WorldWideScience

Sample records for stomatitis herpetic

  1. Improvement of herpetic stomatitis therapy in patients with chronic tonsillitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lepilin А.V.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The research goal is to determine the clinical and pathogenetic efficacy of Cycloferon liniment in the combined therapy in patients with herpetic stomatitis accompanied by chronic tonsillitis. Materials and methods: Medical examination and treatment of 60 patients have been carried out. The marker of endogenous intoxication, infectious severity and immunity has been investigated. Results. It has been established that use of Cycloferon liniment in the combined therapy in patients with herpetic stomatitis accompanied by chronic tonsillitis has allowed to decrease infectious severity in par-odontal recess and evidence of local inflammation, to normalize immunity indices and reduce the level of endogenous intoxication that has been liable for acceleration of recuperation processes and lowering of frequency of stomatitis recurrences. Conclusion. The clinical efficacy of Cycloferon liniment in the therapy in patients with herpetic stomatitis accompanied by chronic tonsillitis conditioned by the decreasing of activity of local inflammatory process according to the reducing of level pro-inflammatory cytokines, infectious burden of the mouth cavity, endogenous intoxication

  2. Results of the Study of Helminths-Carrying as a Comorbidity in Children with Herpetic Stomatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.S. Suerkulov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the helminths-carrying in children with herpetic stomatitis according to the data of the department of maxillofacial surgery of the National center of mother and child welfare, and determines the relationship of oral diseases with disorders of various parts of the gastrointestinal tract.

  3. Herpetic esophagitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shortsleeve, M.J.; Gauvin, G.P.; Gardner, R.C.; Greenberg, M.S.

    1981-01-01

    Four patients with herpetic esophagitis were examined. In three of them, the presenting symptom was odynophagia. Early in the course of herpetic esophagitis, shallow round and oval ulcers were seen on barium esophagograms. Later, the ulcers filled with fibrinous exudate, forming nodular plaques that projected into the esophageal lumen. Although these findings are diagnostic of esophagitis, they are not specific for a herpes virus infection. The definitive diagnosis must be established by histologic examination, which demonstrates the cytopathic effect of the herpes virus infection within the squamous epithelium

  4. Herpetic tracheobronchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, M K; Klainer, A S; Wolff, M; Gerhard, H

    1988-08-01

    Nine adult patients from three community teaching hospitals had bronchospasm unresponsive to standard therapy. Bronchoscopic, cytologic, histopathologic, and virologic studies confirmed that necrotizing and exudative tracheobronchitis was due to herpes simplex virus. No patient had a history of previous chronic lung disease; most were not immunocompromised. Three patients never had intubation during hospitalization. All patients were successfully treated with intravenous acyclovir. Herpetic tracheobronchitis may be a commoner clinical syndrome than generally assumed. In an elderly patient with unresolving acute bronchospasm, herpesvirus infection of the lower respiratory tract should be considered in the differential diagnosis. In the immunocompetent host, antiviral therapy can successfully treat herpesvirus respiratory infection, with reversal of clinical, virologic, and pathologic findings. A prompt and accurate diagnosis is crucial.

  5. [Herpetic encephalitis: a clinical case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryhant, L P; Sereda, V H; Kushpiĭ, O V; Tkachenko, V V; Kravchuk, N A; Inhula, N I; Sizina, A V; Sachko, Iu Iu; Andrusenko, A S; Tytenko, Iu I; Babirad, A M

    2012-01-01

    An example of diagnostics and treatment of patient is in-process made with herpetic encephalitis. It is well-proven in researches, that a herpetic encephalitis is 11.5% among sharp encephalitises. Morbidity is sporadic, some researchers specify on an increase its spring. An infection can be passed tiny and pin a way. Seasonal vibrations are not incident to the herpetic encephalitis. Two peaks of morbidity are on 5-30 years and age more senior 50 years. More than in 95% cases the virus of simple herpes of type serves as an exciter of herpetic encephalitis 1. A characteristic triad of herpetic encephalitis is the sharp feverish beginning, development of cramps of dzheksonovskogo type and violation of consciousness, developing usually after a brief respirator infection. Sometimes sudden development of cramps and loss of consciousness is preceded a fever. Example of such development of disease is made an in our work.

  6. Bilateral acute retinal necrosis after herpetic meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsura T

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Keisho Hirota1,2, Masayuki Akimoto1,3, Toshiaki Katsura21Department of Ophthalmology, Kyoto Medical Center, National Hospital Organization, 2Internal Medicine, Kyoto Medical Center, 3Clinical Research Center, Kyoto Medical Center, Kyoto, JapanPurpose: The report of a case of bilateral acute retinal necrosis after herpetic meningitis.Case report: A 47-year-old man was admitted with the chief complaint of persistent high fever and transient loss of consciousness. Although his general condition improved after intravenous acyclovir administration, the patient presented with visual loss in both eyes 4 days after admission. Visual acuity in his right eye was 20/200 and his left eye had light perception alone. Both eyes showed panretinal arteritis diagnosed as acute retinal necrosis. Panretinal photocoagulation was performed for both eyes. Progression of retinal detachment was prevented in both eyes; however, visual acuity of the left eye was totally lost because of neovascular glaucoma. Visual acuity of the right eye recovered to 20/20.Conclusion: Although cases of bilateral acute retinal necrosis have been reported after herpetic encephalitis, this condition is rare after herpetic meningitis. Prophylactic acyclovir therapy and early panretinal photocoagulation may prevent retinal detachment and improve the prognosis. Neurologists and ophthalmologists should be aware that not only herpetic encephalitis but also herpetic meningitis can lead to acute retinal necrosis within a very short interval.Keywords: acute retinal necrosis, herpetic meningitis, herpes simplex, varicella zoster virus

  7. Herpetic esophagitis: a diagnosis to remember

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Pinheiro

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Herpetic esophagitis is a well-recognized infection in immunocompromised hosts, having been rarely described in immunocompetent individuals. Case report: The authors describe a case of a 16-year-old female adolescent admitted to the emergency room with a threeday history of fever, odynophagia, dysphagia for liquid and solid food and retrosternal pain. The upper endoscopy revealed linear and round erosions in the distal esophagus and the histologic findings were compatible with herpetic esophagitis. Discussion/conclusion: Herpetic esophagitis is an underdiagnosed condition in immunocompetent children and adolescents, but it should not be overlooked. An esophagoscopy is required to make a definitive diagnosis. It is usually a selflimited infection and the mainstay of treatment is supportive care. The use of acyclovir is still controversial but its early initiation may shorten the clinical course of the disease.

  8. Targeting Herpetic Keratitis by Gene Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Mostafa Elbadawy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocular gene therapy is rapidly becoming a reality. By November 2012, approximately 28 clinical trials were approved to assess novel gene therapy agents. Viral infections such as herpetic keratitis caused by herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1 can cause serious complications that may lead to blindness. Recurrence of the disease is likely and cornea transplantation, therefore, might not be the ideal therapeutic solution. This paper will focus on the current situation of ocular gene therapy research against herpetic keratitis, including the use of viral and nonviral vectors, routes of delivery of therapeutic genes, new techniques, and key research strategies. Whereas the correction of inherited diseases was the initial goal of the field of gene therapy, here we discuss transgene expression, gene replacement, silencing, or clipping. Gene therapy of herpetic keratitis previously reported in the literature is screened emphasizing candidate gene therapy targets. Commonly adopted strategies are discussed to assess the relative advantages of the protective therapy using antiviral drugs and the common gene therapy against long-term HSV-1 ocular infections signs, inflammation and neovascularization. Successful gene therapy can provide innovative physiological and pharmaceutical solutions against herpetic keratitis.

  9. Topical ganciclovir in the treatment of acute herpetic keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabbara, Khalid F; Al Balushi, Noorjehan

    2010-08-19

    Herpetic keratitis is caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV) and is a common cause of corneal blindness. Following a primary ocular herpetic infection, latency of the virus occurs, followed by subsequent recurrences of herpetic keratitis. Such recurrences may lead to structural damage of the cornea. Recurrent herpetic keratitis is a common indication for corneal transplantation. Recurrences of herpetic keratitis in the corneal graft may lead to corneal graft rejection. Several antiviral agents for HSV are available, including the thymidine analogs. Prolonged use of thymidine analogs may lead to toxicity of the ocular surface, including epithelial keratitis, corneal ulcers, follicular conjunctivitis, and punctal occlusions. Availability of topical antiviral agents that are safe and effective in the treatment and prophylaxis of herpetic keratitis is highly desirable. Ganciclovir is a potent inhibitor of members of the herpes virus family. The drug has been used systemically for the treatment of cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis. Its hematologic toxicity secondary to systemic administration led to its limited use in herpetic infections. On the other hand, topical ganciclovir has been shown to be as safe and effective as acyclovir in the treatment of herpetic epithelial keratitis. Furthermore, topical ganciclovir can reach therapeutic levels in the cornea and aqueous humor following topical application. Several clinical trials have shown that topical ganciclovir 0.15% ophthalmic gel is safe and effective in the treatment and prophylaxis of herpetic epithelial disease. Long-term use of ganciclovir ophthalmic gel in patients with penetrating keratoplasty following herpetic keratitis has prevented recurrences of the disease. Topical ganciclovir ophthalmic gel is well tolerated, does not cause toxic effects on the ocular surface, and does not cause hematologic abnormalities. Clinical studies have underscored the potential role of ganciclovir ophthalmic gel in the treatment and

  10. [Herpetic infection in patients with psoriasis: the improvement of therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shul'diakov, A A; Barkhatova, T S; Satarova, S A; Perminova, T A

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate the efficacy of liniment cycloferon included in combined therapy of herpetic infection in 30 patients with psoriasis divided into 2 groups. Combined treatment of patients with recurrent herpetic infection promoted elimination of general infection syndrome, shortened duration of eruption and local inflammation, accelerated epithelization of herpetic erosion, and decreased the frequency of relapses during the follow-up.

  11. Topical ganciclovir in the treatment of acute herpetic keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid F Tabbara

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Khalid F Tabbara1,2,3, Noorjehan Al Balushi11The Eye Center and The Eye Foundation for Research in Ophthalmology, Riyadh, 2Department of Ophthalmology, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 3The Wilmer Ophthalmological Institute of The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USAAbstract: Herpetic keratitis is caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV and is a common cause of corneal blindness. Following a primary ocular herpetic infection, latency of the virus occurs, followed by subsequent recurrences of herpetic keratitis. Such recurrences may lead to structural damage of the cornea. Recurrent herpetic keratitis is a common indication for corneal transplantation. Recurrences of herpetic keratitis in the corneal graft may lead to corneal graft rejection. Several antiviral agents for HSV are available, including the thymidine analogs. Prolonged use of thymidine analogs may lead to toxicity of the ocular surface, including epithelial keratitis, corneal ulcers, follicular conjunctivitis, and punctal occlusions. Availability of topical antiviral agents that are safe and effective in the treatment and prophylaxis of herpetic keratitis is highly desirable. Ganciclovir is a potent inhibitor of members of the herpes virus family. The drug has been used systemically for the treatment of cytomegalovirus (CMV retinitis. Its hematologic toxicity secondary to systemic administration led to its limited use in herpetic infections. On the other hand, topical ganciclovir has been shown to be as safe and effective as acyclovir in the treatment of herpetic epithelial keratitis. Furthermore, topical ganciclovir can reach therapeutic levels in the cornea and aqueous humor following topical application. Several clinical trials have shown that topical ganciclovir 0.15% ophthalmic gel is safe and effective in the treatment and prophylaxis of herpetic epithelial disease. Long-term use of ganciclovir ophthalmic

  12. Predicting unfavourable outcome in herpetic meningoencephalitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erdem, Hakan; Cag, Yasemin; Karaahmetoglu, Gokhan

    BACKGROUND: Herpetic meningoencephalitis is the most frequent form of sporadic fatal encephalitis in the world and accounts for 10- 20% of all viral encephalitides. There were studies assessing the outcomes particularly by comparing the efficacies of antiviral drugs in the past. To the best of our...... knowledge, no datum exists in the literature on the mortality indicators of HME patients with definite microbiological diagnosis. Thus, our study makes use of the largest case series ever reported in the literature to provide data for the predictors of unfavorable outcome in HME cases. METHODS...... outcome in HME. Thus, it appears that both host and therapeutic parameters contribute to success in these cases. Table. Final model including independent predictors of unfavorable outcome 95% CIs OR [1] Low High p Age (years) 1.04 1.02 1.05 0.000 Glasgow coma scale 0.84 0.77 0.93 0.000 Elapsed time [2] >2...

  13. A Case of Herpetic Keratitis after Subconjunctival Triamcinolone Acetonide Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidenori Inoue

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We report a case of herpetic epithelial keratitis that developed after subconjunctival triamcinolone acetonide injection (STI. Methods: A 65-year-old female with anterior uveitis and hypotony in her right eye was given a STI (2 mg/0.5 ml. After the injection, she developed redness and an ocular discharge. A clinical examination was performed and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR was used to amplify the viral DNA in a corneal scraping. Results: Slit-lamp biomicroscopy revealed a severe purulent discharge, conjunctival injection, and a geographic corneal ulcer in the right eye. Herpes simplex virus 1 DNA was identified in the corneal scraping using real-time PCR. Herpetic keratitis was diagnosed and topical acyclovir ointment as well as systemic valacyclovir were started. The inflammation subsided with this medication. Conclusion: We encountered a case of herpetic epithelial keratitis after a STI.

  14. Choice of the laser wavelength for a herpetic keratitis treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razhev, Alexander M.; Bagayev, Sergei N.; Chernikh, Valery V.; Kargapoltsev, Evgeny S.; Trunov, Alexander; Zhupikov, Andrey A.

    2002-06-01

    For the first time the effect of the UV laser radiation to human eye cornea with herpetic keratitis was experimentally investigated. In experiments the UV radiation of ArF (193 nm), KrCl (223 nm), KrF (248 nm) excimer lasers were used. Optimal laser radiation parameters for the treatment of the herpetic keratitis were determined. The immuno-biochemical investigations were carried out and the results of clinical trials are presented. The maximum ablation rate was obtained for the 248 nm radiation wavelength. The process of healing was successful but in some cases the haze on the surface of the cornea was observed. When used the 193 nm radiation wavelength the corneal surface was clear without any hazes but the epithelization process was slower than for 248 nm wavelength and in some cases the relapse was occurred. The best results for herpetic keratitis treatment have been achieved by utilizing the 223 nm radiation wavelength of the KrCl excimer laser. The use of the 223 nm radiation wavelength allows treating the herpetic keratitis with low traumatic process of ablation and provides high quality of corneal surface.

  15. Intractable hiccups due to herpetic esophagitis in an immunocompromised patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Harris

    2016-01-01

    This case illustrates an exceptionally rare presentation of herpetic esophagitis in an immunocompromised host. As novel immunotherapeutic/suppressive agents continue to emerge, the evolving role of herpes virus prophylaxis and diagnosis of atypical presentations in new host populations is a topic of growing importance.

  16. Managing Atypical and Typical herpetic central nervous system infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cag, Yasemin; Erdem, Hakan; Leib, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    There have been many studies pertaining to the management of herpetic meningoencephalitis (HME), but the majority of them have focussed on virologically unconfirmed cases or included only small sample sizes. We have conducted a multicentre study aimed at providing management strategies for HME. O...... the subtle nature of HME, CSF HSV PCR, EEG and MRI data should be collected for all patients with a central nervous system infection....

  17. Herpetic Eye Disease in a Public Eye Hospital in Nigeria | Nwosu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the aetiology, pattern and complications of herpetic eye disease seen at the Guinness Eye Centre, Onitsha, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: The case files of all patients with herpetic eye disease who presented at the centre between January 1998 and December 2003 were reviewed. Information on ...

  18. Comparative efficacy of phenytoin, steroid and carbamazepine in herpes zoster and post herpetic neuralgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal S

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Three hundred patients of different ages were sequentially assigned three therapy groups (100 in each group viz. phenytoin, steroid (prednisolone and carbamazepine. Effect of these drugs on herpes zoster neuralgia and in prevention of post herpetic neuralgia was studied. Phenytoin was found to be superior to both steroid and carbamazepine in relieving the pain of herpes zoster and in reducing the incidence of post herpetic neuralgia. Only 16.1% of the patients in phenytoin treated group developed post herpetic neuralgia lasting for 2-4 weeks while 22.7% and 29.6% of the steroid and carbamazepine treated patients respectively developed post herpetic neuralgia and that too lasting for longer duration. No patient under 40 years developed post herpetic neuralgia.

  19. Prevention strategies for herpes zoster and post-herpetic neuralgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Myron J.; Gershon, Anne A.; Dworkin, Robert H.; Brisson, Marc; Stanberry, Lawrence

    2017-01-01

    SUMMARY Impairment of varicella zoster virus (VZV)-specific cell-mediated immunity, including impairment due to immunosenescence, is associated with an increased risk of developing herpes zoster (HZ), whereas levels of anti-VZV antibodies do not correlate with HZ risk. This crucial role of VZV-specific cell-mediated immunity suggests that boosting these responses by vaccination will be an effective strategy for reducing the burden of HZ. Other strategies focus on preventing the major complication of HZ – post-herpetic neuralgia. These strategies include pre-emptive treatment with drugs such as tricyclic antidepressants, anticonvulsants and analgesics. PMID:20510262

  20. Botulinum as a Toxin for Treating Post-herpetic Neuralgia

    OpenAIRE

    DING, Xu-Dong; ZHONG, Jing; LIU, Yan-Ping; CHEN, Hua-Xian

    2017-01-01

    Background: We aimed to study the curative effects of botulinum A toxin (BTX-A) on the treatment of post-herpetic neuralgia (PNH). Methods: We enrolled 58 PNH patients and treated them with hypodermic injection of BTX-A in Xiangyang No.1 People?s Hospital, Hubei University of Medicine, Hubei, China. We measured and compared the Visual Analog Score (VAS), Neuropathy Pain Scale (NPS), Quality of Life Scale (SF-36) score, PNH seizure severity degree, seizure duration, frequency of attack and the...

  1. Acyclovir-resistant herpetic keratitis in a solid-organ transplant recipient on systemic immunosuppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turner LD

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Liam Daniel Turner,1 Peter Beckingsale1,2,31Princess Alexandra Hospital; 2Terrace Eye Centre; 3Laser Sight, Brisbane, Queensland, AustraliaPurpose: To report a case of acyclovir-resistant herpetic keratitis in a solid-organ lung transplant recipient that was effectively treated with topical trifluridine.Methods: A case of a 35-year-old female with herpetic epithelial keratitis resistant to acyclovir is described. The patient presented following treatment for 4 weeks with topical acyclovir ointment five times per day and oral valacyclovir 1 g three times per day for herpetic keratitis with no resolution of the epithelial defect or symptoms. Corneal scrapes and swabs were taken for confirmation of the diagnosis and resistance testing. The results were positive for herpes simplex virus 1 and showed acyclovir resistance (inhibitor concentration 90 = 200 µg/mL and foscarnet sensitivity (inhibitor concentration 90 = 200 µg/mL. The patient was treated with topical trifluridine 2-hourly for 3 weeks and weaned off the drops over the following week.Results: The patient showed resolution of the epithelial defect, but did have significant corneal toxicity associated with the use of the trifluridine. At 8 weeks, the patient had some stromal shadowing associated with the recent active infection, but symptoms had settled.Conclusion: This case documents the effective use of topical trifluridine in proven acyclovir-resistant herpetic keratitis. It highlights three things: (1 the importance of considering topical trifluridine as an alternative to topical acyclovir in unresponsive disease; (2 the need to consider solid-organ transplant recipients in the immunocompromised population with resistant herpetic disease, and (3 the need to look for alternatives to treatment of resistant herpetic disease.Keywords: acyclovir resistance, herpetic keratitis, trifluridine

  2. FEATURES OF CYTOKINE PRODUCTION IN PATIENTS WITH RECURRENT HERPETIC INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Novikovа

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Cytokines play an important role in resistance to herpesvirus infections. Therefore, studies of cytokine profile are necessary in recurrent herpetic infection. However, functional studies of cytokine network upon remission of the disease yielded controversial results. In this paper, we provide some results concerning comprehensive evaluation of ex vivo cytokine production by whole blood leukocytes drawn from 15 patients observed during clinical remission of recurrent Herpes Simplex virus infection. We have found a decrease of IL-1β, IL-8 and IL-10 production, as well as imbalance of cytokine profile, with predominance of IFNγ and IL-8 synthesis over IL-10 production, along with increased IL-4 and IL-13 levels to IL-1β contents. Differently directed correlations between the content of activated lymphocytes (CD3+HLA-DR+ and CD3+CD4+CD25+, natural killers (СD3-СD16/56+, NKT-cells and cytokine production levels were found in the groups of patients and healthy individuals. These differences may be due to shifts in major cytokineproducing populations in herpesvirus infections.

  3. Effects of stomatal development on stomatal conductance and on stomatal limitation of photosynthesis in Syringa oblata and Euonymus japonicus Thunb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bing-Jie; Chow, Wah Soon; Liu, Yu-Jun; Shi, Lei; Jiang, Chuang-Dao

    2014-12-01

    During leaf development, the increase in stomatal conductance cannot meet photosynthetic demand for CO2, thus leading to stomatal limitation of photosynthesis (Ls). Considering the crucial influences of stomatal development on stomatal conductance, we speculated whether stomatal development limits photosynthesis to some extent. To test this hypothesis, stomatal development, stomatal conductance and photosynthesis were carefully studied in both Syringa oblata (normal greening species) and Euonymus japonicus Thunb (delayed greening species). Our results show that the size of stomata increased gradually with leaf expansion, resulting in increased stomatal conductance up to the time of full leaf expansion. During this process, photosynthesis also increased steadily. Compared to that in S. oblata, the development of chloroplasts in E. japonicus Thunb was obviously delayed, leading to a delay in the improvement of photosynthetic capacity. Further analysis revealed that before full leaf expansion, stomatal limitation increased rapidly in both S. oblata and E. japonicus Thunb; after full leaf expansion, stomatal limitation continually increased in E. japonicus Thunb. Accordingly, we suggested that the enhancement of photosynthetic capacity is the main factor leading to stomatal limitation during leaf development but that stomatal development can alleviate stomatal limitation with the increase of photosynthesis by controlling gas exchange. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [Rasmussen encephalitis and non-herpetic acute limbic encephalitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yukitoshi; Kubota, Yuko; Yamasaki, Etsuko; Matsuda, Kazumi

    2008-03-01

    Rasmussen syndrome (RS) and non-herpetic acute limbic encephalitis (NHALE) have pathophysiological background related with autoimmunity to glutamate receptors (GluRs) after infections. RS and NHALE were reviewed, depending mainly on our recent studies. RS is the prototype of autoimmune-mediated epilepsy. In patients with RS, several kinds of autoantibodies against neuronal molecules, for example, GluR3, GluRepsilon2 (NMDA-R2B), etc., are reported. These autoantibodies are not specific for RS. About autoantibodies against GluR3, significance and stimulating effects to GluR3 are controversial. Autoantibodies against GluRepsilon2 were detected in all patients within six months from epilepsy onset, and in some patients at chronic stage. These data suggest that autoantibodies against GluRepsilon2 may be involved in the pathological mechanisms in the early stage, but we could not confirm the effect of the autoantibodies from RS patients on excitatory postsynaptic NMDA current using patch clump methods. However, anti-double-stranded DNA antibodies in patients with SLE are reported to cross-react with n-terminal of GluRepsilon2, and cause neuronal apoptosis in rat hippocampus, ensuing memory impairment, and emotional behavior impairment in mice. Therefore, autoantibodies against GluRepsilon2 may contribute to the cognitive and behavioral changes in RS. Concerning about cellular immunity in RS, lymphocytes stimulating tests revealed peripheral lymphocytes sensitized by antigens containing GluRepsilon2. Cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) excreting Granzyme B were reported in resected brain tissue, and we confirmed the elevated levels of Granzyme B, not in sera, but in CSF. These data suggest that CTLs activated by infection invade into CNS, and recognize neural antigens, and excrete Granzyme B. The incidence of NHALE is 4.1/1 million/year in Japanese adults. Our study in 91 adult patients with NHALE revealed the following characteristics. Mean onset age was 35.2 +/- 16.9 years old

  5. Herpetic keratitis after corneal collagen cross-linking with riboflavin and ultraviolet-A for progressive keratoconus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Nilay; Bilgihan, Kamil; Hondur, Ahmet M

    2011-12-01

    To describe a case of herpetic keratitis after corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) with riboflavin and ultraviolet-A for progressive keratoconus. A 31-year-old woman with rapidly progressive keratoconus in the left eye was treated with CXL. Four days postoperatively, a dendritic ulcer developed in the treated eye. The diagnosis was confirmed with polymerase chain reaction analysis of the corneal swab for herpes simplex. The patient had no prior history of herpetic eye disease or cold sores. The keratitis resolved in 10 days with treatment. At 1 month, the visual acuity was stable, but a mild superficial opacity was noted. Herpetic keratitis can be induced by CXL even in patients with no history of previous herpetic eye disease. Early diagnosis and proper treatment can facilitate successful management of this rare but important complication.

  6. Herpetic brainstem encephalitis: report of a post-mortem case studied electron microscopically and immunohisiochemically

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eymard Homem Pitella

    1987-03-01

    Full Text Available A post-mortem examined case of herpetic brainstem encephalitis is presented. Clinically, the patient had cephalea followed by ataxia, drowsiness and multiple palsies of some cranial nerves, developing into death in eight days. The pathologic examination of the brain showed necrotizing encephalitis in multiple foci limited to the brainstem, more distinctly in the pons and medula oblongata. The technique of immunoperoxidase revealed rare glial cells with intranuclear immunoreactivity for herpes antigen. Rare viral particles with the morphological characteristics of the herpesvirus were identified in the nuclei of neurons in 10% formol fixed material. This is the second reported case of herpetic brainstem encephalitis confirmed by post-mortem examination. The pathway used by the virus to reach the central nervous system and its posterior dissemination to the oral cavity, the orbitofrontal region and the temporal lobes as well as to the brainstem, after a period of latency and reactivation, are discussed.

  7. [Topical immunomodulation in the treatment of herpetic infections in HIV-infected patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shul'diakov, A A; Barkhatova, T S; Zubareva, E V; Satarova, S A; Perminova, T A

    2012-01-01

    The efficiency of cycloferon liniment in combined treatment of herpetic infection in patients with latent form of HIV infection has been assess by observations of 40 patients divided into two groups. In the first group, the standard treatment was supplemented with the application of cycloferon liniment twice a day during 7 days; in the second group, the therapy was conducted according to standard recommendations. It was established that the application of cycloferon liniment in combination with standard therapy in patients with relapse of herpetic infection against the background of HIV infection ensures faster disappearance of general infectious syndrome, decreases the period of eruptions and the duration of local inflammations, and accelerates the epithelialization of erosions.

  8. Do Unilateral Herpetic Stromal Keratitis and Neurotrophic Ulcers Cause Bilateral Dry Eye?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbarvand, Mahmoud; Hashemian, Hesam; Khodaparast, Mehdi; Rafatnejad, Amin; Beheshtnejad, Amirhooshang; Salami, Amir

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate and compare the ocular surface condition in herpetic interstitial stromal keratitis and neurotrophic ulcer groups and their normal fellow eyes. In this observational, cross-sectional case-control study, 85 consecutive patients were included, including 56 cases of treated herpetic interstitial keratitis and 29 patients with neurotrophic ulcers. Fifty-six age- and sex-matched participants were also recruited from a normal population as the control group. We evaluated and scored the subjective and objective measures of dry eye for both eyes of all patients. Then, we compared the score of the groups with one another and also with the control group. The main outcome measures were the discomfort level, visual symptoms of dry eye, conjunctival injection, conjunctival staining, corneal staining, corneal tear signs of dry eye, meibomian gland dysfunction, tear break-up time, Schirmer test score with anesthesia, and tear osmolarity. The normal fellow eye of the herpetic keratitis group had significantly higher discomfort levels (1.4 ± 0.9 vs. 1.3 ± 0.5, P = 0.003), visual symptoms (1.7 ± 0.8 vs. 1.3 ± 0.7, P = 0.002), tear break-up time (8.3 ± 3.2 vs. 12.1 ± 3.3 seconds, P = 0.003), Schirmer test scores (9.2 ± 3.9 vs. 12.9 ± 3 mm, P = 0.04), and tear osmolarity (9.2 ± 3.9 vs. 12.9 ± 3 mm, P = 0.003) in comparison with normal controls. The normal fellow eyes of the neurotrophic ulcer group had significantly worse values for discomfort level (1.9 ± 0.9 vs. 1.3 ± 0.5, P eyes of patients with neurotrophic ulcer and interstitial herpetic keratitis have a significantly poorer ocular surface condition compared with that of normal controls.

  9. Transmission and pathogenesis of vesicular stomatitis viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesicular Stomatitis (VS) is caused by the Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV), a negative single stranded RNA arthropod-borne virus member of the Family Rhabdoviridae. The virion is composed of the host derived plasma membrane, the envelope, and an internal ribonucleoprotein core. The envelope contain...

  10. Optimal stomatal behaviour around the world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Yan-Shih; Medlyn, Belinda E.; Duursma, Remko A.

    2015-01-01

    , a globalscale database and an associated globally applicable model of gs that allow predictions of stomatal behaviour are lacking. Here,we present a database of globally distributed gs obtained in the field for a wide range of plant functional types (PFTs) and biomes. We find that stomatal behaviour diers among...

  11. Relating Stomatal Conductance to Leaf Functional Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröber, Wenzel; Plath, Isa; Heklau, Heike; Bruelheide, Helge

    2015-10-12

    Leaf functional traits are important because they reflect physiological functions, such as transpiration and carbon assimilation. In particular, morphological leaf traits have the potential to summarize plants strategies in terms of water use efficiency, growth pattern and nutrient use. The leaf economics spectrum (LES) is a recognized framework in functional plant ecology and reflects a gradient of increasing specific leaf area (SLA), leaf nitrogen, phosphorus and cation content, and decreasing leaf dry matter content (LDMC) and carbon nitrogen ratio (CN). The LES describes different strategies ranging from that of short-lived leaves with high photosynthetic capacity per leaf mass to long-lived leaves with low mass-based carbon assimilation rates. However, traits that are not included in the LES might provide additional information on the species' physiology, such as those related to stomatal control. Protocols are presented for a wide range of leaf functional traits, including traits of the LES, but also traits that are independent of the LES. In particular, a new method is introduced that relates the plants' regulatory behavior in stomatal conductance to vapor pressure deficit. The resulting parameters of stomatal regulation can then be compared to the LES and other plant functional traits. The results show that functional leaf traits of the LES were also valid predictors for the parameters of stomatal regulation. For example, leaf carbon concentration was positively related to the vapor pressure deficit (vpd) at the point of inflection and the maximum of the conductance-vpd curve. However, traits that are not included in the LES added information in explaining parameters of stomatal control: the vpd at the point of inflection of the conductance-vpd curve was lower for species with higher stomatal density and higher stomatal index. Overall, stomata and vein traits were more powerful predictors for explaining stomatal regulation than traits used in the LES.

  12. Ecology of Candida-associated Denture Stomatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Budtz-Jørgensen, Ejvind

    2011-01-01

    Introduction of a prosthesis into the oral cavity results in profound alterations of the environmental conditions as the prosthesis and the underlying mucosa become colonized with oral microorganisms, including Candida spp. This may lead to denture stomatitis, a non-specific inflammatory reaction against microbial antigens, toxins and enzymes produced by the colonizing microorganisms. The role of Candida in the etiology of denture stomatitis is indicated by an increased number of yeasts on th...

  13. Vision-related quality of life in herpetic anterior uveitis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisette Hoeksema

    Full Text Available We investigated the vision-related quality of life (VR-QOL and the prevalence and severity of depression in patients with herpetic anterior uveitis (AU. This study was conducted in 2012 at the ophthalmology department of the University Medical Center of Groningen (tertiary referral center. We selected patients from an existing uveitis database, all eligible patients were approached. Thirty-six of 66 (55% patients with herpetic AU (herpes simplex virus or varicella zoster virus participated, patients were 18 years or older. The diagnosis was made by clinical presentation or a positive anterior chamber tap. All patients received an information letter, informed consent form, National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire-25 (NEI VFQ-25, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II, Social Support List - Interactions (SSL-I, Social Support List - Discrepancies (SSL-D and an additional questionnaire for gathering general information. Medical records were reviewed for clinical characteristics. Analyses were conducted on various patient and ocular characteristics. We compared our NEI VFQ-25 scores with those previously found in the literature. Our main outcome measures were VR-QOL, prevalence and severity of depression, social support and various patient and ocular characteristics that could influence the VR-QOL. We found that the NEI VFQ-25 mean overall composite score (OCS was 88.1±10.6. Compared with other ocular diseases our OCS is relatively high, but lower than that found in a normal working population. The mean general health score was 59.0±19.0; this score is lower than in patients with other ocular diseases, except for untreated Behçet's patients. Depression was scarce, with only one patient (2.8% having a moderate depression (BDI-II score of 21. We concluded that herpetic AU affects the VR-QOL in a moderate way. The prevalence of depression in our group of herpetic AU patients was low and therefore does not seem to indicate a need for

  14. THE CASE OF HERPETIC ECZEMA IN A CHILD WITH CONGENITAL ICHTHYOSIS AND ATOPIC DERMATITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Stadnikova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The case of the development of herpetic eczema (Kaposi's eczema is presented against the background of congenital ichthyosis and atopic dermatitis. It has been shown that the presence of atopic diseases such as allergic rhinitis and pollinosis, sensitization to many common allergens, and a positive family history of atopic dermatitis are factors of a more severe course of Kaposi's eczema. The presented clinical observation of the child with Kaposi's eczema showed that early diagnosis and timely initiated complex  therapy are the determining factors of a favorable prognosis of the disease.

  15. [Clinical observation of post-herpetic neuralgia treated with TCM herbal cupping therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xi; Hu, Hui; Guo, Liang; Wang, Hui

    2013-02-01

    To compare the difference in the efficacy on post-herpetic neuralgia among TCM herbal cupping therapy, Chinese medicine thermal compressing therapy and mecobalamine. Fifty-seven cases were randomized into a TCM herbal cupping group, a thermal compressing group and a western medicine group, 19 cases in each one. The oral administration of ibuprofen was applied in every group. In the herbal cupping group, the bamboo cups soaked in the boiled Chinese herbal decoction were sucked on the most significant painful area. In the thermal compressing group, the towel soaked in the boiled Chinese herbal decoction was compressed on the most significant painful area. In the medication group, the muscular injection of mecobalamine was adopted. The treatment was given once a day, for 2 weeks totally in each group. SF-MPQ score and clinical efficacy before and after treatment were observed in each group. The remarkable effective rates were 78.9% (15/19), 36.8% (7/19) and 5.3% (1/19) in the TCM herbal cupping group, thermal compressing group and western medicine group separately. The efficacy in the TCM herbal cupping group was significantly superior to the thermal compressing group and western medicine group (all P cupping group was reduced more significantly as compared with the thermal compressing group and western medicine group (all P cupping therapy achieves the superior efficacy for post-herpetic neuralgia and relieves pain effectively of the patients, which is more advantageous than CM herbal thermal compressing therapy and Mecobalamine.

  16. Separating active and passive influences on stomatal control of transpiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdam, Scott A M; Brodribb, Timothy J

    2014-04-01

    Motivated by studies suggesting that the stomata of ferns and lycophytes do not conform to the standard active abscisic acid (ABA) -mediated stomatal control model, we examined stomatal behavior in a conifer species (Metasequoia glyptostroboides) that is phylogenetically midway between the fern and angiosperm clades. Similar to ferns, daytime stomatal closure in response to moderate water stress seemed to be a passive hydraulic process in M. glyptostroboides immediately alleviated by rehydrating excised shoots. Only after prolonged exposure to more extreme water stress did active ABA-mediated stomatal closure become important, because foliar ABA production was triggered after leaf turgor loss. The influence of foliar ABA on stomatal conductance and stomatal aperture was highly predictable and additive with the passive hydraulic influence. M. glyptostroboides thus occupies a stomatal behavior type intermediate between the passively controlled ferns and the characteristic ABA-dependent stomatal closure described in angiosperm herbs. These results highlight the importance of considering phylogeny as a major determinant of stomatal behavior.

  17. Stomatal and Non-Stomatal Turbulent Deposition Flux of Ozone to a Managed Peatland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek S. El-Madany

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ozone is a key trace gas in the troposphere; because it is a greenhouse gas, it is very reactive, and it is potentially toxic to humans, fauna, and vegetation. The main sink processes for ozone are chemical reactions and the turbulent deposition flux to the earth’s surface. The deposition process itself is rather complex: The interactions between co-varying drivers such as the tropospheric ozone concentration, turbulence, and chemical reactions are not well understood. In the case of ozone deposition to vegetation, another aspect that must be studied is the role of stomatal regulation for a wide range of conditions. Therefore, we measured turbulent deposition fluxes of ozone with the eddy covariance technique during the peak of the growing season in 2014 over a managed, rewetted peatland in NW Germany. The deposition flux was large during the day (up to −15 nmol m−2 s−1 and relatively small during the night (between −1 and −2 nmol m−2 s−1. Flux partitioning by applying the surface resistance analogy and further analysis showed that the stomatal uptake was smaller than non-stomatal deposition. The correction of stomatal conductance with the gross primary production (GPP improved the estimation of day- and nighttime stomatal deposition fluxes. Statistical analysis confirmed that the friction velocity (u* was the single most important driver of non-stomatal ozone deposition and that relationships with other environmental drivers are not linear and highly variable. Further research is needed to develop a better process understanding of non-stomatal ozone deposition, to quantify the role of surface deposition to the ozone budget of the atmospheric boundary layer, and to estimate uncertainties associated with the partitioning of ozone deposition into stomatal and non-stomatal fluxes.

  18. Gabapentin for once-daily treatment of post-herpetic neuralgia: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beal B

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Benjamin Beal,1 Tobias Moeller-Bertram,1,2 Jan M Schilling,1 Mark S Wallace11Division of Pain Medicine, Department of Anesthesiology, University of California, 2VA San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, CA, USAAbstract: Post-herpetic neuralgia is a neuropathic pain syndrome resulting from an insult to the peripheral and central nervous systems caused by the varicella zoster virus. Spontaneous pain may result in the persistent sensation of burning, tingling, or aching and may be associated with thermally or mechanically provoked pain, resulting in hyperalgesia or allodynia. The majority of cases occur in patients over the age of 50 years. Gabapentin is a structural analog of gamma aminobutyric acid that binds to the α2-δ site of voltage-dependent calcium channels and modulates the influx of calcium, with a resulting reduction in excitatory neurotransmitter release. Gabapentin is effective in reducing neuropathic pain due to post-herpetic neuralgia when given at least three times per day, due to its short half-life, resulting in demonstrable fluctuations in plasma levels. Gabapentin has dose-limiting side effects that prevent some patients from achieving therapeutic plasma levels, such as somnolence (27.4%, dizziness (23.9%, and ataxia (7.1%. Gralise™ is a once-daily extended-release formulation of gabapentin that has been developed using AcuForm™ technology. AcuForm is a polymer-based drug delivery system that retains the tablet in the stomach and upper gastrointestinal tract for a sustained period of time. Once-daily dosing has been shown to provide comparable drug exposure with an identical daily dose of the immediate-release formulation when administered three times daily. Participants given Gralise 1800 mg daily had a statistically significant reduction in average daily pain intensity scores compared with placebo, reduced sleep interference due to pain, and a greater percent of participants reporting being much or very much improved on

  19. mechanisms of drought resistance in grain ii:.stomatal regulation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    STOMATAL REGULATION AND ROOT GROWTH ... maintenance of high plant water potential in common bean under stress was the function of stomatal regulation and/or root ... disadvantage since it will reduce CO2 fixation and hence may ...

  20. Stomatal and non-stomatal factors regulated the photosynthesis of soybean seedlings in the present of exogenous bisphenol A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Liya; Wang, Lihong; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

    2017-11-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an emerging environmental endocrine disruptor that has toxic effects on plants growth. Photosynthesis supplies the substances and energy required for plant growth, and regulated by stomatal and non-stomatal factors. Therefore, in this study, to reveal how BPA affects photosynthesis in soybean seedlings (Glycine max L.) from the perspective of stomatal and non-stomatal factors, the stomatal factors (stomatal conductance and behaviours) and non-stomatal factors (Hill reaction, apparent quantum efficiency, Rubisco activity, carboxylation efficiency, the maximum Rubisco carboxylation velocity, ribulose-1,5-bisphospate regeneration capacities mediated by maximum electron transport rates, and triose phosphate utilization rate) were investigated using a portable photosynthesis system. Moreover, the pollution of BPA in the environment was simulated. The results indicate that low-dose BPA enhanced net photosynthetic rate (P n ) primarily by promoting stomatal factors, resulting in increased relative growth rates and accelerated soybean seedling growth. High-dose BPA decreases the P n by simultaneously inhibiting stomatal and non-stomatal factors, and this inhibition decreases the relative growth rates further reducing soybean seedling growth. Following the withdrawal of BPA, all of the indices were restored to varying degrees. In conclusion, low-dose BPA increased the P n by promoting stomatal factors while high-dose BPA decreased the P n by simultaneously inhibiting stomatal and non-stomatal factors. These findings provide a model (or, hypothesis) for the effects of BPA on plant photosynthesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Herpetic keratouveitis mixed with bilateral Pseudomonas corneal ulcers in vitamin A deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Yuan Hsu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A 56-year-old woman complained of blurred vision and pain in her right eye for several days. Slit lamp examination revealed a large epithelial defect and disciform stromal edema with ring infiltration in her right cornea. Unfortunately, hypopyon and purulent discharge subsequently developed in both eyes. Herpetic keratouveitis and a superimposed pseudomonas infection were diagnosed. A systemic review on the patient showed malnutrition due to her dietary preference and vegetarianism. After the infection was controlled, bilateral epithelial defects persisted for a long time. We performed amniotic membrane transplantation on both eyes and the clinical status improved with administration of vitamin and protein supplements. Although rare in Taiwan, vitamin A deficiency should be kept in mind when conjunctival and corneal xerosis occurred. Vitamin A supplements are suggested because of the increased susceptibility to infection in patients with this clinical status.

  2. Stomatal characteristics of Eucalyptus grandis clonal hybrids in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study describes the stomatal response occurring during water stress and subsequent recovery of three Eucalyptus grandis clonal hybrids. The aim was to investigate the degree to which stomatal conductance (gs) and stomatal density differ between the clonal hybrids across seasons and in response to water stress.

  3. Health economic evidence of 5% lidocaine medicated plaster in post-herpetic neuralgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liedgens H

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Hiltrud Liedgens,1 Marko Obradovic,1 Mark Nuijten2 1Grunenthal GmbH, Aachen, Germany; 2Ars Accessus Medica, Amsterdam, the Netherlands Background: Post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN is the most common and most debilitating complication of herpes zoster, and involves considerable associated costs. Objective: This paper presents results from nine health economic studies undertaken in eight European countries that compared lidocaine medicated plaster with gabapentin and/or pregabalin in PHN. It aims to support the increasing need for published cost-effectiveness data for health care decision-making processes in Europe. Methods: All studies were based on a similar core Markov model with data derived from clinical trials, local Delphi panels, and official national price and tariff lists. The main outcome measure was cost per quality-adjusted life year gained; time without pain or intolerable adverse events was also included as a secondary outcome measure. All studies focused on an elderly population of patients with PHN who had insufficient pain relief with standard analgesics and could not tolerate or had contraindications to tricyclic antidepressants. Results: Despite considerable differences in many of the variables used, the results showed remarkable similarity and suggested that use of lidocaine medicated plaster offered cost-savings in many of the countries studied, where it proved a highly cost-effective alternative to both gabapentin and pregabalin. Conclusion: Lidocaine medicated plaster is a cost-effective alternative to gabapentin and pregabalin in the treatment of PHN. These savings are largely the result of the superior safety profile of the lidocaine medicated plaster. Keywords: post-herpetic neuralgia, zoster, cost-effectiveness, lidocaine, plaster

  4. Optimal stomatal behaviour around the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yan-Shih; Medlyn, Belinda E.; Duursma, Remko A.; Prentice, I. Colin; Wang, Han; Baig, Sofia; Eamus, Derek; de Dios, Victor Resco; Mitchell, Patrick; Ellsworth, David S.; de Beeck, Maarten Op; Wallin, Göran; Uddling, Johan; Tarvainen, Lasse; Linderson, Maj-Lena; Cernusak, Lucas A.; Nippert, Jesse B.; Ocheltree, Troy W.; Tissue, David T.; Martin-Stpaul, Nicolas K.; Rogers, Alistair; Warren, Jeff M.; de Angelis, Paolo; Hikosaka, Kouki; Han, Qingmin; Onoda, Yusuke; Gimeno, Teresa E.; Barton, Craig V. M.; Bennie, Jonathan; Bonal, Damien; Bosc, Alexandre; Löw, Markus; Macinins-Ng, Cate; Rey, Ana; Rowland, Lucy; Setterfield, Samantha A.; Tausz-Posch, Sabine; Zaragoza-Castells, Joana; Broadmeadow, Mark S. J.; Drake, John E.; Freeman, Michael; Ghannoum, Oula; Hutley, Lindsay B.; Kelly, Jeff W.; Kikuzawa, Kihachiro; Kolari, Pasi; Koyama, Kohei; Limousin, Jean-Marc; Meir, Patrick; Lola da Costa, Antonio C.; Mikkelsen, Teis N.; Salinas, Norma; Sun, Wei; Wingate, Lisa

    2015-05-01

    Stomatal conductance (gs) is a key land-surface attribute as it links transpiration, the dominant component of global land evapotranspiration, and photosynthesis, the driving force of the global carbon cycle. Despite the pivotal role of gs in predictions of global water and carbon cycle changes, a global-scale database and an associated globally applicable model of gs that allow predictions of stomatal behaviour are lacking. Here, we present a database of globally distributed gs obtained in the field for a wide range of plant functional types (PFTs) and biomes. We find that stomatal behaviour differs among PFTs according to their marginal carbon cost of water use, as predicted by the theory underpinning the optimal stomatal model and the leaf and wood economics spectrum. We also demonstrate a global relationship with climate. These findings provide a robust theoretical framework for understanding and predicting the behaviour of gs across biomes and across PFTs that can be applied to regional, continental and global-scale modelling of ecosystem productivity, energy balance and ecohydrological processes in a future changing climate.

  5. A Case Report of Herpetic Whitlow with Positive Kanavel’s Cardinal Signs: A Diagnostic and Treatment Difficulty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milos Brkljac

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Herpetic whitlow is an acute viral infection of the hand caused by either herpes simplex virus (HSV 1 or 2. Its characteristic findings are significant pain and erythema with overlying nonpurulent vesicles. The differential diagnosis includes flexor tenosynovitis. We present a case of recurrent infection of the middle finger in an immunocompetent 19-year-old girl. Multiple painful pustules with tracking cellulitis were partially treated by oral antibiotics. A recurrence with positive Kanavel’s signs suggested flexor tenosynovitis at seven months. Her symptoms improved transiently following emergent surgical open flexor sheath exploration and washout however, she required two further washouts; at eleven and thirteen months to improve symptoms. Viral cultures were obtained from the third washout as HSV infection was disclosed from further history taking. These were positive for HSV2. Treatment with acyclovir at thirteen months after presentation led to a complete resolution of her symptoms with no further recurrences to date. This rare case highlights the similarity in presentation between flexor sheath infection and herpetic whitlow which can lead to diagnostic confusion and mismanagement. We emphasise the importance of careful past medical history taking as well as considering herpetic whitlow as a differential diagnosis despite the presence of strongly positive Kanavel’s signs.

  6. Vesicular stomatitis forecasting based on Google Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, JianYing; Zhang, Tong; Lu, Yi; Zhou, GuangYa; Chen, Qin; Niu, Bing

    2018-01-01

    Vesicular stomatitis (VS) is an important viral disease of livestock. The main feature of VS is irregular blisters that occur on the lips, tongue, oral mucosa, hoof crown and nipple. Humans can also be infected with vesicular stomatitis and develop meningitis. This study analyses 2014 American VS outbreaks in order to accurately predict vesicular stomatitis outbreak trends. American VS outbreaks data were collected from OIE. The data for VS keywords were obtained by inputting 24 disease-related keywords into Google Trends. After calculating the Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients, it was found that there was a relationship between outbreaks and keywords derived from Google Trends. Finally, the predicted model was constructed based on qualitative classification and quantitative regression. For the regression model, the Pearson correlation coefficients between the predicted outbreaks and actual outbreaks are 0.953 and 0.948, respectively. For the qualitative classification model, we constructed five classification predictive models and chose the best classification predictive model as the result. The results showed, SN (sensitivity), SP (specificity) and ACC (prediction accuracy) values of the best classification predictive model are 78.52%,72.5% and 77.14%, respectively. This study applied Google search data to construct a qualitative classification model and a quantitative regression model. The results show that the method is effective and that these two models obtain more accurate forecast.

  7. Vesicular stomatitis forecasting based on Google Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi; Zhou, GuangYa; Chen, Qin

    2018-01-01

    Background Vesicular stomatitis (VS) is an important viral disease of livestock. The main feature of VS is irregular blisters that occur on the lips, tongue, oral mucosa, hoof crown and nipple. Humans can also be infected with vesicular stomatitis and develop meningitis. This study analyses 2014 American VS outbreaks in order to accurately predict vesicular stomatitis outbreak trends. Methods American VS outbreaks data were collected from OIE. The data for VS keywords were obtained by inputting 24 disease-related keywords into Google Trends. After calculating the Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients, it was found that there was a relationship between outbreaks and keywords derived from Google Trends. Finally, the predicted model was constructed based on qualitative classification and quantitative regression. Results For the regression model, the Pearson correlation coefficients between the predicted outbreaks and actual outbreaks are 0.953 and 0.948, respectively. For the qualitative classification model, we constructed five classification predictive models and chose the best classification predictive model as the result. The results showed, SN (sensitivity), SP (specificity) and ACC (prediction accuracy) values of the best classification predictive model are 78.52%,72.5% and 77.14%, respectively. Conclusion This study applied Google search data to construct a qualitative classification model and a quantitative regression model. The results show that the method is effective and that these two models obtain more accurate forecast. PMID:29385198

  8. Vesicular stomatitis forecasting based on Google Trends.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JianYing Wang

    Full Text Available Vesicular stomatitis (VS is an important viral disease of livestock. The main feature of VS is irregular blisters that occur on the lips, tongue, oral mucosa, hoof crown and nipple. Humans can also be infected with vesicular stomatitis and develop meningitis. This study analyses 2014 American VS outbreaks in order to accurately predict vesicular stomatitis outbreak trends.American VS outbreaks data were collected from OIE. The data for VS keywords were obtained by inputting 24 disease-related keywords into Google Trends. After calculating the Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients, it was found that there was a relationship between outbreaks and keywords derived from Google Trends. Finally, the predicted model was constructed based on qualitative classification and quantitative regression.For the regression model, the Pearson correlation coefficients between the predicted outbreaks and actual outbreaks are 0.953 and 0.948, respectively. For the qualitative classification model, we constructed five classification predictive models and chose the best classification predictive model as the result. The results showed, SN (sensitivity, SP (specificity and ACC (prediction accuracy values of the best classification predictive model are 78.52%,72.5% and 77.14%, respectively.This study applied Google search data to construct a qualitative classification model and a quantitative regression model. The results show that the method is effective and that these two models obtain more accurate forecast.

  9. Topical amitriptyline and ketamine for post-herpetic neuralgia and other forms of neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawynok, Jana; Zinger, Celia

    2016-01-01

    Neuropathic pain (NP) has several therapeutic options but efficacy is limited and adverse effects occur, such that additional treatment options are needed. A topical formulation containing amitriptyline 4% and ketamine 2% (AmiKet) may provide such an option. This report summarizes both published and unpublished results of clinical trials with AmiKet. In post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN), AmiKet produces a significant analgesia which is comparable to that produced by oral gabapentin. In diabetic painful neuropathy, AmiKet showed a strong trend towards pain reduction. In mixed neuropathic pain, case series reports suggest a favourable response rate, but are limited by trial characteristics. AmiKet is absorbed minimally following topical administration. Over 700 patients have now received topical AmiKet in clinical regimens, and it is well-tolerated with the adverse effects mainly being application site reactions. Both agents are polymodal, and several mechanisms may contribute to the peripheral efficacy of AmiKet. Topical AmiKet has the potential to be a first-line treatment option for PHN, and to be useful in other NP conditions. Furthermore, AmiKet has the potential to be an adjunct to systemic therapies, with the targeting of a peripheral compartment in addition to central sites of action representing a rational drug combination.

  10. Liposomal topical capsaicin in post-herpetic neuralgia: a safety pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Topical treatments have gained popularity for general use as an adjunct to systemic drugs in neuropathic pain, but their use produces variable clinical results and local adverse events. Objective To evaluate the safety and analgesic effect of a formulation of liposomal capsaicin (LC (0.025% in patients with post herpetic neuralgia (PHN. Method Patients who remained symptomatic after first-and second-line treatment were randomized to receive LC for six weeks in a placebo-controlled, crossover design study. Clinical assessment was performed at baseline, in the second, fourth and sixth week of treatment. Results Thirteen patients completed both treatment periods. Visual Analog Scale (VAS was significantly decreased after the end of the study (p = 0.008, however the effect of treatment was not significant (p = 0.076. There was no difference on global impression of change and other pain characteristics. LC was safe and well tolerated. However, at the concentration used, its analgesic effects were marginal and not significant.

  11. Report of cases in patients with acute herpetic neuralgia using a Mangifera indica extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Garrido-Suárez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been accepted that neuroinflammation, oxidative stress and glial activation are involved in the central sensitization underlying neuropathic and inflammatory pain. Vimang® is the brand name of an aqueous extract of Mangifera indica L., Anacardiaceae, traditionally used in Cuba for its antioxidant, antiinflammatory, analgesic, and immunomodulatory properties. In the present study, we determined the possible effects of Vimang formulations in acute herpes zoster (n=12 patients, that received a daily dose of 1800 mg of extract (two coated Vimang tablets, 300 mg each, three times daily before meals associated to low doses of amitriptyline (10-25 mg/d. In addition to the tablets, they utilized compresses containing Vimang dissolution at 2% on skin lesions for thirty days. The average daily pain score using a Likert scale and variations in concomitant drug daily dosage were determined. The analgesic effect was observed from week 1 (p<0.001 with respect to baseline data and none showed post-herpetic neuralgia. Significant reduction of antidepressant medication (p<0.01 and analgesic rescue dosages (p=0.0035 with respect to the initial daily dosage were showed. No adverse events were reported. The results obtained in this report of cases suggest that Vimang supplementation might be beneficial to prevent and treat neuropathic pain.

  12. Report of cases in patients with acute herpetic neuralgia using a Mangifera indica extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Garrido-Suárez

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been accepted that neuroinflammation, oxidative stress and glial activation are involved in the central sensitization underlying neuropathic and inflammatory pain. Vimang® is the brand name of an aqueous extract of Mangifera indica L., Anacardiaceae, traditionally used in Cuba for its antioxidant, antiinflammatory, analgesic, and immunomodulatory properties. In the present study, we determined the possible effects of Vimang formulations in acute herpes zoster (n=12 patients, that received a daily dose of 1800 mg of extract (two coated Vimang tablets, 300 mg each, three times daily before meals associated to low doses of amitriptyline (10-25 mg/d. In addition to the tablets, they utilized compresses containing Vimang dissolution at 2% on skin lesions for thirty days. The average daily pain score using a Likert scale and variations in concomitant drug daily dosage were determined. The analgesic effect was observed from week 1 (p<0.001 with respect to baseline data and none showed post-herpetic neuralgia. Significant reduction of antidepressant medication (p<0.01 and analgesic rescue dosages (p=0.0035 with respect to the initial daily dosage were showed. No adverse events were reported. The results obtained in this report of cases suggest that Vimang supplementation might be beneficial to prevent and treat neuropathic pain.

  13. Plant water potential improves prediction of empirical stomatal models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William R L Anderegg

    Full Text Available Climate change is expected to lead to increases in drought frequency and severity, with deleterious effects on many ecosystems. Stomatal responses to changing environmental conditions form the backbone of all ecosystem models, but are based on empirical relationships and are not well-tested during drought conditions. Here, we use a dataset of 34 woody plant species spanning global forest biomes to examine the effect of leaf water potential on stomatal conductance and test the predictive accuracy of three major stomatal models and a recently proposed model. We find that current leaf-level empirical models have consistent biases of over-prediction of stomatal conductance during dry conditions, particularly at low soil water potentials. Furthermore, the recently proposed stomatal conductance model yields increases in predictive capability compared to current models, and with particular improvement during drought conditions. Our results reveal that including stomatal sensitivity to declining water potential and consequent impairment of plant water transport will improve predictions during drought conditions and show that many biomes contain a diversity of plant stomatal strategies that range from risky to conservative stomatal regulation during water stress. Such improvements in stomatal simulation are greatly needed to help unravel and predict the response of ecosystems to future climate extremes.

  14. Stomatal Blue Light Response Is Present in Early Vascular Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Michio; Kitagawa, Yuki; Shimazaki, Ken-ichiro

    2015-10-01

    Light is a major environmental factor required for stomatal opening. Blue light (BL) induces stomatal opening in higher plants as a signal under the photosynthetic active radiation. The stomatal BL response is not present in the fern species of Polypodiopsida. The acquisition of a stomatal BL response might provide competitive advantages in both the uptake of CO2 and prevention of water loss with the ability to rapidly open and close stomata. We surveyed the stomatal opening in response to strong red light (RL) and weak BL under the RL with gas exchange technique in a diverse selection of plant species from euphyllophytes, including spermatophytes and monilophytes, to lycophytes. We showed the presence of RL-induced stomatal opening in most of these species and found that the BL responses operated in all euphyllophytes except Polypodiopsida. We also confirmed that the stomatal opening in lycophytes, the early vascular plants, is driven by plasma membrane proton-translocating adenosine triphosphatase and K(+) accumulation in guard cells, which is the same mechanism operating in stomata of angiosperms. These results suggest that the early vascular plants respond to both RL and BL and actively regulate stomatal aperture. We also found three plant species that absolutely require BL for both stomatal opening and photosynthetic CO2 fixation, including a gymnosperm, C. revoluta, and the ferns Equisetum hyemale and Psilotum nudum. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Analysis of Stomatal Patterning in Selected Mutants of MAPK Pathways

    KAUST Repository

    Felemban, Abrar

    2016-05-01

    Stomata are cellular valves in plants that play an essential role in the regulation of gas exchange and are distributed in the epidermis of aerial organs. In Arabidopsis thaliana, stomatal production and development are coordinated by the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling pathway, which modulates a variety of other processes, including cell proliferation, regulation of cytokinesis, programed cell death, and response to abiotic and biotic stress. The environment also plays a role in stomatal development, by influencing the frequency at which stomata develop in leaves. This thesis presents an analysis of stomatal development in Arabidopsis mutants in two MAPK pathways: MEKK1-MKK1/MKK2-MPK4, and MAP3K17/18-MKK3. Obtained results demonstrate the effect of stress conditions on stomatal development and specify the involvement of analysed MAPK in stomatal patterning. First, both analysed pathways modulate stomatal patterning in Arabidopsis cotyledons. Second, plant growth-promoting bacteria tested enhance stomatal density and affect guard cell morphology. Third, the sucrose or mannitol treatment increases defects in stomatal patterning. Finally, salt stress or high temperature can suppress stomatal defects in mutants of the MEKK1-MKK1/MKK2-MPK4 pathway.

  16. Positive and negative peptide signals control stomatal density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Tomoo; Sugano, Shigeo S; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko

    2011-06-01

    The stoma is a micro valve found on aerial plant organs that promotes gas exchange between the atmosphere and the plant body. Each stoma is formed by a strict cell lineage during the early stages of leaf development. Molecular genetics research using the model plant Arabidopsis has revealed the genes involved in stomatal differentiation. Cysteine-rich secretory peptides of the EPIDERMAL PATTERNING FACTOR-LIKE (EPFL) family play crucial roles as extracellular signaling factors. Stomatal development is orchestrated by the positive factor STOMAGEN/EPFL9 and the negative factors EPF1, EPF2, and CHALLAH/EPFL6 in combination with multiple receptors. EPF1 and EPF2 are produced in the stomatal lineage cells of the epidermis, whereas STOMAGEN and CHALLAH are derived from the inner tissues. These findings highlight the complex cell-to-cell and intertissue communications that regulate stomatal development. To optimize gas exchange, particularly the balance between the uptake of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and loss of water, plants control stomatal activity in response to environmental conditions. The CO(2) level and light intensity influence stomatal density. Plants sense environmental cues in mature leaves and adjust the stomatal density of newly forming leaves, indicating the involvement of long-distance systemic signaling. This review summarizes recent research progress in the peptide signaling of stomatal development and discusses the evolutionary model of the signaling machinery.

  17. Stomatal uptake and stomatal deposition of ozone in isoprene and monoterpene emitting plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fares, S; Loreto, F; Kleist, E; Wildt, J

    2008-01-01

    Volatile isoprenoids were reported to protect plants against ozone. To understand whether this could be the result of a direct scavenging of ozone by these molecules, the stomatal and non-stomatal uptake of ozone was estimated in plants emitting isoprene or monoterpenes. Ozone uptake by holm oak (Quercus ilex, a monoterpene emitter) and black poplar (Populus nigra, an isoprene emitter) was studied in whole plant enclosures (continuously stirred tank reactors, CSTR). The ozone uptake by plants was estimated measuring ozone concentration at the inlet and outlet of the reactors, after correcting for the uptake of the enclosure materials. Destruction of ozone at the cuticle or at the plant stems was found to be negligible compared to the ozone uptake through the stomata. For both plant species, a relationship between stomatal conductance and ozone uptake was found. For the poplar, the measured ozone losses were explained by the uptake of ozone through the stomata only, and ozone destruction by gas phase reactions with isoprene was negligible. For the oak, gas phase reactions of ozone with the monoterpenes emitted by the plants contributed significantly to ozone destruction. This was confirmed by two different experiments showing a) that in cases of high stomatal conductance but under low CO(2) concentration, a reduction of monoterpene emission was still associated with reduced O(3) uptake; and b) that ozone losses due to the gas phase reactions only can be measured when using the exhaust from a plant chamber to determine the gas phase reactivity in an empty reaction chamber. Monoterpenes can therefore relevantly scavenge ozone at leaf level contributing to protection against ozone.

  18. Analysis of Stomatal Patterning in Selected Mutants of MAPK Pathways

    KAUST Repository

    Felemban, Abrar

    2016-01-01

    -activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling pathway, which modulates a variety of other processes, including cell proliferation, regulation of cytokinesis, programed cell death, and response to abiotic and biotic stress. The environment also plays a role in stomatal

  19. Recurrent aphthous stomatitis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiomara Serpa-Romero

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent aphthosus stomatitis is an alteration of the oral mucosa in some cases associated with depression of the immune system that affects the tissue response at the level of the epithelium, triggering repetitive clinical picture of small and medium ulcers (3-5 mm which necrotic presented erythematous background and lasting no more than 15 days. The picture becomes recurrent, symptomatic, compromising the health of the patient who consults again with the same characteristics in oral cavity. The literature associates the process with hormonal changes, trauma, prolonged intake of medications, and stress. A case of female patient 53, who attends the service of dentistry to present multiple oral thrush that hard to swallow, drooling and feverish marked presents in Santa Marta, at the Center for Implantology and Oral Rehabilitation. According to the interrogation and clinical examination it is associated with a reactive inflammatory process caused by the intake of drugs to treat infectious or viral process, which is given the presumptive diagnosis of erythema drug. Any medication intake was suspended and additional tests are ordered antinuclear antibodies

  20. Haematological parameters and recurrent aphthous stomatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, N. F.; Saeed, M.; Chaudhary, S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To find out the relationship between recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) with deficiencies of haemoglobin, haematocrit, serum vitamin B12, serum Ferritin and red blood cells (RBC) Folate level. Study Design: An analytical cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Oral Health Sciences, Shaikh Zayed Federal Postgraduate Medical Complex, Lahore, from February to July 2008. Methodology: Sixty consecutive subjects with active RAS were taken as the aphthous group; 60 age and gender matched subjects without RAS were as the Non-Aphthous group. Five milliliter blood was taken from both groups to evaluate the levels of serum B12, and RBC Folate through radio immuno assay and serum ferritin with enzyme linked immuno-sorbent assay tests. Complete blood count was carried out to determine the level of haemoglobin and haematocrit in both groups. Proportion of subjects with lower values was compared using 2 text of proportions with significance at p < 0.05. Results: Serum Ferritin (p = 0.001), haematocrit (p < 0.001), RBC Folate (p < 0.001) and serum B12 (p < 0.001) were significantly lower in the RAS group. Combined deficiency state (haemoglobin, serum Ferritin, haematocrit, RBC Folate and serum B12) was identified in 13% (n = 8) RAS patients. Conclusion: Frequency of haematinic deficiencies was high in RAS patients. Serum B12 and RBC Folate were significantly low in aphthous group. (author)

  1. Refractory Post-Herpetic Neuralgia As An Initial Presentation Of Olfactory Neuroblastoma-Related Ectopic ACTH Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiang-Hung Lin

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We report a woman aged 64 years with ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH syndrome caused by olfactory neuroblastoma as an initial presentation of refractory post-herpetic neuralgia. The manifestations such as cushingoid appearance and endocrine abnormalities are compatible with Cushing's syndrome. Brain computed tomography revealed a sellar mass. A biopsy revealed olfactory neuroblastoma. Immunohistochemical staining further defined the tumor as an ACTH-secreting neuroblastoma. Subsequent opportunistic infections by Candida glabrata fungemia and multiple drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii pneumonia occurred during hospitalization as a complication of severe hypercortisolism. Before any therapy for Cushing's syndrome and neuroblastoma could be initiated, the patient died from sepsis and multiorgan failure. We propose that Cushing's syndrome is more complex than what clinicians thought, and that meticulous cerebral imaging studies are crucial.

  2. Parálisis Parcial del Nervio Oculomotor Secundaria a Zoster Sine Herpete: Reporte de Un Caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar L. Rueda O.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Herpes Zoster es la reactivación del Virus Varicela Zóster en los ganglios sensoriales y/o autonómicos, típicamente caracterizado por dolor profundo de distribución dermatómica y erupciones vesiculares en piel. De manera infrecuente, puede presentarse el Zoster Sine Herpete, condición en la cual se presenta la distribución dermatómica del dolor en ausencia de lesiones dérmicas, convirtiendo el diagnóstico en un reto clínico. Caso clínico: Hombre de 69 años con dolor periorbitario, epifora, ptosis y pérdida de la aducción del ojo derecho. Los estudios imagenológicos y de laboratorio fueron normales, descartando así las principales causas de parálisis del nervio oculomotor. Se hizo diagnóstico presuntivo de Zoster Sine Herpete y se inició prueba terapéutica con valaciclovir, observándose resolución total de la sintomatología seis semanas después. Discusión: Este caso puede ser el primero en describir una parálisis parcial dolorosa del nervio oculomotor como única manifestación clínica de la reactivación del Virus Varicela Zóster y busca alertar al personal médico sobre una enfermedad latente que hace de sus reapariciones una gama de presentaciones no siempre fáciles de identificar.

  3. Chronic gingivitis and aphthous stomatitis relationship hypothesis: A neuroimmunobiological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiquita Prahasanti

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traumatic injuries to the oral mucosa in fixed orthodontic patients are common, especially in the first week of bracket placement, and occasionally lead to the development of aphthous stomatitis or ulcers. Nevertheless, these lesions are selflimiting. Purpose: The objective of this study is to reveal the connection between chronic gingivitis and aphthous stomatitis which is still unclear. Case: A patient with a persistent lesion for more than six months. Case Management: RAS was treated with scaling procedure, the gingival inflammation was healed. However, in this case report, despite the appropriate management procedures had been done, the lesion still worsen and became more painful. Moreover, the symptoms did not heal for more than two weeks. Actually, they had been undergone orthodontic treatment more than six months and rarely suffered from aphthous stomatitis. Coincidentally, at that time they also suffered from chronic gingivitis. It was interesting that after scaling procedures, the ulcer subsides in two days. Conclusion: Recently, the neuroimmunobiological researches which involved neurotransmitters and cytokines on cell-nerve signaling, and heat shock proteins in gingivitis and stomatitis are in progress. Nevertheless, they were done separately, thus do not explain the interrelationship. This proposed new concept which based on an integrated neuroimmunobiological approach could explain the benefit of periodontal treatment, especially scaling procedures, for avoiding prolonged painful episodes and unnecessary medications in aphthous stomatitis. However, for widely acceptance of the chronic gingivitis and aphthous stomatitis relationship, further clinical and laboratory study should be done. Regarding to the relatively fast healing after scaling procedures in this case report; it was concluded that the connection between chronic gingivitis and aphthous stomatitis is possible.

  4. Improving stomatal functioning at elevated growth air humidity: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanourakis, Dimitrios; Bouranis, Dimitrios; Giday, Habtamu; Carvalho, Dália R A; Rezaei Nejad, Abdolhossein; Ottosen, Carl-Otto

    2016-12-01

    Plants grown at high relative air humidity (RH≥85%) are prone to lethal wilting upon transfer to conditions of high evaporative demand. The reduced survival of these plants is related to (i) increased cuticular permeability, (ii) changed anatomical features (i.e., longer pore length and higher stomatal density), (iii) reduced rehydration ability, (iv) impaired water potential sensitivity to leaf dehydration and, most importantly, (v) compromised stomatal closing ability. This review presents a critical analysis of the strategies which stimulate stomatal functioning during plant development at high RH. These include (a) breeding for tolerant cultivars, (b) interventions with respect to the belowground environment (i.e., water deficit, increased salinity, nutrient culture and grafting) as well as (c) manipulation of the aerial environment [i.e., increased proportion of blue light, increased air movement, temporal temperature rise, and spraying with abscisic acid (ABA)]. Root hypoxia, mechanical disturbance, as well as spraying with compounds mimicking ABA, lessening its inactivation or stimulating its within-leaf redistribution are also expected to improve stomatal functioning of leaves expanded in humid air. Available evidence leaves little doubt that genotypic and phenotypic differences in stomatal functioning following cultivation at high RH are realized through the intermediacy of ABA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Plant twitter: ligands under 140 amino acids enforcing stomatal patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychel, Amanda L; Peterson, Kylee M; Torii, Keiko U

    2010-05-01

    Stomata are an essential land plant innovation whose patterning and density are under genetic and environmental control. Recently, several putative ligands have been discovered that influence stomatal density, and they all belong to the epidermal patterning factor-like family of secreted cysteine-rich peptides. Two of these putative ligands, EPF1 and EPF2, are expressed exclusively in the stomatal lineage cells and negatively regulate stomatal density. A third, EPFL6 or CHALLAH, is also a negative regulator of density, but is expressed subepidermally in the hypocotyl. A fourth, EPFL9 or STOMAGEN, is expressed in the mesophyll tissues and is a positive regulator of density. Genetic evidence suggests that these ligands may compete for the same receptor complex. Proper stomatal patterning is likely to be an intricate process involving ligand competition, regional specificity, and communication between tissue layers. EPFL-family genes exist in the moss Physcomitrella patens, the lycophyte Selaginella moellendorffii, and rice, Oryza sativa, and their sequence analysis yields several genes some of which are related to EPF1, EPF2, EPFL6, and EPFL9. Presence of these EPFL family members in the basal land plants suggests an exciting hypothesis that the genetic components for stomatal patterning originated early in land plant evolution.

  6. A Recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Ebola Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regules, Jason A; Beigel, John H; Paolino, Kristopher M; Voell, Jocelyn; Castellano, Amy R; Hu, Zonghui; Muñoz, Paula; Moon, James E; Ruck, Richard C; Bennett, Jason W; Twomey, Patrick S; Gutiérrez, Ramiro L; Remich, Shon A; Hack, Holly R; Wisniewski, Meagan L; Josleyn, Matthew D; Kwilas, Steven A; Van Deusen, Nicole; Mbaya, Olivier Tshiani; Zhou, Yan; Stanley, Daphne A; Jing, Wang; Smith, Kirsten S; Shi, Meng; Ledgerwood, Julie E; Graham, Barney S; Sullivan, Nancy J; Jagodzinski, Linda L; Peel, Sheila A; Alimonti, Judie B; Hooper, Jay W; Silvera, Peter M; Martin, Brian K; Monath, Thomas P; Ramsey, W Jay; Link, Charles J; Lane, H Clifford; Michael, Nelson L; Davey, Richard T; Thomas, Stephen J

    2017-01-26

    The worst Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in history has resulted in more than 28,000 cases and 11,000 deaths. We present the final results of two phase 1 trials of an attenuated, replication-competent, recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV)-based vaccine candidate designed to prevent EVD. We conducted two phase 1, placebo-controlled, double-blind, dose-escalation trials of an rVSV-based vaccine candidate expressing the glycoprotein of a Zaire strain of Ebola virus (ZEBOV). A total of 39 adults at each site (78 participants in all) were consecutively enrolled into groups of 13. At each site, volunteers received one of three doses of the rVSV-ZEBOV vaccine (3 million plaque-forming units [PFU], 20 million PFU, or 100 million PFU) or placebo. Volunteers at one of the sites received a second dose at day 28. Safety and immunogenicity were assessed. The most common adverse events were injection-site pain, fatigue, myalgia, and headache. Transient rVSV viremia was noted in all the vaccine recipients after dose 1. The rates of adverse events and viremia were lower after the second dose than after the first dose. By day 28, all the vaccine recipients had seroconversion as assessed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) against the glycoprotein of the ZEBOV-Kikwit strain. At day 28, geometric mean titers of antibodies against ZEBOV glycoprotein were higher in the groups that received 20 million PFU or 100 million PFU than in the group that received 3 million PFU, as assessed by ELISA and by pseudovirion neutralization assay. A second dose at 28 days after dose 1 significantly increased antibody titers at day 56, but the effect was diminished at 6 months. This Ebola vaccine candidate elicited anti-Ebola antibody responses. After vaccination, rVSV viremia occurred frequently but was transient. These results support further evaluation of the vaccine dose of 20 million PFU for preexposure prophylaxis and suggest that a second dose may boost antibody responses

  7. [CORRELATION MATRIX OF CHARACTERISTICS OF CHRONIC RECURRENT APHTHOUS STOMATITIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koridze, Kh; Aladashvili, L; Taboridze, I

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of the present work is to study the correlation between the risk factors of chronic recurrent aphthous stomatitis. The research was conducted on 62 patients between ages of 40 and 70 years at Tbilisi Hospital for Veterans of War. The analysis was carried out by Spearman's Rank Correlation method using the statistical package SPSS 11.5. We investigated: harmful habits, professional factors, background and accompanying illnesses, pathology of teeth, focal infection, emotional stress, genetic factors. Correlation matrix between the significant risk factors of chronic recurrent aphthous stomatitis is defined. Multiple correlations have the following factors: industrial dust, focal infections, emotional stress, anemia. Correlation diagram of etiological factors of chronic recurrent aphthous stomatitis is helpful for providing professional and expert services.

  8. Optimal Stomatal Behaviour Around the World: Synthesis of a Global Stomatal Conductance Database and Scaling from Leaf to Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y. S.; Medlyn, B. E.; Duursma, R.; Prentice, I. C.; Wang, H.

