WorldWideScience

Sample records for stool purification kit

  1. Performances of Four Helicobacter pylori Serological Detection Kits Using Stool Antigen Test as Gold Standard.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susheela D Biranjia-Hurdoyal

    Full Text Available The aim was to determine the performances of four Helicobacter pylori serological detection kits in different target groups, using Amplified IDEIA™ Hp StAR™ as gold standard. Kits studied were Rapid Immunochromatoghraphic Hexagon, Helicoblot 2.1, an EIA IgG kit and EIA IgA kit.Stool and blood samples were collected from 162 apparently healthy participants (control and 60 Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients.The performances of the four serological detection kits were found to be affected by gender, age, health status and ethnicity of the participants. In the control group, the Helicoblot 2.1 kit had the best performance (AUC = 0.85; p<0.05, accuracy = 86.4%, followed by EIA IgG (AUC = 0.75; p<0.05, accuracy = 75.2%. The Rapid Hexagon and EIA IgA kits had relatively poor performances. In the T2DM subgroup, the kits H2.1 and EIA IgG had best performances, with accuracies of 96.5% and 93.1% respectively. The performance of EIA IgG improved with adjustment of its cut-off value.The performances of the detection kits were affected by various factors which should be taken into consideration.

  2. Performances of Four Helicobacter pylori Serological Detection Kits Using Stool Antigen Test as Gold Standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biranjia-Hurdoyal, Susheela D; Seetulsingh-Goorah, Sharmila P

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to determine the performances of four Helicobacter pylori serological detection kits in different target groups, using Amplified IDEIA™ Hp StAR™ as gold standard. Kits studied were Rapid Immunochromatoghraphic Hexagon, Helicoblot 2.1, an EIA IgG kit and EIA IgA kit. Stool and blood samples were collected from 162 apparently healthy participants (control) and 60 Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. The performances of the four serological detection kits were found to be affected by gender, age, health status and ethnicity of the participants. In the control group, the Helicoblot 2.1 kit had the best performance (AUC = 0.85; ppoor performances. In the T2DM subgroup, the kits H2.1 and EIA IgG had best performances, with accuracies of 96.5% and 93.1% respectively. The performance of EIA IgG improved with adjustment of its cut-off value. The performances of the detection kits were affected by various factors which should be taken into consideration.

  3. Comparison of a Stool Antigen Detection Kit and PCR for Diagnosis of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar Infections in Asymptomatic Cyst Passers in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Solaymani-Mohammadi, Shahram; Rezaian, Mostafa; Babaei, Zahra; Rajabpour, Azam; Meamar, Ahmad R.; Pourbabai, Ahmad A.; Petri, William A.

    2006-01-01

    The present study was conducted to compare stool antigen detection with PCR for the diagnosis of Entamoeba sp. infection in asymptomatic cyst passers from Iran. Entamoeba dispar and, in one case, E. moshkovskii were the Entamoeba spp. found in the amebic cyst passers. There was a 100% correlation between the results from the TechLab E. histolytica II stool antigen kit and those from nested PCR. We concluded that E. dispar is much more common in asymptomatic cyst passers in Iran and that antig...

  4. Comparison of a stool antigen detection kit and PCR for diagnosis of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar infections in asymptomatic cyst passers in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solaymani-Mohammadi, Shahram; Rezaian, Mostafa; Babaei, Zahra; Rajabpour, Azam; Meamar, Ahmad R; Pourbabai, Ahmad A; Petri, William A

    2006-06-01

    The present study was conducted to compare stool antigen detection with PCR for the diagnosis of Entamoeba sp. infection in asymptomatic cyst passers from Iran. Entamoeba dispar and, in one case, E. moshkovskii were the Entamoeba spp. found in the amebic cyst passers. There was a 100% correlation between the results from the TechLab E. histolytica II stool antigen kit and those from nested PCR. We concluded that E. dispar is much more common in asymptomatic cyst passers in Iran and that antigen detection and PCR are comparable diagnostic modalities.

  5. Stool Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infections and may be identified with a stool culture. Some important examples include: Escherichia coli 0157:H7 and other toxin- ... the toxin-producing C. difficile will be performed. Examples of other less common causes include: ... of stool cultures that are reported as negative usually reflect the ...

  6. Stool Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... clean, sealable container before taking to the laboratory. Plastic wrap can also be used to line the diaper of an infant or toddler who is not yet using the toilet. The stool should be collected into clean, dry plastic jars with screw-cap lids. You can get ...

  7. Stool Gram stain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stool sample. The Gram stain method is sometimes used to quickly diagnose bacterial infections. How the Test is Performed You will need to collect a stool sample. There are many ways to collect the sample. You can catch the stool on plastic wrap that is loosely placed over the toilet bowl ...

  8. Purification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Astrid Oberborbeck

    2017-01-01

    In Arequipa, Peru’s second largest city, engineers work hard to control water flows and provide different sectors with clean and sufficient water. In 2011, only 10 percent of the totality of water used daily by Arequipa’s then close to 1 million people—in households, tourism, industry, and mining......—was treated before it was returned to the river where it continues its flow downstream towards cultivated fields and, finally, into the Pacific Ocean. It takes specialized knowledge and manifold technologies to manage water and sustain life in Arequipa, and engineers are central actors for making water flow...... of categories can be understood as practices of purification. However, a purely technical grip on water is never possible. Unruly elements, like weather, contamination, urban dwellers, and competing interests, interfere and make processes of intervention unstable. Water is never completely cleaned, and, equally...

  9. Stool C difficile toxin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... toxin; Colitis - toxin; Pseudomembranous - toxin; Necrotizing colitis - toxin; C difficile - toxin ... be analyzed. There are several ways to detect C difficile toxin in the stool sample. Enzyme immunoassay ( ...

  10. Stool Color: When to Worry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stool color: When to worry Yesterday, my stool color was bright green. Should I be concerned? Answers from Michael ... M.D. Stool comes in a range of colors. All shades of brown and even green are ...

  11. Bloody or tarry stools

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... small intestine Diverticulosis (abnormal pouches in the colon) Hemorrhoids (common cause of bright red blood) Inflammatory bowel ... have an exam even if you think that hemorrhoids are causing the blood in your stool. In ...

  12. How much DNA is lost? Measuring DNA loss of short-tandem-repeat length fragments targeted by the PowerPlex 16® system using the Qiagen MinElute Purification Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Brian M; Winters, Misa; Monroe, Cara; Barta, Jodi Lynn

    2014-01-01

    The success in recovering genetic profiles from aged and degraded biological samples is diminished by fundamental aspects of DNA extraction, as well as its long-term preservation, that are not well understood. While numerous studies have been conducted to determine whether one extraction method was superior to others, nearly all of them were initiated with no knowledge of the actual starting DNA quantity in the samples prior to extraction, so they ultimately compared the outcome of all methods relative to the best. Using quantitative PCR to estimate the copy count of synthetic standards before (i.e., "copies in") and after (i.e., "copies out") purification by the Qiagen MinElute PCR Purification Kit, we documented DNA loss within a pool of 16 different-sized fragments ranging from 106 to 409 bp in length, corresponding to those targeted by the PowerPlex 16 System (Promega, Madison, WI). Across all standards from 10(4) to 10(7) copies/μL, loss averaged between 21.75% and 60.56% (mean, 39.03%), which is not congruent with Qiagen's claim that 80% of 70 bp to 4 kb fragments are retained using this product (i.e., 20% loss). Our study also found no clear relationship either between DNA strand length and retention or between starting copy number and retention. This suggests that there is no molecule bias across the MinElute column membrane and highlights the need for manufacturers to clearly and accurately describe on what their claims are based, and should also encourage researchers to document DNA retention efficiencies of their own methods and protocols. Understanding how and where to reduce loss of molecules during extraction and purification will serve to generate clearer and more accurate data, which will enhance the utility of ancient and low-copy-number DNA as a tool for closing forensic cases or in reconstructing the evolutionary history of humans and other organisms.

  13. Flushable reagent stool blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stool occult blood test - flushable home test; Fecal occult blood test - flushable home test ... This test is performed at home with disposable pads. You can buy the pads at the drug store without ...

  14. 21 CFR 868.6700 - Anesthesia stool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Anesthesia stool. 868.6700 Section 868.6700 Food... DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Miscellaneous § 868.6700 Anesthesia stool. (a) Identification. An anesthesia stool is a device intended for use as a stool for the anesthesiologist in the operating room. (b...

  15. Collimator kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonker, R.R.

    1976-01-01

    A collimator kit having a number of parts which may be assembled in various combinations to provide focusing collimators with different performance characteristics for radioisotope imaging apparatus is described

  16. The effect of neutral and acidic oligosaccharides on stool viscosity, stool frequency and stool pH in preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerbeek, E. A. M.; Hensgens, R. L.; Mihatsch, W. A.; Boehm, G.; Lafeber, H. N.; van Elburg, R. M.

    2011-01-01

    To determine the effect of neutral oligosaccharides [small-chain galacto-oligosaccharides/long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scGOS/lcFOS)] in combination with acidic oligosaccharides (pAOS) on stool viscosity, stool frequency and stool pH in preterm infants. In this explorative RCT, preterm infants

  17. Stools - pale or clay-colored

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/article/003129.htm Stools - pale or clay-colored To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Stools that are pale, clay, or putty-colored may be due to problems ...

  18. First aid kit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001958.htm First aid kit To use the sharing features on this ... ahead, you can create a well-stocked home first aid kit. Keep all of your supplies in one ...

  19. Create an Emergency Kit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... models take up less space in your kit. Cell phone. Always carry a cell phone and let people know where you are going ... pump in your emergency kit. Remember that despite safety standards and careful monitoring, these devices can fail. ...

  20. Undigested Pills in Stool Mimicking Parasitic Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, Fazia; Achakzai, Ilyas; Ibdah, Jamal A; Tahan, Veysel

    2017-01-01

    Background . Orally ingested medications now come in both immediate release and controlled release preparations. Controlled release preparations were developed by pharmaceutical companies to improve compliance and decrease frequency of pill ingestion. Case Report . A 67-year-old obese male patient presented to our clinic with focal abdominal pain that had been present 3 inches below umbilicus for the last three years. This pain was not associated with any trauma or recent heavy lifting. Upon presentation, the patient reported that for the last two months he started to notice pearly oval structures in his stool accompanying his chronic abdominal pain. This had coincided with initiation of his nifedipine pills for his hypertension. He reported seeing these undigested pills daily in his stool. Conclusion . The undigested pills may pose a cause of concern for both patients and physicians alike, as demonstrated in this case report, because they can mimic a parasitic infection. This can result in unnecessary extensive work-up. It is important to review the medication list for extended release formulations and note that the outer shell can be excreted whole in the stool.

  1. Purification of radiolabeled RNA using sephadex G-15 or G-50 chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Beong Gyu; Lee, Jong Seok

    1998-01-01

    We attempted to purify radiolabeled RNA using Sephadex G-15 and G-50 chromatography instead of commercial RNA purification kit. In the Sephadex G-15 chromatography the major portion of RNA was eluted in the fractions ranging from 3rd to 5th whereas broad elution profile of RNA was obtained from the Sephadex G-50 chromatography. The elution profile and purity of RNA obtained from Sephadex G-15 chromatography was very similar to that by commercial RNA purification kit. Furthermore, operating time required for purification of RNA by Sephadex G-15 was rather smaller than that by commercial kit. Overall results suggest that the purification of radiolabeled RNA using Sephadex G-15 is more money and time saving than using commercial RNA purification kit

  2. Exploit Kit traffic analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Καπίρης, Σταμάτης; Kapiris, Stamatis

    2017-01-01

    Exploit kits have become one of the most widespread and destructive threat that Internet users face on a daily basis. Since the first actor, which has been categorized as exploit kit, namely MPack, appeared in 2006, we have seen a new era on exploit kit variants compromising popular websites, infecting hosts and delivering destructive malware, following an exponentially evolvement to date. With the growing threat landscape, large enterprises to domestic networks, have starte...

  3. Benchmarking Tool Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadian Health Libraries Association.

    Nine Canadian health libraries participated in a pilot test of the Benchmarking Tool Kit between January and April, 1998. Although the Tool Kit was designed specifically for health libraries, the content and approach are useful to other types of libraries as well. Used to its full potential, benchmarking can provide a common measuring stick to…

  4. Comparison of microscopy, ELISA, and real-time PCR for detection of Giardia intestinalis in human stool specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyhan, Yunus Emre; Taş Cengiz, Zeynep

    2017-08-23

    Background/aim: This study included patients who had digestive system complaints between August 2015 and October 2015. The research was designed to compare conventional microscopy with an antigen detection ELISA kit and the TaqMan-based real-time PCR (RT-PCR) technique for detection of Giardia intestinalis in human stool specimens. Materials and methods: Samples were concentrated by formalin-ether sedimentation technique and microscopic examinations were carried out on wet mount slides. A commercially available ELISA kit (Giardia CELISA, Cellabs, Brookvale, Australia) was used for immunoassay. DNA was extracted from fecal samples of about 200 mg using the QIAamp Fast DNA Stool Mini Kit (QIAGEN, Hilden, Germany) and the LightCycler Nano system (Roche Diagnostics, Mannheim, Germany) was used for the TaqMan-based RT-PCR assay. Results: A total of 94 stool samples, 38 of them diagnosed positive (40.4%) and 56 of them diagnosed negative by microscopy, were selected for evaluation by antigen detection and molecular assays. The prevalence of G. intestinalis infection was found as 46.8% (n: 44) and 79.8% (n: 75) by ELISA and RT-PCR, respectively. RT-PCR revealed by far the highest positivity rate compared to the other two methods. The difference between these methods was found to be statistically significant (P PCR, the sensitivity and specificity of microscopy and ELISA were 50.7% and 100% and 53.3% and 79%, respectively. Conclusion: RT-PCR seems to be much more sensitive and beneficial for rapid and accurate diagnosis of G. intestinalis in human stools.

  5. [Bristol Stool Chart: Prospective and monocentric study of "stools introspection" in healthy subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarenco, G

    2014-09-01

    The Bristol Stool Chart (BSC) allows patients to identify their stool form using seven different images with accompanying written descriptors. Stool form was found to correlate better than stool frequency with whole-gut transit as measured by a radio-opaque marker study. This score is widely used in order to verify the presence of a constipation and to evaluate the therapeutic impact of various treatments. In our clinical practice, we was strongly surprised by the facility and the great precision of the patients to report their stool form, meaning that they usually and daily verify these stools. We wanted to precise the goals of a such attitude. Two questionnaires were proposed to healthy and voluntary subjects. Q1 was supposedly presented in order to verify the sensibility of a French version of BSC in a healthy population. Thus, Q1 precised the difficulties or not to understand pictures and written descriptors, asked about exhaustive analysis by means of BSC of stool form and bowel condition. All subjects with history of ano-rectal disorders or specific treatment for bowel dysfunction were excluded. After Q1 fulfilled, Q2 was proposed to the subjects. Q2 was designed to precise the goals of the patient when he look at his stool and the frequency of such an investigation. Finally a specific question concerning the subject opinion about this behavior in terms of bothersome, shame, or metaphysic interrogation. Eighty-five healthy subjects were recruited (42 female and 43 male). Mean age was 37.2 (sd = 15.7). Mean score of BCS was 2.07 (sd =1.05) (2.07 for female and 1.81 for male, P = 0.22). Number of categories of stool form was only 1 in 40%, 2 categories in 31%, 3 in 19%, 4 in 10%. Presence of a constipation defined by category 1 or 2 was found in 17% (23% in F, 12% in M, P = 0.075). Precision of BSC was noted as excellent in 68%, moderated in 18% and poor in 14%. BSC was considered as easy to use in 75%. Frequency of inspection of feces was systematic for 37%, 1

  6. Re-purification of labelled ferritin antigen with HPLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Haoyi; Jin Lichun

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To improve the quality of long-term stored labelled ferritin antigen with HPLC. Methods: The antigen was analyzed and purified with HPLC and again analyzed with RIA afterwards. Results: Ferritin antigen underwent significant polymerization after long-term (aggregation) storage. After re-purification with HPLC, its immuno-activity and labelled specific radioactivity were both significantly improved. Conclusion: Quality of stored ferritin RIA kit could be greatly improved after re-purification with HPLC

  7. Culturing Stool Specimens for Campylobacter spp., Pennsylvania, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    M’ikanatha, Nkuchia M.; Dettinger, Lisa A.; Perry, Amanda; Rogers, Paul; Reynolds, Stanley M.

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, we surveyed 176 clinical laboratories in Pennsylvania regarding stool specimen testing practices for enteropathogens, including Campylobacter spp. Most (96.3%) routinely test for Campylobacter spp. In 17 (15.7%), a stool antigen test is the sole method for diagnosis. We recommend that laboratory practice guidelines for Campylobacter spp. testing be developed. PMID:22377086

  8. Development of the Brussels Infant and Toddler Stool Scale ('BITSS'): protocol of the study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandenplas, Yvan; Szajewska, Hania; Benninga, Marc; Di Lorenzo, Carlo; Dupont, Christophe; Faure, Christophe; Miqdadi, Mohamed; Osatakul, Seksit; Ribes-Konickx, Carmen; Saps, Miguel; Shamir, Raanan; Staiano, Annamaria; Franckx, Johan; Green, Robin; Hegar, Badriul; Lemmens, Roel; Salvatore, Silvia; Vieira, Mario; Verghote, Marc; Xinias, Ioannis

    2017-01-01

    The Bristol Stool Form Scale (BSS) which consists of 7 photographs of different stool forms allows assessment of stool consistency (scale 1 for hard lumps to scale 7 for watery stools), in an objective manner in adults. The BSS is also sometimes used to characterise the stools of infants and young

  9. Personalized Thematic Kits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontrager, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    Teaching Spanish at the K-5 level is a passion of mine, and the author would like to share some of the practical applications that she finds most rewarding and effective. She has found enthusiastic response to the creation of detailed language learning kits that are rooted in storytelling, but expanded to include home-made board games,…

  10. World Disarmament Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woito, Robert, Ed.

    This kit presents a comprehensive introduction for students to arms control and disarmament issues. Included are copies of published and unpublished articles for each topic. Section I provides a self-survey to enable students to assess their own attitudes, values, and knowledge. The survey poses questions for which students select one of several…

  11. 49 CFR 173.161 - Chemical kits and first aid kits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Chemical kits and first aid kits. 173.161 Section... Class 7 § 173.161 Chemical kits and first aid kits. (a) Chemical kits and First aid kits must conform to... 10 kg. (b) Chemical kits and First aid kits are excepted from the specification packaging...

  12. Build an Emergency Preparedness Kit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... In addition to the items listed above, a vehicle kit should include: -fire extinguisher. -booster cables and tow rope. -compass and road maps. -shovel. -tire repair kit and pump. -extra clothing to keep dry. - ...

  13. ISS Expedition 08 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 08 from 10/2003-04/2004. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  14. Optimal screening and donor management in a public stool bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazerouni, Abbas; Burgess, James; Burns, Laura J; Wein, Lawrence M

    2015-12-17

    Fecal microbiota transplantation is an effective treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection and is being investigated as a treatment for other microbiota-associated diseases. To facilitate these activities, an international public stool bank has been created, which screens donors and processes stools in a standardized manner. The goal of this research is to use mathematical modeling and analysis to optimize screening and donor management at the stool bank. Compared to the current policy of screening active donors every 60 days before releasing their quarantined stools for sale, costs can be reduced by 10.3 % by increasing the screening frequency to every 36 days. In addition, the stool production rate varies widely across donors, and using donor-specific screening, where higher producers are screened more frequently, also reduces costs, as does introducing an interim (i.e., between consecutive regular tests) stool test for just rotavirus and C. difficile. We also derive a donor release (i.e., into the system) policy that allows the supply to approximately match an exponentially increasing deterministic demand. More frequent screening, interim screening for rotavirus and C. difficile, and donor-specific screening, where higher stool producers are screened more frequently, are all cost-reducing measures. If screening costs decrease in the future (e.g., as a result of bringing screening in house), a bottleneck for implementing some of these recommendations may be the reluctance of donors to undergo serum screening more frequently than monthly.

  15. Assessment of Commonly Used Pediatric Stool Scales: A pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Saps, M.; Nichols-Vinueza, D.; Dhroove, G.; Adams, P.; Chogle, A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The Bristol Stool Form Scale (BSFS) and a modified child-friendly version (M-BSFS) are frequently used in clinical practice and research. These scales have not been validated in children. 3-D stool scale models may be better adapted to the child's development. Aims: To assess the usefulness of the BSFS, M-BSFS, and a newly developed 3-D stool scale in children. Methods: Fifty children were asked to rank the picture cards of the BSFS and 3-D models from hardest to softest and...

  16. A rapid and economic in-house DNA purification method using glass syringe filters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Cheol Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Purity, yield, speed and cost are important considerations in plasmid purification, but it is difficult to achieve all of these at the same time. Currently, there are many protocols and kits for DNA purification, however none maximize all four considerations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We now describe a fast, efficient and economic in-house protocol for plasmid preparation using glass syringe filters. Plasmid yield and quality as determined by enzyme digestion and transfection efficiency were equivalent to the expensive commercial kits. Importantly, the time required for purification was much less than that required using a commercial kit. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This method provides DNA yield and quality similar to that obtained with commercial kits, but is more rapid and less costly.

  17. The technology of large-scale pharmaceutical plasmid purification ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Further test demonstrated that the pcDNAlacZ purified with CTAB and authoritative endotoxin-free plasmid Kit had the similar transfection efficiency in vivo and in vitro. CTAB can be used for plasmid purification; the main advantages of the DNAs purified with CTAB include the avoidance of animal-derived enzymes, toxic ...

  18. Expression and purification of recombinant Shiga toxin 2B from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny t

    2016-05-25

    May 25, 2016 ... MATERIALS AND METHODS. Bacterial strains, plasmid and media ... toxin 2B gene after purified by wizard genomic DNA purification kit. (Promega, USA) ..... This result was approximately two times higher compared to Halo .... manual, 3rd Eds. New York: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press,. Cold Spring ...

  19. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in children by noninvasive stool ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in children by noninvasive stool Antigen Enzyme Immunoassay. Augustine O. Ebonyi, Emeka Ejeliogu, Stanley T. Odigbo, Martha Omoo Ochoga, Stephen Oguche, Anejo-Okopi A. Joseph ...

  20. Assessment of commonly used pediatric stool scales: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saps, M; Nichols-Vinueza, D; Dhroove, G; Adams, P; Chogle, A

    2013-01-01

    The Bristol Stool Form Scale (BSFS) and a modified child-friendly version (M-BSFS) are frequently used in clinical practice and research. These scales have not been validated in children. 3-D stool scale models may be better adapted to the child's development. To assess the usefulness of the BSFS, M-BSFS, and a newly developed 3-D stool scale in children. Fifty children were asked to rank the picture cards of the BSFS and 3-D models from hardest to softest and to match the pictures with descriptors for each stool type. Thirty percent of the children appropriately characterized the stools as hard, loose, or normal using the BSFS vs. 36.6% with the 3-D model (p=0.27). Appropriate correlation of stools as hard, loose, or normal consistency using the BSFS vs. the 3-D model by age group was: 6 to 11-year-olds, 27.5% vs. 33.3% (p=0.58) and 12 to 17-year-olds, 32.1% vs. 39.5% (p=0.41). Thirty-three percent correlated the BSFS pictures with the correct BSFS words, 46% appropriately correlated with the M-BSFS words, and 46% correlated the 3-D stool models with the correct wording. The BSFS and M-BSFS that are widely used as stool assessment instruments are not user-friendly for children. The 3-D model was not found to be better than the BSFS and the M-BSFS. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  1. Rapid diagnosis of diarrhea caused by Shigella sonnei using dipsticks; comparison of rectal swabs, direct stool and stool culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Duran

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We evaluated a dipstick test for rapid detection of Shigella sonnei on bacterial colonies, directly on stools and from rectal swabs because in actual field situations, most pathologic specimens for diagnosis correspond to stool samples or rectal swabs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The test is based on the detection of S. sonnei lipopolysaccharide (LPS O-side chains using phase I-specific monoclonal antibodies coupled to gold particles, and displayed on a one-step immunochromatographic dipstick. A concentration as low as 5 ng/ml of LPS was detected in distilled water and in reconstituted stools in 6 minutes. This is the optimal time for lecture to avoid errors of interpretation. In distilled water and in reconstituted stools, an unequivocal positive reaction was obtained with 4 x 10(6 CFU/ml of S. sonnei. The specificity was 100% when tested with a battery of Shigella and different unrelated strains. When tested on 342 rectal swabs in Chile, specificity (281/295 was 95.3% (95% CI: 92.9% - 97.7% and sensitivity (47/47 was 100%. Stool cultures and the immunochromatographic test showed concordant results in 95.5 % of cases (328/342 in comparative studies. Positive and negative predictive values were 77% (95% CI: 65% - 86.5% and 100% respectively. When tested on 219 stools in Chile, Vietnam, India and France, specificity (190/198 was 96% (95% CI 92%-98% and sensitivity (21/21 was 100%. Stool cultures and the immunochromatographic test showed concordant results in 96.3 % of cases (211/219 in comparative studies. Positive and negative predictive values were 72.4% (95% CI 56.1%-88.6% and 100 %, respectively. CONCLUSION: This one-step dipstick test performed well for diagnosis of S. sonnei both on stools and on rectal swabs. These data confirm a preliminary study done in Chile.

  2. Windows 7 resource kit

    CERN Document Server

    Northrup, Tony; Honeycutt, Jerry; Wilson, Ed

    2009-01-01

    In-depth and comprehensive, this RESOURCE KIT delivers the information you need to administer your Windows 7 system. You get authoritative technical guidance from those who know the technology best-Microsoft Most Valuable Professionals (MVPs) and the Windows 7 product team-along with essential scripts and resources. In addition, "Direct from the Source" sidebars offer deep insights and troubleshooting tips from the Windows 7 team. Get expert guidance on how to: Use Microsoft Deployment Toolkit best practices and tools. Plan user-state migration and test application compatibility.

  3. Mobile Probing Kit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jakob Eg; Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Sørensen, J.K.

    2007-01-01

    Mobile Probing Kit is a low tech and low cost methodology for obtaining inspiration and insights into user needs, requirements and ideas in the early phases of a system's development process. The methodology is developed to identify user needs, requirements and ideas among knowledge workers...... characterized as being highly nomadic and thus potential users of mobile and ubiquitous technologies. The methodology has been applied in the 1ST MAGNET Beyond project in order to obtain user needs and requirements in the process of developing pilot services. We report on the initial findings from applying...

  4. Education Payload Operation - Kit D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Education Payload Operation - Kit D (EPO-Kit D) includes education items that will be used to support the live International Space Station (ISS) education downlinks and Education Payload Operation (EPO) demonstrations onboard the ISS. The main objective of EPO-Kit D supports the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) goal of attracting students to study and seek careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics.

  5. Microgripper construction kit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gengenbach, Ulrich K.; Hofmann, Andreas; Engelhardt, Friedhelm; Scharnowell, Rudolf; Koehler, Bernd

    2001-10-01

    A large number of microgrippers has been developed in industry and academia. Although the importance of hybrid integration techniques and hence the demand for assembly tools grows continuously a large part of these developments has not yet been used in industrial production. The first grippers developed for microassembly were basically vacuum grippers and downscaled tweezers. Due to increasingly complex assembly tasks more and more functionality such as sensing or additional functions such as adhesive dispensing has been integrated into gripper systems over the last years. Most of these gripper systems are incompatible since there exists no standard interface to the assembly machine and no standard for the internal modules and interfaces. Thus these tools are not easily interchangeable between assembly machines and not easily adaptable to assembly tasks. In order to alleviate this situation a construction kit for modular microgrippers is being developed. It is composed of modules with well defined interfaces that can be combined to build task specific grippers. An abstract model of a microgripper is proposed as a tool to structure the development of the construction kit. The modular concept is illustrated with prototypes.

  6. Necessity of purification during bacterial DNA extraction with environmental soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Jeong Lim

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Complexity and heterogeneity of soil samples have often implied the inclusion of purification steps in conventional DNA extraction for polymerase chain reaction (PCR assays. Unfortunately the purification steps are also time and labor intensive. Therefore the necessity of DNA purification was re-visited and investigated for a variety of environmental soil samples that contained various amounts of PCR inhibitors. Bead beating and centrifugation was used as the baseline (without purification method for DNA extraction. Its performance was compared with that of conventional DNA extraction kit (with purification. The necessity criteria for DNA purification were established with environmental soil samples. Using lysis conditions at 3000 rpm for 3 minutes with 0.1 mm glass beads, centrifugation time of 10 minutes and 1:10 dilution ratio, the baseline method outperformed conventional DNA extraction on cell seeded sand samples. Further investigation with PCR inhibitors (i.e., humic acids, clay, and magnesium [Mg] showed that sand samples containing less than 10 μg/g humic acids and 70% clay may not require purifications. Interestingly, the inhibition pattern of Mg ion was different from other inhibitors due to the complexation interaction of Mg ion with DNA fragments. It was concluded that DNA extraction method without purification is suitable for soil samples that have less than 10 μg/g of humic acids, less than 70% clay content and less than 0.01% Mg ion content.

  7. Optimization Of Preparation And Validation Of Hepatitis C Irma Kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ariyanto, Agus; Wayan, R.S.; Sukiyati, Dj.; Darwati, Siti; Yunita, Fitri; Mondrida, Gina; Sulaiman; Yulianti, Veronika; Setiowati, Sri

    2000-01-01

    Optimization of preparation and validation of hepatitis C IRMA kit have been done. Tracer was prepared by iodination of anti-hlgG with 125 I using Choramin-T and N-Bromosuksinimide as oxidizing agent. Iodinated anti-hlgG was purified using PD-10 and Sephadex G-50 column. Coated bead was prepared by immobilization of antigen HCV recombinant on polystyrene bead. To obtain a good quality of reagent some parameters were optimized i.e.: colim used for purification. To determine the validity of the kit, validation which include comparison study and determination of specificity and sensitivity have been performed. A good quality of tracer has been able to prepared with high yield (74%) and high P/N value (15). The quality of coated bead is also reasonably good (P/N 34.3), and gave a good density and dissociation index (0.335 and 0.99% respectively). Both tracer and coated bead were remain stable after 2 months storage at 4 o C. In comparison with Elisa kit, the specificity and sensitivity of the HCV IRMA kit is reasonably high, 88.6% and 92.3% respectively

  8. Radiology seminars using teaching kits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munro, T.G.

    1989-01-01

    Clinco-radiological seminars are an effective method of teaching medical students. However, in busy departments it is often difficult to provide enough radiologists for small group instruction. This can be facilitated by the use of prepared teaching kits. Each kit contains a set of duplicated films and a syllabus which gives a short clinical history for each patient and a series of questions to be used to direct the discussion. Each diagnostic problem is chosen to demonstrate core material. We have been using these teaching kits for organ system teaching in the preclerkship year. Teaching kits offer several advantages. They make it easier to recruit seminar leaders through efficient use of their time. The use of duplicated films and a syllabus ensures that all students cover the same material. The syllabus can be used to generate examination questions for reinforcement of important concepts. The kits are also available to students to review alone and can be readily updated as required

  9. Identification and antibiotic sensitivity test of bacteria from stools of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and fifty stool samples from 65 female and 85 male patients with acute diarrhoea from the Central Hospital, Agbor (Nigeria) were examined to ascertain the likelihood of cholera outbreak in Agbor. The samples were preserved in Carey-Blair semi-solid medium, inoculated directly on blood agar, McConkey agar ...

  10. Energy Management Curriculum Starter Kit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, W.C.

    1987-02-01

    The Energy Management Curriculum Starter Kit was designed to help engineering educators develop and teach energy management courses. Montana State University and Oklahoma State University courses are embodied in the model curriculum given. The curricula offered at many other universities throughout the United States are also presented. The kit was designed specifically to train engineering students to be good energy managers. Courses at both the undergraduate and postgraduate level are presented.

  11. Performance evaluation of Cepheid Xpert Norovirus kit with a user-modified protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Rachel Shi-Lei; Yeo, Fion; Chia, Wai Theng; Lee, Chun Kiat; Leong, Mun Han; Ng, Christopher Wai-Siong; Poon, Kok Siong; Yan, Gabriel Zherong; Chiu, Lily-Lily; Yan, Benedict Junrong; Jureen, Roland; Koay, Evelyn Siew-Chuan; Lee, Hong Kai

    2018-03-01

    The Cepheid Xpert® Norovirus kit automates sample processing, nucleic acid extraction, and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCRs) to detect norovirus genogroups I (GI) and II (GII). Eighty-five stool samples collected between February 2015 and May 2017 were used to compare the performance of a user-modified Xpert assay against a clinically validated laboratory-developed test (LDT). Of the 85 samples, 54 were previously archived in -80°C freezer. The remaining 31 were fresh samples tested concurrently with the LDT. The results of all samples tested using the Xpert kit and LDT were found to be concordant, including 12 GI- and 42 GII-positive samples, 1 GI and GII coinfection, and 30 negative samples. Comparison of the assays showed perfect concordance with a kappa coefficient score of 1.00 (95%CI from 1.00 to 1.00). Of the 30 negative stool samples tested, three samples were positive for rotavirus detected using an immunochromatographic assay, with no cross-reactivity shown in both LDT and Xpert assays. In-run sample processing control of the Xpert assay for all negative samples tested showed no/minor inhibition. Compared to the LDT, the Xpert assay produced similar or better Ct values for detection. It also showed better mitigation of PCR inhibition in stool sample testing. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Comparison of the Triage Micro Parasite Panel and Microscopy for the Detection of Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar, Giardia lamblia, and Cryptosporidium parvum in Stool Samples Collected in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Swierczewski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, and Cryptosporidium parvum are three of the most important parasitic causes of acute diarrhea worldwide. Laboratory diagnosis of these parasites is usually done by ova and parasite examination (O&P examination via microscopy. The sensitivity and specificity of O&P examination varies among laboratories and can be labor intensive and time consuming. The Triage Micro Parasite Panel (BioSite, San Diego, California is an enzyme immunoassay kit that can detect E. histolytica/E. dispar, G. lamblia, and C. parvum simultaneously using fresh or frozen stool. The present study evaluated the Triage Micro Parasite Panel in detecting E. histolytica/E. dispar, G. lamblia, and C. parvum compared to O&P examination in 266 stool samples collected at medical facilities in Kenya. The sensitivity and specificity results for the Triage Micro Parasite Panel were: for E. histolytica/E. dispar: 100%, 100%, G. lamblia: 100%, 100% and C. parvum: 73%, 100%. There was no evidence of cross reactivity using the kit with other parasites identified in the stool specimens. These results indicate that the Triage Micro Parasite Panel is a highly sensitive kit that can be used for screening purposes in large scale studies or outbreak investigations or as a possible alternative to O&P examination.

  13. The effect of changing stool collection processes on compliance in nationwide organized screening using a fecal occult blood test (FOBT) in Korea: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hye Young; Suh, Mina; Baik, Hyung Won; Choi, Kui Son; Park, Boyoung; Jun, Jae Kwan; Lee, Chan Wha; Oh, Jae Hwan; Lee, You Kyoung; Han, Dong Soo; Lee, Do-Hoon

    2014-11-26

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening by fecal occult blood test (FOBT) significantly reduces CRC mortality, and compliance rates directly influence the efficacy of this screening method. The aim of this study is to investigate whether stool collection strategies affect compliance with the FOBT. In total, 3,596 study participants aged between 50 and 74 years will be recruited. The study will be conducted using a randomized controlled trial, with a 2 × 2 factorial design resulting in four groups. The first factor is the method of stool-collection device distribution (mailing vs. visiting the clinic) and the second is the type of stool-collection device (sampling kit vs. conventional container). Participants will be randomly assigned to one of four groups: (1) sampling kit received by mail; (2) conventional container received by mail; (3) sampling kit received at the clinic; (4) conventional container received at the clinic (control group). The primary outcome will be the FOBT compliance rate; satisfaction and intention to be rescreened in the next screening round will also be evaluated. The rates of positive FOBT results and detection of advanced adenomas or cancers through colonoscopies will also be compared between the two collection containers. Identifying a method of FOBT that yields high compliance rates will be a key determinant of the success of CRC screening. The findings of this study will provide reliable information for health policy makers to develop evidence-based strategies for a high compliance rate. KCT0000803 Date of registration in primary registry: 9 January, 2013.

  14. Comparison of three stool antigen assays with the 13C- urea breath test for the primary diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection and monitoring treatment outcome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hooton, Carmel

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: The urea breath test (UBT) is the gold-standard non-invasive test for the detection of Helicobacter pylori infection, however, the lack of availability of the UBT due to the high cost of the test, and in particular the need for expensive analytical instrumentation, limits the usefulness of this method. Stool antigen assays may offer an alternative non-invasive method for the diagnosis of infection. OBJECTIVE: To compare the accuracy of three stool antigen assays (HpSA, IDEIA HpStAR, and ImmunoCard STAT) against the UBT for the primary diagnosis of H. pylori infection and for monitoring treatment outcome. METHODS: A total of 102 patients attending two gastroenterology day-case clinics for the investigation of dyspepsia were included. Each patient provided breath and stool samples for analysis. Patients who tested positive for H. pylori by the validated UBT were prescribed triple therapy and invited to return for repeat breath and stool sample analysis 6 weeks post-treatment. RESULTS: Of the 102 patients tested, 48 were diagnosed with H. pylori infection by the UBT. The HpSA assay interpreted 38 of these as positive (79% sensitive). Of the 54 UBT-negative patients the HpSA assay interpreted all 54 as negative (100% specific). The IDEIA HpStAR assay correctly identified 44 patients as positive (92% sensitive) and 50 as negative (92.5% specific). The ImmunoCard STAT assay interpreted 38 patients as positive (79% sensitive) and 52 as negative (96.3% specific). CONCLUSION: The findings indicate that the IDEIA HpStAR stool antigen kit is the most accurate assay of the three assays evaluated, and possibly represents a viable alternative to the UBT for the primary diagnosis of H. pylori infection and for monitoring treatment outcome.

  15. Management of stool land revenue in Ghana: A study of the Nkawie ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana) ... of stool lands, poor record keeping which often results in multiple sales and chieftaincy disputes ... Given the constitutional importance of stool lands, this research investigates the impact of stool ... To this end, the research assessed the performance of key stakeholders like the

  16. Validity of a commercial kit for detection of antibodies in bovine serum in an endemic area for fasciolosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Nunes Simões

    Full Text Available Abstract Fasciolosis is caused by Fasciola hepatica that affects the bile ducts and liver parenchyma of ruminants, which can result in economic loss. This study aimed to carry out the validity of the commercial kit ELISA® indirect front of the simple fecal sedimentation test used as the standard. 143 samples were collected blood and feces of cattle from Jerome, south of the Espírito Santo. Serum samples were left at -80 °C and used to perform the ELISA kit IDEXX®. All animals to stool examinations were also positive to the ELISA (22 and negative samples to test stool (121, 52 animals reacted positively against the antibody research. The frequency of fasciolosis was 15.4% in the stool examinations and 51.8% by ELISA. The validity was calculated by sensitivity (100%, specificity (57%, positive predictive value (29% and negative predictive value (100%, and the correlation between the tests calculated using the kappa index of 0.35. The better sensitivity of the ELISA commercial kit should not be a separately evaluated, since the cost benefit and the technical facility must be considered.

  17. The insulin radioimmunoassay kit prepared by IPEN-CNEN/SP - Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesquita, C.H. de; Silva, C.P.G. da; Hamada, M.M.

    1985-11-01

    The specification and methodological aspects of the insulin radioimmunoassay kit produced by IPEN-CNEN/SP - Brazil are described. The limitations taking care and the following quality control parameters or procedures are discussed: specific radioactivity, comparison between two insulin - 125 I purification procedures, affinity constant 'K' of the antigen - antibody reaction, minimal detectable dose (MDD), kinetics degradation of the radioinsulin, radioassay imprecision profile, radioassay performance temperature dependence and normal values histogram. (Author) [pt

  18. Radioimmunoassay kit formulation and its validation for serum progesterone using progesterone radiotracer purified by gel filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karir, T.; Pal, N.; Sivaprasad, N.

    2003-01-01

    Purification of the radioiodinated progesterone tyrosine methyl ester conjugate by gel filtration and the development, optimization and clinical validation of a direct radioimmunoassay (RIA) of progesterone using this radiotracer are described. High purity radiotracer is essential for the error free performance of any RIA. Progesterone 11α hemisuccinate was conjugated to tyrosine methyl ester (TME) by the mixed anhydride method and this conjugate was then radioiodinated by the chloramine-T method. Purification of the radioiodinated product was carried out by gel filtration. About 12 batches of the radiotracer were prepared and purified. The purification by gel filtration gave reproducible elution pattern and purity. The radiotracer thus purified was found to have consistent quality as compared to that of any other purification methods. Non-specific binding of the radiotracer was found to be 95% as checked by paper electrophoresis. The stability (retention of the immunoreactivity) of the radiotracer was two to three months. No appreciable changes in the assay characteristics were observed during this period. The assay involved 3 hours incubation of progesterone antibody with individual standards or sample and radiotracer at room temperature. The optimized assay was then validated for internal and external quality control parameters. A RIA kit was then formulated with this radiotracer for estimation of progesterone in serum. The assay kit consisted of lyophilized individual standards ranging from 0.25 to 50 ng/ml. The clinical performance of the developed kit was compared with that of a commercial ELISA kit and a correlation of 0.94 was observed. (author)

  19. Preparation of albumin radioimmunoassay kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Suoshu; Wang Yanzhen; Wang Zhenshan

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the preparation of Albumin (Alb) radioimmunoassay kit and its preliminary clinical application. The kit is mainly applied to the measurement of Alb concentration in human urine, adopting second antibody-PEG method. The measurement range is (1-50 μg/ml). The curve obtained with a serially diluted urine sample of high Alb concentration was a straight line. Recovery, detectability, intra- and inter-batch variation coefficients were 95.7%-103.6%, 0.1 μg/ml, 5.8% and 6.4% respectively. The kit was tried out clinically for measuring Alb in urine samples in about 1200 normal individuals and 600 various patients of related renal diseases. The preliminary clinical results show that Alb RIA is conducive to the early diagnosis of kidney function abnormalities

  20. COMPARISON OF COMMERCIAL DNA KITS AND TRADITIONAL DNA EXTRACTION PROCEDURE IN PCR DETECTION OF PORK IN DRY/FERMENTED SAUSAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivona Djurkin Kušec

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study four commercially available DNA extraction kits (Wizard® Genomic DNA Purification Kit, High Pure PCR Template Kit, DNeasy mericon Food and GeneJET PCR Purification Kit, as well as standard phenol/chloroform isolation technique have been evaluated regarding their concentration, purity and suitability for amplification of porcine DNA in dry/fermented sausages. The isolates were assessed for quantity and quality using spectrophotometer (IMPLEN GmbH, Germany. To verify template usability and quality of isolated DNA, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR targeting at porcine cytochrome b by species specific primers was used. The comparison of extraction methods revealed satisfactory efficiency and purity of all extraction kits, while with standard phenol/chloroform isolation method high concentrations of DNA with low A260/280 were obtained. However, all the investigated techniques proved to be suitable for identification of porcine DNA in dry/fermented sausage. Thus, the standard phenol/chloroform DNA extraction method, as the cost-effective one, can be recommended as a good alternative to more expensive isolation kits when investigating the presence of pork DNA in dry/ fermented meat products.

  1. Comparison of commercial DNA preparation kits for the detection of Brucellae in tissue using quantitative real-time PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Straube Eberhard

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The detection of Brucellae in tissue specimens using PCR assays is difficult because the amount of bacteria is usually low. Therefore, optimised DNA extraction methods are critical. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of commercial kits for the extraction of Brucella DNA. Methods Five kits were evaluated using clinical specimens: QIAamp™ DNA Mini Kit (QIAGEN, peqGold™ Tissue DNA Mini Kit (PeqLab, UltraClean™ Tissue and Cells DNA Isolation Kit (MoBio, DNA Isolation Kit for Cells and Tissues (Roche, and NucleoSpin™ Tissue (Macherey-Nagel. DNA yield was determined using a quantitative real-time PCR assay targeting IS711 that included an internal amplification control. Results Kits of QIAGEN and Roche provided the highest amount of DNA, Macherey-Nagel and Peqlab products were intermediate whereas MoBio yielded the lowest amount of DNA. Differences were significant (p Conclusions We observed differences in DNA yield as high as two orders of magnitude for some samples between the best and the worst DNA extraction kits and inhibition was observed occasionally. This indicates that DNA purification may be more relevant than expected when the amount of DNA in tissue is very low.

  2. Disposal of children's stools and its association with childhood diarrhea in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawankule, Rahul; Singh, Abhishek; Kumar, Kaushalendra; Pedgaonkar, Sarang

    2017-01-05

    Children's stool disposal is often overlooked in sanitation programs of any country. Unsafe disposal of children's stool makes children susceptible to many diseases that transmit through faecal-oral route. Therefore, the study aims to examine the magnitude of unsafe disposal of children's stools in India, the factors associated with it and finally its association with childhood diarrhea. Data from the third round of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3) conducted in 2005-06 is used to carry out the analysis. The binary logistic regression model is used to examine the factors associated with unsafe disposal of children's stool. Binary logistic regression is also used to examine the association between unsafe disposal of children's stool and childhood diarrhea. Overall, stools of 79% of children in India were disposed of unsafely. The urban-rural gap in the unsafe disposal of children's stool was wide. Mother's illiteracy and lack of exposure to media, the age of the child, religion and caste/tribe of the household head, wealth index, access to toilet facility and urban-rural residence were statistically associated with unsafe disposal of stool. The odds of diarrhea in children whose stools were disposed of unsafely was estimated to be 11% higher (95% CI: 1.01-1.21) than that of children whose stools were disposed of safely. An increase in the unsafe disposal of children's stool in the community also increased the risk of diarrhea in children. We found significant statistical association between children's stool disposal and diarrhea. Therefore, gains in reduction of childhood diarrhea can be achieved in India through the complete elimination of unsafe disposal of children's stools. The sanitation programmes currently being run in India must also focus on safe disposal of children's stool.

  3. Active Parenting Now: Program Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popkin, Michael H.

    Based largely on the theories of Alfred Adler and Rudolf Dreikurs, this parent education curriculum is a video-based interactive learning experience that teaches a comprehensive model of parenting to parents of children ages 5 to 12 years. The kit provides parents with the skills needed to help their children develop courage, responsibility, and…

  4. Natural Gas Energy Educational Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Gas Association, Arlington, VA. Educational Services.

    Prepared by energy experts and educators to introduce middle school and high school students to natural gas and its role in our society, this kit is designed to be incorporated into existing science and social studies curricula. The materials and activities focus on the origin, discovery, production, delivery, and use of natural gas. The role of…

  5. Architectural Environment: A Resource Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.B. Speed Art Museum, Louisville, KY.

    There are many ways to approach the investigation of architecture. One can look at structural form, climate and topography, the aesthetics of style and decoration, building function, historical factors, cultural meanings, or technology and techniques associated with construction. This resource kit touches upon a few of these approaches, ranging…

  6. Work and Family Resource Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This kit is designed to help employers understand the range of family needs emerging in the workplace and the numerous options for a company response. An introduction discusses the need for child care services, dependent care problems, and how employers respond and benefit. Sections address the following: selecting the right option in relation to…

  7. Core Flight System Satellite Starter Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Core Flight System Satellite Starter Kit (cFS Kit) will allow a small satellite or CubeSat developer to rapidly develop, deploy, test, and operate flight...

  8. A novel kit for rapid detection of Vibrio cholerae O1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, J A; Huq, A; Tamplin, M L; Siebeling, R J; Colwell, R R

    1994-01-01

    We report on the development and testing of a novel, rapid, colorimetric immunodiagnostic kit, Cholera SMART, for direct detection of the presence of Vibrio cholerae O1 in clinical specimens. Unlike conventional culture methods requiring several days to complete, the Cholera SMART kit can be used directly in the field by untrained or minimally skilled personnel to detect V. cholerae O1 in less than 15 min, without cumbersome laboratory equipment. A total of 120 clinical and environmental bacterial strains, including both O1 and non-O1 serotypes of V. cholerae isolated from samples collected from a variety of geographical regions, were tested, and positive reactions were observed only with V. cholerae O1. Also, results of a field trial in Bangladesh, employing Cholera SMART, showed 100% specificity and 96% sensitivity compared with conventional culture methods. Another field trial, in Mexico, showed that Cholera SMART was 100% in agreement with a recently described coagglutination test when 108 stool specimens were tested.

  9. Quality control of parasitology stool examination in Tabriz clinical laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    shahram Khademvatan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of quality control program was to make doctors and laboratory personnel trust in laboratory results and consequently increasing confidence in laboratory achievements. The quality assurance means raising the level of quality in all tests that lead to raising the level of work efficiency and laboratories including minimum expense for society and minimum time for lab personnel. This study aimed to assess and determine the accuracy and precision of results in Tabriz medical diagnostic laboratories. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, 790 stool samples were selected randomly and tested by standard methods.Student t- test, SPSS software and sensitivity and accuracy formulas were used for data analysis. Results: The sensitivity was 62%, 22% and 8% with 95% confidence intervals for worm's eggs, protozoan cysts and trophozoite detection respectively. Conclusion: To elevate quality assurance in clinical diagnostic laboratory, monitoring and check of the laboratories by standard methods continually should be done.

  10. Treatment guidelines for primary nonretentive encopresis and stool toileting refusal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, B R; Marcus, B A; Pitner, S L

    1999-04-15

    Nonretentive encopresis refers to inappropriate soiling without evidence of fecal constipation and retention. This form of encopresis accounts for up to 20 percent of all cases. Characteristics include soiling accompanied by daily bowel movements that are normal in size and consistency. An organic cause for nonretentive encopresis is rarely identified. The medical assessment is usually normal, and signs of constipation are noticeably absent. A full developmental and behavioral assessment should be made to establish that the child is ready for intervention to correct encopresis and to identify any barriers to success, particularly disruptive behavior problems. Successful interventions depend on the presence of soft, comfortable bowel movements and addressing toilet refusal behavior. Daily scheduled positive toilet sits are recommended. Incentives may be used to reinforce successful defecation during these sits. A plan for management of stool withholding should be agreed on by the parents/caretakers and the family physician before intervention.

  11. Laboratory of minerals purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The laboratory of minerals purification was organized in 1962 where with application of modern physical and chemical methods were investigated the mechanism of flotation reagents interaction with minerals' surface, was elaborated technologies on rising complexity of using of republic's minerals

  12. Clinical illnesses associated with isolation of dysgonic fermenter 3 from stool samples.

    OpenAIRE

    Blum, R N; Berry, C D; Phillips, M G; Hamilos, D L; Koneman, E W

    1992-01-01

    The clinical significance of the fastidious organism DF-3 isolated from stool cultures is unclear. We sought to improve our understanding of this organism and to further define its association with human disease. Stool cultures for DF-3 were obtained from three sources: an ongoing study of enteric pathogens in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus, a screening procedure in which all stool samples submitted for Clostridium difficile toxin assay were cultured for DF-3, and sto...

  13. CERN’s FMC Kit

    CERN Document Server

    Cattin, M; Serrano, J; van der Bij, E; Wlostowski, T

    2014-01-01

    In the context of the renovation of controls and data acquisition electronics for accelerators the BE-CO-HT section at CERN has designed a kit based on carriers and mezzanines following the VITA FPGAMezzanine Card (FMC) standard. Carriers exist in VME64x and PCIe form factors, with a PXIe carrier underway. Mezzanines include an Analog to Digital Converter, a Time to Digital Converter, a fine delay generator and a Digital Input/Output. All of the designs are licensed under the CERN Open Hardware Licence and commercialised by companies. This paper discusses the benefits of this carrier mezzanine strategy and of the Open Hardware based commercial paradigm. It also explains the design of each layer of the FMC kit, from the hardware to the gateware and the Linux device driver. In addition, several tools to help designers developing gateware for mezzanines and new concepts such as the Self-Describing Bus (SDB) and the fmcbus are presented. Lastly, some of the plans for the future of the FMC kit and Open Hardware Re...

  14. Molecular Alterations of KIT Oncogene in Gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L. Gomes

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Gliomas are the most common and devastating primary brain tumours. Despite therapeutic advances, the majority of gliomas do not respond either to chemo or radiotherapy. KIT, a class III receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK, is frequently involved in tumourigenic processes. Currently, KIT constitutes an attractive therapeutic target. In the present study we assessed the frequency of KIT overexpression in gliomas and investigated the genetic mechanisms underlying KIT overexpression. KIT (CD117 immunohistochemistry was performed in a series of 179 gliomas of various grades. KIT activating gene mutations (exons 9, 11, 13 and 17 and gene amplification analysis, as defined by chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR were performed in CD117 positive cases. Tumour cell immunopositivity was detected in 15.6% (28/179 of cases, namely in 25% (1/4 of pilocytic astrocytomas, 25% (5/20 of diffuse astrocytomas, 20% (1/5 of anaplastic astrocytomas, 19.5% (15/77 of glioblastomas and one third (3/9 of anaplastic oligoastrocytomas. Only 5.7% (2/35 of anaplastic oligodendrogliomas showed CD117 immunoreactivity. No association was found between tumour CD117 overexpression and patient survival. In addition, we also observed CD117 overexpression in endothelial cells, which varied from 0–22.2% of cases, being more frequent in high-grade lesions. No KIT activating mutations were identified. Interestingly, CISH and/or qRT-PCR analysis revealed the presence of KIT gene amplification in 6 glioblastomas and 2 anaplastic oligoastrocytomas, corresponding to 33% (8/24 of CD117 positive cases. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that KIT gene amplification rather than gene mutation is a common genetic mechanism underlying KIT expression in subset of malignant gliomas. Further studies are warranted to determine whether glioma patients exhibiting KIT overexpression and KIT gene amplification may benefit from therapy with anti-KIT RTK

  15. Stool microbiome and metabolome differences between colorectal cancer patients and healthy adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study we used stool profiling to identify intestinal bacteria and metabolites that are differentially represented in humans with colorectal cancer (CRC) compared to healthy controls to identify how microbial functions may influence CRC development. Stool samples were collected from healthy a...

  16. EcoFlex: A Multifunctional MoClo Kit for E. coli Synthetic Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Simon J; Lai, Hung-En; Kelwick, Richard J R; Chee, Soo Mei; Bell, David J; Polizzi, Karen Marie; Freemont, Paul S

    2016-10-21

    Golden Gate cloning is a prominent DNA assembly tool in synthetic biology for the assembly of plasmid constructs often used in combinatorial pathway optimization, with a number of assembly kits developed specifically for yeast and plant-based expression. However, its use for synthetic biology in commonly used bacterial systems such as Escherichia coli has surprisingly been overlooked. Here, we introduce EcoFlex a simplified modular package of DNA parts for a variety of applications in E. coli, cell-free protein synthesis, protein purification and hierarchical assembly of transcription units based on the MoClo assembly standard. The kit features a library of constitutive promoters, T7 expression, RBS strength variants, synthetic terminators, protein purification tags and fluorescence proteins. We validate EcoFlex by assembling a 68-part containing (20 genes) plasmid (31 kb), characterize in vivo and in vitro library parts, and perform combinatorial pathway assembly, using pooled libraries of either fluorescent proteins or the biosynthetic genes for the antimicrobial pigment violacein as a proof-of-concept. To minimize pathway screening, we also introduce a secondary module design site to simplify MoClo pathway optimization. In summary, EcoFlex provides a standardized and multifunctional kit for a variety of applications in E. coli synthetic biology.

  17. How to: Establish and run a stool bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terveer, E M; van Beurden, Y H; Goorhuis, A; Seegers, J F M L; Bauer, M P; van Nood, E; Dijkgraaf, M G W; Mulder, C J J; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C M J E; Verspaget, H W; Keller, J J; Kuijper, E J

    2017-12-01

    Since 2013, several stool banks have been developed following publications reporting on clinical success of 'faecal microbiota transplantation' (FMT) for recurrent Clostridium difficile infections (CDI). However, protocols for donor screening, faecal suspension preparation, and transfer of the faecal suspension differ between countries and institutions. Moreover, no European consensus exists regarding the legislative aspects of the faecal suspension product. Internationally standardized recommendations about the above mentioned aspects have not yet been established. In 2015, the Netherlands Donor Feces Bank (NDFB) was founded with the primary aim of providing a standardized product for the treatment of patients with recurrent CDI in the Netherlands. Standard operation procedures for donor recruitment, donor selection, donor screening, and production, storage, and distribution of frozen faecal suspensions for FMT were formulated. Our experience summarized in this review addresses current donor recruitment and screening, preparation of the faecal suspension, transfer of the faecal microbiota suspension, and the experiences and follow-up of the patients treated with donor faeces from the NDFB. Copyright © 2017 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Kit with track detectors aiming at didactic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesar, M.F.; Koskinas, M.F.

    1988-01-01

    The kit intends to improve the possibilities in performing experiments of Nuclear Physics in Modern Physics Laboratories of Physics Course introducing the solid state nuclear track detectors. In these materials the passage of heavily ionizing nuclear particles creates paths (tracks) that may be revealed and made visible in an optical microscope. By the help of the kit several experiments and/or demonstrations may be performed. The kit contains solid state nuclear track detectors unirradiated and irradiated, irradiated etched and uneteched sheets; an alpha source of 241 Am and an instrution text with photomicrographs. To use the kit the laboratory must have an ordinary optical microscope. (author) [pt

  19. Water purification in Borexino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giammarchi, M. [Infn Milano (Italy); Balata, M.; Ioannucci, L.; Nisi, S. [Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (Italy); Goretti, A.; Ianni, A. [Princeton University (United States); Miramonti, L. [Dip. di Fisica dell' Università di Milano e Infn (Italy)

    2013-08-08

    Astroparticle Physics and Underground experiments searching for rare nuclear events, need high purity materials to act as detectors or detector shielding. Water has the advantage of being cheap, dense and easily available. Most of all, water can be purified to the goal of obatining a high level of radiopurity. Water Purification can be achieved by means of a combination of processes, including filtration, reverse osmosis, deionization and gas stripping. The Water Purification System for the Borexino experiment, will be described together with its main performances.

