehicles can be integrated into energy grids. Integration must be optimized to ascertain that renewable energy is available through storage when demand exists so that cost of electricity is minimized. Optimization models can address economic risks associated with the EV supply chain- particularly the volatility in availability and cost of critical materials used in the manufacturing of EV motors and batteries. Supply chain risk can reflect itself in a shortage of storage, which can increase the price of electricity. We propose a micro-and macroeconomic framework for managing supply chain risk through utilization of a cost optimization model in combination with risk management strategies at the microeconomic and macroeconomic level. The study demonstrates how risk from the EVs vehicle critical material supply chain affects manufacturers, smart grid performance, and energy markets qualitatively and quantitatively. Our results illustrate how risk in the EV supply chain affects EV availability and the cost of ancillary services, and how EV critical material supply chain risk can be mitigated through managerial strategies and policy.

  5. Chemical storage of wind energy by renewable methanol production: Feasibility analysis using a multi-criteria decision matrix

    Matzen, Michael; Alhajji, Mahdi; Demirel, Yaşar

    2015-01-01

    This study is for the technoeconomic analysis of an integral facility consisting of wind energy-based electrolytic hydrogen production, bioethanol-based carbon dioxide capture and compression, and direct methanol synthesis. ASPEN Plus was used to simulate the facility producing 97.01 mt (metric tons) methanol/day using 138.37 mt CO_2/day and 18.56 mt H_2/day. A discounted cash flow diagram for the integral facility is used for the economic analysis at various hydrogen production costs and methanol selling prices. The feasibility analysis is based on a multi-criteria decision matrix consisting of economic and sustainability indicators comparing renewable and non-renewable methanol productions. The overall energy efficiency for the renewable methanol is around 58%. Fixation of carbon reduces the CO_2 equivalent emission by around −1.05 CO_2e/kg methanol. The electrolytic hydrogen production cost is the largest contributor to the economics of the integral facility. The feasibility analysis based on multi-criteria shows that renewable methanol production may be feasible. - Highlights: • We simulate renewable methanol production from wind-based hydrogen and CO_2_. • Methanol production can fix 1.05 kg CO_2/kg methanol with an energy efficiency of 58%. • Economic and sustainability metrics are estimated for the integral facility. • We introduce a decision matrix with both economic and sustainability indicators. • Renewable methanol may be feasible versus conventional fossil fuel-based methanol.

  6. Markets in pre-industrial societies: storage in Hellenistic Babylonia in the medieval English mirror

    van Leeuwen, B.; Pirngruber, R.; Földvári, P.

    2011-01-01

    At least some ancient civilizations used various risk-management strategies to minimize price volatility. In this article, we examine one such strategy, grain storage, by means of a dataset recently made available that provides agricultural prices for Babylonia during the Late Achaemenid and

  7. KEYNOTE ADDRESS: The role of standards in the emerging optical digital data disk storage systems market

    Bainbridge, Ross C.

    1984-09-01

    The Institute for Computer Sciences and Technology at the National Bureau of Standards is pleased to cooperate with the International Society for Optical Engineering and to join with the other distinguished organizations in cosponsoring this conference on applications of optical digital data disk storage systems.

  8. Value assessment of hydrogen-based electrical energy storage in view of electricity spot market

    You, Shi; Hu, Junjie; Zong, Yi

    2016-01-01

    electricity spot market that has high price volatility due to its high share of wind power. An economic dispatch model is developed as a mixed-integer programming (MIP) problem to support the estimation of variable cost of such a system taking into account a good granularity of the technical details. Based...

  9. Optimizing the Operation of Windfarms, Energy Storage and Flexible Loads in Modern Power Systems and Deregulated Electricity Markets

    Dar, Zamiyad

    most turbines is quite close to 1/3 and yaw angle acts as the dominant optimization variable. In the next part of this dissertation, a system comprising of a windfarm and energy storage operating in real-time electricity markets is studied. An Energy-balancing Threshold Price (ETP) policy is proposed to maximize the revenue of a windfarm with on-site storage. We propose and analyze a scheme for a windfarm to store or sell energy based on a threshold price. The threshold price is calculated based on long-term distributions of the electricity price and wind power generation processes, and is chosen so as to balance the energy flows in and out of the storage-equipped windfarm. It is also shown mathematically that the proposed policy is optimal in terms of the long-term revenue generated. Comparing it with the optimal policy that has knowledge of the future, we observe that the revenue obtained by the proposed ETP policy is approximately 90% of the maximum attainable revenue at a storage capacity of 10-15 times the power rating of the windfarm. The intermittent nature of wind power is a hindrance to the efficient participation of windfarms in the day-ahead and forward electricity markets. In this regard, a flexible forward contract is proposed in this dissertation which allows the windfarms to enter into a forward contract with flexible load with an option to deviate from the contracted amount of power. Using such a flexible contract would allow the windfarms to supply more or less than the contracted amount of power in case of unexpected wind conditions or real-time prices. We also propose models for forecasting wind power and real-time electricity prices. The comparison between the proposed contracting framework and a simple fixed contract (currently existing in the market) for different levels of flexibility and load shows that there is a net gain in windfarm revenues, if the transaction price of the two contracts are set equal. Lastly, we present and analyze

  10. Natural gas storage - end user interaction. Final report, September 1992--May 1996

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    The primary purpose of this project is to develop an understanding of the market for natural gas storage that will provide for rigorous evaluation of federal research and development opportunities in storage technologies. The project objectives are: (1) to identify market areas and end use sectors where new natural gas underground storage capacity can be economically employed; (2) to develop a storage evaluation system that will provide the analytical tool to evaluate storage requirements under alternate economic, technology, and market conditions; and (3) to analyze the economic and technical feasibility of alternatives to conventional gas storage. An analytical approach was designed to examine storage need and economics on a total U.S. gas system basis, focusing on technical and market issues. Major findings of each subtask are reported in detail. 79 figs.

  11. Valuation of storage under zonal pricing market structure. Case study: Italy

    Oprescu, Bogdan [CentraleSupelec, Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Joint Research Centre; Quoilin, Sylvain [Liege Univ. (Belgium). Joint Research Centre

    2016-07-01

    The European Commission has proposed to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions to 80-95% below 1990 levels by 2050. Intermediately there is a binding legislation regarding the climate and energy targets for 2020. These targets, known as the ''20-20-20'' targets, set three key objectives for 2020: a 20% reduction in EU greenhouse gas emissions from 1990 levels, raising the share of EU energy consumption produced from renewable resources to 20% and a 20% improvement in the EU's energy efficiency. This policy is to be followed by the actions proposed in a policy framework for climate and energy in the period from 2020 to 2030: a new reduction target for domestic GHG emissions of 40% compared to 1990 for the year 2030, a target at European level for renewable energy of at least 27% for the year 2030 and a proposal for a 30% energy savings target for 2030. The 2020 targets for Italy translate into a 17% share of gross final energy consumption being delivered by Electricity from Renewable Energy Sources (RES-E). Various studies consider the integration of energy storage at the same time as RES-E as a solution to provide more flexibility in the energy system. Even though some studies model the electricity in higher detail, the case of Italy is rarely covered as an individual country. The goal of this paper is to evaluate the impact of adding storage in the Italian power system under different assumptions. The base case is the simplified assumption of a copper plate system where no transmission constraints are considered. This is then compared to the zonal dispatch which considers a simplified grid to underline the importance of locational signals for storage.

  12. Valuation of storage under zonal pricing market structure. Case study: Italy

    Oprescu, Bogdan; Quoilin, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    The European Commission has proposed to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions to 80-95% below 1990 levels by 2050. Intermediately there is a binding legislation regarding the climate and energy targets for 2020. These targets, known as the ''20-20-20'' targets, set three key objectives for 2020: a 20% reduction in EU greenhouse gas emissions from 1990 levels, raising the share of EU energy consumption produced from renewable resources to 20% and a 20% improvement in the EU's energy efficiency. This policy is to be followed by the actions proposed in a policy framework for climate and energy in the period from 2020 to 2030: a new reduction target for domestic GHG emissions of 40% compared to 1990 for the year 2030, a target at European level for renewable energy of at least 27% for the year 2030 and a proposal for a 30% energy savings target for 2030. The 2020 targets for Italy translate into a 17% share of gross final energy consumption being delivered by Electricity from Renewable Energy Sources (RES-E). Various studies consider the integration of energy storage at the same time as RES-E as a solution to provide more flexibility in the energy system. Even though some studies model the electricity in higher detail, the case of Italy is rarely covered as an individual country. The goal of this paper is to evaluate the impact of adding storage in the Italian power system under different assumptions. The base case is the simplified assumption of a copper plate system where no transmission constraints are considered. This is then compared to the zonal dispatch which considers a simplified grid to underline the importance of locational signals for storage.

  13. Preliminary feasibility evalution of compressed air storage power systems. Volume II. Appendices, period June 1975--December 1976

    1976-12-01

    Interest in compressed air storage has been developing in Sweden, Finland, Denmark, England, and France, as well as the United States. One commercial unit is under construction in Huntorf, West Germany. Compressed air for peak power can be stored either in natural or man-made caverns. Only new excavations in hard rock down to depths of about 2500 feet are considered in this report. In 1974, conditions for underground storage were discussed in a Geological Survey of Potential Cavern Areas in New England, referred to as the CAINE report. In this survey of the northeast region, the rest of the corridor between Washington and Boston has been added. The rock formations in the entire area of about 45,000 square miles are evaluated. The physical properties of rocks and criteria for their evaluation in underground openings are discussed. Methods of rock excavation and the basis for selecting areas are considered. Information on bedrock units along the corridor is reviewed. A list of favorable rock formations is included.

  14. Feasibility study of an islanded microgrid in rural area consisting of PV, wind, biomass and battery energy storage system

    Singh, Shakti; Singh, Mukesh; Kaushik, Subhash Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A cost effective hybrid PV-wind-biomass energy system with storage is proposed. • Mathematical modeling and operational strategy of the proposed system is discussed. • Optimal sizing of components is evaluated using evolutionary algorithms. • Results obtained is compared with software tool HOMER. • The performance of the hybrid system in the critical case has been presented. - Abstract: Renewable energy systems are proving to be promising and environment friendly sources of electricity generation, particularly, in countries with inadequate fossil fuel resources. In recent years, wind, solar photovoltaic (PV) and biomass based systems have been drawing more attention to provide electricity to isolated or energy deficient regions. This paper presents a hybrid PV-wind generation system along with biomass and storage to fulfill the electrical load demand of a small area. For optimal sizing of components, a recently introduced swarm based artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm is applied. To verify the strength of the proposed technique, the results are compared with the results obtained from the standard software tool, hybrid optimization model for electric renewable (HOMER) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm. It has been verified from the results that the ABC algorithm has good convergence property and ability to provide good quality results. Further, for critical case such as the failure of any source, the behavior of the proposed system has been observed. It is evident from the results that the proposed scheme is able to manage a smooth power flow with the same optimal configuration.

  15. Development of hydrogen market: the outlook for demand, wing energy production, mass storage and distribution to vehicles in the regions

    Le Duigou, A.; Quemere, M.M.; Marion, P.; Decarre, S.; Sinegre, L.; Nadau, L.; Pierre, H.; Menanteau, Ph.; Rastetter, A.; Cuni, A.; Barbier, F.; Mulard, Ph.; Alleau, Th.; Antoine, L.

    2011-01-01

    The HyFrance3 project has provided a national framework for reflection, debate and strategic exchange between major public and industrial research players, namely for their hydrogen technology arms in France (Air Liquide, Total Refining and Marketing, EDF R and D, GDF SUEZ, CNRS-LEPII Energies Nouvelles, AFH2, ALPHEA, ADEME (co-financing and partner) and the CEA (coordinator). This project focuses on studying the landscape, trends and economic competitiveness of some links in the hydrogen chain, for industrial and energy applications, over a period referred to as 'short term' (2020-2030). Four study subjects were tackled: the prospective demand for hydrogen in industry (analysis of the current situation and outlook for 2030, in particular for refining based on two scenarios on mobility), production of hydrogen for transport uses from wind-produced electricity, mass storage that would have to be set up in the Rhone Alpes and PACA regions, to balance supply that is subject to deliberate (maintenance) or involuntary interruptions, and the distribution of hydrogen in the region, for automobile use (gas station network in the Rhone Alpes and PACA regions) by 2050 (with end period all-in costs between 0.4 eur/kg and 0.6 eur/kg, as a function of the price of energy and the distance from the storage site). (authors)

  16. Feasibility study of electron-scattering experiments with a tensor-polarized deuterium target in an electron storage ring

    Holt, R.J.; Geesaman, D.F.; Goodman, L.S.

    1985-01-01

    The feasibility of using a spin-exchange optical-pumping method to produce a high flux of tensor-polarized deuterium atoms is being tested. In this method, alkali atoms are polarized by optical pumping and the polarization is transferred to deuterium by successive spin-exchange collisions. In a test with a simple model the authors achieved 10 mW of laser power absorbed to the spin-exchange process with deuterium. Construction of a more sophisticated prototype was completed and tests are in progress. Dissociation fractions in excess of 80% for deuterium molecules have been achieved thus far. In order to optimize the performance of the prototype target, a computerized model of the target was constructed. A section of a differential-pumping system was constructed and tested. It was possible to sustain more than the required 5 orders-of-magnitude pressure drop in a distance of approximately 1.5 m

  17. Marketing.

    Chambers, David W

    2010-01-01

    There is not enough marketing of dentistry; but there certainly is too much selling of poor quality service that is being passed off as dentistry. The marketing concept makes the patient and the patients' needs the ultimate criteria of marketing efforts. Myths and good practices for effective marketing that will promote oral health are described under the traditional four "Ps" categories of "product" (best dental care), "place" (availability), "promotion" (advertising and other forms of making patients aware of available services and how to use them), and "price" (the total cost to patients of receiving care).

  18. Batch-wise final disposal made feasible by long-term interim storage of waste: the choice of the Netherlands

    Codee, Hans D.K.; Vrijen, Jan

    1991-01-01

    Radioactive waste produced in the Netherlands is managed by COVRA, the Central Organisation for Radioactive Waste. All kinds and categories of radwaste generated in the next 50-100 years will be stored in above ground engineered structures which allow retrieval at all times. After this long-term storage, the wastes will finally be disposed of in a deep geologic repository. At the political level no firm decisions have yet been taken with respect to the final disposal. Disposal in rock salt, which is available in the Netherlands, is explored as an option. Immediate disposal requires the availability of a large amount of money as well as a site. Neither of the two are available at present in the Netherlands, nor are they required at this time. Based on economic considerations, immediate disposal into a rock salt facility in not an acceptable option for the wastes presently produced in the Netherlands. Only after sufficient capital has been generated through an interest bearing fund can this option be considered for implementation

  19. Feasibility study on superconducting energy storages for instantaneous provision of reserve capacities. Final report; Machbarkeitsuntersuchung von supraleitenden Energiespeichern zur Bereitstellung der Sekundenreserveleistung. Abschlussbericht

    Hockl, V [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany); Koetschau, S [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany); Nick, W [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany); Peschel, H [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany); Prescher, K [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany); Rzezonka, B [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany); Thiel, C [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany); Voelzke, R [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany); Zaviska, O [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany); Radtke, U [Preussische Elektrizitaets-AG (Preussenelektra), Hannover (Germany); Kleimaier, M [RWE Energie AG, Essen (Germany); Uttich, R [RWE Energie AG, Essen (Germany)

    1996-11-01

    The present integrated research project conducted by Siemens AG in cooperation with the power supply companies PreussenElektra AG and RWE Energie AG was started in March 1994 and finally concluded in March 1996 after a run time of 25 months. On the strength of their know-how as manufacturers of electrotechnical installations and power plants the cooperating partners were fully equipped to examine the technical and economic conditions relevant to the practical application of superconducting energy storages. The aim of the study was to examine the feasibility and economic efficiency of superconducting magnetic energy storages (SMES) for instantaneous provision of reserve capacities. The SMES is also to provide the power for primary regulation, a function effected by slight throttling of live steam valves in conventional thermal power plants. A basic cost estimation was made for economic assessment purposes. The estimated cost of the first plant (including development costs and component testing) and subsequent (series produced) plants is to serve as a basis for the ensuing decision on prototype construction. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Maerz 1994 wurde das vorliegende Forschungsverbundprojekt von der Siemens AG in Zusammenarbeit mit den Energieversorgungsunternehmen PreussenElektra AG und RWE Energie AG begonnen und nach einer Laufzeit von 25 Monaten im Maerz 1996 abgeschlossen. Die beteiligten Unternehmen bringen durch ihr Know-how als Hersteller von elektrotechnischen Anlagen und Kraftwerken und als Betreiber von Stromversorgungsnetzen und Kraftwerken alle Voraussetzungen mit, die technischen und wirtschaftlichen Randbedingungen fuer den Anwendungsfall zu untersuchen. Das Ziel der Untersuchung war, die technische Machbarkeit und die Wirtschaftlichkeit eines supraleitenden magnetischen Energiespeichers (SMES) fuer den Einsatz zur Bereitstellung der Sekundenreserveleistung zu untersuchen. Hierbei soll der SMES die Primaerregelleistung liefern, die bisher in thermischen

  20. Energy storage

    Kaier, U.

    1981-04-01

    Developments in the area of energy storage are characterized, with respect to theory and laboratory, by an emergence of novel concepts and technologies for storing electric energy and heat. However, there are no new commercial devices on the market. New storage batteries as basis for a wider introduction of electric cars, and latent heat storage devices, as an aid for solar technology applications, with satisfactory performance standards are not yet commercially available. Devices for the intermediate storage of electric energy for solar electric-energy systems, and for satisfying peak-load current demands in the case of public utility companies are considered. In spite of many promising novel developments, there is yet no practical alternative to the lead-acid storage battery. Attention is given to central heat storage for systems transporting heat energy, small-scale heat storage installations, and large-scale technical energy-storage systems.

  1. Food preservation by irradiation. V.- Economic study of the spanish potatoe market and preservation feasibility by irradiation

    Rivas, A.; Garcia de Mateos, A.; Ortin Sune, N.; Val Cob, M. del

    1967-01-01

    A study of the spanish potatoe market is carried o nt in order to know the possibilities of preservation by irradiation. The study is initiated with a recompilation of statistical data on the production and consumption of potatoes by regions and seasons. Last years losses are then estimated. (Author) 9 refs

  2. Optimum sizing of PV-attached electricity storage according to power market signals – A case study for Germany and Italy

    Zucker, Andreas; Hinchliffe, Timothée

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • PV-attached battery unprofitable from German wholesale aggregator point of view. • PV-attached battery profitability below utility costs of capital in Italy. • Profitability can be reached if energy CAPEX reaches 100–150 EUR/kW h. • Optimum sizing depends on usage. • Maximum 5 h of storage and power rating exceeding 40% of PV power required. - Abstract: This paper investigates the business case of power storage attached to PV generation from the perspective of an aggregator trading power on wholesale markets and possibly supplying household customers. The profitability and an optimum storage configuration are determined for two European regions: Baden-Wuerttemberg in Germany and Puglia in Italy based on wholesale price data and solar irradiation data for the years 2007–2011. During this period of time and under the assumptions made, adding storage to a portfolio of PV generators would not have constituted a business case for Baden-Wuerttemberg while profitability could have been reached for Puglia. However, the return of PV-attached storage that could have been achieved in Puglia during the years 2007–2011 is below levels typically required by companies operating on wholesale markets (deregulated power generators or traders) as those market participants’ capital costs are usually significantly higher than borrowing costs of the state. Storage proved to be financially more attractive in cases where severe grid constraints lead to significant levels of curtailment provided that the associated losses would not be financially compensated. This could pose a risk to any investor as grid upgrades would eventually erode the revenues. Restricting the storage to PV energy only (i.e. without the possibility to do arbitrage on markets) depresses the business case and is generally unprofitable, except but for situations of severe grid bottlenecks. The picture does not change significantly if a consumption portfolio is added. In order to reach

  3. Hydrogen for small-scale energy consumers and CO2-storage. Feasibility study of a demonstration project in the Rijnmond, Netherlands

    Bergsma, G.C.; Van der Werff, T.T.; Rooijers, F.J.

    1996-01-01

    In the future natural gas can be substituted by hydrogen. In the short term hydrogen can be produced from fossil fuels. Released CO 2 can be stored. In the long run it will be possible to produce hydrogen from renewable energy sources (solar cells and wind turbines), which can be transported to the consumer. In the study on the title subject attention is paid to different methods of hydrogen production from natural gas and from residual oils, costs and problems of hydrogen distribution, hydrogen appliances, and CO 2 storage. From the results it appears that a demonstration project to use hydrogen on a small-scale is feasible, although expensive. The costs of the reconstruction of the present natural gas distribution system to a hydrogen distribution system is higher than expected. The price of hydrogen per GJ is higher than the equal energy content of natural gas, in spite of a reduction of the energy levy. The demonstration project will be 25% cheaper per GJ hydrogen when carried out in a newly built area. A demonstration project in which hydrogen is mixed with natural gas is even a factor 2 cheaper. 17 refs., 7 appendices

  4. Papers of the Canadian Institute's 8. annual North American pipelines and storage conference : update on critical infrastructure developments and market dynamics shaping the North American grid

    2003-01-01

    Leaders and experts from the petroleum and natural gas industry outlined some of the recent changes that have taken place in the North America gas and electricity industry. The relationship between pipeline and storage capacity was discussed with reference to how the connection affects prices at North American storage hubs. The topics of discussion ranged from the challenges associated with declines in capacity and market dynamics, to how gas marketability will be affected by the slowdown in pipeline development in North America. The investment community offered advice on long-run value creation in natural gas. The current state of development of Arctic gas was highlighted along with a review of how growth in liquefied natural gas (LNG) is changing the role of gas infrastructure in North America. It was noted that although markets will work to balance supply and demand, there is a need for new sources of North American supply to meet growing long-term demand. The fall-off in U.S. domestic natural gas supplies combined with low storage levels has created a supply crisis. The conference featured 19 presentations, of which 4 have been indexed separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  5. Measuring Non-Market Values for Hydropower Production and Water Storage on the Colorado River: A White Paper Investigation

    Lowry, Thomas Stephen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Earth Systems Analysis Dept.; Chermak, Janie M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Earth Systems Analysis Dept.; Brookshire, David S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Earth Systems Analysis Dept.; Shaneyfelt, Calvin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Earth Systems Analysis Dept.; Kobos, Peter H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Earth Systems Analysis Dept.

    2017-01-01

    This study presents a conceptual framework for capturing the spatial and temporal aspects of non-market dimensions of value (DOV) and how they vary as the result of policy changes for hydropower generation and developed water uses. The foundation of this project is a literature review that reveals that focused, sector specific valuations are no longer adequate if the goal is to provide decision makers with a complete understanding of their decisions. Rather, estimates of non-market values for informing decisions regarding dam operations and/or other water management alternatives must consider the entire spectrum of market and non-market values, and the tradeoffs (both positive and negative) between those values over time and space, while considering shifting preferences in an uncertain environment. This document describes the history and reasoning for these conclusions and presents a conceptual framework for understanding non-market values as a function of changes to hydropower operations and water resources management.

  6. Analysis of the feasibility of inclusion of decentralised renewable electricity systems into a mandated market share mechanism for China. Executive summary

    Van der Linden, N.H.; Junfeng, L.; Keyun, D.; Martens, J.W.; Ramani, K.V.; Sicheng, W.; Shutian, W.; Tak, C. van der

    2003-09-01

    The World Bank and the Global Environment Facility provide assistance to the Government of China with the implementation of the renewable energy programme during the 10th and 11th Five Year Plans. To this end, the China Renewable Energy Scale-up Programme (CRESP) was set up. CRESP is managed by the Project Management Office (PMO), which is institutionally placed in the National Development and Planning Commission (NDRC). One of the first activities initiated by CRESP is the development of the institutional framework within which the Mandated Market System (MMS) policy for renewable energy can be introduced. An MMS policy is based on the requirement that a set amount (or proportion) of the electricity supply is produced from renewable energy sources. The obligation is placed at some point in the supply chain, which could range from production, through transmission to supply or consumption. Monitoring procedures are put in place to ensure that the obligation will be met. Environmental considerations are the main reason behind the intention to introduce an MMS in China but the government has also recognised the importance of (renewable) energy to achieving poverty objectives. Decentralised renewable electricity systems (DRES) have special relevance for rural poor communities that are unserved or underserved by centralised fossil fuel networks or utility electricity grids. DRES may offer a promising solution to meet demand for energy services of these communities in remote location, which cannot be reach by the electricity grid. The analysis in this study focused on mini-hydro (less than 10 kW), solar home systems and stand-alone wind turbines. The principal objective of the study is to analyse the feasibility of inclusion of DRES into the proposed MMS for China. Because DRES are often used in remote areas, which are difficult to reach, the costs of verifying these systems are prohibitive if the procedures are not sufficiently simple and efficient. Therefore

  7. Analysis of the feasibility of inclusion of decentralised renewable electricity systems into a mandated market share mechanism for China. Final Report

    Van der Linden, N.H.; Junfeng, L.; Keyun, D.; Martens, J.W.; Ramani, K.V.; Sicheng, W.; Shutian, W.; Tak, C. van der

    2003-10-01

    The World Bank and the Global Environment Facility provide assistance to the Government of China with the implementation of the renewable energy programme during the 10th and 11th Five Year Plans. To this end, the China Renewable Energy Scale-up Programme (CRESP) was set up. CRESP is managed by the Project Management Office (PMO), which is institutionally placed in the National Development and Planning Commission (NDRC). One of the first activities initiated by CRESP is the development of the institutional framework within which the Mandated Market System (MMS) policy for renewable energy can be introduced. An MMS policy is based on the requirement that a set amount (or proportion) of the electricity supply is produced from renewable energy sources. The obligation is placed at some point in the supply chain, which could range from production, through transmission to supply or consumption. Monitoring procedures are put in place to ensure that the obligation will be met. Environmental considerations are the main reason behind the intention to introduce an MMS in China but the government has also recognised the importance of (renewable) energy to achieving poverty objectives. Decentralised renewable electricity systems (DRES) have special relevance for rural poor communities that are unserved or underserved by centralised fossil fuel networks or utility electricity grids. DRES may offer a promising solution to meet demand for energy services of these communities in remote location, which cannot be reach by the electricity grid. The analysis in this study focused on mini-hydro (less than 10 kW), solar home systems and stand-alone wind turbines. The principal objective of the study is to analyse the feasibility of inclusion of DRES into the proposed MMS for China. Because DRES are often used in remote areas, which are difficult to reach, the costs of verifying these systems are prohibitive if the procedures are not sufficiently simple and efficient. Therefore

  8. Economic feasibility constraints for renewable energy source power production

    Biondi, L.

    1992-01-01

    Suitable analysis criteria for use in economic feasibility studies of renewable energy source power plants are examined for various plant types, e.g., pumped storage hydroelectric, geothermal, wind, solar, refuse-fuelled, etc. The paper focusses on the impacts, on operating cost and rate structure, of the necessity, depending on demand characteristics, to integrate renewable energy source power production with conventional power production in order to effectively and economically meet peak power demand. The influence of commercialization and marketing trends on renewable energy source power plant economic feasibility are also taken into consideration

  9. Fiscal 2000 survey report. Development of novel battery power storage system (Development of distributed power storage technology - Marketability of lithium storage battery); 2000 nendo gyomu hokokusho. Shingata denchi denryoku chozo system kaihatsu - Bunsangata denryoku chozo gijutsu kaihatu (Ritium niji denchi no shijosei chosa)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    A survey is conducted of the current status of storage batteries and the marketability of the lithium ion battery. In the study of future marketability of storage batteries for electric vehicles, the small vehicle Hypermini currently loaded with a lithium ion battery is taken up and it is assumed that each carries a 10 kWh battery, and then it is estimated that there will be an approximately 2200 times 10{sup 3} kWh market in Japan in 2020. As for hybrid vehicles each loaded with a 1 kWh battery, it is estimated that 3997 times 10{sup 3} kWh will be on the market in 2020. For the fuel cell powered vehicle, similarly, there will be approximately 2,500 times 10{sup 3} kWh on the market in 2020. As for power storage facilities for power load shaving, the demand for cells in 2020 is estimated at 1,032-3,924 times 10{sup 3} kWh on the assumption that they operate 4 hours in the daytime. As for the uninterruptible power supply, it is estimated that 800 times 10{sup 3} kWh will be required by those installed at data centers in 2020. It is also estimated that 252 times 10{sup 3} kWh will be necessary in the form of storage batteries for motored wheelchairs in 2020. As for distributed power source systems such as those dealing with wind power or photovoltaic power, there are a number of technical problems that have to be settled. (NEDO)

  10. Marketing research on heat storage in aquifers. Systems, applications and combinations with heat generating techniques, and sector potentials. Marktorientatie warmte-opslag in aquifers. Systemen, toepassingen en combinaties met warmte-producerende technieken, deelsector potentielen

    1987-01-01

    The market research on the title subject concentrates on the possible applications of seasonal heat storage for space heating in buildings (not industrial). Some selected heat storage systems in aquifers were analyzed with regard to the state of the technology, minimal storage capacity and the price/performance ratio. Then a number of co binations with bridging techniques has been investigated: combinations with cogeneration systems, heat pumps or solar energy systems. Finally the potentials of energy conservation in non-industrial buildings for small-scale and large-scale heat storage are listed. 6 figs., 16 refs., 24 tabs., 9 apps.

  11. Optimal bidding strategy of battery storage in power markets considering performance based regulation and battery cycle life

    He, Guannan; Chen, Qixin; Kang, Chongqing

    2016-01-01

    to reduce the complexity of the model. This novel bidding model would help investor-owned battery storages better decide their bidding and operational schedules and investors to estimate the battery storage’s economic viability. The validity of the proposed model is proven by case study results....