    2014-12-01

    Stomatal conductance (gs) is a key land surface attribute as it links transpiration, the dominant component of global land evapotranspiration and a key element of the global water cycle, and photosynthesis, the driving force of the global carbon cycle. Despite the pivotal role of gs in predictions of global water and carbon cycles, a global scale database and an associated globally applicable model of gs that allow predictions of stomatal behaviour are lacking. We present a unique database of globally distributed gs obtained in the field for a wide range of plant functional types (PFTs) and biomes. We employed a model of optimal stomatal conductance to assess differences in stomatal behaviour, and estimated the model slope coefficient, g1, which is directly related to the marginal carbon cost of water, for each dataset. We found that g1 varies considerably among PFTs, with evergreen savanna trees having the largest g1 (least conservative water use), followed by C3 grasses and crops, angiosperm trees, gymnosperm trees, and C4 grasses. Amongst angiosperm trees, species with higher wood density had a higher marginal carbon cost of water, as predicted by the theory underpinning the optimal stomatal model. There was an interactive effect between temperature and moisture availability on g1: for wet environments, g1 was largest in high temperature environments, indicated by high mean annual temperature during the period when temperature above 0oC (Tm), but it did not vary with Tm across dry environments. We examine whether these differences in leaf-scale behaviour are reflected in ecosystem-scale differences in water-use efficiency. These findings provide a robust theoretical framework for understanding and predicting the behaviour of stomatal conductance across biomes and across PFTs that can be applied to regional, continental and global-scale modelling of productivity and ecohydrological processes in a future changing climate.

  9. Economic Burden of Herpes Zoster and Post-Herpetic Neuralgia in Adults 60 Years of Age or Older: Results from a Prospective, Physician Practice-Based Cohort Study in Kushiro, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Mizukami, Akiko; Adachi, Koichi; Matthews, Sean; Holl, Katsiaryna; Asano, Kazuhiro; Watanabe, Akihiro; Adachi, Riri; Kiuchi, Mariko; Kobayashi, Keiju; Sato, Keiko; Matsuki, Taizo; Kaise, Toshihiko; Curran, Desmond

    2017-12-01

    Herpes zoster has a high incidence rate among people aged ≥ 60 years and can lead to serious complications such as post-herpetic neuralgia. There are currently no data on the economic burden of herpes zoster and post-herpetic neuralgia in Japan, and the objective of this study was to address this gap. A total of 412 patients aged ≥ 60 years diagnosed with herpes zoster were recruited. Demographic, clinical, and healthcare resource utilization data on patients with herpes zoster or post-herpetic neuralgia collected via case report forms were used to estimate direct medical cost. Data obtained from a questionnaire survey among patients with herpes zoster/post-herpetic neuralgia were used to estimate transportation cost and productivity loss. The mean number of outpatient visits was 5.7. Prescription medications were the main cost driver accounting for 60% of the direct medical cost. The mean direct medical and total herpes zoster-related costs per patient were ¥43,925 and ¥57,112, respectively, and were higher in patients with post-herpetic neuralgia than in those with herpes zoster without complications. Direct medical cost represented 77%, productivity loss 19%, and transportation cost 4% of the total. This is the first study of the economic burden of herpes zoster and post-herpetic neuralgia in Japan and it demonstrated substantial direct medical cost as a result of the multiple outpatient visits and prescription medications required. These findings provide baseline data for possible future economic evaluations of new herpes zoster/post-herpetic neuralgia interventions. This cost analysis is part of a prospective, physician practice-based cohort study conducted between June 2013 and February 2015 in Kushiro, Japan (Clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT01873365, registered on 6 June, 2013).

  10. Reconstitution of the fusogenic activity of vesicular stomatitis virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metsikkö, K.; van Meer, G.; Simons, K.

    1986-01-01

    Enveloped virus glycoproteins exhibit membrane fusion activity. We have analysed whether the G protein of vesicular stomatitis virus, reconstituted into liposomes, is able to fuse nucleated cells in a pH-dependent fashion. Proteoliposomes produced by octylglucoside dialysis did not exhibit cell

  11. Quantitative trait loci mapping for stomatal traits in interspecific ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dr.YASODHA

    seedling raising, field planting and maintenance of the mapping population. ... tereticornis and production of interspecific hybrids displaying hybrid vigour in terms of .... A total of 114, 115 and 129 SSR, ISSR and SRAP markers were generated .... stomatal traits with yield and adaptability would help to improve productivity of ...

  12. Preventive effects of Ancer 20 injection against radiation stomatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Naohiko; Nomura, Yasuya; Takano, Shinya (Showa Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine) (and others)

    1993-10-01

    Ancer 20 was injected subcutaneously twice a day into 23 patients during the couse of radiation therapy for head and neck cancer, with the aim of preventing radiation stomatitis. Oral mucosa was assessed both subjectively and objectively, in addition to white blood cell counts. Objective findings of oral mucosa revealed grade I in 71%, grade II in 52%, grade III in 14%, and grade IV in 5%. The dose of irradiation needed to produce grade I in 50% was 22.8 Gy. Subjective findings revealed grade I in 67%, grade II in 33%, and grade III in 10%. Irradiation dose needed to produce grade I in 50% was 23.9 Gy. Mucosous damage was slight when the white blood cell count of 6,000/mm[sup 3] was maintained. According to the rate of leukopenia, this drug was effective in 86.4%. These findings showed that Ancer 20 injection is useful in maintaining white blood cell counts and in preventing radiation stomatitis associated with radiation therapy especially to the field of mucous membrane. There was inverse correlation between white blood cell counts and both the occurrence rate and degree of radiation stomatitis. It seemed necessary to maintain white blood cell counts to prevent radiation stomatitis. (N.K.).

  13. Linking stomatal sensitivity and whole-tree hydraulic architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katherine A. McCulloh; David R. Woodruff

    2012-01-01

    Despite the complexity of the relationship between stomatal sensitivity, water loss and vulnerability to embolism, the goal of teasing apart the subtleties is a necessary one. As Litvak et al. (2012) mention, determining transpiration patterns based on vulnerability to embolism would be much easier than the lengthy and potentially expensive processes involved in sap...

  14. The BIG protein distinguishes the process of CO2 -induced stomatal closure from the inhibition of stomatal opening by CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jingjing; Zhang, Ruo-Xi; Peng, Kai; Tagliavia, Cecilia; Li, Siwen; Xue, Shaowu; Liu, Amy; Hu, Honghong; Zhang, Jingbo; Hubbard, Katharine E; Held, Katrin; McAinsh, Martin R; Gray, Julie E; Kudla, Jörg; Schroeder, Julian I; Liang, Yun-Kuan; Hetherington, Alistair M

    2018-04-01

    We conducted an infrared thermal imaging-based genetic screen to identify Arabidopsis mutants displaying aberrant stomatal behavior in response to elevated concentrations of CO 2 . This approach resulted in the isolation of a novel allele of the Arabidopsis BIG locus (At3g02260) that we have called CO 2 insensitive 1 (cis1). BIG mutants are compromised in elevated CO 2 -induced stomatal closure and bicarbonate activation of S-type anion channel currents. In contrast with the wild-type, they fail to exhibit reductions in stomatal density and index when grown in elevated CO 2 . However, like the wild-type, BIG mutants display inhibition of stomatal opening when exposed to elevated CO 2 . BIG mutants also display wild-type stomatal aperture responses to the closure-inducing stimulus abscisic acid (ABA). Our results indicate that BIG is a signaling component involved in the elevated CO 2 -mediated control of stomatal development. In the control of stomatal aperture by CO 2 , BIG is only required in elevated CO 2 -induced closure and not in the inhibition of stomatal opening by this environmental signal. These data show that, at the molecular level, the CO 2 -mediated inhibition of opening and promotion of stomatal closure signaling pathways are separable and BIG represents a distinguishing element in these two CO 2 -mediated responses. © 2018 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  15. Stomatal design principles in synthetic and real leaves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zwieniecki, Maciej A.; Haaning, Katrine S; Boyce, C. Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Stomata are portals in plant leaves that control gas exchange for photosynthesis, a process fundamental to life on Earth. Gas fluxes and plant productivity depend on external factors such as light, water and CO2 availability and on the geometrical properties of the stoma pores. The link between...... for major trends in stomatal patterning are not well understood. Here, we use a combination of biomimetic experiments and theory to rationalize the observed changes in stoma geometry. We show that the observed correlations between stoma size and density are consistent with the hypothesis that plants favour...... efficient use of space and maximum control of dynamic gas conductivity, and that the capacity for gas exchange in plants has remained constant over at least the last 325 Myr. Our analysis provides a new measure to gauge the relative performance of species based on their stomatal characteristics....

  16. Combination of low frequency electroacupuncture plus subdissociative doses of ketamine in post-herpetic neuralgia patients. A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara B. Garrido-Suárez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Context: Pain processing implicates multiple concurrent mechanisms of nociceptive transmission and modulation. Electroacupuncture (EA analgesia involves mainly the activation of the endogenous anti-nociceptive systems that modulate pain transmission in addition to the regulation of glial activity and inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the spinal cord. Aims: To examine the potential anti-hyperalgesic effects the EA and the combination EA-ketamine in patients with post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN. Methods: Sixty-eight patients with PHN irritable nociceptor type were randomly allocated to 3 groups: group I (n=26, that received treatment with EA (10 Hz, 2-3 mA, 0.5 ms, 20 min/15 sessions alone, group II (n=21 with a combination EA-ketamine (0.25-0.5 mg/kg, i.m. or group III (n=21 with sham EA-ketamine for 15 days. The average daily pain score (ADPS using the Likert scale, area and rate of dynamic allodynia, the rate of thermal allodynia, and frequency of intermittent lancinating pain were evaluated during five visits – before treatment and at 15, 30, 60, 90 days. Results: ADPS and sensory abnormalities decreased significantly concerning baseline data at 90 days in the three groups, but patients treated with the combination EA-ketamine significantly improved compared with the other groups. Conclusions: These results suggest that the combination EA-ketamine shows an early and long-term anti-hyperalgesic effect in PHN patients. However, a controlled clinical trial is necessary to confirm this hypothesis.

  17. Measuring the burden of herpes zoster and post herpetic neuralgia within primary care in rural Crete, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionis Christos D

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research has indicated that general practitioners (GPs have good clinical judgment in regards to diagnosing and managing herpes zoster (HZ within clinical practice in a country with limited resources for primary care and general practice. The objective of the current study was to assess the burden of HZ and post herpetic neuralgia (PHN within rural general practices in Crete, Greece. Methods The current study took place within a rural setting in Crete, Greece during the period of November 2007 to November 2009 within the catchment area in which the Cretan Rural Practice-based Research Network is operating. In total 19 GP's from 14 health care units in rural Crete were invited to participate, covering a total turnover patient population of approximately 25, 000 subjects. For the purpose of this study an electronic record database was constructed and used as the main tool for monitoring HZ and PHN incidence. Stress related data was also collected with the use of the Short Anxiety Screening Test (SAST. Results The crude incidence rate of HZ was 1.4/1000 patients/year throughout the entire network of health centers and satellite practices, while among satellite practices alone it was calculated at 1.3/1000 patients/year. Additionally, the standardised incidence density within satellite practices was calculated at 1.6/1000 patients/year. In regards to the stress associated with HZ and PHN, the latter were found to have lower levels of anxiety, as assessed through the SAST score (17.4 ± 3.9 vs. 21.1 ± 5.7; p = 0.029. Conclusions The implementation of an electronic surveillance system was feasible so as to measure the burden of HZ and PHN within the rural general practice setting in Crete.

  18. Necrotizing herpetic retinopathies. A spectrum of herpes virus-induced diseases determined by the immune state of the host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guex-Crosier, Y; Rochat, C; Herbort, C P

    1997-12-01

    Necrotizing herpetic retinopathies (NHR), a new spectrum of diseases induced by viruses of the herpes family (herpes simplex virus, varicella-zoster virus and cytomegalovirus), includes acute retinal necrosis (ARN) occurring in apparently immunocompetent patients and progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) described in severely immuno-compromised patients. Signs of impaired cellular immunity were seen in 16% of ARN patients in a review of 216 reported cases, indicating that immune dysfunction is not only at the origin of PORN but might also be at the origin of ARN. The aim of this study was to correlate clinical findings in NHR patients with their immunologic parameters. Charts from patients with the diagnosis of ARN or PORN seen from 1990 to 1995 were reviewed. Clinical characteristics and disease patterns were correlated with immunological parameters taking into account CD4 lymphocyte rate in AIDS patients and blood-lymphocyte subpopulation determination by flow cytometry, cutaneous delayed type hypersensitivity testing and lymphocytic proliferation rate to seven antigens in HIV-negative patients. During the period considered, 11 patients and 7 patients fulfilled the criteria of ARN and PORN respectively. Immune dysfunctions were identified in most patients. Mild type of ARN and classical ARN were associated with discrete immune dysfunctions, ARN with features of PORN was seen in more immunodepressed patients and classical PORN was always seen in severely immunodepressed HIV patients. Our findings suggest that NHR is a continuous spectrum of diseases induced by herpes viruses, whose clinical expression depends on the immune state of the host going from mild or classical ARN at one end in patients with non-detectable or slight immune dysfunction to PORN in severely immunodepressed patients at the other end and with intermediary forms between these extremes.

  19. Ozone exposure and stomatal sluggishness in different plant physiognomic classes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paoletti, Elena, E-mail: e.paoletti@ipp.cnr.i [IPP-CNR, Via Madonna del Piano 10, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy); Grulke, Nancy E. [US Forest Service, 4955 Canyon Crest Drive, Riverside, CA 92507 (United States)

    2010-08-15

    Gas exchange responses to static and variable light were tested in three species: snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, two cultivars), California black oak (Quercus kelloggii), and blue oak (Q. douglasii). The effects of 1-month (snap beans) and 2-month (oaks) O{sub 3} (ozone) exposure (70 ppb over 8 h per day in open-top chambers) were investigated. A delay in stomatal responses (i.e., 'sluggish' responses) to variable light was found to be both an effect of O{sub 3} exposure and a reason for increased O{sub 3} sensitivity in snap bean cultivars, as it implied higher O{sub 3} uptake during times of disequilibrium. Sluggishness increased the time to open (thus limiting CO{sub 2} uptake) and close stomata (thus increasing transpirational water loss) after abrupt changes in light level. Similar responses were shown by snap beans and oaks, suggesting that O{sub 3}-induced stomatal sluggishness is a common trait among different plant physiognomic classes. - Sluggish stomatal responses are suggested to be both an effect of O{sub 3} exposure and a reason of increased O{sub 3} sensitivity in plants.

  20. The Ecophysiology Of A Pinus Ponderosa Ecosystem Exposed To High Tropospheric Ozone: Implications For Stomatal And Non-Stomatal Ozone Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fares, S.; McKay, M.; Goldstein, A.

    2008-12-01

    Ecosystems remove ozone from the troposphere through both stomatal and non-stomatal deposition. The portion of ozone taken up through stomata has an oxidative effect causing damage. We used a multi-year dataset to assess the physiological controls over ozone deposition. Environmental parameters, CO2 and ozone fluxes were measured continuously from January 2001 to December 2006 above a ponderosa pine plantation near Blodgett Forest, Georgetown, California. We studied the dynamic of NEE (Net Ecosystem Exchange, -838 g C m-2 yr-1) and water evapotranspiration on an annual and daily basis. These processes are tightly coupled to stomatal aperture which also controlled ozone fluxes. High levels of ozone concentrations (~ 100 ppb) were observed during the spring-summer period, with corresponding high levels of ozone fluxes (~ 30 μmol m-2 h-1). During the summer season, a large portion of the total ozone flux was due to non-stomatal processes, and we propose that a plant physiological control, releasing BVOC (Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds), is mainly responsible. We analyzed the correlations of common ozone exposure metrics based on accumulation of concentrations (AOT40 and SUM0) with ozone fluxes (total, stomatal and non-stomatal). Stomatal flux showed poorer correlation with ozone concentrations than non-stomatal flux during summer and fall seasons, which largely corresponded to the growing period. We therefore suggest that AOT40 and SUM0 are poor predictors of ozone damage and that a physiologically based metric would be more effective.

  1. CO2 sensing and CO2 regulation of stomatal conductance: advances and open questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineer, Cawas; Hashimoto-Sugimoto, Mimi; Negi, Juntaro; Israelsson-Nordstrom, Maria; Azoulay-Shemer, Tamar; Rappel, Wouter-Jan; Iba, Koh; Schroeder, Julian

    2015-01-01

    Guard cells form epidermal stomatal gas exchange valves in plants and regulate the aperture of stomatal pores in response to changes in the carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in leaves. Moreover, the development of stomata is repressed by elevated CO2 in diverse plant species. Evidence suggests that plants can sense CO2 concentration changes via guard cells and via mesophyll tissues in mediating stomatal movements. We review new discoveries and open questions on mechanisms mediating CO2-regulated stomatal movements and CO2 modulation of stomatal development, which together function in CO2-regulation of stomatal conductance and gas exchange in plants. Research in this area is timely in light of the necessity of selecting and developing crop cultivars which perform better in a shifting climate. PMID:26482956

  2. Separating Active and Passive Influences on Stomatal Control of Transpiration[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdam, Scott A.M.; Brodribb, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by studies suggesting that the stomata of ferns and lycophytes do not conform to the standard active abscisic acid (ABA) -mediated stomatal control model, we examined stomatal behavior in a conifer species (Metasequoia glyptostroboides) that is phylogenetically midway between the fern and angiosperm clades. Similar to ferns, daytime stomatal closure in response to moderate water stress seemed to be a passive hydraulic process in M. glyptostroboides immediately alleviated by rehydrating excised shoots. Only after prolonged exposure to more extreme water stress did active ABA-mediated stomatal closure become important, because foliar ABA production was triggered after leaf turgor loss. The influence of foliar ABA on stomatal conductance and stomatal aperture was highly predictable and additive with the passive hydraulic influence. M. glyptostroboides thus occupies a stomatal behavior type intermediate between the passively controlled ferns and the characteristic ABA-dependent stomatal closure described in angiosperm herbs. These results highlight the importance of considering phylogeny as a major determinant of stomatal behavior. PMID:24488969

  3. Guard cell photosynthesis is critical for stomatal turgor production, yet does not directly mediate CO2 - and ABA-induced stomatal closing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azoulay-Shemer, Tamar; Palomares, Axxell; Bagheri, Andisheh; Israelsson-Nordstrom, Maria; Engineer, Cawas B; Bargmann, Bastiaan O R; Stephan, Aaron B; Schroeder, Julian I

    2015-08-01

    Stomata mediate gas exchange between the inter-cellular spaces of leaves and the atmosphere. CO2 levels in leaves (Ci) are determined by respiration, photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and atmospheric [CO2 ]. [CO2 ] in leaves mediates stomatal movements. The role of guard cell photosynthesis in stomatal conductance responses is a matter of debate, and genetic approaches are needed. We have generated transgenic Arabidopsis plants that are chlorophyll-deficient in guard cells only, expressing a constitutively active chlorophyllase in a guard cell specific enhancer trap line. Our data show that more than 90% of guard cells were chlorophyll-deficient. Interestingly, approximately 45% of stomata had an unusual, previously not-described, morphology of thin-shaped chlorophyll-less stomata. Nevertheless, stomatal size, stomatal index, plant morphology, and whole-leaf photosynthetic parameters (PSII, qP, qN, FV '/FM' ) were comparable with wild-type plants. Time-resolved intact leaf gas-exchange analyses showed a reduction in stomatal conductance and CO2 -assimilation rates of the transgenic plants. Normalization of CO2 responses showed that stomata of transgenic plants respond to [CO2 ] shifts. Detailed stomatal aperture measurements of normal kidney-shaped stomata, which lack chlorophyll, showed stomatal closing responses to [CO2 ] elevation and abscisic acid (ABA), while thin-shaped stomata were continuously closed. Our present findings show that stomatal movement responses to [CO2 ] and ABA are functional in guard cells that lack chlorophyll. These data suggest that guard cell CO2 and ABA signal transduction are not directly modulated by guard cell photosynthesis/electron transport. Moreover, the finding that chlorophyll-less stomata cause a 'deflated' thin-shaped phenotype, suggests that photosynthesis in guard cells is critical for energization and guard cell turgor production. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Nitric Oxide (NO) Measurements in Stomatal Guard Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agurla, Srinivas; Gayatri, Gunja; Raghavendra, Agepati S

    2016-01-01

    The quantitative measurement of nitric oxide (NO) in plant cells acquired great importance, in view of the multifaceted function and involvement of NO as a signal in various plant processes. Monitoring of NO in guard cells is quite simple because of the large size of guard cells and ease of observing the detached epidermis under microscope. Stomatal guard cells therefore provide an excellent model system to study the components of signal transduction. The levels and functions of NO in relation to stomatal closure can be monitored, with the help of an inverted fluorescence or confocal microscope. We can measure the NO in guard cells by using flouroprobes like 4,5-diamino fluorescein diacetate (DAF-2DA). This fluorescent dye, DAF-2DA, is cell permeable and after entry into the cell, the diacetate group is removed by the cellular esterases. The resulting DAF-2 form is membrane impermeable and reacts with NO to generate the highly fluorescent triazole (DAF-2T), with excitation and emission wavelengths of 488 and 530 nm, respectively. If time-course measurements are needed, the epidermis can be adhered to a cover-glass or glass slide and left in a small petri dishes. Fluorescence can then be monitored at required time intervals; with a precaution that excitation is done minimally, only when a fluorescent image is acquired. The present method description is for the epidermis of Arabidopsis thaliana and Pisum sativum and should work with most of the other dicotyledonous plants.

  5. Internal coordination between hydraulics and stomatal control in leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodribb, Tim J; Jordan, Gregory J

    2008-11-01

    The stomatal response to changing leaf-atmospheric vapour pressure gradient (D(l)) is a crucial yet enigmatic process that defines the daily course of leaf gas exchange. Changes in the hydration of epidermal cells are thought to drive this response, mediated by the transpiration rate and hydraulic conductance of the leaf. Here, we examine whether species-specific variation in the sensitivity of leaves to perturbation of D(l) is related to the efficiency of water transport in the leaf (leaf hydraulic conductivity, K(leaf)). We found good correlation between maximum liquid (K(leaf)) and gas phase conductances (g(max)) in leaves, but there was no direct correlation between normalized D(l) sensitivity and K(leaf). The impact of K(leaf) on D(l) sensitivity in our diverse sample of eight species was important only after accounting for the strong relationship between K(leaf) and g(max). Thus, the ratio of g(max)/K(leaf) was strongly correlated with stomatal sensitivity to D(l). This ratio is an index of the degree of hydraulic buffering of the stomata against changes in D(l), and species with high g(max) relative to K(leaf) were the most sensitive to D(l) perturbation. Despite the potentially high adaptive significance of this phenomenon, we found no significant phylogenetic or ecological trend in our species.

  6. Mesadenitis and herpetic infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. Fatkullina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The variants of the course of chronic herpesvirus infection in children with the involvement of several mesenteric lymph nodes in the process and the formation of inflammatory conglomerates – mesenterite (mesadenite are considered. Possible etiological factors of mesenteritis, morphological changes in affected lymph nodes: nonspecific hyperplasia, in some cases – necrosis and suppuration, are given. Clinical cases of mesenteritis against chronic herpesvirus infections in preschool children are described with a detailed description of clinical manifestations in the form of prolonged fever, chronic intoxication, attacks of abdominal pain accompanied by an unstable stool. Dynamics of the main laboratory markers of herpesvirus activity is given, changes in the indices of instrumental methods of investigation are tracked. Possible pathogenetic mechanisms of the formation of such manifestations of the disease, the role of the systemic inflammatory response and therapeutic approaches with the use of antiviral drugs and glucocorticosteroids are discussed.

  7. Natural variation in stomatal response to closing stimuli among Arabidopsis thaliana accessions after exposure to low VPD as a tool to recognize the mechanism of disturbed stomatal functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliniaeifard, Sasan; van Meeteren, Uulke

    2014-12-01

    Stomatal responses to closing stimuli are disturbed after long-term exposure of plants to low vapour pressure deficit (VPD). The mechanism behind this disturbance is not fully understood. Genetic variation between naturally occurring ecotypes can be helpful to elucidate the mechanism controlling stomatal movements in different environments. We characterized the stomatal responses of 41 natural accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana to closing stimuli (ABA and desiccation) after they had been exposed for 4 days to moderate VPD (1.17 kPa) or low VPD (0.23 kPa). A fast screening system was used to test stomatal response to ABA using chlorophyll fluorescence imaging under low O2 concentrations of leaf discs floating on ABA solutions. In all accessions stomatal conductance (gs) was increased after prior exposure to low VPD. After exposure to low VPD, stomata of 39 out of 41 of the accessions showed a diminished ABA closing response; only stomata of low VPD-exposed Map-42 and C24 were as responsive to ABA as moderate VPD-exposed plants. In response to desiccation, most of the accessions showed a normal stomata closing response following low VPD exposure. Only low VPD-exposed Cvi-0 and Rrs-7 showed significantly less stomatal closure compared with moderate VPD-exposed plants. Using principle component analysis (PCA), accessions could be categorized to very sensitive, moderately sensitive, and less sensitive to closing stimuli. In conclusion, we present evidence for different stomatal responses to closing stimuli after long-term exposure to low VPD across Arabidopsis accessions. The variation can be a useful tool for finding the mechanism of stomatal malfunctioning. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  8. Les caractéristiques des stomates des feuilles de Ficus benjamina L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The main objective of this study is to assess the potential of Ficus benjamina stomata to be used as indicators of local air pollution. Methodology: Stomatal prints were taken from the species of study in the vicinity of roads, in residential and industrial areas and parks. Density, pore surface and stomatal resistance ...

  9. Assessing urban habitat quality based on specific leaf area and stomatal characteristics of Plantago lanceolata L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kardel, F.; Wuyts, K.; Babanezhad, M.; Vitharana, U.W.A.; Wuytack, T.; Potters, G.; Samson, R.

    2010-01-01

    This study has evaluated urban habitat quality by studying specific leaf area (SLA) and stomatal characteristics of the common herb Plantago lanceolata L. SLA and stomatal density, pore surface and resistance were measured at 169 locations in the city of Gent (Belgium), distributed over four land use classes, i.e., sub-urban green, urban green, urban and industry. SLA and stomatal density significantly increased from sub-urban green towards more urbanised land use classes, while the reverse was observed for stomatal pore surface. Stomatal resistance increased in the urban and industrial land use class in comparison with the (sub-) urban green, but differences between land use classes were less pronounced. Spatial distribution maps for these leaf characteristics showed a high spatial variation, related to differences in habitat quality within the city. Hence, stomatal density and stomatal pore surface are assumed to be potentially good bio-indicators for urban habitat quality. - Stomatal characteristics of Plantago lanceolata can be used for biomonitoring of urban habitat quality.

  10. Canopy Transpiration and Stomatal Responses to Prolonged Drought by a Dominant Desert Species in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daxing Gu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In arid and semiarid lands, canopy transpiration and its dynamics depend largely on stomatal sensitivity to drought. In this study, the sap flow of a dominant species, Haloxylon ammodendron growing in Central Asian deserts, was monitored using Granier-type sensors, from which the canopy stomatal conductance was derived. The responses of canopy transpiration and stomatal conductance to environmental variables during the second half of the growing season, when annual prolonged drought occurred, was analyzed for four continuous years, from 2013 to 2016. A soil water content (SWC of 3% was identified as the lower soil water threshold for this species, below which the plant lost the ability for stomatal regulation on water loss and suffered the risk of mortality. Above this threshold, the sensitivity of canopy transpiration to vapor pressure deficit, VPD (K, was linearly correlated with SWC, which mainly resulted from different stomatal behaviors at varying drought intensities. Stomatal sensitivity to VPD (m/Gsref increased linearly with soil moisture deficit, inducing a shift from more anisohydric to a more isohydric stomatal behavior. The flexibility of stomatal behavior regarding soil drought was one key element facilitating the survival of H. ammodendron in such an extreme dry environment.

  11. Does Size Matter? Atmospheric CO2 May Be a Stronger Driver of Stomatal Closing Rate Than Stomatal Size in Taxa That Diversified under Low CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott-Kingston, Caroline; Haworth, Matthew; Yearsley, Jon M; Batke, Sven P; Lawson, Tracy; McElwain, Jennifer C

    2016-01-01

    One strategy for plants to optimize stomatal function is to open and close their stomata quickly in response to environmental signals. It is generally assumed that small stomata can alter aperture faster than large stomata. We tested the hypothesis that species with small stomata close faster than species with larger stomata in response to darkness by comparing rate of stomatal closure across an evolutionary range of species including ferns, cycads, conifers, and angiosperms under controlled ambient conditions (380 ppm CO2; 20.9% O2). The two species with fastest half-closure time and the two species with slowest half-closure time had large stomata while the remaining three species had small stomata, implying that closing rate was not correlated with stomatal size in these species. Neither was response time correlated with stomatal density, phylogeny, functional group, or life strategy. Our results suggest that past atmospheric CO2 concentration during time of taxa diversification may influence stomatal response time. We show that species which last diversified under low or declining atmospheric CO2 concentration close stomata faster than species that last diversified in a high CO2 world. Low atmospheric [CO2] during taxa diversification may have placed a selection pressure on plants to accelerate stomatal closing to maintain adequate internal CO2 and optimize water use efficiency.

  12. Combining sap flow and eddy covariance approaches to derive stomatal and non-stomatal O3 fluxes in a forest stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunn, A.J.; Cieslik, S.; Metzger, U.; Wieser, G.; Matyssek, R.

    2010-01-01

    Stomatal O 3 fluxes to a mixed beech/spruce stand (Fagus sylvatica/Picea abies) in Central Europe were determined using two different approaches. The sap flow technique yielded the tree-level transpiration, whereas the eddy covariance method provided the stand-level evapotranspiration. Both data were then converted into stomatal ozone fluxes, exemplifying this novel concept for July 2007. Sap flow-based stomatal O 3 flux was 33% of the total O 3 flux, whereas derivation from evapotranspiration rates in combination with the Penman-Monteith algorithm amounted to 47%. In addition to this proportional difference, the sap flow-based assessment yielded lower levels of stomatal O 3 flux and reflected stomatal regulation rather than O 3 exposure, paralleling the daily courses of canopy conductance for water vapor and eddy covariance-based total stand-level O 3 flux. The demonstrated combination of sap flow and eddy covariance approaches supports the development of O 3 risk assessment in forests from O 3 exposure towards flux-based concepts. - Combined tree sap flow and eddy covariance-based methodologies yield stomatal O 3 flux as 33% in total stand flux.

  13. Ozone slows stomatal response to light and leaf wounding in a Mediterranean evergreen broadleaf, Arbutus unedo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoletti, Elena

    2005-04-01

    The effect of a 90-d ozone exposure (charcoal-filtered air or 110 nmol mol(-1) O3) on stomatal conductance (gs) was investigated in the Mediterranean evergreen broadleaf Arbutus unedo L. Ozone did not significantly reduce midday steady-state gs compared to controls. However, it slowed stomatal response to abrupt reduction of light intensity and to increasing water stress, applied by severing the leaf midrib. Ozone slowed stomatal closure, rather than aperture. Nevertheless, vein-cutting did not allow ozonated leaves to reach the pre-injury gs levels, like controls did, suggesting re-opening was still, slowly in progress. The sluggish behaviour was recorded 10 days after cessation of O3 exposure ("memory effect") and may affect stomatal control in response to sunflecks and leaf wounding. Mediterranean evergreen broadleaves are regarded as tolerant to O3 exposure. Nevertheless, measurements of steady-state gs at midday may not account for altered stomatal responses to stressors.

  14. Mix-and-match: ligand-receptor pairs in stomatal development and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torii, Keiko U

    2012-12-01

    Stomata are small valves on the plant epidermis balancing gas exchange and water loss. Stomata are formed according to positional cues. In Arabidopsis, two EPIDERMAL PATTERNING FACTOR (EPF) peptides, EPF1 and EPF2, are secreted from stomatal precursors enforcing proper stomatal patterning. Here, I review recent studies revealing the ligand-receptor pairs and revising the previously predicted relations between receptors specifying stomatal patterning: ERECTA-family and TOO MANY MOUTHS (TMM). Furthermore, EPF-LIKE9 (EPFL9/Stomagen) promotes stomatal differentiation from internal tissues. Two EPFL peptides specify inflorescence architecture, a process beyond stomatal development, as ligands for ERECTA. Thus, broadly expressed receptor kinases may regulate multiple developmental processes through perceiving different peptide ligands, each with a specialized expression pattern. TMM in the epidermis may fine-tune multiple EPF/EPFL signals to prevent signal interference. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Peanut allergy as a trigger for the deterioration of atopic dermatitis and precursor of staphylococcal and herpetic associated infections – case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Ferreira

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Atopic dermatitis (AD is a multifactorial and chronic disease, with genetic, environmental, immunological and nutritional origins. AD may be aggravated by allergies associated with infections. This study aims to describe a paediatric case of AD in which the peanut allergy was the triggering factor to aggravate the disease, and was also the concomitant precursor of staphylococcal (methicillin-sensitive [i]Staphylococcus aureus[/i], carrier of the Panton-Valentine leukocidine (PVL genes and herpetic (Herpes Simplex – HSV infections. The clinical management approach and nursing strategies promoted a favourable evolution during the hospitalization period, besides the family approach, which was essential to control any flare-up of the disease. Adherence to a recommended diet and the use of strategies to prevent any recurrent infections were important to ensure the patient’s quality of life.

  16. Peanut allergy as a trigger for the deterioration of atopic dermatitis and precursor of staphylococcal and herpetic associated infections – case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Ferreira

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Atopic dermatitis (AD is a multifactorial and chronic disease, with genetic, environmental, immunological and nutritional origins. AD may be aggravated by allergies associated with infections. This study aims to describe a paediatric case of AD in which the peanut allergy was the triggering factor to aggravate the disease, and was also the concomitant precursor of staphylococcal (methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus, carrier of the Panton-Valentine leukocidine (PVL genes and herpetic (Herpes Simplex – HSV infections. The clinical management approach and nursing strategies promoted a favourable evolution during the hospitalization period, besides the family approach, which was essential to control any flare-up of the disease. Adherence to a recommended diet and the use of strategies to prevent any recurrent infections were important to ensure the patient’s quality of life.

  17. A systematic review and meta-analysis to compare the efficacy of acyclovir 3% ophthalmic ointment to idoxuridine in curing herpetic keratitis by Day 7 of treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balderson, Diane E; Cai, Gengqian; Fries, Michael A; Kleinman, David M; McLaughlin, Megan M; Trivedi, Trupti M; Wurzelmann, John I; Young, Sheila B

    2015-04-17

    This objective of the review and analysis is to demonstrate that acyclovir (ACV) 3% ophthalmic ointment is superior to idoxuridine (IDU) in treating herpetic keratitis (HK) presenting as dendritic and geographic ulcer sub-types. Publications in human subjects were identified by searching the Ovid MEDLINE database through April 2011, combining medical subject headings (MESH) "Keratitis, Herpetic/" AND "Acyclovir/" limiting by the key words "topical" OR "ointment" and also restricted to MESH "Administration, Topical/" OR "Ointments/". The results were cross checked with the references used in the Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 1:1-134, 2009 and GlaxoSmithKline clinical documents related to acyclovir. Randomized, double-masked studies in subjects diagnosed with HK with head to head comparator arms of ACV ophthalmic ointment and topical IDU that had actual or calculable healing rates at Day seven. Data independently extracted from identified articles by two authors of this manuscript. Data from seven randomized, controlled trials (RCT) evaluating 432 subjects that met inclusion criteria (214 were treated with ACV and 218 were treated with IDU) and had Day seven healing rates calculable. All sub-classified lesions were identified as either dendritic ulcers (n = 185) or geographic ulcers (n = 35). The Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel (CMH) method in Biometrics 10:417-51, 1954 and JNCI 22:719-48, 1959, controlling for study, was performed as the primary analysis using SAS v9. Homogeneity was assessed using Breslow-Day-Tarone (BDT) test in IARC 1:1-32, 1980 and Biometrika 72:91-5, 1985. The analysis was performed with outliers removed to assess their impact. ACV showed statistically significant greater odds of healing HK at Day seven in all subjects (Odds Ratio 3.95, 95% CI2.60, 6.00, p p p = 0.0244). ACV 3% ophthalmic ointment is a valuable intervention for dendritic and geographic corneal ulcers. ACV and IDU were generally well tolerated in the studies reviewed.

  18. Association of anti-herpes simplex virus IgG in tears and serum with clinical presentation in patients with presumed herpetic simplex keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borderie, Vincent M; Gineys, Raquel; Goldschmidt, Pablo; Batellier, Laurence; Laroche, Laurent; Chaumeil, Christine

    2012-11-01

    To assess the clinical relevance of tear anti-herpes simplex virus (HSV) antibody measurement for the diagnosis of herpes simplex keratitis. Records of 364 patients clinically suspect of HSV-related keratitis who had tear anti-HSV IgG assessment (tear-quantified anti-HSV IgG/filtrated IgG ratio) in our institution between January 2000 and August 2008 were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were classified into 4 groups as follows: group 1, anti-HSV IgG negative in serum and tears; group 2, anti-HSV IgG negative in tears and positive in serum; group 3, anti-HSV IgG nonsignificantly positive in tears and positive in serum; and group 4, anti-HSV IgG significantly positive in serum and tears. Randomly selected patient charts from each group were reviewed for clinical data. The prevalence of anti-HSV IgG in blood increased with age from >70% before 20 years to 95% after 70 years. The prevalence of anti-HSV IgG in tears increased with age from 20% before 20 years to >50% after 70 years. The presence (either significant or not) of anti-HSV IgG in tears was significantly associated with decreased corneal sensation, presence of stromal opacities, and with neurotrophic keratitis. Logistic regression showed no significant association between age and clinical signs except for herpetic ulcers and herpetic necrotizing keratitis. Tear production of anti-HSV IgG increases with age, and it is associated with sequelae of herpes simplex keratitis. Conversely, it is poorly associated with clinical signs of acute herpes simplex keratitis.

  19. Daya Hambat Infusum Daun Sirih Terhadap Pertumbuhan Staphylococcus aureus Yang Diisolasi Dari Denture Stomatitis ; Penelitian In Vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    bin Abdullah, Muhammad Naim

    2011-01-01

    Denture Stomatitis merupakan lesi mukosa oral berwarna merah, sakit, dan bengkak, kondisi ini karena kebiasaan jelek pada pemakai gigitiruan yang tidak mumbuka protesa pada malam hari dan jarang dibersihkan. Faktor sistemik yang mendukung terjadinya Denture Stomatitis dapat disebabkan oleh beberapa bakteri, salah satunya Staphylococcus aureus. Pencegahan Denture Stomatitis dapat dilakukan dengan sering membersihkan gigitiruan dan pemakaian obat kumur. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menguj...

  20. Photodynamic antimicrobial therapy in the treatment of denture stomatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senna, Andre Machado de

    2012-01-01

    Denture stomatitis (DS), also called chronic atrophic candidiasis, is the most common oral fungal infection in denture wearers. It has a multifactorial etiology, but the presence of Candida spp. biofilm on the denture is considered the most important factor for the establishment of the DS. This study aimed to evaluate the treatment of DS through the use of photodynamic antimicrobial therapy (PAT), mediated by methylene blue. For this purpose, preclinical studies and clinical trials were performed. Simulators prototypes dentures were made of methyl methacrylate polymer to serve as a basis for biofilm growth of the following species of Candida: C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. dubliniensis, C. krusei, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis and C. guilliermondii. Methylene blue solution at a concentration of 450 μg/mL was used as a photosensitizer. The prototypes and biofilms were irradiated with a laser of wavelength of 660 nm, potency of 100 mW, for 80 seconds. For the clinical study, subjects were divided into two groups. The first group received conventional treatment based on the use of antifungal Miconazole. The second group received the treatment by PAT. The preclinical results showed that all species of the genus Candida were susceptible to PAT, with a reduction in colonies that ranged from 2.48 to 3.93 log 10 . Clinical outcomes were evaluated for the reduction of colonies of Candida spp. located in the mucosa and in the prosthesis and relative to the improvement of the clinical aspect of the affected mucosa. Both the conventional therapy and PAT were effective in treating DS. There was no significant statistical difference between PAT and conventional treatment for any of the factors evaluated. Thus, it was concluded that PAT is effective in the treatment of denture stomatitis. (author)

  1. Evidence-based modelling of diverse plant water use strategies on stomatal and non-stomatal components under drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    zhou, S.; Prentice, C.; Medlyn, B. E.; Sabaté, S.

    2013-12-01

    Models disagree on how to represent effects of drought stress on plant gas exchange. Some models assume drought stress affects the marginal water use efficiency of plants (marginal WUE; i.e. the change in photosynthesis per unit of change in transpiration) whereas others assume drought stress acts directly on photosynthetic capacity. It is not clear whether either of these approaches is sufficient to capture the drought response, or whether the effect of drought varies among species and functional types. A collection of Eucalyptus and Quercus species derived from different hydro-climate habitats, in together with two European riparian species, were conducted with drought treatments respectively in Australia and Spain for three months. Measurements included net CO2 assimilation rate versus substomatal CO2 concentration (A-Ci) curves, fluorescence, and predawn leaf water potential at increasing levels of water stress. The correlations with quantitative plant traits of leaf, stomata, vessel, and wood density, leaf nitrogen content and 13C discrimination were also explored. We analysed the effect of drought effect on leaf gas exchange with a recently developed stomatal model that reconciles the empirical and optimal approaches on predicting optimal stomatal conductance. The model's single parameter g1 is a decreasing function of marginal WUE. The two genera showed consistence on the contrasting response patterns between species derived from mesic and arid habitats, which differed greatly in their estimated g1 values under moist conditions, and in the rate at which g1 declined with water stress. They also differed greatly in the predawn water potential at which apparent carboxylation capacity (apparent Vcmax) and mesophyll conductance (gm) declined most steeply, and in the steepness of this decline. Principal components analysis revealed a gradient in water relation strategies from sclerophyll species to malacophyll species. Malacophylls had higher g1, apparent Vcmax

  2. A rate equation model of stomatal responses to vapour pressure deficit and drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanahan ST

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stomata respond to vapour pressure deficit (D – when D increases, stomata begin to close. Closure is the result of a decline in guard cell turgor, but the link between D and turgor is poorly understood. We describe a model for stomatal responses to increasing D based upon cellular water relations. The model also incorporates impacts of increasing levels of water stress upon stomatal responses to increasing D. Results The model successfully mimics the three phases of stomatal responses to D and also reproduces the impact of increasing plant water deficit upon stomatal responses to increasing D. As water stress developed, stomata regulated transpiration at ever decreasing values of D. Thus, stomatal sensitivity to D increased with increasing water stress. Predictions from the model concerning the impact of changes in cuticular transpiration upon stomatal responses to increasing D are shown to conform to experimental data. Sensitivity analyses of stomatal responses to various parameters of the model show that leaf thickness, the fraction of leaf volume that is air-space, and the fraction of mesophyll cell wall in contact with air have little impact upon behaviour of the model. In contrast, changes in cuticular conductance and membrane hydraulic conductivity have significant impacts upon model behaviour. Conclusion Cuticular transpiration is an important feature of stomatal responses to D and is the cause of the 3 phase response to D. Feed-forward behaviour of stomata does not explain stomatal responses to D as feedback, involving water loss from guard cells, can explain these responses.

  3. A comparison of two stomatal conductance models for ozone flux modelling using data from two Brassica species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Op de Beeck, M.; De Bock, M.; Vandermeiren, K.; Temmerman, L. de; Ceulemans, R.

    2010-01-01

    In this study we tested and compared a multiplicative stomatal model and a coupled semi-empirical stomatal-photosynthesis model in their ability to predict stomatal conductance to ozone (g st ) using leaf-level data from oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) and broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica Plenck). For oilseed rape, the multiplicative model and the coupled model were able to explain 72% and 73% of the observed g st variance, respectively. For broccoli, the models were able to explain 53% and 51% of the observed g st variance, respectively. These results support the coupled semi-empirical stomatal-photosynthesis model as a valid alternative to the multiplicative stomatal model for O 3 flux modelling, in terms of predictive performance. - A multiplicative stomatal model and a coupled semi-empirical stomatal-photosynthesis model performed equally well when tested against leaf-level data for oilseed rape and broccoli.

  4. Infection of guinea pigs with vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus Transmitted by Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez De León, Adalberto A; O'Toole, Donal; Tabachnick, Walter J

    2006-05-01

    Intrathoracically inoculated Culicoides sonorensis Wirth & Jones were capable of transmitting vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus (family Rhabdoviridae, genus Vesiculovirus, VSNJV) during blood feeding on the abdomen of six guinea pigs. None of the guinea pigs infected in this manner developed clinical signs of vesicular stomatitis despite seroconversion for VSNJV. Guinea pigs infected by intradermal inoculations of VSNJV in the abdomen also failed to develop clinical signs of vesicular stomatitis. Three guinea pigs given intradermal inoculations of VSNJV in the foot pad developed lesions typical of vesicular stomatitis. Transmission by the bite of C. sonorensis may have facilitated guinea pig infection with VSNJV because a single infected C. sonorensis caused seroconversion and all guinea pigs infected by insect bite seroconverted compared with 50% of the guinea pigs infected by intradermal inoculation with a higher titer VSNJV inoculum. The role of C. sonorensis in the transmission of VSNJV is discussed.

  5. Testing of models of stomatal ozone fluxes with field measurements in a mixed Mediterranean forest

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fares, S.; Matteucci, G.; Mugnozza, S.; Morani, A.; Calfapietra, Carlo; Salvatori, E.; Fusaro, L.; Manes, F.; Loreto, F.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 67, MAR (2013), s. 242-251 ISSN 1352-2310 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Ozone fluxes * Stomatal conductance models * GPP * Mediterranean forest Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.062, year: 2013

  6. Herpetic esophagitis: a case report on an immunocompetent adolescent Esofagitis herpética: presentación en adolescente inmunocompetente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana de la Riva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Herpetic esophagitis in immunocompetent individuals is a rare entity that should be suspected clinically by an acute onset of symptoms, and without apparent cause of a symptomatic triad consisting on odynophagia, heartburn and fever. Its occurrence may be due to reactivation of a previous infection or less often a primary infection. Herpes simplex type 1 is the most common cause. Upper endoscopy establishes the diagnosis of suspicion of herpetic esophagitis. It also allows to take multiple biopsy samples and viral culture, leading to a definitive diagnosis. The severity of symptoms is related to the degree of oesophageal involvement. In immunocompromised patients treatment is indicated with acyclovir, but the indication in immunocompetent patients is controversial because the process is time, limited with a low probability of complications. We present a case of acute herpetic esophagitis in an immunocompetent host that debuted acutely with severe upper gastrointestinal tract symptoms, associated with an insidious and non-specific onset of flu-like symptoms. Endoscopic findings showed a severe involvement in the lower third of the oesophageal mucosa.La esofagitis herpética en individuos inmunocompetentes, es una entidad rara, que debe de sospecharse clínicamente por el inicio agudo, y sin aparente causa, de una triada sintomática consistente en odinofagia, pirosis y fiebre. Su aparición puede deberse a una reactivación de una infección viral previa o con menor frecuencia a una primoinfección como tal, siendo el herpes tipo 1 el responsable en la mayoría de las ocasiones. La realización de una gastroscopia permite establecer el diagnóstico de sospecha de esta enfermedad y la toma de múltiples muestras para estudio histológico y cultivo viral, lo que lleva al diagnóstico definitivo. La severidad de los síntomas está en relación con el grado de afectación esofágica y aunque en los pacientes inmunocomprometidos el tratamiento con

  7. Stomatal response of Pinus sylvestriformis to elevated CO2 concentrations during the four years of exposure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yu-mei; HAN Shi-jie; LIU Ying; JIA Xia

    2005-01-01

    Four-year-old Pinus sylvestriformis were exposed for four growing seasons in open top chambers to ambient CO2 concentration (approx. 350 μmol·mol-1) and high CO2 concentrations (500 and 700 μmol·mol-1) at Research Station of Changbai Mountain Forest Ecosystems, Chinese Academy of Sciences at Antu Town, Jilin Province, China (42oN, 128oE). Stomatal response to elevated CO2 concentrations was examined by stomatal conductance (gs), ratio of intercellular to ambient CO2 concentration (ci/ca) and stomatal number. Reciprocal transfer experiments of stomatal conductance showed that stomatal conductance in high-[CO2]-grown plants increased in comparison with ambient-[CO2]-grown plants when measured at their respective growth CO2 concentration and at the same measurement CO2 concentration (except a reduction in 700 μmol·mol-1 CO2 grown plants compared with plants on unchambered field when measured at growth CO2 concentration and 350 μmol·mol-1CO2). High-[CO2]-grown plants exhibited lower ci/ca ratios than ambient-[CO2]-grown plants when measured at their respective growth CO2 concentration. However, ci/ca ratios increased for plants grown in high CO2 concentrations compared with control plants when measured at the same CO2 concentration. There was no significant difference in stomatal number per unit long needle between elevated and ambient CO2. However, elevated CO2 concentrations reduced the total stomatal number of whole needle by the decline of stomatal line and changed the allocation pattern of stomata between upper and lower surface of needle.

  8. Fern Stomatal Responses to ABA and CO2 Depend on Species and Growth Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hõrak, Hanna; Kollist, Hannes; Merilo, Ebe

    2017-06-01

    Changing atmospheric CO 2 levels, climate, and air humidity affect plant gas exchange that is controlled by stomata, small pores on plant leaves and stems formed by guard cells. Evolution has shaped the morphology and regulatory mechanisms governing stomatal movements to correspond to the needs of various land plant groups over the past 400 million years. Stomata close in response to the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA), elevated CO 2 concentration, and reduced air humidity. Whether the active regulatory mechanisms that control stomatal closure in response to these stimuli are present already in mosses, the oldest plant group with stomata, or were acquired more recently in angiosperms remains controversial. It has been suggested that the stomata of the basal vascular plants, such as ferns and lycophytes, close solely hydropassively. On the other hand, active stomatal closure in response to ABA and CO 2 was found in several moss, lycophyte, and fern species. Here, we show that the stomata of two temperate fern species respond to ABA and CO 2 and that an active mechanism of stomatal regulation in response to reduced air humidity is present in some ferns. Importantly, fern stomatal responses depend on growth conditions. The data indicate that the stomatal behavior of ferns is more complex than anticipated before, and active stomatal regulation is present in some ferns and has possibly been lost in others. Further analysis that takes into account fern species, life history, evolutionary age, and growth conditions is required to gain insight into the evolution of land plant stomatal responses. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  9. The oral microbiota of patients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bankvall

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Specific pathogenic bacteria have been implicated in recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS, a chronic inflammatory condition characterised by ulcerations in the oral mucosa. However, the aetiology behind this condition still remains unclear. Objective: The buccal microbiota of patients with RAS was compared to that of control subjects to investigate its potential role for this condition. Design: Buccal swabs were obtained from non-ulcerative areas of 60 patients, of whom 42 patients had lesions at the time of sampling, and 60 healthy age- and gender-matched controls. Bacterial DNA was extracted and analysed by Terminal-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism, using enzymatic digestion of the polymerase chain reaction-amplified 16S rRNA gene, yielding a series of peaks, each representing a bacterial taxon. Results: Two peaks, 60 and 489, were more prevalent in patients with RAS than controls. Conversely, peaks 58 and 490 were less common in patients than controls. When the patients were divided into subgroups, we found that the observed differences in peak-pattern were related to the presence of lesions during sampling. Conclusions: The microbiota of the non-inflamed buccal mucosa differed between patients and controls. The differences were most pronounced in patients who presented with lesions during sampling, suggesting that a disturbance in the normal buccal microbiota triggers the presence of lesions or that presence of lesions alters the microbiota.

  10. A photosynthesis-based two-leaf canopy stomatal ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    A coupled photosynthesis-stomatal conductance model with single-layer sunlit and shaded leaf canopy scaling is implemented and evaluated in a diagnostic box model with the Pleim-Xiu land surface model (PX LSM) and ozone deposition model components taken directly from the meteorology and air quality modeling system—WRF/CMAQ (Weather Research and Forecast model and Community Multiscale Air Quality model). The photosynthesis-based model for PX LSM (PX PSN) is evaluated at a FLUXNET site for implementation against different parameterizations and the current PX LSM approach with a simple Jarvis function (PX Jarvis). Latent heat flux (LH) from PX PSN is further evaluated at five FLUXNET sites with different vegetation types and landscape characteristics. Simulated ozone deposition and flux from PX PSN are evaluated at one of the sites with ozone flux measurements. Overall, the PX PSN simulates LH as well as the PX Jarvis approach. The PX PSN, however, shows distinct advantages over the PX Jarvis approach for grassland that likely result from its treatment of C3 and C4 plants for CO2 assimilation. Simulations using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) leaf area index (LAI) rather than LAI measured at each site assess how the model would perform with grid averaged data used in WRF/CMAQ. MODIS LAI estimates degrade model performance at all sites but one site having exceptionally old and tall trees. Ozone deposition velocity and ozone flux along with LH

  11. Epizootic vesicular stomatitis in Colorado, 1982: epidemiologic and entomologic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, T E; Webb, P A; Kramer, W L; Smith, G C; Davis, T; Holbrook, F R; Moore, C G; Schiefer, T J; Jones, R H; Janney, G C

    1987-01-01

    An epizootic of vesicular stomatitis (VS) caused by the New Jersey serotype of VS virus affected livestock and humans in 14 western states in 1982-1983. Epidemiological observations were made on at least 10% of the cattle in 4 dairy herds that were located in the vicinity of Grand Junction, Colorado. High rates of neutralizing antibody to the New Jersey serotype were seen in all cattle regardless of whether livestock in the dairy had clinical VS or a decrease in mild production. Antibody titers remained high in these cattle for as long as 2 years after the epizootic. No virus isolations were made from 32 humans with clinical signs compatible with viral disease. Entomological information was obtained during the epizootic from 23 premises in northwestern Colorado. Insect collections yielded 4 isolates from Culicoides spp. midges, 2 from C. variipennis, and 1 each from C. stellifer and C. (Selfia) spp. This is the first report of VS virus isolations from field-collected Culicoides.

  12. Oncotargeting by Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV: Advances in Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman Bishnoi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Modern oncotherapy approaches are based on inducing controlled apoptosis in tumor cells. Although a number of apoptosis-induction approaches are available, site-specific delivery of therapeutic agents still remain the biggest hurdle in achieving the desired cancer treatment benefit. Additionally, systemic treatment-induced toxicity remains a major limiting factor in chemotherapy. To specifically address drug-accessibility and chemotherapy side effects, oncolytic virotherapy (OV has emerged as a novel cancer treatment alternative. In OV, recombinant viruses with higher replication capacity and stronger lytic properties are being considered for tumor cell-targeting and subsequent cell lysing. Successful application of OVs lies in achieving strict tumor-specific tropism called oncotropism, which is contingent upon the biophysical interactions of tumor cell surface receptors with viral receptors and subsequent replication of oncolytic viruses in cancer cells. In this direction, few viral vector platforms have been developed and some of these have entered pre-clinical/clinical trials. Among these, the Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV-based platform shows high promise, as it is not pathogenic to humans. Further, modern molecular biology techniques such as reverse genetics tools have favorably advanced this field by creating efficient recombinant VSVs for OV; some have entered into clinical trials. In this review, we discuss the current status of VSV based oncotherapy, challenges, and future perspectives regarding its therapeutic applications in the cancer treatment.

  13. Oncotargeting by Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV): Advances in Cancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishnoi, Suman; Tiwari, Ritudhwaj; Gupta, Sharad; Byrareddy, Siddappa N; Nayak, Debasis

    2018-02-23

    Modern oncotherapy approaches are based on inducing controlled apoptosis in tumor cells. Although a number of apoptosis-induction approaches are available, site-specific delivery of therapeutic agents still remain the biggest hurdle in achieving the desired cancer treatment benefit. Additionally, systemic treatment-induced toxicity remains a major limiting factor in chemotherapy. To specifically address drug-accessibility and chemotherapy side effects, oncolytic virotherapy (OV) has emerged as a novel cancer treatment alternative. In OV, recombinant viruses with higher replication capacity and stronger lytic properties are being considered for tumor cell-targeting and subsequent cell lysing. Successful application of OVs lies in achieving strict tumor-specific tropism called oncotropism, which is contingent upon the biophysical interactions of tumor cell surface receptors with viral receptors and subsequent replication of oncolytic viruses in cancer cells. In this direction, few viral vector platforms have been developed and some of these have entered pre-clinical/clinical trials. Among these, the Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-based platform shows high promise, as it is not pathogenic to humans. Further, modern molecular biology techniques such as reverse genetics tools have favorably advanced this field by creating efficient recombinant VSVs for OV; some have entered into clinical trials. In this review, we discuss the current status of VSV based oncotherapy, challenges, and future perspectives regarding its therapeutic applications in the cancer treatment.

  14. Diurnal photosynthesis and stomatal resistance in field-grown soybeans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.E.; Muller, R.N.; Seegers, P.

    1976-01-01

    The process of photosynthesis in green plants is the major determinant of crop yield. Although the effects of air pollutants, such as sulfur dioxide, on photosynthesis has been studied, many unsolved questions remain. This is especially true with regard to reduction of photosynthetic rate under conditions of chronic exposure causing little or no visible injury. It was the purpose of these studies to develop techniques suitable for measuring photosynthetic rates of field-grown plants without dramatically altering the microenvironment of the plants. Gross photosynthetic rates of soybeans (Glycine max. cv. Wayne) in the field were measured by exposing a small section of representative leaves for 30 seconds to 14 CO 2 in a normal atmospheric mixture by a technique similar to that of Incoll and Wright. A 1-cm 2 section of the area exposed to 14 CO 2 is punched from the leaf and processed for liquid scintillation counting. Since the treatment period is of such short duration, there is little photorespiratory loss of 14 CO 2 , and thus, the amount of 14 C fixed in the leaf can be related to the gross photosynthetic rate. Other parameters measured during the course of these experiments were stomatal resistance, light intensity, leaf water potential, and air temperature

  15. Expression of Arabidopsis hexokinase in citrus guard cells controls stomatal aperture and reduces transpiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitsan eLugassi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hexokinase (HXK is a sugar-phosphorylating enzyme involved in sugar-sensing. It has recently been shown that HXK in guard cells mediates stomatal closure and coordinates photosynthesis with transpiration in the annual species tomato and Arabidopsis. To examine the role of HXK in the control of the stomatal movement of perennial plants, we generated citrus plants that express Arabidopsis HXK1 (AtHXK1 under KST1, a guard cell-specific promoter. The expression of KST1 in the guard cells of citrus plants has been verified using GFP as a reporter gene. The expression of AtHXK1 in the guard cells of citrus reduced stomatal conductance and transpiration with no negative effect on the rate of photosynthesis, leading to increased water-use efficiency. The effects of light intensity and humidity on stomatal behavior were examined in rooted leaves of the citrus plants. The optimal intensity of photosynthetically active radiation and lower humidity enhanced stomatal closure of AtHXK1-expressing leaves, supporting the role of sugar in the regulation of citrus stomata. These results suggest that HXK coordinates photosynthesis and transpiration and stimulates stomatal closure not only in annual species, but also in perennial species.

  16. Salicaceae Endophytes Modulate Stomatal Behavior and Increase Water Use Efficiency in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyungmin Rho

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial and yeast endophytes isolated from the Salicaceae family have been shown to promote growth and alleviate stress in plants from different taxa. To determine the physiological pathways through which endophytes affect plant water relations, we investigated leaf water potential, whole-plant water use, and stomatal responses of rice plants to Salicaceae endophyte inoculation under CO2 enrichment and water deficit. Daytime stomatal conductance and stomatal density were lower in inoculated plants compared to controls. Leaf ABA concentrations increased with endophyte inoculation. As a result, transpirational water use decreased significantly with endophyte inoculation while biomass did not change or slightly increased. This response led to a significant increase in cumulative water use efficiency at harvest. Different endophyte strains produced the same results in host plant water relations and stomatal responses. These stomatal responses were also observed under elevated CO2 conditions, and the increase in water use efficiency was more pronounced under water deficit conditions. The effect on water use efficiency was positively correlated with daily light integrals across different experiments. Our results provide insights on the physiological mechanisms of plant-endophyte interactions involving plant water relations and stomatal functions.

  17. Expression of Arabidopsis Hexokinase in Citrus Guard Cells Controls Stomatal Aperture and Reduces Transpiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugassi, Nitsan; Kelly, Gilor; Fidel, Lena; Yaniv, Yossi; Attia, Ziv; Levi, Asher; Alchanatis, Victor; Moshelion, Menachem; Raveh, Eran; Carmi, Nir; Granot, David

    2015-01-01

    Hexokinase (HXK) is a sugar-phosphorylating enzyme involved in sugar-sensing. It has recently been shown that HXK in guard cells mediates stomatal closure and coordinates photosynthesis with transpiration in the annual species tomato and Arabidopsis. To examine the role of HXK in the control of the stomatal movement of perennial plants, we generated citrus plants that express Arabidopsis HXK1 (AtHXK1) under KST1, a guard cell-specific promoter. The expression of KST1 in the guard cells of citrus plants has been verified using GFP as a reporter gene. The expression of AtHXK1 in the guard cells of citrus reduced stomatal conductance and transpiration with no negative effect on the rate of photosynthesis, leading to increased water-use efficiency. The effects of light intensity and humidity on stomatal behavior were examined in rooted leaves of the citrus plants. The optimal intensity of photosynthetically active radiation and lower humidity enhanced stomatal closure of AtHXK1-expressing leaves, supporting the role of sugar in the regulation of citrus stomata. These results suggest that HXK coordinates photosynthesis and transpiration and stimulates stomatal closure not only in annual species, but also in perennial species.

  18. Predicting photosynthesis and transpiration responses to ozone: decoupling modeled photosynthesis and stomatal conductance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Lombardozzi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Plants exchange greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and water with the atmosphere through the processes of photosynthesis and transpiration, making them essential in climate regulation. Carbon dioxide and water exchange are typically coupled through the control of stomatal conductance, and the parameterization in many models often predict conductance based on photosynthesis values. Some environmental conditions, like exposure to high ozone (O3 concentrations, alter photosynthesis independent of stomatal conductance, so models that couple these processes cannot accurately predict both. The goals of this study were to test direct and indirect photosynthesis and stomatal conductance modifications based on O3 damage to tulip poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera in a coupled Farquhar/Ball-Berry model. The same modifications were then tested in the Community Land Model (CLM to determine the impacts on gross primary productivity (GPP and transpiration at a constant O3 concentration of 100 parts per billion (ppb. Modifying the Vcmax parameter and directly modifying stomatal conductance best predicts photosynthesis and stomatal conductance responses to chronic O3 over a range of environmental conditions. On a global scale, directly modifying conductance reduces the effect of O3 on both transpiration and GPP compared to indirectly modifying conductance, particularly in the tropics. The results of this study suggest that independently modifying stomatal conductance can improve the ability of models to predict hydrologic cycling, and therefore improve future climate predictions.

  19. Diagnosis and management of recurrent herpetiform stomatitis and Behçet syndrome like recurrent aphthous stomatitis herpetiform type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endah Ayu Tri Wulandari

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis (RAS is a common inflammatory condition of the oral mucosa. The aetiology of RAS remains unclear, yet there are several predisposing factors which could be involved in the onset of the lesion. The herpetiform type of RAS appeared to be similar to recurrent oral Herpes Simplex infection and also could be part of Behçet Syndrome. This case report discussed a patient suffering from a herpetiform type of RAS with its clinical appearance resembling recurrent oral Herpes Simplex infection and Behçet syndrome. Initial treatment was undertaken based on the empirical treatment, yet the respond was not satisfactory. Then, laboratory tests were undertaken, including complete blood count, the total population of T lymphocyte, B lymphocyte, T helper, T suppressor, NK cells, T helper/T suppressor ratio, C3, C4, IgG, IgA, and IgM. These tests showed that there were immune and hematinic deficiency condition. Nevertheless, the clinical appearance, laboratory findings and consultation did not support the diagnosis of recurrent oral Herpes Simplex infection and Behçet Syndrome, thus, enhancing the definite diagnosis of the herpetiform type of RAS with immune and hematinic deficiency as the underlying condition. Based on the definite diagnosis, treatment plan was then revised to target the underlying condition.

  20. Natural variation in stomatal response to closing stimuli among Arabidopsis thaliana accessions after exposure to lowe VPD as a tool to recognize the mechanism of disturbed stomatal functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali Niaei Fard, S.; Meeteren, van U.

    2014-01-01

    Stomatal responses to closing stimuli are disturbed after long-term exposure of plants to low vapour pressure deficit (VPD). The mechanism behind this disturbance is not fully understood. Genetic variation between naturally occurring ecotypes can be helpful to elucidate the mechanism controlling

  1. Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) impairs visuospatial perception,whereas post-herpetic neuralgia does not: possible implications for supraspinal mechanism of CRPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uematsu, Hironobu; Sumitani, Masahiko; Yozu, Arito; Otake, Yuko; Shibata, Masahiko; Mashimo, Takashi; Miyauchi, Satoru

    2009-11-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) patients show impaired visuospatial perception in the dark, as compared to normal patients with acute nociceptive pain. The purpose of this study is 2-fold: (i) to ascertain whether this distorted visuospatial perception is related to the chronicity of pain, and (ii) to analyse visuospatial perception of CRPS in comparison with another neuropathic pain condition. We evaluated visual subjective body-midline (vSM) representation in 27 patients with post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) and 22 with CRPS under light and dark conditions. A red laser dot was projected onto a screen and moved horizontally towards the sagittal plane of the objective body-midline (OM). Each participant was asked to direct the dot to a position where it crossed their vSM. The distance between the vSM and OM was analysed to determine how and in which direction the vSM deviated. Under light condition, all vSM judgments approximately matched the OM. However, in the dark, CRPS patients, but not PHN patients, showed a shifted vSM towards the affected side. We demonstrated that chronic pain does not always impair visuospatial perception. The aetiology of PHN is limited to the peripheral nervous system, whereas the distorted visuospatial perception suggests a supraspinal aetiology of CRPS.

  2. Stomatal characterization of five species of the genus Vanilla.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delfino Reyes-López

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to characterize the stomata of five species of vanilla. Throughout 2012, leaf samples of V. planifolia G. Jackson, V. pompona Schiede, V. indora Schiede, V. insignis Ames and V. odorota Presl were taken from the vanilla germplasm bank at the Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla. The stomata size was obtained considering their length and width, as well as the index and stomata number of the abaxial and adaxial leaf surfaces in a randomized complete block design with three replications. V. pompona Schiede and V. inodora Schiede showed the highest stomatal index with 8713 and 8246 stomata per mm2, respectively, followed by V. odorata Presl with 4412 stomata per mm2. V. insignis Ames and V. planifolia G. Jackson showed the lowest stomata index with 2968 and 1378 stomata per mm2, respectively, in the abaxial leaf surface, these differences were statistically significant (P≤0.05. According to the position of the leaf stomata, V. planifolia G. Jackson and V. inodora Schiede can be considered to be hypostomatics since they showed stomata only in the abaxial leaf surface. V. insignis Ames, V. inodora Schiede and V. odorata Presl. can be considered to be anfiestomatic because they showed stomata in both the abaxial and adaxial leaf surfaces. V. inodora Schiede had smaller stomata compared with the other species.That is an important feature to be included in the genetic improvement of the genus Vanilla, because due to climate change, temperature will increase and precipitation will decrease, so Vainilla will require more efficient genotypes for water use.

  3. Stomatal characterization of five species of the genus Vanilla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes-Lopez, Delfino; Quiroz-Valentin, Jonathan; Kelso-Bucio, Henry Arturo; Huerta-Lara, Manuel; Avendano-Arrazate, Carlos Hugo; Lobato-Ortiz, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    The stomata of five species of vanilla were characterized. Throughout 2012, leaf samples of V. planifolia G. Jackson, V. pompona Schiede, V. inodora Schiede, V. insignis Ames and V. odorota Presl were taken from the vanilla germplasm bank at the Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, throughout 2012. The stomata size was obtained considering their length and width, as well as the index and stomata number of the abaxial and adaxial leaf surfaces in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The highest stomatal index with 8713 and 8246 stomata per mm"2, was showed in V. pompona Schiede an V. inodora Schiede respectively, followed by V. odorata Presl with 4412 stomata per mm"2. The lowest stomata index with 2968 and 1378 stomata per mm"2, was showed by V. insignis Ames and V. planifolia G. Jackson respectively, in the abaxial leaf surface, these differences were statistically significant (p≤0,05). According to the position of the leaf stomata, V. planifolia G. Jackson and V. inodora Schiede can be considered to be hypostomatics since they showed stomata only in the abaxial leaf surface. V. insignis Ames, V. inodora Schiede and V. odorata Presl. can be considered to be anfiestomatic because they showed stomata in both the abaxial and adaxial leaf surfaces. V. inodora Schiede has had smaller stomata compared with the other species. That is an important feature to be included in the genetic improvement of the genus Vanilla, because due to climate change, temperature will increase and precipitation will decrease, so Vainilla will require more efficient genotypes for water use. (author) [es

  4. Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of patients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anıl Gülsel Bahalı

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: The purpose of this study was to obtain data that may provide an insight into the etiopathogenesis of recurrent aphtous stomatitis (RAS by the way of analysing the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of patients who had been diagnosed with RAS. Materials and Metods: The patients, who were diagnosed with RAS in the dermatology outpatient clinic, between May 2007 and May 2010, were evaluated retrospectively. The data including sociodemografic and clinical characteristics, and treatment options were recorded. Results: A hundred patients (68 women, 32 men were included in this study. The average age was 40±13.6 years. RAS was more common in patients with middle-income and low education. The most common type of RAS was minor aphtous ulcers (88%. The lesions were most frequently seen on the lateral side of the tongue (34% and cheek (34%. Sixty percent of patients had a positive family history. Some factors such as biting (12%, tooth brushing (18%, dental disease presence (82%, food (39%, menstruation (10.3%, stress (76%, iron deficiency (16.7%, vitamin B12 deficiency (22.4%, low serum ferritin levels (18%, and seasonal variability (32% showed positive correlation with RAS. A negative correlation was found between RAS and smoking. Forty-nine percent of patients had used alternative therapies in addition to drug therapy. The most frequently used alternative method was consumption of sumac (26.5%. Conlucions: In contrast to the literature, our study found that RAS is started in the third decade of life and, approximately 50% of patients prefered alternative treatment methods, particularly sumac. Nowadays, discussions about the etiopathogenesis of RAS continue. In this study, we found that different sociodemographic and clinical factors may be associated with the etiopathogenesis of the disease. Our study will be followed by further studies using prospective design to identify the the etiopathogenesis of RAS.

  5. Stomatal vs. genome size in angiosperms: the somatic tail wagging the genomic dog?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, J G; Sharafi, M; Jalili, A; Díaz, S; Montserrat-Martí, G; Palmer, C; Cerabolini, B; Pierce, S; Hamzehee, B; Asri, Y; Jamzad, Z; Wilson, P; Raven, J A; Band, S R; Basconcelo, S; Bogard, A; Carter, G; Charles, M; Castro-Díez, P; Cornelissen, J H C; Funes, G; Jones, G; Khoshnevis, M; Pérez-Harguindeguy, N; Pérez-Rontomé, M C; Shirvany, F A; Vendramini, F; Yazdani, S; Abbas-Azimi, R; Boustani, S; Dehghan, M; Guerrero-Campo, J; Hynd, A; Kowsary, E; Kazemi-Saeed, F; Siavash, B; Villar-Salvador, P; Craigie, R; Naqinezhad, A; Romo-Díez, A; de Torres Espuny, L; Simmons, E

    2010-04-01

    Genome size is a function, and the product, of cell volume. As such it is contingent on ecological circumstance. The nature of 'this ecological circumstance' is, however, hotly debated. Here, we investigate for angiosperms whether stomatal size may be this 'missing link': the primary determinant of genome size. Stomata are crucial for photosynthesis and their size affects functional efficiency. Stomatal and leaf characteristics were measured for 1442 species from Argentina, Iran, Spain and the UK and, using PCA, some emergent ecological and taxonomic patterns identified. Subsequently, an assessment of the relationship between genome-size values obtained from the Plant DNA C-values database and measurements of stomatal size was carried out. Stomatal size is an ecologically important attribute. It varies with life-history (woody species < herbaceous species < vernal geophytes) and contributes to ecologically and physiologically important axes of leaf specialization. Moreover, it is positively correlated with genome size across a wide range of major taxa. Stomatal size predicts genome size within angiosperms. Correlation is not, however, proof of causality and here our interpretation is hampered by unexpected deficiencies in the scientific literature. Firstly, there are discrepancies between our own observations and established ideas about the ecological significance of stomatal size; very large stomata, theoretically facilitating photosynthesis in deep shade, were, in this study (and in other studies), primarily associated with vernal geophytes of unshaded habitats. Secondly, the lower size limit at which stomata can function efficiently, and the ecological circumstances under which these minute stomata might occur, have not been satisfactorally resolved. Thus, our hypothesis, that the optimization of stomatal size for functional efficiency is a major ecological determinant of genome size, remains unproven.