  20. Stool frequency recording in severe acute malnutrition ('StoolSAM'); an agreement study comparing maternal recall versus direct observation using diapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voskuijl, Wieger; Potani, Isabel; Bandsma, Robert; Baan, Anne; White, Sarah; Bourdon, Celine; Kerac, Marko

    2017-06-07

    Approximately 50% of the deaths of children under the age of 5 can be attributed to undernutrition, which also encompasses severe acute malnutrition (SAM). Diarrhoea is strongly associated with these deaths and is commonly diagnosed solely based on stool frequency and consistency obtained through maternal recall. This trial aims to determine whether this approach is equivalent to a 'directly observed method' in which a health care worker directly observed stool frequency using diapers in hospitalised children with complicated SAM. This study was conducted at 'Moyo' Nutritional Rehabilitation Unit, Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Malawi. Participants were children aged 5-59 months admitted with SAM. We compared 2 days of stool frequency data obtained with next-day maternal-recall versus a 'gold standard' in which a health care worker observed stool frequency every 2 h using diapers. After study completion, guardians were asked their preferred method and their level of education. We found poor agreement between maternal recall and the 'gold standard' of directly observed diapers. The sensitivity to detect diarrhoea based on maternal recall was poor, with only 75 and 56% of diarrhoea cases identified on days 1 and 2, respectively. However, the specificity was higher with more than 80% of children correctly classified as not having diarrhoea. On day 1, the mean stool frequency difference between the two methods was -0.17 (SD; 1.68) with limits of agreement (of stool frequency) of -3.55 and 3.20 and, similarly on day 2, the mean difference was -0.2 (SD; 1.59) with limits of agreement of -3.38 and 2.98. These limits extend beyond the pre-specified 'acceptable' limits of agreement (±1.5 stool per day) and indicate that the 2 methods are non-equivalent. The higher the stool frequency, the more discrepant the two methods were. Most primary care givers strongly preferred using diapers. This study shows lack of agreement between the assessment of stool frequency in SAM

  1. Sodium purification in Rapsodie

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, B.

    1968-01-01

    This report is one of a series of publications presenting the main results of tests carried out during the start-up of the first french fast neutron reactor: Rapsodie. The article presents the sodium purification techniques used in the reactor cooling circuits both from the constructional point of view and with respect to results obtained during the first years working. (author) [fr

  2. Consistency of direct microscopic examination and ELISA in detection of Giardia in stool specimen among children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Torabi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the consistency of direct microscopic examination and ELISA for determination of Giadia in stool specimen. Method: Study population consisted of children with any clinical symptoms of Giardia infestation since last two weeks. Fresh stool specimen was collected from each child. The stools specimens were assessed by two methods of direct microscopic examination and ELISA.The degree of agreement between direct stool exam and ELISA was calculated by Cohen's kappa coefficient. Results: In this study, 124 children with age range 2-12 years were investigated. A total of 64 (61.7% and 79 (65.7% of children had Giardia by direct stool exam and ELISA test respectively. There was association between frequency of constipation and Giardia infection (P=0.036. The Cohen's kappa coefficient calculated for degree of agreement between direct stool exam and ELISA showed κ=0.756 (P<0.001. Conclusions: The frequency of Giardia infection in symptomatic children was high and there was high agreement rate between ELISA and direct stool smear.

  3. Detection of Entamoeba histolytica/dispar in stool specimens by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in the population of Jeddah City, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnawi, Abdulaziz B M; Tonkal, Abulkader M; Fouad, Mahmoud A H; Al-Braiken, Faten A

    2007-04-01

    This study determined the prevalence of intestinal parasites, particularly pathogenic Entamoeba sp. (E. histolytica), in patients attending three hospitals in Jeddah City, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, King Abdulaziz Hospital and King Fahad Hospital for gastro-intestinal troubles. 186 stool specimens were examined microscopically for parasites and by ELISA kit (E. histolytica II) for true E. histolytica. 83 samples (44.6%) were positive by microscopy for at least one parasite. Of which, 23 (12.4%) showed two parasites and 15 (8.1%) three parasites. Eight different parasite species were identified. The most prevalent were E. histolytica/dispar (n = 26, 31.3%) and Giardia lamblia (n = 13, 15.7%). Others were Blastocytosis hominis (n = 12, 14.5%), Entamoeba coli (n = 11, 13.3%), Trichuris trichuria (n = 8, 9.6%), Endolymax nana (n = 6, 7.2%), Hymenolepes nana (n = 4, 4.8%) and Chilomastix mesnili (n = 3, 3.6%). Only five stool samples (19%) from those identified by microscopy to contain E. histolytica/dispar, were E. histolytica positive by E. histolytica II ELISA. For the first time to the authors' knowledge the true prevalence of E. histolytica in Saudi Arabia was 2.7%. E. histolytica II ELISA proved to be a highly useful technique to differentiate pathogenic E. histolytica from non pathogenic E. dispar.

  4. Preparation of kits for 99Tcm radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    This publication details preparation under Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) of thirteen widely used 99 Tc m radiopharmaceuticals and their quality assurance practices. The objective of this document is to present to those who intend to launch a kit preparation programme a set of preparation procedures and other relevant information gathered during kit production over a period of more than a decade, to serve as a good starting point. The manuals and monographs included in the document are based on the experience gained in two major centres. The publication of this material is intended to give a typical example, and not the only possible procedure for preparing the kits. Following the essentials of these kit preparation procedures, it is always possible to make alterations to the composition of the kits. The kits described here concern widely used 99 Tc m radiopharmaceuticals which do not require a Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) camera. These examples of the ''first generation'' of kits are not very intricate to prepare. Although it is advisable to have only one agent for a given intended use, a few agents for each purpose, e.g. EHDP and MDP for bone imagining, have been included in the document so that the reader can have some flexibility in selecting a particular kit. 24 refs, 2 figs

  5. A fiber-optic polarimetric demonstration kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eftimov, T; Dimitrova, T L; Ivanov, G

    2012-01-01

    A simple and multifunctional fiber-optic polarimetric kit on the basis of highly birefringent single-mode fibers is presented. The fiber-optic polarimetric kit allows us to perform the following laboratory exercises: (i) fiber excitation and the measurement of numerical aperture, (ii) polarization preservation and (iii) obtain polarization-sensitive fiberized interferometers.

  6. Building Use Policies. SPEC Kit 144.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Patrick

    This Systems and Procedures Exchange Center (SPEC) flyer/kit addresses some of the needs of Association of Research Libraries (ARL) members regarding library building use and the aesthetics and well-being of the materials and people in the building. The kit draws upon documents gathered as part of a 1986 Quick-SPEC survey that dealt with food and…

  7. Teen Ambassador Leadership Kit (TALK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna R. Gillespie

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Teen Ambassador Leadership Kit, (TALK, is an annual weekend retreat designed for teens interested in promoting and marketing 4-H in their communities. TALK organizers felt teens would benefit from an intensive weekend retreat focused on communication. TALK produces a network of educated and excited 4-H teens that are available to help with 4-H promotion and marketing. Participants arrive on Friday evening for team building activities, on Saturday they participate in one of the workshops offered and on Sunday morning each workshop group has the opportunity to share their completed projects and what they learned. At the conclusion of the retreat, teens are designated "County 4-H Ambassadors" and certificates of completion, professional business cards and polo shirts are presented. The TALK teen participants return home to share what they learned with their local county 4-H staff and help promote and market 4-H in their communities.

  8. Personal radiotoxicological (first aid) kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gachalyi, Andras; Gyulai, Gabor

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, with the spread of nuclear industrial activities, and the widespread use of radioactive materials and products the possibility of radionuclide contamination of humans and animals has significantly increased. During nuclear tests or reactor accidents, a large amount of radioactive materials may enter the environment which can contaminate the living environment (air, water, vegetation, soil), for a long period. This contamination may enter living organisms by inhalation, intake and ingestion, causing severe biological damage. As an example the Chernobyl reactor accident can be mentioned, where there was no possibility for the decorporation of isotopes, as there were no products available such as the 'RADISTOP'. To achieve appropriate decorporating (and decontaminating) treatment which is effective, it is highly recommendable to use a personal Radiotoxicological First Aid Kit (PRK) within the shortest possible time after internal contamination. This unit provides effective treatment to decorporate the most common incorporated fission products. (author)

  9. Evaluation of Patients with an Apparent False Positive Stool DNA Test: The Role of Repeat Stool DNA Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Gregory S; Markowitz, Sanford D; Chen, Zhengyi; Tuck, Missy; Willis, Joseph E; Berger, Barry M; Brenner, Dean E; Li, Li

    2018-03-07

    There is uncertainty as to the appropriate follow-up of patients who test positive on multimarker stool DNA (sDNA) testing and have a colonoscopy without neoplasia. To determine the prevalence of missed colonic or occult upper gastrointestinal neoplasia in patients with an apparent false positive sDNA. We prospectively identified 30 patients who tested positive with a commercially available sDNA followed by colonoscopy without neoplastic lesions. Patients were invited to undergo repeat sDNA at 11-29 months after the initial test followed by repeat colonoscopy and upper endoscopy. We determined the presence of neoplastic lesions on repeat evaluation stratified by results of repeat sDNA. Twelve patients were restudied. Seven patients had a negative second sDNA test and a normal second colonoscopy and upper endoscopy. In contrast, 5 of 12 subjects had a persistently positive second sDNA test, and 3 had positive findings, including a 3-cm sessile transverse colon adenoma with high-grade dysplasia, a 2-cm right colon sessile serrated adenoma with dysplasia, and a nonadvanced colon adenoma (p = 0.045). These corresponded to a positive predictive value of 0.60 (95% CI 0.17-1.00) and a negative predictive value of 1.00 (95% CI 1.00-1.00) for the second sDNA test. In addition, the medical records of all 30 subjects with apparent false positive testing were reviewed and no documented cases of malignant tumors were recorded. Repeat positive sDNA testing may identify a subset of patients with missed or occult colorectal neoplasia after negative colonoscopy for an initially positive sDNA. High-quality colonoscopy with careful attention to the right colon in patients with positive sDNA is critically important and may avoid false negative colonoscopy.

  10. Antimicrobial resistance of bacterial enteropathogens isolated from stools in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randrianirina, Frederique; Ratsima, Elisoa Hariniana; Ramparany, Lova; Randremanana, Rindra; Rakotonirina, Hanitra Clara; Andriamanantena, Tahiry; Rakotomanana, Fanjasoa; Rajatonirina, Soatiana; Richard, Vincent; Talarmin, Antoine

    2014-02-25

    Diarrheal diseases are a major public health problem in developing countries, and are one of the main causes of hospital admissions in Madagascar. The Pasteur Institute of Madagascar undertook a study to determine the prevalence and the pathogenicity of bacterial, viral and protozoal enteropathogens in diarrheal and non-diarrheal stools of children aged less than 5 years in Madagascar. We present here the results of the analysis of antimicrobial susceptibility of the bacteria isolated during this study. The study was conducted in the community setting in 14 districts of Madagascar from October 2008 to May 2009. Conventional methods and PCR were used to identify the bacteria; antimicrobial susceptibility was determined using an agar diffusion method for enterobacteriaceae and MICs were measured by an agar dilution method for Campylobacter sp. In addition to the strains isolated during this study, Salmonella sp and Shigella sp isolated at the Pasteur Institute of Madagascar from 2005 to 2009 were included in the analysis to increase the power of the study. Twenty-nine strains of Salmonella sp, 35 strains of Shigella sp, 195 strains of diarrheagenic E. coli, 203 strains of C. jejuni and 71 strains of C. coli isolated in the community setting were tested for antibiotic resistance. Fifty-five strains of Salmonella sp and 129 strains of Shigella sp isolated from patients referred to the Pasteur Institute of Madagascar were also included in the study. Many E. coli and Shigella isolates (around 80%) but fewer Salmonella isolates were resistant to ampicillin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. A small proportion of strains of each species were resistant to ciprofloxacin and only 3% of E. coli strains presented a resistance to third generation cephalosporins due to the production of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases. The resistance of Campylobacter sp to ampicillin was the most prevalent, whereas less than 5% of isolates were resistant to each of the other antibiotics. The

  11. KIT safety management. Annual report 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    The KIT Safety Management Service Unit (KSM) guarantees radiological and conventional technical safety and security of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology and controls the implementation and observation of legal environmental protection requirements. KSM is responsible for - licensing procedures, - industrial safety organization, - control of environmental protection measures, - planning and implementation of emergency preparedness and response, - operation of radiological laboratories and measurement stations, - extensive radiation protection support and the - the execution of security tasks in and for all organizational units of KIT. Moreover, KSM is in charge of wastewater and environmental monitoring for all facilities and nuclear installations all over the KIT campus. KSM is headed by the Safety Commissioner of KIT, who is appointed by the Presidential Committee. Within his scope of procedure for KIT, the Safety Commissioner controls the implementation of and compliance with safety-relevant requirements. The KIT Safety Management is certified according to DIN EN ISO 9001, its industrial safety management is certified by the VBG as ''AMS-Arbeitsschutz mit System'' and, hence, fulfills the requirements of NLF / ISO-OSH 2001. KSM laboratories are accredited according to DIN EN ISO/IEC 17025. To the extent possible, KSM is committed to maintaining competence in radiation protection and to supporting research and teaching activities. The present reports lists the individual tasks of the KIT Safety Management and informs about the results achieved in 2012. Status figures in principle reflect the status at the end of the year 2012. The processes described cover the areas of competence of KSM.

  12. Uranium hexafluoride purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Eneas F. de

    1986-01-01

    Uranium hexafluoride might contain a large amount of impurities after manufacturing or handling. Three usual methods of purification of uranium hexafluoride were presented: selective sorption, sublimation, and distillation. Since uranium hexafluoride usually is contaminated with hydrogen fluoride, a theoretical study of the phase equilibrium properties was performed for the binary system UF 6 -HF. A large deviation from the ideal solution behaviour was observed. A purification unity based on a constant reflux batch distillation process was developed. A procedure was established in order to design the re boiler, condenser and packed columns for the UF 6 -HF mixture separation. A bench scale facility for fractional distillation of uranium hexafluoride was described. Basic operations for that facility and results extracted from several batches were discussed. (author)

  13. Electron beam silicon purification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kravtsov, Anatoly [SIA ' ' KEPP EU' ' , Riga (Latvia); Kravtsov, Alexey [' ' KEPP-service' ' Ltd., Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-15

    Purification of heavily doped electronic grade silicon by evaporation of N-type impurities with electron beam heating was investigated in process with a batch weight up to 50 kilos. Effective temperature of the melt, an indicative parameter suitable for purification process characterization was calculated and appeared to be stable for different load weight processes. Purified material was successfully approbated in standard CZ processes of three different companies. Each company used its standard process and obtained CZ monocrystals applicable for photovoltaic application. These facts enable process to be successfully scaled up to commercial volumes (150-300 kg) and yield solar grade silicon. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  14. Estradiol RIA kit in clinical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, W.; Lisse, K.; Bienert, R.; Flentje, H.; Koerner, H.; Wilken, T.; Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Berlin-Buch. Zentralinstitut fuer Isotopen- und Strahlenforschung)

    1985-01-01

    First clinical experience with a estradiol RIA kit developed in the Central Institute for Isotope- and Radiation Research is reported. The kit was used for the daily control of estradiol level in patients, which were treated within the program for in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer. The time of incubation could be shortened by means of a double antibody technique and by use of a precipitation mixture to 2 h. The intraassay variation is 9.2%, the interassay variation is 15.1%, the recovery rate is 94%. The sensitivity of the test (B 0 -3SD) is about 120 pmol/l. The estradiol RIA kit satisfies clinical requirements. (author)

  15. Stool frequency recording in severe acute malnutrition ('StoolSAM'); an agreement study comparing maternal recall versus direct observation using diapers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voskuijl, Wieger; Potani, Isabel; Bandsma, Robert; Baan, Anne; White, Sarah; Bourdon, Celine; Kerac, Marko

    2017-01-01

    Background: Approximately 50% of the deaths of children under the age of 5 can be attributed to undernutrition, which also encompasses severe acute malnutrition (SAM). Diarrhoea is strongly associated with these deaths and is commonly diagnosed solely based on stool frequency and consistency

  16. Stool consistency and stool frequency are excellent clinical markers for adequate colon preparation after polyethylene glycol 3350 cleansing protocol: a prospective clinical study in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safder, Shaista; Demintieva, Yulia; Rewalt, Mary; Elitsur, Yoram

    2008-12-01

    Colon preparation for a colonoscopy in children is a difficult task because of the unpalatable taste and large volume of cleansing solution that needs to be consumed to ensure a clean colon. Consequently, an unprepared colon frequently occurs in routine practices, which causes early termination and a repeated procedure. (1) To assess the effectiveness of polyethylene glycol solution (PEG 3350) in preparing the colon of children scheduled for a colonoscopy and (2) to investigate clinical markers associated with an adequate colon preparation before a colonoscopy. A total of 167 children scheduled for a colonoscopy. In a prospective study, children scheduled for a colonoscopy were given PEG 3350 solution (1.5 g/kg per day, up to 100 g/d) over a 4-day preparation period. Each day, a simple questionnaire that documents the amount of liquid consumed, adverse effects, and the number and consistency of stool was completed by the parents. After a colonoscopy procedure, the colon preparation was assigned a number grade. The data were later assessed and were compared to determine the association between the grade of cleansing and the frequency and/or consistency of stool during preparation. Colon preparation was completed in 149 children, 133 of whom were adequately prepared. Inadequate preparation was found in 16 children; the procedure was terminated prematurely in 2 of these patients because of unacceptable conditions. No significant adverse effects were noted. A number of >or=5 stools/d, and liquid stool consistency in the last 2 days of preparation were associated with adequate colon preparation. PEG 3350 solution is safe, efficacious, and tolerable for children. Stool frequency and consistency in the last 2 days of preparation were excellent markers (positive predictive value 91%-95%), which predict an adequately clean colon before a colonoscopy in children.

  17. Analysis of KIT expression and KIT exon 11 mutations in canine oral malignant melanomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, A; Mori, T; Sakai, H; Murakami, M; Yanai, T; Hoshino, Y; Maruo, K

    2011-09-01

    KIT, a transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase, is one of the specific targets for anti-cancer therapy. In humans, its expression and mutations have been identified in malignant melanomas and therapies using molecular-targeted agents have been promising in these tumours. As human malignant melanoma, canine malignant melanoma is a fatal disease with metastases and the poor response has been observed with all standard protocols. In our study, KIT expression and exon 11 mutations in dogs with histologically confirmed malignant oral melanomas were evaluated. Although 20 of 39 cases were positive for KIT protein, there was no significant difference between KIT expression and overall survival. Moreover, polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequencing of KIT exon 11 in 17 samples did not detect any mutations and proved disappointing. For several reasons, however, KIT expression and mutations of various exons including exon 11 should be investigated in more cases. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Multicentre evaluation of commercial kit methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, J; Declerck, P J; Sidelmann, Johannes Jakobsen

    1993-01-01

    In order to study the analytical performance of different commercial kits for determination of plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI) activity we distributed eight selected split samples to 11 European laboratories experienced with haemostasis testing. Three different laboratories were involved in...... of the plasma samples, which was PAI-1 depleted. The laboratories involved in the testing reported for this sample a mean value of 6.1 IU/ml.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)......In order to study the analytical performance of different commercial kits for determination of plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI) activity we distributed eight selected split samples to 11 European laboratories experienced with haemostasis testing. Three different laboratories were involved...... in the production of data from each of the commercial kits tested. A considerable variation of PAI activity results reported from the laboratories testing the same commercial kits was observed. The range of reported results could in individual samples exceed the median value indicating an interlaboratory variation...

  19. Explanatory chapter: how plasmid preparation kits work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Laura

    2013-01-01

    To isolate plasmid DNA from bacteria using a commercial plasmid miniprep kit (if interested, compare this protocol with Isolation of plasmid DNA from bacteria). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Production of sestamibi kit for nuclear imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullah, Hakim; Zakaria, Ahmad; Yaacob, Hadzri; Ramli, Jamaluddin [Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan (Malaysia). School of Medical Sciences

    1997-12-01

    One of the research projects undertaken during the implementation of the IAEA Technical Assistance Cooperation Program in our department was inhouse production of sestamibi (MIBI) kit to be labelled with Tc99m pertechnetate for myocardial studies and for malignant tumor imaging. 100 mg raw materials of sestamibi was supplied by IAEA and the kit was prepared based on Janoki recipe. Using 6 mg MIBI, 192 mg glycine, 3.6 mg stannous chloride, 62.4 mg Na sub 4 Po sub 4 and 24 mg cysteine we have prepared 24 vials of MIBI kit under sterile condition and stored in the freezer at -70 degree C. The sterility of the kit was confirmed by microbiological test using cultured method. The stability test was done by labelling the kit with Tc-99m pertechnetate at day 1, 3, 7, 30 and 60 days after kit preparation. Using two system butanone and saline with ITLC the labelling efficiency of Tc-99m (MIBI) was found to be more than 90% in each case. The labelling efficiency was found to maintain at 90% up to 24 hours post reconstitution at room temperature. Biodistribution study was carried out by administering Tc-99m (MIBI) to mice intravenously at the dosage of IOO {mu} Ci per 20 gm body weight. The mice were sacrificed at 3 hours and 24 hours after the dose administration. Blood, heart, lung, intestine, kidney and stomach samples were obtained, weighed and measured for radioactivity using gamma well counter. The data showed that after 3 hours about 60% of the injected dose accumulated in the intestine which was in agreement with IAEA standard. At 24 hours the amount in the heart still remained about 25% of the 3 hour uptake. In house production of MIBI kit is easy, fast and cost effective. The data suggested that the quality of our kit was good enough to be used for further animal research and clinical trials.

  1. Comparison of two commercial DNA extraction kits for the analysis of nasopharyngeal bacterial communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith A. Crandall

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of microbial communities via next-generation sequencing (NGS requires an extraction ofmicrobial DNA. Methodological differences in DNA extraction protocols may bias results and complicate inter-study comparisons. Here we compare the effect of two commonly used commercial kits (Norgen and Qiagenfor the extraction of total DNA on estimatingnasopharyngeal microbiome diversity. The nasopharynxis a reservoir for pathogens associated with respiratory illnesses and a key player in understandingairway microbial dynamics. Total DNA from nasal washes corresponding to 30 asthmatic children was extracted using theQiagenQIAamp DNA and NorgenRNA/DNA Purification kits and analyzed via IlluminaMiSeq16S rRNA V4 ampliconsequencing. The Norgen samples included more sequence reads and OTUs per sample than the Qiagen samples, but OTU counts per sample varied proportionallybetween groups (r = 0.732.Microbial profiles varied slightly between sample pairs, but alpha- and beta-diversity indices (PCoAand clustering showed highsimilarity between Norgen and Qiagenmicrobiomes. Moreover, no significant differences in community structure (PERMANOVA and adonis tests and taxa proportions (Kruskal-Wallis test were observed betweenkits. Finally, aProcrustes analysis also showed low dissimilarity (M2 = 0.173; P< 0.001 between the PCoAs of the two DNA extraction kits. Contrary to what has been observed in previous studies comparing DNA extraction methods, our 16S NGS analysis of nasopharyngeal washes did not reveal significant differences in community composition or structure between kits. Our findingssuggest congruence between column-based chromatography kits and supportthe comparison of microbiomeprofilesacross nasopharyngeal metataxonomic studies.

  2. Oral diosmectite reduces stool output and diarrhea duration in children with acute watery diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, Christophe; Foo, Jimmy Lee Kok; Garnier, Philippe; Moore, Nicholas; Mathiex-Fortunet, Hèlène; Salazar-Lindo, Eduardo

    2009-04-01

    Diosmectite is a clay used to treat children with acute watery diarrhea. However, its effects on stool output reduction, the key outcome for pediatric antidiarrheal drugs, have not been shown. Two parallel, double-blind studies of diosmectite efficacy on stool reduction were conducted in children 1 to 36 months old in Peru (n = 300) and Malaysia (n = 302). Inclusion criteria included 3 or more watery stools per day for less than 72 hours and weight/height ratios of 0.8 or greater. Exclusion criteria were the need for intravenous rehydration, gross blood in stools, fever higher than 39 degrees C, or current treatment with antidiarrheal or antibiotic medications. Rotavirus status was determined. Diosmectite dosage was 6 g/day (children 1-12 months old) or 12 g/day (children 13-36 months old), given for at least 3 days, followed by half doses until complete recovery. Patients were assigned randomly to groups given diosmectite or placebo, in addition to oral rehydration solution (World Health Organization). Children in each study had comparable average ages and weights. The frequencies of rotavirus infection were 22% in Peru and 12% in Malaysia. Similar amounts of oral rehydration solution were given to children in the diosmectite and placebo groups. Stool output was decreased significantly by diosmectite in both studies, especially among rotavirus-positive children. In pooled data, children had a mean stool output of 94.5 +/- 74.4 g/kg of body weight in the diosmectite group versus 104.1 +/- 94.2 g/kg in the placebo group (P = .002). Diarrhea duration was reduced by diosmectite, which was well tolerated. These results show that diosmectite significantly decreased stool output in children with acute watery diarrhea, especially those who were rotavirus-positive.

  3. 46 CFR 184.710 - First-aid kits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false First-aid kits. 184.710 Section 184.710 Shipping COAST... CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 184.710 First-aid kits. A vessel must carry either a first-aid kit approved under approval series 160.041 or a kit with equivalent contents...

  4. 21 CFR 868.1100 - Arterial blood sampling kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1100 Arterial blood sampling kit. (a) Identification. An arterial blood sampling kit is a device, in kit form, used to obtain arterial blood samples... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arterial blood sampling kit. 868.1100 Section 868...

  5. Quality control of radioimmunoassay kits of pituitary hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caso Pena, R.; Arranz Calzado, C.

    1997-01-01

    The present work describe the quality control procedures carried out on three RIA-Kits by the Isotopes Centre of Cuba, The subject matter of study were ;: were: LH-RIA-Kit, FSH-RIA-Kit and Prolactin- RIA -Kit. The controls have included the characterization of the 125 I labelled hormones the specific antibodies, the 2 nd antibodies, the standards curves and the control serum. For the validation of these Kits were used reference standards from the WHO (World Health Organizations) and Kits from CIS company (France) based on the IRMA assays technologies . The results obtained allow us encourage the reliability of RIA-Kits

  6. Air/Water Purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    After 18 years of research into air/water pollution at Stennis Space Center, Dr. B. C. Wolverton formed his own company, Wolverton Environmental Services, Inc., to provide technology and consultation in air and water treatment. Common houseplants are used to absorb potentially harmful materials from bathrooms and kitchens. The plants are fertilized, air is purified, and wastewater is converted to clean water. More than 100 U.S. communities have adopted Wolverton's earlier water hyacinth and artificial marsh applications. Catfish farmers are currently evaluating the artificial marsh technology as a purification system.

  7. Water Purification Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Ecomaster, an affiliate of BioServe Space Technologies, this PentaPure technology has been used to purify water for our nation's Space Shuttle missions since 1981. WTC-Ecomaster of Mirneapolis, Minnesota manufactures water purification systems under the brand name PentaPure (TM). BioServe researcher Dr. George Marchin, of Kansas State University, first demonstrated the superiority of this technology and licensed it to WTC. Marchin continues to perform microgravity research in the development of new technologies for the benefit of life on Earth.

  8. Gas purification project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broothaerts, J.; Claes, J.; Collard, G.; Goossens, W.; Harnie, R.; Heylen, P.; Vaesen, J.; Beukelaer, R. de; Dubois, G.; Glibert, R.; Mestrez, J.; Zahlen, A.

    1975-06-01

    Conceptual and experimental studies on LMFBR reprocessing and reactor off-gas purification systems are summarized. Iodine sorption on zeolites, low-temperature adsorption of noble gases on charcoal and catalytic oxidation of hydrogen, simulating tritium, are being studied in laboratory set-ups. A pilot loop with 25 m 3 h -1 throughput has been constructed. Results are quoted from the first phase of the iodine removal programme by scrubbing systems. Further extension of the test loop, comprising off-gases conditioning to removal of krypton in a cryodistillation unit, has been prepared. Delay-bed studies on 133 Xe extraction from LWR off-gases are reported. (author)

  9. Modification of stool's water content in constipated infants: management with an adapted infant formula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvarez Marina M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Constipation is a common occurrence in formula-fed infants. The aim of this preliminary study was to evaluate the impact of a formula with high levels of lactose and magnesium, in compliance with the official regulations, on stool water content, as well as a parental assessment of constipation. Materials and methods Thirty healthy term-born, formula-fed infants, aged 4-10 weeks, with functional constipation were included. All infants were full-term and fed standard formula. Exclusion criteria were preterm and/or low birth weight, organic constipation, being breast fed or fed a formula specially designed to treat constipation. Stool composition was measured by near-infrared reflectance analysis (NIRA and parents answered questions about crying associated with defecation and stool consistency at baseline and after two weeks of the adapted formula. Results After 2 weeks of the adapted formula, stool water content increased from 71 +/- 8.1% to 84 +/- 5.9%, (p Conclusions This preliminary study suggests that an adapted formula with high levels of lactose and magnesium increases stool water content and improves symptoms of constipation in term-born, formula-fed infants. A larger randomized placebo-controlled trial is indicated.

  10. Quality control of radioimmunoassay kits of pituitary hormones; Control de calidad de kits de radioinmunoanalisis de hormonas hipofisiarias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caso Pena, R [Centro de Isotopos, La Habana (Cuba); Arranz Calzado, C [Instituto Nacional de Endocrinologia, La Habana (Cuba)

    1998-12-31

    The present work describe the quality control procedures carried out on three RIA-Kits by the Isotopes Centre of Cuba, The subject matter of study were ;: were: LH-RIA-Kit, FSH-RIA-Kit and Prolactin- RIA -Kit. The controls have included the characterization of the {sup 125}I labelled hormones the specific antibodies, the 2 nd antibodies, the standards curves and the control serum. For the validation of these Kits were used reference standards from the WHO (World Health Organizations) and Kits from CIS company (France) based on the IRMA assays technologies . The results obtained allow us encourage the reliability of RIA-Kits

  11. The Fluid Dynamics Demo Kit: Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flack, Karen; Underhill, Patrick; Prestridge, Kathy

    2012-11-01

    The goal of this project is to develop a fluid dynamics demonstration/experiment kit that can be used by professors and graduate students at high school outreach events. The demonstrations in the kit will be easy to use and true crowd pleasers in order to inspire understanding and pique curiosity about the physics of flow. The kits will be inexpensive, containing readily available materials so that teachers can duplicate the demonstrations and experiments. The kits will be left with the teachers as a gift from the American Physics Society. The experiments and demonstrations cover the concepts of conservation of mass, momentum, and energy, Bernoulli's equation, frictional losses and the ideal gas law. For each experiment, the teachers will receive presentation material, access to instructional videos, plus a worksheet that can be used in a high school physics classroom. This kit has been developed through the efforts of the APS-DFD Mentoring and Outreach Committee and has received funding from the APS-DFD. Work funded by the APS-DFD.

  12. Effect of charcoal on water purification

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Hirotaka; Kawahigashi, Tatsuo

    2014-01-01

    [Abstract] A natural basin system purifies water through self-purification, but the water pollution load of a river might exceed its self-purification capacity. Charcoal, which is used for other uses aside from heating, such as air purification, was evaluated experimentally for water quality purification. The experiment described herein is based on simple water quality measurements. Some experimentally obtained results are discussed.

  13. Statistical and Judgmental Criteria for Scale Purification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieland, Andreas; Durach, Christian F.; Kembro, Joakim

    2017-01-01

    of scale purification, to critically analyze the current state of scale purification in supply chain management (SCM) research and to provide suggestions for advancing the scale-purification process. Design/methodology/approach A framework for making scale-purification decisions is developed and used...

  14. Shuttle Kit Freezer Refrigeration Unit Conceptual Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, R. J.

    1975-01-01

    The refrigerated food/medical sample storage compartment as a kit to the space shuttle orbiter is examined. To maintain the -10 F in the freezer kit, an active refrigeration unit is required, and an air cooled Stirling Cycle refrigerator was selected. The freezer kit contains two subsystems, the refrigeration unit, and the storage volume. The freezer must provide two basic capabilities in one unit. One requirement is to store 215 lbs of food which is consumed in a 30-day period by 7 people. The other requirement is to store 128.3 lbs of medical samples consisting of both urine and feces. The unit can be mounted on the lower deck of the shuttle cabin, and will occupy four standard payload module compartments on the forward bulkhead. The freezer contains four storage compartments.

  15. Future of antibody purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Duncan; O'Leary, Rhona; Pujar, Narahari S

    2007-03-15

    Antibody purification seems to be safely ensconced in a platform, now well-established by way of multiple commercialized antibody processes. However, natural evolution compels us to peer into the future. This is driven not only by a large, projected increase in the number of antibody therapies, but also by dramatic improvements in upstream productivity, and process economics. Although disruptive technologies have yet escaped downstream processes, evolution of the so-called platform is already evident in antibody processes in late-stage development. Here we perform a wide survey of technologies that are competing to be part of that platform, and provide our [inherently dangerous] assessment of those that have the most promise.

  16. Tool Kit Helps Digitize Tide Gauge Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullmann, Albin; Pons, Frédéric; Moron, Vincent

    2005-09-01

    The Numérisation des Niveaux d'Eau (NUNIEAU) is an integrated and automated MATLAB computer program tool kit for digitizing, transforming, and validating paper records of sea level variations, called marigrams (Figure 1a), that can cut in half the time required to digitize paper records. This tool kit developed in 2004 by F. Pons is currently obtainable by request from the developer, but will be available online on the IMPLIT (Impact des événements extremes sur les hydro-systèmes du litoral méditerranéen français) Web site in early 2006.

  17. KIT safety management. Annual report 2012; KIT-Sicherheitsmanagement. Jahresbericht 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, Gerhard (ed.)

    2013-07-01

    The KIT Safety Management Service Unit (KSM) guarantees radiological and conventional technical safety and security of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology and controls the implementation and observation of legal environmental protection requirements. KSM is responsible for - licensing procedures, - industrial safety organization, - control of environmental protection measures, - planning and implementation of emergency preparedness and response, - operation of radiological laboratories and measurement stations, - extensive radiation protection support and the - the execution of security tasks in and for all organizational units of KIT. Moreover, KSM is in charge of wastewater and environmental monitoring for all facilities and nuclear installations all over the KIT campus. KSM is headed by the Safety Commissioner of KIT, who is appointed by the Presidential Committee. Within his scope of procedure for KIT, the Safety Commissioner controls the implementation of and compliance with safety-relevant requirements. The KIT Safety Management is certified according to DIN EN ISO 9001, its industrial safety management is certified by the VBG as ''AMS-Arbeitsschutz mit System'' and, hence, fulfills the requirements of NLF / ISO-OSH 2001. KSM laboratories are accredited according to DIN EN ISO/IEC 17025. To the extent possible, KSM is committed to maintaining competence in radiation protection and to supporting research and teaching activities. The present reports lists the individual tasks of the KIT Safety Management and informs about the results achieved in 2012. Status figures in principle reflect the status at the end of the year 2012. The processes described cover the areas of competence of KSM.

  18. FUELS IN SOIL TEST KIT: FIELD USE OF DIESEL DOG SOIL TEST KITS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2001-05-31

    Western Research Institute (WRI) is commercializing Diesel Dog Portable Soil Test Kits for performing analysis of fuel-contaminated soils in the field. The technology consists of a method developed by WRI (U.S. Patents 5,561,065 and 5,976,883) and hardware developed by WRI that allows the method to be performed in the field (patent pending). The method is very simple and does not require the use of highly toxic reagents. The aromatic components in a soil extract are measured by absorption at 254 nm with a field-portable photometer. WRI added significant value to the technology by taking the method through the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) approval and validation processes. The method is designated ASTM Method D-5831-96, Standard Test Method for Screening Fuels in Soils. This ASTM designation allows the method to be used for federal compliance activities. In FY 99, twenty-five preproduction kits were successfully constructed in cooperation with CF Electronics, Inc., of Laramie, Wyoming. The kit components work well and the kits are fully operational. In the calendar year 2000, kits were provided to the following entities who agreed to participate as FY 99 and FY 00 JSR (Jointly Sponsored Research) cosponsors and use the kits as opportunities arose for field site work: Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) (3 units), F.E. Warren Air Force Base, Gradient Corporation, The Johnson Company (2 units), IT Corporation (2 units), TRC Environmental Corporation, Stone Environmental, ENSR, Action Environmental, Laco Associates, Barenco, Brown and Caldwell, Dames and Moore Lebron LLP, Phillips Petroleum, GeoSyntek, and the State of New Mexico. By early 2001, ten kits had been returned to WRI following the six-month evaluation period. On return, the components of all ten kits were fully functional. The kits were upgraded with circuit modifications, new polyethylene foam inserts, and updated instruction manuals.

  19. Kit formulated asialoglycoprotein receptor targeting tracer based on copolymer for liver SPECT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chang; Guo, Zhide; Zhang, Pu; Song, Manli; Zhao, Zuoquan; Wu, Xiaowei; Zhang, Xianzhong

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Specific targeting of galactose-carrying molecule to ASGP-R in normal hepatocytes has been demonstrated before. In this study, galactosyl polystyrene was synthesized from controllable ratio of functional monomers and radio-labelled with 99m Tc by formulated kit for SPECT imaging of hepatic function. Methods: p(VLA-co-VNI)(46:54) was synthesized by free-radical copolymerization initiated by AIBN, purified by dialysis, lyophilized to kit with Tricine and TPPTS as co-ligands for 99m Tc labeling. Radiotracer 99m Tc-p(VLA-co-VNI)(46:54)(Tricine)(TPPTS) was prepared and evaluated by in vitro stability, in vivo metabolism, ex vivo biodistribution and microSPECT/CT imaging in normal KM mice. MicroSPECT/CT and microMRI imaging were also performed in C57BL/b6 mice with xenograft hepatic carcinoma for hepatic function evaluation. Results: 99m Tc-p(VLA-co-VNI)(46:54)(Tricine)(TPPTS) was obtained in high radio chemical purity (RCP) (> 99%) by using instant kit without further purification and excellent in vitro and in vivo stability. The result of biodistribution showed that liver had high uptake (90.49 ± 10.68 ID%/g) at 30 min after injection and was blocked significantly by cold copolymer. MicroSPECT imaging in normal KM mice at 1 h and 4 h after injection showed good liver retention and targeting properties. Significant defect of activity was observed in the tumor site which was confirmed by MRI imaging. Conclusion: 99m Tc-p(VLA-co-VNI)(46:54)(Tricine)(TPPTS) with lower ratio of targeting moiety has no observable effect on the specific binding affinity and liver uptake. This makes it possible to introduce more imaging units for multi-modality imaging. Furthermore, the instant kit preparation of 99m Tc-labeling provides great potential for the evaluation of hepatocyte function in clinical application

  20. Effects of olestra and sorbitol consumption on objective measures of diarrhea: impact of stool viscosity on common gastrointestinal symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRorie, J; Zorich, N; Riccardi, K; Bishop, L; Filloon, T; Wason, S; Giannella, R

    2000-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of olestra and sorbitol consumption on three accepted objective measures of diarrhea (stool output >250 g/day, liquid/watery stools, bowel movement frequency >3/day), and how stool composition influences reports of common gastrointestinal symptoms. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study compared the effects of sorbitol (40 g/day in candy), a poorly absorbed sugar-alcohol with known osmotic effects, with those of olestra (20 or 40 g/day in potato chips), a nonabsorbed fat, on objective measures of stool composition and GI symptoms. Sixty-six subjects resided on a metabolic ward for 12 days: 2 days lead-in, 4 days baseline, 6 days treatment. Sorbitol 40 g/day resulted in loose/liquid stools within 1-3 h of consumption. In contrast, olestra resulted in a dose-responsive stool softening effect after 2-4 days of consumption. Subjects reported "diarrhea" when mean stool apparent viscosity (peak force (PF), g) decreased from a perceived "normal" (mean +/- SE, 1355 +/- 224 g PF; firm stool) to loose (260 +/- 68 g PF) stool. Mean apparent viscosity of stool during treatment: placebo, 1363 +/- 280 g (firm); olestra 20 g/day 743 +/- 65 g (soft); olestra 40 g/day, 563 +/- 105 g (soft); and sorbitol 40 g/day, 249 +/- 53 g (loose). Of the 1098 stool samples collected, 38% (419/1098) were rated by subjects as "diarrhea," yet only 2% of treatment days (all in the sorbitol treatment group) met commonly accepted criteria for a clinical diarrhea. Sorbitol, but not olestra, increased the severity of abdominal cramping, urgency and nausea compared to placebo. Olestra consumption, at levels far in excess of normal snacking conditions, resulted in a gradual stool softening effect after several days of consumption, did not meet any of the three objective measures of diarrhea, and did not increase GI symptoms. Sorbitol consumption, at only 80% of the dose requiring a "laxative effect" information label, resulted in rapid onset loose

  1. Recovery and purification of ethylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyneke, Rian [Katy, TX; Foral, Michael J [Aurora, IL; Lee, Guang-Chung [Houston, TX; Eng, Wayne W. Y. [League City, TX; Sinclair, Iain [Warrington, GB; Lodgson, Jeffery S [Naperville, IL

    2008-10-21

    A process for the recovery and purification of ethylene and optionally propylene from a stream containing lighter and heavier components that employs an ethylene distributor column and a partially thermally coupled distributed distillation system.

  2. Comparison of polycarbonate and cellulose acetate membrane filters for isolation of Campylobacter concisus from stool samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde Nielsen, Hans; Engberg, Jørgen; Ejlertsen, Tove

    2013-01-01

    One thousand seven hundred ninety-one diarrheic stool samples were cultivated for Campylobacter spp. We found a high prevalence of Campylobacter concisus with use of a polycarbonate filter (n = 114) compared to a cellulose acetate filter (n = 79) (P polycarbonate filter is superior...

  3. Not Your Run-of-the-Mill Art-Room Stools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrzanowski, Rose-Ann C.

    2010-01-01

    An art room should be a garden of visual stimulation, born of creativity, inquiry, critical thinking and intellectual conversation--and a little collaboration is not a bad thing either! When the author unpacked the new stools for her art room at the high school, she envisioned something more beautiful than the brown masonite circles that…

  4. The isolation of Moellerella wisconsensis from stool samples in the U.K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, A R; Al-Jumaili, I J; Bint, A J

    1986-01-01

    Three strains of Moellerella wisconsensis were isolated from a total of 400 stool specimens screened for this organism by means of a new selective medium developed in this laboratory. This is the first report of the isolation of this organism in the U.K. The exact role of M. wisconsensis in causing diarrhoea remains to be elucidated.

  5. Differential clinical features and stool findings in shigellosis and amoebic dysentery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speelman, P.; McGlaughlin, R.; Kabir, I.; Butler, T.

    1987-01-01

    To obtain information that could assist the clinician to differentiate between shigellosis and amoebic dysentery, we compared clinical features and stool findings in 58 adult male patients in Bangladesh. Mean values indicated that patients with invasive amoebiasis were older and had a longer

  6. Detection of Salmonella typhi by nested polymerase chain reaction in blood, urine, and stool samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hatta, Mochammad; Smits, Henk L.

    2007-01-01

    A nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) specific for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi was used for the detection of the pathogen in blood, urine, and stool samples from 131 patients with clinical suspicion of typhoid fever. The sensitivity of blood culture, the PCRs with blood, urine, and feces,

  7. Megakaryocytes compensate for Kit insufficiency in murine arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunin, Pierre; Penke, Loka R; Thon, Jonathan N; Monach, Paul A; Jones, Tatiana; Chang, Margaret H; Chen, Mary M; Melki, Imene; Lacroix, Steve; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Ware, Jerry; Gurish, Michael F; Italiano, Joseph E; Boilard, Eric; Nigrovic, Peter A

    2017-05-01

    The growth factor receptor Kit is involved in hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic development. Mice bearing Kit defects lack mast cells; however, strains bearing different Kit alleles exhibit diverse phenotypes. Herein, we investigated factors underlying differential sensitivity to IgG-mediated arthritis in 2 mast cell-deficient murine lines: KitWsh/Wsh, which develops robust arthritis, and KitW/Wv, which does not. Reciprocal bone marrow transplantation between KitW/Wv and KitWsh/Wsh mice revealed that arthritis resistance reflects a hematopoietic defect in addition to mast cell deficiency. In KitW/Wv mice, restoration of susceptibility to IgG-mediated arthritis was neutrophil independent but required IL-1 and the platelet/megakaryocyte markers NF-E2 and glycoprotein VI. In KitW/Wv mice, platelets were present in numbers similar to those in WT animals and functionally intact, and transfer of WT platelets did not restore arthritis susceptibility. These data implicated a platelet-independent role for the megakaryocyte, a Kit-dependent lineage that is selectively deficient in KitW/Wv mice. Megakaryocytes secreted IL-1 directly and as a component of circulating microparticles, which activated synovial fibroblasts in an IL-1-dependent manner. Transfer of WT but not IL-1-deficient megakaryocytes restored arthritis susceptibility to KitW/Wv mice. These findings identify functional redundancy among Kit-dependent hematopoietic lineages and establish an unanticipated capacity of megakaryocytes to mediate IL-1-driven systemic inflammatory disease.

  8. Press kit kicks off new branding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Tom

    2004-01-01

    A smartly produced press kit resulted in unprecedented news coverage when Denver's Porter Adventist Hospital recently unveiled plans for an extensive 80 million dollars redevelopment. A news conference was held to announce this plan, along with the opening of the hospital's new emergency department. The overall effort is part of the new branding strategy of the 75-year-old hospital.

  9. Teen PACK: Population Awareness Campaign Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zero Population Growth, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This packet of instructional materials is designed to teach teenagers about the effects of overpopulation on the world and on the individual. Information is presented in three related booklets. The first of the three parts of the "Teen Population Awareness Campaign Kit," illustrates overpopulation through profiles of teens living in…

  10. Development of MIBI kit for heart imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khamis, S.B.; Ab-Wahid, M.

    1998-01-01

    99m Tc-isonitriles have been shown to be a very promising substitute for Thallium-201 ( 201 TI) for myocardial perfusion imaging. In this study, the lyophilized kit of Methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI) was prepared and labeled with 99m Tc. Several factors affecting the labeling yield such as the kit's stannous content, boiling time during labeling, and the volume of 99m Tc used during reconstitution were also investigated. The radiochemical purity (RCP) determination of the labeled product was analyzed by HPLC, solvent-extraction, TLC and ITLC-SG chromatographic methods in various systems. Animal biodistribution study performed in rats indicated the 99m Tc-MIBI accumulation in the myocardial is up to 3 hours with little or no redistribution. Toxicity studies performed indicate no clinical signs of abnormality in mice at injected dose equivalent in amount of 100 times the human dose in proportion to body weight. Stability studies of the labeled complex performed at room temperature showed no change in radiochemical purity (> 95%) 6 hours post-preparation. Compatibility and comparative studies were done using both MINT and commercially available MIBI kits and 99m Tc generator eluates. From the results obtained the MINT produced MIBI kits were found to be comparable in quality to that of commercials. (author)

  11. Countdown to Six Billion Teaching Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zero Population Growth, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This teaching kit features six activities focused on helping students understand the significance of the world population reaching six billion for our society and our environment. Featured activities include: (1) History of the World: Part Six Billion; (2) A Woman's Place; (3) Baby-O-Matic; (4) Earth: The Apple of Our Eye; (5) Needs vs. Wants; and…

  12. Review: Diagnostic accuracy of PCR-based detection tests for Helicobacter Pylori in stool samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadangi, Fatemeh; Yassi, Maryam; Kerachian, Mohammad Amin

    2017-12-01

    Although different methods have been established to detect Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection, identifying infected patients is an ongoing challenge. The aim of this meta-analysis was to provide pooled diagnostic accuracy measures for stool PCR test in the diagnosis of H. pylori infection. In this study, a systematic review and meta-analysis were carried out on various sources, including MEDLINE, Web of Sciences, and the Cochrane Library from April 1, 1999, to May 1, 2016. This meta-analysis adheres to the guidelines provided by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses report (PRISMA Statement). The clinical value of DNA stool PCR test was based on the pooled false positive, false negative, true positive, and true negative of different genes. Twenty-six of 328 studies identified met the eligibility criteria. Stool PCR test had a performance of 71% (95% CI: 68-73) sensitivity, 96% (95% CI: 94-97) specificity, and 65.6 (95% CI: 30.2-142.5) diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) in diagnosis of H. pylori. The DOR of genes which showed the highest performance of stool PCR tests was as follows: 23S rRNA 152.5 (95% CI: 55.5-418.9), 16S rRNA 67.9 (95%CI: 6.4-714.3), and glmM 68.1 (95%CI: 20.1-231.7). The sensitivity and specificity of stool PCR test are relatively in the same spectrum of other diagnostic methods for the detection of H. pylori infection. In descending order of significance, the most diagnostic candidate genes using PCR detection were 23S rRNA, 16S rRNA, and glmM. PCR for 23S rRNA gene which has the highest performance could be applicable to detect H. pylori infection. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Validation of the 3-day rule for stool bacterial tests in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Masanori; Sako, Akahito; Ogami, Toshiko; Nishimura, So; Asayama, Naoki; Yada, Tomoyuki; Nagata, Naoyoshi; Sakurai, Toshiyuki; Yokoi, Chizu; Kobayakawa, Masao; Yanase, Mikio; Masaki, Naohiko; Takeshita, Nozomi; Uemura, Naomi

    2014-01-01

    Stool cultures are expensive and time consuming, and the positive rate of enteric pathogens in cases of nosocomial diarrhea is low. The 3-day rule, whereby clinicians order a Clostridium difficile (CD) toxin test rather than a stool culture for inpatients developing diarrhea >3 days after admission, has been well studied in Western countries. The present study sought to validate the 3-day rule in an acute care hospital setting in Japan. Stool bacterial and CD toxin test results for adult patients hospitalized in an acute care hospital in 2008 were retrospectively analyzed. Specimens collected after an initial positive test were excluded. The positive rate and cost-effectiveness of the tests were compared among three patient groups. The adult patients were divided into three groups for comparison: outpatients, patients hospitalized for ≤3 days and patients hospitalized for ≥4 days. Over the 12-month period, 1,597 stool cultures were obtained from 992 patients, and 880 CD toxin tests were performed in 529 patients. In the outpatient, inpatient ≤3 days and inpatient ≥4 days groups, the rate of positive stool cultures was 14.2%, 3.6% and 1.3% and that of positive CD toxin tests was 1.9%, 7.1% and 8.5%, respectively. The medical costs required to obtain one positive result were 9,181, 36,075 and 103,600 JPY and 43,200, 11,333 and 9,410 JPY, respectively. The 3-day rule was validated for the first time in a setting other than a Western country. Our results revealed that the "3-day rule" is also useful and cost-effective in Japan.

  14. Clinical illnesses associated with isolation of dysgonic fermenter 3 from stool samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, R N; Berry, C D; Phillips, M G; Hamilos, D L; Koneman, E W

    1992-02-01

    The clinical significance of the fastidious organism DF-3 isolated from stool cultures is unclear. We sought to improve our understanding of this organism and to further define its association with human disease. Stool cultures for DF-3 were obtained from three sources: an ongoing study of enteric pathogens in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus, a screening procedure in which all stool samples submitted for Clostridium difficile toxin assay were cultured for DF-3, and stool samples submitted specifically for DF-3 culture. Retrospective clinical data were obtained from chart reviews of patients with positive cultures. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing and cell wall fatty acid analysis were performed for each DF-3 isolated. Eight isolates of DF-3 were obtained over a period of 8 months. All patients either had severe underlying disease or were immunocompromised, including three patients coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus and two patients with inflammatory bowel disease. The spectrum of clinical disease ranged from chronic diarrhea with a well-defined response to therapy for DF-3 to an asymptomatic carrier state. Cell wall fatty acid analysis of these isolates demonstrated a consistent pattern with a large peak of 12-methyltetradecanoate. DF-3, a fastidious gram-negative coccobacillus, can be recovered from stool cultures of immunocompromised patients by using selective media. The presence of 12-methyltetradecanoate in cell wall fatty acid analysis assists in identification. The increased use of a selective medium-(cefoperazone-vancomycin-amphotericin B) in the evaluation of diarrhea in immunocompromised hosts, including persons with inflammatory bowel disease, may better define the association of DF-3 with human gastrointestinal disease.

  15. New ultrasonographic evaluation of stool and/or gas distribution for treatment of chronic constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manabe, Noriaki; Kamada, Tomoari; Hata, Jiro; Haruma, Ken

    2018-03-01

    The first aim of this study was to develop a new ultrasonographic method (US) to evaluate stool and/or gas distribution. The second aim was to apply this method to compare stool and/or gas distribution between healthy subjects and patients with chronic constipation and evaluate whether US parameters could be an alternative to the colonic transit time (CTT). We enrolled seven healthy volunteers (four men, three women; mean age 29.3 ± 5.2 years) who underwent US and computed tomography (CT) on the same day to evaluate the reproducibility of US results. We then enrolled 268 patients with chronic constipation (94 men, 174 women; mean age 63.3 ± 4.2 years) and 66 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects (controls). The transverse diameters of four segments of the colon [ascending (AC), transverse (TC), descending (DC), and sigmoid (SC)] and the rectum (R) were measured, and their stool and/or gas distribution was evaluated using the constipation index (CI) [AC + TC + DC + SC + R/5] and left/right (L/R) distribution [(DC + SC)/(AC + TC)]. The CTT was assessed using radiopaque markers. All healthy subjects underwent US and CT successfully, with a sufficiently high reproducibility coefficient for this method and significant correlation between the US and CT parameters. The stool and/or gas distribution evaluated by US showed a significant difference in one of the US parameters between healthy subjects and patients, and the CI was an indirect indicator for the CTT. These findings may assist physicians evaluate stool and/or gas distribution of patients with chronic constipation, which is an indirect indicator for CTT.

  16. Agreement Between Home-Based Measurement of Stool Calprotectin and ELISA Results for Monitoring Inflammatory Bowel Disease Activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heida, Anke; Knol, Mariska; Kobold, Anneke Muller; Bootsman, Josette; Dijkstra, Gerard; van Rheenen, Patrick F

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: An increasing number of physicians use repeated measurements of stool calprotectin to monitor intestinal inflammation in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). A lateral flow-based rapid test allows patients to measure their own stool calprotectin values at home. The

  17. KIT safety management. Annual report 2013; KIT-Sicherheitsmanagement. Jahresbericht 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, Gerhard (ed.)

    2014-07-01

    The KIT Safety Management Service Unit (KSM) guarantees radiological and conventional technical safety and security of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology and controls the implementation and observation of legal environmental protection requirements. KSM is responsible for licensing procedures, industrial safety organization, control of environmental protection measures, planning and implementation of emergency preparedness and response, operation of radiological laboratories and measurement stations, extensive radiation protection support and the execution of security tasks in and for all organizational units of KIT. Moreover, KSM is in charge of wastewater and environmental monitoring for all facilities and nuclear installations all over the KIT campus. KSM is headed by the Safety Commissioner of KIT, who is appointed by the Presidential Committee. Within his scope of procedure for KIT, the Safety Commissioner controls the implementation of and compliance with safety-relevant requirements. The KIT Safety Management is certified according to DIN EN ISO 9001, its laboratories are accredited according to DIN EN ISO/IEC 17025. To the extent possible, KSM is committed to maintaining competence in radiation protection and to supporting research and teaching activities. The present reports lists the individual tasks of the KIT Safety Management and informs about the results achieved in 2013. Status figures in principle reflect the status at the end of the year 2013. The processes described cover the areas of competence of KSM. Due to changes in the organization of the infrastructural service units in KIT, KSM has been cancelled at the end of 2013. Its tasks will mainly be covered in 2014 by the new founded service unit Safety and Environmental (Sicherheit und Umwelt, SUM). The departments Campus Security, Fire Brigade and Information Technology have been transferred to the Service Unit General Services (Allgemeine Services, ASERV).

  18. 46 CFR 121.710 - First-aid kits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false First-aid kits. 121.710 Section 121.710 Shipping COAST... SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 121.710 First-aid kits. A vessel must carry either a first-aid kit... kits, the contents must be stowed in a suitable, watertight container that is marked “First-Aid Kit”. A...

  19. Development of Safety Kit for Industrial Radiography Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Noorul Ikhsan Ahmad; Amry Amin Abas

    2011-01-01

    A safety kit for industrial radiography has been developed. The safety kit that consist of a set of technical rod and various size of base that can be used in radiograph of pipe with diameter between half and one and half inch with utilization of collimator. With the kit, radiographers will not having anymore problem to use collimator in their work. The paper discuss about the technical measures of the safety kit and the importance of introducing it to the industry. (author)

  20. [Consistency study of PowerPlex 21 kit and Goldeneye 20A kit and forensic application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, He; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Qing-Xia; Jiao, Zhang-Ping

    2014-06-01

    To ensure the consistency of genotype results for PowerPlex 21 kit and Goldeneye 20A kit. The STR loci were amplified in DNA samples from 205 unrelated individuals in Beijing Han population. And consistency of 19 overlap STR loci typing were observed. The genetic polymorphism of D1S1656 locus was obtained. All 19 overlap loci typing showed consistent. The proportion of peak height of heterozygous loci in two kits showed no statistical difference (P > 0.05). The observed heterozygosis of D1S1656 was 0.878. The discrimination power was 0.949. The excluding probability of paternity of triplet was 0.751. The excluding probability of paternity of diploid was 0.506. The polymorphism information content was 0.810. PowerPlex 21 kit and Goldeneye 20A kit present a good consistency. The primer design is reasonable. The polymorphism of D1S1656 is good. The two kits can be used for human genetic analysis, paternity test, and individual identification in forensic practice.

  1. 46 CFR 169.725 - First aid kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false First aid kit. 169.725 Section 169.725 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment § 169.725 First aid kit. Each vessel must carry an approved first aid kit, constructed and fitted in accordance with subpart 160.041 of this chapter. ...

  2. 46 CFR 108.707 - First aid kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false First aid kit. 108.707 Section 108.707 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous Equipment § 108.707 First aid kit. Each unit must have a first-aid kit approved by the Mine Safety...

  3. 33 CFR 144.01-30 - First-aid kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false First-aid kit. 144.01-30 Section...) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES LIFESAVING APPLIANCES Manned Platforms § 144.01-30 First-aid kit. On each manned platform a first-aid kit approved by the Commandant or the U.S. Bureau of Mines shall be...

  4. 21 CFR 868.5140 - Anesthesia conduction kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Anesthesia conduction kit. 868.5140 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5140 Anesthesia conduction kit. (a) Identification. An anesthesia conduction kit is a device used to administer to a patient conduction, regional, or...

  5. Trükitööstuste TOP 50

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    Trükitööstuste TOP 50. Käibe TOP 30. Käibe kasum TOP 30. Kasvu TOP 30. Kasumi kasvu TOP 30. Rentaabluse TOP. Varade tootlikkuse TOP. Trükitööstusettevõtete üldandmed. Trükitööstusettevõtete finantsandmed

  6. 21 CFR 864.2260 - Chromosome culture kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chromosome culture kit. 864.2260 Section 864.2260...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Cell And Tissue Culture Products § 864.2260 Chromosome culture kit. (a) Identification. A chromosome culture kit is a device containing the necessary ingredients...

  7. 21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a) Identification. A plastic surgery kit and accessories is a device intended to...

  8. Escherichia coli and virus isolated from ''sticky kits''

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, M.; Scheutz, F.; Strandbygaard, Bertel

    1996-01-01

    A total of 121 Escherichia coli strains isolated from 3-week-old mink kits were serotyped and examined for virulence factors. 56 strains were isolated from healthy kits while 65 were from ''sticky kits''. Among these, 34 different serotypes were detected. No difference in serotypes or the presenc...

