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Sample records for stirling convertor superalloy

  1. Advanced Stirling Convertor Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, J. Gary; Carroll, Cliff; Matejczyk, Dan; Penswick, L. B.; Soendker, E.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on the 88 We Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC) currently being developed under Phase II of a NASA NRA program for possible use in advanced high specific power radioisotope space power systems. An early developmental unit, the Frequency Test Bed (FTB) which was built and tested in Phase I demonstrated 36% efficiency. The ASC-1 currently being developed under Phase II, uses a high temperature heater head to allow for operation at 850 °C and is expected to have an efficiency approaching 40% (based on AC electrical out) at a temperature ratio of 3.1. The final lightweight ASC-2 convertor to be developed in Phase III is expected to have a mass of approximately 1 kg. The implementation of the ASC would allow for much higher specific power radioisotope power systems, requiring significantly less radioisotope fuel than current systems. The first run of the ASC-1 occurred in September 2005, and full temperature operation was achieved in early October 2005. Presented is an update on progress on the ASC program as well as the plans for future development. Also presented are efforts being performed to ensure the ASC has the required long life already demonstrated in free-piston Stirling cryocoolers.

  2. Advanced Stirling Convertor Testing at GRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schifer, Nick; Oriti, Salvatore M.

    2013-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has been supporting development of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) since 2006. A key element of the ASRG project is providing life, reliability, and performance testing of the Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC). The latest version of the ASC, deemed ASC-E3, is of a design identical to the forthcoming flight convertors. The first pair of ASC-E3 units was delivered in December 2012. GRC has begun the process of adding these units to the catalog of ongoing Stirling convertor operation. This process includes performance verification, which examines the data from various tests to validate the convertors performance to the product specification.

  3. Stirling convertor performance mapping test results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Songgang; Peterson, Allen A.; White, Maurice A.; Faultersack, Franklyn; Redinger, Darin L.; Petersen, Stephen L.

    2002-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has selected Free-Piston Stirling Convertors as a technology for future advanced radioisotope space power systems. In August 2000, DOE awarded competitive Phase I, Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG) power system integration contracts to three major aerospace contractors, resulting in SRG conceptual designs in February 2001. All three contractors based their designs on the Technology Demonstration Convertor (TDC) developed by Stirling Technology Company (STC) for DOE. The contract award to a single system integration contractor for Phases II and III of the SRG program is anticipated in late 2001. The first potential SRG mission is targeted for a Mars rover. Recent TDC performance data are provided in this paper, together with predictions from Stirling simulation models. .

  4. Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC) Technology Maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wayne A.; Wilson, Scott; Collins, Josh; Wilson, Kyle

    2016-01-01

    The Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC) development effort was initiated by NASA Glenn Research Center with contractor Sunpower, Inc., to develop high-efficiency thermal-to-electric power conversion technology for NASA Radioisotope Power Systems (RPSs). Early successful performance demonstrations led to the expansion of the project as well as adoption of the technology by the Department of Energy (DOE) and system integration contractor Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company as part of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) flight project. The ASRG integrates a pair of ASCs to convert the heat from a pair of General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules into electrical power. The expanded NASA ASC effort included development of several generations of ASC prototypes or engineering units to help prepare the ASC technology and Sunpower for flight implementation. Sunpower later had two parallel contracts allowing the last of the NASA engineering units called ASC-E3 to serve as pathfinders for the ASC-F flight convertors being built for DOE. The ASC-E3 convertors utilized the ASC-F flight specifications and were built using the ASC-F design and process documentation. Shortly after the first ASC-F pair achieved initial operation, due to budget constraints, the DOE ASRG flight development contract was terminated. NASA continues to invest in the development of Stirling RPS technology including continued production of the ASC-E3 convertors, seven of which have been delivered with one additional unit in production. Starting in fiscal year 2015, Stirling Convertor Technology Maturation has been reorganized as an element of the RPS Stirling Cycle Technology Development (SCTD) Project and long-term plans for continued Stirling technology advancement are in reformulation. This paper provides a status on the ASC project, an overview of advancements made in the design and production of the ASC at Sunpower, and a summary of acceptance tests, reliability tests, and tactical

  5. Structural Benchmark Testing for Stirling Convertor Heater Heads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, David L.; Kalluri, Sreeramesh; Bowman, Randy R.

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has identified high efficiency Stirling technology for potential use on long duration Space Science missions such as Mars rovers, deep space missions, and lunar applications. For the long life times required, a structurally significant design limit for the Stirling convertor heater head is creep deformation induced even under relatively low stress levels at high material temperatures. Conventional investigations of creep behavior adequately rely on experimental results from uniaxial creep specimens, and much creep data is available for the proposed Inconel-718 (IN-718) and MarM-247 nickel-based superalloy materials of construction. However, very little experimental creep information is available that directly applies to the atypical thin walls, the specific microstructures, and the low stress levels. In addition, the geometry and loading conditions apply multiaxial stress states on the heater head components, far from the conditions of uniaxial testing. For these reasons, experimental benchmark testing is underway to aid in accurately assessing the durability of Stirling heater heads. The investigation supplements uniaxial creep testing with pneumatic testing of heater head test articles at elevated temperatures and with stress levels ranging from one to seven times design stresses. This paper presents experimental methods, results, post-test microstructural analyses, and conclusions for both accelerated and non-accelerated tests. The Stirling projects use the results to calibrate deterministic and probabilistic analytical creep models of the heater heads to predict their life times.

  6. New 5 Kilowatt Free-piston Stirling Space Convertor Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandhorst, Henry W., Jr.; Chapman, Peter A., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Vision for Exploration of the moon may someday require a nuclear reactor coupled with a free-piston Stirling convertor at a power level of 30-40 kW. In the 1990s, Mechanical Technology Inc. s Stirling Engine Systems Division (some of whose Stirling personnel are now at Foster-Miller, Inc.) developed a 25 kW free piston Stirling Space Power Demonstrator Engine under the SP-100 program. This system consisted of two 12.5 kW engines connected at their hot ends and mounted in tandem to cancel vibration. Recently, NASA and DoE have been developing dual 55 W and 80 W Stirling convertor systems for potential use with radioisotope heat sources. Total test times of all convertors in this effort exceed 120,000 hours. Recently, NASA began a new project with Auburn University to develop a 5 kW, single convertor for potential use in a lunar surface reactor power system. Goals of this development program include a specific power in excess of 140 W/kg at the convertor level, lifetime in excess of five years and a control system that will safely manage the convertors in case of an emergency. Auburn University awarded a subcontract to Foster-Miller, Inc. to undertake development of the 5 kW Stirling Convertor Assembly. The characteristics of the design along with progress in developing the system will be described.

  7. Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC-E2) Characterization Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Zachary D.; Oriti, Salvatore M.

    2012-01-01

    Testing has been conducted on Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASCs)-E2 at NASA Glenn Research Center in support of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) project. This testing has been conducted to understand sensitivities of convertor parameters due to environmental and operational changes during operation of the ASRG in missions to space. This paper summarizes test results and explains the operation of the ASRG during space missions

  8. Assessment of the Free-piston Stirling Convertor as a Long Life Power Convertor for Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Jeffrey G.

    2001-01-01

    There is currently a renewed interest in the use of free-piston Stirling power convertors for space power applications. More specifically, the Stirling convertor is being developed to be part of the Stirling Radioisotope Power System to supply electric power to spacecraft for NASA deep space science missions. The current development effort involves the Department of Energy, Germantown, MD, the NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, OH, and the Stirling Technology Company, Kennewick, WA. The Stirling convertor will absorb heat supplied from the decay of plutonium dioxide contained in the General Purpose Heat Source modules and convert it into electricity to power the spacecraft. For many years the "potentials" of the free-piston Stirling convertor have been publicized by it's developers. Among these "potentials" were long life and high reliability. This paper will present an overview of the critical areas that enable long life of the free-piston Stirling power convertor, and present some of the techniques that have been used when long life has been achieved.

  9. Structural Dynamics Testing of Advanced Stirling Convertor Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriti, Salvatore M.; Williams, Zachary Douglas

    2013-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center has been supporting the development of Stirling energy conversion for use in space. Lockheed Martin has been contracted by the Department of Energy to design and fabricate flight-unit Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generators, which utilize Sunpower, Inc., free-piston Advanced Stirling Convertors. The engineering unit generator has demonstrated conversion efficiency in excess of 20 percent, offering a significant improvement over existing radioisotope-fueled power systems. NASA Glenn has been supporting the development of this generator by developing the convertors through a technology development contract with Sunpower, and conducting research and experiments in a multitude of areas, such as high-temperature material properties, organics testing, and convertor-level extended operation. Since the generator must undergo launch, several launch simulation tests have also been performed at the convertor level. The standard test sequence for launch vibration exposure has consisted of workmanship and flight acceptance levels. Together, these exposures simulate what a flight convertor will experience. Recently, two supplementary tests were added to the launch vibration simulation activity. First was a vibration durability test of the convertor, intended to quantify the effect of vibration levels up to qualification level in both the lateral and axial directions. Second was qualification-level vibration of several heater heads with small oxide inclusions in the material. The goal of this test was to ascertain the effect of the inclusions on launch survivability to determine if the heater heads were suitable for flight.

  10. Extended Operation of Stirling Convertors at NASA Glenn Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriti, Salvatore, M.

    2012-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has been supporting development of free-piston Stirling conversion technology for spaceflight electrical power generation since 1999. GRC has also been supporting the development of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) since 2006. A key element of the ASRG project is providing life, reliability, and performance data for the Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC). The Thermal Energy Conversion branch at GRC is conducting extended operation of several free-piston Stirling convertors. The goal of this effort is to generate long-term performance data (tens of thousands of hours) on multiple units to build a life and reliability database. Currently, GRC is operating 18 convertors. This hardware set includes Technology Demonstration Convertors (TDCs) from Infinia Corporation, of which one pair (TDCs #13 and #14) has accumulated over 60,000 hr (6.8 years) of operation. Also under test are various Sunpower, Inc. convertors that were fabricated during the ASC development activity, including ASC-0, ASC-E (including those in the ASRG engineering unit), and ASC-E2. The ASC-E2s also completed, or are in progress of completing workmanship vibration testing, performance mapping, and extended operation. Two ASC-E2 units will also be used for durability testing, during which components will be stressed to levels above nominal mission usage. Extended operation data analyses from these tests are covered in this paper.

  11. Active Vibration Reduction of the Advanced Stirling Convertor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Scott D.; Metscher, Jonathan F.; Schifer, Nicholas A.

    2016-01-01

    Stirling Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) are being developed as an option to provide power on future space science missions where robotic spacecraft will orbit, flyby, land or rove. A Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG) could offer space missions a more efficient power system that uses one fourth of the nuclear fuel and decreases the thermal footprint compared to the current state of the art. The Stirling Cycle Technology Development (SCTD) Project is funded by the RPS Program to developing Stirling-based subsystems, including convertors and controller maturation efforts that have resulted in high fidelity hardware like the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC), and ASC Controller Unit (ACU). The SCTD Project also performs research to develop less mature technologies with a wide variety of objectives, including increasing temperature capability to enable new environments, improving system reliability or fault tolerance, reducing mass or size, and developing advanced concepts that are mission enabling. Active vibration reduction systems (AVRS), or "balancers", have historically been developed and characterized to provide fault tolerance for generator designs that incorporate dual-opposed Stirling convertors or enable single convertor, or small RPS, missions. Balancers reduce the dynamic disturbance forces created by the power piston and displacer internal moving components of a single operating convertor to meet spacecraft requirements for induced disturbance force. To improve fault tolerance for dual-opposed configurations and enable single convertor configurations, a breadboard AVRS was implemented on the Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC). The AVRS included a linear motor, a motor mount, and a closed-loop controller able to balance out the transmitted peak dynamic disturbance using acceleration feedback. Test objectives included quantifying power and mass penalty and reduction in transmitted force over a range of ASC

  12. Progress in High Power Free-Piston Stirling Convertor Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandhorst, Henry W., Jr.; Kirby, Raymond L.; Chapman, Peter A.; Walter, Thomas J.

    2008-09-01

    The U.S. Space Exploration Policy has established a vision for human exploration of the moon and Mars. One option for power for future outposts on the lunar and Martian surfaces is a nuclear reactor coupled with a free-piston Stirling convertor at a power level of 30-40 kWe. A 25 kW convertor was developed in the 1990s under the SP-100 program. This system consisted of two 12.5 kWe engines connected at their hot ends and mounted in tandem to cancel vibration. Recently, NASA began a new project with Auburn University to develop a 5 kWe, single convertor for use in such a possible lunar power system. Goals of this development program include a specific power in excess of 140 We/kg at the convertor level, lifetime in excess of five years and a control system that will safely manage the convertors in case of an emergency. Foster-Miller, Inc. is developing the 5 kWe Stirling Convertor Assembly. The characteristics of the design along with progress in developing the system will be described.

  13. Screening of High Temperature Organic Materials for Future Stirling Convertors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Euy-sik E.; Scheiman, Daniel A.

    2017-01-01

    Along with major advancement of Stirling-based convertors, high temperature organics are needed to develop future higher temperature convertors for much improved efficiencies as well as to improve the margin of reliability for the current SOA (State-of-the-Art) convertors. The higher temperature capabilities would improve robustness of the convertors and also allow them to be used in additional missions, particularly ones that require a Venus flyby for a gravity assist. Various organic materials have been employed as essential components in the convertor for their unique properties and functions such as bonding, potting, sealing, thread locking, insulation, and lubrication. The Stirling convertor radioisotope generators have been developed for potential future space applications including Lunar/Mars surface power or a variety of spacecraft and vehicles, especially with a long mission cycle, sometimes up to 17 years, such as deep space exploration. Thus, performance, durability, and reliability of the organics should be critically evaluated in terms of every possible material structure-process-service environment relations based on the potential mission specifications. The initial efforts in screening the high temperature candidates focused on the most susceptible organics, such as adhesive, potting compound, O-ring, shrink tubing, and thread locker materials in conjunction with commercially available materials. More systematic and practical test methodologies that were developed and optimized based on the extensive organic evaluations and validations performed for various Stirling convertor types were employed to determine thermal stability, outgassing, and material compatibility of the selected organic candidates against their functional requirements. Processing and fabrication conditions and procedures were also optimized. This report presents results of the three-step candidate evaluation processes, their application limitations, and the final selection

  14. Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC) Technology Maturation in Preparation for Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wayne A.; Cornell, Peggy A.

    2012-01-01

    The Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC) is being developed by an integrated team of Sunpower and National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA s) Glenn Research Center (GRC). The ASC development, funded by NASA s Science Mission Directorate, started as a technology development effort in 2003 and has since evolved through progressive convertor builds and successful testing to demonstrate high conversion efficiency, low mass, and capability to meet long-life Radioisotope Power System (RPS) requirements. The technology has been adopted by the Department of Energy and Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company s Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), which has been selected for potential flight demonstration on Discovery 12. This paper provides an overview of the status of ASC development including the most recent ASC-E2 convertors that have been delivered to GRC and an introduction to the ASC-E3 and ASC flight convertors that Sunpower will build next. The paper also describes the technology maturation and support tasks being conducted at GRC to support ASC and ASRG development in the areas of convertor and generator extended operation, high-temperature materials, heater head life assessment, organics, nondestructive inspection, spring fatigue testing, and other reliability verification tasks.

  15. Performance Measurement of Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASC-E3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriti, Salvatore M.

    2013-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has been supporting development of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) since 2006. A key element of the ASRG project is providing life, reliability, and performance testing data of the Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC). The latest version of the ASC (ASC-E3, to represent the third cycle of engineering model test hardware) is of a design identical to the forthcoming flight convertors. For this generation of hardware, a joint Sunpower and GRC effort was initiated to improve and standardize the test support hardware. After this effort was completed, the first pair of ASC-E3 units was produced by Sunpower and then delivered to GRC in December 2012. GRC has begun operation of these units. This process included performance verification, which examined the data from various tests to validate the convertor performance to the product specification. Other tests included detailed performance mapping that encompassed the wide range of operating conditions that will exist during a mission. These convertors were then transferred to Lockheed Martin for controller checkout testing. The results of this latest convertor performance verification activity are summarized here.

  16. Advanced Controller for the Free-Piston Stirling Convertor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Scott S.; Jamison, Mike; Roth, Mary Ellen; Regan, Timothy F.

    2004-01-01

    The free-piston Stirling power convertor is being considered as an advanced power conversion technology to be used for future NASA deep space missions requiring long life radioisotope power systems. This technology has a conversion efficiency of over 25%, which is significantly higher than the efficiency of the Radioisotope Thermal-electric Generators (RTG) now in use. The NASA Glenn Research Center has long been recognized as a leader in Stirling technology and is responsible for the development of advanced technologies that are intended to significantly improve key characteristics of the Stirling convertor. The advanced technologies identified for development also consider the requirements of potential future missions and the new capabilities that have become available in the associated technical areas. One of the key areas identified for technology development is the engine controller. To support this activity, an advanced controller is being developed for the Stirling power convertor. This controller utilizes active power factor correction electronics and microcontroller-based controls. The object of this paper is to present an overview of the advanced controller concept with modeling, simulation and hardware test data.

  17. Integrated Stirling Convertor and Hall Thruster Test Conducted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Lee S.

    2002-01-01

    An important aspect of implementing Stirling Radioisotope Generators on future NASA missions is the integration of the generator and controller with potential spacecraft loads. Some recent studies have indicated that the combination of Stirling Radioisotope Generators and electric propulsion devices offer significant trip time and payload fraction benefits for deep space missions. A test was devised to begin to understand the interactions between Stirling generators and electric thrusters. An electrically heated RG- 350 (350-W output) Stirling convertor, designed and built by Stirling Technology Company of Kennewick, Washington, under a NASA Small Business Innovation Research agreement, was coupled to a 300-W SPT-50 Hall-effect thruster built for NASA by the Moscow Aviation Institute (RIAME). The RG-350 and the SPT-50 shown, were installed in adjacent vacuum chamber ports at NASA Glenn Research Center's Electric Propulsion Laboratory, Vacuum Facility 8. The Stirling electrical controller interfaced directly with the Hall thruster power-processing unit, both of which were located outside of the vacuum chamber. The power-processing unit accepted the 48 Vdc output from the Stirling controller and distributed the power to all the loads of the SPT-50, including the magnets, keeper, heater, and discharge. On February 28, 2001, the Glenn test team successfully operated the Hall-effect thruster with the Stirling convertor. This is the world's first known test of a dynamic power source with electric propulsion. The RG-350 successfully managed the transition from the purely resistive load bank within the Stirling controller to the highly capacitive power-processing unit load. At the time of the demonstration, the Stirling convertor was operating at a hot temperature of 530 C and a cold temperature of -6 C. The linear alternator was producing approximately 250 W at 109 Vac, while the power-processing unit was drawing 175 W at 48 Vdc. The majority of power was delivered to the

  18. Innovative Stirling Convertor for Distributed Electric Power from Thermal Energy Recovery, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SCCAQ Energy, LLC (SCCAQ) in collaboration with Temple University and Infinia Technology Corporation (ITC) proposes to develop a Reliable Stirling Convertor (RSC)...

  19. 5-kWe Free-piston Stirling Engine Convertor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Peter A.; Vitale, Nicholas A.; Walter, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01

    The high reliability, long life, and efficient operation of Free-Piston Stirling Engines (FPSEs) make them an attractive power system to meet future space power requirements with less mass, better efficiency, and less total heat exchanger area than other power convertor options. FPSEs are also flexible in configuration as they can be coupled with many potential heat sources and various heat input systems, heat rejection systems, and power management and distribution systems. Development of a 5-kWe Stirling Convertor Assembly (SCA) is underway to demonstrate the viability of an FPSE for space power. The design is a scaled-down version of the successful 12.5-kWe Component Test Power Converter (CTPC) developed under NAS3-25463. The ultimate efficiency target is 25% overall convertor efficiency (electrical power out over heat in). For the single cylinder prototype now in development, cost and time constraints required use of economical and readily available materials (steel versus beryllium) and components (a commercially available linear alternator) and thus lower efficiency. The working gas is helium at 150 bar mean pressure. The design consists of a displacer suspended on internally pumped gas bearings and a power piston/alternator supported on flexures. Non-contacting clearance seals are used between internal volumes. Heat to and from the prototype convertor is done via pumped liquid loops passing through shell and tube heat exchangers. The preliminary and detail designs of the convertor, controller, and support systems (heating loop, cooling loop, and helium supply system) are complete and all hardware is on order. Assembly and test of the prototype at Foster- Miller is planned for early 2008, when work will focus on characterizing convertor dynamics and steady-state operation to determine maximum power output and system efficiency. The device will then be delivered to Auburn University where assessments will include start-up and shutdown characterization and

  20. Summary of Stirling Convertor Testing at NASA Glenn Research Center in Support of Stirling Radioisotope Power System Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schifer, Nicholas A.; Oriti, Salvatore M.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has been testing 100 We class, free-piston Stirling convertors for potential use in Stirling Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for space science and exploration missions. Free-piston Stirling convertors are capable of achieving a 38% conversion efficiency, making Stirling attractive for meeting future power system needs in light of the shrinking U.S. plutonium fuel supply. Convertors currently on test include four Stirling Technology Demonstration Convertors (TDCs), manufactured by the Stirling Technology Company (STC), and six Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASCs), manufactured by Sunpower, Inc. Total hours of operation is greater than 514,000 hours (59 years). Several tests have been initiated to demonstrate the functionality of Stirling convertors for space applications, including: in-air extended operation, thermal vacuum extended operation. Other tests have also been conducted to characterize Stirling performance in anticipated mission scenarios. Data collected during testing has been used to support life and reliability estimates, drive design changes and improve quality, and plan for expected mission scenarios. This paper will provide a summary of convertors tested at NASA GRC and discuss lessons learned through extended testing.

  1. Advanced Controller Developed for the Free-Piston Stirling Convertor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Scott S.

    2005-01-01

    A free-piston Stirling power convertor is being considered as an advanced power-conversion technology for future NASA deep-space missions requiring long-life radioisotope power systems. The NASA Glenn Research Center has identified key areas where advanced technologies can enhance the capability of Stirling energy-conversion systems. One of these is power electronic controls. Current power-conversion technology for Glenn-tested Stirling systems consists of an engine-driven linear alternator generating an alternating-current voltage controlled by a tuning-capacitor-based alternating-current peak voltage load controller. The tuning capacitor keeps the internal alternator electromotive force (EMF) in phase with its respective current (i.e., passive power factor correction). The alternator EMF is related to the piston velocity, which must be kept in phase with the alternator current in order to achieve stable operation. This tuning capacitor, which adds volume and mass to the overall Stirling convertor, can be eliminated if the controller can actively drive the magnitude and phase of the alternator current.

  2. Advanced Stirling Convertor Durability Testing: Plans and Interim Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meer, David W.; Oriti, Salvatore M.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Lockheed Martin Corporation (LM), and NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) have been developing the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) for use as a power system for space science missions. In support of this program, GRC has been involved in testing Stirling convertors, including the Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC), for use in the ASRG. This testing includes electromagnetic interference/compatibility (EMI/EMC), structural dynamics, advanced materials, organics, and unattended extended operation. The purpose of the durability tests is to experimentally demonstrate the margins in the ASC design. Due to the high value of the hardware, previous ASC tests focused on establishing baseline performance of the convertors within the nominal operating conditions. The durability tests present the first planned extension of the operating conditions into regions beyond those intended to meet the product spec, where the possibility exists of lateral contact, overstroke, or over-temperature events. These tests are not intended to cause damage that would shorten the life of the convertors, so they can transition into extended operation at the conclusion of the tests. This paper describes the four tests included in the durability test sequence: 1) start/stop cycling, 2) exposure to constant acceleration in the lateral and axial directions, 3) random vibration at increased piston amplitude to induce contact events, and 4) overstroke testing to simulate potential failures during processing or during the mission life where contact events could occur. The paper also summarizes the analysis and simulation used to predict the results of each of these tests.

  3. Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC) Development for NASA RPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wayne A.; Wilson, Scott; Collins, Josh

    2014-01-01

    Sunpower's Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC) initiated development under contract to the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) and after a series of successful demonstrations, the ASC began transitioning from a technology development project to flight development project. The ASC has very high power conversion efficiency making it attractive for future Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) in order to make best use of the low plutonium-238 fuel inventory in the U.S. In recent years, the ASC became part of the NASA-Department of Energy Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) Integrated Project. Sunpower held two parallel contracts to produce ASC convertors, one with the Department of Energy/Lockheed Martin to produce the ASC-F flight convertors, and one with NASA GRC for the production of ASC-E3 engineering units, the initial units of which served as production pathfinders. The integrated ASC technical team successfully overcame various technical challenges that led to the completion and delivery of the first two pairs of flight-like ASC-E3 by 2013. However, in late Fall 2013, the DOE initiated termination of the Lockheed Martin ASRG flight development contract driven primarily by budget constraints. NASA continues to recognize the importance of high efficiency ASC power conversion for RPS and continues investment in the technology including the continuation of ASC-E3 production at Sunpower and the assembly of the ASRG Engineering Unit #2. This paper provides a summary of ASC technical accomplishments, overview of tests at GRC, plans for continued ASC production at Sunpower, and status of Stirling technology development.

  4. Development of Electronic Load Controllers for Free-Piston Stirling Convertors Aided by Stirling Simulation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Timothy F.

    2004-01-01

    The free-piston Stirling convertor end-to-end modeling effort at the NASA Glenn Research Center has produced a software-based test bed in which free-piston Stirling convertors can be simulated and evaluated. The simulation model includes all the components of the convertor: the Stirling cycle engine, heat source, linear alternator, controller, and load. So far, it has been used in evaluating the performance of electronic controller designs. Three different controller design concepts were simulated using the model: 1) Controllers with parasitic direct current loading. 2) Controllers with parasitic alternating current loading. 3) Controllers that maintain a reference current. The free-piston Stirling convertor is an electromechanical device that operates at resonance. It is the function of the electronic load controller to ensure that the electrical load seen by the machine is always great enough to keep the amplitude of the piston and alternator oscillation at the rated value. This is done by regulating the load on the output bus. The controller monitors the instantaneous voltage, regulating it by switching loads called parasitic loads onto the bus whenever the bus voltage is too high and removing them whenever the voltage is too low. In the first type of controller, the monitor-ing and switching are done on the direct-current (dc) bus. In the second type, the alternating current bus is used. The model allows designers to test a controller concept before investing time in hardware. The simulation code used to develop the model also offers detailed models of digital and analog electronic components so that the resulting designs are realistic enough to translate directly into hardware circuits.

  5. New 5 kW free-piston Stirling space convertor developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandhorst, Henry W., Jr.; Chapman, Peter A., Jr.

    2008-07-01

    The NASA Vision for Exploration of the moon may someday require a nuclear reactor coupled with a free-piston Stirling convertor at a power level of 30-40 kW. In the 1990s, Mechanical Technology Inc.'s Stirling Engine Systems Division (some of whose Stirling personnel are now at Foster-Miller, Inc.) developed a 25 kW free-piston Stirling Space Power Demonstrator Engine under the SP-100 program. This system consisted of two 12.5 kW engines connected at their hot ends and mounted in tandem to cancel vibration. Recently, NASA and DoE have been developing dual 55 and 80 W Stirling convertor systems for potential use with radioisotope heat sources. Total test times of all convertors in this effort exceed 120,000 h. Recently, NASA began a new project with Auburn University to develop a 5 kW, single convertor for potential use in a lunar surface reactor power system. Goals of this development program include a specific power in excess of 140 W/kg at the convertor level, lifetime in excess of five years and a control system that will safely manage the convertors in case of an emergency. Auburn University awarded a subcontract to Foster-Miller, Inc. to undertake development of the 5 kW Stirling convertor assembly. The characteristics of the design along with progress in developing the system will be described.

  6. Advanced Stirling Convertor Development for NASA Radioisotope Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wayne A.; Wilson, Scott D.; Collins, Josh

    2015-01-01

    Sunpower Inc.'s Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC) initiated development under contract to the NASA Glenn Research Center and after a series of successful demonstrations, the ASC began transitioning from a technology development project to a flight development project. The ASC has very high power conversion efficiency making it attractive for future Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) in order to make best use of the low plutonium-238 fuel inventory in the United States. In recent years, the ASC became part of the NASA and Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) Integrated Project. Sunpower held two parallel contracts to produce ASCs, one with the DOE and Lockheed Martin to produce the ASC-F flight convertors, and one with NASA Glenn for the production of ASC-E3 engineering units, the initial units of which served as production pathfinders. The integrated ASC technical team successfully overcame various technical challenges that led to the completion and delivery of the first two pairs of flightlike ASC-E3 by 2013. However, in late fall 2013, the DOE initiated termination of the Lockheed Martin ASRG flight development contract driven primarily by budget constraints. NASA continues to recognize the importance of high-efficiency ASC power conversion for RPS and continues investment in the technology including the continuation of ASC-E3 production at Sunpower and the assembly of the ASRG Engineering Unit #2. This paper provides a summary of ASC technical accomplishments, overview of tests at Glenn, plans for continued ASC production at Sunpower, and status of Stirling technology development.

  7. Multi-d CFD Modeling of a Free-piston Stirling Convertor at NASA Glenn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Scott D.; Dyson, Rodger W.; Tew, Roy C.; Ibrahim, Mounir B.

    2004-01-01

    A high efficiency Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG) is being developed for possible use in long duration space science missions. NASA s advanced technology goals for next generation Stirling convertors include increasing the Carnot efficiency and percent of Carnot efficiency. To help achieve these goals, a multidimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code is being developed to numerically model unsteady fluid flow and heat transfer phenomena of the oscillating working gas inside Stirling convertors. Simulations of the Stirling convertors for the SRG will help characterize the thermodynamic losses resulting from fluid flow and heat transfer between the working gas and solid walls. The current CFD simulation represents approximated 2-dimensional convertor geometry. The simulation solves the Navier Stokes equations for an ideal helium gas oscillating at low speeds. The current simulation results are discussed.

  8. Novel Ring-Configuration Double-Acting Free-Piston Stirling Convertor, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA SBIR-2015 Topic S3.01 seeks to evaluate and advance Stirling convertors as a potentially more efficient alternative to the radioisotope-heated thermoelectric...

  9. Advanced Small Free-Piston Stirling Convertors for Space Power Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, J. Gary; Lane, Neill

    2004-02-01

    This paper reports on the current status of an advanced 35 We free-piston Stirling convertor currently being developed under NASA SBIR Phase II funding. Also described is a further advanced and higher performance ~80 watt free-piston convertor being developed by Sunpower and Boeing/Rocketdyne for NASA under NRA funding. Exceptional overall convertor (engine plus linear alternator) thermodynamic performance (greater than 50% of Carnot) with specific powers around 100 We /kg appear reasonable at these low power levels.

  10. Progress in Developing a New 5 Kilowatt Free-Piston Stirling Space Convertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandhorst, Henry W. Jr.; Kirby, Raymond L.; Chapman, Peter A.

    2008-01-01

    The NASA Vision for Exploration of the Moon envisions a nuclear reactor coupled with a free-piston Stirling convertor at a power level of 30-40 kWe. In the 1990s, Mechanical Technology, Inc.'s Stirling Engine Systems Division (now a part of Foster-Miller, Inc.) developed a 25 kWe free piston Stirling Space Power Demonstrator Engine under the SP-100 program. This system consisted of two 12.5 kWe engines connected at their hot ends and mounted in tandem to cancel vibration. Recently, NASA and DoE have been developing dual 55 We and 80 We Stirling convertor systems for use with radioisotope heat sources. Total test times of all convertors in this effort exceed 120,000 hours. Recently, NASA began a new project with Auburn University to develop a 5 kWe, single convertor for use in the Lunar power system. Goals of this development program include a specific power in excess of 140 We/kg at the convertor level, lifetime in excess of five years and a control system that will safely manage the convertors in case of an emergency. Auburn University awarded a subcontract to Foster-Miller, Inc. to undertake development of the 5 kWe Stirling Convertor Assembly. The characteristics of the design along with progress in developing the system will be described

  11. Progress in Developing a New 5 Kilowatt Free-Piston Stirling Space Convertor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandhorst, Henry W.; Kirby, Raymond L.; Chapman, Peter A.

    2008-01-01

    The NASA Vision for Exploration of the Moon envisions a nuclear reactor coupled with a free-piston Stirling convertor at a power level of 30-40 kWe. In the 1990s, Mechanical Technology, Inc.'s Stirling Engine Systems Division (now a part of Foster-Miller, Inc.) developed a 25 kWe free piston Stirling Space Power Demonstrator Engine under the SP-100 program. This system consisted of two 12.5 kWe engines connected at their hot ends and mounted in tandem to cancel vibration. Recently, NASA and DoE have been developing dual 55 We and 80 We Stirling convertor systems for use with radioisotope heat sources. Total test times of all convertors in this effort exceed 120,000 hours. Recently, NASA began a new project with Auburn University to develop a 5 kWe, single convertor for use in the Lunar power system. Goals of this development program include a specific power in excess of 140 We/kg at the convertor level, lifetime in excess of five years and a control system that will safely manage the convertors in case of an emergency. Auburn University awarded a subcontract to Foster-Miller, Inc. to undertake development of the 5 kWe Stirling Convertor Assembly. The characteristics of the design along with progress in developing the system will be described.

  12. Free-Piston Stirling Convertor Controller Development at NASA Glenn Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Timothy

    2004-01-01

    The free-piston Stirling convertor end-to-end modeling effort at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has produced a software-based test bed in which free-piston Stirling convertors can be simulated and evaluated. The simulation model includes all the components of the convertor - the Stirling cycle engine, linear alternator, controller, and load. This paper is concerned with controllers. It discusses three controllers that have been studied using this model. Case motion has been added to the model recently so that effects of differences between convertor components can be simulated and ameliorative control engineering techniques can be developed. One concern when applying a system comprised of interconnected mass-spring-damper components is to prevent operation in any but the intended mode. The design mode is the only desired mode of operation, but all other modes are considered in controller design.