  6. Stomatal Function Requires Pectin De-methyl-esterification of the Guard Cell Wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsbury, Sam; Hunt, Lee; Elhaddad, Nagat; Baillie, Alice; Lundgren, Marjorie; Verhertbruggen, Yves; Scheller, Henrik V; Knox, J Paul; Fleming, Andrew J; Gray, Julie E

    2016-11-07

    Stomatal opening and closure depends on changes in turgor pressure acting within guard cells to alter cell shape [1]. The extent of these shape changes is limited by the mechanical properties of the cells, which will be largely dependent on the structure of the cell walls. Although it has long been observed that guard cells are anisotropic due to differential thickening and the orientation of cellulose microfibrils [2], our understanding of the composition of the cell wall that allows them to undergo repeated swelling and deflation remains surprisingly poor. Here, we show that the walls of guard cells are rich in un-esterified pectins. We identify a pectin methylesterase gene, PME6, which is highly expressed in guard cells and required for stomatal function. pme6-1 mutant guard cells have walls enriched in methyl-esterified pectin and show a decreased dynamic range in response to triggers of stomatal opening/closure, including elevated osmoticum, suggesting that abrogation of stomatal function reflects a mechanical change in the guard cell wall. Altered stomatal function leads to increased conductance and evaporative cooling, as well as decreased plant growth. The growth defect of the pme6-1 mutant is rescued by maintaining the plants in elevated CO 2 , substantiating gas exchange analyses, indicating that the mutant stomata can bestow an improved assimilation rate. Restoration of PME6 rescues guard cell wall pectin methyl-esterification status, stomatal function, and plant growth. Our results establish a link between gene expression in guard cells and their cell wall properties, with a corresponding effect on stomatal function and plant physiology. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Stomatal cell wall composition: distinctive structural patterns associated with different phylogenetic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtein, Ilana; Shelef, Yaniv; Marom, Ziv; Zelinger, Einat; Schwartz, Amnon; Popper, Zoë A; Bar-On, Benny; Harpaz-Saad, Smadar

    2017-04-01

    Stomatal morphology and function have remained largely conserved throughout ∼400 million years of plant evolution. However, plant cell wall composition has evolved and changed. Here stomatal cell wall composition was investigated in different vascular plant groups in attempt to understand their possible effect on stomatal function. A renewed look at stomatal cell walls was attempted utilizing digitalized polar microscopy, confocal microscopy, histology and a numerical finite-elements simulation. The six species of vascular plants chosen for this study cover a broad structural, ecophysiological and evolutionary spectrum: ferns ( Asplenium nidus and Platycerium bifurcatum ) and angiosperms ( Arabidopsis thaliana and Commelina erecta ) with kidney-shaped stomata, and grasses (angiosperms, family Poaceae) with dumbbell-shaped stomata ( Sorghum bicolor and Triticum aestivum ). Three distinct patterns of cellulose crystallinity in stomatal cell walls were observed: Type I (kidney-shaped stomata, ferns), Type II (kidney-shaped stomata, angiosperms) and Type III (dumbbell-shaped stomata, grasses). The different stomatal cell wall attributes investigated (cellulose crystallinity, pectins, lignin, phenolics) exhibited taxon-specific patterns, with reciprocal substitution of structural elements in the end-walls of kidney-shaped stomata. According to a numerical bio-mechanical model, the end walls of kidney-shaped stomata develop the highest stresses during opening. The data presented demonstrate for the first time the existence of distinct spatial patterns of varying cellulose crystallinity in guard cell walls. It is also highly intriguing that in angiosperms crystalline cellulose appears to have replaced lignin that occurs in the stomatal end-walls of ferns serving a similar wall strengthening function. Such taxon-specific spatial patterns of cell wall components could imply different biomechanical functions, which in turn could be a consequence of differences in

  8. Drought limitations to leaf-level gas exchange: results from a model linking stomatal optimization and cohesion-tension theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novick, Kimberly A; Miniat, Chelcy F; Vose, James M

    2016-03-01

    We merge concepts from stomatal optimization theory and cohesion-tension theory to examine the dynamics of three mechanisms that are potentially limiting to leaf-level gas exchange in trees during drought: (1) a 'demand limitation' driven by an assumption of optimal stomatal functioning; (2) 'hydraulic limitation' of water movement from the roots to the leaves; and (3) 'non-stomatal' limitations imposed by declining leaf water status within the leaf. Model results suggest that species-specific 'economics' of stomatal behaviour may play an important role in differentiating species along the continuum of isohydric to anisohydric behaviour; specifically, we show that non-stomatal and demand limitations may reduce stomatal conductance and increase leaf water potential, promoting wide safety margins characteristic of isohydric species. We used model results to develop a diagnostic framework to identify the most likely limiting mechanism to stomatal functioning during drought and showed that many of those features were commonly observed in field observations of tree water use dynamics. Direct comparisons of modelled and measured stomatal conductance further indicated that non-stomatal and demand limitations reproduced observed patterns of tree water use well for an isohydric species but that a hydraulic limitation likely applies in the case of an anisohydric species. Published 2015. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  9. Contrasting responses of leaf stomatal characteristics to climate change: a considerable challenge to predict carbon and water cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Weiming; Zhong, Yangquanwei; Shangguan, Zhouping

    2017-09-01

    Stomata control the cycling of water and carbon between plants and the atmosphere; however, no consistent conclusions have been drawn regarding the response of stomatal frequency to climate change. Here, we conducted a meta-analysis of 1854 globally obtained data series to determine the response of stomatal frequency to climate change, which including four plant life forms (over 900 species), at altitudes ranging from 0 to 4500 m and over a time span of more than one hundred thousand years. Stomatal frequency decreased with increasing CO 2 concentration and increased with elevated temperature and drought stress; it was also dependent on the species and experimental conditions. The response of stomatal frequency to climate change showed a trade-off between stomatal control strategies and environmental factors, such as the CO 2 concentration, temperature, and soil water availability. Moreover, threshold effects of elevated CO 2 and temperature on stomatal frequency were detected, indicating that the response of stomatal density to increasing CO 2 concentration will decrease over the next few years. The results also suggested that the stomatal index may be more reliable than stomatal density for determination of the historic CO 2 concentration. Our findings indicate that the contrasting responses of stomata to climate change bring a considerable challenge in predicting future water and carbon cycles. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Functional Analysis of Cellulose and Xyloglucan in the Walls of Stomatal Guard Cells of Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Yue; Anderson, Charles T.

    2016-01-01

    Stomatal guard cells are pairs of specialized epidermal cells that control water and CO2 exchange between the plant and the environment. To fulfill the functions of stomatal opening and closure that are driven by changes in turgor pressure, guard cell walls must be both strong and flexible, but how the structure and dynamics of guard cell walls enable stomatal function remains poorly understood. To address this question, we applied cell biological and genetic analyses to investigate guard cell walls and their relationship to stomatal function in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Using live-cell spinning disk confocal microscopy, we measured the motility of cellulose synthase (CESA)-containing complexes labeled by green fluorescent protein (GFP)-CESA3 and observed a reduced proportion of GFP-CESA3 particles colocalizing with microtubules upon stomatal closure. Imaging cellulose organization in guard cells revealed a relatively uniform distribution of cellulose in the open state and a more fibrillar pattern in the closed state, indicating that cellulose microfibrils undergo dynamic reorganization during stomatal movements. In cesa3je5 mutants defective in cellulose synthesis and xxt1 xxt2 mutants lacking the hemicellulose xyloglucan, stomatal apertures, changes in guard cell length, and cellulose reorganization were aberrant during fusicoccin-induced stomatal opening or abscisic acid-induced stomatal closure, indicating that sufficient cellulose and xyloglucan are required for normal guard cell dynamics. Together, these results provide new insights into how guard cell walls allow stomata to function as responsive mediators of gas exchange at the plant surface. PMID:26729799

  11. Ozone slows stomatal response to light and leaf wounding in a Mediterranean evergreen broadleaf, Arbutus unedo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paoletti, Elena [Istituto Protezione Piante, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via Madonna del Piano, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)]. E-mail: e.paoletti@ipp.cnr.it

    2005-04-01

    The effect of a 90-d ozone exposure (charcoal-filtered air or 110 nmol mol{sup -1} O{sub 3}) on stomatal conductance (g{sub s}) was investigated in the Mediterranean evergreen broadleaf Arbutus unedo L. Ozone did not significantly reduce midday steady-state g{sub s} compared to controls. However, it slowed stomatal response to abrupt reduction of light intensity and to increasing water stress, applied by severing the leaf midrib. Ozone slowed stomatal closure, rather than aperture. Nevertheless, vein-cutting did not allow ozonated leaves to reach the pre-injury g{sub s} levels, like controls did, suggesting re-opening was still, slowly in progress. The sluggish behaviour was recorded 10 days after cessation of O{sub 3} exposure ('memory effect') and may affect stomatal control in response to sunflecks and leaf wounding. Mediterranean evergreen broadleaves are regarded as tolerant to O{sub 3} exposure. Nevertheless, measurements of steady-state g{sub s} at midday may not account for altered stomatal responses to stressors. - In response to ozone exposure, stomata were slower in closing rather than in opening.

  12. Ethylene limits abscisic acid- or soil drying-induced stomatal closure in aged wheat leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Dodd, Ian C; Davies, William J; Wilkinson, Sally

    2013-10-01

    The mechanism of age-induced decreased stomatal sensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA) and soil drying has been explored here. Older, fully expanded leaves partly lost their ability to close stomata in response to foliar ABA sprays, and soil drying which stimulated endogenous ABA production, while young fully expanded leaves closed their stomata more fully. However, ABA- or soil drying-induced stomatal closure of older leaves was partly restored by pretreating plants with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), which can antagonize ethylene receptors, or by inoculating soil around the roots with the rhizobacterium Variovorax paradoxus 5C-2, which contains 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC)-deaminase. ACC (the immediate biosynthetic precursor of ethylene) sprays revealed higher sensitivity of stomata to ethylene in older leaves than younger leaves, despite no differences in endogenous ACC concentrations or ethylene emission. Taken together, these results indicate that the relative insensitivity of stomatal closure to ABA and soil drying in older leaves is likely due to altered stomatal sensitivity to ethylene, rather than ethylene production. To our knowledge, this is the first study to mechanistically explain diminished stomatal responses to soil moisture deficit in older leaves, and the associated reduction in leaf water-use efficiency. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Carbonic anhydrases are upstream regulators of CO2-controlled stomatal movements in guard cells

    KAUST Repository

    Hu, Honghong

    2009-12-13

    The continuing rise in atmospheric CO2 causes stomatal pores in leaves to close and thus globally affects CO2 influx into plants, water use efficiency and leaf heat stress. However, the CO2-binding proteins that control this response remain unknown. Moreover, which cell type responds to CO2, mesophyll or guard cells, and whether photosynthesis mediates this response are matters of debate. We demonstrate that Arabidopsis thaliana double-mutant plants in the beta-carbonic anhydrases betaCA1 and betaCA4 show impaired CO2-regulation of stomatal movements and increased stomatal density, but retain functional abscisic-acid and blue-light responses. betaCA-mediated CO2-triggered stomatal movements are not, in first-order, linked to whole leaf photosynthesis and can function in guard cells. Furthermore, guard cell betaca-overexpressing plants exhibit instantaneous enhanced water use efficiency. Guard cell expression of mammalian alphaCAII complements the reduced sensitivity of ca1 ca4 plants, showing that carbonic anhydrase-mediated catalysis is an important mechanism for betaCA-mediated CO2-induced stomatal closure and patch clamp analyses indicate that CO2/HCO3- transfers the signal to anion channel regulation. These findings, together with ht1-2 (ref. 9) epistasis analysis demonstrate that carbonic anhydrases function early in the CO2 signalling pathway, which controls gas-exchange between plants and the atmosphere.

  14. Constitutive activation of a plasma membrane H+-ATPase prevents abscisic acid-mediated stomatal closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlot, Sylvain; Leonhardt, Nathalie; Fenzi, Francesca; Valon, Christiane; Costa, Miguel; Piette, Laurie; Vavasseur, Alain; Genty, Bernard; Boivin, Karine; Müller, Axel; Giraudat, Jérôme; Leung, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    Light activates proton (H+)-ATPases in guard cells, to drive hyperpolarization of the plasma membrane to initiate stomatal opening, allowing diffusion of ambient CO2 to photosynthetic tissues. Light to darkness transition, high CO2 levels and the stress hormone abscisic acid (ABA) promote stomatal closing. The overall H+-ATPase activity is diminished by ABA treatments, but the significance of this phenomenon in relationship to stomatal closure is still debated. We report two dominant mutations in the OPEN STOMATA2 (OST2) locus of Arabidopsis that completely abolish stomatal response to ABA, but importantly, to a much lesser extent the responses to CO2 and darkness. The OST2 gene encodes the major plasma membrane H+-ATPase AHA1, and both mutations cause constitutive activity of this pump, leading to necrotic lesions. H+-ATPases have been traditionally assumed to be general endpoints of all signaling pathways affecting membrane polarization and transport. Our results provide evidence that AHA1 is a distinct component of an ABA-directed signaling pathway, and that dynamic downregulation of this pump during drought is an essential step in membrane depolarization to initiate stomatal closure. PMID:17557075

  15. Ozone slows stomatal response to light and leaf wounding in a Mediterranean evergreen broadleaf, Arbutus unedo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paoletti, Elena

    2005-01-01

    The effect of a 90-d ozone exposure (charcoal-filtered air or 110 nmol mol -1 O 3 ) on stomatal conductance (g s ) was investigated in the Mediterranean evergreen broadleaf Arbutus unedo L. Ozone did not significantly reduce midday steady-state g s compared to controls. However, it slowed stomatal response to abrupt reduction of light intensity and to increasing water stress, applied by severing the leaf midrib. Ozone slowed stomatal closure, rather than aperture. Nevertheless, vein-cutting did not allow ozonated leaves to reach the pre-injury g s levels, like controls did, suggesting re-opening was still, slowly in progress. The sluggish behaviour was recorded 10 days after cessation of O 3 exposure ('memory effect') and may affect stomatal control in response to sunflecks and leaf wounding. Mediterranean evergreen broadleaves are regarded as tolerant to O 3 exposure. Nevertheless, measurements of steady-state g s at midday may not account for altered stomatal responses to stressors. - In response to ozone exposure, stomata were slower in closing rather than in opening

  16. Reactive oxygen species signaling and stomatal movement: Current updates and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachana Singh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS, a by-product of aerobic metabolism were initially studied in context to their damaging effect but recent decades witnessed significant advancements in understanding the role of ROS as signaling molecules. Contrary to earlier views, it is becoming evident that ROS production is not necessarily a symptom of cellular dysfunction but it might represent a necessary signal in adjusting the cellular machinery according to the altered conditions. Stomatal movement is controlled by multifaceted signaling network in response to endogenous and environmental signals. Furthermore, the stomatal aperture is regulated by a coordinated action of signaling proteins, ROS-generating enzymes, and downstream executors like transporters, ion pumps, plasma membrane channels, which control the turgor pressure of the guard cell. The earliest hallmarks of stomatal closure are ROS accumulation in the apoplast and chloroplasts and thereafter, there is a successive increase in cytoplasmic Ca2+ level which rules the multiple kinases activity that in turn regulates the activity of ROS-generating enzymes and various ion channels. In addition, ROS also regulate the action of multiple proteins directly by oxidative post translational modifications to adjust guard cell signaling. Notwithstanding, an active progress has been made with ROS signaling mechanism but the regulatory action for ROS signaling processes in stomatal movement is still fragmentary. Therefore, keeping in view the above facts, in this mini review the basic concepts and role of ROS signaling in the stomatal movement have been presented comprehensively along with recent highlights.

  17. Balancing Water Uptake and Loss through the Coordinated Regulation of Stomatal and Root Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Hepworth

    Full Text Available Root development is influenced by nutrient and water availabilities. Plants are able to adjust many attributes of their root in response to environmental signals including the size and shape of the primary root, lateral roots and root hairs. Here we investigated the response of roots to changes in the levels of leaf transpiration associated with altered stomatal frequency. We found that plants with high stomatal density and conductance produce a larger rooting area and as a result have enhanced phosphate uptake capacity whereas plants with low stomatal conductance produce a smaller root. Manipulating the growth environment of plants indicated that enhanced root growth is most likely a result of an increased demand for water rather than phosphate. Plants manipulated to have an increase or reduction in root hair growth show a reduction or increase respectively, in stomatal conductance and density. Our results demonstrate that plants can balance their water uptake and loss through coordinated regulation of both stomatal and root development.

  18. The effect of competition from neighbours on stomatal conductance in lettuce and tomato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vysotskaya, Lidiya; Wilkinson, Sally; Davies, William J; Arkhipova, Tatyana; Kudoyarova, Guzel

    2011-05-01

    Competition decreased transpiration from young lettuce plants after 2 days, before any reductions in leaf area became apparent, and stomatal conductance (g(s) ) of lettuce and tomato plants was also reduced. Stomatal closure was not due to hydraulic signals or competition for nutrients, as soil water content, leaf water status and leaf nitrate concentrations were unaffected by neighbours. Competition-induced stomatal closure was absent in an abscisic acid (ABA)-deficient tomato mutant, flacca, indicating a fundamental involvement of ABA. Although tomato xylem sap ABA concentrations were unaffected by the presence of neighbours, ABA/pH-based stomatal modulation is still likely to underlie the response to competition, as soil and xylem sap alkalization was observed in competing plants. Competition also modulated leaf ethylene production, and treatment of lettuce plants with an ethylene perception inhibitor (1-methylcyclopropene) diminished the difference in g(s) between single and competing plants grown in a controlled environment room, but increased it in plants grown in the greenhouse: ethylene altered the extent of the stomatal response to competition. Effects of competition on g(s) are discussed in terms of the detection of the absence of neighbours: increases in g(s) and carbon fixation may allow faster initial space occupancy within an emerging community/crop. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Stomatal acclimation to vapour pressure deficit doubles transpiration of small tree seedlings with warming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchin, Renée M.; Broadhead, Alice A.; Bostic, Laura E.

    2016-01-01

    chamber VPD. Warming increased mean water use of Carya by 140% and Quercus by 150%, but had no significant effect on water use of Acer. Increased water use of ring-porous species was attributed to (1) higher air T and (2) stomatal acclimation to VPD resulting in higher gs and more sensitive stomata......Future climate change is expected to increase temperature (T) and atmospheric vapour pressure deficit (VPD) in many regions, but the effect of persistent warming on plant stomatal behaviour is highly uncertain. We investigated the effect of experimental warming of 1.9-5.1 °C and increased VPD of 0.......5-1.3 kPa on transpiration and stomatal conductance (gs ) of tree seedlings in the temperate forest understory (Duke Forest, North Carolina, USA). We observed peaked responses of transpiration to VPD in all seedlings, and the optimum VPD for transpiration (Dopt ) shifted proportionally with increasing...

  20. Oral symptoms and salivary findings in oral lichen planus, oral lichenoid lesions and stomatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kristine Roen; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Reibel, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To examine if patients with oral lichen planus, oral lichenoid lesions and generalised stomatitis and concomitant contact allergy have more frequent and severe xerostomia, lower unstimulated and chewing-stimulated saliva and citric-acid-stimulated parotid saliva flow rates, and higher...... of xerostomia, clinical examination, sialometry, mucosal biopsy and contact allergy testing. RESULTS: Nineteen patients had oral lichen planus, 19 patients had oral lichenoid lesions and 11 patients had generalised stomatitis. 38.8% had contact allergy. Xerostomia was significantly more common and severe...... in the chewing stimulated saliva samples from patients when compared to healthy controls. The differences were not significant and they were irrespective of the presence of contact allergy. CONCLUSION: Xerostomia is prevalent in patients with oral lichen planus, lichenoid lesions and generalised stomatitis...

  1. Ulcerative Uremic Stomatitis - Review of the Literature and A Rare Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shantala Arunkumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Uremic Stomatitis (US represents a comparatively uncommon intraoral complication seen, mostly, in cases of end-stage renal disease or undiagnosed or untreated chronic renal failure. Its frequency has diminished due to the advent of renal dialysis. Clinically uremic stomatitis is characterized by the presence of painful plaques and crusts that are usually distributed on the buccal and labial mucosa, dorsal or ventral surface of the tongue, gingiva, and floor of the mouth. Ultimate treatment consists of improvement of blood urea concentration and underlying renal failure is supported by enhancement of oral hygiene with antiseptic mouthwashes and antimicrobial/antifungal agents, if necessary. Here we report a rare case of ulcerative type of uremic stomatitis occurring in a patient of chronic renal failure due to sudden relapse of uremia and reviewed the possible pathophysiology of oral symptoms of chronic renal failure.

  2. Carbon and hydrogen isotopic effects of stomatal density in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyejung; Feakins, Sarah J.; Sternberg, Leonel da S. L.

    2016-04-01

    Stomata are key gateways mediating carbon uptake and water loss from plants. Varied stomatal densities in fossil leaves raise the possibility that isotope effects associated with the openness of exchange may have mediated plant wax biomarker isotopic proxies for paleovegetation and paleoclimate in the geological record. Here we use Arabidopsis thaliana, a widely used model organism, to provide the first controlled tests of stomatal density on carbon and hydrogen isotopic compositions of cuticular waxes. Laboratory grown wildtype and mutants with suppressed and overexpressed stomatal densities allow us to directly test the isotope effects of stomatal densities independent of most other environmental or biological variables. Hydrogen isotope (D/H) measurements of both plant waters and plant wax n-alkanes allow us to directly constrain the isotopic effects of leaf water isotopic enrichment via transpiration and biosynthetic fractionations, which together determine the net fractionation between irrigation water and n-alkane hydrogen isotopic composition. We also measure carbon isotopic fractionations of n-alkanes and bulk leaf tissue associated with different stomatal densities. We find offsets of +15‰ for δD and -3‰ for δ13C for the overexpressed mutant compared to the suppressed mutant. Since the range of stomatal densities expressed is comparable to that found in extant plants and the Cenozoic fossil record, the results allow us to consider the magnitude of isotope effects that may be incurred by these plant adaptive responses. This study highlights the potential of genetic mutants to isolate individual isotope effects and add to our fundamental understanding of how genetics and physiology influence plant biochemicals including plant wax biomarkers.

  3. Observations of leaf stomatal conductance at the canopy scale: an atmospheric modeling perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avissar, R.

    1993-01-01

    Plant stomata play a key role in the redistribution of energy received on vegetated land into sensible and latent heat. As a result, they have a considerable impact on the atmospheric planetary boundary layer, the hydrologic cycle, the climate, and the weather. Current parameterizations of the stomatal mechanism in state-of-the-art atmospheric models are based on empirical relations that are established at the leaf scale between stomatal conductance and environmental conditions. In order to evaluate these parameterizations, an experiment was carried out on a potato field in New Jersey during the summer of 1989. Stomatal conductances were measured within a small homogeneous area in the middle of the potato field and under a relatively broad range of atmospheric conditions. A large variability of stomatal conductances was observed. This variability, which was associated with the variability of micro-environmental and physiological conditions that is found even in a homogeneous canopy, cannot be simulated explicitly on the scale of a single agricultural field and,a fortiori, on the scale of atmospheric models. Furthermore, this variability could not be related to the environmental conditions measured at a height of 2 m above the plant canopy simultaneously with the conductances, reinforcing the concept of scale decoupling suggested by Jarvis and McNaughton (1986) and McNaughton and Jarvis (1991). Thus, for atmospheric modeling purposes, a parameterization of stomatal conductance at the canopy scale using external environmental forcing conditions seems more appropriate than a parameterization based on leaf-scale stomatal conductance, as currently adopted in state-of-the-art atmospheric models. The measured variability was characterized by a lognormal probability density function (pdf) that remained relatively stable during the entire measuring period. These observations support conclusions by McNaughton and Jarvis (1991) that, unlike current parameterizations, a

  4. Observations of leaf stomatal conductance at the canopy scale: an atmospheric modeling perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avissar, R.

    1993-01-01

    Plant stomata play a key role in the redistribution of energy received on vegetated land into sensible and latent heat. As a result, they have a considerable impact on the atmospheric planetary boundary layer, the hydrologic cycle, the climate, and the weather. Current parameterizations of the stomatal mechanism in state-of-the-art atmospheric models are based on empirical relations that are established at the leaf scale between stomatal conductance and environmental conditions. In order to evaluate these parameterizations, an experiment was carried out on a potato field in New Jersey during the summer of 1989. Stomatal conductances were measured within a small homogeneous area in the middle of the potato field and under a relatively broad range of atmospheric conditions. A large variability of stomatal conductances was observed. This variability, which was associated with the variability of micro-environmental and physiological conditions that is found even in a homogeneous canopy, cannot be simulated explicitly on the scale of a single agricultural field and, a fortiori, on the scale of atmospheric models. Furthermore, this variability could not be related to the environmental conditions measured at a height of 2 m above the plant canopy simultaneously with the conductances, reinforcing the concept of scale decoupling suggested by Jarvis and McNaughton (1986) and McNaughton and Jarvis (1991). Thus, for atmospheric modeling purposes, a parameterization of stomatal conductance at the canopy scale using external environmental forcing conditions seems more appropriate than a parameterization based on leaf-scale stomatal conductance, as currently adopted in state-of-the-art atmospheric models. The measured variability was characterized by a lognormal probability density function (pdf) that remained relatively stable during the entire measuring period. These observations support conclusions by McNaughton and Jarvis (1991) that, unlike current parameterizations, a

  5. Simultaneous requirement of carbon dioxide and abscisic acid for stomatal closing in Xanthium strumarium L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raschke, K

    1975-01-01

    Open stomata of detached leaves of Xanthium strumarium L. closed only when carbon dioxide and abscisic acid (ABA) were presented simultaneously. Three parameters of stomatal closing were determined after additions of ABA to the irrigation water of detached leaves, while the leaves were exposed to various CO2 concentrations ([CO2]s) in the air; a) the delay between addition of ABA and a reduction of stomatal conductance by 5%, b) the velocity of stomatal closing, and c) the new conductance. Changes in all three parameters showed that stomatal responses to ABA were enhanced by CO2; this effect followed saturation kinetics. Half saturation occurred at an estimated [CO2] in the stomatal pore of 200 μl l(-1). With respect to ABA, stomata responded in normal air with half their maximal amplitude at [ABA]s between 10(-6) and 10(-5) M(+-)-ABA. The amounts of ABA taken up by the leaves during the delay increased with a power strumarium.Based on earlier findings and on the results of this investigation it is suggested that stomata close if the cytoplasm of the guard cells contains much malate and H(+). The acid content in turn is determined by the relative rates of production of malic acid (from endogenous as well as exogenous CO2) and its removal (by transport of the anion into the vacuole and exchange of the H(+) for K(+) with the environment of the guard cells). The simultaneous requirement of CO2 and ABA for stomatal closure leads to the inference that ABA inhibits the expulsion of H(+) from guard cells.

  6. Characteristics, treatment, and health care expenditures of Medicare supplemental-insured patients with painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy, post-herpetic neuralgia, or fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Stephen S; Udall, Margarita; Alvir, Jose; McMorrow, Donna; Fowler, Robert; Mullins, Daniel

    2014-04-01

    To describe the characteristics, treatment, and health care expenditures of Medicare Supplemental-insured patients with painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (pDPN), post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN), or fibromyalgia. Retrospective cohort study. United States clinical practice, as reflected within a database comprising administrative claims from 2.3 million older adults participating in Medicare supplemental insurance programs. Selected patients were aged ≥65 years, continuously enrolled in medical and prescription benefits throughout years 2008 and 2009, and had ≥1 medical claim with an International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification diagnosis code for DPN, PHN, or fibromyalgia, followed within 60 days by a medication or pain intervention procedure used in treating pDPN, PHN, or fibromyalgia during 2008-2009. Utilization of, and expenditures on, pain-related and all-cause pharmacotherapy and medical interventions in 2009. The study included 25,716 patients with pDPN (mean age 75.2 years, 51.2% female), 4,712 patients with PHN (mean age 77.7 years, 63.9% female), and 25,246 patients with fibromyalgia (mean age 74.4 years, 73.0% female). Patients typically had numerous comorbidities, and many were treated with polypharmacy. Mean annual expenditures on total pain-related health care and total all-cause health care, respectively, (in 2010 USD) were: $1,632, $24,740 for pDPN; $1,403, $16,579 for PHN; and $1,635, $18,320 for fibromyalgia. In age-stratified analyses, pain-related health care expenditures decreased as age increased. The numerous comorbidities, polypharmacy, and magnitude of expenditures in this sample of Medicare supplemental-insured patients with pDPN, PHN, or fibromyalgia underscore the complexity and importance of appropriate management of these chronic pain patients. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. FV-100 versus valacyclovir for the prevention of post-herpetic neuralgia and the treatment of acute herpes zoster-associated pain: A randomized-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyring, Stephen K; Lee, Patricia; Hill, Gordon T; Silverfield, Joel C; Moore, Angela Yen; Matkovits, Theresa; Sullivan-Bolyai, John

    2017-07-01

    This prospective, parallel-group, randomized, double-blind, multicenter study compared the efficacy and safety of FV-100 with valacyclovir for reducing pain associated with acute herpes zoster (HZ). Patients, ≥50 years of age, diagnosed with HZ within 72 h of lesion appearance who had HZ-associated pain, were randomized 1:1:1 to a 7-day course of either FV-100 200 mg QD (n = 117), FV-100 400 mg QD (n = 116), or valacyclovir 1000 mg TID (n =117). Efficacy was evaluated on the basis of the burden of illness (BOI; Zoster Brief Pain Inventory scores); incidence and duration of clinically significant pain (CSP); pain scores; incidence and severity of post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN); and times to full lesion crusting and to lesion healing. Safety was evaluated on the basis of adverse event (AE)/SAE profiles, changes in laboratory and vital signs values, and results of electrocardiograms. The burden of illness scores for pain through 30 days were 114.5, 110.3, and 118.0 for FV-100 200 mg, FV-100 400 mg, and valacyclovir 3000 mg, respectively. The incidences of PHN at 90 days for FV-100 200 mg, FV-100 400 mg, and valacyclovir 3000 mg were 17.8%, 12.4%, and 20.2%, respectively. Adverse event and SAE profiles of the two FV-100 and the valacyclovir groups were similar and no untoward signals or trends were evident. These results demonstrate a potential for FV-100 as an antiviral for the treatment of shingles that could both reduce the pain burden of the acute episode and reduce the incidence of PHN compared with available treatments. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Cost-effectiveness analysis of a vaccination program for the prevention of herpes zoster and post-herpetic neuralgia in adults aged 50 and over in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Préaud, Emmanuelle; Uhart, Mathieu; Böhm, Katharina; Aidelsburger, Pamela; Anger, Delphine; Bianic, Florence; Largeron, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    Herpes zoster (HZ; shingles) is a common viral disease that affects the nerves and surrounding skin causing a painful dermatomal rash and leading to debilitating complications such as, mainly, post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN). Currently, there is no effective treatment for HZ and PHN. The objective of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of a HZ vaccination program in Germany. An existing Markov Model was adapted to the German healthcare setting to compare a vaccination policy to no vaccination on a lifetime time-horizon, considering 2 scenarios: vaccinating people starting at the age of 50 or at the age of 60 years, from the perspective of the statutory health insurance (SHI) and the societal perspective. According to the perspective, vaccinating 20% of the 60+ German population resulted in 162,713 to 186,732 HZ and 31,657 to 35,793 PHN cases avoided. Corresponding incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) were 39,306 €/QALY from the SHI perspective and 37,417 €/QALY from a societal perspective. Results for the 50+ German population ranged from 336,468 to 394,575 HZ and from 48,637 to 56,087 PHN cases avoided from the societal perspective. Corresponding ICER were 39,782 €/QALY from a SHI perspective and 32,848 €/QALY from a societal perspective. Sensitivity analyses showed that results are mainly impacted by discount rates, utility values and use of alternative epidemiological data.The model indicated that a HZ vaccination policy in Germany leads to significant public health benefits and could be a cost-effective intervention. The results were robust and consistent with local and international existing literature.

  9. Reconstructing Atmospheric CO2 Through The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum Using Stomatal Index and Stomatal Density Values From Ginkgo adiantoides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, R. S.; Wing, S. L.

    2013-12-01

    The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) was a geologically brief interval of intense global warming 56 million years ago. It is arguably the best geological analog for a worst-case scenario of anthropogenic carbon emissions. The PETM is marked by a ~4-6‰ negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE) and extensive marine carbonate dissolution, which together are powerful evidence for a massive addition of carbon to the oceans and atmosphere. In spite of broad agreement that the PETM reflects a large carbon cycle perturbation, atmospheric concentrations of CO2 (pCO2) during the event are not well constrained. The goal of this study is to produce a high resolution reconstruction of pCO2 using stomatal frequency proxies (both stomatal index and stomatal density) before, during, and after the PETM. These proxies rely upon a genetically controlled mechanism whereby plants decrease the proportion of gas-exchange pores (stomata) in response to increased pCO2. Terrestrial sections in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, contain macrofossil plants with cuticle immediately bracketing the PETM, as well as dispersed plant cuticle from within the body of the CIE. These fossils allow for the first stomatal-based reconstruction of pCO2 near the Paleocene-Eocene boundary; we also use them to determine the relative timing of pCO2 change in relation to the CIE that defines the PETM. Preliminary results come from macrofossil specimens of Ginkgo adiantoides, collected from an ~200ka interval prior to the onset of the CIE (~230-30ka before), and just after the 'recovery interval' of the CIE. Stomatal index values decreased by 37% within an ~70ka time interval at least 100ka prior to the onset of the CIE. The decrease in stomatal index is interpreted as a significant increase in pCO2, and has a magnitude equivalent to the entire range of stomatal index adjustment observed in modern Ginkgo biloba during the anthropogenic CO2 rise during the last 150 years. The inferred CO2 increase prior to the

  10. Experience with TL-102M for the treatment of radiation stomatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishio, Juntaro; Matsuya, Tokuzo; Inoue, Kazuo; Miyazaki, Tadashi; Maeda, Noriaki.

    1984-01-01

    TL-102M was administered to 14 patients who had radiation stomatitis following radiation therapy for malignant tumors in the oral cavity. Regarding the degree of overall improvement, one of the 14 patients was evaluated as ''extremely improved'', eight as ''improved'', four as ''slightly improved'', and one as ''unchanged''. None of the patients had side effects. Adherent, powdered TL-102M was easy to take for patients. Most of the patients desired to continue to take this drug because of having neither painfulness nor adhesive feeling. The usage of TL-102M could be helpful in promoting the treatment for cancer, thus suggesting that it is useful in treating radiation stomatitis. (Namekawa, K.)

  11. Stomatal kinetics and photosynthetic gas exchange along a continuum of isohydric to anisohydric regulation of plant water status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick C. Meinzer; Duncan D. Smith; David R. Woodruff; Danielle E. Marias; Katherine A. McCulloh; Ava R. Howard; Alicia L. Magedman

    2017-01-01

    Species’ differences in the stringency of stomatal control of plant water potential represent a continuum of isohydric to anisohydric behaviours. However, little is known about how quasi-steady-state stomatal regulation of water potential may relate to dynamic behaviour of stomata and photosynthetic gas exchange in species operating at different positions along this...

  12. Differential effects of elevated air humidity on stomatal closing ability of Kalanchoë blossfeldiana between the C

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fanourakis, Dimitrios; Hyldgaard, Benita; Gebraegziabher, Habtamu; Bouranis, Dimitris; Körner, Oliver; Nielsen, Kai Lønne; Ottosen, Carl-Otto

    2017-01-01

    High relative air humidity (RH ≥ 85%) impairs stomatal functionality, attenuating plant capacity to cope with abiotic stress. Previous studies were limited to C3 species, so the RH effect on stomatal physiology of CAM plants remains unexplored. We addressed the topic through

  13. Organ-specific effects of brassinosteroids on stomatal production coordinate with the action of Too Many Mouths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming; Yang, Kezhen; Le, Jie

    2015-03-01

    In Arabidopsis, stomatal development initiates after protodermal cells acquire stomatal lineage cell fate. Stomata or their precursors communicate with their neighbor epidermal cells to ensure the "one cell spacing" rule. The signals from EPF/EPFL peptide ligands received by Too Many Mouths (TMM) and ERECTA-family receptors are supposed to be transduced by YODA MAPK cascade. A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor SPEECHLESS (SPCH) is another key regulator of stomatal cell fate determination and asymmetric entry divisions, and SPCH activity is regulated by YODA MAPK cascade. Brassinosteroid (BR) signaling, one of the most well characterized signal transduction pathways in plants, contributes to the control of stomatal production. But opposite organ-specific effects of BR on stomatal production were reported. Here we confirm that stomatal production in hypocotyls is controlled by BR levels. YODA and CYCD4 are not essential for BR stomata-promoting function. Furthermore, we found that BR could confer tmm hypocotyls clustered stomatal phenotype, indicating that the BR organ-specific effects on stomatal production might coordinate with the TMM organ-specific actions. © 2014 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  14. Stomatal conductance, canopy temperature, and leaf area index estimation using remote sensing and OBIA techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Panda; D.M. Amatya; G. Hoogenboom

    2014-01-01

    Remotely sensed images including LANDSAT, SPOT, NAIP orthoimagery, and LiDAR and relevant processing tools can be used to predict plant stomatal conductance (gs), leaf area index (LAI), and canopy temperature, vegetation density, albedo, and soil moisture using vegetation indices like normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) or soil adjusted...

  15. Comparison of arabidopsis stomatal density mutants indicates variation in water stress responses and potential epistatic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaneka S. Lawson; Paula M. Pijut; Charles H. Michler

    2014-01-01

    Recent physiological analysis of Arabidopsis stomatal density (SD) mutants indicated that SD was not the major factor controlling aboveground biomass accumulation. Despite the general theory that plants with fewer stomata have limited biomass acquisition capabilities, epf1 and several other Arabidopsis mutants varied significantly in leaf fresh...

  16. Effect of nitrogen supply on transpiration and stomatal behaviour of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimshi, D

    1970-01-01

    The effect of nitrogen supply on the transpiration rate and stomatal opening of potted bean plants was studied in a series of experiments. The transpiration rates of N-supplied plants were higher than those of N-deficient plants when soil moisture was relatively high; as soil moisture approached the wilting range, the transpiration rates of N-supplied plants dropped to below those of N-deficient plants. In spite of the marked differences in transpiration rates, as influenced by soil moisture and nitrogen supply, the stomata appeared closed. By coating the upper or lower surfaces of the leaves with a vapor-impervious compound it was shown that stomatal apertures below the limit of microscopic resolution control the rate of transpiration. Under conditions that encourage stomatal opening (covering the plants with transparent plastic bags), the stomata of the N-deficient plants opened to a lesser degree than those of N-supplied plants. There was some evidence that when stomata were visibly open, transpiration rates were regulated by the degree of plant hydration rather than by the degree of stomatal opening. It is concluded that N-deficient plants fail to open their stomata as widely and to close them as tightly as N-supplied plants. 8 references, 2 tables.

  17. Modelling of root ABA synthesis, stomatal conductance, transpiration and potato production under water saving irrigation regimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plauborg, Finn; Abrahamsen, Per; Gjettermann, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    . Experimental data was compared to simulated results from the new enhanced Daisy model which include modelling 2D soil water flow, abscisic acid (ABA) signalling and its effect on stomatal conductance and hence on transpiration and assimilation, and finally crop yield. The results demonstrated that the enhanced...

  18. Stomatal and pavement cell density linked to leaf internal CO2 concentration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šantrůček, Jiří; Vráblová, M.; Šimková, Marie; Hronková, Marie; Drtinová, M.; Květoň, J.; Vrábl, D.; Kubásek, J.; Macková, J.; Wiesnerová, Dana; Neuwithová, J.; Schreiber, L.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 114, č. 2 (2014), s. 191-202 ISSN 0305-7364 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP501/12/1261 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Stomatal density * Stomata development * Pavement cells Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.654, year: 2014

  19. Gaseous NO2 effects on stomatal behavior, photosynthesis and respiration of hybrid poplar leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we used poplar as a model plant and investigated the effects of gaseous nitrogen dioxide (NO2, 4 microliter per liter) on stomatal conductance, photosynthesis, dark- and photorespiration of Populus alba x Populus berolinensis hybrid leaves using the photosynthesis system and scanning...

  20. Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Infection Promotes Immune Evasion by Preventing NKG2D-Ligand Surface Expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Helle; Andresen, Lars; Nielsen, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) has recently gained attention for its oncolytic ability in cancer treatment. Initially, we hypothesized that VSV infection could increase immune recognition of cancer cells through induction of the immune stimulatory NKG2D-ligands. Here we show that VSV infection ...

  1. Effects of a Heat Wave on Nocturnal Stomatal Conductance in Eucalyptus camaldulensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Resco de Dios

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Nocturnal transpiration constitutes a significant yet poorly understood component of the global water cycle. Modeling nocturnal transpiration has been complicated by recent findings showing that stomata respond differently to environmental drivers over day- vs. night-time periods. Here, we propose that nocturnal stomatal conductance depends on antecedent daytime conditions. We tested this hypothesis across six genotypes of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. growing under different CO2 concentrations (ambient vs. elevated and exposed to contrasting temperatures (ambient vs. heat wave for four days prior to the night of measurements, when all plants experienced ambient temperature conditions. We observed significant effects after the heat wave that led to 36% reductions in nocturnal stomatal conductance. The response was partly driven by changes in daytime stomatal behavior but additional factors may have come into play. We also observed significant differences in response to the heat wave across genotypes, likely driven by local adaptation to their climate of origin, but CO2 played no effect. Stomatal models may need to incorporate the role of antecedent effects to improve projections particularly after drastic changes in the environment such as heat waves.

  2. Thermal infrared imaging of the temporal variability in stomatal conductance for fruit trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struthers, Raymond; Ivanova, Anna; Tits, Laurent; Swennen, Rony; Coppin, Pol

    2015-07-01

    Repeated measurements using thermal infrared remote sensing were used to characterize the change in canopy temperature over time and factors that influenced this change on 'Conference' pear trees (Pyrus communis L.). Three different types of sensors were used, a leaf porometer to measure leaf stomatal conductance, a thermal infrared camera to measure the canopy temperature and a meteorological sensor to measure weather variables. Stomatal conductance of water stressed pear was significantly lower than in the control group 9 days after stress began. This decrease in stomatal conductance reduced transpiration, reducing evaporative cooling that increased canopy temperature. Using thermal infrared imaging with wavelengths between 7.5 and13 μm, the first significant difference was measured 18 days after stress began. A second order derivative described the average rate of change of the difference between the stress treatment and control group. The average rate of change for stomatal conductance was 0.06 (mmol m-2 s-1) and for canopy temperature was -0.04 (°C) with respect to days. Thermal infrared remote sensing and data analysis presented in this study demonstrated that the differences in canopy temperatures between the water stress and control treatment due to stomata regulation can be validated.

  3. Clinical evaluation of the essential oil of "Satureja Hortensis" for the treatment of denture stomatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohammad Sabzghabaee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of denture stomatitis has been shown to vary from 15 to 65% in complete denture wearers. Satureja hortensis L. has been considered to have antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, antifungal and antimicrobial activities in vitro and exhibits strong inhibitory effect on the growth of periodontal bacteria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a 1% gel formulation of S. hortensis essential oil for the treatment of denture stomatitis. Materials and Methods: A randomized, controlled clinical trial study was conducted on 80 patients (mean age 62.91±7.34 in two parallel groups treated either with S. hortensis essential oil 1% gel or placebo applied two times daily for two weeks. Denture stomatitis was diagnosed by clinical examination and paraclinical confirmation with sampling the palatal mucosa for Candida albicans. Data were analyzed using Chi-squared or Student′s t tests. Results: The erythematous lesions of palatal area were significantly reduced (P<0.0001 in the treatment group who applied 1% topical gel of S. hortensis essential oil and Candida colonies count were reduced significantly (P=0.001. Conclusion: Topical application of the essential oil of S. hortensis could be considered as an effective agent for the treatment of denture stomatitis.

  4. Serum cytokine profile and clinicopathological findings in oral lichen planus, oral lichenoid lesions and stomatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kristine Røn; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Reibel, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine if clinical and histopathological variables in patients with oral lichen planus (OLP), oral lichenoid lesions (OLL), and generalized stomatitis display different cytokine profiles and if concomitant contact allergy influences this profile. Forty-nine pat......The objective of this study was to examine if clinical and histopathological variables in patients with oral lichen planus (OLP), oral lichenoid lesions (OLL), and generalized stomatitis display different cytokine profiles and if concomitant contact allergy influences this profile. Forty...... analyzed and compared between groups. Nineteen patients had OLP, primarily with ulcerative lesions on the buccal mucosa, 19 patients had OLL, and 11 patients had generalized stomatitis. All patients had oral symptoms, mainly stinging and burning. Nineteen patients and 10 healthy subjects had contact...... higher levels of IL-6 than the healthy subjects. Interferon-γ, IL-12p40, and IL-12p70 were below detection limit. Our findings indicate that OLP, OLL, and generalized stomatitis cannot be discriminated by means of the selected serum cytokines, and that the presence of concomitant contact allergy does...

  5. Stomatal vs. genome size in angiosperms: the somatic tail wagging the genomic dog?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hodgson, J.G.; Sharafi, M.; Jalili, A.; Diaz, S.; Montserrat-Marti, G.; Palmer, C.; Cerabolini, B.; Pierce, S.; Hamzehee, B.; Asri, Y.; Jamzad, Z.; Wilson, P.; Zarrinkamar, F.; Raven, J.; Band, S.R.; Basconcelo, S.; Bogard, A.; Carter, G.; Charles, M.; Castro-Diez, P.; Cornelissen, J.H.C.; Funes, G.; Jones, M.; Khoshnevis, M.; Perez-Harguindeguy, N.; Perez-Rontome, M.C.; Shirvany, F.A.; Vendramini, F.; Yazdani, S.; Abbas-Azimi, R.; Boustani, S.; Dehghan, M.; Hynd, F.A.; Kowsary, E.; Kazemi-Saeed, F.; Siavash, B.; Villar-Salvador, P.; Cragie, R.; Naqinezhad, A.; Romo-Diez, A.; De Torres Espuny, L.; Simmons, E.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Genome size is a function, and the product, of cell volume. As such it is contingent on ecological circumstance. The nature of 'this ecological circumstance' is, however, hotly debated. Here, we investigate for angiosperms whether stomatal size may be this 'missing link': the

  6. Bovine lactoferrin and piroxicam as an adjunct treatment for lymphocytic-plasmacytic gingivitis stomatitis in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Yi-Ping; Yang, Yi-Ping; Wang, Hsien-Chi; Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Hsu, Wei-Li; Chang, Chao-Chin; Chang, Shih-Chieh

    2014-10-01

    Feline lymphocytic-plasmacytic gingivitis/stomatitis (LPGS) or caudal stomatitis is an inflammatory disease that causes painfully erosive lesions and proliferations of the oral mucosa. The disease is difficult to cure and can affect cats at an early age, resulting in lifetime therapy. In this study, a new treatment using a combination of bovine lactoferrin (bLf) oral spray and oral piroxicam was investigated using a randomized double-blinded clinical trial in 13 cats with caudal stomatitis. Oral lesion grading and scoring of clinical signs were conducted during and after the trial to assess treatment outcome. Oral mucosal biopsies were used to evaluate histological changes during and after treatment. Clinical signs were significantly improved in 77% of the cats. In a 4-week study, clinical signs were considerably ameliorated by oral piroxicam during the first 2 weeks. In a 12-week study, the combined bLf oral spray and piroxicam, when compared with piroxicam alone, exhibited an enhanced effect that reduced the severity of the oral lesions (P = 0.059), while also significantly improving clinical signs (P piroxicam was safe and might be used to decrease the clinical signs of caudal stomatitis in cats. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Using Plant Temperature to Evaluate the Response of Stomatal Conductance to Soil Moisture Deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Han Yu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant temperature is an indicator of stomatal conductance, which reflects soil moisture stresses. We explored the relationship between plant temperature and soil moisture to optimize irrigation schedules in a water-stress experiment using Firmiana platanifolia (L. f. Marsili in an incubator. Canopy temperature, leaf temperature, and stomatal conductance were measured using thermal imaging and a porometer. The results indicated that (1 stomatal conductance decreased with declines in soil moisture, and reflected average canopy temperature; (2 the variation of the leaf temperature distribution was a reliable indicator of soil moisture stress, and the temperature distribution in severely water-stressed leaves exhibited greater spatial variation than that in the presence of sufficient irrigation; (3 thermal indices (Ig and crop water stress index (CWSI were theoretically proportional to stomatal conductance (gs, Ig was certified to have linearity relationship with gs and CWSI have a logarithmic relationship with gs, and both of the two indices can be used to estimate soil moisture; and (4 thermal imaging data can reflect water status irrespective of long-term water scarcity or lack of sudden rainfall. This study applied thermal imaging methods to monitor plants and develop adaptable irrigation scheduling, which are important for the formulation of effective and economical agriculture and forestry policy.

  8. Evaluation of the stomatal conductance formulation in the EMEP ozone deposition model for Picea abies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieser, G.; Emberson, L. D.

    It is widely acknowledged that the possible impacts of ozone on forest trees are more closely related to ozone flux through the stomata than to external ozone exposure. However, the application of the flux approach on a European scale requires the availability of appropriate models, such as the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) ozone deposition model, for estimating ozone flux and cumulative ozone uptake. Within this model stomatal conductance is the key variable, since it determines the amount of ozone absorbed by the leaves. This paper describes the suitability of the existing EMEP ozone deposition model parameterisation and formulation to represent stomatal behaviour determined from field measurements on adult Norway spruce ( Picea abies (L.) Karst.) trees in the Central European Alps. Parameters affecting maximum stomatal conductance (e.g. seasonal phenology, needle position, needle age, nutrient deficiency and ozone itself) and stomatal response functions to temperature, irradiance, vapour pressure deficit, and soil water content are investigated. Finally, current limitations and possible alterations of the EMEP model will be discussed with respect to spatial scales of available input data for future flux modelling.

  9. Phytomelatonin receptor PMTR1-mediated signaling regulates stomatal closure in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jian; Li, Dong-Xu; Zhang, Jia-Rong; Shan, Chi; Rengel, Zed; Song, Zhong-Bang; Chen, Qi

    2018-04-27

    Melatonin has been detected in plants in 1995; however, the function and signaling pathway of this putative phytohormone are largely undetermined due to a lack of knowledge about its receptor. Here, we discovered the first phytomelatonin receptor (CAND2/PMTR1) in Arabidopsis thaliana and found that melatonin governs the receptor-dependent stomatal closure. The application of melatonin induced stomatal closure through the heterotrimeric G protein α subunit-regulated H 2 O 2 and Ca 2+ signals. The Arabidopsis mutant lines lacking AtCand2 that encodes a candidate G protein-coupled receptor were insensitive to melatonin-induced stomatal closure. Accordingly, the melatonin-induced H 2 O 2 production and Ca 2+ influx were completely abolished in cand2. CAND2 is a membrane protein that interacts with GPA1 and the expression of AtCand2 was tightly regulated by melatonin in various organs and guard cells. CAND2 showed saturable and specific 125 I-melatonin binding, with apparent K d (dissociation constant) of 0.73 ± 0.10 nmol/L (r 2  = .99), demonstrating this protein is a phytomelatonin receptor (PMTR1). Our results suggest that the phytomelatonin regulation of stomatal closure is dependent on its receptor CAND2/PMTR1-mediated H 2 O 2 and Ca 2+ signaling transduction cascade. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Stomatal structure and physiology do not explain differences in water use among montane eucalypts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharun, Mana; Turnbull, Tarryn L; Pfautsch, Sebastian; Adams, Mark A

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the regulation of water use at the whole-tree scale is critical to advancing the utility of physiological ecology, for example in its role in predictive hydrology of forested catchments. For three eucalypt species that dominate high-elevation catchments in south-eastern Australia, we examined if whole-tree water use could be related to three widely discussed regulators of water use: stomatal anatomy, sensitivity of stomata [i.e. stomatal conductance (g(s))] to environmental influences, and sapwood area. While daily tree water use varied sixfold among species, sap velocity and sapwood area varied in parallel. Combined, stomatal structure and physiology could not explain differences in species-specific water use. Species which exhibited the fastest (Eucalyptus delegatensis) and slowest (Eucalyptus pauciflora) rates of water use both exhibited greater capacity for physiological control of g(s) [indicated by sensitivity to vapour pressure deficit (VPD)] and a reduced capacity to limit g(s) anatomically [indicated by greater potential g(s) (g(max))]. Conversely, g(s) was insensitive to VPD and g(max) was lowest for Eucalyptus radiata, the species showing intermediate rates of water use. Improved knowledge of stomatal anatomy will help us to understand the capacity of species to regulate leaf-level water loss, but seems likely to remain of limited use for explaining rates of whole-tree water use in montane eucalypts at the catchment scale.

  11. Global CO2 rise leads to reduced maximum stomatal conductance in Florida vegetation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammertsma, E.I.; de Boer, H.J.; Dekker, S.C.; Dilcher, D.L.; Lotter, A.F.; Wagner-Cremer, F.

    2011-01-01

    A principle response of C3 plants to increasing concentrations of atmospheric CO2 (CO2) is to reduce transpirational water loss by decreasing stomatal conductance (gs) and simultaneously increase assimilation rates. Via this adaptation, vegetation has the ability to alter hydrology and climate.

  12. Influence of stomatic aperture on photosynthetic activity of bean-seedlings leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez Moya, J.; Fernandez Gonzalez, J.

    1984-01-01

    The present paper contains the data of photosynthetic activity and stomatic aperture of bean-seedlings Ieaves, and the relations obtained with both results. It has been observed that the product of photosynthetic activity by the resistance; to transpiration measured by a promoter ia a constant, between some limits. (Author) 45 refs

  13. Nitric oxide in guard cells as an important secondary messenger during stomatal closure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunja eGayatri

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available he modulation of guard cell function is the basis of stomatal closure, essential for optimizing water use and CO2 uptake by leaves. Nitric oxide (NO in guard cells plays a very important role as a secondary messenger during stomatal closure induced by effectors, including hormones. For example, exposure to abscisic acid (ABA triggers a marked increase in NO of guard cells, well before stomatal closure. In guard cells of multiple species, like Arabidopsis, Vicia and pea, exposure to ABA or methyl jasmonate or even microbial elicitors (e.g. chitosan induces production of NO as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS. The role of NO in stomatal closure has been confirmed by using NO donors (e.g. SNP and NO scavengers (like cPTIO and inhibitors of NOS (L-NAME or NR (tungstate. Two enzymes: a L-NAME-sensitive, nitric oxide synthase (NOS-like enzyme and a tungstate-sensitive nitrate reductase (NR, can mediate ABA-induced NO rise in guard cells. However, the existence of true NOS in plant tissues and its role in guard cell NO-production are still a matter of intense debate. Guard cell signal transduction leading to stomatal closure involves the participation of several components, besides NO, such as cytosolic pH, ROS, free Ca2+ and phospholipids. Use of fluorescent dyes has revealed that the rise in NO of guard cells occurs after the increase in cytoplasmic pH and ROS. The rise in NO causes an elevation in cytosolic free Ca2+ and promotes the efflux of cations as well as anions from guard cells. Stomatal guard cells have become a model system to study the signalling cascade mechanisms in plants, particularly with NO as a dominant component. The interrelationships and interactions of NO with cytosolic pH, ROS, and free Ca2+ are quite complex and need further detailed examination. While assessing critically the available literature, the present review projects possible areas of further work related to NO-action in stomatal guard cells.

  14. Impact of Canopy Coupling on Canopy Average Stomatal Conductance Across Seven Tree Species in Northern Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewers, B. E.; Mackay, D. S.; Samanta, S.; Ahl, D. E.; Burrows, S. S.; Gower, S. T.

    2001-12-01

    Land use changes over the last century in northern Wisconsin have resulted in a heterogeneous landscape composed of the following four main forest types: northern hardwoods, northern conifer, aspen/fir, and forested wetland. Based on sap flux measurements, aspen/fir has twice the canopy transpiration of northern hardwoods. In addition, daily transpiration was only explained by daily average vapor pressure deficit across the cover types. The objective of this study was to determine if canopy average stomatal conductance could be used to explain the species effects on tree transpiration. Our first hypothesis is that across all of the species, stomatal conductance will respond to vapor pressure deficit so as to maintain a minimum leaf water potential to prevent catostrophic cavitiation. The consequence of this hypothesis is that among species and individuals there is a proportionality between high stomatal conductance and the sensitivity of stomatal conductance to vapor pressure deficit. Our second hypothesis is that species that do not follow the proportionality deviate because the canopies are decoupled from the atmosphere. To test our two hypotheses we calculated canopy average stomatal conductance from sap flux measurements using an inversion of the Penman-Monteith equation. We estimated the canopy coupling using a leaf energy budget model that requires leaf transpiration and canopy aerodynamic conductance. We optimized the parameters of the aerodynamic conductance model using a Monte Carlo technique across six parameters. We determined the optimal model for each species by selecting parameter sets that resulted in the proportionality of our first hypothesis. We then tested the optimal energy budget models of each species by comparing leaf temperature and leaf width predicted by the models to measurements of each tree species. In red pine, sugar maple, and trembling aspen trees under high canopy coupling conditions, we found the hypothesized proportionality

  15. The effect of denture stability, occlusion, oral hygiene and smoking on denture-induced stomatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nimri, Gadeer Mukatash

    2008-01-01

    This longitudinal clinical investigation was undertaken to find out the effect of denture wearing habit (day versus day and night), denture hygiene and cigarette smoking habit on the frequency of denture induced stomatitis. Comparisons were made between 240 complete denture wearers, half of whom were asked to wear their dentures at the daytime only and the other half to wear the denture day and night. All these participants were male patients with a mean age of 57.6 years who had received maxillary complete acrylic dentures for the first time. Fifty percent of the samples were smokers. A standard method for examination of the mouth and denture construction, insertion and follow up were employed. Putative risk factors (denture wearing habits, denture hygiene and smoking) were investigated. Subjects were recalled 12 months after insertion to examine the quality of the denture and the condition of the maxillary mucosa. No significant correlation was found between deterioration of stability or occlusion and type of habitual use of the dentures (P > 0.05). Fourteen percent of the cases reported with inflamed maxillary mucosa. Deterioration of retention or occlusion separately showed no correlation with the condition of the mucosa. However, associated deterioration of both stability and occlusion proved to be significantly correlated with the occurrence of denture stomatitis (P < 0.05). Denture stomatitis was significantly more frequently with subjects wearing their dentures overnight compared with those who removed them (P < 0.05). A significant correlation was also found between cigarette smoking, poor oral hygiene and the presence of denture induced stomatitis (P < 0.05). Nocturnal denture wearing habit, deficient oral and denture hygiene, and cigarette smoking are all important predisposing factors to denture-induced stomatitis, however, none of these factors was the sole cause of mucosal inflammation. (author)

  16. Application of thermography for monitoring stomatal conductance of Coffea arabica under different shading systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craparo, A C W; Steppe, K; Van Asten, P J A; Läderach, P; Jassogne, L T P; Grab, S W

    2017-12-31

    Stomatal regulation is a key process in the physiology of Coffea arabica (C. arabica). Intrinsically linked to photosynthesis and water relations, it provides insights into the plant's adaptive capacity, survival and growth. The ability to rapidly quantify this parameter for C. arabica under different agroecological systems would be an indispensable tool. Using a Flir E6 MIR Camera, an index that is equivalent to stomatal conductance (I g ) was compared with stomatal conductance measurements (g s ) in a mature coffee plantation. In order to account for varying meteorological conditions between days, the methods were also compared under stable meteorological conditions in a laboratory and I g was also converted to absolute stomatal conductance values (g 1 ). In contrast to typical plant-thermography methods which measure indices once per day over an extended time period, we used high resolution hourly measurements over daily time series with 9 sun and 9 shade replicates. Eight daily time series showed a strong correlation between methods, while the remaining 10 were not significant. Including several other meteorological parameters in the calculation of g 1 did not contribute to any stronger correlation between methods. Total pooled data (combined daily series) resulted in a correlation of ρ=0.66 (P≤2.2e-16), indicating that our approach is particularly useful for situations where absolute values of stomatal conductance are not required, such as for comparative purposes, screening or trend analysis. We use the findings to advance the protocol for a more accurate methodology which may assist in quantifying advantageous microenvironment designs for coffee, considering the current and future climates of coffee growing regions. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Reduction of painful area as new possible therapeutic target in post-herpetic neuropathic pain treated with 5% lidocaine medicated plaster: a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casale R

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Roberto Casale,1,2 Maria Di Matteo,3,7 Cristina E Minella,4,7 Guido Fanelli,5,7 Massimo Allegri4,6,71Department of Clinical Neurophysiology and Pain Rehabilitation Unit, Foundation Salvatore Maugeri, IRCCS, Pavia, 2EFIC Montescano School, Montescano, 3Anesthesia and Intensive Care I, 4Pain Therapy Service, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, 5Department of Anesthesia, Intensive Care and Pain Therapy, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Parma, University of Parma, Parma, 6Department of Clinical, Surgical, Diagnostic and Pediatric Science, University of Pavia, Pavia, 7Study In Multidisciplinary Pain Research Group, Parma, ItalyAbstract: Post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN is neuropathic pain persisting after an acute episode of herpes zoster, and is associated with severe pain and sensory abnormalities that adversely affect the patient's quality of life and increase health care costs. Up to 83% of patients with PHN describe localized neuropathic pain, defined as “a type of neuropathic pain characterized by consistent and circumscribed area(s of maximum pain”. Topical treatments have been suggested as a first-line treatment for localized neuropathic pain. Use of 5% lidocaine medicated plaster could reduce abnormal nervous peripheral discharge and via the plaster could have a “protective” function in the affected area. It has been suggested that use of this plaster could reduce pain as well as the size of the painful area. To evaluate this possible outcome, we retrospectively reviewed eight patients with PHN, treated using 5% lidocaine medicated plaster. During a follow-up period of 3 months, we observed good pain relief, which was associated with a 46% reduction in size of the painful area after one month (from 236.38±140.34 cm2 to 128.80±95.7 cm2 and a 66% reduction after 3 months (81.38±59.19 cm2. Our study cohort was composed mainly of elderly patients taking multiple drugs to treat comorbidities, who have a high risk of drug

  18. Tolerability of NGX-4010, a capsaicin 8% dermal patch, following pretreatment with lidocaine 2.5%/prilocaine 2.5% cream in patients with post-herpetic neuralgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Webster Lynn R

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN is a common type of neuropathic pain that can severely affect quality of life. NGX-4010, a capsaicin 8% dermal patch, is a localized treatment that can provide patients with significant pain relief for up to 3 months following a single 60-minute application. The NGX-4010 application can be associated with application-site pain and in previous clinical trials pretreatment with a topical 4% lidocaine anesthetic was used to enhance tolerability. The aim of the current investigation was to evaluate tolerability of NGX-4010 after pretreatment with lidocaine 2.5%/prilocaine 2.5% anesthetic cream. Methods Twenty-four patients with PHN were pretreated with lidocaine 2.5%/prilocaine 2.5% cream for 60 minutes before receiving a single 60-minute application of NGX-4010. Tolerability was assessed by measuring patch application duration, the proportion of patients completing over 90% of the intended treatment duration, application site-related pain using the Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS, and analgesic medication use to relieve such pain. Safety was assessed by monitoring adverse events (AEs and dermal irritation using dermal assessment scores. Results The mean treatment duration of NGX-4010 was 60.2 minutes and all patients completed over 90% of the intended patch application duration. Pain during application was transient. A maximum mean change in NPRS score of +3.0 was observed at 55 minutes post-patch application; pain scores gradually declined to near pre-anesthetic levels (+0.71 within 85 minutes of patch removal. Half of the patients received analgesic medication on the day of treatment; by Day 7, no patients required medication. The most common AEs were application site-related pain, erythema, edema, and pruritus. All patients experienced mild dermal irritation 5 minutes after patch removal, which subsequently decreased; at Day 7, no irritation was evident. The maximum recorded dermal assessment

  19. Elevated air movement enhances stomatal sensitivity to abscisic acid in leaves developed at high relative air humidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dália R.A. Carvalho

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available High relative air humidity (RH ≥ 85% during growth leads to stomata malfunctioning, resulting in water stress when plants are transferred to conditions of high evaporative demand. In this study, we hypothesized that an elevated air movement (MOV 24 h per day, during the whole period of leaf development would increase abscisic acid concentration ([ABA] enhancing stomatal functioning. Pot rose ‘Toril’ was grown at moderate (61% or high (92% RH combined with a negligible MOV or with a continuous MOV of 0.92 m s-1. High MOV reduced stomatal pore length and aperture in plants developed at high RH. Moreover, stomatal function improved when high MOV-treated plants were subjected to leaflet desiccation and ABA feeding. Endogenous concentration of ABA and its metabolites in the leaves was reduced by 35% in high RH, but contrary to our hypothesis this concentration was not significantly affected by high MOV. Interestingly, in detached leaflets grown at high RH, high MOV increased stomatal sensitivity to ABA since the amount of exogenous ABA required to decrease the transpiration rate was significantly reduced. This is the first study to show that high MOV increases stomatal functionality in leaves developed at high RH by reducing the stomatal pore length and aperture and enhancing stomatal sensitivity to ABA rather than increasing leaf [ABA].

  20. A steady-state stomatal model of balanced leaf gas exchange, hydraulics and maximal source-sink flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölttä, Teemu; Lintunen, Anna; Chan, Tommy; Mäkelä, Annikki; Nikinmaa, Eero

    2017-07-01

    Trees must simultaneously balance their CO2 uptake rate via stomata, photosynthesis, the transport rate of sugars and rate of sugar utilization in sinks while maintaining a favourable water and carbon balance. We demonstrate using a numerical model that it is possible to understand stomatal functioning from the viewpoint of maximizing the simultaneous photosynthetic production, phloem transport and sink sugar utilization rate under the limitation that the transpiration-driven hydrostatic pressure gradient sets for those processes. A key feature in our model is that non-stomatal limitations to photosynthesis increase with decreasing leaf water potential and/or increasing leaf sugar concentration and are thus coupled to stomatal conductance. Maximizing the photosynthetic production rate using a numerical steady-state model leads to stomatal behaviour that is able to reproduce the well-known trends of stomatal behaviour in response to, e.g., light, vapour concentration difference, ambient CO2 concentration, soil water status, sink strength and xylem and phloem hydraulic conductance. We show that our results for stomatal behaviour are very similar to the solutions given by the earlier models of stomatal conductance derived solely from gas exchange considerations. Our modelling results also demonstrate how the 'marginal cost of water' in the unified stomatal conductance model and the optimal stomatal model could be related to plant structural and physiological traits, most importantly, the soil-to-leaf hydraulic conductance and soil moisture. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Study on preventive effects of i.v. administration of flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) before irradiation on radiation stomatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Masao; Houzawa, Jiro; Hakamada, Masaru

    1984-01-01

    In order to compare the preventive effect on radiation stomatitis, flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) or vitamin C was administered intravenously until the blood level reached the maximum at the time of irradiation. Thirtyfive patients with cranial or cervical tumors were allocated into the group with FAD (15), the group with vitamin C (10), and the group with irradiation alone (10). The incidence of stomititis was significantly lower and the number of patients in whom the drug was withdrawn due to stomatitis was extremely smaller in the group with FAD than in the other groups. FAD administered before irradiation was considered very useful in preventing radiation stomatitis. (Namekawa, K.)

  2. Inhibition by acrolein of light-induced stomatal opening through inhibition of inward-rectifying potassium channels in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Moshiul; Ye, Wenxiu; Matsushima, Daiki; Khokon, Md Atiqur Rahman; Munemasa, Shintaro; Nakamura, Yoshimasa; Murata, Yoshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Acrolein is a reactive α,β-unsaturated aldehyde derived from lipid peroxides, which are produced in plants under a variety of stress. We investigated effects of acrolein on light-induced stomatal opening using Arabidopsis thaliana. Acrolein inhibited light-induced stomatal opening in a dose-dependent manner. Acrolein at 100 μM inhibited plasma membrane inward-rectifying potassium (Kin) channels in guard cells. Acrolein at 100 μM inhibited Kin channel KAT1 expressed in a heterologous system using Xenopus leaves oocytes. These results suggest that acrolein inhibits light-induced stomatal opening through inhibition of Kin channels in guard cells.

  3. Utilization of Dexaltin ointment to radiation stomatitis in patients with cancer of the oral cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohhashi, Yasushi; Abe, Masaki; Ueda, Noboru

    1981-01-01

    Dexaltin ointment (sodium polyactylic acid, containing 0.1% dexamethasone) was used to the patients with stomatitis induced by radiotherapy. Fifteen patients with cancer of the oral cavity, aged from 44 to 77, were exposed to 60 Co γ-rays or electron beams, with the irradiation dose of 2400 to 9000 rad. About 60 g of the ointment was pasted for mean period of 6.6 weeks after meals, before sleep, and whenever the patients wanted. Therapeutic effect was observed in every case and in 87% of the case the pain at meals was decreased. The ointment adhered mostly for 1 - 2 hrs and in some cases, more than 3 hrs. No adverse reaction was observed. Therefore it was suggested that Dexaltin was a promising ointment to the radiation stomatitis. (Nakanishi, T.)

  4. RIN4 functions with plasma membrane H+-ATPases to regulate stomatal apertures during pathogen attack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jun; Elmore, James M.; Fuglsang, Anja Thoe

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Pathogen perception by the plant innate immune system is of central importance to plant survival and productivity. The Arabidopsis protein RIN4 is a negative regulator of plant immunity. In order to identify additional proteins involved in RIN4- mediated immune signal transduction, we...... purified components of the RIN4 protein complex. We identified six novel proteins that had not previously been implicated in RIN4 signaling, including the plasma membrane (PM) H+-ATPases AHA1 and/or AHA2. RIN4 interacts with AHA1 and AHA2 both in vitro and in vivo. RIN4 overexpression and knockout lines...... exhibit differential PM H+-ATPase activity. PM H+-ATPase activation induces stomatal opening, enabling bacteria to gain entry into the plant leaf; inactivation induces stomatal closure thus restricting bacterial invasion. The rin4 knockout line exhibited reduced PM H+-ATPase activity and, importantly, its...

  5. Longevity of guard cell chloroplasts in falling leaves: implication for stomatal function and cellular aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiger, E; Schwartz, A

    1982-11-12

    Guard cell chloroplasts in senescing leaves from 12 species of perennial trees and three species of annual plants survived considerably longer than their mesophyll counterparts. In Ginkgo biloba, stomata from yellow leaves opened during the day and closed at night; guard cell chloroplasts from these leaves showed fluorescence transients associated with electron transport and photophosphorylation. These findings indicate that guard cell chloroplasts are highly conserved throughout the life-span of the leaf and that leaves retain stomatal control during senescence.

  6. Sensitivity of stomatal conductance to soil moisture: implications for tropospheric ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Anav

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Soil moisture and water stress play a pivotal role in regulating stomatal behaviour of plants; however, in the last decade, the role of water availability has often been neglected in atmospheric chemistry modelling studies as well as in integrated risk assessments, despite the fact that plants remove a large amount of atmospheric compounds from the lower troposphere through stomata. The main aim of this study is to evaluate, within the chemistry transport model CHIMERE, the effect of soil water limitation on stomatal conductance and assess the resulting changes in atmospheric chemistry testing various hypotheses of water uptake by plants in the rooting zone. Results highlight how dry deposition significantly declines when soil moisture is used to regulate the stomatal opening, mainly in the semi-arid environments: in particular, over Europe the amount of ozone removed by dry deposition in one year without considering any soil water limitation to stomatal conductance is about 8.5 TgO3, while using a dynamic layer that ensures that plants maximize the water uptake from soil, we found a reduction of about 10 % in the amount of ozone removed by dry deposition ( ∼  7.7 TgO3. Although dry deposition occurs from the top of canopy to ground level, it affects the concentration of gases remaining in the lower atmosphere, with a significant impact on ozone concentration (up to 4 ppb extending from the surface to the upper troposphere (up to 650 hPa. Our results shed light on the importance of improving the parameterizations of processes occurring at plant level (i.e. from the soil to the canopy as they have significant implications for concentration of gases in the lower troposphere and resulting risk assessments for vegetation or human health.

  7. Quantitative Evaluation of Stomatal Cytoskeletal Patterns during the Activation of Immune Signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Shimono

    Full Text Available Historically viewed as primarily functioning in the regulation of gas and water vapor exchange, it is now evident that stomata serve an important role in plant immunity. Indeed, in addition to classically defined functions related to cell architecture and movement, the actin cytoskeleton has emerged as a central component of the plant immune system, underpinning not only processes related to cell shape and movement, but also receptor activation and signaling. Using high resolution quantitative imaging techniques, the temporal and spatial changes in the actin microfilament array during diurnal cycling of stomatal guard cells has revealed a highly orchestrated transition from random arrays to ordered bundled filaments. While recent studies have demonstrated that plant stomata close in response to pathogen infection, an evaluation of stimulus-induced changes in actin cytoskeletal dynamics during immune activation in the guard cell, as well as the relationship of these changes to the function of the actin cytoskeleton and stomatal aperture, remains undefined. In the current study, we employed quantitative cell imaging and hierarchical clustering analyses to define the response of the guard cell actin cytoskeleton to pathogen infection and the elicitation of immune signaling. Using this approach, we demonstrate that stomatal-localized actin filaments respond rapidly, and specifically, to both bacterial phytopathogens and purified pathogen elicitors. Notably, we demonstrate that higher order temporal and spatial changes in the filament array show distinct patterns of organization during immune activation, and that changes in the naïve diurnal oscillations of guard cell actin filaments are perturbed by pathogens, and that these changes parallel pathogen-induced stomatal gating. The data presented herein demonstrate the application of a highly tractable and quantifiable method to assign transitions in actin filament organization to the activation of

  8. Radioimmunological determination of plasma cortisol following application of a stomatic paste containing prednisolone (DontisolonR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stehn, H.

    1985-01-01

    A radioimmunological method was used to determine the cortisol plasma levels of 69 patients, treated with a stomatic paste containing prednisolone. Significant changes in plasma cortisol were only established in connection with a dose regimen of 3 times 1.25 mg daily. In isolated cases, however, there were major decreases in response to exposure to prednisolone. Therefore, the anamnestic data of any one patient being prescribed corticoids must be examined with care. (TRV) [de

  9. Applicability of common stomatal conductance models in maize under varying soil moisture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiuling; He, Qijin; Zhou, Guangsheng

    2018-07-01

    In the context of climate warming, the varying soil moisture caused by precipitation pattern change will affect the applicability of stomatal conductance models, thereby affecting the simulation accuracy of carbon-nitrogen-water cycles in ecosystems. We studied the applicability of four common stomatal conductance models including Jarvis, Ball-Woodrow-Berry (BWB), Ball-Berry-Leuning (BBL) and unified stomatal optimization (USO) models based on summer maize leaf gas exchange data from a soil moisture consecutive decrease manipulation experiment. The results showed that the USO model performed best, followed by the BBL model, BWB model, and the Jarvis model performed worst under varying soil moisture conditions. The effects of soil moisture made a difference in the relative performance among the models. By introducing a water response function, the performance of the Jarvis, BWB, and USO models improved, which decreased the normalized root mean square error (NRMSE) by 15.7%, 16.6% and 3.9%, respectively; however, the performance of the BBL model was negative, which increased the NRMSE by 5.3%. It was observed that the models of Jarvis, BWB, BBL and USO were applicable within different ranges of soil relative water content (i.e., 55%-65%, 56%-67%, 37%-79% and 37%-95%, respectively) based on the 95% confidence limits. Moreover, introducing a water response function, the applicability of the Jarvis and BWB models improved. The USO model performed best with or without introducing the water response function and was applicable under varying soil moisture conditions. Our results provide a basis for selecting appropriate stomatal conductance models under drought conditions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Modelling of stomatal conductance and ozone deposition flux of Norway Spruce using deposition model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zapletal, M.; Chroust, P.; Večeřa, Zbyněk; Mikuška, Pavel; Cudlín, Pavel; Urban, Otmar; Pokorný, Radek; Czerný, Radek; Janouš, Dalibor; Taufarová, Klára

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 12, 2-3 (2009), s. 75-81 ISSN 1335-339X R&D Projects: GA MŽP SP/1B7/189/07 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520; CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : ozone concentration * ozone deposition * stomatal conductance * deposition velocity * resistance model * tropo-spheric ozone Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology

  11. PFAPA (Periodic fever, aphtous stomatitis, pharingitis, cervical adenitis) or Marshall’s syndrome in children

    OpenAIRE

    N N Kuzmina; G R Movsisyan

    2005-01-01

    PFAPA (periodic fever, aphtous stomatitis, pharingitis, cervical adenitis) or Marshall’s syndrome is one of the rare periodic fever conditions appearing in children. Its cause is unknown. This syndrome may continue for several years. During interictal period the child is quite well, grows and develops normally. The disease should be differentiated from Behcet’s disease, cyclic neutropenia, familial Mediterranean fever, familial Ireland fever, hyperimmunoglobulinemia D syndrome, systemic juven...

  12. Sensitivity of stomatal conductance to soil moisture: implications for tropospheric ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anav, Alessandro; Proietti, Chiara; Menut, Laurent; Carnicelli, Stefano; De Marco, Alessandra; Paoletti, Elena

    2018-04-01

    Soil moisture and water stress play a pivotal role in regulating stomatal behaviour of plants; however, in the last decade, the role of water availability has often been neglected in atmospheric chemistry modelling studies as well as in integrated risk assessments, despite the fact that plants remove a large amount of atmospheric compounds from the lower troposphere through stomata. The main aim of this study is to evaluate, within the chemistry transport model CHIMERE, the effect of soil water limitation on stomatal conductance and assess the resulting changes in atmospheric chemistry testing various hypotheses of water uptake by plants in the rooting zone. Results highlight how dry deposition significantly declines when soil moisture is used to regulate the stomatal opening, mainly in the semi-arid environments: in particular, over Europe the amount of ozone removed by dry deposition in one year without considering any soil water limitation to stomatal conductance is about 8.5 TgO3, while using a dynamic layer that ensures that plants maximize the water uptake from soil, we found a reduction of about 10 % in the amount of ozone removed by dry deposition ( ˜ 7.7 TgO3). Although dry deposition occurs from the top of canopy to ground level, it affects the concentration of gases remaining in the lower atmosphere, with a significant impact on ozone concentration (up to 4 ppb) extending from the surface to the upper troposphere (up to 650 hPa). Our results shed light on the importance of improving the parameterizations of processes occurring at plant level (i.e. from the soil to the canopy) as they have significant implications for concentration of gases in the lower troposphere and resulting risk assessments for vegetation or human health.