  12. Minimization of distribution system losses by exploiting storage and anticipating market-driven behaviour of wind power producers

    Farrokhseresht, M.; Paterakis, N.G.; Gibescu, M.; Slootweg, J.G.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a stochastic bi-level optimization model to determine the optimal dispatch of energy storage systems controlled directly by the distribution system operator (DSO) in order to achieve minimization of active power losses, taking into account the profit-driven participation of

  13. Conceptual market potential framework of high temperature aquifer thermal energy storage - A case study in the Netherlands

    Wesselink, Maxim; Liu, Wen; Koornneef, Joris; van den Broek, Machteld

    2018-01-01

    High temperature aquifer thermal energy storage (HT-ATES) can contribute to the integration of renewable energy sources in the energy system, the replacement of fossil fuel-based heat supply and the utilization of surplus heat from industrial sources. However, there is limited understanding on the

  14. Sydlangeland Fjernvarme A.m.b.a. Feasibility study on 10-20.000 m{sup 3} pond heat storage[Denmark]; Sydlangeland Fjernvarme A.m.b.a. Forundersoegelse for 10-20.000 m{sup 3} damvarmelager

    Visbjerg, L. [Sydlangeland Fjernvarme A.m.b.a. (Denmark); Wesenberg, C.; Bliksted, T. [NIRAS Raadgivende Ingenioerer og Planlaeggere A/S (Denmark); Porsvig, M. [Geoteknisk Institut (Denmark); Duer, K. [DTU, Solenergi Center Danmark (Denmark)

    2000-11-01

    The project includes siting analyses, geotechnical feasibility studies and evaluations of operating economy for establishing a seasonal heat storage carried out as a 10-20,000 m{sup 3} pilot pond heat storage at Sydlangeland straw-fired district heating plant. (EHS)

  15. Modeling of battery energy storage in the National Energy Modeling System

    Swaminathan, S.; Flynn, W.T.; Sen, R.K. [Sentech, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) developed by the U.S. Department of Energy`s Energy Information Administration is a well-recognized model that is used to project the potential impact of new electric generation technologies. The NEMS model does not presently have the capability to model energy storage on the national grid. The scope of this study was to assess the feasibility of, and make recommendations for, the modeling of battery energy storage systems in the Electricity Market of the NEMS. Incorporating storage within the NEMS will allow the national benefits of storage technologies to be evaluated.

  16. Offering strategy of a price-maker energy storage system in day-ahead and balancing markets

    Vespermann, Niklas Peter René Erich; Delikaraoglou, Stefanos; Pinson, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    . The offering strategy of a price-maker ESS operator is formulated as a bilevel model, where the upper-level problem represents the profit maximization of the ESS operator and the lower-level problem simulates the market-clearing outcome. This methodological framework can be used either to assess market...... efficiency distortion or as a trading strategy from the perspective of the ESS operator. Our analysis shows that adopting strategic behavior may improve ESS expected profit but reduces social welfare, especially for high ESS energy-to-power ratios....

  17. Performances of TN {sup registered} 24 E. An AREVA used fuel transport and interim storage cask for the German market

    Brion, Thomas [AREVA TN International, Montigny Le Bretonneux (France)

    2013-07-01

    Part of the AREVA Group, TN International offers a complete range of transport and interim storage solutions for radioactive materials throughout the entire nuclear fuel cycle. A world leader in its sector, TN International has supported for 50 years the expansion of the nuclear industry, in particular by providing expertise in secure packing systems for the storage of used fuel assemblies. As an answer to EON and EnBW, two German utilities, needs, TN International has designed and manufactured the TN {sup registered} 24E cask, offering the following high level performances: 1. transport and storage over a period of 40 years of up to 21 PWR spent nuclear fuel (SNF), allowing for example to load up to 17 MOX fuel assemblies and 4 UOX SNF. 2. high flexibility in the fuel assemblies loading plans, inducing no general predefined constraints with regards to the MOX or UOX fuel positions in the basket of the cask Safety margin related to radioprotection, thermal and mechanical behaviour of the fuel assemblies can be calculated loading plan per loading plan. (orig.)

  18. System and market integration of photovoltaic systems by decentralised energy storage devices? An analysis of the technical potentials and the legal framework; System- und Marktintegration von Photovoltaik-Anlagen durch dezentrale Stromspeicher? Eine Analyse der technischen Potentiale und rechtlichen Rahmenbedingungen

    Predki, Henryk

    2013-06-15

    The massive growth of photovoltaics (PV) challenges the German electricity supply system. It is necessary to adjust the generation of electricity from PV to the demand, to prevent power grid overloads due to solar electricity and to integrate the electricity into the market. This thesis examines, how decentralised energy storage devices can contribute to overcome these challenges and to what extent this approach is promoted by the current legal framework. It shows, that decentralised energy storage devices could contribute to the system und market inte-gration of PV, but the legal incentives are insufficient to realise this potential.

  19. Kalundborg case study, a feasibility study of CO{sub 2} storage in onshore saline aquifers. CO2STORE[Denmark

    Larsen, Michael; Bech, N.; Bidstrup, T.; Christensen, Niels Peter; Vangkilde-Pedersen, T. [GEUS (Denmark); Biede, O. [ENERGI E2 (Denmark)

    2007-06-15

    The Danish case-study of the CO2STORE project comprises the potential future capture and underground storage of CO{sub 2} from two point sources. These are the coal fired power plant Asnaesvaerket and the Statoil refinery both located in the city of Kalundborg, Denmark. Initial mapping of the storage structure was conducted as part of the EU funded research project GESTCO that was concluded in 2003. The study identified a large underground structure forming a potential, future storage site 15 km to the northeast of the city. Porous sandstones filled with saline water at a depth of approximately 1.500 m form the reservoir. The structure covers approximately 160 km{sup 2} and a preliminary calculation suggests a storage capacity of nearly 900 million tonnes of CO2 equal to more than 150 years of CO{sub 2} emissions from the two point sources. In the Kalundborg case-study, a fictive capture and storage scenario will be formulated and modelled. The scenario is based on experiences learned through the SACS and GESTCO projects. Detailed geological modelling, reservoir simulation, reservoir and cap rock characterisation and risk assessment will be important issues for the case-study. The Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) is project leader for the Kalundborg case-study. Information on CO{sub 2} emissions from the point sources and technical and economical input for the three scenarios is provided by the industrial partners; ENERGI E2 and Statoil ASA. The scenario is designed only for this case study and does not reflect the strategic plans of ENERGI E2 nor Statoil ASA. Geochemical simulation and modelling studies on reservoir and cap rock were performed at Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres (BRGM) in France. The CO2STORE project is performed within the European Community supported 5th Framework Programme. (au)

  20. Marketing marketing

    dr. Karel Jan van Alsem

    2013-01-01

    In deze installatierede betoogt Karel Jan Alsem dat marketing een grotere strategische rol in organisaties zou moeten krijgen. Want marketing is bij uitstek de verbinding tussen klantwensen en het DNA van een organisatie. Doordat merken gemiddeld voor mensen niet heel belangrijk zijn, is goede

  1. Study of extraterrestrial disposal of radioactive wastes. Part 2: Preliminary feasibility screening study of extraterrestrial disposal of radioactive wastes in concentrations, matrix materials, and containers designed for storage on earth

    Hyland, R. E.; Wohl, M. L.; Thompson, R. L.; Finnegan, P. M.

    1972-01-01

    The results are reported of a preliminary feasibility screening study for providing long-term solutions to the problems of handling and managing radioactive wastes by extraterrestrial transportation of the wastes. Matrix materials and containers are discussed along with payloads, costs, and destinations for candidate space vehicles. The conclusions reached are: (1) Matrix material such as spray melt can be used without exceeding temperature limits of the matrix. (2) The cost in mills per kw hr electric, of space disposal of fission products is 4, 5, and 28 mills per kw hr for earth escape, solar orbit, and solar escape, respectively. (3) A major factor effecting cost is the earth storage time. Based on a normal operating condition design for solar escape, a storage time of more than sixty years is required to make the space disposal charge less than 10% of the bus-bar electric cost. (4) Based on a 10 year earth storage without further processing, the number of shuttle launches required would exceed one per day.

  2. Using simple wind-diesel systems without energy storage to obtain high penetration and market acceptance in the near future

    Lundsager, P.; Sherwin, R.W. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    A wind/diesel hybrid power system combines wind energy technology with diesel generation to provide continous AC electrical power with reduced fuel consumption. The objectives of this paper are to summarize the reasoning behind the simple Wind-Diesel system concept using low or negative load operation of the diesels, including the diesel backdrive technique proposed by Atlantic Orient, and to outline a strategy within an international framework to make simple Wind-Diesel systems with standard induction generator wind turbines commercially available and accepted by the market. (au) (11 refs.)

  3. Storage in Europe

    Cabanes, J.M.; Rottenberg, J.; Abiad, A.; Caudron, S.; Girault, Ph.

    2007-01-01

    Storage represents one of the key elements among the different modulation tools. How the problem of storage is put forward in Europe in front of the increasing uncertainty of the gas demand and prices? What are the policies implemented by storage facility operators? To what extend storage can amortize gas prices volatility or allow the market actors to take the best profit of this volatility? These are the questions debated at this workshop by four specialists of this domain. (J.S.)

  4. ERDA's Chemical Energy Storage Program

    Swisher, J. H.; Kelley, J. H.

    1977-01-01

    The Chemical Energy Storage Program is described with emphasis on hydrogen storage. Storage techniques considered include pressurized hydrogen gas storage, cryogenic liquid hydrogen storage, storage in hydride compounds, and aromatic-alicyclic hydrogen storage. Some uses of energy storage are suggested. Information on hydrogen production and hydrogen use is also presented. Applications of hydrogen energy systems include storage of hydrogen for utilities load leveling, industrial marketing of hydrogen both as a chemical and as a fuel, natural gas supplementation, vehicular applications, and direct substitution for natural gas.

  5. Solarthermie 2000 - Partial programme 3: Solar district heat - solar campus Juelich, feasibility study of the seasonal heat storage; Solarthermie 2000, Teilprogramm 3: Solare Nahwaerme - Solar-Campus Juelich, Machbarkeitsuntersuchung des saisonalen Waermespeichers

    Braxein, A. [Iwu - Ingenieurgesellschaft fuer Wasser und Umwelt mbH, Aachen (Germany); Spaete, F.; Repschlaeger, H. [Solar-Inst. Juelich (Germany); Friedel, J. [Stadtwerke Juelich (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The heart of the solar-assisted district heating system for the solar campus Juelich is going to be a seasonal underground store with a capacity of 2,500 cubic metres, e.g. a rather small long-term storage. The aim of the project was to prove the technical and financial feasibility of the underground store by developing a building concept for the storage and to determine whether this concept was also suitable for larger storage facilities. The design of the floating lid and the suitability of various building materials were studied by means of a physical model. The resulting storage concept shows an underground storage pit whose shape is an inverted square pyramid base with a seal of double-layer PP-foil and a thermal insulation of pressure-resistant mineral wool in the upper part. The lid consists of 16 square walk-on floating containers with an edge length of 6.50 metres and a height of 1.0 metre each. Tests and calculations showed that the concept can be realised. The building costs for the small storage with a capacity of 2,500 cubic metres will amount to approx. DM 370 per cubic metre, costs for larger volumes of 25,000 cubic metres will amount to approx. DM 150 DM per cubic metre of water stored. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das Kernstueck der solargestuetzten Nahwaermeversorgung fuer den Solar-Campus Juelich soll ein 2500 m{sup 3} grosser, saisonaler Erdbeckenspeicher bilden, also ein relativ kleiner Langzeitspeicher. Ziel des Vorhabens war, die technische und finanzielle Machbarkeit des geplanten Erdbeckenspeichers durch ein baureifes Speicherkonzept nachzuweisen sowie die Uebertragbarkeit auf grosse saisonale Speicher gleicher Bauart zu untersuchen. Die konstruktive Ausbildung der schwimmenden Deckelkonstruktion sowie die Eignung verschiedener Baumaterialien wurden mit Hilfe eines physikalischen Modells untersucht. Das resultierende Speicherkonzept sieht einen Erdbeckenspeicher in Form eines umgedrehten, quadratischen Pyramidenstumpfes mit einer Abdichtung aus

  6. Study protocol for the optimisation, feasibility testing and pilot cluster randomised trial of Positive Choices: a school-based social marketing intervention to promote sexual health, prevent unintended teenage pregnancies and address health inequalities in England.

    Ponsford, Ruth; Allen, Elizabeth; Campbell, Rona; Elbourne, Diana; Hadley, Alison; Lohan, Maria; Melendez-Torres, G J; Mercer, Catherine H; Morris, Steve; Young, Honor; Bonell, Chris

    2018-01-01

    Since the introduction of the Teenage Pregnancy Strategy (TPS), England's under-18 conception rate has fallen by 55%, but a continued focus on prevention is needed to maintain and accelerate progress. The teenage birth rate remains higher in the UK than comparable Western European countries. Previous trials indicate that school-based social marketing interventions are a promising approach to addressing teenage pregnancy and improving sexual health. Such interventions are yet to be trialled in the UK. This study aims to optimise and establish the feasibility and acceptability of one such intervention: Positive Choices. Design: Optimisation, feasibility testing and pilot cluster randomised trial.Interventions: The Positive Choices intervention comprises a student needs survey, a student/staff led School Health Promotion Council (SHPC), a classroom curriculum for year nine students covering social and emotional skills and sex education, student-led social marketing activities, parent information and a review of school sexual health services.Systematic optimisation of Positive Choices will be carried out with the National Children's Bureau Sex Education Forum (NCB SEF), one state secondary school in England and other youth and policy stakeholders.Feasibility testing will involve the same state secondary school and will assess progression criteria to advance to the pilot cluster RCT.Pilot cluster RCT with integral process evaluation will involve six different state secondary schools (four interventions and two controls) and will assess the feasibility and utility of progressing to a full effectiveness trial.The following outcome measures will be trialled as part of the pilot:Self-reported pregnancy and unintended pregnancy (initiation of pregnancy for boys) and sexually transmitted infections,Age of sexual debut, number of sexual partners, use of contraception at first and last sex and non-volitional sexEducational attainmentThe feasibility of linking administrative

  7. B2C电子商务下物流统一配送模式市场可行性分析%B2C E-commerce Logistics Distribution Mode under the Unified Market Feasibility Analysis

    孙梦洁; 徐仙

    2012-01-01

      针对 B2C 电子商务下物流配送成本居高不下的问题,调查者通过网上问卷、电子邮件等形式联系商家并调查 B2C 电子商务下物流统一配送模式的市场可行性。经分析发现:影响市场可行性的主要因素包括成本节约、中介机构服务、物流快慢、周期订单量、更好的节约配送成本的方法等。其中前三者对可行性的影响呈正效应,后两者对可行性的影响呈反效应。%  In B2C e-commerce of logistics delivery problems such as high cost, investigators contacted business by online questionnaire, E-mail and other forms of the network survey to research the B2C e-commerce logistics distribution mode under the unified market feasibility.It indicated the main factors affected the market feasibility including cost saving, intermediary services, logistics speed, cycle orders, having better save delivery cost method and so onthrough analysis, then the influence of both the feasibility for the reverse effect.

  8. Spent-Fuel Test - Climax: An evaluation of the technical feasibility of geologic storage of spent nuclear fuel in granite: Executive summary of final results

    Patrick, W.C.

    1986-01-01

    This summary volume outlines results that are covered in more detail in the final report of the Spent-Fuel Test - Climate project. The project was conducted between 1978 and 1983 in the granitic Climax stock at the Nevada Test Site. Results indicate that spent fuel can be safely stored for periods of years in this host medium and that nuclear waste so emplaced can be safely retrieved. We also evaluated the effects of heat and radiation (alone and in combination) on emplacement canisters and the surrounding rock mass. Storage of the spent-fuel affected the surrounding rock mass in measurable ways, but did not threaten the stability or safety of the facility at any time

  9. Basin-Scale Leakage Risks from Geologic Carbon Sequestration: Impact on Carbon Capture and Storage Energy Market Competitiveness

    Peters, Catherine; Fitts, Jeffrey; Wilson, Elizabeth; Pollak, Melisa; Bielicki, Jeffrey; Bhatt, Vatsal

    2013-03-13

    This three-year project, performed by Princeton University in partnership with the University of Minnesota and Brookhaven National Laboratory, examined geologic carbon sequestration in regard to CO{sub 2} leakage and potential subsurface liabilities. The research resulted in basin-scale analyses of CO{sub 2} and brine leakage in light of uncertainties in the characteristics of leakage processes, and generated frameworks to monetize the risks of leakage interference with competing subsurface resources. The geographic focus was the Michigan sedimentary basin, for which a 3D topographical model was constructed to represent the hydrostratigraphy. Specifically for Ottawa County, a statistical analysis of the hydraulic properties of underlying sedimentary formations was conducted. For plausible scenarios of injection into the Mt. Simon sandstone, leakage rates were estimated and fluxes into shallow drinking-water aquifers were found to be less than natural analogs of CO{sub 2} fluxes. We developed the Leakage Impact Valuation (LIV) model in which we identified stakeholders and estimated costs associated with leakage events. It was found that costs could be incurred even in the absence of legal action or other subsurface interference because there are substantial costs of finding and fixing the leak and from injection interruption. We developed a model framework called RISCS, which can be used to predict monetized risk of interference with subsurface resources by combining basin-scale leakage predictions with the LIV method. The project has also developed a cost calculator called the Economic and Policy Drivers Module (EPDM), which comprehensively calculates the costs of carbon sequestration and leakage, and can be used to examine major drivers for subsurface leakage liabilities in relation to specific injection scenarios and leakage events. Finally, we examined the competiveness of CCS in the energy market. This analysis, though qualitative, shows that financial

  10. Energy storage

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter discusses the role that energy storage may have on the energy future of the US. The topics discussed in the chapter include historical aspects of energy storage, thermal energy storage including sensible heat storage, latent heat storage, thermochemical heat storage, and seasonal heat storage, electricity storage including batteries, pumped hydroelectric storage, compressed air energy storage, and superconducting magnetic energy storage, and production and combustion of hydrogen as an energy storage option

  11. Feasibility study for measurement of insulation compaction in the cryogenic rocket fuel storage tanks at Kennedy Space Center by fast/thermal neutron techniques

    Livingston, R. A. [Materials Science and Engineering Dept., U. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Schweitzer, J. S. [Physics Dept., U. of Connecticut, Storrs (United States); Parsons, A. M. [Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt (United States); Arens, E. E. [John F. Kennedy Space Center, FL (United States)

    2014-02-18

    The liquid hydrogen and oxygen cryogenic storage tanks at John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) use expanded perlite as thermal insulation. Some of the perlite may have compacted over time, compromising the thermal performance and also the structural integrity of the tanks. Neutrons can readily penetrate through the 1.75 cm outer steel shell and through the entire 120 cm thick perlite zone. Neutrons interactions with materials produce characteristic gamma rays which are then detected. In compacted perlite the count rates in the individual peaks in the gamma ray spectrum will increase. Portable neutron generators can produce neutron simultaneous fluxes in two energy ranges: fast (14 MeV) and thermal (25 meV). Fast neutrons produce gamma rays by inelastic scattering which is sensitive to Si, Al, Fe and O. Thermal neutrons produce gamma rays by radiative capture in prompt gamma neutron activation (PGNA), which is sensitive to Si, Al, Na, K and H among others. The results of computer simulations using the software MCNP and measurements on a test article suggest that the most promising approach would be to operate the system in time-of-flight mode by pulsing the neutron generator and observing the subsequent die away curve in the PGNA signal.

  12. Large-scale bioenergy production from soybeans and switchgrass in Argentina: Part A: Potential and economic feasibility for national and international markets

    van Dam, J.; Faaij, A.P.C.; Hilbert, J.; Petruzzi, H.; Turkenburg, W.C.

    2009-01-01

    This study focuses on the economic feasibility for large-scale biomass production from soybeans or switchgrass from a region in Argentina. This is determined, firstly, by estimating whether the potential supply of biomass, when food and feed demand are met, is sufficient under different scenarios to

  13. Overview of Wholesale Electricity Markets

    Milligan, Michael [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bloom, Aaron P [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cochran, Jaquelin M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Townsend, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ela, Erik [Electric Power Research Institute; Botterud, Audun [Argonne National Laboratory; Levin, Todd [Argonne National Laboratory

    2018-02-15

    This chapter provides a comprehensive review of four key electricity markets: energy markets (day-ahead and real-time markets); ancillary service markets; financial transmission rights markets; capacity markets. It also discusses how the outcomes of each of these markets may be impacted by the introduction of high penetrations of variable generation. Furthermore, the chapter examines considerations needed to ensure that wholesale market designs are inclusive of emerging technologies, such as demand response, distributed generation, and distributed storage.

  14. DPC loading feasibility study report

    Dafoe, R.E.; Lopez, D.A.; Williams, K.L.

    1997-11-01

    Disposal of radioactive wastes now stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is mandated under a ''Settlement Agreement'' between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. This study investigates the feasibility of using the Dry Transfer Cell facility to package waste into Dual Purpose Canisters for interim storage at the adjacent Dry Storage System comprised of an interim storage pad with NUHOMS reg-sign storage modules. The wastes would then be road-ready for eventual disposal in a permanent repository. The operating period for these activities is expected to be from 2015 to 2035

  15. Feasibility Study of NMR Based Serum Metabolomic Profiling to Animal Health Monitoring: A Case Study on Iron Storage Disease in Captive Sumatran Rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis).

    Watanabe, Miki; Roth, Terri L; Bauer, Stuart J; Lane, Adam; Romick-Rosendale, Lindsey E

    2016-01-01

    A variety of wildlife species maintained in captivity are susceptible to iron storage disease (ISD), or hemochromatosis, a disease resulting from the deposition of excess iron into insoluble iron clusters in soft tissue. Sumatran rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis) is one of the rhinoceros species that has evolutionarily adapted to a low-iron diet and is susceptible to iron overload. Hemosiderosis is reported at necropsy in many African black and Sumatran rhinoceroses but only a small number of animals reportedly die from hemochromatosis. The underlying cause and reasons for differences in susceptibility to hemochromatosis within the taxon remains unclear. Although serum ferritin concentrations have been useful in monitoring the progression of ISD in many species, there is some question regarding their value in diagnosing hemochromatosis in the Sumatran rhino. To investigate the metabolic changes during the development of hemochromatosis and possibly increase our understanding of its progression and individual susceptibility differences, the serum metabolome from a Sumatran rhinoceros was investigated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics. The study involved samples from female rhinoceros at the Cincinnati Zoo (n = 3), including two animals that died from liver failure caused by ISD, and the Sungai Dusun Rhinoceros Conservation Centre in Peninsular Malaysia (n = 4). Principal component analysis was performed to visually and statistically compare the metabolic profiles of the healthy animals. The results indicated that significant differences were present between the animals at the zoo and the animals in the conservation center. A comparison of the 43 serum metabolomes of three zoo rhinoceros showed two distinct groupings, healthy (n = 30) and unhealthy (n = 13). A total of eighteen altered metabolites were identified in healthy versus unhealthy samples. Results strongly suggest that NMR-based metabolomics is a valuable tool for animal health

  16. Feasibility Study of NMR Based Serum Metabolomic Profiling to Animal Health Monitoring: A Case Study on Iron Storage Disease in Captive Sumatran Rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis.

    Miki Watanabe

    Full Text Available A variety of wildlife species maintained in captivity are susceptible to iron storage disease (ISD, or hemochromatosis, a disease resulting from the deposition of excess iron into insoluble iron clusters in soft tissue. Sumatran rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis is one of the rhinoceros species that has evolutionarily adapted to a low-iron diet and is susceptible to iron overload. Hemosiderosis is reported at necropsy in many African black and Sumatran rhinoceroses but only a small number of animals reportedly die from hemochromatosis. The underlying cause and reasons for differences in susceptibility to hemochromatosis within the taxon remains unclear. Although serum ferritin concentrations have been useful in monitoring the progression of ISD in many species, there is some question regarding their value in diagnosing hemochromatosis in the Sumatran rhino. To investigate the metabolic changes during the development of hemochromatosis and possibly increase our understanding of its progression and individual susceptibility differences, the serum metabolome from a Sumatran rhinoceros was investigated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR-based metabolomics. The study involved samples from female rhinoceros at the Cincinnati Zoo (n = 3, including two animals that died from liver failure caused by ISD, and the Sungai Dusun Rhinoceros Conservation Centre in Peninsular Malaysia (n = 4. Principal component analysis was performed to visually and statistically compare the metabolic profiles of the healthy animals. The results indicated that significant differences were present between the animals at the zoo and the animals in the conservation center. A comparison of the 43 serum metabolomes of three zoo rhinoceros showed two distinct groupings, healthy (n = 30 and unhealthy (n = 13. A total of eighteen altered metabolites were identified in healthy versus unhealthy samples. Results strongly suggest that NMR-based metabolomics is a valuable tool for

  17. Energy Storage Economics

    Elgqvist, Emma M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-07

    This presentation provides an overview on energy storage economics including recent market trends, battery terminology and concepts, value streams, challenges, and an example of how photovoltaics and storage can be used to lower demand charges. It also provides an overview of the REopt Lite web tool inputs and outputs.

  18. Bidding strategy for an energy storage facility

    Nasrolahpour, Ehsan; Zareipour, Hamidreza; Rosehart, William D.

    2016-01-01

    to maximize its profit, while the market operator aims at maximizing the social welfare. In this case, the storage facility adapts its strategic behavior to take advantage of market conditions. To model the imperfectly competitive market, a bi-level optimization model is implemented to present......This paper studies operation decisions of energy storage facilities in perfectly and imperfectly competitive markets. In a perfectly competitive market, the storage facility is operated to maximize the social welfare. However, in a imperfectly competitive market, the storage facility operates...

  19. Fuel storage

    Palacios, C.; Alvarez-Miranda, A.

    2009-01-01

    ENSA is a well known manufacturer of multi-system primary components for the nuclear industry and is totally prepared to satisfy future market requirements in this industry. At the same time that ENSA has been gaining a reputation world wider for the supply of primary components, has been strengthening its commitment and experience in supplying spent fuel components, either pool racks or storage and transportation casks, and offers not only fabrication but also design capabilities for its products. ENSA has supplied Spent Fuel Pool Racks, in spain, Finland, Taiwan, Korea, China, and currently it is in the process of licensing its own rack design in the United States of America for the ESBWR along with Ge-Hitachi. ENSA has supplied racks for 20 pools and 22 different reactors and it has also manufactured racks under all available technologies and developed a design known as Interlock Cell Matrix whose main features are outlined in this article. Another ENSA achievement in rack technology is the use of remote control for re-racking activities instead of using divers, which improves the ALARA requirements. Regarding casks for storage and transportation, ENSA also has al leading worldwide position, with exports prevailing over the Spanish market where ENSA has supplied 16 storage and transportation casks to the Spanish nuclear power Trillo. In some cases, ENSA acts as subcontractor for other clients. Foreign markets are still a major challenge for ENSA. ENSA-is well known for its manufacturing capabilities in the nuclear industry, but has been always involved in design activities through its engineering division, which carries out different tasks: components Design; Tooling Design; Engineering and Documentation; Project Engineering; Calculations, Design and Development Engineering. (Author)

  20. Hybrid Hydrogen and Mechanical Distributed Energy Storage

    Stefano Ubertini

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Effective energy storage technologies represent one of the key elements to solving the growing challenges of electrical energy supply of the 21st century. Several energy storage systems are available, from ones that are technologically mature to others still at a research stage. Each technology has its inherent limitations that make its use economically or practically feasible only for specific applications. The present paper aims at integrating hydrogen generation into compressed air energy storage systems to avoid natural gas combustion or thermal energy storage. A proper design of such a hybrid storage system could provide high roundtrip efficiencies together with enhanced flexibility thanks to the possibility of providing additional energy outputs (heat, cooling, and hydrogen as a fuel, in a distributed energy storage framework. Such a system could be directly connected to the power grid at the distribution level to reduce power and energy intermittence problems related to renewable energy generation. Similarly, it could be located close to the user (e.g., office buildings, commercial centers, industrial plants, hospitals, etc.. Finally, it could be integrated in decentralized energy generation systems to reduce the peak electricity demand charges and energy costs, to increase power generation efficiency, to enhance the security of electrical energy supply, and to facilitate the market penetration of small renewable energy systems. Different configurations have been investigated (simple hybrid storage system, regenerate system, multistage system demonstrating the compressed air and hydrogen storage systems effectiveness in improving energy source flexibility and efficiency, and possibly in reducing the costs of energy supply. Round-trip efficiency up to 65% can be easily reached. The analysis is conducted through a mixed theoretical-numerical approach, which allows the definition of the most relevant physical parameters affecting the system

  1. Feasibility of Energy Harvesting Using a Piezoelectric Tire

    Malotte, Christopher

    While the piezoelectric effect has been around for some time, it has only recently caught interest as a potential sustainable energy harvesting device. Piezoelectric energy harvesting has been developed for shoes and panels, but has yet to be integrated into a marketable bicycle tire. For this thesis, the development and feasibility of a piezoelectric tire was done. This includes the development of a circuit that incorporates piezoceramic elements, energy harvesting circuitry, and an energy storage device. A single phase circuit was designed using an ac-dc diode rectifier. An electrolytic capacitor was used as the energy storage device. A financial feasibility was also done to determine targets for manufacturing cost and sales price. These models take into account market trends for high performance tires, economies of scale, and the possibility of government subsidies. This research will help understand the potential for the marketability of a piezoelectric energy harvesting tire that can create electricity for remote use. This study found that there are many obstacles that must be addressed before a piezoelectric tire can be marketed to the general public. The power output of this device is minuscule compared to an alkaline battery. In order for this device to approach the power output of an alkaline battery the weight of the device would also become an issue. Additionally this device is very costly compared to the average bicycle tire. Lastly, this device is extreme fragile and easily broken. In order for this device to become marketable the issues of power output, cost, weight, and durability must all be successfully overcome.