  9. Water Purification Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Clearwater Pool Technologies employs NASA-developed silver/copper ionization to purify turtle and dolphin tanks, cooling towers, spas, water recycling systems, etc. The pool purifier consists of a microcomputer to monitor water conditions, a pair of metallic electrodes, and a rheostat controller. Ions are generated by passing a low voltage current through the electrodes; the silver ions kill the bacteria, and the copper ions kill algae. This technology has found broad application because it offers an alternative to chemical disinfectants. It was originally developed to purify water on Apollo spacecraft. Caribbean Clear has been using NASA's silver ionization technology for water purification for more than a decade. Two new products incorporate advancements of the basic technology. One is the AquaKing, a system designed for areas with no source of acceptable drinking water. Another is the Caribbean Clear Controller, designed for commercial pool and water park applications where sanitizing is combined with feedback control of pH and an oxidizer, chlorine or bromine. The technology was originally developed to purify water on Apollo spacecraft.

  10. Liquid metal purification device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Takao; Shimoyashiki, Shigehiro.

    1992-01-01

    The device of the present invention concerns a liquid metal purification device for removing and purifying impuries in liquid metal sodium used as coolants of an FBR type reactor. A vessel having a group of pipes made of hydrogen permeable metal at the inside thereof is disposed to the inlet pipeline of a cold trap. The group of hydrogen permeable metal pipes is connected to an exhaust pipe and a vacuum pump, so that the inside of the pipes is exhausted. Liquid metal sodium branched from the main pipeline of a coolant system passes through the outer side of the group of the hydrogen permeable metal pipes. In this cae, hydrogen contained as impurities in the liquid metal sodium diffuses and permeates the hydrogen permeation metal pipes and enters into the pipe group and is discharged out of the system by the vacuum pump. This can mitigate the hydrogen removing burden of the cold trap, to extend the device life time. (I.N.)

  11. Cardiac c-Kit Biology Revealed by Inducible Transgenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gude, Natalie A; Firouzi, Fareheh; Broughton, Kathleen M; Ilves, Kelli; Nguyen, Kristine P; Payne, Christina R; Sacchi, Veronica; Monsanto, Megan M; Casillas, Alexandria R; Khalafalla, Farid G; Wang, Bingyan J; Ebeid, David E; Alvarez, Roberto; Dembitsky, Walter P; Bailey, Barbara A; van Berlo, Jop; Sussman, Mark A

    2018-06-22

    Biological significance of c-Kit as a cardiac stem cell marker and role(s) of c-Kit+ cells in myocardial development or response to pathological injury remain unresolved because of varied and discrepant findings. Alternative experimental models are required to contextualize and reconcile discordant published observations of cardiac c-Kit myocardial biology and provide meaningful insights regarding clinical relevance of c-Kit signaling for translational cell therapy. The main objectives of this study are as follows: demonstrating c-Kit myocardial biology through combined studies of both human and murine cardiac cells; advancing understanding of c-Kit myocardial biology through creation and characterization of a novel, inducible transgenic c-Kit reporter mouse model that overcomes limitations inherent to knock-in reporter models; and providing perspective to reconcile disparate viewpoints on c-Kit biology in the myocardium. In vitro studies confirm a critical role for c-Kit signaling in both cardiomyocytes and cardiac stem cells. Activation of c-Kit receptor promotes cell survival and proliferation in stem cells and cardiomyocytes of either human or murine origin. For creation of the mouse model, the cloned mouse c-Kit promoter drives Histone2B-EGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein; H2BEGFP) expression in a doxycycline-inducible transgenic reporter line. The combination of c-Kit transgenesis coupled to H2BEGFP readout provides sensitive, specific, inducible, and persistent tracking of c-Kit promoter activation. Tagging efficiency for EGFP+/c-Kit+ cells is similar between our transgenic versus a c-Kit knock-in mouse line, but frequency of c-Kit+ cells in cardiac tissue from the knock-in model is 55% lower than that from our transgenic line. The c-Kit transgenic reporter model reveals intimate association of c-Kit expression with adult myocardial biology. Both cardiac stem cells and a subpopulation of cardiomyocytes express c-Kit in uninjured adult heart

  12. Advantage of using a home-made ELISA kit for detection of Helicobacter pylori infection over commercially imported kits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, M; Talebkhan, Y; Khalili, G; Mahboudi, F; Massarrat, S; Zamaninia, L; Oghalaei, A

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate a home-made ELISA kit for detection of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection and comparison of its immunologic criteria with those of foreign commercial kits. A home-made IgG ELISA kit was developed using soluble antigenic fractions of Hp proteins. Confirmed sera were tested and serological criteria were evaluated through assessment of 199 serum samples. The accuracy, sensitivity and specificity values of home-made kit were 92, 92 and 90.4%, respectively. These immunologic criteria for Trinity kit were 95.2, 95.2 and 95% in comparison with IBL kit (91.3, 92.2 and 88.5%), BIOHIT kit (72.4, 41.6 and 94.1%) and HelicoBlot2.1 (94.2, 93.4 and 100%). Kappa agreement assessment demonstrated that two of the imported ELISA kits had fair to moderate agreement with the home-made kit while the other one had a poor agreement value. Apart from comparable values between the home-made kit and the most efficient imported kit (Trinity) there was significant cost benefit. Therefore, we recommend the home-made kit as a suitable substitution for detection of Hp infection in the Iranian population.

  13. Advantage of using a home-made elisa kit for detection of Helicobacter pylori infection over commercially imported kits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadi M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate a home-made ELISA kit for detection of Helicobacter pylori (Hp infection and comparison of its immunologic criteria with those of foreign commercial kits. Methods: A home-made IgG ELISA kit was developed using soluble antigenic fractions of Hp proteins. Confirmed sera were tested and serological criteria were evaluated through assessment of 199 serum samples. Results: The accuracy, sensitivity and specificity values of home-made kit were 92, 92 and 90.4%, respectively. These immunologic criteria for Trinity kit were 95.2, 95.2 and 95% in comparison with IBL kit (91.3, 92.2 and 88.5%, BIOHIT kit (72.4, 41.6 and 94.1% and HelicoBlot2.1 (94.2, 93.4 and 100%. Kappa agreement assessment demonstrated that two of the imported ELISA kits had fair to moderate agreement with the home-made kit while the other one had a poor agreement value. Conclusions: Apart from comparable values between the home-made kit and the most efficient imported kit (Trinity there was significant cost benefit. Therefore, we recommend the home-made kit as a suitable substitution for detection of Hp infection in the Iranian population.

  14. Rapid purification of recombinant histones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinker, Henrike; Haas, Caroline; Harrer, Nadine; Becker, Peter B; Mueller-Planitz, Felix

    2014-01-01

    The development of methods to assemble nucleosomes from recombinant histones decades ago has transformed chromatin research. Nevertheless, nucleosome reconstitution remains time consuming to this day, not least because the four individual histones must be purified first. Here, we present a streamlined purification protocol of recombinant histones from bacteria. We termed this method "rapid histone purification" (RHP) as it circumvents isolation of inclusion bodies and thereby cuts out the most time-consuming step of traditional purification protocols. Instead of inclusion body isolation, whole cell extracts are prepared under strongly denaturing conditions that directly solubilize inclusion bodies. By ion exchange chromatography, the histones are purified from the extracts. The protocol has been successfully applied to all four canonical Drosophila and human histones. RHP histones and histones that were purified from isolated inclusion bodies had similar purities. The different purification strategies also did not impact the quality of octamers reconstituted from these histones. We expect that the RHP protocol can be readily applied to the purification of canonical histones from other species as well as the numerous histone variants.

  15. Production and purification of polyclonal antibody against melatonin hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fooladsaz K

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays immunochemical techniques have played a very important and valuable role in quantitative and qualitative assays of liquid compounds of the body. Producing antibody against immunogenes is the first step to make immunochemical kits. In this study production and purification of polyclonal antibody against melatonin has been considered. This hormone which has several important functions in physiological conditions such as migraine, cirrhosis, mammary gland cancer and other diseases, is the most important pineal gland secretion. This gland is a circumventricular organ of brain and according to histological and anatomical studies, it is a high secretory organ, that secretes active biological substances like melatonin, oxytocin, serotonin and ect. In this study, melatonin has been considered as hapten and has become an immunogen by being linked to the bovine serum Albumin. Then, by the immunization of three white New Zeland rabbits that had the booster injections in regular intervals, the antibody titer was detected to be 1/2000, by using checkboard curves, and with the use of melatonin linked to penicillinase as a labeled antigen, the titer was detected 1/200. Finally an antibody with high purification rate has been obtained, which can be used in immunochemical assays like RIA, ELISA, and EIA.

  16. Stool Softeners

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 50 Plus® (as a combination product containing Docusate, Sennosides) ... Gentle Strength® (as a combination product containing Docusate, Sennosides) ... Gentlax S® (as a combination product containing Docusate, Sennosides)

  17. Preparation and quality control of ECD kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yassin, T.; Dadokh, M.; Almalki, R.

    2005-05-01

    ECD Kit for brain imaging after labeling with technetium 99m was prepared according to an optimum conditions, Each vial contains 1 mg of ECD and 0.155 mg of stannous chloride anhydrous SnCl 2 , 24 mg of Mannitol and 0.5 mg of Na 2 Ca EDTA, The prepared kit showed high quality satisfying the requirements of international pharmacopoeias from the points of physical, chemical, radiochemical and biological purities, and its validity for human injection. And the labeling yield exceeded 95 % with average value of about 97.63 ± 0.89% for 2mCi /2ml radioactivity , This study also showed that each vial content can be labeled with maximum activity of 99m Tc of about 50 mCi (Authors)

  18. KIT mutation analysis in mast cell neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arock, M; Sotlar, K; Akin, C

    2015-01-01

    mutations in patients with mastocytosis at diagnosis and during follow-up with sufficient precision and sensitivity in daily practice. In addition, we provide recommendations for sampling and storage of diagnostic material as well as a robust diagnostic algorithm. Using highly sensitive assays, KIT D816V...... can be detected in peripheral blood leukocytes from most patients with systemic mastocytosis (SM) that is a major step forward in screening and SM diagnosis. In addition, the KIT D816V allele burden can be followed quantitatively during the natural course or during therapy. Our recommendations should...... greatly facilitate diagnostic and follow-up investigations in SM in daily practice as well as in clinical trials. In addition, the new tools and algorithms proposed should lead to a more effective screen, early diagnosis of SM and help to avoid unnecessary referrals....

  19. Unitized solid phase immunoassay kit and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    A unitized solid phase kit for radioimmunoassay is disclosed. All of the necessary assay reagents are incorporated into a single tube wherein all phases of the assay procedure are performed, requiring only the addition of the patient's sample. Antibody is bound to the tube surface while labelled antigen is also present but unbound. Storage in the absence of air and water results in the stabilization of the reagents such that the system can be stored for long periods

  20. Automated prototyping tool-kit (APT)

    OpenAIRE

    Nada, Nader; Shing, M.; Berzins, V.; Luqi

    2002-01-01

    Automated prototyping tool-kit (APT) is an integrated set of software tools that generate source programs directly from real-time requirements. The APT system uses a fifth-generation prototyping language to model the communication structure, timing constraints, 1/0 control, and data buffering that comprise the requirements for an embedded software system. The language supports the specification of hard real-time systems with reusable components from domain specific component libraries. APT ha...

  1. The challenges of lean manufacturing implementation in kitting assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fansuri, A. F. H.; Rose, A. N. M.; Nik Mohamed, N. M. Z.; Ahmad, H.

    2017-10-01

    Literature studies shows that lean manufacturing goes way back with the original founder Eli Whitney in year 1799. The main purpose of lean manufacturing is to identify and eliminate waste in production. The application of lean manufacturing can be carried out in any industrial processes with regards to the understanding of lean principles, theories and practices. Kitting is one of the important aspects in a successful production. The continuous supply of materials from store to production has to be systematic and able to achieve lean standard for it to be successful. The objective of this paper is to review the implementation of lean manufacturing in kitting assembly. Previous papers show that, the implementation of lean manufacturing in kitting assembly may be beneficial to the organization such as reduce in space occupancy, part shortages, lead time and manpower. Based on previous research, some industries may tend to change between kitting and line stocking which are due to lack of understanding when implementing kitting and causes longer lead time and materials overflow in store. With a proper understanding on what to kit, where to kit, how to kit, why to kit and who kits the material with a standardised process flow may ensure the success of kitting.

  2. Brazilian Portuguese translation, cross-cultural adaptation and reproducibility assessment of the modified Bristol Stool Form Scale for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozala, Debora Rodrigues; Oliveira, Isabelle Stefan de Faria; Ortolan, Erika Veruska Paiva; Oliveira Junior, Wilson Elias de; Comes, Giovana Tuccille; Cassettari, Vanessa Mello Granado; Self, Mariella Marie; Lourenção, Pedro Luiz Toledo de Arruda

    2018-03-15

    To translate and culturally adapt the modified Bristol Stool Form Scale for children into Brazilian Portuguese, and to evaluate the reproducibility of the translated version. The stage of translation and cross-cultural adaptation was performed according to an internationally accepted methodology, including the translation, back-translation, and pretest application of the translated version to a sample of 74 children to evaluate the degree of understanding. The reproducibility of the translated scale was assessed by applying the final version of Brazilian Portuguese modified Bristol Stool Form Scale for children to a sample of 64 children and 25 healthcare professionals, who were asked to correlate a randomly selected description from the translated scale with the corresponding representative illustration of the stool type. The final version of Brazilian Portuguese modified Bristol Stool Form Scale for children were evidently reproducible, since almost complete agreement (k>0,8) was obtained among the translated descriptions and illustrations of the stool types, both among the children and the group of specialists. The Brazilian Portuguese modified Bristol Stool Form Scale for children was shown to be reliable in providing very similar results for the same respondents at different times and for different examiners. The Brazilian Portuguese modified Bristol Stool Form Scale for children is reproducible; it can be applied in clinical practice and in scientific research in Brazil. Copyright © 2018 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. Computerized portable microwave hyperthermia quality assurance kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, A.Y.; Neyzari, A.

    1985-01-01

    A computerized quality assurance kit to provide precise measurement and calibration of microwave power and temperature, as well as capabilities to map SAR (Specific absorption rate) distribution in phantoms; and survey of hazardous microwave leakage has been designed. The kit is also capable of performing corelation studies on the relationship between SAR and net microwave power delivered at various anatomical sites. The kit consists of a portable microcomputer, a time-multiplexed A/D converter, a 4-channel dual directional microwave power monitor, a 4-channel thin-wire thermocouple thermometry system, an electronic thermal calibrator, a microwave leakage hazard survey meter, and a dynamic phantom tank for dosimetric analysis. Comparative performance studies were made against NBS-traceable power and temperature standards, non-perturbing optical temperature sensors, and established power and temperature measurement devices. The test results indicate that this instrument is providing its user with measurement accuracy of 0.1 0 C in temperature, 10% accuracy in power. The thin-wire thermocouple, with computer assisted error compensation, performs equally well in a strong microwave field in comparison with non-perturbing optical temperature sensors

  4. Real time PCR to detect the environmental faecal contamination by Echinococcus multilocularis from red fox stools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Jenny; Millon, Laurence; Mouzon, Lorane; Umhang, Gérald; Raoul, Francis; Ali, Zeinaba Said; Combes, Benoît; Comte, Sébastien; Gbaguidi-Haore, Houssein; Grenouillet, Frédéric; Giraudoux, Patrick

    2014-03-17

    The oncosphere stage of Echinococcus multilocularis in red fox stools can lead, after ingestion, to the development of alveolar echinococcosis in the intermediate hosts, commonly small mammals and occasionally humans. Monitoring animal infection and environmental contamination is a key issue in public health surveillance. We developed a quantitative real-time PCR technique (qPCR) to detect and quantify E. multilocularis DNA released in fox faeces. A qPCR technique using a hydrolysis probe targeting part of the mitochondrial gene rrnL was assessed on (i) a reference collection of stools from 57 necropsied foxes simultaneously investigated using the segmental sedimentation and counting technique (SSCT) (29 positive for E. multilocularis worms and 28 negative animals for the parasite); (ii) a collection of 114 fox stools sampled in the field: two sets of 50 samples from contrasted endemic regions in France and 14 from an E. multilocularis-free area (Greenland). Of the negative SSCT controls, 26/28 were qPCR-negative and two were weakly positive. Of the positive SSCT foxes, 25/29 samples were found to be positive by qPCR. Of the field samples, qPCR was positive in 21/50 (42%) and 5/48 (10.4%) stools (2 samples inhibited), originating respectively from high and low endemic areas. In faeces, averages of 0.1 pg/μl of DNA in the Jura area and 0.7 pg/μl in the Saône-et-Loire area were detected. All qPCR-positive samples were confirmed by sequencing. The qPCR technique developed here allowed us to quantify environmental E. multilocularis contamination by fox faeces by studying the infectious agent directly. No previous study had performed this test in a one-step reaction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Molecular characterization of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli strains from stools samples and food products in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Rúgeles, Laura Cristina; Bai, Jing; Martínez, Aída Juliana; Vanegas, María Consuelo; Gómez-Duarte, Oscar Gilberto

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of diarrheagenic E. coli in childhood diarrhea and the role of contaminated food products in disease transmission in Colombia are largely unknown. The aim of this study is to identify E. coli pathotypes, including E. coli O157:H7, from 108 stool samples from children with acute diarrhea, 38 meat samples and 38 vegetable samples. Multiplex PCR and Bax Dupont systems were used for E. coli pathotype detection. Eighteen (9.8%) E. coli diarrheagenic pathotypes were detected among al...

  6. Dipstick for rapid diagnosis of Shigella flexneri 2a in stool.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faridabano Nato

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Shigellosis or bacillary dysentery, an acute bloody diarrhoea, is a major public health burden in developing countries. In the absence of prompt and appropriate treatment, the infection is often fatal, particularly in young malnourished children. Here, we describe a new diagnostic test for rapid detection, in stool, at the bedside of patients, of Shigella flexneri 2a, the most predominant agent of the endemic form of the disease.The test is based on the detection of S.flexneri 2a lipopolysaccharide (LPS using serotype 2a-specific monoclonal antibodies coupled to gold particles and displayed on one-step immunochromatographic dipstick. A concentration as low as 20 ng/ml of LPS is detected in distilled water and in reconstituted stools in under 15 minutes. The threshold of detection corresponds to a concentration of 5x10(7 CFU/ml of S. flexneri 2a, which provides an unequivocal positive reaction in three minutes in distilled water and reconstituted stools. The specificity is 100% when tested with a battery of Shigella and unrelated strains, in culture. When tested in Vietnam, on clinical samples, the specificity and sensitivity were 99.2 and 91.5%, respectively. A decrease of the sensitivity during the evaluation on stool samples was observed after five weeks at room temperature and was due to moistening of the dipsticks caused by the humidity of the air during the fifth week of the evaluation. This drawback is now overcome by improving the packaging and providing dipsticks individually wrapped in waterproof bags.This simple dipstick-bases test represents a powerful tool for case management and epidemiological surveys.

  7. Novel Stool-Based Protein Biomarkers for Improved Colorectal Cancer Screening: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Linda J W; de Wit, Meike; Pham, Thang V; Coupé, Veerle M H; Hiemstra, Annemieke C; Piersma, Sander R; Oudgenoeg, Gideon; Scheffer, George L; Mongera, Sandra; Sive Droste, Jochim Terhaar; Oort, Frank A; van Turenhout, Sietze T; Larbi, Ilhame Ben; Louwagie, Joost; van Criekinge, Wim; van der Hulst, Rene W M; Mulder, Chris J J; Carvalho, Beatriz; Fijneman, Remond J A; Jimenez, Connie R; Meijer, Gerrit A

    2017-12-19

    The fecal immunochemical test (FIT) for detecting hemoglobin is used widely for noninvasive colorectal cancer (CRC) screening, but its sensitivity leaves room for improvement. To identify novel protein biomarkers in stool that outperform or complement hemoglobin in detecting CRC and advanced adenomas. Case-control study. Colonoscopy-controlled referral population from several centers. 315 stool samples from one series of 12 patients with CRC and 10 persons without colorectal neoplasia (control samples) and a second series of 81 patients with CRC, 40 with advanced adenomas, and 43 with nonadvanced adenomas, as well as 129 persons without colorectal neoplasia (control samples); 72 FIT samples from a third independent series of 14 patients with CRC, 16 with advanced adenomas, and 18 with nonadvanced adenomas, as well as 24 persons without colorectal neoplasia (control samples). Stool samples were analyzed by mass spectrometry. Classification and regression tree (CART) analysis and logistic regression analyses were performed to identify protein combinations that differentiated CRC or advanced adenoma from control samples. Antibody-based assays for 4 selected proteins were done on FIT samples. In total, 834 human proteins were identified, 29 of which were statistically significantly enriched in CRC versus control stool samples in both series. Combinations of 4 proteins reached sensitivities of 80% and 45% for detecting CRC and advanced adenomas, respectively, at 95% specificity, which was higher than that of hemoglobin alone (P control samples (P control samples. Proof of concept that such proteins can be detected with antibody-based assays in small sample volumes indicates the potential of these biomarkers to be applied in population screening. Center for Translational Molecular Medicine, International Translational Cancer Research Dream Team, Stand Up to Cancer (American Association for Cancer Research and the Dutch Cancer Society), Dutch Digestive Foundation, and VU

  8. RELIGION AND PURIFICATION OF SOUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Khodashenas Pelko

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The Jainism emphasizes three major teachings about the purification of the soul (jiva, Ahimsa, Aparigrapha and anekantwad. Jainism, The focus of this religion has been purification of the soul by means of right conduct, right faith and right knowledge. The ultimate goal of Hinduism is Moksha or liberation (total freedom. In Hinduism, purification of the soul is a goal that one must work to attain. The Buddhism is the science of pursuing the aim of making the human mind perfect, and of purifying the human soul. The knowledge of purifying of the soul and softening of the hearts is as essential for human. They having the correct motivations means purifying our souls from hypocrisy, caprice, and heedlessness. The primary goal of Taoism may be described as the mystical intuition of the Tao, which is the way, the undivided unity, and the ultimate Reality. According to the Christianity access to truth cannot be conceived without purity of the soul

  9. Antimicrobial Peptide Production and Purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suda, Srinivas; Field, Des; Barron, Niall

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are natural defense compounds which are synthesized as ribosomal gene-encoded pre-peptides and produced by all living organisms. AMPs are small peptides, usually cationic and typically have hydrophobic residues which interact with cell membranes and have either a narrow or broad spectrum of biological activity. AMPs are isolated from the natural host or heterologously expressed in other hosts such as Escherichia coli. The proto-typical lantibiotic Nisin is a widely used AMP that is produced by the food-grade organism Lactococcus lactis. Although AMP production and purification procedures require optimization for individual AMPs, the Nisin production and purification protocol outlined in this chapter can be easily applied with minor modifications for the production and purification of other lantibiotics or AMPs. While Nisin is produced and secreted into the supernatant, steps to recover Nisin from both cell-free supernatant and cell pellet are outlined in detail.

  10. Techniques for the recovery and identification of Cryptosporidium oocysts from stool specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, L S; Bruckner, D A; Brewer, T C; Shimizu, R Y

    1983-07-01

    Due to increasing numbers of patients with documented infections with Cryptosporidium and other coccidia, it is important for the physician and clinical laboratory to be aware of the appropriate diagnostic techniques necessary for organism recovery and identification. Although Cryptosporidium is found in the gastrointestinal tract, tissue biopsies may be insufficient for organism recovery; the examination of stool specimens is a noninvasive procedure and will provide better overall opportunities for organism recovery. Human clinical specimens were examined from 45 patients with confirmed cryptosporidiosis or suspected of having the infection. Tissue biopsy sections, fecal wet preparations, and permanent stained smears were examined. Stool specimens were submitted in 10% Formalin, 2.5% potassium dichromate, and polyvinyl alcohol and were examined for oocysts by using 15 different methods: phase-contrast and light microscopy; Sheather's sugar flotation; Formalin concentration techniques; 10% potassium hydroxide; Giemsa; trichrome; periodic acid-Schiff; modified periodic acid-Schiff; silver methenamine; acridine orange; auramine-rhodamine; Kinyoun acid-fast; Ziehl-Neelsen carbolfuchsin; and a modified acid-fast procedure. Each technique or combination of techniques was assessed by organism quantitation, organism morphology, and ease of visual recognition. Based on these comparative studies, the modified Ziehl-Neelsen carbolfuchsin stain on 10% Formalin-preserved stool is recommended for the recovery and identification of Cryptosporidium.

  11. The complete genome of klassevirus – a novel picornavirus in pediatric stool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganem Donald

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diarrhea kills 2 million children worldwide each year, yet an etiological agent is not found in approximately 30–50% of cases. Picornaviral genera such as enterovirus, kobuvirus, cosavirus, parechovirus, hepatovirus, teschovirus, and cardiovirus have all been found in human and animal diarrhea. Modern technologies, especially deep sequencing, allow rapid, high-throughput screening of clinical samples such as stool for new infectious agents associated with human disease. Results A pool of 141 pediatric gastroenteritis samples that were previously found to be negative for known diarrheal viruses was subjected to pyrosequencing. From a total of 937,935 sequence reads, a collection of 849 reads distantly related to Aichi virus were assembled and found to comprise 75% of a novel picornavirus genome. The complete genome was subsequently cloned and found to share 52.3% nucleotide pairwise identity and 38.9% amino acid identity to Aichi virus. The low level of sequence identity suggests a novel picornavirus genus which we have designated klassevirus. Blinded screening of 751 stool specimens from both symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals revealed a second positive case of klassevirus infection, which was subsequently found to be from the index case's 11-month old twin. Conclusion We report the discovery of human klassevirus 1, a member of a novel picornavirus genus, in stool from two infants from Northern California. Further characterization and epidemiological studies will be required to establish whether klasseviruses are significant causes of human infection.

  12. Detection of Colorectal Cancer by a Quantitative Fluorescence Determination of DNA Amplification in Stool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Calistri

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available DNA amplification of exfoliated cells in stool repre sents an inexpensive and rapid test, but has only 50% to 60% sensitivity. A new quantitative method, calle( fluorescence long DNA, was developed and validate( in our laboratory on stool obtained from 86 patient., with primary colorectal cancer and from 62 health individuals. It consists of the amplification of stoo DNA with fluorescence primers and the quantification of the amplification using a standard curve. Results are arbitrarily expressed in nanograms. The potential of thi new method compared to the conventional approact was analyzed in a subgroup of 94 individuals (51 patients and 38 healthy volunteers. In the presen series, DNA amplification analysis showed a specific ity of 97% and a sensitivity of only 50%. Conversely fluorescence DNA evaluation, using the best cutoff o 25 ng, showed a sensitivity of about 76% and a spec ificity of 93%. Similar sensitivity was observed regard less of Dukes stage, tumor location, and size, thu., also permitting the detection of early-stage tumors The present study seems to indicate that quantitative fluorescence DNA determination in stool successfully identifies colorectal cancer patients with a sensitivity comparable, if not superior, to that of multiple gene analysis but at a lower cost and in a shorter time.

  13. The effect of inclined step stool on the quality of chest compression during in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Seong-Woo; Lee, Byung Kook; Jeung, Kyung Woon; Park, Sang Wook; Choi, Sung Soo; Lee, Chang-Hee; Ryu, So-Yeon

    2014-08-01

    A step stool is an ordinary device to improve the quality of chest compression (CC) during in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). We investigated the effect of an inclined step stool on the quality of CC during CPR on a hospital bed. We conducted a randomized crossover study of simulation using a manikin. Two different methods of CC were performed and compared: CC using a flat stool and CC using an inclined (20°) stool. Each session of CC was performed for 2 minutes using a metronome at a rate of 110 beats per minute. The primary outcome was the depth of CC. The adequate CC rate, duty cycle, rate of incomplete recoil, and the angle between the arm of the participants and the bed were also measured. The median value of the mean depth of CC was 50.5 mm (45.0-57.0 mm) in the flat stool group and 54.5 mm (47.0-58.3 mm) in the inclined stool group (P = .014). The adequate CC rate was significantly higher in the inclined stool group (84.2% [37.6%-99.1%] vs 57.0% [15.2%-95.0%]; P = .016). The duty cycle and the rate of incomplete recoil were comparable between the 2 groups. The angles between the arm of the participants and the bed were more vertical in the inclined stool group (84.0° ± 5.2° vs 81.0° ± 4.8°; P = .014). Using an inclined stool resulted in an improvement in the depth of CC and the adequate CC rate without increasing the rate of incomplete chest recoil. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Automated forensic DNA purification optimized for FTA card punches and identifiler STR-based PCR analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tack, Lois C; Thomas, Michelle; Reich, Karl

    2007-03-01

    Forensic labs globally face the same problem-a growing need to process a greater number and wider variety of samples for DNA analysis. The same forensic lab can be tasked all at once with processing mixed casework samples from crime scenes, convicted offender samples for database entry, and tissue from tsunami victims for identification. Besides flexibility in the robotic system chosen for forensic automation, there is a need, for each sample type, to develop new methodology that is not only faster but also more reliable than past procedures. FTA is a chemical treatment of paper, unique to Whatman Bioscience, and is used for the stabilization and storage of biological samples. Here, the authors describe optimization of the Whatman FTA Purification Kit protocol for use with the AmpFlSTR Identifiler PCR Amplification Kit.

  15. The various sodium purification techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courouau, J.L.; Masse, F.; Rodriguez, G.; Latge, C.; Redon, B.

    1997-01-01

    In the framework of sodium waste treatment, the sodium purification phase plays an essential role in the chain of operations leading to the transformation of the active sodium, considered as waste, into a stable sodium salt. The objectives of the purification operations are: To keep a low impurity level, particularly a low concentration in oxygen and hydrogen, in order to allow its transfer to a processing plant, and in order to avoid risks of plugging and/or corrosion in sodium facilities; To reduce the sodium activity in order to limit the dose rate close to the facilities, and in order to reduce the activity of the liquid and gaseous effluents. After a recall of the different kind of impurities that can be present in sodium, and of the different purification methods that could be associated with, the following points are highlighted: (i) Oxygen and hydrogen purification needs, and presentation of some selection criteria for a purification unit adapted to a sodium processing plant, as well as 2 cold trap concepts that are in accordance with these criteria: PSICHOS and PIRAMIDE. (ii) Tritium reduction in a bulk of liquid sodium by swamping, isotopic exchange, or permeation throughout a membrane. (iii) Caesium trapping on carbonaceous matrix. The main matrices used at present are R.V.C. (Reticulated Vitreous Carbon) and Actitex/Pica products. Tests in the laboratory and on an experimental device have demonstrated the performances of these materials, which are able to reduce sodium activity in Cs 134 and Cs 137 to very low values. The sodium purification processes as regards to the hydrogen, oxygen and caesium, that are aimed at facilitating the subsequent treatment of sodium, are therefore mastered operations. Regarding the operations associated with the reduction of the tritium activity, the methods are in the process of being qualified, or to be qualified. (author)

  16. Partial Purification and Characterization of Extracellular Protease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences ... Purification of the enzyme by gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G75 following ammonium sulphate precipitation gave 2.26 fold increase in purification with specific activity of 46.13 units/mg protein while purification on Sephadex CM50 resulted in reduced ...

  17. Purification of Water by Aquatic Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Morimitsu, Katsuhito; Kawahigashi, Tatsuo

    2013-01-01

    [Abstract] Water quality purification of many water systems including those occurring in rivers depends to a great degree on water quality purification activities of aquatic plants and microbes. This paper presents a discussion of results, based on laboratory experiments, of purification by aquatic plants.

  18. c-KIT positive schistosomal urinary bladder carcinoma are frequent but lack KIT gene mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Tahany M; Metawea, Mokhtar; Salim, Elsayed I

    2013-01-01

    Urinary bladder squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), one of the most common neoplasms in Egypt, is attributed to chronic urinary infection with Schistosoma haematobium (Schistosomiasis). The proto-oncogene c-KIT, encoding a tyrosine kinase receptor and implicated in the development of a number of human malignancies, has not been studied so far in schistosomal urinary bladder SCCs. We therefore determined immunohistochemical (IHC) expression of c-KIT in paraffin sections from 120 radical cystectomies of SCCs originally obtained from the Pathology Department of Suez Canal University (Ismailia, Egypt). Each slide was evaluated for staining intensity where the staining extent of >10% of cells was considered positive. c-KIT overexpression was detected in 78.3% (94/120) of the patients, the staining extents in the tumor cells were 11-50% and >50% in 40 (42.6%) and 54 (57.4%) respectively. The positive cases had 14.9%, 63.8%, 21.3% as weak, moderate and strong intensity respectively. Patients with positive bilharzial ova had significantly higher c-KIT expression than patients without (95.2% vs. 38.9%, P=0.000). Mutation analysis of exons 9-13 was negative in thirty KIT positive cases. The high rate of positivity in SBSCC was one of the striking findings; However, CD117 may be a potential target for site specific immunotherapy to improve the outcome of this tumor.

  19. Materials for Molybdenum 99 purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, M. Victoria; Mondino, Angel V.; Manzini, Alberto C.

    2003-01-01

    The National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) produces fission Mo 99, an isotope of wide use in nuclear medicine. In order to simplify the current Mo 99 production process, to shorten its duration and reduce impurities in the final product, alternative methods for purification steps were looked for. In this work a variety of new materials for the purification columns were designed, all of them with carbon. These materials were studied and a material which contribute with the best results for molybdenum retention, was selected. The preparation procedure and the working conditions were determined. (author)

  20. Hydrogen purification by periodic adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barg, Christian; Secchi, Argimiro R.; Trierweiler, Jorge O. [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica]. E-mail: cbarg@enq.ufrgs.br; arge@enq.ufrgs.br; jorge@enq.ufrgs.br

    2000-07-01

    The periodic adsorption processes have been widely used for industrial applications, mainly because it spends less energy than the usual gas separation processes, like the cryogenic distillation. The largest commercial application of periodic adsorption processes is the pressure swing adsorption (PSA) applied to hydrogen purification. Although its wide use in the chemical and petrochemical industry, there are no reports in the open literature about complete modeling studies of a complex commercial unit, with multiple adsorbents and multiple beds and several feed components. This study has as objective the modeling, optimization and dynamical analysis of an industrial PSA unit for hydrogen purification. (author)

  1. Sperm cell purification from mock forensic swabs using SOMAmer™ affinity reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katilius, Evaldas; Carmel, Andrew B; Koss, Heidi; O'Connell, Dan; Smith, Breanna C; Sanders, Glenn M; LaBerge, Greggory S

    2018-03-27

    We have demonstrated a proof of concept with affinity-based purification of sperm cells from mock forensic samples using SOMAmer™ reagents, DNA-based affinity reagents developed by SomaLogic, Inc. SOMAmer reagents were selected in vitro using whole-cell SELEX to bind specifically with intact, detergent-treated sperm cells. Successful separation of sperm from epithelial cells and their debris was demonstrated using buccal swabs with added semen. Primarily male DNA profiles were generated from sperm cells eluted from the types of cotton swabs typically used for rape kit evidence collection. The quality of sperm DNA isolated from samples purified using SOMAmers is comparable to existing commercially available differential extraction-based methods at higher sperm concentrations. This purification method is simple, offers relatively rapid (forensic casework. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Technetium-99m ceftizoxime kit preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diniz, Simone Odilia Fernandes; Siqueira, Cristiano Ferrari; Nelson, David Lee; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this work was to prepare a kit of 99 m Tc-ceftizoxime ( 99m Tc-CFT), with stability and biological activity preserved, able to identify a septic focus (E. coli) in the experimental infection model in rats. The preparation of the CFT kit involved the use of lyophilized solutions containing the antibiotic ceftizoxime and the sodium dithionite reducing agent (6.0 mg/m L). After lyophilization, the kit was reconstituted with 1.0 mL of sodium 99m Tc pertechnetate solution (Na 99m Tc O 4- ) with an activity of 370 MBq. The solution was boiled for 10 min and filtered through a cellulose ester filter. The labeling efficiency was on the order of 92%, remaining stable for six hours and the kit remained stable for two months. The biological activity of the 99m Tc-CFT was evaluated by diffusion in agar impregnated with E.coli and S. aureus. Seven Wistar rats, weighing from 200 to 250 g, were used for the development of the septic focus. After 24 hours from the induction of the infectious site (E.coli), the animals were anesthetized and 0.1 mL of 99m Tc-CFT (37 MBq) was injected into the tail veins of the animals. The images were obtained with a gamma camera one, two and six hours after injection and the regions of interest (ROIs) were calculated. The diameters of the inhibition halos for 99 m Tc-CFT were 27.16 ± 0.23 and 27.17 ± 0.20 for S.aureus and E.coli, respectively, while those for the unlabeled CFT were 30.4 ± 0.33 and 29.43 ± 0.26, respectively. The results for the biodistribution of 99m Tc-CFT in infected animals furnished a ratio of 1.97 ± 0.31, 2.10 ± 0.42 and 2.01 ± 0.42 for cpm-target/cpm-no target for the one, two and six-hour periods, respectively. The images showed a clear uptake of labeled antibiotic ( 99m Tc-CFT) by the infectious site during the experiment. The results attest to the viability of producing a kit with 99m technetium-labeled ceftizoxime for the investigation of infectious processes. (author)

  3. Technetium-99m ceftizoxime kit preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diniz, Simone Odilia Fernandes; Siqueira, Cristiano Ferrari; Nelson, David Lee; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento [Minas Gerais Univ. Federal, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Farmacia]. E-mail: simone@farmacia.ufmg.br; Martin-Comin, Josep [Bellvitge Univ., Barcelona (Spain)

    2005-10-15

    The aim of this work was to prepare a kit of {sup 99}m Tc-ceftizoxime ({sup 99m} Tc-CFT), with stability and biological activity preserved, able to identify a septic focus (E. coli) in the experimental infection model in rats. The preparation of the CFT kit involved the use of lyophilized solutions containing the antibiotic ceftizoxime and the sodium dithionite reducing agent (6.0 mg/m L). After lyophilization, the kit was reconstituted with 1.0 mL of sodium {sup 99m} Tc pertechnetate solution (Na {sup 99m} Tc O{sub 4-}) with an activity of 370 MBq. The solution was boiled for 10 min and filtered through a cellulose ester filter. The labeling efficiency was on the order of 92%, remaining stable for six hours and the kit remained stable for two months. The biological activity of the {sup 99m} Tc-CFT was evaluated by diffusion in agar impregnated with E.coli and S. aureus. Seven Wistar rats, weighing from 200 to 250 g, were used for the development of the septic focus. After 24 hours from the induction of the infectious site (E.coli), the animals were anesthetized and 0.1 mL of {sup 99m} Tc-CFT (37 MBq) was injected into the tail veins of the animals. The images were obtained with a gamma camera one, two and six hours after injection and the regions of interest (ROIs) were calculated. The diameters of the inhibition halos for {sup 99}m Tc-CFT were 27.16 {+-} 0.23 and 27.17 {+-} 0.20 for S.aureus and E.coli, respectively, while those for the unlabeled CFT were 30.4 {+-} 0.33 and 29.43 {+-} 0.26, respectively. The results for the biodistribution of {sup 99m} Tc-CFT in infected animals furnished a ratio of 1.97 {+-} 0.31, 2.10 {+-} 0.42 and 2.01 {+-} 0.42 for cpm-target/cpm-no target for the one, two and six-hour periods, respectively. The images showed a clear uptake of labeled antibiotic ({sup 99m} Tc-CFT) by the infectious site during the experiment. The results attest to the viability of producing a kit with {sup 99m} technetium-labeled ceftizoxime for the

  4. Stool patterns of Malaysian adults with functional constipation: association with diet and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazlyn, Mena M; Nagarajah, Lee H L; Fatimah, A; Norimah, A K; Goh, K L

    2013-04-01

    Diet and lifestyle modification is commonly used in constipation management. As there is a dearth of studies on this topic in Malaysia, we aim to elucidate the relations between stool patterns, dietary intake and physical activity levels among adults with functional constipation. From a database collected via surveys at public events, a convenience sample of 100 adults diagnosed with Rome II-defined functional constipation was enrolled in this cross-sectional study. After severity assessment using the Chinese Constipation Questionnaire, subjects completed 2-week bowel movement diaries to determine stool frequency, consistency and output. Dietary intake and physical activity levels were assessed twice using three-day 24-hour diet recalls and International Physical Activity Questionnaire, respectively. Ninety subjects who completed the study were included in the analysis. Mean weekly stool frequency was 3.9 +/- 1.9 times, consistency score was 2.6 +/- 0.6 (range 1.0-4.0), output was 11.0 +/- 6.3 balls (40 mm diameter) and severity score was 10.3 +/- 3.3 (range 5.0-22.0). Mean daily dietary intakes were: energy 1,719 +/- 427kcal, dietary fibre 15.0 +/- 4.9g and fluid 2.5 +/- 0.8L. The majority of subjects were physically inactive. Stool frequency and output were positively associated with dietary fibre (r(s) = 0.278, P < 0.01; r(s) = 0.226, P < 0.05) and fluid intake (r(s) = 0.257, P < 0.05; OR = 3.571, 95% CI [1.202-10.609]). Constipation severity was associated with higher physical activity levels (OR = 2.467, 95% CI [1.054-5.777]). Insufficient intake of dietary fibre and fluid are associated with aggravated constipation symptoms. Further studies are necessary to confirm usefulness of dietary intervention in treatment of constipation as dietary factors alone may not influence overall severity and stool consistency, an integral element of constipation.

  5. Is PCR the Next Reference Standard for the Diagnosis of Schistosoma in Stool? A Comparison with Microscopy in Senegal and Kenya.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meurs, L.; Brienen, E.; Mbow, M.; Ochola, E.A,; Mboup, S.; Karanja, D.M.; Secor, W.E.; Polman, K.; Lieshout, L.

    2015-01-01

    Background The current reference test for the detection of S. mansoni in endemic areas is stool microscopy based on one or more Kato-Katz stool smears. However, stool microscopy has several shortcomings that greatly affect the efficacy of current schistosomiasis control programs. A highly specific

  6. Technetium-99m ceftizoxime kit preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Odília Fernandes Diniz

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to prepare a kit of 99mTc-ceftizoxime (99mTc-CFT, with stability and biological activity preserved, able to identify a septic focus (E. coli in the experimental infection model in rats. The preparation of the CFT kit involved the use of lyophilized solutions containing the antibiotic ceftizoxime and the sodium dithionite reducing agent (6.0 mg/mL. After lyophilization, the kit was reconstituted with 1.0 mL of sodium 99mTc-pertechnetate solution (Na99mTcO4- with an activity of 370 MBq. The solution was boiled for 10 min and filtered through a cellulose ester filter. The labeling efficiency was on the order of 92%, remaining stable for six hours and the kit remained stable for two months. The biological activity of the 99mTc-CFT was evaluated by diffusion in agar impregnated with E.coli and S. aureus. Seven Wistar rats, weighing from 200 to 250 g, were used for the development of the septic focus. After 24 hours from the induction of the infectious site (E.coli, the animals were anesthetized and 0.1 mL of 99mTc-CFT (37 MBq was injected into the tail veins of the animals. The images were obtained with a gamma camera one, two and six hours after injection and the regions of interest (ROIs were calculated. The diameters of the inhibition halos for 99mTc-CFT were 27.16 ± 0.23 and 27.17 ± 0.20 for S.aureus and E.coli, respectively, while those for the unlabeled CFT were 30.4 ± 0.33 and 29.43 ± 0.26, respectively. The results for the biodistribution of 99mTc-CFT in infected animals furnished a ratio of 1.97 ± 0.31, 2.10 ± 0.42 and 2.01 ± 0.42 for cpm-target/cpm-no target for the one, two and six-hour periods, respectively. The images showed a clear uptake of labeled antibiotic (99mTc-CFT by the infectious site during the experiment. The results attest to the viability of producing a kit with 99m technetium-labeled ceftizoxime for the investigation of infectious processes.O objetivo deste trabalho foi preparar um kit de Tc

  7. Strep-Tagged Protein Purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maertens, Barbara; Spriestersbach, Anne; Kubicek, Jan; Schäfer, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The Strep-tag system can be used to purify recombinant proteins from any expression system. Here, protocols for lysis and affinity purification of Strep-tagged proteins from E. coli, baculovirus-infected insect cells, and transfected mammalian cells are given. Depending on the amount of Strep-tagged protein in the lysate, a protocol for batch binding and subsequent washing and eluting by gravity flow can be used. Agarose-based matrices with the coupled Strep-Tactin ligand are the resins of choice, with a binding capacity of up to 9 mg ml(-1). For purification of lower amounts of Strep-tagged proteins, the use of Strep-Tactin magnetic beads is suitable. In addition, Strep-tagged protein purification can also be automated using prepacked columns for FPLC or other liquid-handling chromatography instrumentation, but automated purification is not discussed in this protocol. The protocols described here can be regarded as an update of the Strep-Tag Protein Handbook (Qiagen, 2009). © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Bioinspired Materials for Water Purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Gonzalez-Perez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Water scarcity issues associated with inadequate access to clean water and sanitation is a ubiquitous problem occurring globally. Addressing future challenges will require a combination of new technological development in water purification and environmental remediation technology with suitable conservation policies. In this scenario, new bioinspired materials will play a pivotal role in the development of more efficient and environmentally friendly solutions. The role of amphiphilic self-assembly on the fabrication of new biomimetic membranes for membrane separation like reverse osmosis is emphasized. Mesoporous support materials for semiconductor growth in the photocatalytic degradation of pollutants and new carriers for immobilization of bacteria in bioreactors are used in the removal and processing of different kind of water pollutants like heavy metals. Obstacles to improve and optimize the fabrication as well as a better understanding of their performance in small-scale and pilot purification systems need to be addressed. However, it is expected that these new biomimetic materials will find their way into the current water purification technologies to improve their purification/removal performance in a cost-effective and environmentally friendly way.

  9. Development of kits for total PSA monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suprarop, P.

    1999-01-01

    The development of kits for Total PSA assay has shown promising results. All essential components of the assay were prepared with reproducibility and used to optimize the assay. By choosing two steps method, we could avoid the hook effect and obtain satisfactory Q.C. parameters of the standard curve i.e. blank = 0.8%, maximum binding = 65%. If reference material for calibration of the standard is agree upon, the validation could then be carried out with total confidence. Our final goal is to reduce the step of incubation to just one step with no interference from hook effect

  10. Euthanasia: a "kit" sold in Belgian pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    (1) In France, legislation adopted in 2005 recognises the right of dying patients to refuse further treatment, and the right of physicians to ease their suffering with treatments that, due to adverse effects, may shorten their life. Measures deliberately aimed at hastening death are forbidden. (2) In Belgium, medical euthanasia was decriminalised in 2002, and can now be carried out either in hospital or at home. Nearly 20 cases of euthanasia are reported per month in Belgium. (3) A Belgian pharmacy chain now markets a "euthanasia kit".

  11. Magnetic resonance colonography without bowel cleansing using oral and rectal stool softeners (fecal cracking) - a feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajaj, Waleed; Lauenstein, Thomas C.; Kuehle, Christiane; Herborn, Christoph U.; Goehde, Susanne C.; Schneemann, Hubert; Ruehm, Stefan G.; Goyen, Mathias

    2005-01-01

    The aim of our study was to assess the effect of oral and rectal stool softeners on dark-lumen magnetic resonance (MR) colonography without bowel cleansing. Ten volunteers underwent MR colonography without colonic cleansing. A baseline examination was performed without oral or rectal administration of stool softeners. In a second set, volunteers ingested 60 ml of lactulose 24 h prior to MR examination. In a third examination, water as a rectal enema was replaced by a solution of 0.5%-docusate sodium (DS). A fourth MR examination was performed, in conjunction with both oral administration of lactulose and rectal application of DS. A T1-weighted data set was acquired at scanning times of 0, 5 and 10 min after colonic filling. A fourth data set was acquired 75 s after i.v. injection of contrast agent. Signal intensity of stool was calculated for all colonic segments. Without oral ingestion of lactulose or rectal enema with DS stool signal intensity was high and did not decrease over time. However, lactulose and DS caused a decrease in stool signal intensity. Both substances together led to a decreasing signal intensity of feces. Combination of lactulose and DS provided the lowest signal intensity of stool. Thus, feces could hardly be distinguished from dark rectal enema allowing for the assessment of the colonic wall. (orig.)

  12. Prevalence of Salmonella Excretion in Stool: A Community Survey in 2 Sites, Guinea-Bissau and Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Justin; Nichols, Chelsea; Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Sow, Amy Gassama; Løfberg, Sandra; Tall, Adama; Pak, Gi Deok; Aaby, Peter; Baker, Stephen; Clemens, John D; Espinoza, Ligia Maria Cruz; Konings, Frank; May, Jürgen; Monteiro, Mario; Niang, Aissatou; Panzner, Ursula; Park, Se Eun; Schütt-Gerowitt, Heidi; Wierzba, Thomas F; Marks, Florian; von Kalckreuth, Vera

    2016-03-15

    Chronic and convalescent carriers play an important role in the transmission and endemicity of many communicable diseases. A high incidence of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) infection has been reported in parts of sub-Saharan Africa, yet the prevalence of Salmonella excretion in the general population is unknown. Stool specimens were collected from a random sample of households in 2 populations in West Africa: Bissau, Guinea-Bissau, and Dakar, Senegal. Stool was cultured to detect presence of Salmonella, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed on the isolated organisms. Stool was cultured from 1077 and 1359 individuals from Guinea-Bissau and Senegal, respectively. Salmonella Typhi was not isolated from stool samples at either site. Prevalence of NTS in stool samples was 24.1 (95% confidence interval [CI], 16.5-35.1; n = 26/1077) per 1000 population in Guinea-Bissau and 10.3 (95% CI, 6.1-17.2; n = 14/1359) per 1000 population in Senegal. Evidence of NTS excretion in stool in both study populations indicates a possible NTS transmission route in these settings. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Albendazole Stimulates the Excretion of Strongyloides stercoralis Larvae in Stool Specimens and Enhances Sensitivity for Diagnosis of Strongyloidiasis▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anamnart, Witthaya; Pattanawongsa, Attarat; Intapan, Pewpan Maleewong; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2010-01-01

    We succeeded in stimulation of excretion of Strongyloides stercoralis larvae in stool by oral administration of a single dose of 400 mg albendazole to strongyloidiasis patients. This result overcame the false-negative results of stool examination due to low larval numbers. Stool samples were collected from 152 asymptomatic strongyloidiasis patients in the morning, prior to eating. After breakfast, they were given a dose of 400 mg albendazole, and stool samples were collected the following morning. Agar plate culture (APC), modified formalin-ether concentration technique (MFECT), and direct-smear (DS) methods were used to examine stool specimens within 3 h after defecation. The results before and after albendazole was taken were compared. All APCs that were positive became negative after albendazole administration, while MFECT showed a 1.4- to 18.0-fold increase in larval numbers in 97.4% (148/152) of the samples. The DSs were positive in 3 out of 3 smears at a larval number of ≥45 larvae per g (lpg) of stool, and in 1or 2 out of 3 smears at a larval number between 35 and 44 lpg. At a larval number of albendazole administration became positive by MFECT after the treatment. Thus, MFECT can be effectively used for diagnosis of strongyloidiasis with prior administration of albendazole to the subject. PMID:20844212

  14. Personal Computer-less (PC-less) Microcontroller Training Kit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somantri, Y.; Wahyudin, D.; Fushilat, I.

    2018-02-01

    The need of microcontroller training kit is necessary for practical work of students of electrical engineering education. However, to use available training kit not only costly but also does not meet the need of laboratory requirements. An affordable and portable microcontroller kit could answer such problem. This paper explains the design and development of Personal Computer Less (PC-Less) Microcontroller Training Kit. It was developed based on Lattepanda processor and Arduino microcontroller as target. The training kit equipped with advanced input-output interfaces that adopted the concept of low cost and low power system. The preliminary usability testing proved this device can be used as a tool for microcontroller programming and industrial automation training. By adopting the concept of portability, the device could be operated in the rural area which electricity and computer infrastructure are limited. Furthermore, the training kit is suitable for student of electrical engineering student from university and vocational high school.

  15. Development of a new in vivo kit for detection of prostate specific antigen in human serum using immunoradiometric assay method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babaei, M. H.; Behradkia, P.; Shafii, M.; Movla, M.; Forutan, H.; Najafi, R.

    2006-01-01

    Prostate is a leading site for the cancer incidence, accounted for 31.0% of new cancer cases in men. Prostate-specific antigen is widely used in the detection and monitoring of the prostate cancer. Currently, immunoassay is used to detect Prostate-specific antigen in human serum. This technique is based on the interaction between antibody and antigen. The varied immunoassay formats and equipment to run the assays allow the users to measure the analytes rapidly, with the flexibility to run a small or a large number of samples. Among different immunoassay methods, immunoradiometric assay is a more sensitive and valuable detection approach. This study has been made in 4 parts: (1) purification of Prostate-specific antigen from seminal fluid; (2) preparation of hybridoma cells which secrete monoclonal antibody (mAb) against Prostate-specific antigen , (3) selection of pair monoclonal antibody among those antibodies, and finally (4) design of an immunoradiometric assay kit and it's quality control . The results of this study were: (1) obtaining a huge amount of Prostate-specific antigen as semi-purified and purified, that is a valuable material for preparation of standard kits; (2) preparation of 8 kinds of monoclonal antibodies; (3) finding 4 pairs of monoclonal antibodies which react with different epitopes on Prostate-specific antigen molecule; and (4) preparation of immunoradiometric assay kit for measuring Prostate-specific antigen concentration in human serum

  16. Signal transduction by normal isoforms and W mutant variants of the Kit receptor tyrosine kinase.

    OpenAIRE

    Reith, A D; Ellis, C; Lyman, S D; Anderson, D M; Williams, D E; Bernstein, A; Pawson, T

    1991-01-01

    Germline mutations at the Dominant White Spotting (W) and Steel (Sl) loci have provided conclusive genetic evidence that c-kit mediated signal transduction pathways are essential for normal mouse development. We have analysed the interactions of normal and mutant W/c-kit gene products with cytoplasmic signalling proteins, using transient c-kit expression assays in COS cells. In addition to the previously identified c-kit gene product (Kit+), a second normal Kit isoform (KitA+) containing an i...

  17. To Kit or Not to Kit? Evaluating and Implementing Science Materials and Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Ellen; Melin, Jacque; Bair, Mary

    2016-01-01

    With the release of the "Next Generation Science Standards," many schools are reexamining the science materials they are using. Textbook companies and kit developers are eager to meet the demand for "NGSS"-aligned teaching materials. Teacher may have been asked to serve on a science curriculum committee, or to evaluate current…

  18. Selling Addiction: A Workshop Kit on Tobacco and Alcohol Advertising. A Media Literacy Workshop Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Mary Ellen; And Others

    This kit consists of: (1) a leader's guide; (2) an 18-minute videotape containing three 6-minute discussion starter segments analyzing typical commercials and advertising techniques; (3) a special issue of "Media Values" magazine on the theme "Fatal Attraction: The Selling of Addiction"; (4) an 8-page booklet "Awareness to Action: Media Literacy…

  19. Disposable Collection Kit for Rapid and Reliable Collection of Saliva

    OpenAIRE

    Yamaguchi, Masaki; Tezuka, Yuki; Takeda, Kazunori; Shetty, Vivek

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To describe and evaluate disposable saliva collection kit for rapid, reliable, and reproducible collection of saliva samples. Methods The saliva collection kit comprised of a saliva absorbent swab and an extractor unit was used to retrieve whole saliva samples from 10 subjects. The accuracy and precision of the extracted volumes (3, 10, and 30 ?l) were compared to similar volumes drawn from control samples obtained by passive drool. Additionally, the impact of kit collection method...

  20. Opportunities of the energy revolution. Scientific contributions to the KIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breh, Wolfgang; Schaetzler, Katharina

    2013-01-01

    ''Opportunities for energy revolution'' was the title under which the KIT Energy Center of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) in May 2012 held its first annual meeting. The meeting covered the whole Topic of the KIT Energy Center. The present proceedings give those interested the opportunity to delve into the contributions and to provide a differentiated picture of the challenges and opportunities of the energy transition.

  1. IODOBELL in vivo kits for in situ labelling with iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koernyei, Jozsef; Lakatos, Mihaly; Kecskes, Ferenc; Mahunka, Imre; Mikecz, Pal; Ando, Laszlo

    1988-01-01

    A system of in vivo kits called IODOBELL was developed in the Institute of Isotopes, Budapest. The production of hepatodecanoic acid for cardiology, iodo-hippuranic acid for kidney diagnostics and a special pharmaceutical, IODOBELL-MIGB for the indication of feochromocitoma and neuroblastoma is reported. The heptadecanoic acid kit is under human examination, the other two are to be tested in the near future. IODOBELL kits contribute to the wider use of 123 I in Hungary. (author) 6 refs

  2. Experience with Phadebas hCS (HPL)-Test kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herter, U.

    1976-01-01

    The RIA determination of human placental lactogen (HPL) is described using the Phadebas test kit by Pharmacia, Sweden. The results of the test are shown graphically. The kit was tested over a period of one year and the tests were modified to meet the requirements of clinical examinations. The calibration curve is constant and applicable for a period of 14 days. The Phadebas kit has proved to be advantageous for both scientific research work and for routine clinical examinations. (L.O.)

  3. FUELS IN SOIL TEST KIT: FIELD USE OF DIESEL DOG SOIL TEST KITS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan S. Sorini; John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani, Jr.

    2002-09-30

    Western Research Institute (WRI) has developed a new commercial product ready for technology transfer, the Diesel Dog{reg_sign} Portable Soil Test Kit, for performing analysis of fuel-contaminated soils in the field. The technology consists of a method developed by WRI (U.S. Patents 5,561,065 and 5,976,883) and hardware developed by WRI that allows the method to be performed in the field (patent pending). The method is very simple and does not require the use of highly toxic reagents. The aromatic components in a soil extract are measured by absorption at 254 nm with a field-portable photometer. WRI added significant value to the technology by taking the method through the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) approval and validation processes. The method is designated as ASTM Method D 5831-96, Standard Test Method for Screening Fuels in Soils. This ASTM designation allows the method to be used for federal compliance activities. In June 2001, the Diesel Dog technology won an American Chemical Society Regional Industrial Innovations Award. To gain field experience with the new technology, Diesel Dog kits have been used for a variety of site evaluation and cleanup activities. Information gained from these activities has led to improvements in hardware configurations and additional insight into correlating Diesel Dog results with results from laboratory methods. The Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) used Diesel Dog Soil Test Kits to guide cleanups at a variety of sites throughout the state. ENSR, of Acton, Massachusetts, used a Diesel Dog Portable Soil Test Kit to evaluate sites in the Virgin Islands and Georgia. ChemTrack and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers successfully used a test kit to guide excavation at an abandoned FAA fuel-contaminated site near Fairbanks, Alaska. Barenco, Inc. is using a Diesel Dog Portable Soil Test Kit for site evaluations in Canada. A small spill of diesel fuel was cleaned up in Laramie, Wyoming using a Diesel

  4. Sodium purification in Rapsodie; La purification du sodium a Rapsodie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giraud, B [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Dir. des Piles Atomiques, Cadarache (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    This report is one of a series of publications presenting the main results of tests carried out during the start-up of the first french fast neutron reactor: Rapsodie. The article presents the sodium purification techniques used in the reactor cooling circuits both from the constructional point of view and with respect to results obtained during the first years working. (author) [French] Ce rapport fait partie d'une serie de publications presentant l'essentiel des resultats des essais effectues a l'occasion du demarrage du premier reacteur francais a neutrons rapides: RAPSODIE. Cet article expose les techniques de la purification du sodium utilise dans les circuits de refroidissement du reacteur tant au point de vue de leur realisation technologique, que des resultats obtenus pendant la premiere annee de fonctionnement. (auteur)

  5. c-Kit signaling determines neointimal hyperplasia in arteriovenous fistulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skartsis, Nikolaos; Martinez, Laisel; Duque, Juan Camilo; Tabbara, Marwan; Velazquez, Omaida C.; Asif, Arif; Andreopoulos, Fotios; Salman, Loay H.