  13. Aquaporins Contribute to ABA-Triggered Stomatal Closure through OST1-Mediated Phosphorylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grondin, Alexandre; Rodrigues, Olivier; Verdoucq, Lionel; Merlot, Sylvain; Leonhardt, Nathalie; Maurel, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Stomatal movements in response to environmental stimuli critically control the plant water status. Although these movements are governed by osmotically driven changes in guard cell volume, the role of membrane water channels (aquaporins) has remained hypothetical. Assays in epidermal peels showed that knockout Arabidopsis thaliana plants lacking the Plasma membrane Intrinsic Protein 2;1 (PIP2;1) aquaporin have a defect in stomatal closure, specifically in response to abscisic acid (ABA). ABA induced a 2-fold increase in osmotic water permeability (Pf) of guard cell protoplasts and an accumulation of reactive oxygen species in guard cells, which were both abrogated in pip2;1 plants. Open stomata 1 (OST1)/Snf1-related protein kinase 2.6 (SnRK2.6), a protein kinase involved in guard cell ABA signaling, was able to phosphorylate a cytosolic PIP2;1 peptide at Ser-121. OST1 enhanced PIP2;1 water transport activity when coexpressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Upon expression in pip2;1 plants, a phosphomimetic form (Ser121Asp) but not a phosphodeficient form (Ser121Ala) of PIP2;1 constitutively enhanced the Pf of guard cell protoplasts while suppressing its ABA-dependent activation and was able to restore ABA-dependent stomatal closure in pip2;1. This work supports a model whereby ABA-triggered stomatal closure requires an increase in guard cell permeability to water and possibly hydrogen peroxide, through OST1-dependent phosphorylation of PIP2;1 at Ser-121. PMID:26163575

  14. Zona Hambat Ekstrak Daun Sirih Merah Terhadap Staphylococcus Aureus Dan Candida Albicans Diisolasi Dari Denture Stomatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Veronika, lara

    2017-01-01

    Zona Hambat Ekstrak Daun Sirih Merah terhadap Staphylococcus aureus dan Candida albicans diisolasi dari denture stomatitis xi + 43 halaman Ekstrak daun sirih merah merupakan salah satu obat tradisional yang saat ini banyak digunakan masyarakat Indonesia. Ekstrak daun sirih merah ini dapat menghambat pertumbuhan bakteri dan jamur disebabkan karena adanya senyawa alkaloid, flavonoid, polifenol, tanin dan minyak atsiri. Salah satu bakteri dan jamur yang dapat dihambat oleh ekstrak daun sir...

  15. Current Diagnosis and Treatment Models of Periodic Fever, Aphthous Stomatitis, Pharyngitis and Cervical Lymphadenitis Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşenur Paç Kısaarslan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and cervical lymphadenitis (PFAPA syndrome is the most frequent cause of periodic fever in childhood. The pathogenesis of PFAPA is still unknown. Differantial diagnosis must be made with cyclic neutropenia and other autoinflammatory diseases. Because PFAPA is self limiting and benign, there is no certain treatment model. Treatment options must be specific to the patient, with a strong family and doctor relationship.

  16. Modelling stomatal ozone flux and deposition to grassland communities across Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashmore, M.R.; Bueker, P.; Emberson, L.D.; Terry, A.C.; Toet, S.

    2007-01-01

    Regional scale modelling of both ozone deposition and the risk of ozone impacts is poorly developed for grassland communities. This paper presents new predictions of stomatal ozone flux to grasslands at five different locations in Europe, using a mechanistic model of canopy development for productive grasslands to generate time series of leaf area index and soil water potential as inputs to the stomatal component of the DO 3 SE ozone deposition model. The parameterisation of both models was based on Lolium perenne, a dominant species of productive pasture in Europe. The modelled seasonal time course of stomatal ozone flux to both the whole canopy and to upper leaves showed large differences between climatic zones, which depended on the timing of the start of the growing season, the effect of soil water potential, and the frequency of hay cuts. Values of modelled accumulated flux indices and the AOT40 index showed a five-fold difference between locations, but the locations with the highest flux differed depending on the index used; the period contributing to the accumulation of AOT40 did not always coincide with the modelled period of active ozone canopy uptake. Use of a fixed seasonal profile of leaf area index in the flux model produced very different estimates of annual accumulated total canopy and leaf ozone flux when compared with the flux model linked to a simulation of canopy growth. Regional scale model estimates of both the risks of ozone impacts and of total ozone deposition will be inaccurate unless the effects of climate and management in modifying grass canopy growth are incorporated. - Modelled stomatal flux of ozone to productive grasslands in Europe shows different spatial and temporal variation to AOT40, and is modified by management and soil water status

  17. Electrical signaling, stomatal conductance, ABA and Ethylene content in avocado trees in response to root hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurovich, Luis; Schaffer, Bruce; García, Nicolás; Iturriaga, Rodrigo

    2009-01-01

    Avocado (Persea americana Mill.) trees are among the most sensitive of fruit tree species to root hypoxia as a result of flooded or poorly drained soil. Similar to drought stress, an early physiological response to root hypoxia in avocado is a reduction of stomatal conductance. It has been previously determined in avocado trees that an extracellular electrical signal between the base of stem and leaves is produced and related to reductions in stomatal conductance in response to drought stress. The current study was designed to determine if changes in the extracellular electrical potential between the base of the stem and leaves in avocado trees could also be detected in response to short-term (min) or long-term (days) root hypoxia, and if these signals could be related to stomatal conductance (gs), root and leaf ABA and ACC concentrations, ethylene emission from leaves and leaf abscission. In contrast to previous observations for drought-stressed trees, short-term or long-term root hypoxia did not stimulate an electrical potential difference between the base of the stem and leaves. Short-term hypoxia did not result in a significant decrease in gs compared with plants in the control treatment, and no differences in ABA concentration were found between plants subjected to hypoxia and control plants. Long-term hypoxia in the root zone resulted in a significant decrease in gs, increased leaf ethylene and increased leaf abscission. The results indicate that for avocado trees exposed to root hypoxia, electrical signals do not appear to be the primary root-to-shoot communication mechanism involved in signaling for stomatal closure as a result of hypoxia in the root zone. PMID:19649181

  18. The influence of climate change on stomatal ozone flux to a mountain Norway spruce forest

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zapletal, M.; Pretel, J.; Chroust, P.; Cudlín, Pavel; Edwards-Jonášová, Magda; Urban, Otmar; Pokorný, Radek; Czerný, Radek; Hůnová, I.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 169, OCT 2012 (2012), s. 267-273 ISSN 0269-7491 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073; GA MŠk OC10022; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2010007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Stomatal ozone flux * AOT40 * Phytotoxic Ozone Dose * Norway spruce * Net ecosystem production * Ozone * Climate change Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.730, year: 2012

  19. Leaf stomatal traits variation within and among black poplar native populations in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Cortan, Dijana; Vilotic, Dragica; Sijacic-Nikolic, Mirjana; Miljkovic, Danijela

    2017-01-01

    Populus nigra as a keystone riparian pioneer tree species is one of the rarest and most endangered species in Europe due to the loss of its natural habitats. Genetic diversity existence is a key factor in survival of one species, and stomata as genetically controlled trait could be used for differentiation studies. With the aim of proving stomatal phenotypic variation of the four native populations of Populus nigra located on the banks of three biggest river valleys (Dunabe, Tisa and Sava) in...

  20. Drought limitations to leaf-level gas exchange: results from a model linking stomatal optimization and cohesion-tension theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimberly A. Novick; Chelcy F. Miniat; James M. Vose

    2016-01-01

    We merge concepts from stomatal optimization theory and cohesion–tension theory to examine the dynamics of three mechanisms that are potentially limiting to leaf-level gas exchange in trees during drought: (1) a ‘demand limitation’ driven by an assumption of optimal stomatal functioning; (2) ‘hydraulic limitation’ of water movement from the roots to the leaves...

  1. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: vesicular stomatitis virus [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term vesicular stomatitis virus 名詞 一般 ...* * * * 水疱性口内炎ウイルス スイホウセイコウナイエンウイルス スイホーセイコーナイエンウイルス Thesaurus2015 200906056003651861 C LS07 UNKNOWN_2 vesicular stomatitis virus

  2. Ferns are less dependent on passive dilution by cell expansion to coordinate leaf vein and stomatal spacing than angiosperms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeline R Carins Murphy

    Full Text Available Producing leaves with closely spaced veins is a key innovation linked to high rates of photosynthesis in angiosperms. A close geometric link between veins and stomata in angiosperms ensures that investment in enhanced venous water transport provides the strongest net carbon return to the plant. This link is underpinned by "passive dilution" via expansion of surrounding cells. However, it is not known whether this 'passive dilution' mechanism is present in plant lineages other than angiosperms and is another key feature of the angiosperms' evolutionary success. Consequently, we sought to determine whether the 'passive dilution' mechanism is; (i exclusive to the angiosperms, (ii a conserved mechanism that evolved in the common ancestor of ferns and angiosperms, or (iii has evolved continuously over time. To do this we first we assessed the plasticity of vein and stomatal density and epidermal cell size in ferns in response to light environment. We then compared the relationships between these traits found among ferns with modelled relationships that assume vein and stomatal density respond passively to epidermal cell expansion, and with those previously observed in angiosperms. Vein density, stomatal density and epidermal cell size were linked in ferns with remarkably similar relationships to those observed in angiosperms, except that fern leaves had fewer veins per stomata. However, plasticity was limited in ferns and stomatal spacing was dependent on active stomatal differentiation as well as passive cell expansion. Thus, ferns (like angiosperms appear to coordinate vein and stomatal density with epidermal cell expansion to some extent to maintain a constant ratio between veins and stomata in the leaf. The different general relationships between vein density and stomatal density in ferns and angiosperms suggests the groups have different optimum balances between the production of vein tissue dedicated to water supply and stomatal tissue for gas

  3. Tumor Necrosis Factor-Mediated Survival of CD169+ Cells Promotes Immune Activation during Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shinde, Prashant V; Xu, Haifeng C; Maney, Sathish Kumar

    2018-01-01

    Innate immune activation is essential to mount an effective antiviral response and to prime adaptive immunity. Although a crucial role of CD169(+) cells during vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) infections is increasingly recognized, factors regulating CD169(+) cells during viral infections remain...... stomatitis virus infection, phagocytes produce tumor necrosis factor (TNF) which signals via TNFR1 and promote "enforced virus replication" in CD169(+) macrophages. Consequently, lack of TNF or TNFR1 resulted in defective immune activation and VSV clearance....

  4. Recalibrating the Ginkgo Stomatal Index Proxy for Past CO2 with Herbarium Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, G. D.; Retallack, G.

    2015-12-01

    The stomatal index of plant cuticles is inversely related to atmospheric CO2 concentrations, as calibrated from greenhouse experiments and herbarium specimens. Such calibration data for Ginkgo biloba are available for the ongoing rise in atmospheric CO2 and for high levels of CO2 anticipated in the future, but lacking for low CO2 levels of preindustrial and glacial ages. The oldest modern specimen that we have been able to obtain consists of leaf fragments collected in 1829 and provided by Arne Anderberg from the Swedish Natural History Museum. The specimen was labeled "Argentina", but also "Hortus Botanicus Augustinus", a garden founded in 1638 in Amsterdam, Netherlands. Ginkgo has a very thin cuticle that is difficult to prepare, but images very similar to cuticular preparation can be obtained by backscatter SEM imagery. We also obtained secondary SEM images of the same areas and counted 13 images with 6,184 cells from five leaf fragments. Our analyses yield a stomatal index of 10.9 ± 0.9 % for an atmospheric CO2 of 286 ppm, as determined by ice core data from Ciais and Sabine for IPCC-2013. This value is lower than from previous calibration curves for this level of CO2 and changes their curvature. With additional late nineteenth, twentieth and twenty-first century leaves, we can improve both the precision and lower limits of the transfer function for atmospheric CO2 from Ginkgo stomatal index last revised in 2009.

  5. Maximum leaf conductance driven by CO2 effects on stomatal size and density over geologic time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Peter J; Beerling, David J

    2009-06-23

    Stomatal pores are microscopic structures on the epidermis of leaves formed by 2 specialized guard cells that control the exchange of water vapor and CO(2) between plants and the atmosphere. Stomatal size (S) and density (D) determine maximum leaf diffusive (stomatal) conductance of CO(2) (g(c(max))) to sites of assimilation. Although large variations in D observed in the fossil record have been correlated with atmospheric CO(2), the crucial significance of similarly large variations in S has been overlooked. Here, we use physical diffusion theory to explain why large changes in S necessarily accompanied the changes in D and atmospheric CO(2) over the last 400 million years. In particular, we show that high densities of small stomata are the only way to attain the highest g(cmax) values required to counter CO(2)"starvation" at low atmospheric CO(2) concentrations. This explains cycles of increasing D and decreasing S evident in the fossil history of stomata under the CO(2) impoverished atmospheres of the Permo-Carboniferous and Cenozoic glaciations. The pattern was reversed under rising atmospheric CO(2) regimes. Selection for small S was crucial for attaining high g(cmax) under falling atmospheric CO(2) and, therefore, may represent a mechanism linking CO(2) and the increasing gas-exchange capacity of land plants over geologic time.

  6. Effect of Light Quality on Stomatal Opening in Leaves of Xanthium strumarium L. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, Thomas D.; Raschke, Klaus

    1981-01-01

    Flux response curves were determined at 16 wavelengths of light for the conductance for water vapor of the lower epidermis of detached leaves of Xanthium strumarium L. An action spectrum of stomatal opening resulted in which blue light (wavelengths between 430 and 460 nanometers) was nearly ten times more effective than red light (wavelengths between 630 and 680 nanometers) in producing a conductance of 15 centimoles per square meter per second. Stomata responded only slightly to green light. An action spectrum of stomatal responses to red light corresponded to that of CO2 assimilation; the inhibitors of photosynthetic electron transport, cyanazine (2-chloro-4[1-cyano-1-methylethylamino]-6-ethylamino-s-triazine) and 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea, eliminated the response to red light. This indicates that light absorption by chlorophyll is the cause of stomatal sensitivity to red light. Determination of flux response curves on leaves in the normal position (upper epidermis facing the light) or in the inverted position (lower epidermis facing the light) led to the conclusion that the photoreceptors for blue as well as for red light are located on or near the surfaces of the leaves; presumably they are in the guard cells themselves. PMID:16662069

  7. Effect of Light Quality on Stomatal Opening in Leaves of Xanthium strumarium L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, T D; Raschke, K

    1981-11-01

    Flux response curves were determined at 16 wavelengths of light for the conductance for water vapor of the lower epidermis of detached leaves of Xanthium strumarium L. An action spectrum of stomatal opening resulted in which blue light (wavelengths between 430 and 460 nanometers) was nearly ten times more effective than red light (wavelengths between 630 and 680 nanometers) in producing a conductance of 15 centimoles per square meter per second. Stomata responded only slightly to green light. An action spectrum of stomatal responses to red light corresponded to that of CO(2) assimilation; the inhibitors of photosynthetic electron transport, cyanazine (2-chloro-4[1-cyano-1-methylethylamino]-6-ethylamino-s-triazine) and 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea, eliminated the response to red light. This indicates that light absorption by chlorophyll is the cause of stomatal sensitivity to red light. Determination of flux response curves on leaves in the normal position (upper epidermis facing the light) or in the inverted position (lower epidermis facing the light) led to the conclusion that the photoreceptors for blue as well as for red light are located on or near the surfaces of the leaves; presumably they are in the guard cells themselves.

  8. An ancestral stomatal patterning module revealed in the non-vascular land plant Physcomitrella patens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chater, Caspar C.; Kamisugi, Yasuko

    2016-01-01

    The patterning of stomata plays a vital role in plant development and has emerged as a paradigm for the role of peptide signals in the spatial control of cellular differentiation. Research in Arabidopsis has identified a series of epidermal patterning factors (EPFs), which interact with an array of membrane-localised receptors and associated proteins (encoded by ERECTA and TMM genes) to control stomatal density and distribution. However, although it is well-established that stomata arose very early in the evolution of land plants, until now it has been unclear whether the established angiosperm stomatal patterning system represented by the EPF/TMM/ERECTA module reflects a conserved, universal mechanism in the plant kingdom. Here, we use molecular genetics to show that the moss Physcomitrella patens has conserved homologues of angiosperm EPF, TMM and at least one ERECTA gene that function together to permit the correct patterning of stomata and that, moreover, elements of the module retain function when transferred to Arabidopsis. Our data characterise the stomatal patterning system in an evolutionarily distinct branch of plants and support the hypothesis that the EPF/TMM/ERECTA module represents an ancient patterning system. PMID:27407102

  9. Serum cytokine profile and clinicopathological findings in oral lichen planus, oral lichenoid lesions and stomatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Reibel, Jesper; Zachariae, Claus; Pedersen, Anne Marie Lynge

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to examine if clinical and histopathological variables in patients with oral lichen planus (OLP), oral lichenoid lesions (OLL), and generalized stomatitis display different cytokine profiles and if concomitant contact allergy influences this profile. Forty‐nine patients and 29 healthy age‐ and gender‐matched subjects were included. Demographic and clinical data immunohistochemical findings in mucosal specimens, results of contact allergy testing, and serum levels of tumor necrosis factor‐α, interferon‐γ, interleukin (IL)‐6, IL‐10, IL‐12p40, and IL‐12p70 were analyzed and compared between groups. Nineteen patients had OLP, primarily with ulcerative lesions on the buccal mucosa, 19 patients had OLL, and 11 patients had generalized stomatitis. All patients had oral symptoms, mainly stinging and burning. Nineteen patients and 10 healthy subjects had contact allergies, primarily to fragrance ingredients. Patient groups did not differ with regard to oral symptoms, clinical pattern of the lesions, or contact allergy. Serum cytokine levels did not differ between the different patient groups and were not related to histopathological findings. The patients had higher levels of IL‐6 than the healthy subjects. Interferon‐γ, IL‐12p40, and IL‐12p70 were below detection limit. Our findings indicate that OLP, OLL, and generalized stomatitis cannot be discriminated by means of the selected serum cytokines, and that the presence of concomitant contact allergy does not influence the cytokine expression. PMID:29744205

  10. Phenomics allows identification of genomic regions affecting maize stomatal conductance with conditional effects of water deficit and evaporative demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Santiago Alvarez; Cabrera-Bosquet, Llorenç; Grau, Antonin; Coupel-Ledru, Aude; Millet, Emilie J; Welcker, Claude; Tardieu, François

    2018-02-01

    Stomatal conductance is central for the trades-off between hydraulics and photosynthesis. We aimed at deciphering its genetic control and that of its responses to evaporative demand and water deficit, a nearly impossible task with gas exchanges measurements. Whole-plant stomatal conductance was estimated via inversion of the Penman-Monteith equation from data of transpiration and plant architecture collected in a phenotyping platform. We have analysed jointly 4 experiments with contrasting environmental conditions imposed to a panel of 254 maize hybrids. Estimated whole-plant stomatal conductance closely correlated with gas-exchange measurements and biomass accumulation rate. Sixteen robust quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were identified by genome wide association studies and co-located with QTLs of transpiration and biomass. Light, vapour pressure deficit, or soil water potential largely accounted for the differences in allelic effects between experiments, thereby providing strong hypotheses for mechanisms of stomatal control and a way to select relevant candidate genes among the 1-19 genes harboured by QTLs. The combination of allelic effects, as affected by environmental conditions, accounted for the variability of stomatal conductance across a range of hybrids and environmental conditions. This approach may therefore contribute to genetic analysis and prediction of stomatal control in diverse environments. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. ABA-Induced Stomatal Closure Involves ALMT4, a Phosphorylation-Dependent Vacuolar Anion Channel of Arabidopsis[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baetz, Ulrike; Huck, Nicola V.; Zhang, Jingbo

    2017-01-01

    Stomatal pores are formed between a pair of guard cells and allow plant uptake of CO2 and water evaporation. Their aperture depends on changes in osmolyte concentration of guard cell vacuoles, specifically of K+ and Mal2−. Efflux of Mal2− from the vacuole is required for stomatal closure; however, it is not clear how the anion is released. Here, we report the identification of ALMT4 (ALUMINUM ACTIVATED MALATE TRANSPORTER4) as an Arabidopsis thaliana ion channel that can mediate Mal2− release from the vacuole and is required for stomatal closure in response to abscisic acid (ABA). Knockout mutants showed impaired stomatal closure in response to the drought stress hormone ABA and increased whole-plant wilting in response to drought and ABA. Electrophysiological data show that ALMT4 can mediate Mal2− efflux and that the channel activity is dependent on a phosphorylatable C-terminal serine. Dephosphomimetic mutants of ALMT4 S382 showed increased channel activity and Mal2− efflux. Reconstituting the active channel in almt4 mutants impaired growth and stomatal opening. Phosphomimetic mutants were electrically inactive and phenocopied the almt4 mutants. Surprisingly, S382 can be phosphorylated by mitogen-activated protein kinases in vitro. In brief, ALMT4 likely mediates Mal2− efflux during ABA-induced stomatal closure and its activity depends on phosphorylation. PMID:28874508

  12. Encefalitis herpética confirmada por reacción en cadena de la polimerasa en tiempo real: reporte de caso Herpetic encephalitis confirmed by real time polymerase chain reaction: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz H. Aristizábal

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available La encefalitis herpética es una enfermedad grave asociada al virus herpes simple 1 ó 2, con una alta letalidad, incidencia de complicaciones y secuelas neurológicas permanentes. Aparece en forma endémica y en pacientes inmunocompetentes. Puede manifestarse como un cuadro clásico de encefalitis infecciosa con fiebre, cefalea y alteración en el nivel de conciencia. Debido al compromiso del lóbulo temporal las manifestaciones clínicas pueden incluir también alucinaciones, afasia y cambios de personalidad. Las secuelas en los pacientes tratados son significativas. Objetivo: mostrar la importancia de la utilización del diagnóstico molecular temprano en pacientes con sospecha de encefalitis herpética. Métodos: el diagnóstico de la encefalitis herpética ha cambiado en los últimos años gracias al advenimiento de la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa en tiempo real en líquido cefalorraquídeo para Herpes virus simple, una estrategia rápida y de alta sensibilidad y especificidad, que en nuestro medio ha permitido reemplazar los diagnósticos presuntivos realizados por tomografía axial computarizada o electroencefalograma o los bajos rendimientos del aislamiento viral en el líquido cefaloraquídeo. Resultados: se describe el caso clínico de un paciente con encefalitis herpética asistido en nuestro hospital, con diagnóstico confirmado por reacción en cadena de la polimerasa en tiempo real, presentando estudios imaginológicos y neuropsicológicos compatibles con el diagnóstico. Conclusiones: los resultados de laboratorio y el diagnóstico temprano son críticos para el tratamiento precoz y la evolución del paciente. The herpetic encephalitis is a serious disease associated to the herpes virus simplex 1 or 2 with high mortality, permanent incidence of complications and neurological sequels. It appears in endemic form and in immunocompetent patients. It can be shown like a classical manifest of infectious encephalitis, with fever

  13. Herpes simplex 1 stomatitis after cleft palate repair: a case report and guidelines for management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, Maristella S; Tracy, Lauren; Wells, James H

    2015-05-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) primary infection and reactivation has been associated with the inflammation and transient decrease in immunocompetence after surgery and local trauma. In addition, HSV infection is known to impair wound healing, increase risk of scarring, and impede connective tissue graft transplantation. To our knowledge, this is the first case of HSV infection complicating cleft palate repair presented in literature. In this report, we present a case of primary HSV infection occurring in a healthy 26-month-old patient after repair of the secondary cleft palate with mucoperichondrial flaps and V-Y pushback. The patient developed high fever on postoperative day 1, which was followed by perioral vesicular lesions and multiple intraoral ulcerations involving the lips, palate, and posterior pharynx. Unknown to the surgeons, the patient was exposed to HSV before surgery by a sibling with orolabial HSV infection. The infective cause was ascertained via polymerase chain reaction for HSV-1 DNA, and the infection was treated with topical and intravenous acyclovir for 1 week. The patient recovered well with adequate flap healing, good aesthetic outcome, and no complications on 1-month follow-up. This report underscores the importance of prompt recognition of herpetic infections in the patient with craniofacial surgery and reviews the association and complications of HSV infection in surgical healing. Early identification with prompt antiviral therapy and meticulous wound care are essential to ameliorate the scarring and delayed wound healing associated with HSV infection.

  14. A Two-Big-Leaf Model for Canopy Temperature, Photosynthesis, and Stomatal Conductance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yongjiu; Dickinson, Robert E.; Wang, Ying-Ping

    2004-06-01

    The energy exchange, evapotranspiration, and carbon exchange by plant canopies depend on leaf stomatal control. The treatment of this control has been required by land components of climate and carbon models. Physiological models can be used to simulate the responses of stomatal conductance to changes in atmospheric and soil environments. Big-leaf models that treat a canopy as a single leaf tend to overestimate fluxes of CO2 and water vapor. Models that differentiate between sunlit and shaded leaves largely overcome these problems.A one-layered, two-big-leaf submodel for photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, leaf temperature, and energy fluxes is presented in this paper. It includes 1) an improved two stream approximation model of radiation transfer of the canopy, with attention to singularities in its solution and with separate integrations of radiation absorption by sunlit and shaded fractions of canopy; 2) a photosynthesis stomatal conductance model for sunlit and shaded leaves separately, and for the simultaneous transfers of CO2 and water vapor into and out of the leaf—leaf physiological properties (i.e., leaf nitrogen concentration, maximum potential electron transport rate, and hence photosynthetic capacity) vary throughout the plant canopy in response to the radiation weight time-mean profile of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), and the soil water limitation is applied to both maximum rates of leaf carbon uptake by Rubisco and electron transport, and the model scales up from leaf to canopy separately for all sunlit and shaded leaves; 3) a well-built quasi-Newton Raphson method for simultaneous solution of temperatures of the sunlit and shaded leaves.The model was incorporated into the Common Land Model (CLM) and is denoted CLM 2L. It was driven with observational atmospheric forcing from two forest sites [Anglo-Brazilian Amazonian Climate Observation Study (ABRACOS) and Boreal Ecosystem Atmosphere Study (BOREAS)] for 2 yr of simulation. The

  15. Solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence tracks the trend of canopy stomatal conductance and transpiration at diurnal and seasonal scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Shan, N.; Ju, W.; Chen, J.

    2017-12-01

    Transpiration is the process of plant water loss through the stomata on the leaf surface and plays a key role in the energy and water balance of the land surface. Plant stomata function as a control interface for regulating photosynthetic uptake of CO2 and transpiration, strongly linked to plant productivity. Stomatal conductance is fundamental to larger-scale regional prediction of carbon-water cycles and their feedbacks to climate. The widely used Ball-Berry model coupled photosynthesis to a semi-empirical model of stomatal conductance. However large uncertainties remain in simulation of carbon assimilation rate in ecosystem and regional scales. The strong correlations of solar-induced fluorescence (SIF) and GPP have been demonstrated and provides an important opportunity to accurately monitor photosynthetic activity and water exchange. In this presentation, we compared both canopy-observed SIF and satellite-derived SIF with tower-based canopy stomatal conductance from hourly to 8-day scales in forest and cropland ecosystem. Using the model of stomatal conductance based on SIF, the transpiration was estimated at hourly and daily scales and compared with flux tower measurements. The results showed that the seasonal pattern of canopy stomatal conductance agreed better with SIF compared to NDVI and their relationship was higher during sunny days for forest ecosystem. Canopy stomatal conductance correlated with both tower-observed SIF and SIF from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2. Estimation of transpiration from SIF performed well in both forest and cropland ecosystem. This remotely sensed approaches from SIF for modelling stomatal conductance opens a new era to analysis and simulation of coupled carbon and water cycles under climate change.

  16. Overexpression of plasma membrane H+-ATPase in guard cells promotes light-induced stomatal opening and enhances plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yin; Noguchi, Ko; Ono, Natsuko; Inoue, Shin-ichiro; Terashima, Ichiro; Kinoshita, Toshinori

    2014-01-07

    Stomatal pores surrounded by a pair of guard cells in the plant epidermis control gas exchange between plants and the atmosphere in response to light, CO2, and the plant hormone abscisic acid. Light-induced stomatal opening is mediated by at least three key components: the blue light receptor phototropin (phot1 and phot2), plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase, and plasma membrane inward-rectifying K(+) channels. Very few attempts have been made to enhance stomatal opening with the goal of increasing photosynthesis and plant growth, even though stomatal resistance is thought to be the major limiting factor for CO2 uptake by plants. Here, we show that transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing H(+)-ATPase using the strong guard cell promoter GC1 showed enhanced light-induced stomatal opening, photosynthesis, and plant growth. The transgenic plants produced larger and increased numbers of rosette leaves, with ∼42-63% greater fresh and dry weights than the wild type in the first 25 d of growth. The dry weights of total flowering stems of 45-d-old transgenic plants, including seeds, siliques, and flowers, were ∼36-41% greater than those of the wild type. In addition, stomata in the transgenic plants closed normally in response to darkness and abscisic acid. In contrast, the overexpression of phototropin or inward-rectifying K(+) channels in guard cells had no effect on these phenotypes. These results demonstrate that stomatal aperture is a limiting factor in photosynthesis and plant growth, and that manipulation of stomatal opening by overexpressing H(+)-ATPase in guard cells is useful for the promotion of plant growth.

  17. A fast method to detect the occurrence of nonhomogeneous distribution of stomatal aperture in heterobaric plant leaves : Experiments with Arbutus unedo L. during the diurnal course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyschlag, W; Pfanz, H

    1990-01-01

    Pressure infiltration of water into a leaf via the stomatal pores can be used to quickly determine whether all stomata are open, or as recently described for several mesophytic and xerophytic species, whether there is a non-homogeneous distribution of stomatal opening (stomatal patchiness) on the leaf surface. Information about this phenomenon is important since the commonly used algorithms for calculation of leaf conductance from water vapor exchange measurements imply homogeneously open stomata, which in the occurrence of stomatal patchiness will lead to erroneous results. Infiltration experiments in a growth chamber with leaves of the Mediterranean evergreen shrub Arbutus unedo, carried out under simulated Mediterranean summer day conditions, where the species typically exhibits a strong midday stomatal closure, revealed a temporary occurrence of stomatal patchiness during the phase of stomatal closure in the late morning and during the stomatal reopening in the afternoon. Leaves were, however, found to be fully (i.e. homogeneously) infiltratable in the morning and in the evening. At midday during maximum stomatal closure, leaves were almost non-infiltratable. During the day, the infiltrated amount of water was found to be linearly correlated with porometer measurements of leaf conductance of the same leaves, carried out with the attached leaves immediately before infiltration.

  18. Plester sariawan efektif dalam mempercepat penyembuhan stomatitis aftosa rekuren dan ulkus traumatikus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmi Amtha

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Mouth ulcer plaster is effective in accelerating the healing of recurrent aphthous stomatitis and traumatic ulcers. Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS is one of the most commonly occurring oral diseases. The prevalence of oral ulceration worldwide is 4%, with RAS having the largest proportion (25%. Recurrent aphthous stomatitis is oral ulceration which has a self-limiting disease, but the specific medication to reduce pain caused by lesion is still less varied nowadays. This study aimed to examine the differences in the effectiveness between topical application of hyaluronic acid (HA, mouth ulcer plaster (MUP and 0.1% triamcinolone acetonide (TA as a positive control in the healing of RAS and traumatic ulcers (TU. This was a quasi-experimental study by measuring the lesion diameter as well as visual analogue scale (VAS pre- and post-administration of three types of medication. Kruskal-walis test results show that there are differences in effectiveness (p=0.000 of the three types of medication to cure RAS and TU. There are signicant differences in the reduction of RAS and TU lesion diameter (p = 0.015 and VAS (p = 0.038 with the use of HA and MUP on the 4th day. There is no signicant difference in effectiveness (diameter and VAS of MUP and TA medication on the fourth day (p = 0.880 and p = 1.000 respectively. There is no signicant difference among HA, MUP and TA on the healing of the lesions on the seventh day (p>0.05. It can be concluded that the effectiveness of MUP is similar to that of topical medications containing corticosteroids in the healing of RAS and traumatic ulcers. ABSTRAK Stomatitis aftosa rekuren (SAR merupakan salah satu penyakit mulut yang paling umum terjadi. Prevalensi ulserasi mulut di seluruh dunia adalah 4%, dengan SAR menempati urutan terbesar yaitu 25%. Stomatitis aftosa rekuren merupakan ulserasi mulut yang memiliki self-limiting disease, namun sediaan obat yang spesifik untuk mengurangi rasa sakit yang

  19. A genetic screen reveals Arabidopsis stomatal and/or apoplastic defenses against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiqing Zeng

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial infection of plants often begins with colonization of the plant surface, followed by entry into the plant through wounds and natural openings (such as stomata, multiplication in the intercellular space (apoplast of the infected tissues, and dissemination of bacteria to other plants. Historically, most studies assess bacterial infection based on final outcomes of disease and/or pathogen growth using whole infected tissues; few studies have genetically distinguished the contribution of different host cell types in response to an infection. The phytotoxin coronatine (COR is produced by several pathovars of Pseudomonas syringae. COR-deficient mutants of P. s. tomato (Pst DC3000 are severely compromised in virulence, especially when inoculated onto the plant surface. We report here a genetic screen to identify Arabidopsis mutants that could rescue the virulence of COR-deficient mutant bacteria. Among the susceptible to coronatine-deficient Pst DC3000 (scord mutants were two that were defective in stomatal closure response, two that were defective in apoplast defense, and four that were defective in both stomatal and apoplast defense. Isolation of these three classes of mutants suggests that stomatal and apoplastic defenses are integrated in plants, but are genetically separable, and that COR is important for Pst DC3000 to overcome both stomatal guard cell- and apoplastic mesophyll cell-based defenses. Of the six mutants defective in bacterium-triggered stomatal closure, three are defective in salicylic acid (SA-induced stomatal closure, but exhibit normal stomatal closure in response to abscisic acid (ABA, and scord7 is compromised in both SA- and ABA-induced stomatal closure. We have cloned SCORD3, which is required for salicylic acid (SA biosynthesis, and SCORD5, which encodes an ATP-binding cassette (ABC protein, AtGCN20/AtABCF3, predicted to be involved in stress-associated protein translation control. Identification of SCORD5 begins to

  20. Leaf temperature and stomatal influences on sap velocity diurnal hysteresis in the Amazon rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, K.; Gimenez, B.; Negron Juarez, R. I.; Koven, C.; Powell, T.; Higuchi, N.; Chambers, J.; Varadharajan, C.

    2016-12-01

    In order to improve our ability to predict terrestrial evapotranspiration fluxes, an understanding of the interactions between plant physiology and environmental conditions is necessary, but remains poorly characterized, especially in tropical ecosystems. In this study we show a tight positive correlation between sap velocity (at 1 m of height) and leaf surface temperature (LST, 20-30 m of height) in canopy dominant trees in two primary rainforest sites in the Amazon basin (Santarém and Manaus, Brazil). As leaf temperatures varied throughout the day, sap velocity responded with little delay (<15 min). Positive sap velocity was often observed at night, but also closely followed night time LSTs. When plotted versus LST, sap velocity showed an exponential increase before reaching a reflection point and a plateau and is characterized as a sigmoidal curve, in all observed trees. Moreover, a clear diurnal hysteresis in sap velocity was evident with morning periods showing higher temperature sensitivities than afternoon and night periods. Diurnal leaf observations showed a morning peak in stomatal conductance ( 10:00-10:30), but a mid-day to afternoon peak in transpiration and leaf temperature (12:00-14:00). Our observations suggest the sap velocity-LST hysteresis pattern arises due to the temporal offset between stomatal conductance and vapor pressure deficits (VPD) and demonstrates the dominating effect of VPD over stomatal conductance in maintaining high transpiration/sap flow rates under elevated temperatures. Our results have important implications for modeling tropical forest transpiration and suggests the possibility of predicting evapotranspiration fluxes at the ecosystem to regional scales based on remote sensed vegetation temperature.

  1. Stomatal- and growth responses in willow to deficits in water- and nitrogen supply. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadenberg, I. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dep. for Production Ecology

    2002-02-01

    The two plants, grown with an [N] of 100 mg per litre and subjected to a decrease in N-supply decreased their leaf relative growth rate from 22% per day to 13% per day within 2 days. Stomatal conductance did not change significantly after the decrease in N-supply. Xylem samples did not show any significant changes in its composition of mineral nutrient elements after decreased N-supply. The three plants, grown with an [N] of 50 mg per litre and subjected to a decrease in N-supply, significantly decreased leaf relative growth rate from 18.5 % to 9 % per day within 2 days. Stomatal conductance did not change significantly after the decrease in N-supply. Xylem sap samples showed a significant decrease in [K] (74 mg/l to 42 mg/l) and [S] (11 mg/l to 3.2 mg/l) within 2 days after decreased N-supply. The four plants subjected to root drying decreased their leaf relative growth rate slightly but not significantly during the drying period. Xylem samples showed a significant decrease in S-concentration (11 mg/l to 1.3 mg/l) and [NO{sub 3}] (8.0 mg/l to 1.0 mg/l), while [Fe] increased significantly (0.065 mg/l to 0.14 mg/l). Stomatal conductance is known to decrease when plants are subjected to drying of part of the root system. This was shown for Salix dasyclados in a recent publication.

  2. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy for infectious stomatitis in snakes: Clinical views and microbiological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grego, Kathleen Fernandes; Carvalho, Marcelo Pires Nogueira de; Cunha, Marcos Paulo Vieira; Knöbl, Terezinha; Pogliani, Fabio Celidonio; Catão-Dias, José Luiz; Sant'Anna, Sávio Stefanini; Ribeiro, Martha Simões; Sellera, Fábio Parra

    2017-12-01

    Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (APDT) has been broadly investigated as an alternative to treat localized infections, without leading to the selection of resistant microorganisms. Infectious stomatitis is a multifactorial disease frequently reported in captive snakes characterized by infection of the oral mucosa and surrounding tissues. In this study, we investigated methylene blue (MB)-mediated APDT to treat infectious stomatitis in snakes and verified the resistance phenotype and genotype before and after APDT. Three Boid snakes presented petechiae, edema and caseous material in their oral cavities. MB (0.01%) was applied on the lesions and after 5min they were irradiated using a red laser (λ=660nm), fluence of 280J/cm 2 , 8J and 80s per point, 100mW, spot size 0.028cm 2 and fluence rate of 3.5W/cm 2 . APDT was repeated once a week during 3 months. Samples of the lesions were collected to identify bacteria and antibiotic resistance profiles. To analyze the clonality of bacterial isolates before and after APDT, isolates were subjected to ERIC PCR analysis. Snakes presented clinical improvement such as reduction of inflammatory signs and caseous material. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli were present in all snakes; Klebsiella pneumoniae and Morganella morganii were also identified in some animals. We also observed that the oral microbiota was completely replaced following APDT. However, K. pneumoniae isolates before and after APDT were a single clone with 100% of genetic similarity that lost resistance phenotype for seven antibiotics of four classes. These results show that APDT can be used to treat infectious stomatitis in snakes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Estimating Latest Cretaceous and Tertiary Atmospheric PCO2 from Stomatal Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, D. L.; Wing, S. L.; Beerling, D. J.

    2001-05-01

    Most modern C3 seed plants show an inverse relationship between PCO2 and stomatal index (SI), where SI is the proportion of epidermal cells that are stomatal packages. This plant-atmosphere response therefore provides a reliable approach for estimating paleo-CO2 levels. Since stomatal responses to CO2 are generally species-specific, one is limited in paleo-reconstructions to species that exist both in the fossil record and living today. Fossils morphologically similar to living Ginkgo biloba and Metasequoia glyptostroboides extend back to the early and late Cretaceous, respectively, indicating that the fossil and living forms are very closely related. Measurements of SI made on fossil Ginkgo and Metasequoia were calibrated with historical collections of G. biloba and M. glyptostroboides leaves from sites that developed during the anthropogenically-driven CO2 increases of the past 145 years (288-369 ppmv) and with saplings of G. biloba and M. glyptostroboides grown in CO2 controlled growth chambers (350-800 ppmv). Both nonlinear regressions are highly significant (Ginkgo: n = 40, r2 = 0.91; Metasequoia: n = 18; r2 = 0.85). Results from a sequence of 23 latest Cretaceous to early Eocene-aged Ginkgo-bearing sites indicate that CO2 remained between 300 and 450 ppmv with the exception of one high estimate ( ~800 ppmv) near the Paleocene/Eocene boundary, and results from 4 middle Miocene-aged Ginkgo- and Metasequoia-bearing sites indicate that CO2 was between 320 and 400 ppmv. If correct, the CO2 values estimated here are too low to explain via the CO2 greenhouse effect alone the higher global mean temperatures (e.g., 3-4 ° C for the early Eocene) inferred from models and geological data for these two intervals.

  4. Contribution of competition for light to within-species variability in stomatal conductance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loranty, Michael M.; Mackay, D. Scott; Ewers, Brent E.; Traver, Elizabeth; Kruger, Eric L.

    2010-05-01

    Sap flux (JS) measurements were collected across two stands dominated by either trembling aspen or sugar maple in northern Wisconsin. Observed canopy transpiration (EC-obs) values derived from JS were used to parameterize the Terrestrial Regional Ecosystem Exchange Simulator ecosystem model. Modeled values of stomatal conductance (GS) were used to determine reference stomatal conductance (GSref), a proxy for GS that removes the effects of temporal responses to vapor pressure deficit (D) on spatial patterns of GS. Values of GSref were compared to observations of soil moisture, several physiological variables, and a competition index (CI) derived from a stand inventory, to determine the underlying cause of observed variability. Considerable variability in GSref between individual trees was found, with values ranging from 20 to 200 mmol m-2 s-1 and 20 to 100 mmol m-2 s-1 at the aspen and maple stands, respectively. Model-derived values of GSref and a sensitivity to D parameter (m) showed good agreement with a known empirical relationship for both stands. At both sites, GSref did not vary with topographic position, as indicated by surface soil moisture. No relationships were observed between GSref and tree height (HT), and a weak correlation with sapwood area (AS) was only significant for aspen. Significant nonlinear inverse relationships between GSref and CI were observed at both stands. Simulations with uniform reductions in incident photosynthetically active radiation (Q0) resulted in better agreement between observed and simulated EC. Our results suggest a link between photosynthesis and plant hydraulics whereby individual trees subject to photosynthetic limitation as a result of competitive shading exhibit a dynamic stomatal response resulting in a more conservative strategy for managing hydrologic resources.

  5. Growth performance and stomatal behavior in relation to ecotypic adaptations in cynodon dactylon (L.) pers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tufail, A.; Ahmad, F.; Hameed, M.; Ahmad, R.

    2017-01-01

    Evolution has great ecological significance in terms of plant morphological and stomatal characteristics that must have been genetically fixed during the long evolutionary period. Impact of environmental conditions on growth and stomatal features of twelve ecotypes of Cynodon dactylon that were collected from ecologically different habitats in the Punjab, Pakistan were evaluated. The collected ecotypes Derawar Fort-saline desert (DF-SD), Muzaffar garh-River bank (M-RB), Khabbeki Lake-hyper saline (KL-HS), Ucchali Lake-hyper saline (UL-HS), Kalar Kahar Lake-saline (KKL-S), Treemu-saline wetland (T-SW), Sahianwala-saline wetland (S-SW), Sahianwala-hyper saline (S-HS), Pakka Anna-hyper saline (PA-HS), Pakka Anna-reclaimed field (PA-RF), Botanic Garden-non saline (BG-NS) and Gatwala-saline semiarid (G-SSA) were grown in controlled environments at University of Agriculture, Faisalabad till their acclimatization to evaluate genetically fixed characteristics. After 6-month growth in soil, the plants were transferred to half-strength Hoagland's nutrient medium. There was a huge variation in all morphological characteristics recorded during the investigation, which were due to environmental heterogeniety to which these ecotypes were originally adapted. An exclusive feature of the DF-SD ecotypes is the long and numerous roots, and tillering capacity that surpassed all other ecotypes. Leaves per plant were also exceptionally high that may improve the photosymthetic efficiency of the plant. It showed a good potential of overall growth and biomass production. The robust growth was also recorded in the KKL-S ecotypes, and this can be related to the complete dominance of these two ecotypes in their respective habitats. Small stomata were recorded in the three ecotypes (DF-SD, KL-HS and PA-HS), which are of great ecological significance. Stomatal shape, however, is different in different ecotypes, but its contribution towards stress tolerance is still to be investigated. (author)

  6. Relationship between ammonia stomatal compensation point and nitrogen metabolism in arable crops: Current status of knowledge and potential modelling approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massad, Raia Silvia [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), Environnement et Grandes Cultures, 78850 Thiverval-Grignon (France)], E-mail: massad@grignon.inra.fr; Loubet, Benjamin; Tuzet, Andree; Cellier, Pierre [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), Environnement et Grandes Cultures, 78850 Thiverval-Grignon (France)

    2008-08-15

    The ammonia stomatal compensation point of plants is determined by leaf temperature, ammonium concentration ([NH{sub 4}{sup +}]{sub apo}) and pH of the apoplastic solution. The later two depend on the adjacent cells metabolism and on leaf inputs and outputs through the xylem and phloem. Until now only empirical models have been designed to model the ammonia stomatal compensation point, except the model of Riedo et al. (2002. Coupling soil-plant-atmosphere exchange of ammonia with ecosystem functioning in grasslands. Ecological Modelling 158, 83-110), which represents the exchanges between the plant's nitrogen pools. The first step to model the ammonia stomatal compensation point is to adequately model [NH{sub 4}{sup +}]{sub apo}. This [NH{sub 4}{sup +}]{sub apo} has been studied experimentally, but there are currently no process-based quantitative models describing its relation to plant metabolism and environmental conditions. This study summarizes the processes involved in determining the ammonia stomatal compensation point at the leaf scale and qualitatively evaluates the ability of existing whole plant N and C models to include a model for [NH{sub 4}{sup +}]{sub apo}. - A model for ammonia stomatal compensation point at the leaf level scale was developed.

  7. Relationship between ammonia stomatal compensation point and nitrogen metabolism in arable crops: Current status of knowledge and potential modelling approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massad, Raia Silvia; Loubet, Benjamin; Tuzet, Andree; Cellier, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    The ammonia stomatal compensation point of plants is determined by leaf temperature, ammonium concentration ([NH 4 + ] apo ) and pH of the apoplastic solution. The later two depend on the adjacent cells metabolism and on leaf inputs and outputs through the xylem and phloem. Until now only empirical models have been designed to model the ammonia stomatal compensation point, except the model of Riedo et al. (2002. Coupling soil-plant-atmosphere exchange of ammonia with ecosystem functioning in grasslands. Ecological Modelling 158, 83-110), which represents the exchanges between the plant's nitrogen pools. The first step to model the ammonia stomatal compensation point is to adequately model [NH 4 + ] apo . This [NH 4 + ] apo has been studied experimentally, but there are currently no process-based quantitative models describing its relation to plant metabolism and environmental conditions. This study summarizes the processes involved in determining the ammonia stomatal compensation point at the leaf scale and qualitatively evaluates the ability of existing whole plant N and C models to include a model for [NH 4 + ] apo . - A model for ammonia stomatal compensation point at the leaf level scale was developed

  8. Stomatal development in barley as a bioassay for cell differentation: its use with X-rays and gibberellic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeiger, E; Rafalowsky, J [Chile Univ., Santiago. Departamento de Biologia y Genetica

    1976-01-01

    A bioassay for cell differentiation during stomatal development in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) has been defined. It uses cell kinetics analysis to follow the temporal course of cell divisions in the developmental sequence. The rate of displacement of the divisions along the stomatal rows provides a measure of differentiation. Physical factors affecting differentiation may be tested with intact seedlings. The bioassay showed that X-ray irradiation inhibited the divisions leading to stomatal formation. The inhibition kinetics was similar to the one observed in root meristems. Chemical substances are tested by culturing excised shoots in a synthetic medium. Detached leaves responded to sucrose and light with increasing rates of stomatal divisions. Gibberellic acid (GA/sub 3/) was assayed for its effects on the growth of the leaf and the differentiation of stomata. GA/sub 3/ increased the overall length of the leaves without affecting the rates of cell division. The treated cells responded with increased elongation rates and a precocious initiation and completion of cell enlargement. GA/sub 3/ had no specific effect on stomatal differentiation.

  9. Stomatal kinetics and photosynthetic gas exchange along a continuum of isohydric to anisohydric regulation of plant water status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinzer, Frederick C; Smith, Duncan D; Woodruff, David R; Marias, Danielle E; McCulloh, Katherine A; Howard, Ava R; Magedman, Alicia L

    2017-08-01

    Species' differences in the stringency of stomatal control of plant water potential represent a continuum of isohydric to anisohydric behaviours. However, little is known about how quasi-steady-state stomatal regulation of water potential may relate to dynamic behaviour of stomata and photosynthetic gas exchange in species operating at different positions along this continuum. Here, we evaluated kinetics of light-induced stomatal opening, activation of photosynthesis and features of quasi-steady-state photosynthetic gas exchange in 10 woody species selected to represent different degrees of anisohydry. Based on a previously developed proxy for the degree of anisohydry, species' leaf water potentials at turgor loss, we found consistent trends in photosynthetic gas exchange traits across a spectrum of isohydry to anisohydry. More anisohydric species had faster kinetics of stomatal opening and activation of photosynthesis, and these kinetics were closely coordinated within species. Quasi-steady-state stomatal conductance and measures of photosynthetic capacity and performance were also greater in more anisohydric species. Intrinsic water-use efficiency estimated from leaf gas exchange and stable carbon isotope ratios was lowest in the most anisohydric species. In comparisons between gas exchange traits, species rankings were highly consistent, leading to species-independent scaling relationships over the range of isohydry to anisohydry observed. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Compound stress response in stomatal closure: a mathematical model of ABA and ethylene interaction in guard cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beguerisse-Dıaz Mariano

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stomata are tiny pores in plant leaves that regulate gas and water exchange between the plant and its environment. Abscisic acid and ethylene are two well-known elicitors of stomatal closure when acting independently. However, when stomata are presented with a combination of both signals, they fail to close. Results Toshed light on this unexplained behaviour, we have collected time course measurements of stomatal aperture and hydrogen peroxide production in Arabidopsis thaliana guard cells treated with abscisic acid, ethylene, and a combination of both. Our experiments show that stomatal closure is linked to sustained high levels of hydrogen peroxide in guard cells. When treated with a combined dose of abscisic acid and ethylene, guard cells exhibit increased antioxidant activity that reduces hydrogen peroxide levels and precludes closure. We construct a simplified model of stomatal closure derived from known biochemical pathways that captures the experimentally observed behaviour. Conclusions Our experiments and modelling results suggest a distinct role for two antioxidant mechanisms during stomatal closure: a slower, delayed response activated by a single stimulus (abscisic acid ‘or’ ethylene and another more rapid ‘and’ mechanism that is only activated when both stimuli are present. Our model indicates that the presence of this rapid ‘and’ mechanism in the antioxidant response is key to explain the lack of closure under a combined stimulus.

  11. Stomatal responses to CO2 during a diel Crassulacean acid metabolism cycle in Kalanchoe daigremontiana and Kalanchoe pinnata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Caemmerer, Susanne; Griffiths, Howard

    2009-05-01

    To investigate the diurnal variation of stomatal sensitivity to CO2, stomatal response to a 30 min pulse of low CO2 was measured four times during a 24 h time-course in two Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) species Kalanchoe daigremontiana and Kalanchoe pinnata, which vary in the degree of succulence, and hence, expression and commitment to CAM. In both species, stomata opened in response to a reduction in pCO2 in the dark and in the latter half of the light period, and thus in CAM species, chloroplast photosynthesis is not required for the stomatal response to low pCO2. Stomata did not respond to a decreased pCO2 in K. daigremontiana in the light when stomata were closed, even when the supply of internal CO2 was experimentally reduced. We conclude that stomatal closure during phase III is not solely mediated by high internal pCO2, and suggest that in CAM species the diurnal variability in the responsiveness of stomata to pCO2 could be explained by hypothesizing the existence of a single CO2 sensor which interacts with other signalling pathways. When not perturbed by low pCO2, CO2 assimilation rate and stomatal conductance were correlated both in the light and in the dark in both species.

  12. Impaired Malate and Fumarate Accumulation Due to the Mutation of the Tonoplast Dicarboxylate Transporter Has Little Effects on Stomatal Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, David B; Barros, Kallyne A; Barros, Jessica Aline S; Omena-Garcia, Rebeca P; Arrivault, Stéphanie; Sanglard, Lílian M V P; Detmann, Kelly C; Silva, Willian Batista; Daloso, Danilo M; DaMatta, Fábio M; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Fernie, Alisdair R; Araújo, Wagner L

    2017-11-01

    Malate is a central metabolite involved in a multiplicity of plant metabolic pathways, being associated with mitochondrial metabolism and playing significant roles in stomatal movements. Vacuolar malate transport has been characterized at the molecular level and is performed by at least one carrier protein and two channels in Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) vacuoles. The absence of the Arabidopsis tonoplast Dicarboxylate Transporter (tDT) in the tdt knockout mutant was associated previously with an impaired accumulation of malate and fumarate in leaves. Here, we investigated the consequences of this lower accumulation on stomatal behavior and photosynthetic capacity as well as its putative metabolic impacts. Neither the stomatal conductance nor the kinetic responses to dark, light, or high CO 2 were highly affected in tdt plants. In addition, we did not observe any impact on stomatal aperture following incubation with abscisic acid, malate, or citrate. Furthermore, an effect on photosynthetic capacity was not observed in the mutant lines. However, leaf mitochondrial metabolism was affected in the tdt plants. Levels of the intermediates of the tricarboxylic acid cycle were altered, and increases in both light and dark respiration were observed. We conclude that manipulation of the tonoplastic organic acid transporter impacted mitochondrial metabolism, while the overall stomatal and photosynthetic capacity were unaffected. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Enhanced Gene Transfer with Fusogenic Liposomes Containing Vesicular Stomatitis Virus G Glycoprotein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Akihiro; Miyanohara, Atsushi; Friedmann, Theodore

    1998-01-01

    Exposure of Lipofectin-DNA complexes to the partially purified G glycoprotein of the vesicular stomatitis virus envelope (VSV-G) results in loss of serum-mediated inhibition and in enhanced efficiency of gene transfer. Sucrose density gradient sedimentation analysis indicated that the VSV-G associates physically with the DNA-lipid complex to produce a VSV-G liposome. The ability to incorporate surrogate viral or cellular envelope components such as VSV-G into liposomes may allow more-efficient and possibly targeted gene delivery by lipofection, both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:9621082

  14. Analysis of the RNA species isolated from defective particles of vesicular stomatitis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, R; Banerjee, A K

    1976-10-01

    Serial high multiplicity passage of a cloned stock of vesicular stomatitis virus was found to generate defective interfering particles containing three size classes of RNA, with sedimentaiton coefficients of 31 S, 23 S and 19 S. The 31 S and 23 S RNA species were found to be complementary to both the 12 to 18 S and 31 S size classes of VSV mRNAs. The 19 S class of RNA was found to be partially base-paired. All three RNA species were found to contain ppAp at their 5' termini.

  15. Oral hygiene habits, denture plaque, presence of yeasts and stomatitis in institutionalised elderly in Lothian, Scotland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, L; Wight, C; Cumming, C

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relation between oral hygiene habits, denture plaque, presence of yeasts and stomatitis in institutionalised elderly. A sample of 201 residents, 48-99 yr of age (mean age 82 yr), was selected from four different institutions in Lothian, Scotland....... Clinical recordings were carried out under standardised circumstances using well recognised indices. Information about oral hygiene habits was obtained through structured interviews conducted immediately before the clinical examination. A multivariate analysis, principal component, was carried out...

  16. Plasticity in stomatal size and density of potato leaves under different irrigation and phosphorus regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yanqi; Yan, Fei; Cui, Xiaoyong; Liu, Fulai

    2014-09-01

    The morphological features of stomata including their size and density could be modulated by environmental cues; however, the underlying mechanisms remain largely elusive. Here, the effect of different irrigation and phosphorus (P) regimes on stomatal size (SS) and stomatal density (SD) of potato leaves was investigated. The plants were grown in split-root pots under two P fertilization rates (viz., 0 and 100mgkg(-1) soil, denoted as P0 and P1, respectively) and subjected to full (FI), deficit (DI), and partial root-zone drying (PRD) irrigation regimes. Results showed that SS and SD were unresponsive to P but significantly affected by the irrigation treatment. FI plants had the largest SS, followed by DI, and PRD the smallest; and the reverse was the case for SD. Compared to FI and DI, PRD plants had significantly lower values of specific leaf area (SLA) and leaf carbon isotope discrimination (Δ(13)C) under P0. Midday leaf water potential (Ψleaf) and stomatal conductance (gs) was similar for DI and PRD, which was significantly lower than that of FI. Leaf contents of C, N, K, Ca and Mg were higher in PRD than in DI plants, particularly under P0. When analyzed across the three irrigation regimes, it was found that the P1 plants had significantly higher leaf contents of P and Mg, but significantly lower leaf K content compared to the P0 plants. Linear correlation analyses revealed that SS was positively correlated with Ψleaf and Δ(13)C; whereas SD was negatively correlated with Ψleaf, Δ(13)C and SLA, and positively correlated with leaf C, N and Ca contents. And gs was positively correlated with SS but negatively correlated with SD. Collectively, under low P level, the smaller and denser stomata in PRD plants may bring about a more efficient stomatal control over gas exchange, hereby potentially enhance water-use efficiency as exemplified by the lowered leaf Δ(13)C under fluctuating soil moisture conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Conditional expression of the vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein gene in Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Rose, J K; Shafferman, A

    1981-01-01

    Bacterial plasmids that directed expression of the vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (G-protein) gene under control of the tryptophan operon regulatory region were constructed. A plasmid directing the synthesis of a G-protein-like protein (containing the NH2-terminal segment of seven amino acids encoded by the trpE gene fused to the complete G-protein sequence lacking only its NH2-terminal methionine) could be transformed into trpR+ (repressed) but not into trpR- (derepressed) cells. Th...

  18. Use of sap flow measurements to validate stomatal functions for mature beech (Fagus sylvatica) in view of ozone uptake calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, Sabine; Schindler, Christian; Leuzinger, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    For a quantitative estimate of the ozone effect on vegetation reliable models for ozone uptake through the stomata are needed. Because of the analogy of ozone uptake and transpiration it is possible to utilize measurements of water loss such as sap flow for quantification of ozone uptake. This technique was applied in three beech (Fagus sylvatica) stands in Switzerland. A canopy conductance was calculated from sap flow velocity and normalized to values between 0 and 1. It represents mainly stomatal conductance as the boundary layer resistance in forests is usually small. Based on this relative conductance, stomatal functions to describe the dependence on light, temperature, vapour pressure deficit and soil moisture were derived using multivariate nonlinear regression. These functions were validated by comparison with conductance values directly estimated from sap flow. The results corroborate the current flux parameterization for beech used in the DO 3 SE model. - A method was developed to derive stomatal functions and ozone uptake calculation from sap flow.

  19. The Arabidopsis homolog of human G3BP1 is a key regulator of stomatal and apoplastic immunity

    KAUST Repository

    Abulfaraj, Aala A.; Mariappan, Kiruthiga; Bigeard, Jean; Manickam, Prabhu; Blilou, Ikram; Guo, Xiujie; Al-Babili, Salim; Pflieger, Delphine; Hirt, Heribert; Rayapuram, Naganand

    2018-01-01

    Mammalian Ras-GTPase–activating protein SH3-domain–binding proteins (G3BPs) are a highly conserved family of RNA-binding proteins that link kinase receptor-mediated signaling to RNA metabolism. Mammalian G3BP1 is a multifunctional protein that functions in viral immunity. Here, we show that the Arabidopsis thaliana homolog of human G3BP1 negatively regulates plant immunity. Arabidopsis g3bp1 mutants showed enhanced resistance to the virulent bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. Pathogen resistance was mediated in Atg3bp1 mutants by altered stomatal and apoplastic immunity. Atg3bp1 mutants restricted pathogen entry into stomates showing insensitivity to bacterial coronatine–mediated stomatal reopening. AtG3BP1 was identified as a negative regulator of defense responses, which correlated with moderate up-regulation of salicylic acid biosynthesis and signaling without growth penalty.

  20. The Arabidopsis homolog of human G3BP1 is a key regulator of stomatal and apoplastic immunity

    KAUST Repository

    Abulfaraj, Aala Abdulaziz Hussien

    2018-05-31

    Mammalian Ras-GTPase–activating protein SH3-domain–binding proteins (G3BPs) are a highly conserved family of RNA-binding proteins that link kinase receptor-mediated signaling to RNA metabolism. Mammalian G3BP1 is a multifunctional protein that functions in viral immunity. Here, we show that the Arabidopsis thaliana homolog of human G3BP1 negatively regulates plant immunity. Arabidopsis g3bp1 mutants showed enhanced resistance to the virulent bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. Pathogen resistance was mediated in Atg3bp1 mutants by altered stomatal and apoplastic immunity. Atg3bp1 mutants restricted pathogen entry into stomates showing insensitivity to bacterial coronatine–mediated stomatal reopening. AtG3BP1 was identified as a negative regulator of defense responses, which correlated with moderate up-regulation of salicylic acid biosynthesis and signaling without growth penalty.

  1. ROS signaling and stomatal movement in plant responses to drought stress and pathogen attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Junsheng; Song, Chun-Peng; Wang, Baoshan; Zhou, Jianmin; Kangasjärvi, Jaakko; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Gong, Zhizhong

    2018-04-16

    Stomata, the pores formed by a pair of guard cells, are the main gateways for water transpiration and photosynthetic CO 2 exchange, as well as pathogen invasion in land plants. Guard cell movement is regulated by a combination of environmental factors including water status, light, CO 2 levels and pathogen attack, as well as endogenous signals such as abscisic acid and apoplastic reactive oxygen species (ROS). Under abiotic and biotic stress conditions, extracellular ROS are mainly produced by plasma membrane-localized NADPH oxidases, whereas intracellular ROS are produced in multiple organelles. These ROS form a sophisticated cellular signaling network, with the accumulation of apoplastic ROS an early hallmark of stomatal movement. Here, we review recent progress in understanding the molecular mechanisms of the ROS signaling network, primarily during drought stress and pathogen attack. We summarize the roles of apoplastic ROS in regulating stomatal movement, ABA and CO 2 signaling, and immunity responses. Finally, we discuss ROS accumulation and communication between organelles and cells. This information provides a conceptual framework for understanding how ROS signaling is integrated with various signaling pathways during plant responses to abiotic and biotic stress stimuli. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS and exfoliative cheilitis in elderly psoriasis sufferer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Hardiyanti Nurhasanah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis (RAS is a disorder in the oral cavity, with a characterized symptom as ulceration, recurrent and very painfull. The etiology is idiopathic, with multifactorial predisposition. Exfoliative cheilitis is a persistent lesion on the lip, with a characterized cracking and desquamative, with crustae and inflammation. An elderly male (72 yrs suffered with ulcer on his oral cavity, cracking lips and pain on both of his cheeks, skin, since 5 years ago. The pain is recurrent. On the clinical examination, there were some desquamation, both on the skin and vermilion border, whether on the inner lips (labial fold mucosa, there were ulcers with diameter about 1 cm. The laboratory test was within normal limits, except the LED was 40 mm/hour (n:<15. The diagnosis was Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis (RAS for the ulcer and Exfoliative cheilitis for the cracking lips. The treatment he received was a gargle liquid, topical corticosteroid and supplement. The skin’s disorder was revered to the skin and genital disease department, for further management. As a dental general practioner, had to be very careful and familiar for every changes that may be occur both in the outer or inner oral cavity. Other disorder that need refferal, had to be done with team work, to the colleague from the right connection.

  3. Two transcription products of the vesicular stomatitis virus genome may control L-cell protein synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunigan, D.D.; Lucas-Lenard, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    When mouse L-cells are infected with vesicular stomatitis virus, there is a decrease in the rate of protein synthesis ranging from 20 to 85% of that in mock-infected cells. Vesicular stomatitis virus, irradiated with increasing doses of UV light, eventually loses this capacity to inhibit protein synthesis. The UV inactivation curve was biphasic, suggesting that transcription of two regions of the viral genome is necessary for the virus to become inactivated in this capacity. The first transcription produced corresponded to about 373 nucleotides, and the second corresponded to about 42 nucleotides. Inhibition of transcription of the larger product by irradiating the virus with low doses of UV light left a residual inhibition of protein synthesis consisting of approximately 60 to 65% of the total inhibition. This residual inhibition could be obviated by irradiating the virus with a UV dose of greater than 20,000 ergs/mm 2 and was thus considered to represent the effect of the smaller transcription product. In the R1 mutant of another author, the inhibition of transcription of the larger product sufficed to restore protein synthesis to the mock-infected level, suggesting that the smaller transcription product is nonfunctional with respect to protein synthesis inhibition. Extracts from cells infected with virus irradiated with low doses of UV light showed a protein synthesis capacity quite similar to that of their in vivo counterparts, indicating that these extracts closely reflect the in vivo effects of virus infection

  4. Black fly involvement in the epidemic transmission of vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus (Rhabdoviridae: Vesiculovirus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Daniel G; Howerth, Elizabeth W; Murphy, Molly D; Gray, Elmer W; Noblet, Raymond; Stallknecht, David E

    2004-01-01

    The transmission routes of Vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus (VSNJV), a causative agent of vesicular stomatitis, an Office International des Epizooties List-A disease, are not completely understood. Epidemiological and entomological studies conducted during the sporadic epidemics in the western United States have identified potential virus transmission routes involving insect vectors and animal-to-animal contact. In the present study we experimentally tested the previously proposed transmission routes which were primarily based on field observations. Results obtained provide strong evidence for the following: (1) hematophagous insects acquire VSNJV by unconventional routes while blood feeding on livestock, (2) clinical course of VSNJV infection in livestock following transmission by an infected insect is related to insect bite site, (3) infection of livestock via insect bite can result in multiple transmission possibilities, including animal-to-animal contact. Taken together, these data significantly add to our understanding of the transmission routes of a causative agent of one of the oldest known infectious diseases of livestock, for which the details have remained largely unknown despite decades of research.

  5. First case report of vesicular stomatitis in the State of Paraíba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inácio José Clementino

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The present report describes the first case of vesicular stomatitis in the State of Paraíba, Brazil. Records from the Official Veterinary Services of the State of Paraíba were analyzed while responding to a suspected case of vesicular disease at a property (property I in the municipality of Pombal in which the cattle showed clinical signs and lesions of vesicular disease. Surveillance in the surrounding area revealed similar lesions in cattle at two other properties (II and III. Based on these events, the suspicion was considered well founded, and samples were collected for evaluation at the National Agricultural Laboratory of the State of Pará. The property was interdicted, and those located within a 3 km radius (perifocal from the focus were inspected. At property I, 42.86% (6/14 of the cattle showed vesicular disease lesions characterized by intense sialorrhea, ruptured oral vesicles, epithelial detachment of the tongue and muzzle, and vesicular lesions in the udder and interdigital space. Similar lesions were detected in cattle at properties II and III, affecting 80.95% (34/42 and 11.54% (3/26 of the animals, respectively. Tissue samples collected from the three properties were positive for the vesicular stomatitis virus (Indiana 3 subtype. The properties were monitored for 21 days after the last infected animal was cured, and afterwards, the three properties were released.

  6. Simulation of stomatal conductance for Aleppo pine to estimate its ozone uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elvira, Susana [Ecotoxicology of Air Pollution, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 22 (ed. 70), 28040 Madrid (Spain); Alonso, Rocio [Ecotoxicology of Air Pollution, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 22 (ed. 70), 28040 Madrid (Spain); Gimeno, Benjamin S. [Ecotoxicology of Air Pollution, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 22 (ed. 70), 28040 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: benjamin.gimeno@ciemat.es

    2007-04-15

    The data from a previous experiment carried out in open-top chambers to assess the effects of ozone (O{sub 3}) exposure on growth and physiology of Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis Mill.) were re-assessed to test the performance of the EMEP O{sub 3} stomatal conductance model used to estimate tree O{sub 3} uptake at a European scale. Aleppo pine seedlings were exposed during three consecutive years to three different O{sub 3} treatments: charcoal filtered air, non-filtered air and non-filtered air supplemented with 40 nl l{sup -1}. The results of the model using the default parameterisation already published for Mediterranean conifers showed a poor performance when compared to measured data. Therefore, modifications of g {sub max}, f {sub min}, and new f {sub VPD}, f {sub temp} and f {sub phen} functions were developed according to the observed data. This re-parameterisation resulted in a significant improvement of the performance of the model when compared to its original version. - Current EMEP stomatal uptake module needs to be re-parameterised for Mediterranean tree species.

  7. Simulation of stomatal conductance for Aleppo pine to estimate its ozone uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elvira, Susana; Alonso, Rocio; Gimeno, Benjamin S.

    2007-01-01

    The data from a previous experiment carried out in open-top chambers to assess the effects of ozone (O 3 ) exposure on growth and physiology of Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis Mill.) were re-assessed to test the performance of the EMEP O 3 stomatal conductance model used to estimate tree O 3 uptake at a European scale. Aleppo pine seedlings were exposed during three consecutive years to three different O 3 treatments: charcoal filtered air, non-filtered air and non-filtered air supplemented with 40 nl l -1 . The results of the model using the default parameterisation already published for Mediterranean conifers showed a poor performance when compared to measured data. Therefore, modifications of g max , f min , and new f VPD , f temp and f phen functions were developed according to the observed data. This re-parameterisation resulted in a significant improvement of the performance of the model when compared to its original version. - Current EMEP stomatal uptake module needs to be re-parameterised for Mediterranean tree species

  8. Plasticity in stomatal size and density of potato leaves under different irrigation and phosphorus regimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Yanqi; Yan, Fei; Cui, Xiaoyong

    2014-01-01

    The morphological features of stomata including their size and density could be modulated by environmental cues; however, the underlying mechanisms remain largely elusive. Here, the effect of different irrigation and phosphorus (P) regimes on stomatal size (SS) and stomatal density (SD) of potato...... potentially enhance water-use efficiency as exemplified by the lowered leaf δ13C under fluctuating soil moisture conditions....... leaves was investigated. The plants were grown in split-root pots under two P fertilization rates (viz., 0 and 100mgkg-1 soil, denoted as P0 and P1, respectively) and subjected to full (FI), deficit (DI), and partial root-zone drying (PRD) irrigation regimes. Results showed that SS and SD were...... unresponsive to P but significantly affected by the irrigation treatment. FI plants had the largest SS, followed by DI, and PRD the smallest; and the reverse was the case for SD. Compared to FI and DI, PRD plants had significantly lower values of specific leaf area (SLA) and leaf carbon isotope discrimination...

  9. Species climate range influences hydraulic and stomatal traits in Eucalyptus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, Aimee E; Creek, Danielle; Peters, Jennifer M R; Ellsworth, David S; Choat, Brendan

    2017-07-01

    Plant hydraulic traits influence the capacity of species to grow and survive in water-limited environments, but their comparative study at a common site has been limited. The primary aim of this study was to determine whether selective pressures on species originating in drought-prone environments constrain hydraulic traits among related species grown under common conditions. Leaf tissue water relations, xylem anatomy, stomatal behaviour and vulnerability to drought-induced embolism were measured on six Eucalyptus species growing in a common garden to determine whether these traits were related to current species climate range and to understand linkages between the traits. Hydraulically weighted xylem vessel diameter, leaf turgor loss point, the water potential at stomatal closure and vulnerability to drought-induced embolism were significantly ( P Eucalyptus trees has important implications for the limits of species responses to changing environmental conditions and thus for species survival and distribution into the future, and yields new information for physiological models. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  10. Effect of different soil water potential on leaf transpiration and on stomatal conductance in poinsettia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek S. Nowak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Euphorbia pulcherrima Wild.'Lilo' was grown in containers in 60% peat, 30% perlite and 10% clay (v/v mixture, with different irrigation treatments based on soil water potential. Plants were watered at two levels of drought stress: -50kPa or wilting. The treatments were applied at different stages of plant development for a month or soil was brought to the moisture stress only twice. Additionally, some plants were watered at -50 kPa during the entire cultivation period while the control plants were watered at -5kPa. Plants were also kept at maximum possible moisture level (watering at -0,5kPa or close to it (-1.OkPa through the entire growing period. Soil water potential was measured with tensiometer. Drought stress applied during entire cultivation period or during the flushing stage caused significant reduction in transpiration and conductance of leaves. Stress applied during bract coloration stage had not as great effect on the stomatal conductance and transpiration of leaves as the similar stress applied during the flushing stage. High soil moisture increased stomatal conductance and transpiration rate, respectively by 130% and 52% (flushing stage, and 72% and 150% (bract coloration stage at maximum, compared to the control.

  11. Seawater spray injury to Quercus acutissima leaves: crystal deposition, stomatal clogging, and chloroplast degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Woo; Koo, Kyosang; Kim, Pan-Gi

    2011-05-01

    Effects of seawater spray on leaf structure were investigated in Quercus acutissima by electron microscopy and X-ray microanalysis. Two-year-old seedlings of Q. acutissima were sprayed with seawater and kept in a greenhouse maintained at 25°C. The most recognizable symptoms of seawater-sprayed seedlings included leaf necrosis, crystal deposition, stomatal clogging, and chloroplast degeneration. Field emission scanning electron microscopy revealed that the leaf surface was covered with additional layers of remnants of seawater spray. Composed of sodium and chloride, cube-shaped crystals (halite) were prevalently found on trichomes and epidermis, and formed aggregates. Meanwhile, wedge-shaped crystals were deposited on epidermis and consisted of calcium and sulfur. As a result of stomatal clogging by crystal deposition on the abaxial surface, it was conceivable that plant respiration became severely hampered. Transmission electron microscopy showed degenerated cytoplasm of seawater-sprayed leaves. It was common to observe severe plasmolysis and disrupted chloroplasts with a reduced number of thylakoids in grana. These results indicate that foliar applications of seawater were sufficient to induce necrosis of Q. acutissima seedlings as an abiotic disturbance factor. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Guard cell zeaxanthin tracks photosynthetically active radiation and stomatal apertures in Vicia faba leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, A.; Zeiger, E.