  2. Torrefaction of briquettes: technical-economic feasibility and perspective in Brazilian market; Briquetes torreficados: viabilidade tecnico-economica e perspectivas no mercado brasileiro

    Felfli, Felix Fonseca; Luengo, Carlos Alberto [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica Gleb Wataghin. Grupo Combustiveis Alternativos; Rocha, Jose Dilcio [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico

    2004-07-01

    It is presented an study of the operational impact into a briquettes factory produced by the introduction of a torrefaction process. Through costs analysis it is shown that for a briquettes factory of 1.200 ton/year capacity, it is possible to increase Operational Profits and decrease the Break Even Point in 15.7 % when a torrefaction reactor is introduced into the manufacturing line. So, it is possible to insure that torrefaction increase the overall system efficiency without increasing yearly production since the number of 'biomass fuels' is increased enabling operation in other markets. This study also shows that torrefaction improves briquettes quality allowing access to the comparatively smaller consumer market still unreached by biomass briquets. (author)

  3. Minimizing Wind Power Producer's Balancing Costs Using Electrochemical Energy Storage: Preprint

    Miettinen, J.; Tikka, V.; Lassila, J.; Partanen, J.; Hodge, B. M.

    2014-08-01

    This paper examines how electrochemical energy storage can be used to decrease the balancing costs of a wind power producer in the Nordic market. Because electrochemical energy storage is developing in both technological and financial terms, a sensitivity analysis was carried out for the most important variables in the wind-storage hybrid system. The system was studied from a wind power producer's point of view. The main result is that there are no technical limitations to using storage for reducing the balancing costs. However, in terms of economic feasibility, installing hybrid wind-storage systems such as the one studied in this paper faces challenges in both the short and long terms.

  4. Energy Storage.

    Eaton, William W.

    Described are technological considerations affecting storage of energy, particularly electrical energy. The background and present status of energy storage by batteries, water storage, compressed air storage, flywheels, magnetic storage, hydrogen storage, and thermal storage are discussed followed by a review of development trends. Included are…

  5. Practical operation strategies for pumped hydroelectric energy storage (PHES) utilising electricity price arbitrage

    Connolly, D.; Lund, H.; Finn, P.; Mathiesen, B.V.; Leahy, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, three practical operation strategies (24Optimal, 24Prognostic, and 24Hsitrocial) are compared to the optimum profit feasible for a PHES facility with a 360 MW pump, 300 MW turbine, and a 2 GWh storage utilising price arbitrage on 13 electricity spot markets. The results indicate that almost all (∼97%) of the profits can be obtained by a PHES facility when it is optimised using the 24Optimal strategy developed, which optimises the energy storage based on the day-ahead electricity prices. However, to maximise profits with the 24Optimal strategy, the day-ahead electricity prices must be the actual prices which the PHES facility is charged or the PHES operator must have very accurate price predictions. Otherwise, the predicted profit could be significantly reduced and even become a loss. Finally, using the 24Optimal strategy, the PHES profit can surpass the annual investment repayments required. However, over the 5-year period investigated (2005-2009) the annual profit from the PHES facility varied by more than 50% on five out of six electricity markets considered. Considering the 40-year lifetime of PHES, even with low investment costs, a low interest rate, and a suitable electricity market, PHES is a risky investment without a more predictable profit. - Highlights: → Electricity generators typically operate on a market, including energy storage. → This paper assesses how energy storage can maximise its profits on a market. → Four operating strategies are assessed on 13 markets using a case study.→ One operating strategy achieves 97% of the profits feasible.→ However, the profit varies a lot depending on the market and capital costs.

  6. Feasibility study

    Gibbs, P.; Kalas, P.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility study itself examines the technical, economic and financial implications of a nuclear power station in depth so as to make sure that nuclear power is the right course to take. This means that it is quite an expensive operation and it is to avoid wasting this money that a pre-feasibility study is carried out. This preliminary study should eliminate cases where the electrical system cannot absorb the capacity of a nuclear station of commercial size, where other sources of power such as hydro-electricity, gas or cheap coal would make nuclear obviously uneconomic or where no suitable sites exist. If this first rather simple survey shows that nuclear power is a credible solution to a utilities need for electricity or heat production plant, then the next stage is a full feasibility study. (orig./TK) [de

  7. FY 1989 Report on heat pump/storage markets in Australia and New Zealand by the survey team; 1989 nendo Australia New Zealand heat pump chikunetsu shijo chosadan hokokusho

    NONE

    1989-12-01

    Inspections/surveys are conducted on the markets of heat pumps and heat storage systems in Australia and New Zealand, spread of these systems, R and D situations, energy-related problems and policies, and so on. In Australia, heat pumps are mainly used for air conditioning. Several heat pump units are in service in NSW, including the one in Grosvnor Place Building, which is combined with an ice heat storage system. It seems that no waste heat is utilized. Use of heat pumps in this country is possible, in particular for industrial purposes. Use of fluorochlorohydrocarbons is restricted in Australia, in spite of their small quantities actually used, which is accepted as a political consideration. No system of discounted late-nigh rate is adopted in this country, but heat storage is planned as a measure to level power consumption, because the power rate is increased when the consumption exceeds the contracted level. Water is replaced by ice as the heat storage medium. (NEDO)

  8. Monitored retrievable storage design

    Woods, W.D.

    1985-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA) established a national policy for the safe storage and disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The NWPA requires that DOE... ''submit a proposal to Congress on the need for and feasibility of one or more Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) Facilities''... In subsequent evaluations of the commercial nuclear waste management system, DOE has identified important advantages in providing an MRS Facility as an integral part of the total system. The integral MRS Facility serves as an independent, centralized spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste handling and packaging facility with a safe temporary storage capacity

  9. Storage of radioactive waste

    Pittman, F.K.

    1974-01-01

    Four methods for managing radioactive waste in order to protect man from its potential hazards include: transmutation to convert radioisotopes in waste to stable isotopes; disposal in space; geological disposal; and surface storage in shielded, cooled, and monitored containers. A comparison of these methods shows geologic disposal in stable formations beneath landmasses appears to be the most feasible with today's technology. (U.S.)

  10. Northern gas fields and NGH technology. A feasibility study to develop natural gas hydrate technology for the international gas markets; Nordlige gassfelt and NGH-teknologi. En studie av muligheter for utvikling av naturgasshydratteknologi for det internasjonale gassmarked

    Ramsland, Trond Ragnvald; Loy, Erik F.; Doesen, Sturle

    1997-12-31

    feasible alternative, LNG technology will practically always be inferior, while pipeline technology still remains very competitive for large projects. Unfortunately, the study has indicated that despite the superiority of NGH, marginal fields like Snoehvit are unlikely to be developed under the present market conditions. 11 figs., 33 graphs, 11 tabs., 29 refs

  11. Study of mined storage caverns

    1975-06-01

    All available information concerning 75 mined storage caverns as well as the investigative techniques utilized to determine the feasibility of a cavern site is presented. Potential new storage caverns may be for products such as high or low vapor pressure petroleum products, other chemical products, aid industrial or nuclear waste

  12. Online mass storage system detailed requirements document

    1976-01-01

    The requirements for an online high density magnetic tape data storage system that can be implemented in a multipurpose, multihost environment is set forth. The objective of the mass storage system is to provide a facility for the compact storage of large quantities of data and to make this data accessible to computer systems with minimum operator handling. The results of a market survey and analysis of candidate vendor who presently market high density tape data storage systems are included.

  13. Pre-commercial scale preservation of garlic by gamma radiation in combination with cold storage

    Nouchpramool, K.; Charoen, S.; Bunnak, J.

    1997-06-01

    Irradiation of garlic on a pilot scale and storage in cold room under commercial condition was carried out in co-operation with garlic trader in 1986-1987. Garlic bulbs from local cultivars were irradiated seven weeks after harvest with average dose of 70 Gy and stored for nine months at low (1-7 degrees C) and ambient (25-34 degrees C) temperatures. The treatment proved to be effective in controlling sprouting and in reducing weight loss and rotting. After 9 months of cold storage the weight loss and rotting of irradiated bulbs were reduced by 18 and 13 per cent. The radio inhibition process is technically feasible and economically justified as a profit can be made during the extended storage period. Small scale marketing trials of irradiated garlic conducted during and after termination of storage revealed no adverse comments from consumers

  14. Effect of storage and cooking on the fatty acid profile of omega-3 enriched eggs and pork meat marketed in Belgium.

    Douny, Caroline; El Khoury, Rawad; Delmelle, Julien; Brose, François; Degand, Guy; Moula, Nassim; Farnir, Frédéric; Clinquart, Antoine; Maghuin-Rogister, Guy; Scippo, Marie-Louise

    2015-03-01

    The fatty acids (FA) profile was determined in n-3 enriched (Columbus™) Belgian eggs and pork in order to evaluate to what extent the n-3 fatty acids, which are very sensitive to oxidation, are resistant to storage or cooking. In standard eggs or pork, no change of the fatty acid profile was observed after storage or cooking without culinary fat, as well as in Columbus™ eggs and pork after storage. Some cooking processes (eggs in custard and meat in oven) induced a slight significant loss of n-3 fatty acids in Columbus™ eggs or pork (11.1% in fat from eggs cooked in custard vs. 15.3% in raw Columbus™ eggs and 11.0% in fat from oven cooked meat vs. 11.6% in raw Columbus™ meat). As expected, when Columbus™ pork is cooked with culinary fat, its fatty acid profile is modified according to the nature of the fat used.

  15. Custos e viabilidade da implantação de uma unidade armazenadora de grãos no Mato Grosso = Costs and feasibility of the implantation of a grain storage unit in Mato Grosso

    Rafael Antonio Vieira

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available A capacidade de armazenagem no Brasil, infraestrutura que exige elevadas somas de investimentos não tem acompanhado o ritmo de crescimento das safras ao longo dos anos. Sendo assim, objetivou-se avaliar os custos e a viabilidade da implantação de uma unidade armazenadora de grãos na cidade de Sorriso no estado do Mato Grosso no ano de 2017. Para o dimensionamento da unidade foi considerada a capacidade máxima de colheita de uma fazenda que possui 1500 hectares disponíveis para a semeadura de soja e milho. No cálculo de viabilidade econômica foram utilizados parâmetros como a taxa interna de retorno, ponto de equilíbrio econômico, valor presente líquido e “payback” do investimento. Os resultados obtidos para o investimento de uma infraestrutura capaz de processar a produção desta fazenda levam a uma estimativa de custo de aproximadamente R$ 4.035.754,00, sendo feito por financiamento de 100%, através da linha de crédito Programa para Construção e Ampliação de Armazéns [PCA], a 8,5% de juros ao ano, ao longo de dez anos. O empreendimento obtém receitas anuais de R$ 1.144.042,20 e custos totais anuais de R$ 525.137,00, um valor presente líquido de R$ 25.090,99 e uma taxa interna de retorno de 6,98%, o ponto de equilíbrio foi de R$ 356.224,72 e o prazo de retorno do investimento de dez anos, mostrando que a implantação deste empreendimento pode ser uma opção viável econômica e financeiramente. = In Brazil, storage capacity, an infrastructure that requires large sums of investment, has not kept pace with the growth of the crops over the years. As a result, the objective of this study was to evaluate the costs and feasibility of the implantation of a grain storage unit in the city of Sorriso, State of Mato Grosso in 2017. For the sizing of the unit, the maximum harvest capacity of a farm with 1500 hectares available for the planting of soybean and corn was considered. In relation to the calculation of economic

  16. Viabilidade econômica da implantação de um banco de capacitores em unidade armazenadora de grãos = Economic feasibility of the installation of capacitor banks in a grain storage

    Gustavo Veloso

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available As unidades de armazenagem de grãos apresentam elevado consumo de energia elétrica e o aumento do seu preço tem aumentado o custo operacional delas. Esses gastos podem ser diminuídos pela correção do fator de potência através da instalação de bancos de capacitores. Este trabalho analisou a viabilidade econômica da implantação desse tipo de equipamento em uma unidade armazenadora de grãos sediada no município de Brasília, Distrito Federal. O custo da implantação do banco de capacitores foi comparado com a economia advinda da redução dos valores mensais com o consumo reativo de energia. Os cálculos consideram financiamento bancário do valor total a uma taxa de juros de 8,5% ao ano. A taxa mínima de atratividade é 4,46% ao semestre [a.s.]. Os indicadores econômicos utilizados foram: Valor Presente Líquido [VPL], Taxa Interna de Retorno [TIR] e Payback. O investimento considerado foi de R$ 26.772,03. O projeto tem VPL de R$ 7.228,63, TIR de 9,34% a.s. e Payback de três anos e quatro meses. Com base nesses resultados o investimento é atrativo e economicamente viável. = Grain storage complexes require a high consumption of electric energy and the increase in the price of electricity has generated a large impact on their operating costs. One alternative is the correction of the power factor through the installation of capacitor banks. This work aimed to evaluate the economic feasibility of a capacitor installation in a grain storage located in Brasília, Distrito Federal. The cost of deploying the capacitor bank was compared to the values saved in the monthly payments with the reactive energy consumption. To purchase the capacitor bank, financing was simulated with an interest rate of 8.5% per year. The minimum attractive rate of return [MARR] was fixed on 4.46% per semester [p.s.]. Economic indicators estimated were Net Present Value [NPV], Internal Rate of Return [IRR] and simple Payback. The total project cost was R$ 26

  17. Extended storage of spent fuel

    1992-10-01

    This document is the final report on the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme on the Behaviour of Spent Fuel and Storage Facility Components during Long Term Storage (BEFAST-II, 1986-1991). It contains the results on wet and dry spent fuel storage technologies obtained from 16 organizations representing 13 countries who participated in the co-ordinated research programme. Considerable quantities of spent fuel continue to arise and accumulate. Many countries are investigating the option of extended spent fuel storage prior to reprocessing or fuel disposal. Wet storage continues to predominate as an established technology with the construction of additional away-from-reactor storage pools. However, dry storage is increasingly used with most participants considering dry storage concepts for the longer term. Depending on the cladding type options of dry storage in air or inert gas are proposed. Dry storage is becoming widely used as a supplement to wet storage for zirconium alloy clad oxide fuels. Storage periods as long as under wet conditions appear to be feasible. Dry storage will also continue to be used for Al clad and Magnox type fuel. Enhancement of wet storage capacity will remain an important activity. Rod consolidation to increase wet storage capacity will continue in the UK and is being evaluated for LWR fuel in the USA, and may start in some other countries. High density storage racks have been successfully introduced in many existing pools and are planned for future facilities. For extremely long wet storage (≥50 years), there is a need to continue work on fuel integrity investigations and LWR fuel performance modelling. it might be that pool component performance in some cases could be more limiting than the FA storage performance. It is desirable to make concerted efforts in the field of corrosion monitoring and prediction of fuel cladding and poll component behaviour in order to maintain good experience of wet storage. Refs, figs and tabs

  18. Financial analysis of utility scale photovoltaic plants with battery energy storage

    Rudolf, Viktor; Papastergiou, Konstantinos D.

    2013-01-01

    Battery energy storage is a flexible and responsive form of storing electrical energy from Renewable generation. The need for energy storage mainly stems from the intermittent nature of solar and wind energy sources. System integrators are investigating ways to design plants that can provide more stable output power without compromising the financial performance that is vital for investors. Network operators on the other side set stringent requirements for the commissioning of new generation, including preferential terms for energy providers with a well-defined generation profile. The aim of this work is to highlight the market and technology drivers that impact the feasibility of battery energy storage in a Utility-scale solar PV project. A simulation tool combines a battery cycling and lifetime model with a solar generation profile and electricity market prices. The business cases of the present market conditions and a projected future scenario are analyzed. - Highlights: • Generation shifting with batteries allows PV projects to generate additional revenues. • Battery lifetime, lifecycles and price are less relevant than electricity market prices. • Installed battery capacity of up to 50% of the daily PV energy boosts project economy. • A 25% higher premium for energy storage could improve NPV by approximately 65%

  19. The natural gas market

    Lagrasta, F.; Kaminski, V.; Prevatt, R.

    1999-01-01

    This chapter presents a brief history of the natural gas market highlighting the changes in the gas market and examining risk management in practice detailing the types of price risks, and the use of hedging using forwards and swaps. Options to manage risk are identified, and the role of risk management in financing, the role of the intermediary, and the market outlook are discussed. Panels describing the market structure, storage and natural gas risk management, the art of risk management, the winter 1995-96 basis blowout, spark spreads, the UK gas market and Europe, and weather derivatives are presented

  20. Dry storage of Magnox fuel

    1986-09-01

    This work, commissioned by the CEGB, studies the feasibility of a combination of short-term pond storage and long-term dry storage of Magnox spent fuel as a cheaper alternative to reprocessing. Storage would be either at the reactor site or a central site. Two designs are considered, based on existing design work done by GEC-ESL and NNC; the capsule design developed by NNC and with storage in passive vaults for up to 100 yrs and the GEC-ESL tube design developed at Wylfa for the interim storage of LWR. For the long-term storage of Magnox spent fuel the GEC-ESL tubed vault all-dry storage method is recommended and specifications for this method are given. (U.K.)

  1. The charcoal storage disaster. The Lusaka charcoal supply stabilization project

    Kalumiana, O.S.; Hibajene, S.H.; Ellegaard, A.

    1998-01-01

    The aims of the project were to study the charcoal price development and market structure, assess the possibility to purchase 'excess' charcoal during the dry season and finally to implement an experimental storage facility. While the experimental storage could never be large enough to actually affect the charcoal price structure other than very locally, several important aspects of charcoal storage could be learnt, for example: the structure of the market in which charcoal producers and traders operate; logistics of charcoal storage; commercial risks of charcoal storage; the role of government in charcoal storage; an update of the charcoal price structure and development in Lusaka; and an indication of daily charcoal trade in Lusaka's different markets. The experimental storage showed that there are several practical problems associated with storing charcoal. Storage involves more handling of the charcoal than common trade, which reduces the quality. Termites attacks the bags. Exposure to the sun and the (slight) rains that fell caused covering and packaging material to disintegrate, and the charcoal to become soft and friable. This type of charcoal was not in demand by the traders and urban consumers. Almost half of the charcoal stored was unsellable, causing the project to be a commercial disaster. Marketing costs were underestimated. The absence of a retail organization forced the project to sell to retailers to a large extent. These obviously needed a profit margin visavis the final customers, and so charcoal had to be sold below cost. Distribution of charcoal directly to the consumers in residential areas was tried but proved to be too costly. From the commercial point of view charcoal storage does not appear to be an activity which can attract free entrepreneurs, due to the impossibility of predicting the rains and thus the supply situation. This suggests that the only feasible actor to venture into storage would be the government, with the argument that the

  2. The charcoal storage disaster. The Lusaka charcoal supply stabilization project

    Kalumiana, O.S. [Department of Energy (Zambia); Hibajene, S.H. [Ministry of Energy and Water Development (Zambia); Ellegaard, A. [Stockholm Environment Inst. (Sweden)

    1998-12-31

    The aims of the project were to study the charcoal price development and market structure, assess the possibility to purchase `excess` charcoal during the dry season and finally to implement an experimental storage facility. While the experimental storage could never be large enough to actually affect the charcoal price structure other than very locally, several important aspects of charcoal storage could be learnt, for example: the structure of the market in which charcoal producers and traders operate; logistics of charcoal storage; commercial risks of charcoal storage; the role of government in charcoal storage; an update of the charcoal price structure and development in Lusaka; and an indication of daily charcoal trade in Lusaka`s different markets. The experimental storage showed that there are several practical problems associated with storing charcoal. Storage involves more handling of the charcoal than common trade, which reduces the quality. Termites attacks the bags. Exposure to the sun and the (slight) rains that fell caused covering and packaging material to disintegrate, and the charcoal to become soft and friable. This type of charcoal was not in demand by the traders and urban consumers. Almost half of the charcoal stored was unsellable, causing the project to be a commercial disaster. Marketing costs were underestimated. The absence of a retail organization forced the project to sell to retailers to a large extent. These obviously needed a profit margin visavis the final customers, and so charcoal had to be sold below cost. Distribution of charcoal directly to the consumers in residential areas was tried but proved to be too costly. From the commercial point of view charcoal storage does not appear to be an activity which can attract free entrepreneurs, due to the impossibility of predicting the rains and thus the supply situation. This suggests that the only feasible actor to venture into storage would be the government, with the argument that the

  3. Tritium storage

    Hircq, B.

    1990-01-01

    This document represents a synthesis relative to tritium storage. After indicating the main storage particularities as regards tritium, storages under gaseous and solid form are after examined before establishing choices as a function of the main criteria. Finally, tritium storage is discussed regarding tritium devices associated to Fusion Reactors and regarding smaller devices [fr

  4. 7 CFR 1980.442 - Feasibility studies.

    2010-01-01

    ... management, nature and extent of market area, marketing plans for sale of projected output, extent of... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Business and Industrial Loan Program § 1980.442 Feasibility...

  5. Hierarchical energy management mechanisms for an electricity market with microgrids

    Hong-Tzer Yang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses a micro-grid electricity market (MGEM with day-ahead (DA and real-time market mechanisms integrated. The bidding mechanisms for the market are described in this study, considering the generation cost of different distributed energy resources (DERs, like distributed generator, energy storage system and demand response. Including load and renewable generation forecasting systems and a fuzzy decision supporting system, a hierarchical micro-grid energy management system (MG-EMS is then proposed to ensure the benefits of involved micro-grid central controller, DER owners and customers. To verify the feasibility of the proposed system, the whole-year historical pricing and load data for New England independent system operator are employed. The numerical results show that the proposed MG-EMS is promising and effective for the operations of MGEM.

  6. Hydrogen system (hydrogen fuels feasibility)

    Guarna, S.

    1991-07-01

    This feasibility study on the production and use of hydrogen fuels for industry and domestic purposes includes the following aspects: physical and chemical properties of hydrogen; production methods steam reforming of natural gas, hydrolysis of water; liquid and gaseous hydrogen transportation and storage (hydrogen-hydride technology); environmental impacts, safety and economics of hydrogen fuel cells for power generation and hydrogen automotive fuels; relevant international research programs

  7. Electricity Storage. Technology Brief

    Simbolotti, G. [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development ENEA, Rome (Italy); Kempener, R. [International Renewable Energy Agency IRENA, Bonn (Germany)

    2012-04-15

    natural storage sites. Electrical batteries have a large potential with a number of new materials and technologies under development to improve performance and reduce costs. Heat storage is practical in CSP plants. The choice between large-scale storage facilities and small-scale distributed storage depends on the geography and demography of the country, the existing grid and the type and scale of renewable technologies entering the market. While the energy storage market is quickly evolving and expected to increase 20-fold between 2010 and 2020, many electricity storage technologies are under development and need policy support for further commercial deployment. Electricity storage considerations should be an integral part of any plans for electric grid expansion or transformation of the electricity system. Storage also offers key synergies with grid interconnection and methods to smooth the variability of electricity demand (demand side management)

  8. Inside Dropbox: Understanding Personal Cloud Storage Services

    Drago, Idilio; Mellia, Marco; Munafò, Maurizio M.; Sperotto, Anna; Sadre, R.; Pras, Aiko

    2012-01-01

    Personal cloud storage services are gaining popularity. With a rush of providers to enter the market and an increasing offer of cheap storage space, it is to be expected that cloud storage will soon generate a high amount of Internet traffic. Very little is known about the architecture and the

  9. Feasibility study of transformation of the manure and bio-manure storage tanks for swine into rural biodigestors aimed at utilization of bio fertilizer and biogas; Estudo de viabilidade de transformacao de esterqueiras e bioesterqueiras para dejetos de suinos em biodigestores rurais visando o aproveitamento do biofertilizante e do biogas

    Ranzi, Tiago Jurua Damo [Cooperativa para Conservacao da Natureza (Caipora), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)], e-mail: tiagoranzi@hotmail.com; Andrade, Marcio Antonio Nogueira [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The pollution of the air, the soil and mainly the hydric resources, caused by activity of the swine culture is an impediment for the expansion of the sector. The concern with the treatment and correct destination of the dejections is greater each day. Therefore the conservation of the environment is an increasing requirement from part of the environmental agencies and also from consuming market, that is giving preference, more each time, to the products produced without the aggression of the environment. The social-economic importance that the swine culture possesses demands concerns with the maintenance of the producers and that they adequate their culture to the requirements of the new social-environmental order. The technology of the biodigestors is an alternative that can assist the sustainability of the swine culture sector. In this work, it was considered the transformation of manure storage tanks and bio-manure storage tanks, for 100 swine in termination, into rural biodigestors. For the transformation of these structures, modifications were proposed, such as, construction of a hydric stamp, adaptation of a PVC membrane cupule, modification of the entrance and exit tubes of the digestion chamber, weights for the maintenance of a constant pressure and net for the sustentation of the gas chamber. In the case of the manure storage tanks, also was needed the construction of a wall to delimit the biodigestor digestion chamber and other to divide this digestion chamber. The calculation of the economic viability of these structures was based on the energy equivalent of biogas in relation to the LPG. In the transformation of the manure storage tanks and bio-manure storage tanks, the equivalent energy of half bottle of kitchen gas is produced daily. This way, based in prices of the materials needed for the transformation and in the price of a bottle of gas, it was verified that for the manure storage tanks and bio-manure storage tanks, the return of the investment

  10. Feasibility study of transformation of the manure and bio-manure storage tanks for swine into rural biodigestors aimed at utilization of bio fertilizer and biogas; Estudo de viabilidade de transformacao de esterqueiras e bioesterqueiras para dejetos de suinos em biodigestores rurais visando o aproveitamento do biofertilizante e do biogas

    Ranzi, Tiago Jurua Damo [Cooperativa para Conservacao da Natureza (Caipora), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)], e-mail: tiagoranzi@hotmail.com; Andrade, Marcio Antonio Nogueira [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The pollution of the air, the soil and mainly the hydric resources, caused by activity of the swine culture is an impediment for the expansion of the sector. The concern with the treatment and correct destination of the dejections is greater each day. Therefore the conservation of the environment is an increasing requirement from part of the environmental agencies and also from consuming market, that is giving preference, more each time, to the products produced without the aggression of the environment. The social-economic importance that the swine culture possesses demands concerns with the maintenance of the producers and that they adequate their culture to the requirements of the new social-environmental order. The technology of the biodigestors is an alternative that can assist the sustainability of the swine culture sector. In this work, it was considered the transformation of manure storage tanks and bio-manure storage tanks, for 100 swine in termination, into rural biodigestors. For the transformation of these structures, modifications were proposed, such as, construction of a hydric stamp, adaptation of a PVC membrane cupule, modification of the entrance and exit tubes of the digestion chamber, weights for the maintenance of a constant pressure and net for the sustentation of the gas chamber. In the case of the manure storage tanks, also was needed the construction of a wall to delimit the biodigestor digestion chamber and other to divide this digestion chamber. The calculation of the economic viability of these structures was based on the energy equivalent of biogas in relation to the LPG. In the transformation of the manure storage tanks and bio-manure storage tanks, the equivalent energy of half bottle of kitchen gas is produced daily. This way, based in prices of the materials needed for the transformation and in the price of a bottle of gas, it was verified that for the manure storage tanks and bio-manure storage tanks, the return of the investment

  11. The oil market

    Amic, E.; Lautard, P.

    1999-01-01

    This chapter examines the structure of the oil industry and the impacts of the oil markets on the hedging strategies of the energy consumers, the oil company, and the energy derivatives' provider. An introduction to market perspectives is presented, and the hedging operations in the jet fuel market in the airline sector are discussed. Trading and risk management within an oil company, the derivatives provider, trading derivatives in a multi-dimensional world, locational risks, and the modelling of term structure and the role of storage are considered. Industrial spreads and the role of refining, future market developments and market strategies for crude oil and oil products, and marketing packages and market risk are addressed

  12. Feasibility of Wind Energy Parks

    Villar, Jose

    2000-01-01

    The paper discuss the feasibility of wind energy parks including aspects of supply and demand of energy, costs of generation and risks of investment associated. The paper introduce to the situation of wind energy in the word and specifically in Spain, describes the legal framework in promotion of renewables in Spain, the analysis of revenues and the risk of this business in the european market

  13. Electrochemical energy storage

    Tarascon, Jean-Marie

    2015-01-01

    The electrochemical storage of energy has become essential in assisting the development of electrical transport and use of renewable energies. French researchers have played a key role in this domain but Asia is currently the market leader. Not wanting to see history repeat itself, France created the research network on electrochemical energy storage (RS2E) in 2011. This book discusses the launch of RS2E, its stakeholders, objectives, and integrated structure that assures a continuum between basic research, technological research and industries. Here, the authors will cover the technological

  14. Temporary storage area characterization report

    1990-01-01

    The preferred alternative identified in the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) for the Weldon Spring Quarry Bulk Wastes is to remove the wastes from the quarry and transport them by truck to temporary storage facility at the chemical plant site. To support the RI/FS, this report provides data to characterize the temporary storage area (TSA) site and to ensure the suitability of the proposed location. 31 refs., 14 figs., 7 tabs

  15. GAS STORAGE TECHNOLOGY CONSORTIUM

    Robert W. Watson

    2004-10-18

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. To accomplish this objective, the project is divided into three phases that are managed and directed by the GSTC Coordinator. The first phase, Phase 1A, was initiated on September 30, 2003, and was completed on March 31, 2004. Phase 1A of the project included the creation of the GSTC structure, development and refinement of a technical approach (work plan) for deliverability enhancement and reservoir management. This report deals with Phase 1B and encompasses the period July 1, 2004, through September 30, 2004. During this time period there were three main activities. First was the

  16. FINAL INTERIM REPORT, CANDIDATE SITES, MACHINES IN USE, DATA STORAGE AND TRANSMISSION METHODS: TESTING FEASIBILITY OF 3D ULTRASOUND DATA ACQUISITION AND RELIABILITY OF DATA RETRIEVAL FROM STORED 3D IMAGES

    The purpose of this Work Assignment, 02-03, is to examine the feasibility of collecting transmitting, and analyzing 3-D ultrasound data in the context of a multi-center study of pregnant women. The study will also examine the reliability of measurements obtained from 3-D images< ...