  13. Development of the Sunpower 35 We Free-Piston Stirling Convertor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, J. Gary; Lane, Neill

    2005-02-01

    This paper describes the development and performance of the Sunpower 35 We free-piston Stirling convertor. Exceptional thermodynamic performance has been achieved in a small lightweight machine. Efficiency of over 30 percent, at a temperature ratio of 2.6 has been achieved. Specific power of the convertor in final low mass hermetically-sealed form is projected to exceed 90 watts/Kg. This convertor was developed under NASA SBIR funding. Potential applications for this convertor include highly efficient and low mass radioisotope fueled space power systems, as well as terrestrial use as a fuel fired battery replacement.

  14. Developing a Free-Piston Stirling Convertor for advanced radioisotope space power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Songgang; Augenblick, John E.; White, Maurice A.; Peterson, Allen A.; Redinger, Darin L.; Petersen, Stephen L.

    2002-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has selected Free-Piston Stirling Convertors as a technology for future advanced radioisotope space power systems. In August 2000, DOE awarded competitive Phase I, Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG) power system integration contracts to three major aerospace contractors, resulting in SRG conceptual designs in February 2001. All three contractors based their designs on the Technology Demonstration Convertor (TDC) developed by Stirling Technology Company (STC) for DOE. The contract award to a single system integration contractor for Phases II and III of the SRG program is anticipated in late 2001. The first potential SRG mission is targeted for a Mars rover. This paper provides a description of the Flight Prototype (FP) Stirling convertor design as compared to the previous TDC design. The initial flight prototype units are already undergoing performance tuning at STC. The new design will be hermetically scaled and will provide a weight reduction from approximately 4.8 kg to approximately 3.9 kg. .

  15. Optimized Heat Pipe Backup Cooling System Tested with a Stirling Convertor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwendeman, Carl L.; Tarau, Calin; Schifer, Nicholas A.; Anderson, William G.; Garner, Scott

    2016-01-01

    In a Stirling Radioisotope Power System (RPS), heat must be continuously removed from the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules to maintain the modules and surrounding insulation at acceptable temperatures. The Stirling convertor normally provides this cooling. If the Stirling convertor stops in the current system, the insulation is designed to spoil, preventing damage to the GPHS at the cost of an early termination of the mission. An alkali-metal variable conductance heat pipe (VCHP) can be used to passively allow multiple stops and restarts of the Stirling convertor by bypassing the heat during stops. In a previous NASA Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program, Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc. (ACT) developed a series of sodium VCHPs as backup cooling systems for the Stirling RPS. In 2012, one of these VCHPs was successfully tested at NASA Glenn Research Center with a Stirling convertor as an Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) backup cooling system. The prototype; however, was not optimized and did not reflect the final heat rejection path. ACT through further funding has developed a semioptimized prototype with the finalized heat path for testing at Glenn with a Stirling convertor. The semioptimized system features a two-phase radiator and is significantly smaller and lighter than the prior prototype to reflect a higher level of flight readiness. The VCHP is designed to activate and remove heat from the GPHS during stoppage with a small temperature increase from the nominal vapor temperature. This small temperature increase from nominal is low enough to avoid risking standard ASRG operation and spoiling of the multilayer insulation (MLI). The VCHP passively allows the Stirling convertor to be turned off multiple times during a mission with potentially unlimited off durations. Having the ability to turn the Stirling off allows for the Stirling to be reset and reduces vibrations on the platform during sensitive measurements or

  16. Test Rack Development for Extended Operation of Advanced Stirling Convertors at NASA Glenn Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugala, Gina M.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company, Sunpower Inc., and NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) have been developing an Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) for use as a power system on space science missions. This generator will make use of free-piston Stirling convertors to achieve higher conversion efficiency than with currently available alternatives. One part of NASA GRC's support of ASRG development includes extended operation testing of Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASCs) developed by Sunpower Inc. and GRC. The ASC consists of a free-piston Stirling engine integrated with a linear alternator. NASA GRC has been building test facilities to support extended operation of the ASCs for several years. Operation of the convertors in the test facility provides convertor performance data over an extended period of time. One part of the test facility is the test rack, which provides a means for data collection, convertor control, and safe operation. Over the years, the test rack requirements have changed. The initial ASC test rack utilized an alternating-current (AC) bus for convertor control; the ASRG Engineering Unit (EU) test rack can operate with AC bus control or with an ASC Control Unit (ACU). A new test rack is being developed to support extended operation of the ASC-E2s with higher standards of documentation, component selection, and assembly practices. This paper discusses the differences among the ASC, ASRG EU, and ASC-E2 test racks.

  17. Variable Conductance Heat Pipe Cooling of Stirling Convertor and General Purpose Heat Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarau, Calin; Schwendeman, Carl; Anderson, William G.; Cornell, Peggy A.; Schifer, Nicholas A.

    2013-01-01

    In a Stirling Radioisotope Power System (RPS), heat must be continuously removed from the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules to maintain the modules and surrounding insulation at acceptable temperatures. The Stirling convertor normally provides this cooling. If the Stirling convertor stops in the current system, the insulation is designed to spoil, preventing damage to the GPHS at the cost of an early termination of the mission. An alkali-metal Variable Conductance Heat Pipe (VCHP) can be used to passively allow multiple stops and restarts of the Stirling convertor. In a previous NASA SBIR Program, Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc. (ACT) developed a series of sodium VCHPs as backup cooling systems for Stirling RPS. The operation of these VCHPs was demonstrated using Stirling heater head simulators and GPHS simulators. In the most recent effort, a sodium VCHP with a stainless steel envelope was designed, fabricated and tested at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) with a Stirling convertor for two concepts; one for the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) back up cooling system and one for the Long-lived Venus Lander thermal management system. The VCHP is designed to activate and remove heat from the stopped convertor at a 19 degC temperature increase from the nominal vapor temperature. The 19 degC temperature increase from nominal is low enough to avoid risking standard ASRG operation and spoiling of the Multi-Layer Insulation (MLI). In addition, the same backup cooling system can be applied to the Stirling convertor used for the refrigeration system of the Long-lived Venus Lander. The VCHP will allow the refrigeration system to: 1) rest during transit at a lower temperature than nominal; 2) pre-cool the modules to an even lower temperature before the entry in Venus atmosphere; 3) work at nominal temperature on Venus surface; 4) briefly stop multiple times on the Venus surface to allow scientific measurements. This paper presents the experimental

  18. Development and Validation of Linear Alternator Models for the Advanced Stirling Convertor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metscher, Jonathan F.; Lewandowski, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    Two models of the linear alternator of the Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC) have been developed using the Sage 1-D modeling software package. The first model relates the piston motion to electric current by means of a motor constant. The second uses electromagnetic model components to model the magnetic circuit of the alternator. The models are tuned and validated using test data and also compared against each other. Results show both models can be tuned to achieve results within 7 of ASC test data under normal operating conditions. Using Sage enables the creation of a complete ASC model to be developed and simulations completed quickly compared to more complex multi-dimensional models. These models allow for better insight into overall Stirling convertor performance, aid with Stirling power system modeling, and in the future support NASA mission planning for Stirling-based power systems.

  19. Stirling Convertor Performance Mapping Test Results for Future Radioisotope Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Songgang; Peterson, Allen A.; Faultersack, Franklyn D.; Redinger, Darin L.; Augenblick, John E.

    2004-02-01

    Long-life radioisotope-fueled generators based on free-piston Stirling convertors are an energy-conversion solution for future space applications. The high efficiency of Stirling machines makes them more attractive than the thermoelectric generators currently used in space. Stirling Technology Company (STC) has been performance-testing its Stirling generators to provide data for potential system integration contractors. This paper describes the most recent test results from the STC RemoteGen™ 55 W-class Stirling generators (RG-55). Comparisons are made between the new data and previous Stirling thermodynamic simulation models. Performance-mapping tests are presented including variations in: internal charge pressure, cold end temperature, hot end temperature, alternator temperature, input power, and variation of control voltage.

  20. The Development of a Control System for a 5 Kilowatt Free Piston Stirling Engine Convertor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Raymond L.; Vitale, Nick

    2008-01-01

    The new NASA Vision for Exploration, announced by President Bush in January 2004, proposes an ambitious program that plans to return astronauts to the moon by the 2018 time frame. A recent NASA study entitled "Affordable Fission Surface Power Study" recommended a 40 kWe, 900 K, NaK-cooled, Stirling convertors for 2020 launch. Use of two of the nominal 5 kW convertors allows the system to be dynamically balanced. A group of four dual-convertor combinations that would yield 40 kWe can be tested to validate the viability of Stirling technology for space fission surface power systems. The work described in this paper deals specifically with the control system for the 5 kW convertor described in the preceding paragraph. This control system is responsible for maintaining piston stroke to a setpoint in the presence of various disturbances including electrical load variations. Pulse starting of the Free Piston Stirling Engine (FPSE) convertor is also an inherent part of such a control system. Finally, the ability to throttle the engine to match the required output power is discussed in terms of setpoint control. Several novel ideas have been incorporated into the piston stroke control strategy that will engender a stable response to disturbances in the presence of midpoint drift while providing useful data regarding the position of both the power piston and displacer.

  1. Test Hardware Design for Flightlike Operation of Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASC-E3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriti, Salvatore M.

    2012-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has been supporting development of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) since 2006. A key element of the ASRG project is providing life, reliability, and performance testing of the Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC). For this purpose, the Thermal Energy Conversion branch at GRC has been conducting extended operation of a multitude of free-piston Stirling convertors. The goal of this effort is to generate long-term performance data (tens of thousands of hours) simultaneously on multiple units to build a life and reliability database. The test hardware for operation of these convertors was designed to permit in-air investigative testing, such as performance mapping over a range of environmental conditions. With this, there was no requirement to accurately emulate the flight hardware. For the upcoming ASC-E3 units, the decision has been made to assemble the convertors into a flight-like configuration. This means the convertors will be arranged in the dual-opposed configuration in a housing that represents the fit, form, and thermal function of the ASRG. The goal of this effort is to enable system level tests that could not be performed with the traditional test hardware at GRC. This offers the opportunity to perform these system-level tests much earlier in the ASRG flight development, as they would normally not be performed until fabrication of the qualification unit. This paper discusses the requirements, process, and results of this flight-like hardware design activity.

  2. Test Hardware Design for Flight-Like Operation of Advanced Stirling Convertors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriti, Salvatore M.

    2012-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has been supporting development of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) since 2006. A key element of the ASRG project is providing life, reliability, and performance testing of the Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC). For this purpose, the Thermal Energy Conversion branch at GRC has been conducting extended operation of a multitude of free-piston Stirling convertors. The goal of this effort is to generate long-term performance data (tens of thousands of hours) simultaneously on multiple units to build a life and reliability database. The test hardware for operation of these convertors was designed to permit in-air investigative testing, such as performance mapping over a range of environmental conditions. With this, there was no requirement to accurately emulate the flight hardware. For the upcoming ASC-E3 units, the decision has been made to assemble the convertors into a flight-like configuration. This means the convertors will be arranged in the dual-opposed configuration in a housing that represents the fit, form, and thermal function of the ASRG. The goal of this effort is to enable system level tests that could not be performed with the traditional test hardware at GRC. This offers the opportunity to perform these system-level tests much earlier in the ASRG flight development, as they would normally not be performed until fabrication of the qualification unit. This paper discusses the requirements, process, and results of this flight-like hardware design activity.

  3. Development of a Low Inductance Linear Alternator for Stirling Power Convertors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Steven M.; Schifer, Nicholas A.

    2017-01-01

    The free-piston Stirling power convertor is a promising technology for high efficiency heat-to-electricity power conversion in space. Stirling power convertors typically utilize linear alternators for converting mechanical motion into electricity. The linear alternator is one of the heaviest components of modern Stirling power convertors. In addition, state-of-art Stirling linear alternators usually require the use of tuning capacitors or active power factor correction controllers to maximize convertor output power. The linear alternator to be discussed in this paper, eliminates the need for tuning capacitors and delivers electrical power output in which current is inherently in phase with voltage. No power factor correction is needed. In addition, the linear alternator concept requires very little iron, so core loss has been virtually eliminated. This concept is a unique moving coil design where the magnetic flux path is defined by the magnets themselves. This paper presents computational predictions for two different low inductance alternator configurations, and compares the predictions with experimental data for one of the configurations that has been built and is currently being tested.

  4. Development of a Low-Inductance Linear Alternator for Stirling Power Convertors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Steven M.; Schifer, Nicholas A.

    2017-01-01

    The free-piston Stirling power convertor is a promising technology for high-efficiency heat-to-electricity power conversion in space. Stirling power convertors typically utilize linear alternators for converting mechanical motion into electricity. The linear alternator is one of the heaviest components of modern Stirling power convertors. In addition, state-of-the-art Stirling linear alternators usually require the use of tuning capacitors or active power factor correction controllers to maximize convertor output power. The linear alternator to be discussed in this paper eliminates the need for tuning capacitors and delivers electrical power output in which current is inherently in phase with voltage. No power factor correction is needed. In addition, the linear alternator concept requires very little iron, so core loss has been virtually eliminated. This concept is a unique moving coil design where the magnetic flux path is defined by the magnets themselves. This paper presents computational predictions for two different low inductance alternator configurations. Additionally, one of the configurations was built and tested at GRC, and the experimental data is compared with the predictions.

  5. Performance Testing of a High Temperature Linear Alternator for Stirling Convertors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metscher, Jonathan F.; Geng, Steven M.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center has conducted performance testing of a high temperature linear alternator (HTLA) in support of Stirling power convertor development for potential future Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS). The high temperature linear alternator is a modified version of that used in Sunpower's Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC), and is capable of operation at temperatures up to 200 deg. Increasing the temperature capability of the linear alternator could expand the mission set of future Stirling RPS designs. High temperature Neodymium-Iron-Boron (Nd-Fe-B) magnets were selected for the HTLA application, and were fully characterized and tested prior to use. Higher temperature epoxy for alternator assembly was also selected and tested for thermal stability and strength. A characterization test was performed on the HTLA to measure its performance at various amplitudes, loads, and temperatures. HTLA endurance testing at 200 deg is currently underway.

  6. Performance of an Advanced Stirling Convertor Based on Heat Flux Sensor Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Dcott D.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (LMSSC) have been developing the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) for use as a power system for space science missions. This generator would use two highefficiency Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASCs), developed by Sunpower, Inc., and NASA Glenn Research Center. The ASCs convert thermal energy from a radioisotope heat source into electricity. As part of ground testing of these ASCs, different operating conditions are used to simulate expected mission conditions. These conditions require achieving a particular operating frequency, hot-end and cold-end temperatures, and specified electrical power output for a given heat input. It is difficult to measure heat input to Stirling convertors due to the complex geometries of the hot components, temperature limits of sensor materials, and invasive integration of sensors. A thin-film heat flux sensor was used to directly measure heat input to an ASC. The effort succeeded in designing and fabricating unique sensors, which were integrated into a Stirling convertor ground test and exposed to test temperatures exceeding 700 C in air for 10,000 hr. Sensor measurements were used to calculate thermal efficiency for ASC-E (Engineering Unit) #1 and #4. The post-disassembly condition of the sensors is also discussed.

  7. Experimental Creep Life Assessment for the Advanced Stirling Convertor Heater Head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, David L.; Kalluri, Sreeramesh; Shah, Ashwin R.; Korovaichuk, Igor

    2010-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy is planning to develop the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for potential use on future space missions. The ASRG provides substantial efficiency and specific power improvements over radioisotope power systems of heritage designs. The ASRG would use General Purpose Heat Source modules as energy sources and the free-piston Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC) to convert heat into electrical energy. Lockheed Martin Corporation of Valley Forge, Pennsylvania, is integrating the ASRG systems, and Sunpower, Inc., of Athens, Ohio, is designing and building the ASC. NASA Glenn Research Center of Cleveland, Ohio, manages the Sunpower contract and provides technology development in several areas for the ASC. One area is reliability assessment for the ASC heater head, a critical pressure vessel within which heat is converted into mechanical oscillation of a displacer piston. For high system efficiency, the ASC heater head operates at very high temperature (850 C) and therefore is fabricated from an advanced heat-resistant nickel-based superalloy Microcast MarM-247. Since use of MarM-247 in a thin-walled pressure vessel is atypical, much effort is required to assure that the system will operate reliably for its design life of 17 years. One life-limiting structural response for this application is creep; creep deformation is the accumulation of time-dependent inelastic strain under sustained loading over time. If allowed to progress, the deformation eventually results in creep rupture. Since creep material properties are not available in the open literature, a detailed creep life assessment of the ASC heater head effort is underway. This paper presents an overview of that creep life assessment approach, including the reliability-based creep criteria developed from coupon testing, and the associated heater head deterministic and probabilistic analyses. The approach also

  8. Advanced Stirling Convertor Dual Convertor Controller Testing at NASA Glenn Research Center in the Radioisotope Power Systems System Integration Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugala, Gina M.; Taylor, Linda M.; Bell, Mark E.; Dolce, James L.; Fraeman, Martin; Frankford, David P.

    2015-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center developed a nonnuclear representation of a Radioisotope Power System (RPS) consisting of a pair of Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASCs), Dual Convertor Controller (DCC) EMs (engineering models) 2 and 3, and associated support equipment, which were tested in the Radioisotope Power Systems System Integration Laboratory (RSIL). The DCC was designed by the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) to actively control a pair of ASCs. The first phase of testing included a Dual Advanced Stirling Convertor Simulator (DASCS), which was developed by JHU/APL and simulates the operation and electrical behavior of a pair of ASCs in real time via a combination of hardware and software. RSIL provides insight into the electrical interactions between a representative radioisotope power generator, its associated control schemes, and realistic electric system loads. The first phase of integration testing included the following spacecraft bus configurations: capacitive, battery, and super-capacitor. A load profile, created based on data from several missions, tested the RPS's and RSIL's ability to maintain operation during load demands above and below the power provided by the RPS. The integration testing also confirmed the DCC's ability to disconnect from the spacecraft when the bus voltage dipped below 22 volts or exceeded 36 volts. Once operation was verified with the DASCS, the tests were repeated with actual operating ASCs. The goal of this integration testing was to verify operation of the DCC when connected to a spacecraft and to verify the functionality of the newly designed RSIL. The results of these tests are presented in this paper.

  9. Evaluation and Validation of Organic Materials for Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASCs): Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Euy-Sik Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Various organic materials are used as essential parts in Stirling Convertors for their unique properties and functionalities such as bonding, potting, sealing, thread locking, insulation, and lubrication. More efficient Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASC) are being developed for future space applications especially with a long mission cycle, sometimes up to 17 years, such as deep space exploration or lunar surface power or Mars rovers, and others. Thus, performance, durability, and reliability of those organics should be critically evaluated in every possible material-process-fabrication-service environment relations based on their mission specifications. In general, thermal stability, radiation hardness, outgassing, and material compatibility of the selected organics have been systematically evaluated while their process and fabrication conditions and procedures were being optimized. Service environment-simulated long term aging tests up to 4 years were performed as a function of temperature for durability assessment of the most critical organic material systems.

  10. Status update of a free-piston Stirling convertor for radioisotope space power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, Maurice; Qiu Songgang; Augenblick, Jack; Peterson, Allen; Faultersack, Frank

    2001-01-01

    Free-piston Stirling engines offer a relatively mature technology that is well-suited for advanced, high-efficiency radioisotope space power systems. This paper updates results from a combination of DOE and NASA contracts with Stirling Technology Company (STC). These contracts have demonstrated STC's Stirling convertor technology in a configuration and power level representative of a space power system. Based on demonstrated performance, long-life maintenance-free technology heritage, and success with aggressively imposed vibration testing. DOE has awarded system integration contracts to Boeing, Lockheed Martin and Teledyne Energy Systems. The objectives of these competitive Phase I contracts are to develop complete spacecraft power system conceptual designs based on the STC Stirling convertor, and to plan subsequent phases for two launches. Performance results for the DOE 55-W(e) Technology Demonstration Convertors (TDC's) have met original projections. Although the TDC's were intended only for technology demonstration, they have achieved very aggressive efficiency goals, demonstrated convertor-induced vibration levels below the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) specifications, passed a simulated launch load vibration test at 0.2 g2/Hz (12.3 g rms), and met EMI/EMC goals for most contemplated missions. No consideration for EMI reduction was included in the TDC design. Minor changes are underway to reduce EMI levels, with a goal of meeting specifications for missions such as Solar Probe with highly sensitive instrumentation. The long-term objective for DOE is to develop a power system with a system efficiency exceeding 20% that can function with a high degree of reliability for 10 years and longer on deep space missions

  11. Status update of a free-piston Stirling convertor for radioisotope space power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Maurice; Qiu, Songgang; Augenblick, Jack; Peterson, Allen; Faultersack, Frank

    2001-02-01

    Free-piston Stirling engines offer a relatively mature technology that is well-suited for advanced, high-efficiency radioisotope space power systems. This paper updates results from a combination of DOE and NASA contracts with Stirling Technology Company (STC). These contracts have demonstrated STC's Stirling convertor technology in a configuration and power level representative of a space power system. Based on demonstrated performance, long-life maintenance-free technology heritage, and success with aggressively imposed vibration testing. DOE has awarded system integration contracts to Boeing, Lockheed Martin and Teledyne Energy Systems. The objectives of these competitive Phase I contracts are to develop complete spacecraft power system conceptual designs based on the STC Stirling convertor, and to plan subsequent phases for two launches. Performance results for the DOE 55-W(e) Technology Demonstration Convertors (TDC's) have met original projections. Although the TDC's were intended only for technology demonstration, they have achieved very aggressive efficiency goals, demonstrated convertor-induced vibration levels below the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) specifications, passed a simulated launch load vibration test at 0.2 g2/Hz (12.3 g rms), and met EMI/EMC goals for most contemplated missions. No consideration for EMI reduction was included in the TDC design. Minor changes are underway to reduce EMI levels, with a goal of meeting specifications for missions such as Solar Probe with highly sensitive instrumentation. The long-term objective for DOE is to develop a power system with a system efficiency exceeding 20% that can function with a high degree of reliability for 10 years and longer on deep space missions. .

  12. Pathfinding the Flight Advanced Stirling Convertor Design with the ASC-E3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wayne A.; Wilson, Kyle; Smith, Eddie; Collins, Josh

    2012-01-01

    The Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC) was initially developed by Sunpower, Inc. under contract to NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) as a technology development project. The ASC technology fulfills NASA's need for high efficiency power convertors for future Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS). Early successful technology demonstrations between 2003 to 2005 eventually led to the expansion of the project including the decision in 2006 to use the ASC technology on the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG). Sunpower has delivered 22 ASC convertors of progressively mature designs to date to GRC. Currently, Sunpower with support from GRC, Lockheed Martin Space System Company (LMSSC), and the Department of Energy (DOE) is developing the flight ASC-F in parallel with the ASC-E3 pathfinders. Sunpower will deliver four pairs of ASC-E3 convertors to GRC which will be used for extended operation reliability assessment, independent validation and verification testing, system interaction tests, and to support LMSSC controller verification. The ASC-E3 and -F convertors are being built to the same design and processing documentation and the same product specification. The initial two pairs of ASC-E3 are built before the flight units and will validate design and processing changes prior to implementation on the ASC-F flight convertors. This paper provides a summary on development of the ASC technology and the status of the ASC-E3 build and how they serve the vital pathfinder role ahead of the flight build for ASRG. The ASRG is part of two of the three candidate missions being considered for selection for the Discovery 12 mission.

  13. Developmental Considerations on the Free-piston Stirling Power Convertor for Use in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Jeffrey G.

    2007-01-01

    Free-piston Stirling power conversion has been considered a candidate for radioisotope power systems for space for more than a decade. Prior to the free-piston Stirling architecture, systems were designed with kinematic Stirling engines with rotary alternators to convert heat to electricity. These systems were proposed with lightly loaded linkages to achieve the necessary life. When the free-piston configuration was initially proposed, it was thought to be attractive due to the relatively high conversion efficiency, acceptable mass, and the potential for long life and high reliability. These features have consistently been recognized by teams that have studied technology options for radioisotope power systems. Since free-piston Stirling power conversion was first considered for space power applications, there have been major advances in three general areas of development: demonstration of life and reliability, the success achieved by Stirling cryocoolers in flight, and the overall developmental maturity of the technology for both flight and terrestrial applications. Based on these advances, free-piston Stirling convertors are currently being developed for a number of terrestrial applications. They commonly operate with the power, efficiency, life, and reliability as intended, and much of the development now centers on system integration. This paper will summarize the accomplishments of free-piston Stirling power conversion technology over the past decade, review the status, and discuss the challenges that remain.

  14. Incorporating Vibration Test Results for the Advanced Stirling Convertor into the System Dynamic Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meer, David W.; Lewandowski, Edward J.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Lockheed Martin Corporation (LM), and NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) have been developing the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) for use as a power system for space science missions. As part of the extended operation testing of this power system, the Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASC) at NASA GRC undergo a vibration test sequence intended to simulate the vibration history that an ASC would experience when used in an ASRG for a space mission. During these tests, a data system collects several performance-related parameters from the convertor under test for health monitoring and analysis. Recently, an additional sensor recorded the slip table position during vibration testing to qualification level. The System Dynamic Model (SDM) integrates Stirling cycle thermodynamics, heat flow, mechanical mass, spring, damper systems, and electrical characteristics of the linear alternator and controller. This Paper presents a comparison of the performance of the ASC when exposed to vibration to that predicted by the SDM when exposed to the same vibration.

  15. Development and Integration of an Advanced Stirling Convertor Linear Alternator Model for a Tool Simulating Convertor Performance and Creating Phasor Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metscher, Jonathan F.; Lewandowski, Edward J.

    2013-01-01

    A simple model of the Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASC) linear alternator and an AC bus controller has been developed and combined with a previously developed thermodynamic model of the convertor for a more complete simulation and analysis of the system performance. The model was developed using Sage, a 1-D thermodynamic modeling program that now includes electro-magnetic components. The convertor, consisting of a free-piston Stirling engine combined with a linear alternator, has sufficiently sinusoidal steady-state behavior to allow for phasor analysis of the forces and voltages acting in the system. A MATLAB graphical user interface (GUI) has been developed to interface with the Sage software for simplified use of the ASC model, calculation of forces, and automated creation of phasor diagrams. The GUI allows the user to vary convertor parameters while fixing different input or output parameters and observe the effect on the phasor diagrams or system performance. The new ASC model and GUI help create a better understanding of the relationship between the electrical component voltages and mechanical forces. This allows better insight into the overall convertor dynamics and performance.

  16. Development of a Dynamic, End-to-End Free Piston Stirling Convertor Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Timothy F.; Gerber, Scott S.; Roth, Mary Ellen

    2003-01-01

    A dynamic model for a free-piston Stirling convertor is being developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The model is an end-to-end system model that includes the cycle thermodynamics, the dynamics, and electrical aspects of the system. The subsystems of interest are the heat source, the springs, the moving masses, the linear alternator, the controller and the end-user load. The envisioned use of the model will be in evaluating how changes in a subsystem could affect the operation of the convertor. The model under development will speed the evaluation of improvements to a subsystem and aid in determining areas in which most significant improvements may be found. One of the first uses of the end-to-end model will be in the development of controller architectures. Another related area is in evaluating changes to details in the linear alternator.

  17. Benchmark Tests for Stirling Convertor Heater Head Life Assessment Conducted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, David L.; Halford, Gary R.; Bowman, Randy R.

    2004-01-01

    A new in-house test capability has been developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center, where a critical component of the Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG) is undergoing extensive testing to aid the development of analytical life prediction methodology and to experimentally aid in verification of the flight-design component's life. The new facility includes two test rigs that are performing creep testing of the SRG heater head pressure vessel test articles at design temperature and with wall stresses ranging from operating level to seven times that (see the following photograph).

  18. The Development of a Control System for a 5 Kilowatt Free Piston Stirling Space Convertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirby, Raymond L.; Vitale, N.

    2008-01-01

    The new NASA Vision for Exploration, announced by President Bush in January 2004, proposes an ambitious program that plans to return astronauts to the moon by the 2018 time frame. A recent NASA study entitled 'Affordable Fission Surface Power Study' recommended a 40 kWe, 900 K, NaK-cooled, Stirling conversion for 2020 launch. Use of two of the nominal 5 kW converters allows the system to be dynamically balanced. A group of four dual-converter combinations that would yield 40 kWe can be tested to validate the viability of Stirling technology for space fission surface power systems. The work described in this paper deals specifically with the control system for the 5 kW convertor described in the preceding paragraph. This control system is responsible for maintaining piston stroke to a setpoint in the presence of various disturbances including electrical load variations. Pulse starting of the FSPE convertor is also an inherent part of such a control system. Finally, the ability to throttle the engine to match the required output power is discussed in terms of setpoint control. Several novel ideas have been incorporated into the piston stroke control strategy that will engender a stable response to disturbances in the presence of midpoint drift while providing useful data regarding the position of both the power piston and displacer

  19. Advanced Stirling Convertor Control Unit Testing at NASA Glenn Research Center in the Radioisotope Power Systems System Integration Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugala, Gina M.; Taylor, Linda M.; Kussmaul, Michael; Casciani, Michael; Brown, Gregory; Wiser, Joel

    2017-01-01

    Future NASA missions could include establishing Lunar or Martian base camps, exploring Jupiters moons and travelling beyond where generating power from sunlight may be limited. Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) provide a dependable power source for missions where inadequate sunlight or operational requirements make other power systems impractical. Over the past decade, NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has been supporting the development of RPSs. The Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) utilized a pair of Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASC). While flight development of the ASRG has been cancelled, much of the technology and hardware continued development and testing to guide future activities. Specifically, a controller for the convertor(s) is an integral part of a Stirling-based RPS. For the ASRG design, the controller maintains stable operation of the convertors, regulates the alternating current produced by the linear alternator of the convertor, provides a specified direct current output voltage for the spacecraft, synchronizes the piston motion of the two convertors in order to minimize vibration as well as manage and maintain operation with a stable piston amplitude and hot end temperature. It not only provides power to the spacecraft but also must regulate convertor operation to avoid damage to internal components and maintain safe thermal conditions after fueling. Lockheed Martin Coherent Technologies has designed, developed and tested an Engineering Development Unit (EDU) Advanced Stirling Convertor Control Unit (ACU) to support this effort. GRC used the ACU EDU as part of its non-nuclear representation of a RPS which also consists of a pair of Dual Advanced Stirling Convertor Simulator (DASCS), and associated support equipment to perform a test in the Radioisotope Power Systems System Integration Laboratory (RSIL). The RSIL was designed and built to evaluate hardware utilizing RPS technology. The RSIL provides insight into the electrical

  20. Radioisotope Heater Unit-Based Stirling Power Convertor Development at NASA Glenn Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Scott D.; Geng, Steven M.; Penswick, Lawrence; Schmitz, Paul C.

    2017-01-01

    Stirling Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) are being developed as an option to provide power on future space science missions where robotic spacecraft will orbit, flyby, land or rove. A variety of mission concepts have been studied by NASA and the U. S. Department of Energy that would utilize RPS for landers, probes, and rovers and only require milliwatts to tens of watts of power. These missions would contain science measuring instruments that could be distributed across planetary surfaces or near objects of interest in space solar flux insufficient for using solar cells. A low power Stirling convertor is being developed to provide an RPS option for future low power applications. Initial concepts convert heat available from several Radioisotope Heater Units to electrical power for spacecraft instruments and communication. Initial development activity includes defining and evaluating a variety of Stirling configurations and selecting one for detailed design, research of advanced manufacturing methods that could simplify fabrication, evaluating thermal interfaces, characterizing components and subassemblies to validate design codes, and preparing for an upcoming demonstration of proof of concept in a laboratory environment.

  1. Overview 2004 of NASA Stirling-Convertor CFD-Model Development and Regenerator R&D Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tew, Roy C.; Dyson, Rodger W.; Wilson, Scott D.; Demko, Rikako

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports on accomplishments in 2004 in development of Stirling-convertor CFD model at NASA GRC and via a NASA grant, a Stirling regenerator-research effort being conducted via a NASA grant (a follow-on effort to an earlier DOE contract), and a regenerator-microfabrication contract for development of a "next-generation Stirling regenerator." Cleveland State University is the lead organization for all three grant/contractual efforts, with the University of Minnesota and Gedeor Associates as subcontractors. Also, the Stirling Technology Co. and Sunpower, Inc. are both involved in all three efforts, either as funded or unfunded participants. International Mezzo Technologies of Baton Rouge, LA is the regenerator fabricator for the regenerator-microfabrication contract. Results of the efforts in these three areas are summarized.

  2. Experimental demonstration of radiation effects on the performance of a stirling-alternator convertor and candidate materials evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mireles, Omar R.

    Free-piston Stirling power convertors are under consideration by NASA for service in the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) and Fission Surface Power (FSP) systems to enable aggressive exploration missions by providing a reliable and constant power supply. The ASRG must withstand environmental radiation conditions, while the FSP system must tolerate a mixed neutron and gamma-ray environment resulting from self-irradiation. Stirling-alternators utilize rare earth magnets and a variety of organic materials whose radiation limits dominate service life estimates and shielding requirements. The project objective was to demonstrate the performance of the alternator, identify materials that exhibit excessive radiation sensitivity, identify radiation tolerant substitutes, establish empirical dose limits, and demonstrate the feasibility of cost effective nuclear and radiation tests by selection of the appropriate personnel and test facilities as a function of hardware maturity. The Stirling Alternator Radiation Test Article (SARTA) was constructed from linear alternator components of a Stirling convertor and underwent significant pre-exposure characterization. The SARTA was operated at the Sandia National Laboratories Gamma Irradiation Facility to a dose of over 40 Mrad. Operating performance was within nominal variation, although modestly decreasing trends occurred in later runs as well as the detection of an electrical fault after the final exposure. Post-irradiation disassembly and internal inspection revealed minimal degradation of the majority of the organic components. Radiation testing of organic material coupons was conducted since the majority of the literature was inconsistent. These inconsistencies can be attributed to testing at environmental conditions vastly different than those Stirling-alternator organics will experience during operation. Samples were irradiated at the Texas A&M TRIGA reactor to above expected FSP neutron fluence. A thorough

  3. Assessments of Mechanical and Life Limiting Properties of Two Candidate Silicon Nitrides for Stirling Convertor Heater Head Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung R.; Krause, David L.

