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Sample records for stochastic pump effect

  1. Stochastic pump effect and geometric phases in dissipative and stochastic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinitsyn, Nikolai [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    The success of Berry phases in quantum mechanics stimulated the study of similar phenomena in other areas of physics, including the theory of living cell locomotion and motion of patterns in nonlinear media. More recently, geometric phases have been applied to systems operating in a strongly stochastic environment, such as molecular motors. We discuss such geometric effects in purely classical dissipative stochastic systems and their role in the theory of the stochastic pump effect (SPE).

  2. A proof by graphical construction of the no-pumping theorem of stochastic pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandal, Dibyendu; Jarzynski, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    A stochastic pump is a Markov model of a mesoscopic system evolving under the control of externally varied parameters. In the model, the system makes random transitions among a network of states. For such models, a 'no-pumping theorem' has been obtained, which identifies minimal conditions for generating directed motion or currents. We provide a derivation of this result using a simple graphical construction on the network of states

  3. General no-go condition for stochastic pumping

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maes, C.; Netočný, Karel; Thomas, S.R.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 132, č. 23 (2010), 234116/1-234116/6 ISSN 0021-9606 R&D Projects: GA ČR GC202/07/J051 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : stochastic pumps * molecular motors * non-Markov dynamics Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 2.920, year: 2010 http://jcp.aip.org/jcpsa6/v132/i23/p234116_s1

  4. Stochastic resonance for signal-modulated pump noise in a single-mode laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liangying Zhang; Li Cao; Fahui Zhu

    2006-01-01

    By adopting the gain-noise model of the single-mode laser in which with bias and periodical signals serve as inputs, combining with the effect of coloured pump noise, we use the linear approximation method to calculate the power spectrum and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the laser intensity under the condition of pump noise and quantum noise cross-related in the form of δ function. It is found that with the change of pump noise correlation time, both SNR and the output power will occur stochastic resonance (SR). If the bias signal α is very small, changing the intensities of pump noise and quantum noise respectively does not lead to the appearance of SR in the SNR; while α increases to a certain number, SR appears.

  5. Stochastic Effects in Microstructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glicksman M.E.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We are currently studying microstructural responses to diffusion-limited coarsening in two-phase materials. A mathematical solution to late-stage multiparticle diffusion in finite systems is formulated with account taken of particle-particle interactions and their microstructural correlations, or "locales". The transition from finite system behavior to that for an infinite microstructure is established analytically. Large-scale simulations of late-stage phase coarsening dynamics show increased fluctuations with increasing volume fraction, Vv, of the mean flux entering or leaving particles of a given size class. Fluctuations about the mean flux were found to depend on the scaled particle size, R/, where R is the radius of a particle and is the radius of the dispersoid averaged over the population within the microstructure. Specifically, small (shrinking particles tend to display weak fluctuations about their mean flux, whereas particles of average, or above average size, exhibit strong fluctuations. Remarkably, even in cases of microstructures with a relatively small volume fraction (Vv ~ 10-4, the particle size distribution is broader than that for the well-known Lifshitz-Slyozov limit predicted at zero volume fraction. The simulation results reported here provide some additional surprising insights into the effect of diffusion interactions and stochastic effects during evolution of a microstructure, as it approaches its thermodynamic end-state.

  6. Stochastic and non-stochastic effects - a conceptual analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karhausen, L.R.

    1980-01-01

    The attempt to divide radiation effects into stochastic and non-stochastic effects is discussed. It is argued that radiation or toxicological effects are contingently related to radiation or chemical exposure. Biological effects in general can be described by general laws but these laws never represent a necessary connection. Actually stochastic effects express contingent, or empirical, connections while non-stochastic effects represent semantic and non-factual connections. These two expressions stem from two different levels of discourse. The consequence of this analysis for radiation biology and radiation protection is discussed. (author)

  7. ALOPEX stochastic optimization for pumping management in fresh water coastal aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stratis, P N; Saridakis, Y G; Zakynthinaki, M S; Papadopoulou, E P

    2014-01-01

    Saltwater intrusion in freshwater aquifers is a problem of increasing significance in areas nearby the coastline. Apart from natural disastrous phenomena, such as earthquakes or floods, intense pumping human activities over the aquifer areas may change the chemical composition of the freshwater aquifer. Working towards the direction of real time management of freshwater pumping from coastal aquifers, we have considered the deployment of the stochastic optimization Algorithm of Pattern Extraction (ALOPEX), coupled with several penalty strategies that produce convenient management policies. The present study, which further extents recently derived results, considers the analytical solution of a classical model for underground flow and the ALOPEX stochastic optimization technique to produce an efficient approach for pumping management over coastal aquifers. Numerical experimentation also includes a case study at Vathi area on the Greek island of Kalymnos, to compare with known results in the literature as well as to demonstrate different management strategies

  8. Stochastic pumping of non-equilibrium steady-states: how molecules adapt to a fluctuating environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astumian, R D

    2018-01-11

    In the absence of input energy, a chemical reaction in a closed system ineluctably relaxes toward an equilibrium state governed by a Boltzmann distribution. The addition of a catalyst to the system provides a way for more rapid equilibration toward this distribution, but the catalyst can never, in and of itself, drive the system away from equilibrium. In the presence of external fluctuations, however, a macromolecular catalyst (e.g., an enzyme) can absorb energy and drive the formation of a steady state between reactant and product that is not determined solely by their relative energies. Due to the ubiquity of non-equilibrium steady states in living systems, the development of a theory for the effects of external fluctuations on chemical systems has been a longstanding focus of non-equilibrium thermodynamics. The theory of stochastic pumping has provided insight into how a non-equilibrium steady-state can be formed and maintained in the presence of dissipation and kinetic asymmetry. This effort has been greatly enhanced by a confluence of experimental and theoretical work on synthetic molecular machines designed explicitly to harness external energy to drive non-equilibrium transport and self-assembly.

  9. Effect of pump limiter throat on pumping efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghendrih, P.; Grosman, A.; Samain, A.; Capes, H.; Morera, J.P.

    1988-01-01

    The necessary control of plasma edge density has led to the development of pump limiters to achieve this task. On Tore Supra, where a large part of the program is devoted to plasma edge studies, two types of such density control apparatus have been implemented, a set of pump limiters and the pumps associated to the ergodic divertor (magnetically assisted pump limiters). Generally two different kinds of pump limiters can be used, those with a throat which drives the plasma from the open edge plasma (SOL) to the neutralizer plate, and those without or with a very short throat. We are interested here in this aspect of the pump limiter concept, i.e. on the throat effect on neutral density build-up in the vicinity of the pumping plates (and hence on pumping efficieny). The underlying idea of this throat effect can be readily understood; indeed while the neutral capture in pump limiters without throats is only a ballistic effect, on expects the plasma to improve the efficiency of pump-limiters via plasma-neutral-sidewall interactions in the throat. This problem has been studied both numerically and analytically. The paper is divided as follows. In section 2, we describe the basic features of pump-limiters which are modelized by the numerical code Cezanne. Section 3 is devoted to the throat length effect considering in particular the neutral density profile in the throat and the neutral density buil-up as a function of the throat lenght. In section 4, we show that the plugging effect occurs for reasonnable values of throat lengths. An analytical value of the plugging length is discussed and compared to the values obtained numerically

  10. Memory effects on stochastic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiman, Alexander; Sung, Wokyung

    1996-02-01

    We study the phenomenon of stochastic resonance (SR) in a bistable system with internal colored noise. In this situation the system possesses time-dependent memory friction connected with noise via the fluctuation-dissipation theorem, so that in the absence of periodic driving the system approaches the thermodynamic equilibrium state. For this non-Markovian case we find that memory usually suppresses stochastic resonance. However, for a large memory time SR can be enhanced by the memory.

  11. Scenario-based stochastic optimal operation of wind, photovoltaic, pump-storage hybrid system in frequency- based pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zare Oskouei, Morteza; Sadeghi Yazdankhah, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Two-stage objective function is proposed for optimization problem. • Hourly-based optimal contractual agreement is calculated. • Scenario-based stochastic optimization problem is solved. • Improvement of system frequency by utilizing PSH unit. - Abstract: This paper proposes the operating strategy of a micro grid connected wind farm, photovoltaic and pump-storage hybrid system. The strategy consists of two stages. In the first stage, the optimal hourly contractual agreement is determined. The second stage corresponds to maximizing its profit by adapting energy management strategy of wind and photovoltaic in coordination with optimum operating schedule of storage device under frequency based pricing for a day ahead electricity market. The pump-storage hydro plant is utilized to minimize unscheduled interchange flow and maximize the system benefit by participating in frequency control based on energy price. Because of uncertainties in power generation of renewable sources and market prices, generation scheduling is modeled by a stochastic optimization problem. Uncertainties of parameters are modeled by scenario generation and scenario reduction method. A powerful optimization algorithm is proposed using by General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS)/CPLEX. In order to verify the efficiency of the method, the algorithm is applied to various scenarios with different wind and photovoltaic power productions in a day ahead electricity market. The numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  12. Stochastic effects on the nonlinear Schroedinger equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flessas, G P; Leach, P G L; Yannacopoulos, A N

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this article is to provide a brief review of recent advances in the field of stochastic effects on the nonlinear Schroedinger equation. The article reviews rigorous and perturbative results. (review article)

  13. Stochastic Effects; Application in Nuclear Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazonka, O.

    2000-04-01

    Stochastic effects in nuclear physics refer to the study of the dynamics of nuclear systems evolving under stochastic equations of motion. In this dissertation we restrict our attention to classical scattering models. We begin with introduction of the model of nuclear dynamics and deterministic equations of evolution. We apply a Langevin approach - an additional property of the model, which reflect the statistical nature of low energy nuclear behaviour. We than concentrate our attention on the problem of calculating tails of distribution functions, which actually is the problem of calculating probabilities of rare outcomes. Two general strategies are proposed. Result and discussion follow. Finally in the appendix we consider stochastic effects in nonequilibrium systems. A few exactly solvable models are presented. For one model we show explicitly that stochastic behaviour in a microscopic description can lead to ordered collective effects on the macroscopic scale. Two others are solved to confirm the predictions of the fluctuation theorem. (author)

  14. Hypothesized diprotomeric enzyme complex supported by stochastic modelling of palytoxin-induced Na/K pump channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilallonga, Gabriel D; de Almeida, Antônio-Carlos G; Ribeiro, Kelison T; Campos, Sergio V A; Rodrigues, Antônio M

    2018-03-01

    The sodium-potassium pump (Na + /K + pump) is crucial for cell physiology. Despite great advances in the understanding of this ionic pumping system, its mechanism is not completely understood. We propose the use of a statistical model checker to investigate palytoxin (PTX)-induced Na + /K + pump channels. We modelled a system of reactions representing transitions between the conformational substates of the channel with parameters, concentrations of the substates and reaction rates extracted from simulations reported in the literature, based on electrophysiological recordings in a whole-cell configuration. The model was implemented using the UPPAAL-SMC platform. Comparing simulations and probabilistic queries from stochastic system semantics with experimental data, it was possible to propose additional reactions to reproduce the single-channel dynamic. The probabilistic analyses and simulations suggest that the PTX-induced Na + /K + pump channel functions as a diprotomeric complex in which protein-protein interactions increase the affinity of the Na + /K + pump for PTX.

  15. Stochastic Analysis of Wind Energy for Wind Pump Irrigation in Coastal Andhra Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, M. M.; Kumar, A.; Bisht, D.; Rao, D. B.

    2014-09-01

    The rapid escalation in the prices of oil and gas as well as increasing demand for energy has attracted the attention of scientists and researchers to explore the possibility of generating and utilizing the alternative and renewable sources of wind energy in the long coastal belt of India with considerable wind energy resources. A detailed analysis of wind potential is a prerequisite to harvest the wind energy resources efficiently. Keeping this in view, the present study was undertaken to analyze the wind energy potential to assess feasibility of the wind-pump operated irrigation system in the coastal region of Andhra Pradesh, India, where high ground water table conditions are available. The stochastic analysis of wind speed data were tested to fit a probability distribution, which describes the wind energy potential in the region. The normal and Weibull probability distributions were tested; and on the basis of Chi square test, the Weibull distribution gave better results. Hence, it was concluded that the Weibull probability distribution may be used to stochastically describe the annual wind speed data of coastal Andhra Pradesh with better accuracy. The size as well as the complete irrigation system with mass curve analysis was determined to satisfy various daily irrigation demands at different risk levels.

  16. Stochastic effects in hybrid inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jérôme; Vennin, Vincent

    2012-02-01

    Hybrid inflation is a two-field model where inflation ends due to an instability. In the neighborhood of the instability point, the potential is very flat and the quantum fluctuations dominate over the classical motion of the inflaton and waterfall fields. In this article, we study this regime in the framework of stochastic inflation. We numerically solve the two coupled Langevin equations controlling the evolution of the fields and compute the probability distributions of the total number of e-folds and of the inflation exit point. Then, we discuss the physical consequences of our results, in particular, the question of how the quantum diffusion can affect the observable predictions of hybrid inflation.

  17. Recursive stochastic effects in valley hybrid inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levasseur, Laurence Perreault; Vennin, Vincent; Brandenberger, Robert

    2013-10-01

    Hybrid inflation is a two-field model where inflation ends because of a tachyonic instability, the duration of which is determined by stochastic effects and has important observational implications. Making use of the recursive approach to the stochastic formalism presented in [L. P. Levasseur, preceding article, Phys. Rev. D 88, 083537 (2013)], these effects are consistently computed. Through an analysis of backreaction, this method is shown to converge in the valley but points toward an (expected) instability in the waterfall. It is further shown that the quasistationarity of the auxiliary field distribution breaks down in the case of a short-lived waterfall. We find that the typical dispersion of the waterfall field at the critical point is then diminished, thus increasing the duration of the waterfall phase and jeopardizing the possibility of a short transition. Finally, we find that stochastic effects worsen the blue tilt of the curvature perturbations by an O(1) factor when compared with the usual slow-roll contribution.

  18. Stochastic volatility and leverage effect

    OpenAIRE

    Josep Perello; Jaume Masoliver

    2002-01-01

    We prove that Brownian market models with random diffusion coefficients provide an exact measure of the leverage effect [J-P. Bouchaud et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 228701 (2001)]. This empirical fact asserts that past returns are anticorrelated with future diffusion coefficient. Several models with random diffusion have been suggested but without a quantitative study of the leverage effect. Our analysis lets us to fully estimate all parameters involved and allows a deeper study of correlated ...

  19. Ion pump as molecular ratchet and effects of noise: electric activation of cation pumping by Na,K-ATPase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsong, T. Y.; Xie, T. D.

    2002-08-01

    Na,K-ATPase is a universal ion pump of the biological cell. Under physiological conditions, it uses the γ-phosphorus bond energy of ATP during hydrolysis to pump 2 K+ inward and 3 Na+ outward; both being uphill transports. The experiment presented here demonstrates that the protein transporter can also use electric energy to fuel its pump activity. A theory of electroconformational coupling (TEC) is described and an experiment performed to verify several predictions of the model. Analysis based on the TEC model suggests that Na,K-ATPase is a Brownian ratchet. The enzyme harvests energy from the applied field by means of the field-induced conformational oscillation or fluctuation. However, high efficiency of energy transduction can only be achieved with an electric field of certain intensities, frequencies and waveforms. This property of the enzyme allows us to define an electric signal and differentiate it from electric noise on the basis of the analysis by the TEC model. Data show that electric noise alone does not induce pump activity. However, an appropriate power level of noise imposed on a signal can enhance the pump efficiency. The effect of noise on the signal transduction of Na,K-ATPase is reminiscent of the stochastic resonance phenomenon reported in other biological systems [3, 35]. The TEC model embodies many common features of enzymes and biological motors. It is potentially energy-efficient, much more so than models based on the ion-rectification mechanism.

  20. Non-stochastic effects: compatibility with present ICRP recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, S.B.; Upton, A.C.; New York Univ., NY

    1985-01-01

    The present recommendations of the ICRP (International Commission on Radiological Protection) are almost entirely based on 'stochastic effects' of ionizing radiation, i.e. cancer induction and heritable effects. In a recent report the compatibility of present recommendations with non-stochastic effects has been considered. The present paper is a summary of these findings. (author)

  1. Stochastic Electrodynamics and the Compton effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franca, H.M.; Barranco, A.V.

    1987-12-01

    Some of the main qualitative features of the Compton effect are tried to be described within the realm of Classical Stochastic Electrodynamics (SED). It is found indications that the combined action of the incident wave (frequency ω), the radiation reaction force and the zero point fluctuating electromagnetic fields of SED, are able to given a high average recoil velocity v/c=α/(1+α) to the charged particle. The estimate of the parameter α gives α ∼ ℎω/mc 2 where 2Πℎ is the constant and mc 2 is the rest energy of the particle. It is verified that this recoil is just that necessary to explain the frequency shift, observed in the scattered radiation as due to a classical double Doppler shift. The differential cross section for the radiation scattered by the recoiling charge using classical electromagnetism also calculated. The same expression as obtained by Compton in his fundamental work of 1923 is found. (author) [pt

  2. Non-stochastic effects of irradiation. Annex J

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The main purpose of this Annex is to review damage to normal tissues caused by ionizing radiation. Only non-stochastic effects are considered, that is, those effects resulting from changes taking place in large numbers of cells for which a threshold dose may occur. Therefore, in this Annex, the effects on normal tissues are reviewed, in animals and in man, in order to determine the threshold dose levels for non-stochastic effects.

  3. Spatial stochasticity and non-continuum effects in gas flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadzie, S. Kokou, E-mail: k.dadzie@glyndwr.ac.uk [Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, Glyndwr University, Mold Road, Wrexham LL11 2AW (United Kingdom); Reese, Jason M., E-mail: jason.reese@strath.ac.uk [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G1 1XJ (United Kingdom)

    2012-02-06

    We investigate the relationship between spatial stochasticity and non-continuum effects in gas flows. A kinetic model for a dilute gas is developed using strictly a stochastic molecular model reasoning, without primarily referring to either the Liouville or the Boltzmann equations for dilute gases. The kinetic equation, a stochastic version of the well-known deterministic Boltzmann equation for dilute gas, is then associated with a set of macroscopic equations for the case of a monatomic gas. Tests based on a heat conduction configuration and sound wave dispersion show that spatial stochasticity can explain some non-continuum effects seen in gases. -- Highlights: ► We investigate effects of molecular spatial stochasticity in non-continuum regime. ► Present a simplify spatial stochastic kinetic equation. ► Present a spatial stochastic macroscopic flow equations. ► Show effects of the new model on sound wave dispersion prediction. ► Show effects of the new approach in density profiles in a heat conduction.

  4. Gompertzian stochastic model with delay effect to cervical cancer growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazlan, Mazma Syahidatul Ayuni binti; Rosli, Norhayati binti; Bahar, Arifah

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a Gompertzian stochastic model with time delay is introduced to describe the cervical cancer growth. The parameters values of the mathematical model are estimated via Levenberg-Marquardt optimization method of non-linear least squares. We apply Milstein scheme for solving the stochastic model numerically. The efficiency of mathematical model is measured by comparing the simulated result and the clinical data of cervical cancer growth. Low values of Mean-Square Error (MSE) of Gompertzian stochastic model with delay effect indicate good fits

  5. Gompertzian stochastic model with delay effect to cervical cancer growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazlan, Mazma Syahidatul Ayuni binti; Rosli, Norhayati binti [Faculty of Industrial Sciences and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Lebuhraya Tun Razak, 26300 Gambang, Pahang (Malaysia); Bahar, Arifah [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor and UTM Centre for Industrial and Applied Mathematics (UTM-CIAM), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia)

    2015-02-03

    In this paper, a Gompertzian stochastic model with time delay is introduced to describe the cervical cancer growth. The parameters values of the mathematical model are estimated via Levenberg-Marquardt optimization method of non-linear least squares. We apply Milstein scheme for solving the stochastic model numerically. The efficiency of mathematical model is measured by comparing the simulated result and the clinical data of cervical cancer growth. Low values of Mean-Square Error (MSE) of Gompertzian stochastic model with delay effect indicate good fits.

  6. Effective action for stochastic partial differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hochberg, David; Molina-Paris, Carmen; Perez-Mercader, Juan; Visser, Matt

    1999-01-01

    Stochastic partial differential equations (SPDEs) are the basic tool for modeling systems where noise is important. SPDEs are used for models of turbulence, pattern formation, and the structural development of the universe itself. It is reasonably well known that certain SPDEs can be manipulated to be equivalent to (nonquantum) field theories that nevertheless exhibit deep and important relationships with quantum field theory. In this paper we systematically extend these ideas: We set up a functional integral formalism and demonstrate how to extract all the one-loop physics for an arbitrary SPDE subject to arbitrary Gaussian noise. It is extremely important to realize that Gaussian noise does not imply that the field variables undergo Gaussian fluctuations, and that these nonquantum field theories are fully interacting. The limitation to one loop is not as serious as might be supposed: Experience with quantum field theories (QFTs) has taught us that one-loop physics is often quite adequate to give a good description of the salient issues. The limitation to one loop does, however, offer marked technical advantages: Because at one loop almost any field theory can be rendered finite using zeta function technology, we can sidestep the complications inherent in the Martin-Siggia-Rose formalism (the SPDE analog of the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin formalism used in QFT) and instead focus attention on a minimalist approach that uses only the physical fields (this ''direct approach'' is the SPDE analog of canonical quantization using physical fields). After setting up the general formalism for the characteristic functional (partition function), we show how to define the effective action to all loops, and then focus on the one-loop effective action and its specialization to constant fields: the effective potential. The physical interpretation of the effective action and effective potential for SPDEs is addressed and we show that key features carry over from QFT to the case of

  7. Effective action for stochastic partial differential equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochberg, David [Laboratorio de Astrofisica Espacial y Fisica Fundamental, Apartado 50727, 28080 Madrid, (Spain); Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA, Carratera Ajalvir, Km. 4, 28850 Torrejon, Madrid, (Spain); Molina-Paris, Carmen [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Perez-Mercader, Juan [Laboratorio de Astrofisica Espacial y Fisica Fundamental, Apartado 50727, 28080 Madrid, (Spain); Visser, Matt [Physics Department, Washington University, Saint Louis, Missouri 63130-4899 (United States)

    1999-12-01

    Stochastic partial differential equations (SPDEs) are the basic tool for modeling systems where noise is important. SPDEs are used for models of turbulence, pattern formation, and the structural development of the universe itself. It is reasonably well known that certain SPDEs can be manipulated to be equivalent to (nonquantum) field theories that nevertheless exhibit deep and important relationships with quantum field theory. In this paper we systematically extend these ideas: We set up a functional integral formalism and demonstrate how to extract all the one-loop physics for an arbitrary SPDE subject to arbitrary Gaussian noise. It is extremely important to realize that Gaussian noise does not imply that the field variables undergo Gaussian fluctuations, and that these nonquantum field theories are fully interacting. The limitation to one loop is not as serious as might be supposed: Experience with quantum field theories (QFTs) has taught us that one-loop physics is often quite adequate to give a good description of the salient issues. The limitation to one loop does, however, offer marked technical advantages: Because at one loop almost any field theory can be rendered finite using zeta function technology, we can sidestep the complications inherent in the Martin-Siggia-Rose formalism (the SPDE analog of the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin formalism used in QFT) and instead focus attention on a minimalist approach that uses only the physical fields (this ''direct approach'' is the SPDE analog of canonical quantization using physical fields). After setting up the general formalism for the characteristic functional (partition function), we show how to define the effective action to all loops, and then focus on the one-loop effective action and its specialization to constant fields: the effective potential. The physical interpretation of the effective action and effective potential for SPDEs is addressed and we show that key features carry over from

  8. A Pumping Algorithm for Ergodic Stochastic Mean Payoff Games with Perfect Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boros, Endre; Elbassioni, Khaled; Gurvich, Vladimir; Makino, Kazuhisa

    In this paper, we consider two-person zero-sum stochastic mean payoff games with perfect information, or BWR-games, given by a digraph G = (V = V B ∪ V W ∪ V R , E), with local rewards r: E to { R}, and three types of vertices: black V B , white V W , and random V R . The game is played by two players, White and Black: When the play is at a white (black) vertex v, White (Black) selects an outgoing arc (v,u). When the play is at a random vertex v, a vertex u is picked with the given probability p(v,u). In all cases, Black pays White the value r(v,u). The play continues forever, and White aims to maximize (Black aims to minimize) the limiting mean (that is, average) payoff. It was recently shown in [7] that BWR-games are polynomially equivalent with the classical Gillette games, which include many well-known subclasses, such as cyclic games, simple stochastic games (SSG's), stochastic parity games, and Markov decision processes. In this paper, we give a new algorithm for solving BWR-games in the ergodic case, that is when the optimal values do not depend on the initial position. Our algorithm solves a BWR-game by reducing it, using a potential transformation, to a canonical form in which the optimal strategies of both players and the value for every initial position are obvious, since a locally optimal move in it is optimal in the whole game. We show that this algorithm is pseudo-polynomial when the number of random nodes is constant. We also provide an almost matching lower bound on its running time, and show that this bound holds for a wider class of algorithms. Let us add that the general (non-ergodic) case is at least as hard as SSG's, for which no pseudo-polynomial algorithm is known.

  9. Effect of multiplicative noise on stationary stochastic process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargovsky, A. V.; Chikishev, A. Yu.; Chichigina, O. A.

    2018-03-01

    An open system that can be analyzed using the Langevin equation with multiplicative noise is considered. The stationary state of the system results from a balance of deterministic damping and random pumping simulated as noise with controlled periodicity. The dependence of statistical moments of the variable that characterizes the system on parameters of the problem is studied. A nontrivial decrease in the mean value of the main variable with an increase in noise stochasticity is revealed. Applications of the results in several physical, chemical, biological, and technical problems of natural and humanitarian sciences are discussed.

  10. Preliminary assessment of pump IST effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiBiasio, A.; Grove, E.; Carbonaro, J.

    1994-01-01

    A preliminary review of Inservice Testing (IST) effectiveness for Code Class 1, 2, and 3 pumps at nuclear power plants was performed. IST requirements are specified by ASME Section XI, and the Operations and Maintenance Standard (OM Part 6). The INPO NPRDS database was used to provide failure reports for these components for 1988 to 1992. This time frame coincides with the issuance of Generic Letter 89-04, which resulted in a more consistent application of the requirements by the licensees. For this time period, 2585 pump failures were reported. A review of these failures indicated that the majority (71.6%) were due to external leakage, and were excluded from this study since these events typically do not affect pump operability and are not detected by the measurement of IST parameters. Of the remaining 733 events, a review was performed to identify the primary failure causes, failure modes, and method of detection. Plant testing programs, consisting of IST, surveillance testing, and special testing, detected approximately 40% of these occurrences. Others were detected through operational abnormalities, routine and incidental observations, alarms, and while performing maintenance. This paper provides a discussion of the results of the study

  11. Preliminary assessment of pump IST effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiBiasio, A.; Grove, E.; Carbonaro, J.

    1994-01-01

    A preliminary review of inservice testing (IST) effectiveness for Class 1, 2, and 3 pumps at nuclear power plants was performed. IST requirements are specified by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section XI, and the Operations and Maintenance Standard (OM Part 6). The Institute of Nuclear Power Operations Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System was used to provide failure reports for these components from 1988 to 1992. This time frame coincides with the issuance of Generic Letter 89-04, which resulted in a more consistent application of the requirements by the licensees. For this time, 2,585 pump failures were reported. A review of these failures indicated that the majority (71.6%) resulted from external leakage. These events were excluded from the study because the typically do not affect pump operability and are not detected by the measurement of IST parameters. The remaining 733 events were reviewed to identify the primary failure causes, failure modes, and method of detection. Plant testing programs, consisting of IST, surveillance testing, detected approximately 40% of these occurrences. Others were detected through operational abnormalities, routine and incidental observations, alarms, and while performing maintenance. This paper discusses the results of the study

  12. Stochastic charging of dust grains in planetary rings: Diffusion rates and their effects on Lorentz resonances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, L.; Burns, J. A.

    1995-01-01

    Dust grains in planetary rings acquire stochastically fluctuating electric charges as they orbit through any corotating magnetospheric plasma. Here we investigate the nature of this stochastic charging and calculate its effect on the Lorentz resonance (LR). First we model grain charging as a Markov process, where the transition probabilities are identified as the ensemble-averaged charging fluxes due to plasma pickup and photoemission. We determine the distribution function P(t;N), giving the probability that a grain has N excess charges at time t. The autocorrelation function tau(sub q) for the strochastic charge process can be approximated by a Fokker-Planck treatment of the evolution equations for P(t; N). We calculate the mean square response to the stochastic fluctuations in the Lorentz force. We find that transport in phase space is very small compared to the resonant increase in amplitudes due to the mean charge, over the timescale that the oscillator is resonantly pumped up. Therefore the stochastic charge variations cannot break the resonant interaction; locally, the Lorentz resonance is a robust mechanism for the shaping of etheral dust ring systems. Slightly stronger bounds on plasma parameters are required when we consider the longer transit times between Lorentz resonances.

  13. PUMPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, J.D.

    1959-03-24

    A pump is described for conveving liquids, particure it is not advisable he apparatus. The to be submerged in the liquid to be pumped, a conduit extending from the high-velocity nozzle of the injector,and means for applying a pulsating prcesure to the surface of the liquid in the conduit, whereby the surface oscillates between positions in the conduit. During the positive half- cycle of an applied pulse liquid is forced through the high velocity nozzle or jet of the injector and operates in the manner of the well known water injector and pumps liquid from the main intake to the outlet of the injector. During the negative half-cycle of the pulse liquid flows in reverse through the jet but no reverse pumping action takes place.

  14. Cost Effective, Scalable Optically Pumped Molecular Laser

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nicholson, Jeff

    2001-01-01

    An optically pumped, For laser was demonstrated operating at 4.0 micrometers. This is the first demonstration of an HBr laser by direct optical pumping of the 0 right arrow 3 vibrational overtone band at 1.34 micrometers...

  15. A computer model of the biosphere, to estimate stochastic and non-stochastic effects of radionuclides on humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurens, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    A computer code was written to model food chains in order to estimate the internal and external doses, for stochastic and non-stochastic effects, on humans (adults and infants). Results are given for 67 radionuclides, for unit concentration in water (1 Bq/L) and in atmosphere (1 Bq/m 3 )

  16. Stochastic volatility and stochastic leverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veraart, Almut; Veraart, Luitgard A. M.

    This paper proposes the new concept of stochastic leverage in stochastic volatility models. Stochastic leverage refers to a stochastic process which replaces the classical constant correlation parameter between the asset return and the stochastic volatility process. We provide a systematic...... treatment of stochastic leverage and propose to model the stochastic leverage effect explicitly, e.g. by means of a linear transformation of a Jacobi process. Such models are both analytically tractable and allow for a direct economic interpretation. In particular, we propose two new stochastic volatility...... models which allow for a stochastic leverage effect: the generalised Heston model and the generalised Barndorff-Nielsen & Shephard model. We investigate the impact of a stochastic leverage effect in the risk neutral world by focusing on implied volatilities generated by option prices derived from our new...

  17. Anomalous scaling of stochastic processes and the Moses effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lijian; Bassler, Kevin E; McCauley, Joseph L; Gunaratne, Gemunu H

    2017-04-01

    The state of a stochastic process evolving over a time t is typically assumed to lie on a normal distribution whose width scales like t^{1/2}. However, processes in which the probability distribution is not normal and the scaling exponent differs from 1/2 are known. The search for possible origins of such "anomalous" scaling and approaches to quantify them are the motivations for the work reported here. In processes with stationary increments, where the stochastic process is time-independent, autocorrelations between increments and infinite variance of increments can cause anomalous scaling. These sources have been referred to as the Joseph effect and the Noah effect, respectively. If the increments are nonstationary, then scaling of increments with t can also lead to anomalous scaling, a mechanism we refer to as the Moses effect. Scaling exponents quantifying the three effects are defined and related to the Hurst exponent that characterizes the overall scaling of the stochastic process. Methods of time series analysis that enable accurate independent measurement of each exponent are presented. Simple stochastic processes are used to illustrate each effect. Intraday financial time series data are analyzed, revealing that their anomalous scaling is due only to the Moses effect. In the context of financial market data, we reiterate that the Joseph exponent, not the Hurst exponent, is the appropriate measure to test the efficient market hypothesis.

  18. Anomalous scaling of stochastic processes and the Moses effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lijian; Bassler, Kevin E.; McCauley, Joseph L.; Gunaratne, Gemunu H.

    2017-04-01

    The state of a stochastic process evolving over a time t is typically assumed to lie on a normal distribution whose width scales like t1/2. However, processes in which the probability distribution is not normal and the scaling exponent differs from 1/2 are known. The search for possible origins of such "anomalous" scaling and approaches to quantify them are the motivations for the work reported here. In processes with stationary increments, where the stochastic process is time-independent, autocorrelations between increments and infinite variance of increments can cause anomalous scaling. These sources have been referred to as the Joseph effect and the Noah effect, respectively. If the increments are nonstationary, then scaling of increments with t can also lead to anomalous scaling, a mechanism we refer to as the Moses effect. Scaling exponents quantifying the three effects are defined and related to the Hurst exponent that characterizes the overall scaling of the stochastic process. Methods of time series analysis that enable accurate independent measurement of each exponent are presented. Simple stochastic processes are used to illustrate each effect. Intraday financial time series data are analyzed, revealing that their anomalous scaling is due only to the Moses effect. In the context of financial market data, we reiterate that the Joseph exponent, not the Hurst exponent, is the appropriate measure to test the efficient market hypothesis.

  19. Pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mole, C.J.

    1983-01-01

    An electromagnetic pump for circulating liquid -metal coolant through a nuclear reactor wherein opposite walls of a pump duct serve as electrodes to transmit current radially through the liquid-metal in the ducts. A circumferential electric field is supplied to the liquid-metal by a toroidal electromagnet which has core sections interposed between the ducts. The windings of the electromagnet are composed of metal which is superconductive at low temperatures and the electromagnet is maintained at a temperature at which it is superconductive by liquid helium which is fed through the conductors which supply the excitation for the electromagnet. The walls of the ducts joining the electrodes include metal plates insulated from the electrodes backed up by insulators so that they are capable of withstanding the pressure of the liquid-metal. These composite wall structures may also be of thin metal strips of low electrical conductivity backed up by sturdy insulators. (author)

  20. Acoustic wave propagation and stochastic effects in metamaterial absorbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Johan; Willatzen, Morten

    2014-01-01

    We show how stochastic variations of the effective parameters of anisotropic structured metamaterials can lead to increased absorption of sound. For this, we derive an analytical model based on the Bourret approximation and illustrate the immediate connection between material disorder and attenua...

  1. Double-effect absorption heat pump, phase 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, F. B.; Cremean, S. P.; Jatana, S. C.; Johnson, R. A.; Malcosky, N. D.

    1987-06-01

    The RD&D program has resulted in design, development and testing of a packaged prototype double-effect generator cycle absorption gas heat pump for the residential and small commercial markets. The 3RT heat pump prototype has demonstrated a COPc of 0.82 and a COPh of 1.65 at ARI rating conditions. The heat pump prototype includes a solid state control system with built-in diagnostics. The absorbent/refrigerant solution thermophysical properties were completely characterized. Commercially available materials of construction were identified for all heat pump components. A corrosion inhibitor was identified and tested in both static and dynamic environments. The safety of the heat pump was analyzed by using two analytical approaches. Pioneer Engineering estimated the factory standard cost to produce the 3RT heat pump at $1,700 at a quantity of 50,000 units/year. One United States patent was allowed covering the heat pump technology, and two divisional applications and three Continuation-in-Park Applications were filed with the U.S.P.T.O. Corresponding patent coverage was applied for in Canada, the EEC, Australia, and Japan. Testing of the prototype heat pump is continuing, as are life tests of multiple pump concepts amd long-term dynamic corrosion tests. Continued development and commercialization of gas absorption heat pumps based on the technology are recommended.

  2. Gyro-effect stabilizes unstable permanent maglev centrifugal pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Kun-Xi

    2007-03-01

    According to Earnshaw's Theorem (1839), the passive maglev cannot achieve stable equilibrium and thus an extra coil is needed to make the rotor electrically levitated in a heart pump. The author had developed a permanent maglev centrifugal pump utilizing only passive magnetic bearings, to keep the advantages but to avoid the disadvantages of the electric maglev pumps. The equilibrium stability was achieved by use of so-called "gyro-effect": a rotating body with certain high speed can maintain its rotation stably. This pump consisted of a rotor (driven magnets and an impeller), and a stator with motor coil and pump housing. Two passive magnetic bearings between rotor and stator were devised to counteract the attractive force between the motor coil iron core and the rotor driven magnets. Bench testing with saline demonstrated a levitated rotor under preconditions of higher than 3,250 rpm rotation and more than 1 l/min pumping flow. Rotor levitation was demonstrated by 4 Hall sensors on the stator, with evidence of reduced maximal eccentric distance from 0.15 mm to 0.07 mm. The maximal rotor vibration amplitude was 0.06 mm in a gap of 0.15 mm between rotor and stator. It concluded that Gyro-effect can help passive maglev bearings to achieve stabilization of permanent maglev pump; and that high flow rate indicates good hydraulic property of the pump, which helps also the stability of passive maglev pump.

  3. Impeller inlet geometry effect on performance improvement for centrifugal pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Xianwu; Zhang, Yao; Peng, Junqi; Xu, Hongyuan; Yu, Weiping

    2008-01-01

    This research treats the effect of impeller inlet geometry on performance improvement for a boiler feed pump, who is a centrifugal pump having specific speed of 183 m.m 3 min -1 .min -1 and close type impeller with exit diameter of 450 mm. The hydraulic performance and cavitation performance of the pump have been tested experimentally. In order to improve the pump, five impellers have been considered by extending the blade leading edge or applying much larger blade angle at impeller inlet compared with the original impeller. The 3-D turbulent flow inside those pumps has been analyzed basing on RNG k-ε turbulence model and VOF cavitation model. It is noted that the numerical results are fairly good compared with the experiments. Based on the experimental test and numerical simulation, the following conclusions can be drawn: (1) Impeller inlet geometry has important influence on performance improvement in the case of centrifugal pump. Favorite effects on performance improvement have been achieved by both extending the blade leading edge and applying much larger blade angle at impeller inlet: (2) It is suspected that the extended leading edge have favorite effect for improving hydraulic performance, and the much larger blade angle at impeller inlet have favorite effect for improving cavitation performance for the test pump: (3) Uniform flow upstream of impeller inlet is helpful for improving cavitation performance of the pump

  4. Impeller inlet geometry effect on performance improvement for centrifugal pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Xianwu; Zhang, Yao; Peng, Junqi; Xu, Hongyuan [Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Yu, Weiping [Zhejiang Pump Works, Zhejiang (China)

    2008-10-15

    This research treats the effect of impeller inlet geometry on performance improvement for a boiler feed pump, who is a centrifugal pump having specific speed of 183 m.m{sup 3}min{sup -1}.min{sup -1} and close type impeller with exit diameter of 450 mm. The hydraulic performance and cavitation performance of the pump have been tested experimentally. In order to improve the pump, five impellers have been considered by extending the blade leading edge or applying much larger blade angle at impeller inlet compared with the original impeller. The 3-D turbulent flow inside those pumps has been analyzed basing on RNG k-{epsilon} turbulence model and VOF cavitation model. It is noted that the numerical results are fairly good compared with the experiments. Based on the experimental test and numerical simulation, the following conclusions can be drawn: (1) Impeller inlet geometry has important influence on performance improvement in the case of centrifugal pump. Favorite effects on performance improvement have been achieved by both extending the blade leading edge and applying much larger blade angle at impeller inlet: (2) It is suspected that the extended leading edge have favorite effect for improving hydraulic performance, and the much larger blade angle at impeller inlet have favorite effect for improving cavitation performance for the test pump: (3) Uniform flow upstream of impeller inlet is helpful for improving cavitation performance of the pump

  5. PUMPED STORAGE ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS: ASSESSMENT OF RESEARCH NEEDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DH. Fickeisen

    1979-09-01

    Pumped storage hydroelectric systems convert large quantities of electrical energy to a form that may be stored and efficiently reconverted to electricity. Water is pumped from a lower reservoir to an upper reservoir during periods of low power demand. The stored water is then used to generate additional power when demand peaks. Since the basic requirements of the system are simple, the design of individual plants and their locations vary widely. These variations make assessment of the generic environmental impact of the pumped storage systems difficult. In addition, most studies have not examined the impacts of an operating plant comprehensively. Assessment of the environmental effects of development and operation of a pumped storage plant requires an extensive set of baseline information, which is deficient in several aspects at the present state of the art. Additional research is needed to: • identify species groups likely to survive and reproduce in pumped storage reservoirs, their relationships and habitat preferences, and the basis for their production; • characterize anticipated reservoir ecosystem community development and relate it to physical characteristics of pumped storage reservoirs; • define effects of plant design and operating parameters on transport of organisms through the pump/turbine facility, accounting for behavior of the organisms potentially impacted; • access the mortality rate of organisms likely to pass through pump-turbines; • identify the relative advantages and disadvantages of screening intake structures to prevent passage of large organisms through the plant; • assess the effects of currents and water withdrawal on migration and movement of aquatic species; • investigate the effects of fluctuating water levels on the littoral zone and riparian communities, effects of stranding on entrapment of fishes, and effects on fish spawning; and • review the applicability of water quality and ecosystem models to pumped storage

  6. Exercise effects in a virtual type 1 diabetes patient: Using stochastic differential equations for model extension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duun-Henriksen, Anne Katrine; Schmidt, S.; Nørgaard, K.

    2013-01-01

    extension incorporating exercise effects on insulin and glucose dynamics. Our model is constructed as a stochastic state space model consisting of a set of stochastic differential equations (SDEs). In a stochastic state space model, the residual error is split into random measurement error...

  7. Maldistribution in airewater heat pump evaporators. Part 1: Effects on evaporator, heat pump and system level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mader, Gunda; Palm, Björn; Elmegaard, Brian

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to quantify the effect of evaporator maldistribution onoperating costs of air-water heat pumps. In the proposed simulation model maldistributionis induced by two parameters describing refrigerant phase and air flow distribution.Annual operating costs are calculated...

  8. Elements for Effective Management of Operating Pump and Treat Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet summarizes key aspects of effective management for operating pump and treat (P&T) systems based on lessons learned from conducting optimization evaluations at 20 Superfund-financed P&T systems.

  9. Effect of insulin pump infusion on comprehensive stress state of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of insulin pump infusion on comprehensive stress state of patients with diabetic ketoacidosis. ... Relevant diabetes-associated serum indices, oxidative stress and stress hormone levels were compared between the ... from 32 Countries:.

  10. The stochastic effects on the Brazilian Electrical Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Pedro Guilherme Costa; Oliveira, Fernando Luiz Cyrino; Souza, Reinaldo Castro

    2015-01-01

    The size and characteristics of the Brazilian Electrical Sector (BES) are unique. The system includes a large-scale hydrothermal power system with many hydroelectric plants and multiple owners. Due to the historical harnessing of natural resources, the National Interconnected System (NIS) was developed outside of the economic scale of the BES. The central components of the NIS enable energy generated in any part of Brazil to be consumed in distant regions, considering certain technical configurations. This interconnection results in a large-scale complex system and is controlled by robust computational models, used to support the planning and operation of the NIS. This study presents a different vision of the SEB, demonstrating the intrinsic relationship between hydrological stochasticity and the activities executed by the system, which is an important sector of the infrastructure in Brazil. The simulation of energy scenarios is crucial to the optimal manner to operate the sector and to supporting decisions about whether expansion is necessary, thus, avoiding unnecessary costs and/or losses. These scenarios are an imposing factor in the determination of the spot cost of electrical energy, given that the simulated quantities of water in the reservoirs are one of the determinants for the short-term energy price. - Highlights: • The relationship between the hydrological regimes and the energy policy and planning in Brazil; • An overview about the stochastic effects on the Brazilian Electrical Sector; • The stochasticity associated with the Brazilian electrical planning; • The importance of hydro resources management for energy generation in Brazil;

  11. Full particle orbit effects in regular and stochastic magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Shun, E-mail: shun.ogawa@cpt.univ-mrs.fr [Aix Marseille Univ., Univ. Toulon, CNRS, CPT, Marseille (France); CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St. Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Cambon, Benjamin; Leoncini, Xavier; Vittot, Michel [Aix Marseille Univ., Univ. Toulon, CNRS, CPT, Marseille (France); Castillo-Negrete, Diego del [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6169 (United States); Dif-Pradalier, Guilhem; Garbet, Xavier [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St. Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France)

    2016-07-15

    We present a numerical study of charged particle motion in a time-independent magnetic field in cylindrical geometry. The magnetic field model consists of an unperturbed reversed-shear (non-monotonic q-profile) helical part and a perturbation consisting of a superposition of modes. Contrary to most of the previous studies, the particle trajectories are computed by directly solving the full Lorentz force equations of motion in a six-dimensional phase space using a sixth-order, implicit, symplectic Gauss-Legendre method. The level of stochasticity in the particle orbits is diagnosed using averaged, effective Poincare sections. It is shown that when only one mode is present, the particle orbits can be stochastic even though the magnetic field line orbits are not stochastic (i.e., fully integrable). The lack of integrability of the particle orbits in this case is related to separatrix crossing and the breakdown of the global conservation of the magnetic moment. Some perturbation consisting of two modes creates resonance overlapping, leading to Hamiltonian chaos in magnetic field lines. Then, the particle orbits exhibit a nontrivial dynamics depending on their energy and pitch angle. It is shown that the regions where the particle motion is stochastic decrease as the energy increases. The non-monotonicity of the q-profile implies the existence of magnetic ITBs (internal transport barriers) which correspond to shearless flux surfaces located in the vicinity of the q-profile minimum. It is shown that depending on the energy, these magnetic ITBs might or might not confine particles. That is, magnetic ITBs act as an energy-dependent particle confinement filter. Magnetic field lines in reversed-shear configurations exhibit topological bifurcations (from homoclinic to heteroclinic) due to separatrix reconnection. We show that a similar but more complex scenario appears in the case of particle orbits that depend in a non-trivial way on the energy and pitch angle of the

  12. Pump depletion effects in thermal degenerate four-wave mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guha, S.; Chen, W.

    1987-01-01

    Characteristics such as a large magnitude of nonlinearity, fast response, broadband operation, and easy availability make absorbing liquids attractive candidates for performing phase conjugation of optical beams by degenerate four-wave mixing. The coupled-wave equations describing the interaction of four optical fields in an absorbing medium have been solved previously for the case of no pump depletion and no self-action of any of the beams. When studying phase conjugation oscillation, however, the effect of depletion of the pump beams on the phase conjugate reflectivity must be considered. Moreover, in absorbing media the self-action effects are always present. The coupled-wave equations, including the self-action terms for all four waves involved, are derived here for the first time to the authors' knowledge. For the case of small absorption, these equations are solved analytically, and the effect of pump depletion on phase conjugate reflectivity R is determined. In the absence of the pump depletion, R is proportional to tan 2 (Ql), where Ql is a dimensionless gain parameter characterizing the nonlinear medium and the input pump power. When pump depletion and self-action are included, R does not go to infinity when Ql equals odd multiples of π2. Instead R takes on values dependent on the probe ratio q 1 , which is the ratio of the input probe irradiance to the input pump irradiance. The authors find that the maximum value for R is 1q 1 . They also find that for Ql close to odd multiples of π2, the reflectivity is significantly reduced from the value obtained by ignoring pump depletion, even for probe ratios as small as one-tenth of 1%. Experimental confirmation of this theory, using an argon-ion laser as the pump and carbon tetrachloride mixed with a dye as the absorbing medium, is in progress and is reported

  13. Towards Simulation of Clogging Effects in Wastewater Pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anna Lyhne; Sørensen, Henrik; Rosendahl, Lasse Aistrup

    2015-01-01

    Simulation of clogging effects caused by cloths in wastewater pumps enables a faster and cheaper design process of wastewater pumps, which potentially leads to a reduction in the occurrence of clogging. Four potential methods for cloth simulation are reviewed and the challenges of each method are...... advantages and disadvantages, and each of them may prove to be applicable for the application. The CFD-DEM approach is chosen for future work....

  14. Population stochastic modelling (PSM)-An R package for mixed-effects models based on stochastic differential equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klim, Søren; Mortensen, Stig Bousgaard; Kristensen, Niels Rode

    2009-01-01

    are often partly ignored in PK/PD modelling although violating the hypothesis for many standard statistical tests. This article presents a package for the statistical program R that is able to handle SDEs in a mixed-effects setting. The estimation method implemented is the FOCE1 approximation......The extension from ordinary to stochastic differential equations (SDEs) in pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) modelling is an emerging field and has been motivated in a number of articles [N.R. Kristensen, H. Madsen, S.H. Ingwersen, Using stochastic differential equations for PK/PD model...... development, J. Pharmacokinet. Pharmacodyn. 32 (February(l)) (2005) 109-141; C.W. Tornoe, R.V Overgaard, H. Agerso, H.A. Nielsen, H. Madsen, E.N. Jonsson, Stochastic differential equations in NONMEM: implementation, application, and comparison with ordinary differential equations, Pharm. Res. 22 (August(8...

  15. Interaction effects on the unstable discharge-energy characteristic of pump-turbine in pump mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, R.; Xiao, R. F.; Yang, W.; Liu, W. C.

    2013-12-01

    For a pump-turbine, unstable discharge-energy characteristic is an important factor for operating stability. In this study, the rotor-stator interaction effects on the pump-turbine which has the unstable discharge-energy characteristic has been studied. A series of transient CFD simulations under different discharge conditions have been conducted. Through the contrast between the simulations and experiments, it is found out that the energy decline is strongly affected by the flow loss in the adjustable vane. More importantly, the magnitude and direction of fluid flowing into the adjustable vane are varying with the impeller rotating. Disordered flow structure occurs in the adjustable vane and causes the energy losses due to the interaction effects. Based on this study, improvements on the flow uniformity at impeller outlet will help us to solve the unstable discharge-energy problem.

  16. The effect of pump cavitation on the design of the primary pumps for C.F.R

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worster, R.C.

    1976-01-01

    In the design appraisal of the sodium pumps for the primary circuit of the proposed 1300 MW(e) CFR it has been recognised that cavitation, its effects and its control, is the outstanding hydraulic design problem. Careful consideration of this problem and of the possible effects of pump cavitation on the performance of other reactor systems has led to the conclusion that it is more prudent at present to specify pumps with zero cavitation at normal full speed operating conditions. Under abnormal operation it may be necessary to reduce the pumps' speed to prevent cavitation in the pumps or associated equipment. The principal reasons for this decision were uncertainties concerning the possibility of erosion due to limited cavitation in sodium and the possibility of pump cavitation noise interfering with acoustic detection of malfunctioning of reactor components or of boiling in the reactor core

  17. The effectiveness of groundwater pumping as a restoration technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doty, C.B.; Travis, C.C.

    1991-05-01

    An in-depth analysis of the effectiveness of pumping groundwater for aquifer restoration was conducted based on: (1) performance records for 16 sites where pumping with the objective of aquifer restoration has been implemented for periods of 2 to 12 years, and (2) recent theoretical and modeling studies. The reduction of aquifer concentrations is the primary indicator of effectiveness of groundwater extraction. However, other indicators of effectiveness such as plume containment, mass reduction, and achievement of specific cleanup goals were also components of the evaluation. Based on our review of performance records and recent theoretical studies, the following can be concluded regarding the use of groundwater pumping for aquifer restoration: (1) Pumping is effective for contaminant mass reduction, plume containment and extraction of groundwater for point-of-use treatment. Its use for attaining these objectives should be encouraged. (2) Groundwater pumping is ineffective for restoring aquifers to health-based levels. This reality needs to be explicitly recognized by regulators. (3) The primary contributors to the ineffectiveness of pumping in meeting cleanup goals are the time-dependent decrease in the rate of desorption of contaminants from contaminated soils and the existence of immobile contaminants either in the non-aqueous phase or trapped in zones of low permeability. (4) Remedial time frames of 2 years to 30 years were predicted at the sites reviewed. Regulators currently maintain that 20 to 40 years may be needed to reach health-based cleanup goals. However, recent modeling studies estimate pump and treat time frames of 100 to 1000 years. 22 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  18. The stochastic system approach for estimating dynamic treatments effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commenges, Daniel; Gégout-Petit, Anne

    2015-10-01

    The problem of assessing the effect of a treatment on a marker in observational studies raises the difficulty that attribution of the treatment may depend on the observed marker values. As an example, we focus on the analysis of the effect of a HAART on CD4 counts, where attribution of the treatment may depend on the observed marker values. This problem has been treated using marginal structural models relying on the counterfactual/potential response formalism. Another approach to causality is based on dynamical models, and causal influence has been formalized in the framework of the Doob-Meyer decomposition of stochastic processes. Causal inference however needs assumptions that we detail in this paper and we call this approach to causality the "stochastic system" approach. First we treat this problem in discrete time, then in continuous time. This approach allows incorporating biological knowledge naturally. When working in continuous time, the mechanistic approach involves distinguishing the model for the system and the model for the observations. Indeed, biological systems live in continuous time, and mechanisms can be expressed in the form of a system of differential equations, while observations are taken at discrete times. Inference in mechanistic models is challenging, particularly from a numerical point of view, but these models can yield much richer and reliable results.

  19. Effective stochastic generator with site-dependent interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamehchi, Masoumeh; Jafarpour, Farhad H.

    2017-11-01

    It is known that the stochastic generators of effective processes associated with the unconditioned dynamics of rare events might consist of non-local interactions; however, it can be shown that there are special cases for which these generators can include local interactions. In this paper, we investigate this possibility by considering systems of classical particles moving on a one-dimensional lattice with open boundaries. The particles might have hard-core interactions similar to the particles in an exclusion process, or there can be many arbitrary particles at a single site in a zero-range process. Assuming that the interactions in the original process are local and site-independent, we will show that under certain constraints on the microscopic reaction rules, the stochastic generator of an unconditioned process can be local but site-dependent. As two examples, the asymmetric zero-temperature Glauber model and the A-model with diffusion are presented and studied under the above-mentioned constraints.

  20. Effect of Non-linear Velocity Loss Changes in Pumping Stage of Hydraulic Ram Pumps on Pumping Discharge Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Fatahialkouhi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The ram pump is a device which pumps a portion of input discharge to the pumping system in a significant height by using renewable energy of water hammer. The complexities of flow hydraulic on one hand and on the other hand the use of simplifying assumptions in ram pumps have caused errors in submitted analytical models for analyzing running cycle of these pumps. In this study it has been tried to modify the governing analytical model on hydraulic performance of these pumps in pumping stage. In this study by creating a logical division, the cycle of the ram pump was divided into three stages of acceleration, pumping and recoil and the governing equations on each stage of cycling are presented by using method of characteristics. Since the closing of impulse valve is nonlinear, velocity loss in pumping stage is considered nonlinearly. Also the governing equations in pumping stage were modified by considering disc elasticity of impulse valve and changing volume of the pump body when the water hammer phenomenon is occurred. In order to evaluate results and determine empirical factors of the proposed analytical model, a physical model of the ram pump is made with internal diameter of 51 mm. Results of this study are divided into several parts. In the first part, loss coefficients of the impulse valve were measured experimentally and empirical equations of drag coefficient and friction coefficient of the impulse valve were submitted by using nonlinear regression. In the second part, results were evaluated by using experimental data taken from this study. Evaluation of statistical error functions showed that the proposed model has good accuracy for predicting experimental observations. In the third part, in order to validate the results in pumping stage, the analytical models of Lansford and Dugan (1941 and Tacke (1988 were used and the error functions resulted from prediction of experimental observations were investigated through analytical models of

  1. Population stochastic modelling (PSM)--an R package for mixed-effects models based on stochastic differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klim, Søren; Mortensen, Stig Bousgaard; Kristensen, Niels Rode; Overgaard, Rune Viig; Madsen, Henrik

    2009-06-01

    The extension from ordinary to stochastic differential equations (SDEs) in pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) modelling is an emerging field and has been motivated in a number of articles [N.R. Kristensen, H. Madsen, S.H. Ingwersen, Using stochastic differential equations for PK/PD model development, J. Pharmacokinet. Pharmacodyn. 32 (February(1)) (2005) 109-141; C.W. Tornøe, R.V. Overgaard, H. Agersø, H.A. Nielsen, H. Madsen, E.N. Jonsson, Stochastic differential equations in NONMEM: implementation, application, and comparison with ordinary differential equations, Pharm. Res. 22 (August(8)) (2005) 1247-1258; R.V. Overgaard, N. Jonsson, C.W. Tornøe, H. Madsen, Non-linear mixed-effects models with stochastic differential equations: implementation of an estimation algorithm, J. Pharmacokinet. Pharmacodyn. 32 (February(1)) (2005) 85-107; U. Picchini, S. Ditlevsen, A. De Gaetano, Maximum likelihood estimation of a time-inhomogeneous stochastic differential model of glucose dynamics, Math. Med. Biol. 25 (June(2)) (2008) 141-155]. PK/PD models are traditionally based ordinary differential equations (ODEs) with an observation link that incorporates noise. This state-space formulation only allows for observation noise and not for system noise. Extending to SDEs allows for a Wiener noise component in the system equations. This additional noise component enables handling of autocorrelated residuals originating from natural variation or systematic model error. Autocorrelated residuals are often partly ignored in PK/PD modelling although violating the hypothesis for many standard statistical tests. This article presents a package for the statistical program R that is able to handle SDEs in a mixed-effects setting. The estimation method implemented is the FOCE(1) approximation to the population likelihood which is generated from the individual likelihoods that are approximated using the Extended Kalman Filter's one-step predictions.

  2. Stochastic dynamics of spatial effects in fragmentation of clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salinas-Rodriguez, E.; Rodriguez, R.F.; Zamora, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    We use a stochastic approach to study the effects of spatial in homogeneities in the kinetics of a fragmentation model which occurs in cluster breakup and polymer degradation. The analytical form of the cluster size distribution function is obtained for both the discrete and continuous limits. From it we calculate numerically the average size and volume of the clusters, their total concentration and the total scattering of the dispersion in both limits. The influence of spatial effects is explicitly shown in the last two quantities. From our description the equations for the equal-time and the two times density correlation functions are also derived in the continuous limit. Finally, the perspectives and limitations of our approach are discussed (Author)

  3. Groundwater pumping effects on contaminant loading management in agricultural regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dong Kyu; Bae, Gwang-Ok; Kim, Seong-Kyun; Lee, Kang-Kun

    2014-06-15

    Groundwater pumping changes the behavior of subsurface water, including the location of the water table and characteristics of the flow system, and eventually affects the fate of contaminants, such as nitrate from agricultural fertilizers. The objectives of this study were to demonstrate the importance of considering the existing pumping conditions for contaminant loading management and to develop a management model to obtain a contaminant loading design more appropriate and practical for agricultural regions where groundwater pumping is common. Results from this study found that optimal designs for contaminant loading could be determined differently when the existing pumping conditions were considered. This study also showed that prediction of contamination and contaminant loading management without considering pumping activities might be unrealistic. Motivated by these results, a management model optimizing the permissible on-ground contaminant loading mass together with pumping rates was developed and applied to field investigation and monitoring data from Icheon, Korea. The analytical solution for 1-D unsaturated solute transport was integrated with the 3-D saturated solute transport model in order to approximate the fate of contaminants loaded periodically from on-ground sources. This model was further expanded to manage agricultural contaminant loading in regions where groundwater extraction tends to be concentrated in a specific period of time, such as during the rice-growing season, using a method that approximates contaminant leaching to a fluctuating water table. The results illustrated that the simultaneous management of groundwater quantity and quality was effective and appropriate to the agricultural contaminant loading management and the model developed in this study, which can consider time-variant pumping, could be used to accurately estimate and to reasonably manage contaminant loading in agricultural areas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All

  4. Effective computation of stochastic protein kinetic equation by reducing stiffness via variable transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lijin, E-mail: ljwang@ucas.ac.cn [School of Mathematical Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2016-06-08

    The stochastic protein kinetic equations can be stiff for certain parameters, which makes their numerical simulation rely on very small time step sizes, resulting in large computational cost and accumulated round-off errors. For such situation, we provide a method of reducing stiffness of the stochastic protein kinetic equation by means of a kind of variable transformation. Theoretical and numerical analysis show effectiveness of this method. Its generalization to a more general class of stochastic differential equation models is also discussed.