  17. Modified Atmosphere Packaging and Its Feasibility for Military Feeding Systems

    1994-12-01

    marketing success of the product, the degree of risk the producer is willing to undertake and the quality of the product [17]. Storage and distribution... market . Logistically, many military food rations are purchased and transported to storage units around the world. These storage units must be...Vegetables. J. of Food Science. 56:6:1589-1592. 21 Rice, J., 1988. Ripe Avocados in NAP. Food Processing. August:156. 22 Rice, J., 1991. Fresh Spinach in

  18. Adsorption based processes as alternative to common gas conditioning at underground storage facilities using Sorbead; Procedes bases sur l'adsorption comme solution de rechange dans le conditionnement du gaz dans des lieux de stockage souterrains a l'aide de Sorbead

    Schulz, Th. [Engelhard Process Chemicals GmbH (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    The European gas market is continuing to expand due to increased industrial, domestic and power generation demand. As a result of this demand, and the trend toward liberalization of the market, the need for storage of gas is also increasing. One key segment of the large scale storage of gas is underground storage, either in partially depleted gas or oil fields, naturally occurring caverns, aquifers and salt cavities. In most cases the gas produced after storage requires conditioning to meet the water of hydrocarbon dew point specification of the gas transmission system. For that reason export gas from storage will require gas conditioning in order to meet pipeline specifications. Adsorption as a feasible and reliable process will be presented in detail and especially in regards to hydrocarbon dew-pointing compared with other process options. (author)

  19. Fuel cell two wheelers: Good market potential in Shanghai and the suggestions for development. Paper no. IGEC-1-145

    Li, L.; Yu, Z.; Gong, H.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the feasibility and the market potential for developing the Fuel Cell two-wheelers in Asia. Shanghai is taken as one case for this analysis. Based on the study of the transportation modal, the constitute of the vehicles both motored and non-motored, the future planning for the transportation and the market potential of two-wheelers requirement and the quick development market of Battery Bicycles in Shanghai, the potential market of Fuel Cell Two-wheelers in Shanghai is predicated. The predominance in the research and development for Fuel Cell stacks, the storage for the hydrogen and the local supply ability of hydrogen of Shanghai are also introduced. The Shanghai's Fuel Cell Market potential is also presented based on the population of motorcycles at last. The suggestions for the further development of Fuel Cell two-wheelers are proposed. (author)

  20. Energy storage financing :

    Baxter, Richard

    2016-08-01

    Project financing is emerging as the linchpin for the future health, direction, and momentum of the energy storage industry. Market leaders have so far relied on selffunding or captive lending arrangements to fund projects. New lenders are proceeding hesitantly as they lack a full understanding of the technology, business, and credit risks involved in this rapidly changing market. The U.S. Department of Energy is poised to play a critical role in expanding access to capital by reducing the barriers to entry for new lenders, and providing trusted analytical benchmarks to better judge and price the risk in systematic ways.

  1. Market optimization of a cluster of DG-RES, micro-CHP, heat pumps and energy storage within network constraints: The Power Matching City field test

    Bliek, F.W.; Van den Noort, A. [KEMA, Arnhem (Netherlands); Roossien, B.; Kamphuis, I.G. [ECN Efficiency and Infrastructure, Petten (Netherlands); De Wit, J.; Van de Velde, J. [HumiQ, Barendrecht (Netherlands); Eijgelaar, M. [Essent, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    2010-10-15

    The share of renewable energy resources for electricity production, in a distributed setting (DG-RES), increases. The amount of energy transported via the electricity grid by substitution of fossil fuels for mobility applications (electric vehicles) and domestic heating (heat pumps) increases as well. Apart from the volume of electricity also the simultaneity factor increases at all grid levels. This poses unprecedented challenges to capacity management of the electricity infrastructure. A solution for tackling this challenge is using more active distribution networks, intelligent coordination of supply and demand using ICT and using the gas distribution network to mitigate electricity distribution bottlenecks. In the EU FP6 Energy Program Integral project, a large scale heterogeneous field test has been designed for application of the software agent based PowerMatcher technology. The test is conducted in a suburb of Groningen, Hoogkerk, and entails approximately 30 homes with either a 'dual fuel' heating system (electrical heat pump with gas-fired peak-burners) or a micro-CHP. Homes also may have PV. Furthermore, a wind production facility and nodes with electricity chargers for EVs and electricity storage are part of the Virtual Power Plant cluster, constructed in this way. Domestic heating systems have intrinsic operational flexibility in comfort management through the thermal mass of the dwellings. Furthermore, the field test comfort systems are equipped with possibilities for hot water storage for central heating as well as for tap-water. Finally, having additional gas-fired heating capacity for electrical heat pumps adds to increasing flexibility by switching the energy source dependent on the status of the electricity grid. Purpose of the field test is using this flexibility to react to phenomena in the electricity system. From a commercial perspective, the aggregated cluster reacts on small-time scale events like real-time portfolio imbalance

  2. Energy storage

    2012-01-01

    After having outlined the importance of energy storage in the present context, this document outlines that it is an answer to economic, environmental and technological issues. It proposes a brief overview of the various techniques of energy storage: under the form of chemical energy (hydrocarbons, biomass, hydrogen production), thermal energy (sensitive or latent heat storage), mechanical energy (potential energy by hydraulic or compressed air storage, kinetic energy with flywheels), electrochemical energy (in batteries), electric energy (super-capacitors, superconductor magnetic energy storage). Perspectives are briefly evoked

  3. Neutron storage

    Strelkov, A.V.

    2004-01-01

    The report is devoted to neutron storage (NS) and describes the history of experiments on the NS development. Great attention is paid to ultracold neutron (UCN) storage. The experiments on the UCN generation, transport, spectroscopy, storage and detection are described. Experiments on searching the UCN electric-dipole moment and electric charge are continued. Possible using of UCN for studying the nanoparticles is discussed [ru

  4. Energy storage

    Odru, P.

    2010-01-01

    This book proposes a broad overview of the technologies developed in the domains of on-board electricity storage (batteries, super-capacitors, flywheels), stationary storage (hydraulic dams, compressed air, batteries and hydrogen), and heat storage (sensible, latent and sorption) together with their relative efficiency, their expected developments and what advantages they can offer. Eminent specialists of this domain have participated to the redaction of this book, all being members of the Tuck's Foundation 'IDees' think tank. (J.S.)

  5. Energy storage

    Brunet, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Energy storage examines different applications such as electric power generation, transmission and distribution systems, pulsed systems, transportation, buildings and mobile applications. For each of these applications, proper energy storage technologies are foreseen, with their advantages, disadvantages and limits. As electricity cannot be stored cheaply in large quantities, energy has to be stored in another form (chemical, thermal, electromagnetic, mechanical) and then converted back into electric power and/or energy using conversion systems. Most of the storage technologies are examined: b

  6. Tritium storage

    Hircq, B.

    1989-01-01

    A general synthesis about tritium storage is achieved in this paper and a particular attention is given to practical application in the Fusion Technology Program. Tritium, storage under gaseous form and solid form are discussed (characteristics, advantages, disadvantages and equipments). The way of tritium storage is then discussed and a choice established as a function of a logic which takes into account the main working parameters

  7. Marketing and Economic Analysis of Potatoes Irradiation in Egypt

    El-Khateeb, M.A.; El-Hayawan, H.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this work is to examine the marketing, economic and financial feasibility of a project for potatoes irradiation in Egypt. The Egyptian market of potatoes was described and analyzed considering the production size distributed over several years, methods of preservation and storage, percentage of loss and cost for each method, distribution channels and packing materials. The financial and economic analysis of the establishment of a pallet conveyor unit for the irradiation of potatoes was also carried out . The following investment criteria were utilized for the commercial evaluation : benefit - cost radio , payback period, average rate of return and net present value . The results of this analysis showed that the installation of a unit for the irradiation of potatoes in Egypt would be economically viable. The unit of irradiation would decline if the irradiator is used as a multipurpose facility

  8. Marketing and Economic Analysis of Garlic Irradiation in Egypt

    El-Khateeb, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this work is to examine the marketing , economic and financial feasibility of a project for garlic irradiation in Egypt. The Egyptian market of garlic was described and analyzed considering the production size distributed over several years, methods of preservation and storage, percentage of loss and cost for each method and distribution channels. The financial and economic analysis of the establishment of A tote Box unit for the irradiation of garlic was also carried out. The following investment criteria were utilized for the commercial evaluation : benefit-cost ratio, payback period, average rate of return and net present value. The results of this analysis showed that the installation of a unit for the irradiation of garlic in Egypt would be economically viable. The unit cost of irradiation would decline if the irradiator is used as a multipurpose facility

  9. Technology Roadmap: Energy Storage

    NONE

    2014-03-01

    Energy storage technologies are valuable components in most energy systems and could be an important tool in achieving a low-carbon future. These technologies allow for the decoupling of energy supply and demand, in essence providing a valuable resource to system operators. There are many cases where energy storage deployment is competitive or near-competitive in today's energy system. However, regulatory and market conditions are frequently ill-equipped to compensate storage for the suite of services that it can provide. Furthermore, some technologies are still too expensive relative to other competing technologies (e.g. flexible generation and new transmission lines in electricity systems). One of the key goals of this new roadmap is to understand and communicate the value of energy storage to energy system stakeholders. This will include concepts that address the current status of deployment and predicted evolution in the context of current and future energy system needs by using a ''systems perspective'' rather than looking at storage technologies in isolation.

  10. Sizing and economic analysis of stand alone photovoltaic system with hydrogen storage

    Nordin, N. D.; Rahman, H. A.

    2017-11-01

    This paper proposes a design steps in sizing of standalone photovoltaic system with hydrogen storage using intuitive method. The main advantage of this method is it uses a direct mathematical approach to find system’s size based on daily load consumption and average irradiation data. The keys of system design are to satisfy a pre-determined load requirement and maintain hydrogen storage’s state of charge during low solar irradiation period. To test the effectiveness of the proposed method, a case study is conducted using Kuala Lumpur’s generated meteorological data and rural area’s typical daily load profile of 2.215 kWh. In addition, an economic analysis is performed to appraise the proposed system feasibility. The finding shows that the levelized cost of energy for proposed system is RM 1.98 kWh. However, based on sizing results obtained using a published method with AGM battery as back-up supply, the system cost is lower and more economically viable. The feasibility of PV system with hydrogen storage can be improved if the efficiency of hydrogen storage technologies significantly increases in the future. Hence, a sensitivity analysis is performed to verify the effect of electrolyzer and fuel cell efficiencies towards levelized cost of energy. Efficiencies of electrolyzer and fuel cell available in current market are validated using laboratory’s experimental data. This finding is needed to envisage the applicability of photovoltaic system with hydrogen storage as a future power supply source in Malaysia.

  11. Probe Storage

    Gemelli, Marcellino; Abelmann, Leon; Engelen, Johannes Bernardus Charles; Khatib, M.G.; Koelmans, W.W.; Zaboronski, Olog; Campardo, Giovanni; Tiziani, Federico; Laculo, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of probe-based data storage research over the last three decades, encompassing all aspects of a probe recording system. Following the division found in all mechanically addressed storage systems, the different subsystems (media, read/write heads, positioning, data

  12. Electronic Markets Ontology: ideal architecture for global capital market

    Davide Khalil

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available When approaching electronic capital market design and microstructure with the focus of analysing and improving existing markets with end-state analysis, it is necessary to name an ideal objective. This serves the purposes of technology evaluation and the development of a standard framework for structural measurement in modeling and language paradigm design. An ideal capital market architecture is presented in this paper that is feasible with current technology based on the end-to-end functionality of existing capital markets including internal requirements of participants. Various architectural and ethical issues are introduced and discussed sketching a framework for further work in quantifying electronic markets.

  13. Transportation and storage studies on irradiated Alphonso mangoes

    Farkas, J.; Dharkar, S.D.; Sreenivasan, A.

    1972-01-01

    Control as well as skin coated (6% ''Myvacet'') and/or irradiated (25 to 35 krad) mangoes were packed in baskets in dry paddy straw and shipped by rail. After a storage at a temperature of 25 to 32 0 C for a period of 8 days, the baskets were shipped back. After receipt in the laboratory the fruits were kept under observation for 5 more days and then scored for ripening and marketability as assessed by appearance, skin gloss and typical flavour. 100 per cent of fruits skin-coated and irradiated were marketable at the end of the experiment. None of the unirradiated control fruits were saleable by this time, while 66%, of the irradiated fruits were in acceptable condition. In further experiments one dozen mangoes each from control, irradiated and skin-coated and irradiated groups were wrapped individually in tissue paper and packed tightly in a plyweed box. This consignment was air-lifted from Bombay to Budapest, a distance of about 5600 kilometers. The time interval between irradiation and their receipt in Hungary was 4 days. The mangoes were assessed for their storage characteristics by various parameters that included physiological loss in weight, puncture resistance of the skin, pulp texture, carotenoids, acidity and organoleptic attributes, at various periods during storage. It was found that ripening and senescence are strikingly delayed in mangoes by skin-coating and radiation treatment. The treated mangoes retained their skin-resistance while the disappearance of chlorophyl and formation of carotenoids were substantially delayed. Weight loss in storage was lower and reduction of acidity and formation of sugars in the fruit flesh took place later. Organoleptically, the fruits subjected to the combination treatment were good. These studies point to the feasibility of the combination treatment in prolonging the shelf life of fruits significantly to enable their transport to distant countries. (F.G.)

  14. Anthology of dry storage solutions

    Allimann, Nathalie; Otton, Camille [AREVA, Paris (France)

    2012-03-15

    Around 35,000 PWR, BWR or Veer used fuel elements with various enrichment value up to 5%, various cooling time down to 2 years and various burn-ups up to 60,000 Mwd/tU are currently stored in AREVA dry storage solutions. These solutions are delivered in the United States, in Japan and in many European countries like Belgium, Switzerland, Italy, Armenia and Germany. With more than 1000 dry storage solutions delivered all over the world AREVA is the leader on this market. Dealing with dry storage is not an easy task. Products have to be flexible, to be adapted to customer needs and to the national regulations which may stipulate very strict tests such as airplane crash or simulation of earthquake. To develop a dry storage solution for a foreign country means to deal with its national competent authorities. All the national competent authorities do not have the same requirements. Storage conditions may also be different.

  15. Anthology of dry storage solutions

    Allimann, Nathalie; Otton, Camille

    2012-01-01

    Around 35,000 PWR, BWR or Veer used fuel elements with various enrichment value up to 5%, various cooling time down to 2 years and various burn-ups up to 60,000 Mwd/tU are currently stored in AREVA dry storage solutions. These solutions are delivered in the United States, in Japan and in many European countries like Belgium, Switzerland, Italy, Armenia and Germany. With more than 1000 dry storage solutions delivered all over the world AREVA is the leader on this market. Dealing with dry storage is not an easy task. Products have to be flexible, to be adapted to customer needs and to the national regulations which may stipulate very strict tests such as airplane crash or simulation of earthquake. To develop a dry storage solution for a foreign country means to deal with its national competent authorities. All the national competent authorities do not have the same requirements. Storage conditions may also be different

  16. Marketing; Il marketing

    Muscigna, M [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, S. Maria di Galeria, RM (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione

    1999-07-01

    The report discusses marketing strategies oriented to the organizations and analyzes its critical factors, which determine the success of the organization activity. [Italian] Il rapporto analizza i caratteri delle strategie del marketing orientato all'impresa. Vengono infine analizzati i fattori critici che determinano il successo o l'insuccesso delle scelte aziendali.

  17. Marketing; Il marketing

    Muscigna, M. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, S. Maria di Galeria, RM (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione

    1999-07-01

    The report discusses marketing strategies oriented to the organizations and analyzes its critical factors, which determine the success of the organization activity. [Italian] Il rapporto analizza i caratteri delle strategie del marketing orientato all'impresa. Vengono infine analizzati i fattori critici che determinano il successo o l'insuccesso delle scelte aziendali.

  18. Feasibility of radiation preservation of potatoes and onions in Pakistan

    Khan, Ismail; Muhammad, Amir.

    1975-01-01

    The storage problem of potatoes and onions in Pakistan has been explained. The feasibility of preserving these vegetables by radiation and the cost and economics of the technology is examined. It has been concluded that radiation with subsequent storage at 15 0 -20 0 C will not only reduce the spoilage losses considerably but also give great benefit to the producer

  19. Marketing historického objektu

    Konáš, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Thesis on topic Marketing of historical property dissertates of marketing of historical property in turistic region Jeseníky. Its fundamentals is to analyse specific parts of marketing conception of historical property. This thesis should also serve to clearing of marketing ideas about future movement of property with a contexture to their real feasibility. Its content is composed of methodological and practical parts. The conception consist in marketing analyse, definition of vision and miss...

  20. Estudio de viabilidad económica de una central termosolar de 50 MW con y sin almacenamiento térmico = Economic feasibility study in a cylindrical-parabolic solar thermal plant of 50 MW with and without thermal storage

    Pedro José Soto Piedehierro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Este articulo trata sobre el estudio de viabilidad económica de una central termosolar cilíndrico-parabólica de 50 MW en el término municipal de Badajoz. Para ver las diferentes alternativas en el diseño y estudio económico de la instalación se han tenido en cuenta dos casos, un primer caso de la central sin almacenamiento térmico y un segundo caso de la central con almacenamiento térmico. La finalidad con la que se presenta este estudio es analizar los diferentes casos y presentar conclusiones al respecto. The aim of this study is to do an economic feasibility study in a cylindrical-parabolic solar thermal plant of 50 MW in Badajoz. Two different cases have been studied, first case the solar thermal plant without thermal storage and the other case, the solar thermal plant with thermal storage (salt tanks. The advantages and disadvantages of the use of each element have also been analyzed.

  1. Energy storage

    1962-07-01

    The papers on energy storage problems, given to the United Nations Conference on New Sources of Energy, Rome, 1961, are reviewed. Many aspects of the subject are discussed: comparisons between the costs of storing energy in batteries and in fuel cells; the use, efficiency and expected improvement of fuel cells; the principles involved in the chemical conversion of solar energy to chemical energy; the use of metal hydride fuel cells; the chemical conversion and storage of concentrated solar energy for which the solar furnace is used for photochemical reactions. Finally, the general costs of storing energy in any form and delivering it are analyzed with particular reference to storage batteries and fuel cells.

  2. Livestock Marketing.

    Futrell, Gene; And Others

    This marketing unit focuses on the seasonal and cyclical patterns of livestock markets. Cash marketing, forward contracting, hedging in the futures markets, and the options markets are examined. Examples illustrate how each marketing tool may be useful in gaining a profit on livestock and cutting risk exposure. The unit is organized in the…

  3. Future market: Electrical energy storage. Case study on behalf of the Federal Office for Environment Protection in the context of the research project innovative environmental policy in important fields of action; Zukunftsmarkt Elektrische Energiespeicherung. Fallstudie im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes im Rahmen des Forschungsprojektes Innovative Umweltpolitik in wichtigen Handlungsfeldern

    Radgen, Peter [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2007-12-15

    Increased attention is currently being paid to electricity storage as a result of an energy policy which favours renewable energies. As the shares of fluctuating renewable energies (mainly wind and solar power) increase in the total electricity supply, it becomes more and more difficult to balance electricity demand and supply. This is linked to the facts that the share of controllable fossil electricity generation is decreasing (production) and, at the same time, the typically highly regionally concentrated renewable energy production is limited by the capacity of the electricity grid (distribution). Therefore energy research has recently begun focusing on grid-connected electricity storage systems. As electricity itself cannot be stored in large amounts, it is typically converted into other energy forms such as chemical energy, kinetic energy or potential energy. The most important technical data for electricity storage technologies are the specific energy [kWh/kg] and the peak power [kW/kg]. Other important features of electricity storage systems are life time, possible number of working cycles, efficiency and self discharging. Besides the traditional electricity storage systems based on pumped hydropower (limitations due to geological constraints) and lead batteries (limitations due to cost and cycle constraints) there are other storage technologies based on hydrogen, compressed air or REDOX reactions. For these three technologies a more detailed analysis has been done of the political framework conditions, the actors, and innovation indicators. This shows a significant increase in the number of patent applications for these and other storage technologies since the beginning of the 90s. On a global scale, the US and Japan are the leading countries for storage technologies in general, followed by the UK and Germany. Looking only on the European market Germany seems to lead the innovation race in the emerging storage technologies such as hydrogen, compressed air

  4. Feasibility of uranium enrichment in Australia

    1979-10-01

    The Council considered that provided the balance between costs and markets was found to be acceptable, there was no valid reason against the Government proceeding with a study on the feasibility of, and perhaps participating in the establishment of a commercial uranium enrichment industry in Australia. Areas covered include technical expertise and industrial structure in Australia, environmental aspects and safeguards

  5. Market assessment of photovoltaic power systems for agricultural applications in the Philippines

    Cabraal, R. A.; Delasanta, D.; Burrill, G.

    1981-01-01

    The market potential in the Philippines for stand alone photovoltaic (P/V) systems in agriculture was assessed. Applications include: irrigation, postharvest operation, food and fiber processing and storage, and livestock and fisheries operations. Power and energy use profiles for many applications as well as assessments of business, government and financial climate for P/V sales are described. Many characteristics of the Philippine agriculture and energy sector favorably influence the use of P/V systems. However, serious and significant barriers prevent achieving the technically feasible, cost competitive market for P/V systems in the agricultural sector. The reason for the small market is the limited availability capital for financing P/V systems. It is suggested that innovative financing schemes and promotional campaigns should be devised.

  6. Market assessment of photovoltaic power systems for agricultural applications in the Philippines

    Cabraal, R. A.; Delasanta, D.; Burrill, G.

    1981-04-01

    The market potential in the Philippines for stand alone photovoltaic (P/V) systems in agriculture was assessed. Applications include: irrigation, postharvest operation, food and fiber processing and storage, and livestock and fisheries operations. Power and energy use profiles for many applications as well as assessments of business, government and financial climate for P/V sales are described. Many characteristics of the Philippine agriculture and energy sector favorably influence the use of P/V systems. However, serious and significant barriers prevent achieving the technically feasible, cost competitive market for P/V systems in the agricultural sector. The reason for the small market is the limited availability capital for financing P/V systems. It is suggested that innovative financing schemes and promotional campaigns should be devised.

  7. MRS transfer facility feasibility study

    Jowdy, A.K.; Smith, R.I.

    1990-12-01

    Under contract to the US Department of Energy, Parsons was requested to evaluate the feasibility of building a simple hot cell (waste handling) transfer facility at the Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) site to facilitate acceptance of spent fuel into the Federal Waste Management System starting in early 1998. The Transfer Facility was intended to provide a receiving and transfer to storage capability at a relatively low throughput rate (approximately 500 MTU/yr) and to provide the recovery capability needed on the site in the event of a transport or storage cask seal failure during a period of about two years while the larger Spent Fuel Handling Building (SFHB) was being completed. Although the original study basis postulated an incremental addition to the larger, previously considered MRS configurations, study results show that the Transfer Facility may be capable of receiving and storing spent fuel at annual rates of 3000 MTU/yr or more, making a larger fuel handling structure unnecessary. In addition, the study analyses showed that the Transfer Facility could be constructed and put into service in 15--17 months and would cost less than the previous configurations. 2 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Tribal Utility Feasibility Study

    Engel, R. A.; Zoellick, J. J.

    2007-06-30

    The Schatz Energy Research Center (SERC) assisted the Yurok Tribe in investigating the feasibility of creating a permanent energy services program for the Tribe. The original purpose of the DOE grant that funded this project was to determine the feasibility of creating a full-blown Yurok Tribal electric utility to buy and sell electric power and own and maintain all electric power infrastructure on the Reservation. The original project consultant found this opportunity to be infeasible for the Tribe. When SERC took over as project consultant, we took a different approach. We explored opportunities for the Tribe to develop its own renewable energy resources for use on the Reservation and/or off-Reservation sales as a means of generating revenue for the Tribe. We also looked at ways the Tribe can provide energy services to its members and how to fund such efforts. We identified opportunities for the development of renewable energy resources and energy services on the Yurok Reservation that fall into five basic categories: • Demand-side management – This refers to efforts to reduce energy use through energy efficiency and conservation measures. • Off-grid, facility and household scale renewable energy systems – These systems can provide electricity to individual homes and Tribal facilities in areas of the Reservation that do not currently have access to the electric utility grid. • Village scale, micro-grid renewable energy systems - These are larger scale systems that can provide electricity to interconnected groups of homes and Tribal facilities in areas of the Reservation that do not have access to the conventional electric grid. This will require the development of miniature electric grids to serve these interconnected facilities. • Medium to large scale renewable energy development for sale to the grid – In areas where viable renewable energy resources exist and there is access to the conventional electric utility grid, these resources can be

  9. Vestas Power Plant Solutions Integrating Wind, Solar PV and Energy Storage

    Petersen, Lennart; Hesselbæk, Bo; Martinez, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    This paper addresses a value proposition and feasible system topologies for hybrid power plant solutions integrating wind, solar PV and energy storage and moreover provides insights into Vestas hybrid power plant projects. Seen from the perspective of a wind power plant developer, these hybrid...... solutions provide a number of benefits that could potentially reduce the Levelized Cost of Energy and enable entrance to new markets for wind power and facilitate the transition to a more sustainable energy mix. First, various system topologies are described in order to distinguish the generic concepts...... for the electrical infrastructure of hybrid power plants. Subsequently, the benefits of combining wind and solar PV power as well as the advantages of combining variable renewable energy sources with energy storage are elaborated. Finally, the world’s first utility-scale hybrid power plant combining wind, solar PV...

  10. Practical operation strategies for pumped hydroelectric energy storage (PHES) utilising electricity price arbitrage

    Connolly, David; Lund, Henrik; Finn, P.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, three practical operation strategies (24Optimal, 24Prognostic, and 24Hsitrocial) are compared to the optimum profit feasible for a PHES facility with a 360 MW pump, 300 MW turbine, and a 2 GWh storage utilising price arbitrage on 13 electricity spot markets. The results indicate...... that almost all (not, vert, similar97%) of the profits can be obtained by a PHES facility when it is optimised using the 24Optimal strategy developed, which optimises the energy storage based on the day-ahead electricity prices. However, to maximise profits with the 24Optimal strategy, the day......-ahead electricity prices must be the actual prices which the PHES facility is charged or the PHES operator must have very accurate price predictions. Otherwise, the predicted profit could be significantly reduced and even become a loss. Finally, using the 24Optimal strategy, the PHES profit can surpass the annual...

  11. Control of Flywheel Energy Storage Systems in Electrical Vehicle Charging Stations

    Sun, Bo

    energy storage system (FESS). The proposed PhD project supports a corresponding smart control strategy that could be termed “charging station to grid (CS2G)”. It explores the possibility of using a dedicated energy storage system (FESS) within the charging station to alleviate grid and market conditions...... converters is built and analyzed. |Based on modeling analysis, centralized and distributed control methods are both explored to realize the coordination control of each components in the system. Specially, this project proposes a “dc voltage vs speed” droop strategy for FESS control based on distributed bus...... function method when the system switches its operation behavior between two modes. Finally, a downscaled FCS prototype with FESS is built in the intelligent MG lab, and experiments and hardware-in-loop simulation results are conducted to verify the effectiveness and feasibility with the proposed FCS...

  12. Food preservation by irradiation. V.- Economic study of the spanish potatoe market and preservation feasibility by irradiation; Conservacion de alimentos por irradiacion. V.- Estudio economico del mercado de patatas en Espana y posibilidades de su conservacion por irradiacion

    Rivas, A; Garcia de Mateos, A; Ortin Sune, N; Val Cob, M del

    1967-07-01

    A study of the spanish potatoe market is carried o nt in order to know the possibilities of preservation by irradiation. The study is initiated with a recompilation of statistical data on the production and consumption of potatoes by regions and seasons. Last years losses are then estimated. (Author) 9 refs.

  13. Energy storage: a review of recent literature

    Tatone, O.S.

    1981-12-01

    Recent literature on the technological and economic status of reversible energy storage has been reviewed. A broad range of research and development activities have been pursued between 1975 and the present. Most of this work has concentrated on improving technical and economic performance of previously known storage technologies. Hydraulic pumped storage with both reservoirs above ground and compressed air storage (1 plant) are the only methods that have been adopted by electric utilities. The need for electrical energy storage in Canada has not been acute because of the large proportion of hydraulic generation which incorporates some storge and, in most cases, can readily be used for load-following. Residential heat storage in ceramic room heaters has been used in Europe for several years. For Canadian climatic and market conditions larger, central heating units would be required. Residential heat storage depends upon utilities offering time-of-use rates and none in Canada do so at present. Most seasonal storage concepts depend upon storage of low-grade heat for district heating. The cost of energy storage is highly dependent upon annual energy throughput and hence favours smaller capacity systems operating on frequent charge/discharge cycles over long-term storage. Capital costs of energy storage methods from the literature, expressed in constant dollars, are compared graphically and tentative investment costs are presented for several storage methods

  14. Rock cavern storage of spent fuel

    Cho, Won Jin; Kim, Kyung Soo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Sang Ki [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    The rock cavern storage for spent fuel has been assessed to apply in Korea with reviewing the state of the art of the technologies for surface storage and rock cavern storage of spent fuel. The technical feasibility and economic aspects of the rock cavern storage of spent fuel were also analyzed. A considerable area of flat land isolated from the exterior are needed to meet the requirement for the site of the surface storage facilities. It may, however, not be easy to secure such areas in the mountainous region of Korea. Instead, the spent fuel storage facilities constructed in the rock cavern moderate their demands for the suitable site. As a result, the rock cavern storage is a promising alternative for the storage of spent fuel in the aspect of natural and social environments. The rock cavern storage of spent fuel has several advantages compared with the surface storage, and there is no significant difference on the viewpoint of economy between the two alternatives. In addition, no great technical difficulties are present to apply the rock cavern storage technologies to the storage of domestic spent fuel.

  15. Depleted uranium concrete container feasibility study

    Haelsig, R.T.

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to consider the feasibility of using containers constructed of depleted uranium aggregate concrete (DUCRETE) to store and transport radioactive materials. The method for this study was to review the advantages and disadvantages of DUCRETE containers considering design requirements for potential applications. The author found that DUCRETE is a promising material for onsite storage containers, provided DUCRETE vessels can be certified for one-way transport to disposal sites. The author also found that DUCRETE multipurpose spent nuclear fuel storage/transport packages are technically viable, provided altered temperature acceptance limits can be developed for DUCRETE

  16. Advanced compressed hydrogen fuel storage systems

    Jeary, B.