    2014-01-01

    Stenosis of arteriovenous (A-V) fistulae secondary to neointimal hyperplasia (NIH) compromises dialysis delivery, which worsens patients' quality of life and increases medical costs associated with the maintenance of vascular accesses. In the present study, we evaluated the role of the receptor tyrosine kinase c-Kit in A-V fistula neointima formation. Initially, c-Kit was found in the neointima and adventitia of human brachiobasilic fistulae, whereas it was barely detectable in control veins harvested at the time of access creation. Using the rat A-V fistula model to study venous vascular remodeling, we analyzed the spatial and temporal pattern of c-Kit expression in the fistula wall. Interestingly, c-Kit immunoreactivity increased with time after anastomosis, which concurred with the accumulation of cells in the venous intima. In addition, c-Kit expression in A-V fistulae was positively altered by chronic kidney failure conditions. Both blockade of c-Kit with imatinib mesylate (Gleevec) and inhibition of stem cell factor production with a specific short hairpin RNA prevented NIH in the outflow vein of experimental fistulae. In agreement with these data, impaired c-Kit activity compromised the development of NIH in A-V fistulae created in c-KitW/Wv mutant mice. These results suggest that targeting of the c-Kit signaling pathway may be an effective approach to prevent postoperative NIH in A-V fistulae. PMID:25186298

  6. Statistical modeling of dental unit water bacterial test kit performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Mark E; Harte, Jennifer A; Stone, Mark E; O'Connor, Karen H; Coen, Michael L; Cullum, Malford E

    2007-01-01

    While it is important to monitor dental water quality, it is unclear whether in-office test kits provide bacterial counts comparable to the gold standard method (R2A). Studies were conducted on specimens with known bacterial concentrations, and from dental units, to evaluate test kit accuracy across a range of bacterial types and loads. Colony forming units (CFU) were counted for samples from each source, using R2A and two types of test kits, and conformity to Poisson distribution expectations was evaluated. Poisson regression was used to test for effects of source and device, and to estimate rate ratios for kits relative to R2A. For all devices, distributions were Poisson for low CFU/mL when only beige-pigmented bacteria were considered. For higher counts, R2A remained Poisson, but kits exhibited over-dispersion. Both kits undercounted relative to R2A, but the degree of undercounting was reasonably stable. Kits did not grow pink-pigmented bacteria from dental-unit water identified as Methylobacterium rhodesianum. Only one of the test kits provided results with adequate reliability at higher bacterial concentrations. Undercount bias could be estimated for this device and used to adjust test kit results. Insensitivity to methylobacteria spp. is problematic.

  7. Chemistry of /sup 99m/Tc labeling kits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, S.C.; Meinken, G.; Richards, P.

    1976-01-01

    Problems have been reported with the use of kit-produced /sup 99m/Tc radiopharmaceuticals. This study was undertaken to understand the chemistry involved in various stannous kit systems. The relation between Tc, tin, and the ligands used to complex the reduced Tc was investigated. It is concluded that for reliable performance, stannous kits should be prepared so that most of the tin is kept in the usable (reducing) form; a solution would be to use minimum tin and a large excess of complexing agent. Oxidation of the Tc complex to free pertechnetate is not a major problem in most kit systems. 5 figures

  8. Implementation of a Clinical Decision Support Tool for Stool Cultures and Parasitological Studies in Hospitalized Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolic, D; Richter, S S; Asamoto, K; Wyllie, R; Tuttle, R; Procop, G W

    2017-12-01

    There is substantial evidence that stool culture and parasitological examinations are of minimal to no value after 3 days of hospitalization. We implemented and studied the impact of a clinical decision support tool (CDST) to decrease the number of unnecessary stool cultures (STCUL), ova/parasite (O&P) examinations, and Giardia / Cryptosporidium enzyme immunoassay screens (GC-EIA) performed for patients hospitalized >3 days. We studied the frequency of stool studies ordered before or on day 3 and after day 3 of hospitalization (i.e., categorical orders/total number of orders) before and after this intervention and denoted the numbers and types of microorganisms detected within those time frames. This intervention, which corresponded to a custom-programmed hard-stop alert tool in the Epic hospital information system, allowed providers to override the intervention by calling the laboratory, if testing was deemed medically necessary. Comparative statistics were employed to determine significance, and cost savings were estimated based on our internal costs. Before the intervention, 129/670 (19.25%) O&P examinations, 47/204 (23.04%) GC-EIA, and 249/1,229 (20.26%) STCUL were ordered after 3 days of hospitalization. After the intervention, 46/521 (8.83%) O&P examinations, 27/157 (17.20%) GC-EIA, and 106/1,028 (10.31%) STCUL were ordered after 3 days of hospitalization. The proportions of reductions in the number of tests performed after 3 days and the associated P values were 54.1% for O&P examinations ( P < 0.0001), 22.58% for GC-EIA ( P = 0.2807), and 49.1% for STCUL ( P < 0.0001). This was estimated to have resulted in $8,108.84 of cost savings. The electronic CDST resulted in a substantial reduction in the number of evaluations of stool cultures and the number of parasitological examinations for patients hospitalized for more than 3 days and in a cost savings while retaining the ability of the clinician to obtain these tests if clinically indicated. Copyright © 2017

  9. The Virtual Physiological Human ToolKit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Jonathan; Cervenansky, Frederic; De Fabritiis, Gianni; Fenner, John; Friboulet, Denis; Giorgino, Toni; Manos, Steven; Martelli, Yves; Villà-Freixa, Jordi; Zasada, Stefan; Lloyd, Sharon; McCormack, Keith; Coveney, Peter V

    2010-08-28

    The Virtual Physiological Human (VPH) is a major European e-Science initiative intended to support the development of patient-specific computer models and their application in personalized and predictive healthcare. The VPH Network of Excellence (VPH-NoE) project is tasked with facilitating interaction between the various VPH projects and addressing issues of common concern. A key deliverable is the 'VPH ToolKit'--a collection of tools, methodologies and services to support and enable VPH research, integrating and extending existing work across Europe towards greater interoperability and sustainability. Owing to the diverse nature of the field, a single monolithic 'toolkit' is incapable of addressing the needs of the VPH. Rather, the VPH ToolKit should be considered more as a 'toolbox' of relevant technologies, interacting around a common set of standards. The latter apply to the information used by tools, including any data and the VPH models themselves, and also to the naming and categorizing of entities and concepts involved. Furthermore, the technologies and methodologies available need to be widely disseminated, and relevant tools and services easily found by researchers. The VPH-NoE has thus created an online resource for the VPH community to meet this need. It consists of a database of tools, methods and services for VPH research, with a Web front-end. This has facilities for searching the database, for adding or updating entries, and for providing user feedback on entries. Anyone is welcome to contribute.

  10. A comparative study in three commercial kits of radioligand assay for GAD-Ab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yehua; Zhou Zhiguang; Huang Gan; Yang Feike; Li Zhangwei

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To provide data for perfect selection of glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GAD-Ab) assay commercial kits. Methods: The sera of 88 titer-graded samples by radioligand assay (RLA) were measured with two types of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits and one type of immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) kit for GAD-Ab in order to test their consistency with RLA. Another 140 diabetic sera were measured with RLA and screened by a type of suitable kit to search the cutoff point for discriminating patients who needed rechecking. Results: Compared with RLA, concordance ratio of 3 kits: Medizym kit(75%) > RSR kit(73.9%) > Biomerica kit(62.5%); Kappa value: Medizym kit (0.408, common) > RSR kit (0.405, common) > Biomerica kit (0.185, failing); correlation to RLA index: RSR kit (r= 0.992) > Medizym kit(r= 0. 791 ) > Biomerica kit (r = -0. 055); area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve: Medizym kit (0.812) > RSR kit (0. 727 ) > Biomerica kit (0.666). Conclusions: The efficiencies of RSR kit and Medizym kit are good. Serum concentration between 0.25-0.99 U/ml measured by RSR kit is suggested to further recheck by RLA. (authors)

  11. Water purification using organic salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currier, Robert P.

    2004-11-23

    Water purification using organic salts. Feed water is mixed with at least one organic salt at a temperature sufficiently low to form organic salt hydrate crystals and brine. The crystals are separated from the brine, rinsed, and melted to form an aqueous solution of organic salt. Some of the water is removed from the aqueous organic salt solution. The purified water is collected, and the remaining more concentrated aqueous organic salt solution is reused.

  12. Kit formulated asialoglycoprotein receptor targeting tracer based on copolymer for liver SPECT imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Guo, Zhide; Zhang, Pu; Song, Manli; Zhao, Zuoquan; Wu, Xiaowei; Zhang, Xianzhong

    2014-08-01

    Specific targeting of galactose-carrying molecule to ASGP-R in normal hepatocytes has been demonstrated before. In this study, galactosyl polystyrene was synthesized from controllable ratio of functional monomers and radio-labelled with (99m)Tc by formulated kit for SPECT imaging of hepatic function. p(VLA-co-VNI)(46:54) was synthesized by free-radical copolymerization initiated by AIBN, purified by dialysis, lyophilized to kit with Tricine and TPPTS as co-ligands for (99m)Tc labeling. Radiotracer (99m)Tc-p(VLA-co-VNI)(46:54)(Tricine)(TPPTS) was prepared and evaluated by in vitro stability, in vivo metabolism, ex vivo biodistribution and microSPECT/CT imaging in normal KM mice. MicroSPECT/CT and microMRI imaging were also performed in C57BL/b6 mice with xenograft hepatic carcinoma for hepatic function evaluation. (99m)Tc-p(VLA-co-VNI)(46:54)(Tricine)(TPPTS) was obtained in high radio chemical purity (RCP) (>99%) by using instant kit without further purification and excellent in vitro and in vivo stability. The result of biodistribution showed that liver had high uptake (90.49±10.68 ID%/g) at 30 min after injection and was blocked significantly by cold copolymer. MicroSPECT imaging in normal KM mice at 1h and 4h after injection showed good liver retention and targeting properties. Significant defect of activity was observed in the tumor site which was confirmed by MRI imaging. (99m)Tc-p(VLA-co-VNI)(46:54)(Tricine)(TPPTS) with lower ratio of targeting moiety has no observable effect on the specific binding affinity and liver uptake. This makes it possible to introduce more imaging units for multi-modality imaging. Furthermore, the instant kit preparation of (99m)Tc-labeling provides great potential for the evaluation of hepatocyte function in clinical application. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Helicobacter pylori stool antigen test (HpSA) for the diagnosis of gastric infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faruqui, A.N.; Majid, U.; Ahmed, L.; Khalil, M.; Hussan, M.U.

    2007-01-01

    To determine the accuracy of Helicobacter pylori Stool Antigen test (HpSA), compared with endoscopic histopathology for the diagnosis of gastric Helicobecter pylori infection. A total of 50 patients underwent endoscopy for gastric antral mucosal tissue biopsy for histopathology of H.pylori and advised for HpSA. Patient's information including age, gender, past history, presenting signs and symptoms, results of HpSA and histopathology were recorded. Sensitivity analysis was performed to calculate sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of HpSA. Among 50 patients, 48% males and 52% females (M: F 1: 1.08), a total of 27 (54%) were true positive while 20 (40%) were true negative. Two patients were false negative and only one was false positive. Sensitivity of HpSA was, therefore, 93.1%, specificity 95% and positive and negative predictive values were 96.42% and 90.9% respectively. Helicobacter pylori stool antigen was an accurate and reliable test for the diagnosis of gastric H. pylori infection. (author)

  14. Diagnosis of human fascioliasis by stool and blood techniques: update for the present global scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas-Coma, S; Bargues, M D; Valero, M A

    2014-12-01

    Before the 1990s, human fascioliasis diagnosis focused on individual patients in hospitals or health centres. Case reports were mainly from developed countries and usually concerned isolated human infection in animal endemic areas. From the mid-1990s onwards, due to the progressive description of human endemic areas and human infection reports in developing countries, but also new knowledge on clinical manifestations and pathology, new situations, hitherto neglected, entered in the global scenario. Human fascioliasis has proved to be pronouncedly more heterogeneous than previously thought, including different transmission patterns and epidemiological situations. Stool and blood techniques, the main tools for diagnosis in humans, have been improved for both patient and survey diagnosis. Present availabilities for human diagnosis are reviewed focusing on advantages and weaknesses, sample management, egg differentiation, qualitative and quantitative diagnosis, antibody and antigen detection, post-treatment monitoring and post-control surveillance. Main conclusions refer to the pronounced difficulties of diagnosing fascioliasis in humans given the different infection phases and parasite migration capacities, clinical heterogeneity, immunological complexity, different epidemiological situations and transmission patterns, the lack of a diagnostic technique covering all needs and situations, and the advisability for a combined use of different techniques, at least including a stool technique and a blood technique.

  15. Oral Supplementation with Bovine Colostrum Decreases Intestinal Permeability and Stool Concentrations of Zonulin in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hałasa, Maciej; Maciejewska, Dominika; Baśkiewicz-Hałasa, Magdalena; Machaliński, Bogusław; Safranow, Krzysztof; Stachowska, Ewa

    2017-04-08

    Increased intestinal permeability has been implicated in various pathologies, has various causes, and can develop during vigorous athletic training. Colostrum bovinum is a natural supplement with a wide range of supposed positive health effects, including reduction of intestine permeability. We assessed influence of colostrum supplementation on intestinal permeability related parameters in a group of 16 athletes during peak training for competition. This double-blind placebo-controlled study compared supplementation for 20 days with 500 mg of colostrum bovinum or placebo (whey). Gut permeability status was assayed by differential absorption of lactulose and mannitol (L/M test) and stool zonulin concentration. Baseline L/M tests found that six of the participants (75%) in the colostrum group had increased intestinal permeability. After supplementation, the test values were within the normal range and were significantly lower than at baseline. The colostrum group Δ values produced by comparing the post-intervention and baseline results were also significantly lower than the placebo group Δ values. The differences in stool zonulin concentration were smaller than those in the L/M test, but were significant when the Δ values due to intervention were compared between the colostrum group and the placebo group. Colostrum bovinum supplementation was safe and effective in decreasing of intestinal permeability in this series of athletes at increased risk of its elevation.

  16. Oral Supplementation with Bovine Colostrum Decreases Intestinal Permeability and Stool Concentrations of Zonulin in Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Hałasa

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Increased intestinal permeability has been implicated in various pathologies, has various causes, and can develop during vigorous athletic training. Colostrum bovinum is a natural supplement with a wide range of supposed positive health effects, including reduction of intestine permeability. We assessed influence of colostrum supplementation on intestinal permeability related parameters in a group of 16 athletes during peak training for competition. This double-blind placebo-controlled study compared supplementation for 20 days with 500 mg of colostrum bovinum or placebo (whey. Gut permeability status was assayed by differential absorption of lactulose and mannitol (L/M test and stool zonulin concentration. Baseline L/M tests found that six of the participants (75% in the colostrum group had increased intestinal permeability. After supplementation, the test values were within the normal range and were significantly lower than at baseline. The colostrum group Δ values produced by comparing the post-intervention and baseline results were also significantly lower than the placebo group Δ values. The differences in stool zonulin concentration were smaller than those in the L/M test, but were significant when the Δ values due to intervention were compared between the colostrum group and the placebo group. Colostrum bovinum supplementation was safe and effective in decreasing of intestinal permeability in this series of athletes at increased risk of its elevation.

  17. The bubble method of water purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, B. M.; Babaeva, N. Yu.; Naidis, G. V.; Panov, V. A.; Saveliev, A. S.; Son, E. E.; Tereshonok, D. V.

    2018-02-01

    The processes of water purification from admixture molecules are analyzed. The purification rate is limited due to a low diffusion coefficient of the admixture molecules in water. At non-small concentrations of the admixture molecules, the water purication can proceed through association of molecules in condensed nanoparticles which fall on the bottom of the water volume. The rate of association may be increased in an external electric field, but in reality this cannot change significantly the rate of the purification process. The bubble method of water purification is considered, where air bubbles formed at the bottom of the water volume, transfer admixture molecules to the interface. This method allows one to clean small water volumes fast. This mechanism of water purification is realized experimentally and exhibits the promises of the bubble purification method.

  18. Technological assumptions for biogas purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makareviciene, Violeta; Sendzikiene, Egle

    2015-01-01

    Biogas can be used in the engines of transport vehicles and blended into natural gas networks, but it also requires the removal of carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, and moisture. Biogas purification process flow diagrams have been developed for a process enabling the use of a dolomite suspension, as well as for solutions obtained by the filtration of the suspension, to obtain biogas free of hydrogen sulphide and with a carbon dioxide content that does not exceed 2%. The cost of biogas purification was evaluated on the basis of data on biogas production capacity and biogas production cost obtained from local water treatment facilities. It has been found that, with the use of dolomite suspension, the cost of biogas purification is approximately six times lower than that in the case of using a chemical sorbent such as monoethanolamine. The results showed travelling costs using biogas purified by dolomite suspension are nearly 1.5 time lower than travelling costs using gasoline and slightly lower than travelling costs using mineral diesel fuel.

  19. The effect of step stool use and provider height on CPR quality during pediatric cardiac arrest: A simulation-based multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Adam; Lin, Yiqun; Nadkarni, Vinay; Wan, Brandi; Duff, Jonathan; Brown, Linda; Bhanji, Farhan; Kessler, David; Tofil, Nancy; Hecker, Kent; Hunt, Elizabeth A

    2018-01-01

    We aimed to explore whether a) step stool use is associated with improved cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) quality; b) provider adjusted height is associated with improved CPR quality; and if associations exist, c) determine whether just-in-time (JIT) CPR training and/or CPR visual feedback attenuates the effect of height and/or step stool use on CPR quality. We analysed data from a trial of simulated cardiac arrests with three study arms: No intervention; CPR visual feedback; and JIT CPR training. Step stool use was voluntary. We explored the association between 1) step stool use and CPR quality, and 2) provider adjusted height and CPR quality. Adjusted height was defined as provider height + 23 cm (if step stool was used). Below-average height participants were ≤ gender-specific average height; the remainder were above average height. We assessed for interaction between study arm and both adjusted height and step stool use. One hundred twenty-four subjects participated; 1,230 30-second epochs of CPR were analysed. Step stool use was associated with improved compression depth in below-average (female, p=0.007; male, pstep stool use (pStep stool use is associated with improved compression depth regardless of height. Increased provider height is associated with improved compression depth, with visual feedback attenuating the effects of height and step stool use.

  20. Energy Education Incentives: Evaluating the Impact of Consumer Energy Kits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Sarah D.; Guin, Autumn; Langham, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Measuring the energy and environmental impact of residential energy education efforts is difficult. The E-Conservation residential energy management program uses consumer energy kits to document the impact of energy-efficient improvements. The consumer energy kit provides an incentive for individuals attending energy education workshop, helps…

  1. Screening of antibiotics residues and development a new kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkhaoui, Faycel

    2009-01-01

    The first part of the work was to detect antibiotic residues in animal nutriment: chicken, fish, eggs and milk, by methods of screening: First Test and Delvotest. The second part covered the development of a new kit for the detection of antibiotics residues for honey and competitor kit First Test and saving time and money.

  2. Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools Action Kit. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This kit contains materials to assist a school indoor air quality (IAQ) coordinator in conducting a school IAQ program. The kit contains the following: IAQ coordinator's guide; IAQ coordinator forms; IAQ backgrounder; teacher's classroom checklist; administrative staff checklist; health officer/school nurse checklist; ventilation checklist and…

  3. Development of ELISA kit for rat albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Zhigang; Han Shiquan; Liu Yibing; Xu Wenge; Jia Juanjuan

    2009-01-01

    The Anti-rat albumin serum was prepared by immunized the sheep with rat albumin. A ELISA method was established for rat albumin. The measurement range of the assay was 1-50 mg/L, sensitivity of the assay was 0.42 mg/L, recovery rate was 85.0%-106.0%. Intra-and inter-assay variation coefficients were <8.9% and <12.8% respectively. The correlation coefficients between measured and expected values were 0.999 after serial dilution of the urine samples with high concentrations of rat albumin. A good correlation was observed between the ELISA and RIA methods, and the kit for rat albumin might provide a convenience in exploitation of renal drugs and experimental injury of the kidney. (authors)

  4. A decrease in ubiquitination and resulting prolonged life-span of KIT underlies the KIT overexpression-mediated imatinib resistance of KIT mutation-driven canine mast cell tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Masato; Kuroki, Shiori; Kurita, Sena; Miyamoto, Ryo; Tani, Hiroyuki; Tamura, Kyoichi; Bonkobara, Makoto

    2017-10-01

    Overexpression of KIT is one of the mechanisms that contributes to imatinib resistance in KIT mutation-driven tumors. Here, the mechanism underlying this overexpression of KIT was investigated using an imatinib-sensitive canine mast cell tumor (MCT) line CoMS, which has an activating mutation in KIT exon 11. A KIT-overexpressing imatinib-resistant subline, rCoMS1, was generated from CoMS cells by their continuous exposure to increasing concentrations of imatinib. Neither a secondary mutation nor upregulated transcription of KIT was detected in rCoMS1 cells. A decrease in KIT ubiquitination, a prolonged KIT life-span, and KIT overexpression were found in rCoMS1 cells. These events were suppressed by withdrawal of imatinib and were re-induced by re‑treatment with imatinib. These findings suggest that imatinib elicited overexpression of KIT via suppression of its ubiquitination. These results also indicated that imatinib-induced overexpression of KIT in rCoMS1 cells was not a permanently acquired feature but was a reversible response of the cells. Moreover, the pan deubiquitinating enzyme inhibitor PR619 prevented imatinib induction of KIT overexpression, suggesting that the imatinib-induced decrease in KIT ubiquitination could be mediated by upregulation and/or activation of deubiquitinating enzyme(s). It may be possible that a similar mechanism of KIT overexpression underlies the acquisition of imatinib resistance in some human tumors that are driven by KIT mutation.

  5. The Winfrith lecturers' demonstration kits for radiation and radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woffinden, G.B.

    1981-01-01

    During the early part of the 1970s a need arose for suitable aids to assist lecturers in giving talks on radioactivity and radiation to employees and occasionally to science students in local schools and colleges. A kit capable of demonstrating the basic properties of alpha, beta and gamma radiation was assembled for these purposes. During the latter half of the decade a demand arose for talks to non-scientific groups of the general public on nuclear power and radiation and some of the items in the original demonstration kit were found to be appropriate for these talks. The items used, now constitute the Basic Demonstration Kit. Meanwhile, a few changes or additions were made to the original kit which is now known as the Comprehensive Demonstration Kit. (author)

  6. Iodine-125--digoxin radioimmunoassay: comparison of commercial kits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battaglia, D.J.; Cianci, M.L.

    1976-01-01

    Iodine-125-digoxin radioimmunoassay kits available from Abbott Diagnostics (AD), Dade Division (D), Schwarz/Mann (SM), and Clinical Assays (CA) were evaluated with respect to assay quality. The kit accuracies did not differ significantly at 2.0 ng/ml and the interassay coefficients of variation ranged from 9 percent (AD) to 21.4 percent (CA). The accuracy for all kits above 4 ng/ml is questionable, and since serum-dilution values correlated well with undiluted serum values, the dilution method of dose quantitation is preferable for levels above 4 ng/ml. Although all the kits were adequate for evaluating digoxin at the 2 ng/ml level, the Abbott kit seems to be of slightly better quality

  7. Development of a polymerase chain reaction applicable to rapid and sensitive detection of Clonorchis sinensis eggs in human stool samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Pyo Yun; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Mi Choi, Kyung; Kim, Jin Su; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Lee, Won-Ja; Lim, Sung-Bin; Cha, Seok Ho; Park, Yun-Kyu; Pak, Jhang Ho; Lee, Hyeong-Woo; Hong, Sung-Jong; Kim, Tong-Soo

    2013-01-01

    Microscopic examination of eggs of parasitic helminths in stool samples has been the most widely used classical diagnostic method for infections, but tiny and low numbers of eggs in stool samples often hamper diagnosis of helminthic infections with classical microscopic examination. Moreover, it is also difficult to differentiate parasite eggs by the classical method, if they have similar morphological characteristics. In this study, we developed a rapid and sensitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based molecular diagnostic method for detection of Clonorchis sinensis eggs in stool samples. Nine primers were designed based on the long-terminal repeat (LTR) of C. sinensis retrotransposon1 (CsRn1) gene, and seven PCR primer sets were paired. Polymerase chain reaction with each primer pair produced specific amplicons for C. sinensis, but not for other trematodes including Metagonimus yokogawai and Paragonimus westermani. Particularly, three primer sets were able to detect 10 C. sinensis eggs and were applicable to amplify specific amplicons from DNA samples purified from stool of C. sinensis-infected patients. This PCR method could be useful for diagnosis of C. sinensis infections in human stool samples with a high level of specificity and sensitivity. PMID:23916334

  8. Dual-energy CT characteristics of colon and rectal cancer allows differentiation from stool by dual-source CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdeniz, İlknur; İdilman, İlkay S; Köklü, Seyfettin; Hamaloğlu, Erhan; Özmen, Mustafa; Akata, Deniz; Karçaaltıncaba, Muşturay

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to determine dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) characteristics of colorectal cancer and investigate effectiveness of DECT method in differentiating tumor from stool in patients with colorectal cancer. Fifty consecutive patients with colorectal tumors were enrolled. Staging was performed by DECT (80-140 kV) using dual-source CT after rectal air insufflation and without bowel preparation. Both visual and quantitative analyses were performed at 80 kV and 140 kV, on iodine map and virtual noncontrast (VNC) images. All colorectal tumors had homogeneous pattern on iodine map. Stools demonstrated heterogeneous pattern in 86% (43/50) and homogeneous pattern in 14% (7/50) on iodine maps and were less visible on VNC images. Median density of tumors was 54 HU (18-100 HU) on iodine map and 28 HU (11-56 HU) on VNC images. Median density of stool was 36.5 HU (8-165 HU) on iodine map and -135.5 HU (-438 HU to -13 HU) on VNC images. The density of stools was significantly lower than tumors on both iodine map and VNC images (P VNC images was -1 HU with area under the curve of 1 and a sensitivity and specificity of 100%. Density or visual analysis of iodine map and VNC DECT images allow accurate differentiation of tumor from stool.

  9. Comparing Russian and Finnish standards of water purification

    OpenAIRE

    Maria, Pupkova

    2012-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is water purification. The first aim of this thesis is to consider different ways of water purification. The second aim is to compare Finnish and Russian standards of water purification. The third one is to show water purification methods on the pattern of Mikkeli water purification plan. Water purification methods of water intended for human consumption will be described.Combined tables will be done according to the quality requirement of drinking water of both,...

  10. Enhanced extraction and purification of plasmid DNA from escherichia coli by applying a hybrid magnetic nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, R.J. da; Chavez-Guajardo, A.E.; Medina-llamas, J.C.; Alcaraz-Espinoza, J.J.; Melo, C.P. de [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), PE (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: Plasmid DNA (pDNA), a special kind of nucleic acid usually found in bacteria, is a small molecule physically distinct from chromosomal DNA that can replicate independently. This genetic material has been used in a wide set of biotechnological methodologies, such as genetic engineering, production of recombinant drugs and gene therapy, among others. In all these applications, the extraction and purification of pDNA appears as a crucial step. In this work, we describe the synthesis of a polyaniline and maghemite (PANI/?-Fe2O3) magnetic nanocomposite (MNC) and its use in a new Escherichia coli (E. coli) pDNA extraction and purification protocol. We have used transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-Vis spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and magnetic measurements to characterize the MNC, which was synthesized through an emulsion polymerization method. The yield, purity and quality of the pDNA extracted by using our proposed MNC protocol were evaluated through UV-Vis, agarose gel electrophoreses and PCR techniques, respectively. After comparing our results to those obtained by use of a commercial kit (Promega Wizard Plus SV Minipreps), we suggest that the novel protocol here proposed appears as a competitive alternative methodology. Not only the purification step can be completed within only 10 min, but the high adsorption capacity of the MNC results in pDNA yields that are almost twice the best values obtained by using the commercial kit. Hence, this new MNC methodology can be of general interest and find widespread use in different types of biomedical applications. (author)

  11. Parasites in stool samples in the environment of Ilha da Marambaia, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: an approach in public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Coronato

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to describe the frequency of parasites in stool samples in the environment of Ilha da Marambaia, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. One hundred and five stool samples were collected and processed by the coproparasitological techniques ethyl acetate sedimentation and centrifuge-flotation using saturated sugar solution. Parasites were detected in 81.9% of the samples, hookworm being the most prevalent, followed by Trichuris vulpis. Ascaris sp. eggs were also found. A high level of evolutive forms of parasites with public health risk was found in stool samples of the environment studied. We propose that health education programs, allied to an improvement of human and animal health care, must be employed to reduce the environmental contamination.

  12. Validation of a simple stool diary used by caregivers to document diarrhea among young children in a low-income country

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grenov, Benedikte; Namusoke, Hanifa; Nabukeera-Barungi, Nicolette

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Development and validation of a simple stool diary for caretakers collecting data on stool frequency and consistency among young children in a low-income country. METHODS: Focus group studies evaluated how diarrhea was understood by caregivers (content validity). The sensitivity......, reliability, and correlations between dehydration and diary scores (construct validity) were tested in a clinical trial. RESULTS: Caregivers recognized and understood the concept and severity of diarrhea. Stool frequency and liquid consistency decreased in children admitted with diarrhea (p 

  13. Dietary shift and dysbiosis may trigger mucous stools in giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candace L Williams

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Dietary shifts can result in dysbiosis between the host and its gastrointestinal tract (GIT microbiota, leading to negative outcomes including inflammation. Giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca are physiologically classified as carnivores; however, they consume a herbivorous diet with dramatic seasonal feeding shifts and episodes of chronic GIT distress with symptoms including abdominal pain, loss of appetite and the excretion of mucous stools (mucoids. These episodes adversely affect the overall nutritional and health status of giant pandas. Here, we examined the fecal microbiota of two giant pandas’ normal and mucoid stools and compared these microbiota to baseline samples from a season with historically few episodes. To identify the microbiota present, we isolated and sequenced 16S rRNA using next-generation sequencing. Mucoids occurred following a seasonal feeding switch from predominately bamboo culm (stalk to leaves. All fecal samples displayed low diversity and were dominated by bacterial in the phyla Firmicutes and to a lesser extent, the Proteobacteria. Fecal samples immediately prior to mucoid episodes had lower microbial diversity compared to baseline samples, followed by increased diversity in mucoids. Mucoids were mostly comprised of common mucosal-associated taxa including Streptococcus and Leuconostoc species, and exhibited increased abundance for bacteria in the family Pasteurellaceae. Taken together, these findings indicate that diet-induced intestinal dysbiosis in giant pandas likely results in an expulsion of the mucosal lining in the form of mucoids. We suggest that these occurrences serve to reset their GIT microbiota, as giant pandas have retained a carnivorous GIT anatomy while shifting to an herbivorous diet.

  14. Repeat Rifaximin for Irritable Bowel Syndrome: No Clinically Significant Changes in Stool Microbial Antibiotic Sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, M; Cash, B D; Lembo, A; Wolf, R A; Israel, R J; Schoenfeld, P

    2017-09-01

    Rifaximin has demonstrated efficacy and safety for diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D). To determine the rifaximin repeat treatment effect on fecal bacterial antibiotic susceptibility. Patients with IBS in Trial 3 (TARGET 3) study who responded to open-label rifaximin 550 mg three times daily for 2 weeks, with symptom recurrence within 18 weeks, were randomized to double-blind treatment: two 2-week repeat courses of rifaximin or placebo, separated by 10 weeks. Prospective stool sample collection occurred before and after open-label rifaximin, before and after the first repeat course, and at the end of the study. Susceptibility testing was performed with 11 antibiotics, including rifaximin and rifampin, using broth microdilution or agar dilution methods. Of 103 patients receiving open-label rifaximin, 73 received double-blind rifaximin (n = 37) or placebo (n = 36). A total of 1429 bacterial and yeast isolates were identified, of which Bacteroidaceae (36.7%) and Enterobacteriaceae (33.9%) were the most common. In the double-blind phase, Clostridium difficile was highly susceptible to rifaximin [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) range 0.008-1 µg/mL] and rifampin (MIC range 0.004-0.25 µg/mL). Following double-blind rifaximin treatment, Staphylococcus isolates remained susceptible to rifaximin at all visits (MIC 50 range ≤0.06-32 µg/mL). Rifaximin exposure was not associated with long-term cross-resistance of Bacteroidaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, and Enterococcaceae to rifampin or nonrifamycin antibiotics tested. In this study, short-term repeat treatment with rifaximin has no apparent long-term effect on stool microbial susceptibility to rifaximin, rifampin, and nonrifamycin antibiotics. CLINICALTRIALS. NCT01543178.

  15. Morphologic changes of the anal sphincter musculature during and after temporary stool deviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailer, M; Fein, M; Fuchs, K H; Bussen, D; Grun, C; Thiede, A

    2001-04-01

    Temporary stool deviation, using a stoma, is a well-known surgical principle to protect low colorectal or coloanal anastomoses. The purpose of this study was to evaluate any morphologic changes with regard to the anal sphincter muscles during and after temporary ileostomy. Forty-four patients with rectal carcinomas were studied prospectively. All patients underwent low anterior resection. Reconstruction was performed using either a coloanal pouch or a straight end-to-end anastomosis. A protective stoma was fashioned in all 44 patients (ileostomy n=41; colostomy n=3). Stoma closure was carried out after a median of 85 days (41-330 days). Using a standard protocol, anal-sphincter thickness [m. puborectalis, external anal sphincter (EAS) and internal anal (IAS) sphincter] was assessed by means of endoanal ultrasonography preoperatively, at the time of stoma closure, and every 3 months thereafter for 1 year. The diameter of the puborectal muscle decreased from a median preoperative value of 6.3 mm to 5.7 mm at the time of stoma closure (P=0.03). After 3 months, 6.2 mm was measured. This value remained stable for the complete follow-up period. Similar results were recorded for the EAS. The IAS thickness remained stable throughout the study period, measuring between 2.1 mm and 2.4 mm. Temporary stool deviation does lead to morphologic changes of the anal sphincter. While the smooth muscle remains unchanged, the striated counterpart undergoes atrophic transformation. However, after passage reconstruction, i.e., stoma closure, a rapid regeneration of the voluntary muscles is observed.

  16. Purification of rhamnolipid using colloidal magnetic nanoparticles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phospholipid-coated colloidal magnetic nanoparticles with mean magnetite core size of 9 nm are shown to be effective ion exchange media for the recovery and purification of Rhaminolipid from culture mixtures. These particles have high adsorption capacity for purification (an order of magnitude larger than the best ...

  17. Ion exchange purification of scandium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herchenroeder, Laurie A.; Burkholder, Harvey R.

    1990-10-23

    An improvement in purification of scandium through ion exchange chromatography is disclosed in which the oxidation potential of the eluting solution is altered by the addition of potassium chlorate or ammonium chloride so that removal of contaminants is encouraged. The temperature, pH and concentration of the eluent HEDTA are controlled in order to maintain the scandium in the column while minimizing dilution of the scandium band. Recovery of scandium is improved by pumping dilute scandium over the column prior to stripping the scandium and precipitation. This eliminates the HEDTA ion and other monovalent cations contaminating the scandium band. This method maximizes recovery of scandium while maintaining purity.

  18. Lysine purification with cation exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khayati, GH.; Mottaghi Talab, M.; Hamooni Hagheeghat, M.; Fatemi, M.

    2003-01-01

    L-lysine is an essential amino acid for the growth most of animal species and the number one limiting amino acid for poultry. After production and biomass removal by filtration and centrifugation, the essential next step is the lysine purification and recovery. There are different methods for lysine purification. The ion exchange process is one of the most commonly used purification methods. Lysine recovery was done from broth by ion exchange resin in three different ways: repeated passing, resin soaking and the usual method. Impurities were isolated from the column by repeated wash with distilled water. Recovery and purification was done with NH 4 OH and different alcohol volumes respectively. The results showed that repeated passing is the best method for lysine absorption (maximum range 86.21 %). Washing with alkali solution revealed that most of lysine is obtained in the first step of washing. The highest degree of lysine purification was achieved with the use of 4 volumes of alcohol

  19. Acceptability of study procedures (self-collected introital swabs, blood draws and stool sample collection) by students 10-16 years for an HPV vaccine effectiveness study: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakalembe, Miriam; Mutyaba, Twaha; Mirembe, Florence

    2016-03-16

    A cohort study was planned to evaluate vaccine immunogenicity and effect of malaria and helminth co-infections on the bivalent Human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine. The study would involve self collected introital swabs, blood draws and stool sample collection. We therefore conducted a pilot study to assess the acceptability of these procedures among the students and their parents. A cross-sectional study among forty four students from two purposively selected primary schools of Western Uganda. Exit interviews and two focus group discussions (FGD) (for parents) were conducted. Acceptability was measured by willingness to undergo the procedures again, recommending the procedures to others as well as proportion of introital swabs positive for β globulin. FGD determined acceptability of the parents and explored opinions and perceptions that would influence their decisions. HPV-16/18 and β globulin deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) were analysed using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) kit. All the students (100%) in the study were willing to provide a self- collected introital swab and a stool sample as well as recommending their friends while (86.3%) were willing for blood draws. There were 40/44 (90.1%) self collected introital swabs that had positive result for human β globulin though none of them was positive for HPV-16/18. In the FGD, it emerged that parents concerns were on the blood draws and introital swab collection which were addressed. The study procedures were highly acceptable among this study population of students and their parents. Follow-up to assess HPV vaccine effectiveness and factors that may influence the vaccine in this age group is feasible.

  20. Dumpster Optics: teaching and learning optics without a kit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Judy; Magnani, Nancy; Robinson, Kathleen

    2016-09-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) and renewed emphasis on STEM education in the U.S. have resulted in the development of many educational kits for teaching science in general and optics in particular. Many teachers do not have funding to purchase kits and practical experience has shown that even costly kits can have poorly written and misleading instructions and may include experiments that would not work in a classroom. Dumpster Optics lessons are designed to use inexpensive, commonly found materials. All lessons have been field-tested with students. We will describe the development of the lessons, provide examples of field testing experiences and outline possible future activities.

  1. Liquid kit for preparation of {sup 188}rhenium-etidronate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marczewski, Barbara; Dias, Carla Roberta; Moraes, Vanessa; Osso Junior, Joao Alberto [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), SP (Brazil). Centro de Radiofarmacia]. E-mail: baszot@gmail.com

    2005-10-15

    The aim of this study was the preparation of a liquid kit for radiolabeling of {sup 188} Re-HEDP (hydroxyethylidene diphosphonate). {sup 188} Re was obtained from alumina based {sup 188} W/{sup 188} Re generators. This paper reports the efficacy of a cold kit stored for more than two weeks, determined by the dependence of the radiolabeling yields of {sup 188} Re-HEDP on the incubation time, reducing agent concentration, the effects of concentration of ligand, the p H of the reaction and the temperature. The cold kits showed a good stability when carrie-free rhenium-188 was added in the reaction mixture. (author)

  2. Liquid kit for preparation of 188rhenium-etidronate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marczewski, Barbara; Dias, Carla Roberta; Moraes, Vanessa; Osso Junior, Joao Alberto

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was the preparation of a liquid kit for radiolabeling of 188 Re-HEDP (hydroxyethylidene diphosphonate). 188 Re was obtained from alumina based 188 W/ 188 Re generators. This paper reports the efficacy of a cold kit stored for more than two weeks, determined by the dependence of the radiolabeling yields of 188 Re-HEDP on the incubation time, reducing agent concentration, the effects of concentration of ligand, the p H of the reaction and the temperature. The cold kits showed a good stability when carrie-free rhenium-188 was added in the reaction mixture. (author)

  3. Development of an instant 99mTc labelled HIG kit for localization of infection/inflammation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Fang; Zhang Yumin; Zhou Qian

    1995-01-01

    99m Tc labelled polyclonal human immunoglobulin G(HIG) is a novel agent for detecting infection and inflammation. We report the preparation, quality control, pharmacology and preliminary clinical evaluation of this imaging agent. After modification of HIG and purification, the HIG kit was formulated and lyofilized. Labelling yield and radiochemical purity were determined by TLC-SG, PC and Sephadex G-50 column chromatography. Animal models for pharmacologic experiments were mice, rats and rabbits. The labelling yield was 99% immediately after mixing HIG with 99m Tc and more than 90% of radioactivity was retained after keeping the labelled product at room temperature 24 hours post labelling. There were good accumulation and high T/B ratio in animal models (rats and rabbits bearing turpentine and Staphylococcus aureus induced inflammatory or infections foci). The results showed that this new agent is nearly ideal for localization of infections/inflammatory lesions

  4. Math Description Engine Software Development Kit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Robert O.; Smith, Stephanie L.; Dexter, Dan E.; Hodgson, Terry R.

    2010-01-01

    The Math Description Engine Software Development Kit (MDE SDK) can be used by software developers to make computer-rendered graphs more accessible to blind and visually-impaired users. The MDE SDK generates alternative graph descriptions in two forms: textual descriptions and non-verbal sound renderings, or sonification. It also enables display of an animated trace of a graph sonification on a visual graph component, with color and line-thickness options for users having low vision or color-related impairments. A set of accessible graphical user interface widgets is provided for operation by end users and for control of accessible graph displays. Version 1.0 of the MDE SDK generates text descriptions for 2D graphs commonly seen in math and science curriculum (and practice). The mathematically rich text descriptions can also serve as a virtual math and science assistant for blind and sighted users, making graphs more accessible for everyone. The MDE SDK has a simple application programming interface (API) that makes it easy for programmers and Web-site developers to make graphs accessible with just a few lines of code. The source code is written in Java for cross-platform compatibility and to take advantage of Java s built-in support for building accessible software application interfaces. Compiled-library and NASA Open Source versions are available with API documentation and Programmer s Guide at http:/ / prim e.jsc.n asa. gov.

  5. A least-squares computational ''tool kit''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.L.

    1993-04-01

    The information assembled in this report is intended to offer a useful computational ''tool kit'' to individuals who are interested in a variety of practical applications for the least-squares method of parameter estimation. The fundamental principles of Bayesian analysis are outlined first and these are applied to development of both the simple and the generalized least-squares conditions. Formal solutions that satisfy these conditions are given subsequently. Their application to both linear and non-linear problems is described in detail. Numerical procedures required to implement these formal solutions are discussed and two utility computer algorithms are offered for this purpose (codes LSIOD and GLSIOD written in FORTRAN). Some simple, easily understood examples are included to illustrate the use of these algorithms. Several related topics are then addressed, including the generation of covariance matrices, the role of iteration in applications of least-squares procedures, the effects of numerical precision and an approach that can be pursued in developing data analysis packages that are directed toward special applications

  6. Kit systems for granulated decontamination formulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Mark D.

    2010-07-06

    A decontamination formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a sorbent additive, and water. A highly adsorbent sorbent additive (e.g., amorphous silica, sorbitol, mannitol, etc.) is used to "dry out" one or more liquid ingredients into a dry, free-flowing powder that has an extended shelf life, and is more convenient to handle and mix in the field. The formulation can be pre-mixed and pre-packaged as a multi-part kit system, where one or more of the parts are packaged in a powdered, granulated form for ease of handling and mixing in the field.

  7. Investigation for preparation and production of radio-kit Vitamin B12 with med-grade (part 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghafourian, H.; Mazaheri Tehrani, M.; Ezadyar, A.; Shams Rafiee, M.; Nazari, A.

    2005-01-01

    Labelled vitamins B 12 with 58 Co is one of the important ingredients of the diagnostic Kits for diagnosis of patients affected by anemia. The insufficient absorption of vitamin B 12 is one of the causes of anemia in humans and one of the accurate methods for measurement of the absorbed vitamin B 12 is application of labelled vitamin B 12 with the cobalt-58 radioisotope.The isolation and purifications of the labelled vitamin B 12 from fermentation medium of streptomyces olivaceus is an essential process for kit preparation. The first experiment in this research was isolation and purification of B 12 using different resins with the solution of cyanocobalamin containing cobalt-59, produced by this bacterium. After investigation and pre-feasibility experiments two non-polar resins XAD-4 and XAD-7 were selected. The results that obtained from different experiments on XAD-4 and XAD-7 showed that XAD-4 is much better than the latter one due to immobilization of cobalamin. The isolation of vitamin B1 2 on XAD-4 column was achieved by different solvents such as methanol, ethanol and isopropanol in different concentration ratios. The results of Thin Layer Chromatography showed that the best eluant solutions for desorbtion of cobalamin from XAD-4 column are solvents such as methanol,ethanol and isopropanol with the maximum concentration of vitamin B 12 in the concentration ranges of 25 up to 50 per-cent, 30 up to 40 per-cent and 10 per-cent, respectively. Cobalamin was collected in aceton and crystallized in low temperature

  8. Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools Action Kit

    Science.gov (United States)

    The IAQ Tools for Schools Action Kit provides schools with information on how to carry out a practical plan to improve indoor air problems at little- or no-cost using straightforward activities and in-house staff.

  9. Autometallography: tissue metals demonstrated by a silver enhancement kit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danscher, G; Nørgaard, J O; Baatrup, E

    1987-01-01

    , primarily intended for the amplification of colloidal gold particles, has been used to demonstrate these catalytic tissue metals. Sections from animals exposed intravitally to aurothiomalatate, silver lactate, mercury chloride, sodium selenite or perfused with sodium sulphide were subjected to a commercial......In biological tissue, minute accumulations of gold, silver, mercury and zinc can be visualized by a technique whereby metallic silver is precipitated on tiny accumulations of the two noble metals, or on selenites or sulphides of all four metals. In the present study a silver enhancement kit...... silver enhancement kit (IntenSE, Janssen Pharmaceutica). It was found that the kit performs adequately to the silver lactate gum arabic developer and to the photographic emulsion technique. The kit can be used as a silver enhancement medium for the demonstration of zinc by the Neo-Timm and selenium...

  10. Effective testing for pulmonary tuberculosis using Xpert MTB/RIF assay for stool specimens in immunocompetent Pakistani children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Hasan

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Use of Xpert MTB/RIF assay for stool-based diagnosis of pulmonary TB in immunocompetent children is useful in a resource poor setting. This is a valuable and noninvasive diagnostic alternative for the diagnosis of childhood TB and can be adapted by pediatric arms of national TB programs.

  11. Evaluation of stool microbiota signatures in two cohorts of Asian (Singapore and Indonesia newborns at risk of atopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chua Kaw Yan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have suggested that demographic and lifestyle factors could shape the composition of fecal microbiota in early life. This study evaluated infant stool microbiota signatures in two Asian populations, Singapore (n = 42 and Indonesia (n = 32 with contrasting socioeconomic development, and examined the putative influences of demographic factors on these human fecal associated bacterial signatures. Results Longitudinal analysis showed associations of geographical origin with Clostridium leptum, Atopobium and Bifidobacterium groups. Mode of delivery had the largest effect on stool microbiota signatures influencing the abundance of four bacterial groups. Significantly higher abundance of bacterial members belonging to the Bacteroides-Prevotella, Bifidobacterium and Atopobium groups, but lower abundance of Lactobacilli-Enterococci group members, were observed in vaginal delivered compared to caesarean delivered infants. Demographic factors influencing the structure of infants stool microbiota during the first year of life included breastfeeding, age of weaning, sibship size and exposure to antibiotics. Conclusions Differences in stool microbiota signatures were observed in relation to various demographic factors. These features may confound studies relating to the association of the structure of fecal microbiota and the predisposition to human modern disease.

  12. The accuracy of the Helicobacter pylori stool antigen test in diagnosing H-pylori in treated and untreated patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arents, NL; van Zwet, AA; Thijs, JC; de Jong, A; Pool, MO; Kleibeuker, JH

    Objective and design To evaluate the performance of the Helicobacter pylori stool antigen test (HpSA test) in detecting H. pylori infection and monitoring the effect of treatment. This was done in two separate studies using either a biopsy or the C-13-urea breath test based 'gold standard' (in

  13. Helicobacter pylori Stool Antigen test: a reliable non-invasive test for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn, O. J.; Bosman, D. K.; van't Hoff, B. W.; Taminiau, J. A.; ten Kate, F. J.; van der Ende, A.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the Helicobacter pylori Stool Antigen (HpSA) test for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection in children. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective cohort study in an academic medical centre. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 106 consecutive children who underwent gastroscopy were

  14. Evaluation of BBL™ Sensi-Discs™ and FTA® cards as sampling devices for detection of rotavirus in stool samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Ka Ian; Esona, Mathew D; Williams, Alice; Ndze, Valantine N; Boula, Angeline; Bowen, Michael D

    2015-09-15

    Rotavirus is the most important cause of severe childhood gastroenteritis worldwide. Rotavirus vaccines are available and rotavirus surveillance is carried out to assess vaccination impact. In surveillance studies, stool samples are stored typically at 4°C or frozen to maintain sample quality. Uninterrupted cold storage is a problem in developing countries because of power interruptions. Cold-chain transportation of samples from collection sites to testing laboratories is costly. In this study, we evaluated the use of BBL™ Sensi-Discs™ and FTA(®) cards for storage and transportation of samples for virus isolation, EIA, and RT-PCR testing. Infectious rotavirus was recovered after 30 days of storage on Sensi-Discs™ at room temperature. We were able to genotype 98-99% of samples stored on Sensi-Discs™ and FTA(®) cards at temperatures ranging from -80°C to 37°C up to 180 days. A field sampling test using samples prepared and shipped from Cameroon, showed that both matrices yielded 100% genotyping success compared with whole stool and Sensi-Discs™ demonstrated 95% concordance with whole stool in EIA testing. The utilization of BBL™ Sensi-Discs™ and FTA(®) cards for stool sample storage and shipment has the potential to have great impact on global public health by facilitating surveillance and epidemiological investigations of rotavirus strains worldwide at a reduced cost. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Evaluation of BBL™ Sensi-Discs™ and FTA® cards as sampling devices for detection of rotavirus in stool samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Ka Ian; Esona, Mathew D.; Williams, Alice; Ndze, Valentine N.; Boula, Angeline; Bowen, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Rotavirus is the most important cause of severe childhood gastroenteritis worldwide. Rotavirus vaccines are available and rotavirus surveillance is carried out to assess vaccination impact. In surveillance studies, stool samples are stored typically at 4°C or frozen to maintain sample quality. Uninterrupted cold storage is a problem in developing countries because of power interruptions. Cold-chain transportation of samples from collection sites to testing laboratories is costly. In this study, we evaluated the use of BBL™ Sensi-Discs™ and FTA® cards for storage and transportation of samples for virus isolation, EIA, and RT-PCR testing. Infectious rotavirus was recovered after 30 days of storage on Sensi-Discs™ at room temperature. We were able to genotype 98–99% of samples stored on Sensi-Discs™ and FTA® cards at temperatures ranging from −80°C to 37°C up to 180 days. A field sampling test using samples prepared and shipped from Cameroon, showed that both matrices yielded 100% genotyping success compared with whole stool and Sensi-Discs™ demonstrated 95% concordance with whole stool in EIA testing. The utilization of BBL™ Sensi-Discs™ and FTA® cards for stool sample storage and shipment has the potential to have great impact on global public health by facilitating surveillance and epidemiological investigations of rotavirus strains worldwide at a reduced cost. PMID:26022083

  16. New RIA kit for determination of progesterone in cow milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byszewska-Szpocinska, E.; Markiewicz, A.

    2006-01-01

    The determination of progesterone concentration in whole and fat-free milk 19-24 days after conception enables to distinguish fertile and non-fertile insemination, which is important in cattle breeding. The aim of this work was to develop a simple and quick radioimmunoassay test for the determination of progesterone in cow milk. Two types of solid-phase tubes coated with specific polyclonal anti-progesterone antibody from ORION Diagnostica and BIOSOURCE International, two different progesterone derivatives viz. progesterone-3- carboxymethyl oxime (CMO) and progesterone-11α-hemisuccinate (HS) conjugated to 125 I-histamine and the HPLC system with Lichrospher RP-18 column along with 65% acetonitrile/water as eluent to purify the tracers were used to carry out this work. Progesterone-3CMO- 125 I-histamine had a retention time of 13.2 min and progesterone-11α-hemisuccinate- 125 I-histamine had a retention time of 7.8 min. Two kinds of kits (kit I and kit II) were prepared, first with progesterone-3CMO- 125 I-histamine as the tracer and coated tubes from Progesterone Veterinary RIA kit of ORION Diagnostica and the second with progesterone-11αHS- 125 I-histamine as the tracer and coated tubes from Progesterone Veterinary RIA kit from BIOSOURCE International. Progesterone from Sigma and selected fat-free cow's milk without progesterone as zero progesterone milk matrix were used for standard preparation. The optimal assay procedure was as follows: 50μL standards, controls and fat-free milk samples were pipetted into coated tubes followed by addition of 500μL of diluted tracer. The tubes were incubated for 2h in case of kit I and 3h for kit II at RT. After the incubation, the tubes were decanted and counted. The assay range was 0 to 270 nmol/L for kit I and 0 to 300 nmol/L for kit II. The sensitivity of the kit with ORION coated tubes was better (0.8 nmol/L) than that of BIOSOURCE tubes which was 1.5 nmol/L. Validation of these assays in terms of specificity, accuracy

  17. Quality control for a group of pyrophosphate-Sn kits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaac, M.; Gamboa, R.; Hernandez, I.; Leyva, R.; Turino, D.

    1994-01-01

    The quality control for a group of Pyrophosphate-Sn kits for labeling with 99 m Tc is carry out at the Isotope Center. A general discussion takes place about the instrumental techniques for the determination of the kit constituent such as ligands, Sn(II), water, etc, as well as the control table for the evaluation of the warranty time. (author). 5 refs, 4 figs

  18. Android: Call C Functions with the Native Development Kit (NDK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    from a Java application. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Android , NDK, Native Development Kit, C callable, Java Native Interface, JNI, Java, C/C++ 16. SECURITY ...ARL-TN-0782 ● SEP 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Android : Call C Functions with the Native Development Kit (NDK) by Hao Q...Do not return it to the originator. ARL-TN-0782 ● SEP 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Android : Call C Functions with the Native

  19. The effects of metal ion PCR inhibitors on results obtained with the Quantifiler(®) Human DNA Quantification Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs, Laura Gaydosh; Warren, Joseph E; Huynh, Vivian; Castaneda, Joanna; Golden, Teresa D; Roby, Rhonda K

    2015-11-01

    Forensic DNA samples may include the presence of PCR inhibitors, even after extraction and purification. Studies have demonstrated that metal ions, co-purified at specific concentrations, inhibit DNA amplifications. Metal ions are endogenous to sample types, such as bone, and can be introduced from environmental sources. In order to examine the effect of metal ions as PCR inhibitors during quantitative real-time PCR, 2800 M DNA was treated with 0.0025-18.750 mM concentrations of aluminum, calcium, copper, iron, nickel, and lead. DNA samples, both untreated and metal-treated, were quantified using the Quantifiler(®) Human DNA Quantification Kit. Quantification cycle (Cq) values for the Quantifiler(®) Human DNA and internal PCR control (IPC) assays were measured and the estimated concentrations of human DNA were obtained. Comparisons were conducted between metal-treated and control DNA samples to determine the accuracy of the quantification estimates and to test the efficacy of the IPC inhibition detection. This kit is most resistant to the presence of calcium as compared to all metals tested; the maximum concentration tested does not affect the amplification of the IPC or quantification of the sample. This kit is most sensitive to the presence of aluminum; concentrations greater than 0.0750 mM negatively affected the quantification, although the IPC assay accurately assessed the presence of PCR inhibition. The Quantifiler(®) Human DNA Quantification Kit accurately quantifies human DNA in the presence of 0.5000 mM copper, iron, nickel, and lead; however, the IPC does not indicate the presence of PCR inhibition at this concentration of these metals. Unexpectedly, estimates of DNA quantity in samples treated with 18.750 mM copper yielded values in excess of the actual concentration of DNA in the samples; fluorescence spectroscopy experiments indicated this increase was not a direct interaction between the copper metal and 6-FAM dye used to label the probe that

  20. Evaluation of the Coca-Cola company travel health kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Lynne A; Bettinger, Julie; Dismukes, Roberta; Kozarsky, Phyllis E

    2002-01-01

    The Coca-Cola travel health kit has been used for about one decade for international travelers and required evaluation to see if the items contained were appropriate for the employees. Two hundred thirty-four travelers were sampled and filled out a voluntary survey including questions about demographic information, travel history, and usage and value of the contents of the travel health kit. One hundred eighty-one surveys were returned; 65% of the respondents were male, and the majority of travelers were between the ages of 36 and 45 years. The most useful items were analgesics and medications used for gastrointestinal problems. In general, the items identified as being the least useful were those requiring specialized use by a medical practitioner, such as needles and syringes. Suggestions of items to be added to the kit included vitamins, cough drops, sleep aids, and eye drops. A surprising result that Coca-Cola employees expressed the desire for brand name rather than generic items. Evaluation of the Coca-Cola Company travel health kit revealed it to be very useful to most corporate travelers. Suggestions that were made will be taken into consideration in designing a new kit, and consideration is being given to whether a basic travel health kit should be provided to which travelers can add other items depending on their personal needs.

  1. Usefulness of CA 130 kit based on IRMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Takashi; Kimura, Yoshiko; Ata, Mariko; Miyagawa, Naoko; Iio, Atsushi; Hamamoto, Ken

    1988-01-01

    Immunoradiometric assay for CA 130 was fundamentally and clinically evaluated using a commercially available D-7111 kit. Incubation time was 4 hr with the present CA 133 kit as compared with 16 - 24 hr with conventional CA 125 kit. Laboratory performance of CA 130 kit was satisfactory for standard curve, reproducibility, and recovery test. There was well correlation between the present CA 130 kit and CA 125 kit (r = 0.931). The concentration of CA 130 in the serum was significantly higher in healthy women than men (17.3 +- 10.5 U/ml vs 9.6 +- 5.1 U/ml). Serum CA 130 levels tended to decrease with aging, regardless of sex. These levels were changeable with menstrual cycle ; i.e., these were significantly higher during menstrual phase (24.2 +- 9.0 U/ml) and significantly lower during ovulatory phase (10.9 +- 2.4 U/ml) and during menopause (12.1 +- 3.4 U/ml). Cut off serum CA 130 levels were defined as 20 U/ml for men and 38 U/ml for women. Positive rate for CA 130 was the highest in cases of ovarian cancer (80 %), followed by endometrial cancer (50 %), pancreatic cancer (47 %), benign ovarian tumor (44 %), and lung cancer (39 %). (Namekawa, K.)