    1995-01-01

    Zeaxanthin, antheraxanthin and violaxanthin concentrations in guard cells from sonicated abaxial epidermal peels of Vicia faba were measured from dawn to dusk, and compared with concentrations in mesophyll tissue of the same leaves. Measured changes in guard cell zeaxanthin and violaxanthin concentrations indicate that guard cells operate the xanthophyll cycle throughout the day. Mesophyll tissue had no detectable zeaxanthin at dawn, whereas guard cells had 30–50 mmol mol −1 chlorophyll a+b. On a chlorophyll basis, maximal zeaxanthin levels were 3–4 fold higher in guard cells than in mesophyll cells. Zeaxanthin concentrations tracked levels of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) in both mesophyll and guard cells. In the mesophyll, most of the zeaxanthin changes occurred in mid-morning and mid-afternoon. In guard cells, zeaxanthin concentrations changed nearly linearly with PAR in the early morning and late afternoon, and closely tracked PAR levels throughout the day. Guard cell zeaxanthin concentrations were also closely correlated with stomatal apertures. The close relationship between zeaxanthin concentrations and PAR levels in guard cells indicates that zeaxanthin is well suited to function as a molecular photosensor in stomatal movements. (author)

  13. Stomatal conductance of semi-natural Mediterranean grasslands: Implications for the development of ozone critical levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, R.; Bermejo, V.; Sanz, J.; Valls, B.; Elvira, S.; Gimeno, B.S.

    2007-01-01

    Intra-genus and intra-specific variation and the influence of nitrogen enrichment on net assimilation and stomatal conductance of some annual Trifolium species of Mediterranean dehesa grasslands were assessed under experimental conditions. Also gas exchange rates were compared between some Leguminosae and Poaceae species growing in the field in a dehesa ecosystem in central Spain. The results showed that the previously reported different O 3 sensitivity of some Trifolium species growing in pots does not seem to be related to different maximum g s values. In addition, no clear differences on gas exchange rates could be attributed to Leguminosae and Poaceae families growing in the field, with intra-genus variation being more important than differences found between families. Further studies are needed to increase the database for developing a flux-based approach for setting O 3 critical levels for semi-natural Mediterranean species. - The stomatal conductance model incorporated within the EMEP DO 3 SE deposition module needs to be re-parameterised for Mediterranean semi-natural vegetation

  14. OsPRX2 contributes to stomatal closure and improves potassium deficiency tolerance in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xiaohui; Zheng, Yanmei; Xiao, Kaizhuan; Wei, Yidong; Zhu, Yongsheng; Cai, Qiuhua; Chen, Liping; Xie, Huaan; Zhang, Jianfu

    2018-01-01

    Peroxiredoxins (Prxs) which are thiol-based peroxidases have been implicated in the toxic reduction and intracellular concentration regulation of hydrogen peroxide. In Arabidopsis thaliana At2-CysPrxB (At5g06290) has been demonstrated to be essential in maintaining the water-water cycle for proper H 2 O 2 scavenging. Although the mechanisms of 2-Cys Prxs have been extensively studied in Arabidopsis thaliana, the function of 2-Cys Prxs in rice is unclear. In this study, a rice homologue gene of At2-CysPrxB, OsPRX2 was investigated aiming to characterize the effect of 2-Cys Prxs on the K + -deficiency tolerance in rice. We found that OsPRX2 was localized in the chloroplast. Overexpressed OsPRX2 causes the stomatal closing and K + -deficiency tolerance increasing, while knockout of OsPRX2 lead to serious defects in leaves phenotype and the stomatal opening under the K + -deficiency tolerance. Detection of K + accumulation, antioxidant activity of transgenic plants under the starvation of potassium, further confirmed that OsPRX2 is a potential target for engineering plants with improved potassium deficiency tolerance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Differences in the response sensitivity of stomatal index to atmospheric CO2 among four genera of Cupressaceae conifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haworth, Matthew; Heath, James; McElwain, Jennifer C

    2010-03-01

    The inverse relationship between stomatal density (SD: number of stomata per mm(2) leaf area) and atmospheric concentration of CO2 ([CO2]) permits the use of plants as proxies of palaeo-atmospheric CO2. Many stomatal reconstructions of palaeo-[CO2] are based upon multiple fossil species. However, it is unclear how plants respond to [CO2] across genus, family or ecotype in terms of SD or stomatal index (SI: ratio of stomata to epidermal cells). This study analysed the stomatal numbers of conifers from the ancient family Cupressaceae, in order to examine the nature of the SI-[CO2] relationship, and potential implications for stomatal reconstructions of palaeo-[CO2]. Methods Stomatal frequency measurements were taken from historical herbarium specimens of Athrotaxis cupressoides, Tetraclinis articulata and four Callitris species, and live A. cupressoides grown under CO2-enrichment (370, 470, 570 and 670 p.p.m. CO2). T. articulata, C. columnaris and C. rhomboidea displayed significant reductions in SI with rising [CO2]; by contrast, A. cupressoides, C. preissii and C. oblonga show no response in SI. However, A. cupressoides does reduce SI to increases in [CO2] above current ambient (approx. 380 p.p.m. CO2). This dataset suggests that a shared consistent SI-[CO2] relationship is not apparent across the genus Callitris. Conclusions The present findings suggest that it is not possible to generalize how conifer species respond to fluctuations in [CO2] based upon taxonomic relatedness or habitat. This apparent lack of a consistent response, in conjunction with high variability in SI, indicates that reconstructions of absolute palaeo-[CO2] based at the genus level, or upon multiple species for discrete intervals of time are not as reliable as those based on a single or multiple temporally overlapping species.

  16. The dilemma of saving water or being cool: What determines the stomatal response under a changing climate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighi, Erfan; Kirchner, James W.; Entekhabi, Dara

    2017-04-01

    Stomata play a critical role in terrestrial water and carbon cycles, regulating the trade-off between photosynthetic carbon gain and water loss in leaves. They adjust their aperture in response to a number of physiological and environmental factors, yet the mechanisms driving this response, particularly under climate extremes, remain poorly understood. Partial or complete stomatal closure reduces plant water stress under water-limited or high atmospheric evaporative demand conditions, but at the cost of reduced productivity, elevated heat, leaf shedding, and mortality. A proper account of such complex stomatal behavior is of particular importance for current ecosystem models that poorly capture observed vegetation responses in the context of climate change which is predicted to cause more frequent and intense temperature extremes along with an increase in the frequency of drought in many regions in the future. This study seeks to explore stomatal responses to environmental change accounted for by a varying soil-plant resistance under different atmospheric and soil moisture conditions. To this end, we developed a physically based transpiration model that couples stomatal control of leaf gas exchange to the leaf surface energy balance and the entire plant hydraulic system by considering the interdependence of the guard cell water potential (or turgor pressure) and transpiration rates. Model simulations of diurnal variations in transpiration rates were in good agreement with field observations, and facilitated quantitative prediction of stomatal and xylem flow regulation under a wide range of environmental conditions. Preliminary results demonstrate how soil and plant hydraulic conductances regulating stomatal opening and closure can help mitigate climatic water deficit (e.g., at midday) by boosting evaporative cooling. Our results are expected to advance physical understanding of the water cycle in the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum, and shed light on observed

  17. A reduced order model to analytically infer atmospheric CO2 concentration from stomatal and climate data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, Wilfried; Katul, Gabriel; Roth-Nebelsick, Anita; Grein, Michaela

    2017-06-01

    To address questions related to the acceleration or deceleration of the global hydrological cycle or links between the carbon and water cycles over land, reliable data for past climatic conditions based on proxies are required. In particular, the reconstruction of palaeoatmospheric CO2 content (Ca) is needed to assist the separation of natural from anthropogenic Ca variability and to explore phase relations between Ca and air temperature Ta time series. Both Ta and Ca are needed to fingerprint anthropogenic signatures in vapor pressure deficit, a major driver used to explain acceleration or deceleration phases in the global hydrological cycle. Current approaches to Ca reconstruction rely on a robust inverse correlation between measured stomatal density in leaves (ν) of many plant taxa and Ca. There are two methods that exploit this correlation: The first uses calibration curves obtained from extant species assumed to represent the fossil taxa, thereby restricting the suitable taxa to those existing today. The second is a hybrid eco-hydrological/physiological approach that determines Ca with the aid of systems of equations based on quasi-instantaneous leaf-gas exchange theories and fossil stomatal data collected along with other measured leaf anatomical traits and parameters. In this contribution, a reduced order model (ROM) is proposed that derives Ca from a single equation incorporating the aforementioned stomatal data, basic climate (e.g. temperature), estimated biochemical parameters of assimilation and isotope data. The usage of the ROM is then illustrated by applying it to isotopic and anatomical measurements from three extant species. The ROM derivation is based on a balance between the biochemical demand and atmospheric supply of CO2 that leads to an explicit expression linking stomatal conductance to internal CO2 concentration (Ci) and Ca. The resulting expression of stomatal conductance from the carbon economy of the leaf is then equated to another

  18. Intraspecific variation in stomatal traits, leaf traits and physiology reflects adaptation along aridity gradients in a South African shrub.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Jane E; Adams, Christopher A; Holsinger, Kent E

    2016-01-01

    Trait-environment relationships are commonly interpreted as evidence for local adaptation in plants. However, even when selection analyses support this interpretation, the mechanisms underlying differential benefits are often unknown. This study addresses this gap in knowledge using the broadly distributed South African shrub Protea repens. Specifically, the study examines whether broad-scale patterns of trait variation are consistent with spatial differences in selection and ecophysiology in the wild. In a common garden study of plants sourced from 19 populations, associations were measured between five morphological traits and three axes describing source climates. Trait-trait and trait-environment associations were analysed in a multi-response model. Within two focal populations in the wild, selection and path analyses were used to test associations between traits, fecundity and physiological performance. Across 19 populations in a common garden, stomatal density increased with the source population's mean annual temperature and decreased with its average amount of rainfall in midsummer. Concordantly, selection analysis in two natural populations revealed positive selection on stomatal density at the hotter, drier site, while failing to detect selection at the cooler, moister site. Dry-site plants with high stomatal density also had higher stomatal conductances, cooler leaf temperatures and higher light-saturated photosynthetic rates than those with low stomatal density, but no such relationships were present among wet-site plants. Leaf area, stomatal pore index and specific leaf area in the garden also co-varied with climate, but within-population differences were not associated with fitness in either wild population. The parallel patterns of broad-scale variation, differences in selection and differences in trait-ecophysiology relationships suggest a mechanism for adaptive differentiation in stomatal density. Densely packed stomata may improve performance by

  19. Modeling daily gas exchange of a Douglas-fir forest : comparison of three stomatal conductance models with and without a soil water stress function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, van M.T.; Dekker, S.C.; Bouten, W.; Bosveld, F.C.; Kohsiek, W.; Kramer, K.; Mohren, G.M.J.

    2000-01-01

    Modeling stomatal conductance is a key element in predicting tree growth and water use at the stand scale. We compared three commonly used models of stomatal conductance, the Jarvis-Loustau, Ball-Berry and Leuning models, for their suitability for incorporating soil water stress into their

  20. Modeling stomatal conductance in the earth system: linking leaf water-use efficiency and water transport along the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonan, G. B.; Williams, M.; Fisher, R. A.; Oleson, K. W.

    2014-09-01

    The Ball-Berry stomatal conductance model is commonly used in earth system models to simulate biotic regulation of evapotranspiration. However, the dependence of stomatal conductance (gs) on vapor pressure deficit (Ds) and soil moisture must be empirically parameterized. We evaluated the Ball-Berry model used in the Community Land Model version 4.5 (CLM4.5) and an alternative stomatal conductance model that links leaf gas exchange, plant hydraulic constraints, and the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum (SPA). The SPA model simulates stomatal conductance numerically by (1) optimizing photosynthetic carbon gain per unit water loss while (2) constraining stomatal opening to prevent leaf water potential from dropping below a critical minimum. We evaluated two optimization algorithms: intrinsic water-use efficiency (ΔAn /Δgs, the marginal carbon gain of stomatal opening) and water-use efficiency (ΔAn /ΔEl, the marginal carbon gain of transpiration water loss). We implemented the stomatal models in a multi-layer plant canopy model to resolve profiles of gas exchange, leaf water potential, and plant hydraulics within the canopy, and evaluated the simulations using leaf analyses, eddy covariance fluxes at six forest sites, and parameter sensitivity analyses. The primary differences among stomatal models relate to soil moisture stress and vapor pressure deficit responses. Without soil moisture stress, the performance of the SPA stomatal model was comparable to or slightly better than the CLM Ball-Berry model in flux tower simulations, but was significantly better than the CLM Ball-Berry model when there was soil moisture stress. Functional dependence of gs on soil moisture emerged from water flow along the soil-to-leaf pathway rather than being imposed a priori, as in the CLM Ball-Berry model. Similar functional dependence of gs on Ds emerged from the ΔAn/ΔEl optimization, but not the ΔAn /gs optimization. Two parameters (stomatal efficiency and root hydraulic

  1. A new discrete dynamic model of ABA-induced stomatal closure predicts key feedback loops.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Réka Albert

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Stomata, microscopic pores in leaf surfaces through which water loss and carbon dioxide uptake occur, are closed in response to drought by the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA. This process is vital for drought tolerance and has been the topic of extensive experimental investigation in the last decades. Although a core signaling chain has been elucidated consisting of ABA binding to receptors, which alleviates negative regulation by protein phosphatases 2C (PP2Cs of the protein kinase OPEN STOMATA 1 (OST1 and ultimately results in activation of anion channels, osmotic water loss, and stomatal closure, over 70 additional components have been identified, yet their relationships with each other and the core components are poorly elucidated. We integrated and processed hundreds of disparate observations regarding ABA signal transduction responses underlying stomatal closure into a network of 84 nodes and 156 edges and, as a result, established those relationships, including identification of a 36-node, strongly connected (feedback-rich component as well as its in- and out-components. The network's domination by a feedback-rich component may reflect a general feature of rapid signaling events. We developed a discrete dynamic model of this network and elucidated the effects of ABA plus knockout or constitutive activity of 79 nodes on both the outcome of the system (closure and the status of all internal nodes. The model, with more than 1024 system states, is far from fully determined by the available data, yet model results agree with existing experiments in 82 cases and disagree in only 17 cases, a validation rate of 75%. Our results reveal nodes that could be engineered to impact stomatal closure in a controlled fashion and also provide over 140 novel predictions for which experimental data are currently lacking. Noting the paucity of wet-bench data regarding combinatorial effects of ABA and internal node activation, we experimentally confirmed

  2. A new discrete dynamic model of ABA-induced stomatal closure predicts key feedback loops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Réka; Acharya, Biswa R; Jeon, Byeong Wook; Zañudo, Jorge G T; Zhu, Mengmeng; Osman, Karim; Assmann, Sarah M

    2017-09-01

    Stomata, microscopic pores in leaf surfaces through which water loss and carbon dioxide uptake occur, are closed in response to drought by the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA). This process is vital for drought tolerance and has been the topic of extensive experimental investigation in the last decades. Although a core signaling chain has been elucidated consisting of ABA binding to receptors, which alleviates negative regulation by protein phosphatases 2C (PP2Cs) of the protein kinase OPEN STOMATA 1 (OST1) and ultimately results in activation of anion channels, osmotic water loss, and stomatal closure, over 70 additional components have been identified, yet their relationships with each other and the core components are poorly elucidated. We integrated and processed hundreds of disparate observations regarding ABA signal transduction responses underlying stomatal closure into a network of 84 nodes and 156 edges and, as a result, established those relationships, including identification of a 36-node, strongly connected (feedback-rich) component as well as its in- and out-components. The network's domination by a feedback-rich component may reflect a general feature of rapid signaling events. We developed a discrete dynamic model of this network and elucidated the effects of ABA plus knockout or constitutive activity of 79 nodes on both the outcome of the system (closure) and the status of all internal nodes. The model, with more than 1024 system states, is far from fully determined by the available data, yet model results agree with existing experiments in 82 cases and disagree in only 17 cases, a validation rate of 75%. Our results reveal nodes that could be engineered to impact stomatal closure in a controlled fashion and also provide over 140 novel predictions for which experimental data are currently lacking. Noting the paucity of wet-bench data regarding combinatorial effects of ABA and internal node activation, we experimentally confirmed several predictions

  3. Quantification of ozone exposure- and stomatal uptake-yield response relationships for soybean in Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiwei; Feng, Zhaozhong; Wang, Xiaoke; Liu, Xiaobing; Hu, Enzhu

    2017-12-01

    High ground-level O 3 is a new threat to agricultural production in Northeast China with the increasing ambient O 3 concentration. Little is known about its impacts on soybean production in this key agricultural region. Accumulated O 3 exposure-response and stomatal O 3 flux-response relationships were developed during two continuous growing seasons to evaluate O 3 -induced yield reduction of four typical soybean cultivars in Northeast China. Results showed that critical levels of AOT40 (accumulated hourly O 3 concentrations over a threshold of 40nmol·mol -1 ), SUM06 (sum of all hourly average O 3 concentrations over 0.06μmol·mol -1 ) and W126 (sum of O 3 concentrations weighted by a sigmoidal function) in relation to 5% reduction in relative seed yield were 4.2, 7.6 and 6.8μmol·mol -1 ·h, respectively. The effect of O 3 on plants was influenced by leaf position in canopy. An improved Jarvis stomatal conductance model including leaf (node) position fitted well with field measurements. The best linear relationship between stomatal O 3 flux and relative soybean yield was obtained when phytotoxic ozone dose was integrated over a threshold of 9.6nmol·m -2 ·s -1 (POD 9.6 ) to represent the detoxification capacity of soybean. POD 9.6 and the commonly used POD 6 in relation to 5% reduction in relative seed yield of soybean were 0.9mmol·m -2 and 1.8mmol·m -2 , respectively. O 3 concentrations above ~38nmol·mol -1 contributed to POD 9.6 and caused seed yield loss in soybean. Current annual yield loss of soybean at ambient O 3 was estimated to range between 23.4% and 30.2%. The O 3 dose-response relationships and corresponding thresholds obtained here will benefit regional O 3 risk assessment on soybean production in Northeast China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Atmospheric CO2 Alters Resistance of Arabidopsis to Pseudomonas syringae by Affecting Abscisic Acid Accumulation and Stomatal Responsiveness to Coronatine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Y.; Vroegop-Vos, I.; Schuurink, R.C.; Pieterse, C.M.J.; Van Wees, S.C.M.

    Atmospheric CO2 influences plant growth and stomatal aperture. Effects of high or low CO2 levels on plant disease resistance are less well understood. Here, resistance of Arabidopsis thaliana against the foliar pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst) was investigated at three different

  5. Cultivar Differences in Plant Transpiration Rate at High Relative Air Humidity Are Not Related to Genotypic Variation in Stomatal Responsiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebraegziabher, Habtamu Giday; Kjær, Katrine Heinsvig; Ottosen, Carl-Otto

    2015-01-01

    Plants grown at high relative air humidity (RH) often show disturbed water relations due to less responsive stomata. The attenuation of stomatal responsiveness as a result of high RH during leaf expansion depends on the cultivar. We hypothesized that tolerant cultivars to high RH experience a low...

  6. Disruption of stomatal lineage signaling or transcriptional regulators has differential effects on mesophyll development, but maintains coordination of gas exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Graham J; Berry, Joseph A; Bergmann, Dominique C

    2017-10-01

    Stomata are simultaneously tasked with permitting the uptake of carbon dioxide for photosynthesis while limiting water loss from the plant. This process is mainly regulated by guard cell control of the stomatal aperture, but recent advancements have highlighted the importance of several genes that control stomatal development. Using targeted genetic manipulations of the stomatal lineage and a combination of gas exchange and microscopy techniques, we show that changes in stomatal development of the epidermal layer lead to coupled changes in the underlying mesophyll tissues. This coordinated response tends to match leaf photosynthetic potential (V cmax ) with gas-exchange capacity (g smax ), and hence the uptake of carbon dioxide for water lost. We found that different genetic regulators systematically altered tissue coordination in separate ways: the transcription factor SPEECHLESS (SPCH) primarily affected leaf size and thickness, whereas peptides in the EPIDERMAL PATTERNING FACTOR (EPF) family altered cell density in the mesophyll. It was also determined that interlayer coordination required the cell-surface receptor TOO MANY MOUTHS (TMM). These results demonstrate that stomata-specific regulators can alter mesophyll properties, which provides insight into how molecular pathways can organize leaf tissues to coordinate gas exchange and suggests new strategies for improving plant water-use efficiency. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  7. Modern pollen and stomate deposition in lake surface sediments from across the treeline on the Kola Peninsula, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervais, B R.; MacDonald, G M.

    2001-04-01

    We sampled and analyzed surface sediments from 31 lakes along a latitudinal transect crossing the coniferous treeline on the Kola Peninsula, Russia. The major vegetation zones along the transect were tundra, birch-forest tundra, pine-forest tundra, and forest. The results indicate that the major vegetation types in our study area have distinct pollen spectra. Sum-of-squares cluster analysis and principal components analysis (PCA) groupings of pollen sites correspond to the major vegetation zones. PCA ordination of taxa indicates that the first axis separates taxa typical of the forest zone (Pinus, Picea) from taxa typical of tundra and forest-tundra zones (Polypodiaceae, Ericaceae, and Betula). The current position of the coniferous treeline, defined in our region by Pinus sylvestris, occurs roughly where Pinus pollen values reach 35% or greater. Arboreal pollen (AP)/non-arboreal pollen (NAP) ratios were calculated for each site and plotted against geographic distance along the transect. AP/NAP ratios of 7 or greater are found within pine-forest tundra and forest vegetation zones. Pinus stomates (dispersed stomatal guard cells) are absent from sites north of the coniferous treeline and all but two samples from the forested sites contain stomates. Stomate concentrations among the samples are highly variable and range from 10 to 458 per ml and positively correlate with the changing Pinus pollen values.

  8. The lipidomes of vesicular stomatitis virus, semliki forest virus, and the host plasma membrane analyzed by quantitative shotgun mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalvodova, Lucie; Sampaio, Julio L; Cordo, Sandra

    2009-01-01

    kidney cells can be infected by two different viruses, namely, vesicular stomatitis virus and Semliki Forest virus, from the Rhabdoviridae and Togaviridae families, respectively. We purified the host plasma membrane and the two different viruses after exit from the host cells and analyzed the lipid...

  9. Dynamics of spatial heterogeneity of stomatal closure in Tradescantia virginiana altered by growth at high relative air humidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rezaei Nejad, A.; Harbinson, J.; Meeteren, van U.

    2006-01-01

    The spatial heterogeneity of stomatal closure in response to rapid desiccation of excised well-watered Tradescantia virginiana leaves grown at moderate (55%) or high (90%) relative air humidity (RH) was studied using a chlorophyll fluorescence imaging system under non-photorespiratory conditions.

  10. Stomatal clustering in Begonia associates with the kinetics of leaf gaseous exchange and influences water use efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanatsiou, Maria; Amtmann, Anna; Blatt, Michael R

    2017-04-01

    Stomata are microscopic pores formed by specialized cells in the leaf epidermis and permit gaseous exchange between the interior of the leaf and the atmosphere. Stomata in most plants are separated by at least one epidermal pavement cell and, individually, overlay a single substomatal cavity within the leaf. This spacing is thought to enhance stomatal function. Yet, there are several genera naturally exhibiting stomata in clusters and therefore deviating from the one-cell spacing rule with multiple stomata overlaying a single substomatal cavity. We made use of two Begonia species to investigate whether clustering of stomata alters guard cell dynamics and gas exchange under different light and dark treatments. Begonia plebeja, which forms stomatal clusters, exhibited enhanced kinetics of stomatal conductance and CO2 assimilation upon light stimuli that in turn were translated into greater water use efficiency. Our findings emphasize the importance of spacing in stomatal clusters for gaseous exchange and plant performance under environmentally limited conditions. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  11. The annual variation in stomatal ammonia compensation point of rye grass (Lolium perenne L.) leaves in an intensively managed grassland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hove, van L.W.A.; Heeres, P.; Bossen, M.E.

    2002-01-01

    The stomatal ammonia compensation point for ammonia (NH3) of an intensively managed pasture of rye grass (Lolium perenne L.) was followed from mid January till November 2000. Leaf samples were taken every week. Simultaneously, the ambient NH3 concentration was measured. Meteorological data

  12. Oral cryotherapy for the prevention of high-dose melphalan-induced stomatitis in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisa, Yoshinobu; Mori, Takehiko; Kudo, Masumi; Yashima, Tomoko; Kondo, Sakiko; Yokoyama, Akihiro; Ikeda, Yasuo; Okamoto, Shinichiro

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of oral cryotherapy to prevent high-dose melphalan-induced stomatitis. Eighteen consecutive recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant conditioned with high-dose melphalan (140 mg/m2) in combination with fludarabine alone or with fludarabine and additional chemotherapy or radiation were enrolled. The severity of stomatitis was graded according to the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria. Patients were kept on oral cryotherapy using ice chips and ice-cold water shortly before, during, and for additional 90 min after completion of melphalan administration. Only two of 18 patients (11.1%) developed grade 2 or 3 stomatitis while six of seven patients in the historical control developed it (85.7%; P=0.001). These results suggested that oral cryotherapy could effectively prevent stomatitis caused by high-dose melphalan, and we recommend that it should be incorporated into the conditioning regimen with high-dose melphalan.

  13. Mapping ‘hydroscapes’ along the iso- to anisohydric continuum of stomatal regulation of plant water status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick C. Meinzer; David R. Woodruff; Danielle E. Marias; Duncan D. Smith; Katherine A. McCulloh; Ava R. Howard; Alicia L. Magedman; Josep Penuelas

    2016-01-01

    The concept of iso- vs. anisohydry has been used to describe the stringency of stomatal regulation of plant water potential (ψ). However, metrics that accurately and consistently quantify species’ operating ranges along a continuum of iso- to anisohydry have been elusive. Additionally, most approaches to quantifying iso/anisohydry require labour-intensive measurements...

  14. Stomatal conductance, mesophyll conductance, and trans piration efficiency in relation to leaf anatomy in rice and wheat genotypes under drought

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouyang, Wenjing; Struik, Paul C.; Yin, Xinyou; Yang, Jianchang

    2017-01-01

    Increasing leaf transpiration efficiency (TE) may provide leads for growing rice like dryland cereals such as wheat (Triticum aestivum). To explore avenues for improving TE in rice, variations in stomatal conductance (g s) and mesophyll conductance (g m) and their anatomical determinants were

  15. Effects of SO/sub 2/ pollution on stomatal movements in Vicia faba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majernik, O; Mansfield, T A

    1971-01-01

    Leaves of broad bean Vicia faba L. exposed to controlled levels of SO/sub 2/ pollution in the range 0.25 to 9.0 ppm had much wider stomatal openings than control plants. The stimulation of opening relative to the controls was proportional to SO/sub 2/ concentration over the range 0.25 to 1.0 ppm. The ability of the stomata to close at night was not appreciably affected. The possible implications of this unnatural reaction of the stomata are discussed. Abnormal opening could lead to the plant's losing its usual control over transpiration, with resulting water stress. The main disadvantage, however, is that SO/sub 2/ will gain easier access to the interior of the leaf.

  16. Interactions of macrophages with probiotic bacteria lead to increased antiviral response against vesicular stomatitis virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivec, Martin; Botic, Tanja; Koren, Srecko

    2007-01-01

    and by producing chemokines and immunoregulatory cytokines that enable the adaptive immune response to recognize infected cells and perform antiviral effector functions. Probiotics, as a part of the normal gut intestinal flora, are important in supporting a functional yet balanced immune system. Improving our...... understanding of their role in the activation of macrophages and their stimulation of proinflammatory cytokine production in early viral infection was the main goal of this study. Our in vitro model study showed that probiotic bacteria, either from the species Lactobacillus or Bifidobacteria have the ability...... dehydrogenases activity could be implied as the first indicator of potential inhibitory effects of the probiotics on virus replication. The interactions between probiotic bacteria, macrophages and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), markedly depended on the bacterial strain studied....

  17. Oxidative stress and myeloperoxidase levels in saliva of patients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cağlayan, F; Miloglu, O; Altun, O; Erel, O; Yilmaz, A B

    2008-11-01

    Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is the most common oral ulcerative condition affecting 5-25% of the general population. The aim of this study was to evaluate the oxidative stress parameters in saliva of patients with RAS and to investigate the relationship among these parameters in either group. The study involved 50 patients with RAS of whom 24 were male and 26 were female, and 25 healthy controls of whom 13 were male and 12 were female. There was no statistically significant difference in the salivary total antioxidant capacity, total oxidant status, oxidative stress index levels, and myeloperoxidase activity between patients with RAS and those in the control group. The results show that reactive oxygen species may not play a role in the etiology of RAS.

  18. Pharmacological factors in the saliva of blood-feeding insects. Implications for vesicular stomatitis epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabachnick, W J

    2000-01-01

    Vesicular stomatitis (VS) epizootics in the Western United States have caused substantial economic losses to U.S. livestock industries in 1995, 1997, and 1998. The role of arthropods in transmitting VS to U.S. livestock is unclear. In particular, the impact of arthropod salivary gland factors in VS infections in livestock needs study. Pharmacological effects of arthropod salivary gland factors on animals are reviewed. The potential effects of arthropod saliva on the transmission and spread of VS virus to livestock in the Western U.S. is presented with emphasis on the biting midge, Culicoides sonorensis. Information is discussed with attention to vector potential of C. sonorensis, and its use as a model for evaluating insect salivary gland pharmacology on livestock response to VS.

  19. PFAPA (Periodic fever, aphtous stomatitis, pharingitis, cervical adenitis or Marshall’s syndrome in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N N Kuzmina

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available PFAPA (periodic fever, aphtous stomatitis, pharingitis, cervical adenitis or Marshall’s syndrome is one of the rare periodic fever conditions appearing in children. Its cause is unknown. This syndrome may continue for several years. During interictal period the child is quite well, grows and develops normally. The disease should be differentiated from Behcet’s disease, cyclic neutropenia, familial Mediterranean fever, familial Ireland fever, hyperimmunoglobulinemia D syndrome, systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis, chronic tonsillitis, some infectious diseases. Many drugs are used for the treatment of PFAPA syndrome: antibiotics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, chloroquin, antiviral drugs, glucocorticoids, cimetidin. Tonsillectomy is used quite often. Analysis of the literature data shows that best results may be achieved with tonsillectomy (sometimes in combination with ade- notomy. PFAPA in a child of 2 years age diagnosed for the first time in Russian pediatric rheumatology is described.

  20. Periodic Fever, Aphthous Stomatitis, Pharyngitis and Cervical Adenitis Syndrome: Current Literature Review with a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Demirtaş

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Periodic Fever, Aphthous Stomatitis, Pharyngitis and Cervical Adenitis syndrome (PFAPA is a frequently seen, important medical condition, which must be kept in mind in periodic fever etiology. Although its etiology is not clearly understood, autoimmune etiology is suspected due to response to steroids. There is no specific test for the diagnosis of disease. Diagnosis is based on symptoms and physical examination. Although medical treatment is the first choice for the management of the disease, tonsillectomy take over in treatment options for termination of attacks and permanent results. We have presented a patient that was performed tonsillectomy in our clinic for frequent attacks despite recurrent medical therapy with diagnosis of PFAPA with review of current literature.

  1. Chloroplastic and stomatal aspects of ozone-induced reduction of net photosynthesis in plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torsethaugen, Gro

    1998-09-01

    The present thesis relates to ozone-induced reduction of photosynthesis in plants. As a photochemical oxidant O{sub 3} is formed by the interaction of hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides and oxygen in sunlight. Ozone (O{sub 3}) is the most phytotoxic of all the air pollutants and is known to reduce plant growth and net photosynthesis, cause stomatal closure, induce visible injury, accelerate senescence and induce or inhibit transcription of a variety of genes with a corresponding increase/decrease in protein products. The underlying cellular mechanisms for many of these changes are unknown. Following fields are investigated: Ozone-induced reduction of net photosynthesis; ozone and the photosynthetic apparatus in the chloroplasts; ozone and stomata; ozone effects on plant membranes; protection against ozone injury in plants. 249 refs., 22 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. A novel treatment modality for recurrent aphthous stomatitis – Single application of doxycycline hyclate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Thriveni

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Recurrent aphthous ulcers are common painful mucosal conditions affecting the oral cavity. Despite of so many treatment modalities, there is no specific and definitive treatment. Hence a study was carried out to evaluate the clinical effects Single Application of Doxycycline Hyclate 100 mg for Recurrent apthous Stomatitis (RAS. Materials and Methods: Forty study subjects were included in the study. Patients were randomly assigned into two groups. There were 20 patients in each group; Group A patients received Doxycycline Hyclate 100 mg in the first visit, Group B patients received placebo. The results were analyzed with unpaired 't' test. Results: The data indicated a significant reduction in pain in group A (i.e., faster reduction in pain compared with group B. Interpretation and Conclusion: A single application of doxycycline hyclate decreased pain and speeded recovery.

  3. Stomatal and pavement cell density linked to leaf internal CO2 concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santrůček, Jiří; Vráblová, Martina; Simková, Marie; Hronková, Marie; Drtinová, Martina; Květoň, Jiří; Vrábl, Daniel; Kubásek, Jiří; Macková, Jana; Wiesnerová, Dana; Neuwithová, Jitka; Schreiber, Lukas

    2014-08-01

    Stomatal density (SD) generally decreases with rising atmospheric CO2 concentration, Ca. However, SD is also affected by light, air humidity and drought, all under systemic signalling from older leaves. This makes our understanding of how Ca controls SD incomplete. This study tested the hypotheses that SD is affected by the internal CO2 concentration of the leaf, Ci, rather than Ca, and that cotyledons, as the first plant assimilation organs, lack the systemic signal. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus), beech (Fagus sylvatica), arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and garden cress (Lepidium sativum) were grown under contrasting environmental conditions that affected Ci while Ca was kept constant. The SD, pavement cell density (PCD) and stomatal index (SI) responses to Ci in cotyledons and the first leaves of garden cress were compared. (13)C abundance (δ(13)C) in leaf dry matter was used to estimate the effective Ci during leaf development. The SD was estimated from leaf imprints. SD correlated negatively with Ci in leaves of all four species and under three different treatments (irradiance, abscisic acid and osmotic stress). PCD in arabidopsis and garden cress responded similarly, so that SI was largely unaffected. However, SD and PCD of cotyledons were insensitive to Ci, indicating an essential role for systemic signalling. It is proposed that Ci or a Ci-linked factor plays an important role in modulating SD and PCD during epidermis development and leaf expansion. The absence of a Ci-SD relationship in the cotyledons of garden cress indicates the key role of lower-insertion CO2 assimilation organs in signal perception and its long-distance transport. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis and cervical adenitis (pfapa) syndrome in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semianchuk, Vira B

    Periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis and cervical adenitis (PFAPA) syndrome refers to a group of primary immunodeficiencies, namely autoinflammatory diseases. Most pediatricians and otolaryngologists do not suspect PFAPA syndrome when treating recurrent pharyngitis (according to Ukrainian classification - tonsillitis) and stomatitis. Therefore, patients with a given syndrome receive unnecessary treatment (antibiotic therapy or antiviral drugs) and the diagnosis is made late. The aim of the research was to provide pediatricians, family physicians and otolaryngologists with information on the importance of early diagnosis of PFAPA syndrome. The analysis of the prevalence and diagnosis of PFAPA syndrome in Ukraine and worldwide has been made as well as a late diagnosis of PFAPA syndrome in a child living in Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine has been described (case report). The Сase report 7-year-old boy, who grows and develops normally. The symptoms of pharyngitis including high body temperature (>40 º С), sore throat and white spots on the tonsils appeared for the first time at the age of two years. The boy received antibacterial drugs about 10 times a year. During a four-year period of recurrent episodes of the disease antimicrobial susceptibility testing to determine susceptibility of the oropharyngeal flora to the antibiotics were continuously performed, different blood tests for herpes viruses, Epstein-Barr virus infection and cytomegalovirus in particular were made using the enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in addition to long-term treatment. An example of late diagnosing PFAPA syndrome (four years after the onset of first symptoms) resulting in regular examinations, medical manoeuvres, outpatient and inpatient treatment, use of antibiotic therapy including intravenous injections on a monthly basis has been studied.

  5. Oxidative stress protection and stomatal patterning as components of salinity tolerance mechanism in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabala, Lana; Mackay, Alex; Tian, Yu; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik; Zhou, Daowei; Shabala, Sergey

    2012-09-01

    Two components of salinity stress are a reduction in water availability to plants and the formation of reactive oxygen species. In this work, we have used quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa), a dicotyledonous C3 halophyte species displaying optimal growth at approximately 150 mM NaCl, to study mechanisms by which halophytes cope with the afore-mentioned components of salt stress. The relative contribution of organic and inorganic osmolytes in leaves of different physiological ages (e.g. positions on the stem) was quantified and linked with the osmoprotective function of organic osmolytes. We show that the extent of the oxidative stress (UV-B irradiation) damage to photosynthetic machinery in young leaves is much less when compared with old leaves, and attribute this difference to the difference in the size of the organic osmolyte pool (1.5-fold difference under control conditions; sixfold difference in plants grown at 400 mM NaCl). Consistent with this, salt-grown plants showed higher Fv/Fm values compared with control plants after UV-B exposure. Exogenous application of physiologically relevant concentrations of glycine betaine substantially mitigated oxidative stress damage to PSII, in a dose-dependent manner. We also show that salt-grown plants showed a significant (approximately 30%) reduction in stomatal density observed in all leaves. It is concluded that accumulation of organic osmolytes plays a dual role providing, in addition to osmotic adjustment, protection of photosynthetic machinery against oxidative stress in developing leaves. It is also suggested that salinity-induced reduction in stomatal density represents a fundamental mechanism by which plants optimize water use efficiency under saline conditions. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2012.

  6. Growth, leaf and stomatal traits of crabwood (Carapa guianensis Aubl. in central Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angelo Branco Camargo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Crabwood (Carapa guianensis Aubl. is a fast growing tree species with many uses among Amazonian local communities. The main objective of this study was to assess the effect of seasonal rainfall pattern on growth rates, and seasonal and diurnal changes in leaf gas exchange and leaf water potential (ΨL in crabwood. To assess the effect of rainfall seasonality on growth and physiological leaf traits an experiment was conducted in Manaus, AM (03º 05' 30" S, 59º 59' 35" S. In this experiment, six 6-m tall plants were used to assess photosynthetic traits and ΨL. In a second experiment the effect of growth irradiance on stomatal density (S D, size (S S and leaf thickness was assessed in 0.8-m tall saplings. Stomatal conductance (g s and light-saturated photosynthesis (Amax were higher in the wet season, and between 09:00 and 15:00 h. However, no effect of rainfall seasonality was found on ΨL and potential photosynthesis (CO2-saturated. ΨL declined from -0.3 MPa early in the morning to -0.75 MPa after midday. It increased in the afternoon but did not reach full recovery at sunset. Growth rates of crabwood were high, and similar in both seasons (2 mm month-1. Leaf thickness and S D were 19% and 47% higher in sun than in shade plants, whereas the opposite was true for S S. We conclude that ΨL greatly affects carbon assimilation of crabwood by reducing g s at noon, although this effect is not reflected on growth rates indicating that other factors offset the effect of g s on Amax.

  7. Leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 4 facilitates vesicular stomatitis virus infection by binding vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Na; Huang, Hongjun; Tan, Binghe; Wei, Yinglei; Xiong, Qingqing; Yan, Yan; Hou, Lili; Wu, Nannan; Siwko, Stefan; Cimarelli, Andrea; Xu, Jianrong; Han, Honghui; Qian, Min; Liu, Mingyao; Du, Bing

    2017-10-06

    Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and rabies and Chandipura viruses belong to the Rhabdovirus family. VSV is a common laboratory virus to study viral evolution and host immune responses to viral infection, and recombinant VSV-based vectors have been widely used for viral oncolysis, vaccination, and gene therapy. Although the tropism of VSV is broad, and its envelope glycoprotein G is often used for pseudotyping other viruses, the host cellular components involved in VSV infection remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that the host protein leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 4 (Lgr4) is essential for VSV and VSV-G pseudotyped lentivirus (VSVG-LV) to infect susceptible cells. Accordingly, Lgr4-deficient mice had dramatically decreased VSV levels in the olfactory bulb. Furthermore, Lgr4 knockdown in RAW 264.7 cells also significantly suppressed VSV infection, and Lgr4 overexpression in RAW 264.7 cells enhanced VSV infection. Interestingly, only VSV infection relied on Lgr4, whereas infections with Newcastle disease virus, influenza A virus (A/WSN/33), and herpes simplex virus were unaffected by Lgr4 status. Of note, assays of virus entry, cell ELISA, immunoprecipitation, and surface plasmon resonance indicated that VSV bound susceptible cells via the Lgr4 extracellular domain. Pretreating cells with an Lgr4 antibody, soluble LGR4 extracellular domain, or R-spondin 1 blocked VSV infection by competitively inhibiting VSV binding to Lgr4. Taken together, the identification of Lgr4 as a VSV-specific host factor provides important insights into understanding VSV entry and its pathogenesis and lays the foundation for VSV-based gene therapy and viral oncolytic therapeutics. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Tree density and permafrost thaw depth influence water limitations on stomatal conductance in Siberian Arctic boreal forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropp, H.; Loranty, M. M.; Natali, S.; Kholodov, A. L.; Alexander, H. D.; Zimov, N.

    2017-12-01

    Boreal forests may experience increased water stress under global climate change as rising air temperatures increase evaporative demand and decrease soil moisture. Increases in plant water stress can decrease stomatal conductance, and ultimately, decrease primary productivity. A large portion of boreal forests are located in Siberia, and are dominated by deciduous needleleaf trees, Larix spp. We investigated the variability and drivers of canopy stomatal conductance in upland Larix stands with different stand density that arose from differing fire severity. Our measurements focus on an open canopy stand with low tree density and deep permafrost thaw depth, and a closed canopy stand with high tree density and shallow permafrost thaw depth. We measured canopy stomatal conductance, soil moisture, and micrometeorological variables. Our results demonstrate that canopy stomatal conductance was significantly lower in the closed canopy stand with a significantly higher sensitivity to increases in atmospheric evaporative demand. Canopy stomatal conductance in both stands was tightly coupled to precipitation that occurred over the previous week; however, the closed canopy stand showed a significantly greater sensitivity to increases in precipitation compared to the open canopy stand. Differences in access to deep versus shallow soil moisture and the physical characteristics of the soil profile likely contribute to differences in sensitivity to precipitation between the two stands. Our results indicate that Larix primary productivity may be highly sensitive to changes in evaporative demand and soil moisture that can result of global climate change. However, the effect of increasing air temperatures and changes in precipitation will differ significantly depending on stand density, thaw depth, and the hydraulic characteristics of the soil profile.

  9. RNAi-directed downregulation of vacuolar H(+ -ATPase subunit a results in enhanced stomatal aperture and density in rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiying Zhang

    Full Text Available Stomatal movement plays a key role in plant development and response to drought and salt stress by regulating gas exchange and water loss. A number of genes have been demonstrated to be involved in the regulation of this process. Using inverse genetics approach, we characterized the function of a rice (Oryza sativa L. vacuolar H(+-ATPase subunit A (OsVHA-A gene in stomatal conductance regulation and physiological response to salt and osmotic stress. OsVHA-A was constitutively expressed in different rice tissues, and the fusion protein of GFP-OsVHA-A was exclusively targeted to tonoplast when transiently expressed in the onion epidermal cells. Heterologous expression of OsVHA-A was able to rescue the yeast mutant vma1Δ (lacking subunit A activity phenotype, suggesting that it partially restores the activity of V-ATPase. Meanwhile, RNAi-directed knockdown of OsVHA-A led to a reduction of vacuolar H(+-ATPase activity and an enhancement of plasma membrane H(+-ATPase activity, thereby increasing the concentrations of extracellular H(+ and intracellular K(+ and Na(+ under stress conditions. Knockdown of OsVHA-A also resulted in the upregulation of PAM3 (plasma membrane H(+-ATPase 3 and downregulation of CAM1 (calmodulin 1, CAM3 (calmodulin 3 and YDA1 (YODA, a MAPKK gene. Altered level of the ion concentration and the gene expression by knockdown of OsVHA-A probably resulted in expanded aperture of stomatal pores and increased stomatal density. In addition, OsVHA-A RNAi plants displayed significant growth inhibition under salt and osmotic stress conditions. Taken together, our results suggest that OsVHA-A takes part in regulating stomatal density and opening via interfering with pH value and ionic equilibrium in guard cells and thereby affects the growth of rice plants.

  10. What determines the complex kinetics of stomatal conductance under blueless PAR in Festuca arundinacea? Subsequent effects on leaf transpiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barillot, Romain; Frak, Ela; Combes, Didier; Durand, Jean-Louis; Escobar-Gutiérrez, Abraham J

    2010-06-01

    Light quality and, in particular, its content of blue light is involved in plant functioning and morphogenesis. Blue light variation frequently occurs within a stand as shaded zones are characterized by a simultaneous decrease of PAR and blue light levels which both affect plant functioning, for example, gas exchange. However, little is known about the effects of low blue light itself on gas exchange. The aims of the present study were (i) to characterize stomatal behaviour in Festuca arundinacea leaves through leaf gas exchange measurements in response to a sudden reduction in blue light, and (ii) to test the putative role of Ci on blue light gas exchange responses. An infrared gas analyser (IRGA) was used with light transmission filters to study stomatal conductance (gs), transpiration (Tr), assimilation (A), and intercellular concentration of CO(2) (Ci) responses to blueless PAR (1.80 mumol m(-2) s(-1)). The results were compared with those obtained under a neutral filter supplying a similar photosynthetic efficiency to the blueless PAR filter. It was shown that the reduction of blue light triggered a drastic and instantaneous decrease of gs by 43.2% and of Tr by 40.0%, but a gradual stomatal reopening began 20 min after the start of the low blue light treatment, thus leading to new steady-states. This new stomatal equilibrium was supposed to be related to Ci. The results were confirmed in more developed plants although they exhibited delayed and less marked responses. It is concluded that stomatal responses to blue light could play a key role in photomorphogenetic mechanisms through their effect on transpiration.

  11. Linking stomatal traits and expression of slow anion channel genes HvSLAH1 2 HvSLAC1 with grain yield for increasing salinity tolerance in barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui eLiu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity is an environmental and agricultural problem in many parts of the world. One of the keys to breeding barley for adaptation to salinity lies in a better understanding of the genetic control of stomatal regulation. We have employed a range of physiological and molecular techniques (stomata assay, gas exchange, phylogenetic analysis, QTL analysis, and gene expression to investigate stomatal behaviour and genotypic variation in barley cultivars and a genetic population in four experimental trials. A set of relatively efficient and reliable methods were developed for the characterisation of stomatal behaviour of large numbers of varieties and genetic lines. Furthermore, we have found a large genetic variation of gas exchange and stomatal traits in barley in response to salinity stress. Salt-tolerant CM72 showed significantly larger stomatal aperture in 200 mM NaCl treatment than that of salt-sensitive Gairdner. Stomatal traits such as aperture width/length were found to significantly correlate with grain yield in salt treatment. Phenotypic characterisation and QTL analysis of a segregating double haploid population of the CM72/Gairdner resulted in the identification of significant stomatal traits-related QTLs for salt tolerance. Moreover, expression analysis of the slow anion channel genes HvSLAH1 and HvSLAC1 demonstrated that their up-regulation is linked to high barley grain yield in the field.

  12. The Arabidopsis lectin receptor kinase LecRK-V.5 represses stomatal immunity induced by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Desclos-Theveniau

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Stomata play an important role in plant innate immunity by limiting pathogen entry into leaves but molecular mechanisms regulating stomatal closure upon pathogen perception are not well understood. Here we show that the Arabidopsis thaliana L-type lectin receptor kinase-V.5 (LecRK-V.5 negatively regulates stomatal immunity. Loss of LecRK-V.5 function increased resistance to surface inoculation with virulent bacteria Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000. Levels of resistance were not affected after infiltration-inoculation, suggesting that LecRK-V.5 functions at an early defense stage. By contrast, lines overexpressing LecRK-V.5 were more susceptible to Pst DC3000. Enhanced resistance in lecrk-V.5 mutants was correlated with constitutive stomatal closure, while increased susceptibility phenotypes in overexpression lines were associated with early stomatal reopening. Lines overexpressing LecRK-V.5 also demonstrated a defective stomatal closure after pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP treatments. LecRK-V.5 is rapidly expressed in stomatal guard cells after bacterial inoculation or treatment with the bacterial PAMP flagellin. In addition, lecrk-V.5 mutants guard cells exhibited constitutive accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and inhibition of ROS production opened stomata of lecrk-V.5. LecRK-V.5 is also shown to interfere with abscisic acid-mediated stomatal closure signaling upstream of ROS production. These results provide genetic evidences that LecRK-V.5 negatively regulates stomatal immunity upstream of ROS biosynthesis. Our data reveal that plants have evolved mechanisms to reverse bacteria-mediated stomatal closure to prevent long-term effect on CO(2 uptake and photosynthesis.

  13. Investigation of the effect of the rebamipide mouthwash on the crisis of the stomatitis induced by the cancer chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawata, Keishi; Hanawa, Takehisa; Hanawa, Kazumi

    2001-01-01

    Stomatitis is well-known as one of the undesirable side effects induced by high and/or multiple dosing of cytotoxic drugs such as 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Stomatitis causes pain in the oral cavity, impaired swallowing or loss of appetite, and finally, lowering of the quality of life (QOL) of patients. In this study, we attempted to apply a new mouthwash containing rebamipide (REB) which is known as the anti-activated oxygen agent. Rebamipide mouthwash (REB-M) showed the effectiveness to the crisis of the stomatitis during the cancer chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. (author)

  14. ABA-Mediated Stomatal Response in Regulating Water Use during the Development of Terminal Drought in Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renu Saradadevi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available End-of-season drought or “terminal drought,” which occurs after flowering, is considered the most significant abiotic stress affecting crop yields. Wheat crop production in Mediterranean-type environments is often exposed to terminal drought due to decreasing rainfall and rapid increases in temperature and evapotranspiration during spring when wheat crops enter the reproductive stage. Under such conditions, every millimeter of extra soil water extracted by the roots benefits grain filling and yield and improves water use efficiency (WUE. When terminal drought develops, soil dries from the top, exposing the top part of the root system to dry soil while the bottom part is in contact with available soil water. Plant roots sense the drying soil and produce signals, which on transmission to shoots trigger stomatal closure to regulate crop water use through transpiration. However, transpiration is linked to crop growth and productivity and limiting transpiration may reduce potential yield. While an early and high degree of stomatal closure affects photosynthesis and hence biomass production, a late and low degree of stomatal closure exhausts available soil water rapidly which results in yield losses through a reduction in post-anthesis water use. The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA is considered the major chemical signal involved in stomatal regulation. Wheat genotypes differ in their ability to produce ABA under drought and also in their stomatal sensitivity to ABA. In this viewpoint article we discuss the possibilities of exploiting genotypic differences in ABA response to soil drying in regulating the use of water under terminal drought. Root density distribution in the upper drying layers of the soil profile is identified as a candidate trait that can affect ABA accumulation and subsequent stomatal closure. We also examine whether leaf ABA can be designated as a surrogate characteristic for improved WUE in wheat to sustain grain yield under

  15. La Homeopatía: un reto en el tratamiento de la gingivoestomatitis herpética aguda[subtitle] [title language=en]Homeopaty[ign]: [subtitle]A challenge in the treatment of Acute Herpetic gingivostomatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Hernández García

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Las enfermedades bucales constituyen uno de los problemas de salud más comunes en todo el mundo, siendo la más representativa la Gingivoestomatitis Herpética Aguda (GEHA. Con el objetivo de evaluar la efectividad de los medicamentos homeopáticos en el control de la GEHA, evolución clínica, necesidad de hospitalización y uso de antibióticos, se realizó un estudio descriptivo, prospectivo, longitudinal y correlacional a 504 pacientes de edad pediátrica, divididos en dos grupos, uno el grupo estudio, tratado con medicamentos homeopáticos a baja potencia, y el segundo el grupo control, en el cual se empleó también medicación natural (colutorios de Llantén. El estudio fue realizado de Septiembre de 2004 a Enero 2006. Se empleó como método estadístico la media porcentual, test Chi cuadrado y la prueba de comparación K para proporciones de grupos independientes, teniendo como resultado que el grupo de niños mas afectado fue el de 1-5 años y del sexo masculino. Fue estadísticamente significativa la aparición de ulceraciones, sangramiento y dolor. La evolución con el tratamiento homeopático fue estadísticamente significativa (p>1000 E13, para 1-2 días, obteniéndose al cuarto día el 79.5% de curación. Ninguno de los niños estudiados en el período repitió la enfermedad. La conclusión fundamental fue que la homeopatía es un método muy útil en el tratamiento de la gingivoestomatitis herpética aguda.Oral diseases constitute one of the most common health problems world wide, being the most representative Acute Herpetic Gingivostomatitis. Aimed at assessing the effectiveness of homeopathic treatment in the control of this entity, clinical course, necessity of hospital admission and use of antibiotics, a descriptive, prospective, longitudinal and correlational study in 504 pediatric patients was carried out. These patients were divided into two groups: No. 1 study group, treated with low-potency homeopathic medications; No

  16. A Polyamide Inhibits Replication of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus by Targeting RNA in the Nucleocapsid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gumpper, Ryan H.; Li, Weike; Castañeda, Carlos H.; Scuderi, M. José; Bashkin, James K.; Luo, Ming; Dutch, Rebecca Ellis

    2018-02-07

    Polyamides have been shown to bind double-stranded DNA by complementing the curvature of the minor groove and forming various hydrogen bonds with DNA. Several polyamide molecules have been found to have potent antiviral activities against papillomavirus, a double-stranded DNA virus. By analogy, we reason that polyamides may also interact with the structured RNA bound in the nucleocapsid of a negative-strand RNA virus. Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) was selected as a prototype virus to test this possibility since its genomic RNA encapsidated in the nucleocapsid forms a structure resembling one strand of an A-form RNA duplex. One polyamide molecule, UMSL1011, was found to inhibit infection of VSV. To confirm that the polyamide targeted the nucleocapsid, a nucleocapsid-like particle (NLP) was incubated with UMSL1011. The encapsidated RNA in the polyamide-treated NLP was protected from thermo-release and digestion by RNase A. UMSL1011 also inhibits viral RNA synthesis in the intracellular activity assay for the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. The crystal structure revealed that UMSL1011 binds the structured RNA in the nucleocapsid. The conclusion of our studies is that the RNA in the nucleocapsid is a viable antiviral target of polyamides. Since the RNA structure in the nucleocapsid is similar in all negative-strand RNA viruses, polyamides may be optimized to target the specific RNA genome of a negative-strand RNA virus, such as respiratory syncytial virus and Ebola virus.

    IMPORTANCENegative-strand RNA viruses (NSVs) include several life-threatening pathogens, such as rabies virus, respiratory syncytial virus, and Ebola virus. There are no effective antiviral drugs against these viruses. Polyamides offer an exceptional opportunity because they may be optimized to target each NSV. Our studies on vesicular stomatitis virus, an NSV, demonstrated that a polyamide molecule could specifically target the viral RNA in the nucleocapsid and inhibit

  17. Decoupling the influence of leaf and root hydraulic conductances on stomatal conductance and its sensitivity to vapour pressure deficit as soil dries in a drained loblolly pine plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.-C. Domec; A. Noormets; Ge Sun; J. King; Steven McNulty; Michael Gavazzi; Johnny Boggs; Emrys Treasure

    2009-01-01

    The study examined the relationships between whole tree hydraulic conductance (Ktree) and the conductance in roots (Kroot) and leaves (Kleaf) in loblolly pine trees. In addition, the role of seasonal variations in Kroot and Kleaf in mediating stomatal...

  18. Identifying the tundra-forest border in the stomate record: an analysis of lake surface samples from the Yellowknife area, Northwest Territories, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, B.C.S. [Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis, MN (United States). Limnological Research Center; MacDonald, G.M. [California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Botanical Sciences; Moser, K.A. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada)

    1996-05-01

    The relationship between conifer stomata and existing vegetation across tundra, forest-tundra, and closed zones in the Yellowknife area of the Northwest Territories was studied. Conifer stomata were identified in surface samples from lakes in the treeline zone, but were absent in samples from tundra lakes. Stomate analysis was recorded and the results were presented in a concentration diagram plotting stomate concentrations according to vegetation zone. Conifer stomate analysis was not able to resolve differences between forest-tundra and closed forest. Nevertheless, it was suggested that stomate analysis will become an important technique supplementing pollen analysis for reconstructing past tree-line changes since the presence of stomata in lakes make it possible to separate the tundra from forest-tundra and closed forest. The limited dispersal of conifer stomata permitted a better resolution of tree-line boundaries than did pollen. 13 refs., 3 figs.

  19. Opinion: the red-light response of stomatal movement is sensed by the redox state of the photosynthetic electron transport chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Florian A

    2014-02-01

    Guard cells regulate CO2 uptake and water loss of a leaf by controlling stomatal movement in response to environmental factors such as CO2, humidity, and light. The mechanisms by which stomata respond to red light are actively debated in the literature, and even after decades of research it is still controversial whether stomatal movement is related to photosynthesis or not. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the red-light response of stomata. A comparison of published evidence suggests that stomatal movement is controlled by the redox state of photosynthetic electron transport chain components, in particular the redox state of plastoquinone. Potential consequences for the modeling of stomatal conductance are discussed.

  20. Trends in stomatal density and 13C/12C ratios of Pinus flexilis needles during last glacial-interglacial cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van de Water, P.K.; Leavitt, S.W.; Betancourt, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    Measurements of stomatal density and delta 13C of limber pine (Pinus flexilis) needles (leaves) preserved in pack rat middens from the Great Basin reveal shifts in plant physiology and leaf morphology during the last 30,000 years. Sites were selected so as to offset glacia to Holocene climatic differences and thus to isolate the effects of changing atmospheric CO2 levels. Stomatal density decreased approximately 17 percent and delta 13C decreased approximately 1.5 per ml during deglaciation from 15,000 to 12,000 years ago, concomitant with a 30 percent increase in atmospheric CO2. Water-use efficiency increased approximately 15 percent during deglaciation, if temperature and humidity were held constant and the proxy values for CO2 and delta 13C of past atmospheres are accurate. The delta 13C variations may help constrain hypotheses about the redistribution of carbon between the atmosphere and biosphere during the last glacial-interglacial cycle

  1. Characterization of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Recombinants That Express and Incorporate High Levels of Hepatitis C Virus Glycoproteins

    OpenAIRE

    Buonocore, Linda; Blight, Keril J.; Rice, Charles M.; Rose, John K.

    2002-01-01

    We generated recombinant vesicular stomatitis viruses (VSV) expressing genes encoding hybrid proteins consisting of the extracellular domains of hepatitis C virus (HCV) glycoproteins fused at different positions to the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of the VSV G glycoprotein (E1G and E2G). We show that these chimeric proteins are transported to the cell surface and incorporated into VSV virions efficiently. We also generated VSV recombinants in which the gene encoding the VSV G protein...

  2. Stomatal Conductance, Plant Hydraulics, and Multilayer Canopies: A New Paradigm for Earth System Models or Unnecessary Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonan, G. B.

    2016-12-01

    Soil moisture stress is a key regulator of canopy transpiration, the surface energy budget, and land-atmosphere coupling. Many land surface models used in Earth system models have an ad-hoc parameterization of soil moisture stress that decreases stomatal conductance with soil drying. Parameterization of soil moisture stress from more fundamental principles of plant hydrodynamics is a key research frontier for land surface models. While the biophysical and physiological foundations of such parameterizations are well-known, their best implementation in land surface models is less clear. Land surface models utilize a big-leaf canopy parameterization (or two big-leaves to represent the sunlit and shaded canopy) without vertical gradients in the canopy. However, there are strong biometeorological and physiological gradients in plant canopies. Are these gradients necessary to resolve? Here, I describe a vertically-resolved, multilayer canopy model that calculates leaf temperature and energy fluxes, photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and leaf water potential at each level in the canopy. In this model, midday leaf water stress manifests in the upper canopy layers, which receive high amounts of solar radiation, have high leaf nitrogen and photosynthetic capacity, and have high stomatal conductance and transpiration rates (in the absence of leaf water stress). Lower levels in the canopy become water stressed in response to longer-term soil moisture drying. I examine the role of vertical gradients in the canopy microclimate (solar radiation, air temperature, vapor pressure, wind speed), structure (leaf area density), and physiology (leaf nitrogen, photosynthetic capacity, stomatal conductance) in determining above canopy fluxes and gradients of transpiration and leaf water potential within the canopy.

  3. Transpiration and stomatal conductance in a young secondary tropical montane forest: contrasts between native trees and invasive understorey shrubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, Chandra Prasad; Bruijnzeel, L Adrian; Lubczynski, Maciek W; Zwartendijk, Bob W; Odongo, Vincent Omondi; Ravelona, Maafaka; van Meerveld, H J Ilja

    2018-04-21

    It has been suggested that vigorous secondary tropical forests can have very high transpiration rates, but sap flow and stomatal conductance dynamics of trees and shrubs in these forests are understudied. In an effort to address this knowledge gap, sap flow (thermal dissipation method, 12 trees) and stomatal conductance (porometry, six trees) were measured for young (5-7 years) Psiadia altissima (DC.) Drake trees, a widely occurring species dominating young regrowth following abandonment of swidden agriculture in upland eastern Madagascar. In addition, stomatal conductance (gs) was determined for three individuals of two locally common invasive shrubs (Lantana camara L. and Rubus moluccanus L.) during three periods with contrasting soil moisture conditions. Values of gs for the three investigated species were significantly higher and more sensitive to climatic conditions during the wet period compared with the dry period. Further, gs of the understorey shrubs was much more sensitive to soil moisture content than that of the trees. Tree transpiration rates (Ec) were relatively stable during the dry season and were only affected somewhat by soil water content at the end of the dry season, suggesting the trees had continued access to soil water despite drying out of the topsoil. The Ec exhibited a plateau-shaped relation with vapour pressure deficit (VPD), which was attributed to stomatal closure at high VPD. Vapour pressure deficit was the major driver of variation in Ec, during both the wet and the dry season. Overall water use of the trees was modest, possibly reflecting low site fertility after three swidden cultivation cycles. The observed contrast in gs response to soil water and climatic conditions for the trees and shrubs underscores the need to take root distributions into account when modelling transpiration from regenerating tropical forests.

  4. Detecting the differences in responses of stomatal conductance to moisture stresses between deciduous shrubs and Artemisia subshrubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qiong; Yu, Mei; Zhou, Chan

    2013-01-01

    Shrubs and subshrubs can tolerate wider ranges of moisture stresses in both soil and air than other plant life forms, and thus represent greater nonlinearity and uncertainty in ecosystem physiology. The objectives of this paper are to model shrub/subshrub stomatal conductance by synthesizing the field leaf gas exchanges data of 24 species in China, in order to detect the differences between deciduous shrubs and Artemisia subshrubs in their responses of stomatal conductance to changes in the moisture stresses. We revised a model of stomatal conductance by incorporating the tradeoff between xylem hydraulic efficiency and cavitation loss risk. We then fit the model at the three hierarchical levels: global (pooling all data as a single group), three functional groups (deciduous non-legume shrubs, deciduous legume shrubs, and subshrubs in Artemisia genus), and individual observations (species × sites). Bayesian inference with Markov Chain Monte Carlo method was applied to obtain the model parameters at the three levels. We found that the model at the level of functional groups is a significant improvement over that at the global level, indicating the significant differences in the stomatal behavior among the three functional groups. The differences in tolerance and sensitivities to changes in moisture stresses are the most evident between the shrubs and the subshrubs: The two shrub groups can tolerate much higher soil water stress than the subshrubs. The analysis at the observation level is also a significant improvement over that at the functional group level, indicating great variations within each group. Our analysis offered a clue for the equivocal issue of shrub encroachment into grasslands: While the invasion by the shrubs may be irreversible, the dominance of subshrubs, due to their lower resistance and tolerance to moisture stresses, may be put down by appropriate grassland management.

  5. Lower responsiveness of canopy evapotranspiration rate than of leaf stomatal conductance to open-air CO2 elevation in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimono, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Hirofumi; Hasegawa, Toshihiro; Okada, Masumi

    2013-08-01

    An elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2 ]) can reduce stomatal conductance of leaves for most plant species, including rice (Oryza sativa L.). However, few studies have quantified seasonal changes in the effects of elevated [CO2 ] on canopy evapotranspiration, which integrates the response of stomatal conductance of individual leaves with other responses, such as leaf area expansion, changes in leaf surface temperature, and changes in developmental stages, in field conditions. We conducted a field experiment to measure seasonal changes in stomatal conductance of the uppermost leaves and in the evapotranspiration, transpiration, and evaporation rates using a lysimeter method. The study was conducted for flooded rice under open-air CO2 elevation. Stomatal conductance decreased by 27% under elevated [CO2 ], averaged throughout the growing season, and evapotranspiration decreased by an average of 5% during the same period. The decrease in daily evapotranspiration caused by elevated [CO2 ] was more significantly correlated with air temperature and leaf area index (LAI) rather than with other parameters of solar radiation, days after transplanting, vapor-pressure deficit and FAO reference evapotranspiration. This indicates that higher air temperatures, within the range from 16 to 27 °C, and a larger LAI, within the range from 0 to 4 m(2)  m(-2) , can increase the magnitude of the decrease in evapotranspiration rate caused by elevated [CO2 ]. The crop coefficient (i.e. the evapotranspiration rate divided by the FAO reference evapotranspiration rate) was 1.24 at ambient [CO2 ] and 1.17 at elevated [CO2 ]. This study provides the first direct measurement of the effects of elevated [CO2 ] on rice canopy evapotranspiration under open-air conditions using the lysimeter method, and the results will improve future predictions of water use in rice fields. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Acquired changes in stomatal characteristics in response to ozone during plant growth and leaf development of bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) indicate phenotypic plasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elagoez, Vahram; Han, Susan S.; Manning, William J.

    2006-01-01

    Bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines 'S156' (O 3 -sensitive)/'R123' (O 3 -tolerant) and cultivars 'BBL 290' (O 3 -sensitive)/'BBL 274' (O 3 -tolerant) were used to study the effects of O 3 on stomatal conductance (g s ), density, and aperture size on leaf and pod surfaces with the objective of establishing links between the degree of plant sensitivity to O 3 and plasticity of stomatal properties in response to O 3 . Studies in open-top chambers (OTCs) and in continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) established a clear relationship between plant developmental stages, degrees of O 3 sensitivity and g s : while 'S156' had higher g s rates than 'R123' earlier in development, similar differences between 'BBL 290' and 'BBL 274' were observed at later stages. G s rates on the abaxial leaf surfaces of 'S156' and 'BBL 290', accompanied by low leaf temperatures, were significantly higher than their O 3 -tolerant counterparts. Exposure to O 3 in CSTRs had greater and more consistent impacts on both stomatal densities and aperture sizes of O 3 -sensitive cultivars. Stomatal densities were highest on the abaxial leaf surfaces of 'S156' and 'BBL 290' at higher O 3 concentrations (60 ppb), but the largest aperture sizes were recorded on the adaxial leaf surfaces at moderate O 3 concentrations (30 ppb). Exposure to O 3 eliminated aperture size differences on the adaxial leaf surfaces between sensitive and tolerant cultivars. Regardless of sensitivity to O 3 and treatment regimes, the smallest aperture sizes and highest stomatal densities were found on the abaxial leaf surface. Our studies showed that O 3 has the potential to affect stomatal plasticity and confirmed the presence of different control mechanisms for stomatal development on each leaf surface. This appeared to be more evident in O 3 -sensitive cultivars. - O 3 has the potential to affect stomatal development and the presence of different control mechanisms on each leaf surface is confirmed

  7. GID1 modulates stomatal response and submergence tolerance involving abscisic acid and gibberellic acid signaling in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hao; Chang, Yu; Huang, Fei; Xiong, Lizhong

    2015-11-01

    Plant responses to abiotic stresses are coordinated by arrays of growth and developmental programs. Gibberellic acid (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) play critical roles in the developmental programs and environmental responses, respectively, through complex signaling and metabolism networks. However, crosstalk between the two phytohormones in stress responses remains largely unknown. In this study, we report that GIBBERELLIN-INSENSITIVE DWARF 1 (GID1), a soluble receptor for GA, regulates stomatal development and patterning in rice (Oryza sativa L.). The gid1 mutant showed impaired biosynthesis of endogenous ABA under drought stress conditions, but it exhibited enhanced sensitivity to exogenous ABA. Scanning electron microscope and infrared thermal image analysis indicated an increase in the stomatal conductance in the gid1 mutant under drought conditions. Interestingly, the gid1 mutant had increased levels of chlorophyll and carbohydrates under submergence conditions, and showed enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS)-scavenging ability and submergence tolerance compared with the wild-type. Further analyses suggested that the function of GID1 in submergence responses is partially dependent on ABA, and GA signaling by GID1 is involved in submergence tolerance by modulating carbohydrate consumption. Taken together, these findings suggest GID1 plays distinct roles in stomatal response and submergence tolerance through both the ABA and GA signaling pathways in rice. © 2014 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  8. In situ temperature relationships of biochemical and stomatal controls of photosynthesis in four lowland tropical tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slot, Martijn; Winter, Klaus

    2017-12-01

    Net photosynthetic carbon uptake of Panamanian lowland tropical forest species is typically optimal at 30-32 °C. The processes responsible for the decrease in photosynthesis at higher temperatures are not fully understood for tropical trees. We determined temperature responses of maximum rates of RuBP-carboxylation (V CMax ) and RuBP-regeneration (J Max ), stomatal conductance (G s ), and respiration in the light (R Light ) in situ for 4 lowland tropical tree species in Panama. G s had the lowest temperature optimum (T Opt ), similar to that of net photosynthesis, and photosynthesis became increasingly limited by stomatal conductance as temperature increased. J Max peaked at 34-37 °C and V CMax ~2 °C above that, except in the late-successional species Calophyllum longifolium, in which both peaked at ~33 °C. R Light significantly increased with increasing temperature, but simulations with a photosynthesis model indicated that this had only a small effect on net photosynthesis. We found no evidence for Rubisco-activase limitation of photosynthesis. T Opt of V CMax and J Max fell within the observed in situ leaf temperature range, but our study nonetheless suggests that net photosynthesis of tropical trees is more strongly influenced by the indirect effects of high temperature-for example, through elevated vapour pressure deficit and resulting decreases in stomatal conductance-than by direct temperature effects on photosynthetic biochemistry and respiration. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Transmission of vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus to cattle by the biting midge Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez de Leon, Adalberto A; Tabachnick, Walter J

    2006-03-01

    Laboratory-reared Culicoides sonorensis Wirth & Jones were infected with vesicular stomatitis virus serotype New Jersey (family Rhabdoviridae, genus Vesiculovirus, VSNJV) through intrathoracic inoculation. After 10-d incubation at 25 degrees C, these insects were allowed to blood feed on four steers. Two other steers were exposed to VSNJV through intralingual inoculation with 10(8) tissue culture infective dose50 VSNJV. All six steers became seropositive for VSNJV. The results demonstrate the ability of C. sonorensis to transmit VSNJV to livestock. Only the animals intralingually inoculated with VSNJV showed clinical signs in the form of vesicles at the site of inoculation. Uninfected C. sonorensis allowed to feed on the exposed animals did not become infected with VSNJV. Animals infected by C. sonorensis showed a slower antibody response compared with intralingually inoculated animals. This is probably because of different amounts of virus received via insect transmission and syringe inoculation. A significant difference was found in the serum acute-phase protein alpha-1-acid glycoprotein in animals that received VSNJV through C. sonorensis transmission. These animals had previously been exposed to insect attack in the field compared with intralingually inoculated animals and C. sonorensis-infected animals that had been protected from insect attack. The failure to observe clinical signs of vesicular stomatitis through transmission of VSNJV by C. sonorensis may explain widespread subclinical infections during vesicular stomatitis epidemics.

  10. Rice Stomatal Closure Requires Guard Cell Plasma Membrane ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter RCN1/OsABCG5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Shuichi; Takano, Sho; Sato, Moeko; Furukawa, Kaoru; Nagasawa, Hidetaka; Yoshikawa, Shoko; Kasuga, Jun; Tokuji, Yoshihiko; Yazaki, Kazufumi; Nakazono, Mikio; Takamure, Itsuro; Kato, Kiyoaki

    2016-03-07

    Water stress is one of the major environmental stresses that affect agricultural production worldwide. Water loss from plants occurs primarily through stomatal pores. Here, we report that an Oryza sativa half-size ATP-binding cassette (ABC) subfamily G protein, RCN1/OsABCG5, is involved in stomatal closure mediated by phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) accumulation in guard cells. We found that the GFP-RCN1/OsABCG5-fusion protein was localized at the plasma membrane in guard cells. The percentage of guard cell pairs containing both ABA and GFP-RCN1/OsABCG5 increased after exogenous ABA treatment, whereas they were co-localized in guard cell pairs regardless of whether exogenous ABA was applied. ABA application resulted in a smaller increase in the percentage of guard cell pairs containing ABA in rcn1 mutant (A684P) and RCN1-RNAi than in wild-type plants. Furthermore, polyethylene glycol (drought stress)-inducible ABA accumulation in guard cells did not occur in rcn1 mutants. Stomata closure mediated by exogenous ABA application was strongly reduced in rcn1 mutants. Finally, rcn1 mutant plants had more rapid water loss from detached leaves than the wild-type plants. These results indicate that in response to drought stress, RCN1/OsABCG5 is involved in accumulation of ABA in guard cells, which is indispensable for stomatal closure. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus vaccine vectors expressing filovirus glycoproteins lack neurovirulence in nonhuman primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad E Mire

    Full Text Available The filoviruses, Marburg virus and Ebola virus, cause severe hemorrhagic fever with high mortality in humans and nonhuman primates. Among the most promising filovirus vaccines under development is a system based on recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV that expresses an individual filovirus glycoprotein (GP in place of the VSV glycoprotein (G. The main concern with all replication-competent vaccines, including the rVSV filovirus GP vectors, is their safety. To address this concern, we performed a neurovirulence study using 21 cynomolgus macaques where the vaccines were administered intrathalamically. Seven animals received a rVSV vector expressing the Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV GP; seven animals received a rVSV vector expressing the Lake Victoria marburgvirus (MARV GP; three animals received rVSV-wild type (wt vector, and four animals received vehicle control. Two of three animals given rVSV-wt showed severe neurological symptoms whereas animals receiving vehicle control, rVSV-ZEBOV-GP, or rVSV-MARV-GP did not develop these symptoms. Histological analysis revealed major lesions in neural tissues of all three rVSV-wt animals; however, no significant lesions were observed in any animals from the filovirus vaccine or vehicle control groups. These data strongly suggest that rVSV filovirus GP vaccine vectors lack the neurovirulence properties associated with the rVSV-wt parent vector and support their further development as a vaccine platform for human use.

  12. The Beneficial Effect of Equisetum giganteum L. against Candida Biofilm Formation: New Approaches to Denture Stomatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela A. S. Alavarce

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Equisetum giganteum L. (E. giganteum, Equisetaceae, commonly called “giant horsetail,” is an endemic plant of Central and South America and is used in traditional medicine as diuretic and hemostatic in urinary disorders and in inflammatory conditions among other applications. The chemical composition of the extract EtOH 70% of E. giganteum has shown a clear presence of phenolic compounds derived from caffeic and ferulic acids and flavonoid heterosides derived from quercitin and kaempferol, in addition to styrylpyrones. E. giganteum, mainly at the highest concentrations, showed antimicrobial activity against the relevant microorganisms tested: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans. It also demonstrated antiadherent activity on C. albicans biofilms in an experimental model that is similar to dentures. Moreover, all concentrations tested showed anti-inflammatory activity. The extract did not show cytotoxicity in contact with human cells. These properties might qualify E. giganteum extract to be a promising alternative for the topic treatment and prevention of oral candidiasis and denture stomatitis.