    2000-01-01

    Dynetek was established in 1991 by a group of private investors, and since that time efforts have been focused on designing, improving, manufacturing and marketing advanced compressed fuel storage systems. The primary market for Dynetek fuel systems has been Natural Gas, however as the automotive industry investigates the possibility of using hydrogen as the fuel source solution in Alternative Energy Vehicles, there is a growing demand for hydrogen storage on -board. Dynetek is striving to meet the needs of the industry, by working towards developing a fuel storage system that will be efficient, economical, lightweight and eventually capable of storing enough hydrogen to match the driving range of the current gasoline fueled vehicles

  17. Is radurisation commercially feasible

    Van der Linde, H.J.

    1982-01-01

    In November 1980 an international expert committee, convened by the three organisations sponsoring the International Food Irradiation Project, viz the World Health Organisation, the Food and Agricultural Organization and the International Atomic Energy Agency, declared all radurised foods irradiated up to a dose of 10 kGy (1 Mrad) as unconditionally safe and nutritionally adequate (ie wholesome) for humans. However, the application of this new food-processing technique on a full commercial scale will undoubtedly be determined by factors such as the efficacy of the process in comparison with existing techniques, cost of operation, and finally, acceptance by the food handler and consumer. Studies in various countries, including South Africa, during the past decade have demonstrated that radiation in most cases in combination with pre-irradiation heat treatment or post irradiation cold storage, could play an important role in improving the quality of fresh produce by extension of shelf life (sometimes dramatic), by hygienisation (eg the elimination of harmful pathogens or a reduction of potentially harmful chemical residues) and lastly by improved quarantine control. Cost and energy-comsumption analyses indicate that radurisation is an energy-saving process in comparison with both heating and cooling and, even though the process is capital intensive, that substantial cost benefits can accrue when large quantities of certain foodstuffs are processed. Consumer acceptance trials, both locally and abroad, have shown that if the consumer is properly informed, he can be convinced of the advantages which radurised foods could offer. A National Steering Committee was recently consituted. This committee acts in an advisory capacity to the Minister of Agriculture and Fisheries and co-ordinates all aspects of the test marketing of radurised food on a national level

  18. Market, Regulation, Market, Regulation

    Frankel, Christian; Galland, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    barriers to trade in Europe, realized the free movement of products by organizing progressively several orders of markets and regulation. Based on historical and institutional documents, on technical publications, and on interviews, this article relates how the European Commission and the Member States had......This paper focuses on the European Regulatory system which was settled both for opening the Single Market for products and ensuring the consumers' safety. It claims that the New Approach and Standardization, and the Global Approach to conformity assessment, which suppressed the last technical...... alternatively recourse to markets and to regulations, at the three main levels of the New Approach Directives implementation. The article focuses also more specifically on the Medical Devices sector, not only because this New Approach sector has long been controversial in Europe, and has recently been concerned...

  19. Examining market power in the European natural gas market

    Egging, R.G.; Gabriel, S.A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a mixed complementarity equilibrium model for the European natural gas market. This model has producers as Cournot players with conjectured supply functions relative to their rivals. As such, these producers can withhold production to increase downstream prices for greater profits. The other players are taken to be perfectly competitive and are combined with extensive pipeline, seasonal, and other data reflecting the current state of the market. Four market scenarios are run to analyze the extent of market power by these producers as well as the importance of pipeline and storage capacity. (author)

  20. Examining market power in the European natural gas market

    Egging, Rudolf G.; Gabriel, Steven A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a mixed complementarity equilibrium model for the European natural gas market. This model has producers as Cournot players with conjectured supply functions relative to their rivals. As such, these producers can withhold production to increase downstream prices for greater profits. The other players are taken to be perfectly competitive and are combined with extensive pipeline, seasonal, and other data reflecting the current state of the market. Four market scenarios are run to analyze the extent of market power by these producers as well as the importance of pipeline and storage capacity

  1. Evaluating the economic cost of natural gas strategic storage restrictions

    Ejarque, Joao Miguel

    2011-01-01

    The European Commission wants to implement a single market for gas. One of the components of this market is a regulated provision for ''security of supply'' which consists of rules for the implementation and use of a given reserve stock of gas. We investigate the impact of this policy on the profitability of a storage operator, using data from Denmark and Italy. Keeping storage capacity constant, the costs of the strategic stock are around 20% of the value of the storage market for Denmark, and 16% for Italy. This cost is due to the inability to extract arbitrage profits from the captive stock. Furthermore, the strategic storage restriction induces behavior that would virtually never be replicated by a private storage operator in an unconstrained market, in particular in the first 6 months of the year when unconstrained firms empty their reservoirs much faster, suggesting the strategic restriction is unnecessarily distorting the market. (author)

  2. Economics of Energy Storage. An analysis of the administrative consequences of electricity storage

    Wals, A.F.; Hendriks, R.H.

    2004-03-01

    This report discusses the administrative aspects connected to the introduction of electricity storage in the energy system. First, the macro-economic aspects of utilizing storage facilities are discussed, and the possible benefits of storage in the electricity system are summarized. Next, the discussion focuses on the administrative aspects. In particular, the regulation system of the Dutch electricity market is reviewed, paying particular attention to the market design in connection with Distribution Network Operators. A number of relevant aspects are discussed, such as the incentives for the Operators to optimize network performance, as well as the means available to the Operators to stimulate third parties to do so. Finally, the perspectives for storage operators to enter directly on the different power markets are treated. Generally, one can conclude that the administrative aspects for storage facilities leave room for improvement

  3. The prospects for dry fuel storage

    Harris, G.G.; Elliott, D.

    1994-01-01

    Dry storage of spent nuclear fuels is one method of dealing with radioactive waste. This article reports from a one day seminar on future prospects for dry fuel storage held in November 1993. Dry storage in an inert gas or air environment in vaults or casks, is an alternative to wet storage in water-filled ponds. Both wet and dry storage form part of the Interim Storage option for radioactive waste materials, and form alternatives to reprocessing or direct disposal in a deep repository. It has become clear that a large market for dry fuel storage will exist in the future. It will therefore be necessary to ensure that the various technical, safety, commercial, legislative and political constraints associated with it can be met effectively. (UK)

  4. Hydrogen storage for mixed wind-nuclear power plants in the context of a hydrogen economy

    Taljan, Gregor; Fowler, Michael; Canizares, Claudio; Verbic, Gregor

    2008-01-01

    A novel methodology for the economic evaluation of hydrogen production and storage for a mixed wind-nuclear power plant considering some new aspects such as residual heat and oxygen utilization is applied in this work. This analysis is completed in the context of a hydrogen economy and competitive electricity markets. The simulation of the operation of a combined nuclear-wind-hydrogen system is discussed first, where the selling and buying of electricity, the selling of excess hydrogen and oxygen, and the selling of heat are optimized to maximize profit to the energy producer. The simulation is performed in two phases: in a pre-dispatch phase, the system model is optimized to obtain optimal hydrogen charge levels for the given operational horizons. In the second phase, a real-time dispatch is carried out on an hourly basis to optimize the operation of the system as to maximize profits, following the hydrogen storage levels of the pre-dispatch phase. Based on the operation planning and dispatch results, an economic evaluation is performed to determine the feasibility of the proposed scheme for investment purposes; this evaluation is based on calculations of modified internal rates of return and net present values for a realistic scenario. The results of the present studies demonstrate the feasibility of a hydrogen storage and production system with oxygen and heat utilization for existent nuclear and wind power generation facilities. (author)

  5. Inbound marketing

    Popek, Tomáš

    2011-01-01

    In my work I focus on Inbound Marketing, which represents a new perspective on marketing, that has not been given the attention it deserves. It is a combination of existing and proven marketing methods that are used to obtain new customers with minimal marketing costs to the organization. The first section of my work is devoted to defining the concept of Inbound Marketing definitions and explanations. Furthermore, I present a list of instruments used in Inbound Marketing, and showcase the def...

  6. Opportunities in independent gas storage

    Daniel, R.

    1999-01-01

    The range of business opportunities currently available for the midstream oil and gas business were discussed with particular focus on storage opportunities. Alberta Energy Co. (AEC) Ltd.'s two midstream business units include AEC Pipelines and Gas Processing, and AEC Storage and Hub Services. These two businesses provide the company with good investment returns, stable cash flow, and some significant strategic synergies with their exploration and production businesses. In 1988, the AECO C Hub in southeastern Alberta was created as an outgrowth of AEC's gas production operations on the Suffield block, where they had depleted gas reservoirs with high rock quality suitable for high deliverability storage. With the AECO C Hub, AEC was able to offer firm storage contracts of from 1 to 20 years, and to introduce short term interruptible parking and lending services, title exchange, a spot price index for greater price discovery, and an electronic nomination system. AEC is currently completing construction of their second commercial storage facility, the Wild Goose project, in northern California. D ebottlenecking' the Western Canada supply basin should provide additional opportunities for further expansion not only for AEC but also for other midstream service providers. Opportunities are especially available in the areas of new storage facilities to serve location-specific needs, replacement of declining storage capacity, replacement of retiring facilities, technological optimization of existing facilities, more flexible, higher deliverability facilities and commercial optimization of existing facilities. A map of the hubs and market centres of North America are included. 5 figs

  7. Energy Storage

    Bladergroen, B

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In commercial arena, the most recent developments in EES are in electrochemical storage, singling out Li-ion batteries and Vanadium Redox flow batteries, while power-to-gas/-fuels (electrolysis of water into hydrogen and subsequent methanisation...

  8. Liver Storage

    1971-10-23

    Oct 23, 1971 ... The need for whole-organ preservation has become in- cre.asingly important ... ideally fulfil the same purpose as the circulation of blood through the body, ... Hepatic hypothermia produced by the introduction of cold electrolyte ... Recently, we reported successful hypothermic immersion storage for up to 8 ...

  9. Dry storage

    Arnott, Don.

    1985-01-01

    The environmental movement has consistently argued against disposal of nuclear waste. Reasons include its irretrievability in the event of leakage, the implication that reprocessing will continue and the legitimacy attached to an expanding nuclear programme. But there is an alternative. The author here sets out the background and a possible future direction of a campaign based on a call for dry storage. (author)

  10. Modelling curves of manufacturing feasibilities and demand

    Soloninko K.S.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors research the issue of functional properties of curves of manufacturing feasibilities and demand. Settlement of the problem, and its connection with important scientific and practical tasks. According to its nature, the market economy is unstable and is in constant movement. Economy has an effective instrument for explanation of changes in economic environment; this tool is called the modelling of economic processes. The modelling of economic processes depends first and foremost on the building of economic model which is the base for the formalization of economic process, that is, the building of mathematical model. The effective means for formalization of economic process is the creation of the model of hypothetic or imaginary economy. The building of demand model is significant for the market of goods and services. The problem includes the receiving (as the result of modelling definite functional properties of curves of manufacturing feasibilities and demand according to which one can determine their mathematical model. Another problem lies in obtaining majorant properties of curves of joint demand on the market of goods and services. Analysis of the latest researches and publications. Many domestic and foreign scientists dedicated their studies to the researches and building of the models of curves of manufacturing feasibilities and demand. In spite of considerable work of the scientists, such problems as functional properties of the curves and their practical use in modelling. The purpose of the article is to describe functional properties of curves of manufacturing feasibilities and demand on the market of goods and services on the base of modelling of their building. Scientific novelty and practical value. The theoretical regulations (for functional properties of curves of manufacturing feasibilities and demand received as a result of the present research, that is convexity, give extra practical possibilities in a microeconomic

  11. Pricing and Application of Electric Storage

    Zhao, Jialin

    Electric storage provides a vehicle to store power for future use. It contributes to the grids in multiple aspects. For instance, electric storage is a more effective approach to provide electricity ancillary services than conventional methods. Additionally, electric storage, especially fast-responding units, allows owners to implement high-frequency power transactions in settings such as the 5-min real-time trading market. Such high-frequency power trades were limited in the past. However, as technology advances, the power markets have evolved. For instance, the California Independent System Operator now supports the 5-min real-time trading and the hourly day-ahead ancillary services bidding. Existing valuation models of electric storage were not designed to accommodate these recent market developments. To fill this gap, I focus on the fast-responding grid-level electric storage that provides both the real-time trading and the day-ahead ancillary services bidding. To evaluate such an asset, I propose a Monte Carlo Simulation-based valuation model. The foundation of my model is simulations of power prices. This study develops a new simulation model of electric prices. It is worth noting that, unlike existing models, my proposed simulation model captures the dependency of the real-time markets on the day-ahead markets. Upon such simulations, this study investigates the pricing and the application of electric storage at a 5-min granularity. Essentially, my model is a Dynamic Programming system with both endogenous variables (i.e., the State-of-Charge of electric storage) and exogenous variables (i.e., power prices). My first numerical example is the valuation of a fictitious 4MWh battery. Similarly, my second example evaluates the application of two units of 2MWh batteries. By comparing these two experiments, I investigate the issues related to battery configurations, such as the impacts of splitting storage capability on the valuation of electric storage.

  12. Storage Rings

    Fischer, W.

    2010-01-01

    Storage rings are circular machines that store particle beams at a constant energy. Beams are stored in rings without acceleration for a number of reasons (Tab. 1). Storage rings are used in high-energy, nuclear, atomic, and molecular physics, as well as for experiments in chemistry, material and life sciences. Parameters for storage rings such as particle species, energy, beam intensity, beam size, and store time vary widely depending on the application. The beam must be injected into a storage ring but may not be extracted (Fig. 1). Accelerator rings such as synchrotrons are used as storage rings before and after acceleration. Particles stored in rings include electrons and positrons; muons; protons and anti-protons; neutrons; light and heavy, positive and negative, atomic ions of various charge states; molecular and cluster ions, and neutral polar molecules. Spin polarized beams of electrons, positrons, and protons were stored. The kinetic energy of the stored particles ranges from 10 -6 eV to 3.5 x 10 12 eV (LHC, 7 x 10 12 eV planned), the number of stored particles from one (ESR) to 1015 (ISR). To store beam in rings requires bending (dipoles) and transverse focusing (quadrupoles). Higher order multipoles are used to correct chromatic aberrations, to suppress instabilities, and to compensate for nonlinear field errors of dipoles and quadrupoles. Magnetic multipole functions can be combined in magnets. Beams are stored bunched with radio frequency systems, and unbunched. The magnetic lattice and radio frequency system are designed to ensure the stability of transverse and longitudinal motion. New technologies allow for better storage rings. With strong focusing the beam pipe dimensions became much smaller than previously possible. For a given circumference superconducting magnets make higher energies possible, and superconducting radio frequency systems allow for efficient replenishment of synchrotron radiation losses of large current electron or positron beams

  13. Multi-views storage model and access methods of conversation history in converged IP messaging system

    Lu, Meilian; Yang, Dong; Zhou, Xing

    2013-03-01

    Based on the analysis of the requirements of conversation history storage in CPM (Converged IP Messaging) system, a Multi-views storage model and access methods of conversation history are proposed. The storage model separates logical views from physical storage and divides the storage into system managed region and user managed region. It simultaneously supports conversation view, system pre-defined view and user-defined view of storage. The rationality and feasibility of multi-view presentation, the physical storage model and access methods are validated through the implemented prototype. It proves that, this proposal has good scalability, which will help to optimize the physical data storage structure and improve storage performance.

  14. Distributed Database Storage Solution in Java

    Funck, Johan

    2010-01-01

    Car sales companies have in the last couple of years discovered that there is a big market in storing their customer's summer and winter tires for a small fee. For the customers it is very convenient to get rid of the all known storage problem with season tires. Burlin Motor Umeå is one of these companies and they are offering seasonal storage and change of tires in autumn and spring as well as washing of tires.The main problem for this kind of storage is how to make the storage easy to overv...

  15. Evaluating multifunctional storage usage for the integration of renewable energies

    Koopmann, Simon; Wasowicz, Bartholomaeus; Raths, Stephan; Pollok, Thomas; Schnettler, Armin [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. for High Voltage Technology

    2012-07-01

    Market and grid integration of the increasing share of renewable energy sources (RES) pose significant challenges to the electricity system in Germany. Energy storages are frequently discussed as one part of the solution. However, storage operators in a liberalized electricity market are profit maximizing actors, who are only interested in supporting the integration of RES, if it is economically attractive. A storage dispatch optimization model has been developed to comprehensively analyze the wide range of storage applications. Three storage operational modes are introduced and evaluated in this paper. The entirely market-focused multimarket operation is found to be the most profitable option for storage operators. Integration of RES is of minor importance in this operational mode. Using storage systems only for grid purposes in the grid supportive operational mode is found to be least profitable. A combined storage usage for market and grid applications in the multifunctional operation achieves similar benefits for the grid as in the grid supportive mode by better integrating RES, while also achieving profits from the markets. The current market and regulatory framework however, provides no incentives for storage operators to pursue this dispatch strategy, which is favorable for an improved RES integration.

  16. Effect of Storage on the Physico-Chemical and Antioxidant Properties of Strawberry and Kiwi Leathers.

    Concha-Meyer, Anibal A; D'Ignoti, Valeria; Saez, Barbara; Diaz, Ricardo I; Torres, Carolina A

    2016-03-01

    Strawberry and kiwi leathers were used to develop a new healthy and preservative-free fruit snack for new markets. Fruit puree was dehydrated at 60 °C for 20 h and subjected to accelerated storage. Soluble solids, titratable acidity, pH, water activity (aw ), total phenolic (TP), antioxidant activity (AOA) and capacity (ORAC), and color change (browning index) were measured in leathers, cooked, and fresh purees. An untrained panel was used to evaluate consumer acceptability. Soluble solids of fresh purees were 11.24 to 13.04 °Brix, whereas pH was 3.46 to 3.39. Leathers presented an aw of 0.59 to 0.67, and a moisture content of 21 kg water/100 kg. BI decreased in both leathers over accelerated storage period. TP and AOA were higher (P ≤ 0.05) in strawberry formulations. ORAC decreased 57% in strawberry and 65% in kiwi leathers when compared to fruit puree. TP and AOA increased in strawberries during storage. Strawberry and Kiwi leathers may be a feasible new, natural, high antioxidant, and healthy snack for the Chilean and other world markets, such as Europe, particularly the strawberry leather, which was preferred by untrained panelists. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Economic feasibility studies on radiation preservation of dried and cured fishery products, onions and potatoes

    Ahmed, M.; Karim, A.; Quaiyum, M.A.; Bhuiya, A.D.; Matin, M.A.; Siddiqui, A.K.; Hossain, M.M.

    1989-01-01

    Dried and cured fishery products, onions and potatoes face enormous storage losses in Bangladesh due to insect infestation and sprouting. Research and development work was carried out to assess the suitability of introducing irradiation processing of these products in the country. Experiments showed that a dose of 0.04-0.68 kGy could inhibit sprouting in onions. Sprouting in potatoes could be inhibited at 0.10 kGy. Dried and cured fishery products could be disinfested of insects at a dose of 0.30 kGy. Infrastructure such as transportation, storage, marketing and existing systems of post-harvest handling were analysed. Post-harvest storage losses of onion and dried fish were more than 50% after 6 months of storage. Potatoes could not be kept at ambient conditions for over 3 months after the harvesting season. Irradiation of onions and dried fish, if they were stored in suitable conditions after proper packaging, could save significant storage losses. Irradiated potatoes could be stored at 14 deg. C instead of 2-4 deg. C as practised normally. On the basis of the data collected on dried and cured fishery products, onions and potatoes, economic feasibility studies were conducted. Assumptions for calculation of cost of the irradiation facility were: (i) strength of the irradiator source: 7.40 PBq of 60 Co; (ii) construction period: 2 years; (iii) operating time: 7200 hours per year; (iv) economic life: 20 years; (v) capacity utilization: 80-90%. In addition to dried and cured fish, potatoes and onions, this facility would also treat fresh fish and medical products in order to maximize its use. It would have an investment cost of US $1.9 million. The payback period was found to be less than 4 years. If additional warehouses could be built along with the facility, such a venture would be more profitable. 23 refs, 8 figs, 28 tabs

  18. Research programme 'Active Solar Energy Use - Solar Heating and Heat Storage'. Activities and projects 2003

    Hadorn, J.-C.; Renaud, P.

    2003-01-01

    In this report by the research, development and demonstration (RD+D) programme coordinators the objectives, activities and main results in the area of solar heating and heat storage in Switzerland are presented for 2003. In a stagnating market environment the strategy of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy mainly consists in improving the quality and durability of solar collectors and materials, optimizing combisystems for space heating and domestic hot water preparation, searching for storage systems with a higher energy storage density than in the case of sensible heat storage in water, developing coloured solar collectors for more architectonic freedom, and finalizing a seasonal heat storage project for 100 dwellings to demonstrate the feasibility of solar fractions larger than 50% in apartment houses. Support was granted to the Swiss Testing Facility SPF in Rapperswil as in previous years; SPF was the first European testing institute to perform solar collector labeling according to the new rules of the 'Solar Keymark', introduced in cooperation with the European Committee for Standardization CEN. Several 2003 projects were conducted within the framework of the Solar Heating and Cooling Programme of the International Energy Agency IEA. Computerized simulation tools were improved. With the aim of jointly producing high-temperature heat and electric power a solar installation including a concentrating collector and a thermodynamic machine based on a Rankine cycle is still being developed. Seasonal underground heat storage was studied in detail by means of a validated computer simulation programme. Design guidelines were obtained for such a storage used in the summer time for cooling and in the winter time for space heating via a heat pump: depending on the ratio 'summer cooling / winter heating', cooling requires a cooling machine, or direct cooling without such a machine is possible. The report ends up with the list of all supported RD+D projects

  19. Underground Storage Tanks - Storage Tank Locations

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — A Storage Tank Location is a DEP primary facility type, and its sole sub-facility is the storage tank itself. Storage tanks are aboveground or underground, and are...

  20. Sustainable Marketing

    Dam, van Y.K.

    2017-01-01

    In this article, three different conceptions of sustainable marketing are discussed and compared. These different conceptions are referred to as social, green, and critical sustainable marketing. Social sustainable marketing follows the logic of demand-driven marketing management and places the

  1. Compressed air energy storage with waste heat export: An Alberta case study

    Safaei, Hossein; Keith, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Export of compression waste heat from CAES facilities for municipal heating can be profitable. • D-CAES concept has a negative abatement cost of −$40/tCO 2 e under the studied circumstances. • Economic viability of D-CAES highly depends on distance between air storage site and heat load. - Abstract: Interest in compressed air energy storage (CAES) technology has been renewed driven by the need to manage variability form rapidly growing wind and solar capacity. Distributed CAES (D-CAES) design aims to improve the efficiency of conventional CAES through locating the compressor near concentrated heating loads so capturing additional revenue through sales of compression waste heat. A pipeline transports compressed air to the storage facility and expander, co-located at some distance from the compressor. The economics of CAES are strongly dependant on electricity and gas markets in which they are embedded. As a case study, we evaluated the economics of two hypothetical merchant CAES and D-CAES facilities performing energy arbitrage in Alberta, Canada using market data from 2002 to 2011. The annual profit of the D-CAES plant was $1.3 million more on average at a distance of 50 km between the heat load and air storage sites. Superior economic and environmental performance of D-CAES led to a negative abatement cost of −$40/tCO 2 e. We performed a suite of sensitivity analyses to evaluate the impact of size of heat load, size of air storage, ratio of expander to compressor size, and length of pipeline on the economic feasibility of D-CAES

  2. TRICARE Marketing

    1999-10-21

    definitive. It stated that: Marketing is much more than advertising or promotion materials. Marketing is a foundation for building a business strategy ; it...objectives, and strategies for marketing TRICARE. However, the Director provided the plan for information; none of the recipients of the plan were...overarching goal and extensively in the marketing strategies section. Specifically, the Marketing Plan states that strategies employed to accomplish

  3. Hospital marketing.

    Carter, Tony

    2003-01-01

    This article looks at a prescribed academic framework for various criteria that serve as a checklist for marketing performance that can be applied to hospital marketing organizations. These guidelines are drawn from some of Dr. Noel Capon of Columbia University's book Marketing Management in the 21st Century and applied to actual practices of hospital marketing organizations. In many ways this checklist can act as a "marketing" balanced scorecard to verify performance effectiveness and develop opportunities for innovation.

  4. Internet marketing

    Zelený, Martin

    2009-01-01

    In the bachelor thesis are introduced theoretical concepts of the Internet and marketing, accented the need of marketing mix along with its specifics of the internet environment. Next is interpreted which tools can be used for marketing of firms and which marketing instruments are to be deployed. Final chapter illustrates socio-demographics of Czech internet users along with media market allocation from the perspective of all media as well as in the segment of the Internet.

  5. Money Markets

    Marvin Goodfriend

    2011-01-01

    Money markets offer monetary services and short-term finance in the capital market with the credit support of institutional sponsors. Investors finance money market instruments at low interest because their salability on short notice confers an implicit monetary services yield. Low interest attracts borrowers to money markets. The fragile equilibrium depends on collective confidence in the credit quality of instruments supplied to the market. Federal Reserve monetary and credit policies have ...

  6. Gas storage - Estimation of the economic value

    1997-05-01

    The main purpose of the project is to investigate the economic benefits of underground gas storage used for seasonal smoothing and a strategical security of supply. The benefits from the storage have to be decided based on the costs of alternative have to be ways of securing the energy supply, including evaluation of: demand-dependent prices on natural gas and other fuels (both domestic and foreign markets); interruptible supply; establishment of extra production and transportation capacity from the North Sea; establishment of new connecting systems to neighbouring countries (i.a. German, Poland, Latvia); establishment for import or production and LNG; contracting of storage capacity abroad (Germany, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Latvia). In order to control the estimated costs of storage of natural gas a comparison with market prices for storage capacity and spot prices of natural gas is carried out. The market prices were estimated through a statistical analysis of seasonal variations in gas prices on the American natural gas market. Due to permanent energy taxes, the energy prices only partially reflect the demand and the price elasticity hence is very small, resulting in a need for e.g. gas storage. One purpose of the project is to investigate this system error and to present alternative suggestions for the tax structure. Additionally, the consequences of differentiating production taxes will be addressed. (EG)

  7. Gas storages - Estimation of the economic value

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The main purpose of the project is to investigate the economic benefits of underground gas storage used for seasonal smoothing and a strategical security of supply. The benefits from the storage have to be decided based on the costs of alternative have to be ways of securing the energy supply, including evaluation of: demand-dependent prices on natural gas and other fuels (both domestic and foreign markets); interruptible supply; establishment of extra production and transportation capacity from the North Sea; establishment of new connecting systems to neighbouring countries (i.a. German, Poland, Latvia); establishment for import or production and LNG; contracting of storage capacity abroad (Germany, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Latvia). In order to control the estimated costs of storage of natural gas a comparison with market prices for storage capacity and spot prices of natural gas is carried out. The market prices were estimated through a statistical analysis of seasonal variations in gas prices on the American natural gas market. Due to permanent energy taxes, the energy prices only partially reflect the demand and the price elasticity hence is very small, resulting in a need for e.g. gas storage. One purpose of the project is to investigate this system error and to present alternative suggestions for the tax structure. Additionally, the consequences of differentiating production taxes will be addressed. (EG)

  8. AgSTAR Market Opportunities Report

    Assesses the market potential for biogas energy projects at swine and dairy farms in the United States and characterizes the sizes and types of operations where biogas projects are technically feasible.

  9. Energy storage. A challenge for energy transition

    Bart, Jean-Baptiste; Nekrasov, Andre; Pastor, Emmanuel; Benefice, Emmanuel; Brincourt, Thierry; Brisse, Annabelle; Cagnac, Albannie; Delille, Gauthier; Hinchliffe, Timothee; Lancel, Gilles; Jeandel, Elodie; Lefebvre, Thierry; Loevenbruck, Philippe; Penneau, Jean-Francois; Soler, Robert; Stevens, Philippe; Radvanyi, Etienne; Torcheux, Laurent

    2017-06-01

    Written by several EDF R and D engineers, this book aims at presenting an overview of knowledge and know-how of EDF R and D in the field of energy storage, and at presenting the different technologies and their application to electric power systems. After a description of the context related to a necessary energy transition, the authors present the numerous storage technologies. They distinguish direct storage of power (pumped storage water stations, compressed air energy storage, flywheels, the various electrochemical batteries, metal-air batteries, redox flow batteries, superconductors), thermal storage (power to heat, heat to power) and hydrogen storage (storage under different forms), and propose an overview of the situation of standardisation of storage technologies. In the next part, they give an overview of the main services provided by storage to the electric power system: production optimisation, frequency adjustment, grid constraint resolution, local smoothing of PV and wind production, supply continuity. The last part discusses perspectives regarding the role of tomorrow's storage in the field of electrical mobility, for emerging markets, and with respect to different scenarios

  10. Costing of spent nuclear fuel storage

    2009-01-01

    This report deals with economic analysis and cost estimation, based on exploration of relevant issues, including a survey of analytical tools for assessment and updated information on the market and financial issues associated with spent fuel storage. The development of new storage technologies and changes in some of the circumstances affecting the costs of spent fuel storage are also incorporated. This report aims to provide comprehensive information on spent fuel storage costs to engineers and nuclear professionals as well as other stakeholders in the nuclear industry. This report is meant to provide informative guidance on economic aspects involved in selecting a spent fuel storage system, including basic methods of analysis and cost data for project evaluation and comparison of storage options, together with financial and business aspects associated with spent fuel storage. After the review of technical options for spent fuel storage in Section 2, cost categories and components involved in the lifecycle of a storage facility are identified in Section 3 and factors affecting costs of spent fuel storage are then reviewed in the Section 4. Methods for cost estimation and analysis are introduced in Section 5, and other financial and business aspects associated with spent fuel storage are discussed in Section 6.