  2. C-kit expression in canine mucosal melanomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, S J; Jankovsky, J M; Rohrbach, B W; LeBlanc, A K

    2012-09-01

    The c-kit receptor is responsible for transmission of promigration signals to melanocytes; its downregulation may be involved in malignant progression of human melanocytic neoplasms. Expression of this receptor has not been examined in normal or neoplastic melanocytes from dogs. In this study, 14 benign dermal and 61 malignant mucosal melanocytic tumors were examined for c-kit (KIT) expression. Sites of the mucosal melanomas were gingiva (not further specified; n = 30), buccal gingiva (n = 6), soft palate (n = 4), hard palate (n = 5), tongue (n = 7), lip (n = 6), and conjunctiva (n = 3). Melan A was expressed in all 14 dermal melanocytomas and in 59 of 61 (96.7%) tumors from oral or conjunctival mucosa, confirming melanocytic origin. C-kit receptor expression was strong and diffuse throughout the cytoplasm in all 14 dermal melanocytomas and was identified in basilar mucosal melanocytes over submucosal neoplasms (27 of 61, 44.3%), junctional (neoplastic) melanocytes (17 of 61, 27.9%), and, less commonly, neoplastic melanocytes of the subepithelial tumors (6 of 61, 9.8%). KIT expression anywhere within the resected melanomas correlated with significantly longer survival. These results suggest that c-kit receptor expression may be altered in canine melanomas and may have potential as a prognostic indicator for mucosal melanomas.

  3. Direct assay for urine cortisol with cortisol kit TFB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manaka, Yukiko; Watanabe, Michiko; Hosoya, Takaaki [Yamagata Univ. (Japan). Hospital

    2002-05-01

    We examined Cortisol Kit TFB for direct assay of urine cortisol. And the multiplication by dilution factor of urine cortisol values in this kit was examined. The coefficient of correlation of cortisol levels (46 urine samples) between Cortisol Kit TFB and Chemilumi ACS-Cortisol II, which is another kit for direct assay of urine cortisol, was r=0.858, y=1.86x+38.2 (p<0.001). There were differences between the both cortisol levels of each urine sample in spite of the good coefficient of correlation. The urine cortisol values obtained from the standard curve in addition of 50 {mu}l of zero standard were 50-80% of the values obtained from the standard curve in the package insert. These results suggest that the specificity of the antibodies of both direct assay kits for urine cortisol may be different each other, and the multiplication by 1.09, the dilution factor due to the addition of zero standard to only urine sample, is unnecessary although it is indispensable for urine samples to add zero standard. Cortisol Kit TFB was very convenient for its easy assay procedure and short incubation. (author)

  4. Direct assay for urine cortisol with cortisol kit TFB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manaka, Yukiko; Watanabe, Michiko; Hosoya, Takaaki

    2002-01-01

    We examined Cortisol Kit TFB for direct assay of urine cortisol. And the multiplication by dilution factor of urine cortisol values in this kit was examined. The coefficient of correlation of cortisol levels (46 urine samples) between Cortisol Kit TFB and Chemilumi ACS-Cortisol II, which is another kit for direct assay of urine cortisol, was r=0.858, y=1.86x+38.2 (p<0.001). There were differences between the both cortisol levels of each urine sample in spite of the good coefficient of correlation. The urine cortisol values obtained from the standard curve in addition of 50 μl of zero standard were 50-80% of the values obtained from the standard curve in the package insert. These results suggest that the specificity of the antibodies of both direct assay kits for urine cortisol may be different each other, and the multiplication by 1.09, the dilution factor due to the addition of zero standard to only urine sample, is unnecessary although it is indispensable for urine samples to add zero standard. Cortisol Kit TFB was very convenient for its easy assay procedure and short incubation. (author)

  5. Detection of Cryptosporidium sp infection by PCR and modified acid fast staining from potassium dichromate preserved stool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Kurniawan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim To identify the frequency of Cryptosporidium infection in children below 3 years old by examining concentrated long term preserved stool using PCR detection of 18S rRNA gene and compared with modified acid fast staining technique.Methods Hundred eighty eight stools from children ≤ 3 years old were stored for 13 months in 2.5% K2Cr2O7 solution at 40C. Cryptosporidium oocysts were isolated by water-ether concentration technique. The concentrates were smeared onto object glass and stained with modified acid fast staining, and the rest of the concentrates were DNA extracted by freezing and thawing cycles and proteinase K digestion, then direct PCR was done to detect 18S rRNA gene.Result The proportion of positive stools for Cryptosporidium sp by acid fast staining from concentrated stools and 18S rRNA PCR were 4.8% and 34.6% respectively, which showed statistically significant difference.Conclusion The frequency of Cryptosporidium infection among children ≤ 3 years old was very high and stool storage in K2Cr2O7 for 13 months did not affect the PCR result. High prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection indicated high transmission in that area and the potential to be transmitted to other individuals such as the immunocompromised. (Med J Indones 2009;18:147-52Key words: 18S rRNA, cryptosporidiosis

  6. DNA extraction in Echinococcus granulosus and Taenia spp. eggs in dogs stool samples applying thermal shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Alejandro; Melo, Angélica; Romero, Fernando; Hidalgo, Víctor; Villanueva, José; Fonseca-Salamanca, Flery

    2018-03-01

    The extraction of DNA in taeniid eggs shows complications attached to the composition of stool samples and the high resistance of eggs to degradation. The objective of this study was to test a method of DNA extraction in taeniid eggs by applying a thermal shock to facilitate the chemical-enzymatic degradation of these elements. A group of six tubes containing 1 ml of dog stool sample was spiked with eggs of Echinococcus granulosus and another group of six with Taenia pisiformis. Samples were floated with supersaturated sugar solution and centrifuged. The upper portion of each tube (500 μl) was aspirated and deposited in 1.5 ml tubes. Three tubes from each group were incubated at -20 °C and then at 90 °C, the remaining three from each group, incubated at room temperature. Proteinase K and lysis buffer were added to each tube and incubated for 12 h at 58 °C. The lysis effect was evaluated by microscopy at 3, 6 and 12 h and integrity by electrophoresis in 1% agarose gels. With the same experimental scheme, the thermal shock effect was evaluated in extractions of 1, 2, 3 and 4 eggs of each species and the DNA was quantified. Additionally, the protocol was applied in samples of 4 dogs diagnosed with natural infection by Taeniidae worms. Finally, all the extractions were tested by PCR amplification. Both E. granulosus and T. pisiformis eggs showed a similar response in the tests. In samples without treatment, the lysis effect was poor and showed no differences over time, but in those subjected to thermal shock, eggs degradation increased with time. In both treatments, there was no DNA loss integrity. The protocol applied to limited amounts of eggs yielded PCR products in 100% of the samples exposed to thermal shock, allowing PCR amplifications up to 1 egg. In non-exposed samples, the results were not replicable. However, DNA quantification showed low values in both treatments. In turn, DNA extractions with thermal shock in infected dog samples

  7. Ash study for biogas purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juarez V, R. I.

    2016-01-01

    This work evaluates the ashes generated from the wood and coal combustion process of the thermoelectric plant in Petacalco, Guerrero (Mexico) in order to determine its viability as a filter in the biogas purification process. The ash is constituted by particles of morphology and different chemical properties, so it required a characterization of the same by different analytical techniques: as was scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, in order to observe the microstructure and determine the elemental chemical composition of the particles. Prior to the analysis, a set of sieves was selected to classify as a function of particle size. Four different types of ashes were evaluated: one generated by the wood combustion (wood ash) and three more of the Petacalco thermoelectric generated by the coal combustion (wet fly ash, dry fly ash and dry bottom ash). (Author)

  8. Reverse osmosis water purification system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlstrom, H. G.; Hames, P. S.; Menninger, F. J.

    1986-01-01

    A reverse osmosis water purification system, which uses a programmable controller (PC) as the control system, was designed and built to maintain the cleanliness and level of water for various systems of a 64-m antenna. The installation operates with other equipment of the antenna at the Goldstone Deep Space Communication Complex. The reverse osmosis system was designed to be fully automatic; with the PC, many complex sequential and timed logic networks were easily implemented and are modified. The PC monitors water levels, pressures, flows, control panel requests, and set points on analog meters; with this information various processes are initiated, monitored, modified, halted, or eliminated as required by the equipment being supplied pure water.

  9. Supply kits for antenatal and childbirth care: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Alicia; Tomasso, Giselle; Cafferata, María Luisa; Colomar, Mercedes; Betran, Ana Pilar

    2017-12-13

    It is critical to increase the uptake of interventions proven to be effective to improve maternal and perinatal outcomes. Supply kits have been suggested to be a feasible strategy designed to ensure timely availability and effective follow-up of care. We conducted a systematic review to summarize the evidence on the uptake, effectiveness and safety of supply kits for maternal care. MEDLINE, the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register, Campbell Collaboration, Lilacs, Embase and unpublished studies were searched. Studies that reported the efficacy, safety and use of supply kits for maternal healthcare were eligible. Participants were pregnant women or in childbirth. Supply kits were defined as a collection of medicines, supplies or instruments packaged together with the aim of conducting a healthcare task. Two reviewers independently performed the screening, data extraction, and methodological and quality assessment. 24 studies were included: 4 of them were systematic reviews and 20 primary studies. Eighteen studies evaluated a so-called "clean delivery kit". In all but two studies, the kits were used by more than half of the participants. A meta-analysis was deemed inappropriate due to the heterogeneity in study design, in the components of the interventions implemented, in the content of the kits, and in outcomes. Nine studies assessed neonatal outcomes and found statistically significant reductions in cord infection, sepsis and tetanus-related mortality in the intervention group. Three studies showed evidence of reduced neonatal mortality (OR 0.52, 0.60 and 0.71) with statistically significant confidence intervals in all cases. Four studies reported odd ratios for maternal mortality, but only one showed evidence of a statistically significant decrease in this outcome but it was ascribed to hand washing prior to childbirth and not with the use of kits. This review suggests potential benefits in the use of supply kits to improve maternal and

  10. Are bile acid malabsorption and bile acid diarrhoea important causes of loose stool complicating cancer therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, F; Muls, A C G; Lalji, A; Andreyev, H J N

    2015-08-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms during and after cancer therapy can significantly affect quality of life and interfere with treatment. This study assessed whether bile acid malabsorption (BAM) or bile acid diarrhoea (BAD) are important causes of diarrhoea associated with cancer treatment. A retrospective analysis was carried out of consecutive patients assessed for BAM using ((75) Se) Selenium homocholic acid taurocholate (SeHCAT) scanning, after reporting any episodes of loose stool, attending a gastroenterology clinic in a cancer centre. Between 2009 and 2013, 506 consecutive patients (54.5% male; age range: 20-91 years), were scanned. BAM/BAD was diagnosed in 215 (42.5%). It was mild in 25.6%, moderate in 29.3% and severe in 45.1%. Pelvic chemoradiation had induced BAM in > 50% of patients. BAM was also frequent after treatment for conditions not previously associated with BAM, such as anal and colorectal cancer, and was present in > 75% of patients referred after pancreatic surgery. It was also unexpectedly frequent in patients who were treated for malignancy outside the GI tract, such as breast cancer and haematological malignancy. BAM/BAD are very common and under-appreciated causes of GI symptoms after cancer treatment. Health professionals should have a low threshold in suspecting this condition, as diagnosis and treatment can significantly improve quality of life. Colorectal Disease © 2015 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  11. Moellerella wisconsensis, a new genus and species of Enterobacteriaceae found in human stool specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman-Brenner, F W; Huntley-Carter, G P; Saitoh, Y; Steigerwalt, A G; Farmer, J J; Brenner, D J

    1984-04-01

    The name Moellerella wisconsensis is proposed for a group of the family Enterobacteriaceae previously called enteric group 46. The species name, wisconsensis, was coined because six of the nine strains were isolated in Wisconsin. M. wisconsensis strains were negative for indole production, Voges-Proskauer, H2S production, urea, phenylalanine deaminase, lysine and ornithine decarboxylases, arginine dihydrolase, gas production from D-glucose, acid production from trehalose, and motility; the strains were positive for methyl red, citrate (Simmons), and acid production from lactose and raffinose and resistant to colistin. DNAs from five strains of M. wisconsensis were highly related (80 to 93% in reactions assayed on hydroxyapatite at 60 degrees C and 78 to 97% at 75 degrees C) to 32P-labeled DNA of the proposed type strain (CDC 2896-78, ATCC 35017). Labeled DNA from this type strain was only 2 to 32% related (at 60 degrees C) to DNA from 49 strains of named and unnamed species of Enterobacteriaceae. Eight of nine M. wisconsensis strains were isolated from human stool samples. Clinical information on one strain was available, and it was found to be associated with a case of diarrhea. On MacConkey agar, colonies of M. wisconsensis were bright red with precipitated bile around them and thus were indistinguishable from Escherichia coli colonies. Future studies should focus on the isolation of this new organism and its relationship to human disease.

  12. A novel nested multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay for differential detection of Entamoeba histolytica, E. moshkovskii and E. dispar DNA in stool samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parija Subhash C

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background E. histolytica, a pathogenic amoeba, is indistinguishable in its cyst and trophozoite stages from those of non-pathogenic E. moshkovskii and E. dispar by light microscopy. We have developed a nested multiplex PCR targeting a 16S-like rRNA gene for differential detection of all the three morphologically similar forms of E. histolytica, E. moshkovskii and E. dispar simultaneously in stool samples. Results The species specific product size for E. histolytica, E. moshkovskii and E. dispar was 439, 553 and 174 bp respectively, which was clearly different for all the three Entamoeba species. The nested multiplex PCR showed a sensitivity of 94% and specificity of 100% for the demonstration of E. histolytica, E. moshkovskii and E. dispar DNA in stool samples. The PCR was positive for E. histolytica, E. moshkovskii and E. dispar in a total of 190 out of 202 stool specimens (94% sensitive that were positive for E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii by examination of stool by microscopy and/or culture. All the 35 negative control stool samples that were negative for E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii by microscopy and culture were also found negative by the nested multiplex PCR (100% specific. The result from the study shows that only 34.6% of the patient stool samples that were positive for E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii by examination of stool by microscopy and/or culture, were actually positive for pathogenic E. histolytica and the remaining majority of the stool samples were positive for non-pathogenic E. dispar or E. moshkovskii as demonstrated by the use of nested multiplex PCR. Conclusion The present study reports a new nested multiplex PCR strategy for species specific detection and differentiation of E. histolytica, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii DNA in stool specimens. The test is highly specific, sensitive and also rapid, providing the results within 12 hours of receiving stool specimens.

  13. Iodobell in vivo kits for labelling with 123I or 131I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koernyei, J.; Horvath, M.; Pszota, A.; Lakatos, M.; Szirtes, L.

    1988-01-01

    Iodobell in vivo kits provide an easy and fast method for 'on the spot' radioiodination with 123 I (or 131 I). Until now three kits have been developed in the Institute of Isotopes Budapest, the heptadecanoic acid, the hippurate and the MIBG kits. From these, the heptadecanoic acid kit is being tested in humans in Hungary, the other two are under the registration procedure. The Iodobell in vivo kits may contribute to the application of 123 I radioisotope in Hungary. (orig.)

  14. Affinity purification of recombinant human plasminogen activator ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Affinity purification of recombinant human plasminogen activator from ... Screening antibody was performed using rhPA milk in an ELISA-elution assay. ... useful for purifying other tPA mutants or other novel recombinant milkderived proteins.

  15. Purification, characterization of phytase enzyme from Lactobacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-06-04

    Jun 4, 2014 ... 2Department of Food Technology, Erzurum Vocational Training School, Ataturk University, 25240, ... facultative anaerobic, catalase-negative, immobile (with ..... Partial purification of phytase from a soil isolate bacterium,.

  16. Purification and Characterization of Thermostable Cellulase from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Available online at http://www.tjpr.org ... Methods: Molecular community structure of the newly selected thermophilic bacterial ... Keywords: Thermostable cellulase, Sugarcane bagasse, Purification, Characterization, Hot spring ... Currently, one.

  17. Basic and clinical evaluation of thyroxine radioimmunoassay kit. I. T-4 RIA kit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunko, H; Hisada, K [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). Hospital

    1976-02-01

    The T/sub 4/ RIA kit is based on single antibody radioimmunoassay and utilizes a resin-sponge to separate free T/sub 4/-/sup 125/I from the incubation mixture. The use of the sodium salt of trichloroacetic acid (TBG inhibitor) permits direct radioimmunoassay of T/sub 4/ without a tedious extraction procedure. The T/sub 4/ RIA kit needs only 0.05 ml of patient serum and one hour of incubation to measure T/sub 4/. The TBG inhibitior was equivalent to 5.1 ..mu..g% of T/sub 4/ in displacing radioactive T/sub 4/ from TBG in a CPBA(Res-O-Mat T/sub 4/) system, and the TBG inhibitor volume of 0.5 ml (ten times of serum) was needed to measure a high T/sub 4/ concentration serum. The change of incubation temperature was more affected on the standard curve than that of incubation time. Correlation of the T/sub 4/ value between radioimmunoassay and CPBA in 69 patients was good (r=0.88612, p<0.01) and showed a slightly higher T/sub 4/ value when measured with radioimmunoassay than CPBA (linear regression function: Y=1.17506 + 0.95766X). Correlation of T/sub 4/ between Compu-curve and conventional standard curve was excellent (r=0.9995), but a slight difference was found in both low and high T/sub 4/ concentrations. In euthyroid patients without thyroid diseases, T/sub 4/ concentration was 9.92 +- 2.66 (SD) ..mu..g% and the normal range was between 4.60 and 15.24 ..mu..g%. Reproducibility within assay was 9.9% (CV) and recovery rate was 70% when added 10 ..mu..g of T/sub 4/ and 86% when added 15 ..mu..g% of T/sub 4/. From these results, the authors concluded that radioimmunoassay of serum T/sub 4/ using the T/sub 4/ RIA kit would be a promising one, especially when measuring a large amount of samples per assays.

  18. Extraction and purification of yellow cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousif, E.H.

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation has reviewed current studies on production and purification of yellow cake from uranium ores by both acid and alkaline leaching processes. It comprises three chapters, the first one deal with uranium minerals, uranium deposits, geology of uranium and uranium isotopes. The second chapter covers mining and milling methods, uranium leaching chemistry, precipitation, and purification of uranium concentrate by solvent extraction and possible impurities that commonly interfered with yellow cake. The last chapter presented ongoing literature review.(Author)

  19. Multipartite electronic entanglement purification with charge detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng Yubo [Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Deng, Fu-Guo [Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Long Guilu, E-mail: gllong@tsinghua.edu.c [Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Key Laboratory for Atomic and Molecular NanoSciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Tsinghua National Laboratory for Information Science and Technology, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2011-01-17

    We present a multipartite entanglement purification scheme in a Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state for electrons based on their spins and their charges. This scheme works for purification with two steps, i.e., bit-flip error correction and phase-flip error correction. By repeating these two steps, the parties in quantum communication can get some high-fidelity multipartite entangled electronic systems.

  20. Distribution and ultrastructure of interstitial cells of Cajal in the mouse colon, using antibodies to Kit and Kit(W-lacZ) mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanderwinden, J M; Rumessen, J J; Bernex, F

    2000-01-01

    kinase receptor Kit as a marker. Sections and whole mounts were studied by confocal microscopy after double immunofluorescence with specific antibodies. The ultrastructure of Kit-expressing cells was examined by electron microcopy in KitW-lacz/+ transgenic mice, which carry the lacz gene inserted...

  1. A freeze dried kit formulation for the preparation of 99m Tc labelled human polyclonal IgG for the detection of infection and inflammation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedraza L, M.

    1996-01-01

    A freeze dried kit formulation for the preparation of 99m Tc-labelled human polyclonal IgG for the detection of infection and inflammation employing direct methods for protein labeling was developed. The method comprises reduction of intrinsic disulphide bridges within the antibody molecule by the use of the reductant 2-mercaptoethanol. Following a subsequent purification, the resulting reduced antibody is labeled via Sn 2+ reduction of pertechnetate in the presence of a weak competing ligand ethane-1-hydroxy-1,1-diphosphonate (EHDP). High labeling efficiencies (>90%) were obtained with high in vitro stability and without effect upon antibody immunoreactivity. Methods of analysis were also established permitting identification of radiochemical impurities which may be present in radiopharmaceutical solution. 99m Tc-polyclonal IgG prepared by the kit method was evaluated for scintigraphic localization of inflammatory lesions and abscesses in rabbits. Data demonstrated that the 99m Tc-polyclonal IgG after kit-reconstitution shows excellent stability and is an effective imaging agent of infection and/or inflammation. (Author)

  2. Tumor markers kits development for use in radioimmunometric assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, B.

    1997-01-01

    The immunoassays such as RIA and IRMA are now widely used through the world for the quantitation of a variety of substances in the biological fluid for their high sensibility and specificity which required simple equipments. These techniques are also very used in Algeria for an effective amelioration of public heath The assays kits of RIA/IRMA of thyroid hormones are the most used, followed by peptidic hormones, steroids hormones and IRMA Tumor Markers (T.M) kits. In spite of the important demand, of tumor markers kits for the diagnosis and follow up of cancers their use are always insufficient due to the high cost. The research contract programme proposed by IAEA on the theme 'The Developments of IRMA Tumor Markers Kits' of prostate specific Antigen (PSA) and Tissue Polypeptide Specific Antigen (TPS) will allowed us to produce locally with best quality-price, the main reagents for PSA and TPS IRMA assays kits for diagnosis and follow up the prostate and breast cancers which are very spready in the country. This report include the following points: Generalities on the use of tumor markers in Algeria, programme for the Development of the PSA IRMA assay (schedule of protocols applied for each reagents; annual planning for assessing the programme activities) and conclusion

  3. Uji Stabilitas Kit Cair Tetrofosmin pada Berbagai Kondisi Penyimpanan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunilda Yunilda

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Tetrofosmin radiopharmaceutical compound that is being developed by PTRR BATAN for use as myocardial perfusion imaging agent and cancer diagnostic agent in nuclear medicine. The aim of this study is observe the stability of this liquid kits after stored in various condition to determine its expire date various condition. The stability test was done of 1 hour, 3 hours, 5 hours and 7 hours after labeling. The radiochemical was determined its radiochemical purity has to be ≥ 90 %. Analysis of radiochemical purity was carried out by separation method which using Sep-Pak C18 cartride. Storage condition of tetrofosmin kit was carried out at various temperatures as in the deep freezer (-800C, freezer (-180C, refrigerator (2-60C and cool box (2-60C. The result showed that the liquid tetrofosmin kits stored in deep freezer, freezer, refrigerator were stable up to 23 months, 8 weeks and 4 days respectively. Simulation of stability  test after stored in a cool box was done by observing the temperature of cool box, and the result showed that the temperature in the cool box was constant as in refrigerator for up to 24 hours. Tetrofosmin which has been labeled with technetium-99m can with stand up 7 hours. It is concluded that expiry date of liquid tetrofosmin kit related with storage temperature, the lower the temperature the longer the expiry date of the kits.

  4. Utilization of milk energy by suckling mink kits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tauson, Anne-Helene; Fink, Rikke; Hansen, Kirsten Bislev

    2004-01-01

    A total of 36 mink dams and their litters of 3, 6 or 9 kits were used for determination of milk intake of the suckling young by means of deuterium dilution technique, and chemical composition of milk and of kit bodies. Measurements were performed during lactation weeks 1-4, each week with 3 dams...... with each litter size. Milk intake was determined over a 48 h measurement period, and by the end of this milk samples were collected and 2 kits (litters of 6 and 9) or 1 kit per litter (litters of 3) were killed for body chemical composition. Based on the results, different models were applied...... for calculation of the energetic efficiency of milk. Dam milk yield increased steadily from week 1 until week 3 but only slightly from week 3 to 4. The increase declined with increasing litter size, and for dams suckling 9 kits the increment from week 3 to week 4 was only 2 g. The dry matter content of milk...

  5. Nociceptive tuning by stem cell factor/c-Kit signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milenkovic, Nevena; Frahm, Christina; Gassmann, Max; Griffel, Carola; Erdmann, Bettina; Birchmeier, Carmen; Lewin, Gary R; Garratt, Alistair N

    2007-12-06

    The molecular mechanisms regulating the sensitivity of sensory circuits to environmental stimuli are poorly understood. We demonstrate here a central role for stem cell factor (SCF) and its receptor, c-Kit, in tuning the responsiveness of sensory neurons to natural stimuli. Mice lacking SCF/c-Kit signaling displayed profound thermal hypoalgesia, attributable to a marked elevation in the thermal threshold and reduction in spiking rate of heat-sensitive nociceptors. Acute activation of c-Kit by its ligand, SCF, resulted in a reduced thermal threshold and potentiation of heat-activated currents in isolated small-diameter neurons and thermal hyperalgesia in mice. SCF-induced thermal hyperalgesia required the TRP family cation channel TRPV1. Lack of c-Kit signaling during development resulted in hypersensitivity of discrete mechanoreceptive neuronal subtypes. Thus, c-Kit can now be grouped with a small family of receptor tyrosine kinases, including c-Ret and TrkA, that control the transduction properties of sensory neurons.

  6. KiT: a MATLAB package for kinetochore tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armond, Jonathan W; Vladimirou, Elina; McAinsh, Andrew D; Burroughs, Nigel J

    2016-06-15

    During mitosis, chromosomes are attached to the mitotic spindle via large protein complexes called kinetochores. The motion of kinetochores throughout mitosis is intricate and automated quantitative tracking of their motion has already revealed many surprising facets of their behaviour. Here, we present 'KiT' (Kinetochore Tracking)-an easy-to-use, open-source software package for tracking kinetochores from live-cell fluorescent movies. KiT supports 2D, 3D and multi-colour movies, quantification of fluorescence, integrated deconvolution, parallel execution and multiple algorithms for particle localization. KiT is free, open-source software implemented in MATLAB and runs on all MATLAB supported platforms. KiT can be downloaded as a package from http://www.mechanochemistry.org/mcainsh/software.php The source repository is available at https://bitbucket.org/jarmond/kit and under continuing development. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. jonathan.armond@warwick.ac.uk. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  7. Molecular detection of eukaryotes in a single human stool sample from Senegal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Hamad

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Microbial eukaryotes represent an important component of the human gut microbiome, with different beneficial or harmful roles; some species are commensal or mutualistic, whereas others are opportunistic or parasitic. The diversity of eukaryotes inhabiting humans remains relatively unexplored because of either the low abundance of these organisms in human gut or because they have received limited attention from a whole-community perspective. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: In this study, a single fecal sample from a healthy African male was studied using both culture-dependent methods and extended molecular methods targeting the 18S rRNA and ITS sequences. Our results revealed that very few fungi, including Candida spp., Galactomyces spp., and Trichosporon asahii, could be isolated using culture-based methods. In contrast, a relatively a high number of eukaryotic species could be identified in this fecal sample when culture-independent methods based on various primer sets were used. A total of 27 species from one sample were found among the 977 analyzed clones. The clone libraries were dominated by fungi (716 clones/977, 73.3%, corresponding to 16 different species. In addition, 187 sequences out of 977 (19.2% corresponded to 9 different species of plants; 59 sequences (6% belonged to other micro-eukaryotes in the gut, including Entamoeba hartmanni and Blastocystis sp; and only 15 clones/977 (1.5% were related to human 18S rRNA sequences. CONCLUSION: Our results revealed a complex eukaryotic community in the volunteer's gut, with fungi being the most abundant species in the stool sample. Larger investigations are needed to assess the generality of these results and to understand their roles in human health and disease.

  8. [On the use of FTA technology for collection, archieving, and molecular analysis of microsporidia dna from clinical stool samples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolova, O I; Dem'ianov, A V; Bovers, L S; Did'e, E S; Sokolova, Iu Ia

    2011-01-01

    The FTA technology was applied for sampling, archiving, and molecular analysis of the DNA isolated from stool samples to diagnose and identify microsporidia, the intracellular opportunistic parasites which induce malabsortion syndrome in immunosuppressed humans, particularly in patients with AIDS. Microsporidia DNA was successfully amplified in 6 of 50 stool samples of HIV-positive patients of the S. P. Botkin Memorial Infectious Disease Hospital (St. Petersburg) applied to FTA cards (FTA-Cars, Whatman Inc. Florham Park, NJ, USA). Amplicons (the fragments of rDNA) were directly sequenced, and microsporidia species--Encephalitozoon intestinalis, E. cuniculi, E. hellem, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi--were identified in Genbank by NCBI BLAST program. The FTA method of DNA immobilization is especially promising for epidemiological and field population studies which involve genotyping of microsporidia species and isolates.

  9. Dipstick test for rapid diagnosis of Shigella dysenteriae 1 in bacterial cultures and its potential use on stool samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelam Taneja

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We describe a test for rapid detection of S. dysenteriae 1 in bacterial cultures and in stools, at the bedside of patients. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The test is based on the detection of S. dysenteriae 1 lipopolysaccharide (LPS using serotype 1-specific monoclonal antibodies coupled to gold particles and displayed on a one-step immunochromatographic dipstick. A concentration as low as 15 ng/ml of LPS was detected in distilled water and in reconstituted stools in 10 minutes. In distilled water and in reconstituted stools, an unequivocal positive reaction was obtained with 1.6×10⁶ CFU/ml and 4.9×10⁶ CFU/ml of S. dysenteriae 1, respectively. Optimal conditions to read the test have been determined to limit the risk of ambiguous results due to appearance of a faint yellow test band in some negative samples. The specificity was 100% when tested with a battery of Shigella and unrelated strains in culture. When tested on 328 clinical samples in India, Vietnam, Senegal and France by laboratory technicians and in Democratic Republic of Congo by a field technician, the specificity (312/316 was 98.7% (95% CI:96.6-99.6% and the sensitivity (11/12 was 91.7% (95% CI:59.8-99.6%. Stool cultures and the immunochromatographic test showed concordant results in 98.4 % of cases (323/328 in comparative studies. Positive and negative predictive values were 73.3% (95% CI:44.8-91.1% and 99.7% (95% CI:98-100%. CONCLUSION: The initial findings presented here for a simple dipstick-based test to diagnose S. dysenteriae 1 demonstrates its promising potential to become a powerful tool for case management and epidemiological surveys.

  10. A Novel Stool PCR Test for Helicobacter pylori May Predict Clarithromycin Resistance and Eradication of Infection at a High Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckman, Erin; Saracino, Ilaria; Fiorini, Giulia; Clark, Courtney; Slepnev, Vladimir; Patel, Denise; Gomez, Clarissa; Ponaka, Reddy; Elagin, Vecheslav; Vaira, Dino

    2017-08-01

    Clarithromycin-based regimens are commonly used as a first-line therapy for Helicobacter pylori -positive patients; however, resistance to clarithromycin has led to treatment failures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using stool samples to detect the presence of H. pylori DNA while concurrently detecting mutations associated with resistance to clarithromycin. For this purpose, total DNA was extracted from 294 raw stool specimens from H. pylori -positive and -negative patients. TaqMan real-time PCR amplification was used to detect the presence of H. pylori as well as to predict the phenotype of the organism and the related outcome for patients treated with clarithromycin. Clarithromycin resistance was determined upon analysis of the PCR result. Patients were also tested by a urea breath test and were subjected to esophagogastroduodenoscopy, followed by histology, culture, and a rapid urease test, in order to obtain a consensus patient infection status. Of 294 total stool samples, 227 were deemed true positive. The sensitivity of H. pylori detection by PCR was 93.8%. Of 213 true-positive samples that were sequenced, 36.2% showed point mutations associated with clarithromycin resistance (A2142C, A2142G, A2143G). The final correlation of the mutant genotypes as determined by sequencing with the eradication of infection was 86%. We found that Helicobacter pylori DNA can be detected in human stool specimens with high sensitivity and can therefore be used to determine the presence of the bacterium without obtaining a biopsy sample. Moreover, genotypic resistance to clarithromycin can be predicted without obtaining a biopsy sample, facilitating the choice of the right therapeutic approach. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  11. Evaluation of Desensol As a Standard Patch Test Kit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K C Shah

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available In a study undertaken to find out the usefulness of ′Desensol′ patch test kit to detect contact allergens, in 200 cases revealed 24 cases with negative patch test with all the antigens and 55 cases reacted to even the Vaseline control. -Excluding these 79 cases, the common contact allergens were potassium bichr6ma,te, (40.49%, TMTD(28.92%, PPD(24.79%, epoxy resin (23.14%, colophony (19.0%, nickel sulfate (19.0%, Framycetin (19.0% and nitrofurazone (19.0%. Desensol patch test kit is lacking in certain antigens while in our country due to varied environmental factors and social customs, a person is exposed to a large number of natural and man-made contact allergens. So usefulness of such a kit like. Desensol is limited.

  12. Nuclear track detector kit for use in teaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medveczky, L.; Somogyi, G.

    1986-01-01

    By the use of solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) one may carry out several useful and impressive educational experiments and demonstrations to illustrate different phenomena when teaching of nuclear physics. Realizing this situation the authors have published, since 1970, reports on several experiments for teaching demonstrations. Based on the authors instructions, a factory in Hungary (TANFRT, National Manufacturers and Suppliers of School Equipment, Budapest) constructed a kit for the use of nuclear track detectors in teaching. The portable kit contains the following items: alpha-emitting weak sources, solid state nuclear track detectors (unirradiated, irradiated, unetched and etched sheets), simple tools for carrying out experiments (facilities for irradiation and etching, etc.), slides showing photos of typical etch-tracks of light and heavy nuclei, user manual. By the help of the kit both pupils and teachers can perform various useful experiments and/or demonstrations. (author)

  13. Development of RIA kits for tumor-markers monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suprarop, P.

    1997-01-01

    All reagents for tumor markers assays are imported from various manufacturers mainly CIS bio international. The average cost of these reagents is ranged from 80-150 bath/test (2-4 dollars test). The screening test for cancers could not be done especially in other regions of Thailand whose budgets and resources are so limited. If the reagents are made locally, many laboratories can perform the tests and use as primary diagnosis, screening or monitor the course of the disease following treatment. In addition, these reagents could help clinicians and give complementary information on the tumor status to improve quality of life in Thailand. Research objectives include: 1. Development of IRMA reagent kits suitable for diagnosing staging and monitoring prostrate and breast cancer. 2. Transfer of technology and reagent kits to relevant laboratories in Thailand. 3. Routine distribution of the reagents kits to the end users

  14. ConKit: a python interface to contact predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simkovic, Felix; Thomas, Jens M H; Rigden, Daniel J

    2017-07-15

    Recent advances in protein residue contact prediction algorithms have led to the emergence of many new methods and a variety of file formats. We present ConKit , an open source, modular and extensible Python interface which allows facile conversion between formats and provides an interface to analyses of sequence alignments and sets of contact predictions. ConKit is available via the Python Package Index. The documentation can be found at http://www.conkit.org . ConKit is licensed under the BSD 3-Clause. hlfsimko@liverpool.ac.uk or drigden@liverpool.ac.uk. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  15. Comparison of commercial diagnostic kits for placental lactogen radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirkl, S.; Kulenda, Z.

    1976-01-01

    The biochemical laboratory compared the following diagnostic kits for HPL determination: Pharmacia (Sweden), Radiochemical Center Amersham (GB), NEN (USA), Hoechst (FRG), applying the following criteria: 1. price, 2. number of analyses for which one kit may be applied, 3. expiration time, 4. speed, i.e., time elapsed from sample delivery to report (dependent on incubation time), 5. laboriousness, 6. reproducibility, 7. compatibility of values obtained by different kits. Alcohol precipitation (Pharmacia, RCC Amersham) appeared to be the most suitable while Dextran coated charcoal (NEN) and Amberlite (Hoechst) were somewhat more complicated, and the Sorin double antibody technique (ultrafiltration and washing of precipitate on filtres was used for separation) appeared to be the most laborious technique. RCC Amersham was ranked first owing to its lower cost as compared with runner-up Pharmacia. (L.O.)

  16. Determination of stannous tin in radiopharmaceutical cold kits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrant, A.J.

    1979-01-01

    Two methods for determining stannous tin in 'cold kits', used for the preparation of Tc-99m labelled radiopharmaceuticals, have been developed. Both are based on the direct titration of the Sn2 in solution. In the first method titration is with N-bromosuccinimide. Of the materials commonly used as cold kits only albumin has been found to interfere with the determination. The second method is a standard iodometric titration in which starch is used as indicator. None of the materials tested interfere with this procedure. The N-bromosuccinimide method is the method of choice as the re-agent, a solid, can be used without prior standardization. Iodine solution must be standardized daily. The paper describes in detail the methods used and gives examples of kits in which the Sn2 levels have been determined using the described procedures

  17. Field Test Kit for Gun Residue Detection; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WALKER, PAMELA K.; RODACY, PHILIP J.

    2002-01-01

    One of the major needs of the law enforcement field is a product that quickly, accurately, and inexpensively identifies whether a person has recently fired a gun--even if the suspect has attempted to wash the traces of gunpowder off. The Field Test Kit for Gunshot Residue Identification based on Sandia National Laboratories technology works with a wide variety of handguns and other weaponry using gunpowder. There are several organic chemicals in small arms propellants such as nitrocellulose, nitroglycerine, dinitrotoluene, and nitrites left behind after the firing of a gun that result from the incomplete combustion of the gunpowder. Sandia has developed a colorimetric shooter identification kit for in situ detection of gunshot residue (GSR) from a suspect. The test kit is the first of its kind and is small, inexpensive, and easily transported by individual law enforcement personnel requiring minimal training for effective use. It will provide immediate information identifying gunshot residue

  18. Fundamental and clinical study for PHT (parathyroid hormone) kit 'Yamasa'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukunaga, Masao; Otsuka, Nobuaki; Furukawa, Takako; Morita, Rikushi

    1987-01-01

    A commercially available radioimmunoassay kit (Yamasa) for parathyroid hormone (PTH) is the midregion-specific assay system. Fundamental study of the PTH kit gave favorable results for specificity, reproducibility, dilution, and recovery. The serum PTH concentration was detectable among all 41 normal volunteers. The upper and lower limits of normal for PTH in serum were found to be 600 pg/ml and 184 pg/ml, respectively. PTH values were high for chronic renal failure (6/7) and primary hyperparathyroidism (41/41), and low for malignancy associated with hypercalcemia (5/25). It seems possible to discriminate hypercalcemic from normal subjects. The serum PTH concentration from the present assay system was significantly correlated with that from conventional carboxyl-terminal PTH, midregion PTH, amino-terminal PTH, and (1 - 84) PTH assay systems. The results indicate the potential of the Yamasa kit in evaluating calcium metabolism, as well as in detecting the presence of secondary hyperparathyroidism. (Namekawa, K.)

  19. Nuclear track detector kit for use in teaching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medveczky, L.; Somogyi, G.; Nagy, M.

    1986-01-01

    By the use of solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) one may carry out several useful and impressive educational experiments and demonstrations to illustrate different phenomena when teaching of nuclear physics. Realizing this situation the authors have published, since 1970, reports on several experiments for teaching demonstrations. Based on the authors instructions, a factory in Hungary (TANFRT, National Manufacturers and Suppliers of School Equipment, Budapest) constructed a kit for the use of nuclear track detectors in teaching. The portable kit contains the following items: alpha-emitting weak sources, solid state nuclear track detectors (unirradiated, irradiated, unetched and etched sheets), simple tools for carrying out experiments (facilities for irradiation and etching, etc.), slides showing photos of typical etch-tracks of light and heavy nuclei, user manual. By the help of the kit both pupils and teachers can perform various useful experiments and/or demonstrations.

  20. Performance of immunoassay kits for site characterization and remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, L.C.; Palausky, A.; Counts, R.W.; Jenkins, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is supporting efforts to identify, validate and implement the use of effective, low-cost alternatives to currently used analytical methods for environmental management. As part of that program, we have evaluated the performances of a number of immunoassay (IA) kits with specificities for environmental contaminants of concern to the DOE. The studies were done in the laboratory using both spiked and field test samples. The analyte specificity and manufacturers of the kits evaluated were the following: mercury, BioNebraska; polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), EnSys and Millipore; petroleum fuel hydrocarbons, Millipore and Ohmicron; and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), Ohmicron and Millipore. The kits were used in either a semiquantitative or quantitative format according to the preference of the manufacturers

  1. Impact of changing from staining to culture techniques on detection rates of Campylobacter spp. in routine stool samples in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porte, Lorena; Varela, Carmen; Haecker, Thomas; Morales, Sara; Weitzel, Thomas

    2016-05-13

    Campylobacter is a leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis, but sensitive diagnostic methods such as culture are expensive and often not available in resource limited settings. Therefore, direct staining techniques have been developed as a practical and economical alternative. We analyzed the impact of replacing Campylobacter staining with culture for routine stool examinations in a private hospital in Chile. From January to April 2014, a total of 750 consecutive stool samples were examined in parallel by Hucker stain and Campylobacter culture. Isolation rates of Campylobacter were determined and the performance of staining was evaluated against culture as the gold standard. Besides, isolation rates of Campylobacter and other enteric pathogens were compared to those of past years. Campylobacter was isolated by culture in 46 of 750 (6.1 %) stool samples. Direct staining only identified three samples as Campylobacter positive and reached sensitivity and specificity values of 6.5 and 100 %, respectively. In comparison to staining-based detection rates of previous years, we observed a significant increase of Campylobacter cases in our patients. Direct staining technique for Campylobacter had a very low sensitivity compared to culture. Staining methods might lead to a high rate of false negative results and an underestimation of the importance of campylobacteriosis. With the inclusion of Campylobacter culture, this pathogen became a leading cause of intestinal infection in our patient population.

  2. Disposable collection kit for rapid and reliable collection of saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Masaki; Tezuka, Yuki; Takeda, Kazunori; Shetty, Vivek

    2015-01-01

    To describe and evaluate disposable saliva collection kit for rapid, reliable, and reproducible collection of saliva samples. The saliva collection kit comprised of a saliva absorbent swab and an extractor unit was used to retrieve whole saliva samples from 10 subjects. The accuracy and precision of the extracted volumes (3, 10, and 30 μl) were compared to similar volumes drawn from control samples obtained by passive drool. Additionally, the impact of kit collection method on subsequent immunoassay results was verified by assessing salivary cortisol levels in the samples and comparing them to controls. The recovered volumes for the whole saliva samples were 3.85 ± 0.28, 10.79 ± 0.95, and 31.18 ± 1.72 μl, respectively (CV = 8.76%) and 2.91 ± 0.19, 9.75 ± 0.43, and 29.64 ± 0.91 μl, respectively, (CV = 6.36%) for the controls. There was a close correspondence between the salivary cortisol levels from the saliva samples obtained by the collection kit and the controls (R(2)  > 0.96). The disposable saliva collection kit allows accurate and repeatable collection of fixed amounts of whole saliva and does not interfere with subsequent measurements of salivary cortisol. The simple collection process, lack of elaborate specimen recovery steps, and the short turnaround time (<3 min) should render the kit attractive to test subjects and researchers alike. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The Quality Lighting Teaching Kit: enlightening our future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Constance E.; Pompea, Stephen M.

    2016-09-01

    The U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory's Education and Public Outreach group has produced a Quality Lighting Teaching (QLT) Kit, as an outcome of the International Year of Light 2015. The kits are designed around problem-based learning scenarios. The kit's six activities allow students to address real lighting problems that relate to wildlife, sky glow, aging eyes, energy consumption, safety, and light trespass. The activities are optimized for 11-14 year olds but can be expanded to younger and older. Most of the activities can be done within in a few minutes with the exception of the Energy Activity. The activities can be done during class or afterschool and as stations (that the students rotate through) or as stand-alones (one at a time). All aspects of the program are as ready-for-use. Everything you need for the six activities is included in the kit. Tutorial videos (on the program's webpage) have been created on how to do the activities. They can be found on the webpage, www.noao.edu/education/qltkit.php. Fourteen Google+ Hangouts on Air have been offered, addressing questions on the activities and logistics. Assessments (in the form of pre- and post-surveys for the students and as post-surveys for the instructors) provide learning outcomes and improvements. Eighty-nine out of 100 kits have been distributed to SPIE, OSA, CIE, IDA and the IAU in 31 countries. The QLT Kit is a stepping-stone to bring awareness to the (younger) public on how quality lighting locally can redress issues like light pollution globally.

  4. GossipKit: A Framework of Gossip Protocol Family

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Shen; Taiani, Francois; Blair, Gordon S.

    2007-01-01

    A large number of gossip protocols have been developed in the last few years to address a wide range of functionalities. So far, however, very few software frameworks have been proposed to ease the development and deployment of these gossip protocols. To address this issue, this paper presents GossipKit, an event-driven framework that provides a generic and extensible architecture for the development of (re)configurable gossip-oriented middleware. GossipKit is based on a generic interaction m...

  5. Tc99m MDP kits, production and quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, I.; Yassine, T.; Lababidi, Z.; Kouli, M.

    1992-11-01

    MDP kits for labelling with Tc 99m were locally produced in different conditions, and the conditions for preparation were optimized. The quality control studies showed that the prepared kits were very good quality and comparable with that imported. Radiochemical purities ranged between 95-98% while reduced technetium ranged between 2-3% and free pertechnetate did not exceed 1%. Bioscan and biodistribution studies also showed high localization of Tc 99m in the skeleton of rats and rabbits. (author). 8 refs., 14 tabs

  6. Determination of triiodothyronine using RIA-Mat T3 kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Masao

    1975-01-01

    A RIA-Mat T 3 kit was used for an in vitro measurement of triiodothyronine in serum. A resin strip was utilized to absorb free triiodothyronine after the serum was incubated with antibody against triiodothyronine. This test was easy to manipulate and the reproducibility test with same sera, dilution test, and recovery test were also satisfactory. The normal range of triiodothyronine determined with this test kit was 119 +- 40 ng/dl using 50 test sera. Ninety sera with various thyroid diseases were also determined. (auth.)

  7. Evaluation of the Ramco kit for serum ferritin assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dempster, W S; Knight, G J [Red Cross War Memorial Children' s Hospital, Cape Town (South Africa). Department of Paediatrics and Child Health; Jacobs, P [Cape Town Univ. (South Africa). Dept. of Haematology

    1979-12-22

    The determination of serum ferritin levels may be of diagnostic importance in medicine. To establish whether values obtained using a commercially available kit (Ramco) were adequate for this purpose, a comparison was undertaken using a two-site immunoradiometric assay that had been developed and standardized in our laboratories. Over the range 6..mu..g/l to greater than 2 000 ..mu..g/l there was a correlation coefficient between the two methods of 0,8284 (P smaller than 0,001). It is concluded that the Ramco kit is suitable for use in clinical practice.

  8. An evaluation of the Ramco kit for serum ferritin assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dempster, W.S.; Knight, G.J.; Jacobs, P.

    1979-01-01

    The determination of serum ferritin levels may be of diagnostic importance in medicine. To establish whether values obtained using a commercially available kit (Ramco) were adequate for this purpose, a comparison was undertaken using a two-site immunoradiometric assay that had been developed and standardized in our laboratories. Over the range 6μg/l to greater than 2 000 μg/l there was a correlation coefficient between the two methods of 0,8284 (P smaller than 0,001). It is concluded that the Ramco kit is suitable for use in clinical practice

  9. RestKit for iOS standard guide

    CERN Document Server

    Kalapun, Taras

    2013-01-01

    A step-by-step, example-based guide to learning how you can link your apps and web services using RestKit.This book is for iOS developers of all levels who are interested in boosting their productivity by utilizing third party libraries and who have a willingness to learn how to build RESTful apps using the RestKit framework. A basic knowledge of Objective-C is required as well as a simple understanding of how to use CoreData.

  10. Kit comercial de ELISA® para a detecção de coproantígenos e exame coproparasitológico em bovinos com fígados condenados por fasciolose Commercial ELISA® kit for detection of coproantigen and coproparasitological method in bovine livers with fascioliasis convicted

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia das Chagas Bernardo

    2012-11-01

    which had livers condemned by liver flukes and in these livers parasites were counted. Two fractions of stool samples collected were separated and one stored in freezer for further ELISA and other one processed according to sedimentation technique for diagnosis Fasciola hepatica. The Spearman correlation and McNemar chi-square were used, adopting the significance of 5%. In eight bovine livers condemned by the characteristic lesions of fascioliasis parasite were not found. The stool examinations and ELISA testing for detection coproantigen, respectively, had sensitivity of 51.11% and 75.55%, specificity of 100% and 91,66%, predictive positive value was 100% and 91.89%, predictive negative value 62% and 75% and kappa 0.48 and 0.65. The results obtained by commercial® ELISA kit did not differ (P=0,06 obtained at slaughterhouse, but the stool examinations differed (P<0.0001 in the detection of the positive animals. The correlation between the number of parasites in the liver and the number of eggs in the feces was moderate (rs=0.5757, P<0.0001. The commercial ELISA kit® was more sensitive than the fecal test, althought this one shoud not be discarded because of their efficiency.

  11. Detection of colorectal serrated polyps by stool DNA testing: comparison with fecal immunochemical testing for occult blood (FIT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell I Heigh

    Full Text Available Precursors to 1/3 of colorectal cancer (CRC, serrated polyps have been under-detected by screening due to their inconspicuous, non-hemorrhagic, and proximal nature. A new multi-target stool DNA test (multi-target sDNA shows high sensitivity for both CRC and advanced adenomas. Screen detection of serrated polyps by this approach requires further validation. We sought to assess and compare noninvasive detection of sessile serrated polyps (SSP ≥ 1 cm by sDNA and an occult blood fecal immunochemical test (FIT.In a blinded prospective study, a single stool sample used for both tests was collected from 456 asymptomatic adults prior to screening or surveillance colonoscopy (criterion standard. All 29 patients with SSP ≥ 1 cm were included as cases and all 232 with no neoplastic findings as controls. Buffered stool samples were processed and frozen on receipt; Exact Sciences performed sDNA in batches using optimized analytical methods. The sDNA multi-marker panel targets methylated BMP3 (mBMP3 and NDRG4, mutant KRAS, β-actin, and hemoglobin. FIT (Polymedco OC-FIT Check was performed in separate lab ≤ 2 days post defecation and evaluated at cutoffs of 50 (FIT-50 and 100 ng/ml (FIT-100.MEDIAN AGES: cases 61 (range 57-77, controls 62 (52-70, p = NS. Women comprised 59% and 51%, p = NS, respectively. SSP median size was 1.2 cm (1-3 cm, 93% were proximal, and 64% had synchronous diminutive polyps. Among multi-target sDNA markers, mBMP3 proved highly discriminant for detection of SSP ≥ 1 cm (AUC = 0.87, p<0.00001; other DNA markers provided no incremental sensitivity. Hemoglobin alone showed no discrimination (AUC = 0.50, p = NS. At matched specificities, detection of SSP ≥ 1 cm by stool mBMP3 was significantly greater than by FIT-50 (66% vs 10%, p = 0.0003 or FIT-100 (63% vs 0%, p<0.0001.In a screening and surveillance setting, SSP ≥ 1 cm can be detected noninvasively by stool assay of exfoliated DNA markers, especially mBMP3. FIT appears to

  12. Developing Save Your Food Kit (Sayofu Kit) to Support Inquiry, Improve Student Learning Outcomes at SMP Plus Hidayatul Mubtadiin and Public Awareness on Food Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astutik, J.

    2017-02-01

    Food additives are materials that can not be separated from the lives of students and the community. Based on the preliminary questionnaire, it indicates the lack of kit supporting material additives in some schools and communities. The research objectives of this development are (1) to develop Kit experiment (SAYOFU KIT) and supplementary books to improve student learning outcomes in the classroom and public awareness on food additives (2) to describe the feasibility and potential effectiveness of SAYOFU KIT developed (3) to analyze the practice of SAYOFU KIT and benefits for students and the community. This development study uses 4-D models Thiagarajan, et al (1974). Through some stages, they are: defining, designing, developing and disseminating which involes the students and community. The developed SAYOFU KIT includes additives sample kit, borax test kit, curcumin test kit, formaldehyde test kit, modification heater to the identification of dyes and dye test paper. The study is conducted at SMP Plus Hidayatul Mubtadiin, and TKIT Al Uswah. The products are validated by experts and education practitioners. Qualitative data processing uses descriptive method, whereas quantitative data by using the N-gain. The average yield of expert validation of SAYOFU KIT with supplementary books 76.50% teacher’s book and 76.30% student’s book are eligible. The average yield of 96.81% validation of educational practitioners criteria, piloting a small group of 83.15%, and 82.89% field trials are very decent. The average yield on the student questionnaire responses SAYOFU kit and supplementary book is 87.6% with the criteria very well worth it. N-Gain 0:56 cognitive achievement with the criteria enough. The results of the public poll showed 95% feel the benefits SAYOFU kits for testing food. Based from description indicates that SAYOFU Kit developed feasible, practical, useful to support inquiry learning and improve student learning outcomes as well as public awareness of

  13. Photocatalytic materials and technologies for air purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hangjuan; Koshy, Pramod; Chen, Wen-Fan; Qi, Shaohua; Sorrell, Charles Christopher

    2017-03-05

    Since there is increasing concern for the impact of air quality on human health, the present work surveys the materials and technologies for air purification using photocatalytic materials. The coverage includes (1) current photocatalytic materials for the decomposition of chemical contaminants and disinfection of pathogens present in air and (2) photocatalytic air purification systems that are used currently and under development. The present work focuses on five main themes. First, the mechanisms of photodegradation and photodisinfection are explained. Second, system designs for photocatalytic air purification are surveyed. Third, the photocatalytic materials used for air purification and their characteristics are considered, including both conventional and more recently developed photocatalysts. Fourth, the methods used to fabricate these materials are discussed. Fifth, the most significant coverage is devoted to materials design strategies aimed at improving the performance of photocatalysts for air purification. The review concludes with a brief consideration of promising future directions for materials research in photocatalysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Purification of Single-Stranded cDNA Based on RNA Degradation Treatment and Adsorption Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo-Esquivel, Elías; Franco, Bernardo; Flores-Martínez, Alberto; Ponce-Noyola, Patricia; Mora-Montes, Héctor M

    2016-08-02

    Analysis of gene expression is a common research tool to study networks controlling gene expression, the role of genes with unknown function, and environmentally induced responses of organisms. Most of the analytical tools used to analyze gene expression rely on accurate cDNA synthesis and quantification to obtain reproducible and quantifiable results. Thus far, most commercial kits for isolation and purification of cDNA target double-stranded molecules, which do not accurately represent the abundance of transcripts. In the present report, we provide a simple and fast method to purify single-stranded cDNA, exhibiting high purity and yield. This method is based on the treatment with RNase H and RNase A after cDNA synthesis, followed by separation in silica spin-columns and ethanol precipitation. In addition, our method avoids the use of DNase I to eliminate genomic DNA from RNA preparations, which improves cDNA yield. As a case report, our method proved to be useful in the purification of single-stranded cDNA from the pathogenic fungus Sporothrix schenckii.

  15. Simplified riboprobe purification using translucent straws as gel tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kol, S; Ben-Shlomo, I; Adashi, E Y; Rohan, R M

    1996-01-01

    Gel purification of radioactive riboprobes enhances the quality of the ribonuclease protection assay. A simple and effective method for riboprobe purification is described. The method uses acrylamide gels in plastic tubes to achieve electrophoretic separation of the RNA polymerase products.

  16. Ionic behavior of treated water at a water purification plant

    OpenAIRE

    Yanagida, Kazumi; Kawahigashi, Tatsuo

    2012-01-01

    [Abstract] Water at each processing stage in a water purification plant was extracted and analyzed to investigate changes of water quality. Investigations of water at each processing stage at the water purification plant are discussed herein.

  17. KIT competence center for decommissioning. Innovation and promotion of trainees; Kompetenzzentrum Rueckbau am KIT. Nachwuchsfoerderung und Innovationen fuer den Rueckbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentes, Sascha [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Technologie und Management im Baubetrieb

    2016-03-15

    The safe decommissioning of nuclear installations is technically feasible, but is also still a challenge for science, technology and industry. The expertise and know how for decommissioning must be ensured because it will be needed for further decades. Already in 2008 the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) had identified this challenge that later emerged through the closure of nuclear power plants in Germany. The KIT opened the professorship Technology and Management of the Decommissioning of Nuclear Installations. In 2014, this section was extended through the dismantling of conventional installations.

  18. Evaluation of the kinase domain of c-KIT in canine cutaneous mast cell tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, Joshua D; Kiupel, Matti; Yuzbasiyan-Gurkan, Vilma

    2006-01-01

    Mutations in the c-KIT proto-oncogene have been implicated in the progression of several neoplastic diseases, including gastrointestinal stromal tumors and mastocytosis in humans, and cutaneous mast cell tumors (MCTs) in canines. Mutations in human mastocytosis patients primarily occur in c-KIT exon 17, which encodes a portion of its kinase domain. In contrast, deletions and internal tandem duplication (ITD) mutations are found in the juxtamembrane domain of c-KIT in approximately 15% of canine MCTs. In addition, ITD c-KIT mutations are significantly associated with aberrant KIT protein localization in canine MCTs. However, some canine MCTs have aberrant KIT localization but lack ITD c-KIT mutations, suggesting that other mutations or other factors may be responsible for aberrant KIT localization in these tumors. In order to characterize the prevalence of mutations in the phospho-transferase portion of c-KIT's kinase domain in canine MCTs exons 16–20 of 33 canine MCTs from 33 dogs were amplified and sequenced. Additionally, in order to determine if mutations in c-KIT exon 17 are responsible for aberrant KIT localization in MCTs that lack juxtamembrane domain c-KIT mutations, c-KIT exon 17 was amplified and sequenced from 18 canine MCTs that showed an aberrant KIT localization pattern but did not have ITD c-KIT mutations. No mutations or polymorphisms were identified in exons 16–20 of any of the MCTs examined. In conclusion, mutations in the phospho-transferase portion of c-KIT's kinase domain do not play an important role in the progression of canine cutaneous MCTs, or in the aberrant localization of KIT in canine MCTs

  19. Purification of crude biodiesel using dry washing and membrane technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Atadashi, I.M.

    2015-01-01

    Purification of crude biodiesel is mandatory for the fuel to meet the strict international standard specifications for biodiesel. Therefore, this paper carefully analyzed recently published literatures which deal with the purification of biodiesel. As such, dry washing technologies and the most recent membrane biodiesel purification process have been thoroughly examined. Although purification of biodiesel using dry washing process involving magnesol and ion exchange resins provides high-quali...