  13. The association of tobacco and other factors with recurrent aphthous stomatitis in an US adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Hidalgo, F; Shulman, J D; Beach, M M

    2004-11-01

    To determine point and annual prevalence of recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS). Reported prevalence of RAS in textbooks and much of the literature varies according to study location, patient selection and whether point prevalence (presence of lesions at examination) or period prevalence (history of lesions during a specified period) is reported. Many studies are based on non-probability samples and this may contribute to significant variation in reported prevalence and factors presumed to be associated with RAS. We analyzed data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994, a large United States probability sample, for RAS and covariates suggested in the literature using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression. Oral mucosal examinations were performed on 17 235 adults 17 years and older. Of these, 146 (0.89%) had at least one clinically apparent aphthous lesion. For annual (reported) prevalence, Whites (20.87%) and Mexican-Americans (12.88%) had several fold higher prevalence of RAS than Blacks (4.96%). Adults younger than 40 years of age had almost twice the prevalence (22.54%) of those older than 40 years (13.42%). Annual prevalence was significantly higher in whites and Mexican-Americans (compared with blacks), individuals 17-39 years of age, cigarette non-smokers, and those with recurrent herpes labialis history; while it was lower in males. Point prevalence was significantly higher in whites, Mexican-American, individuals 17-39 years of age, cigarette non-smokers, and males.

  14. Effect of sodium lauryl sulfate on recurrent aphthous stomatitis: a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Y J; Choi, J-H; Ahn, H-J; Kwon, J-S

    2012-10-01

    To compare the effects of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS)-free and SLS-containing dentifrice in patient with recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS). The design of this study was a double-blind crossover trial. The 90 subjects were divided into three groups: group I used SLS-free (a commercially available SLS-free dentifrice) and SLS-A (SLS-free + 1.5% SLS), group II used SLS-A and SLS-B (a commercially available 1.5% SLS-containing dentifrice), and group III used SLS-free and SLS-B. The subjects used one of the two assigned dentifrices for 8 weeks and then the other for the following 8 weeks. The order of the dentifrices used was selected at random, and there was a 2-week washout period between the two phases. The clinical parameters (number of ulcers, number of episodes, duration of ulcers, mean pain score) were compared between the two phases for each group. The number of ulcers and episodes did not differ significantly between SLS-A, SLS-B, and SLS-free. Only duration of ulcers and mean pain score was significantly decreased during the period using SLS-free. Although SLS-free did not reduce the number of ulcers and episodes, it affected the ulcer-healing process and reduces pain in daily lives in patients with RAS. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  15. Does low stomatal conductance or photosynthetic capacity enhance growth at elevated CO2 in Arabidopsis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easlon, Hsien Ming; Carlisle, Eli; McKay, John K; Bloom, Arnold J

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if low stomatal conductance (g) increases growth, nitrate (NO3 (-)) assimilation, and nitrogen (N) utilization at elevated CO2 concentration. Four Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) near isogenic lines (NILs) differing in g were grown at ambient and elevated CO2 concentration under low and high NO3 (-) supply as the sole source of N. Although g varied by 32% among NILs at elevated CO2, leaf intercellular CO2 concentration varied by only 4% and genotype had no effect on shoot NO3 (-) concentration in any treatment. Low-g NILs showed the greatest CO2 growth increase under N limitation but had the lowest CO2 growth enhancement under N-sufficient conditions. NILs with the highest and lowest g had similar rates of shoot NO3 (-) assimilation following N deprivation at elevated CO2 concentration. After 5 d of N deprivation, the lowest g NIL had 27% lower maximum carboxylation rate and 23% lower photosynthetic electron transport compared with the highest g NIL. These results suggest that increased growth of low-g NILs under N limitation most likely resulted from more conservative N investment in photosynthetic biochemistry rather than from low g. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  16. 1995 epizootic of vesicular stomatitis (New Jersey serotype) in the western United States: an entomologic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidtmann, E T; Tabachnick, W J; Hunt, G J; Thompson, L H; Hurd, H S

    1999-01-01

    Entomologic and epizootic data are reviewed concerning the potential for transmission of vesicular stomatitis (VS) virus by insects, including field data from case-positive premises in New Mexico and Colorado during the 1995 outbreak of the New Jersey serotype (VSNJ). As with previous outbreaks of VSNJ in the western United States, the 1995 epizootic illustrated that risk of exposure is seasonal, increasing during warm weather and decreasing with onset of cool weather; virus activity spread from south to north along river valleys of the southwestern and Rocky Mountain states; clinical disease was detected most commonly in horses, but also occurred in cattle and 1 llama; and most infections were subclinical. Overall, 367 case-positive premises were identified during the 1995 outbreak, with foci of virus activity along the Rio Grande River south of Albuquerque, NM, in southwestern Colorado, and along the Colorado River near Grand Junction, CO. The establishment of a 16-km (10-mile) radius zone of restricted animal movement around confirmed positive premises, along with imposition of state and international embargoes, created economic hardship for livestock owners and producers. The importance of defining the role of blood-feeding insects as biological vectors of VSNJ virus relative to risk factors that promote high levels of insect transmission, such as the presence of livestock along western river valleys, blood feeding activity, and frequent transport of animals for recreational purposes, is emphasized as a basis for developing effective disease management.

  17. Quantification of Lyssavirus-Neutralizing Antibodies Using Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Pseudotype Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Moeschler

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is a highly fatal zoonotic disease which is primarily caused by rabies virus (RABV although other members of the genus Lyssavirus can cause rabies as well. As yet, 14 serologically and genetically diverse lyssaviruses have been identified, mostly in bats. To assess the quality of rabies vaccines and immunoglobulin preparations, virus neutralization tests with live RABV are performed in accordance with enhanced biosafety standards. In the present work, a novel neutralization test is presented which takes advantage of a modified vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV from which the glycoprotein G gene has been deleted and replaced by reporter genes. This single-cycle virus was trans-complemented with RABV envelope glycoprotein. Neutralization of this pseudotype virus with RABV reference serum or immune sera from vaccinated mice showed a strong correlation with the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT. Importantly, pseudotype viruses containing the envelope glycoproteins of other lyssaviruses were neutralized by reference serum to a significantly lesser extent or were not neutralized at all. Taken together, a pseudotype virus system has been successfully developed which allows the safe, fast, and sensitive detection of neutralizing antibodies directed against different lyssaviruses.

  18. The relationship between recurrent aphthous stomatitis, and periodontal disease and Helicobacter Pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülseren, D; Karaduman, A; Kutsal, D; Nohutcu, R M

    2016-11-01

    Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is a common oral mucosal disease with unknown etiology. This cross-sectional study aimed to test the hypothesis that Helicobacter pylori and periodontal disease might play an etiological role in RAS. Dental plaque samples obtained from 38 patients with RAS and 43 healthy individuals via periodontal examinations were examined for H. pylori colonization. H. pylori was identified using the rapid urease test (RUT). The periodontal status of the patients and controls was based on the following periodontal parameters: periodontal pocket depth (PPD), the plaque index (PI), the gingival index (GI), and clinical attachment loss (CAL). RUT results were positive in 34 (89.5 %) of the 38 patients and 24 (55.8 %) of the 43 controls (P = 0.002). There were not any significant differences in mean PPD, PI, GI, or CAL between the patient and control groups (P > 0.05). Mean PPD, PI, GI, and CAL were higher in the RUT-positive RAS patients than in the RUT-negative patients (P > 0.05, for all). The present findings show that H. pylori might have played an etiological role in RAS and might have caused periodontal disease, but RAS was not associated with any of the periodontal parameters examined in this study. The present study indicates that H. pylori plays a role in the development of RAS, but periodontal diseases have no effect on it. Eradicating H. pylori might be useful to prevent RAS.

  19. The Efficacy of Sucralfate and Chlorhexidine as an Oral Rinse in Patients with Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soylu Özler, Gül; Okuyucu, Şemsettin; Akoğlu, Ertap

    2014-01-01

    Aim. In this study, we compared the efficacy of sucralfate suspension with chlorhexidine as an oral rinse in patients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) in terms of pain relief and healing time. Materials and Methods. The subjects with a complaint of recurrent oral aphthous ulcers less than 1 cm in diameter on the first day of the occurrence of the ulcer and between 20 and 40 years were included in the study. Seventy patients completed the study. The patients were randomized into two groups as SCH group and CHX group. Changes in pain scores, healing time, and side effects of the treatments were evaluated. Results. The mean value of pain scores on the days after the treatment from the first day to the seventh day was significantly higher in CHX group than SCH group (P ≤ 0.05). On the seventh day after the treatment, the ulcers were completely reepithelialized in 23 patients in SCH group and in 19 patients in CHX group. The difference was statistically significant (P ≤ 0.05). In SCH group, the mean healing time of ulcers was 1.97 ± 1.56 days whereas it was 2.80 ± 3.00 days in CHX group. The difference was statistically significant (P ≤ 0.05). No side effects were recorded in either of the groups. Conclusion. Topical sucralfate suspension is an easy, safe, inexpensive, and effective treatment option for RAS to obtain pain relief and shorten the healing time of oral ulcers.

  20. The Efficacy of Sucralfate and Chlorhexidine as an Oral Rinse in Patients with Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gül Soylu Özler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. In this study, we compared the efficacy of sucralfate suspension with chlorhexidine as an oral rinse in patients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS in terms of pain relief and healing time. Materials and Methods. The subjects with a complaint of recurrent oral aphthous ulcers less than 1 cm in diameter on the first day of the occurrence of the ulcer and between 20 and 40 years were included in the study. Seventy patients completed the study. The patients were randomized into two groups as SCH group and CHX group. Changes in pain scores, healing time, and side effects of the treatments were evaluated. Results. The mean value of pain scores on the days after the treatment from the first day to the seventh day was significantly higher in CHX group than SCH group (P≤0.05. On the seventh day after the treatment, the ulcers were completely reepithelialized in 23 patients in SCH group and in 19 patients in CHX group. The difference was statistically significant (P≤0.05. In SCH group, the mean healing time of ulcers was 1.97±1.56 days whereas it was 2.80±3.00 days in CHX group. The difference was statistically significant (P≤0.05. No side effects were recorded in either of the groups. Conclusion. Topical sucralfate suspension is an easy, safe, inexpensive, and effective treatment option for RAS to obtain pain relief and shorten the healing time of oral ulcers.

  1. Quantification of Lyssavirus-Neutralizing Antibodies Using Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Pseudotype Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeschler, Sarah; Locher, Samira; Conzelmann, Karl-Klaus; Krämer, Beate; Zimmer, Gert

    2016-09-16

    Rabies is a highly fatal zoonotic disease which is primarily caused by rabies virus (RABV) although other members of the genus Lyssavirus can cause rabies as well. As yet, 14 serologically and genetically diverse lyssaviruses have been identified, mostly in bats. To assess the quality of rabies vaccines and immunoglobulin preparations, virus neutralization tests with live RABV are performed in accordance with enhanced biosafety standards. In the present work, a novel neutralization test is presented which takes advantage of a modified vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) from which the glycoprotein G gene has been deleted and replaced by reporter genes. This single-cycle virus was trans-complemented with RABV envelope glycoprotein. Neutralization of this pseudotype virus with RABV reference serum or immune sera from vaccinated mice showed a strong correlation with the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT). Importantly, pseudotype viruses containing the envelope glycoproteins of other lyssaviruses were neutralized by reference serum to a significantly lesser extent or were not neutralized at all. Taken together, a pseudotype virus system has been successfully developed which allows the safe, fast, and sensitive detection of neutralizing antibodies directed against different lyssaviruses.

  2. The effect of extract of Punica granatum var. pleniflora for treatment of minor recurrent aphthous stomatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavanji, Shahin; Larki, Behrouz; Bakhtari, Azizollah

    2014-06-01

    Herbal drugs are considered alternative agents and have been used for several years around the world. Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is one of the most common problems recognized by dentists and skin specialists. This problem is characterized by recurring, painful, small oral mucosal ulcers with a round or oval aspect that mostly appear in keratinized mucosa, cheeks, and on the surface of the mouth under the tongue. In our experiment, the alcoholic and water extracts of Punica granatum var. pleniflora, P. granatum var. Sweet Alak, and P. granatum var. Saveh Black were tested on minor RAS. The study was carried out using the double-blind method. The study population consisted of 210 participants, of whom 69 were females (32%) and 141 were males (68%). In addition to checking several factors, the pain and the degree of the participant's satisfaction had been determined based on visual analog scale. Data analysis was done in the form of a nonparametric method using Kruskal-Wallis test and SPSS version 20 software. The results show that the alcoholic and water extracts of P. granatum var. pleniflora have a meaningful therapeutic effect on minor RAS. Results from the antioxidant activity and its relation to total phenolics show that P. granatum var. pleniflora and P. granatum var. Sweet Alak are rich in phenols. The water and alcoholic extracts of P. granatum varpleniflora decreased the entire time of complete treatment, and the treatment was meaningfully satisfactory for patients who participated in this experiment.

  3. How should leaf area, sapwood area and stomatal conductance vary with tree height to maximize growth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Thomas N; Roberts, David W

    2006-02-01

    Conventional wisdom holds that the ratio of leaf area to sapwood area (L/S) should decline during height (H) growth to maintain hydraulic homeostasis and prevent stomatal conductance (g(s)) from declining. We contend that L/S should increase with H based on a numerical simulation, a mathematical analysis and a conceptual argument: (1) numerical simulation--a tree growth model, DESPOT (Deducing Emergent Structure and Physiology Of Trees), in which carbon (C) allocation is regulated to maximize C gain, predicts L/S should increase during most of H growth; (2) mathematical analysis--the formal criterion for optimal C allocation, applied to a simplified analytical model of whole tree carbon-water balance, predicts L/S should increase with H if leaf-level gas exchange parameters including g(s) are conserved; and (3) conceptual argument--photosynthesis is limited by several substitutable resources (chiefly nitrogen (N), water and light) and H growth increases the C cost of water transport but not necessarily of N and light capture, so if the goal is to maximize C gain or growth, allocation should shift in favor of increasing photosynthetic capacity and irradiance, rather than sustaining g(s). Although many data are consistent with the prediction that L/S should decline with H, many others are not, and we discuss possible reasons for these discrepancies.

  4. Anterograde or Retrograde Transsynaptic Circuit Tracing in Vertebrates with Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, Kevin T; Mundell, Nathan A; Pan, Y Albert; Cepko, Constance L

    2016-01-04

    Viruses have been used as transsynaptic tracers, allowing one to map the inputs and outputs of neuronal populations, due to their ability to replicate in neurons and transmit in vivo only across synaptically connected cells. To date, their use has been largely restricted to mammals. In order to explore the use of such viruses in an expanded host range, we tested the transsynaptic tracing ability of recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV) vectors in a variety of organisms. Successful infection and gene expression were achieved in a wide range of organisms, including vertebrate and invertebrate model organisms. Moreover, rVSV enabled transsynaptic tracing of neural circuitry in predictable directions dictated by the viral envelope glycoprotein (G), derived from either VSV or rabies virus (RABV). Anterograde and retrograde labeling, from initial infection and/or viral replication and transmission, was observed in Old and New World monkeys, seahorses, jellyfish, zebrafish, chickens, and mice. These vectors are widely applicable for gene delivery, afferent tract tracing, and/or directional connectivity mapping. Here, we detail the use of these vectors and provide protocols for propagating virus, changing the surface glycoprotein, and infecting multiple organisms using several injection strategies. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  5. Vesicular stomatitis virus enables gene transfer and transsynaptic tracing in a wide range of organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundell, Nathan A; Beier, Kevin T; Pan, Y Albert; Lapan, Sylvain W; Göz Aytürk, Didem; Berezovskii, Vladimir K; Wark, Abigail R; Drokhlyansky, Eugene; Bielecki, Jan; Born, Richard T; Schier, Alexander F; Cepko, Constance L

    2015-08-01

    Current limitations in technology have prevented an extensive analysis of the connections among neurons, particularly within nonmammalian organisms. We developed a transsynaptic viral tracer originally for use in mice, and then tested its utility in a broader range of organisms. By engineering the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) to encode a fluorophore and either the rabies virus glycoprotein (RABV-G) or its own glycoprotein (VSV-G), we created viruses that can transsynaptically label neuronal circuits in either the retrograde or anterograde direction, respectively. The vectors were investigated for their utility as polysynaptic tracers of chicken and zebrafish visual pathways. They showed patterns of connectivity consistent with previously characterized visual system connections, and revealed several potentially novel connections. Further, these vectors were shown to infect neurons in several other vertebrates, including Old and New World monkeys, seahorses, axolotls, and Xenopus. They were also shown to infect two invertebrates, Drosophila melanogaster, and the box jellyfish, Tripedalia cystophora, a species previously intractable for gene transfer, although no clear evidence of transsynaptic spread was observed in these species. These vectors provide a starting point for transsynaptic tracing in most vertebrates, and are also excellent candidates for gene transfer in organisms that have been refractory to other methods. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. New stomatal flux-based critical levels for ozone effects on vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Gina; Pleijel, Håkan; Braun, Sabine; Büker, Patrick; Bermejo, Victoria; Calvo, Esperanza; Danielsson, Helena; Emberson, Lisa; Fernández, Ignacio González; Grünhage, Ludger; Harmens, Harry; Hayes, Felicity; Karlsson, Per-Erik; Simpson, David

    2011-09-01

    The critical levels for ozone effects on vegetation have been reviewed and revised by the LRTAP Convention. Eight new or revised critical levels based on the accumulated stomatal flux of ozone (POD Y, the Phytotoxic Ozone Dose above a threshold flux of Y nmol m -2 PLA s -1, where PLA is the projected leaf area) have been agreed. For each receptor, data were combined from experiments conducted under naturally fluctuating environmental conditions in 2-4 countries, resulting in linear dose-response relationships with response variables specific to each receptor ( r2 = 0.49-0.87, p Norway spruce. For (semi-)natural vegetation, the critical level for effects on productive and high conservation value perennial grasslands was based on effects on important component species of the genus Trifolium (clover species). These critical levels can be used to assess protection against the damaging effects of ozone on food security, important ecosystem services provided by forest trees (roundwood production, C sequestration, soil stability and flood prevention) and the vitality of pasture.

  7. Curcumin and Boswellia serrata gum resin extract inhibit chikungunya and vesicular stomatitis virus infections in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Rhein, Christine; Weidner, Tatjana; Henß, Lisa; Martin, Judith; Weber, Christopher; Sliva, Katja; Schnierle, Barbara S

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that causes chikungunya fever and has infected millions of people mainly in developing countries. The associated disease is characterized by rash, high fever, and severe arthritis that can persist for years. CHIKV has adapted to Aedes albopictus, which also inhabits temperate regions including Europe and the United States of America. CHIKV has recently caused large outbreaks in Latin America. No treatment or licensed CHIKV vaccine exists. Traditional medicines are known to have anti-viral effects; therefore, we examined whether curcumin or Boswellia serrata gum resin extract have antiviral activity against CHIKV. Both compounds blocked entry of CHIKV Env-pseudotyped lentiviral vectors and inhibited CHIKV infection in vitro. In addition, vesicular stomatitis virus vector particles and viral infections were also inhibited to the same extent, indicating a broad antiviral activity. Although the bioavailability of these compounds is rather poor, they might be used as a lead structure to develop more effective antiviral drugs or might be used topically to prevent CHIKV spread in the skin after mosquito bites. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. [Antitumor effects of matrix protein of vesicular stomatic virus on EL4 lymphoma mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shi-jia; Yu, Qin-mei; Meng, Wen-tong; Wen, Yan-jun; Chen, Li-juan; Niu, Ting

    2011-03-01

    To explore antitumor effects of plasmid pcDNA3. 1-MP encoding matrix protein of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) complexed with cationic liposome (DOTAP:CHOL) in mice with EL4 lymphoma. C57BL/6 mouse model with EL4 lymphoma was established. Sixty mice bearing EL4 lymphoma were divided randomly into five groups including Lip-MP, Lip-pVAX, Lip, ADM and NS groups, which were intravenously injected with liposome-pcDNA 3. 1-MP complex, liposome-pVAX complex, empty liposome, Adriamycin and normal saline respectively every three days. Tumor volumes and survival time were monitored. Microvessel density and tumor proliferative index in tumor tissues were determined by CD31, Ki-67 immunohistochemistry staining, meanwhile the tumor apoptosis index was measured by TUNEL method. From 6 days after treatments on, the tumor volume in Lip-MP group was much smaller than that in Lip-pVAX, Lip and NS group (P EL4 tumor cells in vivo (P EL4 lymphoma, which may be related to the induction of tumor cell apoptosis, inhibition of tumor angiogenesis, and suppression of tumor cell proliferation.

  9. Effect of sodium bicarbonate against Candida albicans in denture stomatitis: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamsolmoulouk Najafi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sodium bicarbonate against candida albicans, the main infectious factor of denture stomatitis, and to compare it with other common anti-candida medications. Materials and Methods: Three concentrations of Candida albicans (105, 106, 107 CFU/mL were prepared. Experimental substances were 5% sodium bicarbonate, nystatin, chlorhexidine, and sterile saline (as control. Each of them was added separately to the same amounts of Candida albicans of different concentrations, and sampled at the intervals of 1, 2, 3 and 4 min. Then, the samples were cultured and incubated. The number of formed colonies was counted for each plate. The data were analyzed, using ANOVA and Tukey test. Results: Sodium bicarbonate showed a noticeable anti-candida effect on the concentrations of 105 and 106 CFU/mL, with almost similar anti-candida effect as nystatin and chlorehexidine(P=0.29, P=0.32. Nystatin was the most effective medication on the concentration of 107 CFU/mL of candida (P=0.03, P=0.01. Sodium bicarbonate and chlorhexidine were less effective in this concentration with no statistically significant difference (P=1.00. Conclusion: Sodium bicarbonate showed a significant anti-candida effect at low and medium concentrations of Candida albicans, but nystatin was more effective in the higher concentrations.

  10. Chlorella induces stomatal closure via NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS production and its effects on instantaneous water use efficiency in Vicia faba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Li

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS have been established to participate in stomatal closure induced by live microbes and microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs. Chlorella as a beneficial microorganism can be expected to trigger stomatal closure via ROS production. Here, we reported that Chlorella induced stomatal closure in a dose-and time-dependent manner in epidermal peels of Vicia faba. Using pharmacological methods in this work, we found that the Chlorella-induced stomatal closure was almost completely abolished by a hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 scavenger, catalase (CAT, significantly suppressed by an NADPH oxidase inhibitor, diphenylene iodonium chloride (DPI, and slightly affected by a peroxidase inhibitor, salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM, suggesting that ROS production involved in Chlorella-induced stomatal closure is mainly mediated by DPI-sensitive NADPH oxidase. Additionally, Exogenous application of optimal concentrations of Chlorella suspension improved instantaneous water use efficiency (WUEi in Vicia faba via a reduction in leaf transpiration rate (E without a parallel reduction in net photosynthetic rate (Pn assessed by gas-exchange measurements. The chlorophyll fluorescence and content analysis further demonstrated that short-term use of Chlorella did not influence plant photosynthetic reactions center. These results preliminarily reveal that Chlorella can trigger stomatal closure via NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS production in epidermal strips and improve WUEi in leave levels.

  11. Is optimality in stomatal conductance an endogenous process or an emergent property arising from interactions with the environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resco de Dios, Victor; Gessler, Arthur; Ferrio, Juan Pedro; Bahn, Michael; Milcu, Alexandru; Tissue, David; Voltas, Jordi; Roy, Jacques

    2016-04-01

    Plants are sessile and poikilothermic organisms that need to respond and adjust promptly to an ever-changing environment. Over a single 24 h period, a plant may experience the same level of variation in radiation as in its entire life-time and, in some climates, the oscillation in day-night temperature and vapor pressure deficit might be of similar magnitude to that experienced across a full year. Plants need to maintain a positive C balance without depleting soil water reserves in the face of such a diverse environment, and feedbacks between assimilation (A) and water losses (E) are thought to have evolved to optimize stomatal conductance (gs). In short, the optimal conductance hypothesis proposes that cross-talks between A and stomatal conductance gs lead to a constant marginal water use (λ) during a day, such that A is maximized and E minimized. The biological mechanism by which biochemical processes would feedback gs remains unknown, but multiple studies have shown empirical support for this hypothesis, leading to its current consideration of theory by many. Here we test whether optimal stomatal conductance is an endogenous property, that is, driven solely by factors internal to the plant, and in the absence of environmental fluctuations. After 5 days of entrainment, where monoculture canopies of bean and of cotton were subjected to the average environmental conditions of an August sunny day in Montpellier (at the CNRS European Ecotron, FR), we kept temperature, relative humidity and photosynthetically active radiation constant for 48 h at the values observed at noon. During this period, we monitored leaf gas exchange continuously every two minutes, and canopy gas exchange every 15 minutes. We observed a periodic oscillation in λ, showing a 24 h period, and consistent with a circadian regulation of water use efficiency. Hourly variations in λ could thus not be explained by the optimal stomatal hypothesis. Moreover, the pattern of variation (of maximal water

  12. [Suitability of four stomatal conductance models in agro-pastoral ecotone in North China: A case study for potato and oil sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ming Xia; Wang, Jing; Tang, Jian Zhao; Yu, Qiang; Zhang, Jun; Xue, Qing Yu; Chang, Qing; Tan, Mei Xiu

    2016-11-18

    The suitability of four popular empirical and semi-empirical stomatal conductance models (Jarvis model, Ball-Berry model, Leuning model and Medlyn model) was evaluated based on para-llel observation data of leaf stomatal conductance, leaf net photosynthetic rate and meteorological factors during the vigorous growing period of potato and oil sunflower at Wuchuan experimental station in agro-pastoral ecotone in North China. It was found that there was a significant linear relationship between leaf stomatal conductance and leaf net photosynthetic rate for potato, whereas the linear relationship appeared weaker for oil sunflower. The results of model evaluation showed that Ball-Berry model performed best in simulating leaf stomatal conductance of potato, followed by Leuning model and Medlyn model, while Jarvis model was the last in the performance rating. The root-mean-square error (RMSE) was 0.0331, 0.0371, 0.0456 and 0.0794 mol·m -2 ·s -1 , the normalized root-mean-square error (NRMSE) was 26.8%, 30.0%, 36.9% and 64.3%, and R-squared (R 2 ) was 0.96, 0.61, 0.91 and 0.88 between simulated and observed leaf stomatal conductance of potato for Ball-Berry model, Leuning model, Medlyn model and Jarvis model, respectively. For leaf stomatal conductance of oil sunflower, Jarvis model performed slightly better than Leuning model, Ball-Berry model and Medlyn model. RMSE was 0.2221, 0.2534, 0.2547 and 0.2758 mol·m -2 ·s -1 , NRMSE was 40.3%, 46.0%, 46.2% and 50.1%, and R 2 was 0.38, 0.22, 0.23 and 0.20 between simulated and observed leaf stomatal conductance of oil sunflower for Jarvis model, Leuning model, Ball-Berry model and Medlyn model, respectively. The path analysis was conducted to identify effects of specific meteorological factors on leaf stomatal conductance. The diurnal variation of leaf stomatal conductance was principally affected by vapour pressure saturation deficit for both potato and oil sunflower. The model evaluation suggested that the stomatal

  13. Enhanced immunosurveillance for animal morbilliviruses using vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) pseudotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Nicola; Dundon, William G; Diallo, Adama; Baron, Michael D; James Nyarobi, M; Cleaveland, Sarah; Keyyu, Julius; Fyumagwa, Robert; Hosie, Margaret J; Willett, Brian J

    2016-11-11

    The measurement of virus-specific neutralising antibodies represents the "gold-standard" for diagnostic serology. For animal morbilliviruses, such as peste des petits ruminants (PPRV) or rinderpest virus (RPV), live virus-based neutralisation tests require high-level biocontainment to prevent the accidental escape of the infectious agents. In this study, we describe the adaptation of a replication-defective vesicular stomatitis virus (VSVΔG) based pseudotyping system for the measurement of neutralising antibodies against animal morbilliviruses. By expressing the haemagglutinin (H) and fusion (F) proteins of PPRV on VSVΔG pseudotypes bearing a luciferase marker gene, neutralising antibody titres could be measured rapidly and with high sensitivity. Serological responses against the four distinct lineages of PPRV could be measured simultaneously and cross-neutralising responses against other morbilliviruses compared. Using this approach, we observed that titres of neutralising antibodies induced by vaccination with live attenuated PPRV were lower than those induced by wild type virus infection and the level of cross-lineage neutralisation varied between vaccinates. By comparing neutralising responses from animals infected with either PPRV or RPV, we found that responses were highest against the homologous virus, indicating that retrospective analyses of serum samples could be used to confirm the nature of the original pathogen to which an animal had been exposed. Accordingly, when screening sera from domestic livestock and wild ruminants in Tanzania, we detected evidence of cross-species infection with PPRV, canine distemper virus (CDV) and a RPV-related bovine morbillivirus, suggesting that exposure to animal morbilliviruses may be more widespread than indicated previously using existing diagnostic techniques. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Reovirus FAST Protein Enhances Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Oncolytic Virotherapy in Primary and Metastatic Tumor Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrice Le Boeuf

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The reovirus fusion-associated small transmembrane (FAST proteins are the smallest known viral fusogens (∼100–150 amino acids and efficiently induce cell-cell fusion and syncytium formation in multiple cell types. Syncytium formation enhances cell-cell virus transmission and may also induce immunogenic cell death, a form of apoptosis that stimulates immune recognition of tumor cells. These properties suggest that FAST proteins might serve to enhance oncolytic virotherapy. The oncolytic activity of recombinant VSVΔM51 (an interferon-sensitive vesicular stomatitis virus [VSV] mutant encoding the p14 FAST protein (VSV-p14 was compared with a similar construct encoding GFP (VSV-GFP in cell culture and syngeneic BALB/c tumor models. Compared with VSV-GFP, VSV-p14 exhibited increased oncolytic activity against MCF-7 and 4T1 breast cancer spheroids in culture and reduced primary 4T1 breast tumor growth in vivo. VSV-p14 prolonged survival in both primary and metastatic 4T1 breast cancer models, and in a CT26 metastatic colon cancer model. As with VSV-GFP, VSV-p14 preferentially replicated in vivo in tumors and was cleared rapidly from other sites. Furthermore, VSV-p14 increased the numbers of activated splenic CD4, CD8, natural killer (NK, and natural killer T (NKT cells, and increased the number of activated CD4 and CD8 cells in tumors. FAST proteins may therefore provide a multi-pronged approach to improving oncolytic virotherapy via syncytium formation and enhanced immune stimulation.

  15. Treatment of recurrent aphthous stomatitis by laser therapy: A systematic review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlić Verica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS is defined as multifactor immunologic inflammatory lesions in the oral cavity, characterized by painful, recurrent single/multiple, shallow, round or ovoid ulcerations of mucosal tissues. To date, a considerable number of RAS treatment protocols have been suggested, but since the etiology of RAS is idiopathic, these treatment options have symptomatic rather than curative or preventive effect. Recently, it has been suggested that laser therapy could be successfully used as an efficient treatment approach in therapy of RAS. Therefore, the aim of this review was to estimate the effects of laser therapy in treatment of RAS analyzing results of clinical studies published in peer reviewed journals. Methods. The studies published until 31 December 2013 were obtained from the Medline/PubMed, Science Direct and Cochrane Library of the Cochrane Collaboration (CENTRAL online databases, using following search terms and key words: “laser” AND “recurrent aphthous stomatitis”, “laser” AND “aphthous”, and “laser” AND “aphthae”. In total 4 original research articles met the all required inclusion/exclusion criteria, and were used for this review. The main outcome measures assessed were: a reduction of pain associated with RAS and a reduction in episode duration (faster RAS healing. Results. The assessed literature demonstrates the benefits of laser therapy mainly due to immediate analgesia and ability to speed up a RAS healing process. Conclusion. Even though the assessed literature suggests beneficial outcomes of laser therapy in treatment of RAS, these results should be interpreted with caution. The issues related to the study designs and different sets of laser irradiation parameters of a limited number of available studies with the same treatment outcomes prevent us from making definite conclusions.

  16. Vesicular stomatitis virus-based vaccines protect nonhuman primates against Bundibugyo ebolavirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad E Mire

    Full Text Available Ebola virus (EBOV causes severe and often fatal hemorrhagic fever in humans and nonhuman primates (NHPs. Currently, there are no licensed vaccines or therapeutics for human use. Recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV-based vaccine vectors, which encode an EBOV glycoprotein in place of the VSV glycoprotein, have shown 100% efficacy against homologous Sudan ebolavirus (SEBOV or Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV challenge in NHPs. In addition, a single injection of a blend of three rVSV vectors completely protected NHPs against challenge with SEBOV, ZEBOV, the former Côte d'Ivoire ebolavirus, and Marburg virus. However, recent studies suggest that complete protection against the newly discovered Bundibugyo ebolavirus (BEBOV using several different heterologous filovirus vaccines is more difficult and presents a new challenge. As BEBOV caused nearly 50% mortality in a recent outbreak any filovirus vaccine advanced for human use must be able to protect against this new species. Here, we evaluated several different strategies against BEBOV using rVSV-based vaccines. Groups of cynomolgus macaques were vaccinated with a single injection of a homologous BEBOV vaccine, a single injection of a blended heterologous vaccine (SEBOV/ZEBOV, or a prime-boost using heterologous SEBOV and ZEBOV vectors. Animals were challenged with BEBOV 29-36 days after initial vaccination. Macaques vaccinated with the homologous BEBOV vaccine or the prime-boost showed no overt signs of illness and survived challenge. In contrast, animals vaccinated with the heterologous blended vaccine and unvaccinated control animals developed severe clinical symptoms consistent with BEBOV infection with 2 of 3 animals in each group succumbing. These data show that complete protection against BEBOV will likely require incorporation of BEBOV glycoprotein into the vaccine or employment of a prime-boost regimen. Fortunately, our results demonstrate that heterologous rVSV-based filovirus vaccine

  17. Effect of laser on pain relief and wound healing of recurrent aphthous stomatitis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, Valerie G A; Sjölund, Sophia; Bornstein, Michael M

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to assess a potential benefit of laser use in the treatment of recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS). The primary outcome variables were pain relief, duration of wound healing and reduction in episode frequency. A PICO approach was used as a search strategy in Medline, Embase and Cochrane databases. After scanning and excluding titles, abstracts and full texts, 11 studies (ten RCTs and one non-randomised controlled trial) were included. Study selection and data extraction was done by two observers. Study participants varied between 7-90 for the laser and 5-90 for the control groups. Laser treatment included Nd:YAG laser ablation, CO 2 laser applied through a transparent gel (non-ablative) and diode laser in a low-level laser treatment (LLLT) mode. Control groups had placebo, no therapy or topical corticosteroid treatment. Significant pain relief immediately after treatment was found in five out of six studies. Pain relief in the days following treatment was recorded in seven studies. The duration of RAS wound healing was also reduced in five studies. However, criteria of evaluation differed between the studies. The episode frequency was not evaluated as only one study addressed this outcome parameter, but did not discriminate between the study (LLLT) and control (corticosteroid) groups. Jadad scores (ranging from 0 to 5) for quality assessment of the included studies range between 0 and 2 (mean = 1.0) for studies analysing pain relief and between 0 and 3 (mean = 1.1) for studies evaluating wound healing. The use of lasers (CO 2 laser, Nd:YAG laser and diode laser) to relieve symptoms and promote healing of RAS is a therapeutic option. More studies for laser applications are necessary to demonstrate superiority over topical pharmaceutical treatment and to recommend a specific laser type, wavelength, power output and applied energy (ablative versus photobiomodulation).

  18. Infection of Melanoplus sanguinipes Grasshoppers following Ingestion of Rangeland Plant Species Harboring Vesicular Stomatitis Virus▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drolet, Barbara S.; Stuart, Melissa A.; Derner, Justin D.

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of the many mechanisms of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) transmission is critical for understanding of the epidemiology of sporadic disease outbreaks in the western United States. Migratory grasshoppers [Melanoplus sanguinipes (Fabricius)] have been implicated as reservoirs and mechanical vectors of VSV. The grasshopper-cattle-grasshopper transmission cycle is based on the assumptions that (i) virus shed from clinically infected animals would contaminate pasture plants and remain infectious on plant surfaces and (ii) grasshoppers would become infected by eating the virus-contaminated plants. Our objectives were to determine the stability of VSV on common plant species of U.S. Northern Plains rangelands and to assess the potential of these plant species as a source of virus for grasshoppers. Fourteen plant species were exposed to VSV and assayed for infectious virus over time (0 to 24 h). The frequency of viable virus recovery at 24 h postexposure was as high as 73%. The two most common plant species in Northern Plains rangelands (western wheatgrass [Pascopyrum smithii] and needle and thread [Hesperostipa comata]) were fed to groups of grasshoppers. At 3 weeks postfeeding, the grasshopper infection rate was 44 to 50%. Exposure of VSV to a commonly used grasshopper pesticide resulted in complete viral inactivation. This is the first report demonstrating the stability of VSV on rangeland plant surfaces, and it suggests that a significant window of opportunity exists for grasshoppers to ingest VSV from contaminated plants. The use of grasshopper pesticides on pastures would decrease the incidence of a virus-amplifying mechanical vector and might also decontaminate pastures, thereby decreasing the inter- and intraherd spread of VSV. PMID:19286779

  19. Infection of Melanoplus sanguinipes grasshoppers following ingestion of rangeland plant species harboring vesicular stomatitis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drolet, Barbara S; Stuart, Melissa A; Derner, Justin D

    2009-05-01

    Knowledge of the many mechanisms of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) transmission is critical for understanding of the epidemiology of sporadic disease outbreaks in the western United States. Migratory grasshoppers [Melanoplus sanguinipes (Fabricius)] have been implicated as reservoirs and mechanical vectors of VSV. The grasshopper-cattle-grasshopper transmission cycle is based on the assumptions that (i) virus shed from clinically infected animals would contaminate pasture plants and remain infectious on plant surfaces and (ii) grasshoppers would become infected by eating the virus-contaminated plants. Our objectives were to determine the stability of VSV on common plant species of U.S. Northern Plains rangelands and to assess the potential of these plant species as a source of virus for grasshoppers. Fourteen plant species were exposed to VSV and assayed for infectious virus over time (0 to 24 h). The frequency of viable virus recovery at 24 h postexposure was as high as 73%. The two most common plant species in Northern Plains rangelands (western wheatgrass [Pascopyrum smithii] and needle and thread [Hesperostipa comata]) were fed to groups of grasshoppers. At 3 weeks postfeeding, the grasshopper infection rate was 44 to 50%. Exposure of VSV to a commonly used grasshopper pesticide resulted in complete viral inactivation. This is the first report demonstrating the stability of VSV on rangeland plant surfaces, and it suggests that a significant window of opportunity exists for grasshoppers to ingest VSV from contaminated plants. The use of grasshopper pesticides on pastures would decrease the incidence of a virus-amplifying mechanical vector and might also decontaminate pastures, thereby decreasing the inter- and intraherd spread of VSV.

  20. Management of recurrent aphthous stomatitis with medicinal herbs and their related phytochemicals in clinic: review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS is one of the most common painful mucosal diseases seen in the oral cavity of patients. Pathogenesis and etiology of this disorder is still unclear. RAS is categorized into minor, major, and herpetiform ulcers. Ulcers classified as minor, consist more than 85% cases of RAS. The goal of this study was to review the efficacy of medicinal plants and their bioactive phytochemicals used in clinical trials in the management of the recurrent aphthous lesions.Methods: Different electronic resources including Science Direct, Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library were used as the searching engines. The key words were ‘plant’, ‘phytochemical’, or ‘herb’ and ‘aphthosis’, ‘aphthous’, ‘aphthae’, ‘aphthous ulcer’, ‘recurrent aphthous stomatitis’, or ‘aphthous stomatitis’. Finally, all the relevant clinical trials were regained.  Results: The results showed that plants such as Satureja khuzistanica, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Alchemilla vulgaris, Matricaria chamomilla, Punica granatum var. pleniflora, Myrtus communis, Melissa officinalis, Rosa damascena, Aloe vera, Nicotiana tabacum, and bioactive ingredients like acemannan and berberine possessed potential beneficial effects in oral diseases and could be effective in decreasing ulcer size, pain intensity, duration of  complete lesion healing, average time of pain elimination, aphthae number, diameter of inflammatory halo and necrotic zone of the ulcer and provided satisfaction in patients who suffered from RAS.Conclusion: The findings of this study revealed that herbal medicines could be considered as future pharmaceutical drugs or adjuvant treatments to improve their efficacy and alleviate the side effects in the management of RAS.

  1. Vesicular stomatitis virus-based ebola vaccine is well-tolerated and protects immunocompromised nonhuman primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W Geisbert

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Ebola virus (EBOV is a significant human pathogen that presents a public health concern as an emerging/re-emerging virus and as a potential biological weapon. Substantial progress has been made over the last decade in developing candidate preventive vaccines that can protect nonhuman primates against EBOV. Among these prospects, a vaccine based on recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV is particularly robust, as it can also confer protection when administered as a postexposure treatment. A concern that has been raised regarding the replication-competent VSV vectors that express EBOV glycoproteins is how these vectors would be tolerated by individuals with altered or compromised immune systems such as patients infected with HIV. This is especially important as all EBOV outbreaks to date have occurred in areas of Central and Western Africa with high HIV incidence rates in the population. In order to address this concern, we evaluated the safety of the recombinant VSV vector expressing the Zaire ebolavirus glycoprotein (VSVDeltaG/ZEBOVGP in six rhesus macaques infected with simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV. All six animals showed no evidence of illness associated with the VSVDeltaG/ZEBOVGP vaccine, suggesting that this vaccine may be safe in immunocompromised populations. While one goal of the study was to evaluate the safety of the candidate vaccine platform, it was also of interest to determine if altered immune status would affect vaccine efficacy. The vaccine protected 4 of 6 SHIV-infected macaques from death following ZEBOV challenge. Evaluation of CD4+ T cells in all animals showed that the animals that succumbed to lethal ZEBOV challenge had the lowest CD4+ counts, suggesting that CD4+ T cells may play a role in mediating protection against ZEBOV.

  2. Glycoprotein cytoplasmic domain sequences required for rescue of a vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein mutant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitt, M.A.; Chong, L.; Rose, J.K.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have used transient expression of the wild-type vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) glycoprotein (G protein) from cloned cDNA to rescue a temperature-sensitive G protein mutant of VSV in cells at the nonpermissive temperature. Using cDNAs encoding G proteins with deletions in the normal 29-amino-acid cytoplasmic domain, they determined that the presence of either the membrane-proximal 9 amino acids or the membrane-distal 12 amino acids was sufficient for rescue of the temperature-sensitive mutant. G proteins with cytoplasmic domains derived from other cellular or viral G proteins did not rescue the mutant, nor did G proteins with one or three amino acids of the normal cytoplasmic domain. Rescue correlated directly with the ability of the G proteins to be incorporated into virus particles. This was shown by analysis of radiolabeled particles separated on sucrose gradients as well as by electron microscopy of rescued virus after immunogold labeling. Quantitation of surface expression showed that all of the mutated G proteins were expressed less efficiently on the cell surface than was wild-type G protein. However, they were able to correct for differences in rescue efficiency resulting from differences in the level of surface expression by reducing wild-type G protein expression to levels equivalent to those observed for the mutated G proteins. The results provide evidence that at least a portion of the cytoplasmic domain is required for efficient assembly of the VSV G protein into virions during virus budding

  3. Antibodies against vesicular stomatitis virus in horses from southern, midwestern and northeastern Brazilian States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Leobet Lunkes

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV is the agent of a vesicular disease that affects many animal species and may be clinically confounded with foot-and-mouth disease in ruminant and swine. Horses are especially susceptible to VSV and may serve as sentinels for virus circulation. The present study investigated the presence of neutralizing antibodies against VSV Indiana III (VSIV-3 in serum samples of 3,626 horses from six states in three Brazilian regions: Southern (RS, n = 1,011, Midwest (GO/DF, n = 1,767 and Northeast (PB, PE, RN and CE, n = 848 collected between 2013 and 2014. Neutralizing antibodies against VSIV-3 (titers ≥40 were detected in 641 samples (positivity of 17.7%; CI95%:16.5-19.0%, being 317 samples from CE (87.3%; CI95%: 83.4-90.5 %; 109 from RN (65.7%; CI95%: 57.8 -72.7%; 124 from PB (45.4%; CI95%: 39.4-51.5%; 78 from GO/DF (4.4%; CI95%: 3.5-5.5% and nine samples of RS (0.9%; CI95%: 0.4-1.7%. Several samples from the Northeast and Midwest harbored high neutralizing titers, indicating a recent exposure to the virus. In contrast, samples from RS had low titers, possibly due to a past remote exposure. Several positive samples presented neutralizing activity against other VSV serotypes (Indiana I and New Jersey, yet in lower titers, indicating the specificity of the response to VSIV-3. These results demonstrated a relatively recent circulation of VSIV-3 in northeastern Brazilian States, confirming clinical findings and demonstrating the sanitary importance of this infection.

  4. The absence of an association between Interleukin 1β gene polymorphisms and recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ślebioda, Zuzanna; Kowalska, Anna; Rozmiarek, Marta; Krawiecka, Ewa; Szponar, Elżbieta; Dorocka-Bobkowska, Barbara

    2017-12-01

    Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is a chronic, ulcerative disease with a probable polygenic mode of inheritance and complex etiology with a strong immunological background. The aim of the present study was to determine the possible association between two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the IL-1β gene: IL-1β-511 T>C (rs16944) and IL-1β+3954C>T (rs1143634) and RAS susceptibility in a moderately large group of patients. One hundred and four patients with minor, major and herpetiform RAS and 75 healthy volunteers were genotyped at IL-1β-511 T>C (rs16944) and IL-1β+3954C>T (rs1143634) using the PCR-RFLP approach. The results were statistically analysed with chi-square test and test of difference between two rates of structure, with p<0.05 assumed to be a statistically significance level (Statistica 10, StatSoft ® , Kraków, Poland). There were no statistically significant differences in the genotype distribution for the IL-1β C[+3954]T polymorphism between the RAS and control groups. The frequency of IL-1β*T[-511]/*T[-511] homozygotes among the patients was significantly higher when compared to our study control (p<0.0347). The results after stratification into carriers and non-carriers of C and T alleles did not clearly indicate which SNP may be considered a risk factor for RAS. The genetic association between the studied SNPs of the IL-1β gene and RAS remains controversial and requires further investigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The efficacy of Punica granatum extract in the management of recurrent aphthous stomatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghalayani, Parichehr; Zolfaghary, Behzad; Farhad, Ali Reza; Tavangar, Atefeh; Soleymani, Bahram

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is a common, painful ulcerative disorder of the oral cavity with unknown etiology. No documented cure exists and topical application of medications aims to reduce pain associated with this condition. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Punica granatum (PG) extract on the clinical management of RAS. Methods: A total of 40 patients with RAS participated in this randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled study. During three episodes of RAS, the efficacy of topical PG gel (10%) was evaluated. Patients were randomly assigned to use placebo gel or PG gel daily. The time of pain elimination and the time of complete healing were recorded and the pain degree was assessed and recorded by each patients in different time intervals including: Before using the oral gel (day 0), and on days 1, 3, 5, 7 after using the product. Data were analyzed using the repeated measures ANOVA, paired and independent t-test. Findings: Mean time of pain elimination showed a significant difference (P < 0.001) between PG group (3.4 ± 1.09) and placebo group (5.9 ± 0.6). The mean duration of complete healing also showed a significant difference (P < 0.001) between PG group (5.3 ± 0.81) and placebo group (8.6 ± 0.99). The visual analog scale score in PG group was significantly less than the placebo group in all time intervals (day 1 to day 7) (P < 0.001). Conclusion: The findings of this study revealed that PG extract in the form of oral gel (10%) may be beneficial in reducing RAS pain and has a positive effect in reducing the overall time period of complete healing. It was concluded that PG is an effective herbal medicine for the management of RAS. PMID:24991610

  6. Immune response of patients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis challenged with a symbiotic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimura, Maria Angela Martins; Borra, Ricardo Carneiro; Hirata, Cleonice Hitomi Watashi; de Oliveira Penido, Norma

    2017-10-01

    There are indications that Th1 polarization of immune response plays an important role in the pathogenesis of recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS), and that the use of probiotics can stimulate immune regulatory activity, influencing the course of the disease. The aim of this study was to characterize the initial immune profile of RAS patients and evaluate clinical and serological response following a challenge with symbiotic treatment containing fructooligosaccharide, Lactobacillus, and Bifidobacterium. The immune responses of the 45 patients with RAS, submitted to symbiotic or placebo for 120 days, in relation to 30 RAS-free controls, were evaluated over a period of 6 months. Peripheral blood was collected from all patients at 0 (T0), 120 (T4), and 180 days (T6) after the start of treatment and Th1 (IL12-p70, IFN-γ), Th2 (IL-4), Treg (IL-10), Th17 (IL-17A), inflammatory (TNF-α, IL-6)-associated cytokines, and clinical parameters were quantified. At T0, significant differences were found in the serological levels of the IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-6 cytokines of the RAS patients in comparison with the controls. It was observed that the cytokine profile of the RAS group was comprised of 2 distinct clusters: a pure Th2 and a Mixed (Th1/Th2) subtype and that symbiotic treatment induced an improvement in pain and an increase in IFN-γ levels, producing a reduction in Th2 response. In RAS, symbiotic treatment based on a fructooligosaccharide, Lactobacillus, and Bifidobacterium composition produced an alteration in the Th2 serological immune profile in the direction of Th1 and improved pain symptomatology. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Current good manufacturing practice production of an oncolytic recombinant vesicular stomatitis viral vector for cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausubel, L J; Meseck, M; Derecho, I; Lopez, P; Knoblauch, C; McMahon, R; Anderson, J; Dunphy, N; Quezada, V; Khan, R; Huang, P; Dang, W; Luo, M; Hsu, D; Woo, S L C; Couture, L

    2011-04-01

    Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is an oncolytic virus currently being investigated as a promising tool to treat cancer because of its ability to selectively replicate in cancer cells. To enhance the oncolytic property of the nonpathologic laboratory strain of VSV, we generated a recombinant vector [rVSV(MΔ51)-M3] expressing murine gammaherpesvirus M3, a secreted viral chemokine-binding protein that binds to a broad range of mammalian chemokines with high affinity. As previously reported, when rVSV(MΔ51)-M3 was used in an orthotopic model of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in rats, it suppressed inflammatory cell migration to the virus-infected tumor site, which allowed for enhanced intratumoral virus replication leading to increased tumor necrosis and substantially prolonged survival. These encouraging results led to the development of this vector for clinical translation in patients with HCC. However, a scalable current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP)-compliant manufacturing process has not been described for this vector. To produce the quantities of high-titer virus required for clinical trials, a process that is amenable to GMP manufacturing and scale-up was developed. We describe here a large-scale (50-liter) vector production process capable of achieving crude titers on the order of 10(9) plaque-forming units (PFU)/ml under cGMP. This process was used to generate a master virus seed stock and a clinical lot of the clinical trial agent under cGMP with an infectious viral titer of approximately 2 × 10(10) PFU/ml (total yield, 1 × 10(13) PFU). The lot has passed all U.S. Food and Drug Administration-mandated release testing and will be used in a phase 1 clinical translational trial in patients with advanced HCC.

  8. Stomatal distribution, stomatal density and daily leaf movement in Acacia aroma (Leguminosae Distribución y densidad estomática y movimiento diario de la hoja en Acacia aroma (Leguminosae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo P. Hernández

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Acacia aroma Gillies ex Hook. & Arn. grows in the Chacoan and Yungas Biogeographic Provinces, Argentina. It has numerous medicinal applications, sweet and edible fruits, and it may be used as forage. The objective of the present contribution was to analyse the stomatal distribution and stomatal density on the secondary leaflet surfaces, in different parts of the leaf, and at different tree crown levels, establishing the leaf movement and environmental condition relationships. The work was performed with fresh material and herbarium specimens, using conventional anatomical techniques. Stomatal distribution on the secondary leaflet surfaces was established, and differences in stomatal density among basal, medium and apical leaflets were found. A decrease in stomatal density from the lower level to the upper level of the tree crown would be connected with that. The stomatal distribution and density appear related to the secondary leaflet shape and its position on the secondary rachis, interacting with the daily secondary leaflets and leaf movement, and the weather conditions. It is interesting that the medium value of stomata density were found in the middle part of the leaf and at the middle level of the tree crown. Original illustrations are given.Acacia aroma crece en las Provincias Biogeográficas Chaqueña y de las Yungas, Argentina. Este árbol posee numerosas aplicaciones en medicina popular, sus frutos son comestibles y puede ser usada como forraje. Los objetivos de la presente contribución fueron: establecer la distribución y densidad de los estomas en el folíolo secundario, en distintos folíolos secundarios de la misma hoja y en los folíolos secundarios de las hojas de la parte basal, media y superior de la copa del árbol, estableciendo relaciones con el movimiento diario de las hojas y condiciones ambientales. Para el estudio se utilizó material fresco y ejemplares de herbario empleando técnicas de anatomía convencionales. Se

  9. Environmental controls on saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) transpiration and stomatal conductance and implications for determining evapotranspiration by remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagler, P. L.; Glenn, E. P.; morino, K.

    2012-12-01

    Saltcedar is an introduced, salt-tolerant shrub that now dominates many flow-regulated western U.S. rivers. Saltcedar control programs have been implemented to salvage water and to allow the return of native vegetation to infested rivers. However, there is much debate about how much water saltcedar actually uses and the range of ecohydrological niches it occupies. Ground methods for measuring riparian zone ET have improved and there is considerable interest in developing remote sensing methods for saltcedar to conduct wide-area monitoring of water use. Both thermal band and vegetation index methods have been used to estimate riparian ET. However, several problems present themselves in applying existing remote sensing methods to riparian corridors. First, many riparian corridors are narrow and are surrounded by arid uplands, hence they cannot be treated as energetically closed systems, an assumption of thermal band methods that calculate ET as a residual in the surface energy balance. Second, contrary to the assumption that riparian phreatophytes typically grow under unstressed conditions since they are rooted into groundwater, we find that saltcedar stands are under substantial degrees of apparent moisture stress, exhibiting midday depression of transpiration and stomatal conductance, and decreases in stomatal conductance over the growing season as depth to groundwater increases. Furthermore, the degree of stress is site-specific, depending on local soil texture, salinity of the groundwater and distance from the river. This violates a key assumption of vegetation index methods for estimating ET. The implications of these findings for arid-zone riparian ecohydrology and for remote sensing methods that assume either a constant daily evaporative fraction or rate of stomatal conductance will be discussed using saltcedar stands measured in the Cibola NWR on the lower Colorado River as a case study. Daily rates of saltcedar transpiration ranged from 1.6-3.0 mm/m2 leaf

  10. Quality of life in patients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis treated with a mucoadhesive patch containing citrus essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kürklü-Gürleyen E

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Esma Kürklü-Gürleyen,1 Merve Öğüt-Erişen,1 Onur Çakır,1 Ömer Uysal,2 Gülsüm Ak1 1Department of Oral Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry, Istanbul University, 2Department of Biostatistics and Medical Informatics, Faculty of Medicine, BezmiÂlem Vakif University, Istanbul, Turkey Purpose: To assess 1 patient satisfaction of a mucoadhesive biopatch with citrus essential oil and 2 the change in pain severity and the oral health-related quality of life in patients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis. Patients and methods: Thirty-seven patients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis participated in the study. Baseline records of personal data, ulcer assessment, visual analog scale, and Oral Health Impact Profile-14 were documented. A mucoadhesive patch was applied over the ulcer. Patients were recommended more applications if pain continued. On the fifth day, a post-therapy assessment was made. Results: The mean visual analog scale scores at baseline and posttreatment were significantly different (7.3±2.11 and 4.9±2.6, respectively; P=0.001. The mean duration of pain reduced after patch application. The mean total Oral Health Impact Profile-14 scores before and after treatment showed a statistically significant difference (P=0.001. In total, 78.4% of patients reported a considerable improvement in oral functions after treatment (P=0.008. Conclusion: The mucoadhesive biopatch containing citrus essential oil resulted in satisfying pain alleviation and restoration of oral functions with a significant improvement in the oral health-related quality of life. Keywords: recurrent aphthous stomatitis, pain, quality of life, essential oil, biopatch, local therapy 

  11. Aquaporins facilitate hydrogen peroxide entry into guard cells to mediate ABA- and pathogen-triggered stomatal closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Olivier; Reshetnyak, Ganna; Grondin, Alexandre; Saijo, Yusuke; Leonhardt, Nathalie; Maurel, Christophe; Verdoucq, Lionel

    2017-08-22

    Stomatal movements are crucial for the control of plant water status and protection against pathogens. Assays on epidermal peels revealed that, similar to abscisic acid (ABA), pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) flg22 requires the At PIP2;1 aquaporin to induce stomatal closure. Flg22 also induced an increase in osmotic water permeability ( P f ) of guard cell protoplasts through activation of At PIP2;1. The use of HyPer, a genetic probe for intracellular hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), revealed that both ABA and flg22 triggered an accumulation of H 2 O 2 in wild-type but not pip2;1 guard cells. Pretreatment of guard cells with flg22 or ABA facilitated the influx of exogenous H 2 O 2 Brassinosteroid insensitive 1-associated receptor kinase 1 (BAK1) and open stomata 1 (OST1)/Snf1-related protein kinase 2.6 (SnRK2.6) were both necessary to flg22-induced P f and both phosphorylated At PIP2;1 on Ser121 in vitro. Accumulation of H 2 O 2 and stomatal closure as induced by flg22 was restored in pip2;1 guard cells by a phosphomimetic form (Ser121Asp) but not by a phosphodeficient form (Ser121Ala) of At PIP2;1. We propose a mechanism whereby phosphorylation of At PIP2;1 Ser121 by BAK1 and/or OST1 is triggered in response to flg22 to activate its water and H 2 O 2 transport activities. This work establishes a signaling role of plasma membrane aquaporins in guard cells and potentially in other cellular context involving H 2 O 2 signaling.

  12. Ozone Effects on Fruit Productivity and Photosynthetic Response of Two Tomato Cultivars in Relation to Stomatal Fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Gerosa

    Full Text Available An Open-Top Chamber experiment on two tomato cultivars (cv. Oxheart and cv. San Marzano was carried out in Curno (Northern Italy between June and September 2007. Two ozone treatments were applied for a 3.5 months period: Non-Filtered OTC (NF-OTC, 95% of ambient ozone and Charcoal-Filtered OTC (CF-OTC, 50% of ambient ozone. Diurnal cycles of porometry measurements were performed during the season and allowed to draw a stomatal conductance model for each cultivar in order to calculate the ozone stomatal fluxes taken up by plants. Assessments on fruits yield were performed during the season, taking into account the number of fruits, their fresh weight and their marketability. In addition, measurements on the chlorophyll fluorescence of photosystems were carried out to assess possible negative effects on photosynthetic efficiency. Despite the two cultivars absorbed a similar ozone stomatal dose during the season (with an 8% difference, their responses to ozone treatments were totally divergent in relation to both fruits yield and photosynthetic efficiency. Plants of cv. Oxheart grown in NF-OTCs showed significant yield loss in the total weight of fruits (-35.9% which is exclusively related to a decrease in the number of fruits produced (-35.7% of total fruits; -30.6% of marketable fruits, since mean fresh weight of fruits remained unaffected. Moreover the same plants displayed low values (in comparison to CF-OTCs plants of the photosynthetic efficiency index (PIabs during the most intense period of ozone stress (July occurred in the flowering stage of plants and at the beginning of fructification. Plants of the cv. San Marzano had an opposite response behaviour with an increase of the mean fresh weight of fruits in plants grown in NF-OTC (even if not statistically significant and no difference in the number of fruits produced and in the values of photosynthetic efficiency.

  13. Compromised Photosynthetic Electron Flow And H2O2 Generation Correlate with Genotype-Specific Stomatal Dysfunctions During Resistance Against Powdery Mildew In Oats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Sánchez-Martín

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Stomatal dysfunction known as locking has been linked to the elicitation of a hypersensitive response (HR following attack of fungal pathogens in cereals. We here assess how spatial and temporal patterns of different resistance mechanisms, such as HR and penetration resistance influence stomatal and photosynthetic parameters in oat (Avena sativa and the possible involvement of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 in the dysfunctions observed. Four oat cultivars with differential resistance responses (i.e. penetration resistance, early and late HR to powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. avenae, Bga were used. Results demonstrated that stomatal dysfunctions were genotype but not response-type dependent since genotypes with similar resistance responses when assessed histologically showed very different locking patterns. Maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm of photosystem II were compromised in most Bga–oat interactions and photoinhibition increased. However, the extent of the photosynthetic alterations was not directly related to the extent of HR. H2O2 generation is triggered during the execution of resistance responses and can influence stomatal function. Artificially increasing H2O2 by exposing plants to increased light intensity further reduced Fv/Fm ratios and augmented the patterns of stomatal dysfunctions previously observed. The latter results suggest that the observed dysfunctions and hence a cost of resistance may be linked with oxidative stress occurring during defence induced photosynthetic disruption.

  14. Differential Effects of Phosphatidylinositol 4-Kinase (PI4K and 3-Kinase (PI3K Inhibitors on Stomatal Responses to Environmental Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koh Iba

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Specific cellular components including products of phosphatidylinositol (PI metabolism play an important role as signaling molecules in stomatal responses to environmental signals. In this study, pharmacological inhibitors of a set of cellular components, including PI4-kinase (PI4K and PI3K, were used to investigate stomatal closure in response to CO2, darkness, and abscisic acid (ABA. Treatment with PAO, a specific inhibitor of PI4K, specifically inhibited the stomatal response to CO2 compared with that to darkness and ABA. In contrast, treatment with LY294002, a PI3K-specific inhibitor, specifically inhibited the stomatal response to darkness compared with that to CO2 and ABA. The specific inhibitory effects of PAO and LY294002 were also observed as changes in the spatial density of dot-like structures labeled by green fluorescent protein-tagged PATROL1, a protein that controls stomatal aperture possibly via regulation of H+-ATPase amount in guard cell plasma membranes. Our results suggest an important role for PI4K and PI3K in the CO2 and darkness signal transduction pathways, respectively, that mediate PATROL1 dynamics.

  15. Overexpression of StNF-YB3.1 reduces photosynthetic capacity and tuber production, and promotes ABA-mediated stomatal closure in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuanyuan, Guochao; Lu, Congming; Zhang, Ruofang; Jiang, Jiming

    2017-08-01

    Nuclear factor Y (NF-Y) is one of the most ubiquitous transcription factors (TFs), comprising NF-YA, NF-YB and NF-YC subunits, and has been identified and reported in various aspects of development for plants and animals. In this work, StNF-YB3.1, a putative potato NF-YB subunit encoding gene, was isolated from Solanum tuberosum by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). Overexpression of StNF-YB3.1 in potato (cv. Atlantic) resulted in accelerated onset of flowering, and significant increase in leaf chlorophyll content in field trials. However, transgenic potato plants overexpressing StNF-YB3.1 (OEYB3.1) showed significant decreases in photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance both at tuber initiation and bulking stages. OEYB3.1 lines were associated with significantly fewer tuber numbers and yield reduction. Guard cell size and stomatal density were not changed in OEYB3.1 plants, whereas ABA-mediated stomatal closure was accelerated compared to that of wild type plants because of the up-regulation of genes for ABA signaling, such as StCPK10-like, StSnRK2.6/OST1-like, StSnRK2.7-like and StSLAC1-like. We speculate that the acceleration of stomatal closure was a possible reason for the significantly decreased stomatal conductance and photosynthetic rate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of CO2 Concentration on Leaf Photosynthesis and Stomatal Conductance of Potatoes Grown Under Different Irradiance Levels and Photoperiods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, R. M.; Fitzpatrick, A. H.; Tibbitts, T. W.

    2012-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cvs. Russet Burbank, Denali, and Norland, were grown in environmental rooms controlled at approx 350 micro mol/mol (ambient during years 1987/1988) and 1000 micro mol/mol (enriched) CO2 concentrations. Plants and electric lamps were arranged to provide two irradiance zones, 400 and 800 micro mol/mol/square m/S PPF and studies were repeated using two photoperiods (12-h light / 12-h dark and continuous light). Leaf photosynthetic rates and leaf stomatal conductance were measured using fully expanded, upper canopy leaves at weekly intervals throughout growth (21 through 84 days after transplanting). Increasing the CO2 from approx 350 to 1000 micro mol/mol under the 12-h photoperiod increased leaf photosynthetic rates by 39% at 400 micro mol/mol/square m/S PPF and 27% at 800 micro mol/mol/square m/S PPF. Increasing the CO2 from approx 350 to 1000 micro mol/mol under continuous light decreased leaf photosynthetic rates by 7% at 400 micro mol/mol/square m/S PPF and 13% at 800 micro mol/mol/square m/S PPF. Increasing the CO2 from approx 350 to 1000 micro mol/mol under the 12-h photoperiod plants decreased stomatal conductance by an average of 26% at 400 micro mol/mol/square m/S PPF and 42% at 800 micro mol/mol/square m/S PPF. Under continuous light, CO2 enrichment resulted in a small increase (2%) of stomatal conductance at 400 micro mol/mol/square m/S PPF, and a small decrease (3%) at 800 micro mol/mol/square m/S PPF. Results indicate that CO2 enrichment under the 12-h photoperiod showed the expected increase in photosynthesis and decrease in stomatal conductance for a C3 species like potato, but the decreases in leaf photosynthetic rates and minimal effect on conductance from CO2 enrichment under continuous light were not expected. The plant leaves under continuous light showed more chlorosis and some rusty flecking versus plants under the 12-h photoperiod, suggesting the continuous light was more stressful on the plants. The increased

  17. Increasing water use efficiency along the C3 to C4 evolutionary pathway: a stomatal optimization perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Way, Danielle A; Katul, Gabriel G; Manzoni, Stefano; Vico, Giulia

    2014-07-01

    C4 photosynthesis evolved independently numerous times, probably in response to declining atmospheric CO2 concentrations, but also to high temperatures and aridity, which enhance water losses through transpiration. Here, the environmental factors controlling stomatal behaviour of leaf-level carbon and water exchange were examined across the evolutionary continuum from C3 to C4 photosynthesis at current (400 μmol mol(-1)) and low (280 μmol mol(-1)) atmospheric CO2 conditions. To this aim, a stomatal optimization model was further developed to describe the evolutionary continuum from C3 to C4 species within a unified framework. Data on C3, three categories of C3-C4 intermediates, and C4 Flaveria species were used to parameterize the stomatal model, including parameters for the marginal water use efficiency and the efficiency of the CO2-concentrating mechanism (or C4 pump); these two parameters are interpreted as traits reflecting the stomatal and photosynthetic adjustments during the C3 to C4 transformation. Neither the marginal water use efficiency nor the C4 pump strength changed significantly from C3 to early C3-C4 intermediate stages, but both traits significantly increased between early C3-C4 intermediates and the C4-like intermediates with an operational C4 cycle. At low CO2, net photosynthetic rates showed continuous increases from a C3 state, across the intermediates and towards C4 photosynthesis, but only C4-like intermediates and C4 species (with an operational C4 cycle) had higher water use efficiencies than C3 Flaveria. The results demonstrate that both the marginal water use efficiency and the C4 pump strength increase in C4 Flaveria to improve their photosynthesis and water use efficiency compared with C3 species. These findings emphasize that the advantage of the early intermediate stages is predominantly carbon based, not water related. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  18. Quality of life in patients with Behcet's disease and Recurrent aphthous stomatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Tuğrul Ayanoğlu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Behçet’s disease (BD is an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS is a condition affecting oral health-related quality of life (QoL. In this study, we aimed to evaluate QoL of BD patients by using the Behçet’s disease quality of life instrument (BDQLI and to compare the QoL of patients with BD with that of patients with RAS and healthy controls. Materials and Methods: Forty patients with BD and 40 patients with RAS and 40 healthy subjects with similar sociodemographic characteristics were included in the study. We used the BDQLI to evaluate QoL of patients with BD and the Dermatology-specific quality of life instrument for comparison of QqL between patients with BD and RAS. 36-Item Short Form Health Survey and clinical data form were applied in all participants. The results were analyzed statistically. The power of the study was 99%. Results: QoL of patients with BD were lower than that of healthy controls. It was observed that patients with BD had decreased physical functions, impaired perception of pain and poor general health (p0.05. Female gender, relapse periods and mucocutaneous symptoms negatively affected QoL of patients with BD. Female gender and duration of the disease were found to be the main factors affecting QoL of patients with RAS. Conclusion: Unlike the results obtained with other instruments, with BDQLI, QoL, particularly in patients with active period and female gender was found to be decreased. In this study, there was a dominance of active mucocutaneous symptoms. This may explain the effect of mucocutaneous symptoms on QoL and the fact that there was no difference in QoL between BD and RAS patients. Further studies comparing QoL of patients with BD in whom visceral involvement is also observed with those with other diseases. QoL of BD patients may be improved by paying attention on symptoms that patients have trouble and by evaluating QoL with

  19. Quantitative Estimation of Yeast on Maxillary Denture in Patients with Denture Stomatitis and the Effect of Chlorhexidine Gluconate in Reduction of Yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaykumar R Gade

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Denture stomatitis is a condition associated with wearing of a denture. The predisposing factor leading to denture stomatitis could be poor oral hygiene, ill-fitting denture and relief areas. Around 30 patients with denture stomatitis were advised to rinse with chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash for 14 days and were directed to immerse the upper denture in the chlorhexidine solution for 8 hours. The samples were collected by scraping maxillary denture in saline at three intervals, prior to, at the end of 24 hours and after 14 days of treatment, then were inoculated and quantitative estimation of the yeast growth on Sabouraud′s dextrose agar plate was done. It was observed that after a period of 14 days, there was a reduction in the growth of yeast and also improvement in the clinical picture of the oral mucosa

  20. Effects of diffuse light on radiation use efficiency depend on the response of stomatal conductance to dynamic light intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao eLi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The stimulating effect of diffuse light on radiation use efficiency (RUE of crops is often explained by the more homogeneous spatial light distribution, while rarely considering differences in temporal light distribution at leaf level. This study investigated whether diffuse light effects on crop RUE can be explained by dynamic responses of leaf photosynthesis to temporal changes of photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD.Two Anthurium andreanum cultivars (‘Pink Champion’ and ‘Royal Champion’ were grown in two glasshouses covered by clear (control and diffuse glass, with similar light transmission. On clear days, diffusing the light resulted in less temporal fluctuations of PPFD. Stomatal conductance (gs varied strongly in response to transient PPFD in ‘Royal Champion’, whereas it remained relatively constant in ‘Pink Champion’. Instantaneous net leaf photosynthesis (Pn in both cultivars approached steady state Pn in diffuse light treatment. In control treatment this only occurred in ‘Pink Champion’. These cultivar differences were reflected by a higher RUE (8% in ‘Royal Champion’ in diffuse light treatment compared with control, whereas no effect on RUE was observed in ‘Pink Champion’. We conclude that the stimulating effect of diffuse light on RUE depends on the stomatal response to temporal PPFD fluctuations, which response is cultivar dependent.

  1. Analysis of gas exchange, stomatal behaviour and micronutrients uncovers dynamic response and adaptation of tomato plants to monochromatic light treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Carrigan, Andrew; Babla, Mohammad; Wang, Feifei; Liu, Xiaohui; Mak, Michelle; Thomas, Richard; Bellotti, Bill; Chen, Zhong-Hua

    2014-09-01

    Light spectrum affects the yield and quality of greenhouse tomato, especially over a prolonged period of monochromatic light treatments. Physiological and chemical analysis was employed to investigate the influence of light spectral (blue, green and red) changes on growth, photosynthesis, stomatal behaviour, leaf pigment, and micronutrient levels. We found that plants are less affected under blue light treatment, which was evident by the maintenance of higher A, gs, Tr, and stomatal parameters and significantly lower VPD and Tleaf as compared to those plants grown in green and red light treatments. Green and red light treatments led to significantly larger increase in the accumulation of Fe, B, Zn, and Cu than blue light. Moreover, guard cell length, width, and volume all showed highly significant positive correlations to gs, Tr and negative links to VPD. There was negative impact of monochromatic lights-induced accumulation of Mn, Cu, and Zn on photosynthesis, leaf pigments and plant growth. Furthermore, most of the light-induced significant changes of the physiological traits were partially recovered at the end of experiment. A high degree of morphological and physiological plasticity to blue, green and red light treatments suggested that tomato plants may have developed mechanisms to adapt to the light treatments. Thus, understanding the optimization of light spectrum for photosynthesis and growth is one of the key components for greenhouse tomato production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Evapotranspiration partitioning, stomatal conductance, and components of the water balance: A special case of a desert ecosystem in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenzhi; Liu, Bing; Chang, Xuexiang; Yang, Qiyue; Yang, Yuting; Liu, Zhiling; Cleverly, James; Eamus, Derek

    2016-07-01

    Partitioning evapotranspiration (ET) into its components reveals details of the processes that underlie ecosystem hydrologic budgets and their feedback to the water cycle. We measured rates of actual evapotranspiration (ETa), canopy transpiration (Tc), soil evaporation (Eg), canopy-intercepted precipitation (EI), and patterns of stomatal conductance of the desert shrub Calligonum mongolicum in northern China to determine the water balance of this ecosystem. The ETa was 251 ± 8 mm during the growing period, while EI, Tc, and Eg accounted for 3.2%, 63.9%, and 31.3%, respectively, of total water use (256 ± 4 mm) during the growing period. In this unique ecosystem, groundwater was the main water source for plant transpiration and soil evaporation, Tc and exceeded 60% of the total annual water used by desert plants. ET was not sensitive to air temperature in this unique desert ecosystem. Partitioning ET into its components improves our understanding of the mechanisms that underlie adaptation of desert shrubs, especially the role of stomatal regulation of Tc as a determinant of ecosystem water balance.