    2006-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center is developing advanced technology for Stirling convertors with a target of significantly improving the specific power and efficiency of the convertor and overall generator for Mars rovers and deep space missions. One specific approach to the target has been recognized as the use of appropriate high-temperature materials. As a series of ceramic material approaches in Advanced Stirling Convertor Development Program in fiscal year 2005, two commercial, structural silicon nitrides AS800 (Honeywell, Torrence, California) and SN282 (Kyocera, Vancouver, Washington) were selected and their mechanical and life limiting properties were characterized at 1050 C in air. AS800 exhibited both strength and Weibull modulus greater than SN282. A life limiting phenomenon was apparent in AS800 with a low slow crack growth parameter n = 15; whereas, a much increased resistance to slow crack growth was found in SN282 with n greater than 100. Difference in elastic modulus and thermal conductivity was negligible up to 1200 C between the two silicon nitrides. The same was true for the coefficient of thermal expansion up to 1400 C.

  4. Development of a Phasor Diagram Creator to Visualize the Piston and Displacer Forces in an Advanced Stirling Convertor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Dipanjan; Lewandowski, Edward J.

    2013-01-01

    The steady state, nearly sinusoidal behavior of the components in a Free Piston Stirling Engine allows for visualization of the forces in the system using phasor diagrams. Based on Newton's second law, F=ma, any phasor diagrams modeling a given component in a system should close if all of the acting forces have been considered. Since the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), currently being developed for future NASA deep space missions, is made up of such nearly sinusoidally oscillating components, its phasor diagrams would also be expected to close. A graphical user interface (GUI) has been written in MATLAB by taking user input data, passing it to Sage, a 1-D thermodynamic modeling program used to model the Stirling convertor, running Sage and then automatically plotting the phasor diagrams. Using this software tool, the effect of varying different Sage inputs on the phasor diagrams was determined. The parameters varied were piston amplitude, hot end temperature, cold end temperature, operating frequency, and displacer spring constant. By using these phasor diagrams, better insight can be gained as to why the convertor operates the way that it does.

  5. Development of a Phasor Diagram Creator to Visualize the Piston and Displacer Forces in an Advanced Stirling Convertor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Dipanjan; Lewandowski, Edward J.

    2013-01-01

    The steady-state, nearly sinusoidal behavior of the components in a free-piston Stirling engine allows for visualization of the forces in the system using phasor diagrams. Based on Newton's second law, F = ma, any phasor diagrams modeling a given component in a system should close if all of the acting forces have been considered. Since the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), currently being developed for future NASA deep space missions, is made up of such nearly sinusoidally oscillating components, its phasor diagrams would also be expected to close. A graphical user interface (GUI) has been written in MATLAB (MathWorks), which takes user input data, passes it to Sage (Gedeon Associates), a one-dimensional thermodynamic modeling program used to model the Stirling convertor, runs Sage, and then automatically plots the phasor diagrams. Using this software tool, the effect of varying different Sage inputs on the phasor diagrams was determined. The parameters varied were piston amplitude, hot-end temperature, cold-end temperature, operating frequency, and displacer spring constant. These phasor diagrams offer useful insight into convertor operation and performance.

  6. Summary of Test Results From a 1 kW(sub e)-Class Free-Piston Stirling Power Convertor Integrated With a Pumped NaK Loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Maxwell H.; Geng, Steven M.; Pearson, J. Boise; Godfroy, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    As a step towards development of Stirling power conversion for potential use in Fission Surface Power (FSP) systems, a pair of commercially available 1 kW class free-piston Stirling convertors was modified to operate with a NaK liquid metal pumped loop for thermal energy input. This was the first-ever attempt at powering a free-piston Stirling engine with a pumped liquid metal heat source and is a major FSP project milestone towards demonstrating technical feasibility. The tests included performance mapping the convertors over various hot and cold-end temperatures, piston amplitudes and NaK flow rates; and transient test conditions to simulate various start-up and fault scenarios. Performance maps of the convertors generated using the pumped NaK loop for thermal input show increases in power output over those measured during baseline testing using electric heating. Transient testing showed that the Stirling convertors can be successfully started in a variety of different scenarios and that the convertors can recover from a variety of fault scenarios.

  7. Summary of Test Results From a 1 kWe-Class Free-Piston Stirling Power Convertor Integrated With a Pumped NaK Loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Maxwell H.; Geng, Steven M.; Pearson, J. Boise; Godfroy, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    As a step towards development of Stirling power conversion for potential use in Fission Surface Power (FSP) systems, a pair of commercially available 1 kW class free-piston Stirling convertors was modified to operate with a NaK liquid metal pumped loop for thermal energy input. This was the first-ever attempt at powering a free-piston Stirling engine with a pumped liquid metal heat source and is a major FSP project milestone towards demonstrating technical feasibility. The tests included performance mapping the convertors over various hot and cold-end temperatures, piston amplitudes and NaK flow rates; and transient test conditions to simulate various start-up and fault scenarios. Performance maps of the convertors generated using the pumped NaK loop for thermal input show increases in power output over those measured during baseline testing using electric heating. Transient testing showed that the Stirling convertors can be successfully started in a variety of different scenarios and that the convertors can recover from a variety of fault scenarios.

  8. Test Results From a Pair of 1-kWe Dual-Opposed Free-Piston Stirling Power Convertors Integrated With a Pumped NaK Loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Steven M.; Briggs, Maxwell H.; Penswick, L. Barry; Pearson, J. Boise; Godfroy, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    As a step towards development of Stirling power conversion for potential use in Fission Surface Power (FSP) systems, a pair of commercially available 1-kW-class free-piston Stirling convertors were modified to operate with a NaK (sodium (Na) and potassium (K)) liquid metal pumped loop for thermal energy input. This was the first-ever attempt at powering a free-piston Stirling engine with a pumped liquid metal heat source and is a major FSP project milestone towards demonstrating technical feasibility. The convertors were successfully tested at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) from June 6 through July 14, 2009. The convertors were operated for a total test time of 66 hr and 16 min. The tests included (a) performance mapping the convertors over various hot- and cold-end temperatures, piston amplitudes, and NaK flow rates and (b) transient test conditions to simulate various startup (i.e., low-, medium-, and high-temperature startups) and fault scenarios (i.e., loss of heat source, loss of NaK pump, convertor stall, etc.). This report documents the results of this testing

  9. Feasibility Demonstration of a Multi-Cylinder Stirling Convertor with a Duplex Linear Alternator, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Stirling Technology Company (STC) proposes to integrate an existing Multi-Cylinder Free-Piston Stirling Engine (MPFPSE) with innovative compact linear alternators....

  10. Thermo-Acoustic Convertor for Space Power, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Sunpower will introduce thermoacoustic Stirling heat engine (TASHE) technology into its existing Stirling convertor technology to eliminate the moving mechanical...

  11. Benchmark Calibration Tests Completed for Stirling Convertor Heater Head Life Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, David L.; Halford, Gary R.; Bowman, Randy R.

    2005-01-01

    A major phase of benchmark testing has been completed at the NASA Glenn Research Center (http://www.nasa.gov/glenn/), where a critical component of the Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG) is undergoing extensive experimentation to aid the development of an analytical life-prediction methodology. Two special-purpose test rigs subjected SRG heater-head pressure-vessel test articles to accelerated creep conditions, using the standard design temperatures to stay within the wall material s operating creep-response regime, but increasing wall stresses up to 7 times over the design point. This resulted in well-controlled "ballooning" of the heater-head hot end. The test plan was developed to provide critical input to analytical parameters in a reasonable period of time.

  12. Accelerated Life Structural Benchmark Testing for a Stirling Convertor Heater Head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, David L.; Kantzos, Pete T.

    2006-01-01

    For proposed long-duration NASA Space Science missions, the Department of Energy, Lockheed Martin, Infinia Corporation, and NASA Glenn Research Center are developing a high-efficiency, 110 W Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG110). A structurally significant limit state for the SRG110 heater head component is creep deformation induced at high material temperature and low stress level. Conventional investigations of creep behavior adequately rely on experimental results from uniaxial creep specimens, and a wealth of creep data is available for the Inconel 718 material of construction. However, the specified atypical thin heater head material is fine-grained with a heat treatment that limits precipitate growth, and little creep property data for this microstructure is available in the literature. In addition, the geometry and loading conditions apply a multiaxial stress state on the component, far from the conditions of uniaxial testing. For these reasons, an extensive experimental investigation is ongoing to aid in accurately assessing the durability of the SRG110 heater head. This investigation supplements uniaxial creep testing with pneumatic testing of heater head-like pressure vessels at design temperature with stress levels ranging from approximately the design stress to several times that. This paper presents experimental results, post-test microstructural analyses, and conclusions for four higher-stress, accelerated life tests. Analysts are using these results to calibrate deterministic and probabilistic analytical creep models of the SRG110 heater head.

  13. Structural Benchmark Creep Testing for Microcast MarM-247 Advanced Stirling Convertor E2 Heater Head Test Article SN18

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, David L.; Brewer, Ethan J.; Pawlik, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    This report provides test methodology details and qualitative results for the first structural benchmark creep test of an Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC) heater head of ASC-E2 design heritage. The test article was recovered from a flight-like Microcast MarM-247 heater head specimen previously used in helium permeability testing. The test article was utilized for benchmark creep test rig preparation, wall thickness and diametral laser scan hardware metrological developments, and induction heater custom coil experiments. In addition, a benchmark creep test was performed, terminated after one week when through-thickness cracks propagated at thermocouple weld locations. Following this, it was used to develop a unique temperature measurement methodology using contact thermocouples, thereby enabling future benchmark testing to be performed without the use of conventional welded thermocouples, proven problematic for the alloy. This report includes an overview of heater head structural benchmark creep testing, the origin of this particular test article, test configuration developments accomplished using the test article, creep predictions for its benchmark creep test, qualitative structural benchmark creep test results, and a short summary.

  14. Preliminary SP-100/Stirling heat exchanger designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitz, P.; Tower, L.; Blue, B.; Dunn, P.

    1994-01-01

    Analytic modeling of several heat exchanger concepts to couple the SP-100 nuclear reactor lithium loop and the Space Stirling Power Convertor (SSPC) was performed. Four 25 kWe SSPC's are used to produce the required 100 kW of electrical power. This design work focused on the interface between a single SSPC and the primary lithium loop. Manifolding to separate and collect the four channel flow was not modeled. This work modeled two separate types of heat exchanger interfaces (conductive coupling and radiative coupling) to explore their relative advantages and disadvantages. The minimum mass design of the conductively coupled concepts was 18 kg or 0.73 kg/kWe for a single 25 kWe convertor. The minimum mass radiatively coupled concept was 41 kg or 1.64 kg/kWe. The direct conduction heat exchanger provides a lighter weight system because of its ability to operate the Stirling convertor evaporator at higher heat fluxes than those attainable by the radiatively coupled systems. Additionally the conductively coupled concepts had relatively small volumes and provide potentially simpler assembly. Their disadvantages were the tight tolerances and material joining problems associated with this refractory to superalloy interface. The advantages of the radiatively coupled designs were the minimal material interface problems

  15. Stirling Engine Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaze, Gina M.

    2004-01-01

    Stirling technology is being developed to replace RTG s (Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators), more specifically a stirling convertor, which is a stirling engine coupled to a linear alternator. Over the past three decades, the stirling engine has been designed to perform different functions. Stirling convertors have been designed to decrease fuel consumption in automobiles. They have also been designed for terrestrial and space applications. Currently NASA Glenn is using the convertor for space based applications. A stiring converter is a better means of power for deep space mission and "dusty" mission, like the Mars Rovers, than solar panels because it is not affected by dust. Spirit and Opportunity, two Mars rovers currently navigating the planet, are losing their ability to generate electricity because dust is collecting on their solar panels. Opportunity is losing more energy because its robotic arm has a heater with a switch that can not be turned off. The heater is not needed at night, but yet still runs. This generates a greater loss of electricity and in turn diminishes the performance of the rover. The stirling cycle has the potential to provide very efficient conversion of heat energy to electric a1 energy, more so than RTG's. The stirling engine converts the thermal energy produced by the decaying radioisotope to mechanical energy; the linear alternator converts this into electricity. convertor. Since the early 1990's tests have been performed to maximize the efficiency of the stirling converter. Many months, even years, are dedicated to preparing and performing tests. Currently, two stirling convertors #'s 13 and 14, which were developed by Stirling Technology Company, are on an extended operation test. As of June 7th, the two convertors reached 7,500 hours each of operation. Before the convertors could run unattended, many safety precautions had to be examined. So, special instrumentation and circuits were developed to detect off nominal conditions

  16. Insoluble Coatings for Stirling Engine Heat Pipe Condenser Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussinger, Peter M.; Lindemuth, James E.

    1997-01-01

    The principal objective of this Phase 2 SBIR program was to develop and demonstrate a practically insoluble coating for nickel-based superalloys for Stirling engine heat pipe applications. Specific technical objectives of the program were: (1) Determine the solubility corrosion rates for Nickel 200, Inconel 718, and Udimet 72OLI in a simulated Stirling engine heat pipe environment, (2) Develop coating processes and techniques for capillary groove and screen wick structures, (3) Evaluate the durability and solubility corrosion rates for capillary groove and screen wick structures coated with an insoluble coating in cylindrical heat pipes operating under Stirling engine conditions, and (4) Design and fabricate a coated full-scale, partial segment of the current Stirling engine heat pipe for the Stirling Space Power Convertor program. The work effort successfully demonstrated a two-step nickel aluminide coating process for groove wick structures and interior wall surfaces in contact with liquid metals; demonstrated a one-step nickel aluminide coating process for nickel screen wick structures; and developed and demonstrated a two-step aluminum-to-nickel aluminide coating process for nickel screen wick structures. In addition, the full-scale, partial segment was fabricated and the interior surfaces and wick structures were coated. The heat pipe was charged with sodium, processed, and scheduled to be life tested for up to ten years as a Phase 3 effort.

  17. Modular Stirling Radioisotope Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Paul C.; Mason, Lee S.; Schifer, Nicholas A.

    2016-01-01

    High-efficiency radioisotope power generators will play an important role in future NASA space exploration missions. Stirling Radioisotope Generators (SRGs) have been identified as a candidate generator technology capable of providing mission designers with an efficient, high-specific-power electrical generator. SRGs high conversion efficiency has the potential to extend the limited Pu-238 supply when compared with current Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs). Due to budgetary constraints, the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) was canceled in the fall of 2013. Over the past year a joint study by NASA and the Department of Energy (DOE) called the Nuclear Power Assessment Study (NPAS) recommended that Stirling technologies continue to be explored. During the mission studies of the NPAS, spare SRGs were sometimes required to meet mission power system reliability requirements. This led to an additional mass penalty and increased isotope consumption levied on certain SRG-based missions. In an attempt to remove the spare power system, a new generator architecture is considered, which could increase the reliability of a Stirling generator and provide a more fault-tolerant power system. This new generator called the Modular Stirling Radioisotope Generator (MSRG) employs multiple parallel Stirling convertor/controller strings, all of which share the heat from the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules. For this design, generators utilizing one to eight GPHS modules were analyzed, which provided about 50 to 450 W of direct current (DC) to the spacecraft, respectively. Four Stirling convertors are arranged around each GPHS module resulting in from 4 to 32 Stirling/controller strings. The convertors are balanced either individually or in pairs, and are radiatively coupled to the GPHS modules. Heat is rejected through the housing/radiator, which is similar in construction to the ASRG. Mass and power analysis for these systems indicate that specific

  18. Update on the NASA GRC Stirling Technology development project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieme, Lanny G.; Schreiber, Jeffrey G.

    2001-02-01

    The Department of Energy, NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), and Stirling Technology Company (STC) are developing a free-piston Stirling convertor for a Stirling radioisotope power system (SRPS) to provide spacecraft on-board electric power for NASA deep space missions. The SRPS has recently been identified for potential use on the Europa Orbiter and Solar Probe Space Science missions. Stirling is also now being considered for unmanned Mars rovers. NASA GRC is conducting an in-house project to assist in developing the Stirling convertor for readiness for space qualification and mission implementation. As part of this continuing effort, the Stirling convertor will be further characterized under launch environment random vibration testing, methods to reduce convertor electromagnetic interference (EMI) will be developed, and an independent performance verification will be completed. Convertor life assessment and permanent magnet aging characterization tasks are also underway. Substitute organic materials for the linear alternator and piston bearing coatings for use in a high radiation environment have been identified and have now been incorporated in Stirling convertors built by STC for GRC. Electromagnetic and thermal finite element analyses for the alternator are also being conducted. This paper discusses the recent results and status for this NASA GRC in-house project. .

  19. The NASA Next Generation Stirling Technology Program Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, J. G.; Shaltens, R. K.; Wong, W. A.

    2005-12-01

    NASAs Science Mission Directorate is developing the next generation Stirling technology for future Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for surface and deep space missions. The next generation Stirling convertor is one of two advanced power conversion technologies currently being developed for future NASA missions, and is capable of operating for both planetary atmospheres and deep space environments. The Stirling convertor (free-piston engine integrated with a linear alternator) produces about 90 We(ac) and has a specific power of about 90 We/kg. Operating conditions of Thot at 850 degree C and Trej at 90 degree C results in the Stirling convertor estimated efficiency of about 40 per cent. Using the next generation Stirling convertor in future RPS, the "system" specific power is estimated at 8 We/kg. The design lifetime is three years on the surface of Mars and fourteen years in deep space missions. Electrical power of about 160 We (BOM) is produced by two (2) free-piston Stirling convertors heated by two (2) General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules. This development is being performed by Sunpower, Athens, OH with Pratt & Whitney, Rocketdyne, Canoga Park, CA under contract to Glenn Research Center (GRC), Cleveland, Ohio. GRC is guiding the independent testing and technology development for the next generation Stirling generator.

  20. Stirling Technology Development at NASA GRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieme, Lanny G.; Schreiber, Jeffrey G.; Mason, Lee S.

    2001-01-01

    The Department of Energy, Stirling Technology Company (STC), and NASA Glenn Research Center (NASA Glenn) are developing a free-piston Stirling convertor for a high efficiency Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG) for NASA Space Science missions. The SRG is being developed for multimission use, including providing electric power for unmanned Mars rovers and deep space missions. NASA Glenn is conducting an in-house technology project to assist in developing the convertor for space qualification and mission implementation. Recent testing of 55-We Technology Demonstration Convertors (TDCs) built by STC includes mapping of a second pair of TDCs, single TDC testing, and TDC electromagnetic interference and electromagnetic compatibility characterization on a nonmagnetic test stand. Launch environment tests of a single TDC without its pressure vessel to better understand the convertor internal structural dynamics and of dual-opposed TDCs with several engineering mounting structures with different natural frequencies have recently been completed. A preliminary life assessment has been completed for the TDC heater head, and creep testing of the IN718 material to be used for the flight convertors is underway. Long-term magnet aging tests are continuing to characterize any potential aging in the strength or demagnetization resistance of the magnets used in the linear alternator (LA). Evaluations are now beginning on key organic materials used in the LA and piston/rod surface coatings. NASA Glenn is also conducting finite element analyses for the LA, in part to look at the demagnetization margin on the permanent magnets. The world's first known integrated test of a dynamic power system with electric propulsion was achieved at NASA Glenn when a Hall-effect thruster was successfully operated with a free-piston Stirling power source. Cleveland State University is developing a multidimensional Stirling computational fluid dynamics code to significantly improve Stirling loss

  1. Stirling Technology Development at NASA GRC. Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieme, Lanny G.; Schreiber, Jeffrey G.; Mason, Lee S.

    2002-01-01

    The Department of Energy, Stirling Technology Company (STC), and NASA Glenn Research Center (NASA Glenn) are developing a free-piston Stirling convertor for a high-efficiency Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG) for NASA Space Science missions. The SRG is being developed for multimission use, including providing electric power for unmanned Mars rovers and deep space missions. NASA Glenn is conducting an in-house technology project to assist in developing the convertor for space qualification and mission implementation. Recent testing, of 55-We Technology Demonstration Convertors (TDC's) built by STC includes mapping, of a second pair of TDC's, single TDC testing, and TDC electromagnetic interference and electromagnetic compatibility characterization on a nonmagnetic test stand. Launch environment tests of a single TDC without its pressure vessel to better understand the convertor internal structural dynamics and of dual-opposed TDC's with several engineering mounting structures with different natural frequencies have recently been completed. A preliminary life assessment has been completed for the TDC heater head, and creep testing of the IN718 material to be used for the flight convertors is underway. Long-term magnet aging tests are continuing to characterize any potential aging in the strength or demagnetization resistance of the magnets used in the linear alternator (LA). Evaluations are now beginning on key organic materials used in the LA and piston/rod surface coatings. NASA Glenn is also conducting finite element analyses for the LA, in part to look at the demagnetization margin on the permanent magnets. The world's first known integrated test of a dynamic power system with electric propulsion was achieved at NASA Glenn when a Hall-effect thruster was successfully operated with a free-piston Stirling power source. Cleveland State University is developing a multidimensional Stirling computational fluid dynamics code to significantly improve Stirling loss

  2. Stirling technology development at NASA GRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieme, Lanny G.; Schreiber, Jeffrey G.; Mason, Lee S.

    2002-01-01

    The Department of Energy, Stirling Technology Company (STC), and NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) are developing a free-piston Stirling convertor for a high-efficiency Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG) for NASA Space Science missions. The SRG is being developed for multimission use, including providing electric power for unmanned Mars rovers and deep space missions. NASA GRC is conducting an in-house technology project to assist in developing the convertor for space qualification and mission implementation. Recent testing of 55-We Technology Demonstration Convertors (TDC's) built by STC includes mapping of a second pair of TDC's, single TDC testing, and TDC electromagnetic interference and electromagnetic compatibility characterization on a non-magnetic test stand. Launch environment tests of a single TDC without its pressure vessel to better understand the convertor internal structural dynamics and of dual-opposed TDC's with several engineering mounting structures with different natural frequencies have recently been completed. A preliminary life assessment has been completed for the TDC heater head, and creep testing of the IN718 material to be used for the flight convertors is underway. Long-term magnet aging tests are continuing to characterize any potential aging in the strength or demagnetization resistance of the magnets used in the linear alternator (LA). Evaluations are now beginning on key organic materials used in the LA and piston/rod surface coatings. GRC is also conducting finite element analyses for the LA, in part to look at the demagnetization margin on the permanent magnets. The world's first known integrated test of a dynamic power system with electric propulsion was achieved at GRC when a Hall-effect thruster was successfully operated with a free-piston Stirling power source. Cleveland State University is developing a multi-dimensional Stirling computational fluid dynamics code to significantly improve Stirling loss predictions and assist in

  3. A comparative reliability analysis of free-piston Stirling machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Jeffrey G.

    2001-02-01

    A free-piston Stirling power convertor is being developed for use in an advanced radioisotope power system to provide electric power for NASA deep space missions. These missions are typically long lived, lasting for up to 14 years. The Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for providing the radioisotope power system for the NASA missions, and has managed the development of the free-piston power convertor for this application. The NASA Glenn Research Center has been involved in the development of Stirling power conversion technology for over 25 years and is currently providing support to DOE. Due to the nature of the potential missions, long life and high reliability are important features for the power system. Substantial resources have been spent on the development of long life Stirling cryocoolers for space applications. As a very general statement, free-piston Stirling power convertors have many features in common with free-piston Stirling cryocoolers, however there are also significant differences. For example, designs exist for both power convertors and cryocoolers that use the flexure bearing support system to provide noncontacting operation of the close-clearance moving parts. This technology and the operating experience derived from one application may be readily applied to the other application. This similarity does not pertain in the case of outgassing and contamination. In the cryocooler, the contaminants normally condense in the critical heat exchangers and foul the performance. In the Stirling power convertor just the opposite is true as contaminants condense on non-critical surfaces. A methodology was recently published that provides a relative comparison of reliability, and is applicable to systems. The methodology has been applied to compare the reliability of a Stirling cryocooler relative to that of a free-piston Stirling power convertor. The reliability analysis indicates that the power convertor should be able to have superior reliability

  4. Materials-of-Construction Radiation Sensitivity for a Fission Surface Power Convertor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Cheryl L.; Geng, Steven M.; Niedra, Janis M.; Sayir, Ali; Shin, Eugene E.; Sutter, James K.; Thieme, Lanny G.

    2007-01-01

    A fission reactor combined with a free-piston Stirling convertor is one of many credible approaches for producing electrical power in space applications. This study assumes dual-opposed free-piston Stirling engines/linear alternators that will operate nominally at 825 K hot-end and 425 K cold-end temperatures. The baseline design options, temperature profiles, and materials of construction discussed here are based on historical designs as well as modern convertors operating at lower power levels. This notional design indicates convertors primarily made of metallic components that experience minimal change in mechanical properties for fast neutron fluences less than 10(sup 20) neutrons per square centimeter. However, these radiation effects can impact the magnetic and electrical properties of metals at much lower fluences than are crucial for mechanical property integrity. Moreover, a variety of polymeric materials are also used in common free-piston Stirling designs for bonding, seals, lubrication, insulation and others. Polymers can be affected adversely by radiation doses as low as 10(sup 5) - 10(sup 10) rad. Additionally, the absorbing dose rate, radiation hardness, and the resulting effect (either hardening or softening) varies depending on the nature of the particular polymer. The classes of polymers currently used in convertor fabrication are discussed along possible substitution options. Thus, the materials of construction of prototypic Stirling convertor engines have been considered and the component materials susceptible to damage at the lowest neutron fluences have been identified.

  5. Technology development for a Stirling radioisotope power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thieme, Lanny G.; Qiu, Songgang; White, Maurice A.

    2000-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center and the Department of Energy are developing a Stirling convertor for an advanced radioisotope power system to provide spacecraft on-board electric power for NASA deep space missions. NASA Glenn is addressing key technology issues through the use of two NASA Phase II SBIRs with Stirling Technology Company (STC) of Kennewick, WA. Under the first SBIR, STC demonstrated a synchronous connection of two thermodynamically independent free-piston Stirling convertors and a 40 to 50 fold reduction in vibrations compared to an unbalanced convertor. The second SBIR is for the development of an Adaptive Vibration Reduction System (AVRS) that will essentially eliminate vibrations over the mission lifetime, even in the unlikely event of a failed convertor. This paper presents the status and results for these two SBIR projects and also discusses a new NASA Glenn in-house project to provide supporting technology for the overall Stirling radioisotope power system development. Tasks for this new effort include convertor performance verification, controls development, heater head structural life assessment, magnet characterization and thermal aging tests, FEA analysis for a lightweight alternator concept, and demonstration of convertor operation under launch and orbit transfer load conditions

  6. Maturing Technologies for Stirling Space Power Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Scott D.; Nowlin, Brentley C.; Dobbs, Michael W.; Schmitz, Paul C.; Huth, James

    2016-01-01

    Stirling Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) are being developed as an option to provide power on future space science missions where robotic spacecraft will orbit, flyby, land or rove. A Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG) could offer space missions a more efficient power system that uses one fourth of the nuclear fuel and decreases the thermal footprint of the current state of the art. The RPS Program Office, working in collaboration with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), manages projects to develop thermoelectric and dynamic power systems, including Stirling Radioisotope Generators (SRGs). The Stirling Cycle Technology Development (SCTD) Project, located at Glenn Research Center (GRC), is developing Stirling-based subsystems, including convertors and controllers. The SCTD Project also performs research that focuses on a wide variety of objectives, including increasing convertor temperature capability to enable new environments, improving system reliability or fault tolerance, reducing mass or size, and developing advanced concepts that are mission enabling. Research activity includes maturing subsystems, assemblies, and components to prepare them for infusion into future convertor and generator designs. The status of several technology development efforts are described here. As part of the maturation process, technologies are assessed for readiness in higher-level subsystems. To assess the readiness level of the Dual Convertor Controller (DCC), a Technology Readiness Assessment (TRA) was performed and the process and results are shown. Stirling technology research is being performed by the SCTD Project for NASA's RPS Program Office, where tasks focus on maturation of Stirling-based systems and subsystems for future space science missions.

  7. Development of a Stirling System Dynamic Model with Enhanced Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Timothy F.; Lewandowski, Edward J.

    2005-02-01

    The Stirling Convertor System Dynamic Model developed at NASA Glenn Research Center is a software model developed from first principles that includes the mechanical and mounting dynamics, the thermodynamics, the linear alternator, and the controller of a free-piston Stirling power convertor, along with the end user load. As such it represents the first detailed modeling tool for fully integrated Stirling convertor-based power systems. The thermodynamics of the model were originally a form of the isothermal Stirling cycle. In some situations it may be desirable to improve the accuracy of the Stirling cycle portion of the model. An option under consideration is to enhance the SDM thermodynamics by coupling the model with Gedeon Associates' Sage simulation code. The result will be a model that gives a more accurate prediction of the performance and dynamics of the free-piston Stirling convertor. A method of integrating the Sage simulation code with the System Dynamic Model is described. Results of SDM and Sage simulation are compared to test data. Model parameter estimation and model validation are discussed.

  8. Status of an advanced radioisotope space power system using free-piston Stirling technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, M.A.; Qiu, S.; Erbeznik, R.M.; Olan, R.W.; Welty, S.C.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes a free-piston Stirling engine technology project to demonstrate a high efficiency power system capable of being further developed for deep space missions using a radioisotope (RI) heat source. The key objective is to develop a power system with an efficiency exceeding 20% that can function with a high degree of reliability for 10 years or longer on deep space missions. Primary issues being addressed for Stirling space power systems are weight and the vibration associated with reciprocating pistons. Similar weight and vibration issues have been successfully addressed with Stirling cryocoolers, which are the accepted standard for cryogenic cooling in space. Integrated long-life Stirling engine-generator (or convertor) operation has been demonstrated by the terrestrial Radioisotope Stirling Generator (RSG) and other Stirling Technology Company (STC) programs. Extensive RSG endurance testing includes more than 40,000 maintenance-free, degradation-free hours for the complete convertor, in addition to several critical component and subsystem endurance tests. The Stirling space power convertor project is being conducted by STC under DOE Contract, and NASA SBIR Phase II contracts. The DOE contract objective is to demonstrate a two-convertor module that represents half of a nominal 150-W(e) power system. Each convertor is referred to as a Technology Demonstration Convertor (TDC). The ultimate Stirling power system would be fueled by three general purpose heat source (GPHS) modules, and is projected to produce substantially more electric power than the 150-watt target. The system is capable of full power output with one failed convertor. One NASA contract, nearing completion, uses existing 350-W(e) RG-350 convertors to evaluate interactivity of two back-to-back balanced convertors with various degrees of electrical and mechanical interaction. This effort has recently provided the first successful synchronization of two convertors by means of parallel

  9. Alkali Metal Backup Cooling for Stirling Systems - Experimental Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwendeman, Carl; Tarau, Calin; Anderson, William G.; Cornell, Peggy A.

    2013-01-01

    In a Stirling Radioisotope Power System (RPS), heat must be continuously removed from the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules to maintain the modules and surrounding insulation at acceptable temperatures. The Stirling convertor normally provides this cooling. If the Stirling convertor stops in the current system, the insulation is designed to spoil, preventing damage to the GPHS at the cost of an early termination of the mission. An alkali-metal Variable Conductance Heat Pipe (VCHP) can be used to passively allow multiple stops and restarts of the Stirling convertor. In a previous NASA SBIR Program, Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc. (ACT) developed a series of sodium VCHPs as backup cooling systems for Stirling RPS. The operation of these VCHPs was demonstrated using Stirling heater head simulators and GPHS simulators. In the most recent effort, a sodium VCHP with a stainless steel envelope was designed, fabricated and tested at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) with a Stirling convertor for two concepts; one for the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) back up cooling system and one for the Long-lived Venus Lander thermal management system. The VCHP is designed to activate and remove heat from the stopped convertor at a 19 degC temperature increase from the nominal vapor temperature. The 19 degC temperature increase from nominal is low enough to avoid risking standard ASRG operation and spoiling of the Multi-Layer Insulation (MLI). In addition, the same backup cooling system can be applied to the Stirling convertor used for the refrigeration system of the Long-lived Venus Lander. The VCHP will allow the refrigeration system to: 1) rest during transit at a lower temperature than nominal; 2) pre-cool the modules to an even lower temperature before the entry in Venus atmosphere; 3) work at nominal temperature on Venus surface; 4) briefly stop multiple times on the Venus surface to allow scientific measurements. This paper presents the experimental

  10. Liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic convertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aladiev, I.T.; Dzhamardzhashvili, V.A.

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to the generation of electrical energy by direct conversion from thermal or electrical energy and notably to liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic convertors. The convertor described in this invention can be successfully used as a source of electrical energy for space vessels, for underwater vessels, for aeronautics and for the generation of electrical energy in thermal or atomic power plants. This liquid metal convertor consists of a heat source, a two phase nozzle, a separator, a steam diffuser and a condenser. These elements are connected together hydraulically in series. The condenser is connected hydraulically to a heat source, a liquid diffuser and a magnetohydrodynamic generator. These elements are interconnected hydraulically to the separator and heat source [fr

  11. Accomplishments in free-piston stirling tests at NASA GRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Jeffrey G.; Skupinski, Robert C.