  20. Magneto-capillary valve for integrated purification and enrichment of nucleic acids and proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Dulk, Remco C; Schmidt, Kristiane A; Sabatté, Gwénola; Liébana, Susana; Prins, Menno W J

    2013-01-07

    We describe the magneto-capillary valve (MCV) technology, a flexible approach for integrated biological sample preparation within the concept of stationary microfluidics. Rather than moving liquids in a microfluidic device, discrete units of liquid are present at fixed positions in the device and magnetic particles are actuated between the fluids. The MCV concept is characterized by the use of two planar surfaces at a capillary mutual distance, with specific features to confine the fluids by capillary forces, and the use of a gas or a phase-change material separating the stationary aqueous liquids. We have studied the physics of magneto-capillary valving by quantifying the magnetic force as a function of time and position, which reveals the balance of magnetic, capillary and frictional forces in the system. By purification experiments with a fluorescent tracer we have measured the amount of co-transported liquid, which is a key parameter for efficient purification. To demonstrate the versatility of the technology, several MCV device architectures were tested in a series of biological assays, showing the purification and enrichment of nucleic acids and proteins. Target recovery comparable to non-miniaturized commercial kits was observed for the extraction of DNA from human cells in buffer, using a device architecture with patterned air valves. Experiments using an enrichment module and patterned air valves demonstrate a 40-fold effective enrichment of DNA in buffer. DNA was also successfully purified from blood plasma using paraffin phase-change valves. Finally, the enrichment of a protein biomarker (prostate-specific antigen) using geometrical air valves resulted in a 7-fold increase of detection signal. The MCV technology is versatile, offers extensive freedom for the design of fully integrated systems, and is expected to be manufacturable in a cost-effective way. We conclude that the MCV technology can become an important enabling technology for point

  1. Solvent-extraction purification of neptunium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyser, E.A.; Hudlow, S.L.

    2008-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has recovered 237 Np from reactor fuel that is currently being processed into NpO 2 for future production of 238 Pu. Several purification flowsheets have been utilized. An oxidizing solvent-extraction (SX) flowsheet was used to remove Fe, sulfate ion, and Th while simultaneously 237 Np, 238 Pu, u, and nonradioactive Ce(IV) was extracted into the tributyl phosphate (TBP) based organic solvent. A reducing SX flowsheet (second pass) removed the Ce and Pu and recovered both Np and U. The oxidizing flowsheet was necessary for solutions that contained excessive amounts of sulfate ion. Anion exchange was used to perform final purification of Np from Pu, U, and various non-actinide impurities. The Np(IV) in the purified solution was then oxalate-precipitated and calcined to an oxide for shipment to other facilities for storage and future target fabrication. Performance details of the SX purification and process difficulties are discussed. (authors)

  2. Improved amplification efficiency on stool samples by addition of spermidine and its use for non-invasive detection of colorectal cancer

    KAUST Repository

    Roperch, Jean-Pierre; Benzekri, Karim; Mansour, Hicham; Incitti, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Using quantitative methylation-specific PCR (QM-MSP) is a promising method for colorectal cancer (CRC) diagnosis from stool samples. Difficulty in eliminating PCR inhibitors of this body fluid has been extensively reported. Here

  3. and improvement of bowel function by increasing stool frequency pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    2014-01-01

    to a combination of Bifidobacterium longum LA 101, Lactobacillus helveticus LA 102, Lactococcus lactis LA 103 and Streptococcus thermophilus LA 104 and improvement of bowel function by increasing stool frequency. The food that is the subject of the health claim is a combination of four bacterial strains—B. longum...... proposed by the applicant is "improves stool frequency". The Panel considers that improvement of bowel function by increasing stool frequency, provided that it does not result in diarrhoea, is a beneficial physiological effect. The Panel considers that the human study provided for the substantiation...... of the claim did not find an increase in stool frequency following consumption of a combination of the bacterial strains which is the subject of the claim. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of a combination of B. longum LA 101, L...

  4. National High Blood Pressure 12-Month Kit. May 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Heart and Lung Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD. National High Blood Pressure Education Program.

    Part I of this kit provides information for program planners and health professionals on ways to overcome barriers to health care among the medically underserved, promote high blood pressure control through the media and other community channels, and improve adherence to treatment among hypertensive patients. It lists additional resources for…

  5. Media Kit on WDM in MENA | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This kit contains information tailored primarily for the media community. It contains up-to-date knowledge about water demand management in the form of policy briefs, success stories, water briefs, a brochure and a CD in English, French and Arabic. This material explains water demand management and the contributions of ...

  6. [Effect evaluation of three ELISA kits in detection of fasciolasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Lin; Chen, Mu-Xin; Chen, Shao-Hong; Chu, Yan-Hong; Cai, Yu-Chun; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Chen, Jia-Xu

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of 3 ELISA kits on detection of human fasciolasis. Twenty-six serum samples from patients with fasciolasis, 180 serum samples from patients with other parasitic diseases as well as 26 serum samples from healthy people were detected by ELISA kits which using soluble antigen of Fasciola gigantica, Fasciola hepatica (Fg-ELISA and Fh-ELISA) as well as IgG antigen ELISA detection kits made by DRG company in Germany. The effects of the 3 kits were evaluated. The sensitivities of Fg-ELISA, Fh-ELISA, and DRG-ELISA were 100.0%, 80.8% (95% CI: 65.7%-95.9%) and 100.0%, respectively; the specificities of the three were 87.9% (95% CI: 83.5%-92.4%), 85.0%(95% CI: 80.1%-89.9%) and 83.5% (95% CI: 78.4%-88.6%), respectively, and Youden indexes of them were 0.88, 0.66 and 0.84, respectively. The detection rate of Fg-ELISA (100%) was significantly higher than that of Fh-ELISA (80.8%) (P DRG-ELISA for clinical sample tests as well as massive screening in fasciolasis endemic areas in southwest China.

  7. Programming with the KIBO Robotics Kit in Preschool Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkin, Mollie; Sullivan, Amanda; Bers, Marina Umaschi

    2016-01-01

    KIBO is a developmentally appropriate robotics kit for young children that is programmed using interlocking wooden blocks; no screens or keyboards are required. This study describes a pilot KIBO robotics curriculum at an urban public preschool in Rhode Island and presents data collected on children's knowledge of foundational programming concepts…

  8. Documentation for MeshKit - Reactor Geometry (&mesh) Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Rajeev [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mahadevan, Vijay [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-09-30

    This report gives documentation for using MeshKit’s Reactor Geometry (and mesh) Generator (RGG) GUI and also briefly documents other algorithms and tools available in MeshKit. RGG is a program designed to aid in modeling and meshing of complex/large hexagonal and rectilinear reactor cores. RGG uses Argonne’s SIGMA interfaces, Qt and VTK to produce an intuitive user interface. By integrating a 3D view of the reactor with the meshing tools and combining them into one user interface, RGG streamlines the task of preparing a simulation mesh and enables real-time feedback that reduces accidental scripting mistakes that could waste hours of meshing. RGG interfaces with MeshKit tools to consolidate the meshing process, meaning that going from model to mesh is as easy as a button click. This report is designed to explain RGG v 2.0 interface and provide users with the knowledge and skills to pilot RGG successfully. Brief documentation of MeshKit source code, tools and other algorithms available are also presented for developers to extend and add new algorithms to MeshKit. RGG tools work in serial and parallel and have been used to model complex reactor core models consisting of conical pins, load pads, several thousands of axially varying material properties of instrumentation pins and other interstices meshes.

  9. Safety of a disposable male circumcision kit. results from a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... disposable instruments, consumables and pharmaceutical products needed to perform one single male circumcision among young male adults according to the most common technique used in South Africa (the Forceps Guided technique). The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety of this new circumcision kit.

  10. Enhancing Science Kits with the Driving Question Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordine, Jeff; Torres, Ruben

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the driving question board (DQB), a visual organizer that supports inquiry-based instruction through the use of guiding questions. The DQB is a teaching aid designed to increase student engagement alongside science kits. Information is provided on its application to a lesson on buoyancy, highlighting how it improved…

  11. Lab at Home: Hardware Kits for a Digital Design Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, J. P.; Haim, F.

    2009-01-01

    An innovative laboratory methodology for an introductory digital design course is presented. Instead of having traditional lab experiences, where students have to come to school classrooms, a "lab at home" concept is proposed. Students perform real experiments in their own homes, using hardware kits specially developed for this purpose. They…

  12. Volatile constituents of Glechoma hirsute Waldst. & Kit. and G ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The essential oils of two Glechoma species from Serbia have been analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Eighty eight and two hundred thirty eight constituents identified accounted for 90.6 and 86.6% of the total oils of G. hirsuta Waldst. & Kit. and G. hederacea L., respectively. In both oils the dominant constituent class was the ...

  13. 21 CFR 864.1860 - Immunohistochemistry reagents and kits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Immunohistochemistry reagents and kits. 864.1860 Section 864.1860 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Biological Stains § 864.1860...

  14. INDOOR AIR QUALITY AND INHALATION EXPOSURE - SIMULATION TOOL KIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Microsoft Windows-based indoor air quality (IAQ) simulation software package is presented. Named Simulation Tool Kit for Indoor Air Quality and Inhalation Exposure, or IAQX for short, this package complements and supplements existing IAQ simulation programs and is desi...

  15. Travel Policies in ARL Libraries. SPEC Kit 161.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Michael D.

    This kit examines the methods and policies currently used to provide travel funding for academic librarians. The results of a survey of Association of Research Libraries (ARL) libraries (n=73) conducted in Fall 1989 are presented as well as examples of travel policies and guidelines submitted by the following respondents: the Universities of…

  16. Some existing Experimental Facilities for Fast Neutron Systems at KIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litfin, K.

    2013-01-01

    An overview is given of: • Liquid Metal Loops at the Karlsruhe Liquid Metal Laboratory (KALLA) of KIT; • THESYS: Technologies for HEavy metal SYStems; • Thermal Hydraulic experiments in THESYS; • THEADES: THErmalhydraulics and Ads DESign; • Thermal Hydraulic experiments in THEADES; • CORRIDA: CORRosion In Dynamic lead Alloys; • Experimental stagnant facilities at KALLA; • INR Liquid metal research

  17. Studies on quality control of technetium-99m labelling kits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Rok; Park, Kyung Bae; Awh, Ok Doo

    1987-12-01

    Various experiments for the quality control of Tc-99m labelled radiopharmaceuticals such as Tc-99m-phytate, Tc-99m-MDP, Tc-99m-Tin Colloid, Tc-99m-DISIDA, Tc-99m-DTPA,Tc-99m-DMSA, Tc-99m-Gulcoheptonate, TC-99m-Pyrophosphate, Tc-99m-HSA, and Tc-99m-HAM were carried out. Labelling yield and radiochemical purity of each of the instant labelling kit of KAERI made were determined by means of radiochromatography. Biodistribution in mice and whole body or specific organ imagings of rabbits were also carried out and discussed the relationship between the data of biodistributions and radiochemical purities. Labelling yeilds were above 98% for almost all of the labelling kits. The radio-pharmaceuticals were accumulated at each target organ with moderate specifities. In case of radiochemical purity of above 98%, the biodistribution and gamma imagings were also better. The kits of MDP and DISIDA were stable at least for four moths while the other kits at least eight months. (Author)

  18. Food for Thought: A Population Simulation Kit. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Carol C.

    Designed to foster an understanding of some of the relationships among population growth and distribution of people, food, and land area, this simulation kit deals with the following concepts: (1) the finite nature of land and resources, (2) the size and rate of growth of population, (3) the unequal distribution of population throughout the world,…

  19. Milk intake in kits: not only the total amount matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Arnau Bonachera

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to identify milk intake variation patterns in kits throughout lactation, to evaluate their permanent maternal component and their relationships with the performance of kits before and after weaning. To achieve this goal, we used 73 rabbit does, controlled between the 1st and the 4th lactation, which kindled 229 litters with a total of 2225 kits. The daily milk intake records per young rabbit were analysed using a principal component analysis (PCA. We found that 72.3% of the variability was explained by the first 3 principal components (PCs. PC1 explained 46.4% of the total variability, was associated with the total amount of milk intake during lactation and presented a repeatability of 0.27 (P0.05. This component was little related to performance traits. Therefore, it seems that milk plays 2 different roles at the beginning of feed intake; the most important would affect development of the kits and thus is related with high intake. The second one, for a given total amount of milk intake during lactation, would create a kind of competition between milk and feed intake at the end of lactation. The effects of both components still persist during the growing period and seem to be moderately affected by the mother.

  20. KAPSE Interface Team (KIT) Public Report. Volume 8, Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-10-01

    visitors were introduced. Mike Tedd of the University of Wales represented the United Kingdom on the KIT for Sue Bond , who will be the primary...CAIS subprogram callable by APSE tools.I 2.1 Scope of the CAIS. The CAIS shall provide interfaces sufficient to support the use of APSEs for wide

  1. Comparison of Thyroglobulin Measurements Using Three Different Immunoassay Kits: A BRAMHS Tg-Plus RIA Kit, a BRAMHS hTg Sensitive Kryptor Kit, and a Beckman Coulter ACCESS Immunoassay Kit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijin Kim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundSecond-generation thyroglobulin immunometric assays (Tg-IMAs have been developed with improved sensitivity. Our aim was to compare the diagnostic value of Tg-IMA measurements using a Kryptor (BRAHMS AG kit (Tg-K and an ACCESS (Beckman Coulter kit (Tg-A with that of the first-generation Tg measurement using a Tg-plus (BRAHMS AG kit (Tg+.MethodsWe enrolled 82 differentiated thyroid cancer patients who underwent total thyroidectomy with radioactive iodine remnant ablation and who underwent diagnostic whole body scan using recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone (rhTSH. The Tg+, Tg-K, and Tg-A were measured before rhTSH administration during levothyroxine treatment (suppressed Tg from the same sample. Serum Tg+ was measured after rhTSH stimulation (stimulated Tg.ResultsSuppressed Tg+ was more significantly correlated with suppressed Tg-K (R2=0.919, P<0.001 than with suppressed Tg-A (R2=0.536, P<0.001. The optimal cut-off values of suppressed Tg+, Tg-K, and Tg-A for predicting stimulated Tg+ of 1 ng/mL were 0.3, 0.2, and 0.2 ng/mL, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of suppressed Tg+ were 67%, 100%, and 90%, respectively; those of suppressed Tg-K were 83%, 90%, and 88%; those of suppressed Tg-A were 96%, 82%, and 87%, respectively. The positive predictive and negative predictive values of Tg+ were 100% and 87%, respectively; those of Tg-K were 79% and 92%; and those of Tg-A were 73% and 98%.ConclusionWe could not clearly demonstrate which kit had better diagnostic performance after comparison of first-generation Tg measurements with Tg-IMA measurements. Also, there were kit-to-kit variations between Tg-IMA kits. Suppressed Tg measured by Tg-IMA was insufficient to completely substitute for a stimulated Tg measurement.

  2. 21 CFR 876.5665 - Water purification system for hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water purification system for hemodialysis. 876... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5665 Water purification system for hemodialysis. (a) Identification. A water purification system for hemodialysis is a...

  3. Cadmium purification with a vibrating reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, N.; Esna-Ashari, M.; Biallas, H.; Kangas, K.

    1986-01-01

    While electrolytically producing zinc from sulfide concentrates, purification is the most significant step. Impurities such as Co, Sn, Ge, Ni and Sb can cause extensive redissolution of the electrodeposited zinc, thus diminishing current efficiency. Other metals, particularly cadmium, lead and copper, can negatively affect zinc properties by deposition on the cathode. It is standard practice to use atomized zinc dust as a reducing agent in the purification process, either alone or combined with additives. In conventional operations, special facilities are necessary to produce zinc dust in an amount close to 8wt% of cathode production. This paper examines a technique which makes use of zinc granules instead of dust

  4. Comparative studies of commercially available T4-RIA-kits. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, H.A.E.; Lipke, P.

    1978-01-01

    The investigation of the tested commercially available T 4 -RIA-Kits have shown that: The separation of hypo-, eu- and hyperthyroid values is better with kits a) and f) than with b), c), d) and e), though all kits give acceptable values under routine operating conditions, kit b) takes less time and work than the other tested kits, depending on the kit used, the time needed for 100 determinations varies between 1,5 and 4 hr. A general recommendation for one of the tested T 4 -RIA-Kits cannot be made since the choice of a kit depends not only on the criteria discussed but also on local circumstances. (orig.) [de

  5. Feasibility of fractionating Myoview cold kits for cost reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penglis, S.; Tsopelas, C.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Myoview is a freeze-dried ethylene diphosphine ligand that upon reconstitution with 99 Tc m -pertechnetate yields a preparation containing the lipophilic cationic myocardial imaging agent 99 Tc m -tetrofosmin (Tf). The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of fractionating Myoview kits to reduce the cost of the kit, currently A$350 per vial. Myoview vials were reconstituted with N 2 -flushed saline and split into 4 or 5 aliquots of 0.5 ml, then stored at -80 deg C in N 2 -filled vials for up to 3 months. 99 Tc m -Tf was prepared by the addition of varying volumes of 99 Tc m -pertechnetate (1.1 GBq.ml- 1 ) to give a final ligand concentration of 14.4 μg.ml- 1 , followed by a 15 min incubation at room temperature. Radiochemical purity (RCP) was examined at 0, 1, 2 and 3 months post-fractionation. At each time point, RCP was determined at 0,1, 2, 4, 6 and 24 h post-reconstitution. RCP was measured using the thin layer chromatography method according to the manufacturer's instructions. Over the 3 month evaluation period, RCP was maintained at 96.4 ± 1.7% (n = 48) over 24 h at room temperature. Animal biodistribution studies were used to validate the final product from the full cold kit to that from the fractionated kits. In conclusion, these results show that Myoview kits can be successfully fractionated and stored for up to 3 months. The subsequent 99 Tc m -Tf can be used to provide significant cost reductions, especially when only 1 patient dose is required

  6. A nuclear source: a resource kit for teachers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, Gay.

    1992-01-01

    The aim of this Resource Kit is to provide information, diagrams, overheads and classroom activities, set in an Australian context, to broaden and enrich the teaching of nuclear science from both technical and social science aspects. It has been written to address the the Australian secondary school syllabuses and reflects this in both its format and contents. Emphasis has been given to the applications of nuclear physics to our lives today, from new medical diagnostic techniques to efficient methods of monitoring our own environment. This Resource Kit is a valuable source of information not readily available to teachers from textbooks. It provides a unique opportunity to present the picture in Australia, making us all more aware of Australia's front line in Australia, making us all more aware of Australia's front line role in nuclear research. The kit is meant to be used in conjunction with current textbooks, to complement and enrich them. The kit begins with a review of the many applications of nuclear science in order to provide a broad concrete base to motivate students to discover more of the specific details of the basic discoveries contained in the later sections. Topics such as the Structure of the Atom, which are well documented in textbooks, have been approached in a more creative and less rigorous manner to give teachers a fresh approach to the topic. The kit is divided into 10 separate sections and presented in loose-leaf form to facilitate its use in the classroom. Diagrams are inserted into the text to clarify and enrich descriptions, as well as being provided at the back of each section as black line masters for photocopying and overhead projections. ills., tabs

  7. Effect of planecta and ROSE? on the frequency characteristics of blood pressure-transducer kits

    OpenAIRE

    Fujiwara, Shigeki; Kawakubo, Yoshifumi; Mori, Satoshi; Tachihara, Keiichi; Toyoguchi, Izumi; Yokoyama, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    Pressure-transducer kits have frequency characteristics such as natural frequency and damping coefficient, which affect the monitoring accuracy. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of planecta ports and a damping device (ROSE?, Argon Medical Devices, TX, USA) on the frequency characteristics of pressure-transducer kits. The FloTrac sensor kit (Edwards Lifesciences, CA, USA) and the DTXplus transducer kit (Argon Medical Devices) were prepared with planecta ports, and the...

  8. Expression of proto-oncogene KIT is up-regulated in subset of human meningiomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saini Masum

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background KIT is a proto-oncogene involved in diverse neoplastic processes. Aberrant kinase activity of the KIT receptor has been targeted by tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI therapy in different neoplasias. In all the earlier studies, KIT expression was reported to be absent in meningiomas. However, we observed KIT mRNA expression in some meningioma cases. This prompted us to undertake its detailed analyses in meningioma tissues resected during 2008–2009. Methods Tumor tissues and matched peripheral blood samples collected from meningioma patients were used for detailed molecular analyses. KIT expression was ascertained immunohistochemically and validated by immunoblotting. KIT and KITLG transcript levels were discerned by reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR. Similarly, KIT amplification and allele loss were assessed by quantitative real-time (qPCR and validated by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH on the neoplastic tissues. Possible alterations of the gene at the nucleotide level were analyzed by sequencing. Results Contrary to earlier reports, KIT expression, was detected immunohistochemically in 20.6% meningioma cases (n = 34. Receptor (KIT and ligand (KITLG transcripts monitored by RT-qPCR were found to co-express (p = 0.048 in most of the KIT immunopositive tumors. 1/7 KIT positive meningiomas showed allele loss corroborated by reduced FISH signal in the corresponding neoplastic tissue. Sequence analysis of KIT showed M541L substitution in exon 10, in one of the immunopositive cases. However, its biological consequence remains to be uncovered. Conclusions This study clearly demonstrates KIT over-expression in the human meningiomas. The data suggest that up-regulated KIT transcription (p  0.05, is a likely mechanism responsible for altered KIT expression. Thus, KIT is a potential candidate for detailed investigation in the context of meningioma pathogenesis.

  9. Expression of proto-oncogene KIT is up-regulated in subset of human meningiomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saini, Masum; Jha, Ajaya Nand; Abrari, Andleeb; Ali, Sher

    2012-01-01

    KIT is a proto-oncogene involved in diverse neoplastic processes. Aberrant kinase activity of the KIT receptor has been targeted by tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy in different neoplasias. In all the earlier studies, KIT expression was reported to be absent in meningiomas. However, we observed KIT mRNA expression in some meningioma cases. This prompted us to undertake its detailed analyses in meningioma tissues resected during 2008–2009. Tumor tissues and matched peripheral blood samples collected from meningioma patients were used for detailed molecular analyses. KIT expression was ascertained immunohistochemically and validated by immunoblotting. KIT and KITLG transcript levels were discerned by reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). Similarly, KIT amplification and allele loss were assessed by quantitative real-time (qPCR) and validated by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on the neoplastic tissues. Possible alterations of the gene at the nucleotide level were analyzed by sequencing. Contrary to earlier reports, KIT expression, was detected immunohistochemically in 20.6% meningioma cases (n = 34). Receptor (KIT) and ligand (KITLG) transcripts monitored by RT-qPCR were found to co-express (p = 0.048) in most of the KIT immunopositive tumors. 1/7 KIT positive meningiomas showed allele loss corroborated by reduced FISH signal in the corresponding neoplastic tissue. Sequence analysis of KIT showed M541L substitution in exon 10, in one of the immunopositive cases. However, its biological consequence remains to be uncovered. This study clearly demonstrates KIT over-expression in the human meningiomas. The data suggest that up-regulated KIT transcription (p < 0.001), instead of gene amplification (p > 0.05), is a likely mechanism responsible for altered KIT expression. Thus, KIT is a potential candidate for detailed investigation in the context of meningioma pathogenesis

  10. Pathologic Stimulus Determines Lineage Commitment of Cardiac C-kit+ Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhongming; Zhu, Wuqiang; Bender, Ingrid; Gong, Wuming; Kwak, Il-Youp; Yellamilli, Amritha; Hodges, Thomas J; Nemoto, Natsumi; Zhang, Jianyi; Garry, Daniel J; van Berlo, Jop H

    2017-12-12

    Although cardiac c-kit + cells are being tested in clinical trials, the circumstances that determine lineage differentiation of c-kit + cells in vivo are unknown. Recent findings suggest that endogenous cardiac c-kit + cells rarely contribute cardiomyocytes to the adult heart. We assessed whether various pathological stimuli differentially affect the eventual cell fates of c-kit + cells. We used single-cell sequencing and genetic lineage tracing of c-kit + cells to determine whether various pathological stimuli would result in different fates of c-kit + cells. Single-cell sequencing of cardiac CD45 - c-kit + cells showed innate heterogeneity, indicative of the existence of vascular and mesenchymal c-kit + cells in normal hearts. Cardiac pressure overload resulted in a modest increase in c-kit-derived cardiomyocytes, with significant increases in the numbers of endothelial cells and fibroblasts. Doxorubicin-induced acute cardiotoxicity did not increase c-kit-derived endothelial cell fates but instead induced cardiomyocyte differentiation. Mechanistically, doxorubicin-induced DNA damage in c-kit + cells resulted in expression of p53. Inhibition of p53 blocked cardiomyocyte differentiation in response to doxorubicin, whereas stabilization of p53 was sufficient to increase c-kit-derived cardiomyocyte differentiation. These results demonstrate that different pathological stimuli induce different cell fates of c-kit + cells in vivo. Although the overall rate of cardiomyocyte formation from c-kit + cells is still below clinically relevant levels, we show that p53 is central to the ability of c-kit + cells to adopt cardiomyocyte fates, which could lead to the development of strategies to preferentially generate cardiomyocytes from c-kit + cells. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. [Performance of Cholera-SMART and Pathogen-Detection-Kit in the quick diagnosis of cholera].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolaños, Hilda María; Acuña, María Teresa; Serrano, Ana María; Obando, Xinia; Mairena, Hazel; Cháves, Lorena; Sandí, Flor; Rodríguez, Gina; Tamplin, Mark L; Pérez, Enrique; Campos, Elena

    2004-10-01

    To compare the performance of two rapid systems for the diagnosis of cholera with the culture method, and to propose a strategy for improving the specificity and sensitivity of these systems and reducing the costs involved in making a diagnosis. The following institutions participated in the study: the National Bacteriology Referral Center (Centro Nacional de Referencia en Bacteriologia, CNRB) of the Costa Rican Institute for Research and Teaching in Nutrition and Health (Instituto Costarricense de Investigacion y Ensenanza en Nutricion y Salud, INCIENSA) and various hospitals in the provinces of Alajuela, Guanacaste and San Jose, in Costa Rica. A total of 237 feces samples were used to asses the performance of two tests for the rapid detection of Vibrio cholerae 01: the Pathogen Detection Kit (PDK, Intelligent Monitoring Systems, Gainesville, Florida, USA) and Cholera-SMART (New Horizons Diagnostics Corp., Columbia, Maryland, USA), both when applied directly (direct SMART and direct PDK) and when applied to specimens cultured in broth-enriched medium for 6 hours (SMART-6 and CPK-6) and for 18 hours (SMART-18 and PDK-18) at 37 degrees C in alkaline peptone water. Liquid and partially formed stools were cultured and examined by means of the rapid direct test; when the initial result was negative, the tests were repeated after culture for periods of 6 and 18 hours. Rectal and fecal swabs were obtained from feces cultured in enriched-broth medium for 6 and 18 hours. In addition, we studied the sensitivity of the rapid testing systems by using pure cultures of V. cholerae 01 (strain SOS-833, CNRB, Costa Rica) that were incubated for 18 to 24 hours, and we assessed the usefulness of observing motility under the microscope in order to rationalize the use of rapid methods. The sensitivity of the direct SMART test and of the direct PDK test was 100% when samples obtained from liquid and partially formed stools and from the intestinal contents of dead bodies were used. With

  12. Comparison of culture based methods for the isolation of Clostridium difficile from stool samples in a research setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lister, Michelle; Stevenson, Emma; Heeg, Daniela; Minton, Nigel P; Kuehne, Sarah A

    2014-08-01

    Effective isolation of Clostridium difficile from stool samples is important in the research setting, especially where low numbers of spores/vegetative cells may be present within a sample. In this study, three protocols for stool culture were investigated to find a sensitive, cost effective and timely method of C. difficile isolation. For the initial enrichment step, the effectiveness of two different rich media, cycloserine-cefoxitin fructose broth (CCFB) and cycloserine-cefoxitin mannitol broth with taurocholate and lysozyme (CCMB-TAL) were compared. For the comparison of four different, selective solid media; Cycloserine-cefoxitin fructose agar (CCFA), Cycloserine-cefoxitin egg yolk agar (CCEY), ChromID C. difficile and tryptone soy agar (TSA) with 5% sheep's blood with and without preceding broth enrichment were used. As a means to enable differentiation between C. difficile and other fecal flora, the effectiveness of the inclusion of a pH indictor (1% Neutral Red), was also evaluated. The data derived indicated that CCFB is more sensitive than CCMB-TAL, however, the latter had an improved recovery rate. A broth enrichment step had a reduced sensitivity over direct plating. ChromID C. difficile showed the best recovery rate whereas CCEY egg yolk agar was the most sensitive of the four. The addition of 1% Neutral Red did not show sufficient colour change when added to CCEY egg yolk agar to be used as a differential medium. For a low cost, timely and sensitive method of isolating C. difficile from stool samples we recommend direct plating onto CCEY egg yolk agar after heat shock. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Detection of Campylobacter in Stool and Determination of Significance by Culture, Enzyme Immunoassay, and PCR in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platts-Mills, James A.; Liu, Jie; Gratz, Jean; Mduma, Esto; Amour, Caroline; Swai, Ndealilia; Taniuchi, Mami; Begum, Sharmin; Peñataro Yori, Pablo; Tilley, Drake H.; Lee, Gwenyth; Shen, Zeli; Whary, Mark T.; Fox, James G.; McGrath, Monica; Kosek, Margaret; Haque, Rashidul

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter is a common bacterial enteropathogen that can be detected in stool by culture, enzyme immunoassay (EIA), or PCR. We compared culture for C. jejuni/C. coli, EIA (ProSpecT), and duplex PCR to distinguish Campylobacter jejuni/C. coli and non-jejuni/coli Campylobacter on 432 diarrheal and matched control stool samples from infants in a multisite longitudinal study of enteric infections in Tanzania, Bangladesh, and Peru. The sensitivity and specificity of culture were 8.5% and 97.6%, respectively, compared with the results of EIA and 8.7% and 98.0%, respectively, compared with the results of PCR for C. jejuni/C. coli. Most (71.6%) EIA-positive samples were positive by PCR for C. jejuni/C. coli, but 27.6% were positive for non-jejuni/coli Campylobacter species. Sequencing of 16S rRNA from 53 of these non-jejuni/coli Campylobacter samples showed that it most closely matched the 16S rRNA of C. hyointestinalis subsp. lawsonii (56%), C. troglodytis (33%), C. upsaliensis (7.7%), and C. jejuni/C. coli (2.6%). Campylobacter-negative stool spiked with each of the above-mentioned Campylobacter species revealed reactivity with EIA. PCR detection of Campylobacter species was strongly associated with diarrhea in Peru (odds ratio [OR] = 3.66, P < 0.001) but not in Tanzania (OR = 1.56, P = 0.24) or Bangladesh (OR = 1.13, P = 0.75). According to PCR, Campylobacter jejuni/C. coli infections represented less than half of all infections with Campylobacter species. In sum, in infants in developing country settings, the ProSpecT EIA and PCR for Campylobacter reveal extremely high rates of positivity. We propose the use of PCR because it retains high sensitivity, can ascertain burden, and can distinguish between Campylobacter infections at the species level. PMID:24452175

  14. Occurrence of Thermotolerant Campylobacter in Raw Poultry Meat, Environmental and Pigeon Stools Collected in Open-Air Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellio, Alberto; Traversa, Amaranta; Adriano, Daniela; Bianchi, Daniela Manila; Colzani, Alberto; Gili, Stefano; Dondo, Alessandro; Gallina, Silvia; Grattarola, Carla; Maurella, Cristiana; Zoppi, Simona; Zuccon, Fabio; Decastelli, Lucia

    2014-08-28

    Campylobacteriosis was the most commonly reported zoonosis for confirmed human cases in European Union during 2011. Poultry meat was very often implicated in Campylobacter infections in humans. In Italy commerce of raw poultry meat is common in open-air markets: these areas can be considered at high risk of bacterial contamination due to the high presence birds like pigeons. The aim of this study was to collect data about the contamination by thermotolerant Campylobacter of raw poultry meat commercialised in open-air markets, of work-surfaces in contact with poultry meat and of pigeon stools sampled in the market areas in Turin, Northern Italy. Between September 2011 and December 2012, 86 raw poultry meat samples, 86 environmental swabs and 108 animal samples were collected in 38 open-air markets. Analysis were carried out according to ISO10272-1:2006 standard. C.coli was detected in 2.3% (2/86) of raw poultry meat samples, whereas no swab (0/86) resulted positive. Of pigeon stool 28% (30/107) was positive for C.jejuni (83.3% C.jejuni subsp . jejuni and 16.7% C.jejuni subsp . doylei ). C.jejuni subsp. jejuni was isolated from 1 dead pigeon . Our results showed lower rates of contamination than those reported at retail in Europe. Although samples were collected in areas at high risk of contamination, raw poultry meat and work surfaces reported a low level of presence of thermotolerant Campylobacter . The high percentage of C.jejuni isolated from pigeon stools showed the importance of a continuous application of preventive measures by the food business operators and the surveillance activity by the Competent Authority.

  15. Evaluation of a Single Procedure Allowing the Isolation of Enteropathogenic Yersinia along with Other Bacterial Enteropathogens from Human Stools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savin, Cyril; Leclercq, Alexandre; Carniel, Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Yersinia are among the most frequent agents of human diarrhea in temperate and cold countries. However, the incidence of yersiniosis is largely underestimated because of the peculiar growth characteristics of pathogenic Yersinia, which make their isolation from poly-contaminated samples difficult. The use of specific procedures for Yersinia isolation is required, but is expensive and time consuming, and therefore is not systematically performed in clinical pathology laboratories. A means to circumvent this problem would be to use a single procedure for the isolation of all bacterial enteropathogens. Since the Statens Serum Institut enteric medium (SSI) has been reported to allow the growth at 37°C of most Gram-negative bacteria, including Yersinia, our study aimed at evaluating its performances for Yersinia isolation, as compared to the commonly used Yersinia-specific semi-selective Cefsulodin-Irgasan-Novobiocin medium (CIN) incubated at 28°C. Our results show that Yersinia pseudotuberculosis growth was strongly inhibited on SSI at 37°C, and therefore that this medium is not suitable for the isolation of this species. All Yersinia enterocolitica strains tested grew on SSI, while some non-pathogenic Yersinia species were inhibited. The morphology of Y. enterocolitica colonies on SSI allowed their differentiation from various other Gram-negative bacteria commonly isolated from stool samples. However, in artificially contaminated human stools, the recovery of Y. enterocolitica colonies on SSI at 37°C was difficult and was 3 logs less sensitive than on CIN at 28°C. Therefore, despite its limitations, the use of a specific procedure (CIN incubated at 28°C) is still required for an efficient isolation of enteropathogenic Yersinia from stools. PMID:22911756

  16. 76 FR 51037 - Determination That Halflytely and Bisacodyl Tablets Bowel Prep Kit (Containing Two Bisacodyl...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ... determined that Halflytely and Bisacodyl Tablets Bowel Prep Kit (polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350, sodium... kits containing PEG-3350, sodium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, and potassium chloride for oral solution... that the Agency determine whether Halflytely and Bisacodyl Tablets Bowel Prep Kit (PEG- 3350, sodium...

  17. 33 CFR 149.323 - What are the requirements for first aid kits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... first aid kits? 149.323 Section 149.323 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Lifesaving Equipment Manned Deepwater Port Requirements § 149.323 What are the requirements for first aid kits? (a) Each manned deepwater port must have an industrial first aid kit, approved by an appropriate...

  18. [The comparison of two newborn cytomegalovirus IgG antibody screening ELISA kits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shun-Xian; He, Xiao-Zhou; Wang, Shi-Wen; Wang, Xiao-Fang

    2013-10-01

    This study compared two newborn Cytomegalovirus (CMV) IgG antibody screening ELISA kits and evaluated the detection effectiveness of Abnova kit. CMV IgG antibodies were detected by both SeraQuest and Abnova kits from dried blood spot (DBS) samples of 488 newborn heel sticks. The detection abilities of these two kits were compared in different sample dilution concentrations. Relative detection effectiveness of the Abnova kit was defined by statistical method using the SeraQuest kit as a point of comparison. Compared to the SeraQuest screening test kit, the Abnova kit revealed a sensitivity of 98.9%, specificity of 78.6%, positive predictive value of 99.3%, negative predictive value of 68.8%, and the coincidence rate for these two screening test kits at 98.3%. The consistency check of both kits based on interpretation of the kappa statistic was relatively good. For the Abnova kit, the "area under the ROC curve" was 0.887, which indicates moderate accuracy. Abnova kit can be applied to newborn screening for congenital CMV infections. However, repeating the test for ambiguous results is suggested to increase the specificity and negative predictive value.

  19. 21 CFR 866.2480 - Quality control kit for culture media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Quality control kit for culture media. 866.2480... control kit for culture media. (a) Identification. A quality control kit for culture media is a device...-dried, viable microorganism, intended for medical purposes to determine if a given culture medium is...

  20. Oncogenic activation of v-kit involves deletion of a putative tyrosine-substrate interaction site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, R; Munemitsu, S; Ullrich, A

    1995-01-19

    The transforming gene of the Hardy-Zuckerman-4 strain of feline sarcoma virus, v-kit, arose by transduction of the cellular c-kit gene, which encodes the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) p145c-kit. To gain insight into the molecular basis of the v-kit transforming potential, we characterized the feline c-kit by cDNA cloning. Comparison of the feline v-kit and c-kit sequences revealed, in addition to deletions of the extracellular and transmembrane domains, three additional mutations in the v-kit oncogene product: deletion of tyrosine-569 and valine-570, the exchange of aspartate at position 761 to glycine, and replacement of the C-terminal 50 amino acids by five unrelated residues. Examinations of individual v-kit mutations in the context of chimeric receptors yielded inhibitory effects for some mutants on both autophosphorylation and substrate phosphorylation functions. In contrast, deletion of tyrosine-569 and valine-570 significantly enhanced transforming and mitogenic activities of p145c-kit, while the other mutations had no significant effects. Conservation in subclass III RTKs and the identification of the corresponding residue in beta PDGF-R, Y579, as a binding site for src family tyrosine kinases suggests an important role for Y568 in kit signal regulation and the definition of its oncogenic potential. Repositioning of Y571 by an inframe two codon deletion may be the crucial alteration resulting in enhancement of v-kit oncogenic activity.

  1. An improved 99mTc-Aprotinin kit formulation: quality control analysis of cold kit shelf life and radiotracer stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smyth, D.R.; Tsopelas, C.

    2005-01-01

    Aprotinin is a small protein that inhibits serine proteases and has been shown to bind to amyloid fibrils of varying chemical composition in-vitro. 99 mTc-aprotinin has demonstrated potential for imaging cardiac and pleuropulmonary AL amyloidosis and other forms of amyloidosis present as deposits in joints, the tongue or intestines and other sites excluding the kidneys and liver. Radiolabelling of aprotinin was previously achieved by addition of 99 mTc-pertech-netate to an alkaline mixture of Trasylol (aprotinin injection) and stannous chloride, followed by a necessary filtration step after 20-30 minutes. We have developed a modified cold kit formulation, utilising pharmaceutical starting materials, that provides a more convenient and efficient radiolabelling procedure where filtration is not required prior to injection. The shelf life of the cold kits was validated after storage in a freezer. The reducing agent used was stannous-pyrophosphate (PYP) and the alkaline buffer was a phosphate-glycine mixture (pH 10.5). Quality control testing of the cold kits was performed after 0, 1, 2, 3 and 6 months storage by assessing the % RCP of 99 mTc-apro-tinin by ITLC-SG. Radiotracer stability was examined in the same way 25, 85 and 265 minutes post reconstitution (pr) via a three strip system employing acetone, saline and ammonia:ethanol:water mixture (1:2:5). A rapid quality control cartridge method was also investigated. Radiolabelling of the cold kits yielded RCP > 95% at 25 mins pr and all other time points, from a formulation that avoided a filtration step. The impurities were quantified as TcO., ( 99 mTc-PYP (< 0.7%) by paper methods. The improved Tc-aprotinin kit formulation has greater convenience and efficiency in the clinical setting

  2. Gene Duplication of the zebrafish kit ligand and partitioning of melanocyte development functions to kit ligand a.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith A Hultman

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The retention of particular genes after the whole genome duplication in zebrafish has given insights into how genes may evolve through partitioning of ancestral functions. We examine the partitioning of expression patterns and functions of two zebrafish kit ligands, kit ligand a (kitla and kit ligand b (kitlb, and discuss their possible coevolution with the duplicated zebrafish kit receptors (kita and kitb. In situ hybridizations show that kitla mRNA is expressed in the trunk adjacent to the notochord in the middle of each somite during stages of melanocyte migration and later expressed in the skin, when the receptor is required for melanocyte survival. kitla is also expressed in other regions complementary to kita receptor expression, including the pineal gland, tail bud, and ear. In contrast, kitlb mRNA is expressed in brain ventricles, ear, and cardinal vein plexus, in regions generally not complementary to either zebrafish kit receptor ortholog. However, like kitla, kitlb is expressed in the skin during stages consistent with melanocyte survival. Thus, it appears that kita and kitla have maintained congruent expression patterns, while kitb and kitlb have evolved divergent expression patterns. We demonstrate the interaction of kita and kitla by morpholino knockdown analysis. kitla morphants, but not kitlb morphants, phenocopy the null allele of kita, with defects for both melanocyte migration and survival. Furthermore, kitla morpholino, but not kitlb morpholino, interacts genetically with a sensitized allele of kita, confirming that kitla is the functional ligand to kita. Last, we examine kitla overexpression in embryos, which results in hyperpigmentation caused by an increase in the number and size of melanocytes. This hyperpigmentation is dependent on kita function. We conclude that following genome duplication, kita and kitla have maintained their receptor-ligand relationship, coevolved complementary expression patterns, and that

  3. Effect of an ?-Lactalbumin-Enriched Infant Formula Supplemented With Oligofructose on Fecal Microbiota, Stool Characteristics, and Hydration Status

    OpenAIRE

    Wernimont, Susan; Northington, Robert; Kullen, Martin J.; Yao, Manjiang; Bettler, Jodi

    2014-01-01

    Aims. To evaluate the impact of oligofructose (OF)-supplemented infant formula on fecal microbiota, stool characteristics, and hydration. Methods. Ninety-five formula-fed infants were randomized to ?-lactalbumin-enriched control formula (CF) or identical formula with 3.0 g/L OF (EF) for 8 weeks; 50 infants fed human milk (HM) were included. Results. Eighty-four infants completed the study, 70 met per-protocol criteria. Over 8 weeks, bifidobacteria increased more in EF than CF group (0.70 vs 0...

  4. Stool screening of Syrian refugees and asylum seekers in Germany, 2013/2014: Identification of Sabin like polioviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher, Sindy; Neubauer, Katrin; Baillot, Armin; Rieder, Gabriele; Adam, Maja; Diedrich, Sabine

    2015-10-01

    Germany is a partner of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative. Assurance of polio free status is based on enterovirus surveillance, which focuses on patients with signs of acute flaccid paralysis or aseptic meningitis/encephalitis, representing the key symptoms of poliovirus infection. In response to the wild poliovirus outbreak in Syria 2013 and high number of refugees coming from Syria to Germany, stool samples from 629 Syrian refugees/asylum seekers aged Syrian refugees and asylum seekers at that time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Identification of serotypes and virulence markers of Escherichia coli isolated from human stool and urine samples in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K M Osman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Haemorrhagic colitis and haemolytic-uremic syndrome are associated with Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC. There are others DEC (Diarrhoeagenic E. coli pathotypes responsible for outbreaks and others toxins associated to these. Most clinical signs of disease arise as a consequence of the production of Shiga toxin 1 (Stx1, Stx2 or combinations of these toxins. Other major virulence factors include E. coli haemolysin (hlyA, and intimin, the product of the eaeA gene that is involved in the attaching and effacing adherence phenotype. Materials and Methods: In this study, the PCR assay was used to detect 12 E. coli genes associated with virulence (stx1, stx2, hylA, Flic h7 , stb, F41, K99, sta, F17, LT-I, LT-II and eaeA. Results: A total of 108 E. coli strains were serotyped into 64 typable strains. The investigated strains from the stool, 8/80 (10% strains were O 164:K, while the 56/110 strains isolated from the urine were O126:K71 (44/110, 40% and O 86:K 61 (12/110, 11%. The distribution pattern of the detected virulence genes was observed to be in the following order: F17 (10% from the stool and 44% from the urine, Sta (10% from the stool, hylA (10% from the stool and 44% from the urine, Stb (44% from the urine and stx1 (27% from the urine. The 8 faecal strains encoded a combination of the F17, Sta and hylA genes, while the 56 urine strains encoded a combination of the F17 0+ Stb + hylA (44/110, 40% and Stx1 only (12/60, 20%. Conclusion: This is the first report on the molecular characterization of E. coli diarrhoeagenic strains in Egypt and the first report on the potential role of E. coli in diarrhoea and urinary tract infections in a localized geographic area where the people engage in various occupational activities.

  6. Venturi purification device and its application in purification of gaseous waste of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong Jinsong; Yu Ren; Yang Huanlei

    2013-01-01

    The working principle of Venturi purification device and its purification of aerosol have been described. Then, taking the gaseous iodine as an example, the absorption process of insoluble gas pollutants is discussed, the calculation methods of the gas-liquid contact area, mass transfer rate and efficiency of mass transfer are educed, and the factors that affect the efficiency of mass transfer are analyzed. (authors)

  7. Purification, characterization of phytase enzyme from Lactobacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purification, characterization of phytase enzyme from Lactobacillus plantarum bacteria and determination of its kinetic properties. ... Many of the cereal grains, legumes and oilseeds store phosphorus in phytate form. Phytases can be produced by plants, animals and microorganisms. However, the ones with microbial origin ...

  8. Purification of functionalized DNA origami nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Alan; Benson, Erik; Högberg, Björn

    2015-05-26

    The high programmability of DNA origami has provided tools for precise manipulation of matter at the nanoscale. This manipulation of matter opens up the possibility to arrange functional elements for a diverse range of applications that utilize the nanometer precision provided by these structures. However, the realization of functionalized DNA origami still suffers from imperfect production methods, in particular in the purification step, where excess material is separated from the desired functionalized DNA origami. In this article we demonstrate and optimize two purification methods that have not previously been applied to DNA origami. In addition, we provide a systematic study comparing the purification efficacy of these and five other commonly used purification methods. Three types of functionalized DNA origami were used as model systems in this study. DNA origami was patterned with either small molecules, antibodies, or larger proteins. With the results of our work we aim to provide a guideline in quality fabrication of various types of functionalized DNA origami and to provide a route for scalable production of these promising tools.

  9. Purification and characterization of xylanase from Aspergillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Xylanase was subjected to a three-step purification scheme involving ammonium sulphate precipitation, gel filtration chromatography and anion exchange chromatography. Purity was verified by running the extracted protein on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and a single band was ...

  10. Expression, purification and characterization of the interferon ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-01-19

    Jan 19, 2012 ... utilizing a single-step affinity purification with an appreciable yield of the highly purified protein. Recombinant RNase L was characterized by SDS-PAGE, immunoblotting and MALDI-TOF analysis. A semi-quantitative agarose-gel-based ribonuclease assay was developed for measuring its 2-5A-dependent ...

  11. Purification and characterization of protease enzyme from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2013-03-20

    Mar 20, 2013 ... Full Length Research Paper. Purification and ... ting into small peptides and free amino acids, which can ... Isolated strain was cultured in synthetic medium- casein (SMC; ... Protease activity was assayed by sigma's non-specific protease ... following buffers: 0.05 M citrate-phosphate buffer (pH 5 to 6), Tris-.

  12. Purification, Characterization and Antibacterial Mechanism of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To carry out the extraction, purification and biological characterization, and assess the antibacterial activity of bacteriocin from Lactobacillus acidophilus XH1. Methods: Chloroform extraction method was used for bacteriocin extraction while characterization of bacteriocin was carried out by flat-dug well agar ...

  13. Expression and Purification of Sperm Whale Myoglobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Stephen; Indivero, Virginia; Burkhard, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    We present a multiweek laboratory exercise that exposes students to the fundamental techniques of bacterial expression and protein purification through the preparation of sperm whale myoglobin. Myoglobin, a robust oxygen-binding protein, contains a single heme that gives the protein a reddish color, making it an ideal subject for the teaching…

  14. Biodiesel separation and purification: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atadashi, I.M.; Aroua, M.K.; Aziz, A. Abdul

    2011-01-01

    Biodiesel as a biodegradable, sustainable and clean energy has worldwide attracted renewed and growing interest in topical years, chiefly due to development in biodiesel fuel and ecological pressures which include climatic changes. In the production of biodiesel from biomass, separation and purification of biodiesel is a critical technology. Conventional technologies used for biodiesel separation such as gravitational settling, decantation, filtration and biodiesel purification such as water washing, acid washing, and washing with ether and absorbents have proven to be inefficient, time and energy consumptive, and less cost effective. The involvement of membrane reactor and separative membrane shows great promise for the separation and purification of biodiesel. Membrane technology needs to be explored and exploited to overcome the difficulties usually encountered in the separation and purification of biodiesel. In this paper both conventional and most recent membrane technologies used in refining biodiesel have been critically reviewed. The effects of catalysts, free fatty acids, water content and oil to methanol ratios on the purity and quality of biodiesel are also examined. (author)

  15. Zone distillation: a new purification method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravchenko, A.I.

    2011-01-01

    The features of zone distillation (with zone melting of refined material and with pulling of condensate) as a new purification method are shown. The method is based on similarity of equations of distillation and crystallization refining. The analogy between some distillation and condensation methods (particularly between zone distillation and zone recrystallization) is should up

  16. Partial purification and biochemical characterization of acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mung bean (Vigna radiata) is one of the important crops of the North Eastern Region of India. In the present study, acid phosphatase enzyme was isolated and partially purified from germinated local mung bean seeds. The sequential partial purification process was performed using ammonium sulphate precipitation method.

  17. Signal transduction by normal isoforms and W mutant variants of the Kit receptor tyrosine kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reith, A D; Ellis, C; Lyman, S D; Anderson, D M; Williams, D E; Bernstein, A; Pawson, T

    1991-09-01

    Germline mutations at the Dominant White Spotting (W) and Steel (Sl) loci have provided conclusive genetic evidence that c-kit mediated signal transduction pathways are essential for normal mouse development. We have analysed the interactions of normal and mutant W/c-kit gene products with cytoplasmic signalling proteins, using transient c-kit expression assays in COS cells. In addition to the previously identified c-kit gene product (Kit+), a second normal Kit isoform (KitA+) containing an in-frame insertion, Gly-Asn-Asn-Lys, within the extracellular domain, was detected in murine mast cell cultures and mid-gestation placenta. Both Kit+ and KitA+ isoforms showed increased autophosphorylation and enhanced association with phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3' kinase and PLC gamma 1, when stimulated with recombinant soluble Steel factor. No association or increase in phosphorylation of GAP and two GAP-associated proteins, p62 and p190, was observed. The two isoforms had distinct activities in the absence of exogenous soluble Steel factor; Kit+, but not KitA+, showed constitutive tyrosine phosphorylation that was accompanied by a low constitutive level of association with PI-3' kinase and PLC gamma 1. Introduction of the point substitutions associated with W37 (Glu582----Lys) or W41 (Val831----Met) mutant alleles into c-kit expression constructs abolished (W37) or reduced (W41) the Steel factor-induced association of the Kit receptor with signalling proteins in a manner proportional to the overall severity of the corresponding W mutant phenotype. These data suggest a diversity of normal Kit signalling pathways and indicate that W mutant phenotypes result from primary defects in the Kit receptor that affect its interaction with cytoplasmic signalling proteins.

  18. Discovery of amido-benzisoxazoles as potent c-Kit inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunz, Roxanne K.; Rumfelt, Shannon; Chen, Ning; Zhang, Dawei; Tasker, Andrew S.; Bürli, Roland; Hungate, Randall; Yu, Violeta; Nguyen, Yen; Whittington, Douglas A.; Meagher, Kristin L.; Plant, Matthew; Tudor, Yanyan; Schrag, Michael; Xu, Yang; Ng, Gordon Y.; Hu, Essa (Amgen)

    2010-01-12

    Deregulation of the receptor tyrosine kinase c-Kit is associated with an increasing number of human diseases, including certain cancers and mast cell diseases. Interference of c-Kit signaling with multi-kinase inhibitors has been shown clinically to successfully treat gastrointestinal stromal tumors and mastocytosis. Targeted therapy of c-Kit activity may provide therapeutic advantages against off-target effects for non-oncology applications. A new structural class of c-Kit inhibitors is described, including in vitro c-Kit potency, kinase selectivity, and the observed binding mode.

  19. 3D vision upgrade kit for TALON robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, Richard; Vaden, Justin; Hyatt, Brian; Morris, James; Pezzaniti, J. Larry; Chenault, David B.; Tchon, Joe; Barnidge, Tracy; Kaufman, Seth; Pettijohn, Brad

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, we report on the development of a 3D vision field upgrade kit for TALON robot consisting of a replacement flat panel stereoscopic display, and multiple stereo camera systems. An assessment of the system's use for robotic driving, manipulation, and surveillance operations was conducted. The 3D vision system was integrated onto a TALON IV Robot and Operator Control Unit (OCU) such that stock components could be electrically disconnected and removed, and upgrade components coupled directly to the mounting and electrical connections. A replacement display, replacement mast camera with zoom, auto-focus, and variable convergence, and a replacement gripper camera with fixed focus and zoom comprise the upgrade kit. The stereo mast camera allows for improved driving and situational awareness as well as scene survey. The stereo gripper camera allows for improved manipulation in typical TALON missions.

  20. Assessment of RFID Read Accuracy for ISS Water Kit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The Space Life Sciences Directorate/Medical Informatics and Health Care Systems Branch (SD4) is assessing the benefits Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology for tracking items flown onboard the International Space Station (ISS). As an initial study, the Avionic Systems Division Electromagnetic Systems Branch (EV4) is collaborating with SD4 to affix RFID tags to a water kit supplied by SD4 and studying the read success rate of the tagged items. The tagged water kit inside a Cargo Transfer Bag (CTB) was inventoried using three different RFID technologies, including the Johnson Space Center Building 14 Wireless Habitat Test Bed RFID portal, an RFID hand-held reader being targeted for use on board the ISS, and an RFID enclosure designed and prototyped by EV4.

  1. Optimization and Validation of kit of detection Antibiotics on Honey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamza, Malek

    2013-01-01

    According to the Codex Alimentarius and the European Commission Directive each food has a maximum residual antibiotic (MRLs) however, for honey is still no limit set. Among the main methods that guarantee the detection of antibiotic residues include the Premi Test which is a qualitative method for the detection of antibiotics in honey, but it remains a non-specific method for this matrix and long enough (three hours of incubation). Through this work, we were able to develop and optimize a new kit called Honey test. This kit is able to detect the presence of antibiotic residues in honey by a bacterial strain radio-resistant called D.ra. The duration of treatment is only 30 minutes, requiring incubation at 37 Degree C and treatment with UV at 366 nm. This work will be the subject of a national patent.

  2. Limitations in the use of 14C-glycocholate breath and stool bile acid determinations in patients with chronic diarrhea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, J.; Walker, K.; Thomson, A.B.

    1986-01-01

    Analysis of a modified 14 C-glycocholate breath test on 165 consecutive in-patients being investigated for chronic diarrhea showed that the measurement of 14 CO 2 between 3 and 6 h after oral dosing of 5 microCi of 14 C-glycocholic acid was of only limited use to distinguish between patients with Crohn's disease (CD), idiopathic bile salt wastage (IBW), or ileal resection (IR) from those with the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Continuing 14 CO 2 collections for up to 24 h was of little more help in establishing the presence of bacterial overgrowth syndrome (BOS) and in distinguishing between BOS and CD. Stool bile acid measurements were of use in differentiating between IBW and IBS, but did not distinguish between CD and BOS or between CD and IR. Since the range of normal values was defined by measurements in the IBS group, a positive test was specific for an organic cause of chronic diarrhea. Even so, the sensitivity of the test was relatively low: CD, 53%; IR, 23%; IBW, 14 %; and BOS, 10%. We believe that the 24-h 14 C-glycocholic breath test combined with the measurement of stool bile acids represents a screening test of only limited use for the identification of organic causes of chronic diarrhea

  3. Digital quantification of gene methylation in stool DNA by emulsion-PCR coupled with hydrogel immobilized bead-array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yunlong; Wu, Haiping; Zhou, Qiang; Song, Qinxin; Rui, Jianzhong; Zou, Bingjie; Zhou, Guohua

    2017-06-15

    Aberrations of gene methylation in stool DNA (sDNA) is an effective biomarker for non-invasive colorectal cancer diagnosis. However, it is challenging to accurately quantitate the gene methylation levels in sDNA due to the low abundance and degradation of sDNA. In this study, a digital quantification strategy was proposed by combining emulsion PCR (emPCR) with hydrogel immobilized bead-array. The assay includes following steps: bisulfite conversion of sDNA, pre-amplification by PCR with specific primers containing 5' universal sequences, emPCR of pre-amplicons with beaded primers to achieve single-molecular amplification and identification of hydrogel embedding beads coated with amplicons. The sensitivity and the specificity of the method are high enough to pick up 0.05% methylated targets from unmethylated DNA background. The successful detection of hypermethylated vimentin gene in clinical stool samples suggests that the proposed method should be a potential tool for non-invasive colorectal cancer screening. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. DogMATIC--A Remote Biospecimen Collection Kit for Biobanking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milley, Kristi M; Nimmo, Judith S; Bacci, Barbara; Ryan, Stewart D; Richardson, Samantha J; Danks, Janine A

    2015-08-01

    Canine tumors are valuable comparative oncology models. This research was designed to create a sustainable biobank of canine mammary tumors for breast cancer research. The aim was to provide a well-characterized sample cohort for specimen sharing, data mining, and long-term research aims. Canine mammary tumors are most frequently managed at a local veterinary clinic or hospital. We adopted a biobank framework based on a large number of participating veterinary hospitals and clinics acting as collection centers that were serviced by a centralized storage facility. Recruitment was targeted at rural veterinary clinics. A tailored, stable collection kit (DogMATIC) was designed that was used by veterinarians in remote or rural locations to collect both fresh and fixed tissue for submission to the biobank. To validate this methodology the kit design, collection rate, and sample quality were analyzed. The Australian Veterinary Cancer Biobank was established as a network of 47 veterinary clinics and three veterinary pathology laboratories spanning over 200,000 km(2). In the first 12 months, 30 canine mammary tumor cases were submitted via the DogMATIC kit. Pure intact RNA was isolated in over 80% of samples with an average yield of 14.49 μg. A large network biobank, utilizing off-site collection with the DogMATIC kit, was successfully coordinated. The creation of the Australian Veterinary Cancer Biobank has established a long-term, sustainable, comparative oncology research resource in Australia. There are broader implications for biobanking with this very different form of collection and banking.