  5. Effect of Groundwater Pumping on Seawater Intrusion in Coastal Aquifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Sherif

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Many aquifers around the globe are located in coastal areas and are thus subjected to the seawater intrusion phenomenon. The growth of population in coastal areas and the conjugate increase in human, agricultural, and industrial activities have imposed an increasing demand for freshwater. This increase in water demand is often covered by extensive pumping of fresh groundwater, causing subsequent lowering of the water table (or piezometric head and upsetting the dynamic balance between freshwater and saline water bodies. The classical result of such a development is seawater intrusion. This paper presents a review for the seawater intrusion phenomenon in coastal aquifers. The effect of pumping activities on the seawater intrusion in the Nile Delta aquifer of Egypt is investigated. It was concluded that any additional pumping should be located in the middle Delta and avoided in the eastern and western sides of the Delta.

  6. Effect of Stochastic Charge Fluctuations on Dust Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Lorin; Shotorban, Babak; Hyde, Truell

    2017-10-01

    The charging of particles in a plasma environment occurs through the collection of electrons and ions on the particle surface. Depending on the particle size and the plasma density, the standard deviation of the number of collected elementary charges, which fluctuates due to the randomness in times of collisions with electrons or ions, may be a significant fraction of the equilibrium charge. We use a discrete stochastic charging model to simulate the variations in charge across the dust surface as well as in time. The resultant asymmetric particle potentials, even for spherical grains, has a significant impact on the particle coagulation rate as well as the structure of the resulting aggregates. We compare the effects on particle collisions and growth in typical laboratory and astrophysical plasma environments. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant PHY-1414523.

  7. Effects of Colored Noise on Stochastic Resonance in Sensory Neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozaki, D.; Mar, D.J.; Collins, J.J.; Grigg, P.

    1999-01-01

    Noise can assist neurons in the detection of weak signals via a mechanism known as stochastic resonance (SR). We demonstrate experimentally that SR-type effects can be obtained in rat sensory neurons with white noise, 1/f noise, or 1/f 2 noise. For low-frequency input noise, we show that the optimal noise intensity is the lowest and the output signal-to-noise ratio the highest for conventional white noise. We also show that under certain circumstances, 1/f noise can be better than white noise for enhancing the response of a neuron to a weak signal. We present a theory to account for these results and discuss the biological implications of 1/f noise. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  8. Effectiveness of ranitidine bismuth citrate and proton pump inhibitor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effectiveness of ranitidine bismuth citrate and proton pump inhibitor based triple therapies of Helicobacter pylori in Turkey. ... Results: When we look at the eradication rates of the treatment groups, only two groups (ranitidine bismuth citrate and rabeprazole groups) had eradication rates greater than 80%, both at intention to ...

  9. The effect of stochasticity on the lac operon: an evolutionary perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan van Hoek

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of stochasticity on gene expression is widely discussed. Both potential advantages and disadvantages have been revealed. In some systems, noise in gene expression has been quantified, in among others the lac operon of Escherichia coli. Whether stochastic gene expression in this system is detrimental or beneficial for the cells is, however, still unclear. We are interested in the effects of stochasticity from an evolutionary point of view. We study this question in the lac operon, taking a computational approach: using a detailed, quantitative, spatial model, we evolve through a mutation-selection process the shape of the promoter function and therewith the effective amount of stochasticity. We find that noise values for lactose, the natural inducer, are much lower than for artificial, nonmetabolizable inducers, because these artificial inducers experience a stronger positive feedback. In the evolved promoter functions, noise due to stochasticity in gene expression, when induced by lactose, only plays a very minor role in short-term physiological adaptation, because other sources of population heterogeneity dominate. Finally, promoter functions evolved in the stochastic model evolve to higher repressed transcription rates than those evolved in a deterministic version of the model. This causes these promoter functions to experience less stochasticity in gene expression. We show that a high repression rate and hence high stochasticity increases the delay in lactose uptake in a variable environment. We conclude that the lac operon evolved such that the impact of stochastic gene expression is minor in its natural environment, but happens to respond with much stronger stochasticity when confronted with artificial inducers. In this particular system, we have shown that stochasticity is detrimental. Moreover, we demonstrate that in silico evolution in a quantitative model, by mutating the parameters of interest, is a promising way to unravel

  10. Effect of Pumping on Groundwater Levels: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindhu, G.; Vijayachandran, Lekshmi

    2018-03-01

    Groundwater is a major source for drinking and domestic purposes. Nowadays, extensive pumping has become a major issue of concern since pumping has led to rapid decline in the groundwater table, thus imposing landward gradient, leading to saline water intrusion especially in coastal areas. Groundwater pumping has seen its utmost effect on coastal aquifer systems, where the sea-ward gradient gets disturbed due to anthropogenic influences. Hence, a groundwater flow modelling of an aquifer system is essential for understanding the various hydro-geologic conditions, which can be used to study the responses of the aquifer system with regard to various pumping scenarios. Besides, a model helps to predict the water levels for the future period with respect to changing environment. In this study, a finite element groundwater flow model of a coastal aquifer system at Aakulam, Trivandrum district is developed, calibrated and simulated using the software Finite Element subsurface Flow system (FEFLOW 6.2).This simulated model is then used to predict the groundwater levels for a future 5 year period during pre monsoon and post monsoon season.

  11. Effect of Pumping on Groundwater Levels: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindhu, G.; Vijayachandran, Lekshmi

    2018-06-01

    Groundwater is a major source for drinking and domestic purposes. Nowadays, extensive pumping has become a major issue of concern since pumping has led to rapid decline in the groundwater table, thus imposing landward gradient, leading to saline water intrusion especially in coastal areas. Groundwater pumping has seen its utmost effect on coastal aquifer systems, where the sea-ward gradient gets disturbed due to anthropogenic influences. Hence, a groundwater flow modelling of an aquifer system is essential for understanding the various hydro-geologic conditions, which can be used to study the responses of the aquifer system with regard to various pumping scenarios. Besides, a model helps to predict the water levels for the future period with respect to changing environment. In this study, a finite element groundwater flow model of a coastal aquifer system at Aakulam, Trivandrum district is developed, calibrated and simulated using the software Finite Element subsurface Flow system (FEFLOW 6.2).This simulated model is then used to predict the groundwater levels for a future 5 year period during pre monsoon and post monsoon season.

  12. Mean, covariance, and effective dimension of stochastic distributed delay dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    René, Alexandre; Longtin, André

    2017-11-01

    Dynamical models are often required to incorporate both delays and noise. However, the inherently infinite-dimensional nature of delay equations makes formal solutions to stochastic delay differential equations (SDDEs) challenging. Here, we present an approach, similar in spirit to the analysis of functional differential equations, but based on finite-dimensional matrix operators. This results in a method for obtaining both transient and stationary solutions that is directly amenable to computation, and applicable to first order differential systems with either discrete or distributed delays. With fewer assumptions on the system's parameters than other current solution methods and no need to be near a bifurcation, we decompose the solution to a linear SDDE with arbitrary distributed delays into natural modes, in effect the eigenfunctions of the differential operator, and show that relatively few modes can suffice to approximate the probability density of solutions. Thus, we are led to conclude that noise makes these SDDEs effectively low dimensional, which opens the possibility of practical definitions of probability densities over their solution space.

  13. Analysis of hydraulic bearing effect for vertical-shaft pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narabayashi, Tadashi; Mawatari, Katsuhiko; Uchida, Ken; Iikura, Takahiko; Hayakawa, Kiyoshi

    1999-01-01

    In inner-rotating non coaxial cylinders, axial flow causes a hydraulic being effect by which the inner cylinder is put at the center of the axis of the outer cylinder, because of the pressure distribution along the surface of the inner cylinder. When the rotating speed becomes higher, whirl force is generated by the pressure distribution in the narrow gap side. Therefore, pocket-type hydraulic being was added between the rotor and the wearing, based on an experiment and flow analysis. The pockets suck a part of discharged water of a pump and pressurize a water along the rotational direction in the pocket. The pressurized water enhance the hydraulic being effect. The analysis results showed good agreement with the experiments, and the analysis method for the hydraulic being for vertical-shaft pump was established. (author)

  14. A hypothetical stochastic mechanism of radiation effects in single cells: some further thoughts and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puri, P.S.

    1982-01-01

    The author briefly describes a stochastic model for radiation effects in single cells, discusses some results based on this model and then raises several questions which need further attention. While the ultimate goal is to develop appropriate stochastic models of phenomena arising in irradiated experimental animals, the present concern however is limited to irradiation effects on cells of some homogeneous tissue. The basic assumptions underlying the stochastic model are presented. Some of the model implications are compared with empirical findings in the literature. The question of whether or not a primary particle of UV radiation generates any secondary particles is also considered. (Auth.)

  15. The threshold of a stochastic avian-human influenza epidemic model with psychological effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fengrong; Zhang, Xinhong

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, a stochastic avian-human influenza epidemic model with psychological effect in human population and saturation effect within avian population is investigated. This model describes the transmission of avian influenza among avian population and human population in random environments. For stochastic avian-only system, persistence in the mean and extinction of the infected avian population are studied. For the avian-human influenza epidemic system, sufficient conditions for the existence of an ergodic stationary distribution are obtained. Furthermore, a threshold of this stochastic model which determines the outcome of the disease is obtained. Finally, numerical simulations are given to support the theoretical results.

  16. Effect of Bearing Housings on Centrifugal Pump Rotor Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashchenko, A. S.; Rudenko, A. A.; Simonovskiy, V. I.; Kozlov, O. M.

    2017-08-01

    The article deals with the effect of a bearing housing on rotor dynamics of a barrel casing centrifugal boiler feed pump rotor. The calculation of the rotor model including the bearing housing has been performed by the method of initial parameters. The calculation of a rotor solid model including the bearing housing has been performed by the finite element method. Results of both calculations highlight the need to add bearing housings into dynamic analyses of the pump rotor. The calculation performed by modern software packages is more a time-taking process, at the same time it is a preferred one due to a graphic editor that is employed for creating a numerical model. When it is necessary to view many variants of design parameters, programs for beam modeling should be used.

  17. Stabilization and destabilization effects of the electric field on stochastic precipitate pattern

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagzi, István; Izsak, F.

    2004-01-01

    Stabilization and destabilization effects of an applied electric field on the Liesegang pattern formation in low concentration gradient were studied with numerical model simulations. In the absence of an electric field pattern formation exhibits increasingly stochastic behaviour as the initial

  18. Effects of groundwater pumping on the sustainability of a mountain wetland complex, Yosemite National Park, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Cooper

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Study Region: We analyzed the effects of groundwater pumping on a mountain wetland complex, Yosemite National Park, California, USA. Study Focus: Groundwater pumping from mountain meadows is common in many regions of the world. However, few quantitative analyses exist of the hydrologic or ecological effects of pumping. New Hydrological Insights for the Region: Daily hydraulic head and water table variations at sampling locations within 100 m of the pumping well were strongly correlated with the timing and duration of pumping. The effect of pumping varied by distance from the pumping well, depth of the water table when the pumping started, and that water year's snow water equivalent (SWE. Pumping in years with below average SWE and/or early melting snow pack, resulted in a water table decline to the base of the fen peat body by mid summer. Pumping in years with higher SWE and later melting snowpack, resulted in much less water level drawdown from the same pumping schedule. Predictive modeling scenarios showed that, even in a dry water year like 2004, distinct increases in fen water table elevation can be achieved with reductions in pumping. A high water table during summers following low snowpack water years had a more significant influence on vegetation composition than depth of water table in wet years or peat thickness, highlighting the impact of water level drawdown on vegetation. Keywords: Fen, Groundwater pumping, Modeling, Mountain meadow, Water table, Wetlands

  19. Failure Mode and Effect Analysis of Subsea Multiphase Pump Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwatoyin Shobowale Kafayat

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Finding oil and gas reserves in deep/harsh environment with challenging reservoir and field conditions, subsea multiphase pumping benefits has found its way to provide solutions to these issues. Challenges such as failure issues that are still surging the industry and with the current practice of information hiding, this issues becomes even more difficult to tackle. Although, there are some joint industry projects which are only accessible to its members, still there is a need to have a clear understanding of these equipment groups so as to know which issues to focus attention on. A failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA is a potential first aid in understanding this equipment groups. A survey questionnaire/interview was conducted with the oil and gas operating company and equipment manufacturer based on the literature review. The results indicates that these equipment’s group are similar with its onshore counterpart, but the difference is the robustness built into the equipment internal subsystems for subsea applications. The results from the manufacturer perspectives indicates that Helico-axial multiphase pump have a mean time to failure of more than 10 years, twin-screw and electrical submersible pumps are still struggling with a mean time to failure of less than 5 years.

  20. Systematic effects in radon mitigation by sump/pump remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groves-Kirkby, C.J.; Denman, A.R.; Groves-Kirkby, C.J.; Woolridge, A.C.; Woolridge, A.C.; Phillips, P.S.; Crockett, R.G.M.; Tornberg, R.

    2006-01-01

    Sump/Pump remediation is widely used in the United Kingdom to mitigate indoor radon gas levels in residential properties. To quantify the effectiveness of this technology, a study was made of radon concentration data from a set of 173 homes situated in radon Affected Areas in and around Northamptonshire, U.K., re-mediated using conventional sump/pump technology. This approach is characterised by a high incidence of satisfactory mitigation outcomes, with more than 75% of the sample exhibiting mitigation factors (defined as the ratio of radon concentrations following and prior to remediation) of 0.2 or better. There is evidence of a systematic trend, where houses with higher initial radon concentrations have higher mitigation factors, suggesting that the total indoor radon concentration within a dwelling can be represented by two components, one susceptible to mitigation by sump/pump remediation, the other remaining essentially unaffected by these remediation strategies. The first component can be identified with ground-radon emanating from the subsoil and bedrock geologies, percolating through the foundations of the dwelling as a component of the soil-gas, potentially capable of being attenuated by sump/pump or radon-barrier remediation. The second contribution is attributed to radon emanating from materials used in the construction of the dwelling, principally concrete and gypsum plaster-board, with a further small contribution from the natural background level, and is essentially unaffected by ground-level remediation strategies. Modelling of such a two-component radon dependency using realistic ground-radon attenuation factors in conjunction with typical structural-radon levels yields behaviour in good agreement with the observed inverse-power dependence of mitigation factor on initial radon concentration. (authors)

  1. Dynamics of the stochastic Lorenz chaotic system with long memory effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Caibin, E-mail: zeng.cb@mail.scut.edu.cn; Yang, Qigui, E-mail: qgyang@scut.edu.cn [School of Mathematics, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2015-12-15

    Little seems to be known about the ergodic dynamics of stochastic systems with fractional noise. This paper is devoted to discern such long time dynamics through the stochastic Lorenz chaotic system (SLCS) with long memory effects. By a truncation technique, the SLCS is proved to generate a continuous stochastic dynamical system Λ. Based on the Krylov-Bogoliubov criterion, the required Lyapunov function is further established to ensure the existence of the invariant measure of Λ. Meanwhile, the uniqueness of the invariant measure of Λ is proved by examining the strong Feller property, together with an irreducibility argument. Therefore, the SLCS has exactly one adapted stationary solution.

  2. STOCHASTIC ASSESSMENT OF NIGERIAN STOCHASTIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    STOCHASTIC ASSESSMENT OF NIGERIAN WOOD FOR BRIDGE DECKS ... abandoned bridges with defects only in their decks in both rural and urban locations can be effectively .... which can be seen as the detection of rare physical.

  3. Effects of stochastic time-delayed feedback on a dynamical system modeling a chemical oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Ochoa, Héctor O.; Perales, Gualberto Solís; Epstein, Irving R.; Femat, Ricardo

    2018-05-01

    We examine how stochastic time-delayed negative feedback affects the dynamical behavior of a model oscillatory reaction. We apply constant and stochastic time-delayed negative feedbacks to a point Field-Körös-Noyes photosensitive oscillator and compare their effects. Negative feedback is applied in the form of simulated inhibitory electromagnetic radiation with an intensity proportional to the concentration of oxidized light-sensitive catalyst in the oscillator. We first characterize the system under nondelayed inhibitory feedback; then we explore and compare the effects of constant (deterministic) versus stochastic time-delayed feedback. We find that the oscillatory amplitude, frequency, and waveform are essentially preserved when low-dispersion stochastic delayed feedback is used, whereas small but measurable changes appear when a large dispersion is applied.

  4. Role of the pump limiter throat-ergodic divertor effect on edge plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosman, A.; Samain, A.; Ghendrih, P.; Capes, H.; Morera, J.P.

    1988-01-01

    A large part of the Tore Supra programme is devoted to plasma edge studies. Two types of such density control apparatus have been implemented, a set of pumps limiters and the ergodic divertor. The goal of the present paper is to investigate the effect of the pump limiter throat on pumping efficiency. We present also the possibilities of the ergodic divertor device to facilitate plasma pumping and power exhaust

  5. Stochastic Effects for the Reaction-Duffing Equation with Wick-Type Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Hyuk Choi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We construct new explicit solutions of the Wick-type stochastic reaction-Duffing equation arising from mathematical physics with the help of the white noise theory and the system technique. Based on these exact solutions, we also discuss the influences of stochastic effects for dynamical behaviors according to functions h1(t, h2(t, and Brownian motion B(t which are the solitary wave group velocities.

  6. Towards Simulation of Clogging Effects in Wastewater Pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anna Lyhne; Sørensen, Henrik; Rosendahl, Lasse Aistrup

    Clogging in wastewater pumps is often caused by textile and other fibrous materials in the wastewater. As a step towards developing a methodology using the CFD-DEM approach for simulation of clogging effects, a fiber model consisting of a string of bonded DEM particles is developed in the software...... of simulation, but the deviation between the two cases increase with time. The difference may be caused by the difference in fiber aspect ratio in the two cases. The influence of fiber properties on fiber motion has been analysed quantitatively and compared to fiber orbit types presented in literature [8...

  7. Scrape-off profiles and effects of limiter pumping in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budny, R.

    1986-11-01

    A one dimensional plasma scrape-off model was used to simulate Tore Supra discharges which are limited by various combinations of the pumped and inner limiters. Scrape-off profiles of the electron density and temperature, ion temperature, and neutral density are given. For each case, various fractions of the ion flux to the neutralizers were assumed to be pumped. Modifications of the scrap-off profiles caused by pumping are predicted. Pumping efficiencies are calculated including the effects of flux amplification caused by recycling. The pumping efficiency is estimated to be 8% for low-power discharges formed on the outer pumped limiter, 7.5% for intermediate-power discharges formed on the seven-module pumped-limiter system, and 5% for full-power discharges formed on both the inner limiter and the pumped-limiter system. The maximum particle removal rate is estimated to be 150 Tl/s

  8. Effects of stochastic noise on dynamical decoupling procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernad, Jozsef Zsolt; Frydrych, Holger; Alber, Gernot [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Dynamical decoupling is a well-established technique to protect quantum systems from unwanted influences of their environment by exercising active control. It has been used experimentally to drastically increase the lifetime of qubit states in various implementations. The efficiency of different dynamical decoupling schemes defines the lifetime. However, errors in control operations always limit this efficiency. We propose a stochastic model as a possible description of imperfect control pulses and discuss the impact of this kind of error on different decoupling schemes. In the limit of continuous control, i.e. if the number of pulses N → ∞, we derive a stochastic differential equation for the evolution of the density operator of the controlled system and its environment. In the context of this modified time evolution we discuss possibilities of protecting qubit states against environmental noise.

  9. Spatial effect on stochastic dynamics of bistable evolutionary games

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    So, Kohaku H Z; Ohtsuki, Hisashi; Kato, Takeo

    2014-01-01

    We consider the lifetimes of metastable states in bistable evolutionary games (coordination games), and examine how they are affected by spatial structure. A semiclassical approximation based on a path integral method is applied to stochastic evolutionary game dynamics with and without spatial structure, and the lifetimes of the metastable states are evaluated. It is shown that the population dependence of the lifetimes is qualitatively different in these two models. Our result indicates that spatial structure can accelerate the transitions between metastable states. (paper)

  10. Internal additive noise effects in stochastic resonance using organic field effect transistor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Yoshiharu; Asakawa, Naoki [Division of Molecular Science, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Gunma University, 1-5-1 Tenjin-cho, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan); Matsubara, Kiyohiko [KOOROGI LLC, 6-1585-1-B Sakaino-cho, Kiryu, Gunma 376-0002 (Japan)

    2016-08-29

    Stochastic resonance phenomenon was observed in organic field effect transistor using poly(3-hexylthiophene), which enhances performance of signal transmission with application of noise. The enhancement of correlation coefficient between the input and output signals was low, and the variation of correlation coefficient was not remarkable with respect to the intensity of external noise, which was due to the existence of internal additive noise following the nonlinear threshold response. In other words, internal additive noise plays a positive role on the capability of approximately constant signal transmission regardless of noise intensity, which can be said “homeostatic” behavior or “noise robustness” against external noise. Furthermore, internal additive noise causes emergence of the stochastic resonance effect even on the threshold unit without internal additive noise on which the correlation coefficient usually decreases monotonically.

  11. Measurement of spin pumping voltage separated from extrinsic microwave effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iguchi, Ryo; Saitoh, Eiji

    2017-01-01

    Conversions between spin and charge currents are core technologies in recent spintronics. In this article, we provide methods for estimating inverse spin Hall effects (ISHEs) induced by using microwave-driven spin pumping (SP) as a spin-current generator. ISHE and SP induce an electromotive force at the ferromagnetic or spin-wave resonance, which offers a valuable electric method of studying spin physics in materials. At the resonance, a microwave for exciting the magnetization dynamics induces an additional electromotive force via rf-current rectification and thermoelectric effects. We discuss methods of separating the signals generated from such extrinsic microwave effects by controlling sample structures and configurations. These methods are helpful in performing accurate measurements on ISHE induced by SP, enabling quantitative studies on the conversion between spin and charge currents on various kinds of materials. (author)

  12. One dimensional analysis of the end effect of an EM pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hee Reyoung; Nam, Ho Yun; Kim, Yong Kyun; Choi, Byoung Hae; Lee, Yong Bum; Kim, Min Joon; Hong, Sang Hee

    1998-01-01

    Longitudinal end effect due to finite length of the pump are analyzed one dimensionally on an annular linear induction electromagnetic (EM) pump for the transportation of the electrically conducting liquid metal. The mathematical regions of the modeled pump is divided into three of the inlet, outlet and developing zone in large parts. Solving governing equations with the applied boundary condition, the distributions of magnetic field and developing force are investigated according to the coordinate of axial direction and compared with those of the pump with infinite length. At both ends of the pump, it is shown that the radial magnetic field is distorted and even the opposite force, which may cause local separation of the flow as the velocity of the pumping fluid is increased, is generated at the inlet region. In the present study, frequency control is suggested as one of the methods for the reduction of the end effect of the pump

  13. Risk estimates of stochastic effects due to exposure to radiation - a stochastic harm index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonen, Y.G.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of exposure to low level radiation on the survival probability and life expectancy were investigated. The 1977 vital statistics of Jewish males in Israel were used as a baseline, mainly the data on normalized survival probability and life expectation as functions of age. Assumed effects of exposure were superposed on these data and the net differences calculated. It was found that the realistic rate effects of exposure to radiation are generally less than calculated by multiplying the collective dose by the risk factor. The effects are strongly age-dependent, decreasing sharply with age at exposure. The assumed harm due to exposure can be more than offset by improvements in medical care and safety. (H.K.)

  14. AN EXAMINATION OF THE LEVERAGE EFFECT IN THE ISE WITH STOCHASTIC VOLATILITY MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YELİZ YALÇIN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is the asses the leverage effect of the Istanbul Stock Exchange within the Stochastic Volatility framework in the period 01.01.1990 – 11.08.2006. The relationship between risk and return is a well established phenomenon in Financial Econometerics. Both positive and negative relationship has been reported in the empirical literature. That use the conditional variance the empirical evidence provided in this paper from the Stochastic Volatility is to be negative feed back effect and statistically insignificant leverage effect.

  15. Electrostatic coupling of ion pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto-Frausto, J; Lüger, P; Apell, H J

    1992-01-01

    In this paper the electrostatic interactions between membrane-embedded ion-pumps and their consequences for the kinetics of pump-mediated transport processes have been examined. We show that the time course of an intrinsically monomolecular transport reaction can become distinctly nonexponential, if the reaction is associated with charge translocation and takes place in an aggregate of pump molecules. First we consider the electrostatic coupling of a single dimer of ion-pumps embedded in the membrane. Then we apply the treatment to the kinetic analysis of light-driven proton transport by bacteriorhodopsin which forms two-dimensional hexagonal lattices. Finally, for the case of nonordered molecules, we also consider a model in which the pumps are randomly distributed over the nodes of a lattice. Here the average distance is equal to that deduced experimentally and the elemental size of the lattice is the effective diameter of one single pump. This latter model is applied to an aggregate of membrane-embedded Na, K- and Ca-pumps. In all these cases the electrostatic potential considered is the exact solution calculated from the method of electrical images for a plane membrane of finite thickness immersed in an infinite aqueous solution environment. The distributions of charges (ions or charged binding sites) are considered homogeneous or discrete in the membrane and/or in the external solution. In the case of discrete distributions we compare the results from a mean field approximation and a stochastic simulation.

  16. Stochastic resonance in a gain-noise model of a single-mode laser driven by pump noise and quantum noise with cross-correlation between real and imaginary parts under direct signal modulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Li-Mei; Cao Li; Wu Da-Jin

    2007-01-01

    Stochastic resonance (SR) is studied in a gain-noise model of a single-mode laser driven by a coloured pump noise and a quantum noise with cross-correlation between real and imaginary parts under a direct signal modulation. By using a linear approximation method, we find that the SR appears during the variation of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR)separately with the pump noise self-correlation time τ, the noise correlation coefficient between the real part and the imaginary part of the quantum noise λq, the attenuation coefficient γ and the deterministic steady-state intensity I0.In addition, it is found that the SR can be characterized not only by the dependence of SNR on the noise variables of τand λq, but also by the dependence of SNR on the laser system variables of γ and I0. Thus our investigation extends the characteristic quantity of SR proposed before.

  17. The Analysis of an End Effect according to the Input Frequency Change in the EM Pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hee Reyoung; Kim, Jong Man; Cha, Jae Eun; Choi, Jong Hyun; Nam, Ho Yoon

    2006-01-01

    In general, an electromagnetic (EM) pump is considered to circulate a liquid sodium coolant for a Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR). The EM pump has an end effect at both ends basically due to its finite core length. The generated magnetic field across the flow gap is distorted at both ends of the pump. Consequently, there arises reduction on the developed force by the vector product of that magnetic field and its perpendicular induced current. Especially, it experiences even the opposite pumping force near the pump inlet. That causes low efficiency of the pump and resultantly brings about bad performance of a pump. The present study theoretically shows that this end effect can be lessened by control of input frequency. It is predicted that pump operates much more efficiently in the range of low frequency around teen hertz than in that of high frequency over 60 Hz. The force density is investigated in the narrow annular channel of the pump with the length of 84cm according to pump axial coordinates at various frequency

  18. Effect of the Potential Shape on the Stochastic Resonance Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenmoé, G. Djuidjé; Ngouongo, Y. J. Wadop; Kofané, T. C.

    2015-10-01

    The stochastic resonance (SR) induced by periodic signal and white noises in a periodic nonsinusoidal potential is investigated. This phenomenon is studied as a function of the friction coefficient as well as the shape of the potential. It is done through an investigation of the hysteresis loop area which is equivalent to the input energy lost by the system to the environment per period of the external force. SR is evident in some range of the shape parameter of the potential, but cannot be observed in the other range. Specially, variation of the shape potential affects significantly and not trivially the heigh of the potential barrier in the Kramers rate as well as the occurrence of SR. The finding results show crucial dependence of the temperature of occurrence of SR on the shape of the potential. It is noted that the maximum of the input energy generally decreases when the friction coefficient is increased.

  19. The effect of balance holes to centrifugal pump performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babayigit, O.; Ozgoren, M.; Aksoy, M. H.; Kocaaslan, O.

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze of a centrifugal pump with and without balance holes by using ANSYS-Fluent software. The pump used in the study is a commercial centrifugal pump consisting of two stages that is a model of Sempa Pump Company. Firstly, models of impeller, diffuser, suction and discharge sections of the centrifugal pump were separately drawn using Ansys and Solidworks software. Later, grid structures were generated on the flow volume of the pump. Turbulent flow volume was numerically solved by realizable k-є turbulence model. The flow analyses were focused on the centrifugal pump performance and the flow characteristics under different operational conditions with/without balance holes. Distributions of flow characteristics such as velocity and pressure distributions in the flow volume were also determined, numerically. The results of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) with/without balance holes for the pump head and hydraulic efficiency on the design flow rate of 80 m3/h were found to be 81.5/91.3 m and 51.9/65.3%, respectively.

  20. Sodium pumping: pump problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guer, M.; Guiton, P.

    Information on sodium pumps for LMFBR type reactors is presented concerning ring pump design, pool reactor pump design, secondary pumps, sodium bearings, swivel joints of the oscillating annulus, and thermal shock loads

  1. Genotoxic Effects of Exposure to Gasoline Fumes on Petrol Pump Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Amrin Shaikh; Darshana Barot; Divya Chandel

    2018-01-01

    Background: Petrol pump workers are occupationally exposed to gasoline and its fumes consisting of several mutagenic chemicals. Objective: To evaluate the genotoxic effects of exposure to gasoline fumes on petrol pump workers. Methods: The study groups included 70 petrol pump workers (exposed group) and 70 healthy age-matched individuals with no known exposure (comparison group). Buccal micronucleus cytome assay (BMCyt) was performed to check the genotoxicity caused due to inhalation ...

  2. Effects of demographic stochasticity on biological community assembly on evolutionary time scales

    KAUST Repository

    Murase, Yohsuke

    2010-04-13

    We study the effects of demographic stochasticity on the long-term dynamics of biological coevolution models of community assembly. The noise is induced in order to check the validity of deterministic population dynamics. While mutualistic communities show little dependence on the stochastic population fluctuations, predator-prey models show strong dependence on the stochasticity, indicating the relevance of the finiteness of the populations. For a predator-prey model, the noise causes drastic decreases in diversity and total population size. The communities that emerge under influence of the noise consist of species strongly coupled with each other and have stronger linear stability around the fixed-point populations than the corresponding noiseless model. The dynamics on evolutionary time scales for the predator-prey model are also altered by the noise. Approximate 1/f fluctuations are observed with noise, while 1/ f2 fluctuations are found for the model without demographic noise. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

  3. Effects of demographic stochasticity on biological community assembly on evolutionary time scales

    KAUST Repository

    Murase, Yohsuke; Shimada, Takashi; Ito, Nobuyasu; Rikvold, Per Arne

    2010-01-01

    We study the effects of demographic stochasticity on the long-term dynamics of biological coevolution models of community assembly. The noise is induced in order to check the validity of deterministic population dynamics. While mutualistic communities show little dependence on the stochastic population fluctuations, predator-prey models show strong dependence on the stochasticity, indicating the relevance of the finiteness of the populations. For a predator-prey model, the noise causes drastic decreases in diversity and total population size. The communities that emerge under influence of the noise consist of species strongly coupled with each other and have stronger linear stability around the fixed-point populations than the corresponding noiseless model. The dynamics on evolutionary time scales for the predator-prey model are also altered by the noise. Approximate 1/f fluctuations are observed with noise, while 1/ f2 fluctuations are found for the model without demographic noise. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

  4. Structured Modeling and Analysis of Stochastic Epidemics with Immigration and Demographic Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Hendrik; Sandmann, Werner

    2016-01-01

    Stochastic epidemics with open populations of variable population sizes are considered where due to immigration and demographic effects the epidemic does not eventually die out forever. The underlying stochastic processes are ergodic multi-dimensional continuous-time Markov chains that possess unique equilibrium probability distributions. Modeling these epidemics as level-dependent quasi-birth-and-death processes enables efficient computations of the equilibrium distributions by matrix-analytic methods. Numerical examples for specific parameter sets are provided, which demonstrates that this approach is particularly well-suited for studying the impact of varying rates for immigration, births, deaths, infection, recovery from infection, and loss of immunity.

  5. Structured Modeling and Analysis of Stochastic Epidemics with Immigration and Demographic Effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik Baumann

    Full Text Available Stochastic epidemics with open populations of variable population sizes are considered where due to immigration and demographic effects the epidemic does not eventually die out forever. The underlying stochastic processes are ergodic multi-dimensional continuous-time Markov chains that possess unique equilibrium probability distributions. Modeling these epidemics as level-dependent quasi-birth-and-death processes enables efficient computations of the equilibrium distributions by matrix-analytic methods. Numerical examples for specific parameter sets are provided, which demonstrates that this approach is particularly well-suited for studying the impact of varying rates for immigration, births, deaths, infection, recovery from infection, and loss of immunity.

  6. Expansion or extinction: deterministic and stochastic two-patch models with Allee effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yun; Lanchier, Nicolas

    2011-06-01

    We investigate the impact of Allee effect and dispersal on the long-term evolution of a population in a patchy environment. Our main focus is on whether a population already established in one patch either successfully invades an adjacent empty patch or undergoes a global extinction. Our study is based on the combination of analytical and numerical results for both a deterministic two-patch model and a stochastic counterpart. The deterministic model has either two, three or four attractors. The existence of a regime with exactly three attractors only appears when patches have distinct Allee thresholds. In the presence of weak dispersal, the analysis of the deterministic model shows that a high-density and a low-density populations can coexist at equilibrium in nearby patches, whereas the analysis of the stochastic model indicates that this equilibrium is metastable, thus leading after a large random time to either a global expansion or a global extinction. Up to some critical dispersal, increasing the intensity of the interactions leads to an increase of both the basin of attraction of the global extinction and the basin of attraction of the global expansion. Above this threshold, for both the deterministic and the stochastic models, the patches tend to synchronize as the intensity of the dispersal increases. This results in either a global expansion or a global extinction. For the deterministic model, there are only two attractors, while the stochastic model no longer exhibits a metastable behavior. In the presence of strong dispersal, the limiting behavior is entirely determined by the value of the Allee thresholds as the global population size in the deterministic and the stochastic models evolves as dictated by their single-patch counterparts. For all values of the dispersal parameter, Allee effects promote global extinction in terms of an expansion of the basin of attraction of the extinction equilibrium for the deterministic model and an increase of the

  7. Groundwater Management at Varamin Plain: The Consideration of Stochastic and Environmental Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najafi Alamdarlo, H.; Ahmadian, M.; Khalilian, S.

    2016-01-01

    Groundwater is one of the common resources in Varamin Plain, but due to over extraction it has been exposed to ruin. This phenomenon will lead to economic and environmental problems. On the other hand, the world is expected to face with more stochastic events of water supply. Furthermore, incorporating stochastic consideration of water supply becomes more acute in designing water facilities. Therefore, the strategies should be applied to improve managing resources and increase the efficiency of irrigation system. Hence, in this study the effect of efficiency improvement of irrigation system on the exploitation of groundwater and cropping pattern is examined in deterministic and stochastic condition using Nash bargaining theory. The results showed that farmers in B scenario are more willing to cooperate and as a result of their cooperation, they lose only 3 percentages of their present value of the objective function. Therefore, the efficiency improvement of irrigation system can result in improving the cooperation between farmers and increasing the amount of reserves.Groundwater is one of the common resources in Varamin Plain, but due to over extraction it has been exposed to ruin. This phenomenon will lead to economic and environmental problems. On the other hand, the world is expected to face with more stochastic events of water supply. Furthermore, incorporating stochastic consideration of water supply becomes more acute in designing water facilities. Therefore, the strategies should be applied to improve managing resources and increase the efficiency of irrigation system. Hence, in this study the effect of efficiency improvement of irrigation system on the exploitation of groundwater and cropping pattern is examined in deterministic and stochastic condition using Nash bargaining theory. The results showed that farmers in B scenario are more willing to cooperate and as a result of their cooperation, they lose only 3 percentages of their present value of the

  8. HEALTH - module for assessment of stochastic health effects after nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raicevic, J.J.; Gajic, M.; Popovic, Z.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the program module HEALTH for assessment of stochastic health effects in the case of nuclear accidents is presented. Program module HEALTH is a part of the new European real-time computer system RODOS for nuclear emergency and preparedness. Some of the key features of module HEALTH are presented, and some possible further improvements are discussed (author)

  9. Gray and multigroup radiation transport models for two-dimensional binary stochastic media using effective opacities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, Gordon L.

    2016-01-01

    One-dimensional models for the transport of radiation through binary stochastic media do not work in multi-dimensions. Authors have attempted to modify or extend the 1D models to work in multidimensions without success. Analytic one-dimensional models are successful in 1D only when assuming greatly simplified physics. State of the art theories for stochastic media radiation transport do not address multi-dimensions and temperature-dependent physics coefficients. Here, the concept of effective opacities and effective heat capacities is found to well represent the ensemble averaged transport solutions in cases with gray or multigroup temperature-dependent opacities and constant or temperature-dependent heat capacities. In every case analyzed here, effective physics coefficients fit the transport solutions over a useful range of parameter space. The transport equation is solved with the spherical harmonics method with angle orders of n=1 and 5. Although the details depend on what order of solution is used, the general results are similar, independent of angular order. - Highlights: • Gray and multigroup radiation transport is done through 2D stochastic media. • Approximate models for the mean radiation field are found for all test problems. • Effective opacities are adjusted to fit the means of stochastic media transport. • Test problems include temperature dependent opacities and heat capacities • Transport solutions are done with angle orders n=1 and 5.

  10. Stochastic modelling to assess economic effects of treatment of chronic subclinical mastitis caused by Streptococcus uberis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, W.; Swinkels, J.; Hogeveen, H.

    2007-01-01

    Chronic subclinical mastitis is usually not treated during the lactation. However, some veterinarians regard treatment of some types of subclinical mastitis to be effective. The goal of this research was to develop a stochastic Monte Carlo simulation model to support decisions around treatment of

  11. The Risk-Return Tradeoff and Leverage Effect in a Stochastic Volatility-in-Mean Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bent Jesper; Posedel, Petra

    We study the risk premium and leverage effect in the S&P500 market using the stochastic volatility-in-mean model of Barndor¤-Nielsen & Shephard (2001). The Merton (1973, 1980) equilibrium asset pricing condition linking the conditional mean and conditional variance of discrete time returns is rei...

  12. EFFECT OF THE CRITICAL IRRADIANCE ON PHOTOVOLTAIC WATER PUMP DISCHARGE UNDER EGYPTIAN CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamdouh Abbas HELMY

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation aimed to study the effect of critical irradiance due to changing tilt angle of PV panel and tracking sun on submersible pump discharge. The authors used solar tracker and suitable tilt angle for the panel to increase the time interval during which the water pump operates. For the same irradiance collected by the PV, all systems pump the same amount of water, although they occur at different periods of the day. The pump itself 'does not know whether the electric power comes from any processes, as long as it has the same intensity.

  13. Effects of Crust Ingestion on Mixer Pump Performance in Tank 241-SY-101: Workshop Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennen, C.E.; Stewart, C.W.; Meyer, P.A.

    1999-01-01

    In August 1999, a workshop was held at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to discuss the effects of crust ingestion on mixer pump performance in Hanford Waste Tank 241-SY-101. The main purpose of the workshop was to evaluate the potential for crust ingestion to degrade mixing and/or damage the mixer pump. The need for a previously determined 12-inch separation between the top of the mixer pump inlet and the crust base was evaluated. Participants included a representative from the pump manufacturer, an internationally known expert in centrifugal pump theory, Hanford scientists and engineers, and operational specialists representing relevant fields of expertise. The workshop focused on developing an understanding of the pump design, addressing the physics of entrainment of solids and gases into the pump, and assessing the effects of solids and gases on pump performance. The major conclusions are summarized as follows: (1) Entrainment of a moderate amount of solids or gas from the crust should not damage the pump or reduce its lifetime, though mixing effectiveness will be somewhat reduced. (2) Air binding should not damage the pump. Vibrations due to ingestion of gas, solids, and objects potentially could cause radial loads that might reduce the lifetime of bearings and seals. However, significant damage would require extreme conditions not associated with the small bubbles, fine solids, and chunks of relatively weak material typical of the crust. (3) The inlet duct extension opening, 235 inches from the tank bottom, should be considered the pump inlet, not the small gap at 262 inches. (4) A suction vortex exists at the inlet of all pumps. The characteristics of the inlet suction vortex in the mixer pump are very hard to predict, but its effects likely extend upward several feet. Because of this, the current 12-inch limit should be replaced with criteria based on actual monitored pump performance. The most obvious criterion (in addition to current operational

  14. Laser Velocimeter Measurements in the Pump of an Automotive Torque Converter Part II – Effect of Pump Speed and Oil Viscosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald D. Flack

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The velocity field inside a torque converter pump was studied for two separate effects: variable pump rotational speed and variable oil viscosity. Three-dimensional velocity measurements were taken using a laser velocimeter for both the pump mid- and exit planes. The effect ofvariable pump rotational speed was studied by running the pump at two different speeds and holding speed ratio (pump rotational speed]turbine rotational speed constant. Similarly, the effect of viscosity on the pump flow field was studied by varying the temperature and]or using two different viscosity oils as the working fluid in the pump. Threedimensional velocity vector plots, through-flow contour plots, and secondary flow profiles were obtained for both pump planes and all test conditions. Results showed that torque converter mass flows increased approximately linearly with increasing pump rotational speed (and fixed speed ratio but that the flow was not directly proportional to pump rotational speed. However, mass flows were seen to decrease as the oil viscosity was decreased with a resulting increased Reynolds number; for these conditions the high velocity regions were seen to decrease in size and low velocity regions were seen to increase in size. In the pump mid-plane strong counter-clockwise secondary flows and in the exit plane strong clockwise secondary flows were observed. The vorticities and slip factors were calculated from the experimental results and are presented. The torque core-to-shell and blade-to-blade torque distributions were calculated for both planes. Finally, the flow fields were seen to demonstrate similitude when Reynolds numbers were matched.

  15. Detection and effects of pump low-flow operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casada, D.A.; Greene, R.H.

    1993-01-01

    Operating experience and previous studies have shown that a significant cause of pump problems and failures can result from low- flow operation. Operation at low-flow rates can create unstable flows within the pump impeller and casing. This condition can result in an increased radial and axial thrust on the rotor, which in turn causes higher shaft stresses, increased shaft deflection, and potential bearing and mechanical seal problems. Two of the more serious results of low-flow pump operation are cavitation and recirculation. Cavitation is the formation and subsequent collapse of vapor bubbles in any flow that is at an ambient pressure less than the vapor pressure of the liquid medium. It is the collapse of these vapor bubbles against the metal surfaces of the impeller or casing that causes surface pitting, erosion, and deterioration. Pump recirculation more damaging than cavitation. If located at the impeller eye, recirculation damages the inlet areas of the casing. At the impeller tips, recirculation alters the outside diameter of the impeller. If recirculation occurs around impeller shrouds, it damages thrust bearings. Recirculation also erodes impellers, diffusers, and volutes and causes failure of mechanical seals and bearings. This paper reports on a utility pump failure caused by low-flow induced phenomena. ORNL is investigating the results of low-flow pump operations by evaluating the types of measurements and diagnostic techniques that are currently used by licensees to detect pump degradation. A new, enhanced application of motor current and power data analysis has been developed that uses a signal comparison methodology to produce an instability ratio indicative of normal or unstable flow conditions. Examples of this type of low-flow detection technique are presented in this paper along with a brief discussion of the various types of technologies currently being used by licensees to evaluate pump operation and determine possible degradation

  16. Effect of the collector tube profile on Pitot pump performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komaki, K.; Kanemoto, T.; Sagara, K.; Umekage, T.

    2013-12-01

    The pitot pump is composed of the rotating casing with the impeller channel and the pitot tube type collector as the discharge line. The radial impeller feeds water to the rotating casing. The water rotating together with the casing is caught by the stationary pitot tube type collector, and then discharges to the outside. This type pump, as the extra high head pump, is provided mainly for boiler feed systems, and has been designed by trial and error. To optimize the pump profiles, it is desirable to investigate not only performances but also internal flow conditions. This paper discusses experimentally and numerically the relation between the pump performances and the flow conditions in the rotating casing. The moderately larger dimensions of the collector make the pump head and the discharge high with the higher hydraulic efficiency. The flow in the casing is almost the forced vortex type whose velocity is in proportion to the radius but the core velocity is affected with the drag force of the stationary collector. Based upon the above results, the profile of the pitot tube type collector was optimized with the numerical simulation.

  17. Effect of the collector tube profile on Pitot pump performances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komaki, K; Sagara, K; Kanemoto, T; Umekage, T

    2013-01-01

    The pitot pump is composed of the rotating casing with the impeller channel and the pitot tube type collector as the discharge line. The radial impeller feeds water to the rotating casing. The water rotating together with the casing is caught by the stationary pitot tube type collector, and then discharges to the outside. This type pump, as the extra high head pump, is provided mainly for boiler feed systems, and has been designed by trial and error. To optimize the pump profiles, it is desirable to investigate not only performances but also internal flow conditions. This paper discusses experimentally and numerically the relation between the pump performances and the flow conditions in the rotating casing. The moderately larger dimensions of the collector make the pump head and the discharge high with the higher hydraulic efficiency. The flow in the casing is almost the forced vortex type whose velocity is in proportion to the radius but the core velocity is affected with the drag force of the stationary collector. Based upon the above results, the profile of the pitot tube type collector was optimized with the numerical simulation

  18. Effectiveness Testing of a Piezoelectric Energy Harvester for an Automobile Wheel Using Stochastic Resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunshun Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The collection of clean power from ambient vibrations is considered a promising method for energy harvesting. For the case of wheel rotation, the present study investigates the effectiveness of a piezoelectric energy harvester, with the application of stochastic resonance to optimize the efficiency of energy harvesting. It is hypothesized that when the wheel rotates at variable speeds, the energy harvester is subjected to on-road noise as ambient excitations and a tangentially acting gravity force as a periodic modulation force, which can stimulate stochastic resonance. The energy harvester was miniaturized with a bistable cantilever structure, and the on-road noise was measured for the implementation of a vibrator in an experimental setting. A validation experiment revealed that the harvesting system was optimized to capture power that was approximately 12 times that captured under only on-road noise excitation and 50 times that captured under only the periodic gravity force. Moreover, the investigation of up-sweep excitations with increasing rotational frequency confirmed that stochastic resonance is effective in optimizing the performance of the energy harvester, with a certain bandwidth of vehicle speeds. An actual-vehicle experiment validates that the prototype harvester using stochastic resonance is capable of improving power generation performance for practical tire application.

  19. Detection and effects of pump low-flow operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casada, D.A.; Greene, R.H.

    1994-01-01

    Operating experience and previous studies performed for the Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program have shown that a significant cause of pump problems and failures can result from low-flow operation. Operation at low-flow rates can create unstable flows within the pump impeller and casing. This condition can result in an increased radial and axial thrust on the rotor, which in turn causes higher shaft stresses, increased shaft deflection, and potential bearing and mechanical seal problems. Two of the more serious results of low-flow pump operation are cavitation and recirculation. Both of these conditions can be characterized by crackling sounds that accompany a substantial increase in vibration and noise level, and a reduction in total head and output capacity. Cavitation is the formation and subsequent collapse of vapor bubbles in any flow that is at an ambient pressure less than the vapor pressure of the liquid medium. It is the collapse of these vapor bubbles against the metal surfaces of the impeller or casing that causes surface pitting, erosion, and deterioration. Pump recirculation, reversal of a portion of the flow back through the impeller, can be potentially more damaging than cavitation. If located at the impeller eye, recirculation damages the inlet areas of the casing. At the impeller tips, recirculation alters the outside diameter of the impeller. If recirculation occurs around impeller shrouds, it damages thrust bearings. Recirculation also erodes impellers, diffusers, and volutes and causes failure of mechanical seals and bearings. This paper reports on a utility pump failure cause by low-flow induced phenomena. ORNL has continued to investigate the results of low-flow pump operations by evaluating the types of measurements and diagnostic techniques that are currently used by licensees to detect pump degradation

  20. Reassessment of debris ingestion effects on emergency core cooling-system pump performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sciacca, F.W.; Rao, D.V.

    2004-01-01

    A study sponsored by the United States (US) Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) was performed to reassess the effects of ingesting loss of coolant accident (LOCA) generated materials into emergency core cooling system (ECCS) pumps and the subsequent impact of this debris on the pumps' ability to provide long-term cooling to the reactor core. ECCS intake systems have been designed to screen out large post-LOCA debris materials. However, small-sized debris can penetrate these intake strainers or screens and reach critical pump components. Prior NRC-sponsored evaluations of possible debris and gas ingestion into ECCS pumps and attendant impacts on pump performance were performed in the early 1980's. The earlier study focused primarily on pressurised water reactor (PWR) ECCS pumps. This issue was revisited both to factor in our improved knowledge of LOCA generated debris and to address specifically both boiling water reactor (BWR) and PWR ECCS pumps. This study discusses the potential effects of ingested debris on pump seals, bearing assemblies, cyclone debris separators, and seal cooling water subsystems. This assessment included both near-term (less than one hour) and long-term (greater than one hour) effects introduced by the postulated LOCA. The work reported herein was performed during 1996-1997. (authors)

  1. Nanoparticles as Efflux Pump and Biofilm Inhibitor to Rejuvenate Bactericidal Effect of Conventional Antibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Divya; Singh, Ajeet; Khan, Asad U.

    2017-07-01

    The universal problem of bacterial resistance to antibiotic reflects a serious threat for physicians to control infections. Evolution in bacteria results in the development of various complex resistance mechanisms to neutralize the bactericidal effect of antibiotics, like drug amelioration, target modification, membrane permeability reduction, and drug extrusion through efflux pumps. Efflux pumps acquire a wide range of substrate specificity and also the tremendous efficacy for drug molecule extrusion outside bacterial cells. Hindrance in the functioning of efflux pumps may rejuvenate the bactericidal effect of conventional antibiotics. Efflux pumps also play an important role in the exclusion or inclusion of quorum-sensing biomolecules responsible for biofilm formation in bacterial cells. This transit movement of quorum-sensing biomolecules inside or outside the bacterial cells may get interrupted by impeding the functioning of efflux pumps. Metallic nanoparticles represent a potential candidate to block efflux pumps of bacterial cells. The application of nanoparticles as efflux pump inhibitors will not only help to revive the bactericidal effect of conventional antibiotics but will also assist to reduce biofilm-forming capacity of microbes. This review focuses on a novel and fascinating application of metallic nanoparticles in synergy with conventional antibiotics for efflux pump inhibition.

  2. Centrifugal pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Gülich, Johann Friedrich

    2014-01-01

    This book gives an unparalleled, up-to-date, in-depth treatment of all kinds of flow phenomena encountered in centrifugal pumps including the complex interactions of fluid flow with vibrations and wear of materials. The scope includes all aspects of hydraulic design, 3D-flow phenomena and partload operation, cavitation, numerical flow calculations, hydraulic forces, pressure pulsations, noise, pump vibrations (notably bearing housing vibration diagnostics and remedies), pipe vibrations, pump characteristics and pump operation, design of intake structures, the effects of highly viscous flows, pumping of gas-liquid mixtures, hydraulic transport of solids, fatigue damage to impellers or diffusers, material selection under the aspects of fatigue, corrosion, erosion-corrosion or hydro-abrasive wear, pump selection, and hydraulic quality criteria. As a novelty, the 3rd ed. brings a fully analytical design method for radial impellers, which eliminates the arbitrary choices inherent to former design procedures. The d...

  3. Effects of intrinsic stochasticity on delayed reaction-diffusion patterning systems

    KAUST Repository

    Woolley, Thomas E.; Baker, Ruth E.; Gaffney, Eamonn A.; Maini, Philip K.; Seirin-Lee, Sungrim

    2012-01-01

    Cellular gene expression is a complex process involving many steps, including the transcription of DNA and translation of mRNA; hence the synthesis of proteins requires a considerable amount of time, from ten minutes to several hours. Since diffusion-driven instability has been observed to be sensitive to perturbations in kinetic delays, the application of Turing patterning mechanisms to the problem of producing spatially heterogeneous differential gene expression has been questioned. In deterministic systems a small delay in the reactions can cause a large increase in the time it takes a system to pattern. Recently, it has been observed that in undelayed systems intrinsic stochasticity can cause pattern initiation to occur earlier than in the analogous deterministic simulations. Here we are interested in adding both stochasticity and delays to Turing systems in order to assess whether stochasticity can reduce the patterning time scale in delayed Turing systems. As analytical insights to this problem are difficult to attain and often limited in their use, we focus on stochastically simulating delayed systems. We consider four different Turing systems and two different forms of delay. Our results are mixed and lead to the conclusion that, although the sensitivity to delays in the Turing mechanism is not completely removed by the addition of intrinsic noise, the effects of the delays are clearly ameliorated in certain specific cases. © 2012 American Physical Society.

  4. Effects of intrinsic stochasticity on delayed reaction-diffusion patterning systems

    KAUST Repository

    Woolley, Thomas E.

    2012-05-22

    Cellular gene expression is a complex process involving many steps, including the transcription of DNA and translation of mRNA; hence the synthesis of proteins requires a considerable amount of time, from ten minutes to several hours. Since diffusion-driven instability has been observed to be sensitive to perturbations in kinetic delays, the application of Turing patterning mechanisms to the problem of producing spatially heterogeneous differential gene expression has been questioned. In deterministic systems a small delay in the reactions can cause a large increase in the time it takes a system to pattern. Recently, it has been observed that in undelayed systems intrinsic stochasticity can cause pattern initiation to occur earlier than in the analogous deterministic simulations. Here we are interested in adding both stochasticity and delays to Turing systems in order to assess whether stochasticity can reduce the patterning time scale in delayed Turing systems. As analytical insights to this problem are difficult to attain and often limited in their use, we focus on stochastically simulating delayed systems. We consider four different Turing systems and two different forms of delay. Our results are mixed and lead to the conclusion that, although the sensitivity to delays in the Turing mechanism is not completely removed by the addition of intrinsic noise, the effects of the delays are clearly ameliorated in certain specific cases. © 2012 American Physical Society.

  5. Effect of diabetes on the ion pumps of the bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Seham

    2013-01-01

    To establish whether the activities of Na+/K+-adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) and Ca2+-ATPases ion pumps in bladder smooth muscle are altered as a consequence of diabetes and, if so, how this might contribute to bladder cystopathy. Urinary bladder dysfunction is a common occurrence in patients with diabetes. Pressure generation requires calcium and cytosolic ATP. Activities of these pumps are responsible for calcium homeostasis. Rat urinary detrusor muscle strips were suspended in organ baths containing Krebs solution for isometric tension recording. Tissue responses to the Na+/K+-ATPase pump inhibitor, ouabain, the plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase inhibitor, vanadate, and the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase inhibitor, cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), were examined from normal and streptozocin-induced diabetic rats for 2, 4, and 12 weeks. Ouabain, vanadate, and CPA caused concentration-dependent contractions of bladder strips from diabetic and normal rats. The degree of contraction of diabetic bladder muscle was lower than that of controls. This reduction was a function of duration of diabetes. For ouabain, the reduction peaked at 2 weeks, with partial restoration to normal after diabetes induction. For vanadate and CPA, the reduction increased with the duration of diabetes. The ion pumps are important modulators of bladder smooth muscle tone, and in a rat model of streptozotocin-induced diabetes, the activity of these pumps is impaired. Although this is only a single model of diabetes, these findings suggest that a defect in these pumps may be an important component of the development of diabetic bladder cystopathy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Artificial emotion triggered stochastic behavior transitions with motivational gain effects for multi-objective robot tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dağlarli, Evren; Temeltaş, Hakan

    2007-04-01

    This paper presents artificial emotional system based autonomous robot control architecture. Hidden Markov model developed as mathematical background for stochastic emotional and behavior transitions. Motivation module of architecture considered as behavioral gain effect generator for achieving multi-objective robot tasks. According to emotional and behavioral state transition probabilities, artificial emotions determine sequences of behaviors. Also motivational gain effects of proposed architecture can be observed on the executing behaviors during simulation.

  7. Effect of Pumping Strategies on Pesticide Concentrations in Water Abstraction Wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aisopou, Angeliki; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    Pesticide use in agriculture is one of the main sources of groundwater contamination and poses an important threat to groundwater abstraction. Pesticides have been detected in 37% of Danish monitoring wells sampled, with 12 % exceeding drinking water guidelines. Field data captured in monitoring...... and pumping wells show that pesticide concentrations vary greatly in both time and space. This study aimed to use models to determine how pumping affects pesticide concentrations in drinking water wells placed in two hypothetical aquifer systems; a homogeneous layered aquifer and a layered aquifer...... in a pumping well capture zone were constructed using COMSOL Multiphysics. A series of simulations were conducted to examine the effect of pumping strategies (constant versus varying pumping rate), pesticide properties and aquifer hydrogeology on the concentration in drinking water wells. The results...

  8. The effects of design parameters on vortex diode pump performance, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshitomi, Hideki; Koizumi, Tadao; Muroyama, Kenichi; Wada, Tsutomu.

    1989-01-01

    A fluidic pump with two vortex diodes is a new technology for transporting dangerous corrosive fluids without the use of moving parts. The pump can be connected with the discharge tank through series and cascade connections. In the previous report, we described the fundamentals and design criteria of the pump for the series connection case. This study has been performed with the same object as the previous work for the case of cascade connection. First, we present the basic pump characteristics with some dimensionless performance factors by analyzing the pump model. Then, the effects of the cylinder volumetric coefficient, driving pressure, suction-diode-to-delivery-diode-passage-area ratio and reverse-flow-to-forward-flow-resistance ratio of the vortex diode are investigated. As a result, the characteristic difference between series and cascade connections is clarified. Basic ways to decide the value of each performance factor are suggested. (author)

  9. Theoretical study of the effect of pump wavelength drift on mode instability in a high-power fiber amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yakun; Tao, Rumao; Su, Rongtao; Wang, Xiaolin; Ma, Pengfei; Zhang, Hanwei; Zhou, Pu; Si, Lei

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents an investigation of the effect of pump wavelength drift on the threshold of mode instability (MI) in high-power ytterbium-doped fiber lasers. By using a semi-analytical model, we study the effects of pump wavelength drift with a central pump wavelength around 976 nm and 915 nm, respectively. The influences of the pump absorption coefficient and total pump absorption are considered simultaneously. The results indicate that the effect of pump wavelength drift around 976 nm is stronger than that around 915 nm. For more efficient suppression of MI by shifting the pump wavelength, efficient absorption of pump power is required. The MI thresholds for fibers with different total pump absorptions and cladding diameters are compared. When the total pump absorption is increased, the gain saturation is enhanced, which results in the MI being mitigated more effectively and being more sensitive to pump wavelength drift. The MI threshold in gain fibers with larger inner cladding diameter is higher but more dependent upon pump wavelength. The results of this work can help in optimizing the pump wavelength and fiber parameters and suppressing MI in high-power fiber lasers.

  10. Stochastic Mixed-Effects Parameters Bertalanffy Process, with Applications to Tree Crown Width Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petras Rupšys

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A stochastic modeling approach based on the Bertalanffy law gained interest due to its ability to produce more accurate results than the deterministic approaches. We examine tree crown width dynamic with the Bertalanffy type stochastic differential equation (SDE and mixed-effects parameters. In this study, we demonstrate how this simple model can be used to calculate predictions of crown width. We propose a parameter estimation method and computational guidelines. The primary goal of the study was to estimate the parameters by considering discrete sampling of the diameter at breast height and crown width and by using maximum likelihood procedure. Performance statistics for the crown width equation include statistical indexes and analysis of residuals. We use data provided by the Lithuanian National Forest Inventory from Scots pine trees to illustrate issues of our modeling technique. Comparison of the predicted crown width values of mixed-effects parameters model with those obtained using fixed-effects parameters model demonstrates the predictive power of the stochastic differential equations model with mixed-effects parameters. All results were implemented in a symbolic algebra system MAPLE.