    2002-01-01

    A power system based on the Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG) has been identified for potential use on deep space missions, as well as for Mars rovers that may benefit from extended operation. The Department of Energy (DOE) has responsibility for developing the generator and the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is supporting DOE in this effort. The generator is based on a free-piston Stirling power convertor that has been developed by the Stirling Technology Company (STC) under contract to DOE. The generator would be used as a high-efficiency alternative to the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) that have been used on many previous missions. The increased efficiency leads to a factor of 3 to 4 reduction in the inventory of plutonium required to heat the generator. GRC has been involved in the development of Stirling power conversion technology for over 25 years. The support provided to this project by GRC has many facets and draws upon the lab's scientists and engineers that have gained experience in applying their skills to the previous Stirling projects. This has created a staff with an understanding of the subtleties involved in applying their expertise to Stirling systems. Areas include materials, structures, tribology, controls, electromagnetic interference, permanent magnets, alternator analysis, structural dynamics, and cycle performance. One of the key areas of support to the project is in the performance testing of the free-piston Stirling convertors. Since these power convertors are the smallest, lowest power Stirling machines that have been tested at GRC, a new laboratory was equipped for this project. Procedures and test plans have been created, instrumentation and data systems developed, and Stirling convertors have been tested. This paper will describe the GRC test facility, the test procedures that are used, present some of the test results and outline plans for the future. .

  12. Characterization of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Engineering Unit 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Edward J.; Oriti, Salvatore M.; Schifer, Niholas A.

    2016-01-01

    Significant progress was made developing the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) 140-W radioisotope power system. While the ASRG flight development project has ended, the hardware that was designed and built under the project is continuing to be tested to support future Stirling-based power system development. NASA Glenn Research Center recently completed the assembly of the ASRG Engineering Unit 2 (EU2). The ASRG EU2 consists of the first pair of Sunpower's Advanced Stirling Convertor E3 (ASC-E3) Stirling convertors mounted in an aluminum housing, and Lockheed Martin's Engineering Development Unit (EDU) 4 controller (a fourth-generation controller). The ASC-E3 convertors and Generator Housing Assembly (GHA) closely match the intended ASRG Qualification Unit flight design. A series of tests were conducted to characterize the EU2, its controller, and the convertors in the flight-like GHA. The GHA contained an argon cover gas for these tests. The tests included measurement of convertor, controller, and generator performance and efficiency; quantification of control authority of the controller; disturbance force measurement with varying piston phase and piston amplitude; and measurement of the effect of spacecraft direct current (DC) bus voltage on EU2 performance. The results of these tests are discussed and summarized, providing a basic understanding of EU2 characteristics and the performance and capability of the EDU 4 controller.

  13. Stirling Refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa, Noboru

    A Stirling cooler (refrigerator) was proposed in 1862 and the first Stirling cooler was put on market in 1955. Since then, many Stirling coolers have been developed and marketed as cryocoolers. Recently, Stirling cycle machines for heating and cooling at near-ambient temperatures between 173 and 400K, are recognized as promising candidates for alternative system which are more compatible with people and the Earth. The ideal cycles of Stirling cycle machine offer the highest thermal efficiencies and the working fluids do not cause serious environmental problems of ozone depletion and global warming. In this review, the basic thermodynamics of Stirling cycle are briefly described to quantify the attractive cycle performance. The fundamentals to realize actual Stirling coolers and heat pumps are introduced in detail. The current status of the Stirling cycle machine technologies is reviewed. Some machines have almost achieved the target performance. Also, duplex-Stirling-cycle and Vuilleumier-cycle machines and their performance are introduced.

  14. Sodium Variable Conductance Heat Pipe for Radioisotope Stirling Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarau, Calin; Anderson, William G.; Walker, Kara

    2009-01-01

    In a Stirling radioisotope system, heat must continually be removed from the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules to maintain the modules and surrounding insulation at acceptable temperatures. Normally, the Stirling convertor provides this cooling. If the converter stops in the current system, the insulation is designed to spoil, preventing damage to the GPHS, and also ending the mission. An alkali-metal Variable Conductance Heat Pipe (VCHP) has been designed to allow multiple stops and restarts of the Stirling convertor in an Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG). When the Stirling convertor is turned off, the VCHP will activate when the temperatures rises 30 C above the setpoint temperature. A prototype VCHP with sodium as the working fluid was fabricated and tested in both gravity aided and against gravity conditions for a nominal heater head temperature of 790 C. The results show very good agreement with the predictions and validate the model. The gas front was located at the exit of the reservoir when heater head temperature was 790 C while cooling was ON, simulating an operating Advanced Stirling Converter (ASC). When cooling stopped, the temperature increased by 30 C, allowing the gas front to move past the radiator, which transferred the heat to the case. After resuming the cooling flow, the front returned at the initial location turning OFF the VCHP. The against gravity working conditions showed a colder reservoir and faster transients.

  15. Overview of Multi-Kilowatt Free-Piston Stirling Power Conversion Research at Glenn Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Steven M.; Mason, Lee S.; Dyson, Rodger W.; Penswick, L. Barry

    2008-01-01

    As a step towards development of Stirling power conversion for potential use in Fission Surface Power (FSP) systems, a pair of commercially available 1 kW class free-piston Stirling convertors and a pair of commercially available pressure wave generators (which will be plumbed together to create a high power Stirling linear alternator test rig) have been procured for in-house testing at Glenn Research Center (GRC). Delivery of both the Stirling convertors and the linear alternator test rig is expected by October 2007. The 1 kW class free-piston Stirling convertors will be tested at GRC to map and verify performance. The convertors will later be modified to operate with a NaK liquid metal pumped loop for thermal energy input. The high power linear alternator test rig will be used to map and verify high power Stirling linear alternator performance and to develop power management and distribution (PMAD) methods and techniques. This paper provides an overview of the multi-kilowatt free-piston Stirling power conversion work being performed at GRC.

  16. Overview of Multi-kilowatt Free-Piston Stirling Power Conversion Research at GRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Steven M.; Mason, Lee S.; Dyson, Rodger W.; Penswick, L. Barry

    2008-01-01

    As a step towards development of Stirling power conversion for potential use in Fission Surface Power (FSP) systems, a pair of commercially available 1 kW class free-piston Stirling convertors and a pair of commercially available pressure wave generators (which will be plumbed together to create a high power Stirling linear alternator test rig) have been procured for in-house testing at Glenn Research Center. Delivery of both the Stirling convertors and the linear alternator test rig is expected by October, 2007. The 1 kW class free-piston Stirling convertors will be tested at GRC to map and verify performance. The convertors will later be modified to operate with a NaK liquid metal pumped loop for thermal energy input. The high power linear alternator test rig will be used to map and verify high power Stirling linear alternator performance and to develop power management and distribution (PMAD) methods and techniques. This paper provides an overview of the multi-kilowatt free-piston Stirling power conversion work being performed at GRC.

  17. Overview of Multi-Kilowatt Free-Piston Stirling Power Conversion Research at GRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Steven M.; Mason, Lee S.; Dyson, Rodger W.; Penswick, L. Barry

    2008-01-01

    As a step towards development of Stirling power conversion for potential use in Fission Surface Power (FSP) systems, a pair of commercially available 1 kW class free-piston Stirling convertors and a pair of commercially available pressure wave generators (which will be plumbed together to create a high power Stirling linear alternator test rig) have been procured for in-house testing at Glenn Research Center. Delivery of both the Stirling convertors and the linear alternator test rig is expected by October, 2007. The 1 kW class free-piston Stirling convertors will be tested at GRC to map and verify performance. The convertors will later be modified to operate with a NaK liquid metal pumped loop for thermal energy input. The high power linear alternator test rig will be used to map and verify high power Stirling linear alternator performance and to develop power management and distribution (PMAD) methods and techniques. This paper provides an overview of the multi-kilowatt free-piston Stirling power conversion work being performed at GRC.

  18. Composite Matrix Regenerator for Stirling Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Timothy R.

    1997-01-01

    This project concerns the design, fabrication and testing of carbon regenerators for use in Stirling power convertors. Radial fiber design with nonmetallic components offers a number of potential advantages over conventional steel regenerators: reduced conduction and pressure drop losses, and the capability for higher temperature, higher frequency operation. Diverse composite fabrication methods are explored and lessons learned are summarized. A pulsed single-blow test rig has been developed that has been used for generating thermal effectiveness data for different flow velocities. Carbon regenerators have been fabricated by carbon vapor infiltration of electroflocked preforms. Performance data in a small Stirling engine are obtained. Prototype regenerators designed for the BP-1000 power convertor were fabricated and delivered to NASA-Lewis.

  19. Dynamic Analysis and Test Results for an STC Stirling Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Songgang; Peterson, Allen A.

    2004-02-01

    Long-life, high-efficiency generators based on free-piston Stirling machines are a future energy-conversion solution for both space and commercial applications. To aid in design and system integration efforts, Stirling Technology Company (STC) has developed dynamic simulation models for the internal moving subassemblies and for complete Stirling convertor assemblies. These dynamic models have been validated using test data from operating prototypes. Simplified versions of these models are presented to help explain the operating characteristics of the Stirling convertor. Power spectrum analysis is presented for the test data for casing acceleration, piston motion, displacer motion, and controller current/voltage during full power operation. The harmonics of a Stirling convertor and its moving components are identified for the STC zener-diode control scheme. The dynamic behavior of each moving component and its contribution to the system dynamics and resultant vibration forces are discussed. Additionally, the effects of a passive balancer and external suspension are predicted by another simplified system model.

  20. Overview of Stirling Technology Research at NASA Glenn Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Scott D.; Schifer, Nicholas A.; Williams, Zachary D.; Metscher, Jonathan F.

    2016-01-01

    Stirling Radioisotope Power Systems (RPSs) are under development to provide power on future space science missions where robotic spacecraft will orbit, fly by, land, or rove using less than a quarter of the plutonium the currently available RPS uses to produce about the same power. NASA Glenn Research Center's newly formulated Stirling Cycle Technology Development Project (SCTDP) continues development of Stirling-based systems and subsystems, which include a flight-like generator and related housing assembly, controller, and convertors. The project also develops less mature technologies under Stirling Technology Research, with a focus on demonstration in representative environments to increase the technology readiness level (TRL). Matured technologies are evaluated for selection in future generator designs. Stirling Technology Research tasks focus on a wide variety of objectives, including increasing temperature capability to enable new environments, reducing generator mass and/or size, improving reliability and system fault tolerance, and developing alternative designs. The task objectives and status are summarized.

  1. Characterization of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator EU2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Edward J.; Oriti, Salvatore M.; Schifer, Nicholas A.

    2015-01-01

    Significant progress was made developing the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), a 140-watt radioisotope power system. While the ASRG flight development project has ended, the hardware that was designed and built under the project is continuing to be tested to support future Stirling-based power system development. NASA GRC recently completed the assembly of the ASRG Engineering Unit 2 (EU2). The ASRG EU2 consists of the first pair of Sunpower's ASC-E3 Stirling convertors mounted in an aluminum housing, and Lockheed Martin's Engineering Development Unit (EDU) 4 controller (a fourth generation controller). The ASC-E3 convertors and Generator Housing Assembly (GHA) closely match the intended ASRG Qualification Unit flight design. A series of tests were conducted to characterize the EU2, its controller, and the convertors in the flight-like GHA. The GHA contained an argon cover gas for these tests. The tests included: measurement of convertor, controller, and generator performance and efficiency, quantification of control authority of the controller, disturbance force measurement with varying piston phase and piston amplitude, and measurement of the effect of spacecraft DC bus voltage on EU2 performance. The results of these tests are discussed and summarized, providing a basic understanding of EU2 characteristics and the performance and capability of the EDU 4 controller.

  2. Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) Thermal Power Model in MATLAB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Yen, J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a one-dimensional steady-state mathematical thermal power model of the ASRG. It aims to provide a guideline of understanding how the ASRG works and what can change its performance. The thermal dynamics and energy balance of the generator is explained using the thermal circuit of the ASRG. The Stirling convertor performance map is used to represent the convertor. How the convertor performance map is coupled in the thermal circuit is explained. The ASRG performance characteristics under i) different sink temperatures and ii) over the years of mission (YOM) are predicted using the one-dimensional model. Two Stirling converter control strategies, i) fixing the hot-end of temperature of the convertor by adjusting piston amplitude and ii) fixing the piston amplitude, were tested in the model. Numerical results show that the first control strategy can result in a higher system efficiency than the second control strategy when the ambient gets warmer or the general-purpose heat source (GPHS) fuel load decays over the YOM. The ASRG performance data presented in this paper doesn't pertain to the ASRG flight unit. Some data of the ASRG engineering unit (EU) and flight unit that are available in public domain are used in this paper for the purpose of numerical studies.

  3. Assessment of 25 kW free-piston Stirling technology alternatives for solar applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbeznik, Raymond M.; White, Maurice A.; Penswick, L. B.; Neely, Ronald E.; Ritter, Darren C.; Wallace, David A.

    1992-01-01

    The final design, construction, and testing of a 25-kW free-piston advanced Stirling conversion system (ASCS) are examined. The final design of the free-piston hydraulic ASCS consists of five subsystems: heat transport subsystem (solar receiver and pool boiler), free-piston hydraulic Stirling engine, hydraulic subsystem, cooling subsystem, and electrical and control subsystem. Advantages and disadvantages are identified for each technology alternative. Technology alternatives considered are gas bearings vs flexure bearings, stationary magnet linear alternator vs moving magnetic linear alternator, and seven different control options. Component designs are generated using available in-house procedures to meet the requirements of the free-piston Stirling convertor configurations.

  4. Performance of a Kilowatt-Class Stirling Power Conversion System in a Thermodynamically-Coupled Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, S. M.; Briggs, M. H.; Hervol, D. S.

    A pair of 1kWe free-piston Stirling power convertors has been modified into a thermodynamically coupled configuration, and performance map testing has been completed. This is the same configuration planned for the full-scale 12 kWe power conversion unit (PCU) that will be used in the Fission Power System Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU). The 1-kWe convertors were operated over a range of conditions to evaluate the effects of thermodynamic coupling on convertor performance and to identify any possible control challenges. The thermodynamically coupled convertor showed no measurable difference in performance from the baseline data collected when the engines were separate and no major control issues were encountered during operation. The results of this test are guiding controller development and instrumentation selection for the TDU.

  5. Stirling Radioisotope Power System as an Alternative for NASAs Deep Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaltens, R. K.; Mason, L. S.; Schreiber, J. G.

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) and the Department of Energy (DOE) are developing a free-piston Stirling convertor for a Stirling Radioisotope Power System (SRPS) to provide on-board electric power for future NASA deep space missions. The SRPS currently being developed provides about 100 watts and reduces the amount of radioisotope fuel by a factor of four over conventional Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG). The present SRPS design has a specific power of approximately 4 W/kg which is comparable to an RTG. GRC estimates for advanced versions of the SRPS with improved heat source integration, lightweight Stirling convertors, composite radiators, and chip-packaged controllers improves the specific mass to about 8 W/kg. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  6. Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator EU2 Anomaly Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Edward J.; Dobbs, Michael W.; Oriti, Salvatore M.

    2016-01-01

    The Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) Engineering Unit 2 (EU2) is the highest fidelity electrically-heated Stirling radioisotope generator built to date. NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) completed the assembly of the ASRG EU2 in September, 2014 using hardware from the now cancelled ASRG flight development project. The ASRG EU2 integrated the first pair of Sunpower's ASC-E3 Stirling convertors (ASC-E3 #1 and #2) in an aluminum generator housing with Lockheed Martin's Engineering Development Unit (EDU) 4 controller. After just 179 hours of EU2 generator operation, the first power fluctuation occurred on ASC-E3 #1. The first power fluctuation occurred 175 hours later on ASC-E3 #2. Over time, the power fluctuations became more frequent on both convertors and larger in magnitude. Eventually the EU2 was shut down in January, 2015. An anomaly investigation was chartered to determine root cause of the power fluctuations and other anomalous observations. A team with members from GRC, Sunpower, and Lockheed Martin conducted a thorough investigation of the EU2 anomalies. Findings from the EU2 disassembly identified proximate causes of the anomalous observations. Discussion of the team's assessment of the primary possible failure theories, root cause, and conclusions is provided. Recommendations are made for future Stirling generator development to address the findings from the anomaly investigation. Additional findings from the investigation are also discussed.

  7. Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Engineering Unit 2 Anomaly Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Edward J.; Dobbs, Michael W.; Oriti, Salvatore M.

    2018-01-01

    The Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) Engineering Unit 2 (EU2) is the highest fidelity electrically heated Stirling radioisotope generator built to date. NASA Glenn Research Center completed the assembly of the ASRG EU2 in September 2014 using hardware from the now cancelled ASRG flight development project. The ASRG EU2 integrated the first pair of Sunpower's Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASC-E3 #1 and #2) in an aluminum generator housing with Lockheed Martin's (LM's) Engineering Development Unit (EDU) 4 controller. After just 179 hr of EU2 generator operation, the first power fluctuation occurred on ASC-E3 #1. The first power fluctuation occurred 175 hr later on ASC-E3 #2. Over time, the power fluctuations became more frequent on both convertors and larger in magnitude. Eventually the EU2 was shut down in January 2015. An anomaly investigation was chartered to determine root cause of the power fluctuations and other anomalous observations. A team with members from Glenn, Sunpower, and LM conducted a thorough investigation of the EU2 anomalies. Findings from the EU2 disassembly identified proximate causes of the anomalous observations. Discussion of the team's assessment of the primary possible failure theories, root cause, and conclusions is provided. Recommendations are made for future Stirling generator development to address the findings from the anomaly investigation. Additional findings from the investigation are also discussed.

  8. Power characteristics of a Stirling radioisotope power system over the life of the mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, Jeffrey G.

    2001-01-01

    Stirling radioisotope power systems are presently being considered for use on long life deep space missions. Some applications that Stirling technology has been developed for in the past could control the heat input to the engine, as was the case in the Automotive Stirling Engine (ASE) program. The combustion system could change the rate at which fuel was burned in response to the Stirling heater head temperature and the desired set point. In other cases, heat input was not controlled. An example is the solar terrestrial Advanced Stirling Conversion System (ASCS), where the heat input was a function of solar intensity and the performance of the solar concentrator and receiver. The control system for this application would measure the Stirling heater head temperature and throttle the Stirling convertor to once again, maintain the Stirling heater head temperature at the desired set point. In both of these examples, the design was driven to be cost effective. In the Stirling radioisotope power system, the heat generated by the decay in plutonium is reduced with the half-life of the isotope, and the control system must be as simple as possible and still meet the mission requirements. The most simple control system would be one that allows the Stirling power convertor to autonomously change its operating conditions in direct response to the reduced heat input, with no intervention from the control system, merely seeking a new equilibrium point as the isotope decays. This paper presents an analysis of power system performance with this simple control system, which has no feedback and does not actively alter the operating point as the isotope decays

  9. Integrated optical circuit comprising a polarization convertor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1998-01-01

    An integrated optical circuit includes a first device and a second device, which devices are connected by a polarization convertor. The polarization convertor includes a curved section of a waveguide, integrated in the optical circuit. The curved section may have several differently curved

  10. Experimental and Computational Analysis of Unidirectional Flow Through Stirling Engine Heater Head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Scott D.; Dyson, Rodger W.; Tew, Roy C.; Demko, Rikako

    2006-01-01

    A high efficiency Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG) is being developed for possible use in long-duration space science missions. NASA s advanced technology goals for next generation Stirling convertors include increasing the Carnot efficiency and percent of Carnot efficiency. To help achieve these goals, a multi-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code is being developed to numerically model unsteady fluid flow and heat transfer phenomena of the oscillating working gas inside Stirling convertors. In the absence of transient pressure drop data for the zero mean oscillating multi-dimensional flows present in the Technology Demonstration Convertors on test at NASA Glenn Research Center, unidirectional flow pressure drop test data is used to compare against 2D and 3D computational solutions. This study focuses on tracking pressure drop and mass flow rate data for unidirectional flow though a Stirling heater head using a commercial CFD code (CFD-ACE). The commercial CFD code uses a porous-media model which is dependent on permeability and the inertial coefficient present in the linear and nonlinear terms of the Darcy-Forchheimer equation. Permeability and inertial coefficient were calculated from unidirectional flow test data. CFD simulations of the unidirectional flow test were validated using the porous-media model input parameters which increased simulation accuracy by 14 percent on average.

  11. Trade-Off Study for an STC 70 W Stirling Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Songgang; Peterson, Allen A.; Augenblick, Jack E.

    2005-02-01

    A high-efficiency, low-weight free-piston Stirling generator, RG-70L, has been conceptually designed. This paper reports the detailed trade-off study of newly designed RG-70L. The trades of operating frequency and piston/displacer strokes on Stirling convertor mass and efficiency are discussed. This paper shows how the operating frequency and strokes were optimized based on the trades. Losses associated with increased frequency were fully investigated and the results are discussed in the paper. Various optional linear alternator configurations are also presented and the estimated masses are reported.

  12. Bremsstrahlung convertors: materials design and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allred, R.E.

    1976-03-01

    An improved bremsstrahlung convertor for use at high electron beam energies was developed. The convertor consists of three main components: (1) conversion foil; (2) electron scavenger; and (3) impulse shield. Structural failures of the impulse shield were experimentally determined to be caused by shock wave interactions. Convertor materials and design modifications were aimed at attenuation of the magnitude of the shock and maximization of energy absorption by the convertor materials. Techniques proven successful included the introduction of porosity into electron scavenger and impulse shield materials, the use of a standoff between the conversion foil and the electron scavenger, the insertion of a gap between the scavenger and impulse shield, and the use of advanced composite materials for the impulse shield. These modifications have increased the convertor operating range from 4 cal/gm Au to over 8 cal/gm Au. Kevlar 49 reinforced-resin composites have proven to have the best combination of strength, stiffness, toughness, and x-ray transport properties for use as bremmstrahlung convertor impulse shields

  13. Design of a Facility to Test the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Engineering Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Edward J.; Schreiber, Jeffrey G.; Oriti, Salvatore M.; Meer, David W.; Brace, Michael H.; Dugala, Gina

    2009-01-01

    The Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) is being considered to power deep space missions. An engineering unit, the ASRG-EU, was designed and fabricated by Lockheed Martin under contract to the Department of Energy. This unit is currently on an extended operation test at NASA Glenn Research Center to generate performance data and validate the life and reliability predictions for the generator and the Stirling convertors. A special test facility was designed and built for testing the ASRG-EU. Details of the test facility design are discussed. The facility can operate the convertors under AC bus control or with the ASRG-EU controller. It can regulate input thermal power in either a fixed temperature or fixed power mode. An enclosure circulates cooled air around the ASRG-EU to remove heat rejected from the ASRG-EU by convection. A custom monitoring and data acquisition system supports the test. Various safety features, which allow 2417 unattended operation, are discussed.

  14. Free-Piston Stirling Power Conversion Unit for Fission Surface Power, Phase I Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, J. Gary; Buffalino, Andrew; Holliday, Ezekiel; Penswick, Barry; Gedeon, David

    2010-01-01

    This report summarizes the design of a 12 kW dual opposed free-piston Stirling convertor and controller for potential future use in space missions. The convertor is heated via a pumped NaK loop and cooling is provided by a pumped water circuit. Convertor efficiency is projected at 27 percent (AC electrical out/heat in). The controller converts the AC electrical output to 120 Vdc and is projected at 91 percent efficiency. A mechanically simple arrangement, based on proven technology, was selected in which the piston is resonated almost entirely by the working space pressure swing, while the displacer is resonated by planar mechanical springs in the bounce space.

  15. Solar Stirling for deep space applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, Lee S.

    2000-01-01

    A study was performed to quantify the performance of solar thermal power systems for deep space planetary missions. The study incorporated projected advances in solar concentrator and energy conversion technologies. These technologies included inflatable structures, lightweight primary concentrators, high efficiency secondary concentrators, and high efficiency Stirling convertors. Analyses were performed to determine the mass and deployed area of multihundred watt solar thermal power systems for missions out to 40 astronomical units. Emphasis was given to system optimization, parametric sensitivity analyses, and concentrator configuration comparisons. The results indicated that solar thermal power systems are a competitive alternative to radioisotope systems out to 10 astronomical units without the cost or safety implications associated with nuclear sources

  16. Cermet coatings for solar Stirling space power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaworske, Donald A.; Raack, Taylor

    2004-01-01

    Cermet coatings, molecular mixtures of metal and ceramic, are being considered for the heat inlet surface of a solar Stirling space power convertor. The role of the cermet coating is to absorb as much of the incident solar energy as possible. The ability to mix metal and ceramic at the atomic level offers the opportunity to tailor the composition and the solar absorptance of these coatings. Several candidate cermet coatings were created and their solar absorptance was characterized as-manufactured and after exposure to elevated temperatures. Coating composition was purposely varied through the thickness of the coating. As a consequence of changing composition, islands of metal are thought to form in the ceramic matrix. Computer modeling indicated that diffusion of the metal atoms played an important role in island formation while the ceramic was important in locking the islands in place. Much of the solar spectrum is absorbed as it passes through this labyrinth

  17. Direct convertor based upon space charge effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gitomer, S.J.

    1977-01-01

    A device capable of converting directly the kinetic energy of charged particles into electrical energy is considered. The device differs from earlier ones (such as Post's periodic focus electrostatic direct convertor) in that it makes use of the space charge repulsion in a high density charged particle beam. The beam is directed into a monotonic decelerating electrostatic field of a several-stage planar-finned structure. The collector fins coincide with vacuum equipotential surfaces. Space charge blowup of the beam directs particles onto various collector fins. The energy efficiency of a 4-stage device has been determined using a numberical simulation approach. We find that efficiencies approaching 75 percent are possible. An approximate scaling law is derived for the space charge based direct converter and a comparison is made to the periodic focus direct convertor. We find the space charge based direct convertor to be superior to a number of ways

  18. How to Overcome Numerical Challenges to Modeling Stirling Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Rodger W.; Wilson, Scott D.; Tew, Roy C.

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear thermal to electric power conversion carries the promise of longer duration missions and higher scientific data transmission rates back to Earth for a range of missions, including both Mars rovers and deep space missions. A free-piston Stirling convertor is a candidate technology that is considered an efficient and reliable power conversion device for such purposes. While already very efficient, it is believed that better Stirling engines can be developed if the losses inherent in current designs could be better understood. However, they are difficult to instrument and so efforts are underway to simulate a complete Stirling engine numerically. This has only recently been attempted and a review of the methods leading up to and including such computational analysis is presented. And finally it is proposed that the quality and depth of Stirling loss understanding may be improved by utilizing the higher fidelity and efficiency of recently developed numerical methods. One such method, the Ultra HI-FI technique is presented in detail.

  19. New 5 Kilowatt Free-Piston Stirling Space Converter Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandhorst, Henry W.

    2007-01-01

    NASA has recently funded development of a 5 kW (or greater) free-piston Stirling conversion system for reactor power systems. A nominal 5 kW converter allows two of these units to be dynamically balanced. A group of three dual-convertor combinations would yield the desired 30 kW. The status of this program will be presented. Goals include a specific power in excess of 140 W/kg at the converter level, lifetime in excess of five years and AC output. The initial step is the design and development of a nominal 5 kW per cylinder Stirling converter assembly (SCA) which will serve as a prototype of one or more SCAs that will make up the final 30 kW Stirling Converter Power System. Assumed requirements for this new converter for lunar fission power systems will be presented. The primary objective of this development effort will be to demonstrate a 5 kW SCA that can be tested to validate the viability of Stirling technology for space fission surface power systems.

  20. Stirling Engine Cycle Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Naddaf, Nasrollah

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study strives to provide a clear explanation of the Stirling engine and its efficiency using new automation technology and the Lab View software. This heat engine was invented by Stirling, a Scottish in 1918. The engine’s working principles are based on the laws of thermodynamics and ability of volume expansion of ideal gases at different temperatures. Basically there are three types of Stirling engines: the gamma, beta and alpha models. The commissioner of the thesis ...

  1. External Magnetic Field Reduction Techniques for the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedra, Janis M.; Geng, Steven M.

    2013-01-01

    Linear alternators coupled to high efficiency Stirling engines are strong candidates for thermal-to-electric power conversion in space. However, the magnetic field emissions, both AC and DC, of these permanent magnet excited alternators can interfere with sensitive instrumentation onboard a spacecraft. Effective methods to mitigate the AC and DC electromagnetic interference (EMI) from solenoidal type linear alternators (like that used in the Advanced Stirling Convertor) have been developed for potential use in the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator. The methods developed avoid the complexity and extra mass inherent in data extraction from multiple sensors or the use of shielding. This paper discusses these methods, and also provides experimental data obtained during breadboard testing of both AC and DC external magnetic field devices.

  2. Test Program for Stirling Radioisotope Generator Hardware at NASA Glenn Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Edward J.; Bolotin, Gary S.; Oriti, Salvatore M.

    2015-01-01

    Stirling-based energy conversion technology has demonstrated the potential of high efficiency and low mass power systems for future space missions. This capability is beneficial, if not essential, to making certain deep space missions possible. Significant progress was made developing the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), a 140-W radioisotope power system. A variety of flight-like hardware, including Stirling convertors, controllers, and housings, was designed and built under the ASRG flight development project. To support future Stirling-based power system development NASA has proposals that, if funded, will allow this hardware to go on test at the NASA Glenn Research Center. While future flight hardware may not be identical to the hardware developed under the ASRG flight development project, many components will likely be similar, and system architectures may have heritage to ASRG. Thus, the importance of testing the ASRG hardware to the development of future Stirling-based power systems cannot be understated. This proposed testing will include performance testing, extended operation to establish an extensive reliability database, and characterization testing to quantify subsystem and system performance and better understand system interfaces. This paper details this proposed test program for Stirling radioisotope generator hardware at NASA Glenn. It explains the rationale behind the proposed tests and how these tests will meet the stated objectives.

  3. Stirling Engine Gets Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Frank

    2010-01-01

    One of the basic truths regarding energy conversion is that no thermodynamic cycle can be devised that is more efficient than a Carnot cycle operating between the same temperature limits. The efficiency of the Stirling cycle (patented by Rev. Robert Stirling in 1816) can approach that of the Carnot cycle and yet has not had the commercial success…

  4. European Stirling forum 2000. Proceedings; Europaeisches Stirling Forum 2000. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This document comprises all 42 papers presented at the 'European Stirling Forum 2000', held in Osnabrueck on February 22-24, 2000. Among others, the following subjects were discussed: Thermodynamics, new developments, Stirling engines, free piston heat pumps, flow optimisation of regenerators for Stirling engines, simulation for modelling of flow and heat transfer in the gas cycle of Stirling engines, design and performance, Stirling refrigerators, economic efficiency of biomass Stirling engines, power control of a Stirling CHP system, a Stirling refrigerator for ultralow temperatures in the refrigeration industry. [German] Das vorliegende Dokument enthaelt alle (42) Beitraege der Referenten des 'Europaeischen Stirling Forums 2000', das vom 22. bis 24. Februar 2000 in Osnabrueck stattgefunden hat. Einige der behandelten Themenschwerpunkte im Zusammenhang mit der Stirling-Maschine waren die Thermodynamik, neue Entwicklungen des Kreisprozesses, Heissgasmotoren, Freikolben-Waermepumpe, stroemungstechnische Optimierung von Regeneratoren fuer Stirling-Maschinen, Simulation zur Modellierung der Stroemung und Waermeuebertragung im Gaskreislauf von Stirling-Maschinen, Entwurf und Betriebsverhalten, Stirling-Kaeltemaschine, Wirtschaftlichkeit von Biomasse-Stirlingmotoren, Leistungsregelung eines Stirling-Blockheizkraftwerks, Anwendung eines Stirling-Kuehlers, zum Ultratiefkuehlen in der Kuehlindustrie. (AKF)

  5. NASA Glenn Research Center Support of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Scott D.; Wong, Wayne A.

    2015-01-01

    A high-efficiency radioisotope power system was being developed for long-duration NASA space science missions. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) managed a flight contract with Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company to build Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generators (ASRGs), with support from NASA Glenn Research Center. DOE initiated termination of that contract in late 2013, primarily due to budget constraints. Sunpower, Inc., held two parallel contracts to produce Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASCs), one with Lockheed Martin to produce ASC-F flight units, and one with Glenn for the production of ASC-E3 engineering unit "pathfinders" that are built to the flight design. In support of those contracts, Glenn provided testing, materials expertise, Government-furnished equipment, inspection capabilities, and related data products to Lockheed Martin and Sunpower. The technical support included material evaluations, component tests, convertor characterization, and technology transfer. Material evaluations and component tests were performed on various ASC components in order to assess potential life-limiting mechanisms and provide data for reliability models. Convertor level tests were conducted to characterize performance under operating conditions that are representative of various mission conditions. Despite termination of the ASRG flight development contract, NASA continues to recognize the importance of high-efficiency ASC power conversion for Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) and continues investment in the technology, including the continuation of the ASC-E3 contract. This paper describes key Government support for the ASRG project and future tests to be used to provide data for ongoing reliability assessments.