  5. Physicochemical characteristics of the kanamycin-lyophilized kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eva Maria Widyasari; Misyetti; Teguh Hafiz Ambar W; Witri Nuraeni

    2013-01-01

    Kanamycin is a broad-spectrum antibiotic and usually used for the treatment of infections when antibiotics like penicillin are less powerful and can not be given. This research was performed to obtain several physicochemical character of 99m Tc-kanamycin which were made in the form of lyophilized kanamycin kit to ensure the later application in humans. Kanamycin diagnostic kit were provided in lyophilized kit comprising kanamycin as ligand compound, pyrophosphate as co-ligand and SnCl 2 as reducing agent. The radiochemical purity was determined by instant thin layer chromatography (ITLC-SG) using 0.5 N NaOH as the mobile phase and ascending paper chromatography using Whatman paper 3 with acetone as the mobile phase. The plasma binding protein of 99m Tc-kanamycin was investigated in vitro by precipitation method using 5% of trichloro acetic acid (TCA) solution, whereas the lipophilicity (log P) was obtained by determination the partition coefficient in organic solvent-water system. Studies on the effect of the amount of radioactivity and the volume of Na 99m TcO 4 solution to the radiochemical purity of 99m Tc-kanamycin were also performed. From this experiment it was obtained that kanamycin lyophilized-kit was hydrophilic, 59.54% of solutions bound to plasma, radiochemical purity was more than 95%, and the final volume of 2 ml dosage was stable up to 2 hours after the addition of 99m Tc with a radioactivity of less then 3 mCi. (author)

  6. Feasibility of fractionating MIBI cold kits for cost reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penglis, S.; Tsopelas, C. [Royal Adelaide Hospital. SA (Australia)

    1998-06-01

    Full text: Recently {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI become the first 99mTc-labelled myocardial perfusion imaging agent commercially available in Australia. After labelling each vial is sufficient for three to four patient doses. However, it becomes very expensive when only a single patient dose is required (up to $350 per dose). Our goal in this study was to subdivide the MIBI kit into fractions to establish the stability of these split kits. If successful, this would reduce the expense and make the product more cost-effective. After dissolving the Iyophilised ingredients of a MIBI vial with 5 mL of N2-purged normal saline, 1 mL aliquots of the resultant solution were dispensed into N2-filled vials under aseptic conditions. The vials were then stored frozen at -70 deg C. 99mTc-MIBI was prepared by the addition of 2 GBq of {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate in I mL of normal saline to the fractionated kit, followed by heating at 100 deg C for 10 minutes at 0, 2, 4 and 8 weeks post-fractionation. The product was allowed to cool before testing for radiochemical purity (RCP) for up to six hours post-labelling. The RCP of each vial was determined using aluminium oxide coated aluminium TLC strips (Merck) run in 100% ethanol. Over the eight-week evaluation period RCP was maintained at 94.2 + 1.3% over six hours (n = 16), which is greater than the minimum recommended RCP (90%) for patient use. These results show that fractionation of MIBI cold kits and sub-frozen storage under an N{sub 2} atmosphere provides a stable and economical multidose product. Using this method the cost of a single patient dose can be reduced considerably from $350, even allowing for the labour involved in the fractionation

  7. Feasibility of fractionating MIBI cold kits for cost reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penglis, S.; Tsopelas, C.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Recently 99m Tc-MIBI become the first 99mTc-labelled myocardial perfusion imaging agent commercially available in Australia. After labelling each vial is sufficient for three to four patient doses. However, it becomes very expensive when only a single patient dose is required (up to $350 per dose). Our goal in this study was to subdivide the MIBI kit into fractions to establish the stability of these split kits. If successful, this would reduce the expense and make the product more cost-effective. After dissolving the Iyophilised ingredients of a MIBI vial with 5 mL of N2-purged normal saline, 1 mL aliquots of the resultant solution were dispensed into N2-filled vials under aseptic conditions. The vials were then stored frozen at -70 deg C. 99mTc-MIBI was prepared by the addition of 2 GBq of 99m Tc-pertechnetate in I mL of normal saline to the fractionated kit, followed by heating at 100 deg C for 10 minutes at 0, 2, 4 and 8 weeks post-fractionation. The product was allowed to cool before testing for radiochemical purity (RCP) for up to six hours post-labelling. The RCP of each vial was determined using aluminium oxide coated aluminium TLC strips (Merck) run in 100% ethanol. Over the eight-week evaluation period RCP was maintained at 94.2 + 1.3% over six hours (n = 16), which is greater than the minimum recommended RCP (90%) for patient use. These results show that fractionation of MIBI cold kits and sub-frozen storage under an N 2 atmosphere provides a stable and economical multidose product. Using this method the cost of a single patient dose can be reduced considerably from $350, even allowing for the labour involved in the fractionation

  8. Standardization of Procedures for the Preparation of (177)Lu- and (90)Y-labeled DOTA-Rituximab Based on the Freeze-dried Kit Formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojdowska, Wioletta; Karczmarczyk, Urszula; Maurin, Michal; Garnuszek, Piotr; Mikołajczak, Renata

    2015-01-01

    Rituximab when radiolabelled with (177)Lu or (90)Y has been investigated for the treatment of patients with Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma. In this study, we optimized the preparation of antibody conjugates with chelating agent in the freeze-dried kit. It shortens procedures needed for the successful radiolabeling with lutetium-177 and yttrium-90 and assures reproducible labelling yields. Various molar ratios of Rituximab:DOTA (from 1:5 to 1:100) were used at the conjugation step and different purification method to remove unbound DOTA were investigated (size-exclusion chromatography, dialysis, ultrafiltration). The final monoclonal antibody concentration was quantified by Bradford method, and the number of DOTA molecules was determined by radiolabeling assay using (64)Cu. The specific activity of (177)Lu-DOTA-Rituximab and (90)Y-DOTA-Rituximab were optimized using various amounts of radiometal. Quality control (SE-HPLC, ITLC) and stability study were performed. An average of 4.2 ± 0.8 p-SCN-Bz-DOTA molecules could be randomly conjugated to a single molecule of Rituximab. The ultrafiltration system was the most efficient for purification and resulted in the highest recovery efficiency (77.2%). At optimized conditions the (177)Lu-DOTARituximab and (90)Y-DOTA-Rituximab were obtained with radiochemical purity >99% and specific activity ca. 600 MBq/mg. The radioimmunoconjugates were stable in human serum and 0.9% NaCl. After 72 h of incubation the radiochemical purity of (177)Lu-DOTA-Rituximab decreased to 94% but it was still more than 88% for (90)Y-DOTA-Rituximab. The radioimmunoconjugate showed stability after six months storage at 2 - 8(0)C, as a lyophilized formulation. Our study shows that Rituximab-DOTA can be efficiently radiolabeled with (177)Lu and (90)Y via p-SCN-Bn-DOTA using a freezedried kit.

  9. Pharmacists' views on and experiences with bowel cancer screening kits in Auckland, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Nataly; Basdew, Kamlika; Kammona, Ala; Shen, Amy; Taylor, Caragh; McIntosh, Timothy R; Barnes, Joanne

    2014-08-01

    To explore the views of New Zealand pharmacists on bowel cancer screening, particularly with regards to faecal occult blood testing (FOBT) kits, self-perceived knowledge on FOBT kits and barriers, motivators and experiences with selling and counselling consumers with respect to FOBT kits. Semi-structured interviews were conducted face to face or by telephone with 20 community pharmacists in the Auckland region. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim and data were coded and analysed using NVivo software to identify key themes. Participant pharmacists believed that they were well placed to provide advice on FOBT kits to consumers. Barriers to selling the kits included cost and perceived lack of test sensitivity of the kits, poor consumer demand, pharmacists' lack of training and information, and a belief that selling FOBT kits was outside the pharmacists' scope of practice. Motivators to selling the kits included customer convenience, ease of use, confidence in the kits and embracing new roles for pharmacists. Pharmacists were concerned that use of the kits may increase the burden on the public health system through customer anxiety over test results; however, they agreed that there was a need for bowel cancer screening and awareness and that people concerned about bowel cancer should make visiting their general practitioner a priority. Pharmacists' views were mixed. Pharmacists' training and competence with respect to the provision of bowel cancer kits, and how a bowel cancer screening service can be developed to optimise public health outcomes, need to be addressed. © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  10. Development and testing of monoclonal antibody-based rapid immunodiagnostic test kits for direct detection of Vibrio cholerae O139 synonym Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, J A; Huq, A; Nair, G B; Garg, S; Mukhopadhyay, A K; Loomis, L; Bernstein, D; Colwell, R R

    1995-11-01

    We report on the development and testing of two monoclonal antibody-based rapid immunodiagnostic test kits, BengalScreen, a coagglutination test, and Bengal DFA, a direct fluorescent-antibody test, for direct detection of Vibrio cholerae O139 synonym Bengal in clinical and environmental specimens. The BengalScreen test requires less than 5 min to complete and can be used in the field. Bengal DFA, being more sensitive than BengalScreen, requires only one reagent and less than 20 min for detection and enumeration of V. cholerae O139 synonym Bengal. In tests for specificity, all 40 strains of V. cholerae O139 reacted with both test kits, whereas 157 strains of heterologous species examined did not, yielding 100% specificity in this study. A field trial was conducted in with both BengalScreen and Bengal DFA, and the results were compared with those obtained by conventional culture methods. BengalScreen demonstrated a sensitivity of 95%, a specificity of 100%, a positive predictive value of 100%, and a negative predictive value of 94%. Results obtained by Bengal DFA, on the other hand, were 100% sensitive and 100% specific and yielded 100% positive and negative predictive values compared with culture methods. In a second evaluation, 93 stool specimens from Mexico that were negative for V. cholerae O139 by culture were also tested with both the BengalScreen and Bengal DFA kits. None of the 93 specimens were positive for V. cholerae O139 by both tests. A concentration method was optimized for screening of environmental water samples for V. cholerae O139 synonym Bengal with rapid test kits. BengalScreen results were unequivocally positive when water samples contained at least 2.0 x 10(3) CFU/ml, whereas Bengal DFA demonstrated an unequivocally positive reaction when the water sample contained at least 1.5 x 10(2) CFU/ml. When Bengal DFA was compared with conventional culture methods for enumeration of V. cholerae O139 synonym Bengal organisms, no difference was observed.

  11. Formulation of MIBI Kit as a heart imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widyastuti; A, Hanafiah; Yunilda; A, Laksmi; Setyowati, Sri; Y Veronika

    1999-01-01

    9 9 m Tc labelled 2-methoxy-isobutyl-isonitrile(MIBI) has been known as an imaging agent for myocardial perfusion. This radiopharmaceutical preparation gives the same satisfactory result as Thallium- 2 10TI, and presumably could replace 2 01TI because of same advantages. MIBI kit was formulated from MIBI ligand produced by RPC-BATAN which has been characterized and tested for quality. The formula used in this research referred to the formula of imported product(Cardiolite, MIBI kit produced by Dupont), and the quality control testing was performed by comparing some parameters to the imported product. The parameters used for QC testing were radiochemical purity, biodistribution in nice and heart imaging in human volunteer using gamma camera. The result of the experiment showed that the radiochemical purity was 95 % in average, biodistribution in heart to liver gave the ratio of 0.67, 1.5, and 2.53 respectively at 10, 30 and 60 minutes after injection. The result of clinical testing in some volunteers gave contrast images as good as given by Cardiolite. The optimum condition of freeze drying has been found, and the kit can be used for more than 6 months

  12. Basic and clinical investigation of T3 immunoassay kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Junji; Nakajima, Akiko; Morita, Rikushi; Endo, Keigo; Ikekubo, Katsuji

    1976-01-01

    T 3 immunoassay kit was investigated basically and clinically. A good result was obtained at the prescribed incubation temperature and for 16 hours of incubation time. Moreover, it was thought to be possible that incubation time could be shortened to 1 - 4 hours at 37 0 C. Specificity of antibody was good. Recovery of added T 3 was 100+-5 (S.D.) % on an average and parallel of dilution curve of high T 3 serum was also good. Variation coefficient of accuracy of this kit was 1.5 - 2.1 % and that of reproducibility was 1.3 - 6.6 %. Mild hemolysis did not affect measurement value. Serum T 3 level in normals, untreated patients with Basedow's disease and patients with primary hypothyroidism was 142+-21 ng/100 ml, 452+-156 ng/100 ml and 67+-17 ng/100 ml, respectively. Serum T 3 level in patients with Hashimoto's disease was distributed to a wide extent, but that of patients with goiter and simple goiter ranged within normal range. On the other side, serum T 3 level of normal pregnant woman was high and that of patients with anorexia nervosa showed low level. From the above mentioned results, it was concluded that this kit was simple in method and good in sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility and it was also useful for clinical applications. (M. Tsunoda)

  13. Fabrication of CANFLEX bundle kit for irradiation test in NRU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Moon Sung; Kwon, Hyuk Il; Ji, Chul Goo; Chang, Ho Il; Sim, Ki Seob; Suk, Ho Chun.

    1997-10-01

    CANFLEX bundle kit was prepared at KAERI for the fabrication of complete bundle at AECL. Completed bundle will be used for irradiation test in NRU. Provisions in the 'Quality Assurance Manual for HWR Fuel Projects,' 'Manufacturing Plan' and 'Quality Verification, Inspection and Test Plan' were implemented as appropriately for the preparation of CANFLEX kit. A set of CANFLEX kit consist of 43 fuel sheath of two different sizes with spacers, bearing pads and buttons attached, 2 pieces of end plates and 86 pieces of end caps with two different sizes. All the documents utilized as references for the fabrication such as drawings, specifications, operating instructions, QC instructions and supplier's certificates are specified in this report. Especially, suppliers' certificates and inspection reports for the purchased material as well as KAERI's inspection report are integrated as attachments to this report. Attached to this report are supplier's certificates and KAERI inspection reports for the procured materials and KAERI QC inspection reports for tubes, pads, spacers, buttons, end caps, end plates and fuel sheath. (author). 37 refs

  14. 2MASS Catalog Server Kit Version 2.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, C.

    2013-10-01

    The 2MASS Catalog Server Kit is open source software for use in easily constructing a high performance search server for important astronomical catalogs. This software utilizes the open source RDBMS PostgreSQL, therefore, any users can setup the database on their local computers by following step-by-step installation guide. The kit provides highly optimized stored functions for positional searchs similar to SDSS SkyServer. Together with these, the powerful SQL environment of PostgreSQL will meet various user's demands. We released 2MASS Catalog Server Kit version 2.1 in 2012 May, which supports the latest WISE All-Sky catalog (563,921,584 rows) and 9 major all-sky catalogs. Local databases are often indispensable for observatories with unstable or narrow-band networks or severe use, such as retrieving large numbers of records within a small period of time. This software is the best for such purposes, and increasing supported catalogs and improvements of version 2.1 can cover a wider range of applications including advanced calibration system, scientific studies using complicated SQL queries, etc. Official page: http://www.ir.isas.jaxa.jp/~cyamauch/2masskit/

  15. Kit development for labelling erythrocytes or leukocytes with technetium-99m in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xuebin; Han Quansheng; Wang Jingcheng; Mi Hongzhi

    1996-01-01

    This study developed a modified pre tinning method for labeling erythrocytes with technetium-99m in vitro using a kit which contains stannous chloride stabilized with geneticist acid (GA) in lyophilized form. This GA-kit a sterile closed system that does not require centrifugation,washing and separation of the RBCs. The kit is simple to use and labeling takes ∼ 30 min with a typical labeling efficiency of 97.3% ± 1.2% for 60 determinations. Imaging studies were performed in rabbit using GA-kit in vitro labeling procedure and PYP-kit in vivo labeling. It shows that the heart-to-background ratio with GA in vitro labeling were significantly higher than with in vivo labeling. Leukocytes labeling with technetium-99m using the same GA kit also was studied. The labeling efficiency was 20 ∼ 41%. Thus, the GA kit is versatile and cost-effective. (author). 21 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Development of positron emission tomography probe of 64Cu-labeled anti-C-kit 12A8 Fab to measure protooncogene C-kit expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Chisato; Tsuji, Atsushi B.; Sudo, Hitomi; Sugyo, Aya; Sogawa, Chizuru; Inubushi, Masayuki; Uehara, Tomoya; Fukumura, Toshimitsu; Koizumi, Mitsuru; Arano, Yasushi; Saga, Tsuneo

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: C-kit is an important diagnostic and therapeutic target molecule for several malignancies, and c-kit-targeted drugs have been used clinically. Because abundant c-kit expression in tumors is a prerequisite for successful c-kit-targeted therapy, imaging of c-kit expression is expected to play a pivotal role in the therapeutic decision for each patient. We evaluated 64 Cu-labeled Fab of anti-c-kit antibody 12A8 as a positron emission tomography (PET) imaging probe. Methods: 111 In- or 125 I-Labeled 12A8 Fab was evaluated in vitro by cell binding, competitive inhibition and cellular internalization assays, and in vivo by biodistribution in mice bearing c-kit-expressing and -non-expressing tumors. Next, Fab fragment was labeled with the positron emitter 64 Cu and evaluated by PET. Results: Radiolabeled 12A8 Fab showed specific binding to c-kit-expressing cells with high affinity and internalized into cells after binding to c-kit on cell surface. Although tumor accumulation of [ 111 In]Fab was lower than that of [ 111 In]IgG, the faster blood clearance of [ 111 In]Fab provided higher tumor-to-blood ratio at 6 h postinjection onwards. Blood clearance of 64 Cu-labeled 12A8 Fab was slower than that of [ 111 In]Fab, but PET using [ 64 Cu]Fab clearly visualized the tumor at 6 h postinjection onwards. Conclusion: The 64 Cu-labeled 12A8 Fab could be used for c-kit-specific PET imaging and might help in selecting appropriate patients for c-kit-targeted treatments.

  17. Improved amplification efficiency on stool samples by addition of spermidine and its use for non-invasive detection of colorectal cancer

    KAUST Repository

    Roperch, Jean-Pierre

    2015-05-29

    Background Using quantitative methylation-specific PCR (QM-MSP) is a promising method for colorectal cancer (CRC) diagnosis from stool samples. Difficulty in eliminating PCR inhibitors of this body fluid has been extensively reported. Here, spermidine is presented as PCR facilitator for the detection of stool DNA methylation biomarkers using QM-MSP. We examined its effectiveness with NPY, PENK and WIF1, three biomarkers which we have previously shown to be of relevance to CRC. Results We determined an optimal window for the amplification of the albumin (Alb) gene (100 ng of bisulfite-treated stool DNA added of 1 mM spermidine) at which we report that spermidine acts as a PCR facilitator (AE = 1680%) for SG RT-PCR. We show that the amplification of methylated PENK, NPY and WIF1 is considerably facilitated by QM-MSP as measured by an increase of CMI (Cumulative Methylation Index, i.e. the sum of the three methylation values) by a factor of 1.5 to 23 fold in individual samples, and of 10 fold in a pool of five samples. Conclusions We contend that spermidine greatly reduces the problems of PCR inhibition in stool samples. This observed feature, after validation on a larger sampling, could be used in the development of stool-based CRC diagnosis tests.

  18. The development of new diagnostic test-systems and improvement of the existed radio immunochemical kits in the industrial production conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdukayumov, A.M.

    2002-04-01

    The highly effective method had been developed for HBsAg preparing and purification that allowed to use as the raw material a plasma of donors with low content of the target product and based on the application of the stepped fractionation by Ammonium Sulphate and affinity chromatography. The use efficiency of the produced HBsAg preparations had been shown for laboratory animals immunization with the purpose of antiserum production that was the intermediate product for component manufacture needed for high sensitive kit creation; for preparation of affinity immunosorbent with the purpose of highly specific anti-HBs preparing. The method had been developed for production of anti-HBs preparations with standard immunoreactivity from donkey serum by means of specific antibodies fractionation on affinity immunosorbent. The work was done to finish the method for 125 I incorporation into the monoclonal mouse antibody molecules resulting maximum high biological activity. It was determined that the highest quality provided by approach of the isotope introduction by means of Chloraimine T reagent. It had been developed and introduced into industrial production the modified highly sensitive kit 'IRMA-M-HBsAg- 125 I' for HBsAg detection in human blood serum with use of monoclonal antibodies with the help of which it was managed to increase the stability and sensitivity and to standardize the technology of the kit. The technology had been developed and completed the laboratory and clinical testing of the kits of reagents 'IRMA-M-HBsAg- 125 I', 'ELISA-HBsAg', 'Recombinant-anti-HCV-strip' that had shown the high specificity and reproduction of the analysis results. Immunoenzymetic kit 'ELISA-HBsAg' of the third generation for HBsAg detection in human blood serum with the sensitivity not less than 0.5 ng/ml was introduced into industrial production. It had been developed and introduced into industrial production the highly sensitive immunoenzymetic test-system 'Recombinant

  19. How to define the tool kit for the corrective maintenance service? : a tool kit definition model under the service performance criterion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Denise

    2009-01-01

    Currently, the rule of defining tool kits is varied and more engineer's aspects oriented. However, the decision of the tool kit's definition is a trade-off problem between the cost and the service performance. This project is designed to develop a model that can integrate the engineer's preferences

  20. Development and validation of the AmpFℓSTR® Identifiler® Direct PCR Amplification Kit: a multiplex assay for the direct amplification of single-source samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dennis Y; Chang, Chien-Wei; Lagacé, Robert E; Oldroyd, Nicola J; Hennessy, Lori K

    2011-07-01

    The AmpFℓSTR(®) Identifiler(®) Direct PCR Amplification Kit is a new short tandem repeat multiplex assay optimized to allow the direct amplification of single-source blood and buccal samples on FTA(®) card without the need for sample purification and quantification. This multiplex assay has been validated according to the FBI/National Standards and SWGDAM guidelines. Validation results revealed that slight variations in primer concentration, master mix component concentration, and thermal cycling parameters did not affect the performance of the chemistry. The assay's sensitivity was demonstrated by amplifying known amounts of white blood cells spotted onto FTA(®) cards, and the assay's specificity was verified by establishing minimal cross-reactivity with nonhuman DNA. No effect on the age of the sample stored on the FTA(®) substrate was observed and full concordance was established in the population study. These findings of the validation study support the use of the Identifiler(®) Direct Kit for forensic standards and database samples genotyping. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  1. The Viability of Photocatalysis for Air Purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen O. Hay

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Photocatalytic oxidation (PCO air purification technology is reviewed based on the decades of research conducted by the United Technologies Research Center (UTRC and their external colleagues. UTRC conducted basic research on the reaction rates of various volatile organic compounds (VOCs. The knowledge gained allowed validation of 1D and 3D prototype reactor models that guided further purifier development. Colleagues worldwide validated purifier prototypes in simulated realistic indoor environments. Prototype products were deployed in office environments both in the United States and France. As a result of these validation studies, it was discovered that both catalyst lifetime and byproduct formation are barriers to implementing this technology. Research is ongoing at the University of Connecticut that is applicable to extending catalyst lifetime, increasing catalyst efficiency and extending activation wavelength from the ultraviolet to the visible wavelengths. It is critical that catalyst lifetime is extended to realize cost effective implementation of PCO air purification.

  2. Nanotechnology for water treatment and purification

    CERN Document Server

    Apblett, Allen

    2014-01-01

    This book describes the latest progress in the application of nanotechnology for water treatment and purification. Leaders in the field present both the fundamental science and a comprehensive overview of the diverse range of tools and technologies that have been developed in this critical area. Expert chapters present the unique physicochemical and surface properties of nanoparticles and the advantages that these provide for engineering applications that ensure a supply of safe drinking water for our growing population. Application areas include generating fresh water from seawater, preventing contamination of the environment, and creating effective and efficient methods for remediation of polluted waters. The chapter authors are leading world-wide experts in the field with either academic or industrial experience, ensuring that this comprehensive volume presents the state-of-the-art in the integration of nanotechnology with water treatment and purification. Covers both wastewater and drinking water treatmen...

  3. Development of partitioning process: purification of DIDPA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Masayuki; Morita, Yasuji; Kubota, Masumitsu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-04-01

    The partitioning process has developed and demonstrated that the solvent extraction with diisodecylphosphoric acid (DIDPA) can successfully separate transuranium elements from a high-level liquid waste. In the solvent extraction, DIDPA is decomposed by radiolysis and hydrolysis. The main degradation product is monoisodecyl phosphoric acid (MIDPA). Ethylene glycol has been used for removing the product by a solvent extraction method. However this method has two drawbacks that two phases separate slowly and the used ethylene glycol is not regeneratable. First it was found that the addition of acetone or methanol with 20 volume % improved the phase separation. Then a new purification method was developed by using an aqueous solution of methanol or acetone. The new purification method is as excellent as the ethylene glycol method for the removal of MIDPA. (author)

  4. Using of Mineral Recourses for Water Purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumanova, I.V.; Nazarenko, O.B.; Anna, Yu.

    2009-01-01

    Pollution of surface waters results in necessity of underground waters using for drinking. Underground waters are characterized by the high quantity of heavy metals salts. This led to development of methods reducing the concentration of the metal salts in water. Wide spread occurrence, cheapness and high sorption properties of nature minerals allow to consider them as perspective sorbents for different impurities extraction, including dissoluble compounds of heavy metals. Reachable purification efficiency with mineral resources use for the moment satisfies sanitary indexes and standards presenting to portable water in Russia. In given material there are presented the results of research of artificial sorbent and certain minerals sorption characteristics, which are typical for West Siberia. For purification quality improvement from Fe and Mn ions there are suggested to use the method of boiling bed.

  5. HOUSEHOLD PURIFICATION OF FLUORIDE CONTAMINATED MAGADI (TRONA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Joan Maj; Dahi, Elian

    1997-01-01

    Purification of fluoride contaminated magadi is studied using bone char sorption and calcium precipitation. The bone char treatment is found to be workable both in columns and in batches where the magadi is dissolved in water prior to treatment. The concentrations in the solutions were 89 g magadi....../L and 95 and 400 mg F/L respectively in natural and synthetic solutions. The fluoride removal capacities observed were 4.6 mg F/g bone char for the column system and 2.7 mg F/g bone char for the batch system in case of synthetic magadi solution. It is however concluded that the batch system is the best...... treatment method. A procedure for purification of fluoride contaminated magadi at household level is described....

  6. Nanomaterials and Water Purification: Opportunities and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Nora; Diallo, Mamadou S.

    2005-10-01

    Advances in nanoscale science and engineering suggest that many of the current problems involving water quality could be resolved or greatly ameliorated using nanosorbents, nanocatalysts, bioactive nanoparticles, nanostructured catalytic membranes and nanoparticle enhanced filtration among other products and processes resulting from the development of nanotechnology. Innovations in the development of novel technologies to desalinate water are among the most exciting and promising. Additionally, nanotechnology-derived products that reduce the concentrations of toxic compounds to sub-ppb levels can assist in the attainment of water quality standards and health advisories. This article gives an overview of the use of nanomaterials in water purification. We highlight recent advances on the development of novel nanoscale materials and processes for treatment of surface water, groundwater and industrial wastewater contaminated by toxic metal ions, radionuclides, organic and inorganic solutes, bacteria and viruses. In addition, we discuss some challenges associated with the development of cost effective and environmentally acceptable functional nanomaterials for water purification.

  7. Nanomaterials and Water Purification: Opportunities and Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savage, Nora; Diallo, Mamadou S.

    2005-01-01

    Advances in nanoscale science and engineering suggest that many of the current problems involving water quality could be resolved or greatly ameliorated using nanosorbents, nanocatalysts, bioactive nanoparticles, nanostructured catalytic membranes and nanoparticle enhanced filtration among other products and processes resulting from the development of nanotechnology. Innovations in the development of novel technologies to desalinate water are among the most exciting and promising. Additionally, nanotechnology-derived products that reduce the concentrations of toxic compounds to sub-ppb levels can assist in the attainment of water quality standards and health advisories. This article gives an overview of the use of nanomaterials in water purification. We highlight recent advances on the development of novel nanoscale materials and processes for treatment of surface water, groundwater and industrial wastewater contaminated by toxic metal ions, radionuclides, organic and inorganic solutes, bacteria and viruses. In addition, we discuss some challenges associated with the development of cost effective and environmentally acceptable functional nanomaterials for water purification

  8. The Stool DNA Test is More Accurate than the Plasma Septin 9 Test in Detecting Colorectal Neoplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlquist, David A.; Taylor, William R.; Mahoney, Douglas W.; Zou, Hongzhi; Domanico, Michael; Thibodeau, Stephen N.; Boardman, Lisa A.; Berger, Barry M.; Lidgard, Graham P.

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Several noninvasive tests have been developed for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. We compared the sensitivities of a multi-marker test for stool DNA (sDNA) and a plasma test for methylated Septin 9 (SEPT9) in identifying patients with large adenomas or CRC. Methods We analyzed paired stool and plasma samples from 30 patients with CRC and 22 with large adenomas from Mayo Clinic archives. Stool (n=46) and plasma (n=49) samples from age- and sex-matched patients with normal colonoscopy results were used as controls. The sDNA test is an assay for methylated BMP3, NDRG4, vimentin, and TFPI2; mutant KRAS; the β-actin gene, and quantity of hemoglobin (by the porphyrin method). It was performed blindly at Exact Sciences (Madison WI); the test for SEPT9 was performed at ARUP Laboratories (Salt Lake City UT). Results were considered positive based on the manufacturer's specificity cutoff values of 90% and 89%, respectively. Results The sDNA test detected adenomas (median 2 cm, range 1–5 cm) with 82% sensitivity (95% confidence interval [CI], 60%–95%); SEPT9 had 14% sensitivity (95% CI, 3%–35%; P=.0001). The sDNA test identified patients with CRC with 87% sensitivity (95% CI, 69%–96%); SEPT9 had 60% sensitivity (95% CI, 41%–77%; P=.046). The sDNA test identified patients with stage I–III CRC with 91% sensitivity (95% CI, 71%–99%); SEPT9 had 50% sensitivity (95% CI, 28%–72%; P=.013); for stage IV CRC, sensitivity values were 75% (95% CI, 35%–97%) and 88% (95% CI, 47%–100%), respectively (P=.56). False-positive rates were 7% for the sDNA test and 27% for SEPT9. Conclusions Based on analyses of paired samples, the sDNA test detects non-metastatic CRC and large adenomas with significantly greater levels of sensitivity than the SEPT9 test. These findings might be used to modify approaches for CRC prevention and early detection. PMID:22019796

  9. Basic and clinical evaluation of CA 130 RIA kit (D-7111) using two newly developed monoclonal antibodies. Comparison with CA 125 kit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saga, Tsuneo; Endo, Keigo; Nakajima, Tetsuo and others

    1988-10-01

    The CA 130 RIA kit was developed with the use of two monoclonal antibodies, 130 - 22 and 145 - 9. Laboratory performance was satisfactory for precision, reproducibility, recovery, and dilution. Measurement values with CA 130 kit were almost consistent with those with CA 125 kit. Favorable standard curves were attained with smaller concentrations and shorter incubation time of CA 130 kit than those with CA 125 kit. There was less prozone phenomenon. When defining a cut-off serum level of CA 130 as 35 U/ml, false-positive rate was 0 % for healthy men and 4 % for healthy women, suggesting the involvement of menstrual cycle. Positive rate for CA 130 was 65 % for malignant ovarian tumor, 48 % for lung cancer, and 47 % for endometriosis. (Namekawa, K.).

  10. Conductive diamond electrodes for water purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Martínez-Huitle

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, synthetic diamond has been studied for its application in wastewater treatment, electroanalysis, organic synthesis and sensor areas; however, its use in the water disinfection/purification is its most relevant application. The new electrochemistry applications of diamond electrodes open new perspectives for an easy, effective, and chemical free water treatment. This article highlights and summarizes the results of a selection of papers dealing with electrochemical disinfection using synthetic diamond films.

  11. Propagation and Purification of Baculovirus oryctes Huger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susamto Somowiyarjo

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available An isolate of Baculovirus oryctes, a possible biological control agent for coconut beetle (Oryctes rhinoceros Huger from East Java was propagated and purified. The virus could be transmitted by feeding the imago with 10% sucrose containing virus from homogenate of infected beetles. Effectivity of virus to 9 healthy females by sexual copulation. Virus be succesfully purified by a method of Payne. Key words: Baculovirus oryctes, transmission, purification

  12. Recommendation for KIT-formulation of radioiodinated [{sup *}I] meta-iodo benzyl guanidine (M*IBG). Vol. 3.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-shaboury, G; El-Kolaly, M T; Raieh, M; El-Bayoumy, S [Radioisotope Production and Labelled Compounds Department, Cairo (Egypt); Zakareia, N [Chemistry of Nuclear Fuel Department, Hot laboratories Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    A recommended simple technique for preparation of radioiodinated [{sup *}I{sup -}] meta - iodobenzylguanidine (M{sup *} IBG) is presented. The technique is based on a schematic procedure for the synthesis of inactive M IBG using meta -iodo benzoic as substrate, results into a chemical yield of 80% as pure as M IBG 0.5 substrate, then recrystallized from water - ethyl alcohol as crystalline powder of M.P. 165 Degree C - 167 degree C. The radioiodination process is performed through an isotropic exchange reaction between the inactive M IBG and radioiodine as iodine ion ({sup *}I{sup -}) in 0.2 M acetate buffer pH 4.2 - 4.25 at 100 degree C within 30 min in the presence of metal as exchange catalyst. Following these processes, the reaction solution is allowed for purification by passing it through an AgCl - impregnated filter to remove the unreacted radioiodine as Ag{sup *}I (5%). According of these results and reaction conditions it was possible to develop a technology for the radiopharmaceutical production of radioiodinated M{sup *} IBG using the currently used short - lived radioiodine nuclides by a simple kit like - type technique, where the radiochemical yield % is 95 - 99% as pure as M{sup *} IBG. 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Recommendation for KIT-formulation of radioiodinated [*I] meta-iodo benzyl guanidine (M*IBG). Vol. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-shaboury, G.; El-Kolaly, M.T.; Raieh, M.; El-Bayoumy, S.; Zakareia, N.

    1996-01-01

    A recommended simple technique for preparation of radioiodinated [ * I - ] meta - iodobenzylguanidine (M * IBG) is presented. The technique is based on a schematic procedure for the synthesis of inactive M IBG using meta -iodo benzoic as substrate, results into a chemical yield of 80% as pure as M IBG 0.5 substrate, then recrystallized from water - ethyl alcohol as crystalline powder of M.P. 165 Degree C - 167 degree C. The radioiodination process is performed through an isotropic exchange reaction between the inactive M IBG and radioiodine as iodine ion ( * I - ) in 0.2 M acetate buffer pH 4.2 - 4.25 at 100 degree C within 30 min in the presence of metal as exchange catalyst. Following these processes, the reaction solution is allowed for purification by passing it through an AgCl - impregnated filter to remove the unreacted radioiodine as Ag * I (5%). According of these results and reaction conditions it was possible to develop a technology for the radiopharmaceutical production of radioiodinated M * IBG using the currently used short - lived radioiodine nuclides by a simple kit like - type technique, where the radiochemical yield % is 95 - 99% as pure as M * IBG. 5 figs., 3 tabs

  14. Entanglement of purification: from spin chains to holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuc; Devakul, Trithep; Halbasch, Matthew G.; Zaletel, Michael P.; Swingle, Brian

    2018-01-01

    Purification is a powerful technique in quantum physics whereby a mixed quantum state is extended to a pure state on a larger system. This process is not unique, and in systems composed of many degrees of freedom, one natural purification is the one with minimal entanglement. Here we study the entropy of the minimally entangled purification, called the entanglement of purification, in three model systems: an Ising spin chain, conformal field theories holographically dual to Einstein gravity, and random stabilizer tensor networks. We conjecture values for the entanglement of purification in all these models, and we support our conjectures with a variety of numerical and analytical results. We find that such minimally entangled purifications have a number of applications, from enhancing entanglement-based tensor network methods for describing mixed states to elucidating novel aspects of the emergence of geometry from entanglement in the AdS/CFT correspondence.

  15. Purification of crude biodiesel using dry washing and membrane technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Atadashi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purification of crude biodiesel is mandatory for the fuel to meet the strict international standard specifications for biodiesel. Therefore, this paper carefully analyzed recently published literatures which deal with the purification of biodiesel. As such, dry washing technologies and the most recent membrane biodiesel purification process have been thoroughly examined. Although purification of biodiesel using dry washing process involving magnesol and ion exchange resins provides high-quality biodiesel fuel, considerable amount of spent absorbents is recorded, besides the skeletal knowledge on its operating process. Further, recent findings have shown that biodiesel purification using membrane technique could offer high-quality biodiesel fuel with less wastewater discharges. Thus, both researchers and industries are expected to benefit from the development of membrane technique in purifying crude biodiesel. As well biodiesel purification via membranes has been shown to be environmentally friendly. For these reasons, it is important to explore and exploit membrane technology to purify crude biodiesel.

  16. Late development of homoeothermy in mink (Mustela vison) kits - a strategy for maximum survival rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tauson, A-H; Chwalibog, André; Tygesen, M P

    2006-01-01

    and after the experiments and evaporative water losses (EWL) were calculated. When exposed to L temperature, single kits responded with a very low HE until 29 days of age, and groups of kits until 14 days of age. It was not until they reached an age of approximately 6 weeks that single kits showed a clear...... thermoregulatory response to the L temperature by increased HE, whereas groups of kits showed increased HE from 29th day onwards. When kept at H temperature, HE was low initially, but all kits showed elevated HE at 8 days of age, and the metabolic rate was similar for single kits and kits huddling in groups....... Evaporative water losses was higher among single than among groups of kits and slightly lower but more variable for animals at L than at H temperature. It was concluded that mink kits develop functional homoeothermy at an age of close to 6 weeks and that the failure of very young kits to thermoregulate...

  17. Rotating Reverse-Osmosis for Water Purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueptow, RIchard M.

    2004-01-01

    A new design for a water-filtering device combines rotating filtration with reverse osmosis to create a rotating reverse- osmosis system. Rotating filtration has been used for separating plasma from whole blood, while reverse osmosis has been used in purification of water and in some chemical processes. Reverse- osmosis membranes are vulnerable to concentration polarization a type of fouling in which the chemicals meant not to pass through the reverse-osmosis membranes accumulate very near the surfaces of the membranes. The combination of rotating filtration and reverse osmosis is intended to prevent concentration polarization and thereby increase the desired flux of filtered water while decreasing the likelihood of passage of undesired chemical species through the filter. Devices based on this concept could be useful in a variety of commercial applications, including purification and desalination of drinking water, purification of pharmaceutical process water, treatment of household and industrial wastewater, and treatment of industrial process water. A rotating filter consists of a cylindrical porous microfilter rotating within a stationary concentric cylindrical outer shell (see figure). The aqueous suspension enters one end of the annulus between the inner and outer cylinders. Filtrate passes through the rotating cylindrical microfilter and is removed via a hollow shaft. The concentrated suspension is removed at the end of the annulus opposite the end where the suspension entered.

  18. Overview of the purification of recombinant proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingfield, Paul T

    2015-04-01

    When the first version of this unit was written in 1995, protein purification of recombinant proteins was based on a variety of standard chromatographic methods and approaches, many of which were described and mentioned throughout Current Protocols in Protein Science. In the interim, there has been a shift toward an almost universal usage of the affinity or fusion tag. This may not be the case for biotechnology manufacture where affinity tags can complicate producing proteins under regulatory conditions. Regardless of the protein expression system, questions are asked as to which and how many affinity tags to use, where to attach them in the protein, and whether to engineer a self-cleavage system or simply leave them on. We will briefly address some of these issues. Also, although this overview focuses on E.coli, protein expression and purification, other commonly used expression systems are mentioned and, apart from cell-breakage methods, protein purification methods and strategies are essentially the same. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  19. Performance evaluation of direct saline stool microscopy, Formol ether concentration and Kato Katz diagnostic methods for intestinal parasitosis in the absence of gold standard methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailu, Tadesse; Abera, Bayeh

    2015-07-01

    The parasite load within the sample and the amount of sample taken during examination greatly compromise the sensitivity of direct saline stool microscopy. A cross-sectional study was conducted in March 2011 in Bahir Dar city among 778 fresh single stool samples to evaluate the performance of direct saline (DS), Kato Katz (KK) and Formol ether concentration (FEC) methods against the 'Gold' standard. Among 778 stool samples from school age children, the highest prevalence of intestinal parasites was recorded by FEC (55.1%). The sensitivity of DS, FEC and KK were 61.1%, 92.3% and 58.7%, respectively. FEC is more sensitive than DS and KK. Hence, use of the latter is preferred. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Entanglement purification of multi-mode quantum states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clausen, J; Knoell, L; Welsch, D-G

    2003-01-01

    An iterative random procedure is considered allowing entanglement purification of a class of multi-mode quantum states. In certain cases, complete purification may be achieved using only a single signal state preparation. A physical implementation based on beam splitter arrays and non-linear elements is suggested. The influence of loss is analysed in the example of purification of entangled N-mode coherent states

  1. A Scintillator Purification System for the Borexino Solar Neutrino Detector

    OpenAIRE

    Benziger, J.; Cadonati, L.; Calaprice, F.; Chen, M.; Corsi, A.; Dalnoki-Veress, F.; Fernholz, R.; Ford, R.; Galbiati, C.; Goretti, A.; Harding, E.; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Kidner, S.; Leung, M.

    2007-01-01

    Purification of the 278 tons of liquid scintillator and 889 tons of buffer shielding for the Borexino solar neutrino detector was performed with a system that combined distillation, water extraction, gas stripping and filtration. The purification of the scintillator achieved unprecedented low backgrounds for the large scale liquid scintillation detector. This paper describes the principles of operation, design, construction and commissioning of the purification system, and reviews the require...

  2. LUMINEX®: a new technology for the simultaneous identification of five Entamoeba spp. commonly found in human stools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Helena Lúcia Carneiro; Bandyopadhyay, Kakali; Bandea, Rebecca; Peralta, Regina Helena Saramago; Peralta, José Mauro; Da Silva, Alexandre Januário

    2013-03-15

    Six species of the genus Entamoeba, i.e., E. histolytica, E. dispar, E. moshkovskii, E. polecki, E. coli, and E. hartmanii can be found in human stools. Among these, only E. histolytica is considered to be pathogenic, causing intestinal and extra-intestinal disease, but it is morphologically identical to E. dispar and E. moshkovskii. In general, E. polecki, E. coli, and E. hartmanii can be differentiated morphologically from E. histolytica, but some of their diagnostic morphologic features may overlap creating issues for the differential diagnosis. Moreover, the previous inability to differentiate among Entamoeba species has limited epidemiologic information on E histolytica. The objective of this study was to develop a rapid, high-throughput screening method using Luminex technique for the simultaneous detection and differentiation of Entamoeba species. PCR amplification was performed with biotinylated Entamoeba sp 18S rRNA gene primers, designed to amplify a fragment ranging from 382 to 429 bp of the Entamoeba spp studied. Regions of this fragment that could differentiate among E. histolytica, E. moshkovskii, E. dispar, E. hartmanii and E. coli were selected to design hybridization probes to link to Luminex beads. The assay was standardized with cloned DNA samples of each species and evaluated with 24 DNA extracts from samples obtained from individuals diagnosed with these amebas in their stools. Using this approach we were able to correctly identify E. histoltyica, E. dispar, E hartmanni, E. coli and E. moshkovskii in all specimens studied. From twenty four samples tested by microscopy, PCR/DNA Sequencing and real-time PCR, 100% agreed with PCR-Luminex assay for identification of E. dispar, E. moshkovskii, E. hartmanni, E. histolytica, and E. coli. These results show that this method could be used in the diagnostic detection of Entamoeba spp in fecal samples. This diagnostic test was useful to clearly distinguish E histolytica from other species and also to

  3. Cholera diagnosis in human stool and detection in water: protocol for a systematic review of available technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaconu, Karin; Falconer, Jennifer; O'May, Fiona; Jimenez, Miguel; Matragrano, Joe; Njanpop-Lafourcade, Betty; Ager, Alastair

    2018-02-20

    Cholera is a highly infectious diarrheal disease spread via fecal contamination of water and food sources; it is endemic in parts of Africa and Asia and recent outbreaks have been reported in Haiti, the Zambia and Democratic Republic of the Congo. If left untreated, the disease can be fatal in less than 24 h and result in case fatality ratios of 30-50%. Cholera disproportionately affects those living in areas with poor access to water and sanitation: the long-term public health response is focused on improving water and hygiene facilities and access. Short-term measures for infection prevention and control, and disease characterization and surveillance, are impaired by diagnostic delays: culture methods are slow and rely on the availability of infrastructure and specialist equipment. Rapid diagnostic tests have shown promise under field conditions and further innovations in this area have been proposed. This paper is the protocol for a systematic review focused on identifying current technologies and methods used for cholera diagnosis in stool, and detection in water. We will synthesize and appraise information on product technical specifications, accuracy and design features in order to inform infection prevention and control and innovation development. Embase, MEDLINE, CINAHL, Proquest, IndMed and the WHO and Campbell libraries will be searched. We will include studies reporting on field evaluations, including within-study comparisons against a reference standard, and laboratory evaluations reporting on product validation against field stool or water samples. We will extract data according to protocol and attempt meta-analyses if appropriate given data availability and quality. The systematic review builds on a previous scoping review in this field and expands upon this by synthesising data on both product technical characteristics and design features. The review will be of particular value to stakeholders engaged in diagnostic procurement and manufacturers

  4. Cholera diagnosis in human stool and detection in water: protocol for a systematic review of available technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Diaconu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cholera is a highly infectious diarrheal disease spread via fecal contamination of water and food sources; it is endemic in parts of Africa and Asia and recent outbreaks have been reported in Haiti, the Zambia and Democratic Republic of the Congo. If left untreated, the disease can be fatal in less than 24 h and result in case fatality ratios of 30–50%. Cholera disproportionately affects those living in areas with poor access to water and sanitation: the long-term public health response is focused on improving water and hygiene facilities and access. Short-term measures for infection prevention and control, and disease characterization and surveillance, are impaired by diagnostic delays: culture methods are slow and rely on the availability of infrastructure and specialist equipment. Rapid diagnostic tests have shown promise under field conditions and further innovations in this area have been proposed. Methods This paper is the protocol for a systematic review focused on identifying current technologies and methods used for cholera diagnosis in stool, and detection in water. We will synthesize and appraise information on product technical specifications, accuracy and design features in order to inform infection prevention and control and innovation development. Embase, MEDLINE, CINAHL, Proquest, IndMed and the WHO and Campbell libraries will be searched. We will include studies reporting on field evaluations, including within-study comparisons against a reference standard, and laboratory evaluations reporting on product validation against field stool or water samples. We will extract data according to protocol and attempt meta-analyses if appropriate given data availability and quality. Discussion The systematic review builds on a previous scoping review in this field and expands upon this by synthesising data on both product technical characteristics and design features. The review will be of particular value to

  5. Geographical Variation in Antibiotic-Resistant Escherichia coli Isolates from Stool, Cow-Dung and Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Krushna Chandra; Tamhankar, Ashok J.; Sahoo, Soumyakanta; Sahu, Priyadarshi Soumyaranjan; Klintz, Senia Rosales; Lundborg, Cecilia Stålsby

    2012-01-01

    Little information is available on relationships between the biophysical environment and antibiotic resistance. This study was conducted to investigate the antibiotic resistance pattern of Escherichia coli isolated from child stool samples, cow-dung and drinking water from the non-coastal (230 households) and coastal (187 households) regions of Odisha, India. Susceptibility testing of E. coli isolates (n = 696) to the following antibiotics: tetracycline, ampicillin/sulbactam, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, cefixime, cotrimoxazole, amikacin, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin and nalidixic acid was performed by the disk diffusion method. Ciprofloxacin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined for ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates (n = 83). Resistance to at least one antibiotic was detected in 90% or more of the E. coli isolates. Ciprofloxacin MIC values ranged from 8 to 32 µg/mL. The odds ratio (OR) of resistance in E. coli isolates from children’s stool (OR = 3.1, 95% CI 1.18–8.01), cow-dung (OR = 3.6, 95% CI 1.59–8.03, P = 0.002) and drinking water (OR = 3.8, 95% CI 1.00–14.44, P = 0.049) were higher in non-coastal compared to coastal region. Similarly, the co-resistance in cow-dung (OR = 2.5, 95% CI 1.39–4.37, P = 0.002) and drinking water (OR = 3.2, 95% CI 1.36–7.41, P = 0.008) as well as the multi-resistance in cow-dung (OR = 2.2, 95% CI 1.12–4.34, P = 0.022) and drinking water (OR = 2.7, 95% CI 1.06–7.07, P = 0.036) were also higher in the non-coastal compared to the coastal region. PMID:22690160

  6. High frequency of parasitic and viral stool pathogens in patients with active ulcerative colitis: report from a tropical country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Debabrata; Deb, Rachana; Dar, Lalit; Mirdha, Bijay R; Pati, Sunil K; Thareja, Sandeep; Falodia, Sushil; Ahuja, Vineet

    2009-01-01

    Diarrhoeal relapses in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) may be associated with enteric infections and its diagnosis may lessen avoidable exposure to corticosteroids and/or immunosuppressants. The purpose of this study was to assess the frequency of stool pathogens (parasitic and viral) in patients with active UC. This prospective cross-sectional study included 49 consecutive patients (32 M, 17 F, mean age 35.8+/-12 years) with active UC. Three stool samples were collected from each patient and examined for parasitic infection. Rectal biopsies were obtained during sigmoidoscopy to demonstrate cytomegalovirus (CMV) inclusion bodies and to conduct qualitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for CMV and herpes simplex virus (HSV) DNA detection. Median duration of illness was 3.9+/-3.7 years and 83.7% of the patients had moderate to severe disease. The prevalence of parasitic infections in UC was 12%. The organisms isolated were Strongyloides stercoralis in 4%, Ankylostoma duodenale in 4%, Cryptosporidium in 2% and Entamoeba histolytica in 2% of the patients. The prevalence of CMV and HSV in rectal biopsies using qualitative PCR was 8% and 10%, respectively. No predictive factor was identified with CMV superinfection in patients with active UC. In India there is a high prevalence of parasitic and viral infections in patients with active UC. The results of the study suggest that, in tropical countries with a known high prevalence of parasitic diseases, aggressive evaluation for parasitic and viral infections should be carried out, as early identification and prompt treatment of such infections can improve the clinical course of patients with active UC.

  7. Increasing Flight Software Reuse with OpenSatKit

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComas, David C.

    2018-01-01

    In January 2015 the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) released the Core Flight System (cFS) as open source under the NASA Open Source Agreement (NOSA) license. The cFS is based on flight software (FSW) developed for 12 spacecraft spanning nearly two decades of effort and it can provide about a third of the FSW functionality for a low-earth orbiting scientific spacecraft. The cFS is a FSW framework that is portable, configurable, and extendable using a product line deployment model. However, the components are maintained separately so the user must configure, integrate, and deploy them as a cohesive functional system. This can be very challenging especially for organizations such as universities building cubesats that have minimal experience developing FSW. Supporting universities was one of the primary motivators for releasing the cFS under NOSA. This paper describes the OpenSatKit that was developed to address the cFS deployment challenges and to serve as a cFS training platform for new users. It provides a fully functional out-of-the box software system that includes NASA's cFS, Ball Aerospace's command and control system COSMOS, and a NASA dynamic simulator called 42. The kit is freely available since all of the components have been released as open source. The kit runs on a Linux platform, includes 8 cFS applications, several kit-specific applications, and built in demos illustrating how to use key application features. It also includes the software necessary to port the cFS to a Raspberry Pi and instructions for configuring COSMOS to communicate with the target. All of the demos and test scripts can be rerun unchanged with the cFS running on the Raspberry Pi. The cFS uses a 3-tiered layered architecture including a platform abstraction layer, a Core Flight Executive (cFE) middle layer, and an application layer. Similar to smart phones, the cFS application layer is the key architectural feature for users to extend the FSW functionality to meet their

  8. Detection of Cryptosporidium sp infection by PCR and modified acid fast staining from potassium dichromate preserved stool

    OpenAIRE

    Agnes Kurniawan; Sri W. Dwintasari; Herbowo A. Soetomenggolo; Septelia I. Wanandi

    2009-01-01

    Aim To identify the frequency of Cryptosporidium infection in children below 3 years old by examining concentrated long term preserved stool using PCR detection of 18S rRNA gene and compared with modified acid fast staining technique.Methods Hundred eighty eight stools from children ≤ 3 years old were stored for 13 months in 2.5% K2Cr2O7 solution at 40C. Cryptosporidium oocysts were isolated by water-ether concentration technique. The concentrates were smeared onto object glass and stained wi...

  9. Value of Tropheryma whipplei quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay for the diagnosis of Whipple disease: usefulness of saliva and stool specimens for first-line screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenollar, Florence; Laouira, Sonia; Lepidi, Hubert; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Raoult, Didier

    2008-09-01

    Whipple disease (WD) is a chronic infectious disease caused by Tropheryma whipplei. WD DNA has been found in stool and saliva specimens from patients and asymptomatic carriers. A total of 4418 samples that were sent to our center for determination of WD were tested by a T. whipplei-specific quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based on repetitive sequences. Definite WD was diagnosed in 71 patients, including 55 patients with classic WD (defined by positive results of periodic acid-Schiff staining and/or specific immunohistochemistry of small-bowel biopsy specimens) and 16 patients with localized WD (including patients with endocarditis, neurologic infection, and uveitis). Of the persons without WD, 2.3% had stool specimens positive for T. whipplei by PCR and 0.2% had saliva specimens positive for T. whipplei by PCR. Diagnosis of WD was likely in patients with positive results of both PCR of saliva specimens and PCR of stool specimens (positive predictive value, 95.2%). When the bacterial load was >10(4) colony-forming units per g of stool, the positive predictive value was 100%. A negative result of PCR of a saliva or stool specimen had a negative predictive value of 99.2% for classic WD. For localized WD, positive results of both PCR of saliva specimens and PCR of stool specimens had a sensitivity of 58% (compared with 94% for classic WD). The positive predictive value of testing of blood, cerebrospinal fluid, and urine specimens was 100% for each, and the positive predictive value for testing of duodenal biopsy specimens was 97.5%. T. whipplei-specific quantitative PCR of saliva and stool specimens should be performed as first-line noninvasive screening for WD. When the results for both types of specimens are positive, diagnosis of classic WD should be highly suspected, especially if a high bacterial load is detected. Because PCR of saliva and stool specimens lacks sensitivity for determination of localized WD, invasive samples should be tested on the

  10. Current Status on Stress Diagnostic Kit and Detection Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sang Hyun; Choi, Mi Hee; Ko, Kyong Cheol

    2008-06-01

    The accurate measurement of a stress level is one of the most important issues in a stress diagnosis and its measurement could be of great value in clinical medicine. Stress has a potent effect on the spirit and physical condition of an individual. There are various methods available for its measurement. Some of the commonly used techniques for the diagnosis of a stress level include analysis of the body fluids, questionnaire assessments, psychophysiological evaluations and by determining heart rate variability (HRV) of subjects. However, the existing diagnostic methods have several defects like, a low sensitivity, inaccuracy and long of operation time. In this report, we present a diagnostic technology to detect a stress level which is the origin of various diseases. This method can be of great help in providing an early diagnosis through a biosensor and might play a vital role in preventing diseases like hypochondria and hypertension. Majority of the human population is exposed to stress in one way or another and hence developing a convenient stress diagnosis kit will be of great use to all. This stress diagnostic kit and detection technology dose not involve simple a mechanical measurement or questionnaires, but is based on developing a detection kit with a high sensitivity, which will mean an easy use for common man. Individuals can undergo regular check ups and can personally diagnose their present situation of health by determining their stress levels, thus enabling them to diagnose the early onset of several stress disorders. This might help them take precautionary measures and thereby lead to a healthy life

  11. Analytical framework and tool kit for SEA follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Mans; Wiklund, Hans; Finnveden, Goeran; Jonsson, Daniel K.; Lundberg, Kristina; Tyskeng, Sara; Wallgren, Oskar

    2009-01-01

    Most Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) research and applications have so far neglected the ex post stages of the process, also called SEA follow-up. Tool kits and methodological frameworks for engaging effectively with SEA follow-up have been conspicuously missing. In particular, little has so far been learned from the much more mature evaluation literature although many aspects are similar. This paper provides an analytical framework and tool kit for SEA follow-up. It is based on insights and tools developed within programme evaluation and environmental systems analysis. It is also grounded in empirical studies into real planning and programming practices at the regional level, but should have relevance for SEA processes at all levels. The purpose of the framework is to promote a learning-oriented and integrated use of SEA follow-up in strategic decision making. It helps to identify appropriate tools and their use in the process, and to systematise the use of available data and knowledge across the planning organization and process. It distinguishes three stages in follow-up: scoping, analysis and learning, identifies the key functions and demonstrates the informational linkages to the strategic decision-making process. The associated tool kit includes specific analytical and deliberative tools. Many of these are applicable also ex ante, but are then used in a predictive mode rather than on the basis of real data. The analytical element of the framework is organized on the basis of programme theory and 'DPSIR' tools. The paper discusses three issues in the application of the framework: understanding the integration of organizations and knowledge; understanding planners' questions and analytical requirements; and understanding interests, incentives and reluctance to evaluate

  12. Current Status on Stress Diagnostic Kit and Detection Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sang Hyun; Choi, Mi Hee; Ko, Kyong Cheol

    2008-06-15

    The accurate measurement of a stress level is one of the most important issues in a stress diagnosis and its measurement could be of great value in clinical medicine. Stress has a potent effect on the spirit and physical condition of an individual. There are various methods available for its measurement. Some of the commonly used techniques for the diagnosis of a stress level include analysis of the body fluids, questionnaire assessments, psychophysiological evaluations and by determining heart rate variability (HRV) of subjects. However, the existing diagnostic methods have several defects like, a low sensitivity, inaccuracy and long of operation time. In this report, we present a diagnostic technology to detect a stress level which is the origin of various diseases. This method can be of great help in providing an early diagnosis through a biosensor and might play a vital role in preventing diseases like hypochondria and hypertension. Majority of the human population is exposed to stress in one way or another and hence developing a convenient stress diagnosis kit will be of great use to all. This stress diagnostic kit and detection technology dose not involve simple a mechanical measurement or questionnaires, but is based on developing a detection kit with a high sensitivity, which will mean an easy use for common man. Individuals can undergo regular check ups and can personally diagnose their present situation of health by determining their stress levels, thus enabling them to diagnose the early onset of several stress disorders. This might help them take precautionary measures and thereby lead to a healthy life.

  13. Fecal specimens preparation methods for PCR diagnosis of human taeniosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunes Cáris Maroni

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sample preparation and DNA extraction protocols for DNA amplification by PCR, which can be applied in human fecal samples for taeniasis diagnosis, are described. DNA extracted from fecal specimens with phenol/chloroform/isoamilic alcohol and DNAzol® reagent had to be first purified to generate fragments of 170 pb and 600 pb by HDP2-PCR. This purification step was not necessary with the use of QIAmp DNA stool mini kit®. Best DNA extraction results were achieved after eggs disruption with glass beads, either with phenol/chloroform/isoamilic alcohol, DNAzol® reagent or QIAmp DNA stool mini kit®.