  11. Integrating new Storage Technologies into EOS

    Peters, Andreas J.; van der Ster, Dan C.; Rocha, Joaquim; Lensing, Paul

    2015-12-01

    The EOS[1] storage software was designed to cover CERN disk-only storage use cases in the medium-term trading scalability against latency. To cover and prepare for long-term requirements the CERN IT data and storage services group (DSS) is actively conducting R&D and open source contributions to experiment with a next generation storage software based on CEPH[3] and ethernet enabled disk drives. CEPH provides a scale-out object storage system RADOS and additionally various optional high-level services like S3 gateway, RADOS block devices and a POSIX compliant file system CephFS. The acquisition of CEPH by Redhat underlines the promising role of CEPH as the open source storage platform of the future. CERN IT is running a CEPH service in the context of OpenStack on a moderate scale of 1 PB replicated storage. Building a 100+PB storage system based on CEPH will require software and hardware tuning. It is of capital importance to demonstrate the feasibility and possibly iron out bottlenecks and blocking issues beforehand. The main idea behind this R&D is to leverage and contribute to existing building blocks in the CEPH storage stack and implement a few CERN specific requirements in a thin, customisable storage layer. A second research topic is the integration of ethernet enabled disks. This paper introduces various ongoing open source developments, their status and applicability.

  12. Creative market development : marketing on a shoestring

    McLeod, D.

    2004-01-01

    The initiatives that led to the development, construction and financing of Toronto's wind turbine by the Toronto Renewable Energy Co-op (TREC) were outlined in this PowerPoint presentation. The initiative for this first urban-based turbine in North America stemmed from a lack of green power in Ontario's energy market and a strong push from the public for more green power. TREC researched a variety of potential wind tower sites in Toronto and submitted a pre-feasibility report. The construction of the wind turbine involved a joint venture between WindShare and Toronto Hydro Energy Services. The basic principals behind co-operative financing were reviewed along with the challenges of marketing the project

  13. Gas Storage in Europe, recent developments and outlook to 2035

    Hureau, Geoffroy

    2015-01-01

    These slides present: the European gas storage market in 2014 (Review of 2014 trends, Current challenges, Role of storage); the Outlook to 2035 (Supply/Demand factors, Estimated Storage needs, Project backlog). In conclusion: an over capacity is expected until 2025.Supply and demand evolution, market liberalization and environmental constraints on coal will drive a new period of growth for UGS. Cedigaz estimates that European UGS capacity will increase by around 45 bcm by 2035. UGS projects represent 77 bcm Of which 22 bcm is under construction, there is a majority of salt-cavern projects (market liberalization), not so much new seasonal storage (security of supply?), not all planned storage will be built (Projects under competition for the same (regional) market, the situation is quite contrasted between NW Europe and South-Southeast Europe (and UK)). The challenges are the investment and the security of supply

  14. Creating a super market

    Katz, M.

    1994-01-01

    FERC (Federal Energy Regulatory Commission) Order 636 changed gas marketing procedures in October 1993 by disengaging the remaining linkages between producers, pipeline companies and LDCs. By erasing the pipelines' already disappearing role as gas suppliers, Order 636 made LDCs entirely responsible for obtaining their own gas supply, transportation and storage. So, many LDCs turned to gas marketing companies -- not only for more gas, but also for many of the services that the pipelines and gas suppliers used to provide. The process is giving the gas marketing companies a whole new role in life -- perhaps even a whole new life. Unlike LDCs and the pipelines, gas marketers are largely unregulated and, as such, are moving into or looking at a host of new areas: Helping customers manage and economize their energy use, not only with natural gas but with other fuels as well; Marketing electricity and fuel oil in addition to natural gas; Laying pipelines and serving local industrial customers the LDCs haven't been able to serve economically; and Selling natural gas to individual residential customers, the last remaining exclusive domain of the LDCs. The paper discusses the new roles for gas marketing companies and what is left for LDCs

  15. SECON - A tool for estimation of storage costs and storage project revenue

    Hall, O.

    1997-01-01

    The SECON model Storage ECONomics is useful for gas suppliers, storage operators, gas distributors and consumers when investigating new storage possibilities. SECON has been used within the Sydkraft group to compare cost for different types of storage and to identify the market niche for lined rock cavern (LRC) storage. In the model cost for the different storage types, salt caverns, LNG, and LRC can be compared. By using input according to market needs each storage type can be validated for a specific service e.g. peak shaving, seasonal storage or balancing. The project revenue can also be calculated. SECON includes three models for income calculation; US storage service, Trading and Avoided Supply Contract Costs. The income models calculates annual turnover, pay of time, net present value, internal rate of return and max. liquidity shortfall for the project. The SECON will facilitate sensitivity analysis both regarding cost for different services and different storage types and on the income side by using different scenarios. At the poster session SECON will be presented live and the delegates will have the opportunity to test the model. (au)

  16. International long-term interim storage for spent fuel. An independent storage service investor model

    Leister, P.

    1999-01-01

    Thinking globally the obvious world-wide demands for large storage capacities for spent fuel within the next decades and the newly arising demands for long-term interim storage of spent fuel urges to respond by international interim storage facilities of high capacity. Low cost storage can be achieved only by arranging the storage facility underground in a suitable host rock formation and by selecting the geographical are by an international competition under those countries, who are willing to offer their land. The investor and operator of an international storage facility selected and realised by a competition on the free market as well as the country where the storage is built are both bound by two different kinds of contacts. The main contract is between the offering country/region and the independent operator. The independent operator has in addition a series of contracts with various utilities, which are interested to have their spent fuel stored for a longer period

  17. Leachate from market refuse and biomethanation study.

    Mukherjee, S N; Kumar, Sunil

    2007-12-01

    The market place is considered to be an important centre of daily life of campus community. In India, as in Europe and the USA, other forms of shopping have emerged significantly and now predominate, for instance department stores and supermarkets. Though, it is suffered from poor waste management, but the place could be a potential source for obtaining non-conventional energy. The present study examined the quality of market waste management of the Indian Institute of Technology Campus along with the feasibility of biogas production from leachate generated in the waste. Solid wastes from different storage locations of the market place were collected and analyzed. The characteristics of solid wastes were found to be degradable in nature. The wastes, composed of 85% of vegetable origin, were placed in a container and water was added to to generate leachate. The self-purification efficiency of leachate was also studied in the Indian environment and compared with research findings in the USA under an identical moisture application rate. Leachate characterization was investigated both under saturated and submerged conditions. The treatability of leachate was studied in a laboratory-scale up-flow anaerobic filter with hollow burnt clay rings as packing media. It was observed that 4,000-6,000 mg/l would be the optimum range of inlet chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration for leachate treatment because of the inhibitory effect of ammonia, sulphide, volatile fatty acids and toxic metals in high concentrations at higher strengths of leachate. The gas production rate was found to be at a maximum at 38 degrees C and containing 70-75% methane. From experimental data, it was revealed that 83% COD was removed with input COD concentration of 5,475 mg/l at 2 days hydraulic retention time with biogas yield coefficients of 0.61. The present study also investigated the removal efficiency of chloride, ammonia, sulphide and nitrate.

  18. Gasohol: economic feasibility study. Final report

    David, M. L.; Hammaker, G. S.; Buzenberg, R. J.; Wagner, J. P.

    1978-07-01

    This report was prepared by Development Planning and Research Associates, Inc. under a contract with the Energy Research and Development Center of the University of Nebraska in cooperation with the Agricultural Products Industrial Utilization Committee and the State of Nebraska. Funding for this study was provided to the Energy Research and Development Center by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Old West Regional Commission. The primary objective of the study was to: determine the fiscal and market conditions under which the production of gasohol would be profitable for private producers. For purposes of this study, gasohol is a motor fuel consisting of 10 percent agriculturally-derived anhydrous ethanol and 90 percent unleaded gasoline. The study assumes that gasohol can be a fuel substitute for gasoline; indeed, the cost of gasoline will significantly influence that for gasohol. Gasoline prices are determined by factors external to ethanol; thus, the economic feasibility study of gasohol is in large part an economic feasibility study of fuel-grade ethanol production. More specifically, the study examined the following: the technical aspects of distributing, marketing, and using gasohol; the costs of the distribution and marketing of ethanol and gasohol; the energy balance of ethanol production; the cost of producing ethanol; the factors influencing ehtanol plant size and location; and the conditions that would make ethanol economicaly feasible for private producers.

  19. Underground storage

    1965-06-10

    A procedure is described for making an underground storage cavity in a soluble formation. Two holes are drilled, and fluid is pumped into the first hole. This fluid is a non-solute for the formation material. Then pressure is applied to the fluid until the formation is fractured in the direction of the second hole. More non-solute fluid is injected to complete the fracture between the 2 holes. A solute fluid is then circulated between the 2 holes, which results in removal of that part of the formation next to the fracture and the forming of a chamber.

  20. Pumped storage

    Strauss, P.L.

    1991-01-01

    The privately financed 1,000 MW Rocky Point Pumped Storage Project located in central Colorado, USA, will be one of the world's highest head, 2,350 feet reversible pump/turbine projects. The project will offer an economical supply of peaking power and spinning reserve power to Colorado and other southwestern states. This paper describes how the project will be made compatible with the environmental conditions in the project area and the type of terrestrial mitigation measures that are being proposed for those situations where the project impacts the environment, either temporarily or permanently

  1. Marketing fundamentals.

    Redmond, W H

    2001-01-01

    This chapter outlines current marketing practice from a managerial perspective. The role of marketing within an organization is discussed in relation to efficiency and adaptation to changing environments. Fundamental terms and concepts are presented in an applied context. The implementation of marketing plans is organized around the four P's of marketing: product (or service), promotion (including advertising), place of delivery, and pricing. These are the tools with which marketers seek to better serve their clients and form the basis for competing with other organizations. Basic concepts of strategic relationship management are outlined. Lastly, alternate viewpoints on the role of advertising in healthcare markets are examined.

  2. Politisk marketing

    Disciplinen politisk marketing er udbredt i mange vestlige lande. Imidlertid er kendskabet til politisk marketing i Danmark bemærkelsesværdigt lavt. I det lys er denne bog Politisk Marketing: Personer, Partier & Praksis den første bog i Danmark, som -ud fra marketing- indkredser de sidste mange års...... brudflader i dansk politik. Gennem ti bidrag fra forskere og praktikere udskraber forfatterne et DNA for feltet politisk marketing. Kort sagt kan du i denne bog finde svarene på: Hvad er politisk marketing? Hvordan har det udviklet sig? Og hvilke konsekvenser har dette fænomen for vælgere, partier og...

  3. To market, to market

    Lieberman, J.I.

    1992-01-01

    Senator Lieberman and three fellow members of Congress introduced the CO 2 Offset Policy Efficiency Act (COPE), which incorporates the use of marketable permits to reduce CO 2 emissions. For COPE to be fully effective, however, several key criteria must be met: (1) establishing initial baselines will be critical to ensure that emission reductions are credited properly; (2) accurate plant-by-plant monitoring must be in place to ensure that claimed reductions have actually occurred; (3) the program must include a strong enforcement provision to prevent evasion and to punish violators with substantial automatic fines. COPE imposes a sanction equal to roughly four times the estimated cost of offsets; the sanctions would be paid before enforcement proceedings commence. The urgency and complexity of global warming requires us to break with the past and develop new ways of delaying with pollution, Senator Lieberman feels by giving the market a chance to work on behalf of the environment, the sale of emission allowance will reduce CO 2 emissions in the most-efficient cost-effective way possible

  4. Unified System-Level Modeling of Intermittent Renewable Energy Sources and Energy Storage for Power System Operation

    Heussen, Kai; Koch, Stephan; Ulbig, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    The system-level consideration of inter- mittent renewable energy sources and small-scale en- ergy storage in power systems remains a challenge as either type is incompatible with traditional operation concepts. Non-controllability and energy-constraints are still considered contingent cases...... in market-based operation. The design of operation strategies for up to 100 % renewable energy systems requires an explicit consideration of non-dispatchable generation and stor- age capacities, as well as the evaluation of operational performance in terms of energy eciency, reliability, environmental...... impact and cost. By abstracting from technology-dependent and physical unit properties, the modeling framework presented and extended in this pa- per allows the modeling of a technologically diverse unit portfolio with a unied approach, whilst establishing the feasibility of energy-storage consideration...

  5. Geothermally Coupled Well-Based Compressed Air Energy Storage

    Davidson, C L [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bearden, Mark D [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Horner, Jacob A [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Appriou, Delphine [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McGrail, B Peter [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    . This project assessed the technical and economic feasibility of implementing geothermally coupled well-based CAES for grid-scale energy storage. Based on an evaluation of design specifications for a range of casing grades common in U.S. oil and gas fields, a 5-MW CAES project could be supported by twenty to twenty-five 5,000-foot, 7-inch wells using lower-grade casing, and as few as eight such wells for higher-end casing grades. Using this information, along with data on geothermal resources, well density, and potential future markets for energy storage systems, The Geysers geothermal field was selected to parameterize a case study to evaluate the potential match between the proven geothermal resource present at The Geysers and the field’s existing well infrastructure. Based on calculated wellbore compressed air mass, the study shows that a single average geothermal production well could provide enough geothermal energy to support a 15.4-MW (gross) power generation facility using 34 to 35 geothermal wells repurposed for compressed air storage, resulting in a simplified levelized cost of electricity (sLCOE) estimated at 11.2 ¢/kWh (Table S.1). Accounting for the power loss to the geothermal power project associated with diverting geothermal resources for air heating results in a net 2-MW decrease in generation capacity, increasing the CAES project’s sLCOE by 1.8 ¢/kWh.

  6. Geothermally Coupled Well-Based Compressed Air Energy Storage

    Davidson, Casie L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bearden, Mark D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Horner, Jacob A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cabe, James E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Appriou, Delphine [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McGrail, B. Peter [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-20

    . This project assessed the technical and economic feasibility of implementing geothermally coupled well-based CAES for grid-scale energy storage. Based on an evaluation of design specifications for a range of casing grades common in U.S. oil and gas fields, a 5-MW CAES project could be supported by twenty to twenty-five 5,000-foot, 7-inch wells using lower-grade casing, and as few as eight such wells for higher-end casing grades. Using this information, along with data on geothermal resources, well density, and potential future markets for energy storage systems, The Geysers geothermal field was selected to parameterize a case study to evaluate the potential match between the proven geothermal resource present at The Geysers and the field’s existing well infrastructure. Based on calculated wellbore compressed air mass, the study shows that a single average geothermal production well could provide enough geothermal energy to support a 15.4-MW (gross) power generation facility using 34 to 35 geothermal wells repurposed for compressed air storage, resulting in a simplified levelized cost of electricity (sLCOE) estimated at 11.2 ¢/kWh (Table S.1). Accounting for the power loss to the geothermal power project associated with diverting geothermal resources for air heating results in a net 2-MW decrease in generation capacity, increasing the CAES project’s sLCOE by 1.8 ¢/kWh.

  7. Third Generation Flywheels for electric storage

    Ricci, Michael, R.; Fiske, O. James

    2008-02-29

    Electricity is critical to our economy, but growth in demand has saturated the power grid causing instability and blackouts. The economic penalty due to lost productivity in the US exceeds $100 billion per year. Opposition to new transmission lines and power plants, environmental restrictions, and an expected $100 billion grid upgrade cost have slowed system improvements. Flywheel electricity storage could provide a more economical, environmentally benign alternative and slash economic losses if units could be scaled up in a cost effective manner to much larger power and capacity than the present maximum of a few hundred kW and a few kWh per flywheel. The goal of this project is to design, construct, and demonstrate a small-scale third generation electricity storage flywheel using a revolutionary architecture scalable to megawatt-hours per unit. First generation flywheels are built from bulk materials such as steel and provide inertia to smooth the motion of mechanical devices such as engines. They can be scaled up to tens of tons or more, but have relatively low energy storage density. Second generation flywheels use similar designs but are fabricated with composite materials such as carbon fiber and epoxy. They are capable of much higher energy storage density but cannot economically be built larger than a few kWh of storage capacity due to structural and stability limitations. LaunchPoint is developing a third generation flywheel — the "Power Ring" — with energy densities as high or higher than second generation flywheels and a totally new architecture scalable to enormous sizes. Electricity storage capacities exceeding 5 megawatt-hours per unit appear both technically feasible and economically attractive. Our design uses a new class of magnetic bearing – a radial gap “shear-force levitator” – that we discovered and patented, and a thin-walled composite hoop rotated at high speed to store kinetic energy. One immediate application is power grid

  8. Marketing potential of advanced breeding clones

    The accumulation of reducing sugars during cold storage of potato tubers is a serious and costly problem for producers and processors. The degree to which cultivars accumulate reducing sugars during storage determines their processing and market potential. Cultivars or advanced breeding lines with...

  9. Regenesys utility scale energy storage. Project summary

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This report summarises the work to date, the current situation and the future direction of a project carried out by Regenesys Technology Ltd. (RGN) to investigate the benefits of electrochemical energy storage for power generators using renewable energy sources focussing on wind energy. The background to the study is traced covering the progress of the Regenesys energy storage technology, and the milestones achieved and lessons learnt. Details are given of the planned renewable-store-market interface to allow renewable generators optimise revenue under the New Electricity Trading Arrangements (NETA) and help in the connection of the renewable energy to the electric grid system. The four integrated work programmes of the project are described and involve a system study examining market penetration of renewable generators, a technical study into connection of renewable generators and energy storage, a small scale demonstration, and a pilot scale energy storage plant at Little Barton in Cambridgeshire. Problems leading to the closure of the project are discussed.

  10. Regenesys utility scale energy storage. Project summary

    2004-01-01

    This report summarises the work to date, the current situation and the future direction of a project carried out by Regenesys Technology Ltd. (RGN) to investigate the benefits of electrochemical energy storage for power generators using renewable energy sources focussing on wind energy. The background to the study is traced covering the progress of the Regenesys energy storage technology, and the milestones achieved and lessons learnt. Details are given of the planned renewable-store-market interface to allow renewable generators optimise revenue under the New Electricity Trading Arrangements (NETA) and help in the connection of the renewable energy to the electric grid system. The four integrated work programmes of the project are described and involve a system study examining market penetration of renewable generators, a technical study into connection of renewable generators and energy storage, a small scale demonstration, and a pilot scale energy storage plant at Little Barton in Cambridgeshire. Problems leading to the closure of the project are discussed

  11. an analysis of yam storage strategy to promote food security in asa

    Osondu

    2012-10-17

    Oct 17, 2012 ... plant materials (27.3%) were the common storage strategy used which are not capable of ensuring good storage for ... faced in marketing yam produce. .... characteristics. Frequency. Percentage. Gender. Male. Female. 80. 30.

  12. Feasible Histories, Maximum Entropy

    Pitowsky, I.

    1999-01-01

    We consider the broadest possible consistency condition for a family of histories, which extends all previous proposals. A family that satisfies this condition is called feasible. On each feasible family of histories we choose a probability measure by maximizing entropy, while keeping the probabilities of commuting histories to their quantum mechanical values. This procedure is justified by the assumption that decoherence increases entropy. Finally, a criterion for identifying the nearly classical families is proposed

  13. 14-plex Feasibility Report

    Kotongan, Victoria Hazel [Native Village of Unalakleet

    2013-06-21

    The Native Village of Unalakleet project was a feasibility study for a retrofit of a “tribally owned” three story, 14 apartment complex located in Unalakleet, Alaska. The program objective and overall goal was to create a plan for retrofitting to include current appraised value and comparable costs of new construction to determine genuine feasibility as low-income multi-family housing for tribal members.

  14. Electricity market readiness plan : Ontario Energy Board

    2001-03-01

    This document informs electric power market participants of the Ontario Energy Board's newly developed market readiness plan and target timelines that local distribution companies (LDCs) must meet for retail marketing. The Ontario Energy Board's plan incorporates relevant independent market operator (IMO)-administered market milestones with retail market readiness targeted for September 2001. The market readiness framework involves a self-certification process for LDCs by August 10, 2001, through which the Board will be able to monitor progress and assess the feasibility of meeting the target timelines. For retail market readiness, all LDCs will have to calculate settlement costs, produce unbundled bills, provide standard supply service, change suppliers and accommodate retail transactions. LDCs must be either authorized participants in the IMO-administered market or become retail customers of their host LDC. Unbundled bills will include itemized charges for energy price, transmission, distribution and debt retirement charge. 1 tab., 1 fig

  15. Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials

    Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

    2013-02-19

    A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

  16. Energy storage reinforces competitive business practices

    Makansi, J.

    1994-01-01

    This article examines how the ability to ''store'' electricity can pay handsome dividends in a competitive environment. Priorities change when industries are deregulated. Indeed, new priorities are being established for electric generation--low cost, efficiency, product distinction for marketing purposes, etc. are all more critical today. Perhaps not so obvious is the fundamental role of energy storage in a fully competitive marketplace. In fact, rarely do a technology development and a changing business climate play off against each other so nicely. Consider the function of the emerging electricity broker, or power marketer. Imagine the premium that broker could command with access to a large increment of electricity--purchased at a low price--and supplied at a moment's notice for a substantially higher price. Storage of electricity would mean that the investment in excess available generation capacity to supply so-called peak demand could be avoided. It also means that electricity could be brokered like other commodities--that is purchased, stockpiled, and sold to reflect market conditions across a wider geographical region and time spain. Benefits accrue to transmission and distribution, in addition to generation. Energy storage helps to manage the increasing stress placed on the grid as a result of intermittent sources of power and large numbers of cogenerators and small power producers. On the customer side, any ratepayer large or small could, theoretically, play the spot market in electric supply with a reserve to tap in emergencies. For a parallel in other deregulated markets, recall how storage has become an important factor in natural-gas contracting. Quality of electricity also can be improved by applying storage to stabilize the grid, especially along the distribution system at substations. And the opening of vast markets for electricity consumption, such as electric vehicles, depends in large measure on electric storage

  17. SPORT MARKETING

    Omer Špirtović; Danilo Aćimović; Ahmet Međedović; Zoran Bogdanović

    2010-01-01

    Word „marketing“ comes from AngloSaxon linguistic domain and implies in a narrow sense the market. Under marketing, we consider certain process, which should create and solve relations of exchange between manufacturers on one side, and consumers on the other. Discussion about sport marketing implies its theoretical definition and generalization, and then its actual definition in sport environment. Sport marketing belongs to business function of sport organization and represents primaly an eco...

  18. Mobile marketing

    KLEČKOVÁ, Zuzana

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of this thesis was to provide a comprehensive overview of the mobile marketing and analyze selected campaigns of Czech mobile marketing in comparison to world successful campaigns. The research contained studying of available literature about the theme to gain general knowledge about the issue. The theoretical part of the thesis contains predominantly various definitions of mobile marketing and its tools, advantages of these tools and some information about Mobile Marketing Assoc...

  19. Marketing Strategy

    Andrýsková, Hana

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to examine current marketing efforts of AARON - the leading seller of digital cameras. I will analyze current marketing tools and suggest improvements in efficiency and effectiveness of these tools. Marketing strategy is a method of managing and coordinating efforts in marketing field so that the goals can be reached. The aim is to increase sales, turnover, revenues, profits, drive out competition and also to build up a corporate image and corporate culture. I will a...

  20. Study on increasing spent fuel storage capacity at Juragua NPP

    Guerra Valdes, R.; Lopez Aldama, D.; Rodriguez Gual, M.; Garcia Yip, F.

    1999-01-01

    The delay in decision about the final disposal of the spent fuel, led to longer interim storage. The reracking og the storage pools was an economical and feasible option to increase the storage capacity on the site. Reracking of the storage facility led to the analysis of the new conditions for criticality, shielding, residual heat removal and mechanical loads over the structures. This paper includes a summary of the studies on criticality and dose rate changes in the vicinity of the storage pool of Juragua NPP

  1. Marketing 101.

    Henderson, Karla A.

    1997-01-01

    A marketing model for camps includes a mix of services, presentation, and communication elements that promote the virtues of camp, convince potential campers and their families of the benefits of camp, and successfully distinguish the camp from others. Includes resources related to marketing strategies, theme merchandise, and market trends…

  2. MARKET WATCH

    2007-01-01

    The hottest financial market topic of the moment could be the subprime loan crisis in the United States. The crisis has stormed the U.S. stock market, dragging it to its biggest falls in a single trading day. Other markets, such as Japan’s, were also vul

  3. Auto Market

    2001-01-01

    <正> Editor’s notes: As China’s WTO entry is drawing near, Chinese people are witnessing the marketing activities of foreign automakers in China: establishing new firms and promoting new vehicles, etc. In face of the enormous Chinese market, foreign automakers are busy in establishing their brand images, fostering consumption population in order to take more market shares in the future.

  4. Service marketing

    Babić-Hodović Vesna

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of postindustrial society and services revolution created numerous changes in size of consumer demand, consumer reaction and priorities. Continuous change on the side of demand and offer must follow changes in marketing orientation. Leader in that change is services marketing which by knowing services range and all the changes builds a new concept called Relationship Marketing.

  5. Market Aspects of an Interior Design Program.

    Gold, Judy E.

    A project was conducted to evaluate a proposed interior design program in order to determine the marketability (job availability in the field of interior design and home furnishings merchandising) and the feasibility (educational requirements for entrance into the interior design and home furnishings merchandising job market) of the program. To…

  6. Market-Consistent Valuation of Pension Liabilities

    Pelsser, Antoon; Salahnejhad, Ahmad; van den Akker, Ramon

    2016-01-01

    Pension funds and life insurance companies have liabilities on their books with extremely long-dated maturities that are exposed to non-hedgeable actuarial risks and also to market risks. In this paper, we show that it is computationally feasible to price pensions contracts in an incomplete market

  7. Underground storage of natural gas and LPG

    1990-01-01

    The Symposium attended by over 200 participants from 23 member countries of the Economic Commission for Europe (ECE), representatives from Australia, Iraq, Israel, Kuwait as well as from 5 international organizations, provided an opportunity for existing and prospective gas markets in the ECE region to exchange experience and information on current trends and developments in natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas underground storage, especially in technical and regulatory matters, including economic, market and social considerations, that influence the planning, development and operations of gas storage facilities. Environmental and safety factors associated with such operations were also examined. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the presented papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  8. Wyoming Carbon Capture and Storage Institute

    Nealon, Teresa

    2014-06-30

    This report outlines the accomplishments of the Wyoming Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Technology Institute (WCTI), including creating a website and online course catalog, sponsoring technology transfer workshops, reaching out to interested parties via news briefs and engaging in marketing activities, i.e., advertising and participating in tradeshows. We conclude that the success of WCTI was hampered by the lack of a market. Because there were no supporting financial incentives to store carbon, the private sector had no reason to incur the extra expense of training their staff to implement carbon storage. ii

  9. Quantitative models in marketing research

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); R. Paap (Richard)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractRecent advances in data collection and data storage techniques enable marketing researchers to study the individual characteristics of a large range of transactions and purchases, in particular the effects of household-specific characteristics. This book presents the most important and

  10. Saline Cavern Adiabatic Compressed Air Energy Storage Using Sand as Heat Storage Material

    Martin Haemmerle

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Adiabatic compressed air energy storage systems offer large energy storage capacities and power outputs beyond 100MWel. Salt production in Austria produces large caverns which are able to hold pressure up to 100 bar, thus providing low cost pressurized air storage reservoirs for adiabatic compressed air energy storage plants. In this paper the results of a feasibility study is presented, which was financed by the Austrian Research Promotion Agency, with the objective to determine the adiabatic compressed air energy storage potential of Austria’s salt caverns. The study contains designs of realisable plants with capacities between 10 and 50 MWel, applying a high temperature energy storage system currently developed at the Institute for Energy Systems and Thermodynamics in Vienna. It could be shown that the overall storage potential of Austria’s salt caverns exceeds a total of 4GWhel in the year 2030 and, assuming an adequate performance of the heat exchanger, that a 10MWel adiabatic compressed air energy storage plant in Upper Austria is currently feasible using state of the art thermal turbomachinery which is able to provide a compressor discharge temperature of 400 °C.

  11. Marketing maloobchodu

    Demuth, Jan

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is about the situation of retail marketing in Czech republic, with a special focus on in-store marketing instruments and activities. The goal of this work is to evaluate the application of these marketing instruments in a specific retail store. This chosen store is supermarket Billa. The first part of the thesis is offering theoretical base for in-store marketing activities and also presents the history of retail marketing in Czech republic. The second part is focusing on the situ...

  12. MARKETING CHANNELS

    Ljiljana Stošić Mihajlović

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Marketing channel is a set of entities and institutions, completion of distribution and marketing activities, attend the efficient and effective networking of producers and consumers. Marketing channels include the total flows of goods, money and information taking place between the institutions in the system of marketing, establishing a connection between them. The functions of the exchange, the physical supply and service activities, inherent in the system of marketing and trade. They represent paths which products and services are moving after the production, which will ultimately end up buying and eating by the user.

  13. Underground Gas Storage in the World 2013 (fifth edition)

    Cornot-Gandolphe, Sylvie

    2013-06-01

    Since its first publication in 1990, 'Underground Gas Storage in the World' has been the industry's reference on underground gas storage (UGS). The updated 2013 edition includes in-depth CEDIGAZ's analyses of the latest developments and trends in the storage industry all over the world as well as extensive country analyses with complete datasets including current, under construction and planned Underground Gas Storage facilities in 48 countries. It describes the 688 existing storage facilities in the world and the 236 projects under construction and planned. Future storage demand and its main drivers are presented at global and regional levels. The study builds on the CEDIGAZ Underground Gas Storage Database, the only worldwide Underground Gas Storage database to be updated every year. This document summarizes the key findings of the Survey which includes four main parts: The first part gives an overview of underground gas storage in the world at the beginning of 2013 and analyzes future storage needs by 2030, at regional and international levels. The second part focuses on new trends and issues emerging or developing in key storage markets. It analyzes the emerging storage market in China, reviews the storage business climate in Europe, examines Gazprom's storage strategy in Europe, and reviews recent trends in storage development in the United States. The third part gives some fundamental background on technical, economic and regulatory aspects of gas storage. The fourth part gives a countrywide analysis of the 48 countries in the world holding underground gas storage facilities or planning storage projects. 48 countries are surveyed with 688 existing UGS facilities, 256 projects under construction or planned

  14. Capacity Markets and Market Stability

    Stauffer, Hoff

    2006-01-01

    The good news is that market stability can be achieved through a combination of longer-term contracts, auctions for far enough in the future to permit new entry, a capacity management system, and a demand curve. The bad news is that if and when stable capacity markets are designed, the markets may seem to be relatively close to where we started - with integrated resource planning. Market ideologues will find this anathema. (author)

  15. Market formation and market selection

    van Raalte, C.L.J.P.