  6. Free-piston Stirling technology for space power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slaby, J.G.

    1994-01-01

    An overview is presented of the NASA Lewis Research Center free-piston Stirling engine activities directed toward space power. This work is being carried out under NASA's new Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The overall goal of CSTI's High Capacity Power element is to develop the technology base needed to meet the long duration, high capacity power requirements for future NASA space missions. The Stirling cycle offers an attractive power conversion concept for space power needs. Discussed in this paper is the completion of the Space Power Demonstrator Engine (SPDE) testing - culminating in the generation of 25 kW of engine power from a dynamically-balanced opposed-piston Stirling engine at a temperature ratio of 2.0. Engine efficiency was approximately 22 percent. The SPDE recently has been divided into two separate single-cylinder engines, called Space Power Research Engines (SPRE), that now serve as test beds for the evaluation of key technology disciplines. These disciplines include hydrodynamic gas bearings, high-efficiency linear alternators, space qualified heat pipe heat exchangers, oscillating flow code validation, and engine loss understanding. The success of the SPDE at 650 K has resulted in a more ambitious Stirling endeavor - the design, fabrication, test and evaluation of a designed-for-space 25 kW per cylinder Stirling Space Engine (SSE). The SSE will operate at a hot metal temperature of 1050 K using superalloy materials. This design is a low temperature confirmation of the 1300 K design. It is the 1300 K free-piston Stirling power conversion system that is the ultimate goal; to be used in conjunction with the SP-100 reactor. The approach to this goal is in three temperature steps. However, this paper concentrates on the first two phases of this program - the 650 K SPDE and the 1050 K SSE

  7. Development of a Power Electronics Controller for the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leland, Douglas K.; Priest, Joel F.; Keiter, Douglas E.; Schreiber, Jeffrey G.

    2008-01-01

    Under a U.S. Department of Energy program for radioisotope power systems, Lockheed Martin is developing an Engineering Unit of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG). This is an advanced version of the previously reported SRG110 generator. The ASRG uses Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASCs) developed by Sunpower Incorporated under a NASA Research Announcement contract. The ASRG makes use of a Stirling controller based on power electronics that eliminates the tuning capacitors. The power electronics controller synchronizes dual-opposed convertors and maintains a fixed frequency operating point. The controller is single-fault tolerant and uses high-frequency pulse width modulation to create the sinusoidal currents that are nearly in phase with the piston velocity, eliminating the need for large series tuning capacitors. Sunpower supports this effort through an extension of their controller development intended for other applications. Glenn Research Center (GRC) supports this effort through system dynamic modeling, analysis and test support. The ASRG design arrived at a new baseline based on a system-level trade study and extensive feedback from mission planners on the necessity of single-fault tolerance. This paper presents the baseline design with an emphasis on the power electronics controller detailed design concept that will meet space mission requirements including single fault tolerance.

  8. Stirling engine application study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teagan, W. P.; Cunningham, D.

    1983-01-01

    A range of potential applications for Stirling engines in the power range from 0.5 to 5000 hp is surveyed. Over one hundred such engine applications are grouped into a small number of classes (10), with the application in each class having a high degree of commonality in technical performance and cost requirements. A review of conventional engines (usually spark ignition or Diesel) was then undertaken to determine the degree to which commercial engine practice now serves the needs of the application classes and to detemine the nature of the competition faced by a new engine system. In each application class the Stirling engine was compared to the conventional engines, assuming that objectives of ongoing Stirling engine development programs are met. This ranking process indicated that Stirling engines showed potential for use in all application classes except very light duty applications (lawn mowers, etc.). However, this potential is contingent on demonstrating much greater operating life and reliability than has been demonstrated to date by developmental Stirling engine systems. This implies that future program initiatives in developing Stirling engine systems should give more emphasis to life and reliability issues than has been the case in ongoing programs.

  9. A Microfabricated Segmented-Involute-Foil Regenerator for Enhancing Reliability and Performance of Stirling Engines. Phase III Final Report for the Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology NRA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mounir B.; Gedeon, David; Wood, Gary; McLean, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Under Phase III of NASA Research Announcement contract NAS3-03124, a prototype nickel segmented-involute-foil regenerator was microfabricated and tested in a Sunpower Frequency-Test-Bed (FTB) Stirling convertor. The team for this effort consisted of Cleveland State University, Gedeon Associates, Sunpower Inc. and International Mezzo Technologies. Testing in the FTB convertor produced about the same efficiency as testing with the original random-fiber regenerator. But the high thermal conductivity of the prototype nickel regenerator was responsible for a significant performance degradation. An efficiency improvement (by a 1.04 factor, according to computer predictions) could have been achieved if the regenerator was made from a low-conductivity material. Also, the FTB convertor was not reoptimized to take full advantage of the microfabricated regenerator s low flow resistance; thus, the efficiency would likely have been even higher had the FTB been completely reoptimized. This report discusses the regenerator microfabrication process, testing of the regenerator in the Stirling FTB convertor, and the supporting analysis. Results of the pre-test computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of the effects of the regenerator-test-configuration diffusers (located at each end of the regenerator) are included. The report also includes recommendations for further development of involute-foil regenerators from a higher-temperature material than nickel.

  10. Stirling to Flight Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbard, Kenneth E.; Mason, Lee S.; Ndu, Obi; Smith, Clayton; Withrow, James P.

    2016-01-01

    NASA has a consistent need for radioisotope power systems (RPS) to enable robotic scientific missions for planetary exploration that has been present for over four decades and will continue into the foreseeable future, as documented in the most recent Planetary Science Decadal Study Report. As RPS have evolved throughout the years, there has also grown a desire for more efficient power systems, allowing NASA to serve as good stewards of the limited plutonium-238 (238Pu), while also supporting the ever-present need to minimize mass and potential impacts to the desired science measurements. In fact, the recent Nuclear Power Assessment Study (NPAS) released in April 2015 resulted in several key conclusion regarding RPS, including affirmation that RPS will be necessary well into the 2030s (at least) and that 238Pu is indeed a precious resource requiring efficient utilization and preservation. Stirling Radioisotope Generators (SRGs) combine a Stirling cycle engine powered by a radioisotope heater unit into a single generator system. Stirling engine technology has been under development at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in partnership with the Department of Energy (DOE) since the 1970's. The most recent design, the 238Pu-fueled Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), was offered as part of the NASA Discovery 2010 Announcement of Opportunity (AO). The Step-2 selections for this AO included two ASRG-enabled concepts, the Titan Mare Explorer (TiME) and the Comet Hopper (CHopper), although the only non-nuclear concept, InSight, was ultimately chosen. The DOE's ASRG contract was terminated in 2013. Given that SRGs utilize significantly less 238Pu than traditional Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) - approximately one quarter of the nuclear fuel, to produce similar electrical power output - they provide a technology worthy of consideration for meeting the aforementioned NASA objectives. NASA's RPS Program Office has recently investigated a new Stirling to

  11. Status of NASA's Stirling Space Power Converter Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudenhoefer, J.E.; Winter, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    An overview is presented of the NASA Lewis Research Center Free-Piston Stirling Space Power Converter Technology Program. This work is being conducted under NASA's Civil Space Technology Initiative. The goal of the CSTI High Capacity Power Element is to develop the technology base needed to meet the long duration, high capacity power requirements for future NASA space initiatives. Efforts are focused upon increasing system power output and system thermal and electric energy conversion efficiency at least fivefold over current SP-100 technology, and on achieving systems that are compatible with space nuclear reactors. This paper will discuss Stirling experience in Space Power Converters. Fabrication is nearly completed for the 1050 K Component Test Power Converter (CTPC); results of motoring tests of the cold end (525 K), are presented. The success of these and future designs is dependent upon supporting research and technology efforts including heat pipes, bearings, superalloy joining technologies, high efficiency alternators, life and reliability testing and predictive methodologies. This paper provides an update of progress in some of these technologies leading off with a discussion of free-piston Stirling experience in space

  12. Stirling engine piston ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howarth, Roy B.

    1983-01-01

    A piston ring design for a Stirling engine wherein the contact pressure between the piston and the cylinder is maintained at a uniform level, independent of engine conditions through a balancing of the pressure exerted upon the ring's surface and thereby allowing the contact pressure on the ring to be predetermined through the use of a preloaded expander ring.

  13. A Stirling Idea

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Stirling Technology Company developed the components for its BeCOOL line of Cryocoolers with the help of a series of NASA SBIRs (Small Business Innovative Research), through Goddard Space Flight Center and Marshall Space Flight Center. Features include a hermetically sealed design, compact size, and silent operation. The company has already placed several units with commercial customers for computer applications and laboratory use.

  14. Stirling in Another Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papademetriou, Peter

    1981-01-01

    An analysis and a critique of how remodeling and extension of the Rice University School of Architecture, by James Stirling, Michael Wilford, and Associates, fits into the campus plan and its eclectic style established early in this century. (Author/MLF)

  15. CFD Analysis of the Oscillating Flow within a Stirling Engine with an Additively Manufactured Foil Type Regenerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Songgang; Solomon, Laura

    2017-11-01

    The simplistic design, fuel independence, and robustness of Stirling convertors makes them the ideal choice for use in solar power and combined heat and power (CHP) applications. A lack of moving parts and the use of novel flexure bearings allows free-piston type Stirling engines to run in excess of ten years without degradation or maintenance. The key component to their overall efficiency is the regenerator. While a foil type regenerator outperforms a sintered random fiber regenerator, limitation in manufacturing and keeping uniform spacing between the foils has limited their overall use. However, with the advent of additive manufacturing, a robust foil type regenerator can be cheaply manufactured without traditional limitations. Currently, a CFD analysis of the oscillating internal flow within the novel design was conducted to evaluate the flow loses within the system. Particularly the pressure drop across the regenerator in comparison to a traditionally used random fiber regenerator. Additionally, the heat transfer and flow over the tubular heater hear was evaluated. The results of the investigation will be used to optimize the operation of the next generation of additively manufactured Stirling convertors. This research was supported by ARPA-E and West Virginia University.

  16. Design, Qualification and Integration Testing of the High-Temperature Resistance Temperature Device for Stirling Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jack; Hill, Dennis H.; Elisii, Remo; White, Jonathan R.; Lewandowski, Edward J.; Oriti, Salvatore M.

    2015-01-01

    The Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), developed from 2006 to 2013 under the joint sponsorship of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to provide a high-efficiency power system for future deep space missions, employed Sunpower Incorporated's Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASCs) with operating temperature up to 840 C. High-temperature operation was made possible by advanced heater head materials developed to increase reliability and thermal-to-mechanical conversion efficiency. During a mission, it is desirable to monitor the Stirling hot-end temperature as a measure of convertor health status and assist in making appropriate operating parameter adjustments to maintain the desired hot-end temperature as the radioisotope fuel decays. To facilitate these operations, a Resistance Temperature Device (RTD) that is capable of high-temperature, continuous long-life service was designed, developed and qualified for use in the ASRG. A thermal bridge was also implemented to reduce the RTD temperature exposure while still allowing an accurate projection of the ASC hot-end temperature. NASA integrated two flight-design RTDs on the ASCs and assembled into the high-fidelity Engineering Unit, the ASRG EU2, at Glenn Research Center (GRC) for extended operation and system characterization. This paper presents the design implementation and qualification of the RTD, and its performance characteristics and calibration in the ASRG EU2 testing.

  17. The Stirling engine accelerates.; Der Stirling-Motor gibt Gas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfannstiel, Dieter [DiWiTech - Ingenieurpraxis fuer technische und wissenschaftliche Dienstleistungen, Breitenbach a.H. (Germany)

    2010-01-15

    At this moment, Stirling engines are the most outstanding micro technology of combined heat and power generation. The free piston machine combines the principle of the conventional Stirling engine with a modern linear generator for power generation utilizing waste heat for the heating of houses or hot water tanks. All large manufacturers concern themselves with this technology and develop devices based on the Stirling engine. The overview contribution under consideration describes the current level of development of the Stirling devices of different manufacturers. In nearly two years, these devices will serially be produced in the market.

  18. Introduction to superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li-Chenggong

    1995-01-01

    Throughout history, humans have developed mechanical devices to satisfy their needs, Jet aircraft was thrust into public awareness with the 1937 flight of Hans Von Ohains turbine engine Heinkel in Germany and an independent development, the 1939 flight of Whittle's engine in England. Since that time, progress in jet propulsion and industrial gas turbines has been a growing engineering technology of immense importance. This opened a new era of engineering material called superalloy. Superalloy is an alloy developed for elevated temperature service usually based on group VIIA elements, where relatively severe mechanical stressing is encountered, and where high surface stability is frequently required. The title of the speech is T he Effect of a Changing Environment on the requirements of Engine Materials . In this speech, the author emphasized that may changes in the business environment have occurred in recent years, the aircraft engine business is rapidly changing from a military focus to a commercial one, speed to market will assume greater importance in the engine industry, and greater attention to customer value will be required to remain competitive etc. However the superalloys will continue to be developed in the future. (author) 14 figs

  19. Stirling cycle engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundholm, Gunnar

    1983-01-01

    In a Stirling cycle engine having a plurality of working gas charges separated by pistons reciprocating in cylinders, the total gas content is minimized and the mean pressure equalization among the serial cylinders is improved by using two piston rings axially spaced at least as much as the piston stroke and by providing a duct in the cylinder wall opening in the space between the two piston rings and leading to a source of minimum or maximum working gas pressure.

  20. Stirling engine power control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, James P.

    1983-01-01

    A power control method and apparatus for a Stirling engine including a valved duct connected to the junction of the regenerator and the cooler and running to a bypass chamber connected between the heater and the cylinder. An oscillating zone of demarcation between the hot and cold portions of the working gas is established in the bypass chamber, and the engine pistons and cylinders can run cold.

  1. Stirling engine design manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, W. R.

    1978-01-01

    This manual is intended to serve both as an introduction to Stirling engine analysis methods and as a key to the open literature on Stirling engines. Over 800 references are listed and these are cross referenced by date of publication, author and subject. Engine analysis is treated starting from elementary principles and working through cycles analysis. Analysis methodologies are classified as first, second or third order depending upon degree of complexity and probable application; first order for preliminary engine studies, second order for performance prediction and engine optimization, and third order for detailed hardware evaluation and engine research. A few comparisons between theory and experiment are made. A second order design procedure is documented step by step with calculation sheets and a worked out example to follow. Current high power engines are briefly described and a directory of companies and individuals who are active in Stirling engine development is included. Much remains to be done. Some of the more complicated and potentially very useful design procedures are now only referred to. Future support will enable a more thorough job of comparing all available design procedures against experimental data which should soon be available.

  2. A Microfabricated Involute-Foil Regenerator for Stirling Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tew, Roy; Ibrahim, Mounir; Danila, Daniel; Simon, Terrence; Mantell, Susan; Sun, Liyong; Gedeon, David; Kelly, Kevin; McLean, Jeffrey; Qiu, Songgang

    2007-01-01

    A segmented involute-foil regenerator has been designed, microfabricated and tested in an oscillating-flow rig with excellent results. During the Phase I effort, several approximations of parallel-plate regenerator geometry were chosen as potential candidates for a new microfabrication concept. Potential manufacturers and processes were surveyed. The selected concept consisted of stacked segmented-involute-foil disks (or annular portions of disks), originally to be microfabricated from stainless-steel via the LiGA (lithography, electroplating, and molding) process and EDM. During Phase II, re-planning of the effort led to test plans based on nickel disks, microfabricated via the LiGA process, only. A stack of nickel segmented-involute-foil disks was tested in an oscillating-flow test rig. These test results yielded a performance figure of merit (roughly the ratio of heat transfer to pressure drop) of about twice that of the 90 percent random fiber currently used in small approx.100 W Stirling space-power convertors-in the Reynolds Number range of interest (50 to 100). A Phase III effort is now underway to fabricate and test a segmented-involute-foil regenerator in a Stirling convertor. Though funding limitations prevent optimization of the Stirling engine geometry for use with this regenerator, the Sage computer code will be used to help evaluate the engine test results. Previous Sage Stirling model projections have indicated that a segmented-involute-foil regenerator is capable of improving the performance of an optimized involute-foil engine by 6 to 9 percent; it is also anticipated that such involute-foil geometries will be more reliable and easier to manufacture with tight-tolerance characteristics, than random-fiber or wire-screen regenerators. Beyond the near-term Phase III regenerator fabrication and engine testing, other goals are (1) fabrication from a material suitable for high temperature Stirling operation (up to 850 C for current engines; up to 1200 C

  3. Stirling Engine with Unidirectional Gas Flow

    OpenAIRE

    Blumbergs, Ilmars

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a Stirling engine with unidirectional gas flow configuration of beta type Stirling engine is described and studied from kinematic and thermodynamics points of view. Some aspects of the Stirling engine with unidirectional gas flow engine are compared to classic beta type Stirling engines. The aim of research has been to develop a new type of Stirling engine, using SolidWorks 3D design software and Flow Simulation software. In the development process, special attention has been d...

  4. Creep-rupture behavior of iron superalloys in high-pressure hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, S.; Peterman, W.

    1984-01-01

    The creep-rupture properties of five iron-base and one cobalt-base high temperature alloys were investigated to assess the feasibility of using the alloys as construction materials in a Stirling engine. The alloys were heat treated and hardness measurements were taken. Typical microstructures of the alloys are shown. The creep-rupture properties of the alloys were determined at 760 and 815 C in 15.0 MPa H2 for 200 to 1000 hours. Plots of rupture life versus stress for the six superalloys are presented along with creep strain-time plots.

  5. System-Level Testing of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Engineering Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jack; Wiser, Jack; Brown, Greg; Florin, Dominic; Oriti, Salvatore M.

    2014-01-01

    To support future NASA deep space missions, a radioisotope power system utilizing Stirling power conversion technology was under development. This development effort was performed under the joint sponsorship of the Department of Energy and NASA, until its termination at the end of 2013 due to budget constraints. The higher conversion efficiency of the Stirling cycle compared with that of the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) used in previous missions (Viking, Pioneer, Voyager, Galileo, Ulysses, Cassini, Pluto New Horizons and Mars Science Laboratory) offers the advantage of a four-fold reduction in Pu-238 fuel, thereby extending its limited domestic supply. As part of closeout activities, system-level testing of flight-like Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASCs) with a flight-like ASC Controller Unit (ACU) was performed in February 2014. This hardware is the most representative of the flight design tested to date. The test fully demonstrates the following ACU and system functionality: system startup; ASC control and operation at nominal and worst-case operating conditions; power rectification; DC output power management throughout nominal and out-of-range host voltage levels; ACU fault management, and system command / telemetry via MIL-STD 1553 bus. This testing shows the viability of such a system for future deep space missions and bolsters confidence in the maturity of the flight design.

  6. Preliminary test results from a free-piston Stirling engine technology demonstration program to support advanced radioisotope space power applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, Maurice A.; Qiu Songgang; Augenblick, Jack E.

    2000-01-01

    Free-piston Stirling engines offer a relatively mature, proven, long-life technology that is well-suited for advanced, high-efficiency radioisotope space power systems. Contracts from DOE and NASA are being conducted by Stirling Technology Company (STC) for the purpose of demonstrating the Stirling technology in a configuration and power level that is representative of an eventual space power system. The long-term objective is to develop a power system with an efficiency exceeding 20% that can function with a high degree of reliability for up to 15 years on deep space missions. The current technology demonstration convertors (TDC's) are completing shakedown testing and have recently demonstrated performance levels that are virtually identical to projections made during the preliminary design phase. This paper describes preliminary test results for power output, efficiency, and vibration levels. These early results demonstrate the ability of the free-piston Stirling technology to exceed objectives by approximately quadrupling the efficiency of conventional radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG's)

  7. Preliminary test results from a free-piston Stirling engine technology demonstration program to support advanced radioisotope space power applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Maurice A.; Qiu, Songgang; Augenblick, Jack E.

    2000-01-01

    Free-piston Stirling engines offer a relatively mature, proven, long-life technology that is well-suited for advanced, high-efficiency radioisotope space power systems. Contracts from DOE and NASA are being conducted by Stirling Technology Company (STC) for the purpose of demonstrating the Stirling technology in a configuration and power level that is representative of an eventual space power system. The long-term objective is to develop a power system with an efficiency exceeding 20% that can function with a high degree of reliability for up to 15 years on deep space missions. The current technology demonstration convertors (TDC's) are completing shakedown testing and have recently demonstrated performance levels that are virtually identical to projections made during the preliminary design phase. This paper describes preliminary test results for power output, efficiency, and vibration levels. These early results demonstrate the ability of the free-piston Stirling technology to exceed objectives by approximately quadrupling the efficiency of conventional radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG's). .

  8. Stirling Engine Configuration Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Egas

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Unlike internal combustion engines, Stirling engines can be designed to work with many drive mechanisms based on the three primary configurations, alpha, beta and gamma. Hundreds of different combinations of configuration and mechanical drives have been proposed. Few succeed beyond prototypes. A reason for poor success is the use of inappropriate configuration and drive mechanisms, which leads to low power to weight ratio and reduced economic viability. The large number of options, the lack of an objective comparison method, and the absence of a selection criteria force designers to make random choices. In this article, the pressure—volume diagrams and compression ratios of machines of equal dimensions, using the main (alpha, beta and gamma crank based configurations as well as rhombic drive and Ross yoke mechanisms, are obtained. The existence of a direct relation between the optimum compression ratio and the temperature ratio is derived from the ideal Stirling cycle, and the usability of an empirical low temperature difference compression ratio equation for high temperature difference applications is tested using experimental data. It is shown that each machine has a different compression ratio, making it more or less suitable for a specific application, depending on the temperature difference reachable.

  9. The Stirling engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, P.D.

    1989-01-01

    The Stirling engine can be used with any heat source including direct flame, heating from oil, gas, wood or coal combustors, by solar and by nuclear energy. As an alternative to conventional combustors fuels such as coal, oil, gas, vegetable waste can be combusted in a fluidized bed. The engine can be heated by coupling it directly to one of these sources of heat or it can be separated from the heat source and the heat transported by a heat pipe. There is clearly considerable flexibility in the choice of heat source. A major economic penalty is the need for a high temperature heat exchanger to transfer the heat to the engine working fluid from the heat source. Since in order to achieve good heat transfer a large surface area is needed and hence a complicated arrangement of small bore piping. Since the working fluid is not consumed an expensive substance such as helium can be used; however, if the power is to be extracted by a mechanical shaft it is necessary to design a seal between the engine body and the output shaft which will not allow any significant loss of helium. The seal problem is still one of the major technical difficulties in the development of Stirling engines using Helium or Hydrogen as the working fluid. For this reason interest in using air as the working fluid in lower speed engines has revived. 14 refs, 19 figs

  10. Commissioning of the JET flywheel-generator-convertor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huart, M.

    1985-01-01

    The JET Power Supply Scheme relies on a combination of generator convertors and mains driven transformer rectifiers to supply power to the four major pulse loads, namely the toroidal field coils, the poloidal field coils, the plasma positioning coils and the additional heating. The availability of a network with considerable pulse capability has allowed the generator-convertors to be dedicated, one to the poloidal field coils and the other to the toroidal field coils, thus making possible the use of diode in the output AC/DC convertors. Moreover, it has allowed the use of high p.u. machine reactance compatible with the pulse duty. The extent of supply covered by the Contract, awarded to GEC Large Machine Ltd of Rugby, includes the generators, driving/braking system, excitation system, control-monitoring and protection system, cooling system, output AC/DC convertors, inductors and DC busbars as well as all generator auxiliaries and cabling. Both generators were specified identical to reduce design, tool and spare costs

  11. MEMS Stirling Cooler Development Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Matthew E.; Wesolek, Danielle

    2003-01-01

    This presentation provides an update on the effort to build and test a prototype unit of the patented MEMS Stirling cooler concept. A micro-scale regenerator has been fabricated by Polar Thermal Technologies and is currently being integrated into a Stirling cycle simulator at Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. A discussion of the analysis, design, assembly, and test plans for the prototype will be presented.

  12. Thermo-Acoustic Convertor for Space Power, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In Phase Sunpower looked at Thermoacoustic Stirling Heat Engines (TASHEs). These ranged from a TASHE which was sized for the heat from a single General Purpose Heat...

  13. Thermal Model Predictions of Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Yen J.; Fabanich, William Anthony; Schmitz, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents recent thermal model results of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG). The three-dimensional (3D) ASRG thermal power model was built using the Thermal Desktop(trademark) thermal analyzer. The model was correlated with ASRG engineering unit test data and ASRG flight unit predictions from Lockheed Martin's (LM's) I-deas(trademark) TMG thermal model. The auxiliary cooling system (ACS) of the ASRG is also included in the ASRG thermal model. The ACS is designed to remove waste heat from the ASRG so that it can be used to heat spacecraft components. The performance of the ACS is reported under nominal conditions and during a Venus flyby scenario. The results for the nominal case are validated with data from Lockheed Martin. Transient thermal analysis results of ASRG for a Venus flyby with a representative trajectory are also presented. In addition, model results of an ASRG mounted on a Cassini-like spacecraft with a sunshade are presented to show a way to mitigate the high temperatures of a Venus flyby. It was predicted that the sunshade can lower the temperature of the ASRG alternator by 20 C for the representative Venus flyby trajectory. The 3D model also was modified to predict generator performance after a single Advanced Stirling Convertor failure. The geometry of the Microtherm HT insulation block on the outboard side was modified to match deformation and shrinkage observed during testing of a prototypic ASRG test fixture by LM. Test conditions and test data were used to correlate the model by adjusting the thermal conductivity of the deformed insulation to match the post-heat-dump steady state temperatures. Results for these conditions showed that the performance of the still-functioning inboard ACS was unaffected.

  14. Simulation program for multiple expansion Stirling machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, G.; Weiss, M.; Fauvel, R.; Reader, G.; Bingham, E.R.

    1992-01-01

    Multiple expansion Stirling machines have been a topic of interest at the University of Calgary for some years. Recently a second-order computer simulation program with integral graphics package for Stirling cryocoolers with up to four stages of expansion were developed and made available to the Stirling community. Adaptation of the program to multiple expansion Stirling power systems is anticipated. This paper briefly introduces the program and presents a specimen result

  15. Refractory metal based superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, Paula R.; Vicente, Eduardo E.; Rubiolo, Gerardo H.

    1999-01-01

    Refractory metals are looked as promising materials for primary circuits in fission reactors and even as fusion reactor components. Indeed, superalloys could be developed which take advantage of their high temperature properties together with the benefits of a two- phase (intermetallic compound-refractory metal matrix) coherent structure. In 1993, researchers of the Office National d'Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales of France reported the observation of such a coherent structure in the Ta-Ti-Zr-Al-Nb-Mo system although the exact composition is not reported. The intermetallic compound would be Ti 2 AlMo based. However, the formation of this compound and its possible coexistence with a disordered bcc phase in the ternary system Ti-Al-Mo is a controversial subject in the related literature. In this work we develop a technique to obtain homogeneous alloys samples with 50 Ti-25 Al-25 Mo composition. The resulting specimens were characterized by optical and electronic metallography (SEM), microprobe composition measurements (EPMA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. The results show the evidence for a bcc (A2→B2) ordering reaction in the Ti-Al-Mo system in the 50 Ti-25 Al-25 Mo composition. (author)

  16. Mechanical behavior of superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floreen, S.

    1986-04-01

    Recent developments affecting the mechanical behavior of superalloys over three ranges of operating temperatures are reviewed. At lower temperatures, activity has been focused on stress corrosion cracking susceptibility in light water reactor and sour gas well environments. The susceptibility to intergranular crack growth is critically dependent upon the grain boundary chemistry, and a method of minimizing the sensitivity of the boundaries to attack has been pursued. At intermediate temperatures, considerable effort has been directed toward increasing the tensile and fatigue strengths. The higher strength materials, however, show increased fracture sensitivity. In particular, embrittlement due to diffusion into the grain boundaries of aggressive species, such as oxygen or sulfur from the environments, becomes a problem. Minor element alloying additions of boron, zirconium, magnesium, etc., are helpful in retarding the degradation caused by the environment. At higher temperatures, the major thrust is toward improving the creep strength. The weak link in the materials, which is the transverse grain boundaries, has been eliminated by the use of specialized processing steps to produce either directionally solidified materials with minimum transverse grain boundaries, or single crystal materials. Single crystal materials permit alloying and heat treating modifications that further enhance the creep strength. The materials are very anisotropic in properties, but are successfully used in turbine blades and could be useful in other special applications

  17. Implementation of a Sage-Based Stirling Model Into a System-Level Numerical Model of the Fission Power System Technology Demonstration Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Maxwell H.

    2011-01-01

    The Fission Power System (FPS) project is developing a Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU) to verify the performance and functionality of a subscale version of the FPS reference concept in a relevant environment, and to verify component and system models. As hardware is developed for the TDU, component and system models must be refined to include the details of specific component designs. This paper describes the development of a Sage-based pseudo-steady-state Stirling convertor model and its implementation into a system-level model of the TDU.

  18. Overall performance of the duplex Stirling refrigerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erbay, L. Berrin; Ozturk, M. Mete; Doğan, Bahadır

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Overall performance coefficient of duplex Stirling refrigerator was investigated. • A definite region for the coefficient of performance of the refrigerator in duplex Stirling is identified. • A definite region for the thermal efficiency of the heat engine in duplex Stirling is identified. • Benchmark values and design bounds of the duplex Stirling refrigerator were obtained. - Abstract: The duplex Stirling refrigerator is an integrated refrigerator consists of Stirling cycle engine and Stirling cycle refrigerator used for cooling. The equality of the work generation of the heat engine to the work consumption of the refrigerator is the primary constraint of the duplex Stirling. The duplex Stirling refrigerator is investigated thermodynamically by considering the effects of constructional and operational parameters which are namely the temperature ratios for heat engine and refrigerator, and the compression ratios for both sides. The primary concern is given to the parametric effects on the overall coefficient of performance of the duplex Stirling refrigerator. The given diagrams provide a design bounds and benchmark results that allows seeing the big picture about the cooling load and heat input relation. Moreover they ease to determine the corresponding work rate to the target cooling load. As regard to the obtained results, a definite region for coefficient of performance of the refrigerator and a definite region for the thermal efficiency of the heat engine of the duplex Stirling are identified.

  19. Expert systems for superalloy studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Gary L.; Kaukler, William F.

    1990-01-01

    There are many areas in science and engineering which require knowledge of an extremely complex foundation of experimental results in order to design methodologies for developing new materials or products. Superalloys are an area which fit well into this discussion in the sense that they are complex combinations of elements which exhibit certain characteristics. Obviously the use of superalloys in high performance, high temperature systems such as the Space Shuttle Main Engine is of interest to NASA. The superalloy manufacturing process is complex and the implementation of an expert system within the design process requires some thought as to how and where it should be implemented. A major motivation is to develop a methodology to assist metallurgists in the design of superalloy materials using current expert systems technology. Hydrogen embrittlement is disasterous to rocket engines and the heuristics can be very complex. Attacking this problem as one module in the overall design process represents a significant step forward. In order to describe the objectives of the first phase implementation, the expert system was designated Hydrogen Environment Embrittlement Expert System (HEEES).

  20. Fatigue of superalloys and intermetallics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoloff, N.S.

    1993-01-01

    The fatigue behavior of intermetallic alloys and their composites is contrasted to that of nickel-base superalloys. The roles of microstructure and slip planarity are emphasized. Obstacles to use of intermetallics under cyclic loading conditions are described and future research directions are suggested

  1. Stirling Microregenerators Fabricated and Tested

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Matthew E.

    2004-01-01

    A mesoscale Stirling refrigerator patented by the NASA Glenn Research Center is currently under development. This refrigerator has a predicted efficiency of 30 percent of Carnot and potential uses in electronics, sensors, optical and radiofrequency systems, microarrays, and microsystems. The mesoscale Stirling refrigerator is most suited to volume-limited applications that require cooling below the ambient or sink temperature. Primary components of the planar device include two diaphragm actuators that replace the pistons found in traditional-scale Stirling machines and a microregenerator that stores and releases thermal energy to the working gas during the Stirling cycle. Diaphragms are used to eliminate frictional losses and bypass leakage concerns associated with pistons, while permitting reversal of the hot and cold sides of the device during operation to allow precise temperature control. Three candidate microregenerators were fabricated under NASA grants for initial evaluation: two constructed of porous ceramic, which were fabricated by Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory, and one made of multiple layers of nickel and photoresist, which was fabricated by Polar Thermal Technologies. The candidate regenerators are being tested by Johns Hopkins Applied Physics in a custom piezoelectric-actuated test apparatus designed to produce the Stirling refrigeration cycle. In parallel with the regenerator testing, Johns Hopkins is using deep reactive ion etching to fabricate electrostatically driven, comb-drive diaphragm actuators. These actuators will drive the Stirling cycle in the prototype device. The top photograph shows the porous ceramic microregenerators. Two microregenerators were fabricated with coarse pores and two with fine pores. The bottom photograph shows the test apparatus parts for evaluating the microregenerators, including the layered nickel-and-photoresist regenerator fabricated using LIGA techniques.

  2. Advanced Stirling Duplex Materials Assessment for Potential Venus Mission Heater Head Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritzert, Frank; Nathal, Michael V.; Salem, Jonathan; Jacobson, Nathan; Nesbitt, James

    2011-01-01

    This report will address materials selection for components in a proposed Venus lander system. The lander would use active refrigeration to allow Space Science instrumentation to survive the extreme environment that exists on the surface of Venus. The refrigeration system would be powered by a Stirling engine-based system and is termed the Advanced Stirling Duplex (ASD) concept. Stirling engine power conversion in its simplest definition converts heat from radioactive decay into electricity. Detailed design decisions will require iterations between component geometries, materials selection, system output, and tolerable risk. This study reviews potential component requirements against known materials performance. A lower risk, evolutionary advance in heater head materials could be offered by nickel-base superalloy single crystals, with expected capability of approximately 1100C. However, the high temperature requirements of the Venus mission may force the selection of ceramics or refractory metals, which are more developmental in nature and may not have a well-developed database or a mature supporting technology base such as fabrication and joining methods.

  3. The 1988 overview of free-piston Stirling technology for space power at the NASA Lewis Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaby, Jack G.