  11. Estimation of the risks of stochastic effects attributable to the radiological conditions in Tbilisi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vepkhvadze, N.R.; Gelashvili, K.D.; Kiladze, N.A.

    1997-01-01

    Radiation background in Tbilisi City has been studied; collective and annual average statistic dozes have been ascertained, parameters of stochastic effects' (cancerogenic, genetic) risks caused by low dozes of ionizing radiation have been calculated. From 21 cases of total risk 7 are stipulated by genetic defects, 14 - by lethal malignant tumor. The conclusion is that we should not expect important changes in health condition of population caused by existing in Tbilisi City radiation background. (author)

  12. Effects of error feedback on a nonlinear bistable system with stochastic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jian-Long; Zhou Hui

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the effects of error feedback on the output of a nonlinear bistable system with stochastic resonance. The bit error rate is employed to quantify the performance of the system. The theoretical analysis and the numerical simulation are presented. By investigating the performances of the nonlinear systems with different strengths of error feedback, we argue that the presented system may provide guidance for practical nonlinear signal processing

  13. Effect of using pump on postoperative pleural effusion in the patients that underwent CABG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Özülkü

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: The present study investigated effect of using pump on postoperative pleural effusion in patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting. Methods: A total of 256 patients who underwent isolated coronary artery bypass grafting surgery in the Cardiovascular Surgery clinic were enrolled in the study. Jostra-Cobe (Model 043213 105, VLC 865, Sweden heart-lung machine was used in on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting. Off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting was performed using Octopus and Starfish. Proximal anastomoses to the aorta in both on-pump and off-pump techniques were performed by side clamps. The patients were discharged from the hospital between postoperative day 6 and day 11. Results: The incidence of postoperative right pleural effusion and bilateral pleural effusion was found to be higher as a count in Group 1 (on-pump as compared to Group 2 (off-pump. But the difference was not statistically significant [P>0.05 for right pleural effusion (P=0.893, P>0.05 for bilateral pleural effusion (P=0.780]. Left pleural effusion was encountered to be lower in Group 2 (off-pump. The difference was found to be statistically significant (P<0.05, P=0.006. Conclusion: Under the light of these results, it can be said that left pleural effusion is less prevalent in the patients that underwent off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting when compared to the patients that underwent on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting.

  14. Analysis of stochastic effects in Kaldor-type business cycle discrete model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashkirtseva, Irina; Ryashko, Lev; Sysolyatina, Anna

    2016-07-01

    We study nonlinear stochastic phenomena in the discrete Kaldor model of business cycles. A numerical parametric analysis of stochastically forced attractors (equilibria, closed invariant curves, discrete cycles) of this model is performed using the stochastic sensitivity functions technique. A spatial arrangement of random states in stochastic attractors is modeled by confidence domains. The phenomenon of noise-induced transitions ;chaos-order; is discussed.

  15. Possible effects of groundwater pumping on surface water in the Verde Valley, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, Stanley A.; Haney, Jeanmarie

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with The Nature Conservancy, has applied a groundwater model to simulate effects of groundwater pumping and artificial recharge on surface water in the Verde Valley sub-basin of Arizona. Results are in two sets of maps that show effects of locations of pumping or recharge on streamflow. These maps will help managers make decisions that will meet water needs and minimize environmental impacts.

  16. NONLINEAR OPTICAL EFFECTS: Four-wave resonant parametric interaction with signal phase conjugation in a wide-band pump field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barashkov, M. S.; Iskanderov, N. A.

    1987-08-01

    An analysis is made of the reduction of the fluctuations introduced in the intensity of the phase conjugate wave and of the reduction in the time for establishment of quasisteady conjugation conditions and in the relaxation time of the intensity of the conjugate wave after switching on of the pump fields in the case of stochastic excitation of a transition. It is shown that, in principle, it is possible to generate a narrow-band pump-induced component of the conjugate wave spectrum.

  17. Investigation the Effects of Operation Methods on Energy Consumption in Agricultural Water Pumping Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. DelfanAzari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The energy crisis has led the world toward the reduction of energy consumption. More than 70 percent of the energy in agriculture sector is used by pumps. In our country, there is no clear standard and guideline and also no adequate supervision for the design, selection, installation and operation of pumping systems appropriate to the circumstances and needs. Consequently, these systems operate with low efficiency and high losses of energy. While more than 20 percent of the world's electricity is consumed by pumps, average pumping efficiency is less than 40%. So evaluation of pumping stations and providing some solutions to increase efficiency and pumping system’s life time and to reduce energy consumption can be an effective in optimization of energy consumption in the country. The main reasons for the low efficiency of pumping systems comparing to potential efficiency are using unsuitable techniques for flow control, hydraulic and physical changes of pumping system during the time, using pumps or motors with low efficiency and poor maintenance. Normally the amount of flow is not constant over the time in a pumping system and needed flow rate is changed at different times. Designing of pumping system should be responsible for peak requirements as well as it must suggest the suitable flow control method to achieve least energy losses for minimum flow requirements. Also one of the main capabilities to reduce energy consumption in pumping stations is improving the flow control method. Using the flow control valves and bypass line with high energy losses is very common. While the use of variable speed pumps (VSPs that supply water requirement with sufficient pressure and minimum amount of energy, is limited due to lack of awareness of designers and (or high initial costs. Materials and Methods: In this study, the operation of the pumping stations under four scenarios (for discharge control in a drip irrigation system was analyzed

  18. Quantitative radiomics: impact of stochastic effects on textural feature analysis implies the need for standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyflot, Matthew J; Yang, Fei; Byrd, Darrin; Bowen, Stephen R; Sandison, George A; Kinahan, Paul E

    2015-10-01

    Image heterogeneity metrics such as textural features are an active area of research for evaluating clinical outcomes with positron emission tomography (PET) imaging and other modalities. However, the effects of stochastic image acquisition noise on these metrics are poorly understood. We performed a simulation study by generating 50 statistically independent PET images of the NEMA IQ phantom with realistic noise and resolution properties. Heterogeneity metrics based on gray-level intensity histograms, co-occurrence matrices, neighborhood difference matrices, and zone size matrices were evaluated within regions of interest surrounding the lesions. The impact of stochastic variability was evaluated with percent difference from the mean of the 50 realizations, coefficient of variation and estimated sample size for clinical trials. Additionally, sensitivity studies were performed to simulate the effects of patient size and image reconstruction method on the quantitative performance of these metrics. Complex trends in variability were revealed as a function of textural feature, lesion size, patient size, and reconstruction parameters. In conclusion, the sensitivity of PET textural features to normal stochastic image variation and imaging parameters can be large and is feature-dependent. Standards are needed to ensure that prospective studies that incorporate textural features are properly designed to measure true effects that may impact clinical outcomes.

  19. The Bullwhip Effect: Applying Stochastic Models on Beer Distribution Game

    OpenAIRE

    Yohannes Yebabe

    2014-01-01

    Supply chain management is a fledgling science which concerned with synchronization of both material flow and information flow by integrating companies for a common objective to meet the requirements of the end customer. Bullwhip effect is an important research topic of the supply chain management. The Bullwhip effect is precarious to both short and long run competitive advantage, the dependability sustainability advantage of the chain. This paper proposes to show the impact of the Bullwhip e...

  20. High Speed Pump-Probe Apparatus for Observation of Transitional Effects in Ultrafast Laser Micromachining Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya Alexeev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A pump-probe experimental approach has been shown to be a very efficient tool for the observation and analysis of various laser matter interaction effects. In those setups, synchronized laser pulses are used to create an event (pump and to simultaneously observe it (probe. In general, the physical effects that can be investigated with such an apparatus are restricted by the temporal resolution of the probe pulse and the observation window. The latter can be greatly extended by adjusting the pump-probe time delay under the assumption that the interaction process remains fairly reproducible. Unfortunately, this assumption becomes invalid in the case of high-repetition-rate ultrafast laser material processing, where the irradiation history strongly affects the ongoing interaction process. In this contribution, the authors present an extension of the pump-probe setup that allows to investigate transitional and dynamic effects present during ultrafast laser machining performed at high pulse repetition frequencies.

  1. Effect Of Geothermal Heat Pump On Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed F. Atwan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this research the calculations of carbon dioxide emissions CO2 in summer May to September 150 day and winter seasons December to February 90 day were performed by using the coefficient of performance for each air and ground source heat pump. The place of study case take relative to solar path in to account and the study case was three halls men women and surgery halls in Al-Musayyib hospital in Babylon.

  2. Pump effect of a capillary discharge in electrically conductive liquids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    De Baerdemaeker, F.; Šimek, Milan; Leys, C.; Verstraete, W.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 4 (2007), s. 473-485 ISSN 0272-4324 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1043403 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : water * conductive * capillary * AC discharge * pump Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.747, year: 2007 http://www.springerlink.com/content/w802073563282272/fulltext.pdf

  3. Effect of gas quantity on two-phase flow characteristics of a mixed-flow pump

    OpenAIRE

    Qiang Fu; Fan Zhang; Rongsheng Zhu; Xiuli Wang

    2016-01-01

    The inlet gas quantity has a great influence on the performance and inner flow characteristics of a mixed-flow pump. In this article, both numerical and experimental methods are used to carry out this research work. The effects under the steady gas volume fraction state and the transient gas quantity variation process on the mixed-flow pump are investigated and compared in detail. It could be concluded that the head of the mixed-flow pump shows slight decline at the low gas volume fraction st...

  4. Dose dependence on stochastic radiobiological effect in radiation risk estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komochkov, M.M.

    1999-01-01

    The analysis of the results in dose -- effect relationship observation has been carried out on the cell and organism levels, with the aim to obtain more precise data on the risk coefficients at low doses. The results are represented by two contrasting groups of dose dependence on effect: a downwards concave and a J-shaped curve. Both types of dependence are described by the equation solutions of an assumed unified protective mechanism, which comprises two components: constitutive and adaptive or inducible ones. The latest data analysis of the downwards concave dependence curves shows a considerable underestimation of radiation risk in all types of cancer, except leukemia, for a number of critical groups in a population, at low doses comparing to the ICRP recommendations. With the dose increase, the decrease of the effect value per dose unit is observed. It may be possibly related to the switching of the activity of the adaptive protective mechanism, with some threshold dose values being exceeded

  5. Synchronization of coupled stochastic oscillators: The effect of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    as an approximate means of accounting for a separation of time-scales between ... phase relationships between coupled oscillator systems as well as to effect a variety ... ations are often termed as internal noise since their origin is in the very ..... design and control of synthetic biological networks where synchronous ...

  6. Stochastic model stationarization by eliminating the periodic term and its effect on time series prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeeni, Hamid; Bonakdari, Hossein; Fatemi, Seyed Ehsan

    2017-04-01

    Because time series stationarization has a key role in stochastic modeling results, three methods are analyzed in this study. The methods are seasonal differencing, seasonal standardization and spectral analysis to eliminate the periodic effect on time series stationarity. First, six time series including 4 streamflow series and 2 water temperature series are stationarized. The stochastic term for these series obtained with ARIMA is subsequently modeled. For the analysis, 9228 models are introduced. It is observed that seasonal standardization and spectral analysis eliminate the periodic term completely, while seasonal differencing maintains seasonal correlation structures. The obtained results indicate that all three methods present acceptable performance overall. However, model accuracy in monthly streamflow prediction is higher with seasonal differencing than with the other two methods. Another advantage of seasonal differencing over the other methods is that the monthly streamflow is never estimated as negative. Standardization is the best method for predicting monthly water temperature although it is quite similar to seasonal differencing, while spectral analysis performed the weakest in all cases. It is concluded that for each monthly seasonal series, seasonal differencing is the best stationarization method in terms of periodic effect elimination. Moreover, the monthly water temperature is predicted with more accuracy than monthly streamflow. The criteria of the average stochastic term divided by the amplitude of the periodic term obtained for monthly streamflow and monthly water temperature were 0.19 and 0.30, 0.21 and 0.13, and 0.07 and 0.04 respectively. As a result, the periodic term is more dominant than the stochastic term for water temperature in the monthly water temperature series compared to streamflow series.

  7. Centrifugal Pump Effect on Average Particle Diameter of Oil-Water Emulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozova, A.; Eskin, A.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper we review the process of oil-water emulsion particles fragmentation in a turbulent flow created by a centrifugal pump. We examined the influence of time necessary for oil-water emulsion preparation on the particle size of oil products and the dependence of a centrifugal pump emulsifying capacity on the initial emulsion dispersion. The investigated emulsion contained the brand fuel oil M-100 and tap water; it was sprayed with a nozzle in a gas-water flare. After preparation of the emulsion, the centrifugal pump was turned on and the emulsion samples were taken before and after the pump passing in 15, 30 and 45 minutes of spraying. To determine the effect the centrifugal pump has on the dispersion of the oil-water emulsion, the mean particle diameter of the emulsion particles was determined by the optical and microscopic method before and after the pump passing. A dispersion analysis of the particles contained in the emulsion was carried out by a laser diffraction analyzer. By analyzing the pictures of the emulsion samples, it was determined that after the centrifugal pump operation a particle size of oil products decreases. This result is also confirmed by the distribution of the obtained analyzer where the content of fine particles with a diameter less than 10 μm increased from 12% to 23%. In case of increasing emulsion preparation time, a particle size of petroleum products also decreases.

  8. Non-stochastic effects of ionising radiations on gonads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ash, P.J.N.D.

    1986-01-01

    Fractionated gonad doses of 0.35 Gy cause marked temporary reduction in sperm count; fractionated ovarian doses up to 1.5 Gy have no apparent effect in women aged 20 to 30. Single testicular doses of 0.5 to 3 Gy cause aspermia; return to pre-irradiation sperm counts occurs about 30 months after single doses of 2 and 3 Gy. The ovary also has a recovery capacity, particularly in women under 40. Type B spermatogonia are the most radiosensitive germ cells for cell killing. Later stages are more radioresistant, forming a transient population in the total male reproductive life. Following radiation-induced sterilisation, fertility is restored if enough spermatogonia survive to repopulate the seminiferous tubules. Radiation effects on female fertility are explained on the basis of reduction in a fixed oocyte pool. Doses needed to induce artificial menopause are higher in younger women because their ovaries contain larger oocyte numbers. Particular fractionation regimes decrease the threshold dose for permanent male sterility. It has been inferred that human testes could tolerate 1 mGy per day indefinitely without fertility impairment. In female experimental mammals, fractionation reduces fertility damage. Fractionation may also have a protective effect on the human ovary, depending on age and total dose. (U.K.)

  9. Patterning effects in quantum dot amplifiers characterized through pump probe spectroscopy using two pump pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Tommy Winther; Poel, Mike van der; Laemmlin, M.

    2004-01-01

    Patterning effects at ultrahigh bitrates in quantum dot amplifiers are investigated by a novel experimental technique. Slow carrier dynamics in the excited states and wetting layer are found to limit the potential for ultrahigh-speed signal processing....

  10. Quantum pump effect induced by a linearly polarized microwave in a two-dimensional electron gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Juntao; Liu, Haiwen; Jiang, Hua

    2012-05-30

    A quantum pump effect is predicted in an ideal homogeneous two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) that is normally irradiated by linearly polarized microwaves (MW). Without considering effects from spin-orbital coupling or the magnetic field, it is found that a polarized MW can continuously pump electrons from the longitudinal to the transverse direction, or from the transverse to the longitudinal direction, in the central irradiated region. The large pump current is obtained for both the low frequency limit and the high frequency case. Its magnitude depends on sample properties such as the size of the radiated region, the power and frequency of the MW, etc. Through the calculated results, the pump current should be attributed to the dominant photon-assisted tunneling processes as well as the asymmetry of the electron density of states with respect to the Fermi energy.

  11. Calculation of the incidence of stochastic health effects in irradiated populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, R.H.; Smith, H.

    1980-06-01

    A procedure for the estimation of the numbers of stochastic health effects in irradiated populations is described. Three broad categories of health effects have been defined, which are summarised as fatal cancers, non-fatal cancers, and serious hereditary defects. The paper quantifies the risk coefficients and the time distributions of those risks for each identified category. These data are needed for assessments of both accidental and routine releases of radioactive materials to the environment. No attempt is made to ascribe factors to the relative importance of the three categories of health effect although this is clearly of significance when applying the results for decision-making or other purposes. (U.K.)

  12. Numerical research on the effects of impeller pump-out vanes on axial force in a solid-liquid screw centrifugal pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, X R; Li, R N; Gao, Y; Guo, W L

    2013-01-01

    A commercial CFD code has been used to predict the performance of a screw centrifugal pump with pump-out vanes, especially when changing regularity of impeller axial force based on the solid-liquid two-phase flow. The Unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) approach has been applied to solve the unsteady, incompressible, three-dimensional turbulent. The SIMPLEC algorithm, standard wall functions and mix two-phase flow model were applied. The RNG k ε-model was used to account the turbulence effects. By changing the number of impeller pump-out vanes and width, six different screw centrifugal pump numerical simulation projects were given, and each scheme in the different solid volume fraction were calculated respectively. The change rules of axial force, velocity and pressure distribution of flow field were obtained on the different condition and different volume fraction. The results showed that the axial forces values based solid-fluid two-phase greater than based single-phase clear water, but both changing regularity of the axial force were consistent; as same condition, the same solid-phase volume concentration, with the increase of pump-out vanes number or width, the impeller axial force increased as well. Meanwhile the number of the pump-out vanes and the width of pump-out vanes in balancing the impeller axial force, there are the most optimal value

  13. Characteristics of an ammonia/lithium nitrate double effect heat pump-transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heard, C.L.; Rivera, W.; Best, R.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The ammonia/lithium nitrate cycle is a little less efficient than the water/lithium bromide cycle. • Ratios of useful heat delivered to driving heat of nearly four are shown to be achievable. • Operating characteristics of a NH3/LiNO3 double effect absorption heat pump-transformer. - Abstract: The modelled operating characteristics of an ammonia/lithium nitrate double effect absorption heat pump-transformer (Type III absorption heat pump) are presented and compared to other working pair options and absorption heat pump cycles. Heat and mass balance equations are given. The effect of sub-optimal cycle design is shown on cycle thermal efficiency and solution pump power. It is shown that the ammonia/lithium nitrate working pair would achieve a performance a little less efficient than a water/lithium bromide system but is somewhat more tolerant of less than optimum operating conditions with respect to cycle thermal efficiency and solution pump power. Ratios of useful heat delivered to driving heat of nearly four are shown to be achievable with this system.

  14. Mixed Effects Modeling Using Stochastic Differential Equations: Illustrated by Pharmacokinetic Data of Nicotinic Acid in Obese Zucker Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leander, Jacob; Almquist, Joachim; Ahlström, Christine; Gabrielsson, Johan; Jirstrand, Mats

    2015-05-01

    Inclusion of stochastic differential equations in mixed effects models provides means to quantify and distinguish three sources of variability in data. In addition to the two commonly encountered sources, measurement error and interindividual variability, we also consider uncertainty in the dynamical model itself. To this end, we extend the ordinary differential equation setting used in nonlinear mixed effects models to include stochastic differential equations. The approximate population likelihood is derived using the first-order conditional estimation with interaction method and extended Kalman filtering. To illustrate the application of the stochastic differential mixed effects model, two pharmacokinetic models are considered. First, we use a stochastic one-compartmental model with first-order input and nonlinear elimination to generate synthetic data in a simulated study. We show that by using the proposed method, the three sources of variability can be successfully separated. If the stochastic part is neglected, the parameter estimates become biased, and the measurement error variance is significantly overestimated. Second, we consider an extension to a stochastic pharmacokinetic model in a preclinical study of nicotinic acid kinetics in obese Zucker rats. The parameter estimates are compared between a deterministic and a stochastic NiAc disposition model, respectively. Discrepancies between model predictions and observations, previously described as measurement noise only, are now separated into a comparatively lower level of measurement noise and a significant uncertainty in model dynamics. These examples demonstrate that stochastic differential mixed effects models are useful tools for identifying incomplete or inaccurate model dynamics and for reducing potential bias in parameter estimates due to such model deficiencies.

  15. Solar-assisted heat pump system for cost-effective space heating and cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, J W; Kush, E A; Metz, P D

    1978-03-01

    The use of heat pumps for the utilization of solar energy is studied. Two requirements for a cost-effective system are identified: (1) a special heat pump whose coefficient of performance continues to rise with source temperature over the entire range appropriate for solar assist, and (2) a low-cost collection and storage subsystem able to supply solar energy to the heat pump efficiently at low temperatures. Programs leading to the development of these components are discussed. A solar assisted heat pump system using these components is simulated via a computer, and the results of the simulation are used as the basis for a cost comparison of the proposed system with other solar and conventional systems.

  16. Scaling behavior of the spin pumping effect in conductive ferromagnet/platinum bilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czeschka, Franz D.; Althammer, Matthias; Huebl, Hans; Gross, Rudolf; Goennenwein, Sebastian T.B. [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Garching (Germany); Dreher, Lukas; Brandt, Martin S. [Walter Schottky Institut, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Imort, Inga-Mareen; Reiss, Guenter; Thomas, Andy [Fakultaet fuer Physik, Universitaet Bielefeld (Germany); Schoch, Wladimir; Limmer, Wolfgang [Abteilung Halbleiterphysik, Universitaet Ulm (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Spin pumping experiments allow to measure spin currents or the spin Hall angle. We have systematically studied the spin pumping DC voltage occurring in conjunction with ferromagnetic resonance in a series of conductive ferromagnet/platinum bilayers, made from elemental 3d transition metals, Heusler compounds, ferrite spinel oxides, and magnetic semiconductors. In all bilayers, we invariably observe the same DC voltage polarity. Moreover, we find that the voltage magnitude scales with the magnetization precession cone angle with a universal prefactor, irrespective of the magnetic properties, the charge carrier transport mechanism, and the charge carrier type in a given ferromagnet. These findings quantitatively corroborate the present theoretical understanding of spin pumping in combination with the inverse spin Hall effect, and establish spin pumping as a generic phenomenon.

  17. Effects of ionizing scrape-off layers on local recycling in Tore Supra pump limiter experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, L.W.; Hogan, J.T.; Klepper, C.C.; Mioduszewski, P.K.; Uckan, T.; Chatelier, M.; Loarer, T.

    1992-01-01

    A series of ohmic discharges with active pumping in the Tore Supra outboard pump limiter has been analyzed with the DEGAS neutrals transport code and an analysis scrape-off layer (SOL) plasma model. Pumping speed and plenum pressure measurements indicated 5--10 torr-L/s throughput with only modest effects on density (dN core /dt + source rate from ionization and dissociation of wall-desorbed molecules is seen to peak very near the radial position of the limiter throat. Consequently, a strong recycling vortex is created in the region of the limiter, with the ion flux amplified by factors of ∼2 at the outer limiter surfaces and >3 within the limiter throat. The calculations indicate that less than 30% of the pump throughput is due to first-generation ions from the core efflux, with the balance from local recycling in the strongly ionizing scrape-off layer

  18. Stochastic resonance in a single-mode laser driven by frequency modulated signal and coloured noises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Guo-Xiang; Zhang Liang-Ying; Cao Li

    2009-01-01

    By adding frequency modulated signals to the intensity equation of gain-noise model of the single-mode laser driven by two coloured noises which are correlated, this paper uses the linear approximation method to calculate the power spectrum and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the laser intensity. The results show that the SNR appears typical stochastic resonance with the variation of intensity of the pump noise and quantum noise. As the amplitude of a modulated signal has effects on the SNR, it shows suppression, monotone increasing, stochastic resonance, and multiple stochastic resonance with the variation of the frequency of a carrier signal and modulated signal.

  19. The use of copulas to practical estimation of multivariate stochastic differential equation mixed effects models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rupšys, P.

    2015-01-01

    A system of stochastic differential equations (SDE) with mixed-effects parameters and multivariate normal copula density function were used to develop tree height model for Scots pine trees in Lithuania. A two-step maximum likelihood parameter estimation method is used and computational guidelines are given. After fitting the conditional probability density functions to outside bark diameter at breast height, and total tree height, a bivariate normal copula distribution model was constructed. Predictions from the mixed-effects parameters SDE tree height model calculated during this research were compared to the regression tree height equations. The results are implemented in the symbolic computational language MAPLE

  20. Estimation of stochastic effects risk in children from areas affected by the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jova S, L.; Garcia L, O.; Valdes R, M.

    1996-01-01

    Radiation risk estimation of stochastic effect was evaluated in a group of children assisted in the Cuba Republic as part of the program for medical attention with children from areas affected by the Chernobyl accident . Doses, received from different sources, were estimated for risk evaluation. The study shows total detrimental effects between 0,02 - 0,01% for different groups; values lower than expected for developed country (17-20%). Fatal thyroid cancer increased up to 0,07% in one of the studied groups. (authors). 8 refs., 4 tabs

  1. The use of copulas to practical estimation of multivariate stochastic differential equation mixed effects models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rupšys, P. [Aleksandras Stulginskis University, Studenų g. 11, Akademija, Kaunas district, LT – 53361 Lithuania (Lithuania)

    2015-10-28

    A system of stochastic differential equations (SDE) with mixed-effects parameters and multivariate normal copula density function were used to develop tree height model for Scots pine trees in Lithuania. A two-step maximum likelihood parameter estimation method is used and computational guidelines are given. After fitting the conditional probability density functions to outside bark diameter at breast height, and total tree height, a bivariate normal copula distribution model was constructed. Predictions from the mixed-effects parameters SDE tree height model calculated during this research were compared to the regression tree height equations. The results are implemented in the symbolic computational language MAPLE.

  2. Modelling ventricular fibrillation coarseness during cardiopulmonary resuscitation by mixed effects stochastic differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundersen, Kenneth; Kvaløy, Jan Terje; Eftestøl, Trygve; Kramer-Johansen, Jo

    2015-10-15

    For patients undergoing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and being in a shockable rhythm, the coarseness of the electrocardiogram (ECG) signal is an indicator of the state of the patient. In the current work, we show how mixed effects stochastic differential equations (SDE) models, commonly used in pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic modelling, can be used to model the relationship between CPR quality measurements and ECG coarseness. This is a novel application of mixed effects SDE models to a setting quite different from previous applications of such models and where using such models nicely solves many of the challenges involved in analysing the available data. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Effectiveness of a heat exchanger in a heat pump clothes dryer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasution, A. H.; Sembiring, P. G.; Ambarita, H.

    2018-02-01

    This paper deals with study on a heat pump clothes dryer coupled with a heat exchanger. The objective is to explore the effects of the heat exchanger on the performance of the heat pump dryer. The heat pump dryer consists of a vapor compression cycle and integrated with a drying room with volume 1 m3. The power of compressor is 800 Watt and the refrigerant of the cycle is R22. The heat exchanger is a flat plate type with dimensions of 400 mm × 400 mm × 400 mm. The results show the present of the heat exchanger increase the performance of the heat pump dryer. In the present experiment the COP, TP and SMER increase 15.11%, 4.81% and 58.62%, respectively. This is because the heat exchanger provides a better drying condition in the drying room with higher temperature and lower relative humidity in comparison with heat pump dryer without heat exchanger. The effectiveness of the heat exchanger is also high, it is above 50%. It is suggested to install a heat exchanger in a heat pump dryer.

  4. Effects of ionizing scrape-off layers on local recycling in Tore Supra pump limiter experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatelier, M.; Loarer, T.

    1992-01-01

    A series of ohmic discharges with active pumping in the Tore Supra outboard pump limiter has been analyzed with the DEGAS neutrals transport code and an analytic scrape-off layer (SOL) plasma model. Pumping speed and plenum pressure measurements indicated 5-10 torr.L/s throughput with only modest effects on density. A model is developed in which large exhaust fluxes, with little attendant effect on core plasma density, are explained in terms of SOL ionization of recycled and wall-desorbed neutrals. Particle balance with active pumping and constant line density requires that the wall return flux exceed the incident flux by approximately the pump throughput in the absence of external fueling. The radial profile of the H + source rate from ionization and dissociation of wall-desorbed molecules is seen to peak very near the radial position of the limiter throat. Consequently, a strong recycling vortex is created in the region of the limiter, with the ion flux amplified by factors of 2 at the outer limiter surfaces and > 3 within the limiter throat. The calculations indicate that less than 30% of the pump throughput is due to first-generation ions from the core efflux, with the balance from local recycling in the strongly ionizing SOL

  5. Numerical identification of blade exit angle effect on the performance for a multistage centrifugal pump impeller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babayigit Osman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, single and multistage centrifugal pumps are widely used in industrial and mining enterprises. One of the most important components of a centrifugal pump is the impeller. The performance characteristics are related to the pump comprising the head and the overall efficiency rely a great deal on the impeller geometry. In this work, effects of blade exit angle change on hydraulic efficiency of a multi stage pump impeller are investigated via Ansys-Fluent computational fluid dynamics software for constant width impeller entrance and exit gates, blade numbers and blade thickness. Firstly, the flow volume of a centrifugal pump impeller is generated and then mesh structure is formed for the full impeller flow volume. Secondly, rotational periodic flow model are adopted in order to examine the effect of periodic flow assumption on the performance predictions. Corresponding to the available experimental data, inlet mass flow rate, outlet static pressure and rotation of impeller are taken as 0.02m3s-1, 450 kPa and 2950 rpm, respectively for the water fluid. No slip boundary condition is exposed to all solid of surface in the flow volume. The continuity and Navier-Stokes equations with the k-ε turbulence model and the standard wall functions are used. During the study, numerical analyses are conducted for the blade exit angle values of 18°, 20°, 25°, 30° and 35°. In consequence of the performed analyses, it is determined that hydraulic efficiency of the pump impeller value is changed between 81.0-84.6%. The most convenient blade exit angle that yields 84.6% hydraulic efficiency at is 18°. The obtained results show that the blade exit angle range has an impact on the centrifugal pump performance describing the pump head and the hydraulic efficiency.

  6. Early effects of aldosterone on Na-K pump in rat cortical collecting tubules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Y.; Takemoto, F.; Katz, A.I.

    1990-01-01

    Sustained exposure to aldosterone (Aldo) increases the abundance and activity of the Na-K pump in cortical collecting tubules (CCT). However, the onset and mechanism of the early interaction of Aldo with the CCT pump, especially in adrenal-intact animals, are unclear. We evaluated the short-term effects of the hormone on Na-K-adenosinetriphosphatase (ATPase) activity and on ouabain-sensitive 86Rb uptake, a measure of the transporting rate of the pump, in microdissected CCT from adrenal-intact rats. Incubation with Aldo (10(-8) M, 2 h) had no effect on Na-K-ATPase activity (Vmax), whereas it produced at least a twofold increase in 86Rb uptake. This effect was generated by physiological concentrations of the hormone (threshold 10(-10) M; apparent K1/2 approximately 10(-9) M), after a short lag of less than or equal to 30 min. Incubation with Aldo in the presence of amiloride or nystatin or in a Na-free medium (choline chloride) did not prevent the enhanced 86Rb uptake seen after Aldo alone; possible interpretations of these observations are discussed. We conclude that Aldo produces a rapid stimulation of pump function in CCT that precedes its induction of new pump synthesis; the physiological significance of this effect is suggested by its occurrence in tubules from adrenal-intact animals within the time frame and concentration range of the hormone's effects on electrolyte transport

  7. The Effects of Altered Membrane Cholesterol Levels on Sodium Pump Activity in Subclinical Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suparna Roy

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundMetabolic dysfunctions characteristic of overt hypothyroidism (OH start at the early stage of subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH. Na+/K+-ATPase (the sodium pump is a transmembrane enzyme that plays a vital role in cellular activities in combination with membrane lipids. We evaluated the effects of early changes in thyroid hormone and membrane cholesterol on sodium pump activity in SCH and OH patients.MethodsIn 32 SCH patients, 35 OH patients, and 34 euthyroid patients, sodium pump activity and cholesterol levels in red blood cell membranes were measured. Serum thyroxine (T4 and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Differences in their mean values were analysed using post hoc analysis of variance. We assessed the dependence of the sodium pump on other metabolites by multiple regression analysis.ResultsSodium pump activity and membrane cholesterol were lower in both hypothyroid groups than in control group, OH group exhibiting lower values than SCH group. In SCH group, sodium pump activity showed a significant direct dependence on membrane cholesterol with an inverse relationship with serum TSH levels. In OH group, sodium pump activity depended directly on membrane cholesterol and serum T4 levels. No dependence on serum cholesterol was observed in either case.ConclusionDespite the presence of elevated serum cholesterol in hypothyroidism, membrane cholesterol contributed significantly to maintain sodium pump activity in the cells. A critical reduction in membrane cholesterol levels heralds compromised enzyme activity, even in the early stage of hypothyroidism, and this can be predicted by elevated TSH levels alone, without any evident clinical manifestations.

  8. Performance Optimization of Irreversible Air Heat Pumps Considering Size Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Yuehong; Chen, Lingen; Ding, Zemin; Sun, Fengrui

    2018-06-01

    Considering the size of an irreversible air heat pump (AHP), heating load density (HLD) is taken as thermodynamic optimization objective by using finite-time thermodynamics. Based on an irreversible AHP with infinite reservoir thermal-capacitance rate model, the expression of HLD of AHP is put forward. The HLD optimization processes are studied analytically and numerically, which consist of two aspects: (1) to choose pressure ratio; (2) to distribute heat-exchanger inventory. Heat reservoir temperatures, heat transfer performance of heat exchangers as well as irreversibility during compression and expansion processes are important factors influencing on the performance of an irreversible AHP, which are characterized with temperature ratio, heat exchanger inventory as well as isentropic efficiencies, respectively. Those impacts of parameters on the maximum HLD are thoroughly studied. The research results show that HLD optimization can make the size of the AHP system smaller and improve the compactness of system.

  9. Dose-rate dependent stochastic effects in radiation cell-survival models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachs, R.K.; Hlatky, L.R.

    1990-01-01

    When cells are subjected to ionizing radiation the specific energy rate (microscopic analog of dose-rate) varies from cell to cell. Within one cell, this rate fluctuates during the course of time; a crossing of a sensitive cellular site by a high energy charged particle produces many ionizations almost simultaneously, but during the interval between events no ionizations occur. In any cell-survival model one can incorporate the effect of such fluctuations without changing the basic biological assumptions. Using stochastic differential equations and Monte Carlo methods to take into account stochastic effects we calculated the dose-survival rfelationships in a number of current cell survival models. Some of the models assume quadratic misrepair; others assume saturable repair enzyme systems. It was found that a significant effect of random fluctuations is to decrease the theoretically predicted amount of dose-rate sparing. In the limit of low dose-rates neglecting the stochastic nature of specific energy rates often leads to qualitatively misleading results by overestimating the surviving fraction drastically. In the opposite limit of acute irradiation, analyzing the fluctuations in rates merely amounts to analyzing fluctuations in total specific energy via the usual microdosimetric specific energy distribution function, and neglecting fluctuations usually underestimates the surviving fraction. The Monte Carlo methods interpolate systematically between the low dose-rate and high dose-rate limits. As in other approaches, the slope of the survival curve at low dose-rates is virtually independent of dose and equals the initial slope of the survival curve for acute radiation. (orig.)

  10. Experimental investigation of debris effects on pump operation and comparison with existing wear models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, D.

    2010-01-01

    During a Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) the emergency core cooling system (ECCS), comprised of several pumping systems, must provide cooling water to the reactor core. Initially, during an LOCA pumps are operated with clean water delivered from the storage tanks. After a certain time the water is recycled from the containment sump through the ECCS. This recycled water contains debris, both particulate and fibrous, that has collected in the containment sumps and passed through the strainers. The debris passing through the pumps will affect the pump performance. Previous tests, considering the effect of pumping debris, produced a model for predicting the wear in the pumps. This article and the objective of recent testing provide additional data which will improve prediction methods for performance degradation as a result of pumping foreign material. Experiments were performed on a small two stage pump with back to back impellers and a central bushing to obtain data and facilitate qualification of other pumps for these injections services. Various material combinations for pump internals, particle sizes and particle concentrations from 100 to 10000 ppm were examined. A total of six tests with more than 360 hours of run time were performed. At various points during each test, the pump was opened and dimensional measurements were taken. Pump hydraulic performance was measured during each segment of the various tests. Samples of the fluid were also taken at various times during the testing. The pump successfully ran without seizing during all modes of operation for all runs. Other incidents did occur including multiple failures involving wear through piping during the 10000 ppm run at which time the test was stopped before reaching the planned total run time. Pump seizure after shut down occurred after one of the tests. Hydraulic performance results showed a slight degradation in the developed head for all cases but one. That one case having a fine grain debris

  11. A one-dimensional stochastic approach to the study of cyclic voltammetry with adsorption effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samin, Adib J. [The Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Ohio State University, 201 W 19" t" h Avenue, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    In this study, a one-dimensional stochastic model based on the random walk approach is used to simulate cyclic voltammetry. The model takes into account mass transport, kinetics of the redox reactions, adsorption effects and changes in the morphology of the electrode. The model is shown to display the expected behavior. Furthermore, the model shows consistent qualitative agreement with a finite difference solution. This approach allows for an understanding of phenomena on a microscopic level and may be useful for analyzing qualitative features observed in experimentally recorded signals.

  12. A one-dimensional stochastic approach to the study of cyclic voltammetry with adsorption effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samin, Adib J.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a one-dimensional stochastic model based on the random walk approach is used to simulate cyclic voltammetry. The model takes into account mass transport, kinetics of the redox reactions, adsorption effects and changes in the morphology of the electrode. The model is shown to display the expected behavior. Furthermore, the model shows consistent qualitative agreement with a finite difference solution. This approach allows for an understanding of phenomena on a microscopic level and may be useful for analyzing qualitative features observed in experimentally recorded signals.

  13. FILTER-NET STRUCTURE AND PUMPING ACTIVITY IN THE POLYCHAETE NEREIS-DIVERSICOLOR - EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE AND PUMP-MODELING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgård, H.U.; Vedel, A.; Boye, H.

    1992-01-01

    on water processing were measured as clearance of suspended algal cells or measured directly. Pumping activity (undulating body movements of worms kept in glass tubes) was monitored using an infrared phototransducer technique. In the temperature interval from 5 to about 15-degrees-C there was a linear...... and a halving of the net cycle length. At low temperatures a tendency towards an extended pause between pumping periods was noticed. The N. diversicolor pump was modelled as a positive displacement leaking unit, and earlier data on back pressure characteristics were examined in light of the proposed model...

  14. From quantum to classical modeling of radiation reaction: A focus on stochasticity effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niel, F.; Riconda, C.; Amiranoff, F.; Duclous, R.; Grech, M.

    2018-04-01

    Radiation reaction in the interaction of ultrarelativistic electrons with a strong external electromagnetic field is investigated using a kinetic approach in the nonlinear moderately quantum regime. Three complementary descriptions are discussed considering arbitrary geometries of interaction: a deterministic one relying on the quantum-corrected radiation reaction force in the Landau and Lifschitz (LL) form, a linear Boltzmann equation for the electron distribution function, and a Fokker-Planck (FP) expansion in the limit where the emitted photon energies are small with respect to that of the emitting electrons. The latter description is equivalent to a stochastic differential equation where the effect of the radiation reaction appears in the form of the deterministic term corresponding to the quantum-corrected LL friction force, and by a diffusion term accounting for the stochastic nature of photon emission. By studying the evolution of the energy moments of the electron distribution function with the three models, we are able to show that all three descriptions provide similar predictions on the temporal evolution of the average energy of an electron population in various physical situations of interest, even for large values of the quantum parameter χ . The FP and full linear Boltzmann descriptions also allow us to correctly describe the evolution of the energy variance (second-order moment) of the distribution function, while higher-order moments are in general correctly captured with the full linear Boltzmann description only. A general criterion for the limit of validity of each description is proposed, as well as a numerical scheme for the inclusion of the FP description in particle-in-cell codes. This work, not limited to the configuration of a monoenergetic electron beam colliding with a laser pulse, allows further insight into the relative importance of various effects of radiation reaction and in particular of the discrete and stochastic nature of high

  15. Effect of sensor-augmented pump treatment vs. multiple daily injections on albuminuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard Rosenlund, Signe; Willum Hansen, Tine; Rossing, Peter

    2015-01-01

    CONTEXT: The effect of glycaemic control on persisting albuminuria remains unclear. Insulin delivery and glucose variability may be important Objective: To investigate the effect of 1 year treatment with sensor-augmented insulin pump (SAP) or multiple daily injections (MDI) on albuminuria. DESIGN...

  16. Theoretical and experimental study of stochastic effects on polarization rotation in a vectorial bistable laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Kamal P.; Ropars, Guy; Brunel, Marc; Le Floch, Albert

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the two-dimensional optical rotor of a weakly modulated vectorial bistable laser submitted to a single or multiple stochastic perturbations. In the Langevin-type equation of the rotor the role of an even or odd input forcing function on the system dynamics is isolated. Through these two inputs of optical and magnetic natures we verify that the stochastic resonance exists only when the periodic modulation acts on the even parity optical input. When two mutually correlated noises are simultaneously submitted to the input functions of opposite parities, we find a critical regime of the noise interplay whereby one stable state becomes noise-free. In this case, the residence time of the light vector in the noise-free state diverges which leads to a collapse of the output signal-to-noise ratio. But, in this critical regime also obtained when one noise drives both the even and odd functions, if the system symmetry is broken through an independent lever control, we can recover the switching cycle due to a new response mechanism, namely, the dual stochastic response, with a specific output signal-to-noise ratio expression. Both the theoretical analysis and the experiment show that the signal-to-noise ratio now displays a robust behavior for a large range of the input noise amplitude, and a plateau with respect to the input signal amplitude. Furthermore, we isolate an original signature of this synchronization mechanism in the residence-time distribution leading to a broadband forcing frequency range. These noise interplay effects in a double well potential are of generic nature and could be found in other nonlinear systems

  17. Evaluating the pacemaker effect with the pump parameter of gated blood-pool imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Muhua

    1995-01-01

    13 normal controls and 27 patients with ventricular pacemaker had undergone planar gated blood-pool imaging in different conditions. Result shows: (1) Pump parameters can successfully reflect therapeutic effect of pacemaker among them EMP is the most valuable parameter for evaluating the cardiac pumping effect. (2) After implantation of the ventricular pacemaker, the LVEF did not increase, but the CO and EMP was significantly increased. (3) Compared with right ventricular demand pacemaker, the rate-responsive ventricular pacemaker give better hemodynamic benefit at exercise condition. (4) Through restrained cardiac pacemaker the functional change was analyzed on or off pace, and monitoring the cardiac function itself after the pacemaker was implanted

  18. Scaling Behavior of the Spin Pumping Effect in Ferromagnet-Platinum Bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czeschka, F. D.; Dreher, L.; Brandt, M. S.; Weiler, M.; Althammer, M.; Imort, I.-M.; Reiss, G.; Thomas, A.; Schoch, W.; Limmer, W.; Huebl, H.; Gross, R.; Goennenwein, S. T. B.

    2011-07-01

    We systematically measured the dc voltage VISH induced by spin pumping together with the inverse spin Hall effect in ferromagnet-platinum bilayer films. In all our samples, comprising ferromagnetic 3d transition metals, Heusler compounds, ferrite spinel oxides, and magnetic semiconductors, VISH invariably has the same polarity, and scales with the magnetization precession cone angle. These findings, together with the spin mixing conductance derived from the experimental data, quantitatively corroborate the present theoretical understanding of spin pumping in combination with the inverse spin Hall effect.

  19. Inverse spin Hall effect induced by spin pumping into semiconducting ZnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung-Chuan [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Huang, Leng-Wei [Graduate Institute of Applied Physics, National Chengchi University, Taipei 11605, Taiwan (China); Hung, Dung-Shing, E-mail: dshung@mail.mcu.edu.tw [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Department of Information and Telecommunications Engineering, Ming Chuan University, Taipei 111, Taiwan (China); Chiang, Tung-Han [Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Huang, J. C. A., E-mail: jcahuang@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Advanced Optoelectronic Technology Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Liang, Jun-Zhi [Advanced Optoelectronic Technology Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Department of Physics, Fu Jen Catholic University, Taipei 242, Taiwan (China); Lee, Shang-Fan, E-mail: leesf@phys.sinica.edu.tw [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Applied Physics, National Chengchi University, Taipei 11605, Taiwan (China)

    2014-02-03

    The inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE) of n-type semiconductor ZnO thin films with weak spin-orbit coupling has been observed by utilizing the spin pumping method. In the ferromagnetic resonance condition, the spin pumping driven by the dynamical exchange interaction of a permalloy film injects a pure spin current into the adjacent ZnO layer. This spin current gives rise to a DC voltage through the ISHE in the ZnO layer, and the DC voltage is proportional to the microwave excitation power. The effect is sizeable even when the spin backflow is considered.

  20. Inverse spin Hall effect induced by spin pumping into semiconducting ZnO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung-Chuan; Huang, Leng-Wei; Hung, Dung-Shing; Chiang, Tung-Han; Huang, J. C. A.; Liang, Jun-Zhi; Lee, Shang-Fan

    2014-01-01

    The inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE) of n-type semiconductor ZnO thin films with weak spin-orbit coupling has been observed by utilizing the spin pumping method. In the ferromagnetic resonance condition, the spin pumping driven by the dynamical exchange interaction of a permalloy film injects a pure spin current into the adjacent ZnO layer. This spin current gives rise to a DC voltage through the ISHE in the ZnO layer, and the DC voltage is proportional to the microwave excitation power. The effect is sizeable even when the spin backflow is considered

  1. Pump as Turbine (PAT Design in Water Distribution Network by System Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oreste Fecarotta

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Water distribution networks face several problems related to leakages, where the pressure control strategy is a common practice for water loss management. Small-scale hydropower schemes, where pumps as turbines replace pressure reducing valves, can be considered an interesting technical solution, which ensures both economic convenience and system flexibility. Due to the water networks’ variable operating conditions, a new methodology to model the effectiveness of pumps as turbines was developed based on the efficiency and the mechanical reliability of the hydropower device and the flexibility of the plant. System effectiveness is proposed as the objective function in the optimization procedure and applied to a real system, enabling one to emphasize that the hydraulic regulation mode of the plant is better than the electric regulation mode for American Petroleum Industry (API manufacturing standards of pumps.

  2. Effects of time delay on stochastic resonance of the stock prices in financial system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jiang-Cheng; Li, Chun; Mei, Dong-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    The effect of time delay on stochastic resonance of the stock prices in finance system was investigated. The time delay is introduced into the Heston model driven by the extrinsic and intrinsic periodic information for stock price. The signal power amplification (SPA) was calculated by numerical simulation. The results indicate that an optimal critical value of delay time maximally enhances the reverse-resonance in the behaviors of SPA as a function of long-run variance of volatility or cross correlation coefficient between noises for both cases of intrinsic and extrinsic periodic information. Moreover, in both cases, being a critical value in the delay time, when the delay time takes value below the critical value, reverse-resonance increases with the delay time increasing, however, when the delay time takes value above the critical value, the reverse-resonance decrease with the delay time increasing. - Highlights: • The effects of delay time on stochastic resonance of the stock prices was investigated. • There is an optimal critical value of delay time maximally enhances the reverse-resonance • The reverse-resonance increases with the delay time increasing as the delay time takes value below the critical value • The reverse-resonance decrease with the delay time increasing as the delay time takes value above the critical value

  3. The effects of noise on binocular rivalry waves: a stochastic neural field model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webber, Matthew A; Bressloff, Paul C

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the effects of extrinsic noise on traveling waves of visual perception in a competitive neural field model of binocular rivalry. The model consists of two one-dimensional excitatory neural fields, whose activity variables represent the responses to left-eye and right-eye stimuli, respectively. The two networks mutually inhibit each other, and slow adaptation is incorporated into the model by taking the network connections to exhibit synaptic depression. We first show how, in the absence of any noise, the system supports a propagating composite wave consisting of an invading activity front in one network co-moving with a retreating front in the other network. Using a separation of time scales and perturbation methods previously developed for stochastic reaction–diffusion equations, we then show how extrinsic noise in the activity variables leads to a diffusive-like displacement (wandering) of the composite wave from its uniformly translating position at long time scales, and fluctuations in the wave profile around its instantaneous position at short time scales. We use our analysis to calculate the first-passage-time distribution for a stochastic rivalry wave to travel a fixed distance, which we find to be given by an inverse Gaussian. Finally, we investigate the effects of noise in the depression variables, which under an adiabatic approximation lead to quenched disorder in the neural fields during propagation of a wave. (paper)

  4. Effects of time delay on stochastic resonance of the stock prices in financial system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jiang-Cheng [Department of Physics, Yunnan University, Kunming, 650091 (China); Li, Chun [Department of Computer Science, Puer Teachers' College, Puer 665000 (China); Mei, Dong-Cheng, E-mail: meidch@ynu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Yunnan University, Kunming, 650091 (China)

    2014-06-13

    The effect of time delay on stochastic resonance of the stock prices in finance system was investigated. The time delay is introduced into the Heston model driven by the extrinsic and intrinsic periodic information for stock price. The signal power amplification (SPA) was calculated by numerical simulation. The results indicate that an optimal critical value of delay time maximally enhances the reverse-resonance in the behaviors of SPA as a function of long-run variance of volatility or cross correlation coefficient between noises for both cases of intrinsic and extrinsic periodic information. Moreover, in both cases, being a critical value in the delay time, when the delay time takes value below the critical value, reverse-resonance increases with the delay time increasing, however, when the delay time takes value above the critical value, the reverse-resonance decrease with the delay time increasing. - Highlights: • The effects of delay time on stochastic resonance of the stock prices was investigated. • There is an optimal critical value of delay time maximally enhances the reverse-resonance • The reverse-resonance increases with the delay time increasing as the delay time takes value below the critical value • The reverse-resonance decrease with the delay time increasing as the delay time takes value above the critical value.

  5. Stochastic health effects assessment due to short-term external exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raicevic, J.J.; Raskob, W.; Merkle, M.; Ninkovic, M.M.

    2001-01-01

    The new model for calculation of stochastic health effects is presented in this paper. The exposure pathways which are briefly considered are the short-term external exposure due to passage of the radioactive cloud (cloudshine) and the short-term external exposure due to radioactive material deposited on skin and clothes (skin contamination). The quantitative assessment of stochastic effects is expressed in numbers of deaths, which are given as a functions of the time at the accident, and age at death, what on the other side enables estimation of the number of deaths within the specified range of the time/age parameters. That means the model calculates the number of deaths within one particular year, summed up over all ages at deaths, or vice versa, it finds the number of deaths within the specified range of ages at death, summed up over all observation times. Results presented in this paper are implemented in the module LATEHEAL, which is incorporated in RODOS, a new European system for decision support for nuclear emergencies. (author)

  6. Stochastic modeling for time series InSAR: with emphasis on atmospheric effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yunmeng; Li, Zhiwei; Wei, Jianchao; Hu, Jun; Duan, Meng; Feng, Guangcai

    2018-02-01

    Despite the many applications of time series interferometric synthetic aperture radar (TS-InSAR) techniques in geophysical problems, error analysis and assessment have been largely overlooked. Tropospheric propagation error is still the dominant error source of InSAR observations. However, the spatiotemporal variation of atmospheric effects is seldom considered in the present standard TS-InSAR techniques, such as persistent scatterer interferometry and small baseline subset interferometry. The failure to consider the stochastic properties of atmospheric effects not only affects the accuracy of the estimators, but also makes it difficult to assess the uncertainty of the final geophysical results. To address this issue, this paper proposes a network-based variance-covariance estimation method to model the spatiotemporal variation of tropospheric signals, and to estimate the temporal variance-covariance matrix of TS-InSAR observations. The constructed stochastic model is then incorporated into the TS-InSAR estimators both for parameters (e.g., deformation velocity, topography residual) estimation and uncertainty assessment. It is an incremental and positive improvement to the traditional weighted least squares methods to solve the multitemporal InSAR time series. The performance of the proposed method is validated by using both simulated and real datasets.

  7. The effects of noise on binocular rivalry waves: a stochastic neural field model

    KAUST Repository

    Webber, Matthew A

    2013-03-12

    We analyze the effects of extrinsic noise on traveling waves of visual perception in a competitive neural field model of binocular rivalry. The model consists of two one-dimensional excitatory neural fields, whose activity variables represent the responses to left-eye and right-eye stimuli, respectively. The two networks mutually inhibit each other, and slow adaptation is incorporated into the model by taking the network connections to exhibit synaptic depression. We first show how, in the absence of any noise, the system supports a propagating composite wave consisting of an invading activity front in one network co-moving with a retreating front in the other network. Using a separation of time scales and perturbation methods previously developed for stochastic reaction-diffusion equations, we then show how extrinsic noise in the activity variables leads to a diffusive-like displacement (wandering) of the composite wave from its uniformly translating position at long time scales, and fluctuations in the wave profile around its instantaneous position at short time scales. We use our analysis to calculate the first-passage-time distribution for a stochastic rivalry wave to travel a fixed distance, which we find to be given by an inverse Gaussian. Finally, we investigate the effects of noise in the depression variables, which under an adiabatic approximation lead to quenched disorder in the neural fields during propagation of a wave. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd and SISSA Medialab srl.

  8. Molecular finite-size effects in stochastic models of equilibrium chemical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianci, Claudia; Smith, Stephen; Grima, Ramon

    2016-02-28

    The reaction-diffusion master equation (RDME) is a standard modelling approach for understanding stochastic and spatial chemical kinetics. An inherent assumption is that molecules are point-like. Here, we introduce the excluded volume reaction-diffusion master equation (vRDME) which takes into account volume exclusion effects on stochastic kinetics due to a finite molecular radius. We obtain an exact closed form solution of the RDME and of the vRDME for a general chemical system in equilibrium conditions. The difference between the two solutions increases with the ratio of molecular diameter to the compartment length scale. We show that an increase in the fraction of excluded space can (i) lead to deviations from the classical inverse square root law for the noise-strength, (ii) flip the skewness of the probability distribution from right to left-skewed, (iii) shift the equilibrium of bimolecular reactions so that more product molecules are formed, and (iv) strongly modulate the Fano factors and coefficients of variation. These volume exclusion effects are found to be particularly pronounced for chemical species not involved in chemical conservation laws. Finally, we show that statistics obtained using the vRDME are in good agreement with those obtained from Brownian dynamics with excluded volume interactions.

  9. Influences of viscous losses and end effects on liquid metal flow in electromagnetic pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hee Reyoung; Seo, Joon Ho; Hong, Sang Hee; Cho, Su won; Nam, Ho Yun; Cho, Man

    1996-01-01

    Analyses of the viscous and end effects on electromagnetic (EM) pumps of annular linear induction type for the sodium coolant circulation in Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors have been carried out based on the MHD laminar flow analysis and the electromagnetic field theory. A one-dimensional MHD analysis for the liquid metal flowing through an annular channel has been performed on the basis of a simplified model of equivalent current sheets instead of three-phase currents in the discrete primary windings. The calculations show that the developed pressure difference resulted from electromagnetic and viscous forces in the liquid metal is expressed in terms of the slip, and that the viscous loss effects are negligible compared with electromagnetic driving forces except in the low-slip region where the pumps operate with very high flow velocities comparable with the synchronous velocity of the electromagnetic fields, which is not applicable to the practical EM pumps. A two-dimensional electromagnetic field analysis based on an equivalent current sheet model has found the vector potentials in closed form by means of the Fourier transform method. The resultant magnetic fields and driving forces exerted on the liquid metal reveal that the end effects due to finiteness of the pump length are formidable. In addition, a two-dimensional numerical analysis for vector potentials has been performed by the SOR iterative method on a realistic EM pump model with discretely-distributed currents in the primary windings. The numerical computations for the distributions of magnetic fields and developed pressure differences along the pump axial length also show considerable end effects at both inlet and outlet ends, especially at high flow velocities. Calculations of each magnetic force contribution indicate that the end effects are originated from the magnetic force caused by the induced current (υxB) generated by the liquid metal movement across the magnetic field rather than the one

  10. Sodium and Proton Effects on Inward Proton Transport through Na/K Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Travis J.; Zugarramurdi, Camila; Olivera, J. Fernando; Gatto, Craig; Artigas, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    The Na/K pump hydrolyzes ATP to export three intracellular Na (Nai) as it imports two extracellular K (Ko) across animal plasma membranes. Within the protein, two ion-binding sites (sites I and II) can reciprocally bind Na or K, but a third site (site III) exclusively binds Na in a voltage-dependent fashion. In the absence of Nao and Ko, the pump passively imports protons, generating an inward current (IH). To elucidate the mechanisms of IH, we used voltage-clamp techniques to investigate the [H]o, [Na]o, and voltage dependence of IH in Na/K pumps from ventricular myocytes and in ouabain-resistant pumps expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Lowering pHo revealed that Ho both activates IH (in a voltage-dependent manner) and inhibits it (in a voltage-independent manner) by binding to different sites. Nao effects depend on pHo; at pHo where no Ho inhibition is observed, Nao inhibits IH at all concentrations, but when applied at pHo that inhibits pump-mediated current, low [Na]o activates IH and high [Na]o inhibits it. Our results demonstrate that IH is a property inherent to Na/K pumps, not linked to the oocyte expression environment, explains differences in the characteristics of IH previously reported in the literature, and supports a model in which 1), protons leak through site III; 2), binding of two Na or two protons to sites I and II inhibits proton transport; and 3), pumps with mixed Na/proton occupancy of sites I and II remain permeable to protons. PMID:24940773

  11. Stochastic effects as a force to increase the complexity of signaling networks

    KAUST Repository

    Kuwahara, Hiroyuki

    2013-07-29

    Cellular signaling networks are complex and appear to include many nonfunctional elements. Recently, it was suggested that nonfunctional interactions of proteins cause signaling noise, which, perhaps, shapes the signal transduction mechanism. However, the conditions under which molecular noise influences cellular information processing remain unclear. Here, we explore a large number of simple biological models of varying network sizes to understand the architectural conditions under which the interactions of signaling proteins can exhibit specific stochastic effects - called deviant effects - in which the average behavior of a biological system is substantially altered in the presence of molecular noise. We find that a small fraction of these networks does exhibit deviant effects and shares a common architectural feature whereas most of the networks show only insignificant levels of deviations. Interestingly, addition of seemingly unimportant interactions into protein networks gives rise to deviant effects.

  12. Effect of gas quantity on two-phase flow characteristics of a mixed-flow pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Fu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The inlet gas quantity has a great influence on the performance and inner flow characteristics of a mixed-flow pump. In this article, both numerical and experimental methods are used to carry out this research work. The effects under the steady gas volume fraction state and the transient gas quantity variation process on the mixed-flow pump are investigated and compared in detail. It could be concluded that the head of the mixed-flow pump shows slight decline at the low gas volume fraction state, while it decreases sharply at the high gas volume fraction state and then decreases with the increasing gas quantity. There is an obvious asymmetric blade vapor density on the blade suction side under each cavitation state. The cavities can be weakened obviously by increasing the inlet gas volume fraction within a certain range. It has little influence on the internal unsteady flow of the mixed-flow pump when the gas volume fraction is less than 10%, but the pump starts to operate with a great unsteady characteristic when the inlet gas volume fraction increases to 15%.

  13. Dose-stochastic radiobiological effect relationship in model of two reactions and estimation of radiation risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komochkov, M.M.

    1997-01-01

    The model of dose-stochastic effect relationship for biological systems capable of self-defence under danger factor effect is developed. A defence system is realized in two forms of organism reaction, which determine innate μ n and adaptive μ a radiosensitivities. The significances of μ n are determined by host (inner) factors; and the significances of μ a , by external factors. The possibilities of adaptive reaction are determined by the coefficient of capabilities of the defence system. The formulas of the dose-effect relationship are the solutions of differential equations of assumed process in the defence system of organism. The model and formulas have been checked both at cell and at human levels. Based on the model and personal monitoring data, the estimation of radiation risk at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research is done

  14. Stochastic description of cascade size effects on phase stability under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, G.; Bellon, P.