  14. Influence of nest box environment on kit survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, V.H.; Malmkvist, Jens

    2012-01-01

    females divided into 4 groups, non-pregnant females (NON), pregnant females with access to one resource of nest building material (RES-1), pregnant females with access to three resources (RES-3), and pregnant females with access to one resource but which were moved into a climate-controlled facility...... died from day 1-7, and only ~5% in RES-3. The risk of dying was approx. 4 times higher for a kit live-born into the one resource environment. RES-3 females were building better nests and stayed in the nest box longer around parturition than RES-1, which could explain the higher mortality in this group...

  15. A safety-critical java technology compatibility kit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Hans; Korsholm, Stephan E.; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2014-01-01

    In order to claim conformance with a given Java Specification Request (JSR), a Java implementation has to pass all tests in an associated Technology Compatibility Kit (TCK). This paper presents development of test cases and tools for the draft Safety-Critical Java (SCJ) specification. In previous...... work we have shown how the Java Modeling Language (JML) is applied to specify conformance constraints for SCJ, and how JML-related tools may assist in generating and executing tests. Here we extend this work with a layout for concrete test cases including checking of results in a simplified version...

  16. Stannous ion determination in99mTc - radiopharmaceutical kits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, M.A.T.M. de; Silva, C.P.G. da.

    1989-10-01

    Two simple and selective methods for determination of stannous ion in radiopharmaceutical kits are proposed. One of this permits the estimation of stannic ion. The first method used is a potentiometric tiration of Sn +2 in HCl medium using KIO 3 solution under nitrogen gas and a redox platinum electrode. The second method consist of a compleximetric tiration of tin (Sn +2 and Sn +4 ) using EDTA standart solution at pH 5.5-5.6 without use of nitrogen gas. The employed procedures indicates that both the methods can be used for routine quantitative determination of tin in most labeled radiopharmaceuticals. (author) [pt

  17. Concurrent inhibition of kit- and FcepsilonRI-mediated signaling: coordinated suppression of mast cell activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bettina M; Beaven, Michael A; Iwaki, Shoko

    2008-01-01

    Although primarily required for the growth, differentiation, and survival of mast cells, Kit ligand (stem cell factor) is also required for optimal antigen-mediated mast cell activation. Therefore, concurrent inhibition of Kit- and FcepsilonRI-mediated signaling would be an attractive approach...... characterized Kit inhibitor imatinib mesylate (imatinib). In contrast to imatinib, however, hypothemycin also effectively inhibited FcepsilonRI-mediated degranulation and cytokine production in addition to the potentiation of these responses via Kit. The effect of hypothemycin on Kit-mediated responses could...... be explained by its inhibition of Kit kinase activity, whereas the inhibitory effects on FcepsilonRI-dependent signaling were at the level of Btk activation. Because hypothemycin also significantly reduced the mouse passive cutaneous anaphylaxis response in vivo, these data provide proof of principle...

  18. Expression, purification, and activity assay of peptide deformylase from Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Xuchun; Hu, Jinwei; Wang, Lijuan; Zhu, Zhifeng; Xu, Qiong; Lv, Junqiang; Fu, Zheng; Sun, Yajun; Sun, Jia; Lin, Gang; Lu, Rong; Yao, Zhi

    2011-11-01

    Peptide deformylase (PDF) is considered an attractive target for screening novel antibiotics. The PDF from Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus are representative of the gram-negative species type of PDF (type I PDF) and the gram-positive species type of PDF (type II PDF), respectively. They could be used for screening broad-spectrum antibiotics. Herein, we cloned the def gene by PCR, inserted it into plasmid pET-22b-def, and transformed the plasmid into E. coli BL21 (DE3) cells, then the cells were induced by IPTG to express PDF. E. coli Ni(2+)-PDF was extracted and purified by ion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration chromatography. S. aureus PDFs were extracted and purified using the MagExtractor kit. The nickel form of S. aureus PDF was obtained by adding NiCl(2) to all reagents used for purification. Iron-enriched S. aureus PDF was obtained by adding FeCl(3) to the growth medium for E. coli BL21 (DE3) cells and adding FeCl(3) and catalase to all reagents used for purification. The activities of PDFs were analyzed, compared, and grouped according to the experimental conditions that produced optimal activity, and we used actinonin as an inhibitor of PDF and calculated the IC(50) value. We obtained high expression of E. coli and S. aureus PDF with high activity and stability. The function of PDFs was inhibited by actinonin in a dose-dependent manner. Results may be helpful for future mechanistic investigations of PDF as well as high-throughput screening for other PDF inhibitors.

  19. Pharmacological targeting of the KIT growth factor receptor: a therapeutic consideration for mast cell disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bettina Margrethe; Akin, C; Gilfillan, A M

    2008-01-01

    within these tissues, mast cell activation by antigen may also be amplified by SCF. Thus, KIT inhibitors may have potential application in multiple conditions linked to mast cells including systemic mastocytosis, anaphylaxis, and asthma. In this review, we discuss the role of KIT in the context of mast...... cells in these disease states and how recent advances in the development of inhibitors of KIT activity and function may offer novel therapies for the treatment of these disorders....

  20. Application of an FSH-RIA-kit in the clinical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delzer, W.; Herzmann, H.

    1982-01-01

    First clinical experiences with an FSH-RIA-kit developed in the Central Institute for Isotope- and Radiation Research are reported. Simultaneously carried out LH and FSH determination during the menstruation cycle with special regard of the middle of the cycle revealed increased hormone values in the preovulatory phase. The problem of evaluation of hormone values achieved by different kits (standards), was investigated simultaneous determination of the sera using the own and an imported kit. (author)

  1. The clinical testing of a Hungarian-made triiodothyronine radioimmunoassay kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyertyanfy, G.; Foeldes, J.

    1981-01-01

    The parameters of the calibration curve of the new Hungarian RK-11 kit for the determination of the total T3 content of the serum and the reliability of the results were studied. The data of the measurements made on a number of patients by RK-11, Biodata and Byk-Mallinckrodt kits were compared. The new kit seems to be applicable to the determination of the total T3 content in the serum. (author)

  2. Dense Medium Plasma Water Purification Reactor (DMP WaPR), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Dense Medium Plasma Water Purification Reactor offers significant improvements over existing water purification technologies used in Advanced Life Support...

  3. C-kit-targeted imaging of gastrointestinal stromal tumor using radiolabeled anti-c-kit monoclonal antibody in a mouse tumor model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sogawa, Chizuru; Tsuji, Atsushi B.; Sudo, Hitomi; Sugyo, Aya; Yoshida, Chisato; Odaka, Kenichi; Uehara, Tomoya; Arano, Yasushi; Koizumi, Mitsuru; Saga, Tsuneo

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is the most common mesenchymal tumor arising from the gastrointestinal tract and highly expresses mutated c-kit. We aimed to develop a specific and sensitive method for detecting GISTs using radiolabeled anti-c-kit monoclonal antibody. Methods: A mutated c-kit-expressing cell clone was established by transfecting an expressing vector of mutated c-kit gene into HEK293 human embryonic kidney cells. The tumors were developed by inoculating c-kit-expressing cells into nude mice. 125 I- and 111 In-labeled anti-c-kit antibodies (12A8 and 41A11) were evaluated in vitro by cell binding, competitive inhibition and cellular internalization assays, and in vivo by biodistribution and imaging studies in tumor-bearing mice. Results: Both 125 I- and 111 In-labeled antibodies showed specific binding with c-kit-expressing cells with high affinity (dissociation constants = 2.2-7.1x10 9 M -1 ). Internalization assay showed that 125 I-labeled antibodies were rapidly internalized and dehalogenated, with the release of 125 I from the cells, resulting in reduction of cell-associated radioactivity with time. In contrast, 111 In-labeled antibody was internalized but did not result in the reduced radioactivity associated with tumor cells. Reflecting this phenomenon, the in vivo tumor uptake of 125 I-labeled antibody was low on Day 1, further decreasing with time, while tumor uptake of 111 In-labeled antibody was high on Day 1, further increasing with time. The xenografted tumor was clearly visualized by scintigraphy after injection of 111 In-labeled antibody. Conclusion: The anti-c-kit monoclonal antibody labeled with a metal radionuclide would be promising for c-kit-targeted imaging of GISTs.

  4. Single vial kit formulation for preparation of PET radiopharmaceutical. 68Ga-DOTA-TOC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archana Mukherjee; Usha Pandey; Rubel Chakravarty; Ashutosh Dash; Haladhar Dev Sarma

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a lyophilized cold kit of DOTA-[Tyr 3 ]-Octreotide (DOTA-TOC) for instant compounding of 68 Ga-DOTA-TOC, suitable for diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumors. The work involved formulation of DOTA-TOC kits, optimization of radiolabeling, quality control of 68 Ga-DOTA-TOC and animal biodistribution studies. The prepared kits enable a reliable method for preparation of 68 Ga-DOTA-TOC of high radiochemical purity and excellent stability. Availability of such kits along with 68 Ge/ 68 Ga generators is expected to stimulate the widespread use of 68 Ga-DOTA-TOC in nuclear medicine practice in developing countries. (author)

  5. Solid state nuclear track detectors kit for the use in teaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khouri, M.T.F.C.; Koskinas, M.F.

    1988-11-01

    The kit intends to improve the possibilities in performing experiments of Nuclear Physics in Modern Physics laboratories of Physics Course introducing the solid state nuclear track detectors. In these materials the passage of heavily ionizing nuclear particles creates paths (tracks) that may be revealed and made visible in an optical microscope. By the help of the kit several experiments and/or demonstrations may be performed. The kit contains solid state nuclear track detectors unirradiated and irradiated, irradiated etched and unetched sheets: an alpha source of 241 Am and an instrution text with photomicrographs. To use the kit the laboratory must have an ordinary optical microscope. (author) [pt

  6. Recommendations for adaptation and validation of commercial kits for biomarker quantification in drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Masood U; Bowsher, Ronald R; Cameron, Mark; Devanarayan, Viswanath; Keller, Steve; King, Lindsay; Lee, Jean; Morimoto, Alyssa; Rhyne, Paul; Stephen, Laurie; Wu, Yuling; Wyant, Timothy; Lachno, D Richard

    2015-01-01

    Increasingly, commercial immunoassay kits are used to support drug discovery and development. Longitudinally consistent kit performance is crucial, but the degree to which kits and reagents are characterized by manufacturers is not standardized, nor are the approaches by users to adapt them and evaluate their performance through validation prior to use. These factors can negatively impact data quality. This paper offers a systematic approach to assessment, method adaptation and validation of commercial immunoassay kits for quantification of biomarkers in drug development, expanding upon previous publications and guidance. These recommendations aim to standardize and harmonize user practices, contributing to reliable biomarker data from commercial immunoassays, thus, enabling properly informed decisions during drug development.

  7. Development of an up-to-date NBC self-aid kit for emergency cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Michael; Schmiechen, Katharina

    2009-01-01

    In accordance with alterations of the political and economical settings of Central Europe in the last decades, the characteristics of NBC hazards have changed. Since war appears unlikely, possible new scenarios involve pandemics, chemical transport accidents or distribution of CB warfare agents and radioactive materials by terroristic acts. Meeting this situation requires new protection and self aid equipment for the German civilian disaster relief forces. The German government has reacted to these risks by designing personal protection equipment for the civilian voluntary and professional disaster relief forces. The new NBC self aid kit will be part of this effort. The scientific approach of the project consisted of an updated risk analysis, a questionnaire for the professionals and volunteers involved in disaster management, a thorough evaluation of commercially available kits and single components, final design of the new kit including user instructions, and validation of a prototype kit in a disaster relief exercise. Results of the questionnaire stressed the need for a NBC self aid kit fulfilling the demands of easy handling, use of commercially available components, stability of materials, consumption adapted supply and portable size and weight of the complete kit. The evaluation of international NBC equipment could not identify any current NBC self aid kit which satisfies all needs of the German civilian disaster relief forces. The authors therefore compiled a new kit consisting of commercially available components. The newly developed kit was evaluated in a disaster relief exercise.

  8. Data on quantification of signaling pathways activated by KIT and PDGFRA mutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christelle Bahlawane

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present data are related to the article entitled “Insights into ligand stimulation effects on gastro-intestinal stromal tumors signaling” (C. Bahlawane, M. Schmitz, E. Letellier, K. Arumugam, N. Nicot, P.V. Nazarov, S. Haan, 2016 [1]. Constitutive and ligand-derived signaling pathways mediated by KIT and PDGFRA mutated proteins found in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST were compared. Expression of mutant proteins was induced by doxycycline in an isogenic background (Hek293 cells. Kit was identified by FACS at the cell surface and found to be quickly degraded or internalized upon SCF stimulation for both Kit Wild type and Kit mutant counterparts. Investigation of the main activated pathways in GIST unraveled a new feature specific for oncogenic KIT mutants, namely their ability to be further activated by Kit ligand, the stem cell factor (scf. We were also able to identify the MAPK pathway as the most prominent target for a common inhibition of PDGFRA and KIT oncogenic signaling. Western blotting and micro-array analysis were applied to analyze the capacities of the mutant to induce an effective STATs response. Among all Kit mutants, only Kit Ex11 deletion mutant was able to elicit an effective STATs response whereas all PDGFRA were able to do so.

  9. Determination of tin (II) in radiopharmaceutical kits by polarographic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aungurarat, A.; Thuntawewadthananon, T.

    1996-01-01

    Radiopharmaceutical kit is a diagnostic compound which contains Stannous (II) as a reducing agent. The quantity of Stannous (II) is depended on the type of kits. So the quantity of Stannous (II) is determined by polarographic method with Differential Pulse Voltammetry (D P Mode) in which a saturated calomel electrode is used as anode and a dropping mercury electrode is used as cathode. Both of electrodes are immerged in the premixed solution of supporting electrolyte and analytical Stannous (II). The Stannous (II) is determined by direct method Stannous (II) is analyzed in the form of Stannous; Sn 2 + itself, and indirect method Stannous (II) is analyzed in the form of S tannic; Sn 4+ (Sn 2+ , + N H 4 + ----> Sn 4+ ). Both methods are done at polarographic half wave potential -470 and -520 mV respectively. The Limit of Detection (LOD) of the direct method is 1.9445 micro g and indirect method is 1.3018 micro g. The result received from indirect method is much more accurate than the direct method (Sn 2+ ). The accuracy of the direct method is about 97.5-102.5% recovery

  10. Behavioral study of cnc-retrofitting kits for lathe machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this project is to develop a Computerized Numerical Controlled (CNC) retrofitting kit for a lathe machine, study its behavior and compare its performance with the retrofitting kit already designed and fabricated at (Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS). Design calculations were performed assuming 100 mm work piece diameter and 800 mm length of stock using tool materials HSS, uncoated carbide, coated carbide, ceramic and cermet tools for different materials. Also cutting, thrust and radial forces on a single point cutting tool were determined. Stepper motors of torque 972 oz-in were selected to drive the carriage and cross-slide in Z and X-directions respectively. Power screws were replaced with ball screws of 0.63 inch dia. (x-direction) and 1.26 in. dia. (Z-direction) which were locally manufactured in the workshop. Deep groove and Angular contact ball bearings were used to support the ball screw shafts against axial and radial loads. Flexible and plain couplings were developed to couple encoders and motors to the ball screw shafts respectively. Panel mount optical rotary encoders are being used for feedback control. Mechanical assembly is complete but due to unavailability of wiring diagram for motors, control electronics could not be accomplished. Therefore, machine could not be evaluated in terms of accuracy, repeatability and resolution using computer software. (author)

  11. Fundamental and clinical evaluation of osteocalcin RIA kit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kousaka, Tadako; Yamamoto, Itsuo; Kitamura, Nobuyasu; Aoki, Jun; Uneno, Susumu; Sone, Teruki; Kasai, Ryuuichi; Torizuka, Kanji

    1987-06-01

    The laboratory performance of a double antibody radioimmunoassay (RIA) kit for measuring osteocalcin (OC) was tested for incubation, the effect of anticoagulants, serum storage, dilution, recovery, and reproducibility. Serum OC concentrations increased rapidly with the addition of 5 mM or more ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid, although they were not affected by the addition of heparin. Serum OC measurements, obtained at 2 or 3 weeks after sampling, tended to be lower. The other items, except for dilution, were reliable. Using the OC RIA kit, serum OC concentrations were measured in 161 patients with various diseases and 408 volunteers. Normal upper limit for OC was defined as 11.48 ng/ml. Serum OC concentrations were extremely high up to the age of puberty, and thereafter decreased rapidly with the constant values after the age of 20. Women had increased OC values after the latter half of their fourties. Primary hyperparathyroidism, bone metastases of malignancy, and malignant hypercalcemia were occasionally associated with increased OC values, in contrast to hypoparathyroidism showing decreased OC values. Extremely high values of OC were seen in many of the dialysis patients. (Namekawa, K.).

  12. Preparation and quality control of MAA human serum albumin kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yassin, T.; Dadokh, M.; Almalki, R.

    2005-05-01

    MAA Macro aggregate Kit for pulmonary perfusion after labeling with 99m Tc was prepared according to an optimum conditions, where each vial contains 0.8 mg of HSA and 0.17 mg of stannous chloride dehydrate (SnCl 2 2H 2 O),The prepared kit showed high quality satisfying the requirements of international pharmacopoeias from the points of physical, chemical, radiochemical and biological purities, and its validity for human injection. And the labeling yield exceeded 99 % with average value of about 99.74 ± 0.27 % for 2mCi/2ml radioactivity, The bio distribution study in rats showed that an average of 93.87 ± 3.97% of injected dose was located in the lungs after 10 minutes where only about 0.99 ± 0.41 % of it was located in the liver and about 0.41 ± 0.14% in the kidneys and blood clearance 1.235 ± 0.78 %. This study also showed that each vial content can be labeled with maximum activity of 99m Tc of about 50 mCi. (Authors)

  13. Low Cost DIY Lenses kit For High School Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thepnurat, Meechai; Saphet, Parinya; Tong-on, Anusorn

    2017-09-01

    A set of lenses was fabricated from a low cost materials in a DIY (Do it yourself) process. The purpose was to demonstrate to teachers and students in high schools how to construct lenses by themselves with the local available materials. The lenses could be applied in teaching Physics, about the nature of a lens such as focal length and light rays passing through lenses in either direction, employing a set of simple laser pointers. This instrumental kit was made from a transparent 2 mm thick of acrylic Perspex. It was cut into rectangular pieces with dimensions of 2x15 cm2 and bent into curved shape by a hot air blower on a cylindrical wooden rod with curvature radii of about 3-4.5 cm. Then a pair of these Perspex were formed into a hollow thick lenses with a base supporting platform, so that any appropriate liquids could be filled in. The focal length of the lens was measured from laser beam drawing on a paper. The refractive index, n (n) of a filling liquid could be calculated from the measured focal length (f). The kit was low cost and DIY but was greatly applicable for optics teaching in high school laboratory.

  14. Relating Stool Microbial Metabolite Levels, Inflammatory Markers and Dietary Behaviors to Screening Colonoscopy Findings in a Racially/Ethnically Diverse Patient Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina M. Bridges

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third leading cause of cancer death for both men and women in the United States, yet it is treatable and preventable. African Americans have higher incidence of CRC than other racial/ethnic groups, however, it is unclear whether this disparity is primarily due to environmental or biological factors. Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs are metabolites produced by bacteria in the colon and are known to be inversely related to CRC progression. The aim of this study is to investigate how stool SCFA levels, markers of inflammation in stool and dietary intake relate to colonoscopy findings in a diverse patient population. Stool samples from forty-eight participants were analyzed for SCFA levels and inflammatory markers (lysozyme, secretory IgA, lactoferrin. Additionally, participants completed the National Cancer Institute’s Diet History Questionnaire II (DHQ II to report dietary intake over the past year. Subsequently, the majority of participants underwent screening colonoscopy. Our results showed that African Americans had higher total levels of SCFAs in stool than other racial/ethnic groups, significantly lower intake of non-starchy vegetables and similar inflammatory marker expression and colonoscopy outcomes, compared to others. This work is an initial exploration into the biological and clinical factors that may ultimately inform personalized screening approaches and clinical decision-making to improve colorectal cancer disparities for African Americans.

  15. Mathematical inference on helminth egg counts in stool and its applications in mass drug administration programmes to control soil-transmitted helminthiasis in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levecke, Bruno; Anderson, Roy M; Berkvens, Dirk; Charlier, Johannes; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Speybroeck, Niko; Vercruysse, Jozef; Van Aelst, Stefan

    2015-03-01

    In the present study, we present a hierarchical model based on faecal egg counts (FECs; expressed in eggs per 1g of stool) in which we first describe the variation in FECs between individuals in a particular population, followed by describing the variance due to counting eggs under a microscope separately for each stool sample. From this general framework, we discuss how to calculate a sample size for assessing a population mean FEC and the impact of an intervention, measured as reduction in FECs, for any scenario of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) epidemiology (the intensity and aggregation of FECs within a population) and diagnostic strategy (amount of stool examined (∼sensitivity of the diagnostic technique) and examination of individual/pooled stool samples) and on how to estimate prevalence of STH in the absence of a gold standard. To give these applications the most wide relevance as possible, we illustrate each of them with hypothetical examples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Relating Stool Microbial Metabolite Levels, Inflammatory Markers and Dietary Behaviors to Screening Colonoscopy Findings in a Racially/Ethnically Diverse Patient Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Kristina M.; Diaz, Francisco J.; Wang, Zhiwen; Ahmed, Ishfaq; Sullivan, Debra K.; Umar, Shahid; Buckles, Daniel C.; Greiner, K. Allen; Hester, Christina M.

    2018-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third leading cause of cancer death for both men and women in the United States, yet it is treatable and preventable. African Americans have higher incidence of CRC than other racial/ethnic groups, however, it is unclear whether this disparity is primarily due to environmental or biological factors. Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are metabolites produced by bacteria in the colon and are known to be inversely related to CRC progression. The aim of this study is to investigate how stool SCFA levels, markers of inflammation in stool and dietary intake relate to colonoscopy findings in a diverse patient population. Stool samples from forty-eight participants were analyzed for SCFA levels and inflammatory markers (lysozyme, secretory IgA, lactoferrin). Additionally, participants completed the National Cancer Institute’s Diet History Questionnaire II (DHQ II) to report dietary intake over the past year. Subsequently, the majority of participants underwent screening colonoscopy. Our results showed that African Americans had higher total levels of SCFAs in stool than other racial/ethnic groups, significantly lower intake of non-starchy vegetables and similar inflammatory marker expression and colonoscopy outcomes, compared to others. This work is an initial exploration into the biological and clinical factors that may ultimately inform personalized screening approaches and clinical decision-making to improve colorectal cancer disparities for African Americans. PMID:29495356

  17. Improving the technology of purification of gas emissions petrochemical industries

    OpenAIRE

    USMANOVA R.R.; ZAIKOV G.E.

    2014-01-01

    The technology of cleaning of gas emissions flares in the production of synthetic rubber. Developed dynamic scrubber for scrubbing gas emissions. Complex studies served as the basis for the design of an air purification system of industrial premises. Purification of gas emissions before combustion in flares has significantly reduced air pollution by toxic substances.

  18. New Combined Electron-Beam Methods of Wastewater Purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pikaev, A.K.; Makarov, I.E.; Ponomarev, A.V.; Kartasheva, L.I.; Podzorova, E.A.; Chulkov, V.N.; Han, B.; Kim, D.K.

    1999-01-01

    The paper is a brief review of the results obtained with the participation of the authors from the study on combined electron-beam methods for purification of some wastewaters. The data on purification of wastewaters containing dyes or hydrogen peroxide and municipal wastewater in the aerosol flow are considered

  19. Comparative study of peroxidase purification from apple and orange ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports the isolation and purification of peroxidase from low cost material; moreover, no significant work has been done on the isolation and purification of peroxidase from such cost effective sources (apple and orange seeds). Peroxidases had attracted considerable interest in recent years because of their ...

  20. Purification and Characterization of Lipase from Aspergillus flavus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Abstract. Lipase from Aspergillus flavus was purified in a single step purification using MnFeO4 magnetic nano particles to achieve a 20.53- fold purification with specific activity of. 11.29 U/mg and a 59% recovery yield. SDS-PAGE of lipase showed a single pure band with corresponding molecular weight of 35 kDa.

  1. Purification and characterization of three laccase isozymes from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-04-17

    Apr 17, 2012 ... improve wine quality by removing fermentation inhibitors so as to increase yield of ethanol (Baldrian, 2006). They have also been used .... Summary of purification of laccase isozymes from Trametes sp. HS-03a. Purification .... and kinetics of a thermostable laccase from Pycnoporus sanguineus. (SCC 108).

  2. Optimization of laboratory scale production and purification of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microcystin content is however highly variable and optimised culture conditions are essential to produce viable yields of microcystin for purification. We describe the optimization of culture conditions and evaluation of various purification methods to enhance the yield of microcystin from laboratory scale culture.

  3. A scintillator purification system for the Borexino solar neutrino detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benziger, J.; Cadonati, L.; Calaprice, F.; Chen, M.; Corsi, A.; Dalnoki-Veress, F.; Fernholz, R.; Ford, R.; Galbiati, C.; Goretti, A.; Harding, E.; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Kidner, S.; Leung, M.; Loeser, F.; McCarty, K.; McKinsey, D.; Nelson, A.; Pocar, A.; Salvo, C.; Schimizzi, D.; Shutt, T.; Sonnenschein, A.

    2008-03-01

    Purification of the 278 tons of liquid scintillator and 889 tons of buffer shielding for the Borexino solar neutrino detector is performed with a system that combines distillation, water extraction, gas stripping, and filtration. This paper describes the principles of operation, design, and construction of that purification system, and reviews the requirements and methods to achieve system cleanliness and leak-tightness.

  4. Surface processes during purification of InP quantum dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Mordvinova

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a new simple and fast method for the synthesis of InP quantum dots by using phosphine as phosphorous precursor and myristic acid as surface stabilizer was reported. Purification after synthesis is necessary to obtain samples with good optical properties. Two methods of purification were compared and the surface processes which occur during purification were studied. Traditional precipitation with acetone is accompanied by a small increase in photoluminescence. It occurs that during the purification the hydrolysis of the indium precursor takes place, which leads to a better surface passivation. The electrophoretic purification technique does not increase luminescence efficiency but yields very pure quantum dots in only a few minutes. Additionally, the formation of In(OH3 during the low temperature synthesis was explained. Purification of quantum dots is a very significant part of postsynthetical treatment that determines the properties of the material. But this subject is not sufficiently discussed in the literature. The paper is devoted to the processes that occur at the surface of quantum dots during purification. A new method of purification, electrophoresis, is investigated and described in particular.

  5. Single-step affinity purification for fungal proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui-Lin; Osmani, Aysha H; Ukil, Leena; Son, Sunghun; Markossian, Sarine; Shen, Kuo-Fang; Govindaraghavan, Meera; Varadaraj, Archana; Hashmi, Shahr B; De Souza, Colin P; Osmani, Stephen A

    2010-05-01

    A single-step protein affinity purification protocol using Aspergillus nidulans is described. Detailed protocols for cell breakage, affinity purification, and depending on the application, methods for protein release from affinity beads are provided. Examples defining the utility of the approaches, which should be widely applicable, are included.

  6. Single-Step Affinity Purification for Fungal Proteomics ▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Hui-Lin; Osmani, Aysha H.; Ukil, Leena; Son, Sunghun; Markossian, Sarine; Shen, Kuo-Fang; Govindaraghavan, Meera; Varadaraj, Archana; Hashmi, Shahr B.; De Souza, Colin P.; Osmani, Stephen A.

    2010-01-01

    A single-step protein affinity purification protocol using Aspergillus nidulans is described. Detailed protocols for cell breakage, affinity purification, and depending on the application, methods for protein release from affinity beads are provided. Examples defining the utility of the approaches, which should be widely applicable, are included.

  7. Overview of the recombinant proteins purification by affinity tags and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From protein within isolation process which the same matter increases labor costs further and prevents application of these tags in industrial scale. Therefore proper replacement is emphasized for enzymatic removal of purification tags. Keywords: protein purification; recombinant proteins; self-cleavable tags; Intein tags; ...

  8. Development of Purification Protocol Specific for Bacteriocin 105B

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-09

    Bacillus anthracis. As the current application of broad-spectrum antimicrobials promotes the development of multi- drug resistant microorganisms...SPECTRUM TARGETED ANTIMICROBIALS ASSAYS PURIFICATION BACILLUS ANTHRACIS DRUG- RESISTANT MICROORGANISMS...through the purification procedure. The wide-spread use of broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents has led to the development of drug resistant

  9. Purification and fluorescent labeling of the human serotonin transporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Søren G F; Gether, Ulrik

    2005-01-01

    To establish a purification procedure for the human serotonin transporter (hSERT) we expressed in Sf9 insect cells an epitope-tagged version of the transporter containing a FLAG epitope at the N-terminus and a polyhistidine tail at the C-terminus (FLAG-hSERT-12H). For purification, the transporter...

  10. One-step purification of E. coli elongation factor Tu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Charlotte Rohde; Clark, Brian F. C.; Degn, B

    1993-01-01

    The tuf A gene, encoding the E. coli elongation factor Tu, was cloned in the pGEX gene fusion system. Upon expression EF-Tu is fused to glutathione-S-transferase serving as a purification handle with affinity for glutathione immobilised on agarose. This allows purification of EF-Tu in a one...

  11. Phase equilibria at the Zirconium metal purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwiretnani-Sudjoko; Busron-Masduki; Sunardjo; Budi-Sulistyo

    1996-01-01

    It was investigated the research in the purification of zirconium metal, which was results from the reduction process, by adding heat in the vacuum environment. The process was done in batch in the stainless steel reactor, equiped with vacuum pump and electric heater. The investigated variable were process temperature and pressure. From this research it was obtained that equilibrium constant for MgCl 2 and Mg were expressed in the equation K M g C l 2 = 0.9011 P 1 .3779 1.06552 T and K M g = 6.0115P + 1.35256T - 6.93912

  12. [Purification of 67Cu]. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeNardo, S.J.

    1994-01-01

    This report documents progress made in several areas of research and describes results which have not yet been published. These areas include: Purification of 67 Cu; Macrocyclic chelates for targeted therapy; Studies of biologic activation associated with molecular receptor increase and tumor response in ChL6/L6 protocol patients; Lym-1 single chain genetically engineered molecules; Analysis of molecular genetic coded messages to enhance tumor response; Human dosimetry and therapeutic human use radiopharmaceuticals; studies in phantoms; Quantitative SPECT; Preclinical studies; and Clinical studies

  13. Process for purification of gas mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasiliev, S Z; Letitschevskij, V I; Maergojz, I I; Michailov, L A; Puschkarev, L I

    1977-06-23

    The process relates to the purification of gas mixtures of N, H, and Ar, or N and H, or N and O which contain CO, CO/sub 2/ and water vapour. Single-stage adsorption occurs under standard pressure at temperatures from -40 to +4/sup 0/C up to the point of CO penetration through the zeolite layer. Zeolite is of type A or X combined with Ca, Na, Ag, Cd, Co, Ni, Mn or a natural zeolite of the type klinoptilolite. Regeneration is achieved at constant temperature and pressure of 1-5x10/sup -1/ Torr or by heating to 120-600/sup 0/C.

  14. CAREM-25. Purification and volume control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acosta, Eduardo; Carlevaris, Rodolfo; Patrignani, Alberto; Chocron, Mauricio; Goya, Hector E.; Ortega, Daniel A.; Ramilo, Lucia B.

    2000-01-01

    The purification and volume control system has the following main functions: water level control inside reactor pressure vessel (RPR) in all the reactor operational modes, pressure control when the reactor operates in solid state, and maintenance of radiological, physical and chemical parameters of primary water. In case of Hot Shutdown operational mode and also after Scram the system is capable of extraction of nuclear decay heat. The design of the system is in accordance with the Requirements of ANSI/ ANS 51.1; 58.11 and 56.2 standards. (author)

  15. Canine and human gastrointestinal stromal tumors display similar mutations in c-KIT exon 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory-Bryson, Emmalena; Bartlett, Elizabeth; Kiupel, Matti; Hayes, Schantel; Yuzbasiyan-Gurkan, Vilma

    2010-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are common mesenchymal neoplasms in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and dogs. Little is known about the pathogenesis of these tumors. This study evaluated the role of c-KIT in canine GISTs; specifically, we investigated activating mutations in exons 8, 9, 11, 13, and 17 of c-KIT and exons 12, 14, and 18 of platelet-derived growth factor receptor, alpha polypeptide (PDGFRA), all of which have been implicated in human GISTs. Seventeen canine GISTs all confirmed to be positive for KIT immunostaining were studied. Exons 8, 9, 11, 13 and 17 of c-KIT and exons 12, 14, and 18 of PDGFRA, were amplified from DNA isolated from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples. Of these seventeen cases, six amplicons of exon 11 of c-KIT showed aberrant bands on gel electrophoresis. Sequencing of these amplicons revealed heterozygous in-frame deletions in six cases. The mutations include two different but overlapping six base pair deletions. Exons 8, 9, 13, and 17 of c-KIT and exons 12, 14, and 18 of PDGFRA had no abnormalities detected by electrophoresis and sequencing did not reveal any mutations, other than synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) found in exon 11 of c-KIT and exons 12 and 14 of PDGFRA. The deletion mutations detected in canine GISTs are similar to those previously found in the juxtamembrane domain of c-KIT in canine cutaneous mast cell tumors in our laboratory as well as to those reported in human GISTs. Interestingly, none of the other c-KIT or PDGFRA exons showed any abnormalities in our cases. This finding underlines the critical importance of c-KIT in the pathophysiology of canine GISTs. The expression of KIT and the identification of these activating mutations in c-KIT implicate KIT in the pathogenesis of these tumors. Our results indicate that mutations in c-KIT may be of prognostic significance and that targeting KIT may be a rational approach to treatment of these malignant tumors. This study further

  16. KIT polymorphisms and mutations determine responses of neoplastic mast cells to bafetinib (INNO-406).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Barbara; Hadzijusufovic, Emir; Blatt, Katharina; Gleixner, Karoline V; Pickl, Winfried F; Thaiwong, Tuddow; Yuzbasiyan-Gurkan, Vilma; Willmann, Michael; Valent, Peter

    2010-09-01

    Advanced systemic mastocytosis (SM) is characterized by uncontrolled growth of neoplastic mast cells (MC) and drug resistance. The tyrosine kinase receptor KIT is often mutated and activated and thus contributes to malignant growth of MC. Therefore, KIT-targeting drugs are currently tested for their ability to block growth of malignant MC. We determined the effects of the multikinase inhibitor INNO-406 (bafetinib) on primary neoplastic MC, the canine mastocytoma cell line C2, the human MC leukemia cell line HMC-1.1 bearing the KIT mutant V560G, and HMC-1.2 cells harboring KIT V560G and KIT D816V. INNO-406 was found to inhibit proliferation in HMC-1.1 cells (IC(50): 30-40 nM), but not in HMC-1.2 cells or primary neoplastic cells in patients with KIT D816V-positive SM. In canines, growth-inhibitory effects of INNO-406 were seen in C2 cells (IC(50): 50-100 nM) exhibiting a KIT exon 11 internal tandem-duplication and in primary neoplastic MC harboring wild-type exon 11, whereas no effects were seen in MC exhibiting a polymorphism at amino acid 581 in exon 11. INNO-406 was found to block KIT phosphorylation and expression in HMC-1.1 cells and C2 cells, but not in HMC-1.2 cells, whereas Lyn-phosphorylation was blocked by INNO-406 in all types of MC. In neoplastic MC, the major target of INNO-406 appears to be KIT. Drug responses may depend on the presence and type of KIT mutation. In human MC, the KIT D816V mutant introduces resistance, and in canine mastocytomas, an exon 11 polymorphism may be indicative of resistance against INNO-406.

  17. Effect of planecta and ROSE™ on the frequency characteristics of blood pressure-transducer kits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Shigeki; Kawakubo, Yoshifumi; Mori, Satoshi; Tachihara, Keiichi; Toyoguchi, Izumi; Yokoyama, Takeshi

    2015-12-01

    Pressure-transducer kits have frequency characteristics such as natural frequency and damping coefficient, which affect the monitoring accuracy. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of planecta ports and a damping device (ROSE™, Argon Medical Devices, TX, USA) on the frequency characteristics of pressure-transducer kits. The FloTrac sensor kit (Edwards Lifesciences, CA, USA) and the DTXplus transducer kit (Argon Medical Devices) were prepared with planecta ports, and their frequency characteristics were tested with or without ROSE™. The natural frequency and damping coefficient of each kit were obtained using frequency characteristics analysis software and evaluated by plotting them on the Gardner's chart. By inserting a planecta port, the natural frequency markedly decreased in both the FloTrac sensor kit (from 40 to 22 Hz) and the DTXplus transducer kit (from 35 to 22 Hz). In both kits with one planecta port, the damping coefficient markedly increased by insertion of ROSE™ from 0.2 to 0.5, optimising frequency characteristics. In both kits with two planecta ports, however, the natural frequency decreased from 22 to 12 Hz. The damping coefficient increased from 0.2 to 0.8 by insertion of ROSE™; however, optimisation was not achieved even by ROSE™ insertion. Planecta ports decrease the natural frequency of the kit. ROSE™ is useful to optimise the frequency characteristics in the kits without or with one planecta port. However, optimisation is difficult with two or more planecta ports, even with the ROSE™ device.

  18. Expression of c-kit in common benign and malignant breast lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondi-Pafiti, Agatha; Arkadopoulos, Nikolaos; Gennatas, Constantinos; Michalaki, Vassiliki; Frangou-Plegmenou, Matrona; Chatzipantelis, Paschalis

    2010-01-01

    c-kit (CD117) is a transmembrane tyrosine kinase that acts as a type III receptor for mast cell growth factor. In recent years, the role of c-kit in the development of preinvasive and invasive breast carcinomas has been investigated. The aim of our study was to detect c-kit expression in the entire spectrum of common benign and malignant breast lesions in correlation with a well-studied myoepithelial or stem-cell like marker (p63). We evaluated 270 cases of benign and malignant breast lesions including fibrocystic disease, fibroadenoma, sclerosing adenosis, atypical ductal hyperplasia, ductal/lobular carcinoma in situ, and ductal/lobular/mixed type carcinoma. C-kit staining was evaluated in the cytoplasm/cell membrane in epithelial and myoepithelial cells and p63 in the nuclei of myoepithelial cells. c-kit was highly expressed (85.3%) in benign lesions (fibrocystic disease, sclerosing adenosis, fibroadenoma), and p63 expression was 95.5% in the aforementioned lesions. c-kit distribution in preinvasive and invasive lesions was as follows: ductal/lobular carcinoma in-situ, 43%/35%; ductal/lobular carcinoma, 36%/39%; and mixed type carcinoma, 20%. c-kit was highly expressed in myofibroblast/fibroblast cells only in grade III ductal/lobular carcinomas. c-kit was totally absent in stromal cells in benign lesions and in situ carcinomas whereas expression was weak in grade I and II carcinomas. Combined overexpression of c-kit and p63 is indicative of benign breast lesions. In contrast, there is reduced expression of c-kit in in situ and invasive breast carcinomas, with simultaneous overexpression in the stromal cells. This suggests that c-kit may play a role in breast cancer progression.

  19. Diagnostic efficacy of monoclonal antibody based sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for detection of Fasciola gigantica excretory/secretory antigens in both serum and stool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoheiry Mona K

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This research was carried out to develop a reliable monoclonal antibody (MoAb-based sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for the diagnosis of active Fasciola gigantica infection in both serum and stool for comparative purposes. Methods From a panel of MoAbs raised against F. gigantica excretory/secretory antigens (ES Ags, a pair (12B/11D/3F and 10A/9D/10G was chosen due to its high reactivity and strict specificity to F. gigantica antigen by indirect ELISA. Results The two MoAbs were of the IgG1 and IgG2a subclasses, respectively. Using SDS-PAGE and EITB, the selected MoAbs recognized 83, 64, 45 and 26 kDa bands of ES Ags. The lower detection limit of ELISA assay was 3 ng/ml. In stool, the sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic efficacy of ELISA was 96%, 98.2 and 97.1%; while in serum they were 94%, 94.6% and 94.3%, respectively. Moreover, a positive correlation was found between ova count in stool of F. gigantica infected patients and the OD readings of ELISA in both stool and serum samples (r = 0.730, p Conclusions These data showed that the use of MoAb-based sandwich ELISA for the detection of F. gigantica coproantigens in stool specimens was superior to serum samples; it provides a highly efficient, non-invasive technique for the diagnosis of active F. gigantica infection.

  20. Difference in Ulex europaeus agglutinin I-binding activity of decay-accelerating factor detected in the stools of patients with colorectal cancer and ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Hiroaki; Mizuno, Motowo; Nasu, Junichirou; Makidono, Chiho; Hiraoka, Sakiko; Yamamoto, Kazuhide; Okada, Hiroyuki; Fujita, Teizo; Tsuji, Takao; Shiratori, Yasushi

    2004-03-01

    Expression of decay-accelerating factor (DAF, CD55), a complement-regulatory glycoprotein, is enhanced in colorectal-cancer (CC) cells and colonic epithelium in ulcerative colitis (UC), and stools from these patients contain increased amounts of DAF. Carbohydrate chains of glycoproteins are often altered during malignant transformation or inflammation. In this study, we investigated whether DAF molecules in patients with CC and those with UC differ with respect to oligosaccharide side chains. We analyzed DAF in stools and homogenates of colonic-tissue specimens obtained from patients with CC or UC using solid-phase enzyme-linked assay and Western blotting for reactivity with the lectins Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-I), wheat-germ agglutinin, peanut agglutinin, and concanavalin A. UEA-I bound to DAF in stools from patients with UC but not in that from the stools of CC patients, as demonstrated on the solid-phase enzyme-linked assay (P <.05, Mann-Whitney U test) and Western blotting. Binding of UEA-I was specifically inhibited by the addition of fucose. The difference in UEA-I reactivity with DAF was observed also in colonic-tissue homogenates from patients with UC and those with CC. DAF expressed in the mucosa and excreted into the stools of UC patients is different from that expressed in CC with regard to UEA-I reactivity. Future studies should be directed toward determining whether a qualitatively unique isoform of DAF is present, of which sugar chains are specific to CC in UC patients.

  1. Multiplex PCR detection of Cryptosporidium sp, Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica directly from dried stool samples from Guinea-Bissauan children with diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mero, Sointu; Kirveskari, Juha; Antikainen, Jenni; Ursing, Johan; Rombo, Lars; Kofoed, Poul-Erik; Kantele, Anu

    2017-09-01

    In developing countries, diarrhoea is the most common cause of death for children under five years of age, with Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium and Entamoeba histolytica as the most frequent pathogenic parasites. Traditional microscopy for stool parasites has poor sensitivity and specificity, while new molecular methods may provide more accurate diagnostics. In poor regions with sample storage hampered by uncertain electricity supply, research would benefit from a method capable of analysing dried stools. A real-time multiplex PCR method with internal inhibition control was developed for detecting Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium hominis/parvum and Entamoeba histolytica directly from stool specimens. Applicability to dried samples was checked by comparing with fresh ones in a small test material. Finally, the assay was applied to dried specimens collected from Guinea-Bissauan children with diarrhoea. The PCR's analytical sensitivity limit was 0.1 ng/ml for G. lamblia DNA, 0.01 ng/ml for E. histolytica DNA and 0.1 ng/ml for Cryptosporidium sp. In the test material, the assay performed similarly with fresh and dried stools. Of the 52 Guinea-Bissauan samples, local microscopy revealed a parasite in 15%, while PCR detected 62% positive for at least one parasite: 44% of the dried samples had Giardia, 23% Cryptosporidium and 0% E. histolytica. Our new multiplex real-time PCR for protozoa presents a sensitive method applicable to dried samples. As proof of concept, it worked well on stools collected from Guinea-Bissauan children with diarrhoea. It provides an epidemiological tool for analysing dried specimens from regions poor in resources.

  2. Efficiency of Direct Microscopy of Stool Samples Using an Antigen-Specific Adhesin Test for Entamoeba Histolytica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu İrvem

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: E. histolytica is among the common causes of acute gastroenteritis. The pathogenic species E. histolytica and the nonpathogenic species E. dispar cannot be morphologically differentiated, although correct identification of these protozoans is important for treatment and public health. In many laboratories, the screening of leukocytes, erythrocytes, amoebic cysts, trophozoites and parasite eggs is performed using Native-Lugol’s iodine for pre-diagnosis. Aims: In this study, we aimed to investigate the frequency of E. histolytica in stool samples collected from 788 patients residing in the Anatolian region of İstanbul who presented with gastrointestinal complaints. We used the information obtained to evaluate the effectiveness of microscopic examinations when used in combination with the E. histolytica adhesin antigen test. Study Design: Retrospective cross-sectional study Methods: Preparations of stool samples stained with Native-Lugol’s iodine were evaluated using the E. histolytica adhesin test and examined using standard light microscopy at ×40 magnification. Pearson’s Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests were used for statistical analysis. Logistic regression analysis was used for multivariate analysis. Results: Of 788 samples, 38 (4.8% were positive for E. histolytica adhesin antigens. When evaluated together with the presences of erythrocytes, leukocytes, cysts, and trophozoites, respectively, using logistic regression analysis, leukocyte positivity was significantly higher. The odds ratio of leukocyte positivity increased adhesin test-positivity by 2,530-fold (95% CI=1.01–6.330. Adhesin test-positivity was significant (p=0.047. Conclusion: In line with these findings, the consistency between the presence of cysts and erythrocytes and adhesin test-positivity was found to be highly significant, but that of higher levels of leukocytes was found to be discordant. It was concluded that leukocytes and trophozoites were

  3. Evaluation of the BeTha gene 1 kit for the qualitative detection of the eight most common Mediterranean beta-thalassemia mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugozzoli, L A; Lowery, J D; Reyes, A A; Lin, C I; Re, A; Locati, F; Galanello, R; Macioni, L; Maggio, A; Giambona, A; Loutradi, A; Boussiou, M; Wallace, R B

    1998-11-01

    We describe the evaluation of the Bio-Rad BeTha Gene 1 kit (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Hercules, CA), a DNA-probe assay designed for the qualitative determination of the eight most common Mediterranean beta-thalassemia mutations. The kit utilizes the principle of allele-specific oligonucleotide (ASO) hybridization. Following sample preparation and in vitro DNA amplification by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), an allele-specific detection of the amplified products by a nonradioactive enzymatic assay is performed. Genomic DNA is prepared from an individual's whole blood with a DNA purification matrix. In a second step, the beta-globin gene is amplified in a multiplex PCR reaction containing four 5' biotinylated oligonucleotide primers. In a final step, an aliquot of the PCR reaction is first chemically denatured and then captured in two eight-well strips of a 96-well enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) plate by hybridization to an immobilized ASO probe. Each DNA sequence at each of the eight mutation sites is represented by one normal and one mutant ASO. During this capture/hybridization step, which is performed at 37 degrees C, only perfectly matched PCR products will be captured by an ASO. Subsequently, the allele-specific captured biotin-labeled PCR products are detected by a colorimetric enzymatic reaction. The system permits the detection of 16 beta-thalassemia alleles using a high-throughput format that can be automated easily. A clinical feasibility study was performed to evaluate the functionality (method comparison study, assay validity using samples previously collected and stored at various temperatures for different periods of time, interference on kit performance, and assay validity for prenatal diagnosis) and the usability (ease of use, sample throughput) of the kit. The analysis of 110 samples previously studied with reference methods showed 100% clinical sensitivity and specificity. We demonstrate here that the procedure not only increases the

  4. Factors associated with use and non-use of the Fecal Immunochemical Test (FIT) kit for Colorectal Cancer Screening in Response to a 2012 outreach screening program: a survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Nancy P; Green, Beverly B

    2015-06-11

    long-term users and more averse to preparing their stool sample. Changes to the FIT kit to address discomfort and difficulty factors might improve uptake and continued use.

  5. Association of KIT exon 9 mutations with nongastric primary site and aggressive behavior: KIT mutation analysis and clinical correlates of 120 gastrointestinal stromal tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonescu, Cristina R; Sommer, Gunhild; Sarran, Lisa; Tschernyavsky, Sylvia J; Riedel, Elyn; Woodruff, James M; Robson, Mark; Maki, Robert; Brennan, Murray F; Ladanyi, Marc; DeMatteo, Ronald P; Besmer, Peter

    2003-08-15

    Activating mutations of the KIT juxtamembrane region are the most common genetic events in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) and have been noted as independent prognostic factors. The impact of KIT mutation in other regions, such as the extracellular or kinase domains, is not well-defined and fewer than 30 cases have been published to date. One hundred twenty GISTs, confirmed by KIT immunoreactivity, were evaluated for the presence of KIT exon 9, 11, 13, and 17 mutations. The relation between the presence/type of KIT mutation and clinicopathological factors was analyzed using Fisher's exact test and log-rank test. Forty-four % of the tumors were located in the stomach, 47% in the small bowel, 6% in the rectum, and 3% in the retroperitoneum. Overall, KIT mutations were detected in 78% of patients as follows: 67% in exon 11, 11% in exon 9, and none in exon 13 or 17. The types of KIT exon 11 mutations were heterogeneous and clustered in the classic "hot spot" at the 5' end of exon 11. Seven % of cases showed internal tandem duplications (ITD) at the 3' end of exon 11, in a region that we designate as a second hot spot for KIT mutations. Interestingly, these cases were associated with: female predominance, stomach location, occurrence in older patients, and favorable outcome. There were significant associations between exon 9 mutations and large tumor size (P < 0.001) and extragastric location (P = 0.02). Ten of these 13 patients with more than 1-year follow-up have developed recurrent disease. Most KIT-expressing GISTs show KIT mutations that are preferentially located within the classic hot spot of exon 11. In addition, we found an association between a second hot spot at the 3'end of exon 11, characterized by ITDs, and a subgroup of clinically indolent gastric GISTs in older females. KIT exon 9 mutations seem to define a distinct subset of GISTs, located predominantly in the small bowel and associated with an unfavorable clinical course.

  6. Purification of alcohol obtained from molasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visnevskaya, G L; Egorov, A S; Sokol' skaya, E V

    1960-01-01

    A study of the composition of alcohol liquids on different plates of a fractionation column of indirect action during purification of alcohol obtained from normal and defective molasses, and from starch raw material, showed that there were two local strength minima in the lower part of the column and on the plates (adjacent and feed). Aldehydes behaved as a typical head impurity; a noticeable increase in their concentration occurred only on the highest plates in the fractionation column. In the zone of the column containing liquids of a strength of 86 to 94% alcohol by weight a sharply pronounced local maximum of ester accumulation were observed, provisionally designated as intermediate, whose presence is apparently one of the causes of the specific sharp taste of alcohol obtained from molasses. These esters hinder the obtaining of high-grade alcohols which are standard in respect to ester content and oxidizability test. Reduction with 0.05N KMnO/sub 4/ occurs most rapidly with alcohol liquids in the zone of ester accumulation; purification of alcohols obtained from grain and potato raw material resulted in no zones of ester accumulation in the column.

  7. Online Oxide Contamination Measurement and Purification Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, D. E.; Godfroy, T. J.; Webster, K. L.; Garber, A. E.; Polzin, K. A.; Childers, D. J.

    2011-01-01

    Liquid metal sodium-potassium (NaK) has advantageous thermodynamic properties indicating its use as a fission reactor coolant for a surface (lunar, martian) power system. A major area of concern for fission reactor cooling systems is system corrosion due to oxygen contaminants at the high operating temperatures experienced. A small-scale, approximately 4-L capacity, simulated fission reactor cooling system employing NaK as a coolant was fabricated and tested with the goal of demonstrating a noninvasive oxygen detection and purification system. In order to generate prototypical conditions in the simulated cooling system, several system components were designed, fabricated, and tested. These major components were a fully-sealed, magnetically-coupled mechanical NaK pump, a graphite element heated reservoir, a plugging indicator system, and a cold trap. All system components were successfully demonstrated at a maximum system flow rate of approximately 150 cc/s at temperatures up to 550 C. Coolant purification was accomplished using a cold trap before and after plugging operations which showed a relative reduction in oxygen content.

  8. Purification of radionuclides for nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horwitz, E.P.; Bond, A.H.

    2002-01-01

    Novel systems for the rapid separation of 67 Cu, 90 Y, 188 Re, 212 Bi, 213 Bi, and 223 Ra are described. To achieve the high levels of decontamination required of radionuclides used in radioimmunotherapy, we have utilised combinations of ion exchange (IX) and novel extraction chromatographic (EXC) resins. The objective of each separation system is to remove by many orders of magnitude the parent isotopes and to reduce the concentrations of stable, sometimes adventitious impurities, to low levels. The latter objective is particularly important to achieve a high degree of bonding of radionuclide onto a monoclonal antibody. The purification of 212 Bi (60.6 min half-life) furnishes a good example of the level of purity that we have achieved using tandem combinations of EXC and IX resins. Bismuth-212 was separated from its daughters, 212 Pb, 224 Ra, 228 Th and 232 U at the 50 mCi level. The resultant 212 Bi decayed to background in a few days indicative of high purity. Another example of extraordinary removal of parent nuclide from daughter nuclide and subsequent purification of daughter from stable elements is the preparation of 90 Y. Strontium-90 was removed from 90 Y by > 10 9 . The purified 90 Y uptake by monoclonal antibodies was close to 100%

  9. Production, purification and utilization of biogas as fuel for internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Noel M.; Villanueva, Eliseo P.

    2018-03-01

    This study attempts to modify a 4-cylinder gasoline engine to run with a purified compressed biogas as substitute for fossil fuels. Water scrubbing method was used as the easiest purification technique to remove CO2 and iron filing for H2S. The pressurized raw biogas was fed in a low cost made portable floating type gas holder with volume capacity of 0.74 m3. The purified biogas was compressed using a reciprocating compressor through a two stage series of enrichment and moisture removal process using activated alumina into the steel cylinder to improve the quality of the methane content. The enriched biogas was filled in the LPG tank for 20 minutes at 10 bars at an average of 73.67% CH4 with no traces of H2S as storage for engine utilization. The modification involved the installation and mounting of LPG conversion kit. A comparative analysis of the performance and combustion characteristics of the engine was evaluated separately with gasoline and purified compressed biogas using electro-dynamometer as variable loads. The findings show that power output deterioration in compressed biogas was mainly due to high percentage of CO2 and other gases impurities. It also shows that because of the calorific value of biogas, the thermal efficiency is lesser than that of gasoline. It implies that the overall engine performance can be improved by removing undesirable gases in the mixture.

  10. 76 FR 72935 - Amended Authorization of Emergency Use of Doxycycline Hyclate Tablet Emergency Kits for Eligible...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ...] Amended Authorization of Emergency Use of Doxycycline Hyclate Tablet Emergency Kits for Eligible United... to the Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) (the Authorization) for doxycycline hyclate tablet emergency... Doxycyline Hyclate Tablet Emergency Kits, as Amended In 2004, the Secretary of the Department of Homeland...

  11. Omid Early Intervention Resource Kit for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Their Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadi, Sayyed Ali; Mahmoodizadeh, Ameneh

    2014-01-01

    Omid early intervention resource kit containing information booklets on autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and related issues, five packs of tangible selected playthings and communication facilitating aids was developed and evaluated with 65 Iranian parents. Beside a pretest before the resource kit deliverance, parents in the control group took part…

  12. 21 CFR 864.9650 - Quality control kit for blood banking reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Quality control kit for blood banking reagents... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9650 Quality control kit for blood banking reagents. (a...

  13. c-Kit expression in somatosensory nuclei of lower medulla oblongata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, Elena; Mărdărescu, Mariana; Lazăr, M; Rusu, M C; Ion, Daniela Adriana

    2013-01-01

    Protein kinase signal-transduction pathways play critical roles in regulating nociception. The c-kit receptor contributes to pain regulation in the spinal cord and is present on both peripheral and central terminals. Expression of c-kit was demonstrated in human trigeminal and spinal ganglia. However, the brainstem expression of c-kit was overlooked. We aimed to evaluate it by immunohistochemistry, on eight samples of human lower medulla oblongata. We used two clones of CD117/c-kit antibodies, from different manufacturers, and neurofilament antibodies. Positive expression of CD117/c-kit was found within the spinal trigeminal nucleus, the gracilis, cuneate, and lateral cuneate nuclei, and within the olivary complex. CD117/c-kit positive interstitial networks of these nuclei were positively labeled with neurofilaments. CD117/c-kit labeled the olivary neurons, but not the magnocellular neurons of the trigeminal, gracilis and cuneate nuclei. c-kit interstitial systems of brainstem could play so an important role for the functional status along the somatosensory neural circuits.

  14. Procedures for Separations within Batches of Values, 1. The Orderly Tool Kit and Some Heuristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-01

    separations within batches of values, I. The orderly tool kit and some heuristics by Thu Hoang* and John W. Tukey** *Universite Rene Descartes ...separations with batches of values, . The orderly tool kit and heuristics Thu Hoang* and John W. Tukey** *Universite Rene Descartes Laboratoire de

  15. From smells to stories : The design and evaluation of the smell memory kit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leret, Susana Camara; Visch, V.T.

    2017-01-01

    The study presented is a research through design of the motivational, story sharing effects of smell, within the context of addiction care. This investigation led to the co-design of the Smell Memory Kit: a kit using eight selected smells as motivational elements to evoke and share

  16. Year 2000 Readiness Kit: A Compilation of Y2K Resources for Schools, Colleges and Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    This kit was developed to assist the postsecondary education community's efforts to resolve the Year 2000 (Y2K) computer problem. The kit includes a description of the Y2K problem, an assessment of the readiness of colleges and universities, a checklist for institutions, a Y2K communications strategy, articles on addressing the problem in academic…

  17. Preparation of imaging kits locally using indium-113 as a suitable short-lived generator product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamid, Hamid Seidna

    1999-05-01

    In this study forty patients are selected to do brain , lung , bone , liver and spleen imaging. Patients were selected carefully in the bases of the imaging history disorders. Kits prepared and kept frozen in (- 20 degree C) eluent the generator and indium 113 products were added to each kit and imaging sorted out using gamma camera and analysed statistically

  18. Research Note The reliability of a field test kit for the detection and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research Note The reliability of a field test kit for the detection and the persistence of ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... The objectives were to test a field kit for practicality and reliability, to assess the spread of the bacteria among ...

  19. Pongase en accion! Materiales para actividades despues de la escuela (Get into Action! Afterschool Action Kit).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afterschool Alliance, Washington, DC.

    Noting that after-school programs are a critical link to helping children become successful adults, this Spanish-language kit explains what after-school programs can and should do for young people and how to locate or start an after-school program. The kit provides a rationale for developing after-school programs, noting the number of children…

  20. The KIT-Split in South African English: A critical review | Bekker ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While the lack of full complementation and the presence of some minimal pairs in SAfE KIT was confirmed by and continued to attract the attention of some later commentators (e.g., Lass and Wright 1985, Taylor 1991), the meaning of the term 'KIT-Split' has, in the meantime, been tacitly reformulated to refer solely to the ...