  3. Stomatal density and metabolic determinants mediate salt stress adaptation and water use efficiency in basil (Ocimum basilicum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Giancarlo; Vallone, Simona; Orsini, Francesco; Paradiso, Roberta; De Pascale, Stefania; Negre-Zakharov, Florence; Maggio, Albino

    2012-11-15

    Increasing salinity tolerance and water-use efficiency in crop plants are two major challenges that agriculture must face in the next decades. Many physiological mechanisms and molecular components mediating crop response to environmental stresses have been identified. However, the functional inter-links between stress adaptation responses have not been completely understood. Using two basil cultivars (Napoletano and Genovese) with contrasting ability to respond to salt stress, here we demonstrate that reduced stomatal density, high ascorbate level and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity coordinately contribute to improve basil adaptation and water use efficiency (WUE) in saline environment. The constitutively reduced stomatal density was associated with a "delayed" accumulation of stress molecules (and growth inhibiting signals) such as abscisic acid (ABA) and proline, in the more tolerant Genovese. Leaf volatile profiling also revealed cultivar-specific patterns, which may suggest a role for the volatile phenylpropanoid eugenol and monoterpenes in conferring stress tolerance via antioxidant and signalling functions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Low doses of glyphosate enhance growth, CO2 assimilation, stomatal conductance and transpiration in sugarcane and eucalyptus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascentes, Renan F; Carbonari, Caio A; Simões, Plinio S; Brunelli, Marcela C; Velini, Edivaldo D; Duke, Stephen O

    2018-05-01

    Sublethal doses of herbicides can enhance plant growth and stimulate other process, an effect known as hormesis. The magnitude of hormesis is dependent on the plant species, the herbicide and its dose, plant development stage and environmental parameters. Glyphosate hormesis is well established, but relatively little is known of the mechanism of this phenomenon. The objective of this study was to determine if low doses of glyphosate that cause growth stimulation in sugarcane and eucalyptus concomitantly stimulate CO 2 assimilation. Shoot dry weight in both species increased at both 40 and 60 days after application of 6.2 to 20.2 g a.e. ha -1 glyphosate. The level of enhanced shoot dry weight was 11 to 37%, depending on the time after treatment and the species. Concomitantly, CO 2 assimilation, stomatal conductance and transpiration were increased by glyphosate doses similar to those that caused growth increases. Glyphosate applied at low doses increased the dry weight of sugarcane and eucalyptus plants in all experiments. This hormetic effect was related to low dose effects on CO 2 assimilation rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate, indicating that low glyphosate doses enhance photosynthesis of plants. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Prechilling of Xanthium strumarium L. Reduces Net Photosynthesis and, Independently, Stomatal Conductance, While Sensitizing the Stomata to CO(2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, B; Raschke, K

    1974-06-01

    Greenhouse-grown plants of Xanthium strumarium L. were exposed in a growth cabinet to 10 C during days and 5 C during nights for periods of up to 120 hours. Subsequently, CO(2) exchange, transpiration, and leaf temperature were measured on attached leaves and in leaf sections at 25 or 30 C, 19 C dew point of the air, 61 milliwatts per square centimeter irradiance, and CO(2) concentrations between 0 and 1000 microliters per liter ambient air. Net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance decreased and dark respiration increased with increasing duration of prechilling. The reduction in net photosynthesis was not a consequence of decreased stomatal conductance because the intercellular CO(2) concentration in prechilled leaves was equal to or greater than that in greenhouse-grown controls. The intercellular CO(2) concentration at which one-half maximum net photosynthesis occurred remained the same in prechilled leaves and controls (175 to 190 microliters per liter). Stomata of the control plants responded to changes in the CO(2) concentration of the air only slightly. Prechilling for 24 hours or more sensitized stomata to CO(2); they responded to changes in CO(2) concentration in the range from 100 to 1000 microliters per liter.

  6. Prechilling of Xanthium strumarium L. Reduces Net Photosynthesis and, Independently, Stomatal Conductance, While Sensitizing the Stomata to CO21

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, B.; Raschke, K.

    1974-01-01

    Greenhouse-grown plants of Xanthium strumarium L. were exposed in a growth cabinet to 10 C during days and 5 C during nights for periods of up to 120 hours. Subsequently, CO2 exchange, transpiration, and leaf temperature were measured on attached leaves and in leaf sections at 25 or 30 C, 19 C dew point of the air, 61 milliwatts per square centimeter irradiance, and CO2 concentrations between 0 and 1000 microliters per liter ambient air. Net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance decreased and dark respiration increased with increasing duration of prechilling. The reduction in net photosynthesis was not a consequence of decreased stomatal conductance because the intercellular CO2 concentration in prechilled leaves was equal to or greater than that in greenhouse-grown controls. The intercellular CO2 concentration at which one-half maximum net photosynthesis occurred remained the same in prechilled leaves and controls (175 to 190 microliters per liter). Stomata of the control plants responded to changes in the CO2 concentration of the air only slightly. Prechilling for 24 hours or more sensitized stomata to CO2; they responded to changes in CO2 concentration in the range from 100 to 1000 microliters per liter. PMID:16658795

  7. Abscisic Acid Content, Transpiration, and Stomatal Conductance As Related to Leaf Age in Plants of Xanthium strumarium L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raschke, K; Zeevaart, J A

    1976-08-01

    Among the four uppermost leaves of greenhouse-grown plants of Xanthium strumarium L. the content of abscisic acid per unit fresh or dry weight was highest in the youngest leaf and decreased gradually with increasing age of the leaves. Expressed per leaf, the second youngest leaf was richest in ABA; the amount of ABA per leaf declined only slightly as the leaves expanded. Transpiration and stomatal conductance were negatively correlated with the ABA concentration in the leaves; the youngest leaf lost the least amount of water. This correlation was always very good if the youngest leaf was compared with the older leaves but not always good among the older leaves. Since stomatal sensitivity to exogenous (+/-)-ABA was the same in leaves of all four age groups ABA may be in at least two compartments in the leaf, one of which is isolated from the guard cells.The ability to synthesize ABA in response to wilting or chilling was strongly expressed in young leaves and declined with leaf age. There was no difference between leaves in their content of the metabolites of ABA, phaseic, and dihydrophaseic acid, expressed per unit weight.

  8. Abscisic Acid Content, Transpiration, and Stomatal Conductance As Related to Leaf Age in Plants of Xanthium strumarium L. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raschke, Klaus; Zeevaart, Jan A. D.

    1976-01-01

    Among the four uppermost leaves of greenhouse-grown plants of Xanthium strumarium L. the content of abscisic acid per unit fresh or dry weight was highest in the youngest leaf and decreased gradually with increasing age of the leaves. Expressed per leaf, the second youngest leaf was richest in ABA; the amount of ABA per leaf declined only slightly as the leaves expanded. Transpiration and stomatal conductance were negatively correlated with the ABA concentration in the leaves; the youngest leaf lost the least amount of water. This correlation was always very good if the youngest leaf was compared with the older leaves but not always good among the older leaves. Since stomatal sensitivity to exogenous (±)-ABA was the same in leaves of all four age groups ABA may be in at least two compartments in the leaf, one of which is isolated from the guard cells. The ability to synthesize ABA in response to wilting or chilling was strongly expressed in young leaves and declined with leaf age. There was no difference between leaves in their content of the metabolites of ABA, phaseic, and dihydrophaseic acid, expressed per unit weight. PMID:16659640

  9. Redundancy of stomatal control for the circadian photosynthetic rhythm in Kalanchoë daigremontiana Hamet et Perrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyka, T P; Duarte, H M; Lüttge, U E

    2005-03-01

    In continuous light, the Crassulacean acid metabolism plant Kalanchoe daigremontiana Hamet et Perrier has a circadian rhythm of gas exchange with peaks occurring during the subjective night. The rhythm of gas exchange is coupled to a weak, reverse phased rhythm of quantum yield of photosystem II (Phi (PSII)). To test if the rhythm of Phi (PSII) persists in the absence of stomatal control, leaves were coated with a thin layer of translucent silicone grease which prevented CO2 and H2O exchange. In spite of this treatment, the rhythm of Phi (PSII) occurred with close to normal phase timing and with a much larger amplitude than in uncoated leaves. The mechanism underlying the Phi (PSII) rhythm in coated leaves can be explained by a circadian activity of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC). At peaks of PEPC activity, the small amount of CO2 contained in the coated leaf could have become depleted, preventing the carboxylase activity of Rubisco and causing decreases in electron transport rates (observed as deep troughs of Phi (PSII) at 23-h in LL and at ca. 24-h intervals afterwards). Peaks of Phi (PSII) would be caused by a downregulation of PEPC leading to improved supply of CO2 to Rubisco. Substrate limitation of photochemistry at 23 h (trough of Phi (PSII)) was also suggested by the weak response of ETR in coated leaves to stepwise light enhancement. These results show that photosynthetic rhythmicity in K. daigremontiana is independent of stomatal regulation and may originate in the mesophyll.

  10. Stomatal conductance, mesophyll conductance, and transpiration efficiency in relation to leaf anatomy in rice and wheat genotypes under drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Wenjing; Struik, Paul C; Yin, Xinyou; Yang, Jianchang

    2017-11-02

    Increasing leaf transpiration efficiency (TE) may provide leads for growing rice like dryland cereals such as wheat (Triticum aestivum). To explore avenues for improving TE in rice, variations in stomatal conductance (gs) and mesophyll conductance (gm) and their anatomical determinants were evaluated in two cultivars from each of lowland, aerobic, and upland groups of Oryza sativa, one cultivar of O. glaberrima, and two cultivars of T. aestivum, under three water regimes. The TE of upland rice, O. glaberrima, and wheat was more responsive to the gm/gs ratio than that of lowland and aerobic rice. Overall, the explanatory power of the particular anatomical trait varied among species. Low stomatal density mostly explained the low gs in drought-tolerant rice, whereas rice genotypes with smaller stomata generally responded more strongly to drought. Compared with rice, wheat had a higher gm, which was associated with thicker mesophyll tissue, mesophyll and chloroplasts more exposed to intercellular spaces, and thinner cell walls. Upland rice, O. glaberrima, and wheat cultivars minimized the decrease in gm under drought by maintaining high ratios of chloroplasts to exposed mesophyll cell walls. Rice TE could be improved by increasing the gm/gs ratio via modifying anatomical traits. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  11. Resource use and efficiency, and stomatal responses to environmental drivers of oak and pine species in an Atlantic Coastal Plain forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi J Renninger

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Pine-oak ecosystems are globally distributed even though differences in anatomy and leaf habit between many co-occurring oaks and pines suggest different strategies for resource use, efficiency and stomatal behavior. The New Jersey Pinelands contain sandy soils with low water- and nutrient-holding capacity providing an opportunity to examine trade-offs in resource uptake and efficiency. Therefore, we compared resource use in terms of transpiration rates and leaf nitrogen content and resource-use efficiency including water-use efficiency (WUE via gas exchange and leaf carbon isotopes and photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency (PNUE between oaks (Quercus alba, Q. prinus, Q. velutina and pines (Pinus rigida, P. echinata. We also determined environmental drivers (vapor pressure deficit (VPD, soil moisture, solar radiation of canopy stomatal conductance (GS estimated via sap flow and stomatal sensitivity to light and soil moisture. Net assimilation rates were similar between genera, but oak leaves used about 10% more water and pine foliage contained about 20% more N per unit leaf area. Therefore, oaks exhibited greater PNUE while pines had higher WUE based on gas exchange, although WUE from carbon isotopes was not significantly different. For the environmental drivers of GS, oaks had about 10% lower stomatal sensitivity to VPD normalized by reference stomatal conductance compared with pines. Pines exhibited a significant positive relationship between shallow soil moisture and GS, but only GS in Q. velutina was positively related to soil moisture. In contrast, stomatal sensitivity to VPD was significantly related to solar radiation in all oak species but only pines at one site. Therefore, oaks rely more heavily on groundwater resources but have lower WUE, while pines have larger leaf areas and nitrogen acquisition but lower PNUE demonstrating a trade-off between using water and nitrogen efficiently in a resource-limited ecosystem.

  12. CDPKs CPK6 and CPK3 function in ABA regulation of guard cell S-type anion- and Ca(2+-permeable channels and stomatal closure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izumi C Mori

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abscisic acid (ABA signal transduction has been proposed to utilize cytosolic Ca(2+ in guard cell ion channel regulation. However, genetic mutants in Ca(2+ sensors that impair guard cell or plant ion channel signaling responses have not been identified, and whether Ca(2+-independent ABA signaling mechanisms suffice for a full response remains unclear. Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs have been proposed to contribute to central signal transduction responses in plants. However, no Arabidopsis CDPK gene disruption mutant phenotype has been reported to date, likely due to overlapping redundancies in CDPKs. Two Arabidopsis guard cell-expressed CDPK genes, CPK3 and CPK6, showed gene disruption phenotypes. ABA and Ca(2+ activation of slow-type anion channels and, interestingly, ABA activation of plasma membrane Ca(2+-permeable channels were impaired in independent alleles of single and double cpk3cpk6 mutant guard cells. Furthermore, ABA- and Ca(2+-induced stomatal closing were partially impaired in these cpk3cpk6 mutant alleles. However, rapid-type anion channel current activity was not affected, consistent with the partial stomatal closing response in double mutants via a proposed branched signaling network. Imposed Ca(2+ oscillation experiments revealed that Ca(2+-reactive stomatal closure was reduced in CDPK double mutant plants. However, long-lasting Ca(2+-programmed stomatal closure was not impaired, providing genetic evidence for a functional separation of these two modes of Ca(2+-induced stomatal closing. Our findings show important functions of the CPK6 and CPK3 CDPKs in guard cell ion channel regulation and provide genetic evidence for calcium sensors that transduce stomatal ABA signaling.

  13. Resource use and efficiency, and stomatal responses to environmental drivers of oak and pine species in an Atlantic Coastal Plain forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renninger, Heidi J; Carlo, Nicholas J; Clark, Kenneth L; Schäfer, Karina V R

    2015-01-01

    Pine-oak ecosystems are globally distributed even though differences in anatomy and leaf habit between many co-occurring oaks and pines suggest different strategies for resource use, efficiency and stomatal behavior. The New Jersey Pinelands contain sandy soils with low water- and nutrient-holding capacity providing an opportunity to examine trade-offs in resource uptake and efficiency. Therefore, we compared resource use in terms of transpiration rates and leaf nitrogen content and resource-use efficiency including water-use efficiency (WUE) via gas exchange and leaf carbon isotopes and photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency (PNUE) between oaks (Quercus alba, Q. prinus, Q. velutina) and pines (Pinus rigida, P. echinata). We also determined environmental drivers [vapor pressure deficit (VPD), soil moisture, solar radiation] of canopy stomatal conductance (GS) estimated via sap flow and stomatal sensitivity to light and soil moisture. Net assimilation rates were similar between genera, but oak leaves used about 10% more water and pine foliage contained about 20% more N per unit leaf area. Therefore, oaks exhibited greater PNUE while pines had higher WUE based on gas exchange, although WUE from carbon isotopes was not significantly different. For the environmental drivers of GS, oaks had about 10% lower stomatal sensitivity to VPD normalized by reference stomatal conductance compared with pines. Pines exhibited a significant positive relationship between shallow soil moisture and GS, but only GS in Q. velutina was positively related to soil moisture. In contrast, stomatal sensitivity to VPD was significantly related to solar radiation in all oak species but only pines at one site. Therefore, oaks rely more heavily on groundwater resources but have lower WUE, while pines have larger leaf areas and nitrogen acquisition but lower PNUE demonstrating a trade-off between using water and nitrogen efficiently in a resource-limited ecosystem.

  14. Acquired changes in stomatal characteristics in response to ozone during plant growth and leaf development of bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) indicate phenotypic plasticity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elagoez, Vahram [Plant Biology Graduate Program, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)]. E-mail: velagoz@nsm.umass.edu; Han, Susan S. [Department of Plant, Soil and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Manning, William J. [Department of Plant, Soil and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

    2006-04-15

    Bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines 'S156' (O{sub 3}-sensitive)/'R123' (O{sub 3}-tolerant) and cultivars 'BBL 290' (O{sub 3}-sensitive)/'BBL 274' (O{sub 3}-tolerant) were used to study the effects of O{sub 3} on stomatal conductance (g {sub s}), density, and aperture size on leaf and pod surfaces with the objective of establishing links between the degree of plant sensitivity to O{sub 3} and plasticity of stomatal properties in response to O{sub 3}. Studies in open-top chambers (OTCs) and in continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) established a clear relationship between plant developmental stages, degrees of O{sub 3} sensitivity and g {sub s}: while 'S156' had higher g {sub s} rates than 'R123' earlier in development, similar differences between 'BBL 290' and 'BBL 274' were observed at later stages. G {sub s} rates on the abaxial leaf surfaces of 'S156' and 'BBL 290', accompanied by low leaf temperatures, were significantly higher than their O{sub 3}-tolerant counterparts. Exposure to O{sub 3} in CSTRs had greater and more consistent impacts on both stomatal densities and aperture sizes of O{sub 3}-sensitive cultivars. Stomatal densities were highest on the abaxial leaf surfaces of 'S156' and 'BBL 290' at higher O{sub 3} concentrations (60 ppb), but the largest aperture sizes were recorded on the adaxial leaf surfaces at moderate O{sub 3} concentrations (30 ppb). Exposure to O{sub 3} eliminated aperture size differences on the adaxial leaf surfaces between sensitive and tolerant cultivars. Regardless of sensitivity to O{sub 3} and treatment regimes, the smallest aperture sizes and highest stomatal densities were found on the abaxial leaf surface. Our studies showed that O{sub 3} has the potential to affect stomatal plasticity and confirmed the presence of different control mechanisms for stomatal development on each leaf surface. This

  15. Coleção fluídica na interface do LASIK causada por glaucoma secundário à ceratouveíte herpética: relato de caso LASIK interface fluid accumulation caused by glaucoma associated with herpetic keratouveitis: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Mayumi Nakano

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available A infecção por Herpes simplex vírus (HSV é causa freqüente de inflamação intra-ocular ou uveíte anterior. A hipertensão ocular é característica comumente observada nas ceratouveítes herpéticas. Neste relato descrevemos o acúmulo de fluido e descolamento do "flap" corneano da ceratomileusis, no pós-operatório tardio de LASIK (28 meses, associado a quadro hipertensivo ocular secundário a ceratouveíte herpética. Este achado corrobora a suposição que a cicatrização corneana após LASIK seja apenas parcial e o espaço virtual produzido pela ceratomileuisis permaneça indefinidamente. Condições de aumento excessivo da pressão intra-ocular podem causar edema corneano com acúmulo de fluido da interface.Herpes simplex virus infection is a frequent cause of intraocular inflammation or anterior uveitis. Ocular hypertension is a common feature in herpetic keratouveitis. We describe a fluid accumulation and flap displacement in late postoperative period (28 months of LASIK associated with ocular hypertension caused by herpetic keratouveitis. This finding supports the theory that flap attachment after LASIK is only partial and the virtual space remains indefinitely. The presence of ocular hypertension may lead to corneal edema and fluid accumulation in the interface.

  16. Scaling up stomatal conductance from leaf to canopy using a dual-leaf model for estimating crop evapotranspiration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risheng Ding

    Full Text Available The dual-source Shuttleworth-Wallace model has been widely used to estimate and partition crop evapotranspiration (λET. Canopy stomatal conductance (Gsc, an essential parameter of the model, is often calculated by scaling up leaf stomatal conductance, considering the canopy as one single leaf in a so-called "big-leaf" model. However, Gsc can be overestimated or underestimated depending on leaf area index level in the big-leaf model, due to a non-linear stomatal response to light. A dual-leaf model, scaling up Gsc from leaf to canopy, was developed in this study. The non-linear stomata-light relationship was incorporated by dividing the canopy into sunlit and shaded fractions and calculating each fraction separately according to absorbed irradiances. The model includes: (1 the absorbed irradiance, determined by separately integrating the sunlit and shaded leaves with consideration of both beam and diffuse radiation; (2 leaf area for the sunlit and shaded fractions; and (3 a leaf conductance model that accounts for the response of stomata to PAR, vapor pressure deficit and available soil water. In contrast to the significant errors of Gsc in the big-leaf model, the predicted Gsc using the dual-leaf model had a high degree of data-model agreement; the slope of the linear regression between daytime predictions and measurements was 1.01 (R2 = 0.98, with RMSE of 0.6120 mm s-1 for four clear-sky days in different growth stages. The estimates of half-hourly λET using the dual-source dual-leaf model (DSDL agreed well with measurements and the error was within 5% during two growing seasons of maize with differing hydrometeorological and management strategies. Moreover, the estimates of soil evaporation using the DSDL model closely matched actual measurements. Our results indicate that the DSDL model can produce more accurate estimation of Gsc and λET, compared to the big-leaf model, and thus is an effective alternative approach for estimating and

  17. Drought responses of two gymnosperm species with contrasting stomatal regulation strategies under elevated [CO2] and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Honglang; O'Grady, Anthony P; Duursma, Remko A; Choat, Brendan; Huang, Guomin; Smith, Renee A; Jiang, Yanan; Tissue, David T

    2015-07-01

    Future climate regimes characterized by rising [CO2], rising temperatures and associated droughts may differentially affect tree growth and physiology. However, the interactive effects of these three factors are complex because elevated [CO2] and elevated temperature may generate differential physiological responses during drought. To date, the interactive effects of elevated [CO2] and elevated temperature on drought-induced tree mortality remain poorly understood in gymnosperm species that differ in stomatal regulation strategies. Water relations and carbon dynamics were examined in two species with contrasting stomatal regulation strategies: Pinus radiata D. Don (relatively isohydric gymnosperm; regulating stomata to maintain leaf water potential above critical thresholds) and Callitris rhomboidea R. Br (relatively anisohydric gymnosperm; allowing leaf water potential to decline as the soil dries), to assess response to drought as a function of [CO2] and temperature. Both species were grown in two [CO2] (C(a) (ambient, 400 μl l(-1)) and C(e) (elevated, 640 μl l(-1))) and two temperature (T(a) (ambient) and T(e) (ambient +4 °C)) treatments in a sun-lit glasshouse under well-watered conditions. Drought plants were then exposed to a progressive drought until mortality. Prior to mortality, extensive xylem cavitation occurred in both species, but significant depletion of non-structural carbohydrates was not observed in either species. Te resulted in faster mortality in P. radiata, but it did not modify the time-to-mortality in C. rhomboidea. C(e) did not delay the time-to-mortality in either species under drought or T(e) treatments. In summary, elevated temperature (+4 °C) had greater influence than elevated [CO2] (+240 μl l(-1)) on drought responses of the two studied gymnosperm species, while stomatal regulation strategies did not generally affect the relative contributions of hydraulic failure and carbohydrate depletion to mortality under severe drought.

  18. Temporal dynamics of stomatal conductance of plants under water deficit: can homeostasis be improved by more complex dynamics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Maia Souza

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study we hypothesized that chaotic or complex behavior of stomatal conductance could improve plant homeostasis after water deficit. Stomatal conductance of sunflower and sugar beet leaves was measured in plants grown either daily irrigation or under water deficit using an infrared gas analyzer. All measurements were performed under controlled environmental conditions. In order to measure a consistent time series, data were scored with time intervals of 20s during 6h. Lyapunov exponents, fractal dimensions, KS entropy and relative LZ complexity were calculated. Stomatal conductance in both irrigated and non-irrigated plants was chaotic-like. Plants under water deficit showed a trend to a more complex behaviour, mainly in sunflower that showed better homeostasis than in sugar beet. Some biological implications are discussed.Este estudo testou a hipótese de que a condutância estomática de uma população de estômatos em uma folha poderia apresentar um comportamento caótico ou complexo sob diferentes condições hídricas, o que poderia favorecer a capacidade homeostática das plantas. A condutância estomática em folhas de girassol e de beterraba cultivadas com irrigação diária e sob deficiência hídrica foi medida com um analisador de gás por infra-vermelho em condições controladas. Os dados foram registrados a cada 20s durante 6h. As séries temporais obtidas foram analisadas por meio dos coeficientes de Lyapunov, dimensão fractal, entropia KS e complexidade LZ relativa. A condutância estomática nas plantas cultivadas com e sem deficiência hídrica exibiu um comportamento provavelmente caótico. As plantas sob estresse hídrico mostraram uma tendência para um comportamento mais complexo, principalmente as plantas de girassol cuja capacidade homeostática foi superior. Algumas implicações biológicas destes comportamentos são discutidas no texto.

  19. Updated stomatal flux and flux-effect models for wheat for quantifying effects of ozone on grain yield, grain mass and protein yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünhage, Ludger; Pleijel, Håkan; Mills, Gina; Bender, Jürgen; Danielsson, Helena; Lehmann, Yvonne; Castell, Jean-Francois; Bethenod, Olivier

    2012-06-01

    Field measurements and open-top chamber experiments using nine current European winter wheat cultivars provided a data set that was used to revise and improve the parameterisation of a stomatal conductance model for wheat, including a revised value for maximum stomatal conductance and new functions for phenology and soil moisture. For the calculation of stomatal conductance for ozone a diffusivity ratio between O(3) and H(2)O in air of 0.663 was applied, based on a critical review of the literature. By applying the improved parameterisation for stomatal conductance, new flux-effect relationships for grain yield, grain mass and protein yield were developed for use in ozone risk assessments including effects on food security. An example of application of the flux model at the local scale in Germany shows that negative effects of ozone on wheat grain yield were likely each year and on protein yield in most years since the mid 1980s. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Influence of stomatic aperture on photosynthetic activity of bean-seedlings leaves; Influencia de la apertura estomatica sobre la actividad fotosintetica de las hojas de plantas de judias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez Moya, J; Fernandez Gonzalez, J

    1984-07-01

    The present paper contains the data of photosynthetic activity and stomatic aperture of bean-seedlings Ieaves, and the relations obtained with both results. It has been observed that the product of photosynthetic activity by the resistance; to transpiration measured by a promoter ia a constant, between some limits. (Author) 45 refs.

  1. Wheat cultivars selected for high Fv/Fm under heat stress maintain high photosynthesis, total chlorophyll, stomatal conductance, transpiration and dry matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Dew Kumari; Andersen, Sven Bode; Ottosen, Carl Otto

    2015-01-01

    ) than the low group, accompanied by higher stomatal conductance (gs), transpiration rate (E) and evaporative cooling of the leaf (ΔT). The difference in PN between the groups was not caused by differences in PSII capacity or gs as the variation in Fv/Fm and intracellular CO2 (Ci) was non...

  2. Stomatal uptake of O3 in aspen and aspen-birch forests under free-air CO2 and O3 enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johan Uddling; Alan J. Hogg; Ronald M. Teclaw; Mary Anne. Carroll; David S. Ellsworth

    2010-01-01

    Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) may alleviate the toxicological impacts of concurrently rising tropospheric ozone (O3) during the present century if higher CO2 is accompanied by lower stomatal conductance (gs), as assumed by many models. We investigated how elevated...

  3. A prospective pilot study on the effect of sucralfate mouth-swishing in reducing stomatitis during radiotherapy of the oral cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeiffer, P.; Hansen, O.; Madsen, E.L.; May, O.

    1990-01-01

    Radiotherapy in sufficient dose involving the oral cavity always causes stomatitis, the severity of which is dependent on primary diagnosis, age, oral status and whether concomitant chemotherapy is given or not. The aim of the present pilot study was to assess whether mouth-swishing with sucralfate suspension might reduce oral radiation mucositis without disturbing side effects. (orig./MG)

  4. A prospective pilot study on the effect of sucralfate mouth-swishing in reducing stomatitis during radiotherapy of the oral cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeiffer, P.; Hansen, O.; Madsen, E.L.; May, O. (Odense Univ. (Denmark). Dept. of Oncology)

    1990-01-01

    Radiotherapy in sufficient dose involving the oral cavity always causes stomatitis, the severity of which is dependent on primary diagnosis, age, oral status and whether concomitant chemotherapy is given or not. The aim of the present pilot study was to assess whether mouth-swishing with sucralfate suspension might reduce oral radiation mucositis without disturbing side effects. (orig./MG).

  5. Resource use and efficiency, and stomatal responses to environmental drivers of oak and pine species in an Atlantic Coastal Plain forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidi J. Renninger; Nicholas J. Carlo; Kenneth L. Clark; Karina V.R. Schäfer

    2015-01-01

    Pine-oak ecosystems are globally distributed even though differences in anatomy and leaf habit between many co-occurring oaks and pines suggest different strategies for resource use, efficiency and stomatal behavior. The New Jersey Pinelands contain sandy soils with low water- and nutrient-holding capacity providing an opportunity to examine trade-offs in resource...

  6. Seasonal trends of light-saturated net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance of loblolly pine trees grown in contrasting environments of nutrition, water and carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh Murthy; Stanley J. Zarnoch; P.M. Dougherty

    1997-01-01

    Repeated measures analysis was used to evaluate the effect of long-term CO2 enhancement on seasonal trends of light-saturated rates of net photosynthesis (Asat) and stomatal conductance to water vapour (gsat) of 9-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.; trees grown in a 2x2...

  7. Differences between water permeability of astomatous and stomatous cuticular membranes: effects of air humidity in two species of contrasting drought-resistance strategy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Karbulková, J.; Schreiber, L.; Macek, Petr; Šantrůček, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 14 (2008), s. 3987-3995 ISSN 0022-0957 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA601410505 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513; CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Hedera helix * stomatal conductance * Zamioculcas zamiifolia Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 4.001, year: 2008

  8. A photosynthesis-based two-leaf canopy stomatal conductance model for meteorology and air quality modeling with WRF/CMAQ PX LSM

    Science.gov (United States)

    A coupled photosynthesis-stomatal conductance model with single-layer sunlit and shaded leaf canopy scaling is implemented and evaluated in a diagnostic box model with the Pleim-Xiu land surface model (PX LSM) and ozone deposition model components taken directly from the meteorol...

  9. Quantitative multiplex assay for simultaneous detection and identification of Indiana and New Jersey serotypes of vesicular stomatitis virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun; Uttenthal, Åse; Fernandez, Jovita

    2005-01-01

    In order to establish a rapid and reliable system for the detection of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), we developed a quantitative reverse transcription-PCR assay for the detection, quantification, and differentiation of the major serotypes, VSV Indiana and VSV New Jersey, using a closed......-tube multiplex format. The detection system is based on the recently invented primer-probe energy transfer (PriProET) system. A region of the gene encoding the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase was amplified by using VSV-specific primers in the presence of two serotype-specific fluorescent probes. By incorporating...... probes. The limits of detection ware found to be less than 10 50% tissue culture infective doses/ml for both serotypes. The diagnostic value of the new method was tested with clinical materials from experimentally infected pigs, and it is concluded that the method is a powerful tool for the rapid...

  10. Is there a role of food additives in recurrent aphthous stomatitis? A prospective study with patch testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülseren, Duygu; Hapa, Asli; Ersoy-Evans, Sibel; Elçin, Gonca; Karaduman, Ayşen

    2017-03-01

    Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is a common disease of the oral mucosa with an unknown etiology. This study aimed to determine if food additives play a role in the etiology of RAS as well as to determine if patch testing can be used to detect which allergens cause RAS. This prospective study included 24 patients with RAS and 22 healthy controls. All the participants underwent patch testing for 23 food additives. In total, 21 (87.5%) RAS patients and 3 (13.6%) controls had positive patch test reactions to ≥1 allergens; the difference in the patch test positivity rate between groups was significant (P food additives might play a role in the etiology of RAS and that patch testing could be a method for determining the etiology of RAS. © 2016 The International Society of Dermatology.

  11. Genotypic difference in salinity tolerance in quinoa is determined by differential control of xylem Na+ loading and stomatal density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabala, Sergey; Hariadi, Yuda; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik

    2013-01-01

    old seedlings. Six weeks after the treatment commenced, leaf sap Na and K content and osmolality, stomatal density, chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics, and xylem sap Na and K composition were measured. Responses to salinity differed greatly among the varieties. All cultivars had substantially...... increased K+ concentrations in the leaf sap, but the most tolerant cultivars had lower xylem Na+ content at the time of sampling. Most tolerant cultivars had lowest leaf sap osmolality. All varieties reduced stomata density when grown under saline conditions. All varieties clustered into two groups...... to the xylem, and reduced stomata density are important physiological traits contributing to genotypic differences in salinity tolerance in quinoa, a halophyte species from Chenopodium family....

  12. A Comparative Clinical Trial of Topical Triamcinolone (Adcortyle and a Herbal Solution for the Treatment of Minor Aphthous Stomatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Rad

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the therapeutic effect of topical Myrtus communis (myrtle solution with topical triamcinolone (Adcortyle in the treatment of minor apotheosis. Materials & Methods: This clinical-trial study was conducted at Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences in 2009. 100 patients were randomly assigned into 2 groups. The 1st group received topical myrtle solution. The 2nd group received topical trimcinolone (Adcortyle. After one week, patients' declaration about time of the recovery of the pain and deterioration of oral lesion was recorded. The gathered data was then analyzed using the SPSS statistical software using t-test and chi-square. Results: After treatment, both groups showed response to topical medications with no significant difference between them (p>0.05. Conclusion: results of this study showed that topical myrtle solution is effective in the treatment of minor aphthous stomatitis and its therapeutic effect is comparable with topical triamcinolone (Adcortyle.

  13. Photosynthesis Decrease and Stomatal Control of Gas Exchange in Abies alba Mill. in Response to Vapor Pressure Difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guehl, J M; Aussenac, G

    1987-02-01

    The responses of steady state CO(2) assimilation rate (A), transpiration rate (E), and stomatal conductance (g(s)) to changes in leaf-to-air vapor pressure difference (DeltaW) were examined on different dates in shoots from Abies alba trees growing outside. In Ecouves, a provenance representative of wet oceanic conditions in Northern France, both A and g(s) decreased when DeltaW was increased from 4.6 to 14.5 Pa KPa(-1). In Nebias, which represented the dry end of the natural range of A. alba in southern France, A and g(s) decreased only after reaching peak levels at 9.0 and 7.0 Pa KPa(-1), respectively. The representation of the data in assimilation rate (A) versus intercellular CO(2) partial pressure (C(i)) graphs allowed us to determine how stomata and mesophyll photosynthesis interacted when DeltaW was increased. Changes in A were primarily due to alterations in mesophyll photosynthesis. At high DeltaW, and especially in Ecouves when soil water deficit prevailed, A declined, while C(i) remained approximately constant, which may be interpreted as an adjustment of g(s) to changes in mesophyll photosynthesis. Such a stomatal control of gas exchange appeared as an alternative to the classical feedforward interpretation of E versus DeltaW responses with a peak rate of E. The gas exchange response to DeltaW was also characterized by considerable deviations from the optimization theory of IR Cowan and GD Farquhar (1977 Symp Soc Exp Biol 31: 471-505).

  14. Antifungal Effect of Henna against Candida albicans Adhered to Acrylic Resin as a Possible Method for Prevention of Denture Stomatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawasrah, Amal; AlNimr, Amani; Ali, Aiman A.

    2016-01-01

    Denture stomatitis is a very common disease affecting the oral mucosa of denture wearers. The aim of this study was to measure the antifungal effect of henna against Candida albicans adhered to acrylic resin as a possible method for prevention of denture stomatitis. One-hundred-eighty acrylic plates were prepared of heat-cured acrylic denture resin. The specimens were divided into six groups of 30 samples each. The first group was only polymer and monomer following the conventional manufacturer instruction for processing complete dentures. The other five groups were processed by adding different concentration of Yamani henna powder (Harazi) to the polymer in a concentration of henna: polymer 1%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% and 10%, respectively. Samples were incubated in artificial saliva rich with Candida albicans at 37 °C, and the effect of henna on Candida albicans was evaluated in two different methods: semi-quantitative slide count and a culture-based quantitative assay (quantitative). Variation in the number of live Candida was observed with the increase in the concentration of Yamani henna powder. It was observed that the variation in live Candida, between control group and group B (concentration of Yamani henna powder was 1%), was statistically significant with a p-value of 0.0001. Similarly, variations in live Candida were significant, when the concentration of powder was 7.5% or 10% in contrast with control group and p-values were 0.0001 and 0.001 respectively. Adding henna to acrylic resin denture could be effective in controlling Candida albicans proliferation on the denture surface; however, its effects on the physical properties of acrylic resin denture need further studies. PMID:27223294

  15. Deliberate ROS production and auxin synergistically trigger the asymmetrical division generating the subsidiary cells in Zea mays stomatal complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livanos, Pantelis; Galatis, Basil; Apostolakos, Panagiotis

    2016-07-01

    Subsidiary cell generation in Poaceae is an outstanding example of local intercellular stimulation. An inductive stimulus emanates from the guard cell mother cells (GMCs) towards their laterally adjacent subsidiary cell mother cells (SMCs) and triggers the asymmetrical division of the latter. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) immunolocalization in Zea mays protoderm confirmed that the GMCs function as local sources of auxin and revealed that auxin is polarly accumulated between GMCs and SMCs in a timely-dependent manner. Besides, staining techniques showed that reactive oxygen species (ROS) exhibit a closely similar, also time-dependent, pattern of appearance suggesting ROS implication in subsidiary cell formation. This phenomenon was further investigated by using the specific NADPH-oxidase inhibitor diphenylene iodonium, the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-cysteine, menadione which leads to ROS overproduction, and H2O2. Treatments with diphenylene iodonium, N-acetyl-cysteine, and menadione specifically blocked SMC polarization and asymmetrical division. In contrast, H2O2 promoted the establishment of SMC polarity and subsequently subsidiary cell formation in "younger" protodermal areas. Surprisingly, H2O2 favored the asymmetrical division of the intervening cells of the stomatal rows leading to the creation of extra apical subsidiary cells. Moreover, H2O2 altered IAA localization, whereas synthetic auxin analogue 1-napthaleneacetic acid enhanced ROS accumulation. Combined treatments with ROS modulators along with 1-napthaleneacetic acid or 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid, an auxin efflux inhibitor, confirmed the crosstalk between ROS and auxin functioning during subsidiary cell generation. Collectively, our results demonstrate that ROS are critical partners of auxin during development of Z. mays stomatal complexes. The interplay between auxin and ROS seems to be spatially and temporarily regulated.

  16. Sensitivity difference of Streptococcus viridans on 35% Piper betle linn extract and 10% povidone iodine towards recurrent apthous stomatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maharani Laillyza Apriasari

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral ulceration often becomes the main reason for the patients to see a dentist. Therapy of the oral ulceration is by giving the palliative therapy with topical antiseptic. Nowadays, there are many researches concerning with the traditional medicines as alternative therapy. One of them is Piper betle linn which contains the antiseptic agent. Purpose: This research is aimed to observe the sensitivity difference of Streptococcus viridans on 35% Piper betle linn extract and 10%povidone iodine. Methods: This laboratory research was conducted by the post test only design with random complete design. The research sampel is Streptococcus viridans culture that was scrapped from the ulcer of the recurrent aphthous stomatitis patient, then it was replicated by using the Federer theory. Results: Inhibitory zone of 35% Piper betle linn extract is bigger than 10% povidone iodine. Conclusion: Streptococcus viridans are more sensitive to 35% Piper bittle linn extract than 10% povidone iodine. 35% Piper betle linn extract has more antibacterial effect than 10% povidone iodine.Latar belakang: Ulserasi rongga mulut seringkali menjadi alasan utama bagi pasien untuk memeriksakan diri ke dokter gigi. Terapi ulserasi rongga mulut adalah pemberian terapi paliatif kepada penderita, seperti: pemberian obat topikal yang mengandung antiseptik. Saat ini banyak penelitian dalam pengembangan obat tradisional yang dapat dijadikan sebagai obat alternatif. Salah satu diantaranya adalah daun sirih yang mengandung zat antiseptik. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui perbedaan sensitivitas Streptococcus viridans terhadap ekstrak daun sirih 35% jika dibandingkan dengan povidone iodine 10%. Metode: Penelitian laboratoris yang dilakukan dengan post test only design dengan rancangan acak lengkap. Sampel penelitian adalah kultur Streptococcus viridans yang diambil melalui swab dari hapusan ulser pada pasien yang menderita stomatitis aftosa rekuren, kemudian dilakukan

  17. Spatio-temporal diversification of the cell wall matrix materials in the developing stomatal complexes of Zea mays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannoutsou, E; Apostolakos, P; Galatis, B

    2016-11-01

    The matrix cell wall materials, in developing Zea mays stomatal complexes are asymmetrically distributed, a phenomenon appearing related to the local cell wall expansion and deformation, the establishment of cell polarity, and determination of the cell division plane. In cells of developing Zea mays stomatal complexes, definite cell wall regions expand determinately and become locally deformed. This differential cell wall behavior is obvious in the guard cell mother cells (GMCs) and the subsidiary cell mother cells (SMCs) that locally protrude towards the adjacent GMCs. The latter, emitting a morphogenetic stimulus, induce polarization/asymmetrical division in SMCs. Examination of immunolabeled specimens revealed that homogalacturonans (HGAs) with a high degree of de-esterification (2F4- and JIM5-HGA epitopes) and arabinogalactan proteins are selectively distributed in the extending and deformed cell wall regions, while their margins are enriched with rhamnogalacturonans (RGAs) containing highly branched arabinans (LM6-RGA epitope). In SMCs, the local cell wall matrix differentiation constitutes the first structural event, indicating the establishment of cell polarity. Moreover, in the premitotic GMCs and SMCs, non-esterified HGAs (2F4-HGA epitope) are preferentially localized in the cell wall areas outlining the cytoplasm where the preprophase band is formed. In these areas, the forthcoming cell plate fuses with the parent cell walls. These data suggest that the described heterogeneity in matrix cell wall materials is probably involved in: (a) local cell wall expansion and deformation, (b) the transduction of the inductive GMC stimulus, and (c) the determination of the division plane in GMCs and SMCs.

  18. Photosynthetic pigments and stomatal conductance in ecotypes of copoazu (Theobroma grandi orum Willd. Ex. Spreng K. Schum..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Suárez-Salazar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the variability of photosynthetic pigment content and daily stomatal conductance was evaluated in relation to environmental variables in Copoazú (Theobroma grandi orum ecotypes. The ecotypes used were part of the germoplasm bank of the University of the Amazon (Colombia. The study was carried out during the year 2015. Four leaves of the average stratum of four plants were collected for each ecotype, to extract and read at different levels of absorbance and determine the content of photosynthetic pigments. During the hours of 04:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m., the stomatal conductance (gs was monitored for environmental variables (relative humidity, air temperature, radiation and vapor pressure de cit (VPD. An analysis of variance was made using the Tukey test, correlations and regressions were made between gs and environmental variables. The contents of chlorophyll a, b, total and carotenoids among ecotypes were different (P<0.0001, the ecotype UA-31 presented the highest values, contrasting with the ecotype UA-37. Concerning gs, the interaction ecotype*hour showed signi cant differences (P<0.0001 .The ecotypes that presented the highest values of gs were UA-67 and UA-039, (P<0.0001, radiation (-0.91, P<0.0001 and DPV (-0.94; P<0.0001 0.0001.The results suggest that ecotypes UA-039 and UA-31 were the most suitable in terms of gaseous exchange and content of photosynthetic pigments.

  19. Photodynamic antimicrobial therapy in the treatment of denture stomatitis; Terapia fotodinamica antimicrobiana no tratamento da estomatite protetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senna, Andre Machado de

    2012-07-01

    Denture stomatitis (DS), also called chronic atrophic candidiasis, is the most common oral fungal infection in denture wearers. It has a multifactorial etiology, but the presence of Candida spp. biofilm on the denture is considered the most important factor for the establishment of the DS. This study aimed to evaluate the treatment of DS through the use of photodynamic antimicrobial therapy (PAT), mediated by methylene blue. For this purpose, preclinical studies and clinical trials were performed. Simulators prototypes dentures were made of methyl methacrylate polymer to serve as a basis for biofilm growth of the following species of Candida: C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. dubliniensis, C. krusei, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis and C. guilliermondii. Methylene blue solution at a concentration of 450 {mu}g/mL was used as a photosensitizer. The prototypes and biofilms were irradiated with a laser of wavelength of 660 nm, potency of 100 mW, for 80 seconds. For the clinical study, subjects were divided into two groups. The first group received conventional treatment based on the use of antifungal Miconazole. The second group received the treatment by PAT. The preclinical results showed that all species of the genus Candida were susceptible to PAT, with a reduction in colonies that ranged from 2.48 to 3.93 log{sub 10}. Clinical outcomes were evaluated for the reduction of colonies of Candida spp. located in the mucosa and in the prosthesis and relative to the improvement of the clinical aspect of the affected mucosa. Both the conventional therapy and PAT were effective in treating DS. There was no significant statistical difference between PAT and conventional treatment for any of the factors evaluated. Thus, it was concluded that PAT is effective in the treatment of denture stomatitis. (author)

  20. Evolution of the bHLH genes involved in stomatal development: implications for the expansion of developmental complexity of stomata in land plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Hua Ran

    Full Text Available Stomata play significant roles in plant evolution. A trio of closely related basic Helix-Loop-Helix (bHLH subgroup Ia genes, SPCH, MUTE and FAMA, mediate sequential steps of stomatal development, and their functions may be conserved in land plants. However, the evolutionary history of the putative SPCH/MUTE/FAMA genes is still greatly controversial, especially the phylogenetic positions of the bHLH Ia members from basal land plants. To better understand the evolutionary pattern and functional diversity of the bHLH genes involved in stomatal development, we made a comprehensive evolutionary analysis of the homologous genes from 54 species representing the major lineages of green plants. The phylogenetic analysis indicated: (1 All bHLH Ia genes from the two basal land plants Physcomitrella and Selaginella were closely related to the FAMA genes of seed plants; and (2 the gymnosperm 'SPCH' genes were sister to a clade comprising the angiosperm SPCH and MUTE genes, while the FAMA genes of gymnosperms and angiosperms had a sister relationship. The revealed phylogenetic relationships are also supported by the distribution of gene structures and previous functional studies. Therefore, we deduce that the function of FAMA might be ancestral in the bHLH Ia subgroup. In addition, the gymnosperm "SPCH" genes may represent an ancestral state and have a dual function of SPCH and MUTE, two genes that could have originated from a duplication event in the common ancestor of angiosperms. Moreover, in angiosperms, SPCHs have experienced more duplications and harbor more copies than MUTEs and FAMAs, which, together with variation of the stomatal development in the entry division, implies that SPCH might have contributed greatly to the diversity of stomatal development. Based on the above, we proposed a model for the correlation between the evolution of stomatal development and the genes involved in this developmental process in land plants.

  1. A novel bHLH transcription factor PebHLH35 from Populus euphratica confers drought tolerance through regulating stomatal development, photosynthesis and growth in Arabidopsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Yan [College of Biological Sciences and Technology, National Engineering Laboratory for Tree Breeding, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083 (China); Liaoning Forestry Vocational-Technical College, Shenyang 110101 (China); Wang, Congpeng; Han, Xiao; Tang, Sha; Liu, Sha [College of Biological Sciences and Technology, National Engineering Laboratory for Tree Breeding, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083 (China); Xia, Xinli, E-mail: xiaxl@bjfu.edu.cn [College of Biological Sciences and Technology, National Engineering Laboratory for Tree Breeding, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083 (China); Yin, Weilun, E-mail: yinwl@bjfu.edu.cn [College of Biological Sciences and Technology, National Engineering Laboratory for Tree Breeding, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • PebHLH35 is firstly cloned from Populus euphratica and characterized its functions. • PebHLH35 is important for earlier seedling establishment and vegetative growth. • PebHLH35 enhances tolerance to drought by regulating growth. • PebHLH35 enhances tolerance to drought by regulating stomatal development. • PebHLH35 enhances tolerance to drought by regulating photosynthesis and transpiration. - Abstract: Plant basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors (TFs) are involved in a variety of physiological processes including the regulation of plant responses to various abiotic stresses. However, few drought-responsive bHLH family members in Populus have been reported. In this study, a novel bHLH gene (PebHLH35) was cloned from Populus euphratica. Expression analysis in P. euphratica revealed that PebHLH35 was induced by drought and abscisic acid. Subcellular localization studies using a PebHLH35-GFP fusion showed that the protein was localized to the nucleus. Ectopic overexpression of PebHLH35 in Arabidopsis resulted in a longer primary root, more leaves, and a greater leaf area under well-watered conditions compared with vector control plants. Notably, PebHLH35 overexpression lines showed enhanced tolerance to water-deficit stress. This finding was supported by anatomical and physiological analyses, which revealed a reduced stomatal density, stomatal aperture, transpiration rate, and water loss, and a higher chlorophyll content and photosynthetic rate. Our results suggest that PebHLH35 functions as a positive regulator of drought stress responses by regulating stomatal density, stomatal aperture, photosynthesis and growth.

  2. A novel bHLH transcription factor PebHLH35 from Populus euphratica confers drought tolerance through regulating stomatal development, photosynthesis and growth in Arabidopsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Yan; Wang, Congpeng; Han, Xiao; Tang, Sha; Liu, Sha; Xia, Xinli; Yin, Weilun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • PebHLH35 is firstly cloned from Populus euphratica and characterized its functions. • PebHLH35 is important for earlier seedling establishment and vegetative growth. • PebHLH35 enhances tolerance to drought by regulating growth. • PebHLH35 enhances tolerance to drought by regulating stomatal development. • PebHLH35 enhances tolerance to drought by regulating photosynthesis and transpiration. - Abstract: Plant basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors (TFs) are involved in a variety of physiological processes including the regulation of plant responses to various abiotic stresses. However, few drought-responsive bHLH family members in Populus have been reported. In this study, a novel bHLH gene (PebHLH35) was cloned from Populus euphratica. Expression analysis in P. euphratica revealed that PebHLH35 was induced by drought and abscisic acid. Subcellular localization studies using a PebHLH35-GFP fusion showed that the protein was localized to the nucleus. Ectopic overexpression of PebHLH35 in Arabidopsis resulted in a longer primary root, more leaves, and a greater leaf area under well-watered conditions compared with vector control plants. Notably, PebHLH35 overexpression lines showed enhanced tolerance to water-deficit stress. This finding was supported by anatomical and physiological analyses, which revealed a reduced stomatal density, stomatal aperture, transpiration rate, and water loss, and a higher chlorophyll content and photosynthetic rate. Our results suggest that PebHLH35 functions as a positive regulator of drought stress responses by regulating stomatal density, stomatal aperture, photosynthesis and growth

  3. A banana NAC transcription factor (MusaSNAC1) impart drought tolerance by modulating stomatal closure and H2O2 content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negi, Sanjana; Tak, Himanshu; Ganapathi, T R

    2018-03-01

    MusaSNAC1 function in H 2 O 2 mediated stomatal closure and promote drought tolerance by directly binding to CGT[A/G] motif in regulatory region of multiple stress-related genes. Drought is a abiotic stress-condition, causing reduced plant growth and diminished crop yield. Guard cells of the stomata control photosynthesis and transpiration by regulating CO 2 exchange and water loss, thus affecting growth and crop yield. Roles of NAC (NAM, ATAF1/2 and CUC2) protein in regulation of stress-conditions has been well documented however, their control over stomatal aperture is largely unknown. In this study we report a banana NAC protein, MusaSNAC1 which induced stomatal closure by elevating H 2 O 2 content in guard cells during drought stress. Overexpression of MusaSNAC1 in banana resulted in higher number of stomata closure causing reduced water loss and thus elevated drought-tolerance. During drought, expression of GUS (β-glucuronidase) under P MusaSNAC1 was remarkably elevated in guard cells of stomata which correlated with its function as a transcription factor regulating stomatal aperture closing. MusaSNAC1 is a transcriptional activator belonging to SNAC subgroup and its 5'-upstream region contain multiple Dof1 elements as well as stress-associated cis-elements. Moreover, MusaSNAC1 also regulate multiple stress-related genes by binding to core site of NAC-proteins CGT[A/G] in their 5'-upstream region. Results indicated an interesting mechanism of drought tolerance through stomatal closure by H 2 O 2 generation in guard cells, regulated by a NAC-protein in banana.

  4. The effect of vapour pressure deficit on stomatal conductance, sap pH and leaf-specific hydraulic conductance in Eucalyptus globulus clones grown under two watering regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Maria Jose; Montes, Fernando; Ruiz, Federico; Lopez, Gustavo; Pita, Pilar

    2016-05-01

    Stomatal conductance has long been considered of key interest in the study of plant adaptation to water stress. The expected increase in extreme meteorological events under a climate change scenario may compromise survival in Eucalyptus globulus plantations established in south-western Spain. We investigated to what extent changes in stomatal conductance in response to high vapour pressure deficits and water shortage are mediated by hydraulic and chemical signals in greenhouse-grown E. globulus clones. Rooted cuttings were grown in pots and submitted to two watering regimes. Stomatal conductance, shoot water potential, sap pH and hydraulic conductance were measured consecutively in each plant over 4 weeks under vapour pressure deficits ranging 0·42 to 2·25 kPa. Evapotranspiration, growth in leaf area and shoot biomass were also determined. There was a significant effect of both clone and watering regime in stomatal conductance and leaf-specific hydraulic conductance, but not in sap pH. Sap pH decreased as water potential and stomatal conductance decreased under increasing vapour pressure deficit. There was no significant relationship between stomatal conductance and leaf-specific hydraulic conductance. Stomata closure precluded shoot water potential from falling below -1·8 MPa. The percentage loss of hydraulic conductance ranged from 40 to 85 %. The highest and lowest leaf-specific hydraulic conductances were measured in clones from the same half-sib families. Water shortage reduced growth and evapotranspiration, decreases in evapotranspiration ranging from 14 to 32 % in the five clones tested. Changes in sap pH seemed to be a response to changes in atmospheric conditions rather than soil water in the species. Stomata closed after a considerable amount of hydraulic conductance was lost, although intraspecific differences in leaf-specific hydraulic conductance suggest the possibility of selection for improved productivity under water-limiting conditions

  5. An epidemiological assessment of stomatal ozone flux-based critical levels for visible ozone injury in Southern European forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sicard, Pierre, E-mail: pierre.sicard@acri-he.fr [ACRI-HE, 260 route du Pin Montard, BP 234, 06904 Sophia Antipolis cedex (France); De Marco, Alessandra [ENEA (Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development), 76, Lungotevere Thaon de Revel, Rome (Italy); Dalstein-Richier, Laurence [GIEFS (Groupe International d' Etudes des Forêts Sud-européennes), 60, Avenue des Hespérides, 06300 Nice (France); Tagliaferro, Francesco [IPLA (Istituto per le Piante da Legno e l‘Ambiente), Corso Casale 476, 10132 Turin (Italy); Renou, Camille [ACRI-HE, 260 route du Pin Montard, BP 234, 06904 Sophia Antipolis cedex (France); Paoletti, Elena [IPSP-CNR (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche — Istituto per la Protezione Sostenibile delle Piante), Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Florence) (Italy)

    2016-01-15

    Southern forests are at the highest ozone (O{sub 3}) risk in Europe where ground-level O{sub 3} is a pressing sanitary problem for ecosystem health. Exposure-based standards for protecting vegetation are not representative of actual field conditions. A biologically-sound stomatal flux-based standard has been proposed, although critical levels for protection still need to be validated. This innovative epidemiological assessment of forest responses to O{sub 3} was carried out in 54 plots in Southeastern France and Northwestern Italy in 2012 and 2013. Three O{sub 3} indices, namely the accumulated exposure AOT40, and the accumulated stomatal flux with and without an hourly threshold of uptake (POD1 and POD0) were compared. Stomatal O{sub 3} fluxes were modeled (DO3SE) and correlated to measured forest-response indicators, i.e. crown defoliation, crown discoloration and visible foliar O{sub 3} injury. Soil water content, a key variable affecting the severity of visible foliar O{sub 3} injury, was included in DO3SE. Based on flux–effect relationships, we developed species-specific flux-based critical levels (CLef) for forest protection against visible O{sub 3} injury. For O{sub 3} sensitive conifers, CLef of 19 mmol m{sup −2} for Pinus cembra (high O{sub 3} sensitivity) and 32 mmol m{sup −2} for Pinus halepensis (moderate O{sub 3} sensitivity) were calculated. For broadleaved species, we obtained a CLef of 25 mmol m{sup −2} for Fagus sylvatica (moderate O{sub 3} sensitivity) and of 19 mmol m{sup −2} for Fraxinus excelsior (high O{sub 3} sensitivity). We showed that an assessment based on PODY and on real plant symptoms is more appropriated than the concentration-based method. Indeed, POD0 was better correlated with visible foliar O{sub 3} injury than AOT40, whereas AOT40 was better correlated with crown discoloration and defoliation (aspecific indicators). To avoid an underestimation of the real O{sub 3} uptake, we recommend the use of POD0 calculated for

  6. Relationship between Feline calicivirus Load, Oral Lesions, and Outcome in Feline Chronic Gingivostomatitis (Caudal Stomatitis: Retrospective Study in 104 Cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Druet

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveThis study was performed to assess the relationship between oral Feline calicivirus (FCV load and severity of lesions at the time of presentation of cats suffering from feline chronic gingivostomatitis (FCGS (part 1 and treatment outcome after dental extractions (part 2. We hypothesized that a higher FCV viral load would be positively correlated with the severity of lesions at presentation and negatively correlated with treatment outcome. In addition, the effect of dental extractions on outcome and the influence of preoperative severity of lesions on the outcome were investigated.Materials and methodsCats with FCGS were included in the study if they had been diagnosed with caudal stomatitis, had been tested positive for FCV using a real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR test on oropharyngeal swab, and had dental extractions performed within the authors’ department. General practitioners provided all previous medical treatments. Cats with recheck examinations were included in part 2 of the study. Multivariate statistical analysis was performed to assess the relationship between the different parameters.ResultsOne hundred four cats met the requirements for part 1 and 56 cats for part 2 of the study. Data collected from patients’ record included patient history, viral testing results, extent and severity of oral lesions, extent of teeth extraction. Signalment, history, preoperative treatment, and severity of caudal and alveolar stomatitis score were not associated with FCV load (P > 0.05. Presence of lingual ulcers was significantly correlated with FCV load (P = 0.0325. Clinical cure (32.1% or very significant improvement (19.6% was achieved in 51.8% of cats within 38 days. Concomitantly, 60.7% of the owners considered their cat cured (41.1% or significantly improved (19.6%. Extent of teeth extraction was not found to influence the clinical outcome (P > 0.05.ConclusionThe results of this study did not support the hypothesis

  7. Efficacy of fortification of school meals with ferrous glycine phosphate and riboflavin against anemia and angular stomatitis in schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinodkumar, Malavika; Rajagopalan, Srinivasa

    2009-09-01

    Multiple micronutrient deficiencies exist in many developing countries. We conducted a study to test the efficacy of ferrous glycine phosphate in reducing anemia and of riboflavin in reducing angular stomatitis when these micronutrients were added to the noon meal for schoolchildren. A pre- and post-test design was used to study children 5 to 9 years of age, with an experimental and a control group. Two schools in the same locality in Chennai were chosen for the study. The experimental school had 65 children and the control school had 71 children, all of whom consumed a noon meal at the school daily. The children in the experimental school received a powder containing ferrous glycine phosphate and riboflavin, which was added to the meal during cooking every day for 6 months. The dosage was 28 mg of elemental iron and 1 mg of riboflavin per child per day. The children attended school for 5 days each week from Monday to Friday, except for holidays; they received the fortificants on 100 days during the 6-month period. There was no intervention in the control school. Children in the experimental and control groups were matched by socioeconomic status, age, and eating habits at baseline. All the children in the experimental and control schools were dewormed at baseline and at endline after 6 months. Hemoglobin was measured by the cynamethemoglobin method at baseline and endline. Binary logistic regression showed a significant (p < .001) time x group interaction for anemia. The prevalence of anemia in the experimental school was 69.0% at baseline and 32.8% after 100 days of intervention over 6 months, a statistically significant change (p < .001). The prevalence of anemia in the control school was 91.5% at baseline and increased to 97.2% at endline; the increase was not statistically significant. The prevalence of angular stomatitis was reduced from 21% at baseline to 0% at endline in the experimental school, whereas it was 23% at baseline and 20% at endline in the

  8. Loss of nitrate reductases NIA1 and NIA2 impairs stomatal closure by altering genes of core ABA signaling components in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chenchen; Cai, Shengguan; Wang, Yizhou; Chen, Zhong-Hua

    2016-06-02

    Nitrate reductases NIA1 and NIA2 determine NO production in plants and are critical to abscisic acid (ABA)-induced stomatal closure. However, the role for NIA1 and NIA2 in ABA signaling has not been paid much attention in nitrate reductase loss-of-function mutant nia1nia2. Recently, we have demonstrated that ABA-inhibited K(+)in current and ABA-enhanced slow anion current were absent in nia1nia2. Exogenous NO restored regulation of these channels for stomatal closure in nia1nia2. In this study, we found that mutating NIA1 and NIA2 impaired nearly all the key components of guard cell ABA signaling pathway in Arabidopsis. We also propose a simplified model for ABA signaling in the nia1nia2 mutant.

  9. Testing a hydraulic trait based model of stomatal control: results from a controlled drought experiment on aspen (Populus tremuloides, Michx.) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa, Douglas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, D. M.; Venturas, M.; Sperry, J.; Wang, Y.; Anderegg, W.

    2017-12-01

    Modeling approaches for tree stomatal control often rely on empirical fitting to provide accurate estimates of whole tree transpiration (E) and assimilation (A), which are limited in their predictive power by the data envelope used to calibrate model parameters. Optimization based models hold promise as a means to predict stomatal behavior under novel climate conditions. We designed an experiment to test a hydraulic trait based optimization model, which predicts stomatal conductance from a gain/risk approach. Optimal stomatal conductance is expected to maximize the potential carbon gain by photosynthesis, and minimize the risk to hydraulic transport imposed by cavitation. The modeled risk to the hydraulic network is assessed from cavitation vulnerability curves, a commonly measured physiological trait in woody plant species. Over a growing season garden grown plots of aspen (Populus tremuloides, Michx.) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa, Douglas) were subjected to three distinct drought treatments (moderate, severe, severe with rehydration) relative to a control plot to test model predictions. Model outputs of predicted E, A, and xylem pressure can be directly compared to both continuous data (whole tree sapflux, soil moisture) and point measurements (leaf level E, A, xylem pressure). The model also predicts levels of whole tree hydraulic impairment expected to increase mortality risk. This threshold is used to estimate survivorship in the drought treatment plots. The model can be run at two scales, either entirely from climate (meteorological inputs, irrigation) or using the physiological measurements as a starting point. These data will be used to study model performance and utility, and aid in developing the model for larger scale applications.

  10. Brief oral cryotherapy for the prevention of high-dose melphalan-induced stomatitis in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Takehiko; Yamazaki, Rie; Aisa, Yoshinobu; Nakazato, Tomonori; Kudo, Masumi; Yashima, Tomoko; Kondo, Sakiko; Ikeda, Yasuo; Okamoto, Shinichiro

    2006-04-01

    We previously reported the efficacy of oral cryotherapy for the prevention of high-dose melphalan-induced stomatitis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the further shortening of the duration of oral cryotherapy could minimize its side effects while sparing its efficacy. Seventeen consecutive recipients of allogeneic hematopoieic stem cell transplant conditioned with high-dose melphalan in combination with fludarabine alone or with fludarabine and additional radiation were enrolled in the study. The severity of stomatitis was graded according to the National Cancer Institute-Common Toxicity Criteria. Patients were kept on oral cryotherapy shortly before, during, and for additional 30 min after the completion of melphalan administration (60-min oral cryotherapy). Patients who were also enrolled in our previous study received the same type of oral cryotherapy but for additional 90 min after the completion of melphalan administration (120-min oral cryotherapy), and they served as controls. Only 2 (11.8%) of 17 patients receiving 60-min oral cryotherapy and 2 (11.1%) of 18 patients receiving 120-min oral cryotherapy developed grade 2 or 3 stomatitis, respectively. The difference between groups was not statistically significant (P = 0.677). The incidence of unpleasant symptoms such as chills and nausea during oral cryotherapy decreased significantly with 60-min oral cryotherapy, as compared with that associated with 120-min oral cryotherapy (P cryotherapy is as effective as 120-min oral cryotherapy at preventing high-dose melphalan-induced stomatitis, and shorter treatment might have contributed to relieve patient discomfort during oral cryotherapy.

  11. Leaf Morphology, Photosynthetic Performance, Chlorophyll Fluorescence, Stomatal Development of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) Exposed to Different Ratios of Red Light to Blue Light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Lu, Wei; Tong, Yuxin; Yang, Qichang

    2016-01-01

    Red and blue light are both vital factors for plant growth and development. We examined how different ratios of red light to blue light (R/B) provided by light-emitting diodes affected photosynthetic performance by investigating parameters related to photosynthesis, including leaf morphology, photosynthetic rate, chlorophyll fluorescence, stomatal development, light response curve, and nitrogen content. In this study, lettuce plants (Lactuca sativa L.) were exposed to 200 μmol⋅m(-2)⋅s(-1) irradiance for a 16 h⋅d(-1) photoperiod under the following six treatments: monochromatic red light (R), monochromatic blue light (B) and the mixture of R and B with different R/B ratios of 12, 8, 4, and 1. Leaf photosynthetic capacity (A max) and photosynthetic rate (P n) increased with decreasing R/B ratio until 1, associated with increased stomatal conductance, along with significant increase in stomatal density and slight decrease in stomatal size. P n and A max under B treatment had 7.6 and 11.8% reduction in comparison with those under R/B = 1 treatment, respectively. The effective quantum yield of PSII and the efficiency of excitation captured by open PSII center were also significantly lower under B treatment than those under the other treatments. However, shoot dry weight increased with increasing R/B ratio with the greatest value under R/B = 12 treatment. The increase of shoot dry weight was mainly caused by increasing leaf area and leaf number, but no significant difference was observed between R and R/B = 12 treatments. Based on the above results, we conclude that quantitative B could promote photosynthetic performance or growth by stimulating morphological and physiological responses, yet there was no positive correlation between P n and shoot dry weight accumulation.

  12. Enhanced salt resistance in apple plants overexpressing a Malus vacuolar Na+/H+ antiporter gene is associated with differences in stomatal behavior and photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Wei, Zhiwei; Liang, Dong; Zhou, Shasha; Li, Yonghong; Liu, Changhai; Ma, Fengwang

    2013-09-01

    High salinity is a major abiotic factor that limits crop production. The dwarfing apple rootstock M.26 is sensitive to such stress. To obtain an apple that is adaptable to saline soils, we transformed this rootstock with a vacuolar Na(+)/H(+) antiporter, MdNHX1. Differences in salt tolerance between transgenic and wild-type (WT) rootstocks were examined under field conditions. We also compared differences when 'Naganofuji No. 2' apple was grafted onto these transgenic or WT rootstocks. Plants on the transgenic rootstocks grew well during 60 d of mild stress (100 mM NaCl) while the WT exhibited chlorosis, inhibited growth and even death. Compared with the untreated control, the stomatal density was greater in both non-grafted and grafted WT plants exposed to 200 mM NaCl. In contrast, that density was significantly decreased in leaves from grafted transgenic plants. At 200 mM NaCl, net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, intercellular CO2 concentration, and chlorophyll contents were markedly reduced in the WT, whereas the declines in those values were only minor in similarly stressed transgenic plants. Therefore, we conclude that overexpressing plants utilize a better protective mechanism for retaining higher photosynthetic capacity. Furthermore, this contrast in tolerance and adaptability to stress is linked to differences in stomatal behavior and photosynthetic rates. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Expression of ABA synthesis and metabolism genes under different irrigation strategies and atmospheric VPDs is associated with stomatal conductance in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speirs, Jim; Binney, Allan; Collins, Marisa; Edwards, Everard; Loveys, Brian

    2013-04-01

    The influence of different levels of irrigation and of variation in atmospheric vapour pressure deficit (VPD) on the synthesis, metabolism, and transport of abscisic acid (ABA) and the effects on stomatal conductance were examined in field-grown Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines. Xylem sap, leaf tissue, and root tissue were collected at regular intervals during two seasons in conjunction with measurements of leaf water potential (Ψleaf) and stomatal conductance (gs). The different irrigation levels significantly altered the Ψleaf and gs of the vines across both seasons. ABA abundance in the xylem sap was correlated with gs. The expression of genes associated with ABA synthesis, NCED1 and NCED2, was higher in the roots than in the leaves throughout and highest in the roots in mid January, a time when soil moisture declined and VPD was at its highest. Their expression in roots was also inversely related to the levels of irrigation and correlated with ABA abundance in the roots, xylem sap, and leaves. Three genes encoding ABA 8'-hydroxylases were isolated and their identities confirmed by expression in yeast cells. The expression of one of these, Hyd1, was elevated in leaves when VPD was below 2.0-2.5 kPa and minimal at higher VPD levels. The results provide evidence that ABA plays an important role in linking stomatal response to soil moisture status and that changes in ABA catabolism at or near its site of action allows optimization of gas exchange to current environmental conditions.

  14. Dynamics of melanoma tumor therapy with vesicular stomatitis virus: explaining the variability in outcomes using mathematical modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rommelfanger, D M; Offord, C P; Dev, J; Bajzer, Z; Vile, R G; Dingli, D

    2012-05-01

    Tumor selective, replication competent viruses are being tested for cancer gene therapy. This approach introduces a new therapeutic paradigm due to potential replication of the therapeutic agent and induction of a tumor-specific immune response. However, the experimental outcomes are quite variable, even when studies utilize highly inbred strains of mice and the same cell line and virus. Recognizing that virotherapy is an exercise in population dynamics, we utilize mathematical modeling to understand the variable outcomes observed when B16ova malignant melanoma tumors are treated with vesicular stomatitis virus in syngeneic, fully immunocompetent mice. We show how variability in the initial tumor size and the actual amount of virus delivered to the tumor have critical roles on the outcome of therapy. Virotherapy works best when tumors are small, and a robust innate immune response can lead to superior tumor control. Strategies that reduce tumor burden without suppressing the immune response and methods that maximize the amount of virus delivered to the tumor should optimize tumor control in this model system.

  15. Immune system and zinc are associated with recurrent aphthous stomatitis. An assessment using a network-based approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Rivera

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this research was to identify genes, proteins and processes from the biomedical information published on recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS using network-based foci. Methods: The clinical context was defined using MeSH terms for RAS and biomarkers, combined with words associated with risk. A set of protein coding genes was prioritized using the Génie web server and classified with PANTHER. For defining biologically relevant proteins, protein-protein interaction networks were constructed using Reactome database and Cytoscape. Top 20 proteins were then subjected to functional enrichment using STRING. Results: From 1,075,576 gene-abstract links, 1,491 genes were prioritized. Proteins were related to signaling molecule proteins (n=221, receptor proteins (n=221 and nucleic acid binding proteins (n=169. The network constructed with these proteins included 3,963 nodes and functional analysis showed that main processes involved immune system and zinc ion binding function. Conclusions: For the first time, bioinformatics tools were used for integrating pathways and networks associated with RAS. Molecules and processes associated with immune system recur robustly in all analyzed information. The molecular zinc ion binding function could be an area for exploring more specific and effective therapeutic interventions.

  16. Activation of Nrf2 Signaling Augments Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Oncolysis via Autophagy-Driven Suppression of Antiviral Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olagnier, David; Lababidi, Rassin R; Hadj, Samar Bel; Sze, Alexandre; Liu, Yiliu; Naidu, Sharadha Dayalan; Ferrari, Matteo; Jiang, Yuan; Chiang, Cindy; Beljanski, Vladimir; Goulet, Marie-Line; Knatko, Elena V; Dinkova-Kostova, Albena T; Hiscott, John; Lin, Rongtuan

    2017-08-02

    Oncolytic viruses (OVs) offer a promising therapeutic approach to treat multiple types of cancer. In this study, we show that the manipulation of the antioxidant network via transcription factor Nrf2 augments vesicular stomatitis virus Δ51 (VSVΔ51) replication and sensitizes cancer cells to viral oncolysis. Activation of Nrf2 signaling by the antioxidant compound sulforaphane (SFN) leads to enhanced VSVΔ51 spread in OV-resistant cancer cells and improves the therapeutic outcome in different murine syngeneic and xenograft tumor models. Chemoresistant A549 lung cancer cells that display constitutive dominant hyperactivation of Nrf2 signaling are particularly vulnerable to VSVΔ51 oncolysis. Mechanistically, enhanced Nrf2 signaling stimulated viral replication in cancer cells and disrupted the type I IFN response via increased autophagy. This study reveals a previously unappreciated role for Nrf2 in the regulation of autophagy and the innate antiviral response that complements the therapeutic potential of VSV-directed oncolysis against multiple types of OV-resistant or chemoresistant cancer. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Oncolytic Vesicular Stomatitis Virus as a Viro-Immunotherapy: Defeating Cancer with a “Hammer” and “Anvil”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Karl Melzer

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Oncolytic viruses have gained much attention in recent years, due, not only to their ability to selectively replicate in and lyse tumor cells, but to their potential to stimulate antitumor immune responses directed against the tumor. Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV, a negative-strand RNA virus, is under intense development as an oncolytic virus due to a variety of favorable properties, including its rapid replication kinetics, inherent tumor specificity, and its potential to elicit a broad range of immunomodulatory responses to break immune tolerance in the tumor microenvironment. Based on this powerful platform, a multitude of strategies have been applied to further improve the immune-stimulating potential of VSV and synergize these responses with the direct oncolytic effect. These strategies include: 1. modification of endogenous virus genes to stimulate interferon induction; 2. virus-mediated expression of cytokines or immune-stimulatory molecules to enhance anti-tumor immune responses; 3. vaccination approaches to stimulate adaptive immune responses against a tumor antigen; 4. combination with adoptive immune cell therapy for potentially synergistic therapeutic responses. A summary of these approaches will be presented in this review.

  18. Grapevine acclimation to water deficit: the adjustment of stomatal and hydraulic conductance differs from petiole embolism vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochberg, Uri; Bonel, Andrea Giulia; David-Schwartz, Rakefet; Degu, Asfaw; Fait, Aaron; Cochard, Hervé; Peterlunger, Enrico; Herrera, Jose Carlos

    2017-06-01

    Drought-acclimated vines maintained higher gas exchange compared to irrigated controls under water deficit; this effect is associated with modified leaf turgor but not with improved petiole vulnerability to cavitation. A key feature for the prosperity of plants under changing environments is the plasticity of their hydraulic system. In the present research we studied the hydraulic regulation in grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) that were first acclimated for 39 days to well-watered (WW), sustained water deficit (SD), or transient-cycles of dehydration-rehydration-water deficit (TD) conditions, and then subjected to varying degrees of drought. Vine development under SD led to the smallest leaves and petioles, but the TD vines had the smallest mean xylem vessel and calculated specific conductivity (k ts ). Unexpectedly, both the water deficit acclimation treatments resulted in vines more vulnerable to cavitation in comparison to WW, possibly as a result of developmental differences or cavitation fatigue. When exposed to drought, the SD vines maintained the highest stomatal (g s ) and leaf conductance (k leaf ) under low stem water potential (Ψ s ), despite their high xylem vulnerability and in agreement with their lower turgor loss point (Ψ TLP ). These findings suggest that the down-regulation of k leaf and g s is not associated with embolism, and the ability of drought-acclimated vines to maintain hydraulic conductance and gas exchange under stressed conditions is more likely associated with the leaf turgor and membrane permeability.

  19. Immunogenicity and efficacy of immunodeficiency virus-like particles pseudotyped with the G protein of vesicular stomatitis virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuate, Seraphin; Stahl-Hennig, Christiane; Stoiber, Heribert; Nchinda, Godwin; Floto, Anja; Franz, Monika; Sauermann, Ulrike; Bredl, Simon; Deml, Ludwig; Ignatius, Ralf; Norley, Steve; Racz, Paul; Tenner-Racz, Klara; Steinman, Ralph M.; Wagner, Ralf; Uberla, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    Vaccination with exogenous antigens such as recombinant viral proteins, immunodeficiency virus-derived whole inactivated virus particles, or virus-like particles (VLP) has generally failed to provide sufficient protection in animal models for AIDS. Pseudotyping VLPs with the vesicular stomatitis virus G protein (VSV-G), which is known to mediate entry into dendritic cells, might allow more efficient stimulation of immune responses. Therefore, we pseudotyped noninfectious immunodeficiency virus-like particles with VSV-G and carried out a preliminary screen of their immunogenicity and vaccination efficacy. Incorporation of VSV-G into HIV-1 VLPs led to hundred-fold higher antibody titers to HIV-1 Gag and enhancement of T cell responses in mice. Repeated vaccination of rhesus monkeys for 65 weeks with VSV-G pseudotyped simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-like particles (VLP[G]) provided initial evidence for efficient suppression of viral load after mucosal challenge with the SIVmac239 virus. Challenge of monkeys after a 28 week vaccination regimen with VLP[G] led to a reduction in peak viremia, but persistent suppression of viral load was not achieved. Due to limitations in the number of animals available for this study, improved efficacy of VSV-G pseudotyped VLPs in nonhuman primates could not be demonstrated. However, mouse experiments revealed that pseudotyping of VLPs with fusion-competent VSV-G clearly improves their immunogenicity. Additional strategies, particularly adjuvants, should be considered to provide greater protection against a challenge with pathogenic immunodeficiency virus

  20. Long-Term Single-Dose Efficacy of a Vesicular Stomatitis Virus-Based Andes Virus Vaccine in Syrian Hamsters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Prescott

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Andes virus (ANDV is highly pathogenic in humans and is the primary etiologic agent of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS in South America. Case-fatality rates are as high as 50% and there are no approved vaccines or specific therapies for infection. Our laboratory has recently developed a replication-competent recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV-based vaccine that expressed the glycoproteins of Andes virus in place of the native VSV glycoprotein (G. This vaccine is highly efficacious in the Syrian hamster model of HCPS when given 28 days before challenge with ANDV, or when given around the time of challenge (peri-exposure, and even protects when administered post-exposure. Herein, we sought to test the durability of the immune response to a single dose of this vaccine in Syrian hamsters. This vaccine was efficacious in hamsters challenged intranasally with ANDV 6 months after vaccination (p = 0.025, but animals were not significantly protected following 1 year of vaccination (p = 0.090. The decrease in protection correlated with a reduction of measurable neutralizing antibody responses, and suggests that a more robust vaccination schedule might be required to provide long-term immunity.