    1988-01-01

    Cascade size may affect phase stability under irradiation because of two distinct contributions: the replacement to displacement cross section ratio depends on the deposited energy density; ballistic jumps which tend to disorder ordere compounds occur by bursts (of size b), while thermal jumps which restored long range order occur one by one. The latter effect cannot be handled by standard rate theory. A stochastic treatment of the problem, based on a Fokker Planck approximation of the relevant master equation is summarized. It is shown that the possible values of the long range order parameter under irradiation are not affected by the size b of the bursts, but that the respective stability of the former is b dependent. As a consequence, the stability diagram of phases under irradiation varies with b. Such a diagram is computed for the Ni 4 Mo system where three structures are competing: the disordered solid solution, D1 a and DO 23 . A broadening by 100K of the stability domain of the short range ordered structure to the expense of the long range ordered one is predicted when increasing b from 1 to 100. The stochastic potentials introduced in the present treatment are by no means free energies of some constrained state. They can however be computed in a mean field type approximation. 23 refs

  15. Chirp and temperature effects in parametric down conversion from crystals pumped at 800 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Lozano, X.; Wiechers, C.; Lucio, J. L.

    2018-04-01

    We consider spontaneous parametric down conversion from aperiodic poled crystals pumped at 800 nm. Our analyses account the effect of internal and external parameters, where, in the former, we include the crystal chirp and length, while in the latter temperature, also the pump chirp and other beam properties. The typical distribution produced is a pop-tab like structure in frequency-momentum space, and our results show that this system is a versatile light source, appropriated to manipulate the frequency and transverse momentum properties of the light produced. We briefly comment on the potential usefulness of the types of telecom wavelength light produced, in particular for quantum information applications.

  16. Effect of palytoxin on the sodium–potassium pump: model and simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Antônio M; Infantosi, Antonio F C; Almeida, Antônio-Carlos G

    2008-01-01

    We propose a reaction model for the palytoxin–sodium–potassium (PTX–Na + /K + ) pump complex. The model, which is similar to the Albers–Post model for Na + /K + -ATPase, is used to elucidate the effect of PTX on Na + /K + -ATPase during the enzyme interactions with Na + and/or K + ions. Conformational substates and reactions for the pump are incorporated into the Albers–Post model to represent enzymes with or without bound PTX. A mathematical model based on the reaction scheme is used in simulations modeling experimental studies of PTX-induced ionic currents. Our simulations suggest that (i) extracellular Na + as well as K + promotes PTX-induced channel blockage; (ii) extracellular K + accelerates PTX unbinding; and (iii) K + occlusion in the PTX–pump complex is essential for describing the PTX-induced current dynamics

  17. Effective temporal resolution in pump-probe spectroscopy with strongly chirped pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polli, D.; Lanzani, G.; Brida, D.; Cerullo, G.; Mukamel, S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a general theoretical description of femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy with chirped pulses whose joint spectral and temporal profile is expressed by Wigner spectrograms. We demonstrate that the actual experimental time resolution intimately depends on the pulse-sample interaction and that the commonly used instrumental response function needs to be replaced by a sample-dependent effective response function. We also show that, using the proper configurations in excitation and/or detection, it is possible to overcome the temporal smearing of the measured dynamics due to chirp-induced pulse broadening and recover the temporal resolution that would be afforded by the transform-limited pulses. We verify these predictions with experiments using broadband chirped pump and probe pulses. Our results allow optimization of the temporal resolution in the common case when the chirp of the pump and/or probe pulse is not corrected and may be extended to a broad range of time-resolved experiments.

  18. Genotoxic Effects of Exposure to Gasoline Fumes on Petrol Pump Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Amrin; Barot, Darshana; Chandel, Divya

    2018-04-01

    Petrol pump workers are occupationally exposed to gasoline and its fumes consisting of several mutagenic chemicals. To evaluate the genotoxic effects of exposure to gasoline fumes on petrol pump workers. The study groups included 70 petrol pump workers (exposed group) and 70 healthy age-matched individuals with no known exposure (comparison group). Buccal micronucleus cytome assay (BMCyt) was performed to check the genotoxicity caused due to inhalation of gasoline fumes. The frequencies of micronucleated cells, nuclear bud, condensed chromatin cells, karyorrhectic cells, pyknotic cells, and karyolytic cells were significantly higher in the exposed workers compared to the comparison group. Exposure to gasoline fumes is associated with increased frequency of cell abnormalities. This may lead to various health consequences including cancer in those occupationally exposed to gasoline fumes.

  19. Genotoxic Effects of Exposure to Gasoline Fumes on Petrol Pump Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrin Shaikh

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Petrol pump workers are occupationally exposed to gasoline and its fumes consisting of several mutagenic chemicals. Objective: To evaluate the genotoxic effects of exposure to gasoline fumes on petrol pump workers. Methods: The study groups included 70 petrol pump workers (exposed group and 70 healthy age-matched individuals with no known exposure (comparison group. Buccal micronucleus cytome assay (BMCyt was performed to check the genotoxicity caused due to inhalation of gasoline fumes. Results: The frequencies of micronucleated cells, nuclear bud, condensed chromatin cells, karyorrhectic cells, pyknotic cells, and karyolytic cells were significantly higher in the exposed workers compared to the comparison group. Conclusion: Exposure to gasoline fumes is associated with increased frequency of cell abnormalities. This may lead to various health consequences including cancer in those occupationally exposed to gasoline fumes.

  20. Effects of intermediary reservoir in a two-stage impedance pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee V. C.-C.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Impedance pump is a simple valve-less pumping mechanism, which transport fluid through the mismatch of impedance in the system. A typical open-loop impedance pump consists of an elastic tube, connected to rigid tubing, where the rigid section is connected to a reservoir. Mismatch in impedance occurs when an asymmetrical periodic excitation is exerted on the elastic tube. Studies showed that sequential excitations on the elastic tube infers higher volumetric efficiency than a single excitation. This work studies the effects of an intermediary reservoir between two excitation points on an elastic tube. This study aims to shed some light on the steady state response and fluid motion within the intermediary reservoir; in which increased volumetric efficiency is demonstrated.

  1. Effects of pump recycling technique on stimulated Brillouin scattering threshold: a theoretical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Asadi, H A; Al-Mansoori, M H; Ajiya, M; Hitam, S; Saripan, M I; Mahdi, M A

    2010-10-11

    We develop a theoretical model that can be used to predict stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) threshold in optical fibers that arises through the effect of Brillouin pump recycling technique. Obtained simulation results from our model are in close agreement with our experimental results. The developed model utilizes single mode optical fiber of different lengths as the Brillouin gain media. For 5-km long single mode fiber, the calculated threshold power for SBS is about 16 mW for conventional technique. This value is reduced to about 8 mW when the residual Brillouin pump is recycled at the end of the fiber. The decrement of SBS threshold is due to longer interaction lengths between Brillouin pump and Stokes wave.

  2. The effectiveness of absorption heat pumps application for the increase of economic efficiency of CHP operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luzhkovoy Dmitriy S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with a comparative analysis of CHP operational efficiency in various working modes before and after the absorption heat pumps installation. The calculation was performed using a mathematical model of the extraction turbine PT- 80/100-130/13. Absorption heat pumps of LLC “OKB Teplosibmash” were used as AHP models for the analysis. The most effective way of absorption lithium-bromide heat pumps application as a part of the turbine PT-80/100-130/13 turned out to be their usage in a heat-producing mode during a non-heating season with a load of hot water supply. For this mode the dependence of the turbine heat efficiency on the heat load of the external consumer at a given throttle flow was analyzed.

  3. GHz-bandwidth upconversion detector using a unidirectional ring cavity to reduce multilongitudinal mode pump effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Lichun; Høgstedt, Lasse; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate efficient upconversion of modulated infrared (IR) signals over a wide bandwidth (up to frequencies in excess of 1 GHz) via cavity-enhanced sum-frequency generation (SFG) in a periodically poled LiNbO3. Intensity modulated IR signal is produced by combining beams from two 1547 nm...... narrow-linewidth lasers in a fiber coupler while tuning their wavelength difference down to 10 pm or less. The SFG crystal is placed inside an Nd:YVO4 ring cavity that provides 1064 nm circulating pump powers of up to 150 W in unidirectional operation. Measured Fabry-Perot spectrum at 1064 nm confirms...... the enhanced spectral stability from multiple to single longitudinal mode pumping condition. We describe analytically and demonstrate experimentally the deleterious effects of using a multimode pump to the high-bandwidth RF spectrum of the 630 nm SFG output. Offering enhanced sensitivity without the need...

  4. Experimental study on effects of double pumps switching on water supply flow rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xin; Han Weishi

    2012-01-01

    Flow characteristics in the process of switching one centrifugal pump to the other was investigated experimentally using a closed loop with two centrifugal pumps and two check valves. Characteristics of the check valves responding and the flow rate changing during the process of switching was studied by experimental data analysis. The results show that in the switching process with high and low original flow rate, the restoring time is 26 s and 21 s respectively; the lowest flow rates are 59.4% and 87.2% out of that in normal water supply, and the average deficit of feed water is 20.8% and 7.5% respectively. Compared to double-pump switching with low flow rate, a longer transition time. more intense flow fluctuations and increased water loss are observed with high flow rate, which has significantly effects on the stability of water supply. (authors)

  5. Comparison of a wellpoint vacuum pump system to dual pump recovery system effectiveness for the extraction of light non-aqueous phase liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koll, C.S.; Palmerton, D.L. Jr.; Kunzel, R.G.

    1994-01-01

    The effectiveness of two light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) extraction systems is compared at a site in the Mid-New Jersey Atlantic Coastal Plains Region: an existing dual pump recovery system and a wellpoint vacuum pump system. Home heating oil was released to a shallow sand and gravel aquifer by a leaky underground distribution system in the early 1970s. Eight-inch-diameter dual pump recovery wells were used for the last nine years, to lower the water table and extract LNAPL at several spill sites located throughout a residential community of 1,500 homes. Several small LNAPL plumes still exist today with surface areas ranging from 400 ft 2 to over 28,000 ft 2 . LNAPL recovery peaked in 1985 using dual pump recovery systems, averaging 33 gallons per day (gpd). In 1987, four 24-inch wells were replaced by 11 8-inch-diameter recovery wells at six sites, and LNAPL recovery rates averaged 5 gpd. In recent years, the recovery of LNAPL has declined and when graphed, is asymptotic. In 1993, dual pump recovery of LNAPL averaged 0.3 gpd for all six sites

  6. Constrained approximation of effective generators for multiscale stochastic reaction networks and application to conditioned path sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotter, Simon L., E-mail: simon.cotter@manchester.ac.uk

    2016-10-15

    Efficient analysis and simulation of multiscale stochastic systems of chemical kinetics is an ongoing area for research, and is the source of many theoretical and computational challenges. In this paper, we present a significant improvement to the constrained approach, which is a method for computing effective dynamics of slowly changing quantities in these systems, but which does not rely on the quasi-steady-state assumption (QSSA). The QSSA can cause errors in the estimation of effective dynamics for systems where the difference in timescales between the “fast” and “slow” variables is not so pronounced. This new application of the constrained approach allows us to compute the effective generator of the slow variables, without the need for expensive stochastic simulations. This is achieved by finding the null space of the generator of the constrained system. For complex systems where this is not possible, or where the constrained subsystem is itself multiscale, the constrained approach can then be applied iteratively. This results in breaking the problem down into finding the solutions to many small eigenvalue problems, which can be efficiently solved using standard methods. Since this methodology does not rely on the quasi steady-state assumption, the effective dynamics that are approximated are highly accurate, and in the case of systems with only monomolecular reactions, are exact. We will demonstrate this with some numerics, and also use the effective generators to sample paths of the slow variables which are conditioned on their endpoints, a task which would be computationally intractable for the generator of the full system.

  7. Self-pumping effects and radiation linewidth of Josephson flux-flow oscillators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koshelets, V.P.; Shitov, S.V.; Shchukin, A.V.

    1997-01-01

    Flux-flow oscillators (FFO's) are being developed for integration with a SIS mixer for use in submillimeter wave receivers, The present work contains a detailed experimental study of the dc, microwave, and noise properties of Nb-AlOx-Nb FFO's, A model based on the Josephson self-pumping effect...

  8. Thermal lensing effects in cw-pumped Nd3: YAG laser rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C.

    Thermal lensing effects were investigated in cw-pumped Nd 3+ : YAG laser rods. For identically specified rods very different thermally induced focal lengths were measured. Thus compensation of thermal lensing by applying curved end faces should be done individually for each rod. (orig.) 891 HT/orig. 892 HIS

  9. On the mechanism of irradiation effect on the function of Helix pomatia neuron Na+, K+-pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajrapetyan, S.N.; Egorova, E.G.; Sagiyan, A.A.; Dadalyan, S.S.; Dvoretskij, A.I.; Sulejmonyan, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    Mechanism of irradiation effect on passive permeability, Na + /Ca 2+ exchange, Na + , K + -pump function intensity, the number of membrane functionally active pump units (Na + , K + -ATP-ase molecules) was determined using Helix pomatia and nervous ganglions isolated from them and irradiated by 5.16 Kl/kg dose. The data obtained show that ionizing radiation leads to obvious destructions in the mechanisms of neuron Na + , K + -pump functioning

  10. The Importance of Stochastic Effects for Explaining Entrainment in the Zebrafish Circadian Clock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphaela Heussen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The circadian clock plays a pivotal role in modulating physiological processes and has been implicated, either directly or indirectly, in a range of pathological states including cancer. Here we investigate how the circadian clock is entrained by external cues such as light. Working with zebrafish cell lines and combining light pulse experiments with simulation efforts focused on the role of synchronization effects, we find that even very modest doses of light exposure are sufficient to trigger some entrainment, whereby a higher light intensity or duration correlates with strength of the circadian signal. Moreover, we observe in the simulations that stochastic effects may be considered an essential feature of the circadian clock in order to explain the circadian signal decay in prolonged darkness, as well as light initiated resynchronization as a strong component of entrainment.

  11. Effect of randomness on multi-frequency aeroelastic responses resolved by Unsteady Adaptive Stochastic Finite Elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witteveen, Jeroen A.S.; Bijl, Hester

    2009-01-01

    The Unsteady Adaptive Stochastic Finite Elements (UASFE) method resolves the effect of randomness in numerical simulations of single-mode aeroelastic responses with a constant accuracy in time for a constant number of samples. In this paper, the UASFE framework is extended to multi-frequency responses and continuous structures by employing a wavelet decomposition pre-processing step to decompose the sampled multi-frequency signals into single-frequency components. The effect of the randomness on the multi-frequency response is then obtained by summing the results of the UASFE interpolation at constant phase for the different frequency components. Results for multi-frequency responses and continuous structures show a three orders of magnitude reduction of computational costs compared to crude Monte Carlo simulations in a harmonically forced oscillator, a flutter panel problem, and the three-dimensional transonic AGARD 445.6 wing aeroelastic benchmark subject to random fields and random parameters with various probability distributions.

  12. Joint  effects of habitat configuration and temporal stochasticity on population dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer M. Fraterrigo; Scott M. Pearson; Monica G. Turner

    2009-01-01

    Habitat configuration and temporal stochasticity in the environment are recognized as important drivers of population structure, yet few studies have examined the combined influence of these factors....

  13. Performance of Wind Pump Prototype

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mulu

    Mekelle University, Mekelle, Ethiopia (*mul_at@yahoo.com). ABSTRACT. A wind ... balanced rotor power and reciprocating pump, hence did not consider the effect of pump size. ... Keywords: Wind pump, Windmill, Performance testing, Pump efficiency, Pump discharge, ... Unfortunately, in rural places, where the houses are.

  14. Effects of spike-time-dependent plasticity on the stochastic resonance of small-world neuronal networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Haitao; Guo, Xinmeng; Wang, Jiang; Deng, Bin; Wei, Xile

    2014-01-01

    The phenomenon of stochastic resonance in Newman-Watts small-world neuronal networks is investigated when the strength of synaptic connections between neurons is adaptively adjusted by spike-time-dependent plasticity (STDP). It is shown that irrespective of the synaptic connectivity is fixed or adaptive, the phenomenon of stochastic resonance occurs. The efficiency of network stochastic resonance can be largely enhanced by STDP in the coupling process. Particularly, the resonance for adaptive coupling can reach a much larger value than that for fixed one when the noise intensity is small or intermediate. STDP with dominant depression and small temporal window ratio is more efficient for the transmission of weak external signal in small-world neuronal networks. In addition, we demonstrate that the effect of stochastic resonance can be further improved via fine-tuning of the average coupling strength of the adaptive network. Furthermore, the small-world topology can significantly affect stochastic resonance of excitable neuronal networks. It is found that there exists an optimal probability of adding links by which the noise-induced transmission of weak periodic signal peaks

  15. Effects of spike-time-dependent plasticity on the stochastic resonance of small-world neuronal networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Haitao; Guo, Xinmeng; Wang, Jiang, E-mail: jiangwang@tju.edu.cn; Deng, Bin; Wei, Xile [School of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2014-09-01

    The phenomenon of stochastic resonance in Newman-Watts small-world neuronal networks is investigated when the strength of synaptic connections between neurons is adaptively adjusted by spike-time-dependent plasticity (STDP). It is shown that irrespective of the synaptic connectivity is fixed or adaptive, the phenomenon of stochastic resonance occurs. The efficiency of network stochastic resonance can be largely enhanced by STDP in the coupling process. Particularly, the resonance for adaptive coupling can reach a much larger value than that for fixed one when the noise intensity is small or intermediate. STDP with dominant depression and small temporal window ratio is more efficient for the transmission of weak external signal in small-world neuronal networks. In addition, we demonstrate that the effect of stochastic resonance can be further improved via fine-tuning of the average coupling strength of the adaptive network. Furthermore, the small-world topology can significantly affect stochastic resonance of excitable neuronal networks. It is found that there exists an optimal probability of adding links by which the noise-induced transmission of weak periodic signal peaks.

  16. Effects of optical pumping in the photo-excitation of organic triplet states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Tien-Sung; Yang, Tran-Chin; Sloop, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • High electron spin polarization (ESP) was observed in pentacene triplets at room temperature. • The high ESP is transfer to the surrounding nuclear spin by optical pumping in zero-field (ZF). • The ZF transition frequencies and their line width depend on the laser pumping rate. • The spin–lattice relaxation times of the nuclear system are evaluated. - Abstract: Upon the application of laser and microwave pulses, non-zero magnetic moment of a photo-excited triplet state of organic molecules is generated in zero-field (ZF). The time evolution of the transient magnetic moments can be measured by free induction decay (FID) in ZF. The observed ZF spectra become broadened and ZF transition shifted to lower frequencies when the repetition rate of laser excitation is increased, which are attributed to the optical pumping of nuclear polarization (ONP) effect and the associated nuclear spin lattice relaxation processes. The observed ONP effect is discussed in terms of the local field effect and spin diffusion processes in optical pumping

  17. Effects of optical pumping in the photo-excitation of organic triplet states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Tien-Sung, E-mail: lin@wustl.edu; Yang, Tran-Chin; Sloop, David J.

    2013-08-30

    Highlights: • High electron spin polarization (ESP) was observed in pentacene triplets at room temperature. • The high ESP is transfer to the surrounding nuclear spin by optical pumping in zero-field (ZF). • The ZF transition frequencies and their line width depend on the laser pumping rate. • The spin–lattice relaxation times of the nuclear system are evaluated. - Abstract: Upon the application of laser and microwave pulses, non-zero magnetic moment of a photo-excited triplet state of organic molecules is generated in zero-field (ZF). The time evolution of the transient magnetic moments can be measured by free induction decay (FID) in ZF. The observed ZF spectra become broadened and ZF transition shifted to lower frequencies when the repetition rate of laser excitation is increased, which are attributed to the optical pumping of nuclear polarization (ONP) effect and the associated nuclear spin lattice relaxation processes. The observed ONP effect is discussed in terms of the local field effect and spin diffusion processes in optical pumping.

  18. Effects of air vessel on water hammer in high-head pumping station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L; Wang, F J; Zou, Z C; Li, X N; Zhang, J C

    2013-01-01

    Effects of air vessel on water hammer process in a pumping station with high-head were analyzed by using the characteristics method. The results show that the air vessel volume is the key parameter that determines the protective effect on water hammer pressure. The maximum pressure in the system declines with increasing air vessel volume. For a fixed volume of air vessel, the shape of air vessel and mounting style, such as horizontal or vertical mounting, have little effect on the water hammer. In order to obtain good protection effects, the position of air vessel should be close to the outlet of the pump. Generally, once the volume of air vessel is guaranteed, the water hammer of a entire pipeline is effectively controlled

  19. Effects of air vessel on water hammer in high-head pumping station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.; Wang, F. J.; Zou, Z. C.; Li, X. N.; Zhang, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    Effects of air vessel on water hammer process in a pumping station with high-head were analyzed by using the characteristics method. The results show that the air vessel volume is the key parameter that determines the protective effect on water hammer pressure. The maximum pressure in the system declines with increasing air vessel volume. For a fixed volume of air vessel, the shape of air vessel and mounting style, such as horizontal or vertical mounting, have little effect on the water hammer. In order to obtain good protection effects, the position of air vessel should be close to the outlet of the pump. Generally, once the volume of air vessel is guaranteed, the water hammer of a entire pipeline is effectively controlled.

  20. Numerical investigations on cavitating flows with thermodynamic effects in a diffuser-type centrifugal pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xuelin, Tang Xue; Liyuan, Bian; Fujun, Wang; Xiaoqin, Lin; Man, Hao

    2013-01-01

    A cavitation model with thermodynamic effects for cavitating flows in a diffuser-type centrifugal pump is developed based on the bubble two-phase flow model. The proposed cavitation model includes mass, momentum, and energy transportations according to the thermodynamic mechanism of cavitation. Numerical simulations are conducted inside the entire passage of the centrifugal pump by using the proposed cavitation model and the renormalization group-based k - ε turbulent model coupled with the energy transportation equation. By using the commercial computational fluid dynamics software FLUENT 6.3, we have shown that the predicted performance characteristics of the pump, as well as the pressure, vapor, and density distributions in the impeller, agree well with that calculated by the full cavitation model. Simulation results show that cavitation initially occurs slightly behind the inlet of the blade suction surface, i.e., the area with maximum vapor concentration and minimum pressure. The predicted temperature field shows that the reduction in temperature restrains the growth of cavitating bubbles. Therefore, the thermodynamic effect should be treated as a necessary factor in cavitation models. Comparison results validate the efficiency and accuracy of the numerical technique in simulating cavitation flows in centrifugal pumps.

  1. Effects of groundwater pumping in the lower Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, L. Elliott

    2012-01-01

    USGS developed a groundwater-flow model of the Upper Floridan aquifer in lower Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River basin in southwest Georgia and adjacent parts of Alabama and Florida to determine the effect of agricultural groundwater pumping on aquifer/stream flow within the basin. Aquifer/stream flow is the sum of groundwater outflow to and inflow from streams, and is an important consideration for water managers in the development of water-allocation and operating plans. Specifically, the model was used to evaluate how agricultural pumping relates to 7Q10 low streamflow, a statistical low flow indicative of drought conditions that would occur during seven consecutive days, on average, once every 10 years. Argus ONETM, a software package that combines a geographic information system (GIS) and numerical modeling in an Open Numerical Environment, facilitated the design of a detailed finite-element mesh to represent the complex geometry of the stream system in the lower basin as a groundwater-model boundary. To determine the effects on aquifer/stream flow of pumping at different locations within the model area, a pumping rate equivalent to a typical center-pivot irrigation system (50,000 ft3/d) was applied individually at each of the 18,951 model nodes in repeated steady-state simulations that were compared to a base case representing drought conditions during October 1999. Effects of nodal pumping on aquifer/stream flow and other boundary flows, as compared with the base-case simulation, were computed and stored in a response matrix. Queries to the response matrix were designed to determine the sensitivity of targeted stream reaches to agricultural pumping. Argus ONE enabled creation of contour plots of query results to illustrate the spatial variation across the model area of simulated aquifer/streamflow reductions, expressed as a percentage of the long-term 7Q10 low streamflow at key USGS gaging stations in the basin. These results would enable water managers

  2. PKPD model of interleukin-21 effects on thermoregulation in monkeys - Application and evaluation of stochastic differential equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Rune Viig; Holford, Nick; Rytved, K. A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose To describe the pharmacodynamic effects of recombinant human interleukin-21 (IL-21) on core body temperature in cynomolgus monkeys using basic mechanisms of heat regulation. A major effort was devoted to compare the use of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) with stochastic differentia...

  3. Differential effect of extracellular calcium on the Na(+)-K+ pump activity in intact polymorphonuclear leucocytes and erythrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, R H; Knudsen, T; Johansen, Torben

    1991-01-01

    The effect of extracellular calcium on the Na(+)-K+ pump activity in human polymorphonuclear leucocytes and erythrocytes was studied and compared with the activity in mixed peritoneal leucocytes from rats. While there was maximal decrease in the pump activity (25-30%) of leucocytes from both rat ...

  4. Effects of moderate pump and Stokes chirp on chirped-probe pulse femtosecond coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering thermometry

    KAUST Repository

    Gu, Mingming; Satija, Aman; Lucht, Robert P.

    2018-01-01

    The effects of moderate levels of chirp in the pump and Stokes pulses on chirped-probe-pulse femtosecond coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CPP fs CARS) were investigated. The frequency chirp in the pump and Stokes pulses was introduced

  5. Detection and quantification of inverse spin Hall effect from spin pumping in permalloy/normal metal bilayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mosendz, O.; Vlaminck, V.; Pearson, J.E.; Fradin, F.Y.; Bauer, G.E.W.; Bader, S.D.; Hoffmann, A.

    2010-01-01

    Spin pumping is a mechanism that generates spin currents from ferromagnetic resonance over macroscopic interfacial areas, thereby enabling sensitive detection of the inverse spin Hall effect that transforms spin into charge currents in nonmagnetic conductors. Here we study the spin-pumping-induced

  6. Effects of the number of inducer blades on the anti-cavitation characteristics and external performance of a centrifugal pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, XiaoMei; Shi, GaoPing; Zhu, ZuChao; Cui, BaoLing

    2016-01-01

    Installing an inducer upstream of the main impeller is an effective approach for improving the anti-cavitation performance of a high speed centrifugal pump. For a high-speed centrifugal pump with an inducer, the number of inducer blades can affect its internal flow and external performance. We studied the manner in which the number of inducer blades can affect the anti-cavitation characteristics and external performance of a centrifugal pump. We first use the Rayleigh-Plesset equation and the mixture model to simulate the vapor liquid flow in a centrifugal pump with an inducer, and then predict its external performance. Finally, we tested the external performance of a centrifugal pump with 2-, 3- and 4-bladed inducers, respectively. The results show that the simulations of external performance in a centrifugal pump are in accordance with our experiments. Based on this, we obtained vapor volume fraction distributions for the inducer, the impeller, and in the corresponding whole flow parts. We discovered that the vapor volume fraction of a centrifugal pump with a 3- bladed inducer is less than that of a centrifugal pump with 2- or 4-bladed inducers, which means that a centrifugal pump with a 3-bladed inducer has a better external and anti-cavitation performance.

  7. Helium exhaust and forced flow effects with both-leg pumping in W-shaped divertor of JT-60U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakasai, A.; Takenaga, H.; Higashijima, S.; Kubo, H.; Nakano, T.; Tamai, H.; Sakurai, S.; Akino, N.; Fujita, T.; Asakura, N.; Itami, K.; Shimizu, K.

    2001-01-01

    The W-shaped divertor of JT-60U was modified from inner-leg pumping to both-leg pumping. After the modification, the pumping rate was improved from 3% with inner-leg pumping to 5% with both-leg pumping in a divertor-closure configuration, which means both separatrixes close to the divertor slots. Efficient helium exhaust was realized in the divertor-closure configuration with both-leg pumping. A global particle confinement time of τ* He =0.4s and τ* He /τ E =3 was achieved in attached ELMy H-mode plasmas. The helium exhaust efficiency with both-leg pumping was extended by 45% as compared with inner-leg pumping. By using central helium fueling with He-beam injection, the helium removal from the core plasma inside the internal transport barrier (ITB) in reversed shear plasmas in the divertor-closure configuration was investigated for the first time. The helium density profiles inside the ITB were peaked as compared with those in ELMy H-mode plasmas. In the case of low recycling divertor, it was difficult to achieve good helium exhaust capability in reversed shear plasmas with ITB. However, the helium exhaust efficiency was improved with high recycling divertor. Carbon impurity reduction was observed by the forced flow with gas puff and effective divertor pumping. (author)

  8. Effect of parameter variation of reactor coolant pump on loss of coolant accident consequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang Gaojian; Huang Daishun; Gao Yingxian; He Xiaoqiang

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the analyses were carried out on Ling'ao nuclear power station phase II to study the consequence of the loss of coolant accident when the homologous characteristic curves and free volumes of the reactor coolant pump changed. Two different pumps used in the analysis were 100D (employed on Ling'ao nuclear power station phase II) and ANDRITZ. The thermal characteristics in the large break LOCA accident were analyzed using CATHRE GB and CONPATE4, and the reactor coolant system hydraulics load during blow-clown phase of LOCA accident was analyzed using ATHIS and FORCET. The calculated results show that the homologous characteristic curves have great effect on the thermal characteristics of reactor core during the reflood phase of the large break LOCA accident. The maximum cladding surface temperatures are quite different when the pump's homologous characteristic curves change. On the other hand, the pump's free volume changing results in the variation of the LOCA rarefaction wave propagation, and therefore, the reactor coolant system hydraulic load in LOCA accident would be different. (authors)

  9. Effects of dietary magnesium on sodium-potassium pump action in the heart of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, P.W.; Giroux, A.

    1987-01-01

    Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a basal AIN-76 diet containing 80, 200, 350, 500 or 650 mg of magnesium per kilogram of diet for 6 wk. Ventricular slices, as well as microsomal fractions, were prepared from the hearts and were used to determine sodium-potassium pump activity. Sodium-potassium pump activity was assessed in the microsomal membranes by determining the ouabain-inhibitable Na+, K+-ATPase activity and [ 3 H]ouabain binding, and in the ventricular slices, by determining ouabain-sensitive 86 Rb uptake under K+-free conditions. The ATPase activity increased with increasing dietary magnesium, so that in the hearts of those animals that were fed 500 and 650 mg of magnesium/kg diet, it was significantly greater than the activity in the hearts of the animals fed 80 and 200 mg/kg diet. Similarly, 86 Rb uptake by heart slices from rats fed 500 and 650 mg of magnesium/kg diet was significantly greater than the uptake by heart slices from animals fed 80 and 200 mg/kg diet. [ 3 H]Ouabain binding did not change with increasing dietary magnesium. Thus, magnesium deficiency appears to have no effect on the number of sodium-potassium pump sites, but does decrease the activity of the pump. It is suggested that this leads to an increase in intracellular Na+, resulting in a change in the membrane potential, and may contribute to the arrhythmias associated with magnesium deficiency

  10. Channel noise effects on first spike latency of a stochastic Hodgkin-Huxley neuron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisel, Brenton; Lindenberg, Katja

    2017-02-01

    While it is widely accepted that information is encoded in neurons via action potentials or spikes, it is far less understood what specific features of spiking contain encoded information. Experimental evidence has suggested that the timing of the first spike may be an energy-efficient coding mechanism that contains more neural information than subsequent spikes. Therefore, the biophysical features of neurons that underlie response latency are of considerable interest. Here we examine the effects of channel noise on the first spike latency of a Hodgkin-Huxley neuron receiving random input from many other neurons. Because the principal feature of a Hodgkin-Huxley neuron is the stochastic opening and closing of channels, the fluctuations in the number of open channels lead to fluctuations in the membrane voltage and modify the timing of the first spike. Our results show that when a neuron has a larger number of channels, (i) the occurrence of the first spike is delayed and (ii) the variation in the first spike timing is greater. We also show that the mean, median, and interquartile range of first spike latency can be accurately predicted from a simple linear regression by knowing only the number of channels in the neuron and the rate at which presynaptic neurons fire, but the standard deviation (i.e., neuronal jitter) cannot be predicted using only this information. We then compare our results to another commonly used stochastic Hodgkin-Huxley model and show that the more commonly used model overstates the first spike latency but can predict the standard deviation of first spike latencies accurately. We end by suggesting a more suitable definition for the neuronal jitter based upon our simulations and comparison of the two models.

  11. Spin Current Noise of the Spin Seebeck Effect and Spin Pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, M.; Ohnuma, Y.; Kato, T.; Maekawa, S.

    2018-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the fluctuation of a pure spin current induced by the spin Seebeck effect and spin pumping in a normal-metal-(NM-)ferromagnet(FM) bilayer system. Starting with a simple ferromagnet-insulator-(FI-)NM interface model with both spin-conserving and non-spin-conserving processes, we derive general expressions of the spin current and the spin-current noise at the interface within second-order perturbation of the FI-NM coupling strength, and estimate them for a yttrium-iron-garnet-platinum interface. We show that the spin-current noise can be used to determine the effective spin carried by a magnon modified by the non-spin-conserving process at the interface. In addition, we show that it provides information on the effective spin of a magnon, heating at the interface under spin pumping, and spin Hall angle of the NM.

  12. Reynolds number effects on gill pumping mechanics in mayfly nymphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensenig, Andrew; Shultz, Jeffrey; Kiger, Ken

    2006-11-01

    Mayfly nymphs have an entirely aquatic life stage in which they frequently inhabit stagnant water. Nymphs have the capability to generate a ventilation current to compensate for the low oxygen level of the water by beating two linear arrays of plate-like gills that typically line the lateral edge of the abdomen. The characteristic Reynolds number associated with the gill motion changes with animal size, varying over a span of Re = 5 to 100 depending on age and species. The assumption that the system maintains optimal energetic efficiency leads to the prediction that animals transition from rowing to flapping mechanisms with increasing Re, while possibly utilizing a squeeze mechanism to a greater extent at lower Re. To investigate this hypothesis, we capture the motion of the gills through 3D imaging to investigate the effect of Reynolds number on the stroke patterns. PIV is utilized to assess flow rates and viscous dissipation. The effectiveness of the ventilation mechanism at each size has important consequences for the range of oxygen levels, and hence the habitat range, that can be tolerated by that size.

  13. Effects of atmospheric pressure conditions on flow rate of an elastomeric infusion pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jong; Moeller, Anna; Ding, Yuanpang Samuel

    2012-04-01

    The effects of pressure conditions, both hyperbaric and hypobaric, on the flow rate of an elastomeric infusion pump were investigated. The altered pressure conditions were tested with the restrictor outlet at two different conditions: (1) at the same pressure condition as the Infusor elastomeric balloon and (2) with the outlet exposed to ambient conditions. Five different pressure conditions were tested. These included ambient pressure (98-101 kilopascals [kPa]) and test pressures controlled to be 10 or 20 kPa below or 75 or 150 kPa above the ambient pressure. A theoretical calculation based on the principles of fluid mechanics was also used to predict the pump's flow rate at various ambient conditions. The conditions in which the Infusor elastomeric pump and restrictor outlet were at the same pressure gave rise to average flow rates within the ±10% tolerance of the calculated target flow rate of 11 mL/hr. The flow rate of the Infusor pump decreased when the pressure conditions changed from hypobaric to ambient. The flow rate increased when the pressure conditions changed from hyperbaric to ambient. The flow rate of the Infusor elastomeric pump was not affected when the balloon reservoir and restrictor outlet were at the same pressure. The flow rate varied from 58.54% to 377.04% of the labeled flow rate when the pressure applied to the reservoir varied from 20 kPa below to 150 kPa above the pressure applied to the restrictor outlet, respectively. The maximum difference between observed flow rates and those calculated by applying fluid mechanics was 4.9%.

  14. In vitro viability effects on apheresis and buffy-coat derived platelets administered through infusion pumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandgren P

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Per Sandgren,1,2 Veronica Berggren,3 Carl Westling,1,2 Viveka Stiller1 1Department of Clinical Immunology and Transfusion Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, 2Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, 3Department of Neonatology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, SwedenBackground: Different infusion pump systems as well as gravity infusion have been widely used in neonatal transfusion. However, the limited number of published studies describing the use of infusion pumps on platelets illustrates the necessity for more robust data.Methods: To evaluate the potential in vitro effects on the cellular, metabolic, functional and phenotypic properties of platelets, we set up a four-arm paired study simultaneously comparing the use of different infusion pumps (Alaris® CC/GP with unexposed platelets. The platelet units (n=8 were either produced by the apheresis technique and suspended in 100% plasma or derived from buffy coats to yield platelet units stored in approximately 30% plasma and 70% SSP+. Fresh and 5-day old platelets were tested.Results: Regardless of the production system or storage time used, no significant differences were observed in glucose and lactate concentration, pH, adenosine triphosphate levels, response to extent of shape change, hypotonic shock response reactivity, and CD62P expression. Similarly, no differences were observed in expression of the conformational epitope on glycoprotein IIb/IIIa, determined using procaspase-activating compound 1, or in the expression of CD42b and platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 in a comparison between platelets administered through infusion pumps versus unexposed platelets.Conclusion: Using Alaris CC/GP infusion pumps had no influence on the cellular, functional, and phenotypic in vitro properties of platelets. This fact seems not to be affected by different production systems or storage time.Keywords: platelets, neonatal platelet transfusion

  15. Effect of hydrodynamic action in peristaltic pump of blood gases analyzer ABL 555

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali K. Mohammed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, we studied the effect of hydrodynamic action in peristaltic pump of blood gases analyzer ABL 555 which made by (Radiometer-Copenhagen, by using theories of tribology and Reynolds equation on performance of blood film convergence area, we analyzing the influence of theoretical model for peristaltic pump (consist of steeper motor and 4 cylindrical bearings distributed on circular disc rotating around capillary tube, by using (MATLAB R 2012b programing with numerical solution of finite difference method in 5 nodes element , we fined the blood film thickness and the pressure on contact area grid ( consist from annual and axial lines , then influence of viscosity of blood on pressure generated in limited temperature of ambient and velocity of motor , and flow rate of blood in tube. The important conclusions appear that the rotating sliding movement of motor cause low pressure (positive while the rolling cylindrical rollers of bearings cause high pressure (negative which lead to push the blood in tube, that mean the direction of rotating blood opposite the direction of rotating motor of peristaltic pump, also the viscosity of blood effect on velocity of flow and the speed of motor with bearings, and the effect of blood film thickness effect on pressure generated in tube. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.25130/tjes.24.2017.18

  16. The effectiveness of heat pumps as part of CCGT-190/220 Tyumen CHP-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tretyakova Polina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the possibility of increasing the energy efficiency of CCGT-190/220 Tyumen CHP-1 due to the utilization of low-grade heat given off in the condenser unit of the steam turbine. To assess the effectiveness of the proposed system, the indexes of thermal efficiency are given. As a result of a research the following conclusions are received: The heat-transfer agent heat pump, when heated uses low-grade heat TPP and increases heat output, but consumes the electricity. Using a heat pump is effective for a small temperature difference between the condenser and the evaporator. Good example is heating water before chemical treatment. This method is more efficient than using a replacement boiler and it is used in steam selection.

  17. Effects of water compressibility on the pressure fluctuation prediction in pump turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, J L; Wang, D Z; Wang, L Q; Wu, Y L; Wei, X Z

    2012-01-01

    The compressible effect of water is a key factor in transient flows. However, it is always neglected in the unsteady simulations for hydraulic machinery. In light of this, the governing equation of the flow is deduced to combine the compressibility of water, and then simulations with compressible and incompressible considerations to the typical unsteady flow phenomenon (Rotor stator interaction) in a pump turbine model are carried out and compared with each other. The results show that water compressibility has great effects on the magnitude and frequency of pressure fluctuation. As the operating condition concerned, the compressibility of water will induce larger pressure fluctuation, which agrees better with measured data. Moreover, the lower frequency component of the pressure signal can only be captured with the combination of water compressibility. It can be concluded that water compressibility is a fatal factor, which cannot be neglected in the unsteady simulations for pump turbines.

  18. Stochastic processes

    CERN Document Server

    Parzen, Emanuel

    1962-01-01

    Well-written and accessible, this classic introduction to stochastic processes and related mathematics is appropriate for advanced undergraduate students of mathematics with a knowledge of calculus and continuous probability theory. The treatment offers examples of the wide variety of empirical phenomena for which stochastic processes provide mathematical models, and it develops the methods of probability model-building.Chapter 1 presents precise definitions of the notions of a random variable and a stochastic process and introduces the Wiener and Poisson processes. Subsequent chapters examine

  19. Effect of Physical Osmosis Methods on Quality of Tilapia Fillets Processed by Heat Pump Drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Min

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve the influence of different pretreatment methods on heat pump dried tilapia fillets, the effects of trehalose, ultrasound-assisted and freeze-thaw cycle assisted osmotic dehydration on the color, rehydration, texture and Ca2+-ATPase activity were investigated. Tilapia fillets (100 mm length × 50 mm width × 5 mm height were first osmoconcentrated in a trehalose solution combined with 4°C under atmospheric pressure for 1 h, different power of ultrasound and freeze-thawing respectively, then heat pump dried. The results showed that under the same drying method, the comprehensive score of ultrasound in 400 Watt was best, compared to freeze-thaw, the ultrasound pretreatment had a significant (p0.05 effect on the rehydration and texture. However, both of them significantly (p<0.05 affected the quality in comparison to that of osmosis at 4°C. It indicates that suitable ultrasonic pretreatment conditions improve the quality of dried products effectively and the conclusion of this research provides reference for heat pump dried similar products.

  20. Land subsidence due to groundwater pumping and recharge: considering the particle-deposition effect in ground-source heat-pump engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xianze; Liu, Quansheng; Zhang, Chengyuan; Huang, Yisheng; Fan, Yong; Wang, Hongxing

    2018-01-01

    With the rapid development and use of ground-source heat-pump (GSHP) systems in China, it has become imperative to research the effects of associated long-term pumping and recharge processes on ground deformation. During groundwater GSHP operation, small particles can be transported and deposited, or they can become detached in the grain skeleton and undergo recombination, possibly causing a change in the ground structure and characteristics. This paper presents a mathematical ground-deformation model that considers particle transportation and deposition in porous media based on the geological characteristics of a dual-structure stratum in Wuhan, eastern China. Thermal effects were taken into consideration because the GSHP technology used involves a device that uses heat from a shallow layer of the ground. The results reveal that particle deposition during the long-term pumping and recharge process has had an impact on ground deformation that has significantly increased over time. In addition, there is a strong correlation between the deformation change (%) and the amount of particle deposition. The position of the maximum deformation change is also the location where most of the particles are deposited, with the deformation change being as high as 43.3%. The analyses also show that flow of groundwater can have an effect on the ground deformation process, but the effect is very weak.

  1. Land subsidence due to groundwater pumping and recharge: considering the particle-deposition effect in ground-source heat-pump engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xianze; Liu, Quansheng; Zhang, Chengyuan; Huang, Yisheng; Fan, Yong; Wang, Hongxing

    2018-05-01

    With the rapid development and use of ground-source heat-pump (GSHP) systems in China, it has become imperative to research the effects of associated long-term pumping and recharge processes on ground deformation. During groundwater GSHP operation, small particles can be transported and deposited, or they can become detached in the grain skeleton and undergo recombination, possibly causing a change in the ground structure and characteristics. This paper presents a mathematical ground-deformation model that considers particle transportation and deposition in porous media based on the geological characteristics of a dual-structure stratum in Wuhan, eastern China. Thermal effects were taken into consideration because the GSHP technology used involves a device that uses heat from a shallow layer of the ground. The results reveal that particle deposition during the long-term pumping and recharge process has had an impact on ground deformation that has significantly increased over time. In addition, there is a strong correlation between the deformation change (%) and the amount of particle deposition. The position of the maximum deformation change is also the location where most of the particles are deposited, with the deformation change being as high as 43.3%. The analyses also show that flow of groundwater can have an effect on the ground deformation process, but the effect is very weak.

  2. The Effect of Stochastically Varying Creep Parameters on Residual Stresses in Ceramic Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, Evan J.; Mital, Subodh K.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    Constituent properties, along with volume fraction, have a first order effect on the microscale fields within a composite material and influence the macroscopic response. Therefore, there is a need to assess the significance of stochastic variation in the constituent properties of composites at the higher scales. The effect of variability in the parameters controlling the time-dependent behavior, in a unidirectional SCS-6 SiC fiber-reinforced RBSN matrix composite lamina, on the residual stresses induced during processing is investigated numerically. The generalized method of cells micromechanics theory is utilized to model the ceramic matrix composite lamina using a repeating unit cell. The primary creep phases of the constituents are approximated using a Norton-Bailey, steady state, power law creep model. The effect of residual stresses on the proportional limit stress and strain to failure of the composite is demonstrated. Monte Carlo simulations were conducted using a normal distribution for the power law parameters and the resulting residual stress distributions were predicted.

  3. Pump absorption in coiled and twisted double-clad hexagonal fiber: effect of launching conditions and core location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalidet, Romain; Peterka, Pavel; Doya, Valérie; Aubrecht, Jan; Koška, Pavel

    2018-02-01

    Ever extending applications of fiber lasers require energy efficient, high-power, small footprint and reliable fiber lasers and laser wavelength versatility. To meet these demands, next generation of active fibers for high-power fiber lasers is coming out that will eventually offer tailored spectroscopic properties, high robustness and reduced cooling requirements and improved efficiency through tailored pump absorption. We report on numerical modelling of the efficiency of the pump absorption in double clad active fibers with hexagonal shape of the inner cladding cross section and rare-earth-doped core. We analyze both the effect of different radii of the spool on which the fiber is coiled and different fiber twisting rates. Two different launching conditions were investigated: the Gaussian input pump beam and a speckle pattern that mimics the output of the pump laser diode pigtail. We have found that by asymmetric position of the rare-earth-doped core we can significantly improve the pump absorption.

  4. Effects of Risk Aversion on Market Outcomes: A Stochastic Two-Stage Equilibrium Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazempour, Jalal; Pinson, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    This paper evaluates how different risk preferences of electricity producers alter the market-clearing outcomes. Toward this goal, we propose a stochastic equilibrium model for electricity markets with two settlements, i.e., day-ahead and balancing, in which a number of conventional and stochastic...... by its optimality conditions, resulting in a mixed complementarity problem. Numerical results from a case study based on the IEEE one-area reliability test system are derived and discussed....

  5. Penis Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your appointment might be less involved. Choosing a penis pump Some penis pumps are available without a ... it doesn't get caught in the ring. Penis pumps for penis enlargement Many advertisements in magazines ...

  6. Laser Velocimeter Measurements in the Pump of an Automotive Torque Converter Part I – Effect of Speed Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven B. Ainley

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A torque converter was tested at four turbine/pump rotational speed ratios (0.200, 0.400, 0.600, and 0.800 all with a constant pump rotational speed in order to determine the effect of speed ratio on the torque converter pump flow field. Laser velocimetry was used to measure three components of velocity within the pump and a shaft encoder was employed to record the instantaneous pump angular position. Shaft encoder information was correlated with measured velocities to develop flow field blade-to-blade profiles and vector plots. Measurements were obtained in both the pump mid- and exit planes for all four speed ratios. Results showed large separation regions and jet/wake flows throughout the pump. The midplane flow was found to have strong counter-clockwise secondary components and the exit plane flow had strong clockwise secondary components. Mass flows were calculated from the velocity data and were found to decrease as the speed ratio was increased. Also, the vorticity and slip factors were calculated from the experimental data and are included. The mid-plane slip factors compare favorably to those for conventional centrifugal pumps but less slip was present in the exit plane than the mid-plane. Neither the slip factor nor the vorticity were seen to be strongly affected by the speed ratio. Finally, the torque core-to-shell and blade-to-blade torque distributions are presented for both planes.

  7. Effect Analysis of Geometric Parameters on Stainless Steel Stamping Multistage Pump by Experimental Test and Numerical Calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the efficiency of stainless steel stamping multistage pump, quadratic regression orthogonal test, hydraulic design, and computational fluid dynamics (CFD are used to analyze the effect of pump geometric parameters. Sixteen impellers are designed based on the quadratic regression orthogonal test, which have three factors including impeller outlet slope, impeller blade outlet stagger angle, and impeller blade outlet width. Through quadratic regression equation, the function relationship between efficiency values and three factors is established. The optimal combination of geometric parameters is found through the analysis of the regression equation. To further study the influence of blade thickness on the performance of multistage pump, numerical simulations of multistage pump with different blade thicknesses are carried out. The influence law of blade thickness on pump performance is built from the external characteristics and internal flow field. In conclusion, with the increase of blade thickness, the best efficiency point of the pump shifts to the small flow rate direction, and the vortex regions inside the pump at rated flow gradually increase, which is the main reason that pump efficiency decreases along with the increase of the blade thickness at rated flow.

  8. Stochastic quantization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klauder, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    The author provides an introductory survey to stochastic quantization in which he outlines this new approach for scalar fields, gauge fields, fermion fields, and condensed matter problems such as electrons in solids and the statistical mechanics of quantum spins. (Auth.)

  9. Nonlinear effects in optical pumping of a cold and slow atomic beam

    KAUST Repository

    Porfido, N.

    2015-10-12

    By photoionizing hyperfine (HF) levels of the Cs state 62P3/2 in a slow and cold atom beam, we find how their population depends on the excitation laser power. The long time (around 180μs) spent by the slow atoms inside the resonant laser beam is large enough to enable exploration of a unique atom-light interaction regime heavily affected by time-dependent optical pumping. We demonstrate that, under such conditions, the onset of nonlinear effects in the population dynamics and optical pumping occurs at excitation laser intensities much smaller than the conventional respective saturation values. The evolution of population within the HF structure is calculated by numerical integration of the multilevel optical Bloch equations. The agreement between numerical results and experiment outcomes is excellent. All main features in the experimental findings are explained by the occurrence of “dark” and “bright” resonances leading to power-dependent branching coefficients.

  10. Electrical and engine driven heat pumps for effective utilisation of renewable energy resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aye, Lu; Charters, W.W.S

    2003-07-01

    Much of the energy used for domestic, commercial and industrial purposes is to provide efficient and effective heating of conditioned spaces and for specialist niche applications in process heat systems. Vapour compression heat pumps driven by electric motors or engines provide the real capability of upgrading low temperature sources of ambient and waste heat to match the desired load temperatures in such heating applications. Major source of ambient heat stem from the storage of solar energy in the ground, in lakes and rivers, and in atmospheric air. Heat pumps can therefore be used to effectively harness indirectly the daily solar radiation input. In addition many industries have major sources of waste low grade heat in the form of air or water discharged from the industrial process heat stream. Heat pumps are generally formally classified therefore as air source, ground source or water source units although there has also been considerable interest recently in hybrid units combining the attributes of two or more of these specific types mentioned above.

  11. Electrical and engine driven heat pumps for effective utilisation of renewable energy resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Aye [Melbourne Univ., Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Parkville, VIC (Australia); Charters, W.W.S. [Melbourne Univ., Dept. of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Parkville, VIC (Australia)

    2003-07-01

    Much of the energy used for domestic, commercial and industrial purposes is to provide efficient and effective heating of conditioned spaces and for specialist niche applications in process heat systems. Vapour compression heat pumps driven by electric motors or engines provide the real capability of upgrading low temperature sources of ambient and waste heat to match the desired load temperatures in such heating applications. Major source of ambient heat stem from the storage of solar energy in the ground, in lakes and rivers, and in atmospheric air. Heat pumps can therefore be used to effectively harness indirectly the daily solar radiation input. In addition many industries have major sources of waste low grade heat in the form of air or water discharged from the industrial process heat stream. Heat pumps are generally formally classified therefore as air source, ground source or water source units although there has also been considerable interest recently in hybrid units combining the attributes of two or more of these specific types mentioned above. (Author)

  12. Economic valuation of heat pumps and electric boilers in the Danish energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, Maria Grønnegaard; Morales, Juan Miguel; Zugno, Marco; Pedersen, Thomas Engberg; Madsen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We assess the economic value of heat pumps and electric boilers in Denmark. • The daily operation of a heat and power system is modeled by stochastic programming. • Deterministic models overestimate the value of heat pumps and electric boilers. • Heat pumps and electric boilers can reduce the cost of operating the Danish system. • Falling power prices may boost the future value of heat pumps and electric boilers. - Abstract: Heat pumps (HP) and electric immersion boilers (EB) have great potential to increase flexibility in energy systems. In parallel, decreasing taxes on electricity-based heat production are creating a more favorable economic environment for the deployment of these units in Denmark. In this paper, the economic value of heat pumps and electric boilers is assessed by simulating their day-to-day market performance using a novel operational strategy based on two-stage stochastic programming. This stochastic model is employed to optimize jointly the daily operation of HPs and EBs along with the Combined Heat and Power (CHP) units in the system. Uncertainty in the heat demand and power price is modeled via scenarios representing different plausible paths for their future evolution. A series of case-studies are performed using real-world data for the heat and power systems in the Copenhagen area during four representative weeks of 2013. We show that the use of stochastic operational models is critical, as standard deterministic models provide an overestimation of the added benefits from the installation of HPs and EBs, thus leading to over-investment in capacity. Furthermore, we perform sensitivity studies to investigate the effect on market performance of varying capacity and efficiency for these units, as well as of different levels of prices in the electricity market. We find that these parameters substantially affect the profitability of heat pumps and electric boilers, hence, they must be carefully assessed by potential

  13. Stochastic modelling to assess economic effects of treatment of chronic subclinical mastitis caused by Streptococcus uberis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeneveld, Wilma; Swinkels, Jantijn; Hogeveen, Henk

    2007-11-01

    Chronic subclinical mastitis is usually not treated during the lactation. However, some veterinarians regard treatment of some types of subclinical mastitis to be effective. The goal of this research was to develop a stochastic Monte Carlo simulation model to support decisions around treatment of chronic subclinical mastitis caused by Streptococcus uberis. Factors in the model included the probability of cure after treatment, probability of the cow becoming clinically diseased, transmission of infection to other cows, and physiological effects of the infection. Using basic input parameters for Dutch circumstances, the average economic costs per cow of an untreated chronic subclinical mastitis case caused by Str. uberis in a single quarter from day of diagnosis onwards was euro109. With treatment, the average costs were higher (euro120). Thus, for the average cow, treatment was not efficient economically. However, the risk of high costs was much higher when cows with chronic subclinical mastitis were not treated. A sensitivity analysis showed that profitability of treatment of chronic subclinical Str. uberis mastitis depended on farm-specific factors (such as economic value of discarded milk) and cow-specific factors (such as day of diagnosis, duration of infection, amount of transmission to other cows and cure rate). Therefore, herd level protocols are not sufficient and decision support should be cow specific. Given the importance of cow-specific factors, information from the current model could be applied to automatic decision support systems.

  14. United States-Russian workshop on the stochastic health effects of radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, M.; Petojan, I.; Buldakov, L.A. [and others

    1992-06-01

    This report addresses one of the tasks agreed upon in the area of Environmental Transport and Health Effects (Working Group 7.2) of the JCCCNRS, i.e. to hold a workshop on the topic of the role of radiation dose rate effects on stochastic risks for low LET radiation. The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident in April 1986, released a very large quantity of radionuclides, and the populations were exposed primarily to low LET radiation from {sup 131}I, {sup 134,137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr. The workshop provided an opportunity for radiobiologists and epidemiologists to review and discuss the epidemiological data and the lessons from laboratory studies and reach conclusions on low level risk assessment resulting from the fundamental knowledge and theoretical models. Brief presentations were made by the attendees, and these are summarized herein. In addition many of the attendees prepared manuscripts which are included in this report. The discussion centered on a set of questions and insights into three general areas of low radiation dose rate science: epidemiological, experimental and theoretical. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  15. Stochastic model prediction of the Kovacs' ``expansion gap'' effect for volume relaxation in glassy polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedev, Grigori; Caruthers, James

    2015-03-01

    The classic series of experiments by A. Kovacs on volume relaxation following temperature jumps for poly(vinyl acetate), PVAc, in the Tg region revealed the richness and complexity of the viscoelastic behavior of glassy materials. Over the years no theoretical model has been able to predict all the features of the Kovacs data, where the so-called ``expansion gap'' effect proved to be particularly challenging. Specifically, for a series of up-jump experiments with different initial temperatures, Ti, but with the same final temperature, as the relaxation approaches equilibrium it would be expected that the effective relaxation time would be the same regardless of Ti; however, Kovacs observed that the dependence on Ti persisted seemingly all the way to equilibrium. In this communication we will show that a recently developed Stochastic Constitutive Model (SCM) that explicitly acknowledges the nano-scale dynamic heterogeneity of glasses can capture the ``expansion gap'' as well as the rest of the Kovacs data set for PVAc. It will be shown that the success of the SCM is due to its inherent thermo-rheological complexity.

  16. Effects of chlorpromazine on Na+-K+-ATPase pumping and solute transport in rat hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dyke, R.W.; Scharschmidt, B.F.

    1987-01-01

    Inhibition of Na+-K+-ATPase and sodium-dependent bile acid transport has been suggested as a mechanism for the cholestasis produced by certain drugs such as chlorpromazine. We examined the effects of chlorpromazine (and in selected studies, two of its metabolites) on Na+-K+-ATPase cation pumping (ouabain-suppressible 86 Rb uptake), exchangeable intracellular sodium content, membrane potential (assessed by 36 Cl- distribution), and sodium-dependent transport of taurocholate and alanine in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes. Chlorpromazine (10-300 microM), 7,8-dihydroxychlorpromazine (10-300 microM), and ouabain (0.1-2 mM), but not chlorpromazine sulfoxide, produced a concentration-dependent decrease in Na+-K+-ATPase cation pumping and an increase in intracellular sodium content. Chlorpromazine (100 microM) and ouabain (0.75 mM) also modestly decreased hepatocyte membrane potential. In further studies, chlorpromazine (75 and 100 microM) and ouabain (0.1, 0.5, and 0.75 mM) decreased initial sodium-dependent uptake rates of taurocholate and alanine by 18-63%. Although the steady-state intracellular content of alanine was decreased 25-53% by both agents, chlorpromazine increased the steady-state content of taurocholate by 171% and decreased taurocholate efflux, apparently related to partitioning of taurocholate into a large, slowly turning over intracellular pool. These studies provide direct evidence that chlorpromazine inhibits Na+-K+-ATPase cation pumping in intact cells and that partial inhibition of Na+-K+-ATPase cation pumping is associated with a reduction of both the electrochemical sodium gradient and sodium-dependent solute transport. These effects of chlorpromazine may contribute to chlorpromazine-induced cholestasis in animals and humans

  17. Effects of chlorpromazine on Na+-K+-ATPase pumping and solute transport in rat hepatocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dyke, R.W.; Scharschmidt, B.F.

    1987-11-01

    Inhibition of Na+-K+-ATPase and sodium-dependent bile acid transport has been suggested as a mechanism for the cholestasis produced by certain drugs such as chlorpromazine. We examined the effects of chlorpromazine (and in selected studies, two of its metabolites) on Na+-K+-ATPase cation pumping (ouabain-suppressible /sup 86/Rb uptake), exchangeable intracellular sodium content, membrane potential (assessed by /sup 36/Cl- distribution), and sodium-dependent transport of taurocholate and alanine in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes. Chlorpromazine (10-300 microM), 7,8-dihydroxychlorpromazine (10-300 microM), and ouabain (0.1-2 mM), but not chlorpromazine sulfoxide, produced a concentration-dependent decrease in Na+-K+-ATPase cation pumping and an increase in intracellular sodium content. Chlorpromazine (100 microM) and ouabain (0.75 mM) also modestly decreased hepatocyte membrane potential. In further studies, chlorpromazine (75 and 100 microM) and ouabain (0.1, 0.5, and 0.75 mM) decreased initial sodium-dependent uptake rates of taurocholate and alanine by 18-63%. Although the steady-state intracellular content of alanine was decreased 25-53% by both agents, chlorpromazine increased the steady-state content of taurocholate by 171% and decreased taurocholate efflux, apparently related to partitioning of taurocholate into a large, slowly turning over intracellular pool. These studies provide direct evidence that chlorpromazine inhibits Na+-K+-ATPase cation pumping in intact cells and that partial inhibition of Na+-K+-ATPase cation pumping is associated with a reduction of both the electrochemical sodium gradient and sodium-dependent solute transport. These effects of chlorpromazine may contribute to chlorpromazine-induced cholestasis in animals and humans.