    1988-01-01

    The completion of the Space Power Demonstrator Engine (SPDE) testing is discussed, terminating with the generation of 25 kW of engine power from a dynamically-balanced opposed-piston Stirling engine at a temperature ratio of 2.0. Engine efficiency was greater than 22 percent. The SPDE recently was divided into 2 separate single cylinder engines, Space Power Research Engine (SPRE), that serves as test beds for the evaluation of key technology disciplines, which include hydrodynamic gas bearings, high efficiency linear alternators, space qualified heat pipe heat exchangers, oscillating flow code validation, and engine loss understanding. The success of the SPDE at 650 K has resulted in a more ambitious Stirling endeavor, the design, fabrication, test, and evaluation of a designed-for-space 25 kW per cylinder Stirling Space Engine (SSE) to operate at a hot metal temperature of 1050 K using superalloy materials. This design is a low temperature confirmation of the 1300 K design. It is the 1300 K free-piston Stirling power conversion system that is the ultimate goal. The first two phases of this program, the 650 K SPDE and the 1050 K SSE are emphasized.

  4. Soft Computing Methods in Design of Superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cios, K. J.; Berke, L.; Vary, A.; Sharma, S.

    1996-01-01

    Soft computing techniques of neural networks and genetic algorithms are used in the design of superalloys. The cyclic oxidation attack parameter K(sub a), generated from tests at NASA Lewis Research Center, is modelled as a function of the superalloy chemistry and test temperature using a neural network. This model is then used in conjunction with a genetic algorithm to obtain an optimized superalloy composition resulting in low K(sub a) values.

  5. Innovation at Stirling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    The 24th Stirling Meeting of the Scottish Branch of the Institute of Physics was held on 21 May 1998. It was, for the first time, coupled to a Physics Update Course, which then continued in the Heriot-Watt University over the following two days. This encouraged many more exhibitors to come to Stirling where some 220 physics teachers were present. Ten manufacturers, five publishers and, of course, the ASE and the Institute of Physics exhibited materials during the conference. Morning In his introductory remarks Jack Woolsey reminded teachers that a great deal of information about the Scottish Qualifications Authority was available on the web (http://www.sqa.org.uk). Lorna Neill chaired the morning session, which was devoted to teaching chips and assessing pupils! Tony Joyce (Motorola) emphasized the need to invest in the skills required by the electronics industry. There has been an explosion in the demand for microchips and Motorola, together with Edinburgh University, Compugraphics and Scottish Enterprise, have produced a number of `teaching chips' which are being used throughout Britain and abroad. Les Haworth (Edinburgh University) discussed the construction, operating principles and educational relevance of MOS devices. MOSFETs, he claimed, are the best vehicle for early teaching of device physics. Andrew Moore (Balerno High School) gave an entertaining presentation in which he suggested ways of using the `teaching chips' in practice. Although there were many good information sheets with suggested experiments and investigations, teachers often found it difficult to tailor them to specific courses. To reduce hassle Andrew recommended using the Teaching Chip Project Board which was now available. It was particularly useful for practical investigations at Standard Grade. For the question session Jim Jamieson (SSERC) and Walter Whitelaw (Edinburgh Council) joined the three speakers. Ian Kennedy (Kilwinning Academy) described a fascinating system, developed in his

  6. Stirling engine with pressurized crankcase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, John A.

    1988-01-01

    A two piston Stirling engine wherein the pistons are coupled to a common crankshaft via bearing means, the pistons include pad means to minimize friction between the pistons and the cylinders during reciprocation of the pistons, means for pressurizing the engine crankcase, and means for cooling the crankshaft and the bearing means eliminating the need for oil in the crankcase.

  7. Free-Piston Stirling Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaltens, Richard K.

    1989-01-01

    Engines promise cost-effective solar-power generation. Report describes two concepts for Stirling-engine systems for conversion of solar heat to electrical energy. Recognized most promising technologies for meeting U.S. Department of Energy goals for performance and cost for terrestrial electrical-energy sources.

  8. Stability of split Stirling refrigerators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waele, de A.T.A.M.; Liang, W.

    2009-01-01

    In many thermal systems spontaneous mechanical oscillations are generated under the influence of large temperature gradients. Well-known examples are Taconis oscillations in liquid-helium cryostats and oscillations in thermoacoustic systems. In split Stirling refrigerators the compressor and the

  9. Small Stirling dynamic isotope power system for multihundred-watt robotic missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bents, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    Free Piston Stirling Engine (FPSE) and linear alternator (LA) technology is combined with radioisotope heat sources to produce a compact dynamic isotope power system (DIPS) suitable for multihundred watt space application which appears competitive with advance radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs). The small Stirling DIPS is scalable to multihundred watt power levels or lower. The FPSE/LA is a high efficiency convertor in sizes ranging from tens of kilowatts down to only a few watts. At multihundred watt unit size, the FPSE can be directly integrated with the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) via radiative coupling; the resulting dynamic isotope power system has a size and weight that compares favorably with the advanced modular (Mod) RTG, but requires less than a third the amount of isotope fuel. Thus the FPSE extends the high efficiency advantage of dynamic systems into a power range never previously considered competitive for DIPS. This results in lower fuel cost and reduced radiological hazard per delivered electrical watt. 33 refs

  10. Performance predictions for solar-chemical convertors by computer simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luttmer, J.D.; Trachtenberg, I.

    1985-08-01

    A computer model which simulates the operation of Texas Instruments solar-chemical convertor (SCC) was developed. The model allows optimization of SCC processes, material, and configuration by facilitating decisions on tradeoffs among ease of manufacturing, power conversion efficiency, and cost effectiveness. The model includes various algorithms which define the electrical, electrochemical, and resistance parameters and which describ the operation of the discrete components of the SCC. Results of the model which depict the effect of material and geometric changes on various parameters are presented. The computer-calculated operation is compared with experimentall observed hydrobromic acid electrolysis rates.

  11. Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nightingale, N.; Ernst, W.; Richey, A.; Simetkosky, M.; Smith, G.; Antonelli, M. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    Mod I engine testing and test results, the test of a Mod I engine in the United States, Mod I engine characterization and analysis, Mod I Transient Test Bed fuel economy, Mod I-A engine performance are discussed. Stirling engine reference engine manufacturing and reduced size studies, components and subsystems, and the study and test of low-cost casting alloys are also covered. The overall program philosophy is outlined, and data and results are presented.

  12. Electrically Heated Testing of the Kilowatt Reactor Using Stirling Technology (KRUSTY) Experiment Using a Depleted Uranium Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Maxwell H.; Gibson, Marc A.; Sanzi, James

    2017-01-01

    The Kilopower project aims to develop and demonstrate scalable fission-based power technology for systems capable of delivering 110 kW of electric power with a specific power ranging from 2.5 - 6.5 Wkg. This technology could enable high power science missions or could be used to provide surface power for manned missions to the Moon or Mars. NASA has partnered with the Department of Energys National Nuclear Security Administration, Los Alamos National Labs, and Y-12 National Security Complex to develop and test a prototypic reactor and power system using existing facilities and infrastructure. This technology demonstration, referred to as the Kilowatt Reactor Using Stirling TechnologY (KRUSTY), will undergo nuclear ground testing in the summer of 2017 at the Nevada Test Site. The 1 kWe variation of the Kilopower system was chosen for the KRUSTY demonstration. The concept for the 1 kWe flight system consist of a 4 kWt highly enriched Uranium-Molybdenum reactor operating at 800 degrees Celsius coupled to sodium heat pipes. The heat pipes deliver heat to the hot ends of eight 125 W Stirling convertors producing a net electrical output of 1 kW. Waste heat is rejected using titanium-water heat pipes coupled to carbon composite radiator panels. The KRUSTY test, based on this design, uses a prototypic highly enriched uranium-molybdenum core coupled to prototypic sodium heat pipes. The heat pipes transfer heat to two Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASC-E2s) and six thermal simulators, which simulate the thermal draw of full scale power conversion units. Thermal simulators and Stirling engines are gas cooled. The most recent project milestone was the completion of non-nuclear system level testing using an electrically heated depleted uranium (non-fissioning) reactor core simulator. System level testing at the Glenn Research Center (GRC) has validated performance predictions and has demonstrated system level operation and control in a test configuration that replicates the one

  13. Automotive Stirling engine development program: A success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabata, W. K.

    1987-01-01

    The original 5-yr Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program has been extended to 10 years due to reduced annual funding levels. With an estimated completion date of April 1988, the technical achievements and the prospectives of meeting the original program objectives are reviewed. Various other applications of this developed Stirling engine technology are also discussed.

  14. Demonstration Experiments with a Stirling Engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deacon, Christopher G.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes an investigation with the primary purpose of allowing students to generate and interpret a pressure/volume diagram of a Stirling engine. Explains how the Stirling engine can be used to demonstrate the principles of operation of a refrigerator and a heat pump. (DDR)

  15. Evaluation of Storage for Transportation Equipment, Unfueled Convertors, and Fueled Convertors at the INL for the Radioisotope Power Systems Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. G. Johnson; K. L. Lively

    2010-05-01

    This report contains an evaluation of the storage conditions required for several key components and/or systems of the Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) Program at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). These components/systems (transportation equipment, i.e., type ‘B’ shipping casks and the radioisotope thermo-electric generator transportation systems (RTGTS), the unfueled convertors, i.e., multi-hundred watt (MHW) and general purpose heat source (GPHS) RTGs, and fueled convertors of several types) are currently stored in several facilities at the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) site. For various reasons related to competing missions, inherent growth of the RPS mission at the INL and enhanced efficiency, it is necessary to evaluate their current storage situation and recommend the approach that should be pursued going forward for storage of these vital RPS components and systems. The reasons that drive this evaluation include, but are not limited to the following: 1) conflict with other missions at the INL of higher priority, 2) increasing demands from the INL RPS Program that exceed the physical capacity of the current storage areas and 3) the ability to enhance our current capability to care for our equipment, decrease maintenance costs and increase the readiness posture of the systems.

  16. Stirling engine design manual, 2nd edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, W. R.

    1983-01-01

    This manual is intended to serve as an introduction to Stirling cycle heat engines, as a key to the available literature on Stirling engines and to identify nonproprietary Stirling engine design methodologies. Two different fully described Stirling engines are discussed. Engine design methods are categorized as first order, second order, and third order with increased order number indicating increased complexity. FORTRAN programs are listed for both an isothermal second order design program and an adiabatic second order design program. Third order methods are explained and enumerated. In this second edition of the manual the references are updated. A revised personal and corporate author index is given and an expanded directory lists over 80 individuals and companies active in Stirling engines.

  17. CHP from Updraft Gasifier and Stirling Engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, N.; Werling, J.; Carlsen, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    The combination of thermal gasification with a Stirling engine is an interesting concept for use in small combined heat and power plants based on biomass. By combining the two technologies a synergism can potentially be achieved. Technical problems, e.g. gas cleaning and fouling of the Stirling...... engine heat exchanger, can be eliminated and the overall electric efficiency of the system can be improved. At the Technical University of Denmark a Stirling engine fueled by gasification gas has been developed. In this engine the combustion system and the geometry of the hot heat exchanger...... of the Stirling engine has been adapted to the use of a gas with a low specific energy content and a high content of tar and particles. In the spring of 2001 a demonstration plant has been built in the western part of Denmark where this Stirling engine is combined with an updraft gasifier. A mathematical...

  18. Downsizing assessment of automotive Stirling engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, R. H.; Tew, R. C., Jr.; Klann, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    A 67 kW (90 hp) Stirling engine design, sized for use in a 1984 1440 kg (3170 lb) automobile was the focal point for developing automotive Stirling engine technology. Since recent trends are towards lighter vehicles, an assessment was made of the applicability of the Stirling technology being developed for smaller, lower power engines. Using both the Philips scaling laws and a Lewis Research Center (Lewis) Stirling engine performance code, dimensional and performance characteristics were determined for a 26 kW (35 hp) and a 37 kW (50 hp) engine for use in a nominal 907 kg (2000 lb) vehicle. Key engine elements were sized and stressed and mechanical layouts were made to ensure mechanical fit and integrity of the engines. Fuel economy estimates indicated that the Stirling engine would maintain a 30 to 45 percent fuel economy advantage comparable spark ignition and diesel powered vehicles in the 1984 period.

  19. Superalloy applications in the nuclear field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramanathan, L.V.; Padilha, A.F.

    1984-01-01

    The process conditions in the areas of nuclear fuel processing, fabrication, utilization, reprocessing and disposal are severe, demanding therefore the use of materials with high temperature mechanical strength and corrosion resistance. A number of refractory metal containing superalloys have found application in the diferrent areas of the nuclear field. The main aspects of the microstructure, strengthening mechanisms and corrosion resistance of 3 superalloys, namely Incoloy 825, Inconel 718 and Hastelloy C have been discussed. The role of the refractory metal elements in influencing the mechanical strength and corrosion resistance of superalloys has been emphasised. (Author) [pt

  20. Free-piston Stirling engine conceptual design and technologies for space power, Phase 1. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penswick, L.B.; Beale, W.T.; Wood, J.G.

    1990-01-01

    As part of the SP-100 program, a phase 1 effort to design a free-piston Stirling engine (FPSE) for a space dynamic power conversion system was completed. SP-100 is a combined DOD/DOE/NASA program to develop nuclear power for space. This work was completed in the initial phases of the SP-100 program prior to the power conversion concept selection for the Ground Engineering System (GES). Stirling engine technology development as a growth option for SP-100 is continuing after this phase 1 effort. Following a review of various engine concepts, a single-cylinder engine with a linear alternator was selected for the remainder of the study. The relationships of specific mass and efficiency versus temperature ratio were determined for a power output of 25 kWe. This parametric study was done for a temperature ratio range of 1.5 to 2.0 and for hot-end temperatures of 875 K and 1075 K. A conceptual design of a 1080 K FPSE with a linear alternator producing 25 kWe output was completed. This was a single-cylinder engine designed for a 62,000 hour life and a temperature ratio of 2.0. The heat transport systems were pumped liquid-metal loops on both the hot and cold ends. These specifications were selected to match the SP-100 power system designs that were being evaluated at that time. The hot end of the engine used both refractory and superalloy materials; the hot-end pressure vessel featured an insulated design that allowed use of the superalloy material. The design was supported by the hardware demonstration of two of the component concepts - the hydrodynamic gas bearing for the displacer and the dynamic balance system. The hydrodynamic gas bearing was demonstrated on a test rig. The dynamic balance system was tested on the 1 kW RE-1000 engine at NASA Lewis

  1. Free-piston Stirling engine conceptual design and technologies for space power, phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penswick, L. Barry; Beale, William T.; Wood, J. Gary

    1990-01-01

    As part of the SP-100 program, a phase 1 effort to design a free-piston Stirling engine (FPSE) for a space dynamic power conversion system was completed. SP-100 is a combined DOD/DOE/NASA program to develop nuclear power for space. This work was completed in the initial phases of the SP-100 program prior to the power conversion concept selection for the Ground Engineering System (GES). Stirling engine technology development as a growth option for SP-100 is continuing after this phase 1 effort. Following a review of various engine concepts, a single-cylinder engine with a linear alternator was selected for the remainder of the study. The relationships of specific mass and efficiency versus temperature ratio were determined for a power output of 25 kWe. This parametric study was done for a temperature ratio range of 1.5 to 2.0 and for hot-end temperatures of 875 K and 1075 K. A conceptual design of a 1080 K FPSE with a linear alternator producing 25 kWe output was completed. This was a single-cylinder engine designed for a 62,000 hour life and a temperature ratio of 2.0. The heat transport systems were pumped liquid-metal loops on both the hot and cold ends. These specifications were selected to match the SP-100 power system designs that were being evaluated at that time. The hot end of the engine used both refractory and superalloy materials; the hot-end pressure vessel featured an insulated design that allowed use of the superalloy material. The design was supported by the hardware demonstration of two of the component concepts - the hydrodynamic gas bearing for the displacer and the dynamic balance system. The hydrodynamic gas bearing was demonstrated on a test rig. The dynamic balance system was tested on the 1 kW RE-1000 engine at NASA Lewis.

  2. Stirling co-generation plants - Is this the future?; Stirling-BHKWs - Zukunft oder...?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seifert, M.

    2000-07-01

    This article gives an overview of the history and main features of Stirling engines and their use in combined-cycle power generation. The principles behind the Stirling and its thermo-dynamic characteristics are discussed and compared with the internal combustion engine and other thermally-driven machines. The two main types of Stirling - the free-piston and the kinematic Stirling engines are discussed. Also, the important role played by the burner in the operation of Stirling engines is discussed. The use of Stirling engines as a basis for small combined heat and power (CHP) units to produce thermal heating power and electricity is examined. Three examples - the implementations made by the Solo, Whispergen and SIG companies - are looked at in detail and compared with alternative CHP-solutions using small gas engines and fuel cells. The advantages and disadvantages of these different solutions are listed.

  3. The Stirling engine mechanism optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Podešva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A special type of the gas engine with external combustion is called Stirling engine. The mechanism has two pistons with two volumes inside. The pistons are connected together through cooler, regenerator and warmer. The engine effectivity depends on the piston movement behaviour. The usual sinusoidal time curve leads to low effectiveness. The quick movement from lower to upper position with a certain delay in both top and bottom dead centres is more effective. The paper deals with three types of mechanisms, analyzing the piston movement, and their behavior. Special emphasize is taken to the piston movement regime.

  4. Free-piston Stirling component test power converter test results and potential Stirling applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dochat, G. R.

    1992-01-01

    As the principal contractor to NASA-Lewis Research Center, Mechanical Technology Incorporated is under contract to develop free-piston Stirling power converters in the context of the competitive multiyear Space Stirling Technology Program. The first generation Stirling power converter, the component test power converter (CTPC) initiated cold end testing in 1991, with hot testing scheduled for summer of 1992. This paper reviews the test progress of the CTPC and discusses the potential of Stirling technology for various potential missions at given point designs of 250 watts, 2500 watts, and 25,000 watts.

  5. The metallurgy of superalloys part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelazim, M.E.; Hammad, F.H.

    1990-01-01

    This is part II of the report titled 'the metallurgy of superalloys'. It deals with the effect of heat treatment and operating conditions (thermal exposure and environment) on the mechanical properties of superalloys. The heat treatment is important in the development of superalloys through that it controls type, amount, size shape and distribution of the precipitate and the grain size of the matrix. The thermal exposure leads to reduction in the amount of the primary carbides and to precipitation of secondary carbides. Also it leads to the agglomeration and coarsening of gamma or the transformation of gamma phase to phase. The environment may lead to the internal oxidation, carburization, decarburization or sulphidization of the superalloys which may result in the degradation of their mechanical properties. This part gives also an example of applications of superalloys in the field of nuclear reactors especially high temperature-gas cooled reactors. Joined with this part a table which contains the major superalloys including its chemical analysis, creep rupture strength and some of its applications. 1 tab

  6. The metallurgy of superalloys part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelazim, M.E.; Hammad, F.H.

    1990-01-01

    This is part I of the report titled 'the metallurgy of superalloys'. In this part the structure, phases and systems of superalloys are reviewed. The role of alloying elements in the design of superalloys and the mechanical properties of superalloys are also reviewed. Superalloys are important in high temperature technology, especially above 700 degree c. They are 'super' mainly because their creep and stress rupture resistances are very high. Superalloys are based on an austenitic matrix including secondary phases, mainly gamma precipitates, inter and intragranular carbides mainly M 23 C 6 and M 6 C. They are classified into three systems, Ni-base, Fe-Ni base and Ce-base alloys. Different alloying elements mainly Cr, Mo, Al, Ti are added to increase the strength either by solid solution hardening (Cr, Mo, Al), precipitation hardening (A 1, Ti to produce gamma) or by dispersion hardening (Cr, Mo to form M 23 C 6 and M 6 C carbides) and to increase the oxidation resistance (Cr, Al). 3 tab., 2 fig

  7. Progress update of NASA's free-piston Stirling space power converter technology project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudenhoefer, James E.; Winter, Jerry M.; Alger, Donald

    1992-01-01

    A progress update is presented of the NASA LeRC Free-Piston Stirling Space Power Converter Technology Project. This work is being conducted under NASA's Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The goal of the CSTI High Capacity Power Element is to develop the technology base needed to meet the long duration, high capacity power requirements for future NASA space initiatives. Efforts are focused upon increasing system power output and system thermal and electric energy conversion efficiency at least five fold over current SP-100 technology, and on achieving systems that are compatible with space nuclear reactors. This paper will discuss progress toward 1050 K Stirling Space Power Converters. Fabrication is nearly completed for the 1050 K Component Test Power Converter (CTPC); results of motoring tests of the cold end (525 K), are presented. The success of these and future designs is dependent upon supporting research and technology efforts including heat pipes, bearings, superalloy joining technologies, high efficiency alternators, life and reliability testing, and predictive methodologies. This paper will compare progress in significant areas of component development from the start of the program with the Space Power Development Engine (SPDE) to the present work on CTPC.

  8. Variable displacement alpha-type Stirling engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homutescu, V. M.; Bălănescu, D. T.; Panaite, C. E.; Atanasiu, M. V.

    2016-08-01

    The basic design and construction of an alpha-type Stirling engine with on load variable displacement is presented. The variable displacement is obtained through a planar quadrilateral linkage with one on load movable ground link. The physico-mathematical model used for analyzing the variable displacement alpha-type Stirling engine behavior is an isothermal model that takes into account the real movement of the pistons. Performances and power adjustment capabilities of such alpha-type Stirling engine are calculated and analyzed. An exemplification through the use of the numerical simulation was performed in this regard.

  9. Idealization of The Real Stirling Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Červenka Libor

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a potential idealization of the real Stirling cycle. This idealization is performed by modifying the piston movement corresponding to the ideal Stirling cycle. The focus is on the cycle thermodynamics with respect to the indicated efficiency and indicated power. A detailed 1-D simulation model of a Stirling engine is used as a tool for this assessment. The model includes real non-zero volumes of heater, regenerator, cooler and connecting pipe. The model is created in the GT Power commercial simulation software.

  10. Rotary Stirling-Cycle Engine And Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Joseph A.

    1990-01-01

    Proposed electric-power generator comprises three motor generators coordinated by microprocessor and driven by rotary Stirling-cycle heat engine. Combination offers thermodynamic efficiency of Stirling cycle, relatively low vibration, and automatic adjustment of operating parameters to suit changing load on generator. Rotary Stirling cycle engine converts heat to power via compression and expansion of working gas between three pairs of rotary pistons on three concentric shafts in phased motion. Three motor/generators each connected to one of concentric shafts, can alternately move and be moved by pistons. Microprocessor coordinates their operation, including switching between motor and generator modes at appropriate times during each cycle.

  11. Automotive Stirling Engine Development Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, William D.; Shaltens, Richard K.

    1997-01-01

    The development and verification of automotive Stirling engine (ASE) component and system technology is described as it evolved through two experimental engine designs: the Mod 1 and the Mod 2. Engine operation and performance and endurance test results for the Mod 1 are summarized. Mod 2 engine and component development progress is traced from the original design through hardware development, laboratory test, and vehicle installation. More than 21,000 hr of testing were accomplished, including 4800 hr with vehicles that were driven more dm 59,000 miles. Mod 2 engine dynamometer tests demonstrated that the engine system configuration had accomplished its performance goals for power (60 kW) and efficiency (38.5%) to within a few percent. Tests with the Mod 2 engine installed in a delivery van demonstrated combined metro-highway fuel economy improvements consistent with engine performance goals and the potential for low emission levels. A modified version of the Mod 2 has been identified as a manufacturable design for an ASE. As part of the ASE project, the Industry Test and Evaluation Program (ITEP), NASA Technology Utilization (TU) project, and the industry-funded Stirling Natural Gas Engine program were undertaken to transfer ASE technology to end users. The results of these technology transfer efforts are also summarized.

  12. Continuing Development for Free-Piston Stirling Space Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Allen A.; Qiu, Songgang; Redinger, Darin L.; Augenblick, John E.; Petersen, Stephen L.

    2004-02-01

    Long-life radioisotope power generators based on free-piston Stirling engines are an energy-conversion solution for future space applications. The high efficiency of Stirling machines makes them more attractive than the thermoelectric generators currently used in space. Stirling Technology Company (STC) has been developing free-piston Stirling machines for over 30 years, and its family of Stirling generators is ideally suited for reliable, maintenance-free operation. This paper describes recent progress and status of the STC RemoteGen™ 55 W-class Stirling generator (RG-55), presents an overview of recent testing, and discusses how the technology demonstration design has evolved toward space-qualified hardware.

  13. Raytheon Stirling/pulse Tube Cryocooler Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkconnell, C. S.; Hon, R. C.; Kesler, C. H.; Roberts, T.

    2008-03-01

    The first generation flight-design Stirling/pulse tube "hybrid" two-stage cryocooler has entered initial performance and environmental testing. The status and early results of the testing are presented. Numerous improvements have been implemented as compared to the preceding brassboard versions to improve performance, extend life, and enhance launch survivability. This has largely been accomplished by incorporating successful flight-design features from the Raytheon Stirling one-stage cryocooler product line. These design improvements are described. In parallel with these mechanical cryocooler development efforts, a third generation electronics module is being developed that will support hybrid Stirling/pulse tube and Stirling cryocoolers. Improvements relative to the second generation design relate to improved radiation hardness, reduced parts count, and improved vibration cancellation capability. Progress on the electronics is also presented.

  14. Automotive Stirling engine: Mod 2 design report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nightingale, Noel P.

    1986-01-01

    The design of an automotive Stirling engine that achieves the superior fuel economy potential of the Stirling cycle is described. As the culmination of a 9-yr development program, this engine, designated the Mod 2, also nullifies arguments that Stirling engines are heavy, expensive, unreliable, demonstrating poor performance. Installed in a General Motors Chevrolet Celebrity car, this engine has a predicted combined fuel economy on unleaded gasoline of 17.5 km/l (41 mpg)- a value 50% above the current vehicle fleet average. The Mod 2 Stirling engine is a four-cylinder V-drive design with a single crankshaft. The engine is also equipped with all the controls and auxiliaries necessary for automotive operation.

  15. Simple and Clear Proofs of Stirling's Formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niizeki, Shozo; Araki, Makoto

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of our article is to show two simpler and clearer methods of proving Stirling's formula than the traditional and conventional ones. The distinction of our method is to use the simple trapezoidal formula.

  16. Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Life Certification Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusick, Jeffrey J.; Zampino, Edward J.

    2013-01-01

    An Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) power supply is being developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) in partnership with NASA for potential future deep space science missions. Unlike previous radioisotope power supplies for space exploration, such as the passive MMRTG used recently on the Mars Curiosity rover, the ASRG is an active dynamic power supply with moving Stirling engine mechanical components. Due to the long life requirement of 17 years and the dynamic nature of the Stirling engine, the ASRG project faced some unique challenges trying to establish full confidence that the power supply will function reliably over the mission life. These unique challenges resulted in the development of an overall life certification plan that emphasizes long-term Stirling engine test and inspection when analysis is not practical. The ASRG life certification plan developed is described.

  17. Alternative thermodynamic cycle for the Stirling machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanelli, Alejandro

    2017-12-01

    We develop an alternative thermodynamic cycle for the Stirling machine, where the polytropic process plays a central role. Analytical expressions for pressure and temperatures of the working gas are obtained as a function of the volume and the parameter that characterizes the polytropic process. This approach achieves closer agreement with the experimental pressure-volume diagram and can be adapted to any type of Stirling engine.

  18. Recent Stirling engine loss - understanding results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tew, R.C.; Thieme, L.G.; Dudenhoefer, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    For several years, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and other US Government agencies have been funding experimental and analytical efforts to improve the understanding of Stirling thermodynamic losses. NASA's objective is to improve Stirling engine design capability to support the development of new engines for space power. An overview of these efforts was last given at the 1988 IECEC. Recent results of this research are reviewed

  19. Self-pressurizing Stirling engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2010-10-12

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A heat engine, such as a Stirling engine, is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller. The heat engine has a thermal battery in thermal contact with it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  20. Stirling Engine Dynamic System Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakis, Christopher G.

    2004-01-01

    The Thermo-Mechanical systems branch at the Glenn Research Center focuses a large amount time on Stirling engines. These engines will be used on missions where solar power is inefficient, especially in deep space. I work with Tim Regan and Ed Lewandowski who are currently developing and validating a mathematical model for the Stirling engines. This model incorporates all aspects of the system including, mechanical, electrical and thermodynamic components. Modeling is done through Simplorer, a program capable of running simulations of the model. Once created and then proven to be accurate, a model is used for developing new ideas for engine design. My largest specific project involves varying key parameters in the model and quantifying the results. This can all be done relatively trouble-free with the help of Simplorer. Once the model is complete, Simplorer will do all the necessary calculations. The more complicated part of this project is determining which parameters to vary. Finding key parameters depends on the potential for a value to be independently altered in the design. For example, a change in one dimension may lead to a proportional change to the rest of the model, and no real progress is made. Also, the ability for a changed value to have a substantial impact on the outputs of the system is important. Results will be condensed into graphs and tables with the purpose of better communication and understanding of the data. With the changing of these parameters, a more optimal design can be created without having to purchase or build any models. Also, hours and hours of results can be simulated in minutes. In the long run, using mathematical models can save time and money. Along with this project, I have many other smaller assignments throughout the summer. My main goal is to assist in the processes of model development, validation and testing.

  1. Improving Free-Piston Stirling Engine Specific Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Maxwell H.

    2015-01-01

    This work uses analytical methods to demonstrate the potential benefits of optimizing piston and/or displacer motion in a Stirling engine. Isothermal analysis was used to show the potential benefits of ideal motion in ideal Stirling engines. Nodal analysis is used to show that ideal piston and displacer waveforms are not optimal in real Stirling engines. Constrained optimization was used to identify piston and displacer waveforms that increase Stirling engine specific power.

  2. Forging Oxide-Dispersion-Strengthened Superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harf, F. H.; Glasgow, T. K.; Moracz, D. J.; Austin, C. M.

    1986-01-01

    Cladding of mild steel prevents surface cracking when alloy contacts die. Continual need for improvements in properties of alloys capable of withstanding elevated temperatures. Accomplished by using oxide-dispersion-strengthed superalloys such as Inconel Alloy MA 6000. Elevated tensile properties of forged alloy equal those of hot-rolled MA 6000 bar. Stress-rupture properties somewhat lower than those of bar stock but, at 1,100 degrees C, exceed those of strongest commercial single crystal, directionally solidified and conventionally cast superalloys.

  3. James Stirling Regionalismo y modernidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier de Esteban Garbayo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEn los años treinta, la arquitectura moderna se había introducido en los más remotos lugares del mundo enfrentándose con la infinita idiosincrasia de lo local, y al mismo tiempo, el arquitecto, sintiendo las limitaciones de su estilo e intentando ampliar su vocabulario, se embarcó en un proceso de difusión, asimilación y personalización.La idea de una renovada época después de la posguerra británica, sería compartida por una joven generación de arquitectos con el fin de encontrar una nueva forma de modernidad.Si en sus proyectos domésticos de mediados de los cincuenta, James Stirling partió de una aproximación al regionalismo y a la 'tradición funcional' con el fin de renovar el lenguaje moderno, no abandonaría la idea 'programática' inicial de entender la arquitectura desde una consistencia formal y una lógica que combinaba 'una síntesis común del pasado reciente y una certera actitud hacia el futuro'. AbstractThirties, modern architecture had percolated into remote corners of the world, encountering the infinite idiosyncrasies of locality, and, at the same time, Architects, feelings the limitations of their style and becoming intent upon extending their vocabulary, embarked upon a process of diffusion, assimilation and personalitation.The idea of a renewed period after British postwar, was shared for a new young architects generationto find a new way of modernity.While in his mid fifties housing projects, James Stirling approached to 'regionalism' and 'the functional tradition' to renew the modern language, he wouldn't reject the programmatic idea to understand architecture from a logic and formal consistency that combine 'a common synthesis of the recent past and a certain attitude toward the future'.

  4. Fast Whole-Engine Stirling Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Rodger W.; Wilson, Scott D.; Tew, Roy C.; Demko, Rikako

    2007-01-01

    An experimentally validated approach is described for fast axisymmetric Stirling engine simulations. These simulations include the entire displacer interior and demonstrate it is possible to model a complete engine cycle in less than an hour. The focus of this effort was to demonstrate it is possible to produce useful Stirling engine performance results in a time-frame short enough to impact design decisions. The combination of utilizing the latest 64-bit Opteron computer processors, fiber-optical Myrinet communications, dynamic meshing, and across zone partitioning has enabled solution times at least 240 times faster than previous attempts at simulating the axisymmetric Stirling engine. A comparison of the multidimensional results, calibrated one-dimensional results, and known experimental results is shown. This preliminary comparison demonstrates that axisymmetric simulations can be very accurate, but more work remains to improve the simulations through such means as modifying the thermal equilibrium regenerator models, adding fluid-structure interactions, including radiation effects, and incorporating mechanodynamics.

  5. Combining solid biomass combustion and stirling technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siemers, W.; Senkel, N. [CUTEC-Institut GmbH, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)], e-mail: werner.siemers@cutec.de

    2012-11-01

    Decentralised electricity production in combination with and based on biomass still finds some difficulties in real applications. One concept favoured in a recent project is the connection of a wood chip furmace with a Stirling engine. Because the direct exposure of the Stirling head causes numerous problems, the solution is sought in designing an indirect heat transfer system. The main challenge is the temperature level, which should be reached for high electrical efficiencies. Temperatures above 1000 deg C at the biomass combustion side are needed for an efficient heat transfer at some 850 deg C at the Stirling engine in theory. Measurements on both installations have been conducted and analyzed. After this, the design phase is started. However, no final choice on the design has been taken.

  6. Advanced radioisotope heat source for Stirling Engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobry, T.J.; Walberg, G.