    1996-01-01

    The organization of markets is an important field of inquiry in modern economic theory. This monograph analyzes models which consider the formation and selection of markets. In these models, markets are organized by middlemen and used by traders. In Part I of the monograph, coalitions of middlemen

  16. Market Survey Turkey. Electricity Market

    2008-12-01

    The present market survey presents the Turkish power market and derives business opportunities and prospects for Dutch trade and industry. This market survey has been carried out for the following four, from time to time overlapping, sectors that have been identified by EVD as potential opportunities for Dutch small and medium-sized enterprises (SME): renewable energy, energy efficiency, electricity generation, electricity distribution

  17. World market of marketing research

    Samuels John

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The value of the total world market market research in the year 2001 was US$15,890 million, a 2.8% increase on the previous year. This is the first of several articles to be published in Research World on the results from ESOMAR's latest annual study on the market research sector worldwide

  18. Synthesis long life storage studies surface storage of vitrified wastes

    Beziat, A.; Breton, E.; Ranc, G.; Gaillard, J.P.; Lagrave, H.; Hollender, F.; Jourdain, F.; Piault, E.; Garnier, J.; Lamare, V.; Duret, B.; Helie, M.; Ferry, C.; Mijuin, D.; Gagnier, E.

    2004-01-01

    This document is realized in the framework of the axis 3 of the law of 1991 on the radioactive wastes management. It justifies the choices concerning long time surface storage installation of vitrified wastes, called high activity wastes. The long time of the installation would reach 300 years at the maximum. These wastes represent 1 % at the maximum, of radioactive wastes in France but 95 % of the whole radioactivity. Three main objectives were followed: provide a permanent containment of radionuclides; give the possibility of wastes containers retrieval at all the time; minimize the maintenance and the control. The results allow to conclude that the long time surface storage of high activity wastes is feasible. (A.L.B.)

  19. Feasible mathematics II

    Remmel, Jeffrey

    1995-01-01

    Perspicuity is part of proof. If the process by means of which I get a result were not surveyable, I might indeed make a note that this number is what comes out - but what fact is this supposed to confirm for me? I don't know 'what is supposed to come out' . . . . 1 -L. Wittgenstein A feasible computation uses small resources on an abstract computa­ tion device, such as a 'lUring machine or boolean circuit. Feasible math­ ematics concerns the study of feasible computations, using combinatorics and logic, as well as the study of feasibly presented mathematical structures such as groups, algebras, and so on. This volume contains contributions to feasible mathematics in three areas: computational complexity theory, proof theory and algebra, with substantial overlap between different fields. In computational complexity theory, the polynomial time hierarchy is characterized without the introduction of runtime bounds by the closure of certain initial functions under safe composition, predicative recursion on nota...

  20. The Feasibility of Solar Panel Leasing in Finland

    Nyberg, Nico

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to analyse the feasibility of solar panel leasing in Finland. The research was conducted using the exploratory research design, utilizing both qualitative and quantitative data. The data was collected from secondary sources, e.g. industry reports, government publications, and newspaper articles. During the literature review, methods for answering the thesis question were recognized. The chosen method was to analyse the market and industry feasibility, product or ser...

  1. High temperature underground thermal energy storage system for solar energy

    Collins, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    The activities feasibility of high temperature underground thermal storage of energy was investigated. Results indicate that salt cavern storage of hot oil is both technically and economically feasible as a method of storing huge quantities of heat at relatively low cost. One particular system identified utilizes a gravel filled cavern leached within a salt dome. Thermal losses are shown to be less than one percent of cyclically transferred heat. A system like this having a 40 MW sub t transfer rate capability and over eight hours of storage capacity is shown to cost about $13.50 per KWh sub t.

  2. Geocapacity: economic feasibility of CCS in networked systems

    Neele, F.; Hendriks, C.; Brandsma, R.

    2009-01-01

    A Decision Support System (DSS) has been developed to evaluate the technical and economical feasibility of CO2 storage in the subsurface. The DSS performs a detailed, stochastic analysis of the technical and economical aspects of a CCS project, which consists of any number of CO2 sources and sinks

  3. Design feasibility of an intermittent domestic energy store

    Tahat, M.A. [Jordan Univ. of Sceince and Technology, Irbid (Jordan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Babus`Haq, R.F.; O`Callaghan, P.W.; Probert, S.D. [Cranfield Univ., Bedford (United Kingdom). Dept. of Applied Energy

    1995-09-01

    In recent years, energy storage has been recognised as a potentially significant means by which primary energy consumption can be reduced in domestic, commercial and industrial processes. An intermittent domestic thermochemical heat pump, with a 5 kW{sub e} electric power output when employed as an energy store, is proposed. Different design options have been considered and their economic feasibilities evaluated. (author)

  4. COLD-SAT feasibility study safety analysis

    Mchenry, Steven T.; Yost, James M.

    1991-01-01

    The Cryogenic On-orbit Liquid Depot-Storage, Acquisition, and Transfer (COLD-SAT) satellite presents some unique safety issues. The feasibility study conducted at NASA-Lewis desired a systems safety program that would be involved from the initial design in order to eliminate and/or control the inherent hazards. Because of this, a hazards analysis method was needed that: (1) identified issues that needed to be addressed for a feasibility assessment; and (2) identified all potential hazards that would need to be controlled and/or eliminated during the detailed design phases. The developed analysis method is presented as well as the results generated for the COLD-SAT system.

  5. Characterization and assessment of novel bulk storage technologies : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems program.

    Huff, Georgianne; Tong, Nellie (KEMA Consulting, Fairfax, VA); Fioravanti, Richard (KEMA Consulting, Fairfax, VA); Gordon, Paul (Sentech/SRA International, Bethesda, MD); Markel, Larry (Sentech/SRA International, Bethesda, MD); Agrawal, Poonum (Sentech/SRA International, Bethesda, MD); Nourai, Ali (KEMA Consulting, Fairfax, VA)

    2011-04-01

    This paper reports the results of a high-level study to assess the technological readiness and technical and economic feasibility of 17 novel bulk energy storage technologies. The novel technologies assessed were variations of either pumped storage hydropower (PSH) or compressed air energy storage (CAES). The report also identifies major technological gaps and barriers to the commercialization of each technology. Recommendations as to where future R&D efforts for the various technologies are also provided based on each technology's technological readiness and the expected time to commercialization (short, medium, or long term). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) commissioned this assessment of novel concepts in large-scale energy storage to aid in future program planning of its Energy Storage Program. The intent of the study is to determine if any new but still unproven bulk energy storage concepts merit government support to investigate their technical and economic feasibility or to speed their commercialization. The study focuses on compressed air energy storage (CAES) and pumped storage hydropower (PSH). It identifies relevant applications for bulk storage, defines the associated technical requirements, characterizes and assesses the feasibility of the proposed new concepts to address these requirements, identifies gaps and barriers, and recommends the type of government support and research and development (R&D) needed to accelerate the commercialization of these technologies.

  6. Cold storage of rooted and non-rooted carnation cuttings

    USER

    2010-06-14

    Jun 14, 2010 ... allows cutting producers to regulate the market supply during surplus production or .... Techniques of carnation growing. Publications of TAV. 17. ... The commercial storage of fruits, vegetables and florist and nursary stocks.

  7. the effects of unavailability of technical storage facilities

    unavailability of the technical storage facilities to the marketing of fruits and vegetables for economic ... vegetables are important profitable small-scale juice enterprises (Thomson,. 1990). ..... Knott's handbook for vegetables growers. 2nd ed.

  8. A cask maintenance facility feasibility study

    Rennich, M.J.; Medley, L.G.; Attaway, C.R.

    1989-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is developing a transportation system for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and defense high level waste (HLW) as a part of the Federal Waste Management System (FWMS). In early 1988, a feasibility study was undertaken to design a stand-alone, ''green field'' facility for maintaining the FWMS casks. The feasibility study provided an initial layout facility design, an estimate of the construction cost, and an acquisition schedule for a Cask Maintenance Facility (CMF). The study also helped to define the interfaces between the transportation system and the waste generators, the repository, and a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility. The data, design, and estimated costs resulting from the study have been organized for use in the total transportation system decision-making process. Most importantly, the feasibility study also provides a foundation for continuing design and planning efforts. Fleet servicing facility studies, operational studies from current cask system operators, a definition of the CMF system requirements, and the experience of others in the radioactive waste transportation field were used as a basis for the feasibility study. In addition, several cask handling facilities were visited to observe and discuss cask operations to establish the functions and methods of cask maintenance expected to be used in the facility. Finally, a peer review meeting was held at Oak Ridge, Tennessee in August, 1988, in which the assumptions, design, layout, and functions of the CMF were significantly refined. Attendees included representatives from industry, the repository and transportation operations

  9. Underground storage of carbon dioxide

    Tanaka, Shoichi [Univ. of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    Desk studies on underground storage of CO{sub 2} were carried out from 1990 to 1991 fiscal years by two organizations under contract with New Energy and Indestrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO). One group put emphasis on application of CO{sub 2} EOR (enhanced oil recovery), and the other covered various aspects of underground storage system. CO{sub 2} EOR is a popular EOR method in U.S. and some oil countries. At present, CO{sub 2} is supplied from natural CO{sub 2} reservoirs. Possible use of CO{sub 2} derived from fixed sources of industries is a main target of the study in order to increase oil recovery and storage CO{sub 2} under ground. The feasibility study of the total system estimates capacity of storage of CO{sub 2} as around 60 Gton CO{sub 2}, if worldwide application are realized. There exist huge volumes of underground aquifers which are not utilized usually because of high salinity. The deep aquifers can contain large amount of CO{sub 2} in form of compressed state, liquefied state or solution to aquifer. A preliminary technical and economical survey on the system suggests favorable results of 320 Gton CO{sub 2} potential. Technical problems are discussed through these studies, and economical aspects are also evaluated.

  10. Biomarker for Glycogen Storage Diseases

    2017-07-03

    Fructose Metabolism, Inborn Errors; Glycogen Storage Disease; Glycogen Storage Disease Type I; Glycogen Storage Disease Type II; Glycogen Storage Disease Type III; Glycogen Storage Disease Type IV; Glycogen Storage Disease Type V; Glycogen Storage Disease Type VI; Glycogen Storage Disease Type VII; Glycogen Storage Disease Type VIII

  11. Integrating new Storage Technologies into EOS

    Peters, Andreas J; Rocha, Joaquim; Lensing, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The EOS[1] storage software was designed to cover CERN disk-only storage use cases in the medium-term trading scalability against latency. To cover and prepare for long-term requirements the CERN IT data and storage services group (DSS) is actively conducting R&D; and open source contributions to experiment with a next generation storage software based on CEPH[3] and ethernet enabled disk drives. CEPH provides a scale-out object storage system RADOS and additionally various optional high-level services like S3 gateway, RADOS block devices and a POSIX compliant file system CephFS. The acquisition of CEPH by Redhat underlines the promising role of CEPH as the open source storage platform of the future. CERN IT is running a CEPH service in the context of OpenStack on a moderate scale of 1 PB replicated storage. Building a 100+PB storage system based on CEPH will require software and hardware tuning. It is of capital importance to demonstrate the feasibility and possibly iron out bottlenecks and blocking issu...

  12. Marketization Revisited

    Hansen, Morten Balle; Lindholst, Andrej Christian

    2016-01-01

    out; Benchmarking and yardstick competition; and Public-Private collaboration. On the basis of the review of the seven articles, it is found that all elements in all marketization models are firmly embedded but also under dynamic change within public service delivery systems. The review also......Purpose: The purpose of this introduction article to the IJPSM special issue on marketization is to clarify the conceptual foundations of marketization as a phenomenon within the public sector and to gauge current marketization trends on the basis of the seven articles in the special issue. Design....../methodology/approach: Conceptual clarification and cross-cutting review of seven articles analysing marketization in six countries in three policy areas at the level of local government. Findings: Four ideal-type models are deduced: Quasi-markets, involving both provider competition and free choice for users; Classic contracting...

  13. Marketing automation

    TODOR Raluca Dania

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The automation of the marketing process seems to be nowadays, the only solution to face the major changes brought by the fast evolution of technology and the continuous increase in supply and demand. In order to achieve the desired marketing results, businessis have to employ digital marketing and communication services. These services are efficient and measurable thanks to the marketing technology used to track, score and implement each campaign. Due to the technical progress, the marketing fragmentation, demand for customized products and services on one side and the need to achieve constructive dialogue with the customers, immediate and flexible response and the necessity to measure the investments and the results on the other side, the classical marketing approached had changed continue to improve substantially.

  14. SPORT MARKETING

    Omer Špirtović

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Word „marketing“ comes from AngloSaxon linguistic domain and implies in a narrow sense the market. Under marketing, we consider certain process, which should create and solve relations of exchange between manufacturers on one side, and consumers on the other. Discussion about sport marketing implies its theoretical definition and generalization, and then its actual definition in sport environment. Sport marketing belongs to business function of sport organization and represents primaly an economical process of connecting produktion (sport organizations with sportsmen and coaches and consumption (sport and other public. Sport marketing is the reality in sport today, and cannot be observed as fashionabless of capitalistic production. Today is almost impossible for sport organization to make business without its business part called sport marketing if it wants to survive in sport arena.

  15. Synthesis of long live storage studies surface storage of MA-VL wastes

    Hollender, F.; Jourdain, F.; Piault, E.; Blanchet, Y.; Avakian, G.; Goger, F.; Caillaud, J.; Devictor, N.; Bary, B.; Moitier, C.; Breton, E.; Ranc, G.; Gaillard, J.P.; Lagrave, H.

    2004-01-01

    This document is realized in the framework of the axis 3 of the law of 1991 on the radioactive wastes management. It presents a long time surface storage installation of medium activity long life wastes. The long time of the installation would reach 300 years at the maximum. The feasibility is demonstrated and the design choices are presented and justified. The specific points of the long time storage installation, which are different from a classical industrial storage installation, are also discussed. (A.L.B.)

  16. Sport Marketing

    Ekmekci, Ridvan; Ekmekçi, Aytul Yeter

    2009-01-01

    Abstract  Marketing which is entered to almost our whole life, now more than goods and services, became an important  concept of ideas, persons, institutions, events, and facilities. As a main activities of business co. marketing has an important place in sports industry. Recently, the development of special sport marketing strategies and the presentation of sport goods and services to consumers are gaining importance. Efforts of increasing income of sport clubs, because of sport organization...

  17. Viral Marketing

    Sorina Raula Gîrboveanu; Silvia Puiu

    2008-01-01

    With consumers showing increasing resistance to traditional forms of advertising such as TV or newspaper ads, marketers have turned to alternate strategies, including viral marketing. Viral marketing exploits existing social networks by encouraging customers to share product information with their friends.In our study we are able to directly observe the effectiveness of person to person word of mouth advertising for hundreds of thousands of products for the first time

  18. Online marketing

    Zrůst, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to evaluate pay per click marketing as suitable marketing tool for promotion and distribution of a given product. The paper describes basic vocabulary related to PPC advertising, common metrics, tools used by online marketers, and logic of running PPC campaigns. The paper also tries to quantify impact of Internet on economies. The second part applies the theory to analysis of consumers' conversion path while searching online in common search engines where PPC marketi...

  19. Affiliate marketing

    Ureš, Michal

    2012-01-01

    This bachelor's thesis focuses on the topic of online affiliate marketing from the perspective of an internet entrepreneur. In the first, theoretical part, it characterizes the affiliate marketing, describes different, significant affiliate solutions in the Czech market and opportunities for their implementations. In the second, practical part, it concentrates mainly on an affiliate program of a company called GameLeader, s.r.o. It analyses expectations of the business from the implementation...

  20. Power marketing

    Sioshansi, F.P.; Altman, A.M.

    1998-01-01

    One of the most significant developments in the US electric power industry in recent years has been the phenomenal growth of power marketing. What was barely a blimp on the radar screen in 1992 has turned out to be a jumbo jet. This article explains what is power marketing who are power marketers, what role play these players and what will be their longer-term impact on the traditional industry [it

  1. Marketing plan

    Jantunen, Essi; Hellman, Annika

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this bachelor’s thesis was to draw up an efficient marketing plan for Pohjolan Vihreä Polku Oy, which offers meeting and nature activity services. The company was in a process of conversion and needed a structured marketing plan. The objectives of the company were perceived through severe research. The main purposes of the marketing plan were to raise the visibility of the company and increase its clientele. The proposed marketing actions are also to be used to improve the company’...

  2. Developing markets?

    Figueiredo, Bernardo; Chelekis, Jessica; DeBerry-Spence, Benet

    2015-01-01

    acknowledging complex, systemic interdependencies between markets, marketing, and society. Based on a critical review of the meaning of development and an interrogation of various developmental discourses, the authors develop a conceptual framework that brings together issues of development, wellbeing......, and social inequalities. We suggest that these issues are better understooda nd addressed when examined via grounded investigations of the role of markets in shaping the management of resources, consumer agency, power inequalities and ethics. The use of markets as units of analysis may lead to further cross...

  3. Public storage for the Open Science Grid

    Levshina, T; Guru, A

    2014-01-01

    The Open Science Grid infrastructure doesn't provide efficient means to manage public storage offered by participating sites. A Virtual Organization that relies on opportunistic storage has difficulties finding appropriate storage, verifying its availability, and monitoring its utilization. The involvement of the production manager, site administrators and VO support personnel is required to allocate or rescind storage space. One of the main requirements for Public Storage implementation is that it should use SRM or GridFTP protocols to access the Storage Elements provided by the OSG Sites and not put any additional burden on sites. By policy, no new services related to Public Storage can be installed and run on OSG sites. Opportunistic users also have difficulties in accessing the OSG Storage Elements during the execution of jobs. A typical users' data management workflow includes pre-staging common data on sites before a job's execution, then storing for a subsequent download to a local institution the output data produced by a job on a worker node. When the amount of data is significant, the only means to temporarily store the data is to upload it to one of the Storage Elements. In order to do that, a user's job should be aware of the storage location, availability, and free space. After a successful data upload, users must somehow keep track of the data's location for future access. In this presentation we propose solutions for storage management and data handling issues in the OSG. We are investigating the feasibility of using the integrated Rule-Oriented Data System developed at RENCI as a front-end service to the OSG SEs. The current architecture, state of deployment and performance test results will be discussed. We will also provide examples of current usage of the system by beta-users.

  4. Public storage for the Open Science Grid

    Levshina, T.; Guru, A.

    2014-06-01

    The Open Science Grid infrastructure doesn't provide efficient means to manage public storage offered by participating sites. A Virtual Organization that relies on opportunistic storage has difficulties finding appropriate storage, verifying its availability, and monitoring its utilization. The involvement of the production manager, site administrators and VO support personnel is required to allocate or rescind storage space. One of the main requirements for Public Storage implementation is that it should use SRM or GridFTP protocols to access the Storage Elements provided by the OSG Sites and not put any additional burden on sites. By policy, no new services related to Public Storage can be installed and run on OSG sites. Opportunistic users also have difficulties in accessing the OSG Storage Elements during the execution of jobs. A typical users' data management workflow includes pre-staging common data on sites before a job's execution, then storing for a subsequent download to a local institution the output data produced by a job on a worker node. When the amount of data is significant, the only means to temporarily store the data is to upload it to one of the Storage Elements. In order to do that, a user's job should be aware of the storage location, availability, and free space. After a successful data upload, users must somehow keep track of the data's location for future access. In this presentation we propose solutions for storage management and data handling issues in the OSG. We are investigating the feasibility of using the integrated Rule-Oriented Data System developed at RENCI as a front-end service to the OSG SEs. The current architecture, state of deployment and performance test results will be discussed. We will also provide examples of current usage of the system by beta-users.

  5. Economic Operation of Supercritical CO2 Refrigeration Energy Storage Technology

    Hay, Ryan

    With increasing penetration of intermittent renewable energy resources, improved methods of energy storage are becoming a crucial stepping stone in the path toward a smarter, greener grid. SuperCritical Technologies is a company based in Bremerton, WA that is developing a storage technology that can operate entirely on waste heat, a resource that is otherwise dispelled into the environment. The following research models this storage technology in several electricity spot markets around the US to determine if it is economically viable. A modification to the storage dispatch scheme is then presented which allows the storage unit to increase its profit in real-time markets by taking advantage of extreme price fluctuations. Next, the technology is modeled in combination with an industrial load profile on two different utility rate schedules to determine potential cost savings. The forecast of facility load has a significant impact on savings from the storage dispatch, so an exploration into this relationship is then presented.

  6. 18 CFR 284.503 - Market-power determination.

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Market-power determination. 284.503 Section 284.503 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... RELATED AUTHORITIES Applications for Market-Based Rates for Storage § 284.503 Market-power determination...

  7. Exploratory Technology Research Program for electrochemical energy storage. Annual report fr 1994

    Kinoshita, K. [ed.

    1995-09-01

    The US Department of Energy`s Office of Propulsion Systems provides support for an Electrochemical Energy Storage Program, that includes research and development (R&D) on advanced rechargeable batteries and fuel cells. A major goal of this program is to develop electrochemical power sources suitable for application in electric vehicles (EVs). The program centers on advanced systems that offer the potential for high performance and low life-cycle costs, both of which are necessary to permit significant penetration into commercial markets. The DOE Electrochemical Energy Storage Program is divided into two projects: the Electric Vehicle Advanced Battery Systems (EVABS) Development Program and the Exploratory Technology Research (ETR) Program. The general R&D areas addressed by the program include identification of new electrochemical couples for advanced batteries, determination of technical feasibility of the new couples, improvements in battery components and materials, establishment of engineering principles applicable to electrochemical energy storage and conversion, and the development of air-system (fuel cell, metal/air) technology for transportation applications. Major emphasis is given to applied research which will lead to superior performance and lower life-cycle costs. The ETR Program is divided into three major program elements: Exploratory Research, Applied Science Research, and Air Systems Research. Highlights of each program element are summarized according to the appropriate battery system or electrochemical research area.

  8. Integrated Bidding and Operating Strategies for Wind-Storage Systems

    Ding, Huajie; Pinson, Pierre; Hu, Zechun

    2016-01-01

    Due to their flexible charging and discharging capabilities, energy storage systems (ESS) are considered a promising complement to wind farms (WFs) participating in electricity markets. This paper presents integrated day-ahead bidding and real-time operation strategies for a wind-storage system...

  9. Sexual Markets or Black Markets?

    Groes-Green, Christian

    2014-01-01

    sex with sugar-daddies, called sponsors or patrons, who provide for them in exchange for sex while male peers often become street vendors, street artists or petty criminals engaged in the so-called ‘black’ markets of theft, sale of counterfeits, and circulation of stolen goods, alcohol and drugs. As I...... show, these gendered markets are highly entangled and interdependent, and as I argue, male and female markets use many of the same technologies, sources and circuits of exchange...

  10. Regulating deregulated energy markets

    Jackson, M.

    2002-01-01

    The North American gas and electricity markets are fast evolving, and regulators are currently faced with a host of issues such as market-based rates, unbundling, stranded costs, open access, and incentive regulation are surfacing as a result of deregulation. The regulatory environment in Ontario was reviewed by the author. Deregulated markets rule, from commodities to gas and electricity. Additionally, there is an evolution of traditional utility regulation. A look at deregulated markets revealed that there are regulations on boundary conditions on the deregulated market. Under the Ontario Energy Board (OEB), all generators, transmitters, distributors, and retailers of electricity must be licensed. The standard supply service (SSS) offered by electricity distributors and system gas which is still being sold by natural gas distributors continues to be regulated by OEB. One issue that was addressed was separation for revenues and costs of the utility's purchase and sale of gas business, at least for accounting purposes. The next issue discussed was cost of system gas and SSS, followed by timely signals and prudent incurred costs. Historical benefits were reviewed, such as historical commitments to low-cost electricity. Pooling transportation costs, transmission pricing continued, market-based rates, unbundling, stranded costs, open access, incentive regulation/ performance based regulation (PBR) were all discussed. Price cap on PBR, both partial and comprehensive were looked at. A requirement to review guidelines on cost of capital and an application to extend blanket approval provisions for gas storage were discussed, as they are amongst some of the challenges of the future. Other challenges include revised rules and practice and procedure; practice directions for cost awards, appeals, and other functions; confidentiality guidelines; and refinements to the role of and approaches to alternative dispute resolution. The future role of regulators was examined in light

  11. Marketing Management

    Wilke, Ricky

    2012-01-01

    Book review of: Christian Homburg, Sabine Kuester, Harley Krohmer, Marketing Management – A Contemporary Perspective, McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2009......Book review of: Christian Homburg, Sabine Kuester, Harley Krohmer, Marketing Management – A Contemporary Perspective, McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2009...

  12. Market shifting

    Forst, Michael

    2013-11-01

    After years of oversupply and artificially low module pricing, market analysts believe that the solar industry will begin to stabilize by 2017. While the market activities are shifting from Europe to the Asia Pacific region and the United States, the solar shakeout continues to be in full swing including solar cell and module manufacturing. (orig.)

  13. Marketing Education

    Stancil, Ronald A., Sr.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the Marketing Education program at West Haven (CT) High School in West Haven, Connecticut, that promotes skills for life and attributes, enhances the academic program, and develops leaders out of ordinary students through an interactive curriculum. The three components of West Haven's marketing and management program are (1)…

  14. Art Markets

    P.A. Arora (Payal); F.R.R. Vermeylen (Filip)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe advent of digitization has had a profound impact on the art market and its institutions. In this chapter, we focus on the market for visual arts as it finds its expression in (among other) paintings, prints, drawings, photographs, sculpture and the like. These artistic disciplines

  15. Direct marketing

    Čičić Muris

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct Marketing (DM is usually treated as unworthy activity, with actions at the edge of legality and activities minded cheating. Despite obvious problems regarding ethics and privacy threat, DM with its size, importance and role in a concept of integrated marketing communication deserves respect and sufficient analysis and review

  16. Tourism Marketing.

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This document contains teacher materials for a 6-unit, 1-year distributive education course in marketing tourism offered in grades 11 and 12 in North Carolina. Although in general the material presented concerns marketing tourism anywhere, some of it is specifically related to tourism within North Carolina. A purpose statement explains the…

  17. Advanced Gas Storage Concepts: Technologies for the Future

    Freeway, Katy (PB-KBB Inc.); Rogers, R.E. (Mississippi State University); DeVries, Kerry L.; Nieland, Joel D.; Ratigan, Joe L.; Mellegard, Kirby D. (RESPEC)

    2000-02-01

    This full text product includes: 1) A final technical report titled Advanced Underground Gas Storage Concepts, Refrigerated-Mined Cavern Storage and presentations from two technology transfer workshops held in 1998 in Houston, Texas, and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (both on the topic of Chilled Gas Storage in Mined Caverns); 2) A final technical report titled Natural Gas Hydrates Storage Project, Final Report 1 October 1997 - 31 May 1999; 3) A final technical report titled Natural Gas Hydrates Storage Project Phase II: Conceptual Design and Economic Study, Final Report 9 June - 10 October 1999; 4) A final technical report titled Commerical Potential of Natural Gas Storage in Lined Rock Caverns (LRC) and presentations from a DOE-sponsored workshop on Alternative Gas Storage Technologies, held Feb 17, 2000 in Pittsburgh, PA; and 5) Phase I and Phase II topical reports titled Feasibility Study for Lowering the Minimum Gas Pressure in Solution-Mined Caverns Based on Geomechanical Analyses of Creep-Induced Damage and Healing.

  18. Border markets

    Walther, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this issue of Articulo – Journal of Urban Research is to examine the characteristics of border markets in a comparative perspective. In this introductory paper, I first discuss what makes African border markets different from other markets, and examine several factors that explain...... their unequal economic development: the presence of a trade community, the combination of trading and productive activities, and the relative porosity of borders. In a second part, I examine how border markets on the U.S.-Mexico border must simultaneously guarantee the security of the state while favoring...... regional trade. The last part of the paper argues that more policy attention should be paid to border markets which, despite being at the margin of states, are a vital component of their economy. Fifty years after most West African states became independent and just as NAFTA turns 20, it is high time...

  19. Crossover marketing

    Heath, D.S.

    1998-01-01

    The impact of a deregulated energy market on customers in Ontario was discussed. In particular, the way in which Sunoco will deal with energy convergence and how Sunoco plans to generate interest among residential consumers in a deregulated and competitive energy market was described. Integrated energy solutions that offer customers value-added heating, ventilating and air conditioning products and services, inclusive of equipment sales, installation, repair, rental, leasing, financing, warranty, insurance and maintenance is the ultimate goal of Sunoco. The major retail issues in the energy market such as licensing of marketers, customer mobility, transfer of utility assets to affiliates, Ontario Hydro's market power in electrical generation, distribution of stranded debt charges, and a timetable for deregulation were also addressed. figs

  20. Storage, a stake for renewable energies integration

    Grabette, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Development of renewable energy sources is challenging the power system operation. Balancing consumption and generation at different times, from real time up to 10 years, with an increasing part of intermittent and fatal sources should indicate a clear route to storage development Up to now on opposite situation occurs. New storage project in Europe has been stopped because of missing business model, and there is no long term economical signal showing it could change in the near future. The capability to predict with a good accuracy, and share through the European transmission system the renewable production places storage in direct competition with other sources of flexibility. However, use case of storage is not limited to energy balancing. Ancillary services, connexion cost optimization, quality of supply are among other possible services offered by storage installation. For all of those, understanding technical requirements and economical issues is an initial condition to open a favourable game area for storage. Exploring new multi-service models through demonstrators, redesigning the electricity market in Europe are key initiatives to approach a new era for storage development. It doesn't prevent innovation to improve performance and reduce cost, an essential condition to give a chance for storage solution compared to other flexibility sources. (author)

  1. 'Powering up' a green Saskatchewan: exploring possible sustainable solutions for Saskatchewan's electricity market

    Blanco, R.; Faubert, I.; Steele, K.; Wohrizek, J.; Donev, J.