  18. Effective theory for heavy quark QCD at finite temperature and density with stochastic quantization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuman, Mathias

    2015-07-01

    In this thesis we presented the derivation as well as the numerical and analytical treatment of an effective theory for lattice Quantum Chromodynamics (LQCD). We derived the effective theory directly from LQCD, which allows us to systematically introduce further improvements. The derivation was performed by means of an expansion around the limit of infinite quark masses and infinite gauge coupling. Using this theory we were able to derive results in the region of large densities. This region is, due to the sign problem, inaccessible to standard LQCD approaches. Although LQCD simulations at large densities have been performed recently by applying stochastic quantization, those are still limited to lattice with low numbers of timeslices and therefor can not reach the low temperature region. Furthermore, they can not be crosschecked with Monte-Carlo simulations. Since the equivalence between stochastic quantization and Monte-Carlo is unproven for the case of finite density systems, new approaches to access the cold dense region of the QCD phase diagram are desirable. The effective theory presented in this thesis provides such an approach. We introduced continuum QCD in chapter 2. In chapter 3 we presented how LQCD, i.e. QCD in a discretized space-time, can be formulated and used as a tool to explore the non-perturbative regions of the QCD phase diagram. Special emphasis was placed on simulations at finite baryon densities and the numerical problems that arise in this region. These problems are caused by the complexification of the action and are known as the sign problem. We gave a detailed presentation of the derivation of our effective theory in chapter 4. For this we performed expansions around the limit of strong coupling and static quarks, κ=β=0, introducing corrections order by order in the expansion parameters κ and β. Truncating the theory at different orders allowed us to determine the parameter region where the convergence to full LQCD is good. The gauge

  19. Molecular alignment effect on the photoassociation process via a pump-dump scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin-Bin; Han, Yong-Chang; Cong, Shu-Lin

    2015-09-01

    The photoassociation processes via the pump-dump scheme for the heternuclear (Na + H → NaH) and the homonuclear (Na + Na → Na2) molecular systems are studied, respectively, using the time-dependent quantum wavepacket method. For both systems, the initial atom pair in the continuum of the ground electronic state (X1Σ+) is associated into the molecule in the bound states of the excited state (A1Σ+) by the pump pulse. Then driven by a time-delayed dumping pulse, the prepared excited-state molecule can be transferred to the bound states of the ground electronic state. It is found that the pump process can induce a superposition of the rovibrational levels |v, j> on the excited state, which can lead to the field-free alignment of the excited-state molecule. The molecular alignment can affect the dumping process by varying the effective coupling intensity between the two electronic states or by varying the population transfer pathways. As a result, the final population transferred to the bound states of the ground electronic state varies periodically with the delay time of the dumping pulse.

  20. Streamflow depletion by wells--Understanding and managing the effects of groundwater pumping on streamflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Paul M.; Leake, Stanley A.

    2012-11-02

    Groundwater is an important source of water for many human needs, including public supply, agriculture, and industry. With the development of any natural resource, however, adverse consequences may be associated with its use. One of the primary concerns related to the development of groundwater resources is the effect of groundwater pumping on streamflow. Groundwater and surface-water systems are connected, and groundwater discharge is often a substantial component of the total flow of a stream. Groundwater pumping reduces the amount of groundwater that flows to streams and, in some cases, can draw streamflow into the underlying groundwater system. Streamflow reductions (or depletions) caused by pumping have become an important water-resource management issue because of the negative impacts that reduced flows can have on aquatic ecosystems, the availability of surface water, and the quality and aesthetic value of streams and rivers. Scientific research over the past seven decades has made important contributions to the basic understanding of the processes and factors that affect streamflow depletion by wells. Moreover, advances in methods for simulating groundwater systems with computer models provide powerful tools for estimating the rates, locations, and timing of streamflow depletion in response to groundwater pumping and for evaluating alternative approaches for managing streamflow depletion. The primary objective of this report is to summarize these scientific insights and to describe the various field methods and modeling approaches that can be used to understand and manage streamflow depletion. A secondary objective is to highlight several misconceptions concerning streamflow depletion and to explain why these misconceptions are incorrect.

  1. The development of criteria for limiting the non-stochastic effects of non-uniform skin exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles, M.W.; Wells, J.

    1980-01-01

    The recent recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP, 1977) have underlined the lack of knowledge relating to small area skin exposures and have highlighted the difficulties of integrating stochastic and nonstochastic effects into a unified radiation protection philosophy. A system of limitation is suggested which should be appropriate to the wide range of skin irradiation modes which are met in practice. It is proposed for example, that for large area exposures, the probability of skin cancer induction should be considered as the limiting factor. For partial-body skin exposures the probability of the stochastic response will be reduced and late nonstochastic effects will become limiting as the area exposed is reduced. Highly non-uniform exposures such as from small sources or radioactive particulates should be limited on the basis of early rather than late effects. A survey of epidemiological and experimental work is used to show how detailed guidance for limitation in these cases can be provided. Due to the detailed morphology of the skin the biological response depends critically upon the depth dose. In the case of alpha and beta radiation this should be reflected in a less restrictive limitation system, particularly for non-stochastic effects. Up-to-date and on-going experimental studies are described which can provide guidance in this field. (author)

  2. Effects of fuel particle size distributions on neutron transport in stochastic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Chao; Pavlou, Andrew T.; Ji, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Effects of fuel particle size distributions on neutron transport are evaluated. • Neutron channeling is identified as the fundamental reason for the effects. • The effects are noticeable at low packing and low optical thickness systems. • Unit cells of realistic reactor designs are studied for different size particles. • Fuel particle size distribution effects are not negligible in realistic designs. - Abstract: This paper presents a study of the fuel particle size distribution effects on neutron transport in three-dimensional stochastic media. Particle fuel is used in gas-cooled nuclear reactor designs and innovative light water reactor designs loaded with accident tolerant fuel. Due to the design requirements and fuel fabrication limits, the size of fuel particles may not be perfectly constant but instead follows a certain distribution. This brings a fundamental question to the radiation transport computation community: how does the fuel particle size distribution affect the neutron transport in particle fuel systems? To answer this question, size distribution effects and their physical interpretations are investigated by performing a series of neutron transport simulations at different fuel particle size distributions. An eigenvalue problem is simulated in a cylindrical container consisting of fissile fuel particles with five different size distributions: constant, uniform, power, exponential and Gaussian. A total of 15 parametric cases are constructed by altering the fissile particle volume packing fraction and its optical thickness, but keeping the mean chord length of the spherical fuel particle the same at different size distributions. The tallied effective multiplication factor (k eff ) and the spatial distribution of fission power density along axial and radial directions are compared between different size distributions. At low packing fraction and low optical thickness, the size distribution shows a noticeable effect on neutron

  3. Slow sand filters effectively reduce Phytophthora after a pathogen switch from Fusarium and a simulated pump failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eric; Oki, Lorence R

    2013-09-15

    Slow sand filtration has been shown to effectively reduce Phytophthora zoospores in irrigation water. This experiment tested the reduction of Phytophthora colony forming units (CFUs) by slow sand filtration systems after switching the pathogen contaminating plant leachate from Fusarium to Phytophthora and the resilience of the system to a short period without water, as might be caused by a pump failure. The slow sand filtration system greatly reduced Phytophthora CFUs and transmission after switching the pathogens. In addition, Phytophthora reduction by the slow sand filter was equally effective before and after the simulated pump failure. Reduction of Fusarium was not seen by the SSFs, before or after the simulated pump failure. The results suggest that slow sand filters are effective at reducing larger organisms, such as Phytophthora zoospores, even after a pump failure or a change in pathogens. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of radial diffuser hydraulic design on a double-suction centrifugal pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, H. C.; Zhang, Y. X.; Xu, C.; Zhang, J. Y.; Li, Z. L.

    2016-05-01

    In order to study effects of radial diffuser on hydraulic performance of crude oil pump, the steady CFD numerical method is applied and one large double-suction oil pump running in long-distance pipeline is considered. The research focuses on analysing the influence of its diffuser vane profile on hydraulic performance of oil pump. The four different types of cylindrical vane have been designed by in-house codes mainly including double arcs (DA), triple arcs (TA), equiangular spiral line (ES) and linear variable angle spiral line (LVS). During design process diffuser vane angles at inlet and outlet are tentatively given within a certain range and then the wrapping angle of the four types of diffuser vanes can be calculated automatically. Under the given inlet and outlet angles, the linear variable angle spiral line profile has the biggest wrapping angle and profile length which is good to delay channel diffusion but bring more friction hydraulic loss. Finally the vane camber line is thickened at the certain uniform thickness distribution and the 3D diffuser models are generated. The whole flow passage of oil pump with different types of diffusers under various flow rate conditions are numerically simulated based on RNG k-ɛ turbulent model and SIMPLEC algorithm. The numerical results show that different types of diffusers can bring about great difference on the hydraulic performance of oil pump, of which the ES profile diffuser with its proper setting angle shows the best hydraulic performance and its inner flow field is improved obviously. Compared with the head data from model sample, all designed diffusers can make a certain improvement on head characteristic. At the large flow rate conditions the hydraulic efficiency increases obviously and the best efficiency point shift to the large flow rate range. The ES profile diffuser embodies the better advantages on pump performance which can be explained theoretically that the diffuser actually acts as a diffusion

  5. Effective Giromagnetic Ratios in Artifical Nuclear Magnetization Pumping of the Noble Gases Mix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov E.N.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic of the nuclear magnetization of the two noble gases mix was studied in this research. Nuclear magnetization pumped along the induction of external magnetic field. Vector of nuclear magnetization is given a tilt by the week rotational magnetic field, which makes NMR for noble gases. Interaction between the nuclear magnetic moments of the different noble gases adducted to shifts at the frequency of nuclear moments precession in external magnetic field. Effective gyromagnetic ratios of the nuclear of noble gases is defined and it different from the tabulated value. There is theoretical calculation of effective gyromagnetic ratios in this research.

  6. Effect of dexamethasone on skeletal muscle Na+,K+ pump subunit specific expression and K+ homeostasis during exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordsborg, Nikolai; Ovesen, Jakob; Thomassen, Martin

    2008-01-01

    The effect of dexamethasone on Na(+),K(+) pump subunit expression and muscle exchange of K(+) during exercise in humans was investigated. Nine healthy male subjects completed a randomized double blind placebo controlled protocol, with ingestion of dexamethasone (Dex: 2 x 2 mg per day) or placebo...... (Pla) for 5 days. Na(+),K(+) pump catalytic alpha1 and alpha2 subunit expression was approximately 17% higher (P ...). The results indicate that an increased Na(+),K(+) pump expression per se is of importance for thigh K(+) reuptake at the onset of low and moderate intensity exercise, but less important during high intensity exercise....

  7. Alternative Asymmetric Stochastic Volatility Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Asai (Manabu); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe stochastic volatility model usually incorporates asymmetric effects by introducing the negative correlation between the innovations in returns and volatility. In this paper, we propose a new asymmetric stochastic volatility model, based on the leverage and size effects. The model is

  8. Transport in Stochastic Media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haran, O.; Shvarts, D.; Thieberger, R.

    1998-01-01

    Classical transport of neutral particles in a binary, scattering, stochastic media is discussed. It is assumed that the cross-sections of the constituent materials and their volume fractions are known. The inner structure of the media is stochastic, but there exist a statistical knowledge about the lump sizes, shapes and arrangement. The transmission through the composite media depends on the specific heterogeneous realization of the media. The current research focuses on the averaged transmission through an ensemble of realizations, frm which an effective cross-section for the media can be derived. The problem of one dimensional transport in stochastic media has been studied extensively [1]. In the one dimensional description of the problem, particles are transported along a line populated with alternating material segments of random lengths. The current work discusses transport in two-dimensional stochastic media. The phenomenon that is unique to the multi-dimensional description of the problem is obstacle bypassing. Obstacle bypassing tends to reduce the opacity of the media, thereby reducing its effective cross-section. The importance of this phenomenon depends on the manner in which the obstacles are arranged in the media. Results of transport simulations in multi-dimensional stochastic media are presented. Effective cross-sections derived from the simulations are compared against those obtained for the one-dimensional problem, and against those obtained from effective multi-dimensional models, which are partially based on a Markovian assumption

  9. Centrifugal pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, HH

    1981-01-01

    Centrifugal Pumps describes the whole range of the centrifugal pump (mixed flow and axial flow pumps are dealt with more briefly), with emphasis on the development of the boiler feed pump. Organized into 46 chapters, this book discusses the general hydrodynamic principles, performance, dimensions, type number, flow, and efficiency of centrifugal pumps. This text also explains the pumps performance; entry conditions and cavitation; speed and dimensions for a given duty; and losses. Some chapters further describe centrifugal pump mechanical design, installation, monitoring, and maintenance. The

  10. Effect of mechanical tactile noise on amplitude of visual evoked potentials: multisensory stochastic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Balbuena, Ignacio; Huidobro, Nayeli; Silva, Mayte; Flores, Amira; Trenado, Carlos; Quintanar, Luis; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Kristeva, Rumyana; Manjarrez, Elias

    2015-10-01

    The present investigation documents the electrophysiological occurrence of multisensory stochastic resonance in the human visual pathway elicited by tactile noise. We define multisensory stochastic resonance of brain evoked potentials as the phenomenon in which an intermediate level of input noise of one sensory modality enhances the brain evoked response of another sensory modality. Here we examined this phenomenon in visual evoked potentials (VEPs) modulated by the addition of tactile noise. Specifically, we examined whether a particular level of mechanical Gaussian noise applied to the index finger can improve the amplitude of the VEP. We compared the amplitude of the positive P100 VEP component between zero noise (ZN), optimal noise (ON), and high mechanical noise (HN). The data disclosed an inverted U-like graph for all the subjects, thus demonstrating the occurrence of a multisensory stochastic resonance in the P100 VEP. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Fluctuations induced extinction and stochastic resonance effect in a model of tumor growth with periodic treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Dongxi, E-mail: lidongxi@mail.nwpu.edu.c [Department of Applied Mathematics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China); Xu Wei; Guo, Yongfeng; Xu Yong [Department of Applied Mathematics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China)

    2011-01-31

    We investigate a stochastic model of tumor growth derived from the catalytic Michaelis-Menten reaction with positional and environmental fluctuations under subthreshold periodic treatment. Firstly, the influences of environmental fluctuations on the treatable stage are analyzed numerically. Applying the standard theory of stochastic resonance derived from the two-state approach, we derive the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) analytically, which is used to measure the stochastic resonance phenomenon. It is found that the weak environmental fluctuations could induce the extinction of tumor cells in the subthreshold periodic treatment. The positional stability is better in favor of the treatment of the tumor cells. Besides, the appropriate and feasible treatment intensity and the treatment cycle should be highlighted considered in the treatment of tumor cells.

  12. Fluctuations induced extinction and stochastic resonance effect in a model of tumor growth with periodic treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Dongxi; Xu Wei; Guo, Yongfeng; Xu Yong

    2011-01-01

    We investigate a stochastic model of tumor growth derived from the catalytic Michaelis-Menten reaction with positional and environmental fluctuations under subthreshold periodic treatment. Firstly, the influences of environmental fluctuations on the treatable stage are analyzed numerically. Applying the standard theory of stochastic resonance derived from the two-state approach, we derive the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) analytically, which is used to measure the stochastic resonance phenomenon. It is found that the weak environmental fluctuations could induce the extinction of tumor cells in the subthreshold periodic treatment. The positional stability is better in favor of the treatment of the tumor cells. Besides, the appropriate and feasible treatment intensity and the treatment cycle should be highlighted considered in the treatment of tumor cells.

  13. The effect of step height on the performance of three-dimensional ac electro-osmotic microfluidic pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanski, John Paul; Levitan, Jeremy A; Burch, Damian N; Thorsen, Todd; Bazant, Martin Z

    2007-05-15

    Recent numerical and experimental studies have investigated the increase in efficiency of microfluidic ac electro-osmotic pumps by introducing nonplanar geometries with raised steps on the electrodes. In this study, we analyze the effect of the step height on ac electro-osmotic pump performance. AC electro-osmotic pumps with three-dimensional electroplated steps are fabricated on glass substrates and pumping velocities of low ionic strength electrolyte solutions are measured systematically using a custom microfluidic device. Numerical simulations predict an improvement in pump performance with increasing step height, at a given frequency and voltage, up to an optimal step height, which qualitatively matches the trend observed in experiment. For a broad range of step heights near the optimum, the observed flow is much faster than with existing planar pumps (at the same voltage and minimum feature size) and in the theoretically predicted direction of the "fluid conveyor belt" mechanism. For small step heights, the experiments also exhibit significant flow reversal at the optimal frequency, which cannot be explained by the theory, although the simulations predict weak flow reversal at higher frequencies due to incomplete charging. These results provide insight to an important parameter for the design of nonplanar electro-osmotic pumps and clues to improve the fundamental theory of ACEO.

  14. Effects of pollution in River Krishni on hand pump water quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Dhakyanaika

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available River Krishni is highly polluted. The investigation was “to study the effect of pollution in River Krishni on the quality ofgroundwater abstracted through shallow and deep hand pumps placed in the close vicinity of River Krishni”. One suchaffected Village Chanedna Maal was selected for the study. Water samples were analyzed in terms of physical, chemicaland bacteriological water quality parameters. Range of values of conductivity (1040–2770 μS/cm, TOC (27.79–1365.1mg/L, UV absorbance at 254 nm (0.281–10.34 cm-1, color (1510–5200 CU, and COD (15.82–1062 mg/L indicatedpresence of significant amount of pollution / organics in the river water, total coliform (16x102–46x106 MPN/100mLand fecal coliform (16x102–24x106 MPN/100mL. In case of deeper India Mark-II hand pumps conductivity was foundto range from 443–755 μS/cm, TOC (0.226–9.284 mg/L, UV absorbance (0.0–0.118 cm-1, colour (0.0–119 CU, COD(9.0–113 mg/L and MPN (0.0–93x101/100m L. While in case of shallower hand pumps conductivity (441–1609 μS/cm, TOC (0.015–68.82 mg/L, UV absorbance (0.0–1.094 cm-1, colour (4.0–560 CU, COD (9.72–163 mg/L and MPN(0.0–15x102/100mL. Hand pumps abstracting water from shallow and deep unconfined aquifers have been found to deliverpolluted water in terms of color, organics and coliform bacteria. As the hand pumps are the only source of water supply inVillage Chandena Maal, pollution of the groundwater has adversely affected the day to day life of its 3000 residents.

  15. Quantum stochastics

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Mou-Hsiung

    2015-01-01

    The classical probability theory initiated by Kolmogorov and its quantum counterpart, pioneered by von Neumann, were created at about the same time in the 1930s, but development of the quantum theory has trailed far behind. Although highly appealing, the quantum theory has a steep learning curve, requiring tools from both probability and analysis and a facility for combining the two viewpoints. This book is a systematic, self-contained account of the core of quantum probability and quantum stochastic processes for graduate students and researchers. The only assumed background is knowledge of the basic theory of Hilbert spaces, bounded linear operators, and classical Markov processes. From there, the book introduces additional tools from analysis, and then builds the quantum probability framework needed to support applications to quantum control and quantum information and communication. These include quantum noise, quantum stochastic calculus, stochastic quantum differential equations, quantum Markov semigrou...

  16. Enhancement of ohmic and stochastic heating by resonance effects in capacitive radio frequency discharges: a theoretical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussenbrock, T; Brinkmann, R P; Lieberman, M A; Lichtenberg, A J; Kawamura, E

    2008-08-22

    In low-pressure capacitive radio frequency discharges, two mechanisms of electron heating are dominant: (i) Ohmic heating due to collisions of electrons with neutrals of the background gas and (ii) stochastic heating due to momentum transfer from the oscillating boundary sheath. In this work we show by means of a nonlinear global model that the self-excitation of the plasma series resonance which arises in asymmetric capacitive discharges due to nonlinear interaction of plasma bulk and sheath significantly affects both Ohmic heating and stochastic heating. We observe that the series resonance effect increases the dissipation by factors of 2-5. We conclude that the nonlinear plasma dynamics should be taken into account in order to describe quantitatively correct electron heating in asymmetric capacitive radio frequency discharges.

  17. Effects of extrinsic mortality on the evolution of aging: a stochastic modeling approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim Nikolaievich Shokhirev

    Full Text Available The evolutionary theories of aging are useful for gaining insights into the complex mechanisms underlying senescence. Classical theories argue that high levels of extrinsic mortality should select for the evolution of shorter lifespans and earlier peak fertility. Non-classical theories, in contrast, posit that an increase in extrinsic mortality could select for the evolution of longer lifespans. Although numerous studies support the classical paradigm, recent data challenge classical predictions, finding that high extrinsic mortality can select for the evolution of longer lifespans. To further elucidate the role of extrinsic mortality in the evolution of aging, we implemented a stochastic, agent-based, computational model. We used a simulated annealing optimization approach to predict which model parameters predispose populations to evolve longer or shorter lifespans in response to increased levels of predation. We report that longer lifespans evolved in the presence of rising predation if the cost of mating is relatively high and if energy is available in excess. Conversely, we found that dramatically shorter lifespans evolved when mating costs were relatively low and food was relatively scarce. We also analyzed the effects of increased predation on various parameters related to density dependence and energy allocation. Longer and shorter lifespans were accompanied by increased and decreased investments of energy into somatic maintenance, respectively. Similarly, earlier and later maturation ages were accompanied by increased and decreased energetic investments into early fecundity, respectively. Higher predation significantly decreased the total population size, enlarged the shared resource pool, and redistributed energy reserves for mature individuals. These results both corroborate and refine classical predictions, demonstrating a population-level trade-off between longevity and fecundity and identifying conditions that produce both

  18. Cost-effectiveness of insulin pumps compared with multiple daily injections both provided with structured education for adults with type 1 diabetes: a health economic analysis of the Relative Effectiveness of Pumps over Structured Education (REPOSE) randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Daniel John; Brennan, Alan; Dixon, Simon; Waugh, Norman; Elliott, Jackie; Heller, Simon; Lee, Ellen; Campbell, Michael; Basarir, Hasan; White, David

    2018-04-07

    To assess the long-term cost-effectiveness of insulin pumps and Dose Adjustment for Normal Eating (pumps+DAFNE) compared with multiple daily insulin injections and DAFNE (MDI+DAFNE) for adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in the UK. We undertook a cost-utility analysis using the Sheffield Type 1 Diabetes Policy Model and data from the Relative Effectiveness of Pumps over Structured Education (REPOSE) trial to estimate the lifetime incidence of diabetic complications, intervention-based resource use and associated effects on costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). All economic analyses took a National Health Service and personal social services perspective and discounted costs and QALYs at 3.5% per annum. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis was performed on the base case. Further uncertainties in the cost of pumps and the evidence used to inform the model were explored using scenario analyses. Eight diabetes centres in England and Scotland. Adults with T1DM who were eligible to receive a structured education course and did not have a strong clinical indication or a preference for a pump. Pumps+DAFNE. MDI+DAFNE. Incremental costs, incremental QALYs gained and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). Compared with MDI+DAFNE, pumps+DAFNE was associated with an incremental discounted lifetime cost of +£18 853 (95% CI £6175 to £31 645) and a gain in discounted lifetime QALYs of +0.13 (95% CI -0.70 to +0.96). The base case mean ICER was £142 195 per QALY gained. The probability of pump+DAFNE being cost-effective using a cost-effectiveness threshold of £20 000 per QALY gained was 14.0%. All scenario and subgroup analyses examined indicated that the ICER was unlikely to fall below £30 000 per QALY gained. Our analysis of the REPOSE data suggests that routine use of pumps in adults without an immediate clinical need for a pump, as identified by National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, would not be cost-effective. ISRCTN61215213

  19. Fundamentals of stochastic nature sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Klyatskin, Valery I

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses the processes of stochastic structure formation in two-dimensional geophysical fluid dynamics based on statistical analysis of Gaussian random fields, as well as stochastic structure formation in dynamic systems with parametric excitation of positive random fields f(r,t) described by partial differential equations. Further, the book considers two examples of stochastic structure formation in dynamic systems with parametric excitation in the presence of Gaussian pumping. In dynamic systems with parametric excitation in space and time, this type of structure formation either happens – or doesn’t! However, if it occurs in space, then this almost always happens (exponentially quickly) in individual realizations with a unit probability. In the case considered, clustering of the field f(r,t) of any nature is a general feature of dynamic fields, and one may claim that structure formation is the Law of Nature for arbitrary random fields of such type. The study clarifies the conditions under wh...

  20. EFFECTS OF PSYCHOTROPIC DRUGS AS BACTERIAL EFFLUX PUMP INHIBITORS ON QUORUM SENSING REGULATED BEHAVIORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aynur Aybey

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Psychotropic drugs are known to have antimicrobial activity against several groups of microorganisms. The antidepressant agents such as duloxetine, paroxetine, hydroxyzine and venlafaxine are shown to act as efflux pump inhibitors in bacterial cells. In order to the investigation of the effects of psychotropic drugs were determined for clinically significant pathogens by using standart broth microdillusion method. The anti-quorum sensing (anti-QS activity of psychotropic drugs was tested against four test pathogens using the agar well diffusion method. All drugs showed strong inhibitory effect on the growth of S. typhimurium. Additionally, quorum sensing-regulated behaviors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, including swarming, swimming and twitching motility and alkaline protease production were investigated. Most effective drugs on swarming, swimming and twitching motility and alkaline protease production, respectively, were paroxetine and duloxetine; duloxetine; hydroxyzine and venlafaxine; paroxetine and venlafaxine; venlafaxine. Accordingly, psychotropic drugs were shown strongly anti-QS activity by acting as bacterial efflux pump inhibitors and effection on motility and alkaline protease production of P. aeruginosa.

  1. The effect of peer support in adults with insulin pump-treated type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, Lene Eide; Meldgaard Andersen, Merete; Jensen, Sabrina

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to explore the effects of a flexible and participatory peer support intervention in a clinical setting for adults with type 1 diabetes treated with an insulin pump, focusing on enhancing diabetes-specific social capital. The key questions were as follows: 1) what...... empowerment, diabetes distress, diabetes-specific social support, and diabetes loneliness. HbA1c levels were compared before and after the intervention. Results: Participants experienced enhanced diabetes-specific social capital, diabetes motivation, awareness of personal diabetes practices, and serenity...

  2. Front propagation and effect of memory in stochastic desertification models with an absorbing state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Dor; Shnerb, Nadav M.

    2017-08-01

    Desertification in dryland ecosystems is considered to be a major environmental threat that may lead to devastating consequences. The concern increases when the system admits two alternative steady states and the transition is abrupt and irreversible (catastrophic shift). However, recent studies show that the inherent stochasticity of the birth-death process, when superimposed on the presence of an absorbing state, may lead to a continuous (second order) transition even if the deterministic dynamics supports a catastrophic transition. Following these works we present here a numerical study of a one-dimensional stochastic desertification model, where the deterministic predictions are confronted with the observed dynamics. Our results suggest that a stochastic spatial system allows for a propagating front only when its active phase invades the inactive (desert) one. In the extinction phase one observes transient front propagation followed by a global collapse. In the presence of a seed bank the vegetation state is shown to be more robust against demographic stochasticity, but the transition in that case still belongs to the directed percolation equivalence class.

  3. Deterministic and stochastic analysis of size effects and damage evolution in quasi-brittle materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutiérrez, M.A.; Borst, R. de

    1999-01-01

    This study presents some recent results on damage evolution in quasi-brittle materials including stochastic imperfections. The material strength is described as a random field and coupled to the response. The most probable configurations of imperfections leading to failure are sought by means of an

  4. Effects of stochastic energy prices on long-term energy-economic scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krey, Volker; Martinsen, Dag; Wagner, Hermann-Josef

    2007-01-01

    In view of the currently observed energy prices, recent price scenarios, which have been very moderate until 2004, also tend to favor high future energy prices. Having a large impact on energy-economic scenarios, we incorporate uncertain energy prices into an energy systems model by including a stochastic risk function. Energy systems models are frequently used to aid scenario analysis in energy-related studies. The impact of uncertain energy prices on the supply structures and the interaction with measures in the demand sectors is the focus of the present paper. For the illustration of the methodological approach, scenarios for four EU countries are presented. Including the stochastic risk function, elements of high energy price scenarios can be found in scenarios with a moderate future development of energy prices. In contrast to scenarios with stochastic investment costs for a limited number of technologies, the inclusion of stochastic energy prices directly affects all parts of the energy system. Robust elements of hedging strategies include increasing utilization of domestic energy carriers, the use of CHP and district heat and the application of additional energy-saving measures in the end-use sectors. Region-specific technology portfolios, i.e., different hedging options, can cause growing energy exchange between the regions in comparison with the deterministic case. (author)

  5. Effects of demographic structure on key properties of stochastic density-independent population dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vindenes, Yngvild; Sæther, Bernt-Erik; Engen, Steinar

    2012-12-01

    The development of stochastic demography has largely been based on age structured populations, although other types of demographic structure, especially permanent and dynamic heterogeneity, are likely common in natural populations. The combination of stochasticity and demographic structure is a challenge for analyses of population dynamics and extinction risk, because the population structure will fluctuate around the stable structure and the population size shows transient fluctuations. However, by using a diffusion approximation for the total reproductive value, density-independent dynamics of structured populations can be described with only three population parameters: the expected population growth rate, the environmental variance and the demographic variance. These parameters depend on population structure via the state-specific vital rates and transition rates. Once they are found, the diffusion approximation represents a substantial reduction in model complexity. Here, we review and compare the key population parameters across a wide range of demographic structure, from the case of no structure to the most general case of dynamic heterogeneity, and for both discrete and continuous types. We focus on the demographic variance, but also show how environmental stochasticity can be included. This study brings together results from recent models, each considering a specific type of population structure, and places them in a general framework for structured populations. Comparison across different types of demographic structure reveals that the reproductive value is an essential concept for understanding how population structure affects stochastic dynamics and extinction risk. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The effects of noise on binocular rivalry waves: a stochastic neural field model

    KAUST Repository

    Webber, Matthew A; Bressloff, Paul C

    2013-01-01

    in the wave profile around its instantaneous position at short time scales. We use our analysis to calculate the first-passage-time distribution for a stochastic rivalry wave to travel a fixed distance, which we find to be given by an inverse Gaussian. Finally

  7. Effect of spatially correlated noise on stochastic synchronization in globally coupled FitzHugh-Nagumo neuron systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yange Shao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of stochastic synchronization in globally coupled FitzHugh-Nagumo (FHN neuron system subjected to spatially correlated Gaussian noise is investigated based on dynamical mean-field approximation (DMA and direct simulation (DS. Results from DMA are in good quantitative or qualitative agreement with those from DS for weak noise intensity and larger system size. Whether the consisting single FHN neuron is staying at the resting state, subthreshold oscillatory regime, or the spiking state, our investigation shows that the synchronization ratio of the globally coupled system becomes higher as the noise correlation coefficient increases, and thus we conclude that spatial correlation has an active effect on stochastic synchronization, and the neurons can achieve complete synchronization in the sense of statistics when the noise correlation coefficient tends to one. Our investigation also discloses that the noise spatial correlation plays the same beneficial role as the global coupling strength in enhancing stochastic synchronization in the ensemble. The result might be useful in understanding the information coding mechanism in neural systems.

  8. ANALYSIS OF EFFECTIVENESS OF METHODOLOGICAL SYSTEM FOR PROBABILITY AND STOCHASTIC PROCESSES COMPUTER-BASED LEARNING FOR PRE-SERVICE ENGINEERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Chumak

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The author substantiates that only methodological training systems of mathematical disciplines with implementation of information and communication technologies (ICT can meet the requirements of modern educational paradigm and make possible to increase the educational efficiency. Due to this fact, the necessity of developing the methodology of theory of probability and stochastic processes computer-based learning for pre-service engineers is underlined in the paper. The results of the experimental study for analysis of the efficiency of methodological system of theory of probability and stochastic processes computer-based learning for pre-service engineers are shown. The analysis includes three main stages: ascertaining, searching and forming. The key criteria of the efficiency of designed methodological system are the level of probabilistic and stochastic skills of students and their learning motivation. The effect of implementing the methodological system of probability theory and stochastic processes computer-based learning on the level of students’ IT literacy is shown in the paper. The expanding of the range of objectives of ICT applying by students is described by author. The level of formation of students’ learning motivation on the ascertaining and forming stages of the experiment is analyzed. The level of intrinsic learning motivation for pre-service engineers is defined on these stages of the experiment. For this purpose, the methodology of testing the students’ learning motivation in the chosen specialty is presented in the paper. The increasing of intrinsic learning motivation of the experimental group students (E group against the control group students (C group is demonstrated.

  9. Threshold pump intensity effect on the refractive index changes in InGaN SQD: Internal constitution and size effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Ghazi, Haddou, E-mail: hadghazi@gmail.com [Special Mathematics, CPGE Rabat (Morocco); LPS, Faculty of Science, Dhar El Mehrez, BP 1796 Fes-Atlas (Morocco); A John Peter [P.G. & Research Department of Physics, Goverment Arts and Science College, Melur 625106, Madurai (India)

    2015-04-01

    In the present paper, internal composition and size-dependent threshold pump intensity effects on on-center impurity-related linear, third-order nonlinear and total refractive index changes are investigated in wurtzite (In,Ga)N/GaN unstrained spherical quantum dot. The calculation is performed within the framework of parabolic band and single band effective-mass approximations using a combination of Quantum Genetic Algorithm (QGA) and Hartree–Fock–Roothaan (HFR) method. According to the results obtained, (i) a significant red-shift (blue shift) is obtained as the dot size (potential barrier) increases and (ii) a threshold optical pump intensity depending strongly on the size and the internal composition is obtained which constitutes the limit between two behaviors.

  10. Determination of the Pt spin diffusion length by spin-pumping and spin Hall effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wei; Pearson, John E.; Hoffmann, Axel [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Vlaminck, Vincent [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Colegio de Ciencias e Ingenería, Universidad San Fransciso de Quito, Quito (Ecuador); Divan, Ralu [Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory, Illinois 60439 (United States); Bader, Samuel D. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2013-12-09

    The spin diffusion length of Pt at room temperature and at 8 K is experimentally determined via spin pumping and spin Hall effect in permalloy/Pt bilayers. Voltages generated during excitation of ferromagnetic resonance from the inverse spin Hall effect and anisotropic magnetoresistance effect were investigated with a broadband approach. Varying the Pt layer thickness gives rise to an evolution of the voltage line shape due to the superposition of the above two effects. By studying the ratio of the two voltage components with the Pt layer thickness, the spin diffusion length of Pt can be directly extracted. We obtain a spin diffusion length of ∼1.2 nm at room temperature and ∼1.6 nm at 8 K.

  11. Stochastic cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisognano, J.; Leemann, C.

    1982-03-01

    Stochastic cooling is the damping of betatron oscillations and momentum spread of a particle beam by a feedback system. In its simplest form, a pickup electrode detects the transverse positions or momenta of particles in a storage ring, and the signal produced is amplified and applied downstream to a kicker. The time delay of the cable and electronics is designed to match the transit time of particles along the arc of the storage ring between the pickup and kicker so that an individual particle receives the amplified version of the signal it produced at the pick-up. If there were only a single particle in the ring, it is obvious that betatron oscillations and momentum offset could be damped. However, in addition to its own signal, a particle receives signals from other beam particles. In the limit of an infinite number of particles, no damping could be achieved; we have Liouville's theorem with constant density of the phase space fluid. For a finite, albeit large number of particles, there remains a residue of the single particle damping which is of practical use in accumulating low phase space density beams of particles such as antiprotons. It was the realization of this fact that led to the invention of stochastic cooling by S. van der Meer in 1968. Since its conception, stochastic cooling has been the subject of much theoretical and experimental work. The earliest experiments were performed at the ISR in 1974, with the subsequent ICE studies firmly establishing the stochastic cooling technique. This work directly led to the design and construction of the Antiproton Accumulator at CERN and the beginnings of p anti p colliding beam physics at the SPS. Experiments in stochastic cooling have been performed at Fermilab in collaboration with LBL, and a design is currently under development for a anti p accumulator for the Tevatron

  12. Discussion on Stochastic Analysis of Hydraulic Vibration in Pressurized Water Diversion and Hydropower Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxu Zhou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic vibration exists in various water conveyance projects and has resulted in different operating problems, but its obvious effects on system’s pressure head and stable operation have not been definitively addressed in the issued codes for engineering design, especially considering the uncertainties of hydraulic vibration. After detailed analysis of the randomness in hydraulic vibration and the commonly used stochastic approaches, in the basic equations for hydraulic vibration analysis, the random parameters and the formed stochastic equations were discussed for further probabilistic characteristic analysis of the random variables. Furthermore, preliminary investigation of the stochastic analysis of hydraulic vibration in pressurized pipelines and possible self-excited vibration in pumped-storage systems was presented for further consideration. The detailed discussion indicates that it is necessary to conduct further and systematic stochastic analysis of hydraulic vibration. Further, with the obtained frequencies and amplitudes in the form of a probability statement, the stochastic characteristics of various hydraulic vibrations can be investigated in detail and these solutions will be more reasonable for practical applications. Eventually, the stochastic analysis of hydraulic vibration will provide a basic premise to introduce its effect into the engineering design of water diversion and hydropower systems.

  13. Entropy, pricing and productivity of pumped-storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakatsanis, Georgios; Tyralis, Hristos; Tzouka, Katerina

    2016-04-01

    Pumped-storage constitutes today a mature method of bulk electricity storage in the form of hydropower. This bulk electricity storability upgrades the economic value of hydropower as it may mitigate -or even neutralize- stochastic effects deriving from various geophysical and socioeconomic factors, which produce numerous load balance inefficiencies due to increased uncertainty. Pumped-storage further holds a key role for unifying intermittent renewable (i.e. wind, solar) units with controllable non-renewable (i.e. nuclear, coal) fuel electricity generation plants into integrated energy systems. We develop a set of indicators for the measurement of performance of pumped-storage, in terms of the latter's energy and financial contribution to the energy system. More specifically, we use the concept of entropy in order to examine: (1) the statistical features -and correlations- of the energy system's intermittent components and (2) the statistical features of electricity demand prediction deviations. In this way, the macroeconomics of pumped-storage emerges naturally from its statistical features (Karakatsanis et al. 2014). In addition, these findings are combined to actual daily loads. Hence, not only the amount of energy harvested from the pumped-storage component is expected to be important, but the harvesting time as well, as the intraday price of electricity varies significantly. Additionally, the structure of the pumped-storage market proves to be a significant factor as well for the system's energy and financial performance (Paine et al. 2014). According to the above, we aim at postulating a set of general rules on the productivity of pumped-storage for (integrated) energy systems. Keywords: pumped-storage, storability, economic value of hydropower, stochastic effects, uncertainty, energy systems, entropy, intraday electricity price, productivity References 1. Karakatsanis, Georgios et al. (2014), Entropy, pricing and macroeconomics of pumped-storage systems

  14. Antitumor effect of combination of the inhibitors of two new oncotargets: proton pumps and reverse transcriptase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugini, Luana; Sciamanna, Ilaria; Federici, Cristina; Iessi, Elisabetta; Spugnini, Enrico Pierluigi; Fais, Stefano

    2017-01-17

    Tumor therapy needs new approaches in order to improve efficacy and reduce toxicity of the current treatments. The acidic microenvironment and the expression of high levels of endogenous non-telomerase reverse transcriptase (RT) are common features of malignant tumor cells. The anti-acidic proton pump inhibitor Lansoprazole (LAN) and the non-nucleoside RT inhibitor Efavirenz (EFV) have shown independent antitumor efficacy. LAN has shown to counteract drug tumor resistance. We tested the hypothesis that combination of LAN and EFV may improve the overall antitumor effects. We thus pretreated human metastatic melanoma cells with LAN and then with EFV, both in 2D and 3D spheroid models. We evaluated the treatment effect by proliferation and cell death/apoptosis assays in classical and in pulse administration experiments. The action of EFV was negatively affected by the tumor microenvironmental acidity, and LAN pretreatment overcame the problem. LAN potentiated the cytotoxicity of EFV to melanoma cells and, when administered during the drug interruption period, prevented the replacement of tumor cell growth.This study supports the implementation of the current therapies with combination of Proton Pumps and Reverse Transcriptase inhibitors.

  15. Effect of the Shrink Fit and Mechanical Tolerance on Reactor Coolant Pump Flywheel Integrity Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Donghak [Korea KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Reactor coolant pump (RCP) flywheel should satisfy the RCP flywheel integrity criteria of the US NRC standard review plan (SRP) 5.4.1.1 and regulatory guide (RG) 1.14. Shrink-fit and rotational stresses should be calculated to evaluate the integrity. In this paper the effects of the shrink fit and mechanical tolerance on the RCP flywheel integrity evaluation are studied. The shrink fit should be determined by the joint release speed and the stresses in the flywheel will be increased by the shrink fit. The stress at the interface between the hub and the outer wheel shows the highest value. The effect of the mechanical tolerance should be considered for the stress evaluation. And the effect of the mechanical tolerance should be not considered to determine the joint release speed.

  16. Effect of the Shrink Fit and Mechanical Tolerance on Reactor Coolant Pump Flywheel Integrity Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Donghak

    2015-01-01

    Reactor coolant pump (RCP) flywheel should satisfy the RCP flywheel integrity criteria of the US NRC standard review plan (SRP) 5.4.1.1 and regulatory guide (RG) 1.14. Shrink-fit and rotational stresses should be calculated to evaluate the integrity. In this paper the effects of the shrink fit and mechanical tolerance on the RCP flywheel integrity evaluation are studied. The shrink fit should be determined by the joint release speed and the stresses in the flywheel will be increased by the shrink fit. The stress at the interface between the hub and the outer wheel shows the highest value. The effect of the mechanical tolerance should be considered for the stress evaluation. And the effect of the mechanical tolerance should be not considered to determine the joint release speed

  17. Simulated effects of Lower Floridan aquifer pumping on the Upper Floridan aquifer at Rincon, Effingham County, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Gregory S.; Clarke, John S.

    2015-01-01

    Steady-state simulations using a revised regional groundwater-flow model based on MODFLOW were run to assess the potential long-term effects on the Upper Floridan aquifer (UFA) of pumping the Lower Floridan aquifer (LFA) at well (36S048) near the City of Rincon in coastal Georgia near Savannah. Simulated pumping of well 36S048 at a rate of 1,000 gallons per minute (gal/min; or 1.44 million gallons per day [Mgal/d]) indicated a maximum drawdown of about 6.8 feet (ft) in the UFA directly above the pumped well and at least 1 ft of drawdown within a nearly 400-square-mile area (scenario A). Induced vertical leakage from the UFA provided about 99 percent of the water to the pumped well. Simulated pumping of well 36S048 indicated increased downward leakage in all layers above the LFA, decreased upward leakage in all layers above the LFA, increased inflow to and decreased outflow from lateral specified-head boundaries in the UFA and LFA, and an increase in the volume of induced inflow from the general-head boundary representing outcrop units. Water budgets for scenario A indicated that changes in inflows and outflows through general-head boundaries would compose about 72 percent of the simulated pumpage from well 36S048, with the remaining 28 percent of the pumped water derived from flow across lateral specified-head boundaries.

  18. Stochastic thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhorn, Ralf; Aurell, Erik

    2014-04-01

    'Stochastic thermodynamics as a conceptual framework combines the stochastic energetics approach introduced a decade ago by Sekimoto [1] with the idea that entropy can consistently be assigned to a single fluctuating trajectory [2]'. This quote, taken from Udo Seifert's [3] 2008 review, nicely summarizes the basic ideas behind stochastic thermodynamics: for small systems, driven by external forces and in contact with a heat bath at a well-defined temperature, stochastic energetics [4] defines the exchanged work and heat along a single fluctuating trajectory and connects them to changes in the internal (system) energy by an energy balance analogous to the first law of thermodynamics. Additionally, providing a consistent definition of trajectory-wise entropy production gives rise to second-law-like relations and forms the basis for a 'stochastic thermodynamics' along individual fluctuating trajectories. In order to construct meaningful concepts of work, heat and entropy production for single trajectories, their definitions are based on the stochastic equations of motion modeling the physical system of interest. Because of this, they are valid even for systems that are prevented from equilibrating with the thermal environment by external driving forces (or other sources of non-equilibrium). In that way, the central notions of equilibrium thermodynamics, such as heat, work and entropy, are consistently extended to the non-equilibrium realm. In the (non-equilibrium) ensemble, the trajectory-wise quantities acquire distributions. General statements derived within stochastic thermodynamics typically refer to properties of these distributions, and are valid in the non-equilibrium regime even beyond the linear response. The extension of statistical mechanics and of exact thermodynamic statements to the non-equilibrium realm has been discussed from the early days of statistical mechanics more than 100 years ago. This debate culminated in the development of linear response

  19. Large-deviation principles, stochastic effective actions, path entropies, and the structure and meaning of thermodynamic descriptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Eric

    2011-01-01

    The meaning of thermodynamic descriptions is found in large-deviations scaling (Ellis 1985 Entropy, Large Deviations, and Statistical Mechanics (New York: Springer); Touchette 2009 Phys. Rep. 478 1-69) of the probabilities for fluctuations of averaged quantities. The central function expressing large-deviations scaling is the entropy, which is the basis both for fluctuation theorems and for characterizing the thermodynamic interactions of systems. Freidlin-Wentzell theory (Freidlin and Wentzell 1998 Random Perturbations in Dynamical Systems 2nd edn (New York: Springer)) provides a quite general formulation of large-deviations scaling for non-equilibrium stochastic processes, through a remarkable representation in terms of a Hamiltonian dynamical system. A number of related methods now exist to construct the Freidlin-Wentzell Hamiltonian for many kinds of stochastic processes; one method due to Doi (1976 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 9 1465-78; 1976 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 9 1479) and Peliti (1985 J. Physique 46 1469; 1986 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 19 L365, appropriate to integer counting statistics, is widely used in reaction-diffusion theory. Using these tools together with a path-entropy method due to Jaynes (1980 Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 31 579-601), this review shows how to construct entropy functions that both express large-deviations scaling of fluctuations, and describe system-environment interactions, for discrete stochastic processes either at or away from equilibrium. A collection of variational methods familiar within quantum field theory, but less commonly applied to the Doi-Peliti construction, is used to define a 'stochastic effective action', which is the large-deviations rate function for arbitrary non-equilibrium paths. We show how common principles of entropy maximization, applied to different ensembles of states or of histories, lead to different entropy functions and different sets of thermodynamic state variables. Yet the relations among all these levels of

  20. Environmental vs Demographic Stochasticity in Population Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Braumann, C. A.

    2010-01-01

    Compares the effect on population growth of envinonmental stochasticity (random environmental variations described by stochastic differential equations) with demographic stochasticity (random variations in births and deaths described by branching processes and birth-and-death processes), in the density-independent and the density-dependent cases.

  1. Effect of the magnet insertion on the performance of a superconducting pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, M.; Inoue, K.; Koshizuka, N.; Seki, H.; Murakami, M.; Hiragushi, M.; Akiyama, S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Non-contact rotation is possible by using permanent magnets and superconductors. • It is necessary to rotate a superconducting pump stably for practical applications. • We placed a permanent magnet at the bottom to increase the stiffness. • Inserting permanent magnets was effective in increasing the rotational stability. - Abstract: For medical and semiconductor fabrication lines, an ultra-clean and impurity-free environment is often required. In order to realize such a contaminant-free environment, it is desirable to employ a completely non-contact rotating mechanism. Such a non-contact rotation is possible by using a combination of permanent magnets and bulk superconductors. Furthermore, it is necessary to rotate a superconducting pump stably for practical applications. With the aim of increasing the stiffness of rotational parts, we placed a permanent magnet at the bottom such that the superconductors are sandwiched by top and bottom magnets. It was confirmed that the stiffness could surely be improved by arranging lower permanent magnets

  2. Effects of a dual-pump crude-oil recovery system, Bemidji, Minnesota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delin, Geoffrey N.; Herkelrath, William N.

    2014-01-01

    A crude-oil spill occurred in 1979 when a pipeline burst near Bemidji, MN. In 1998, the pipeline company installed a dual-pump recovery system designed to remove crude oil remaining in the subsurface at the site. The remediation from 1999 to 2003 resulted in removal of about 115,000 L of crude oil, representing between 36% and 41% of the volume of oil (280,000 to 316,000 L) estimated to be present in 1998. Effects of the 1999 to 2003 remediation on the dissolved plume were evaluated using measurements of oil thicknesses in wells plus measurements of dissolved oxygen in groundwater. Although the recovery system decreased oil thicknesses in the immediate vicinity of the remediation wells, average oil thicknesses measured in wells were largely unaffected. Dissolved-oxygen measurements indicate that a secondary plume was caused by disposal of the pumped water in an upgradient infiltration gallery; this plume expanded rapidly immediately following the start of the remediation in 1999. The result was expansion of the anoxic zone of groundwater upgradient and beneath the existing natural attenuation plume. Oil-phase recovery at this site was shown to be challenging, and considerable volumes of mobile and entrapped oil remain in the subsurface despite remediation efforts.

  3. Macroscopic Magnetic Coupling Effect: The Physical Origination of a High-Temperature Superconducting Flux Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Coombs, Tim

    2018-04-01

    We have uncovered at the macroscopic scale a magnetic coupling phenomenon in a superconducting YBa2Cu3O7 -δ (YBCO) film, which physically explains the mechanism of the high-temperature superconducting flux pump. The coupling occurs between the applied magnetic poles and clusters of vortices induced in the YBCO film, with each cluster containing millions of vortices. The coupling energy is verified to originate from the inhomogeneous field of the magnetic poles, which reshapes the vortex distribution, aggregates millions of vortices into a single cluster, and accordingly moves with the poles. A contrast study is designed to verify that, to provide the effective coupling energy, the applied wavelength must be short while the field amplitude must be strong, i.e., local-field inhomogeneity is the crucial factor. This finding broadens our understanding of the collective vortex behavior in an applied magnetic field with strong local inhomogeneity. Moreover, this phenomenon largely increases the controlled vortex flow rate by several orders of magnitude compared with existing methods, providing motivation for and physical support to a new branch of wireless superconducting dc power sources, i.e., the high-temperature superconducting flux pump.

  4. Dust effect on the collisional pumping of the H2O cosmic maser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolgova, G.T.; Strel'nitskij, V.S.; Shmeld, I.K.

    1977-01-01

    The rate equations for the pupulations of 48 ortho-H 2 O rotational levels are solved simultaneously with the equations of the radiative transfer in the rotational lines, accounting for the continuous absorption and emission of resonance photon by dust grains. The radiative transport was treated in a model of a homogeneous isothermal plane-parallel slab, approximating the region of collisional pumping behind a shock front. It is found, that continuous absorption and emission may strongly influence the character of the distribution of the rotational level populations. Depending on the relation between the kinetic temperature Tsub(k) and the dust temperature Tsub(d) the ''turning on'' of the dust may either greatly increase the inversion of the 6 16 -5 23 transition (when Tsub(d) < Tsub(k)) or, on the contrary, greatly decrease and even liquidate the inversion (when Tsub(d)=Tsub(k)). The sink of the rotational photons on the cold dust reduces the thermalizing effect of the radiation trapping, reestablishing the inversion of many transitions provided by the collisional pumping

  5. Effect of the magnet insertion on the performance of a superconducting pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, M., E-mail: mb12021@shibaura-it.ac.jp [Shibaura institute of Technology, Toyosu 3-7-5, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8548 (Japan); Inoue, K.; Koshizuka, N. [Shibaura institute of Technology, Toyosu 3-7-5, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8548 (Japan); Seki, H. [Awaji Materia, Kanda ogawacho 2-3-13, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0045 (Japan); Murakami, M. [Shibaura institute of Technology, Toyosu 3-7-5, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8548 (Japan); Hiragushi, M. [Seikow Chemical Engineering and Machinery Ltd., Mizudocho 4-1-31, Amagasaki, Hyogo 661-0026 (Japan); Akiyama, S. [MAG-NEO, Suwa 1-4-23, Saitama Iwatsuki-ku, Saitama 339-0007 (Japan)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Non-contact rotation is possible by using permanent magnets and superconductors. • It is necessary to rotate a superconducting pump stably for practical applications. • We placed a permanent magnet at the bottom to increase the stiffness. • Inserting permanent magnets was effective in increasing the rotational stability. - Abstract: For medical and semiconductor fabrication lines, an ultra-clean and impurity-free environment is often required. In order to realize such a contaminant-free environment, it is desirable to employ a completely non-contact rotating mechanism. Such a non-contact rotation is possible by using a combination of permanent magnets and bulk superconductors. Furthermore, it is necessary to rotate a superconducting pump stably for practical applications. With the aim of increasing the stiffness of rotational parts, we placed a permanent magnet at the bottom such that the superconductors are sandwiched by top and bottom magnets. It was confirmed that the stiffness could surely be improved by arranging lower permanent magnets.

  6. The effect of spatial heterogeneity on the extinction transition in stochastic population dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessler, David A; Shnerb, Nadav M

    2009-01-01

    Stochastic logistic-type growth on a static heterogeneous substrate is studied both above and below the drift-induced delocalization transition. Using agent-based simulations, the delocalization of the highest eigenfunction of the deterministic operator is connected with the large N limit of the stochastic theory. It is seen that the localization length of the deterministic theory controls the divergence of the spatial correlation length with N at the transition. It is argued that, in the presence of a strong wind, the extinction transition belongs to the directed percolation universality class, as any finite colony made of discrete agents is washed away from a heterogeneity with compact support. Some of the difficulties in the analysis of the extinction transition in the presence of a weak wind, where there is a localized active state, are discussed.

  7. Numerical Simulation of the Heston Model under Stochastic Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Teng

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Stochastic correlation models have become increasingly important in financial markets. In order to be able to price vanilla options in stochastic volatility and correlation models, in this work, we study the extension of the Heston model by imposing stochastic correlations driven by a stochastic differential equation. We discuss the efficient algorithms for the extended Heston model by incorporating stochastic correlations. Our numerical experiments show that the proposed algorithms can efficiently provide highly accurate results for the extended Heston by including stochastic correlations. By investigating the effect of stochastic correlations on the implied volatility, we find that the performance of the Heston model can be proved by including stochastic correlations.

  8. An effective streamflow process model for optimal reservoir operation using stochastic dual dynamic programming

    OpenAIRE

    Raso , L.; Malaterre , P.O.; Bader , J.C.

    2017-01-01

    International audience; This article presents an innovative streamflow process model for use in reservoir operational rule design in stochastic dual dynamic programming (SDDP). Model features, which can be applied independently, are (1) a multiplicative process model for the forward phase and its linearized version for the backward phase; and (2) a nonuniform time-step length that is inversely proportional to seasonal variability. The advantages are (1) guaranteeing positive streamflow values...

  9. Heat pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Macmichael, DBA

    1988-01-01

    A fully revised and extended account of the design, manufacture and use of heat pumps in both industrial and domestic applications. Topics covered include a detailed description of the various heat pump cycles, the components of a heat pump system - drive, compressor, heat exchangers etc., and the more practical considerations to be taken into account in their selection.

  10. Stochastic Analysis 2010

    CERN Document Server

    Crisan, Dan

    2011-01-01

    "Stochastic Analysis" aims to provide mathematical tools to describe and model high dimensional random systems. Such tools arise in the study of Stochastic Differential Equations and Stochastic Partial Differential Equations, Infinite Dimensional Stochastic Geometry, Random Media and Interacting Particle Systems, Super-processes, Stochastic Filtering, Mathematical Finance, etc. Stochastic Analysis has emerged as a core area of late 20th century Mathematics and is currently undergoing a rapid scientific development. The special volume "Stochastic Analysis 2010" provides a sa

  11. Stochastic processes

    CERN Document Server

    Borodin, Andrei N

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a rigorous yet accessible introduction to the theory of stochastic processes. A significant part of the book is devoted to the classic theory of stochastic processes. In turn, it also presents proofs of well-known results, sometimes together with new approaches. Moreover, the book explores topics not previously covered elsewhere, such as distributions of functionals of diffusions stopped at different random times, the Brownian local time, diffusions with jumps, and an invariance principle for random walks and local times. Supported by carefully selected material, the book showcases a wealth of examples that demonstrate how to solve concrete problems by applying theoretical results. It addresses a broad range of applications, focusing on concrete computational techniques rather than on abstract theory. The content presented here is largely self-contained, making it suitable for researchers and graduate students alike.

  12. Analysis of event logs from syringe pumps: a retrospective pilot study to assess possible effects of syringe pumps on safety in a university hospital critical care unit in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastrup, Marc; Balzer, Felix; Volk, Thomas; Spies, Claudia

    2012-07-01

    Medication errors occur in approximately one out of five doses in a typical hospital setting. Patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) are particularly susceptible to errors during the application of intravenous drugs as they receive numerous potent drugs applied by syringe pumps. The aim of this study was to analyse the effects on potential harmful medication errors and to address factors that have potential for improving medication safety after the introduction of a standardized drug library into syringe pumps with integrated decision support systems. A team of physicians and nurses developed a dataset that defined standardized drug concentrations, application rates and alert limits to prevent accidental overdosing of intravenous medications. This dataset was implemented in 100 syringe pumps with the ability to log programming errors, alerts, reprogramming events and overrides ('smart pumps'). In this retrospective pilot study, all pump-related transaction data were obtained from the pump logs, by downloading the data from the pumps, covering 20 months of use between 1 April 2008 and 30 November 2009. Patient data were gathered from the electronic patient charts. The study was performed in a cardiothoracic ICU of the Charité University Hospital, Berlin, Germany. A total of 7884 patient treatment days and 133,601 infusion starts were evaluated. The drug library with the features of the dose rate was used in 92.8% of the syringe pump starts, in 1.5% of the starts a manual dosing mode without the use of the drug library was used and in 5.7% of the starts the mode 'mL/h', without any calculation features, was used. The most frequently used drugs were vasoactive drugs, followed by sedation medication. The user was alerted for a potentially harmful overdosing in 717 cases and in 66 cases the pumps were reprogrammed after the alert. During the early morning hours a higher rate of alarms was generated by the pumps, compared with the rest of the day. Syringe pumps with

  13. Research on the effect of wear-ring clearances to the axial and radial force of a centrifugal pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, W G; Qi, C X; Li, Y B; He, M Y

    2013-01-01

    Varying of the wear-ring clearance not only has a distinct effect on the volumetric loss of the centrifugal pump, but also on the performance of the centrifugal pump including the axial and radial forces. Comparing with the experimental studies, numerical simulation methods have some special advantages, such as the low cost, fast and high efficiency, and convenient to get the detailed structure of the internal flow characteristics, so it has been widely used in the fluid machinery study in recent years. In order to study the effect of wear-ring clearance on the force performance of the centrifugal pump, based on the Reynolds Time-Averaged N-S equations and RNG k-ε turbulence model, a centrifugal pump with three variable styles of the wear-rings was simulated: Only the clearance of the front wear-ring was changed, only the clearance of the back wear-ring was changed and both were changed. Comparing with the experiment, numerical results show a good agreement. In the three changing styles of the clearance, the variable of the clearance of front wear-ring has the most influence on the axial force of the centrifugal pump, while has tiny effect on the radial force for all the conditions

  14. Pump laser-induced space-charge effects in HHG-driven time- and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oloff, L.-P., E-mail: oloff@physik.uni-kiel.de; Hanff, K.; Stange, A.; Rohde, G.; Diekmann, F.; Bauer, M.; Rossnagel, K., E-mail: rossnagel@physik.uni-kiel.de [Institut für Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, D-24098 Kiel (Germany)

    2016-06-14

    With the advent of ultrashort-pulsed extreme ultraviolet sources, such as free-electron lasers or high-harmonic-generation (HHG) sources, a new research field for photoelectron spectroscopy has opened up in terms of femtosecond time-resolved pump-probe experiments. The impact of the high peak brilliance of these novel sources on photoemission spectra, so-called vacuum space-charge effects caused by the Coulomb interaction among the photoemitted probe electrons, has been studied extensively. However, possible distortions of the energy and momentum distributions of the probe photoelectrons caused by the low photon energy pump pulse due to the nonlinear emission of electrons have not been studied in detail yet. Here, we systematically investigate these pump laser-induced space-charge effects in a HHG-based experiment for the test case of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite. Specifically, we determine how the key parameters of the pump pulse—the excitation density, wavelength, spot size, and emitted electron energy distribution—affect the measured time-dependent energy and momentum distributions of the probe photoelectrons. The results are well reproduced by a simple mean-field model, which could open a path for the correction of pump laser-induced space-charge effects and thus toward probing ultrafast electron dynamics in strongly excited materials.