    2001-01-01

    The heat exchanger on a Stirling Engine requires a thermal energy transfer from a heat source to the engine through a very limited area on the heater head circumference. Designing an effective means to assure maximum transfer efficiency is challenging. A single General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS), which has been qualified for space operations, would satisfy thermal requirements for a single Stirling Engine that would produce 55 electrical watts. However, it is not efficient to transfer its thermal energy to the engine heat exchanger from its rectangular geometry. This paper describes a conceptual design of a heat source to improve energy transfer for Stirling Engines that may be deployed to power instrumentation on space missions

  7. Analytical model for Stirling cycle machine design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Formosa, F. [Laboratoire SYMME, Universite de Savoie, BP 80439, 74944 Annecy le Vieux Cedex (France); Despesse, G. [Laboratoire Capteurs Actionneurs et Recuperation d' Energie, CEA-LETI-MINATEC, Grenoble (France)

    2010-10-15

    In order to study further the promising free piston Stirling engine architecture, there is a need of an analytical thermodynamic model which could be used in a dynamical analysis for preliminary design. To aim at more realistic values, the models have to take into account the heat losses and irreversibilities on the engine. An analytical model which encompasses the critical flaws of the regenerator and furthermore the heat exchangers effectivenesses has been developed. This model has been validated using the whole range of the experimental data available from the General Motor GPU-3 Stirling engine prototype. The effects of the technological and operating parameters on Stirling engine performance have been investigated. In addition to the regenerator influence, the effect of the cooler effectiveness is underlined. (author)

  8. Cost estimating Brayton and Stirling engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortgang, H. R.

    1980-01-01

    Brayton and Stirling engines were analyzed for cost and selling price for production quantities ranging from 1000 to 400,000 units per year. Parts and components were subjected to indepth scrutiny to determine optimum manufacturing processes coupled with make or buy decisions on materials and small parts. Tooling and capital equipment costs were estimated for each detail and/or assembly. For low annual production volumes, the Brayton engine appears to have a lower cost and selling price than the Stirling Engine. As annual production quantities increase, the Stirling becomes a lower cost engine than the Brayton. Both engines could benefit cost wise if changes were made in materials, design and manufacturing process as annual production quantities increase.

  9. Fatigue studies of superalloys in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitagawa, Masaki

    1985-01-01

    In the past 15 years, several national projects were advanced to develop high temperature machinery, such as high temperature gas-cooled reactors, gas turbines and fusion reactors. Before, the studies on the strength of superalloys were rarely carried out, however, by the above research works, superalloys are in rapid progress. Because these machinery are subjected to temperature cycles and vibration stress, the fatigue failure is the main concern in the safety analysis of the components. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the present status of the fatigue research on the alloys for high temperature use in Japan. The superalloys used for gas turbine and HTGR components are listed, and the materials tested were mostly the alloys of nickel base, cobalt base or iron base. In the above national projects, the main purpose was to clarify the high temperature properties including fatigue properties, to develop the method of forecasting the life span and to develop better materials. As the topics about the fatigue research on superalloys, the development of the method for forecasting the life span, the effect of directional solidification, coating and HIP process on the fatigue strength of gas turbine materials, the effect of helium and aging on the fatigue strength of HTGR materials, the fatigue strength of weldment of HTGR materials and others are reported. (Kako, I.)

  10. Chemical driving force for rafting in superalloys

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nabarro, FRN

    1997-08-15

    Full Text Available The author provides a brief overview of the chemical driving forces for rafting in superalloys. Until recently, all theories of the driving force for rafting have considered the compositions of the two phases to be fixed, although accepting...

  11. Free piston space Stirling technology program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dochat, G. R.; Dhar, M.

    1989-01-01

    MTI recently completed an initial technology feasibility program for NASA by designing, fabricating and testing a space power demonstrator engine (SPDE). This program, which confirms the potential of free-piston Stirling engines, provided the major impetus to initiate a free-piston Stirling space engine (SSE) technology program. The accomplishments of the SPDE program are reviewed, and an overview of the SSE technology program and technical status to date is provided. It is shown that progress in both programs continues to justify its potential for either nuclear or solar space power missions.

  12. Evaluation of candidate Stirling engine heater tube alloys after 3500 hours exposure to high pressure doped hydrogen or helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misencik, J. A.; Titran, R. H.

    1984-01-01

    The heater head tubes of current prototype automotive Stirling engines are fabricated from alloy N-155, an alloy which contains 20 percent cobalt. Because the United States imports over 90 percent of the cobalt used in this country and resource supplies could not meet the demand imposed by automotive applications of cobalt in the heater head (tubes plus cylinders and regenerator housings), it is imperative that substitute alloys free of cobalt be identified. The research described herein focused on the heater head tubes. Sixteen alloys (15 potential substitutes plus the 20 percent Co N-155 alloy) were evaluated in the form of thin wall tubing in the NASA Lewis Research Center Stirling simulator materials diesel fuel fired test rigs. Tubes filled with either hydrogen doped with 1 percent CO2 or with helium at a gas pressure of 15 MPa and a temperature of 820 C were cyclic endurance tested for times up to 3500 hr. Results showed that two iron-nickel base superalloys, CG-27 and Pyromet 901 survived the 3500 hr endurance test. The remaining alloys failed by creep-rupture at times less than 3000 hr, however, several other alloys had superior lives to N-155. Results further showed that doping the hydrogen working fluid with 1 vol % CO2 is an effective means of reducing hydrogen permeability through all the alloy tubes investigated.

  13. Double acting stirling engine piston ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howarth, Roy B.

    1986-01-01

    A piston ring design for a Stirling engine wherein the contact pressure between the piston and the cylinder is maintained at a uniform level, independent of engine conditions through a balancing of the pressure exerted upon the ring's surface and thereby allowing the contact pressure on the ring to be predetermined through the use of a preloaded expander ring.

  14. Two piston V-type Stirling engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, John A.

    1987-01-01

    A two piston Stirling engine which includes a heat exchanger arrangement placing the cooler and regenerator directly adjacent the compression space for minimal cold duct volume; a sealing arrangement which eliminates the need for piston seals, crossheads and piston rods; and a simplified power control system.

  15. Experimental research on the Stirling engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizaki, Y.; Tani, Y.; Haramura, N.

    1982-01-01

    Experiments on Stirling engines of the 50 KW class were conducted to clarify the characteristics of the engine and its problems. The problems involve durability of the high temperature heat exchanger which is exposed to high flame temperatures above 1600 C, thermal distortion and high temperature corrosion of the devices near combustion, and of the preheater.

  16. Piston rod seal for a Stirling engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Wilbur

    1984-01-01

    In a piston rod seal for a Stirling engine, a hydrostatic bearing and differential pressure regulating valve are utilized to provide for a low pressure differential across a rubbing seal between the hydrogen and oil so as to reduce wear on the seal.

  17. Basic dynamics of split Stirling refrigerators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waele, de A.T.A.M.; Liang, W.

    2008-01-01

    The basic features of the split Stirling refrigerator, driven by a linear compressor, are described. Friction of the compressor piston and of the regenerator, and the viscous losses due to the gas flow through the regenerator matrix are taken into account. The temp. at the cold end is an input

  18. Quirks of Stirling's Approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macrae, Roderick M.; Allgeier, Benjamin M.

    2013-01-01

    Stirling's approximation to ln "n"! is typically introduced to physical chemistry students as a step in the derivation of the statistical expression for the entropy. However, naive application of this approximation leads to incorrect conclusions. In this article, the problem is first illustrated using a familiar "toy…

  19. The Stirling Lesson-Sampling Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, D. R.

    A long-term Leverhulme Research Project was established at Stirling University in 1970 to investigate the potential of microteaching as a major ingredient in the preparation of graduate high school teachers in Scotland. Members of the research team developed systematic observation schedules for each of the skills, in order to sharpen the focus of…

  20. Free-Piston Stirling Power Conversion Unit for Fission Power System, Phase II Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, J. Gary; Stanley, John

    2016-01-01

    In Phase II, the manufacture and testing of two 6-kW(sub e)Stirling engines was completed. The engines were delivered in an opposed 12-kW(sub e) arrangement with a common expansion space heater head. As described in the Phase I report, the engines were designed to be sealed both hermetically and with a bolted O-ring seal. The completed Phase II convertor is in the bolted configuration to allow future disassembly. By the end of Phase II, the convertor had passed all of the final testing requirements in preparation for delivery to the NASA Glenn Research Center. The electronic controller also was fabricated and tested during Phase II. The controller sets both piston amplitudes and maintains the phasing between them. It also sets the operating frequency of the machine. Details of the controller are described in the Phase I final report. Fabrication of the direct-current to direct-current (DC-DC) output stage, which would have stepped down the main controller output voltage from 700 to 120 V(sub DC), was omitted from this phase of the project for budgetary reasons. However, the main controller was successfully built, tested with the engines, and delivered. We experienced very few development issues with this high-power controller. The project extended significantly longer than originally planned because of yearly funding delays. The team also experienced several hardware difficulties along the development path. Most of these were related to the different thermal expansions of adjacent parts constructed of different materials. This issue was made worse by the large size of the machine. Thermal expansion problems also caused difficulties in the brazing of the opposed stainless steel sodium-potassium (NaK) heater head. Despite repeated attempts Sunpower was not able to successfully braze the opposed head under this project. Near the end of the project, Glenn fabricated an opposed Inconel NaK head, which was installed prior to delivery for testing at Glenn. Engine

  1. Superalloy applications in the fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, R.W.

    1976-01-01

    The economics of the LMFBR are dependent on the breeding of new fuel in the reactor core and this can be improved by the use of advanced alloys as core structural components. The environment of the core makes superalloys a natural choice for these components, but phenomena related directly to neutron irradiation necessitate extensive testing. Consequently, commercially-available superalloys, together with a number of developmental alloys are being tested in existing LMFBR's and by simulation techniques to determine the best alloy for use in the LMFBR core. It presently appears that such materials will indeed be capable of the performance required, and will greatly facilitate the commercial realization of the fast breeder reactor

  2. Recrystallization of the ODS superalloy PM-1000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandim, H.R.Z.; Hayama, A.O.F.; Raabe, D.

    2006-01-01

    The primary recrystallization of a -fiber textured coarse-grained oxide dispersion strengthened nickel-based superalloy (PM-1000) has been investigated by high-resolution electron backscatter diffraction. The annealing behavior of this alloy is quite complex. Even at high annealing temperatures (e.g. 1200 deg. C), recrystallization is only partial. The microstructure of this superalloy in the annealed state consists of a blurred subgrain structure, coarse grains with sizes of about 10-20 μm at the pre-existing grain boundaries and a significant fraction of small crystals in the interior of the recovered grains. These small grains are elongated and display anisotropic growth. In the present paper we present a detailed explanation for this peculiar microstructure. Particular focus is placed on the origin of the new grains in the recovered structure in a [1 0 0]-oriented grain

  3. Development of Wrought Superalloy in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DU Jinhui

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Wrought superalloy development in China was reviewed in recent ten years. The achievement of basic research and development of industrial manufacture technologies were systematically described from the aspects of new alloys, new technologies of hot deformation. New alloys include: new disc materials 718Plus, GH4720Li and GH4065 alloy, combustion chamber alloy GH3230, and GH4706 alloy for gas turbine engines. New technologies include: ERS-CDS new technology of easy segregation materials, multi upsetting-drawing for improving the microstructure uniformity of bars, slow cooling and multi-cycle thermomechanical treatment for increasing hot plasticity of hard-to-work alloys. Finally, the further development of wrought superalloys was prospected.

  4. Structural design of Stirling engine with free pistons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matusov, Jozef; Gavlas, Stanislav; Malcho, Milan

    2014-08-01

    Stirling engine is a device that converts thermal energy to mechanical work, which is mostly used to drive a generator of electricity. Advantage of Stirling engine is that it works with closed-cycle, where working medium is regularly cooled and heated, which acts on the working piston. This engine can be made in three modifications - alpha, beta, gamma. This paper discusses the design of the gamma Stirling engine with free pistons.

  5. THE STIRLING GAS REFRIGERATING MACHINE MECHANICAL DESIGN IMPROVING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Trandafilov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To improve the mechanical design of the piston Stirling gas refrigeration machine the structural optimization of rotary vane Stirling gas refrigeration machine is carried out. This paper presents the results of theoretical research. Analysis and prospects of rotary vane Stirling gas refrigeration machine for domestic and industrial refrigeration purpose are represented. The results of a patent search by mechanisms of transformation of rotary vane machines are discussed.

  6. THE STIRLING GAS REFRIGERATING MACHINE MECHANICAL DESIGN IMPROVING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Trandafilov

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available To improve the mechanical design of the piston Stirling gas refrigeration machine the structural optimization of rotary vane Stirling gas refrigeration machine is carried out. This paper presents the results of theoretical research. Analysis and prospects of rotary vane Stirling gas refrigeration machine for domestic and industrial refrigeration purpose are represented. The results of a patent search by mechanisms of transformation of rotary vane machines are discussed

  7. Effects of helium impurities on superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selle, J.E.

    1977-07-01

    A review of the literature on the effects of helium impurities on superalloys at elevated temperatures was undertaken. The actual effects of these impurities vary depending on the alloy, composition of the gas atmosphere, and temperature. In general, exposure in helium produces significant but not catastrophic changes in the structure and properties of the alloys. The effects of these treatments on the structure, creep, fatigue, and mechanical properties of the various alloys are reviewed and discussed. Suggestions for future work are presented

  8. Thermomechanical fatigue in single crystal superalloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moverare Johan J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermomechanical fatigue (TMF is a mechanism of deformation which is growing in importance due to the efficiency of modern cooling systems and the manner in which turbines and associated turbomachinery are now being operated. Unfortunately, at the present time, relatively little research has been carried out particularly on TMF of single crystal (SX superalloys, probably because the testing is significantly more challenging than the more standard creep and low cycle fatigue (LCF cases; the scarcity and relative expense of the material are additional factors. In this paper, the authors summarise their experiences on the TMF testing of SX superalloys, built up over several years. Emphasis is placed upon describing: (i the nature of the testing method, the challenges involved in ensuring that an given testing methodology is representative of engine conditions (ii the behaviour of a typical Re-containing second generation alloy such as CMSX-4, and its differing performance in out-of-phase/in-phase loading and crystallographic orientation and (iii the differences in behaviour displayed by the Re-containing alloys and new Re-free variants such as STAL15. It is demonstrated that the Re-containing superalloys are prone to different degradation mechanisms involving for example microtwinning, TCP precipitation and recrystallisation. The performance of STAL15 is not too inferior to alloys such as CMSX-4, suggesting that creep resistance itself does not correlate strongly with resistance to TMF. The implications for alloy design efforts are discussed.

  9. Barrier Coatings for Refractory Metals and Superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SM Sabol; BT Randall; JD Edington; CJ Larkin; BJ Close

    2006-01-01

    In the closed working fluid loop of the proposed Prometheus space nuclear power plant (SNPP), there is the potential for reaction of core and plant structural materials with gas phase impurities and gas phase transport of interstitial elements between superalloy and refractory metal alloy components during service. Primary concerns are surface oxidation, interstitial embrittlement of refractory metals and decarburization of superalloys. In parallel with kinetic investigations, this letter evaluates the ability of potential coatings to prevent or impede communication between reactor and plant components. Key coating requirements are identified and current technology coating materials are reviewed relative to these requirements. Candidate coatings are identified for future evaluation based on current knowledge of design parameters and anticipated environment. Coatings were identified for superalloys and refractory metals to provide diffusion barriers to interstitial transport and act as reactive barriers to potential oxidation. Due to their high stability at low oxygen potential, alumina formers are most promising for oxidation protection given the anticipated coolant gas chemistry. A sublayer of iridium is recommended to provide inherent diffusion resistance to interstitials. Based on specific base metal selection, a thin film substrate--coating interdiffusion barrier layer may be necessary to meet mission life

  10. Barrier Coatings for Refractory Metals and Superalloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SM Sabol; BT Randall; JD Edington; CJ Larkin; BJ Close

    2006-02-23

    In the closed working fluid loop of the proposed Prometheus space nuclear power plant (SNPP), there is the potential for reaction of core and plant structural materials with gas phase impurities and gas phase transport of interstitial elements between superalloy and refractory metal alloy components during service. Primary concerns are surface oxidation, interstitial embrittlement of refractory metals and decarburization of superalloys. In parallel with kinetic investigations, this letter evaluates the ability of potential coatings to prevent or impede communication between reactor and plant components. Key coating requirements are identified and current technology coating materials are reviewed relative to these requirements. Candidate coatings are identified for future evaluation based on current knowledge of design parameters and anticipated environment. Coatings were identified for superalloys and refractory metals to provide diffusion barriers to interstitial transport and act as reactive barriers to potential oxidation. Due to their high stability at low oxygen potential, alumina formers are most promising for oxidation protection given the anticipated coolant gas chemistry. A sublayer of iridium is recommended to provide inherent diffusion resistance to interstitials. Based on specific base metal selection, a thin film substrate--coating interdiffusion barrier layer may be necessary to meet mission life.

  11. 75 FR 67100 - Superalloy Degassed Chromium From Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    ... Chromium From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of a five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on superalloy degassed chromium from Japan. SUMMARY... order on superalloy degassed chromium from Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence...

  12. 76 FR 8773 - Superalloy Degassed Chromium From Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-1090 (Review)] Superalloy Degassed Chromium From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Termination of five-year... revocation of the antidumping duty order on superalloy degassed chromium from Japan would be likely to lead...

  13. Stirling Energy Module (SEM) as Micro-CHP; Stirling Energy Module (SEM) als Mini-BHKW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlegel, A.

    2006-07-01

    Since many years, a lot of effort is being put into the development of combined heat and power units (CHP) for the decentralised production of electric power. For long time, the main focus was on fuel cells. In the meantime, the Stirling technology, which is based upon classical mechanical engineering and innovative technical concepts, proceeded in its development as well. The following article describes the technology and the actual state of the development of the Stirling Energy Module (SEM) for the application as Micro-CHP in one-family-houses. SEM is based on a free-piston engine with a linear power generator, producing electric power while heating. The Stirling engine is planned the be introduced into the market as a replacement for the conventional heating systems within a couple of years. (author)

  14. Coefficient of performance of Stirling refrigerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    E Mungan, Carl

    2017-09-01

    Stirling coolers transfer heat in or out of the working fluid during all four stages of their operation, and their coefficient of performance depends on whether the non-isothermal heat exchanges are performed reversibly or irreversibly. Both of these possibilities can in principle be arranged. Notably, if the working fluid is an ideal gas, the input of energy in the form of heat during one isochoric step is equal in magnitude to the output during the other isochoric step in the cycle. The theoretical performance of the fridge can then attain the reversible Carnot limit if a regenerator is used, which is a high heat capacity material through which the gas flows. Various Stirling refrigerator configurations are analysed in this article at a level of presentation suitable for an introductory undergraduate thermodynamics course.

  15. Cermet Coatings for Solar Stirling Space Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworske, Donald A.; Raack, Taylor

    2004-01-01

    Cermet coatings, molecular mixtures of metal and ceramic are being considered for the heat inlet surface of a solar Stirling space power converter. This paper will discuss the solar absorption characteristics of as-deposited cermet coatings as well as the solar absorption characteristics of the coatings after heating. The role of diffusion and island formation, during the deposition process and during heating will also be discussed.

  16. Stirling engine with air working fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, John A.

    1985-01-01

    A Stirling engine capable of utilizing air as a working fluid which includes a compact heat exchange module which includes heating tube units, regenerator and cooler positioned about the combustion chamber. This arrangement has the purpose and effect of allowing the construction of an efficient, high-speed, high power-density engine without the use of difficult to seal light gases as working fluids.

  17. Optimization of an irreversible Stirling regenerative cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aragón-González, G; Cano-Bianco, M; León-Galicia, A; Rivera-Camacho, J M

    2015-01-01

    In this work a Stirling regenerative cycle with some irreversibilities is analyzed. The analyzed irreversibilities are located at the heat exchangers. They receive a finite amount of heat and heat leakage occurs between both reservoirs. Using this model, power and the efficiency at maximum power are obtained. Some optimal design parameters for the exchanger heat areas and thermal conductances are presented. The relation between the power, efficiency and the results obtained are shown graphically

  18. Stirling Engine With Radial Flow Heat Exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, N.; Yarr, George

    1993-01-01

    Conflict between thermodynamical and structural requirements resolved. In Stirling engine of new cylindrical configuration, regenerator and acceptor and rejector heat exchangers channel flow of working gas in radial direction. Isotherms in regenerator ideally concentric cylinders, and gradient of temperature across regenerator radial rather than axial. Acceptor and rejector heat exchangers located radially inward and outward of regenerator, respectively. Enables substantial increase in power of engine without corresponding increase in diameter of pressure vessel.

  19. Continuous pyrolysis of biomass feedstocks in rotary kiln convertors. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, Jr, H. H.; Kimzey, J. R.; Turpin, J. L.; MacCallum, R. N.

    1979-08-30

    The biomass research program at the University of Arkansas has developed three experimental projects or tasks for the attainment of its objectives. They are: (1) utilization of the existing full scale convertor for testing and data acquisition at Jonesboro, Arkansas; (2) development of a scale model rotary pyrolytic convertor (bench scale research kiln); and (3) development of analytical laboratory services for the analysis of feedstocks and products, and for basic pyrolytic process studies. The project at Jonesboro, Arkansas, which aimed at testing the Angelo convertor concept through heat and material balances over the available range of operations, could not completely achieve this objective because of the severe mechanical and structural deficiencies in the full scale convertor. A limited number of data have been taken in spite of the deficiencies of the machine. The scale model rotary kiln has been the most successful of the three projects. The kiln has been completed as planned and successfully operated with a number of feedstock materials. Good qualitative data have been obtained on conversion rate capacities, charcoal yields, and off gas combustion product temperatures. In all, about one hundred test runs were made in the scale model kiln. About 90% of the results expected were attained. The laboratory services project was designed to provide analytical testing for the other two projects and to do basic studies in biomass material conversion processes. The project delivered the testing services, but was severely restricted in the area of basic studies because of the failure of the main instrument, the gas chromatograph, to operate successfully. In all it is estimated that this project attained about 80% of its expected goals.

  20. Reliability Issues in Stirling Radioisotope Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Jeffrey; Shah, Ashwin

    2005-01-01

    Stirling power conversion is a potential candidate for use in a Radioisotope Power System (RPS) for space science missions because it offers a multifold increase in the conversion efficiency of heat to electric power and reduced requirement of radioactive material. Reliability of an RPS that utilizes Stirling power conversion technology is important in order to ascertain long term successful performance. Owing to long life time requirement (14 years), it is difficult to perform long-term tests that encompass all the uncertainties involved in the design variables of components and subsystems comprising the RPS. The requirement for uninterrupted performance reliability and related issues are discussed, and some of the critical areas of concern are identified. An overview of the current on-going efforts to understand component life, design variables at the component and system levels, and related sources and nature of uncertainties are also discussed. Current status of the 110 watt Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG110) reliability efforts is described. Additionally, an approach showing the use of past experience on other successfully used power systems to develop a reliability plan for the SRG110 design is outlined.

  1. Fusion spectrum neutron source computation in "6LiD convertor for HFETR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Shouhua; Hu Yifei; Ye Bin

    2014-01-01

    A computation model of 14 MeV neutron from the "6LiD convertor has been established, the 14 MeV neutron sources and flux in the irradiation samples from the "6LiD convertor and the core have been computed separately, the neutron spectrum in the irradiation samples have been computed, too. The results show that the neutron sources that over 13 MeV account for 1 MeV above in the "6LiD convertor is 25.7%, 24.6% respectively, 14 MeV neutron sources get 4.31 × 10"1"3 n_T·s"-"1, 3.34 × 10"1"3 n_T·s"-"1, 14 MeV neutron flux get 2.66 × 10"1"0 n_T·cm"-"2·s"-"1, 3.53 × 10"1"0 n_T·cm"-"2·s"-"1, as He and H_2O charged in the irradiation capsule. (authors)

  2. Tests Of A Stirling-Engine Power Converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dochat, George

    1995-01-01

    Report describes acceptance tests of power converter consisting of pair of opposed free-piston Stirling engines driving linear alternators. Stirling engines offer potential for extremely long life, high reliability, high efficiency at low hot-to-cold temperature ratios, and relatively low heater-head temperatures.

  3. Modeling for Control of a Wobble–Yoke Stirling Engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    García–Canseco, Eloísa; Scherpen, Jacquelien M.A.; Kuindersma, Marnix

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we derive the dynamic model of a four–cylinder double–acting wobble–yoke Stirling engine. In contrast with the classical thermodynamics methods that dominate the literature of Stirling mechanisms, we present a control system perspective to obtain a useful model for the analysis and

  4. Modeling for Control of a Wobble-Yoke Stirling Engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia Canseco, E.; Scherpen, J.M.A.; Kuindersma, M.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we derive the dynamical model of a four–cylinder double–acting wobble–yoke Stirling engine introduced originally by [1, 2]. In contrast with the classical thermodynamics methods that dominate the literature of Stirling mechanisms, we present a control systems perspective to obtain a

  5. On-Board Hydrogen Gas Production System For Stirling Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Lennart N.

    2004-06-29

    A hydrogen production system for use in connection with Stirling engines. The production system generates hydrogen working gas and periodically supplies it to the Stirling engine as its working fluid in instances where loss of such working fluid occurs through usage through operation of the associated Stirling engine. The hydrogen gas may be generated by various techniques including electrolysis and stored by various means including the use of a metal hydride absorbing material. By controlling the temperature of the absorbing material, the stored hydrogen gas may be provided to the Stirling engine as needed. A hydrogen production system for use in connection with Stirling engines. The production system generates hydrogen working gas and periodically supplies it to the Stirling engine as its working fluid in instances where loss of such working fluid occurs through usage through operation of the associated Stirling engine. The hydrogen gas may be generated by various techniques including electrolysis and stored by various means including the use of a metal hydride absorbing material. By controlling the temperature of the absorbing material, the stored hydrogen gas may be provided to the Stirling engine as needed.

  6. Dish/Stirling for Department of Defense applications final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diver, R.B.; Menicucci, D.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Energy and Environment Div.

    1997-03-01

    This report describes a Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) project to field a dish/Stirling system at a southwestern US military facility. This project entitled ``Dish/Stirling for DoD Applications`` was started in August 1993 and was completed in September 1996. The project`s objective was to assist military facilities to field and evaluate emerging environmentally sound and potentially economical dish/Stirling technology. Dish/Stirling technology has the potential to produce electricity at competitive costs while at the same time providing a secure and environmentally benign source of power. In accordance with the SERDP charter, this project leveraged a US Department of Energy (DOE) cost-shared project between Sandia National Laboratories and Cummins Power Generation, Inc. (CPG). CPG is a wholly owned subsidiary of Cummins Engine Company, a leading manufacturer of diesel engines. To accomplish this objective, the project called for the installation of a dish/Stirling system at a military facility to establish first-hand experience in the operation of a dish/Stirling system. To scope the potential DoD market for dish/Stirling technology and to identify the site for the demonstration, a survey of southwestern US military facilities was also conducted. This report describes the project history, the Cummins dish/Stirling system, results from the military market survey, and the field test results.

  7. Ross-Stirling engines: Variations on a theme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, G; Fauvel, R

    1986-01-01

    A new mechanism called the Ross linkage offers the prospect for compact, lightweight, long-lived, relatively low-cost, Stirling engines with excellent prospects for early commercial developed for various applications. Ross-Stirling engines are unusually compact, with installation envelope about one-third of conventional engines, piston side forces are virtually eliminated facilitating the use of dry lubricated or close tolerance, gas lubricated seals and the linkage geometry automatically favors the large bore/short ratios preferred for Stirling engines. The linkage is simple to make with few moving parts so that cost is relatively low. Various potential or actual embodiments of Ross-Stirling engines are reviewed including Stirling-Stirling gas-fired heat pumps, multicylinder power systems and cryocoolers. The system has sufficient flexibility to readily accommodate widely disparate piston stroke and cylinder diameters. Most work has been done so far with two-piston Stirling engines but the same linkage may be adopted for piston-displacer Stirling engines. 6 refs., 10 figs.

  8. Single-piston alternative to Stirling engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glushenkov, Maxim; Sprenkeler, Martin; Kronberg, Alexander; Kirillov, Valeriy

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Thermodynamic analysis of an unconventional heat engine. ► The engine has a number of advantages compared to state-of-the-art Stirling engines. ► The engine can to be fuelled with “difficult” fuels and used for micro-CHP systems. ► The energy conversion efficiency can be as high as 40–50%. ► A prototype of the engine was demonstrated. -- Abstract: Thermodynamic analysis of an unconventional heat engine was performed. The engine studied has a number of advantages compared to state-of-the-art Stirling engines. The main advantage of the engine proposed is its simplicity. A power piston is integral with a displacer and a heat regenerator. It allows solving the problem of the high-temperature sealing of the piston and the displacer typical of all types of Stirling engines. In addition the design proposed provides ideal use of the displacer volume eliminating heat losses from outside gas circuit. Both strokes of the piston are working ones in contrary to any other types of piston engines. The engine can be considered as maintenance-free as it has no piston rings or any other rubbing components requiring lubrication. The only seal is contactless and wear free. It is located in the cold part of the cylinder. As a result the leakage rate in operation can be one-two orders of magnitude as small as that in Stirling engines. Balancing of the engine is much easy compared to Stirling engines with two reciprocating masses because of the only moving part inside the engine cylinder. The engine suits ideally to be fuelled with “difficult” fuels such as bio oil and can be used as a prime mover for micro-CHP systems. The thermodynamic model developed incorporates non-ideal features of the cycle, such as specific regenerator efficiency, dead volumes and other geometrical parameters of the engine. The model shows that the energy efficiency is highly sensitive to regenerator performance. For realistic geometric and operating parameters and the

  9. Stirling engines for biomass – what is the problem?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    The External combustion of the Stirling engine makes it very attractive for small-scale Combined Heat and Power (CHP) plants using bio-fuels. Especially wood chips are an attractive fuel because of the high melting point and the low content of ash. Unfortunately, it is more complicated than...... expected to use bio-fuels for a Stirling engine. The high temperature in the hot heat exchanger transferring heat from the combustion to the Stirling engine combined with the low heating value of the fuel reduce the obtainable efficiency of the plant. The limitations of the combustion temperature in order...... to avoid melted ash in the combustion chamber decrease the obtainable efficiency even further. If a Stirling engine, which has an efficiency of 28,5% using natural gas, is converted into utilization of bio-fuel, the efficiency will decrease to 17,5%. Another problem for utilization of bio-fuels in Stirling...

  10. Low-Cobalt Powder-Metallurgy Superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harf, F. H.

    1986-01-01

    Highly-stressed jet-engine parts made with less cobalt. Udimet 700* (or equivalent) is common nickel-based superalloy used in hot sections of jet engines for many years. This alloy, while normally used in wrought condition, also gas-atomized into prealloyed powder-metallurgy (PM) product. Product can be consolidated by hot isostatically pressing (HIPPM condition) and formed into parts such as turbine disk. Such jet-engine disks "see" both high stresses and temperatures to 1,400 degrees F (760 degrees C).

  11. Mechanical characterization of superalloys for space reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchesne, J.

    1989-01-01

    The aim of this work is the selection of structural materials that can be used in the temperature range 600-900 0 C for a gas cooled space reactor producing electricity. Superalloys fit best the temperature range required. Five nickel base alloys are chosen for their good mechanical behaviour: HAYNES 230, HASTELLOY S, HASTELLOY X, HASTELLOY XR and PYRAD 38D. Metallography, tensile and hardness tests are realized. Sample contraction is evidenced for some creep tests, under low stress: 20MPa at 800 0 C, on HAYNES 230 and HASTELLOY X, probably related to the structural evolution of these materials corresponding to a decrease of the crystal parameter [fr

  12. Stability analysis of free piston Stirling engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bégot, Sylvie; Layes, Guillaume; Lanzetta, François; Nika, Philippe

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents a stability analysis of a free piston Stirling engine. The model and the detailed calculation of pressures losses are exposed. Stability of the machine is studied by the observation of the eigenvalues of the model matrix. Model validation based on the comparison with NASA experimental results is described. The influence of operational and construction parameters on performance and stability issues is exposed. The results show that most parameters that are beneficial for machine power seem to induce irregular mechanical characteristics with load, suggesting that self-sustained oscillations could be difficult to maintain and control.

  13. Double acting stirling engine phase control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berchowitz, David M.

    1983-01-01

    A mechanical device for effecting a phase change between the expansion and compression volumes of a double-acting Stirling engine uses helical elements which produce opposite rotation of a pair of crankpins when a control rod is moved, so the phase between two pairs of pistons is changed by +.psi. and the phase between the other two pairs of pistons is changed by -.psi.. The phase can change beyond .psi.=90.degree. at which regenerative braking and then reversal of engine rotation occurs.

  14. A high performance thermoacoustic Stirling-engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tijani, M.E.H.; Spoelstra, S. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN), PO Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2011-11-10

    In thermoacoustic systems heat is converted into acoustic energy and vice versa. These systems use inert gases as working medium and have no moving parts which makes the thermoacoustic technology a serious alternative to produce mechanical or electrical power, cooling power, and heating in a sustainable and environmentally friendly way. A thermoacoustic Stirling heat engine is designed and built which achieves a record performance of 49% of the Carnot efficiency. The design and performance of the engine is presented. The engine has no moving parts and is made up of few simple components.