  1. Immunogenicity in African Green Monkeys of M Protein Mutant Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Vectors and Contribution of Vector-Encoded Flagellin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlena M. Westcott

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV is a promising platform for vaccine development. M51R VSV, an attenuated, M protein mutant strain, is an effective inducer of Type I interferon and dendritic cell (DC maturation, which are desirable properties to exploit for vaccine design. We have previously evaluated M51R VSV (M51R and M51R VSV that produces flagellin (M51R-F as vaccine vectors using murine models, and found that flagellin enhanced DC activation and VSV-specific antibody production after low-dose vaccination. In this report, the immunogenicity of M51R vectors and the adjuvant effect of virus-produced flagellin were evaluated in nonhuman primates following high-dose (108 pfu and low-dose (105 pfu vaccination. A single intramuscular vaccination of African green monkeys with M51R or M51R-F induced VSV-specific, dose-dependent humoral immune responses. Flagellin induced a significant increase in antibody production (IgM, IgG and neutralizing antibody at the low vaccination dose. A VSV-specific cellular response was detected at 6 weeks post-vaccination, but was neither dose-dependent nor enhanced by flagellin; similar numbers of VSV-specific, IFNγ-producing cells were detected in lymph node and spleen of all animals. These results indicate that virus-directed, intracellular flagellin production may improve VSV-based vaccines encoding heterologous antigens by lowering the dose required to achieve humoral immunity.

  2. Water relations, stomatal response and transpiration of Quercus pubescens trees during summer in a Mediterranean carbon dioxide spring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tognetti, R.; Miglietta, F.; Raschi, A. [Consiglio Nazionale della Ricerche, Firenze (Italy); Longobucco, A. [Centro Studi per l`Informatica applicata all`Agricoltura, Firenze (Italy)

    1999-04-01

    Variations in water relations and stomatal response of downy oak (Quercus pubescens) were analyzed under Mediterranean field conditions during two consecutive summers at two locations characterized by different atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations due to the presence of a CO{sub 2} spring at one of the locations. The heat-pulse velocity technique was used to estimate water use during a five-month period from June to November 1994. At the end of the sap flow measurements, the trees were harvested and foliage and sapwood area measured. The effect of elevated CO{sub 2} concentration on leaf conductance was less at high leaf-to-air water vapour pressure difference than at low leaf-to-air water vapour pressure difference. Mean and diurnal sap fluxes were consistently higher in trees at the control site than in the trees at the CO{sub 2} spring site. Results are discussed in terms of effects of elevated CO{sub 2} concentration on plant water use at the organ and whole-tree level. 76 refs., 9 figs.

  3. Early evidence of xeromorphy in angiosperms: stomatal encryption in a new eocene species of Banksia (Proteaceae) from Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Raymond J; McLoughlin, Stephen; Hill, Robert S; McNamara, Kenneth J; Jordan, Gregory John

    2014-09-01

    • Globally, the origins of xeromorphic traits in modern angiosperm lineages are obscure but are thought to be linked to the early Neogene onset of seasonally arid climates. Stomatal encryption is a xeromorphic trait that is prominent in Banksia, an archetypal genus centered in one of the world's most diverse ecosystems, the ancient infertile landscape of Mediterranean-climate southwestern Australia.• We describe Banksia paleocrypta, a sclerophyllous species with encrypted stomata from silcretes of the Walebing and Kojonup regions of southwestern Australia dated as Late Eocene.• Banksia paleocrypta shows evidence of foliar xeromorphy ∼20 Ma before the widely accepted timing for the onset of aridity in Australia. Species of Banksia subgenus Banksia with very similar leaves are extant in southwestern Australia. The conditions required for silcrete formation infer fluctuating water tables and climatic seasonality in southwestern Australia in the Eocene, and seasonality is supported by the paucity of angiosperm closed-forest elements among the fossil taxa preserved with B. paleocrypta. However, climates in the region during the Eocene are unlikely to have experienced seasons as hot and dry as present-day summers.• The presence of B. paleocrypta within the center of diversity of subgenus Banksia in edaphically ancient southwestern Australia is consistent with the continuous presence of this lineage in the region for ≥40 Ma, a testament to the success of increasingly xeromorphic traits in Banksia over an interval in which numerous other lineages became extinct. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  4. Matrix protein of vesicular stomatitis virus: a potent inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor and malignant ascites formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y; Wen, F; Zhang, P; Tang, R; Li, Q

    2013-03-01

    Malignant ascites is common in various types of cancers and is difficult to manage. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has a pivotal role in malignant ascites. The matrix protein of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSVMP) has been shown to inhibit host gene expression and induce the apoptosis of cancer cells. The present study was designed to determine whether VSVMP suppresses the formation of ascites in ascites-producing peritoneal carcinomatosis. BALB/c female mice, 6-8 weeks old, bearing peritoneal tumors of H22 or MethA cells received an intraperitoneal administration of 50 μg VSVMP/250 μg liposome complexes, 50 μg empty plasmid/250 μg liposome complexes or 0.9% NaCl solution, respectively, every 2 days for 3 weeks. Administration of VSVMP resulted in a significant inhibition in ascites formation, improvement in health condition and prolonged survival of the treated mice. Decreased peritoneum osmolarity and reduced tumor vascularity coincided with dramatic reductions in the VEGF level in ascites fluid and plasma. Examination of floating tumor cells collected from the peritoneal wash revealed an apparently increased number of apoptotic cells and profound downregulation of VEGF mRNA in the VSVMP-treated mice. Our data indicate for the first time that in BALB/c mice bearing H22 or MethA cell peritoneal tumors, VSVMP may inhibit VEGF production and suppress angiogenesis, consequently abolishing ascites formation.

  5. Assessment of Candida species colonization and denture-related stomatitis in bar- and locator-retained overdentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Kerem; Koc, Ayse Nedret; Tekinsen, Fatma Filiz; Yildiz, Pinar; Kilic, Duygu; Zararsiz, Gokmen; Kilic, Erdem

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of denture-related stomatitis (DRS) in different attachment-retained overdenture wearers and its association with particular colonizing Candida species. Thirty-seven edentulous patients with implant-supported maxillary or mandibular overdentures were enrolled. A full clinical history was obtained, including details of patients' oral hygiene practices and the levels of erythema based on Newton's classification scale. Swabs were taken from the palate and investigated mycologically to identify the yeast colonies. Quantitative and qualitative microbiological assessments were performed, which included recording the total numbers of colonies (cfu), their color, and their morphological characteristics. Significant differences were found in cfu values between the attachment and inner surfaces of locator- and bar-retained overdentures (P overdentures and 38.1% of locator-retained overdentures. DRS developed in all patients using bar-retained overdentures but in only 71.4% of those using locator-retained overdentures. No statistically significant relationship was found between bar and locator attachments according to smoking habit, overnight removal, or plaque and gingival indices (P > .05).

  6. Evidence That Drought-Induced Stomatal Closure Is Not an Important Constraint on White Spruce Performance Near the Arctic Treeline in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, P.; Brownlee, A.; Ellison, S.; Sveinbjornsson, B.

    2014-12-01

    Tree cores collected from trees growing at high latitudes have long been used to reconstruct past climates, because of close positive correlations between temperature and tree growth. However, in recent decades and at many sites, these relationships have deteriorated and have even become negative in some instances. The observation of declining tree growth in response to rising temperature has prompted many investigators to suggest that high latitude trees may be increasingly exhibiting drought-induced stomatal closure. In the Brooks Range of northern Alaska, the observation of low and declining growth of white spruce is more prevalent in the central and eastern parts of the range, where precipitation is lower, providing superficial support for the drought stress hypothesis. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of white spruce drought-induced stomatal closure in four watersheds along a west to east gradient near the Arctic treeline in the Brooks Range. We obtained a historical perspective on tree growth and water relations by collecting increment cores for analysis of ring widths and carbon isotopes in tree-ring alpha-cellulose. Meanwhile, we made detailed assessments of contemporary water relations at the scales of the whole canopy and the needle. All of our data indicate that drought-induced stomatal closure is probably not responsible for low and declining growth in the central and eastern Brooks Range. Carbon isotope discrimination has generally increased over the past century and our calculations indicate that needle inter-cellular CO2 concentration is much greater now than it was in the early 1900's. Measurements of needle gas exchange are consistent with the tree core record, in the sense that instances of low photosynthesis at our sites are not coincident with similarly low stomatal conductance and low inter-cellular CO2 concentration. Finally, hourly measurements of xylem sap flow indicate that trees at our study sites are able to maintain near

  7. Evaluation of Multiple Mechanistic Hypotheses of Leaf Photosynthesis and Stomatal Conductance against Diurnal and Seasonal Data from Two Contrasting Panamanian Tropical Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serbin, S.; Walker, A. P.; Wu, J.; Ely, K.; Rogers, A.; Wolfe, B.

    2017-12-01

    Tropical forests play a key role in regulating the global carbon (C), water, and energy cycles and stores, as well as influence climate through the exchanges of mass and energy with the atmosphere. However, projected changes in temperature and precipitation patterns are expected to impact the tropics and the strength of the tropical C sink, likely resulting in significant climate feedbacks. Moreover, the impact of stronger, longer, and more extensive droughts not well understood. Critical for the accurate modeling of the tropical C and water cycle in Earth System Models (ESMs) is the representation of the coupled photosynthetic and stomatal conductance processes and how these processes are impacted by environmental and other drivers. Moreover, the parameterization and representation of these processes is an important consideration for ESM projections. We use a novel model framework, the Multi-Assumption Architecture and Testbed (MAAT), together with the open-source bioinformatics toolbox, the Predictive Ecosystem Analyzer (PEcAn), to explore the impact of the multiple mechanistic hypotheses of coupled photosynthesis and stomatal conductance as well as the additional uncertainty related to model parameterization. Our goal was to better understand how model choice and parameterization influences diurnal and seasonal modeling of leaf-level photosynthesis and stomatal conductance. We focused on the 2016 ENSO period and starting in February, monthly measurements of diurnal photosynthesis and conductance were made on 7-9 dominant species at the two Smithsonian canopy crane sites. This benchmark dataset was used to test different representations of stomatal conductance and photosynthetic parameterizations with the MAAT model, running within PEcAn. The MAAT model allows for the easy selection of competing hypotheses to test different photosynthetic modeling approaches while PEcAn provides the ability to explore the uncertainties introduced through parameterization. We

  8. Heat Shock Protein 70 Enhances Mucosal Immunity against Human Norovirus When Coexpressed from a Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuanmei; Duan, Yue; Wei, Yongwei; Liang, Xueya; Niewiesk, Stefan; Oglesbee, Michael

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human norovirus (NoV) accounts for 95% of nonbacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Currently, there is no vaccine available to combat human NoV as it is not cultivable and lacks a small-animal model. Recently, we demonstrated that recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV) expressing human NoV capsid protein (rVSV-VP1) induced strong immunities in mice (Y. Ma and J. Li, J. Virol. 85:2942–2952, 2011). To further improve the safety and efficacy of the vaccine candidate, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) was inserted into the rVSV-VP1 backbone vector. A second construct was generated in which the firefly luciferase (Luc) gene was inserted in place of HSP70 as a control for the double insertion. The resultant recombinant viruses (rVSV-HSP70-VP1 and rVSV-Luc-VP1) were significantly more attenuated in cell culture and viral spread in mice than rVSV-VP1. At the inoculation dose of 1.0 × 106 PFU, rVSV-HSP70-VP1 triggered significantly higher vaginal IgA than rVSV-VP1 and significantly higher fecal and vaginal IgA responses than rVSV-Luc-VP1, although serum IgG and T cell responses were similar. At the inoculation dose of 5.0 × 106 PFU, rVSV-HSP70-VP1 stimulated significantly higher T cell, fecal, and vaginal IgA responses than rVSV-VP1. Fecal and vaginal IgA responses were also significantly increased when combined vaccination of rVSV-VP1 and rVSV-HSP70 was used. Collectively, these data indicate that (i) insertion of an additional gene (HSP70 or Luc) into the rVSV-VP1 backbone further attenuates the VSV-based vaccine in vitro and in vivo, thus improving the safety of the vaccine candidate, and (ii) HSP70 enhances the human NoV-specific mucosal and T cell immunities triggered by a VSV-based human NoV vaccine. IMPORTANCE Human norovirus (NoV) is responsible for more than 95% of acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Currently, there is no vaccine for this virus. Development of a live attenuated vaccine for human NoV has not been possible because it is

  9. The therapeutic and prophylactic role of oral zinc sulfate in management of recurrent aphthous stomatitis ras in comparison with dapsone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharique, Khalifa E.; Najim, Rafid A.; Al-Nuaimy, Adil A.; Al-Hayani, Raafa K.; Maroof, Darseem M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective was to evaluate the therapeutic and prophylactic effectiveness of oral zinc sulfate in recurrent aphthous stomatitis RAS in comparison with dapsone. A double-blind placebo controlled study, conducted in the Department of Dermatology, Baghdad Teaching Hospitals, Baghdad, Iraq between May 2005 and October 2006, in which 45 patents with RAS were recruited and divided into 3 equal groups: group A on zinc sulfate 150 mg twice daily, group B on dapsone 50 mg twice daily and group C on glucose 250 mg as placebo. The drugs were prepared in identical capsules and patents were instructed to take the capsules twice daily after meals in a double blind manner. Assessment of each patient was carried out by the Oral Clinical Manifestation Index OCMI and the diameter of the ulcers at day 0, day 4 and the second, fourth, sixth, eighth, tenth and twelfth weeks of the therapy. Forty-five patients were included in the study 25 males and 20 females and their ages ranged between 16-45 years mean +/-SD 31.24+/-8.14. In group A, the mean of OCMI and diameters of the ulcers improved, with a p=0.0001 for OCMI, and 0.0001 for the diameter for ulcers at the end of the twelfth week of therapy, which was statistically significant. Group B also showed significant improvement, however, the action was lower and slower p=0.0001 for OCMI and 0.001 for the diameter for ulcers. Group C revealed slight non-significant improvement p=0.028 for OCMI and 0.034 for the diameter of ulcers. In the sixth week of therapy, zinc sulfate was more effective than dapsone in reducing in reducing the reducing the OCMI of the ulcers p=0.007. The present study showed that both zinc sulfate and dapsone had significant therapeutic and prophylactic affects in controlling RAS, however, zinc sulfate had much more rapid and sustained action. (author)

  10. Investigation of Behçet's Disease and Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis Frequency: The Highest Prevalence in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalçın Baş

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis (RAS is the most frequently observed painful pathology of the oral mucosa in the society. It appears mostly in idiopathic form; however, it may also be related with systemic diseases like Behçet’s Disease (BD. Aims: Determining the prevalence of RAS and BD in the Northern Anatolian Region, which is one of the important routes on the Antique Silk Road. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: Overall, 85 separate exemplification groups were formed to reflect the population density, and the demographic data of the region they represent. In the first stage, the individuals, who were selected in random order, were invited to a Family Physician Unit at a certain date and time. The dermatological examinations of the volunteering individuals were performed by only 3 dermatology specialists. In the second stage, those individuals who had symptoms of BD were invited to our hospital, and the Pathergy Test and eye examinations were performed. Results: The annual prevalence of RAS was determined as 10.84%. The annual prevalence was determined to be higher in women than in men (p=0.000. It was observed that the prevalence was at the peak level in the 3rd decade, and then decreased proportionally in the following decades (p=0.000. It was also observed that the aphtha recurrence decreased in the following decades (p=0.048. The Behçet’s prevalence was found to be 0.60%. The prevalence in women was found to be higher than in men (0.86% female, 0.14% male; p=0.022. Conclusion: While the RAS prevalence ratio was at an average value when compared with the other societies; the BD prevalence was found as the highest ratio in the world according to the literature.

  11. Eradication of Helicobacter pylori in patients without gastric symptoms suffering from recurrent aphthous stomatitis: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latković Marina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Helicobacter (H. pylori is a widespread bacterium and its involvement in pathogenesis of gastric diseases is well-known. However, H. pylori role in etiology of other histologically similar conditions, especially recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS is still controversial. Research regarding H. pylori and its association with RAS, as well as the treatment options were always conducted on patients with diagnosed gastric problems. The aim of this study was to determine whether H. pylori is present in the oral cavity of patients suffering from RAS but without any symptoms or medical history of gastric disease. Methods. A total of 15 patients with RAS participated in the study. None of the participants suffered from any gastrointestinal disorders. Two dental plaque samples from each participant were collected. The first was analyzed using rapid urease test and the second one was put in transport medium and sent for cultivation. The sensitivity of H. pylori to antibiotics was established using disk diffusion method of sensitivity testing for every patient individually and adequate therapy was prescribed. Results. Before the treatment the mean annual recurrence rate of RAS was 8.1 ± 2.1, with the average number of lesions being 3.9 ± 1.9. During the 12-month observation period after the eradication therapy, none of the patients reported recurrence of aphthous lesions. The treatment was successful in all cases. Conclusion. This study shows that RAS can be effectively treated by successful eradication of oral H. pylori, and that RAS could be possibly considered as an early warning sign of potential gastric infection by H. pilory.

  12. Therapeutic Effects of "Ibuprofen, Diphenhydramine and Aluminium MgS" on Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katayoun Borhan-Mojabi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS is the most common and painful oral inflammatory lesion with an unknown etiology. This study aims to determine the therapeutic effects of ibuprofen, diphenhydramine and aluminum magnesium simethicone (AlMgS syrup on reducing oral aphthous ulcer pain.Thirty-one patients with RAS participated in this double-blind clinical trial. Subjects were randomly divided into two groups. The control group (n=14 received drug mixture as drug A (diphenhydramine and AlMgS and the case group (n=17 received drug B (ibuprofen, diphenhydramine and AlMgS. Drugs were topically applied on ulcers by the patients three times a day for 3 days. Patients were re-examined for the symptoms on the fourth day following their first visits using VAS (Visual Analogue Scale tool. Statistical analysis was performed using paired t-test, independent t-test and chi-square test.The mean of pain reduction was 3.17±2 (P<0.001 and 3.82±1.79 (P<0.001 in the case and control group, respectively. The difference in pain reduction between both groups was not statistically significant. In addition, no significant difference was detected between the two groups regarding the duration of pain or burning sensation (P=0.57.The results of this study demonstrate that in comparison with diphenhydramine and AlMgS syrup, the studied mixture did not effectively reduce the level of pain, duration and burning sensation.

  13. Effect of essential oils of clove and cumin against the growth of Staphylococus Aureus isolated from Denture Stomatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minasari Minasari

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Essential oils of clove and cumin had an inhibition effect against Staphylococcus aureus. Clove’s essential oils has a compound named eugenol, which can directly damage the membrane cell of bacteria. Thymoquinone, the active ingredient in the black cumin’s essential oils inhibits the protein synthesis and cause malfunction of the bacterial cell. The purpose of this research was to determine the differences of inhibitory effect from essential oils of cloves and cumin to the growth of Staphylococcus aureus. Method: This research was an experimental laboratory with Post-test Only Control Group Design. Sample that being used for this experiment was Staphylococcus aureus that had been isolated from a denture stomatitis patient. This inhibition test was determined using a Disc Diffusion Test’s method with the essential oils of clove and cumin, while distilled water and 96% ethanol as a negative and positive control, respectively. Essential oils were obtained from the distillation method with water and steam and the test was done 7 times repetition with every ingredients. Inhibition zone was measured with a vernier calipers. The data were analyzed by ANOVA One-way test followed by a multiple comparison test. Result:  The average zone of inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus from aquades 0 mm, 96% ethanol 13.894 mm, the essential oils of clove 14.784 mm and black cumin 11.944 mm. The multiple comparison test analysis showed a significant differences (p <0.05 between the average zone of inhibition of the materials tested. Conclusion: Clove essential oil has a greater inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus than the essential oils of cumin.

  14. Safety studies on intravenous administration of oncolytic recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus in purpose-bred beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Amy K; Naik, Shruthi; Galyon, Gina D; Jenks, Nathan; Steele, Mike; Peng, Kah-Whye; Federspiel, Mark J; Donnell, Robert; Russell, Stephen J

    2013-12-01

    VSV-IFNβ-NIS is a novel recombinant oncolytic vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) with documented efficacy and safety in preclinical murine models of cancer. To facilitate clinical translation of this promising oncolytic therapy in patients with disseminated cancer, we are utilizing a comparative oncology approach to gather data describing the safety and efficacy of systemic VSV-IFNβ-NIS administration in dogs with naturally occurring cancer. In support of this, we executed a dose-escalation study in purpose-bred dogs to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of systemic VSV-hIFNβ-NIS, characterize the adverse event profile, and describe routes and duration of viral shedding in healthy, immune-competent dogs. The data indicate that an intravenous dose of 10(10) TCID50 is well tolerated in dogs. Expected adverse events were mild to moderate fever, self-limiting nausea and vomiting, lymphopenia, and oral mucosal lesions. Unexpected adverse events included prolongation of partial thromboplastin time, development of bacterial urinary tract infection, and scrotal dermatitis, and in one dog receiving 10(11) TCID50 (10 × the MTD), the development of severe hepatotoxicity and symptoms of shock leading to euthanasia. Viral shedding data indicate that detectable viral genome in blood diminishes rapidly with anti-VSV neutralizing antibodies detectable in blood as early as day 5 postintravenous virus administration. While low levels of viral genome copies were detectable in plasma, urine, and buccal swabs of dogs treated at the MTD, no infectious virus was detectable in plasma, urine, or buccal swabs at any of the doses tested. These studies confirm that VSV can be safely administered systemically in dogs, justifying the use of oncolytic VSV as a novel therapy for the treatment of canine cancer.

  15. The seroprevalence and salivary shedding of herpesviruses in Behçet's syndrome and recurrent aphthous stomatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noha Seoudi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Behçet's syndrome (BS is one of the multisystemic diseases that presents with oral ulceration and several other systemic manifestations including genital ulceration, folliculitis, erythema nodosum-like lesions, uveitis, and arthropathy. Ocular manifestation, central nervous system involvement, and gastrointestinal manifestation account for most of the complications of this disease, whereas orogenital ulceration and dermatological involvement affects the quality of life. The cause of the disease is not fully elucidated; however, herpesviruses have long been thought to play a pivotal role in the disease pathogenesis. Objective: To investigate the seroprevalence and salivary shedding of herpesviruses in BS. Method: The levels of specific immunoglobulin G in six different herpesviruses in serum samples collected from 54 BS, 28 healthy controls (HC, and 7 recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS patients were investigated. Salivary viral load was also quantified for these viruses in matched saliva samples using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results: The BS had lower cytomegalovirus (CMV IgG level in comparison to HC (p=0.0226 and RAS (p=0.0450. There was statistically significant higher salivary shedding of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV in BS in comparison to HC (p=0.0052, but not RAS (p=0.3318. Conclusions: A high EBV shedding was observed in both BS and RAS and a lower level of CMV IgG was observed in BS only. The reason for the observed lower level of CMV IgG in BS is not clear. However, one explanation might be a defect in the cross-talk between innate and adaptive immune responses which was suggested by a previously described defect in the toll-like receptor 1 and 2 heterodimer formation and function, this being the initial receptor sensing of CMV.

  16. Design, Formulation and Evaluation of an Oral Gel from Punica Granatum Flower Extract for the Treatment of Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Aslani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Recurrent aphthous stomatitis is a disease with unknown etiology that’s mostly treated symptomatically and has no definite cure. Pomegranate (Punica granatum flowers have been used as medicinal herb that due to its antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and healing effects, has been useful in treatment of oral aphthous. Therefore, we decided to formulate a mucoadhesive gel with pomegranate flower extract to reduce the need for corticosteroid therapy in patients. Methods: Pomegranate flowers are extracted by percolation method. Several formulations with different amounts of carbomer 934, sodium carboxymethylcellulose (SCMC and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose K4M were prepared and the condensed extract was dispersed in polyethyleneglycol (PEG 400 and added to gel bases. Then the formulations underwent macroscopic and microscopic studies. The formulations that passed these tests successfully were studied through assay tests using spectrophotometry in 765 nm, drug release from mucoadhesive gel using cell diffusion method, viscosity test, mucoadhesion test and accelerated stability test. Results: The phenolic content of pomegranate flower dried extract was found to be 212.3±1.4 mg/g in dried extract. The F4–F6 formulations contains carbomer 934, SCMC, pomegranate flower extract, PEG 400, potassium sorbate and purified water passed all above tests. Conclusion: The F4 formulation had higher viscosity and mucoadhesion values due to its higher carbomer 934 and SCMC content. Since F4, F5 and F6 had no significant variation in drug release, the F4 formulation was chosen as the superior formulation because of proper appearance and uniformity, acceptable viscosity, mucoadhesion and stability in different temperatures.

  17. Efficacy of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus-Ebola Virus Postexposure Treatment in Rhesus Macaques Infected With Ebola Virus Makona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzi, Andrea; Hanley, Patrick W; Haddock, Elaine; Martellaro, Cynthia; Kobinger, Gary; Feldmann, Heinz

    2016-10-15

    The Ebola virus (EBOV) epidemic in West Africa increased the focus on vaccine development against this hemorrhagic fever-causing pathogen, and as a consequence human clinical trials for a few selected platforms were accelerated. One of these vaccines is vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-EBOV, also known as rVSV-ZEBOV, a fast-acting vaccine against EBOV and so far the only vaccine with reported efficacy against EBOV infections in humans in phase III clinical trials. In this study, we analyzed the potential of VSV-EBOV for postexposure treatment of rhesus macaques infected with EBOV-Makona. We treated groups of animals with 1 dose of VSV-EBOV either in a single injection at 1 or 24 hours after EBOV exposure or with 2 injections, half the dose at each time point; 1 control group received the same dose of the VSV-based Marburg virus vaccine at both time points; another group remained untreated. Although all untreated animals succumbed to EBOV infection, 33%-67% of the animals in each treatment group survived the infection, including the group treated with the VSV-based Marburg virus vaccine. This result suggests that protection from postexposure vaccination may be antigen unspecific and due rather to an early activation of the innate immune system. In conclusion, VSV-EBOV remains a potent and fast-acting prophylactic vaccine but demonstrates only limited efficacy in postexposure treatment. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  18. Stomatal behavior in fruits and leaves of the purple passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims and fruits and cladodes of the yellow pitaya [Hylocereus megalanthus (K. Schum. ex Vaupel Ralf Bauer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Sánchez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Plants as C3 and CAM react photosynthetically different but both can grow in the same agroecological zone in the tropics. Therefore we studied the behavior of stomatal opening in fruits and leaves of the purple passion fruit and fruits and cladodes of the yellow pitaya was studied under natural growing conditions in Granada and Fusagasuga, Cundinamarca (Colombia. Imprints were made on the surface of leaves, fruits and cladodes using cosmetic enamel impressions. Three cycles were carried out, each cycle took 72 hours, obtaining three different samples every 3 hours; then the impressions were observed by microscope and the opened and closed stomata were counted in each species. In each sampling, data of solar radiation, temperature and relative humidity (RH were measured. The purple passion fruit had the typical behavior of a C3 plant in the leaves as well as the fruits, and a positive correlation between the stomatal aperture and radiation and temperature was found, along with a negative correlation between stomatal aperture and RH. The pitaya showed the typical behavior of a CAM plant with a negative correlation between the stomatal opening and radiation and temperature, as well as a positive correlation between stomatal opening and RH. Radiation, temperature and RH affected the stomatal opening in the fruits and cladodes. Stomatal densities differed greatly between the species and plant organs. In the purple passion fruit, 106.53 stomata per mm² leaf surface were found, but only 12.64 stomata per mm² fruit surface; whereas in the pitaya, 11.28 and 1.43 stomata per mm² were found on the cladodes and fruits, respectively

  19. Alterations in Rubisco activity and in stomatal behavior induce a daily rhythm in photosynthesis of aerial leaves in the amphibious-plant Nuphar lutea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snir, Ainit; Gurevitz, Michael; Marcus, Yehouda

    2006-12-01

    Nuphar lutea is an amphibious plant with submerged and aerial foliage, which raises the question how do both leaf types perform photosynthetically in two different environments. We found that the aerial leaves function like terrestrial sun-leaves in that their photosynthetic capability was high and saturated under high irradiance (ca. 1,500 mumol photons m(-2) s(-1)). We show that stomatal opening and Rubisco activity in these leaves co-limited photosynthesis at saturating irradiance fluctuating in a daily rhythm. In the morning, sunlight stimulated stomatal opening, Rubisco synthesis, and the neutralization of a night-accumulated Rubisco inhibitor. Consequently, the light-saturated quantum efficiency and rate of photosynthesis increased 10-fold by midday. During the afternoon, gradual closure of the stomata and a decrease in Rubisco content reduced the light-saturated photosynthetic rate. However, at limited irradiance, stomatal behavior and Rubisco content had only a marginal effect on the photosynthetic rate, which did not change during the day. In contrast to the aerial leaves, the photosynthesis rate of the submerged leaves, adapted to a shaded environment, was saturated under lower irradiance. The light-saturated quantum efficiency of these leaves was much lower and did not change during the day. Due to their low photosynthetic affinity for CO(2) (35 muM) and inability to utilize other inorganic carbon species, their photosynthetic rate at air-equilibrated water was CO(2)-limited. These results reveal differences in the photosynthetic performance of the two types of Nuphar leaves and unravel how photosynthetic daily rhythm in the aerial leaves is controlled.

  20. Observations and models of emissions of volatile terpenoid compounds from needles of ponderosa pine trees growing in situ: control by light, temperature and stomatal conductance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, Peter; Eller, Allyson; Guenther, Alex; Monson, Russell K

    2014-09-01

    Terpenoid emissions from ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa subsp. scopulorum) were measured in Colorado, USA over two growing seasons to evaluate the role of incident light, needle temperature, and stomatal conductance in controlling emissions of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO) and several monoterpenes. MBO was the dominant daylight terpenoid emission, comprising on average 87% of the total flux, and diurnal variations were largely determined by light and temperature. During daytime, oxygenated monoterpenes (especially linalool) comprised up to 75% of the total monoterpenoid flux from needles. A significant fraction of monoterpenoid emissions was dependent on light and 13CO2 labeling studies confirmed de novo production. Thus, modeling of monoterpenoid emissions required a hybrid model in which a significant fraction of emissions was dependent on both light and temperature, while the remainder was dependent on temperature alone. Experiments in which stomata were forced to close using abscisic acid demonstrated that MBO and a large fraction of the monoterpene flux, presumably linalool, could be limited at the scale of seconds to minutes by stomatal conductance. Using a previously published model of terpenoid emissions, which explicitly accounts for the physicochemical properties of emitted compounds, we were able to simulate these observed stomatal effects, whether induced experimentally or arising under naturally fluctuation conditions of temperature and light. This study shows unequivocally that, under naturally occurring field conditions, de novo light-dependent monoterpenes comprise a significant fraction of emissions in ponderosa pine. Differences between the monoterpene composition of ambient air and needle emissions imply a significant non-needle emission source enriched in Δ-3-carene.

  1. Observations and models of emissions of volatile terpenoid compounds from needles of ponderosa pine trees growing in situ: control by light, temperature and stomatal conductance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harley, Peter; Eller, Allyson; Guenther, Alex; Monson, Russell K.

    2014-07-12

    Terpenoid emissions from ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa subsp. scopulorum) were measured in Colorado, USA over two growing seasons to evaluate the role of incident light, needle temperature and stomatal conductance in controlling emissions of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO) and several monoterpenes. MBO was the dominant daylight terpenoid emission, comprising on average 87% of the total flux, and diurnal variations were largely determined by light and temperature. During daytime, oxygenated monoterpenes (especially linalool) comprised up to 75% of the total monoterpenoid flux from needles. A significant fraction of monoterpenoid emissions was light dependent and 13CO2 labeling studies confirmed de novo production. Thus, modeling of monoterpenoid emissions required a hybrid model in which a significant fraction of emissions was dependent on both light and temperature, while the remainder was dependent on temperature alone. Experiments in which stomata were forced to close using abscisic acid demonstrated that MBO and a large fraction of the monoterpene flux, presumably linalool, could be limited at the scale of seconds to minutes by stomatal conductance. Using a previously published model of terpenoid emissions which explicitly accounts for the physico-chemical properties of emitted compounds, we are able to simulate these observed stomatal effects, whether induced through experimentation or arising under naturally fluctuation conditions of temperature and light. This study shows unequivocally that, under naturally occurring field conditions, de novo light dependent monoterpenes can comprise a large fraction of emissions. Differences between the monoterpene composition of ambient air and needle emissions imply a significant non-needle emission source enriched in Δ-3-carene.

  2. Tuberous Roots Yield, Transpiration Rate, Stomatal Conductance and Water Use Efficiency of Divergent Cassava Clones as Influenced by Climate and Growth Stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Githunguri, C.M; Chewa, J.A; Ekanayake, I.J

    1999-01-01

    Cassava roots provide a cheap source of dietary energy to millions of people in the tropics. Variations in yield, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate and water use efficiency occur due to various factors. This makes selection of clones with wide ecological adaptation and high yield difficult. The influence of crop age and agroecozones (AEZ) in Nigeria on above parametres were studied. The tested AEZs were Sudan savanna (Minjibir), Southern Guinea savanna (Mokwa) and forest-savanna transition (Ibadan) AEZ. The environment plays a significant role in determining root yield with plant age playing a bigger role at the early stages. Results suggest root development was restricted by low moisture stress. Cassava ought to be harvested at eight months after planting (MAP) rather than at 12 MAP in order to obtain maximum yields. Yields at Mokwa were significantly higher than both Minjibir and Ibadan suggesting that cassava is not a crop for either forest or semi arid zones. During both seasons Minjbir had the highest stomatal conductance trend while Ibadan had the lowest. Stomatal conductance at Minjibir becomes critical at 12 MAP. The highest transpiration rate was recorded at Minijibir at 4 and 12 MAP. The lowest transpiration rate ws observed at Ibadan. The lowest transpiration rate was also observed during drought. There was a close positive close relationship between tuberous roots yield and transpiration. The lowest and highest water use efficiency (WUE) was recorded at 4 and 8 MAP during rains. The lowest and the highest WUE was recorded at Ibadan and Mokwa respectively. The two seasons trends were similar. Clone TMS 50395 had the highest WUE. Tere was close positive relationship between WUE and tuberous roots yield

  3. Seasonal ozone uptake by a warm-temperate mixed deciduous and evergreen broadleaf forest in western Japan estimated by the Penman–Monteith approach combined with a photosynthesis-dependent stomatal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitao, Mitsutoshi; Komatsu, Masabumi; Hoshika, Yasutomo; Yazaki, Kenichi; Yoshimura, Kenichi; Fujii, Saori; Miyama, Takafumi; Kominami, Yuji

    2014-01-01

    Canopy-level stomatal conductance over a warm-temperate mixed deciduous and evergreen broadleaf forest in Japan was estimated by the Penman–Monteith approach, as compensated by a semi-empirical photosynthesis-dependent stomatal model, where photosynthesis, relative humidity, and CO 2 concentration were assumed to regulate stomatal conductance. This approach, using eddy covariance data and routine meteorological observations at a flux tower site, permits the continuous estimation of canopy-level O 3 uptake, even when the Penman–Monteith approach is unavailable (i.e. in case of direct evaporation from soil or wet leaves). Distortion was observed between the AOT40 exposure index and O 3 uptake through stomata, as AOT40 peaked in April, but with O 3 uptake occurring in July. Thus, leaf pre-maturation in the predominant deciduous broadleaf tree species (Quercus serrata) might suppress O 3 uptake in springtime, even when the highest O 3 concentrations were observed. -- Highlights: • We estimate canopy-level O 3 uptake in a warm-temperate mixed forest in Japan. • The Penman–Monteith approach is compensated by a photosynthesis-dependent model. • Stomatal conductance can be estimated, even in a partly-opened or wet canopy. • The estimated O 3 dose peaks in summer though O 3 exposure peaks in spring. -- Estimation of seasonal O 3 uptake over a mixed-temperate forest compensated by a photosynthesis-dependent stomatal model

  4. Acute reactogenicity after intramuscular immunization with recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus is linked to production of IL-1β.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Athearn

    Full Text Available Vaccines based on live viruses are attractive because they are immunogenic, cost-effective, and can be delivered by multiple routes. However, live virus vaccines also cause reactogenic side effects such as fever, myalgia, and injection site pain that have reduced their acceptance in the clinic. Several recent studies have linked vaccine-induced reactogenic side effects to production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β in humans. Our objective was therefore to determine whether IL-1β contributed to pathology after immunization with recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV vaccine vectors, and if so, to identify strategies by which IL-1β mediated pathology might be reduced without compromising immunogenicity. We found that an rVSV vaccine induced local and systemic production of IL-1β in vivo, and that accumulation of IL-1β correlated with acute pathology after rVSV immunization. rVSV-induced pathology was reduced in mice deficient in the IL-1 receptor Type I, but the IL-1R-/- mice were fully protected from lethal rechallenge with a high dose of VSV. This result demonstrated that IL-1 contributed to reactogenicity of the rVSV, but was dispensable for induction of protective immunity. The amount of IL-1β detected in mice deficient in either caspase-1 or the inflammasome adaptor molecule ASC after rVSV immunization was not significantly different than that produced by wild type animals, and caspase-1-/- and ASC-/- mice were only partially protected from rVSV-induced pathology. Those data support the idea that some of the IL-1β expressed in vivo in response to VSV may be activated by a caspase-1 and ASC-independent mechanism. Together these results suggest that rVSV vectors engineered to suppress the induction of IL-1β, or signaling through the IL-1R would be less reactogenic in vivo, but would retain their immunogenicity and protective capacity. Such rVSV would be highly desirable as either vaccine vectors or

  5. Effects of sulfite and pH an abscisic acid (ABA) dependent transpiration and on stomatal opening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, N.; Maruta, I.; Sugahara, K.

    1980-01-01

    In rice, alday, wheat and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum l. samsun and samsun nn) plants which contained large amounts of ABA, the transpiration rate decreased rapidly with 2 ppM SO/sub 2/ fumigation and reached 20 to 65% of the initial level after 5- to 30-min exposure depending on their ABAj contents. In the cases of broad bean and tobacco (n. Gutinosa l.) with low ABA contents, the rate slightly increased for 20 and 40 min, respectively, after the start of the fumigation and then decreased gradually. The transpiration rates of corn and sorghum, in spite of their extremely low ABA contents, pronouncedly decreased with SO/sub 2/ fumigation and reached 65 and 50%, respectively, of the initial levels after 40-min exposure. Foliar application of 0.04 N HCL to N. tacum l. samsun nn leaves remarkably depressed the transpiration rate, while the application of 0.04 m NA/sub 2/SO/sub 3/ decreased the rate only to the same level as water treatment. Foliar application of either HCL of Na/sub 2/SO/sub 3/ to N. glutinosa l. leaves exerted little change in the transpiration rate. When 10-4 m ABA was applied to broad bean leaves prior to HCl and Na/sub 2/SO/sub 3/ treatment, their transpiration rate was decreased by HCl, but not by Na/sub 2/SO/sub 3/ application. In sonicated epidermal strips peeled from broad bean leaves, Na/sub 2/SO/sub 3/ produced a slight increase in the stomatal aperture size in the absence of ABA, but showed no effect in the presence of ABA. The aperture size was identical in the pH range of 3.0 to 7.0 in the incubation medium. In the presence of ABA in the medium, the aperture size was small in the acidic region of pH with a minimal value at pH 4.0. ABA decreased the aperture size at concentrations above 10-9 m at pH 4.0 and 10-6 m at pH 7.0 in the medium. ABA uptake by epidermal strips was large in the acidic region, especially at pH 4.0.

  6. 5'-Phospho-RNA Acceptor Specificity of GDP Polyribonucleotidyltransferase of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus in mRNA Capping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogino, Minako; Ogino, Tomoaki

    2017-03-15

    The GDP polyribonucleotidyltransferase (PRNTase) domain of the multifunctional L protein of rhabdoviruses, such as vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and rabies virus, catalyzes the transfer of 5'-phospho-RNA (pRNA) from 5'-triphospho-RNA (pppRNA) to GDP via a covalent enzyme-pRNA intermediate to generate a 5'-cap structure (GpppA). Here, using an improved oligo-RNA capping assay with the VSV L protein, we showed that the Michaelis constants for GDP and pppAACAG (VSV mRNA-start sequence) are 0.03 and 0.4 μM, respectively. A competition assay between GDP and GDP analogues in the GpppA formation and pRNA transfer assay using GDP analogues as pRNA acceptors indicated that the PRNTase domain recognizes the C-2-amino group, but not the C-6-oxo group, N-1-hydrogen, or N-7-nitrogen, of GDP for the cap formation. 2,6-Diaminopurine-riboside (DAP), 7-deazaguanosine (7-deaza-G), and 7-methylguanosine (m 7 G) diphosphates efficiently accepted pRNA, resulting in the formation of DAPpppA, 7-deaza-GpppA, and m 7 GpppA (cap 0), respectively. Furthermore, either the 2'- or 3'-hydroxyl group of GDP was found to be required for efficient pRNA transfer. A 5'-diphosphate form of antiviral ribavirin weakly inhibited the GpppA formation but did not act as a pRNA acceptor. These results indicate that the PRNTase domain has a unique guanosine-binding mode different from that of eukaryotic mRNA capping enzyme, guanylyltransferase. IMPORTANCE mRNAs of nonsegmented negative-strand (NNS) RNA viruses, such as VSV, possess a fully methylated cap structure, which is required for mRNA stability, efficient translation, and evasion of antiviral innate immunity in host cells. GDP polyribonucleotidyltransferase (PRNTase) is an unconventional mRNA capping enzyme of NNS RNA viruses that is distinct from the eukaryotic mRNA capping enzyme, guanylyltransferase. In this study, we studied the pRNA acceptor specificity of VSV PRNTase using various GDP analogues and identified chemical groups of GDP as

  7. 5′-Phospho-RNA Acceptor Specificity of GDP Polyribonucleotidyltransferase of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus in mRNA Capping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogino, Minako

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The GDP polyribonucleotidyltransferase (PRNTase) domain of the multifunctional L protein of rhabdoviruses, such as vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and rabies virus, catalyzes the transfer of 5′-phospho-RNA (pRNA) from 5′-triphospho-RNA (pppRNA) to GDP via a covalent enzyme-pRNA intermediate to generate a 5′-cap structure (GpppA). Here, using an improved oligo-RNA capping assay with the VSV L protein, we showed that the Michaelis constants for GDP and pppAACAG (VSV mRNA-start sequence) are 0.03 and 0.4 μM, respectively. A competition assay between GDP and GDP analogues in the GpppA formation and pRNA transfer assay using GDP analogues as pRNA acceptors indicated that the PRNTase domain recognizes the C-2-amino group, but not the C-6-oxo group, N-1-hydrogen, or N-7-nitrogen, of GDP for the cap formation. 2,6-Diaminopurine-riboside (DAP), 7-deazaguanosine (7-deaza-G), and 7-methylguanosine (m7G) diphosphates efficiently accepted pRNA, resulting in the formation of DAPpppA, 7-deaza-GpppA, and m7GpppA (cap 0), respectively. Furthermore, either the 2′- or 3′-hydroxyl group of GDP was found to be required for efficient pRNA transfer. A 5′-diphosphate form of antiviral ribavirin weakly inhibited the GpppA formation but did not act as a pRNA acceptor. These results indicate that the PRNTase domain has a unique guanosine-binding mode different from that of eukaryotic mRNA capping enzyme, guanylyltransferase. IMPORTANCE mRNAs of nonsegmented negative-strand (NNS) RNA viruses, such as VSV, possess a fully methylated cap structure, which is required for mRNA stability, efficient translation, and evasion of antiviral innate immunity in host cells. GDP polyribonucleotidyltransferase (PRNTase) is an unconventional mRNA capping enzyme of NNS RNA viruses that is distinct from the eukaryotic mRNA capping enzyme, guanylyltransferase. In this study, we studied the pRNA acceptor specificity of VSV PRNTase using various GDP analogues and identified chemical groups

  8. Stomatal Closure and SA-, JA/ET-Signaling Pathways Are Essential for Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 to Restrict Leaf Disease Caused by Phytophthora nicotianae in Nicotiana benthamiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming Wu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium that induces resistance to a broad spectrum of pathogens. This study analyzed the mechanism by which FZB42 restricts leaf disease caused by Phytophthora nicotianae in Nicotiana benthamiana. The oomycete foliar pathogen P. nicotianae is able to reopen stomata which had been closed by the plant innate immune response to initiate penetration and infection. Here, we showed that root colonization by B. amyloliquefaciens FZB42 restricted pathogen-mediated stomatal reopening in N. benthamiana. Abscisic acid (ABA and salicylic acid (SA-regulated pathways mediated FZB42-induced stomatal closure after pathogen infection. Moreover, the defense-related genes PR-1a, LOX, and ERF1, involved in the SA and jasmonic acid (JA/ethylene (ET signaling pathways, respectively, were overexpressed, and levels of the hormones SA, JA, and ET increased in the leaves of B. amyloliquefaciens FZB42-treated wild type plants. Disruption of one of these three pathways in N. benthamiana plants increased susceptibility to the pathogen. These suggest that SA- and JA/ET-dependent signaling pathways were important in plant defenses against the pathogen. Our data thus explain a biocontrol mechanism of soil rhizobacteria in a plant.

  9. Sensitivity analysis of a parameterization of the stomatal component of the DO{sub 3}SE model for Quercus ilex to estimate ozone fluxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, Rocio [Ecotoxicology of Air Pollution, CIEMAT, Avenida Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: rocio.alonso@ciemat.es; Elvira, Susana [Ecotoxicology of Air Pollution, CIEMAT, Avenida Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: susana.elvira@ciemat.es; Sanz, Maria J. [Fundacion CEAM, Charles Darwin 14, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain)], E-mail: mjose@ceam.es; Gerosa, Giacomo [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, via Musei 41, 25121 Brescia (Italy)], E-mail: giacomo.gerosa@unicatt.it; Emberson, Lisa D. [Stockholm Environment Institute, University of York, York YO 10 5DD (United Kingdom)], E-mail: lde1@york.ac.uk; Bermejo, Victoria [Ecotoxicology of Air Pollution, CIEMAT, Avenida Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: victoria.bermejo@ciemat.es; Gimeno, Benjamin S. [Ecotoxicology of Air Pollution, CIEMAT, Avenida Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: benjamin.gimeno@ciemat.es

    2008-10-15

    A sensitivity analysis of a proposed parameterization of the stomatal conductance (g{sub s}) module of the European ozone deposition model (DO{sub 3}SE) for Quercus ilex was performed. The performance of the model was tested against measured g{sub s} in the field at three sites in Spain. The best fit of the model was found for those sites, or during those periods, facing no or mild stress conditions, but a worse performance was found under severe drought or temperature stress, mostly occurring at continental sites. The best performance was obtained when both f{sub phen} and f{sub SWP} were included. A local parameterization accounting for the lower temperatures recorded in winter and the higher water shortage at the continental sites resulted in a better performance of the model. The overall results indicate that two different parameterizations of the model are needed, one for marine-influenced sites and another one for continental sites. - No redundancy between phenological and water-related modifying functions was found when estimating stomatal behavior of Holm oak.

  10. Regulation of photosynthesis and stomatal and mesophyll conductance under water stress and recovery in olive trees: correlation with gene expression of carbonic anhydrase and aquaporins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Martin, Alfonso; Michelazzo, Chiara; Torres-Ruiz, Jose M; Flexas, Jaume; Fernández, José E; Sebastiani, Luca; Diaz-Espejo, Antonio

    2014-07-01

    The hypothesis that aquaporins and carbonic anhydrase (CA) are involved in the regulation of stomatal (g s) and mesophyll (g m) conductance to CO2 was tested in a short-term water-stress and recovery experiment in 5-year-old olive plants (Olea europaea) growing outdoors. The evolution of leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, and plant water status, and a quantitative analysis of photosynthesis limitations, were followed during water stress and recovery. These variables were correlated with gene expression of the aquaporins OePIP1.1 and OePIP2.1, and stromal CA. At mild stress and at the beginning of the recovery period, stomatal limitations prevailed, while the decline in g m accounted for up to 60% of photosynthesis limitations under severe water stress. However, g m was restored to control values shortly after rewatering, facilitating the recovery of the photosynthetic rate. CA was downregulated during water stress and upregulated after recovery. The use of structural equation modelling allowed us to conclude that both OePIP1.1 and OePIP2.1 expression could explain most of the variations observed for g s and g m. CA expression also had a small but significant effect on g m in olive under water-stress conditions. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  11. Influence of nonsystemic transmission on the epidemiology of insect borne arboviruses: a case study of vesicular stomatitis epidemiology in the western United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Cynthia C; Tabachnick, Walter J

    2002-05-01

    Nonsystemic transmission, where a pathogen is transmitted between infected and uninfected vectors without the vertebrate host becoming viremic, may provide an explanation for transmission in systems where the vertebrate hosts have been difficult to identify. This transmission pathway had been previously demonstrated for tick-borne viruses and bacteria, but the recent demonstration for Simulium and vesicular stomatitis virus is the first for a blood-feeding insect. The epidemiology of vesicular stomatitis viruses has been difficult to understand, and nonsystemic transmission may be important. We use mathematical formulations of the basic reproduction number, R(0), to compare systemic and nonsystemic transmission. The absence of a latent period before host infectiousness in nonsystemic transmission may allow a more rapid increase in prevalence in the biting flies early in the development of a new outbreak. Aggregation of flies between hosts and at favored feeding sites on hosts will be important, but further data on nonsystemic transmission as a function of space and time are required to fully assess this pathway. The data needed to compare the two pathways and their relative roles in virus epidemiology are discussed.

  12. Ion Exchangers NHX1 and NHX2 Mediate Active Potassium Uptake into Vacuoles to Regulate Cell Turgor and Stomatal Function in Arabidopsis[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barragán, Verónica; Leidi, Eduardo O.; Andrés, Zaida; Rubio, Lourdes; De Luca, Anna; Fernández, José A.; Cubero, Beatriz; Pardo, José M.

    2012-01-01

    Intracellular NHX proteins are Na+,K+/H+ antiporters involved in K+ homeostasis, endosomal pH regulation, and salt tolerance. Proteins NHX1 and NHX2 are the two major tonoplast-localized NHX isoforms. Here, we show that NHX1 and NHX2 have similar expression patterns and identical biochemical activity, and together they account for a significant amount of the Na+,K+/H+ antiport activity in tonoplast vesicles. Reverse genetics showed functional redundancy of NHX1 and NHX2 genes. Growth of the double mutant nhx1 nhx2 was severely impaired, and plants were extremely sensitive to external K+. By contrast, nhx1 nhx2 mutants showed similar sensitivity to salinity stress and even greater rates of Na+ sequestration than the wild type. Double mutants had reduced ability to create the vacuolar K+ pool, which in turn provoked greater K+ retention in the cytosol, impaired osmoregulation, and compromised turgor generation for cell expansion. Genes NHX1 and NHX2 were highly expressed in guard cells, and stomatal function was defective in mutant plants, further compromising their ability to regulate water relations. Together, these results show that tonoplast-localized NHX proteins are essential for active K+ uptake at the tonoplast, for turgor regulation, and for stomatal function. PMID:22438021

  13. Variation in photosynthesis and stomatal conductance among red maple (Acer rubrum) urban planted cultivars and wildtype trees in the southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahr, Eleanor C; Dunn, Robert R; Frank, Steven D

    2018-01-01

    Photosynthesis is a fundamental process that trees perform over fluctuating environmental conditions. This study of red maple (Acer rubrum L.) characterizes photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and water use efficiency in planted cultivars relative to wildtype trees. Red maple is common in cities, yet there is little understanding of how physiological processes affect the long-term growth, condition, and ecosystem services provided by urban trees. In the first year of our study, we measured leaf-level gas exchange and performed short-term temperature curves on urban planted cultivars and on suburban and rural wildtype trees. In the second year, we compared urban planted cultivars and urban wildtype trees. In the first year, urban planted trees had higher maximum rates of photosynthesis and higher overall rates of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance throughout the summer, relative to suburban or rural wildtype trees. Urban planted trees again had higher maximum rates of photosynthesis in the second year. However, urban wildtype trees had higher water use efficiency as air temperatures increased and similar overall rates of photosynthesis, relative to cultivars, in mid and late summer. Our results show that physiological differences between cultivars and wildtype trees may relate to differences in their genetic background and their responses to local environmental conditions, contingent on the identity of the horticultural variety. Overall, our results suggest that wildtype trees should be considered for some urban locations, and our study is valuable in demonstrating how site type and tree type can inform tree planting strategies and improve long-term urban forest sustainability.

  14. A new mechanism for the regulation of stomatal aperture size in intact leaves: accumulation of mesophyll-derived sucrose in the guard-cell wall of Vicia faba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, P.; Outlaw, W.H. Jr.; Smith, B.G.; Freed, G.A.

    1997-01-01

    At various times after pulse-labeling broad bean (Vicia faba L.) leaflets with 14CO2, whole-leaf pieces and rinsed epidermal peels were harvested and subsequently processed for histochemical analysis. Cells dissected from whole leaf retained apoplastic contents, whereas those from rinsed peels contained only symplastic contents. Sucrose (Suc)-specific radioactivity peaked (111 GBq mol-1) in palisade cells at 20 min. In contrast, the 14C content and Suc-specific radioactivity were very low in guard cells for 20 min, implying little CO2 incorporation; both then peaked at 40 min. The guard-cell apoplast had a high maximum Suc-specific radioactivity (204 GBq mol-1) and a high Suc influx rate (0.05 pmol stoma-1 min-1). These and other comparisons implied the presence of (a) multiple Suc pools in mesophyll cells, (b) a localized mesophyll-apoplast region that exchanges with phloem and stomata, and (c) mesophyll-derived Suc in guard-cell walls sufficient to diminish stomatal opening by approximately 3 micrometers. Factors expected to enhance Suc accumulation in guard-cell walls are (a) high transpiration rate, which closes stomata, and (b) high apoplastic Suc concentration, which is elevated when mesophyll Suc efflux exceeds translocation. Therefore, multiple physiological factors are integrated in the attenuation of stomatal aperture size by this previously unrecognized mechanism

  15. Biochemical acclimation, stomatal limitation and precipitation patterns underlie decreases in photosynthetic stimulation of soybean (Glycine max) at elevated [CO₂] and temperatures under fully open air field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, David M; Ruiz-Vera, Ursula M; Siebers, Matthew H; Gray, Sharon B; Bernacchi, Carl J; Ort, Donald R

    2014-09-01

    The net effect of elevated [CO2] and temperature on photosynthetic acclimation and plant productivity is poorly resolved. We assessed the effects of canopy warming and fully open air [CO2] enrichment on (1) the acclimation of two biochemical parameters that frequently limit photosynthesis (A), the maximum carboxylation capacity of Rubisco (Vc,max) and the maximum potential linear electron flux through photosystem II (Jmax), (2) the associated responses of leaf structural and chemical properties related to A, as well as (3) the stomatal limitation (l) imposed on A, for soybean over two growing seasons in a conventionally managed agricultural field in Illinois, USA. Acclimation to elevated [CO2] was consistent over two growing seasons with respect to Vc,max and Jmax. However, elevated temperature significantly decreased Jmax contributing to lower photosynthetic stimulation by elevated CO2. Large seasonal differences in precipitation altered soil moisture availability modulating the complex effects of elevated temperature and CO2 on biochemical and structural properties related to A. Elevated temperature also reduced the benefit of elevated [CO2] by eliminating decreases in stomatal limitation at elevated [CO2]. These results highlight the critical importance of considering multiple environmental factors (i.e. temperature, moisture, [CO2]) when trying to predict plant productivity in the context of climate change. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Sensitivity analysis of a parameterization of the stomatal component of the DO3SE model for Quercus ilex to estimate ozone fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, Rocio; Elvira, Susana; Sanz, Maria J.; Gerosa, Giacomo; Emberson, Lisa D.; Bermejo, Victoria; Gimeno, Benjamin S.

    2008-01-01

    A sensitivity analysis of a proposed parameterization of the stomatal conductance (g s ) module of the European ozone deposition model (DO 3 SE) for Quercus ilex was performed. The performance of the model was tested against measured g s in the field at three sites in Spain. The best fit of the model was found for those sites, or during those periods, facing no or mild stress conditions, but a worse performance was found under severe drought or temperature stress, mostly occurring at continental sites. The best performance was obtained when both f phen and f SWP were included. A local parameterization accounting for the lower temperatures recorded in winter and the higher water shortage at the continental sites resulted in a better performance of the model. The overall results indicate that two different parameterizations of the model are needed, one for marine-influenced sites and another one for continental sites. - No redundancy between phenological and water-related modifying functions was found when estimating stomatal behavior of Holm oak

  17. Clinical effects of an antiplasmin agent (transamin) on stomatitis appearing during the treatment by chemotherapy and radiotherapy for malignant tumors of the head and the neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Hachiro; Aoyanagi, Masaru; Kato, Isao; Koike, Yoshiro

    1979-01-01

    The effects of transamin and pantocin to prevent and inhibit stomatitis were observed on 46 patients with malignant tumors of the head and the neck who underwent only radiotherapy (in which more than 4,000 rad of linear x-ray was irradiated) or both radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Transamin was administered singly to 21 patients and was administered together with pantocin to 25 patients. As a result, transamin administered singly was effective in 13 of 21 patients (62%) and that administered together with pantocin was effective in 18 of 25 (72%) although in controls treated with other drugs, the effective rate was 45% (9 of 20 controls). Transamin administered singly was ineffective in 3 patients (14%) and that administered together with pantocin was ineffective in 3 (12%), but in controls treated with other drugs, the ineffective rate was 20% (4 of 20 controls). Both radiotherapy and chemotherapy were completed without interruption on 18 patients administered only transamin (86%) and 22 patients administered transamin and pantocin (88%). It was suggested from the above-mentioned results that transamin administered singly or together with pantocin was effective in inhibiting stomatitis as compared to other drugs. (Tsunoda, M.)

  18. [Improvement of treatment of inflammatory diseases in oral cavity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soboleva, L A; Shul'diakov, A A; Khlamova, O G; Romantsov, M G

    2011-01-01

    In order to determine the anti-pathogenic clinical efficacy of cycloferon liniment in the combined treatment of herpetic stomatitis and periodontitis, medical examination and treatment of these disorders have been carried out in a group of 80 patients. It is established that the use of cycloferon liniment in the combined treatment of herpetic stomatitis and periodontitis decreases the infectious load in parodontal recess, reduces the manifestations of local inflammation, normalizes the immunity indices, and decreases the level of endogenous intoxication, which ensures the acceleration of recuperation processes and lowers the frequency of recurrences.

  19. Quantifying the non-fungicidal effects of foliar applications of fluxapyroxad (Xemium) on stomatal conductance, water use efficiency and yield in winter wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J; Grimmer, M; Waterhouse, S; Paveley, N

    2013-01-01

    The active ingredient fluxapyroxad belongs to the chemical group of carboxamides and is a new generation succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor (SDHI) in complex II of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. It has strong efficacy against the key foliar diseases of winter wheat in the UK: Septoria leaf blotch, yellow stripe rust and brown rust. Fluxapyroxad is marketed under the brand name of Xemium, was launched in 2012 and is available in the UK as a solo product (Imtrex) for co-application with triazoles, in co-formulation with epoxiconazole (Adexar), or in a three way formulation with epoxiconazole and pyraclostrobin (Ceriax). The objective of the study was to quantify the direct effects of Xemium on stomatal conductance and yield, mediated through stimulation of host physiology. Three field experiments and two controlled environment (CE) experiments were conducted across three cropping seasons (2010-2012) in Herefordshire and Cambridge, in the UK. Xemium was evaluated against boscalid, pyraclostrobin (F500), epoxiconazole and an untreated control. Across site-seasons, disease severity was significantly reduced when Xemium was applied as a foliar spray. Healthy canopy size and duration was increased by Xemium and canopy greening effects were seen shortly after application. Stomatal conductance was found to be consistently lower in Xemium treated plants but reduced stomatal opening was not found to be detrimental to yield in these experiments. Large, beneficial effects of Xemium on water use efficiency were found at the canopy level and this finding was supported by measurements of instantaneous water use efficiency at the leaf level. Effects on season long water use efficiency were largely driven by improvements in yield for a given amount of water uptake. Foliar applications of Xemium reduced the water required to produce 1.0 t grain per hectare by 82,330 L(82 t) when compared with an untreated crop. Yield was significantly higher in Xemium treatments and this was

  20. Modeling the water use efficiency of soybean and maize plants under environmental stresses: application of a synthetic model of photosynthesis-transpiration based on stomatal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Gui-Rui; Wang, Qiu-Feng; Zhuang, Jie

    2004-03-01

    Understanding the variability of plant WUE and its control mechanism can promote the comprehension to the coupling relationship of water and carbon cycle in terrestrial ecosystem, which is the foundation for developing water-carbon coupling cycle model. In this paper, we made clear the differences of net assimilation rate, transpiration rate, and WUE between the two species by comparing the experiment data of soybean (Glycine max Merr.) and maize (Zea mays L.) plants under water and soil nutrient stresses. WUE of maize was about two and a half times more than that of soybean in the same weather conditions. Enhancement of water stresses led to the marked decrease of Am and Em of two species, but water stresses of some degree could improve WUE, and this effect was more obvious for soybean. WUE of the two species changed with psiL in a second-order curve relation, and the WUE at high fertilization was higher than that at low fertilization, this effect was especially obvious for maize. Moreover, according to the synthetic model of photosynthesis-transpiration based on stomatal behavior (SMPTSB) presented by Yu et al. (2001), the WUE model and its applicability were discussed with the data measured in this experiment. The WUE estimated by means of the model accorded well with the measured values. However, this model underestimated the WUE for maize slightly, thus further improvement on the original model was made in this study. Finally, by discussing some physiological factors controlling Am and WUE, we made clear the physiological explanation for differences of the relative contributions of stomata- and mesophyll processes to control of Am and WUE, and the applicability of WUE model between the two species. Because the requirement to stomatal conductance by unit change of net assimilation rate is different, the responses of opening-closing activity of stomata to environmental stresses are different between the two species. To obtain the same level of net assimilation

  1. Estimating variation in stomatal frequency at intra-individual, intra-site, and inter-taxonomic levels in populations of the Leonardoxa africana (Fabaceae) complex over environmental gradients in Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finsinger, Walter; Dos Santos, Thibaut; McKey, Doyle

    2013-07-01

    Variation of stomatal frequency (stomatal density and stomatal index) includes genetically-based, potentially-adaptive variation, and variation due to phenotypic plasticity, the degree of which may be fundamental to the ability to maintain high water-use efficiency and thus to deal with environmental change. We analysed stomatal frequency and morphology (pore length, pore width) in leaves from several individuals from nine populations of four sub-species of the Leonardoxa africana complex. The dataset represents a hierarchical sampling wherein factors are nested within each level (leaves in individuals, individuals in sites, etc.), allowing estimation of the contribution of different levels to overall variation, using variance-component analysis. SI showed significant variation among sites ("site" is largely confounded with "sub-species"), being highest in the sub-species localized in the highest-elevation site. However, most of the observed variance was accounted for at intra-site and intra-individual levels. This variance could reflect great phenotypic plasticity, presumably in response to highly local variation in micro-environmental conditions.

  2. Adaxial/abaxial specification in the regulation of photosynthesis and stomatal opening with respect to light orientation and growth with CO2 enrichment in the C4 species Paspalum dilatatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Ana Sofia; Driscoll, Simon P; Olmos, Enrique; Harbinson, Jeremy; Arrabaça, Maria Celeste; Foyer, Christine H

    2008-01-01

    Whole-plant morphology, leaf structure and composition were studied together with the effects of light orientation on the dorso-ventral regulation of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance in Paspalum dilatatum cv. Raki plants grown for 6 wk at either 350 or 700 microl l(-1) CO(2). Plant biomass was doubled as a result of growth at high CO(2) and the shoot:root ratio was decreased. Stomatal density was increased in the leaves of the high CO(2)-grown plants, which had greater numbers of smaller stomata and more epidermal cells on the abaxial surface. An asymmetric surface-specific regulation of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance was observed with respect to light orientation. This was not caused by dorso-ventral variations in leaf structure, the distribution of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) and ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) proteins or light absorptance, transmittance or reflectance. Adaxial/abaxial specification in the regulation of photosynthesis results from differential sensitivity of stomatal opening to light orientation and fixed gradients of enzyme activation across the leaf.

  3. Adaxial/abaxial specification in the regulation of photosynthesis and stomatal opening with respect to light orentation and growth with CO2 enrichment in the C4 species Paspalum dilatatum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soares, A.S.; Discoll, S.P.; Olmos, E.; Harbinson, J.; Arrabaca, M.C.

    2008-01-01

    Whole-plant morphology, leaf structure and composition were studied together with the effects of light orientation on the dorso-ventral regulation of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance in Paspalum dilatatum cv. Raki plants grown for 6 wk at either 350 or 700 µl l¿1 CO2. Plant biomass was

  4. Transcription co-activator Arabidopsis ANGUSTIFOLIA3 (AN3) regulates water-use efficiency and drought tolerance by modulating stomatal density and improving root architecture by the transrepression of YODA (YDA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Lai-Sheng; Yao, Shun-Qiao

    2015-09-01

    One goal of modern agriculture is the improvement of plant drought tolerance and water-use efficiency (WUE). Although stomatal density has been linked to WUE, the causal molecular mechanisms and engineered alternations of this relationship are not yet fully understood. Moreover, YODA (YDA), which is a MAPKK kinase gene, negatively regulates stomatal development. BR-INSENSITIVE 2 interacts with phosphorylates and inhibits YDA. However, whether YDA is modulated in the transcriptional level is still unclear. Plants lacking ANGUSTIFOLIA3 (AN3) activity have high drought stress tolerance because of low stomatal densities and improved root architecture. Such plants also exhibit enhanced WUE through declining transpiration without a demonstrable reduction in biomass accumulation. AN3 negatively regulated YDA expression at the transcriptional level by target-gene analysis. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis indicated that AN3 was associated with a region of the YDA promoter in vivo. YDA mutation significantly decreased the stomatal density and root length of an3 mutant, thus proving the participation of YDA in an3 drought tolerance and WUE enhancement. These components form an AN3-YDA complex, which allows the integration of water deficit stress signalling into the production or spacing of stomata and cell proliferation, thus leading to drought tolerance and enhanced WUE. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Towards an improved and more flexible representation of water stress in coupled photosynthesis-stomatal conductance models; implications for simulated land surface fluxes and variables at various spatiotemporal scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egea, G.; Verhoef, A.; Vidale, P. L.; Black, E.; Van den Hoof, C.

    2012-04-01

    Coupled photosynthesis-stomatal conductance (A-gs) models are commonly used in ecosystem models to represent the exchange rate of CO2 and H2O between vegetation and the atmosphere. The ways these models account for water stress differ greatly among modelling schemes. This study provides insight into the impact of contrasting model configurations of water stress on the simulated leaf-level values of net photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (gs), the functional relationship among them and their ratio, the intrinsic water use efficiency (A/gs), as soil dries. A simple, yet versatile, normalized soil moisture dependent function was used to account for the effects of water stress on gs, on mesophyll conductance (gm ) and on the biochemical capacity (Egea et al., 2011). Model output was compared to leaf-level values obtained from the literature. The sensitivity analyses emphasized the necessity to combine both stomatal and non-stomatal limitations of A in coupled A-gs models to accurately capture the observed functional relationships A vs. gs and A/gs vs. gs in response to drought. Accounting for water stress in coupled A-gs models by imposing either stomatal or biochemical limitations of A, as commonly practiced in most ecosystem models, failed to reproduce the observed functional relationship between key leaf gas exchange attributes. A quantitative limitation analysis revealed that the general pattern of C3 photosynthetic response to water stress can be represented in coupled A-gs models by imposing the highest limitation strength to mesophyll conductance, then to stomatal conductance and finally to the biochemical capacity. This more realistic representation of soil water stress on the simulated leaf-level values of A and gs was embedded in the JULES (Joint UK Land Environment Simulator; Best et al., 2011), model and tested for a number of vegetation types, for which driving and flux verification data were available. These simulations provide an insight into the

  6. Capability of the "Ball-Berry" model for predicting stomatal conductance and water use efficiency of potato leaves under different irrigation regimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Fulai; Andersen, Mathias N.; Jensen, Christian Richardt

    2009-01-01

    was used for model parameterization, where measurements of midday leaf gas exchange of potted potatoes were done during progressive soil drying for 2 weeks at tuber initiation and earlier bulking stages. The measured photosynthetic rate (An) was used as an input for the model. To account for the effects......The capability of the ‘Ball-Berry' model (BB-model) in predicting stomatal conductance (gs) and water use efficiency (WUE) of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) leaves under different irrigation regimes was tested using data from two independent pot experiments in 2004 and 2007. Data obtained from 2004...... of soil water deficits on gs, a simple equation modifying the slope (m) based on the mean soil water potential (Ψs) in the soil columns was incorporated into the original BB-model. Compared with the original BB-model, the modified BB-model showed better predictability for both gs and WUE of potato leaves...

  7. Abscisic Acid Content and Stomatal Sensitivity to CO2 in Leaves of Xanthium strumarium L. after Pretreatments in Warm and Cold Growth Chambers 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raschke, Klaus; Pierce, Margaret; Popiela, Chu Chen

    1976-01-01

    The degree of stomatal sensitivity to CO2 was positively correlated with the content of abscisic acid of leaves of Xanthium strumarium grown in a greenhouse and then transferred for 24 hours or more to a cold (5/10 C, night/day) or a warm growth chamber (20/23 C). This correlation did not exist in plants kept in the greehouse continuously (high abscisic acid, no CO2 sensitivity), nor in plants transferred from the cold to the warm chamber (low abscisic acid, high CO2 sensitivity). The abscisic acid content of leaves was correlated with water content only within narrow limits, if at all. At equal water contents, prechilled leaves contained more abscisic acid than leaves of plants pretreated in the warm chamber. There appear to be at least two compartments for abscisic acid in the leaf. PMID:16659416

  8. Abscisic Acid Content and Stomatal Sensitivity to CO(2) in Leaves of Xanthium strumarium L. after Pretreatments in Warm and Cold Growth Chambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raschke, K; Pierce, M; Popiela, C C

    1976-01-01

    The degree of stomatal sensitivity to CO(2) was positively correlated with the content of abscisic acid of leaves of Xanthium strumarium grown in a greenhouse and then transferred for 24 hours or more to a cold (5/10 C, night/day) or a warm growth chamber (20/23 C). This correlation did not exist in plants kept in the greehouse continuously (high abscisic acid, no CO(2) sensitivity), nor in plants transferred from the cold to the warm chamber (low abscisic acid, high CO(2) sensitivity). The abscisic acid content of leaves was correlated with water content only within narrow limits, if at all. At equal water contents, prechilled leaves contained more abscisic acid than leaves of plants pretreated in the warm chamber. There appear to be at least two compartments for abscisic acid in the leaf.

  9. Vesicular stomatitis virus expressing a chimeric Sindbis glycoprotein containing an Fc antibody binding domain targets to Her2/neu overexpressing breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, Ira; Whitaker-Dowling, Patricia; Gao Yanhua; Griffin, Judith A.; Watkins, Simon C.

    2003-01-01

    Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is a candidate for development for cancer therapy. It is an oncolytic virus that is safe in humans. Recombinant virus can be made directly from plasmid components. We attempted to create a virus that targeted specifically to breast cancer cells. Nonreplicating and replicating pseudotype VSV were created whose only surface glycoprotein (gp) was a Sindbis gp, called Sindbis-ZZ, modified to severely reduce its native binding function and to contain the Fc-binding domain of Staphylococcus aureus protein A. When titered on Her2/neu overexpressing SKBR3 human breast cancer cells, pseudotype VSV coated with Sindbis-ZZ had 5 /ml. This work demonstrates the ability to easily create, directly from plasmid components, an oncolytic replicating VSV with a restricted host cell range

  10. Phylogeographic characteristics of vesicular stomatitis New Jersey viruses circulating in Mexico from 2005 to 2011 and their relationship to epidemics in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez-Salinas, Lauro; Pauszek, Steven J; Zarate, Selene; Basurto-Alcantara, Francisco J; Verdugo-Rodriguez, Antonio; Perez, Andres M; Rodriguez, Luis L

    2014-01-20

    We analyzed the phylogenetic and time-space relationships (phylodynamics) of 181 isolates of vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus (VSNJV) causing disease in Mexico and the United States (US) from 2005 through 2012. We detail the emergence of a genetic lineage in southern Mexico causing outbreaks in central Mexico spreading into northern Mexico and eventually into the US. That emerging lineage showed higher nucleotide sequence identity (99.5%) than that observed for multiple lineages circulating concurrently in southern Mexico (96.8%). Additionally, we identified 58 isolates from Mexico that, unlike previous isolates from Mexico, grouped with northern Central America clade II viruses. This study provides the first direct evidence for the emergence and northward migration of a specific VSNJV genetic lineage from endemic areas in Mexico causing VS outbreaks in the US. In addition we document the emergence of a Central American VSNJV genetic lineage moving northward and causing outbreaks in central Mexico. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Model estimates of leaf area and reference canopy stomatal conductance suggest correlation between phenology and physiology in both trembling aspen and red pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, D. S.; Ewers, B. E.; Kruger, E. L.

    2006-12-01

    Phenological variations impact water and carbon fluxes, as evidenced by the large interannual variability of net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide and evapotranspiration (ET). In northern Wisconsin we observed daily variations of canopy transpiration from hardwoods from 1.0 to 1.7 mm/day during the leaf unfolding period and 1.7 to 2.6 mm/day with leaves fully out. Correlations between such flux rates and phenology have not been extensively tested and mechanistic connections are in their infancy. Some data suggest that stomatal conductance and photosynthesis increases up to full expansion. Moreover, in conifers, the interaction of phenology and physiology is more complicated than in deciduous trees because needles are retained for several years. Using inverse modeling with a coupled photosynthesis-transpiration model we estimated reference canopy stomatal conductance, Gsref, for red pine (Pinus resinosa), and Gsref and leaf area index, L, for trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides), using 30-min continuous sap flux data spanning a period from just prior to the start of leaf expansion to just after leaf senescence. The red pine showed Gsref ramp up from 105 to 179 mmol m-2 leaf s-1, which represented a 37 to 50 percent increase in Gsref after accounting for maximum possible changes in L. After full leaf out, the trembling aspen were almost immediately defoliated, and then reflushed after three weeks. Model estimates of L reflected this pattern and were consistent with measurements. However, Gsref never exceeded 45 mmol m-2 s-1 prior to defoliation, but pe