  15. Optically pumped atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Happer, William; Walker, Thad

    2010-01-01

    Covering the most important knowledge on optical pumping of atoms, this ready reference is backed by numerous examples of modelling computation for optical pumped systems. The authors show for the first time that modern scientific computing software makes it practical to analyze the full, multilevel system of optically pumped atoms. To make the discussion less abstract, the authors have illustrated key points with sections of MATLAB codes. To make most effective use of contemporary mathematical software, it is especially useful to analyze optical pumping situations in the Liouville spa

  16. Heat pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Brodowicz, Kazimierz; Wyszynski, M L; Wyszynski

    2013-01-01

    Heat pumps and related technology are in widespread use in industrial processes and installations. This book presents a unified, comprehensive and systematic treatment of the design and operation of both compression and sorption heat pumps. Heat pump thermodynamics, the choice of working fluid and the characteristics of low temperature heat sources and their application to heat pumps are covered in detail.Economic aspects are discussed and the extensive use of the exergy concept in evaluating performance of heat pumps is a unique feature of the book. The thermodynamic and chemical properties o

  17. Effects of the reactor coolant pumps following a small break in a Westinghouse PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, J.E.

    1983-10-01

    Numerical simulations of the thermal-hydraulic events following a small cold-leg break in a Westinghouse pressurized water reactor were performed to address the pumps-on/off issue. The mode of pump operation was varied in each calculation to ascertain the optimum mode. It was found that pump operation was not critical for this break size and location because the fuel rods remained cool in all accidents analyzed. In terms of system mass, however, it was preferable to leave the pumps in operation

  18. Pump-To-Signal Intensity Modulation Transfer Characteristics in FOPAs: Modulation Frequency and Saturation Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lali-Dastjerdi, Zohreh; Cristofori, Valentina; Lund-Hansen, Toke

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports a comprehensive study of pump- to-signal intensity modulation transfer (IMT) in single-pump fiber optic parametric amplifiers (FOPAs). In particular, the IMT is studied for the first time for high-frequency fluctuations of the pump as well as in the saturated gain regime. The IMT...... cut-off frequency in typical single-pump FOPAs is around 100–200 GHz. The possibilities to shift this frequency based on dispersion and nonlinearities involved in the parametric gain are discussed. The severe IMT to the signal at low modulation frequencies can be suppressed by more than 50...

  19. Study of a Fuel Supply Pump with a Piezoelectric Effect for Microdirect Alcohol Fuel Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Hsiao-Kang; Wang, Jyun-Sheng; Cheng, Wei-Yang; Huang, Shin-Han

    2011-01-01

    A novel design for an ethanol injection system has been proposed, which consists of one pump chamber, two valves, and one central-vibrating piezoelectric device. The system uses a microdiaphragm pump with a piezoelectric device for microdirect alcohol fuel cells. The diameters of the pump chamber are 31 mm and 23 mm, and the depths of the chamber are 1 mm and 2 mm. When the piezoelectric device actuates for changing pump chamber volume, the valves will be opened/closed, and the ethanol will b...

  20. An Asymptotic and Stochastic Theory for the Effects of Surface Gravity Waves on Currents and Infragravity Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, J. C.; Lane, E.; Melville, K.; Restrepo, J.; Sullivan, P.

    2004-12-01

    Oceanic surface gravity waves are approximately irrotational, weakly nonlinear, and conservative, and they have a much shorter time scale than oceanic currents and longer waves (e.g., infragravity waves) --- except where the primary surface waves break. This provides a framework for an asymptotic theory, based on separation of time (and space) scales, of wave-averaged effects associated with the conservative primary wave dynamics combined with a stochastic representation of the momentum transfer and induced mixing associated with non-conservative wave breaking. Such a theory requires only modest information about the primary wave field from measurements or operational model forecasts and thus avoids the enormous burden of calculating the waves on their intrinsically small space and time scales. For the conservative effects, the result is a vortex force associated with the primary wave's Stokes drift; a wave-averaged Bernoulli head and sea-level set-up; and an incremental material advection by the Stokes drift. This can be compared to the "radiation stress" formalism of Longuet-Higgins, Stewart, and Hasselmann; it is shown to be a preferable representation since the radiation stress is trivial at its apparent leading order. For the non-conservative breaking effects, a population of stochastic impulses is added to the current and infragravity momentum equations with distribution functions taken from measurements. In offshore wind-wave equilibria, these impulses replace the conventional surface wind stress and cause significant differences in the surface boundary layer currents and entrainment rate, particularly when acting in combination with the conservative vortex force. In the surf zone, where breaking associated with shoaling removes nearly all of the primary wave momentum and energy, the stochastic forcing plays an analogous role as the widely used nearshore radiation stress parameterizations. This talk describes the theoretical framework and presents some

  1. Evaluation of the tannic acid inhibitory effect against the NorA efflux pump of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tintino, Saulo R; Oliveira-Tintino, Cícera D M; Campina, Fábia F; Silva, Raimundo L P; Costa, Maria do S; Menezes, Irwin R A; Calixto-Júnior, João T; Siqueira-Junior, José P; Coutinho, Henrique D M; Leal-Balbino, Tereza C; Balbino, Valdir Q

    2016-08-01

    During the early periods of antibiotic usage, bacterial infections were considered tamed. However, widespread antibiotic use has promoted the emergence of antibiotic-resistant pathogens, including multidrug resistant strains. Active efflux is a mechanism for bacterial resistance to inhibitory substances, known simply as drug efflux pumps. The bacterium Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogenic bacterium responsible for an array of infections. The NorA efflux pump has been shown to be responsible for moderate fluoroquinolone resistance of S. aureus. The inhibition of the efflux pump was assayed using a sub-inhibitory concentration of standard efflux pump inhibitors and tannic acid (MIC/8), where its capacity to decrease the MIC of Ethidium bromide (EtBr) and antibiotics due to the possible inhibitory effect of these substances was observed. The MICs of EtBr and antibiotics were significantly reduced in the presence of tannic acid, indicating the inhibitory effect of this agent against the efflux pumps of both strains causing a three-fold reduction of the MIC when compared with the control. These results indicate the possible usage of tannic acid as an adjuvant in antibiotic therapy against multidrug resistant bacteria (MDR). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effective dielectric function of TiO2 nanoparticles under laser pumping in the fundamental absorption band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimnyakov, D. A.; Yuvchenko, S. A.

    2017-06-01

    A nonlinear optical response of TiO2 nanoparticles under pumping by 355-nm laser radiation is experimentally investigated. Using the data obtained by z-scanning with simultaneous measurement of the scattering intensity, the effective permittivity of particles is reconstructed as a function of the pump intensity. It is found that graphical mapping of the relationship between the real and imaginary parts of the permittivity can be obtained using an affine transformation of a similar map of the frequency-dependent dielectric function for the Lorentz model. It is shown that an increase in the pump intensity should lead to a red shift of the absorption maximum of nanoparticles and a rise in the plasma frequency, which is estimated (using a single-oscillator Lorenz model) from the obtained values of the real and imaginary parts of the effective permittivity for the probe radiation wavelength in use.

  3. Effect of Magnetic Flux Density and Applied Current on Temperature, Velocity and Entropy Generation Distributions in MHD Pumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kiyasatfar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, simulation of steady state, incompressible and fully developed laminar flow has been conducted in a magneto hydrodynamic (MHD pump. The governing equations are solved numerically by finite-difference method. The effect of the magnetic flux density and current on the flow and temperature distributions in a MHD pump is investigated. The obtained results showed that controlling the flow and the temperature is possible through the controlling of the applied current and the magnetic flux. Furthermore, the effects of the magnetic flux density and current on entropy generation in MHD pump are considered. Our presented numerical results are in good agreement with the experimental data showed in literature.

  4. Dump the pump: manual aspiration thrombectomy (MAT) with a syringe is technically effective, expeditious, and cost-efficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Bradley A; Jadhav, Ashutosh P; Jovin, Tudor G; Jankowitz, Brian Thomas

    2018-04-01

    Syringe aspiration for manual aspiration thrombectomy (MAT) is a cost- and time-efficient alternative to an aspiration pump with likely similar efficacy. It is counterintuitive to expect the pump to perform better than direct vacuum with a syringe, as the pump must deliver vacuum additionally through a canister and meters of tubing. To present in vitro and clinical results of MAT with a syringe. An in vitro analysis was performed comparing vacuum pressures generated by syringe aspiration and with pump aspiration. This was then complemented with prospective clinical data providing details of angiographic and clinical outcomes for syringe MAT. The in vitro analysis demonstrated that equal to slightly greater vacuum pressures were generated by a 60 cc syringe as compared with the pump in both static and partial flow conditions. In our clinical series, 106/113 acute stroke thrombectomies over a 6-month period were performed with syringe MAT on the first pass. Syringe usage instead of pump tubing and a canister led to a total savings of $58 300. The rate of Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction 2b/3 recanalization was 93%. Adjunctive stentriever usage was performed in 23% of cases. Median puncture to reperfusion time was 25 min; mean change in National Institute of Health Stroke Scale score at 24 hours was an improvement of 5.1 (median 6). The in-hospital mortality rate was 10%. Seventy percent of patients were discharged to home (modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score 0-2) or a rehabilitation facility (mRS score 2-4). MAT using a syringe is a safe, fast, and more cost-effective approach than using an aspiration pump. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. A Step Towards Electric Propulsion Testing Standards: Pressure Measurements and Effective Pumping Speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankanich, John W.; Swiatek, Michael W.; Yim, John T.

    2012-01-01

    The electric propulsion community has been implored to establish and implement a set of universally applicable test standards during the research, development, and qualification of electric propulsion systems. Existing practices are fallible and result in testing variations which leads to suspicious results, large margins in application, or aversion to mission infusion. Performance measurements and life testing under appropriate conditions can be costly and lengthy. Measurement practices must be consistent, accurate, and repeatable. Additionally, the measurements must be universally transportable across facilities throughout the development, qualification, spacecraft integration and on-orbit performance. A preliminary step to progress towards universally applicable testing standards is outlined for facility pressure measurements and effective pumping speed calculations. The standard has been applied to multiple facilities at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Test results and analyses of universality of measurements are presented herein.

  6. Cost-Effectiveness of Intravenous Proton Pump Inhibitors in High-Risk Bleeders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sander Veldhuyzen van Zanten

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available There is unequivocal evidence that proton pump inhibitors (PPIs are currently the most effective acid suppressive agents available. Intravenous (IV formulations have been developed, although only IV pantoprazole is available in Canada. In patients presenting with serious upper gastrointestinal (GI bleeding due to duodenal or gastric ulcers, it has always been believed that IV administration of acid-lowering agents would improve clinical outcomes. The reason behind this thinking is twofold. First, there is in vitro evidence that formed clots are more stable at or near neutral pH (1. Second, by administering the agent intravenously, suppression of acid production is achieved much more quickly, thereby promoting more rapid healing of the ulcer and reducing the risk of persistent or recurrent bleeding. Interestingly and surprisingly, however, the data for intravenous H2-blockers have been disappointing (2. This failure to demonstrate clinical benefit has never been fully explained.

  7. Enhancement of information transmission with stochastic resonance in hippocampal CA1 neuron models: effects of noise input location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Minato; Mino, Hiroyuki; Durand, Dominique M

    2007-01-01

    Stochastic resonance (SR) has been shown to enhance the signal to noise ratio or detection of signals in neurons. It is not yet clear how this effect of SR on the signal to noise ratio affects signal processing in neural networks. In this paper, we investigate the effects of the location of background noise input on information transmission in a hippocampal CA1 neuron model. In the computer simulation, random sub-threshold spike trains (signal) generated by a filtered homogeneous Poisson process were presented repeatedly to the middle point of the main apical branch, while the homogeneous Poisson shot noise (background noise) was applied to a location of the dendrite in the hippocampal CA1 model consisting of the soma with a sodium, a calcium, and five potassium channels. The location of the background noise input was varied along the dendrites to investigate the effects of background noise input location on information transmission. The computer simulation results show that the information rate reached a maximum value for an optimal amplitude of the background noise amplitude. It is also shown that this optimal amplitude of the background noise is independent of the distance between the soma and the noise input location. The results also show that the location of the background noise input does not significantly affect the maximum values of the information rates generated by stochastic resonance.

  8. [Effectiveness and safety of pulsatile GnRH pump therapy on female patients with IHH].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhaoxiang; Mao, Jiangfeng; Wu, Xueyan; Nie, Min; Huang, Bingkun; Xu, Hongli; Wang, Xi; Zheng, Junjie

    2015-11-10

    To investigate the therapeutic effect of pulsatile GnRH (gonadorelin) pump on female patients with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH). In this retrospective study, five female IHH patients were recruited. Patients were treated with pulsatile gonadorelin (10 µg per 90 min) via a pump for at least 12 weeks. Serum gonadotropins and sex steroid levels were measured, and menses were recorded. After one-week treatment, luteinizing hormone (LH) level increased from (2.2 ± 2.0) U/L to (5.4 ± 2.5) U/L (P=0.028), follicle-stimulating hormone(FSH) level increased from (3.7 ± 2.7) U/L to(6.3 ± 1.0) U/L (P=0.162), and estradiol (E2) level increased from (58 ± 13) pmol/L to (260 ± 97) pmol/L (P=0.011). Menstrual bleeding was observed in 4 patients after starting treatment for 35-55 days and two natural pregnancies were reported. No menstrual bleeding was reported in another patient. The frequency of pulsatile GnRH had to be adjusted according to endogenous GnRH secretion during the follicular phase of normal women and regular menses were induced. Pulsatile GnRH is effective in treating female IHH. A constant frequency of pulsatile GnRH is suitable for most of IHH patients. However, for those who failed to produce regular menses, adjusting pulsatile frequency to imitate the physiological rhythm of GnRH may be an alternative option.

  9. Effects of impeller diameter and rotational speed on performance of pump running in turbine mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Sanjay V.; Swarnkar, Abhishek; Motwani, Karan H.; Patel, Rajesh N.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Experiments done between 900 and 1500 rpm with original, 10% and 20% trimmed impellers. • The performance of PAT was found better in speed range of 1000–1200 rpm. • Blade rounding led to 3–4% rise in efficiency at rated speed with existing impeller. • Correlation developed has predicted η BEP within ±10% of experimental results. - Abstract: The major limitations of mini/micro hydropower schemes is the higher cost of small capacity hydro turbines. Also, it is very cumbersome, time consuming and expensive to develop the site specific turbines corresponding to local site conditions in mini/micro hydro range. In such plants, small centrifugal pumps can be used in turbine mode by running in the reverse direction. The efficiency of pump as turbines (PATs) is usually lower than the conventional hydro turbines; however, there may be substantial decrease in the capital cost of the plant. Hydropower plants usually runs at part load for several months in a year due to insufficient water availability for the power generation. The application range of PAT can be widened if its part load and/or maximum efficiency can be improved. In the present study, experimental investigations are carried out on centrifugal pump running in turbine mode to optimize its geometric and operational parameters e.g. impeller diameter and rotational speed. The experiments were performed in the wide range of rotational speeds varying from 900 to 1500 rpm with original (∅ 250 mm), 10% trimmed (∅ 225 mm) and 20% trimmed (∅ 200 mm) impellers. Impeller trimming led to improvement in efficiency at part load operating conditions. The performance of PAT was found better at the lower speeds than that at the rated speed. The effects of blade rounding were studied in all the cases and it led to 3–4% rise in efficiency at rated speed with the original impeller. The empirical correlation is also developed for prediction of efficiency in terms of impeller diameter and rotational

  10. Parametrization of open systems with effective quadratic hamiltonians plus stochastic force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, E.S.; Mizrahi, S.S.

    1981-12-01

    The evolution generated by general dissipative Hamiltonians is analyzed when a stochastic force is included. A mapping technique allows to easily write the equations of motion for the observables of interest. A general dissipativity condition is extracted, whose fullfilment guarantees that thermal equilibrium is reached as the final stage of the evolution. Several existing frictional Hamiltonians are examined and it is seen that the correlation of the fluctuating force is essential to the destruction of a constant of motion inherent to pure quantal behaviour. (Author) [pt

  11. Effect of trapping on transport coherence III: Dissipation in the stochastic Liouville equation approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barvik, I [International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); Polasek, M [Charles Univ., Prague (Czech Republic). Inst. of Physics; Herman, P [Pedagogical Univ., Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic)

    1995-08-01

    We used the formal stochastic Liouville equations within Haken-Strobl-Reineker parametrization for the description of the influence of the bath on the memory functions entering the GME for a dimer and a linear trimer with a trap (here modeled as a sink). The often used inclusion of the noncoherent regime in the MF by an exponentially damped prefactor (after Kenkre`s prescription) does not hold for finite systems. The analytical form of the MF is changed more pronouncely and the influence of the sink in the center of the trimer runs parallel with the influence of the bath in destroying the coherence. (author). 60 refs.

  12. The effect of bacon pump retention levels following thermal processing on bacon slice composition and sensory characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivendiran, T; Wang, L M; Huang, S; Bohrer, B M

    2018-06-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of belly pump uptake and cook yield during processing on bacon slice composition and sensory attributes. A total of forty-four bellies were commercially sourced and randomly assigned to two experiments. Each experiment consisted of one smokehouse cooking cycle. Within each experiment, bellies were separated at the medial point and one belly half was assigned to a high pump uptake treatment (HIGH; target of 30% uptake) and the remaining belly half was assigned to a normal pump uptake treatment (NORM; target of 15% uptake). In experiment-1, cook yields were 107.79% for the HIGH bellies and 101.52% for the NORM bellies. In experiment-2, cook yields were 97.41% for the HIGH bellies and 94.74% for the NORM bellies. Overall, bacon slice composition and sensory attributes of bacon from bellies with greater pump retention were largely unaffected, accordingly it was concluded that cook yields ranging in level of pump retention does not affect most attributes of bacon. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of moderate pump and Stokes chirp on chirped-probe pulse femtosecond coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering thermometry

    KAUST Repository

    Gu, Mingming

    2018-01-08

    The effects of moderate levels of chirp in the pump and Stokes pulses on chirped-probe-pulse femtosecond coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CPP fs CARS) were investigated. The frequency chirp in the pump and Stokes pulses was introduced by placing SF11 glass disks with thicknesses of 10 mm or 20 mm in the optical path for these beams. The magnitude of the chirp in the probe beam was much greater and was induced by placing a 30-cm rod of SF10 glass in the beam path. The temperature measurements were performed in hydrogen/air non-premixed flames stabilized on a Hencken burner at equivalence ratios of 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, and 1.0. We performed measurements with no disks in pump and Stokes beam paths, and then with disks of 10 mm and 20 mm placed in both beam paths. The spectrum of the nonresonant background four-wave mixing signal narrowed considerably with increasing pump and Stokes chirp, while the resonant CARS signal was relatively unaffected. Consequently, the interference of the nonresonant background with the resonant CARS signal in the frequency-spread dephasing region of the spectrum was minimized. The increased rate of decay of the resonant CARS signal with increasing temperature was thus readily apparent. We have started to analyze the CPP fs CARS thermometry data and initial results indicate improved accuracy and precision are obtained due to moderate chirp in the pump and Stokes laser pulses.

  14. Making effective use of rod pumping systems in coalbed methane applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crivello, A. [eProduction Solutions Inc., Kingwood, TX (United States)

    2003-07-01

    The advantages of optimizing coalbed methane (CBM) operations are increased production, reduced expenses, improved efficiency, and better inventory. The author discussed the CBM production cycle and the possible artificial lift options, including electric submersible pump (ESP), plunger lift, primary coolant pump (PCP), and reciprocating rod lift. The presentation focused on the rod lift, as it represents a low to moderate capital expenditure, has good system efficiency, an excellent fluid volume range, an excellent salvage value, excellent familiarity with equipment, and has readily available parts and service. The major disadvantage of the rod lift is that the fixed operating range does not adapt to changing reservoir characteristics. A comparison between the rod pump controller and the variable speed drive was presented. The well can be operated at or near the pumped off condition with variable speed drives with rod pumping intelligence. The author provided a closer examination of the variable frequency drive and the vector flux drive. The presentation also included a discussion of prime movers, drive and inclinometer, gearbox loading, rod load limiter, and dynamometer cards. Three case studies were presented: CSW1, CSW2, and CSW3. It was concluded that wells must be kept pumping, and that a Flux Vector Drive should be used along with an NEMA B motor and properly sized pumping unit and pump. tabs., figs.

  15. Development of a cost-effective heat pump system for family dwellings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoel, J.P. van der; Traversari, A.A.L.; Veldhoven, L.A.A.

    1999-01-01

    Since the 1970s TNO MEP has played an important role in heat pump research, focused on perfonnance improvement, implementation, testing and development. In 1996/1997 a heat pump competition was organised. The main conclusion was, that the capital cost was too high and system performance was not

  16. Various Parameters of the Flowing Part of a Cylindrical Molecular Vacuum Pump Effecting on Its Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. E. Demikhov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of modern industry the molecular vacuum pumps (MVP are widely used. The analyzed current market of vacuum technology enables drawing a conclusion that this equipment holds one of the leading positions among the high-vacuum facilities of pumping due to their advantages such as insensitivity to the atmosphere breakthrough, ability to pump out heavy gases quickly, rapid start-up time, and oil-free pumping.The earlier developed authors’ mathematical model and calculation program are used to assess the influence efficiency of the key geometrical parameters of flowing part of the cylindrical molecular pump on its main characteristics. The obtained dependences allow us to solve a relevant, but not completely resolved as yet problem of optimizing the high-vacuum pumping facilities in case of their operation in a wide range of pressures on the suction side.The paper presents graphs of the pumping speed and ratio of the cylindrical vacuum molecular pump pressures versus various parameters of the flowing part, such as the angle of inclination of the helix, the relative diameter and the number of helical starts. Conclusions are drawn.

  17. Effect of absorbed pump power on the quality of output beam from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Monolithic laser; thermal lens; diode pumping; spherical aberration; M2 ... the thermal lens as a function of the absorbed pump power towards the degradation of .... abs r4 -•••. (6) where the first term a0 is a constant phase shift and its value is ...

  18. Great Britain Storm Surge Modeling for a 10,000-Year Stochastic Catalog with the Effect of Sea Level Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshtpoor, M.; Carnacina, I.; Blair, A.; Yablonsky, R. M.

    2017-12-01

    Storm surge caused by Extratropical Cyclones (ETCs) has significantly impacted not only the life of private citizens but also the insurance and reinsurance industry in Great Britain. The storm surge risk assessment requires a larger dataset of storms than the limited recorded historical ETCs. Thus, historical ETCs were perturbed to generate a 10,000-year stochastic catalog that accounts for surge-generating ETCs in the study area with return periods from one year to 10,000 years. Delft3D-Flexible Mesh hydrodynamic model was used to numerically simulate the storm surge along the Great Britain coastline. A nested grid technique was used to increase the simulation grid resolution up to 200 m near the highly populated coastal areas. Coarse and fine mesh models were calibrated and validated using historical recorded water elevations. Then, numerical simulations were performed on a 10,000-year stochastic catalog. The 50-, 100-, and 500-year return period maps were generated for Great Britain coastal areas. The corresponding events with return periods of 50-, 100-, and 500-years in Humber Bay and Thames River coastal areas were identified, and simulated with the consideration of projected sea level rises to reveal the effect of rising sea levels on the inundation return period maps in two highly-populated coastal areas. Finally, the return period of Storm Xaver (2013) was determined with and without the effect of rising sea levels.

  19. The effect of regulatory governance on efficiency of thermal power generation in India: A stochastic frontier analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Ranjan; Kathuria, Vinish

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of institutional quality – typified as regulatory governance – on the performance of thermal power plants in India. The Indian power sector was reformed in the early 1990s. However, reforms are effective only as much as the regulators are committed in ensuring that they are implemented. We hypothesize that higher the quality of regulation in a federal Indian state, higher is the efficiency of electric generation utilities. A translog stochastic frontier model is estimated using index of state-level independent regulation as one of the determinants of inefficiency. The dataset comprises a panel of 77 coal-based thermal power plants during the reform period covering over 70% of installed electricity generation capacity. The mean technical efficiency of 76.7% indicates there is wide scope for efficiency improvement in the sector. Results are robust to various model specifications and show that state-level regulators have positively impacted plant performance. Technical efficiency is sensitive to both unbundling of state utilities, and regulatory experience. The policy implication is that further reforms which empower independent regulators will have far reaching impacts on power sector performance. - Highlights: • The impact of regulatory governance on Indian generation efficiency is investigated. • Stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) on a panel dataset covering pre and post reform era. • Index of state-wise variation in regulation to explain inefficiency effects. • Results show improved but not very high technical efficiencies. • State-level regulation has positively impacted power plant performance.

  20. Stochastic kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombino, A.; Mosiello, R.; Norelli, F.; Jorio, V.M.; Pacilio, N.

    1975-01-01

    A nuclear system kinetics is formulated according to a stochastic approach. The detailed probability balance equations are written for the probability of finding the mixed population of neutrons and detected neutrons, i.e. detectrons, at a given level for a given instant of time. Equations are integrated in search of a probability profile: a series of cases is analyzed through a progressive criterium. It tends to take into account an increasing number of physical processes within the chosen model. The most important contribution is that solutions interpret analytically experimental conditions of equilibrium (moise analysis) and non equilibrium (pulsed neutron measurements, source drop technique, start up procedures)

  1. Stochastic Jeux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanu Ekaterini

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This article shows the similarities between Claude Debussy’s and Iannis Xenakis’ philosophy of music and work, in particular the formers Jeux and the latter’s Metastasis and the stochastic works succeeding it, which seem to proceed parallel (with no personal contact to what is perceived as the evolution of 20th century Western music. Those two composers observed the dominant (German tradition as outsiders, and negated some of its elements considered as constant or natural by "traditional" innovators (i.e. serialists: the linearity of musical texture, its form and rhythm.

  2. Elevated heat pump effects of dust aerosol over Northwestern China during summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yaoguo; Han, Yongxiang; Ma, Xiaoyan; Liu, Zhaohuan

    2018-05-01

    The Elevated Heat Pump (EHP) effect demonstrates a significant interaction between the aerosol climatic effect and the monsoon, both are important for climate research. In Northwestern China, the influence of EHP mechanism is still lacking in research. In this study, the EHP effects in Northwestern China are investigated by three sensitivity tests using a WRF-Chem model coupled with the Shao dust emission scheme. Results show that: 1) the anomalous circulation caused by dust aerosols are proved to the existence of EHP effect in Northwestern China; 2) three updrafts over the desert are transported eastward at high altitude and subside in Northeastern China, forming a complete secondary circulation with low-level easterly flow from Badain Jaran and Tengger to Taklimakan; 3) a northeasternerly anomaly flow from Northeastern China can affect the intensity of East Asian summer monsoon (EASM), and increase precipitation in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River and decrease precipitation in Northeastern China. 4) We present a conceptual model of EHP in Northwestern China to provide a better understanding of the climatic effects of dust aerosols.

  3. Effects of stochastic field lines on the pressure driven MHD instabilities in the Large Helical Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohdachi, Satoshi; Watanabe, Kiyomasa; Sakakibara, Satoru; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Tsuchiya, Hayato; Ming, Tingfeng; Du, Xiaodi; LHD Expriment Group Team

    2014-10-01

    In the Large Helical Device (LHD), the plasma is surrounded by the so-called magnetic stochastic region, where the Kolmogorov length of the magnetic field lines is very short, from several tens of meters and to thousands meters. Finite pressure gradient are formed in this region and MHD instabilities localized in this region is observed since the edge region of the LHD is always unstable against the pressure driven mode. Therefore, the saturation level of the instabilities is the key issue in order to evaluate the risk of this kind of MHD instabilities. The saturation level depends on the pressure gradient and on the magnetic Reynolds number; there results are similar to the MHD mode in the closed magnetic surface region. The saturation level in the stochastic region is affected also by the stocasticity itself. Parameter dependence of the saturation level of the MHD activities in the region is discussed in detail. It is supported by NIFS budget code ULPP021, 028 and is also partially supported by the Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture, Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research 26249144, by the JSPS-NRF-NSFC A3 Foresight Program NSFC: No. 11261140328.

  4. Simulated effects of Lower Floridan aquifer pumping on the Upper Floridan aquifer at Barbour Pointe, Chatham County, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Gregory S.; Clarke, John S.

    2017-10-26

    Steady-state simulations using a revised regional groundwater-flow model based on MODFLOW were run to assess the potential long-term effects on the Upper Floridan aquifer (UFA) of pumping the Lower Floridan aquifer (LFA) at well 36Q398, located at Barbour Pointe in coastal Georgia near Savannah. Simulated pumping of well 36Q398 at a rate of 750 gallons per minute (gal/min; or 1.08 million gallons per day [Mgal/d]) indicated a maximum drawdown of about 2.19 feet (ft) in the UFA directly above the pumped well and at least 1 ft of drawdown within a nearly 190-square-mile area (scenario A). Induced vertical leakage from the UFA provided about 98 percent of the water to the pumped well. Simulated pumping of well 36Q398 caused increased downward leakage in all layers above the LFA, decreased upward leakage in all layers above the LFA, increased inflow to and decreased outflow from lateral specified-head boundaries in the UFA and LFA, and an increase in the volume of induced inflow from the general-head boundary representing outcrop units. Water budgets for scenario A indicated that changes in inflows and outflows through general-head boundaries would compose about 45 percent of the simulated pumpage from well 36Q398, with the remaining 55 percent of the pumped water derived from flow across lateral specified-head boundaries.Additional steady-state simulations were run to evaluate a pumping rate in the UFA of 240 gal/min (0.346 Mgal/d), which would produce an equivalent maximum drawdown in the UFA as pumping from well 36Q398 in the LFA at a rate of 750 gal/min (called the “drawdown offset”; scenario B). Simulated pumping in the UFA for the drawdown offset produced about 2.18 ft of drawdown, comparable to 2.19 ft of drawdown in the UFA simulated in scenario A. Water budgets for scenario B also provided favorable comparisons with scenario A, indicating that 42 percent of the drawdown-offset pumpage (0.346 Mgal/d) in the UFA originates as increased inflow and decreased

  5. Simulated effects of Lower Floridan aquifer pumping on the Upper Floridan aquifer at Pooler, Chatham County, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Gregory S.; Clarke, John S.

    2013-01-01

    A revised regional groundwater-flow model was used to assess the potential effects on the Upper Floridan aquifer (UFA) of pumping the Lower Floridan aquifer (LFA) from a new well (35Q069) located at the City of Pooler in coastal Georgia near Savannah. The spatial resolution of the original regional, steady-state, groundwater-flow model was increased to incorporate detailed hydrogeologic information resulting from field investigations at Pooler and existing wells in the area. Simulation results using the U.S. Geological Survey finite-difference code MODFLOW indicated that long-term pumping at a rate of 780 gallons per minute (gal/min) from the LFA well 35Q069 would cause a maximum drawdown of about 2.52 feet (ft) in the UFA (scenario A). This maximum drawdown in the UFA was greater than the observed draw-down of 0.9 ft in the 72-hour aquifer test, but this is expected because the steady-state simulated drawdown represents long-term pumping conditions. Model results for scenario A indicate that drawdown in the UFA exceeded 1 ft over a 163-square-mile (mi2) area. Induced vertical leakage from the UFA provided about 98 percent of the water to the LFA; the area within 1 mile of the pumped well contributed about 81 percent of the water pumped. Simulated pumping changed regional water-budget components slightly and redistributed flow among model layers, namely increasing downward leakage in all layers, decreasing upward leakage in all layers above the LFA, increasing inflow to and decreasing outflow from lateral specified-head boundaries in the UA and LFA, and increasing the volume of induced recharge from the general head boundary to outcrop units. An additional two groundwater-pumping scenarios were run to establish that a linear relation exists between pumping rates of the LFA well 35Q069 (varied from 390 to 1,042 gal/min) and amount of drawdown in the UFA and LFA. Three groundwater-pumping scenarios were run to evaluate the amount of UFA pumping (128 to 340 gal

  6. Pumping life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sitsel, Oleg; Dach, Ingrid; Hoffmann, Robert Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The name PUMPKIN may suggest a research centre focused on American Halloween traditions or the investigation of the growth of vegetables – however this would be misleading. Researchers at PUMPKIN, short for Centre for Membrane Pumps in Cells and Disease, are in fact interested in a large family o......’. Here we illustrate that the pumping of ions means nothing less than the pumping of life....

  7. EFFECT OF LUBRICANT CONTAMINATION ON THE PERFORMANCE AND RELIABILITY OF HEAT PUMPS CHARGED WITH R-407C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of the development of new data that can be used to determine the effect of mineral oil contamination on the reliability of a heat pump system operating with a new hydrofluorocarbon mixture and polyol ester lubricant, to assess any performance degradation ...

  8. An in-situ experiment identifying flow effects on temperature measurements using a pumped CTD in weakly stratified waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Haren, H.; Laan, M

    2016-01-01

    A simple experiment shows that the tubing leading to and from the pumped duct of temperature T and conductivity C-sensors of a Sea-Bird Electronics 911plus CTD can cause artificial T-effects as a function of the instrument package vertical velocity. This artifact is due to a pressure difference

  9. A study of the effect of space-dependent neutronics on stochastically-induced bifurcations in BWR dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Analytis, G.T. [Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1995-09-01

    A non-linear one-group space-dependent neutronic model for a finite one-dimensional core is coupled with a simple BWR feed-back model. In agreement with results obtained by the authors who originally developed the point-kinetics version of this model, we shall show numerically that stochastic reactivity excitations may result in limit-cycles and eventually in a chaotic behaviour, depending on the magnitude of the feed-back coefficient K. In the framework of this simple space-dependent model, the effect of the non-linearities on the different spatial harmonics is studied and the importance of the space-dependent effects is exemplified and assessed in terms of the importance of the higher harmonics. It is shown that under certain conditions, when the limit-cycle-type develop, the neutron spectra may exhibit strong space-dependent effects.

  10. Proton pump inhibitors induce a caspase-independent antitumor effect against human multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canitano, Andrea; Iessi, Elisabetta; Spugnini, Enrico Pierluigi; Federici, Cristina; Fais, Stefano

    2016-07-01

    Multiple Myeloma (MM) is the second most common hematological malignancy and is responsive to a limited number of drugs. Unfortunately, to date, despite the introduction of novel drugs, no relevant increase in survival rates has been obtained. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have been shown to have significant antitumor action as single agents as well as in combination with chemotherapy. This study investigates the potential anti-tumor effectiveness of two PPIs, Lansoprazole and Omeprazole, against human MM cells. We found that Lansoprazole exerts straightforward efficacy against myeloma cells, even at suboptimal concentrations (50 µM), while Omeprazole has limited cytotoxic action. The Lansoprazole anti-MM effect was mostly mediated by a caspase-independent apoptotic-like cytotoxicity, with only a secondary anti-proliferative action. This study provides clear evidence supporting the use of Lansoprazole in the strive against MM with an efficacy proven much higher than current therapeutical approaches and without reported side effects. It is however conceivable that, consistent with the results obtained in other human tumors, Lansoprazole may well be combined with existing anti-myeloma therapies with the aim to improve the low level of efficacy of the current strategies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Dual effects of the PI3K inhibitor ZSTK474 on multidrug efflux pumps in resistant cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthiah, Divya; Callaghan, Richard

    2017-11-15

    ZSTK474 is a potent phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor that reduces cell proliferation via G 1 -arrest. However, there is little information on the susceptibility of this anticancer drug to resistance conferred by the multidrug pumps P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) and ABCG2. We have demonstrated that ZSTK474 generated cytotoxicity in cells over-expressing either pump with potency similar to that in drug sensitive cells. In addition, the co-administration of ZSTK474 with the cytotoxic anti-cancer drugs vinblastine and mitoxantrone caused a potentiated cytotoxic effect in both drug sensitive and efflux pump expressing cells. These observations suggest that ZSTK474 is unaffected by the presence of multidrug efflux pumps and may circumvent their activities. Indeed, ZSTK474 increased the cellular accumulation of calcein-AM and mitoxantrone in cells expressing ABCB1 and ABCG2, respectively. ZSTK474 treatment also resulted in reduced expression of both efflux pumps in multidrug resistant cancer cells. Measurement of ABCB1 or ABCG2 mRNA levels demonstrated that the reduction was not due to altered transcription. Similarly, inhibitor studies showed that the proteasomal degradation pathway for ABCB1 and the lysosomal route for ABCG2 degradation were unaffected by ZSTK474. Thus the mechanism underlying reduced ABCB1 and ABCG2 levels caused by ZSTK474 was due to a reduction in overall protein synthesis; a process influenced by the PI3K pathway. In summary, ZSTK474 is not susceptible to efflux by the resistance mediators ABCB1 and ABCG2. Moreover, it inhibits the drug transport function of the pumps and leads to a reduction in their cellular expression levels. Our observations demonstrate that ZSTK474 is a powerful anticancer drug. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of QCD equation of state on the stochastic gravitational wave background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anand, Sampurn; Mohanty, Subhendra [Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad 380009 (India); Dey, Ujjal Kumar, E-mail: sampurn@prl.res.in, E-mail: ujjal@cts.iitkgp.ernet.in, E-mail: mohanty@prl.res.in [Centre for Theoretical Studies, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India)

    2017-03-01

    Cosmological phase transitions can be a source of Stochastic Gravitational Wave (SGW) background. Apart from the dynamics of the phase transition, the characteristic frequency and the fractional energy density Ω{sub gw} of the SGW depends upon the temperature of the transition. In this article, we compute the SGW spectrum in the light of QCD equation of state provided by the lattice results. We find that the inclusion of trace anomaly from lattice QCD, enhances the SGW signal generated during QCD phase transition by ∼ 50% and the peak frequency of the QCD era SGW are shifted higher by ∼ 25% as compared to the earlier estimates without trace anomaly. This result is extremely significant for testing the phase transition dynamics near QCD epoch.

  13. Stochastic two-delay differential model of delayed visual feedback effects on postural dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulet, Jason; Balasubramaniam, Ramesh; Daffertshofer, Andreas; Longtin, André

    2010-01-28

    We report on experiments and modelling involving the 'visuo-postural control loop' in the upright stance. We experimentally manipulated an artificial delay to the visual feedback during standing, presented at delays ranging from 0 to 1 s in increments of 250 ms. Using stochastic delay differential equations, we explicitly modelled the centre-of-pressure (COP) and centre-of-mass (COM) dynamics with two independent delay terms for vision and proprioception. A novel 'drifting fixed point' hypothesis was used to describe the fluctuations of the COM with the COP being modelled as a faster, corrective process of the COM. The model was in good agreement with the data in terms of probability density functions, power spectral densities, short- and long-term correlations (Hurst exponents) as well the critical time between the two ranges. This journal is © 2010 The Royal Society

  14. Effect of Asymmetric Potential and Gaussian Colored Noise on Stochastic Resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Yinxia; Li Jinghui; Chen Shigang

    2005-01-01

    The phenomenon of stochastic resonance (SR) in a bistable nonlinear system is studied when the system is driven by the asymmetric potential and additive Gaussian colored noise. Using the unified colored noise approximation method, the additive Gaussian colored noise can be simplified to additive Gaussian white noise. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is calculated according to the generalized two-state theory (shown in [H.S. Wio and S. Bouzat, Brazilian J. Phys. 29 (1999) 136]). We find that the SNR increases with the proximity of a to zero. In addition, the correlation time τ between the additive Gaussian colored noise is also an ingredient to improve SR. The shorter the correlation time τ between the Gaussian additive colored noise is, the higher of the peak value of SNR.

  15. Modelling the cancer growth process by Stochastic Differential Equations with the effect of Chondroitin Sulfate (CS) as anticancer therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syahidatul Ayuni Mazlan, Mazma; Rosli, Norhayati; Jauhari Arief Ichwan, Solachuddin; Suhaity Azmi, Nina

    2017-09-01

    A stochastic model is introduced to describe the growth of cancer affected by anti-cancer therapeutics of Chondroitin Sulfate (CS). The parameters values of the stochastic model are estimated via maximum likelihood function. The numerical method of Euler-Maruyama will be employed to solve the model numerically. The efficiency of the stochastic model is measured by comparing the simulated result with the experimental data.

  16. Deconvolution effect of near-fault earthquake ground motions on stochastic dynamic response of tunnel-soil deposit interaction systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hacıefendioğlu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The deconvolution effect of the near-fault earthquake ground motions on the stochastic dynamic response of tunnel-soil deposit interaction systems are investigated by using the finite element method. Two different earthquake input mechanisms are used to consider the deconvolution effects in the analyses: the standard rigid-base input and the deconvolved-base-rock input model. The Bolu tunnel in Turkey is chosen as a numerical example. As near-fault ground motions, 1999 Kocaeli earthquake ground motion is selected. The interface finite elements are used between tunnel and soil deposit. The mean of maximum values of quasi-static, dynamic and total responses obtained from the two input models are compared with each other.

  17. Stochastic continuum simulation of mass arrival using a synthetic data set. The effect of hard and soft conditioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kung Chen Shan; Wen Xian Huan; Cvetkovic, V.; Winberg, A.

    1992-06-01

    The non-parametric and parametric stochastic continuum approaches were applied to a realistic synthetic exhaustive hydraulic conductivity field to study the effects of hard and soft conditioning. From the reference domain, a number of data points were selected, either in a random or designed fashion, to form sample data sets. Based on established experimental variograms and the conditioning data, 100 realizations each of the studied domain were generated. The flow field was calculated for each realization, and particle arrival time and arrival position along the discharge boundary were evaluated. It was shown that conditioning on soft data reduces the uncertainty of solute arrival time, and that conditioning on soft data suggests an improvement in characterizing channeling effects. It was found that the improvement in the prediction of the breakthrough was moderate when conditioning on 25 hard and 100 soft data compared to 25 hard data only. (au)

  18. Study of Hydrogen Pumping through Condensed Argon in Cryogenic pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jadeja, K A; Bhatt, S B

    2012-01-01

    In ultra high vacuum (UHV) range, hydrogen is a dominant residual gas in vacuum chamber. Hydrogen, being light gas, pumping of hydrogen in this vacuum range is limited with widely used UHV pumps, viz. turbo molecular pump and cryogenic pump. Pre condensed argon layers in cryogenic pump create porous structure on the surface of the pump, which traps hydrogen gas at a temperature less than 20° K. Additional argon gas injection in the cryogenic pump, at lowest temperature, generates multiple layers of condensed argon as a porous frost with 10 to 100 A° diameters pores, which increase the pumping capacity of hydrogen gas. This pumping mechanism of hydrogen is more effective, to pump more hydrogen gas in UHV range applicable in accelerator, space simulation etc. and where hydrogen is used as fuel gas like tokamak. For this experiment, the cryogenic pump with a closed loop refrigerator using helium gas is used to produce the minimum cryogenic temperature as ∼ 14° K. In this paper, effect of cryosorption of hydrogen is presented with different levels of argon gas and hydrogen gas in cryogenic pump chamber.

  19. Stochastic modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Lanchier, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Three coherent parts form the material covered in this text, portions of which have not been widely covered in traditional textbooks. In this coverage the reader is quickly introduced to several different topics enriched with 175 exercises which focus on real-world problems. Exercises range from the classics of probability theory to more exotic research-oriented problems based on numerical simulations. Intended for graduate students in mathematics and applied sciences, the text provides the tools and training needed to write and use programs for research purposes. The first part of the text begins with a brief review of measure theory and revisits the main concepts of probability theory, from random variables to the standard limit theorems. The second part covers traditional material on stochastic processes, including martingales, discrete-time Markov chains, Poisson processes, and continuous-time Markov chains. The theory developed is illustrated by a variety of examples surrounding applications such as the ...

  20. [Protective effect of indirect activator of calcium pump on noise-induced hearing loss].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Yu, Ning; Han, Dongyi; Yang, Weiyan; Li, Xingqi

    2002-12-01

    To investigate the possible protective effect of phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA), an activator of protein kinase C (PKC) and indirect activator of Ca2+ pump, on noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). Twenty guinea pigs were divided randomly into two groups, and then perfused with artificial perilymph solutions in one group and with artificial perilymph solutions containing 3 mumol/L PMA in the other one, respectively. All animals were exposed with 100 dB SPL white noise for 2 hours. Cochlear microphonics (CM) and compound action potential (CAP) were recorded from the round window (RW) before noise exposure and 2 hours after noise exposure. There was no significant difference in CAP threshold and CM amplitude between two groups before noise exposure. A significant difference was observed in CAP threshold and CM amplitude between two groups after noise exposure. The amplitude of CM decreased and the threshold of CAP increased in both group after noise exposure, but in the PMA group the decrease of the amplitude of CM was higher while the increase of threshold of CAP lower than that in control (P < 0.05). PMA might have partly protective effect on NIHL. These findings indirectly proved that intracellular Ca2+ overload might involve in the mechanism of NIHL.

  1. Effect of going on the performance of a solar water pumping station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younes, M.A.; Amer, E.H.; Helal, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    An extensive experimental study has been carried out to investigate the manner in which photovoltaic pumping systems age. A system, installed over 15 years back, has been tested to study the effect of degradation of components on the system performance. The results are used to provide a basis for more realistic evaluation of the economics of solar energy conversion such as, lifetime of the device and the relationship between device age and its efficiency. The study indicates that the degradation of performance is due mainly to glazing seal failure: antireflection coating destruction, mechanical cracks in the body of the cell and inverter problems. The effect of dirt accumulation on the top surfaces does not appear to have adversely affected the thermal performance. As a result of aging, the system efficiency and power output are reduced by about 5 and 15% respectively. A major conclusion from this study is that many of the more serious problems found were either present at the time of installation or resulted from improper operation by untrained personnel and shutting down the system for long periods without regular maintenance

  2. Spin pumping and inverse spin Hall effects in heavy metal/antiferromagnet/Permalloy trilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saglam, Hilal; Zhang, Wei; Jungfleisch, M. Benjamin; Jiang, Wanjun; Pearson, John E.; Hoffmann, Axel

    Recent work shows efficient spin transfer via spin waves in insulating antiferromagnets (AFMs), suggesting that AFMs can play a more active role in the manipulation of ferromagnets. We use spin pumping and inverse spin Hall effect experiments on heavy metal (Pt and W)/AFMs/Py (Ni80Fe20) trilayer structures, to examine the possible spin transfer phenomenon in metallic AFMs, i . e . , FeMn and PdMn. Previous work has studied electronic effects of the spin transport in these materials, yielding short spin diffusion length on the order of 1 nm. However, the work did not examine whether besides diffusive spin transport by the conduction electrons, there are additional spin transport contributions from spin wave excitations. We clearly observe spin transport from the Py spin reservoir to the heavy metal layer through the sandwiched AFMs with thicknesses well above the previously measured spin diffusion lengths, indicating that spin transport by spin waves may lead to non-negligible contributions This work was supported by US DOE, OS, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division. Lithographic patterning was carried out at the CNM, which is supported by DOE, OS under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  3. Coefficient of Performance Optimization of Single-Effect Lithium-Bromide Absorption Cycle Heat Pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Kasper; Just Nielsen, Rene; Nielsen, Kirsten Mølgaard

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the coefficient of performance (COP) of a LiBr absorption cycle heat pump under different operating conditions. The investigation is carried out using a dynamical model fitted against data recorded from an actual heat pump used for district heating in S......⊘nderborg, Denmark. Since the model is too complex to study analytically, we vary different input variables within the permissible operating range of the heat pump and evaluate COP at the resulting steady-state operating points. It is found that the best set-point for each individual input is located at an extreme......-state operation of the heat pump, while avoiding crystallization issues....

  4. Experimental investigation of saturation effect on pump-to-signal intensity modulation transfer in single-pump phase-insensitive fiber optic parametric amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cristofori, Valentina; Lali-Dastjerdi, Zohreh; Lund-Hansen, Toke

    2013-01-01

    We present an experimental characterization of how signal gain saturation affects the transfer of intensity modulation from the pump to the signal in single-pump, phase-insensitive fiber optic parametric amplifiers (FOPAs). In this work, we demonstrate experimentally for the first time, to our...... knowledge, how gain saturation of a FOPA reduces the noise contribution due to the transfer of pump power fluctuations to the signal. In a particular example, it is shown that the transferred noise is significantly reduced by a factor of 3, while the FOPA gain remains above 10 dB....

  5. EFFECT OF BALANCE QUALITY GRADE ON BALANCING OF A CENTRIFUGAL PUMP

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar Abhishek*, Naman Kumar Jain, Siddharth Agnihotri

    2016-01-01

    Vibration due to mass imbalance in rotating parts such as in pump impellers is an important engineering problem. It is a very important factor to be considered in modern machine design, especially where high speed and reliability are significant considerations. Due to mass imbalance excessive vibration occurs and may lead to decrease in fluid velocity and pressure which may cause cavitation in the pump. Reducing rotor vibrations generally increases the service life of the rotating machinery....

  6. Subsidence and Rebound in California's Central Valley: Effects of Pumping, Geology, and Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, T. G.; Fairbanks, A.

    2017-12-01

    Recent rains in California caused a pause, and even a reversal in some areas, of the subsidence that has plagued the Central Valley for decades. The 3 main drivers of surface deformation in the Central Valley are: Subsurface hydro-geology, precipitation and surface water deliveries, and groundwater pumping. While the geology is relatively fixed in time, water inputs and outputs vary greatly both in time and space. And while subsurface geology and water inputs are reasonably well-known, information about groundwater pumping amounts and rates is virtually non-existent in California. We have derived regional maps of surface deformation in the region for the period 2006 - present which allow reconstruction of seasonal and long-term changes. In order to understand the spatial and temporal patterns of subsidence and rebound in the Central Valley, we have been compiling information on the geology and water inputs and have attempted to infer pumping rates using maps of fallowed fields and published pumping information derived from hydrological models. In addition, the spatial and temporal patterns of hydraulic head as measured in wells across the region allow us to infer the spatial and temporal patterns of groundwater pumping and recharge more directly. A better understanding of how different areas (overlying different stratigraphy) of the Central Valley respond to water inputs and outputs will allow a predictive capability, potentially defining sustainable pumping rates related to water inputs. * work performed under contract to NASA and the CA Dept. of Water Resources

  7. Stochastic theory of fatigue corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Haiyun

    1999-10-01

    A stochastic theory of corrosion has been constructed. The stochastic equations are described giving the transportation corrosion rate and fluctuation corrosion coefficient. In addition the pit diameter distribution function, the average pit diameter and the most probable pit diameter including other related empirical formula have been derived. In order to clarify the effect of stress range on the initiation and growth behaviour of pitting corrosion, round smooth specimen were tested under cyclic loading in 3.5% NaCl solution.

  8. Optimal Liquidation under Stochastic Liquidity

    OpenAIRE

    Becherer, Dirk; Bilarev, Todor; Frentrup, Peter

    2016-01-01

    We solve explicitly a two-dimensional singular control problem of finite fuel type for infinite time horizon. The problem stems from the optimal liquidation of an asset position in a financial market with multiplicative and transient price impact. Liquidity is stochastic in that the volume effect process, which determines the inter-temporal resilience of the market in spirit of Predoiu, Shaikhet and Shreve (2011), is taken to be stochastic, being driven by own random noise. The optimal contro...

  9. STOCHASTIC FLOWS OF MAPPINGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the stochastic flow of mappings generated by a Feller convolution semigroup on a compact metric space is studied. This kind of flow is the generalization of superprocesses of stochastic flows and stochastic diffeomorphism induced by the strong solutions of stochastic differential equations.

  10. Stochastic Averaging and Stochastic Extremum Seeking

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Shu-Jun

    2012-01-01

    Stochastic Averaging and Stochastic Extremum Seeking develops methods of mathematical analysis inspired by the interest in reverse engineering  and analysis of bacterial  convergence by chemotaxis and to apply similar stochastic optimization techniques in other environments. The first half of the text presents significant advances in stochastic averaging theory, necessitated by the fact that existing theorems are restricted to systems with linear growth, globally exponentially stable average models, vanishing stochastic perturbations, and prevent analysis over infinite time horizon. The second half of the text introduces stochastic extremum seeking algorithms for model-free optimization of systems in real time using stochastic perturbations for estimation of their gradients. Both gradient- and Newton-based algorithms are presented, offering the user the choice between the simplicity of implementation (gradient) and the ability to achieve a known, arbitrary convergence rate (Newton). The design of algorithms...

  11. Effect of Cr4+ impurities in Nd:Cr:GSGG and Nd:Cr:YAG laser materials on parameters of lasers at solar pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payziyev, Sh.D.; Bakhramov, S.A.; Shayimov, F.F.; Fayziev, A.Sh.

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of an effect of Cr 4+ impurity ions, existent in Nd 3+ :Cr 3+ :GSGG and Nd 3+ :Cr 3+ :YAG laser materials on output parameters of solar pumped lasers is carried out by modeling of lasing process at solar pumping. (authors)

  12. Colonization of a territory by a stochastic population under a strong Allee effect and a low immigration pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Be'er, Shay; Assaf, Michael; Meerson, Baruch

    2015-06-01

    We study the dynamics of colonization of a territory by a stochastic population at low immigration pressure. We assume a sufficiently strong Allee effect that introduces, in deterministic theory, a large critical population size for colonization. At low immigration rates, the average precolonization population size is small, thus invalidating the WKB approximation to the master equation. We circumvent this difficulty by deriving an exact zero-flux solution of the master equation and matching it with an approximate nonzero-flux solution of the pertinent Fokker-Planck equation in a small region around the critical population size. This procedure provides an accurate evaluation of the quasistationary probability distribution of population sizes in the precolonization state and of the mean time to colonization, for a wide range of immigration rates. At sufficiently high immigration rates our results agree with WKB results obtained previously. At low immigration rates the results can be very different.

  13. Effect of time delay on the upper bound of the time derivative of information entropy in a stochastic dynamical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Min-Min; Mei Dong-Cheng; Wang Can-Jun

    2011-01-01

    The effects of the time delay on the upper bound of the time derivative of information entropy are investigated in a time-delayed dynamical system driven by correlated noise. Using the Markov approximation of the stochastic delay differential equations and the Schwartz inequality principle, we obtain an analytical expression for the upper bound U B (t) of the time derivative of the information entropy. The results show that there is a critical value of τ (delay time), and U B (t) presents opposite behaviours on difference sides of the critical value. For the case of the weak additive noise, τ can induce a reentrance transition. Delay time τ also causes a reversal behaviour in U B (t)-λ plot, where λ denotes the degree of the correlation between the two noises. (general)

  14. Effect of stochastic gating on channel-facilitated transport of non-interacting and strongly repelling solutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezhkovskii, Alexander M.; Bezrukov, Sergey M.

    2017-08-01

    Ligand- or voltage-driven stochastic gating—the structural rearrangements by which the channel switches between its open and closed states—is a fundamental property of biological membrane channels. Gating underlies the channel's ability to respond to different stimuli and, therefore, to be functionally regulated by the changing environment. The accepted understanding of the gating effect on the solute flux through the channel is that the mean flux is the product of the flux through the open channel and the probability of finding the channel in the open state. Here, using a diffusion model of channel-facilitated transport, we show that this is true only when the gating is much slower than the dynamics of solute translocation through the channel. If this condition breaks, the mean flux could differ from this simple estimate by orders of magnitude.

  15. Numerical simulation of effective mechanical properties of stochastic composites with consideration for structural evolution under intensive dynamic loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karakulov, Valerii V., E-mail: valery@ftf.tsu.ru [National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Smolin, Igor Yu., E-mail: smolin@ispms.ru, E-mail: skrp@ftf.tsu.ru; Skripnyak, Vladimir A., E-mail: smolin@ispms.ru, E-mail: skrp@ftf.tsu.ru [National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk, 634050, Russia and Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-14

    Mechanical behavior of stochastic metal-ceramic composites with the aluminum matrix under high-rate deformation at shock-wave loading is numerically simulated with consideration for structural evolution. Effective values of mechanical parameters of metal-ceramic composites AlB{sub 4}C, AlSiC, and AlAl{sub 2}O{sub 3} are evaluated depending on different concentration of ceramic inclusions.

  16. The effects of dexamethasone on the Na,K-ATPase activity and pump function of corneal endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatou, Shin; Yamada, Masakazu; Mochizuki, Hiroshi; Shiraishi, Atsushi; Joko, Takeshi; Nishida, Teruo

    2009-05-01

    The Na(+)- and K(+)-dependent ATPase (Na,K-ATPase) expressed in the basolateral membrane of corneal endothelial cells plays an important role in the pump function of the corneal endothelium. We investigated the possible role of dexamethasone in the regulation of Na,K-ATPase activity and pump function in corneal endothelial cells. Confluent monolayers of mouse corneal endothelial cells were exposed to dexamethasone. ATPase activity of the cells was evaluated by spectrophotometric measurement of phosphate released from ATP with the use of ammonium molybdate, with Na,K-ATPase activity being defined as the portion of total ATPase activity sensitive to ouabain. Pump function of the cells was measured with the use of an Ussing chamber, with the pump function attributable to Na,K-ATPase activity being defined as the portion of the total short-circuit current sensitive to ouabain. Western blot analysis was examined to measure the expression of the Na,K-ATPase alpha(1)-subunit. Dexamethasone (1 or 10 microM) increased the Na,K-ATPase activity and pump function of the cultured cells. These effects of dexamethasone were blocked by cycloheximide, a protein synthesis inhibitor. Western blot analysis also indicated that dexamethasone increased the expression of the Na,K-ATPase alpha(1)-subunit, whereas it decreased the expression of the phospho-Na,K-ATPase alpha(1)-subunit. Our results suggest that dexamethasone stimulates Na,K-ATPase activity in mouse corneal endothelial cells. The effect of dexamethasone activation in these cells is mediated by Na,K-ATPase synthesis and increase in an enzymatic activity by dephosphorylation of Na,K-ATPase alpha(1)-subunits.

  17. Effectiveness of terbutaline pump for the prevention of preterm birth. A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M Gaudet

    Full Text Available Subcutaneous terbutaline (SQ terbutaline infusion by pump is used in pregnant women as a prolonged (beyond 48-72 h maintenance tocolytic following acute treatment of preterm contractions. The effectiveness and safety of this maintenance tocolysis have not been clearly established. We aimed to systematically evaluate the effectiveness and safety of subcutaneous (SQ terbutaline infusion by pump for maintenance tocolysis.MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library, the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination databases, post-marketing surveillance data and grey literature were searched up to April 2011 for relevant experimental and observational studies. Two randomized trials, one nonrandomized trial, and 11 observational studies met inclusion criteria. Non-comparative studies were considered only for pump-related harms. We excluded case-reports but sought FDA summaries of post-marketing surveillance data. Non-English records without an English abstract were excluded. Evidence of low strength from observational studies with risk of bias favored SQ terbutaline pump for the outcomes of delivery at <32 and <37 weeks, mean days of pregnancy prolongation, and neonatal death. Observational studies of medium to high risk of bias also demonstrated benefit for other surrogate outcomes, such as birthweight and neonatal intensive care unit (NICU admission. Several cases of maternal deaths and maternal cardiovascular events have been reported in patients receiving terbutaline tocolysis.Although evidence suggests that pump therapy may be beneficial as maintenance tocolysis, our confidence in its validity and reproducibility is low, suggesting that its use should be limited to the research setting. Concerns regarding safety of therapy persist.