    2013-01-01

    The electrical market in Saskatchewan is embarking on an exciting journey to both increase its generating capacity and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to promote a more sustainable future. SaskPower is the centralized generation and transmission crown corporation for the province and has the ability to implement the necessary actions to create a sustainable electrical system. There are many paths that Saskatchewan can take for a more sustainable future. Currently, the future of Saskatchewan's electrical market depends on results from the Boundary Dam Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Demonstration Plant. This project proposes electrical capacity models for SaskPower in the event their current CCS project is not a feasible option. (author)

  2. Study of technical and financial pre-feasibility to produce a natural shampoo and ecological

    Arauz Villegas, Tatiana

    2014-01-01

    A study of technical and financial pre-feasibility was described for producing natural shampoo, ecological and to determine attributes desired by people in that shampoo. A survey was performed to study which characteristics have improved the hair condition; and from the results a model was developed with which is backing the formulation of the shampoo. The proposed shampoo has had as functionality provide hair shine, moisturize, reconstruct, provide protection and has reduced the static (is anti-frizz) because has used biodegradable and friendly raw materials to the environment. The color is light green and its aroma-herbal will have a white container with green lid and will be marketed in 500mL presentation. The production process is done in six steps: reception, storage and dosing of raw materials, preparation of the surfactant and liquid phase of shampoo (addition of active natural preservatives, dyes and fragrances), preparation of the stabilizing phase, mixed, pH regulation and quality control, packaging and storage. A semi-continuous production system was suggested to be more economical, flexible and easy to sterilize. The equipments used in the process are: a stirred tank of 205L, a stirred tank of 500L and a Semiautomatic packaging each built in stainless steel with sanitary finish by the company TECNOFAR. The tanks were designed in compliance with the typical dimensions of these teams and were sized in order to supply the first 5 years of production. A publicity campaign and marketing is recommended to fulfill sales target and execute the project of a plant to produce shampoo and natural cosmetics [es

  3. A cask maintenance facility feasibility study

    Rennich, M.J.; Medley, L.G.; Attaway, C.R.

    1989-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is supporting the USDOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) in developing a transportation system for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and defense high level waste (HLW) as a part of the Federal Waste Management System (FWMS). In early 1988, a feasibility study was undertaken to design a stand-alone, green field facility for maintaining the FWMS casks. The feasibility study provided an initial layout facility design, an estimate of the construction cost, and an acquisition schedule for a Cask Maintenance Facility (CMF). The study also helped to define the interfaces between the transportation system and the waste generators, the repository, and a Monitored Retrieveable Storage (MRS) facility. The data, design, and estimated cost resulting from the study have been organized for use in the total transportation system decision-making process. Most importantly, the feasibility study also provides a foundation for continuing design and planning efforts. The feasibility study was based on an assumed stand-alone green field configuration because of the flexibility this design approach provides. A stand-alone facility requires the inclusion with support functions as well as the primary process facilities thus yielding a comprehensive design evaluation and cost estimate. For example, items such as roads, security and waste processing which might be shared with an integrated or collocated facility have been fully costed in the feasibility study. Thus, while the details of the facility design might change, the overall concept used in the study can be applied to other facility configurations as planning for the total FWMS develops

  4. Fracture Dissolution of Carbonate Rock: An Innovative Process for Gas Storage

    James W. Castle; Ronald W. Falta; David Bruce; Larry Murdoch; Scott E. Brame; Donald Brooks

    2006-10-31

    The goal of the project is to develop and assess the feasibility and economic viability of an innovative concept that may lead to commercialization of new gas-storage capacity near major markets. The investigation involves a new approach to developing underground gas storage in carbonate rock, which is present near major markets in many areas of the United States. Because of the lack of conventional gas storage and the projected growth in demand for storage capacity, many of these areas are likely to experience shortfalls in gas deliverability. Since depleted gas reservoirs and salt formations are nearly non-existent in many areas, alternatives to conventional methods of gas storage are required. The need for improved methods of gas storage, particularly for ways to meet peak demand, is increasing. Gas-market conditions are driving the need for higher deliverability and more flexibility in injection/withdrawal cycling. In order to meet these needs, the project involves an innovative approach to developing underground storage capacity by creating caverns in carbonate rock formations by acid dissolution. The basic concept of the acid-dissolution method is to drill to depth, fracture the carbonate rock layer as needed, and then create a cavern using an aqueous acid to dissolve the carbonate rock. Assessing feasibility of the acid-dissolution method included a regional geologic investigation. Data were compiled and analyzed from carbonate formations in six states: Indiana, Ohio, Kentucky, West Virginia, Pennsylvania, and New York. To analyze the requirements for creating storage volume, the following aspects of the dissolution process were examined: weight and volume of rock to be dissolved; gas storage pressure, temperature, and volume at depth; rock solubility; and acid costs. Hydrochloric acid was determined to be the best acid to use because of low cost, high acid solubility, fast reaction rates with carbonate rock, and highly soluble products (calcium chloride

  5. Nuclear power planning and feasibility studies

    Streeton, D.F.

    1977-01-01

    This lecture will review the basic steps associated with planning the introduction of nuclear power. Areas covered will include power market surveys, energy resources evaluations, potential alternative strategies, organisational factors and implementational requirements. The lecture will then consider the implications and requirements associated with establishing the feasibility of a nuclear project. Among others, aspects of power systems integration, site selection reactor type evaluation, cost and economic analysis, influence of contracting strategies, comparison with alternative power generation solutions, financial impact, etc. will be discussed and reviewed. (HK) [de

  6. Development and Implications of a Predictive Cost Methodology for Modular Pumped Storage Hydropower (m-PSH) Projects in the United States

    Witt, Adam [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Chalise, Dol Raj [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hadjerioua, Boualem [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Manwaring, Michael [MWH, Broomfield, CO (United States); Bishop, Norm [Knight Piesold, Denver, CO (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The slow pace of Pumped Storage Hydropower development in the US over the past twenty years has led to widespread interest in the feasibility and viability of alternative PSH designs, development schemes, and technologies. Since 2011, Oak Ridge National Lab has been exploring the economic viability of modular Pumped Storage Hydropower (m-PSH) development through targeted case studies, revenue simulations, and analysis of innovative configurations and designs. This paper outlines the development and supporting analysis of a scalable, comprehensive cost modeling tool designed to simulate the initial capital costs for a variety of potential m-PSH projects and deployment scenarios. The tool is used to explore and determine innovative research strategies that can improve the economic viability of m-PSH in US markets.

  7. Welfare effects of unbundling gas storage and distribution

    Breton, M.; Montreal Univ., PQ; Kharbach, M.

    2006-01-01

    The creation of inventories and stockpiles can help to reduce price and production fluctuations. This paper presented the results of a simulation of market architectures using a 2 period model. The aim of the paper was to provide insights on the merits of a gas unbundling policy recently adopted in many gas markets. In terms of market architecture, it was first assumed that one of the gas firms owned the storage facility and was mandated to give a second firm access to it. It was then assumed that an independent third firm was responsible for the storage activity so that the other 2 firms competed in the downstream gas market and bought storage services from the independent firm. High and low price periods in a single year were considered. The first architecture assumed an Open Access framework which introduced a Stackelberg competition component in the downstream market through the storage participation in the final goods offering. The second architecture assumed an independent storage activity, and a Cournot component was present. Seasonal storage facilities were filled during the low price period and emptied during the high price period. Results of the simulation indicated that total welfare and consumer welfare were maximized in the case of the integrated firm owning the storage facilities and operating in the downstream market. Success was attributed to the Open Access framework and the Stackelberg competition component in the downstream market. The bundled architecture led to higher consumer surplus than the unbundled architecture. It was concluded that regulatory reforms in North American and European gas sectors that foster separating storage and merchant activities can not be justified based on welfare arguments. 12 refs., 1 tab

  8. Search for electric dipole moments in storage rings

    Lenisa Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The JEDI collaboration aims at making use of storage ring to provide the most precise measurement of the electric dipole moments of hadrons. The method makes exploits a longitudinal polarized beam. The existence an electric dipole moment would generate a torque slowly twisting the particle spin out of plan of the storage ring into the vertical direction. The observation of non zero electric dipole moment would represent a clear sign of new physics beyond the Standard Model. Feasiblity tests are presently undergoing at the COSY storage ring Forschungszentrum Jülich (Germany, to develop the novel techniques to be implemented in a future dedicated storage ring.

  9. Marketing is Dead! Long Live Marketing!

    Marjanova Jovanov, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    The contents of the lectures included: Why marketing? Citizen, Consumer, Customer (Behavior) Who is the Father of Marketing? Some Antecedents of Marketing When Did Marketing Start? The Contributors of Marketing Where Did Marketing Start? Job Positions in Today’s Marketing Organization The Role of the Chief Marketing Officer Four Different CEO Views of Marketing Reality – Truth – Challenge (Why Can’t We Make It?) The Strong and Steady Progress of Marketi...

  10. Marketing strategy for retailing small-scale wind energy turbines in Indian markets

    Harjula, Nina

    2009-01-01

    The study analyzes the small-scale wind energy markets in Mumbai, focusing on questions: How feasible is the wind energy for SME businesses in Mumbai, and what are the main challenges and opportunities of small-scale wind energy in Mumbai? The study is a qualitative case study, in which, the data has been collected through observing the markets by visiting wind energy sites and companies, interviewing and meeting potential customers and other stakeholders in the market. Theoretical frame...

  11. Small modular biopower initiative Phase 1 feasibility studies executive summaries

    Bain, R.

    2000-03-06

    The Phase 1 objective is a feasibility study that includes a market assessment, resource assessment, preliminary system design, and assessment of relevant environmental and safety considerations, and evaluation of financial and cost issues, and a preliminary business plan and commercialization strategy. Each participating company will share at least 20% of the cost of the first phase.

  12. Identifying Critical Factors in the Cost-Effectiveness of Solar and Battery Storage in Commercial Buildings

    McLaren, Joyce A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Anderson, Katherine H. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Laws, Nicholas D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gagnon, Pieter J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); DiOrio, Nicholas A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Li, Xiangkun [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-02-21

    This analysis elucidates the emerging market for distributed solar paired with battery energy storage in commercial buildings across the United States. It provides insight into the near-term and future solar and solar-plus-storage market opportunities as well as the variables that impact the expected savings from installing behind-the-meter systems.

  13. Canister storage building trade study. Final report

    Swenson, C.E. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-05-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the impact of several technical issues related to the usage of the Canister Storage Building (CSB) to safely stage and store N-Reactor spent fuel currently located at K-Basin 100KW and 100KE. Each technical issue formed the basis for an individual trade study used to develop the ROM cost and schedule estimates. The study used concept 2D from the Fluor prepared ``Staging and Storage Facility (SSF) Feasibility Report`` as the basis for development of the individual trade studies.

  14. Canister storage building trade study. Final report

    Swenson, C.E.

    1995-05-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the impact of several technical issues related to the usage of the Canister Storage Building (CSB) to safely stage and store N-Reactor spent fuel currently located at K-Basin 100KW and 100KE. Each technical issue formed the basis for an individual trade study used to develop the ROM cost and schedule estimates. The study used concept 2D from the Fluor prepared ''Staging and Storage Facility (SSF) Feasibility Report'' as the basis for development of the individual trade studies

  15. Compressed Air Energy Storage in Denmark

    Salgi, Georges Garabeth; Lund, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    is analysed with regard to the Danish energy system. In Denmark, wind power supplies 20% of the electricity demand and 50% is produced by combined heat and power (CHP). The operation of CAES requires high electricity price volatility. However, in the Nordic region, large hydro capacities have so far kept......Compressed air energy storage system (CAES) is a technology which can be used for integrating more fluctuating renewable energy sources into the electricity supply system. On a utility scale, CAES has a high feasibility potential compared to other storage technologies. Here, the technology...

  16. Studies and research concerning BNFP: spent fuel dry storage studies at the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant

    Anderson, K.J.

    1980-09-01

    Conceptual designs are presented utilizing the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant for the dry interim storage of spent light water reactor fuel. Studies were conducted to determine feasible approaches to storing spent fuel by methods other than wet pool storage. Fuel that has had an opportunity to cool for several years, or more, after discharge from a reactor is especially adaptable to dry storage since its thermal load is greatly reduced compared to the thermal load immediately following discharge. A thermal analysis was performed to help in determining the feasibility of various spent fuel dry storage concepts. Methods to reject the heat from dry storage are briefly discussed, which include both active and passive cooling systems. The storage modes reviewed include above and below ground caisson-type storage facilities and numerous variations of vault, or hot cell-type, storage facilities

  17. Mobile Marketing

    Luengo Cascudo, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    El principal objetivo de este proyecto es explicar y entender la importancia del Mobile Marketing como nueva herramienta de negocio en el Marketing empresarial. Para ello, el primer objetivo es entender los dos factores que para mí son la clave de su importancia: la evolución del entorno tecnológico y el cambio en los hábitos del consumidor. Debido a la novedad de esta nueva forma de Marketing y al hecho de que está en constante definición, es básico exponer de la forma más cla...

  18. Mobile Marketing

    竹安, 数博; Takeyasu, Kazuhiro

    2005-01-01

    This article deals with one of the modern trends in marketing communication, which is mobile marketing. Towards the end of 2008, several projects which use mobile phones for target marketing communication were launched. Commercial SMS´s are sent on the base of agreement or registration of the consumers on special websites, for example hellomobil.cz. The benefit for the consumers is the bonus which can have more forms - not only sending money to the account, free SMS´s/MMS´s and minutes but al...

  19. MARKET WATCH

    2010-01-01

    TO THE POINT:The government vows to control the real estate market after a year of robust growth.To diversify financial investment tools,the regulatory authorities approved the launch of stock index futures,and short selling and margin trading to allow investors to hedge against risks.China overtakes the United States to become the world’s biggest auto market in2009.The country is also expected to become the largest consumer market in the world by2020.Google threatens to halt its China operations if it cannot reach a censorship agreement with the government.

  20. Uranium market

    Rubini, L.A.; Asem, M.A.D.

    1990-01-01

    The historical development of the uranium market is present in two periods: The initial period 1947-1970 and from 1970 onwards, with the establishment of a commercial market. The world uranium requirements are derived from the corresponding forecast of nuclear generating capacity, with, particular emphasis to the brazilian requirements. The forecast of uranium production until the year 2000 is presented considering existing inventories and the already committed demand. The balance between production and requirements is analysed. Finally the types of contracts currently being used and the development of uranium prices in the world market are considered. (author)

  1. MARKET WATCH

    2009-01-01

    China vows to keep a stringent handle on the industrial overcapacity that is draining life from the economic revival. China Mobile pushes forward OPhone and its operating system in an aggressive push into the 3G market. As its tight grip over the market slips, the wireless titan cannot wait to regain lost ground. China’s manufacturing sector continues to pick up steam as evidenced by the climbing PMI. Soaring prices of pork and eggs reignite fears over inflation. The buoyant real estate market appears to be nearing a turning point as sales cool down.

  2. Chemical Composition and Storage Stability of Beef burger Steaks as Influenced by Cooking and Irradiation

    Tawfik, S.S.; El kabbani, H.M.; Sallam, M.H.; Attia, A.I.

    2007-01-01

    Meat industry in Egypt has a great economic potential, but till now it has not received adequate attention. Beef burgers were prepared (50 g, 1 cm thick steaks) and aerobically packaged into polyethylene pages then divided into control, cooking and gamma-irradiated (3 and 4 kGy) groups. Samples stored at (5±degree c) and periodically judged after 5, 10, 15, 20,25 and 30 days. The results showed that irradiation increased the shelf life of stored cooked beef burger, as compared to control samples. In addition, the dose of 3 kGy is considered the most adequate for irradiation of this meat product because it obtained the same results reflected by 4 kGy. The microbiological, chemical and sensorial testing for stored cooking and irradiated beef burger steaks were examined according an experimental design presented conditions that were adequate for human consumption of this product during the refrigeration storage periods. For the non-irradiated beef burger samples, bacterial contamination was the main limiting factor with respect to the shelf life, whereas for the irradiated beef burger samples this factor was lipid oxidation. Conclusion: The cooking before food irradiation may be of practical efficacy in enhancing the technical effectiveness and feasibility of irradiation of a variety of meat products. Recommendation: The necessity for a proper preservation method for marketing the processing beef burger steaks in each of its numerous retail markets should be established central irradiation units for processing and packing before distribution in these retail markets

  3. Development of hydrogen market: the outlook for demand, wing energy production, mass storage and distribution to vehicles in the regions; Developpement des marches de l'hydrogene demande prospective dans l'industrie, production par energie eolienne, stockage massif et distribution aux vehicules en region

    Le Duigou, A. [CEA Saclay, DEN/DANS/I-Tese, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Quemere, M.M. [EDF R and D, 77 - Moret-Sur- Loing (France); Marion, P.; Decarre, S. [IFP Energies nouvelles, 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France); Sinegre, L.; Nadau, L.; Pierre, H. [GDF SUEZ, DRI, 93 - La Plaine Saint Denis (France); Menanteau, Ph. [LEPII, Universite de Grenoble - CNRS, 38 (France); Rastetter, A. [ALPHEA, EURODEV Center, 57 - Forbach (France); Cuni, A.; Barbier, F. [Air Liquide, 75 - Paris (France); Mulard, Ph. [Total, La Defense, Raffige Marketing, 92 - Courbevoie (France); Alleau, Th. [AFH2, 75 - Paris (France); Antoine, L. [ADEME, Agence de l' Environnement et de la Maitrise de l' Energie, 75 - Paris (France)

    2011-03-15

    The HyFrance3 project has provided a national framework for reflection, debate and strategic exchange between major public and industrial research players, namely for their hydrogen technology arms in France (Air Liquide, Total Refining and Marketing, EDF R and D, GDF SUEZ, CNRS-LEPII Energies Nouvelles, AFH2, ALPHEA, ADEME (co-financing and partner) and the CEA (coordinator)). This project focuses on studying the landscape, trends and economic competitiveness of some links in the hydrogen chain, for industrial and energy applications, over a period referred to as 'short term' (2020-2030). Four study subjects were tackled: the prospective demand for hydrogen in industry (analysis of the current situation and outlook for 2030, in particular for refining based on two scenarios on mobility), production of hydrogen for transport uses from wind-produced electricity, mass storage that would have to be set up in the Rhone Alpes and PACA regions, to balance supply that is subject to deliberate (maintenance) or involuntary interruptions, and the distribution of hydrogen in the region, for automobile use (gas station network in the Rhone Alpes and PACA regions) by 2050 (with end period all-in costs between 0.4 eur/kg and 0.6 eur/kg, as a function of the price of energy and the distance from the storage site). (authors)

  4. Feasibility Study of Commercial Markets for New Sample Acquisition Devices

    Brady, Collin; Coyne, Jim; Bilen, Sven G.; Kisenwether, Liz; Miller, Garry; Mueller, Robert P.; Zacny, Kris

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) and Penn State technology commercialization project was designed to assist in the maturation of a NASA SBIR Phase III technology. The project was funded by NASA's ESMD Education group with oversight from the Surface Systems Office at NASA Kennedy Space Center in the Engineering Directorate. Two Penn State engineering student interns managed the project with support from Honeybee Robotics and NASA Kennedy Space Center. The objective was to find an opportunity to integrate SBIR-developed Regolith Extractor and Sampling Technology as the payload for the future Lunar Lander or Rover missions. The team was able to identify two potential Google Lunar X Prize organizations with considerable interest in utilizing regolith acquisition and transfer technology.

  5. Marketing Study on Secondary Metal Futures Might be Finished Within This Year

    2015-01-01

    Commissioned by Shanghai Futures Exchange,China Nonferrous Metals Industry Association Secondary Metal Branch is carrying out"Study on development and marketing of secondary nonferrous metal product futures variety"(ADC12 marketing feasibility study),according

  6. Outsourcing Market Research in Department of Defense Commodity Acquisition: The Issues, Concerns, and Private Industry Capabilities

    Skubic, Michelle

    2001-01-01

    .... It examines the feasibility of outsourcing market research functions in this acquisition arena, focusing on which elements of market research would be most practicable to outsource, and what capacity...

  7. Smart Computer-Assisted Markets

    McCabe, Kevin A.; Rassenti, Stephen J.; Smith, Vernon L.

    1991-10-01

    The deregulation movement has motivated the experimental study of auction markets designed for interdependent network industries such as natural gas pipelines or electric power systems. Decentralized agents submit bids to buy commodity and offers to sell transportation and commodity to a computerized dispatch center. Computer algorithms determine prices and allocations that maximize the gains from exchange in the system relative to the submitted bids and offers. The problem is important, because traditionally the scale and coordination economies in such industries were thought to require regulation. Laboratory experiments are used to study feasibility, limitations, incentives, and performance of proposed market designs for deregulation, providing motivation for new theory.

  8. Northern gas: Williams petrochemical feasibility study

    Chappell, D. [Williams Energy Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    Williams Energy is a company that is involved in the following fields: gas pipelines, exploration and production, midstream, refining, petrochemical, power, and marketing and trading. The author provides an overview of the global and Canadian infrastructure before proceeding to discuss Arctic gas, which is viewed by Williams Energy as necessary. It favors the Alaska Highway route with a consortium for project development. Williams performed a petrochemical study to determine the feasibility of a petrochemical complex utilizing natural gas liquid from an Arctic gas pipeline. The scope of the study encompassed facilities (extraction plant, cracker, polyolefins plant), size (world scale, approximately 2 billion pounds per year), and location (Fairbanks or Alberta). The study led to the following findings: (1) review of several scenarios for both locations, (2) complex to produce two grades of polyethylene, (3) feedstock cost favors Alaska, (4) construction costs lower in Alberta, (5) and the primary market for the Alaska complex would be northeast Asia, while the primary market for the Alberta location would be the United States. It was determined that both options would be viable, however Alberta was favored due to the polyethylene forecast. The challenges still being faced by Williams include low frac spread, market inefficiencies, empress volumes, carbon dioxide, and fuel and electricity cost. Each of these challenges is discussed separately. The author concludes by indicating that incremental ethane is available, carbon dioxide issues need resolution, and Alberta and Alaska are attractive for Arctic ethane petrochemical production. figs.

  9. The marketing of solar energy

    Coehoorn, M.; Sinke, W.C.

    1994-01-01

    After two decades of research and development the market introduction of solar water heaters finally is developing rapidly. In a number of progressive countries, amongst which the Netherlands, preparations are made for the large-scale introduction of photovoltaic (PV) power systems. A brief overview is given of market introduction activities with regard to solar energy applications in several countries. Also attention is paid to new technological developments for the improvement of solar boilers: the Integrated Collector Storage system, the integration of the storage tank in the solar water heater (combi-boiler), and the new principle for a combined system for the production of hot tap water and space heating, the so-called solar-gas-combi. The Dutch-developed boilers, however, must compete with the the foreign thermosyphon boilers, although these boilers probably require more maintenance than the Dutch boilers. The market for PV-systems is still in its infancy. The marketing efforts and research activities in Japan, USA and European countries for PV-systems are briefly discussed. Although financial incentives from the national governments are still necessary contributions from other market parties for the development of PV-systems are expected. 4 ills

  10. Demand Response and Energy Storage Integration Study

    Ma, Ookie; Cheung, Kerry; Olsen, Daniel J.; Matson, Nance; Sohn, Michael D.; Rose, Cody M.; Dudley, Junqiao Han; Goli, Sasank; Kiliccote, Sila; Cappers, Peter; MacDonald, Jason; Denholm, Paul; Hummon, Marissa; Jorgenson, Jennie; Palchak, David; Starke, Michael; Alkadi, Nasr; Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Currier, Aileen; Hernandez, Jaci; Kirby, Brendan; O' Malley, Mark

    2016-03-01

    Demand response and energy storage resources present potentially important sources of bulk power system services that can aid in integrating variable renewable generation. While renewable integration studies have evaluated many of the challenges associated with deploying large amounts of variable wind and solar generation technologies, integration analyses have not yet fully incorporated demand response and energy storage resources. This report represents an initial effort in analyzing the potential integration value of demand response and energy storage, focusing on the western United States. It evaluates two major aspects of increased deployment of demand response and energy storage: (1) Their operational value in providing bulk power system services and (2) Market and regulatory issues, including potential barriers to deployment.

  11. Electric vehicles in imperfect electricity markets: The case of Germany

    Schill, Wolf-Peter

    2011-01-01

    We use a game-theoretic model to analyze the impacts of a hypothetical fleet of plug-in electric vehicles on the imperfectly competitive German electricity market. Electric vehicles bring both additional demand and additional storage capacity to the market. We determine the effects on prices, welfare, and electricity generation for various cases with different players in charge of vehicle operations. Vehicle loading increases generator profits, but decreases consumer surplus in the power market. If excess vehicle batteries can be used for storage, welfare results are reversed: generating firms suffer from the price-smoothing effect of additional storage, whereas power consumers benefit despite increasing overall demand. Strategic players tend to under-utilize the storage capacity of the vehicle fleet, which may have negative welfare implications. In contrast, we find a market power-mitigating effect of electric vehicle recharging on oligopolistic generators. Overall, electric vehicles are unlikely to be a relevant source of market power in Germany in the foreseeable future. - Highlights: → We study the effect of electric vehicles on an imperfectly competitive electricity market. → We apply a game-theoretic model to the German market. → There is a market power-mitigating effect of vehicle loading on oligopolistic generating firms. → Consumers benefit from electric vehicles if excess battery capacity can be used for grid storage. → Electric vehicles are unlikely to be a source of market power in Germany in the near future.

  12. Feasibility studies and technological innovation

    Hvelplund, Frede Kloster; Lund, Henrik; Sukkumnoed, Decharut

    2004-01-01

    The chapter offers a tool to conduct feasibility studies and focuses on how to make feasibility studies in a situation with environmental concerns, in which technological innovation and institutional chnages are among the objectives.......The chapter offers a tool to conduct feasibility studies and focuses on how to make feasibility studies in a situation with environmental concerns, in which technological innovation and institutional chnages are among the objectives....

  13. Analysis and Research on Spatial Data Storage Model Based on Cloud Computing Platform

    Hu, Yong

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, the data processing and storage characteristics of cloud computing are analyzed and studied. On this basis, a cloud computing data storage model based on BP neural network is proposed. In this data storage model, it can carry out the choice of server cluster according to the different attributes of the data, so as to complete the spatial data storage model with load balancing function, and have certain feasibility and application advantages.

  14. Derivative Market: An Integral Part Of The Zimbabwe Stock Exchange

    Kosmas Njanike

    2010-01-01

    The study assesses the need for a derivative market as an integral of Zimbabwe Stock Exchange. It also aims to evaluate the feasibility of establishing a derivative market as an essential element of Zimbabwe Stock Exchange. The research identifies factors that need to be addressed to facilitate such a market. Views of various fund managers, financial analysts and dealers drawn from asset management firms were used. Changes in market trends are influenced by hyper inflation and acute financial...

  15. Research on Green Food Marketing Strategy of China

    Qu Yan

    2015-01-01

    With the improvement of people's living standards, people's growing demand for green food is becoming bigger and bigger, but there are some problems in traditional marketing and at the same time, the rapid development of web marketing has impacted greatly on traditional marketing channels of the green food. The study attempts to analyze the development and the problems of green food in our country in traditional marketing, discussed the necessity and feasibility of the traditional green food ...

  16. Mobile marketing

    Gause, Matěj

    2012-01-01

    The goal of bachelor's thesis on the theme "Mobile marketing" is to outline its development and why is this new phenomen so important for all modern companies around the world. The work is not about simple description of mobile marketing media but it vividly informs about the latest trends and news from the world of mobile apps and games. It presents the most successful mobile apps which registered more than billion downloads and from their unique characteristics it unveils great potential of...

  17. MARKET WATCH

    2011-01-01

    China’s manufacturing activities keep slowing down.The"big four"state-owned commercial banks have reaped juicy profits,though capital adequacy remains a concern.In striking contrast,the steelmakers are struggling to make ends meet as costs inflation erodes profit margins.The consumer market booms as usual during the May Day holiday.The search engine Baidu benefits from torrid traffic growth and a diversified market strategy.

  18. Entrepreneurial Marketing

    Gruber, Marc

    2004-01-01

    Entrepreneurship is one of the youngest disciplines in the area of business administration. Hence, there is a special need for literature that can be used in teaching and that can serve as a basis for research. This article reviews five textbooks and three research-oriented books on entrepreneurial marketing, which is regarded as one of the key areas of entrepreneurship. As the review shows, there is no textbook that covers all relevant aspects of entrepreneurial marketing in sufficient bread...

  19. MARKET WATCH

    2011-01-01

    The manufacturing industry shows signs of recovery as reflected by a rebounding PMI. The initial public offerings market withers due to less than favorable stock markets. Chinese shipbuilders reel from decreasing orders as external demands falter. The mobile payment industry bursts with vitality, though the security issue remains an acute concern. Foreign banks in China lag behind their local competitors in terms of profitability owing to limited ability to attract deposits.

  20. Market scope

    2002-01-01

    Nova Scotia's Energy Strategy is aimed at opening the electricity market to wholesale competition, allowing eligible wholesale customers (such as municipal distribution utilities) to buy their electricity from competitive sources. The Nova Scotia Electricity Marketplace Governance Committee (EMGC) is concerned that this will not promote long-term competition because these eligible customers form only a very small fraction (1.6 per cent) of the total electricity demand in the province. This report examines the possible extensions of competition beyond the minimum specified in the Energy Strategy. It also identifies approaches that the EMGC may consider, including other potential levels of competition and their associated issues. The report discussed the issue of implementing wholesale competition as it relates to unbundling of the transmission tariff from the cost of energy supply and from the cost of distribution in retail marketing. The stages of expanding the market scope were also described with reference to large industrial customers, medium industrial and large commercial customers, and small commercial and residential customers. The report states that it is unlikely that the transition to an open access transmission market will need to be reversed, as it is likely to be an essential component of any further development. The EMGC feels it could minimize future transition costs and promote future evolution of competition by recommending for an institutional and market structure that is compatible with a broader competitive market