  18. Numerical Research on Effects of Splitter Blades to the Influence of Pump as Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Sun-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Centrifugal pumps can be operated in reverse as small hydropower recovery turbines and are cheaper than bespoke turbines due to their ease of manufacture. Splitter blades technique is one of the techniques used in flow field optimization and performance enhancement of rotating machinery. To understand the effects of splitter blades to the steady and unsteady influence of PAT, numerical research was performed. 3D Navier-Stokes solver CFX was used in the performance prediction and analysis of PAT’s performance. Results show that splitter blades have a positive impact on PAT’s performance. With the increase of splitter blades, its required pressure head is dropped and its efficiency is increased. Unsteady pressure field analysis and comparison show that the unsteady pressure field within PAT is improved when splitter blades are added to impeller flow passage. To verify the accuracy of numerical prediction methods, an open PAT test rig was built at Jiangsu University. The PAT was manufactured and tested. Comparison between experimental and numerical results shows that the discrepancy between numerical and experimental results is acceptable. CFD can be used in the performance prediction and optimization of PAT.

  19. Effect of Surface Texturing Parameters on the Lubrication Characteristics of an Axial Piston Pump Valve Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoqiang Wang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a geometrical model of different microtextures is established for an axial piston pump valve plate. A finite differential method was used to solve the Reynolds equation for the oil film thickness and pressure, which were simulated under different microtextures. The influence of microtexture shape and structure on performance was studied and optimal parameters sought. Different convergence gaps are formed by different microtexture radii, and they produce different hydrodynamic effects. The lubrication characteristics of the valve plate are better when a microtexture is used and are influenced by the type of microtexture. We reached the following conclusions: (1 The lubrication characteristics of the valve plate are influenced by different microtexture parameters and can be improved by optimizing the microtexture parameters; (2 There is an optimal parameter combination when adding microtexture with three shapes (spherical, cylindrical and square and the optimal dimensionless oil film pressure lubrication characteristics can be obtained; (3 The degree of improvement in the dimensionless oil film pressure lubrication characteristics was (listed from highest to lowest: micro-hemispherical texture > micro-cylindrical texture > micro-square texture.

  20. Effect of optical pumping on absorption spectra for the doppler broadened rubidium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Seo Ro; Noh, Heung Ryoul

    2008-01-01

    The absorption of a laser beam in the Doppler broadened atomic vapor cell is one of the simplest problems in atomic physics. Although many reports on theoretical and experimental studies of linear absorption have been reported, the effect of optical pumping on the absorption coefficient has not been studied in detail. In this presentation, we present a theoretical and experimental study on linear absorption for the Doppler broadened rubidium vapor cell. The absorption coefficient of a σ"+"(or π)polarized laser beam was calculated as a function of the laser frequency for the various laser intensities. The calculated results were compared with the experimental results. Figure 1(a) shows the calculated absorption coefficient of the π polarized laser beam for the transition F"g"=1→F"e"=0,1,2 of the "87"Rb atom. The diameter of the laser beam was 3mm and the intensity was I=0 and I=0.1I"8"(I"8"=16.2W/m"2"). The peak values for various intensities are shown in Fig. 1(b). We found that the absorption coefficient for the transition from the lower hyperfine state decreased with the increased laser intensity, whereas that for the transition from the upper hyperfine state increased(decreased)for the σ"+"(π)polarized laser beam

  1. Pumping conductance, the intrinsic anomalous Hall effect, and statistics of topological invariants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlhaus, Jan; Ilan, Roni; Freed, Daniel; Freedman, Michael; Moore, Joel E.

    2015-06-01

    The pumping conductance of a disordered two-dimensional Chern insulator scales with increasing size and fixed disorder strength to sharp plateau transitions at well-defined energies between ordinary and quantum Hall insulators. When the disorder strength is scaled to zero as system size increases, the "metallic" regime of fluctuating Chern numbers can extend over the whole band. A simple argument leads to a sort of weighted equipartition of Chern number over minibands in a finite system with periodic boundary conditions: even though there must be strong fluctuations between disorder realizations, the mean Chern number at a given energy is determined by the clean Berry curvature distribution, as in the intrinsic anomalous Hall effect formula for metals. This estimate is compared to numerical results using recently developed operator algebra methods, and indeed the dominant variation of average Chern number is explained by the intrinsic anomalous Hall formula. A mathematical appendix provides more precise definitions and a model for the full distribution of Chern numbers.

  2. Overutilization of proton pump inhibitors: a review of cost-effectiveness and risk [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidelbaugh, Joel J; Goldberg, Kathleen L; Inadomi, John M

    2009-03-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are superior to histamine-2 receptor antagonists for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and erosive esophagitis. Antisecretory therapy (AST), however, accounts for significant cost expenditure in the United States including over-the-counter and prescription formulations. Moreover, emerging data illustrate the potential risks associated with long-term PPI therapy including variations in bioavailability of common medications, vitamin B12 deficiency, Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea, community-acquired pneumonia, and hip fracture. For these reasons, it is imperative to use the lowest dose of drug necessary to achieve desired therapeutic goals. This may entail the use of step-down, step-off, or on-demand PPI therapy for the treatment of GERD. In addition, PPIs are the most commonly used medications for stress ulcer prophylaxis (SUP), despite little evidence to support their use. Compounding this problem is evidence that patients erroneously administered SUP are often discharged on long-term PPI therapy. Pharmacy-driven step-down orders, limitation of the use of PPIs for SUP in non-ICU settings, and meticulous chart review to ensure that hospitalized patients are not discharged home on a PPI without an appropriate indication are interventions that can ensure proper PPI utilization with minimal of risk and optimization of cost-effectiveness.

  3. Effects of stochastic interest rates in decision making under risk: A Markov decision process model for forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo Zhou; Joseph Buongiorno

    2011-01-01

    Most economic studies of forest decision making under risk assume a fixed interest rate. This paper investigated some implications of this stochastic nature of interest rates. Markov decision process (MDP) models, used previously to integrate stochastic stand growth and prices, can be extended to include variable interest rates as well. This method was applied to...

  4. Initial ratio optimization for the ejector cooling system with thermal pumping effect (ECSTPE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Yijian; Sun, Yongjun; Zhang, Sheng; Lyu, Yuanli; Chen, Guangming

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The existing ejector cooling systems with thermal pumping effect (ECSTPEs) have severe problems of thermal energy and chilling load waste. The deviations of the initial ratio from its optimal value would lead to the deviations of the time length of cooling stage (TLCS), and finally, result in the performance deteriorations of the ECSTPEs. The results of the case study showed that, for an ECSTPE with R134a, a 10-second deviation from the optimal TLCS led to a decrease of 5.6% in the COP value and an increase of 23.7% in the chilling load, when the generation temperature, the condensing temperature and the evaporation temperature were 85 °C, 35 °C and 10 °C, respectively. Therefore, accurately controlling the TLCS corresponding to the optimal TLCS, which is derived on the basis of the optimal initial ratio, can effectively improve the performance of ECSPTEs. - Highlights: • ECSTPEs encounter challenges for a great waste of heat and chilling water. • Initial ratio optimization is proposed to improve the performance of ECSTPEs. • Based on the optimal initial ratio, the optimal TLCS control strategy is obtained. • With the optimal TLCS control, COP values of the ECSTPEs are effectively enhanced. • Accordingly, the chilling loads of the ECSTPEs are greatly reduced. - Abstract: An ejector cooling system with thermal pumping effect (ECSTPE) could operate without consumption of electric power, but it discards a great amount of thermal energy, which generally results in a lower COP value and a greater chilling load. An innovative concept for the optimal initial ratio is therefore proposed to develop the optimal time length of cooling stage (TLCS) control method. The optimal TLCS control method effectively improves the ECSTPE performance. First, in this context, it was theoretically proven that the optimal initial ratio could be used to reduce the energy loss and the chilling load. Second, it was formulated how to achieve the optimal initial

  5. Estimating the effects of 17α-ethinylestradiol on stochastic population growth rate of fathead minnows: a population synthesis of empirically derived vital rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwindt, Adam R.; Winkelman, Dana L.

    2016-01-01

    Urban freshwater streams in arid climates are wastewater effluent dominated ecosystems particularly impacted by bioactive chemicals including steroid estrogens that disrupt vertebrate reproduction. However, more understanding of the population and ecological consequences of exposure to wastewater effluent is needed. We used empirically derived vital rate estimates from a mesocosm study to develop a stochastic stage-structured population model and evaluated the effect of 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), the estrogen in human contraceptive pills, on fathead minnow Pimephales promelas stochastic population growth rate. Tested EE2 concentrations ranged from 3.2 to 10.9 ng L−1 and produced stochastic population growth rates (λ S ) below 1 at the lowest concentration, indicating potential for population decline. Declines in λ S compared to controls were evident in treatments that were lethal to adult males despite statistically insignificant effects on egg production and juvenile recruitment. In fact, results indicated that λ S was most sensitive to the survival of juveniles and female egg production. More broadly, our results document that population model results may differ even when empirically derived estimates of vital rates are similar among experimental treatments, and demonstrate how population models integrate and project the effects of stressors throughout the life cycle. Thus, stochastic population models can more effectively evaluate the ecological consequences of experimentally derived vital rates.

  6. Fractional Stochastic Field Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkonen, Juha

    2018-02-01

    Models describing evolution of physical, chemical, biological, social and financial processes are often formulated as differential equations with the understanding that they are large-scale equations for averages of quantities describing intrinsically random processes. Explicit account of randomness may lead to significant changes in the asymptotic behaviour (anomalous scaling) in such models especially in low spatial dimensions, which in many cases may be captured with the use of the renormalization group. Anomalous scaling and memory effects may also be introduced with the use of fractional derivatives and fractional noise. Construction of renormalized stochastic field theory with fractional derivatives and fractional noise in the underlying stochastic differential equations and master equations and the interplay between fluctuation-induced and built-in anomalous scaling behaviour is reviewed and discussed.

  7. Effects of dopamine medication on sequence learning with stochastic feedback in Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moonsang Seo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence suggests that the midbrain dopamine system plays a key role in reinforcement learning and disruption of the midbrain dopamine system in Parkinson's disease (PD may lead to deficits on tasks that require learning from feedback. We examined how changes in dopamine levels (‘ON’ and ‘OFF’ their dopamine medication affect sequence learning from stochastic positive and negative feedback using Bayesian reinforcement learning models. We found deficits in sequence learning in patients with PD when they were ‘ON’ and ‘OFF’ medication relative to healthy controls, but smaller differences between patients ‘OFF’ and ‘ON’. The deficits were mainly due to decreased learning from positive feedback, although across all participant groups learning was more strongly associated with positive than negative feedback in our task. The learning in our task is likely mediated by the relatively depleted dorsal striatum and not the relatively intact ventral striatum. Therefore, the changes we see in our task may be due to a strong loss of phasic dopamine signals in the dorsal striatum in PD.

  8. Effects of Dopamine Medication on Sequence Learning with Stochastic Feedback in Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Moonsang; Beigi, Mazda; Jahanshahi, Marjan; Averbeck, Bruno B.

    2010-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that the midbrain dopamine system plays a key role in reinforcement learning and disruption of the midbrain dopamine system in Parkinson's disease (PD) may lead to deficits on tasks that require learning from feedback. We examined how changes in dopamine levels (“ON” and “OFF” their dopamine medication) affect sequence learning from stochastic positive and negative feedback using Bayesian reinforcement learning models. We found deficits in sequence learning in patients with PD when they were “ON” and “OFF” medication relative to healthy controls, but smaller differences between patients “OFF” and “ON”. The deficits were mainly due to decreased learning from positive feedback, although across all participant groups learning was more strongly associated with positive than negative feedback in our task. The learning in our task is likely mediated by the relatively depleted dorsal striatum and not the relatively intact ventral striatum. Therefore, the changes we see in our task may be due to a strong loss of phasic dopamine signals in the dorsal striatum in PD. PMID:20740077

  9. Platelet transfusion in chemotherapy patients: comparison of the effect of intravenous infusion pumps versus gravity transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meess, A

    2015-01-01

    Platelet concentrates are given to patients suffering with severe thrombocytopenia usually by a gravity transfusion procedure. Increasing patient numbers that are in need of this treatment increase the pressure on hospital staff and space. In order to combat time issues, the use of medical devices such as intravenous infusion pumps are thought to be beneficial for time and simultaneously for safety in transfusion practices. By using infusion pumps, platelet concentrates can be transfused in less time and provide accurate volume measurements. Manufacturers of infusion pumps claim that these devices are safe to be used for blood products including platelet concentrates. However, published studies were performed on older models and newer devices are on the market now. The purpose of this study is to evaluate infusion pumps, which are claimed to be suitable for blood products and to investigate the impact the pumps had on platelets. Furthermore, the study revealed if the intravenous infusion pumps are safe to be used for platelet transfusion as claimed by manufacturers. A simulated transfusion was performed using the Carefusion Alaris GP Plus volumetric pump and Fresenius Kabi Volumat Agilia infusion pump. Samples were taken from expired platelet concentrates before and after passage through the pump. All samples were investigated for full blood count that included platelet count, mean platelet volume (MPV), platelet distribution width (PDW) and a plateletcrit (PCT). The samples were then centrifuged to achieve platelet-poor plasma and then tested for lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). A power calculation performed on the statistical power analysis program G*power indicated a requirement of 82 samples for a power of 80%. Statistical analysis was performed with the IBM SPSS statistic software. A paired sample t-test was used to calculate mean, standard deviation and P values for the infusion pumps used. The Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test was used to evaluate results that had a non

  10. Effect of the self-pumped limiter concept on the tritium fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finn, P.A.; Sze, D.K.; Hassanein, A.

    1988-01-01

    The self-pumped limiter concept was the impurity control system for the reactor in the Tokamak Power Systems Study (TPSS). The use of a self-pumped limiter had a major impact on the design of the tritium systems of the TPSS fusion reactor. The self-pumped limiter functions by depositing the helium ash under a layer of metal (vanadium). The majority of the hydrogen species are recycled at the plasma edge; a small fraction permeates to the blanket/coolant which was lithium in TPSS. Use of the self-pumped limiter results in the elimination of the plasma processing system. Thus, the blanket tritium processing system becomes the major tritium system. The main advantages achieved for the tritium systems with a self-pumped limiter are a reduction in the capital cost of tritium processing equipment as well as a reduction in building space, a reduced tritium inventory for processing and for reserve storage, an increase in the inherent safety of the fusion plant and an improvement in economics for a fusion world economy

  11. Liquid metals pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Frere, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    Pumps used to pump liquid metals depend on the liquid metal and on the type of application concerned. One deals more particularly with electromagnetic pumps, the main pumps used with mechanical pumps. To pump sodium in the nuclear field, these two types of pumps are used; the pumps of different circuits of Super Phenix are presented and described [fr

  12. Electromagnetic pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Koji; Suetake, Norio; Aizawa, Toshie; Nakasaki, Masayoshi

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides an electromagnetic pump suitable to a recycling pump for liquid sodium as coolants of an FBR type reactor. Namely, a stator module of the electromagnetic pump of the present invention comprises a plurality of outer laminate iron core units and outer stator modules stacked alternately in the axial direction. With such a constitution, even a long electromagnetic pump having a large number of outer stator coils can be manufactured without damaging electric insulation of the outer stator coils. In addition, the inner circumferential surface of the outer laminate iron cores is urged and brought into contact with the outer circumferential surface of the outer duct by an elastic material. With such a constitution, Joule loss heat generated in the outer stator coils and internal heat generated in the outer laminate iron cores can be released to an electroconductive fluid flowing the inner circumference of the outer duct by way of the outer duct. (I.S.)

  13. Electrokinetic pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Kamlesh D.

    2007-11-20

    A method for altering the surface properties of a particle bed. In application, the method pertains particularly to an electrokinetic pump configuration where nanoparticles are bonded to the surface of the stationary phase to alter the surface properties of the stationary phase including the surface area and/or the zeta potential and thus improve the efficiency and operating range of these pumps. By functionalizing the nanoparticles to change the zeta potential the electrokinetic pump is rendered capable of operating with working fluids having pH values that can range from 2-10 generally and acidic working fluids in particular. For applications in which the pump is intended to handle highly acidic solutions latex nanoparticles that are quaternary amine functionalized can be used.

  14. Effect of nanostructure layout on spin pumping phenomena in antiferromagnet/nonmagnetic metal/ferromagnet multilayered stacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Kravets

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work we focus on magnetic relaxation in Mn80Ir20(12 nm/Cu(6 nm/Py(dF antiferromagnet/Cu/ferromagnet (AFM/Cu/FM multilayers with different thickness of the ferromagnetic permalloy layer. An effective FM-AFM interaction mediated via the conduction electrons in the nonmagnetic Cu spacer – the spin-pumping effect – is detected as an increase in the linewidth of the ferromagnetic resonance (FMR spectra and a shift of the resonant magnetic field. We further find experimentally that the spin-pumping-induced contribution to the linewidth is inversely proportional to the thickness of the Py layer. We show that this thickness dependence likely originates from the dissipative dynamics of the free and localized spins in the AFM layer. The results obtained could be used for tailoring the dissipative properties of spintronic devices incorporating antiferromagnetic layers.

  15. Effects of air flow maldistribution on refrigeration system dynamics of air source heat pump chiller under frosting conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Jianying; Gao Tieyu; Yuan Xiuling; Huang Dong

    2008-01-01

    The effects of air flow maldistribution on the performance of an air source heat pump chiller under frosting conditions were investigated experimentally. The results indicated that air flow maldistribution was the dominant factor leading to hunting of the thermostatic expansion valve for medium and/or large size finned tube evaporators. With air flow maldistribution degree (AMD) increasing, frost occurred earlier, and the frost layer grew faster. The operating characteristics became lower when AMD was increased. We found such phenomenon seemed to be related to both the difference of refrigerant outlet superheat and the frosting velocity. In the hunting stage, the frost block effect became the main factor degrading the refrigeration system performance. With AMD increasing, the heat pump system pertinent performance data (suction pressure, evaporation temperature, discharge pressure, refrigerant outlet temperature, etc.) were degraded more dramatically

  16. Cost-effectiveness of histamine receptor-2 antagonist versus proton pump inhibitor for stress ulcer prophylaxis in critically ill patients*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLaren, Robert; Campbell, Jon

    2014-04-01

    To examine the cost-effectiveness of using histamine receptor-2 antagonist or proton pump inhibitor for stress ulcer prophylaxis. Decision analysis model examining costs and effectiveness of using histamine receptor-2 antagonist or proton pump inhibitor for stress ulcer prophylaxis. Costs were expressed in 2012 U.S. dollars from the perspective of the institution and included drug regimens and the following outcomes: clinically significant stress-related mucosal bleed, ventilator-associated pneumonia, and Clostridium difficile infection. Effectiveness was the mortality risk associated with these outcomes and represented by survival. Costs, occurrence rates, and mortality probabilities were extracted from published data. A simulation model. A mixed adult ICU population. Histamine receptor-2 antagonist or proton pump inhibitor for 9 days of stress ulcer prophylaxis therapy. Output variables were expected costs, expected survival rates, incremental cost, and incremental survival rate. Univariate sensitivity analyses were conducted to determine the drivers of incremental cost and incremental survival. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis was conducted using second-order Monte Carlo simulation. For the base case analysis, the expected cost of providing stress ulcer prophylaxis was $6,707 with histamine receptor-2 antagonist and $7,802 with proton pump inhibitor, resulting in a cost saving of $1,095 with histamine receptor-2 antagonist. The associated mortality probabilities were 3.819% and 3.825%, respectively, resulting in an absolute survival benefit of 0.006% with histamine receptor-2 antagonist. The primary drivers of incremental cost and survival were the assumptions surrounding ventilator-associated pneumonia and bleed. The probabilities that histamine receptor-2 antagonist was less costly and provided favorable survival were 89.4% and 55.7%, respectively. A secondary analysis assuming equal rates of C. difficile infection showed a cost saving of $908 with histamine

  17. On the effect of hyperaldosteronism-inducing mutations in Na/K pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Dylan J; Gatto, Craig; Artigas, Pablo

    2017-11-06

    Primary aldosteronism, a condition in which too much aldosterone is produced and that leads to hypertension, is often initiated by an aldosterone-producing adenoma within the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex. Somatic mutations of ATP1A1, encoding the Na/K pump α1 subunit, have been found in these adenomas. It has been proposed that a passive inward current transported by several of these mutant pumps is a "gain-of-function" activity that produces membrane depolarization and concomitant increases in aldosterone production. Here, we investigate whether the inward current through mutant Na/K pumps is large enough to induce depolarization of the cells that harbor them. We first investigate inward currents induced by these mutations in Xenopus Na/K pumps expressed in Xenopus oocytes and find that these inward currents are similar in amplitude to wild-type outward Na/K pump currents. Subsequently, we perform a detailed functional evaluation of the human Na/K pump mutants L104R, delF100-L104, V332G, and EETA963S expressed in Xenopus oocytes. By combining two-electrode voltage clamp with [ 3 H]ouabain binding, we measure the turnover rate of these inward currents and compare it to the turnover rate for outward current through wild-type pumps. We find that the turnover rate of the inward current through two of these mutants (EETA963S and L104R) is too small to induce significant cell depolarization. Electrophysiological characterization of another hyperaldosteronism-inducing mutation, G99R, reveals the absence of inward currents under many different conditions, including in the presence of the regulator FXYD1 as well as with mammalian ionic concentrations and body temperatures. Instead, we observe robust outward currents, but with significantly reduced affinities for intracellular Na + and extracellular K + Collectively, our results point to loss-of-function as the common mechanism for the hyperaldosteronism induced by these Na/K pump mutants. © 2017 Meyer et al.

  18. Effect of the self-pumped limiter concept on the tritium fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finn, P.A.; Sze, D.K.; Hassanein, A.

    1988-01-01

    The self-pumped limiter concept for impurity control of the plasma of a fusion reactor has a major impact on the design of the tritium systems. To achieve a sustained burn, conventional limiters and divertors remove large quantities of unburnt tritium and deuterium from the plasma which must be then recycled using a plasma processing system. The self-pumped limiter which does not remove the hydrogen species, does not require any plasma processing equipment. The blanket system and the coolant processing systems acquire greater importance with the use of this unconventional impurity control system. 3 refs., 2 figs

  19. PKPD model of interleukin-21 effects on thermoregulation in monkeys--application and evaluation of stochastic differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overgaard, Rune Viig; Holford, Nick; Rytved, Klaus A; Madsen, Henrik

    2007-02-01

    To describe the pharmacodynamic effects of recombinant human interleukin-21 (IL-21) on core body temperature in cynomolgus monkeys using basic mechanisms of heat regulation. A major effort was devoted to compare the use of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) with stochastic differential equations (SDEs) in pharmacokinetic pharmacodynamic (PKPD) modelling. A temperature model was formulated including circadian rhythm, metabolism, heat loss, and a thermoregulatory set-point. This model was formulated as a mixed-effects model based on SDEs using NONMEM. The effects of IL-21 were on the set-point and the circadian rhythm of metabolism. The model was able to describe a complex set of IL-21 induced phenomena, including 1) disappearance of the circadian rhythm, 2) no effect after first dose, and 3) high variability after second dose. SDEs provided a more realistic description with improved simulation properties, and further changed the model into one that could not be falsified by the autocorrelation function. The IL-21 induced effects on thermoregulation in cynomolgus monkeys are explained by a biologically plausible model. The quality of the model was improved by the use of SDEs.

  20. Effect of the one-child policy on influenza transmission in China: a stochastic transmission model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengchen Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: China's one-child-per-couple policy, introduced in 1979, led to profound demographic changes for nearly a quarter of the world's population. Several decades later, the consequences include decreased fertility rates, population aging, decreased household sizes, changes in family structure, and imbalanced sex ratios. The epidemiology of communicable diseases may have been affected by these changes since the transmission dynamics of infectious diseases depend on demographic characteristics of the population. Of particular interest is influenza because China and Southeast Asia lie at the center of a global transmission network of influenza. Moreover, changes in household structure may affect influenza transmission. Is it possible that the pronounced demographic changes that have occurred in China have affected influenza transmission? METHODS AND FINDINGS: To address this question, we developed a continuous-time, stochastic, individual-based simulation model for influenza transmission. With this model, we simulated 30 years of influenza transmission and compared influenza transmission rates in populations with and without the one-child policy control. We found that the average annual attack rate is reduced by 6.08% (SD 2.21% in the presence of the one-child policy compared to a population in which no demographic changes occurred. There was no discernible difference in the secondary attack rate, -0.15% (SD 1.85%, between the populations with and without a one-child policy. We also forecasted influenza transmission over a ten-year time period in a population with a two-child policy under a hypothesis that a two-child-per-couple policy will be carried out in 2015, and found a negligible difference in the average annual attack rate compared to the population with the one-child policy. CONCLUSIONS: This study found that the average annual attack rate is slightly lowered in a population with a one-child policy, which may have resulted from a

  1. The Robustness of Stochastic Switching Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Loh, Po-Ling; Zhou, Hongchao; Bruck, Jehoshua

    2009-01-01

    Many natural systems, including chemical and biological systems, can be modeled using stochastic switching circuits. These circuits consist of stochastic switches, called pswitches, which operate with a fixed probability of being open or closed. We study the effect caused by introducing an error of size ∈ to each pswitch in a stochastic circuit. We analyze two constructions – simple series-parallel and general series-parallel circuits – and prove that simple series-parallel circuits are robus...

  2. Stochastic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wellens, Thomas; Shatokhin, Vyacheslav; Buchleitner, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    We are taught by conventional wisdom that the transmission and detection of signals is hindered by noise. However, during the last two decades, the paradigm of stochastic resonance (SR) proved this assertion wrong: indeed, addition of the appropriate amount of noise can boost a signal and hence facilitate its detection in a noisy environment. Due to its simplicity and robustness, SR has been implemented by mother nature on almost every scale, thus attracting interdisciplinary interest from physicists, geologists, engineers, biologists and medical doctors, who nowadays use it as an instrument for their specific purposes. At the present time, there exist a lot of diversified models of SR. Taking into account the progress achieved in both theoretical understanding and practical application of this phenomenon, we put the focus of the present review not on discussing in depth technical details of different models and approaches but rather on presenting a general and clear physical picture of SR on a pedagogical level. Particular emphasis will be given to the implementation of SR in generic quantum systems-an issue that has received limited attention in earlier review papers on the topic. The major part of our presentation relies on the two-state model of SR (or on simple variants thereof), which is general enough to exhibit the main features of SR and, in fact, covers many (if not most) of the examples of SR published so far. In order to highlight the diversity of the two-state model, we shall discuss several examples from such different fields as condensed matter, nonlinear and quantum optics and biophysics. Finally, we also discuss some situations that go beyond the generic SR scenario but are still characterized by a constructive role of noise

  3. EFFECTS OF PROTON PUMP INHIBITORS ON DENTAL EROSIONS CAUSED BY GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Vasile OLTEANU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Numerous studies worldwide have assessed the association between dental erosions or other related oral manifestations, and the gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD. Nowadays, one of the main therapeutic resources of GERD is represented by proton pump inhibitors (PPIs. Adequate salivary secretions and flow are considered mandatory for the protection of both teeth and esophageal mucosa. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible correlation between GERD treatment options and subsequent control of oral manifestation, taking as premises that either PPIs or dietary and lifestyle changes may control oral patterns of GERD by acting on salivary secretions. Methods: 48 clinically diagnosed GERD adult patients with oral manifestations, mainly erosions, were included in the study, none of which showing alarming symptoms that would require further gastroenterologic examination. Oral examination evaluated the DMF (decayed, missing, filled and OHI-S (Simplified Oral Hygiene indices. Salivary flow was evaluated by the Saxon test. 25 patients were prescribed dietary and lifestyle measures and PPIs (omeprazole – 20 mg, whereas 23 patients were managed only through dietary and lifestyle modifications. General assessment was performed at the time of diagnosis and 4 weeks afterwards. Results: No significant differences as to the DMF index, OHI-S index or Saxon test were found over the 4 weeks management between the groups. Conclusions: Oral manifestation of GERD may be caused by impaired salivary secretions and flow, otherwise no - positive or negative - effect could be secondary to PPI therapy. Accordingly, complex oral rehabilitation of GERD patients and collaboration between gastroenterologists and dentists should be promoted.

  4. Pumps and pump facilities. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohl, W.; Bauerfeind, H.; Gutmann, G.; Leuschner, G.; Matthias, H.B.; Mengele, R.; Neumaier, R.; Vetter, G.; Wagner, W.

    1981-01-01

    This book deals with the common fundamental aspects of liquid pumps and gives an exemplary choice of the most important kinds of pumps. The scientific matter is dealt with by means of practical mathematical examples among other ways of presenting the matter. Survey of contents: Division on main operational data of pumps - pipe characteristics - pump characteristics - suction behaviour of the pumps - projecting and operation of rotary pumps - boiler feed pumps - reactor feed pumps - oscillating positive-displacement pumps - eccentric spiral pumps. (orig./GL) [de

  5. Prognosis for stochastic effects from the overbackground irradiation of the Bulgarian population due to the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilev, G.; Bajrakova, A.

    1990-01-01

    The doses received by the Bulgarian population as a result of the Chernobyl accident rule out the possibility for development of nonstochastic effects; under these irradiation conditions the health injuries can be manifested as stochastic effects. According to the basic prognostic equation of ICRP (Publications 27 and 45) the irradiation associated with the accident would be responsible for 441 cases of cancer with lethal outcome and of 816 cases of curable cancer during the next 50 years, as well as for 68 cases of severe hereditary injuries during the next two generations. This means an increment of the annual case fatality rate from cancer in this country by an average of 0.006% and of the morbidity by 0.02%. Taking into account the inaccuracy admitted in determining the mortality and morbility, the radiation induced cancerogenic effects will remain unprovable within the framework of a generation life duration. The same refers to the radiation-induced genetic effects as well: less than one case annually over a period of 100 years. The Bulgarian population as a whole will lose about 67.10 3 man-days annually for 50 years due to the induction of curable and lethal cancers and about 79.10 3 man-days because of severe hereditary defects. Brief discussion is presented on the expediency of epidemiologic studies and developing screening programs for assessing the sequelaes of the Chernobyl accident for the health of the Bulgarian population. 8 refs

  6. Performance analysis of double-effect absorption heat pump cycle using NH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, M.; Infante Ferreira, C.A.

    2017-01-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs), as novel absorbents, draw considerable attention for their potential roles in replacing H2O or LiBr aqueous solutions in conventional NH3/H2O or H2O/LiBr absorption chiller or heat pump cycles. In this paper, NH3/IL working pairs are proposed for implementation in parallel

  7. Study on the Effect of Reciprocating Pump Pipeline System Vibration on Oil Transportation Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongfang Lu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the periodic movement of the piston in the reciprocating pump, the fluid will cause a pressure pulsation, and the resulting pipeline vibration may lead to instrument distortion, pipe failure and equipment damage. Therefore, it is necessary to study the vibration phenomena of reciprocating pump pipelines based on pressure pulsation theory. This paper starts from the reciprocating pump pipe pressure pulsation caused by a fluid, pressure pulsation in the pipeline and the unbalanced exciting force is calculated under the action of the reciprocating pump. Then, the numerical simulation model is established based on the pipe beam model, and the rationality of the numerical simulation method is verified by indoor experiments. Finally, a case study is taken as an example to analyze the vibration law of the pipeline system, and vibration reduction measures are proposed. The following main conclusions are drawn from the analysis: (1 unbalanced exciting forces are produced in the elbows or tee joints, and it can also influence the straight pipe to different levels; (2 in actual engineering, it should be possible to prevent the simultaneous settlement of multiple places; (3 the vibration amplitude increases with the pipe thermal stress, and when the oil temperature is higher than 85 °C, it had a greater influence on the vertical vibration amplitude of the pipe.

  8. Study of a Fuel Supply Pump with a Piezoelectric Effect for Microdirect Alcohol Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Kang Ma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel design for an ethanol injection system has been proposed, which consists of one pump chamber, two valves, and one central-vibrating piezoelectric device. The system uses a microdiaphragm pump with a piezoelectric device for microdirect alcohol fuel cells. The diameters of the pump chamber are 31 mm and 23 mm, and the depths of the chamber are 1 mm and 2 mm. When the piezoelectric device actuates for changing pump chamber volume, the valves will be opened/closed, and the ethanol will be delivered into DAFC system due to the pressure variation. The chamber dimensions, vibrating frequencies of the piezoelectric device, and valve thickness are used as important parameters for the performance of the novel ethanol injection system. The experimental results show that the ethanol flow rate can reach 170 mL/min at a vibrating frequency of 75 Hz. In addition, the ethanol flow rate is higher than the water flow rate.

  9. Experimental study on air cleaning effect of clean air heat pump and its impact on ventilation requirement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Lei; Sheng, Ying; Nie, Jinzhe

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated air purification effect of a Clean-Air Heat Pump (CAHP) which combined a desiccant wheel with a heat pump for both air cleaning and HVAC of buildings. The experiment was conducted in a field lab at four different outdoor air supply rates with and without air cleaning by CAHP....... Both sensory assessments of perceived air quality and chemical measurements of TVOC concentrations were conducted for evaluating the air cleaning performance of the CAHP. The results of experiment showed that running the CAHP improved significantly perceived air quality. At 2 L/s per person of outdoor...... air supply rate with operating the CAHP, the air quality was equivalent to the value at the higher outdoor air supply rate of 10 L/s per person without running CAHP. The TVOC measurements observed over 92% of efficiency on removal of indoor air VOCs and no VOCs accumulation on the desiccant wheel...

  10. Calculation of the effects of pumping, divertor configuration and fueling on density limit in a tokamak model problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacey, W. M.

    2001-01-01

    Several series of model problem calculations have been performed to investigate the predicted effect of pumping, divertor configuration and fueling on the maximum achievable density in diverted tokamaks. Density limitations due to thermal instabilities (confinement degradation and multifaceted axisymmetric radiation from the edge) and to divertor choking are considered. For gas fueling the maximum achievable density is relatively insensitive to pumping (on or off), to the divertor configuration (open or closed), or to the location of the gas injection, although the gas fueling rate required to achieve this maximum achievable density is quite sensitive to these choices. Thermal instabilities are predicted to limit the density at lower values than divertor choking. Higher-density limits are predicted for pellet injection than for gas fueling

  11. Transient effects on groundwater chemical compositions from pumping of supply wells at the Nevada National Security Site, 1951-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paces, James B.; Elliott, Peggy E.; Fenelon, Joseph M.; Laczniak, Randell J.; Moreo, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    . Analysis of chemical trends in this report primarily rely on specific conductance measurements and major ion concentrations, data considered to be the most accurate and reliable over the entire time span of investigation. The analysis uses parametric and non-parametric evaluations to provide a statistical basis for trend identification. Trace element and isotope data are examined for consistency, but typically are too inaccurate or infrequent to provide a reliable long term basis for trend evaluation. Groundwater withdrawal records compiled in a companion report are included graphically in this report to allow qualitative comparisons between water quality and pumping history. Data for each supply well include (1) a borehole description and summary of pumping history, (2) a description of water-quality parameters, (3) an evaluation of temporal variations of specific conductance and major ion concentrations, and (4) an examination of supporting information from trace element and isotope data. A range of responses are observed for individual supply wells that likely include the effects of both aquifer dynamics and changing borehole conditions. Data from most wells show little or no evidence for temporal variation in water-quality parameters indicating that aquifers at the Nevada National Security Site are capable of producing large volumes of compositionally uniform water over many years of pumping. A smaller number of wells show evidence of transient changes. Wells that have ceased pumping commonly show compositions that shift toward lower concentrations in subsequent bailed samples, which indicates that more dilute water entered the well over time due to either leakage of meteoric water into the well casing or more wide-spread recharge into the shallow phreatic zone. Wells that show systematic changes in water compositions during episodes of pumping commonly have multiple open intervals whose contributions to water in the well may change over time due to hydraulic

  12. Recent effectiveness of proton pump inhibitors for severe reflux esophagitis: the first multicenter prospective study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Hideki; Matsuhashi, Nobuyuki; Sakaguchi, Masahiro; Inoue, Syuji; Nakada, Koji; Higuchi, Kazuhide; Haruma, Ken; Joh, Takashi

    2015-11-01

    Proton pump inhibitors are the first-line treatment for reflux esophagitis. Because severe reflux esophagitis has very low prevalence in Japan, little is known about the effectiveness of proton pump inhibitors in these patients. This prospective multicenter study assessed the effectiveness of proton pump inhibitors for severe reflux esophagitis in Japan. Patients with modified Los Angeles grade C or D reflux esophagitis were treated with daily omeprazole (10 or 20 mg), lansoprazole (15 or 30 mg), or rabeprazole (10, 20, or 40 mg) for 8 weeks. Healing was assessed endoscopically, with questionnaires administered before and after treatment to measure the extent of reflux and dyspepsia symptoms. Factors affecting healing rates, including patient characteristics and endoscopic findings, were analyzed. Of the 115 patients enrolled, 64 with grade C and 19 with grade D reflux esophagitis completed the study. The healing rate was 67.5% (56/83), with 15 of the other 27 patients (55.6%) improving to grade A or B. No patient characteristic or endoscopic comorbidity was significantly associated with healing rate. Reflux and dyspepsia symptoms improved significantly with treatment. The low healing rate suggests the need of endoscopic examination to assess healing of reflux esophagitis at the end of therapy. (UMIN000005271).

  13. Inefficiency, heterogeneity and spillover effects in maternal care in India: a spatial stochastic frontier analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinfu, Yohannes; Sawhney, Monika

    2015-03-25

    Institutional delivery is one of the key and proven strategies to reduce maternal deaths. Since the 1990s, the government of India has made substantial investment on maternal care to reduce the huge burden of maternal deaths in the country. However, despite the effort access to institutional delivery in India remains below the global average. In addition, even in places where health investments have been comparable, inter- and intra-state difference in access to maternal care services remain wide and substantial. This raises a fundamental question on whether the sub-national units themselves differ in terms of the efficiency with which they use available resources, and if so, why? Data obtained from round 3 of the country's District Level Health and Facility Survey was analyzed to measure the level and determinants of inefficiency of institutional delivery in the country. Analysis was conducted using spatial stochastic frontier models that correct for heterogeneity and spatial interactions between sub-national units. Inefficiency differences in maternal care services between and within states are substantial. The top one third of districts in the country has a mean efficiency score of 90 per cent or more, while the bottom 10 per cent of districts exhibit mean inefficiency score of as high as over 75 per cent or more. Overall mean inefficiency is about 30 per cent. The result also reveals the existence of both heterogeneity and spatial correlation in institutional delivery in the country. Given the high level of inefficiency in the system, further progress in improving coverage of institutional delivery in the country should focus both on improving the efficiency of resource utilization--especially where inefficiency levels are extremely high--and on bringing new resources in to the system. The additional investment should specifically focus on those parts of the country where coverage rates are still low but efficiency levels are already at a high level. In

  14. Effect of pump-beam conditions on dual polarization oscillations in a microchip Nd:GdVO{sub 4} laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, C-C; Jiang, I-M [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China); Ko, J-Y; Tsai, K-T; Cheng, Y-T; Ho, M-C, E-mail: jyko@nknucc.nknu.edu.t [Department of Physics, National Kaohsiung Normal University, Kaohsiung 824, Taiwan (China)

    2009-08-28

    This study investigated the input-output characteristics of a laser-diode-end-pumped microchip Nd:GdVO{sub 4} laser under different pump-beam focusing conditions by varying the magnifications of the microscope objective lenses and pump-beam positions on a chip. Dual-polarization oscillations were generated in the entire pump region using pumping conditions associated with different temperature gradients.

  15. Effect of Unsaturated Flow on Delayed Response of Unconfined Aquifiers to Pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartakovsky, G.; Neuman, S. P.

    2005-12-01

    A new analytical solution is presented for the delayed response process characterizing flow to a partially penetrating well in an unconfined aquifer. The new solution generalizes that of Neuman [1972, 1974] by accounting for unsaturated flow above the water table. Axially symmetric three-dimensional flow in the unsaturated zone is described by a linearized version of Richards' equation in which hydraulic conductivity and water content vary exponentially with incremental capillary pressure head relative to its air entry value (defining the interface between the saturated and unsaturated zones). Unsaturated soil properties are characterized by an exponent κ having the dimension of inverse length and a dimensionless exponent κD = κb where b is initial saturated thickness. Our treatment of the unsaturated zone is similar to that of Kroszynski and Dagan [1975] who however have ignored internal (artesian) aquifer storage. It has been suggested by Boulton [1954, 1963, 1970] and Neuman [1972, 1974], and is confirmed by our solution, that internal storage is required to reproduce the early increase in drawdown characterizing delayed response to pumping in typical aquifers. According to our new solution such aquifers are characterized by relatively large κ_ D values, typically 10 or larger; in the limit as κD tends to infinity (the soil unsaturated water retention capacity becomes insignificant and/or aquifer thickness become large), unsaturated flow becomes unimportant and our solution reduces to that of Neuman. In typical cases corresponding to κD larger than or equal to 10, unsaturated flow is found to have little impact on early and late dimensionless time behaviors of drawdown measured wholly or in part at some distance below the water table; unsaturated flow causes drawdown to increase slightly at intermediate dimensionless time values that represent transition from an early artesian dominated to a late water-table dominated flow regime. The increase in drawdown

  16. Stochastic ground-water flow analysis FY-81 status report. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kincaid, C.T.; Vail, L.W.; Devary, J.L.

    1983-07-01

    Research was conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory to develop a research computational package for the stochastic analysis of ground-water flow. Both unsteady and steady-state analysis were examined, and a steady-state research code was developed for the study of stochastic processes. This report describes the theoretical development of both unsteady and steady analyses, and presents the preliminary studies undertaken to verify and exercise the encoded algorithm. The stochastic analysis of ground-water flow is a promising new method which can supply more comprehensive analyses of the ground-water environment. The work reported herein provided experience in the methodology while producing a research-oriented stochastic analysis capability. Single-layer aquifers of horizontal extent were selected for this effort. Kriging has been employed to describe the uncertainty in field data. The resulting stochastic parameters enter the problem physics through boundary conditions and Darcy's equation. The mean and variance of the piezometric head are estimated by the stochastic analysis

  17. A stochastic analysis of the effect of hydrostatic pressure on the pit corrosion of Fe-20Cr alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Tao; Yang Yange; Shao Yawei; Meng, Guozhe; Wang, Fuhui

    2009-01-01

    The effect of hydrostatic pressure on the pit corrosion behavior of Fe-20Cr alloy was investigated in 3.5% NaCl solution by means of potentiodynamic polarization and potentiostatic technology, and the experiment data was analyzed based on stochastic theory. With the increase of hydrostatic pressure, the pit corrosion resistance of Fe-20Cr alloy was deteriorated, which was distinguished by the decrease of critical pit potential (E cirt ) and the increase of passive current density. The results also demonstrated that there exist two effects of hydrostatic pressure on the corrosion behavior of Fe-20Cr alloy: (1) the pit generation rate was evidently increased compared to that under lower hydrostatic pressure, and the metastable pits become faster and larger. However, it seemed that pit generation mechanism shows no hydrostatic pressure dependence; (2) the probability of pit growth increased with the increase of hydrostatic pressure, which implied that the metastable pit on Fe-20Cr alloy exhibited higher probability to become larger pit cavity during shorter time interval than that under lower hydrostatic pressure.

  18. Fluidic pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priestman, G.H.

    1990-01-01

    A fluidic pump has primary and secondary vessels connected by a pipe, a displacement vessel having liquid to be delivered through a pipe via a rectifier provided with a feed tank. A drive unit delivers pressure fluid to a line to raise liquid and compress trapped gas or liquid in the space, including the pipe between the liquids in the two vessels and thus drive liquid out of the displacement vessel. The driving gas is therefore separated by the barrier liquid and the trapped gas or liquid from the liquid to be pumped which liquid could be e.g. radioactive. (author)

  19. Pumped storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, P.L.

    1991-01-01

    The privately financed 1,000 MW Rocky Point Pumped Storage Project located in central Colorado, USA, will be one of the world's highest head, 2,350 feet reversible pump/turbine projects. The project will offer an economical supply of peaking power and spinning reserve power to Colorado and other southwestern states. This paper describes how the project will be made compatible with the environmental conditions in the project area and the type of terrestrial mitigation measures that are being proposed for those situations where the project impacts the environment, either temporarily or permanently

  20. Stochastic tools in turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Lumey, John L

    2012-01-01

    Stochastic Tools in Turbulence discusses the available mathematical tools to describe stochastic vector fields to solve problems related to these fields. The book deals with the needs of turbulence in relation to stochastic vector fields, particularly, on three-dimensional aspects, linear problems, and stochastic model building. The text describes probability distributions and densities, including Lebesgue integration, conditional probabilities, conditional expectations, statistical independence, lack of correlation. The book also explains the significance of the moments, the properties of the

  1. Closed-form analytical solutions incorporating pumping and tidal effects in various coastal aquifer systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chaoyue; Li, Hailong; Wan, Li; Wang, Xusheng; Jiang, Xiaowei

    2014-07-01

    Pumping wells are common in coastal aquifers affected by tides. Here we present analytical solutions of groundwater table or head variations during a constant rate pumping from a single, fully-penetrating well in coastal aquifer systems comprising an unconfined aquifer, a confined aquifer and semi-permeable layer between them. The unconfined aquifer terminates at the coastline (or river bank) and the other two layers extend under tidal water (sea or tidal river) for a certain distance L. Analytical solutions are derived for 11 reasonable combinations of different situations of the L-value (zero, finite, and infinite), of the middle layer's permeability (semi-permeable and impermeable), of the boundary condition at the aquifer's submarine terminal (Dirichlet describing direct connection with seawater and no-flow describing the existence of an impermeable capping), and of the tidal water body (sea and tidal river). Solutions are discussed with application examples in fitting field observations and parameter estimations.

  2. Secondary seal effects in hydrostatic non-contact seals for reactor coolant pump shaft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, T.; Koga, T.; Tanoue, H.; Hirabayashi, H.

    1987-01-01

    The paper presents a seal flow analysis in a hydrostatic non-contact seal for a PWR coolant pump shaft. A description is given of the non-contact seal for the reactor coolant pump. Results are presented for a distortion analysis of the seal ring, along with the seal flow characteristics and the contact pressure profiles of the secondary seals. The results of the work confirm previously reported findings that the seal ring distortion is sensitive to the o-ring location (which was placed between the ceramic seal face and the seal ring retainer). The paper concludes that the seal flow characteristics and the tracking performance depend upon the dynamic properties of the secondary seal. (U.K.)

  3. Study of blasting seismic effects of underground powerhouse of pumped storage project in granite condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Sheng; Li, Hui

    2018-03-01

    Though the test of blasting vibration, the blasting seismic wave propagation laws in southern granite pumped storage power project are studied. Attenuation coefficient of seismic wave and factors coefficient are acquired by the method of least squares regression analysis according to Sadaovsky empirical formula, and the empirical formula of seismic wave is obtained. This paper mainly discusses on the test of blasting vibration and the procedure of calculation. Our practice might as well serve as a reference for similar projects to come.

  4. Estimating demographic contributions to effective population size in an age-structured wild population experiencing environmental and demographic stochasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trask, Amanda E; Bignal, Eric M; McCracken, Davy I; Piertney, Stuart B; Reid, Jane M

    2017-09-01

    A population's effective size (N e ) is a key parameter that shapes rates of inbreeding and loss of genetic diversity, thereby influencing evolutionary processes and population viability. However, estimating N e , and identifying key demographic mechanisms that underlie the N e to census population size (N) ratio, remains challenging, especially for small populations with overlapping generations and substantial environmental and demographic stochasticity and hence dynamic age-structure. A sophisticated demographic method of estimating N e /N, which uses Fisher's reproductive value to account for dynamic age-structure, has been formulated. However, this method requires detailed individual- and population-level data on sex- and age-specific reproduction and survival, and has rarely been implemented. Here, we use the reproductive value method and detailed demographic data to estimate N e /N for a small and apparently isolated red-billed chough (Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax) population of high conservation concern. We additionally calculated two single-sample molecular genetic estimates of N e to corroborate the demographic estimate and examine evidence for unobserved immigration and gene flow. The demographic estimate of N e /N was 0.21, reflecting a high total demographic variance (σ2dg) of 0.71. Females and males made similar overall contributions to σ2dg. However, contributions varied among sex-age classes, with greater contributions from 3 year-old females than males, but greater contributions from ≥5 year-old males than females. The demographic estimate of N e was ~30, suggesting that rates of increase of inbreeding and loss of genetic variation per generation will be relatively high. Molecular genetic estimates of N e computed from linkage disequilibrium and approximate Bayesian computation were approximately 50 and 30, respectively, providing no evidence of substantial unobserved immigration which could bias demographic estimates of N e . Our analyses identify

  5. Toward power scaling in an acetylene mid-infrared hollow-core optical fiber gas laser: effects of pressure, fiber length, and pump power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerasinghe, H. W. Kushan; Dadashzadeh, Neda; Thirugnanasambandam, Manasadevi P.; Debord, Benoît.; Chafer, Matthieu; Gérôme, Frédéric; Benabid, Fetah; Corwin, Kristan L.; Washburn, Brian R.

    2018-02-01

    The effect of gas pressure, fiber length, and optical pump power on an acetylene mid-infrared hollow-core optical fiber gas laser (HOFGLAS) is experimentally determined in order to scale the laser to higher powers. The absorbed optical power and threshold power are measured for different pressures providing an optimum pressure for a given fiber length. We observe a linear dependence of both absorbed pump energy and lasing threshold for the acetylene HOFGLAS, while maintaining a good mode quality with an M-squared of 1.15. The threshold and mode behavior are encouraging for scaling to higher pressures and pump powers.

  6. Stochastic calculus in physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, R.F.

    1987-01-01

    The relationship of Ito-Stratonovich stochastic calculus to studies of weakly colored noise is explained. A functional calculus approach is used to obtain an effective Fokker-Planck equation for the weakly colored noise regime. In a smooth limit, this representation produces the Stratonovich version of the Ito-Stratonovich calculus for white noise. It also provides an approach to steady state behavior for strongly colored noise. Numerical simulation algorithms are explored, and a novel suggestion is made for efficient and accurate simulation of white noise equations

  7. Temperature effects on tunable cw Alexandrite lasers under diode end-pumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerridge-Johns, William R; Damzen, Michael J

    2018-03-19

    Diode pumped Alexandrite is a promising route to high power, efficient and inexpensive lasers with a broad (701 nm to 858 nm) gain bandwidth; however, there are challenges with its complex laser dynamics. We present an analytical model applied to experimental red diode end-pumped Alexandrite lasers, which enabled a record 54 % slope efficiency with an output power of 1.2 W. A record lowest lasing wavelength (714 nm) and record tuning range (104 nm) was obtained by optimising the crystal temperature between 8 °C and 105 °C in the vibronic mode. The properties of Alexandrite and the analytical model were examined to understand and give general rules in optimising Alexandrite lasers, along with their fundamental efficiency limits. It was found that the lowest threshold laser wavelength was not necessarily the most efficient, and that higher and lower temperatures were optimal for longer and shorter laser wavelengths, respectively. The pump excited to ground state absorption ratio was measured to decrease from 0.8 to 0.7 by changing the crystal temperature from 10 °C to 90 °C.

  8. Characterization of thyroid hormone effects on Na-K pump and membrane potential of cultured rat skeletal myotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodie, C.; Sampson, S.R.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the effects of thyroid hormone on the Na-K pump and resting membrane potential (EM) of rat skeletal myotubes in culture. Myotubes were obtained from fetal (19-21 day) or neonatal rats (1-2 day) by serial trypsinization and maintained in culture for up to 10 days. Cells were treated with T4 or T3 on day 6 or 7, and measurements were made of EM, [ 3 H]ouabain binding, and ouabain-sensitive 86 Rb uptake at various times thereafter. Hormone treatment increased the values of all three variables within 24 h, plateau levels being attained by 48-72 h. Cycloheximide and actinomycin D totally blocked the effects of thyroid hormone when added together to the cells, thus suggesting that protein synthesis is necessary for the effects of these hormones. Scatchard analysis showed that the new receptors have lower ouabain affinity than those in control. Blockade of spontaneously occurring action potentials with tetrodotoxin, which blocks voltage-dependent Na channels, or Na/H antiporter with amiloride, abolished the hormone effects seen after 24 h and significantly reduced those obtained after 48 h of hormone treatment. The results demonstrate that thyroid hormone-induced increased amount and activity of the electrogenic Na-K pump in cultured myotubes occurs, at least in part, in response to an initial effect to increase Na influx. Moreover, the findings are consistent with the concept that the Na-K pump plays an important role in regulation of EM in this preparation

  9. Effect of chemical degradation on fluxes of reactive compounds – a study with a stochastic Lagrangian transport model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rinne

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the analyses of VOC fluxes measured above plant canopies, one usually assumes the flux above canopy to equal the exchange at the surface. Thus one assumes the chemical degradation to be much slower than the turbulent transport. We used a stochastic Lagrangian transport model in which the chemical degradation was described as first order decay in order to study the effect of the chemical degradation on above canopy fluxes of chemically reactive species. With the model we explored the sensitivity of the ratio of the above canopy flux to the surface emission on several parameters such as chemical lifetime of the compound, friction velocity, stability, and canopy density. Our results show that friction velocity and chemical lifetime affected the loss during transport the most. The canopy density had a significant effect if the chemically reactive compound was emitted from the forest floor. We used the results of the simulations together with oxidant data measured during HUMPPA-COPEC-2010 campaign at a Scots pine site to estimate the effect of the chemistry on fluxes of three typical biogenic VOCs, isoprene, α-pinene, and β-caryophyllene. Of these, the chemical degradation had a major effect on the fluxes of the most reactive species β-caryophyllene, while the fluxes of α-pinene were affected during nighttime. For these two compounds representing the mono- and sesquiterpenes groups, the effect of chemical degradation had also a significant diurnal cycle with the highest chemical loss at night. The different day and night time loss terms need to be accounted for, when measured fluxes of reactive compounds are used to reveal relations between primary emission and environmental parameters.

  10. Effect of neutrals localized at torus inboard side on the impurity transport in edge stochastic magnetic field layer of LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, S.; Oishi, T.; Kobayashi, M.; Goto, M.; Kawamura, G.; Zhang, H.M.; Hunag, X.L.; Wang, E.H.

    2014-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2-D) distribution of impurity line emissions has been measured in Large Helical Device (LHD) based on the 2-D extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectroscopy for studying the edge impurity transport in stochastic magnetic field layer with three-dimensional (3-D) structure. The impurity behavior in the vicinity of two X-points at inboard and outboard sides of torus becomes separately visible with the 2-D measurement. As a result, it is found that the carbon location changes from inboard to outboard X-points when the plasma axis is shifted from R_a_x=3.6 m to 3.75 m. A 3-D simulation with EMC3-EIRENE code agrees with the result at R_a_x=3.75 m but disagreed with the result at R_a_x=3.60 m. The discrepancy between the measurement and simulation at R_a_x=3.60 m is considerably reduced when the effect of neutral hydrogen localized at the inboard side is taken into account, which can modify the density gradient and friction force along the magnetic field. (author)

  11. On the stochastic stability of MHD equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teichmann, J.

    1979-07-01

    The stochastic stability in the large of stationary equilibria of ideal and dissipative magnetohydrodynamics under the influence of stationary random fluctuations is studied using the direct Liapunov method. Sufficient and necessary conditions for stability of the linearized Euler-Lagrangian systems are given. The destabilizing effect of stochastic fluctuations is demonstrated. (orig.)

  12. Mathematical modelling of nonlinear thermal radiation effects on EMHD peristaltic pumping of viscoelastic dusty fluid through a porous medium duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Bhatti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Biologically-inspired propulsion systems are currently receiving significant interest in the aerospace sector. Since many spacecraft propulsion systems operate at high temperatures, thermal radiation is important as a mode of heat transfer. Motivated by these developments, in the present article, the influence of nonlinear thermal radiation (via the Rosseland diffusion flux model has been studied on the laminar, incompressible, dissipative EMHD (Electro-magneto-hydrodynamic peristaltic propulsive flow of a non-Newtonian (Jefferys viscoelastic dusty fluid containing solid particles through a porous planar channel. The fluid is electrically-conducting and a constant static magnetic field is applied transverse to the flow direction (channel walls. Slip effects are also included. Magnetic induction effects are neglected. The mathematical formulation is based on continuity, momentum and energy equations with appropriate boundary conditions, which are simplified by neglecting the inertial forces and taking the long wavelength and lubrication approximations. The boundary value problem is then rendered non-dimensional with appropriate variables and the resulting system of reduced ordinary differential equations is solved analytically. The impact of various emerging parameters dictating the non-Newtonian propulsive flow i.e. Prandtl number, radiation parameter, Hartmann number, permeability parameter, Eckert number, particle volume fraction, electric field and slip parameter are depicted graphically. Increasing particle volume fraction is observed to suppress temperature magnitudes. Furthermore the computations demonstrate that an increase in particle volume fraction reduces the pumping rate in retrograde pumping region whereas it causes the opposite effect in the co-pumping region. The trapping mechanism is also visualized with the aid of streamline contour plots. Increasing thermal radiation elevates temperatures. Increasing Hartmann (magnetic body

  13. Effects of Dual-Pump Recovery on Crude-Oil Contamination of Groundwater, Bemidji, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delin, G. N.; Herkelrath, W. N.; Lounsbury, S.

    2009-12-01

    In 1979 a crude-oil pipeline ruptured near Bemidji, Minnesota spilling about 1.7 million liters of crude oil onto a glacial-outwash deposit. Initial remediation efforts in 1979-80 removed about 75% of this oil. In 1983 the U.S. Geological Survey and several academic institutions began research to study the fate and transport of the petroleum hydrocarbons in the unsaturated and saturated zones at the site. In 1998 the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) requested that the pipeline company remove as much of the remaining oil as possible. A dual-pump recovery system was installed using five wells to remove the free-phase oil. Each well had an oil skimming pump as well as a deeper pump in the groundwater, which was used to create a cone of depression in the water table near the well. The oil/water mixture from the skimming pump was pumped to a treatment facility where the oil was separated for later removal from the site. Pumped wastewater was injected into an upgradient infiltration gallery. Despite large public and private expenditures on development and implementation of this type of remediation system, few well-documented field-scale case studies have been published. The renewed remediation presented an opportunity to document how the dissolution, biodegradation, vapor transport, and other processes changed as the site transitioned from natural attenuation to a condition of pump-and-treat remediation and back again following termination of the remediation. Impacts of the remediation were evaluated in part using measurements of oil thicknesses in wells, dissolved-oxygen concentrations in groundwater, and concentrations of methane and other gases in the unsaturated zone. The remediation from 1999 - 2004 resulted in removal of about 114,000 liters of crude oil from the site, or about 27% of the total that remained following the initial remediation in 1979-80. Although the renewed remediation decreased oil thicknesses in the immediate vicinity of remediation

  14. LOX/LH2 vane pump for auxiliary propulsion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemminger, J. A.; Ulbricht, T. E.

    1985-01-01

    Positive displacement pumps offer potential efficiency advantages over centrifugal pumps for future low thrust space missions. Low flow rate applications, such as space station auxiliary propulsion or dedicated low thrust orbiter transfer vehicles, are typical of missions where low flow and high head rise challenge centrifugal pumps. The positive displacement vane pump for pumping of LOX and LH2 is investigated. This effort has included: (1) a testing program in which pump performance was investigated for differing pump clearances and for differing pump materials while pumping LN2, LOX, and LH2; and (2) an analysis effort, in which a comprehensive pump performance analysis computer code was developed and exercised. An overview of the theoretical framework of the performance analysis computer code is presented, along with a summary of analysis results. Experimental results are presented for pump operating in liquid nitrogen. Included are data on the effects on pump performance of pump clearance, speed, and pressure rise. Pump suction performance is also presented.

  15. Beam quality improvement by population-dynamic-coupled combined guiding effect in end-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yijie; Gong, Mali; Fu, Xing

    2018-05-01

    Beam quality improvement with pump power increasing in an end-pumped laser oscillator is experimentally realized for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. The phenomenon is caused by the population-dynamic-coupled combined guiding effect, a comprehensive theoretical model of which has been well established, in agreement with the experimental results. Based on an 888 nm in-band dual-end-pumped oscillator using four tandem Nd:YVO4 crystals, the output beam quality of M^2= 1.1/1.1 at the pump power of 25 W is degraded to M^2 = 2.5/1.8 at 75 W pumping and then improved to M^2= 1.8/1.3 at 150 W pumping. The near-TEM_{00} mode is obtained with the highest continuous-wave output power of 72.1 W and the optical-to-optical efficiency of 48.1%. This work demonstrates great potential to further scale the output power of end-pumped laser oscillator while keeping good beam quality.

  16. Revealing Forest Harvesting Effects on Large Peakflows in Rain-On-Snow Environment with a New Stochastic Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, W. N.; Alila, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Using nine pairs of control-treatment watersheds with varying climate, physiography, and harvesting practices in the Rain-On-Snow (ROS) environment of the Pacific Northwest region, we explore the linkage between environmental control and the sensitivity of peakflow response to harvesting effects. Compared to previous paired watershed studies in ROS environment, we employed an experimental design of Frequency Pairing to isolate the effects of disturbances on systems' response. In contrary, the aspect of changing frequency distributions is not commonly invoked in previous literatures on the topic of forests and floods. Our results show how harvesting can dramatically increase the magnitude of all peakflows on record and how such effects can increase with increasing return periods, as a consequence of substantial increases to the mean and variance of the peakflow frequency distribution. Most critically, peakflows with return period larger than 10 years can increase in frequency, where the larger the peakflow event the more frequent it may become. The sensitivity of the upper tail of the frequency distribution of peakflows was found to be linked to the physiographic and climatic characteristics via a unifying synchronization / desynchronization spatial scaling mechanism that controls the generation of rain-on-snow runoff. This new physically-based stochastic hydrology understanding on the response of watersheds in ROS environments runs counter the deterministic prevailing wisdom of forest hydrology, which presumes a limited and diminishing role of forest cover as the magnitude of the peakflow event increases. By demonstrating the need for invoking the dimension of frequency in the understanding and prediction of the effects of harvesting on peakflows, findings from this study suggested that pure deterministic hypotheses and experimental designs that solely focusing on the changing magnitude of peakflows have been misguiding forest hydrology research for over a century

  17. Noncausal stochastic calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Ogawa, Shigeyoshi

    2017-01-01

    This book presents an elementary introduction to the theory of noncausal stochastic calculus that arises as a natural alternative to the standard theory of stochastic calculus founded in 1944 by Professor Kiyoshi Itô. As is generally known, Itô Calculus is essentially based on the "hypothesis of causality", asking random functions to be adapted to a natural filtration generated by Brownian motion or more generally by square integrable martingale. The intention in this book is to establish a stochastic calculus that is free from this "hypothesis of causality". To be more precise, a noncausal theory of stochastic calculus is developed in this book, based on the noncausal integral introduced by the author in 1979. After studying basic properties of the noncausal stochastic integral, various concrete problems of noncausal nature are considered, mostly concerning stochastic functional equations such as SDE, SIE, SPDE, and others, to show not only the necessity of such theory of noncausal stochastic calculus but ...

  18. Effect of formulation- and administration-related variables on deposition pattern of nasal spray pumps evaluated using a nasal cast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundoor, Vipra; Dalby, Richard N

    2011-08-01

    To systematically evaluate the effect of formulation- and administration-related variables on nasal spray deposition using a nasal cast. Deposition pattern was assessed by uniformly coating a transparent nose model with Sar-Gel®, which changes from white to purple on contact with water. Sprays were subsequently discharged into the cast, which was then digitally photographed. Images were quantified using Adobe® Photoshop. The effects of formulation viscosity (which influences droplet size), simulated administration techniques (head orientation, spray administration angle, spray nozzle insertion depth), spray pump design and metering volume on nasal deposition pattern were investigated. There was a significant decrease in the deposition area associated with sprays of increasing viscosity. This appeared to be mediated by an increase in droplet size and a narrowing of the spray plume. Administration techniques and nasal spray pump design also had a significant effect on the deposition pattern. This simple color-based method provides quantitative estimates of the effects that different formulation and administration variables may have on the nasal deposition area, and provides a rational basis on which manufacturers of nasal sprays can base their patient instructions or post approval changes when it is impractical to optimize these using a clinical study.

  19. Investigation into the Effects of the Variable Displacement Mechanism on Swash Plate Oscillation in High-Speed Piston Pumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Fang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available High-speed, pressure-compensated variable displacement piston pumps are widely used in aircraft hydraulic systems for their high power density. The swash plate is controlled by the pressure-compensated valve, which uses pressure feedback so that the instantaneous output flow of the pump is exactly enough to maintain a presetting pressure. The oscillation of the swash plate is one of the major excitation sources in the high-speed piston pump, which may cause lower efficiency, shorter service life, and even serious damage. This paper presents an improved model to investigate the influence of the variable displacement mechanism on the swash plate oscillation and introduces some feasible ways to reduce oscillation of the swash plate. Most of the variable structural parameters of the variable displacement mechanism are taken into consideration, and their influences on swash plate oscillation are discussed in detail. The influence of the load pipe on the oscillation of the swash plate is considered in the improved model. A test rig is built and similarities between the experiments and simulated results prove that the simulation model can effectively predict the variable displacement mechanism state. The simulation results show that increasing the volume of the outlet chamber, the spring stiffness of the control valve, the action area of the actuator piston, and offset distance of the actuator piston can significantly reduce the oscillation amplitude of the swash plate. Furthermore, reducing the diameter of the control valve spool and the dead volume of the actuator piston chamber can also have a positive effect on oscillation amplitude reduction.

  20. Ways of pharmacological prophylaxis of stochastic and deterministic effects of chronical radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirillova, E.N.; Muksinova, K.N.; Revina, V.; Smirnov, D.; Sokolnikov, M.; Lukyanova, T.

    1996-01-01

    The prophylactics of late effects of exposure is the actual medico-social problem, because now there are large groups of persons who were exposed during occupational contact and living on territories contaminated by radionuclides. Most probable consequences of external and internal chronic influence of radiation may be the increase of malignant tumour frequency, the development of secondary myelo- and immuno-depressions, the earlier forming of sclerous and destructive processes, and the acceleration of senescence. The role of damages in immune system was not yet understood in pathogenesis of the late effects of radiation, but there are evidences that the decreasing of the immunologic supervision in period of forming the consequences of radiation influence enables to realize the cancerogenic effect of radiation. The purposes of this investigation are to decrease the frequency or to prevent the development of radiation consequences dangerous for health and life by using the method of modification of radiogenic damages in hemopoietic and immune systems by applying the pharmacological preparations with immunomodulating effects. The investigation tasks include: the study of modifying influence of pharmacological substances with different mechanisms of effect: myelopid (immunomodulating, and regulatory), β-carotin, Calendula officinalis (immunomodulating, and antioxidant), lipamid (detoxicating); the separate or complex applications of these substances; and the development of the optimum medico-prophylactic schemes. The advantages of these indicated preparations in comparison with the known (T-activin, thymogen, cytokines, etc.) are the absence of contraindications and the possibility to use per os. (author)

  1. Theoretical calculations and experimental verification for the pumping effect caused by the dynamic micro-tapered angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yufei; Zhang, Jianhui; Zhu, Chunling; Huang, Jun; Jiang, Feng

    2016-05-01

    The atomizer with micro cone apertures has advantages of ultra-fine atomized droplets, low power consumption and low temperature rise. The current research of this kind of atomizer mainly focuses on the performance and its application while there is less research of the principle of the atomization. Under the analysis of the dispenser and its micro-tapered aperture's deformation, the volume changes during the deformation and vibration of the micro-tapered aperture on the dispenser are calculated by coordinate transformation. Based on the characters of the flow resistance in a cone aperture, it is found that the dynamic cone angle results from periodical changes of the volume of the micro-tapered aperture of the atomizer and this change drives one-way flows. Besides, an experimental atomization platform is established to measure the atomization rates with different resonance frequencies of the cone aperture atomizer. The atomization performances of cone aperture and straight aperture atomizers are also measured. The experimental results show the existence of the pumping effect of the dynamic tapered angle. This effect is usually observed in industries that require low dispersion and micro- and nanoscale grain sizes, such as during production of high-pressure nozzles and inhalation therapy. Strategies to minimize the pumping effect of the dynamic cone angle or improve future designs are important concerns. This research proposes that dynamic micro-tapered angle is an important cause of atomization of the atomizer with micro cone apertures.

  2. Impact of high-frequency pumping on anomalous finite-size effects in three-dimensional topological insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervishko, Anastasiia A.; Yudin, Dmitry; Shelykh, Ivan A.

    2018-02-01

    Lowering of the thickness of a thin-film three-dimensional topological insulator down to a few nanometers results in the gap opening in the spectrum of topologically protected two-dimensional surface states. This phenomenon, which is referred to as the anomalous finite-size effect, originates from hybridization between the states propagating along the opposite boundaries. In this work, we consider a bismuth-based topological insulator and show how the coupling to an intense high-frequency linearly polarized pumping can further be used to manipulate the value of a gap. We address this effect within recently proposed Brillouin-Wigner perturbation theory that allows us to map a time-dependent problem into a stationary one. Our analysis reveals that both the gap and the components of the group velocity of the surface states can be tuned in a controllable fashion by adjusting the intensity of the driving field within an experimentally accessible range and demonstrate the effect of light-induced band inversion in the spectrum of the surface states for high enough values of the pump.

  3. Solar Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pique, Charles

    1987-01-01

    Proposed pump moves liquid by action of bubbles formed by heat of sun. Tube of liquid having boiling point of 100 to 200 degrees F placed at focal axis of cylindrical reflector. Concentrated sunlight boils liquid at focus, and bubbles of vapor rise in tube, carrying liquid along with them. Pressure difference in hot tube sufficient to produce flow in large loop. Used with conventional flat solar heating panel in completely solar-powered heat-storage system.

  4. Waveguiding and mirroring effects in stochastic self-similar and Cantorian ε(∞) universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iovane, G.

    2005-01-01

    A waveguiding effect is considered with respect to the large scale structure of the Universe, where the structures formation appears as if it were a classically self-similar random process at all astrophysical scales. The result is that it seems we live in an El Naschie's ε (∞) Cantorian space-time, where gravitational lensing and waveguiding effects can explain the appearing Universe. In particular, we consider filamentary and planar large scale structures as possible refraction channels for electromagnetic radiation coming from cosmological structures. From this vision the Universe appears like a large self-similar adaptive mirrors set. Consequently, an infinite Universe is just an optical illusion that is produced by mirroring effects connected with the large scale structure of a finite and not so large Universe. Thanks to the presented analytical model supported by a numerical simulation, it is possible to explain the quasar luminosity distribution and the presence of 'twin' or 'brother' objects. More generally, the infinity and the abundance of astrophysical objects could be just a mirroring effect due to the peculiar self-similarity of the Universe

  5. Estimation of stochastic frontier models with fixed-effects through Monte Carlo Maximum Likelihood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emvalomatis, G.; Stefanou, S.E.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Estimation of nonlinear fixed-effects models is plagued by the incidental parameters problem. This paper proposes a procedure for choosing appropriate densities for integrating the incidental parameters from the likelihood function in a general context. The densities are based on priors that are

  6. Baking effect on initial pumping characteristics of oxygen free copper duct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Yasuchika; Yamamoto, Yoshiki; Saito, Yoshio; Matsuda, Namio.

    1994-01-01

    Recently, attention has been paid to the application of oxygen-free copper to the field of vacuum vessels, such as the beam duct material for the B Factory. The initial exhaust characteristics of oxygen-free copper vessels were compared before and after the baking, and the change of the surface condition was examined. The material used for this experiment was the oxygen-free copper, to which vacuum degassing treatment was applied. The vacuum vessels of this oxygen-free copper and SUS316L stainless steel were made. The turbo-molecular pump of 400 liter/min and the scroll pump of 270 liter/min were used, and pressure measurement and the analysis of the components in remaining gas were carried out. The procedure of the experiment is explained. The exhaust curves for the oxygen-free copper and stainless steel vacuum vessels are shown. The time required for reaching 1x10 -6 Pa was about 1/2 after the exposure to nitrogen as compared with after the exposure to air, thus the kinds of gas exerted large influence to the exhaust characteristics. The difference before and after baking arose in most cases. (K.I.)

  7. Baking effect on initial pumping characteristics of oxygen free copper duct

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagai, Yasuchika; Yamamoto, Yoshiki [Hitachi Cable, Ltd., Tsuchiura, Ibaraki (Japan). System' s Material Lab.; Saito, Yoshio; Matsuda, Namio

    1994-03-01

    Recently, attention has been paid to the application of oxygen-free copper to the field of vacuum vessels, such as the beam duct material for the B Factory. The initial exhaust characteristics of oxygen-free copper vessels were compared before and after the baking, and the change of the surface condition was examined. The material used for this experiment was the oxygen-free copper, to which vacuum degassing treatment was applied. The vacuum vessels of this oxygen-free copper and SUS316L stainless steel were made. The turbo-molecular pump of 400 liter/min and the scroll pump of 270 liter/min were used, and pressure measurement and the analysis of the components in remaining gas were carried out. The procedure of the experiment is explained. The exhaust curves for the oxygen-free copper and stainless steel vacuum vessels are shown. The time required for reaching 1x10[sup -6] Pa was about 1/2 after the exposure to nitrogen as compared with after the exposure to air, thus the kinds of gas exerted large influence to the exhaust characteristics. The difference before and after baking arose in most cases. (K.I.).

  8. Perturbation theory from stochastic quantization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueffel, H.

    1984-01-01

    By using a diagrammatical method it is shown that in scalar theories the stochastic quantization method of Parisi and Wu gives the usual perturbation series in Feynman diagrams. It is further explained how to apply the diagrammatical method to gauge theories, discussing the origin of ghost effects. (Author)

  9. Stochastic control of traffic patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaididei, Yuri B.; Gorria, Carlos; Berkemer, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    A stochastic modulation of the safety distance can reduce traffic jams. It is found that the effect of random modulation on congestive flow formation depends on the spatial correlation of the noise. Jam creation is suppressed for highly correlated noise. The results demonstrate the advantage of h...

  10. Stochastic and Chaotic Relaxation Oscillations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grasman, J.; Roerdink, J.B.T.M.

    1988-01-01

    For relaxation oscillators stochastic and chaotic dynamics are investigated. The effect of random perturbations upon the period is computed. For an extended system with additional state variables chaotic behavior can be expected. As an example, the Van der Pol oscillator is changed into a

  11. Stochastic biomathematical models with applications to neuronal modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Batzel, Jerry; Ditlevsen, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    Stochastic biomathematical models are becoming increasingly important as new light is shed on the role of noise in living systems. In certain biological systems, stochastic effects may even enhance a signal, thus providing a biological motivation for the noise observed in living systems. Recent advances in stochastic analysis and increasing computing power facilitate the analysis of more biophysically realistic models, and this book provides researchers in computational neuroscience and stochastic systems with an overview of recent developments. Key concepts are developed in chapters written by experts in their respective fields. Topics include: one-dimensional homogeneous diffusions and their boundary behavior, large deviation theory and its application in stochastic neurobiological models, a review of mathematical methods for stochastic neuronal integrate-and-fire models, stochastic partial differential equation models in neurobiology, and stochastic modeling of spreading cortical depression.

  12. Heat driven pulse pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benner, Steve M (Inventor); Martins, Mario S. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A heat driven pulse pump includes a chamber having an inlet port, an outlet port, two check valves, a wick, and a heater. The chamber may include a plurality of grooves inside wall of the chamber. When heated within the chamber, a liquid to be pumped vaporizes and creates pressure head that expels the liquid through the outlet port. As liquid separating means, the wick, disposed within the chamber, is to allow, when saturated with the liquid, the passage of only liquid being forced by the pressure head in the chamber, preventing the vapor from exiting from the chamber through the outlet port. A plurality of grooves along the inside surface wall of the chamber can sustain the liquid, which is amount enough to produce vapor for the pressure head in the chamber. With only two simple moving parts, two check valves, the heat driven pulse pump can effectively function over the long lifetimes without maintenance or replacement. For continuous flow of the liquid to be pumped a plurality of pumps may be connected in parallel.

  13. Final report on the project research 'stochastic effects of irradiation and risk estimation'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-03-01

    The title project research was carried out through 1983-1987, by three groups for the studies of radiation carcinogenesis, human genetic effects, and radiotoxicology. 8 reports by the first group, 3 by the second, and 6 by the third group are collected in this issue. The contents are as follows. Serial sacrifice study on tumorigenesis in male C57BL/6J mice exposed to gamma-ray or fast neutron radiation; Influence of biological variables on radiation carcinogenesis; Studies on radiation-induced thymic lymphomagenesis; Modifying factors of radiation induced myeloid leukemia of C3H/He mouse; Cell kinetic studies on radiation induced leukemogenesis; Cytogenetical studies on the mechanism of radiation induced neoplasmas; Molecular biological study on genetic stability of the genome; Protein factors regulating proliferation and differentiation of normal and neoplastic cells; Studies on dose-radiation relationships for induction of chromosome abberations in stem-spermatogonia of three crab-eating monkey after low and high dose rate γ-irradiation; Risk estimation of radiation mutagenesis in man by using cultured mammalian cells; Effects of ionizing radiation on male germ cells of crabeating monkey; Movement and metabolism of radioactive particles in the respiratory tract; Studies on dosimetry for internally deposited alpha-emitters; Comparative toxicological studies on the effects of internal exposures; Studies on treatment of alpha-radioactive wastes; Methodological studies on the inhalation of radioactive aerosols; Removal of transuranic elements by DTPA. (A. Y.)

  14. Direct solar-pumped lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. H.; Shiu, Y. J.; Weaver, W. R.

    1980-01-01

    The feasibility of direct solar pumping of an iodine photodissociation laser at lambda = 1.315 microns was investigated. Threshold inversion density and effect of elevated temperature (up to 670 K) on the laser output were measured. These results and the concentration of solar radiation required for the solar pumped iodine laser are discussed.

  15. High-vacuum plasma pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorodnov, A.M.; Minajchev, V.E.; Miroshkin, S.I.

    1980-01-01

    The action of an electric-arc high-vacuum pump intended for evacuating the volumes in which the operation processes are followed by a high gas evolution is considered. The operation of the pump is based on the principle of controlling the getter feed according to the gas load and effect of plasma sorbtion pumping. The pump performances are given. The starting pressure is about 5 Pa, the limiting residual pressure is about 5x10 -6 Pa, the pumping out rate of nitrogen in the pressure range 5x10 -5 -5x10 -3 Pa accounts for about 4000 l/s, the power consumption comes to 6 kW. Analyzing the results of the test operation of the pump, it has been concluded that its principal advantages are the high starting pressure, controlled getter feed rate and possibility of pumping out the gases which are usually pumped out with difficulty. The operation reliability of the pump is defined mainly by reliable operation of the ignition system of the vacuum arc [ru

  16. United States-Russian workshop on the stochastic health effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    In August 1988, two years after the Chernobyle accident, the United States and the Soviet Union signed an agreement to sponsor a Joint coordinating Committee on Civilian Nuclear Reactor Safety, (JCCCNRS). The Soviet Union agreed to provide some information on late effects of radiation exposures and to attempt to add some new insights into low dose and low dose rate radiation consequences. At that time, it had just been revealed that significant radiation exposures had occurred in the South Ural Mountains, associated with the early years of operation of the MAYAK nuclear complex. The need to be able to better predict the long term consequences of overexposures, such as occurred with the Chernobyl accident, was a major factor in organizing this workshop. We decided to invite a small number of experts from the Soviet Union, who had direct knowledge of the situation. A small group of American experts was invited to help in a discussion of the state of knowledge of continual low level exposure. The experts and expertise included: Aspects of bask theoretical radiobiological models, studies on experimental animals exposed to chronic or fractionated external or internal radiation, studies on populations exposed to chronic intake and continual exposures, workers exposed to low or high continual levels of radiation. The intent was to begin a dialog on the issue of a better understanding of the dose rate effect in humans. No detailed conclusions could be reached at this first interaction between out two countries, but a model was prepared which seems to support a range of what are known as low dose and dose rate effectiveness factors. A beginning of an evaluation of the role of radiation dose rate on leukemia risk was also accomplished

  17. Predicting the threshold of pulse-train electrical stimuli using a stochastic auditory nerve model: the effects of stimulus noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yifang; Collins, Leslie M

    2004-04-01

    The incorporation of low levels of noise into an electrical stimulus has been shown to improve auditory thresholds in some human subjects (Zeng et al., 2000). In this paper, thresholds for noise-modulated pulse-train stimuli are predicted utilizing a stochastic neural-behavioral model of ensemble fiber responses to bi-phasic stimuli. The neural refractory effect is described using a Markov model for a noise-free pulse-train stimulus and a closed-form solution for the steady-state neural response is provided. For noise-modulated pulse-train stimuli, a recursive method using the conditional probability is utilized to track the neural responses to each successive pulse. A neural spike count rule has been presented for both threshold and intensity discrimination under the assumption that auditory perception occurs via integration over a relatively long time period (Bruce et al., 1999). An alternative approach originates from the hypothesis of the multilook model (Viemeister and Wakefield, 1991), which argues that auditory perception is based on several shorter time integrations and may suggest an NofM model for prediction of pulse-train threshold. This motivates analyzing the neural response to each individual pulse within a pulse train, which is considered to be the brief look. A logarithmic rule is hypothesized for pulse-train threshold. Predictions from the multilook model are shown to match trends in psychophysical data for noise-free stimuli that are not always matched by the long-time integration rule. Theoretical predictions indicate that threshold decreases as noise variance increases. Theoretical models of the neural response to pulse-train stimuli not only reduce calculational overhead but also facilitate utilization of signal detection theory and are easily extended to multichannel psychophysical tasks.

  18. Finance & Stochastic

    OpenAIRE

    Giandomenico, Rossano

    2014-01-01

    The study analyses quantitative models for financial markets by starting from geometric Brown process and Wiener process by analyzing Ito’s lemma and first passage model. Furthermore, it is analyzed the prices of the options, Vanilla & Exotic, by using the expected value and numerical model with geometric applications. From contingent claim approach ALM strategies are also analyzed so to get the effective duration measure of liabilities by assuming that clients buy options for protection and ...

  19. Investigation of the effect of rollbond evaporator design on the performance of direct expansion heat pump experimentally

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerit, Emine; Erbay, L. Berrin

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of rollbond evaporator design to performance of the DX-SAHP is investigated. • Experiments performed on three identical DX-SAHP systems except evaporator design. • Evaporators’ material is aluminum and R134a is the working fluid. • Empirical correlation derived for system COP in terms of radiation and temperature. • The correlation provides the average deviation of 9% with the experimental data. - Abstract: In this study, the rollbond evaporator design which gives maximum coefficient of performance for the direct expansion solar assisted heat pump (DX-SAHP) water heater is investigated experimentally on the three separate heat pump systems due to the lack of studies on the effect of collector-evaporator design to the system performance. Three DX-SAHP systems are identical except collector-evaporator design. Aluminum is preferred for the evaporator material and R134a as the working fluid. Maximum COP value was obtained as 3.30 for System-1 while COP values for System-2 and System-3 were 3.14 and 2.42 respectively at the same conditions. An empirical correlation which gives the COP value of the System-1, which provides highest COP, with respect to the solar radiation and outdoor temperature of the system has been found using the experimental results obtained during the study. The correlation was found to be in good agreement with the average deviation of 9% with the experimental data

  20. Driving Sodium-Potassium Pumps With An Oscillating Electric Field: Effects On Muscle Recovery In The Human Biceps Brachii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovyn, Matt; Chen, Wei; Lanes, Olivia; Mast, Jason

    2013-03-01

    Dr. Chen has developed a technique called synchronization modulation, which uses an oscillating electric field to increase the rate at which the sodium-potassium pumps in the cell membrane work. Because the sodium-potassium pump is integral in the recovery of skeletal muscle fibers after an action potential, we investigated the effects of applying synchronization modulation to muscles which had already undergone fatigue due to repeated action potentials during exercise. Fatigue was induced in human subjects' biceps brachii through isometric contraction. Surface electromyography measurements of fatigue index were used to quantify how the muscle recovered over the minutes following fatigue, both when synchronization modulation was applied and when it was absent. The preliminary results were inconclusive, but it is hoped that in later work it will be shown that applying synchronization modulation is effective in increasing the rate at which the muscle recovers to its initial state. This would demonstrate not only that synchronization modulation can be successfully applied to human muscle, but also that it has many potential applications in sports medicine and novel disease treatments. Work done as part of an REU program at the University of South Florida

  1. Carbon sheet pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyabu, N.; Sagara, A.; Kawamura, T.; Motojima, O.; Ono, T.

    1993-07-01

    A new hydrogen pumping scheme has been proposed which controls recycling of the particles for significant improvement of the energy confinement in toroidal magnetic fusion devices. In this scheme, a part of the vacuum vessel surface near the divertor is covered with carbon sheets of a large surface area. Before discharge initiation, the sheets are baked up to 700 ∼ 1000degC to remove the previously trapped hydrogen atoms. After being cooled down to below ∼ 200degC, the unsaturated carbon sheets trap high energy charge exchange hydrogen atoms effectively during a discharge and overall pumping efficiency can be as high as ∼ 50 %. (author)

  2. Domain of arbitrary extension and distortion by noise effects in relaxation spectra Τ2 in MRI obtained by stochastic inversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galavis, P.; Martinez, V.; Farias, A.; Rodriguez, S.; Martin, M.; Martin, R.

    1998-01-01

    In this work it is examined about the capacity for managing domains with arbitrary extension, the response noise and the loss of information which has a new high sensibility stochastic inversion method to the Laplace transformation which allows to obtain multi echo in Τ 2 for to characterization of tissues by NMR imaging diagnostic. (Author)

  3. Statistical Inference on Stochastic Dominance Efficiency. Do Omitted Risk Factors Explain the Size and Book-to-Market Effects?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.T. Post (Thierry)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis paper discusses statistical inference on the second-order stochastic dominance (SSD) efficiency of a given portfolio relative to all portfolios formed from a set of assets. We derive the asymptotic sampling distribution of the Post test statistic for SSD efficiency. Unfortunately, a

  4. 'Quantization' of stochastic variables: description and effects on the input noise sources in a BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthey, M.

    1979-01-01

    A set of macrostochastic and discrete variables, with Markovian properties, is used to characterize the state of a BWR, whose input noise sources are of interest. The ratio between the auto-power spectral density (APSD) of the neutron noise fluctuations and the square modulus of the transfer function (SMTF) defines 'the total input noise source' (TINS), the components of which are the different noise source corresponding to the relevant variables. A white contribution to TINS arises from the birth and death processes of neutrons in the reactor and corresponds to a 'shot noise' (SN). Non-white contributions arise from fluctuations of the neutron cross-sections caused by fuel temperature and steam content variations. These terms called 'Flicker noises' (FN) are characterized by cut-off frequencies related to time constants of reactivity feedback effects. The respective magnitudes of the shot and flicker noises depend not only on the frequency, the feedback reactivity coefficients or the power of the reactor, but also on the 'quantization' of the continuous variables introduced such as fuel temperature and steam content. The effects of this last 'quantization' on the shapes of the noise sources and their sum are presented in this paper. (author)

  5. Effects of divertor geometry and pumping on plasma performance on DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, S.L.; Hill, D.N.; Porter, G.D.

    1997-06-01

    This paper reports the status of an ongoing investigation to discern the influence of the divertor and plasma geometry on the confinement of both ELM-free and ELMing discharges in DIII-D. The ultimate goal is to achieve a high-performance core plasma which coexists with an advanced divertor plasma. The divertor plasma must reduce the heat flux to acceptable levels; the current technique disperses the heat flux over a wide area by radiation (a radiative divertor). To date, we have obtained our best performance in double-null (DN) high-triangularity (δ ∼ 0.8) ELM-free discharges. As discussed in detail elsewhere, there are several advantages for both the core and divertor plasma with highly-shaped DN operation. Previous radiative-divertor experiments with D 2 injection in DN high-δ ELMing H-mode have shown that this configuration is more sensitive to gas puffing (τ decreases). Moving the X-point away from the target plate (to ∼15 cm above the plate) decreases this sensitivity. Preliminary measurements also indicate that gas puffing reduces the divertor heat flux but does not reduce the plasma pressure along the field line. The up/down heat flux balance can be varied magnetically (by changing the distance between the separatrices), with a slight magnetic imbalance required to balance the heat flux. The overall mission of the Radiative Divertor Project (RDP) is to install a fully pumped and baffled high-δ DN divertor. To date, however, both the DIII-D divertor diagnostics and pump were optimized for lower single-null (LSN) low-δ (δ∼ 0.4) plasmas, so much of the divertor physics has been performed in LSN; these results are discussed in Section 2. As part of the first phase of the RDP, we have installed a new high-δ USN divertor baffle and pump; these results are discussed in Section 3. Both divertor and core parameters are discussed in each case

  6. A Simulation Study of the Radiation-Induced Bystander Effect: Modeling with Stochastically Defined Signal Reemission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Sasaki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE has been experimentally observed for different types of radiation, cell types, and cell culture conditions. However, the behavior of signal transmission between unirradiated and irradiated cells is not well known. In this study, we have developed a new model for RIBE based on the diffusion of soluble factors in cell cultures using a Monte Carlo technique. The model involves the signal emission probability from bystander cells following Poisson statistics. Simulations with this model show that the spatial configuration of the bystander cells agrees well with that of corresponding experiments, where the optimal emission probability is estimated through a large number of simulation runs. It was suggested that the most likely probability falls within 0.63–0.92 for mean number of the emission signals ranging from 1.0 to 2.5.

  7. Proton pump inhibitors while belonging to the same family of generic drugs show different anti-tumor effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugini, Luana; Federici, Cristina; Borghi, Martina; Azzarito, Tommaso; Marino, Maria Lucia; Cesolini, Albino; Spugnini, Enrico Pierluigi; Fais, Stefano

    2016-08-01

    Tumor acidity represents a major cause of chemoresistance. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) can neutralize tumor acidity, sensitizing cancer cells to chemotherapy. To compare the anti-tumor efficacy of different PPIs in vitro and in vivo. In vitro experiments PPIs anti-tumor efficacy in terms of cell proliferation and cell death/apoptosis/necrosis evaluation were performed. In vivo PPIs efficacy experiments were carried out using melanoma xenograft model in SCID mice. Lansoprazole showed higher anti-tumor effect when compared to the other PPIs. The lansoprazole effect lasted even upon drug removal from the cell culture medium and it was independent from the lipophilicity of the PPIs formulation. These PPIs have shown different anti-tumoral efficacy, and the most effective at low dose was lansoprazole. The possibility to contrast tumor acidity by off-label using PPIs opens a new field of oncology investigation.

  8. Pumping behavior of sputter ion pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, T.S.; McCafferty, D.

    The ultrahigh vacuum requirements of ISABELLE is obtained by distributed pumping stations. Each pumping station consists of 1000 l/s titanium sublimation pump for active gases (N 2 , H 2 , O 2 , CO, etc.), and a 20 l/s sputter ion pump for inert gases (methane, noble gases like He, etc.). The combination of the alarming production rate of methane from titanium sublimation pumps (TSP) and the decreasing pumping speed of sputter ion pumps (SIP) in the ultrahigh vacuum region (UHV) leads us to investigate this problem. In this paper, we first describe the essential physics and chemistry of the SIP in a very clean condition, followed by a discussion of our measuring techniques. Finally measured methane, argon and helium pumping speeds are presented for three different ion pumps in the range of 10 -6 to 10 -11 Torr. The virtues of the best pump are also discussed

  9. Simulation of the effects of seasonally varying pumping on intraborehole flow and the vulnerability of public-supply wells to contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Richard M.; Heywood, Charles E.

    2014-01-01

    Public-supply wells with long screens in alluvial aquifers can produce waters of differing quality from different depths. Seasonal changes in quality are linked to seasonal changes in pumping rates that influence the distribution of flow into the well screens under pumping conditions and the magnitude and direction of intraborehole flow within the wells under ambient conditions. Groundwater flow and transport simulations with MODFLOW and MT3DMS were developed to quantify the effects of changes in average seasonal pumping rates on intraborehole flow and water quality at two long-screened, public-supply wells, in Albuquerque, New Mexico and Modesto, California, where widespread pumping has altered groundwater flow patterns. Simulation results indicate that both wells produce water requiring additional treatment to maintain potable quality in winter when groundwater withdrawals are reduced because less water is derived from parts of the aquifer that contain water requiring less treatment. Simulation results indicate that the water quality at both wells could be improved by increasing average winter-pumping rates to induce more lateral flow from parts of the aquifer that contain better quality water. Arsenic-bearing water produced by the Albuquerque well could be reduced from 55% to 45% by doubling average winter-pumping rate, while nitrate- and uranium-bearing water produced by the Modesto well could be reduced from 95% to 65% by nearly tripling the average winter-pumping rate. Higher average winter-pumping rates would also reduce the volume of intraborehole flow within both wells and prevent the exchange of poor quality water between shallow and deep parts of both aquifers.

  10. Centrifugal blood pump 603

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Centrifugal blood pump 603 pressure obtained for real blood, as shown in figure 6, is a little higher than that for glycerin aqua Solution with the same viscosity as blood. This may indicate the effect of slight non-. Newtonian turbulent flow. The radial whirl motion of the impeller was observed by dual laser position sensors.

  11. Compact and highly efficient laser pump cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jim J.; Bass, Isaac L.; Zapata, Luis E.

    1999-01-01

    A new, compact, side-pumped laser pump cavity design which uses non-conventional optics for injection of laser-diode light into a laser pump chamber includes a plurality of elongated light concentration channels. In one embodiment, the light concentration channels are compound parabolic concentrators (CPC) which have very small exit apertures so that light will not escape from the pumping chamber and will be multiply reflected through the laser rod. This new design effectively traps the pump radiation inside the pump chamber that encloses the laser rod. It enables more uniform laser pumping and highly effective recycle of pump radiation, leading to significantly improved laser performance. This new design also effectively widens the acceptable radiation wavelength of the diodes, resulting in a more reliable laser performance with lower cost.

  12. Spin pumping damping and magnetic proximity effect in Pd and Pt spin-sink layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caminale, M.; Ghosh, A.; Auffret, S.; Ebels, U.; Ollefs, K.; Wilhelm, F.; Rogalev, A.; Bailey, W. E.

    2016-07-01

    We investigated the spin pumping damping contributed by paramagnetic layers (Pd, Pt) in both direct and indirect contact with ferromagnetic Ni81Fe19 films. We find a nearly linear dependence of the interface-related Gilbert damping enhancement Δ α on the heavy-metal spin-sink layer thicknesses tN in direct-contact Ni81Fe19 /(Pd, Pt) junctions, whereas an exponential dependence is observed when Ni81Fe19 and (Pd, Pt) are separated by 3 nm Cu. We attribute the quasilinear thickness dependence to the presence of induced moments in Pt, Pd near the interface with Ni81Fe19 , quantified using x-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements. Our results show that the scattering of pure spin current is configuration-dependent in these systems and cannot be described by a single characteristic length.

  13. Effect of the Zagorsk pumped-storage station on terrestrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mel'nichenko, I.G.; Melikhova, A.G.

    1993-01-01

    The Zagorsk pumped-storage station (ZPSS) is being constructed in a region experiencing considerable technogenic impact. The station is located on the Kun'ya River which is polluted by wastewasters of industrial enterprises and populated areas. The drainage basin of the Kun'ya River has a complex natural and economic structure. This paper examines problems of the volume and quality of runoff arising during operation of the ZPSS using a basin approach. The basin approach to these problems, described here, required the solution of the following priority problems: determination of the landscape structure of the drainage basin; isolation of natural, anthropogenic and technogenic complexes and their relationships; determination of the landscape structure of the water-protection zone; and isolation of elementary drainage basins with apparent channel and groundwater runoff. The analysis of these problems and realization of the basin approach for improving the ecological health of the Kun'ya basin are given here. 2 refs., 2 tabs

  14. Memory effects for a stochastic fractional oscillator in a magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankin, Romi; Laas, Katrin; Laas, Tõnu; Paekivi, Sander

    2018-01-01

    The problem of random motion of harmonically trapped charged particles in a constant external magnetic field is studied. A generalized three-dimensional Langevin equation with a power-law memory kernel is used to model the interaction of Brownian particles with the complex structure of viscoelastic media (e.g., dusty plasmas). The influence of a fluctuating environment is modeled by an additive fractional Gaussian noise. In the long-time limit the exact expressions of the first-order and second-order moments of the fluctuating position for the Brownian particle subjected to an external periodic force in the plane perpendicular to the magnetic field have been calculated. Also, the particle's angular momentum is found. It is shown that an interplay of external periodic forcing, memory, and colored noise can generate a variety of cooperation effects, such as memory-induced sign reversals of the angular momentum, multiresonance versus Larmor frequency, and memory-induced particle confinement in the absence of an external trapping field. Particularly in the case without external trapping, if the memory exponent is lower than a critical value, we find a resonancelike behavior of the anisotropy in the particle position distribution versus the driving frequency, implying that it can be efficiently excited by an oscillating electric field. Similarities and differences between the behaviors of the models with internal and external noises are also discussed.

  15. The pumping of hydrogen and helium by sputter-ion pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, K.M.; Pate, D.J.; Todd, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    The pumping of hydrogen in diode and triode sputter-ion pumps is discussed. The type of cathode material used in these pumps is shown to have a significant impact on the effectiveness with which hydrogen is pumped. Examples of this include data for pumps with aluminum and titanium-alloy cathodes. Diode pumps with aluminum cathodes are shown to be no more effective in the pumping of hydrogen than in the pumping of helium. The use of titanium or titanium alloy anodes is also shown to measurably impact on the speed of these pumps at.very low pressures. This stems from the fact that hydrogen is x10 6 more soluble in titanium than in stainless steel. Hydrogen becomes resident in the anodes because of fast neutral burial. Lastly, quantitative data are given for the He speeds and capacities of both noble and conventional diode and triode pumps. The effectiveness of various pump regeneration procedures, subsequent to the pumping of He, is reported.These included bakeout and N 2 glow discharge cleaning. The comparative desorption of He with the subsequent pumping of N 2 is reported on. The N 2 speed of these pumps was used as the benchmark for defining the size of the pumps vs. their respective He speeds

  16. Elitism and Stochastic Dominance

    OpenAIRE

    Bazen, Stephen; Moyes, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Stochastic dominance has typically been used with a special emphasis on risk and inequality reduction something captured by the concavity of the utility function in the expected utility model. We claim that the applicability of the stochastic dominance approach goes far beyond risk and inequality measurement provided suitable adpations be made. We apply in the paper the stochastic dominance approach to the measurment of elitism which may be considered the opposite of egalitarianism. While the...

  17. Effects of Alternate Leading Edge Cutback on the Space Shuttle Main Engine Low Pressure Fuel Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Andrew; Skelley, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    A higher order cavitation oscillation observed in the SSME low pressure fuel pump has been eliminated in water flow testing of a modified subscale replica of the inducer. The low pressure pump was modified by removing the outboard sections of two opposing blades of the four-bladed inducer, blending the "cutback" regions into the blades at the leading edge and tip, and removing material on the suction sides to decrease the exposed leading edge thickness. The leading edge tips of the cutback blades were moved approximately 25 degrees from their previous locations, thereby increasing one blade to blade spacing, decreasing the second, while simultaneously moving the cutback tips downstream. The test was conducted in MSFC's inducer test loop at scaled operating conditions in degassed and filtered water. In addition to eliminating HOC across the entire scaled operating regime, rotating cavitation was suppressed while the range of both alternate blade and asymmetric cavitation were increased. These latter phenomena, and more significantly, the shifts between these cavitation modes also resulted in significant changes to the head coefficient at low cavitation numbers. Reverse flow was detected at a slightly larger flow coefficient with the cutback inducer and suction capability was reduced by approximately 1 velocity head at and above approximately 90% of the reference flow coefficient. These performance changes along with more intense reverse flow are consistent with poor flow area management and increased incidence in the cutback region. Although the test demonstrated that the inducer modification was successful at eliminating the higher order cavitation across the entire scaled operating regime, different, previously unobserved, cavitation oscillations were introduced and significant performance penalties were imposed.

  18. Singular stochastic differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Cherny, Alexander S

    2005-01-01

    The authors introduce, in this research monograph on stochastic differential equations, a class of points termed isolated singular points. Stochastic differential equations possessing such points (called singular stochastic differential equations here) arise often in theory and in applications. However, known conditions for the existence and uniqueness of a solution typically fail for such equations. The book concentrates on the study of the existence, the uniqueness, and, what is most important, on the qualitative behaviour of solutions of singular stochastic differential equations. This is done by providing a qualitative classification of isolated singular points, into 48 possible types.

  19. Measurement of fluid film thickness on the valve plate in oil hydraulic axial piston pumps (I): bearing pad effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Ki; Jung, Jae Youn

    2003-01-01

    The tribological mechanism between the valve plate and the cylinder block in oil hydraulic axial piston pumps plays an important role on high power density. In this study, the fluid film thickness between the valve plate and the cylinder block was measured with discharge pressure and rotational speed by use of a gap sensor, and a slip ring system in the operating period. To investigate the effect of the valve plate shapes, we designed two valve plates with different shapes: the first valve plate was without a bearing pad, while the second valve plate had a bearing pad. It was found that both valve plates behaved differently with respect to the fluid film thickness characteristics. The leakage flow rates and the shaft torque were also experimented in order to clarify the performance difference between the valve plate without a bearing pad and the valve plate with a bearing pad. From the results of this study, we found out that in the oil hydraulic axial piston pumps, the valve plate with a bearing pad showed better film thickness contours than the valve plate without a bearing pad

  20. Stochastic phenomena in a fiber Raman amplifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalashnikov, Vladimir [Aston Institute of Photonic Technologies, Aston University, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Institute of Photonics, Vienna University of Technology (Austria); Sergeyev, Sergey V. [Aston Institute of Photonic Technologies, Aston University, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Ania-Castanon, Juan Diego [Instituto de Optica CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Jacobsen, Gunnar [Acreo, Kista (Sweden); Popov, Sergei [Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm (Sweden)

    2017-01-15

    The interplay of such cornerstones of modern nonlinear fiber optics as a nonlinearity, stochasticity and polarization leads to variety of the noise induced instabilities including polarization attraction and escape phenomena harnessing of which is a key to unlocking the fiber optic systems specifications required in high resolution spectroscopy, metrology, biomedicine and telecommunications. Here, by using direct stochastic modeling, the mapping of interplay of the Raman scattering-based nonlinearity, the random birefringence of a fiber, and the pump-to-signal intensity noise transfer has been done in terms of the fiber Raman amplifier parameters, namely polarization mode dispersion, the relative intensity noise of the pump laser, fiber length, and the signal power. The obtained results reveal conditions for emergence of the random birefringence-induced resonance-like enhancement of the gain fluctuations (stochastic anti-resonance) accompanied by pulse broadening and rare events in the form of low power output signals having probability heavily deviated from the Gaussian distribution. (copyright 2016 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Effect of intra-aortic balloon pump on coronary blood flow during different balloon cycles support: A computer study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aye, Thin Pa Pa; Htet, Zwe Lin; Singhavilai, Thamvarit; Naiyanetr, Phornphop

    2015-01-01

    Intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) has been used in clinical treatment as a mechanical circulatory support device for patients with heart failure. A computer model is used to study the effect on coronary blood flow (CBF) with different balloon cycles under both normal and pathological conditions. The model of cardiovascular and IABP is developed by using MATLAB SIMULINK. The effect on coronary blood flow has been studied under both normal and pathological conditions using different balloon cycles (balloon off; 1:4; 1:2; 1:1). A pathological heart is implemented by reducing the left ventricular contractility. The result of this study shows that the rate of balloon cycles is related to the level of coronary blood flow.

  2. Fluid-structure coupling effects on periodically transient flow of a single-blade sewage centrifugal pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei, Ji; Yuan, Shouqi; Yuan, Jianping

    2013-01-01

    A partitioned fluid-structure interaction (FSI) solving strategy that depends on problem characteristics is applied to quantitatively obtain the coupling effects of a fluid-structure system in a single-blade centrifugal pump on the unsteady flow. A two-way coupling method is employed to realize strong FSI effects in the calculation procedure. The successful impeller oscillation measurement using two proximity sensors validated the FSI simulation accuracy in a complicated and practical fluid-structure system having a rotating component. The results show that the hydrodynamic force deviation can be observed in the results for the coupled versus uncoupled cases. Additionally, the coupled unsteady pressure is larger than the uncoupled value for every monitoring point at every impeller rotation position. Comparison results for different monitoring points under an overload condition and partial-load condition display the same regularities. To some extent, this interaction mechanism would affect the accuracy and reliability of the unsteady flow and rotor deflection analysis.

  3. Stochastic synchronization of coupled neural networks with intermittent control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xinsong; Cao Jinde

    2009-01-01

    In this Letter, we study the exponential stochastic synchronization problem for coupled neural networks with stochastic noise perturbations. Based on Lyapunov stability theory, inequality techniques, the properties of Weiner process, and adding different intermittent controllers, several sufficient conditions are obtained to ensure exponential stochastic synchronization of coupled neural networks with or without coupling delays under stochastic perturbations. These stochastic synchronization criteria are expressed in terms of several lower-dimensional linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) and can be easily verified. Moreover, the results of this Letter are applicable to both directed and undirected weighted networks. A numerical example and its simulations are offered to show the effectiveness of our new results.

  4. The intrinsic stochasticity of near-integrable Hamiltonian systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krlin, L [Ceskoslovenska Akademie Ved, Prague (Czechoslovakia). Ustav Fyziky Plazmatu

    1989-09-01

    Under certain conditions, the dynamics of near-integrable Hamiltonian systems appears to be stochastic. This stochasticity (intrinsic stochasticity, or deterministic chaos) is closely related to the Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser (KAM) theorem of the stability of near-integrable multiperiodic Hamiltonian systems. The effect of the intrinsic stochasticity attracts still growing attention both in theory and in various applications in contemporary physics. The paper discusses the relation of the intrinsic stochasticity to the modern ergodic theory and to the KAM theorem, and describes some numerical experiments on related astrophysical and high-temperature plasma problems. Some open questions are mentioned in conclusion. (author).

  5. Pump characteristics and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Volk, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Providing a wealth of information on pumps and pump systems, Pump Characteristics and Applications, Third Edition details how pump equipment is selected, sized, operated, maintained, and repaired. The book identifies the key components of pumps and pump accessories, introduces the basics of pump and system hydraulics as well as more advanced hydraulic topics, and details various pump types, as well as special materials on seals, motors, variable frequency drives, and other pump-related subjects. It uses example problems throughout the text, reinforcing the practical application of the formulae

  6. Field testing the effectiveness of pumping to remove sulfur hexafluoride traced drilling air from a prototype borehole near superior, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, C.A.; Striffler, P.; Yang, I.C.; Ferarese, J.

    1993-01-01

    The US Geological Survey (USGS), Department of the Interior is conducting studies at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, to provide hydrologic, hydrochemical, and geologic information to evaluate the suitability of Yucca Mountain for development as a high-level nuclear-waste repository. The USGS unsaturated-zone hydrochemistry study involves the collection of gas and water samples from the unsaturated zone for chemical and isotopic analyses. Results from these analyses will aid in the understanding of the movement of gas and water in the rock units at Yucca Mountain. A prototype borehole designated USW UZP5 was drilled by the US Department of Energy, Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Office (DOE, YMSCPO) in June 1990 in the Apache Leap Tuff of southcentral Arizona. The hole was dry drilled with air using sulfur hexafluoride (SF 6 ) as a tracer. This drilling method simulated that which will be used to drill boreholes for the collection of gas and water samples at Yucca Mountain. The purpose of tracing the drilling air is to quantify its removal by pumping, prior to sampling of in situ gases. The objectives of our work in Arizona were to: (1) Determine the amount of time and the pumping rates required to remove the SF 6 -enriched drilling air without inducing additional atmospheric contamination; (2) collect core samples for uniaxial compression to determine the amount of SF 6 gas that penetrated the core during drilling; (3) test the effectiveness of the SF 6 injection and sampling system; (4) test the installation and effectiveness of the prototype packer system; and (5) test the effectiveness of several core sealing methods. 1 fig., 1 tab

  7. Characteristic effects of stochastic oscillatory forcing on neural firing: analytical theory and comparison to paddlefish electroreceptor data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauermeister, Christoph; Schwalger, Tilo; Russell, David F; Neiman, Alexander B; Lindner, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Stochastic signals with pronounced oscillatory components are frequently encountered in neural systems. Input currents to a neuron in the form of stochastic oscillations could be of exogenous origin, e.g. sensory input or synaptic input from a network rhythm. They shape spike firing statistics in a characteristic way, which we explore theoretically in this report. We consider a perfect integrate-and-fire neuron that is stimulated by a constant base current (to drive regular spontaneous firing), along with Gaussian narrow-band noise (a simple example of stochastic oscillations), and a broadband noise. We derive expressions for the nth-order interval distribution, its variance, and the serial correlation coefficients of the interspike intervals (ISIs) and confirm these analytical results by computer simulations. The theory is then applied to experimental data from electroreceptors of paddlefish, which have two distinct types of internal noisy oscillators, one forcing the other. The theory provides an analytical description of their afferent spiking statistics during spontaneous firing, and replicates a pronounced dependence of ISI serial correlation coefficients on the relative frequency of the driving oscillations, and furthermore allows extraction of certain parameters of the intrinsic oscillators embedded in these electroreceptors.

  8. Review of magnetohydrodynamic pump applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.M. Al-Habahbeh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD principle is an important interdisciplinary field. One of the most important applications of this effect is pumping of materials that are hard to pump using conventional pumps. In this work, the progress achieved in this field is surveyed and organized according to the type of application. The literature of the past 27 years is searched for the major developments of MHD applications. MHD seawater thrusters are promising for a variety of applications requiring high flow rates and velocity. MHD molten metal pump is important replacement to conventional pumps because their moving parts cannot stand the molten metal temperature. MHD molten salt pump is used for nuclear reactor coolants due to its no-moving-parts feature. Nanofluid MHD pumping is a promising technology especially for bioapplications. Advantages of MHD include silence due to no-moving-parts propulsion. Much progress has been made, but with MHD pump still not suitable for wider applications, this remains a fertile area for future research.

  9. Stochastic analytic regularization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfaro, J.

    1984-07-01

    Stochastic regularization is reexamined, pointing out a restriction on its use due to a new type of divergence which is not present in the unregulated theory. Furthermore, we introduce a new form of stochastic regularization which permits the use of a minimal subtraction scheme to define the renormalized Green functions. (author)

  10. Instantaneous stochastic perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lüscher, Martin

    2015-01-01

    A form of stochastic perturbation theory is described, where the representative stochastic fields are generated instantaneously rather than through a Markov process. The correctness of the procedure is established to all orders of the expansion and for a wide class of field theories that includes all common formulations of lattice QCD.

  11. Stochastic climate theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gottwald, G.A.; Crommelin, D.T.; Franzke, C.L.E.; Franzke, C.L.E.; O'Kane, T.J.

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter we review stochastic modelling methods in climate science. First we provide a conceptual framework for stochastic modelling of deterministic dynamical systems based on the Mori-Zwanzig formalism. The Mori-Zwanzig equations contain a Markov term, a memory term and a term suggestive of

  12. On Stochastic Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Joerg M.

    2018-01-01

    The contrary of stochastic independence splits up into two cases: pairs of events being favourable or being unfavourable. Examples show that both notions have quite unexpected properties, some of them being opposite to intuition. For example, transitivity does not hold. Stochastic dependence is also useful to explain cases of Simpson's paradox.

  13. Effects of dexmedetomidine on heart arrhythmia prevention in off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery: A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Ghasem; Jahanbakhsh, Saeed; Tashnizi, Mohammad Abbasi; Fathi, Mehdi; Amini, Shahram; Zirak, Nahid; Sheybani, Shima

    2017-10-01

    Arrhythmia occurring during and after surgery is one of the major complications in open-heart surgery. Dexmedetomidine is an intravenous alpha-2 agonist and very specific short-acting drug to protect the various organs against ischemic injuries and blood reflow. However, the effect of dexmedetomidine for preventing intraoperative heart arrhythmias has not been recognized. This study aimed to determine the effect of dexmedetomidine on the incidence rate of heart arrhythmias and anesthetic required in off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery. This randomized clinical trial was conducted on patients who were candidates for off-pump coronary artery bypass referring to Imam Reza Hospital of Mashhad, Iran, from July 2016 through January 2017. The patients were randomly assigned to two groups of intervention (infusion of 0.5 mcg/kg/h dexmedetomidine together with induction followed by infusion of 0.5 mcg/kg/h by the end of the surgery) or control (saline infusion). Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were measured before induction, during surgery operation and ICU admission. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 18 using Chi Square and independent-samples t-test. A total of 76 patients with a mean age of 59.8 ± 8.2 years (in two groups of 38) were studied. The two groups had no statistically significant difference in terms of background variables. The MAP and HR values before induction, during surgery and ICU admission were significantly higher in the control group than in the intervention group (p=0.001). Out of the studied arrhythmias, the values of PAC (55.2% vs. 15.7%), PVC (81.5% vs. 21.0%), AF (26.3% vs. 7.8%), VTAC (21.0% vs. 2.6%) were significantly lower in dexmedetomidine group (p=0.001). It seems that dexmedetomidine administration during induction and surgery can cause significant reduction in most of the common arrhythmias in off-pump coronary bypass surgery. The use of dexmedetomidine maintains MAP and HR at significantly lower values, and changes

  14. Stochastic quantization and gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumpf, H.

    1984-01-01

    We give a preliminary account of the application of stochastic quantization to the gravitational field. We start in Section I from Nelson's formulation of quantum mechanics as Newtonian stochastic mechanics and only then introduce the Parisi-Wu stochastic quantization scheme on which all the later discussion will be based. In Section II we present a generalization of the scheme that is applicable to fields in physical (i.e. Lorentzian) space-time and treat the free linearized gravitational field in this manner. The most remarkable result of this is the noncausal propagation of conformal gravitons. Moreover the concept of stochastic gauge-fixing is introduced and a complete discussion of all the covariant gauges is given. A special symmetry relating two classes of covariant gauges is exhibited. Finally Section III contains some preliminary remarks on full nonlinear gravity. In particular we argue that in contrast to gauge fields the stochastic gravitational field cannot be transformed to a Gaussian process. (Author)

  15. Stochastic neuron models

    CERN Document Server

    Greenwood, Priscilla E

    2016-01-01

    This book describes a large number of open problems in the theory of stochastic neural systems, with the aim of enticing probabilists to work on them. This includes problems arising from stochastic models of individual neurons as well as those arising from stochastic models of the activities of small and large networks of interconnected neurons. The necessary neuroscience background to these problems is outlined within the text, so readers can grasp the context in which they arise. This book will be useful for graduate students and instructors providing material and references for applying probability to stochastic neuron modeling. Methods and results are presented, but the emphasis is on questions where additional stochastic analysis may contribute neuroscience insight. An extensive bibliography is included. Dr. Priscilla E. Greenwood is a Professor Emerita in the Department of Mathematics at the University of British Columbia. Dr. Lawrence M. Ward is a Professor in the Department of Psychology and the Brain...

  16. Asymptotic analysis for functional stochastic differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Bao, Jianhai; Yuan, Chenggui

    2016-01-01

    This brief treats dynamical systems that involve delays and random disturbances. The study is motivated by a wide variety of systems in real life in which random noise has to be taken into consideration and the effect of delays cannot be ignored. Concentrating on such systems that are described by functional stochastic differential equations, this work focuses on the study of large time behavior, in particular, ergodicity. This brief is written for probabilists, applied mathematicians, engineers, and scientists who need to use delay systems and functional stochastic differential equations in their work. Selected topics from the brief can also be used in a graduate level topics course in probability and stochastic processes.

  17. The effect of endoscopic fundoplication and proton pump inhibitors on baseline impedance and heartburn severity in GERD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinsma, N F; Farré, R; Bouvy, N D; Masclee, A A M; Conchillo, J M

    2015-02-01

    Antireflux therapy may lead to recovery of impaired mucosal integrity in gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) patients as reflected by an increase in baseline impedance. The study objective was to evaluate the effect of endoscopic fundoplication and proton pump inhibitor (PPI) PPI therapy on baseline impedance and heartburn severity in GERD patients. Forty-seven GERD patients randomized to endoscopic fundoplication (n = 32) or PPI therapy (n = 15), and 29 healthy controls were included. Before randomization and 6 months after treatment, baseline impedance was obtained during 24-h pH-impedance monitoring. Heartburn severity was evaluated using the GERD-HRQL questionnaire. Before treatment, baseline impedance in GERD patients was lower than in healthy controls (p heartburn severity indicates that other factors may contribute to heartburn perception in GERD. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. The effect of heat exchanger parameters on performance predictions for nonazeotropic refrigerant mixtures in liquid-liquid heat pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanger, S.; Den Braven, K.R.; Owre, T.A.S.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of constant heat exchanger area on the coefficient of performance (COP) for liquid-liquid heat pumps were analyzed for systems which use nonazeotropic mixtures as the working fluid. For this analysis, two different computer models were compared. In the first, the log mean temperature differences (LMTDs) through the heat exchangers were specified, and were held constant for all refrigerant compositions. The second method was constructed so that the heat exchanger UA product was held constant, thus approximating constant heat exchanger area over a range of refrigerant compositions. Results from these models show only a one percent difference in COP prediction between holding LMTD constant and holding UA constant over the range of mixture composition. This paper reports the models compared using mixtures of R-22/R-11 and R-22/R-114. It is also shown that changes in glide and lift temperatures have little influence on the differences between the two models

  19. Internal pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushima, Jun; Hayashi, Youjiro; Ueda, Masayuki.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention relates to an internal pump. A water hole allowing communication between internal and external circumferences of a stretch tube is provided at the portion of the stretch tube corresponding to a position where an end face of a nozzle portion of a motor case and an end face of a diffuser are joined with each other so that hot filtered water inside a pressure container which has entered from where the end face of the nozzle portion of the motor case and the end face of the diffuser are joined with each other is combined with the purged water so that it can be sent back to the pressure container again. (author) figs

  20. Sequential compression pump effect on hypotension due to spinal anesthesia for cesarean section: A double blind clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadeh, Fatemeh Javaherforoosh; Alqozat, Mostafa; Zadeh, Reza Akhond

    2017-01-01

    Background Spinal anesthesia (SA) is a standard technique for cesarean section. Hypotension presents an incident of 80–85% after SA in pregnant women. Objective To determine the effect of intermittent pneumatic compression of lower limbs on declining spinal anesthesia induced hypotension during cesarean section. Methods This double-blind clinical prospective study was conducted on 76 non-laboring parturient patients, aged 18–45 years, with the American Society of Anesthesiologist physical status I or II who were scheduled for elective cesarean section at Razi Hospital, Ahvaz, Iran from December 21, 2015 to January 20, 2016. Patients were divided into treatment mechanical pump (Group M) or control group (Group C) with simple random sampling. Fetal presentation, birth weight, Apgar at 1 and 5 min, time taken for pre-hydration (min), pre-hydration to the administration of spinal anesthesia (min), initiation of spinal to the delivery (min) and total volume of intravenous fluids, total dose of ephedrine and metoclopramide were recorded. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 19, using repeated measures of ANOVA and Chi square test. Results Heart rate, MPA, DAP and SAP changes were significantly higher in off-pump group in the baseline and 1st-minute (p<0.05), and in the other times, this change was significantly different with control groups. Conclusion This research showed the suitability of the use of Sequential Compression Device (SCD) in reducing hypotension after spinal anesthesia for cesarean section, also this method can cause reducing vasopressor dosage for increased blood pressure, but the approval of its effectiveness requires repetition of the study with a larger sample size. Trial registration The trial was registered at the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (http://www.irct.ir) with the IRCT ID: IRCT2015011217742N3. Funding The authors received no financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article. PMID:28713516