  15. Stirling cycle engines inner workings and design

    CERN Document Server

    Organ, Allan J

    2013-01-01

    Some 200 years after the original invention, internal design of a Stirling engine has come to be considered a specialist task, calling for extensive experience and for access to sophisticated computer modelling. The low parts-count of the type is negated by the complexity of the gas processes by which heat is converted to work. Design is perceived as problematic largely because those interactions are neither intuitively evident, nor capable of being made visible by laboratory experiment. There can be little doubt that the situation stands in the way of wider application of this elegant concep

  16. In-line stirling energy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backhaus, Scott N [Espanola, NM; Keolian, Robert [State College, PA

    2011-03-22

    A high efficiency generator is provided using a Stirling engine to amplify an acoustic wave by heating the gas in the engine in a forward mode. The engine is coupled to an alternator to convert heat input to the engine into electricity. A plurality of the engines and respective alternators can be coupled to operate in a timed sequence to produce multi-phase electricity without the need for conversion. The engine system may be operated in a reverse mode as a refrigerator/heat pump.

  17. Proceedings of the Conference on Refractory Alloying Elements in Superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Some papers about the use of refractory metals in superalloys are presented. Mechanical properties, thermodynamics properties, use for nuclear fuels and corrosion resistance of those alloys are studied. (E.G.) [pt

  18. Grinding of Inconel 713 superalloy for gas turbines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čapek, J.; Kyncl, J.; Kolařík, K.; Beránek, L.; Pitrmuc, Z.; Medřický, Jan; Pala, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 1 (2016), s. 14-15 ISSN 1213-2489 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Casting defects * Gas turbine * Grinding * Nickel superalloy * Residual stresses Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials

  19. Modelling and simulation of superalloys. Book of abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogal, Jutta; Hammerschmidt, Thomas; Drautz, Ralf (eds.)

    2014-07-01

    Superalloys are multi-component materials with complex microstructures that offer unique properties for high-temperature applications. The complexity of the superalloy materials makes it particularly challenging to obtain fundamental insight into their behaviour from the atomic structure to turbine blades. Recent advances in modelling and simulation of superalloys contribute to a better understanding and prediction of materials properties and therefore offer guidance for the development of new alloys. This workshop will give an overview of recent progress in modelling and simulation of materials for superalloys, with a focus on single crystal Ni-base and Co-base alloys. Topics will include electronic structure methods, atomistic simulations, microstructure modelling and modelling of microstructural evolution, solidification and process simulation as well as the modelling of phase stability and thermodynamics.

  20. A high-throughput search for new ternary superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyshadham, Chandramouli; Hansen, Jacob; Oses, Corey; Curtarolo, Stefano; Hart, Gus

    In 2006 an unexpected new superalloy, Co3[Al,W], was discovered. This new alloy is cobalt-based, in contrast to conventional superalloys, which are nickel-based. Inspired by this new discovery, we performed first-principles calculations, searching through 2224 ternary metallic systems of the form A3[B0.5C0.5], where A = Ni/Co/Fe and [B, C] = all binary combinations of 40 different elements chosen from the periodic table. We found 175 new systems that are better than the Co3[Al, W] superalloy. 75 of these systems are brand new--they have never been reported in experimental literature. These 75 new potential superalloys are good candidates for further experiments. Our calculations are consistent with current experimental literature where data exists. Work supported under: ONR (MURI N00014-13-1-0635).

  1. Low temperature gaseous nitriding of Ni based superalloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasen, K. M.; Christiansen, Thomas Lundin; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2010-01-01

    In the present work the nitriding response of selected Ni based superalloys at low temperatures is addressed. The alloys investigated are nimonic series nos. 80, 90, 95 and 100 and nichrome (Ni/Cr......In the present work the nitriding response of selected Ni based superalloys at low temperatures is addressed. The alloys investigated are nimonic series nos. 80, 90, 95 and 100 and nichrome (Ni/Cr...

  2. Development of a Refractory High Entropy Superalloy (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-17

    hardened with HfC precipitates [2], Co-Re- or Co-Al-W-based alloys [3] or two-phase ( FCC + L12) refractory superalloys based on platinum group metals...Ni-based superalloys consisting of cuboids with the ordered L12 structure embedded in an FCC solid-solution matrix. Based on this microstructural...and 5). A comparison of the average atomic radii with the measured lattice parameters allows us to conclude that the disordered BCC phase forming

  3. Ceramic applications in the advanced Stirling automotive engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomazic, W. A.; Cairelli, J. E.

    1978-01-01

    The requirements of the ideal Stirling cycle, as well as basic types of practical engines are described. Advantages, disadvantages, and problem areas of these Stirling engines are discussed. The potential for ceramic components is also considered. Currently ceramics are used in only two areas, the air preheater and insulating tiles between the burner and the heater head. For the advanced Stirling engine to achieve high efficiency and low cost, the principal components are expected to be made from ceramic materials, including the heater head, air preheater, regenerator, the burner and the power piston. Supporting research and technology programs for ceramic component development are briefly described.

  4. Initial testing of a variable-stroke Stirling engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieme, L. G.

    1985-01-01

    In support of the U.S. Department of Energy's Stirling Engine Highway Vehicle Systems Program, NASA Lewis Research Center is evaluating variable-stroke control for Stirling engines. The engine being tested is the Advenco Stirling engine; this engine was manufactured by Philips Research Laboratories of the Netherlands and uses a variable-angle swash-plate drive to achieve variable stroke operation. The engine is described, initial steady-state test data taken at Lewis are presented, a major drive system failure and subsequent modifications are described. Computer simulation results are presented to show potential part-load efficiency gains with variable-stroke control.

  5. Linear hydraulic drive system for a Stirling engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Michael M.

    1984-02-21

    A hydraulic drive system operating from the periodic pressure wave produced by a Stirling engine along a first axis thereof and effecting transfer of power from the Stirling engine to a load apparatus therefor and wherein the movable, or working member of the load apparatus is reciprocatingly driven along an axis substantially at right angles to the first axis to achieve an arrangement of a Stirling engine and load apparatus assembly which is much shorter and the components of the load apparatus more readily accessible.

  6. Potential impacts of Brayton and Stirling cycle engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heft, R. C.

    1980-01-01

    Two engine technologies (Brayton cycle and Stirling cycle) are examined for their potential economic impact and fuel utilization. An economic analysis of the expected response of buyers to the attributes of the alternative engines was performed. Hedonic coefficients for vehicle fuel efficiency, performance and size were estimated for domestic cars based upon historical data. The marketplace value of the fuel efficiency enhancement provided by Brayton or Stirling engines was estimated. Under the assumptions of 10 years for plant conversions and 1990 and 1995 as the introduction data for turbine and Stirling engines respectively, the comparative fuel savings and present value of the future savings in fuel costs were estimated.

  7. Loss terms in free-piston Stirling engine models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Lloyd B.

    1992-01-01

    Various models for free piston Stirling engines are reviewed. Initial models were developed primarily for design purposes and to predict operating parameters, especially efficiency. More recently, however, such models have been used to predict engine stability. Free piston Stirling engines have no kinematic constraints and stability may not only be sensitive to the load, but also to various nonlinear loss and spring constraints. The present understanding is reviewed of various loss mechanisms for free piston Stirling engines and how they have been incorporated into engine models is discussed.

  8. Thermoacoustic refrigerators and engines comprising cascading stirling thermodynamic units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backhaus, Scott; Swift, Greg

    2013-06-25

    The present invention includes a thermoacoustic assembly and method for improved efficiency. The assembly has a first stage Stirling thermal unit comprising a main ambient heat exchanger, a regenerator and at least one additional heat exchanger. The first stage Stirling thermal unit is serially coupled to a first end of a quarter wavelength long coupling tube. A second stage Stirling thermal unit comprising a main ambient heat exchanger, a regenerator, and at least one additional heat exchanger, is serially coupled to a second end of the quarter wavelength long coupling tube.

  9. Changes in the properties of superalloys by long term heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susukida, H.; Tsuji, I.; Kawai, H.

    1976-01-01

    A laboratory study was conducted in order to determine the effect of long term heating (max. 10000h at 850 0 and 950 0 C) on the microstructure, tensile properties, hardness and stress rupture properties of four kinds of superalloys. These superalloys are two kinds of solid solution hardened Ni-base superalloys Hastelloy X and Inconel 617 and two kinds of dispersion strengthened Ni-base superalloys TD-Ni and TD-NiCr. The result of the study can be summarized as follows: (1) Solid solution hardened superalloys: Many precipitates were observed in the grains and on the grain boundaries after 100 hours of heating, and the precipitates became coarse-grained by over 1000 hours of heating. This tendency was remarkable when they were heated at 950 0 C. With the change of their microstructure, their mechanical properties also changed, particularly their tensile ductility decreased remarkably. (2) Dispersion strengthened superalloys: Their microstructure and mechanical properties were almost unchanged by long term heating. (3) The authors proposed ''solid solution hardening value'' in order to grasp quantitatively the solid solution hardening which has been discussed by the content of each element hitherto. (auth.)

  10. Economic performance of the SCE Stirling dish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, K.W.; Lopez, C.W.; McAlister, R.E.

    1993-01-01

    In 1982 McDonnell Douglas Aerospace Space System (MDA-SS) and United Stirling AB of Sweden formed a joint venture to develop and market a solar Stirling dish unit. Eight modules were built and extensively tested from 1984 to 1988. Power production and daily energy-conversion efficiency as determined by field testing have been characterized and modeled in a computer program. Included in this simulation are models of mirror soiling rate, wind spillage loss, mirror washing and other maintenance outage time, operation and maintenance (O and M) costs and other cost models. An economic model of a hybrid (combustion) receiver has been included in the simulation for illustrating the value of using solar energy when available and other fuels such as methane, natural gas, hydrogen, etc. when solar energy is not available or adequate. This paper describes the simulation and presents comparisons of the simulation to test data. The simulation also estimates both the O and M expenses and levelized energy costs for different production volumes

  11. Isotope powered Stirling generator for terrestrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tingey, G.L.; Sorensen, G.C.; Ross, B.A.

    1995-01-01

    An electric power supply, small enough to be man-portable, is being developed for remote, terrestrial applications. This system is designed for an operating lifetime of five years without maintenance or refueling. A small Radioisotope Stirling Generator (RSG) has been developed. The energy source of the generator is a 60 watt plutonium-238 fuel clad used in the General Purpose Heat Sources (GPHS) developed for space applications. A free piston Stirling Engine drives a linear alternator to convert the heat to power. The system weighs about 7.5 kg and produces 11 watts AC power with a conversion efficiency of 18.5%. Two engine models have been designed, fabricated, and tested to date: (a) a developmental model instrumented to confirm and test parameters, and (b) an electrically heated model with an electrical heater equipped power input leads. Critical components have been tested for 10,000 to 20,000 hours. One complete generator has been operating for over 11,000 hours. Radioisotope heated prototypes are expected to be fabricated and tested in late 1995

  12. Economic performance of the SCE Stirling dish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, K.W.; Lopez, C.W.; McAlister, R.E.

    1995-01-01

    In 1982 McDonnell Douglas Aerospace (MDA) and United Stirling AB (USAB) of Sweden formed a joint venture to develop and market a solar Stirling dish system. Eight modules were built and extensively tested from 1984 to 1988. Power production and daily energy-conversion efficiency as determined by field testing were characterized and modeled into a computer program. Included in this simulation are models of mirror soiling rate, wind spillage loss, mirror washing, and other maintenance outage time, operation and maintenance (O and M) costs, and equipment purchase cost. An economic model of a hybrid (combustion) receiver has been included in the simulation for illustrating the value of using solar energy when available and other fuels such as methane, natural gas, hydrogen, etc. when solar energy is not available or adequate. This paper describes the simulation and presents comparisons of the simulation to test data. The simulation also estimates both the O and M expenses and levelized energy costs for different production volumes

  13. On Generalizations of the Stirling Number Triangles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Wolfdieter

    2000-09-01

    Sequences of generalized Stirling numbers of both kinds are introduced. These sequences of triangles (i.e. infinite-dimensional lower triangular matrices) of numbers will be denoted by S2(k;n,m) and S1(k;n,m) with k in Z. The original Stirling number triangles of the second and first kind arise when k = 1. S2(2;n,m) is identical with the unsigned S1(2;n,m) triangle, called S1p(2;n,m), which also represents the triangle of signless Lah numbers. Certain associated number triangles, denoted by s2(k;n,m) and s1(k;n,m), are also defined. Both s2(2;n,m) and s1(2;n + 1, m + 1) form Pascal's triangle, and s2(-1,n,m) turns out to be Catalan's triangle. Generating functions are given for the columns of these triangles. Each S2(k) and S1(k) matrix is an example of a Jabotinsky matrix. Therefore the generating functions for the rows of these triangular arrays constitute exponential convolution polynomials. The sequences of the row sums of these triangles are also considered. These triangles are related to the problem of obtaining finite transformations from infinitesimal ones generated by x^k d/dx, for k in Z.

  14. Creep Behaviour of Modified Mar-247 Superalloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cieśla M.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of analysis of creep behaviour in short term creep tests of cast MAR-247 nickel-based superalloy samples made using various modification techniques and heat treatment. The accelerated creep tests were performed under temperature of 982 °C and the axial stresses of σ = 150 MPa (variant I and 200 MPa (variant II. The creep behaviour was analysed based on: creep durability (creep rupture life, steady-state creep rate and morphological parameters of macro- and microstructure. It was observed that the grain size determines the creep durability in case of test conditions used in variant I, durability of coarse-grained samples was significantly higher.

  15. Creep-fatigue of low cobalt superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halford, G. R.

    1982-01-01

    Testing for the low cycle fatigue and creep fatigue resistance of superalloys containing reduced amounts of cobalt is described. The test matrix employed involves a single high temperature appropriate for each alloy. A single total strain range, again appropriate to each alloy, is used in conducting strain controlled, low cycle, creep fatigue tests. The total strain range is based upon the level of straining that results in about 10,000 cycles to failure in a high frequency (0.5 Hz) continuous strain-cycling fatigue test. No creep is expected to occur in such a test. To bracket the influence of creep on the cyclic strain resistance, strain hold time tests with ore minute hold periods are introduced. One test per composition is conducted with the hold period in tension only, one in compression only, and one in both tension and compression. The test temperatures, alloys, and their cobalt compositions that are under study are given.

  16. Hydrogen Annealing Of Single-Crystal Superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smialek, James L.; Schaeffer, John C.; Murphy, Wendy

    1995-01-01

    Annealing at temperature equal to or greater than 2,200 degrees F in atmosphere of hydrogen found to increase ability of single-crystal superalloys to resist oxidation when subsequently exposed to oxidizing atmospheres at temperatures almost as high. Supperalloys in question are principal constituents of hot-stage airfoils (blades) in aircraft and ground-based turbine engines; also used in other high-temperature applications like chemical-processing plants, coal-gasification plants, petrochemical refineries, and boilers. Hydrogen anneal provides resistance to oxidation without decreasing fatigue strength and without need for coating or reactive sulfur-gettering constituents. In comparison with coating, hydrogen annealing costs less. Benefits extend to stainless steels, nickel/chromium, and nickel-base alloys, subject to same scale-adhesion and oxidation-resistance considerations, except that scale is chromia instead of alumina.

  17. Commissioning and Performance Analysis of WhisperGen Stirling Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradip, Prashant Kaliram

    Stirling engine based cogeneration systems have potential to reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emission, due to their high cogeneration efficiency and emission control due to steady external combustion. To date, most studies on this unit have focused on performance based on both experimentation and computer models, and lack experimental data for diversified operating ranges. This thesis starts with the commissioning of a WhisperGen Stirling engine with components and instrumentation to evaluate power and thermal performance of the system. Next, a parametric study on primary engine variables, including air, diesel, and coolant flowrate and temperature were carried out to further understand their effect on engine power and efficiency. Then, this trend was validated with the thermodynamic model developed for the energy analysis of a Stirling cycle. Finally, the energy balance of the Stirling engine was compared without and with heat recovery from the engine block and the combustion chamber exhaust.

  18. 40 kW Stirling Engine for Solid Fuel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Henrik; Trærup, Jens

    1996-01-01

    The external combustion in a Stirling engine makes it very attractive for utilisation of solid fuels in decentralised combined heat and power (CHP) plants. Only a few projects have concentrated on the development of Stirling engines specifically for biomass. In this project, a Stirling engine has...... been designed primarily for utilisation of wood chips. Maximum shaft power is 40 kW corresponding to an electric output of 36 kW. Biomass needs more space in the combustion chamber compared to gas and liquid fuels, and a large heat transfer area is necessary. The design of the new Stirling engine has...... been adapted to the special demands of combustion of wood chips, resulting in a large engine compared to engines for gas or liquid fuels. The engine has four-cylinders arranged in a square. The design is made as a hermetic unit, where the alternator is built into the pressurised crankcase so...

  19. Stirling engine alternatives for the terrestrial solar application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stearns, J.

    1985-01-01

    The first phase of the present study of Stirling engine alternatives for solar thermal-electric generation has been completed. Development risk levels are considered to be high for all engines evaluated. Free-piston type and Ringbom-type Stirling engine-alternators are not yet developed for the 25 to 50-kW electrical power range, although smaller machines have demonstrated the inherent robustness of the machines. Kinematic-type Stirling engines are presently achieving a 3500 hr lifetime or longer on critical components, and lifetime must still be further extended for the solar application. Operational and technical characteristics of all types of Stirling engines have been reviewed with engine developers. Technical work of merit in progress in each engine development organization should be recognized and supported in an appropriate manner.

  20. Optimal design of Stirling heat engine using an advanced ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R V Rao

    The comparisons of the proposed algorithm are made with those obtained by using the decision-making methods like linear ... cooling water and had improved the thermal efficiency of ... integrated system of a free-piston Stirling engine and an.

  1. Thermal Model Predictions of Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Yen J.; Fabanich, William Anthony; Schmitz, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation describes the capabilities of three-dimensional thermal power model of advanced stirling radioisotope generator (ASRG). The performance of the ASRG is presented for different scenario, such as Venus flyby with or without the auxiliary cooling system.

  2. White Paper on Dish Stirling Technology: Path Toward Commercial Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andraka, Charles E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Concentrating Solar Power Dept.; Stechel, Ellen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Concentrating Solar Power Dept.; Becker, Peter [Stirling Energy Systems, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Messick, Brian [Stirling Energy Systems, Scottsdale, AZ (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Dish Stirling energy systems have been developed for distributed and large-scale utility deployment. This report summarizes the state of the technology in a joint project between Stirling Energy Systems, Sandia National Laboratories, and the Department of Energy in 2011. It then lays out a feasible path to large scale deployment, including development needs and anticipated cost reduction paths that will make a viable deployment product.

  3. Normal ordering problem and the extensions of the Stirling grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, S.-M.; Mansour, T.; Schork, M.

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the connection between context-free grammars and normal ordered problem, and then to explore various extensions of the Stirling grammar. We present grammatical characterizations of several well known combinatorial sequences, including the generalized Stirling numbers of the second kind related to the normal ordered problem and the r-Dowling polynomials. Also, possible avenues for future research are described.

  4. Micro-cogeneration units based on Stirling engine for heating and their real operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čierny, Jaroslav; Patsch, Marek

    2014-08-01

    This article was deal with micro-cogeneration units based on Stirling engine. We watched problematic of real working Stirling engine. The article also contain hookup of unit constructed at University of Zilina.

  5. Mathematical model of the Amazon Stirling engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidal Medina, Juan Ricardo [Universidad Autonoma de Occidente (Colombia)], e-mail: jrvidal@uao.edu.co; Cobasa, Vladimir Melian; Silva, Electo [Universidade Federal de Itajuba, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: vlad@unifei.edu.br

    2010-07-01

    The Excellency Group in Thermoelectric and Distributed Generation (NEST, for its acronym in Portuguese) at the Federal University of Itajuba, has designed a Stirling engine prototype to provide electricity to isolated regions of Brazil. The engine was designed to operate with residual biomass from timber process. This paper presents mathematical models of heat exchangers (hot, cold and regenerator) integrated into second order adiabatic models. The general model takes into account the pressure drop losses, hysteresis and internal losses. The results of power output, engine efficiency, optimal velocity of the exhaust gases and the influence of dead volume in engine efficiency are presented in this paper. The objective of this modeling is to propose improvements to the manufactured engine design. (author)

  6. Stirling engine control mechanism and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dineen, John J.

    1983-01-01

    A reciprocating-to-rotating motion conversion and power control device for a Stirling engine includes a hub mounted on an offset portion of the output shaft for rotation relative to the shaft and for sliding motion therealong which causes the hub to tilt relative to the axis of rotation of the shaft. This changes the angle of inclination of the hub relative to the shaft axis and changes the axial stroke of a set of arms connected to the hub and nutating therewith. A hydraulic actuating mechanism is connected to the hub for moving its axial position along the shaft. A balancing wheel is linked to the hub and changes its angle of inclination as the angle of inclination of the hub changes to maintain the mechanism in perfect balance throughout its range of motion.

  7. Creep rupture behavior of Stirling engine materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titran, R. H.; Scheuerman, C. M.; Stephens, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    The automotive Stirling engine, being investigated jointly by the Department of Energy and NASA Lewis as an alternate to the internal combustion engine, uses high-pressure hydrogen as the working fluid. The long-term effects of hydrogen on the high temperature strength properties of materials is relatively unknown. This is especially true for the newly developed low-cost iron base alloy NASAUT 4G-A1. This iron-base alloy when tested in air has creep-rupture strengths in the directionally solidified condition comparable to the cobalt base alloy HS-31. The equiaxed (investment cast) NASAUT 4G-A1 has superior creep-rupture to the equiaxed iron-base alloy XF-818 both in air and 15 MPa hydrogen.

  8. Preparation of Inconel 740 superalloy by electron beam smelting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Xiaogang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China); Laboratory for New Energy Material Energetic Beam Metallurgical Equipment Engineering of Liaoning Province, Dalian 116024 (China); Tan, Yi, E-mail: tanyi@dlut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China); Laboratory for New Energy Material Energetic Beam Metallurgical Equipment Engineering of Liaoning Province, Dalian 116024 (China); You, Qifan; Shi, Shuang; Li, Jiayan [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China); Laboratory for New Energy Material Energetic Beam Metallurgical Equipment Engineering of Liaoning Province, Dalian 116024 (China); Ye, Fei [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China); Wei, Xin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China); Laboratory for New Energy Material Energetic Beam Metallurgical Equipment Engineering of Liaoning Province, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2016-08-15

    A novel method, namely electron beam smelting (EBS) technology was used to prepare the Inconel 740 superalloy. The microstructures, hardness and oxidation behavior were characterized and compared with the traditionally prepared Inconel 740 superalloy. The results imply that the solution treatment gives rise to the coarsening of γ′ precipitates, with further aging treatment, the γ′ precipitates with size of less than 30 nm are distributed dispersively in the matrix, leading to a decreasing of the lattice parameters and an increasing of the misfit. The γ′ precipitates result in shearing mechanism of weakly pair coupling. The EBS 740 superalloy produces better properties than that prepared in the traditional method in both precipitation strengthening effect and oxidation resistance. - Highlights: • Electron beam smelting, a new method, was used to prepare the Inconel 740 superalloy. • The EBS 740 shows higher strengthening effect than 740 made in traditional method. • The EBS 740 shows better oxidation resistance than traditional 740. • It shows application prospect of EBS technology in preparing Ni-base superalloys.

  9. Qualitative comparison of duplex Stirling and absorption refrigerators in domestic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, H. [Global Cooling BV, Zutphen (Netherlands)

    2000-07-01

    A qualitative comparison has been carried out between the duplex Stirling and the absorption refrigerator for domestic applications. The duplex Stirling has many advantages over the absorption refrigerator on efficiency, modulation, suitability, operating costs, pollution reduction. Based on the state of the art of free-piston gas-bearing and linear-motor Stirling engines and coolers, it appears technically and economically feasible to develop the duplex Stirling to compete with the absorption refrigerator for heat-driven domestic refrigeration. (orig.)

  10. Linear Dynamics and Control of a Kinematic Wobble–Yoke Stirling Engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alvarez–Aguirre, Alejandro; García–Canseco, Eloísa; Scherpen, Jacquelien M.A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a control systems approach for the modeling and control of a kinematic wobble–yoke Stirling engine. The linear dynamics of the Stirling engine are analyzed based on the dynamical model of the system, developed by these authors. We show that the Stirling engine can be viewed as a

  11. Linear dynamics and control of a kinematic wobble-yoke Stirling engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alvarez Aguirre, A.; Garcia Canseco, E.; Scherpen, J.M.A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a control systems approachfor the modeling and control of a kinematic wobbleyokeStirling engine. The linear dynamics of the Stirling engine are analyzed based on the dynamical model of the system, developed by the authors in [1]. We show that the Stirling engine can be viewed as

  12. Noburnium: Systems design of niobium superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Abhijeet

    2005-11-01

    A systems-based approach, integrating quantum mechanical calculations with efficient experimentation, was employed to design niobium-based superalloys. The microstructural concept of gamma-gamma' nickel-based superalloys was adopted, where, the coherent gamma ' aluminides act both as the strengthening phase and a source of aluminum for Al2O3 passivation. Building on previous research, the selected bcc-type ordered aluminide was L2 1 structured Pd2HfAl phase. Comprehensive phase relations were measured on Nb-Pd-Hf-Al prototype alloys, and key tie-tetrahedra were identified. Aluminide precipitation in a bcc matrix was demonstrated in designed Nb+Pd2HfAl alloys. Thermodynamic databases were developed by integrating first-principles calculations with measured phase relations. Atomic volume models were developed for the bcc matrix and the Pd2HfAl phase and matrix elements which would reduce lattice misfit were identified. An experimental 2-phase alloy demonstrated a misfit of 3%. A modified Wagner's model was used to predict the required transient properties to form external Al2O3. The principal oxidation design goal was to decrease the oxygen permeability ( NSOx DO ) divided by the aluminum diffusivity (DAl) by 5 orders of magnitude. A multicomponent mobility database was developed to predict the diffusivities. Guided by first-principles calculations the effect of alloying elements on the oxygen diffusivity in Nb was measured, and the mobility database was experimentally validated. Based on the mobility database, it was found that increasing Al solubility in the bcc matrix greatly increased Al diffusivity. Alloying elements were identified that would increase Al solubility in the bcc matrix. Prototype alloys were prepared and the best oxidation performance was exhibited by a bcc+Nb2Al Nb-Hf-Al alloy, which exhibited parabolic oxidation behavior at 1300°C. The alloy was shown to have achieved the required 5 orders of magnitude reduction in the design parameter. The

  13. Metallurgical optimisation of PM superalloy N19

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Locq Didier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Microstructures of the new PM superalloy N19 have been investigated for various heat treatments in order to reach the best compromise between static strength and cyclic resistance. One subsolvus and several supersolvus heat treatments were applied to produce fine (7 μm and medium (25 μm grain sizes, respectively. The alloy is shown to be quite sensitive to the cooling conditions after solutioning as the γ′ hardening precipitates, both secondary and tertiary, have a direct influence on mechanical properties. Two cooling conditions after solutioning produce a high crack propagation resistance at 650 °C with dwell time cycles, which is one of the basic requirements. The low cycle fatigue behaviour appears to be correlated to the grain size, which determines the origin of crack initiation (from ceramic inclusions or not. The other mechanical properties (tensile, creep remain above target levels. Despite the medium size grain microstructure in the supersolvus condition, a high level of mechanical strength is observed in N19 at elevated temperature. It is understood that further improvement in properties can be achieved by developing coarse grain microstructures.

  14. Boride particles in a powder metallurgy superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witt, M C; Charles, J A

    1985-12-01

    Using optical and electron metallography, the composition, morphology, and distribution of M/sub 3/B/sub 2/ borides in as-hipped (hot isostatically pressed) samples of the powder metallurgy superalloy Nimonic AP1 have been determined. Two types of boride are present depending on the HIP temperature. Hipping below the boride solvus results in low-aspect ratio particles, distributed both inter- and intragranularly. Hipping above the boride solvus produces high-aspect ratio particles which are exclusively intergranular. A small difference in both lattice parameter and composition has been measured. Electron energy loss spectroscopy of the particles has confirmed the presence of boron, and laser ion-induced mass analysis has indicated a low carbon level. The higher susceptibility to edge cracking during forging of material hipped above the boride solvus is related to the boride morphology. Studies of the subsequent recrystallization of the forged samples have indicated that necklace formation is neither inhibited nor accelerated by the presence of grain boundary borides. 18 references.

  15. Evaluation of powder metallurgy superalloy disk materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    A program was conducted to develop nickel-base superalloy disk material using prealloyed powder metallurgy techniques. The program included fabrication of test specimens and subscale turbine disks from four different prealloyed powders (NASA-TRW-VIA, AF2-1DA, Mar-M-432 and MERL 80). Based on evaluation of these specimens and disks, two alloys (AF2-1DA and Mar-M-432) were selected for scale-up evaluation. Using fabricating experience gained in the subscale turbine disk effort, test specimens and full scale turbine disks were formed from the selected alloys. These specimens and disks were then subjected to a rigorous test program to evaluate their physical properties and determine their suitability for use in advanced performance turbine engines. A major objective of the program was to develop processes which would yield alloy properties that would be repeatable in producing jet engine disks from the same powder metallurgy alloys. The feasibility of manufacturing full scale gas turbine engine disks by thermomechanical processing of pre-alloyed metal powders was demonstrated. AF2-1DA was shown to possess tensile and creep-rupture properties in excess of those of Astroloy, one of the highest temperature capability disk alloys now in production. It was determined that metallographic evaluation after post-HIP elevated temperature exposure should be used to verify the effectiveness of consolidation of hot isostatically pressed billets.

  16. Mechanical characterization of superalloys for space reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchesne, J.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this work is the choice of materials usable between 600 and 900 0 C for nuclear space reactor structures. The main criterion of selection for these materials is their good creep behaviour. Consequently, macroscopic theories of creep and several extrapolation methods were described. Superalloys seem the best materials for the studied range of temperatures. Five of them, base nickel, ones unusual in nuclear industry were selected for their good mechanical properties. Three of them are industrial alloys: the first, HAYNES 230 is a recent one, HASTELLOY S and X are more standard materials. The last two, HASTELLOY XR and PYRAD 38 D are issued from special fabrications. Creep tests metallographic investigations, hardness and tensile tests were performed. A contraction of samples was observed during some creep tests under a low stress, 20MPa at 800 0 C, for HAYNES 230 and HASTELLOY X. This could be due to a structural evolution of these materials connected to a decrease of the cristalline parameter. In addition, correlations were observed between certain characteristics determined from slow tensile tests and short duration creep tests. These correlations present a large interest because, at the present time, creep tests cannot be executed on irradiated materials in our laboratories. Consequently creep behaviour of irradiated materials seem may be deduced. Further studies are needed to explain and confirm the behaviour of the most interesting materials under low stresses: HAYNES 230 and HASTELLOY XR to anticipate their behaviour in working conditions [fr

  17. Surface alloying of nickel based superalloys by laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, G.P.; Garcia, I.; Damborenea, J.J. de

    1998-01-01

    Ni based superalloys present a high oxidation resistance at high temperature as well as good mechanical properties. But new technology developments force to research in this materials to improve their properties at high temperature. In this work, two Ni based superalloys (Nimonic 80A and Inconel 600) were surface alloyed with aluminium using a high power laser. SEM and EDX were used to study the microstructure of the obtained coatings. Alloyed specimens were tested at 1.273 K between 24 and 250 h. Results showed the generation of a protective and continuous coating of alumina on the laser treated specimens surface that can improve oxidation resistance. (Author) 8 refs

  18. A Stirling engine for use with lower quality fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Christopher J.

    There is increasing interest in using renewable fuels from biomass or alternative fuels such as municipal waste to reduce the need for fossil based fuels. Due to the lower heating values and higher levels of impurities, small scale electricity generation is more problematic. Currently, there are not many technologically mature options for small scale electricity generation using lower quality fuels. Even though there are few manufacturers of Stirling engines, the history of their development for two centuries offers significant guidance in developing a viable small scale generator set using lower quality fuels. The history, development, and modeling of Stirling engines were reviewed to identify possible model and engine configurations. A Stirling engine model based on the finite volume, ideal adiabatic model was developed. Flow dissipation losses are shown to need correcting as they increase significantly at low mean engine pressure and high engine speed. The complete engine including external components was developed. A simple yet effective method of evaluating the external heat transfer to the Stirling engine was created that can be used with any second order Stirling engine model. A derivative of the General Motors Ground Power Unit 3 was designed. By significantly increasing heater, cooler and regenerator size at the expense of increased dead volume, and adding a combustion gas recirculation, a generator set with good efficiency was designed.

  19. Stirling based micro co-generation system for single households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribberink, J.S.; Zutt, J.G.M.; Rabou, L.P.L.M.; Beckers, G.J.J. [ECN Clean Fossil Fuels, Petten (Netherlands); Baijens, C.A.W.; Luttikholt, J.J.M. [ATAG Verwarming, Lichtenvoorde (Netherlands)

    2000-04-01

    This paper describes the progress made in the ENATEC development program for a free piston Stirling engine based micro co-generation system that serves the supply of up to 1 kW{sub e} and up to 24 kW heat for domestic heating and/or for hot tap water production for single households at overall system efficiencies of 96%. Experiments show that the free piston Stirling engines from Stirling Technology Company run very reliably and controllably, and that the efficiency targets for the 1 kW{sub e} micro co-generation system are feasible. A ceramic foam burner with good heat transfer characteristics and low NOx emissions was developed. A demonstration micro co-generation unit was built and successfully presented. A 1 kW{sub e} free piston Stirling engine for the European market was developed. High efficiencies at full load and at part load, low emissions, low noise, and minimum maintenance make the Stirling engine based micro co-generation system an attractive candidate for the next generation of domestic boilers in Europe. 5 refs.

  20. Effective multi-objective optimization of Stirling engine systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punnathanam, Varun; Kotecha, Prakash

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Multi-objective optimization of three recent Stirling engine models. • Use of efficient crossover and mutation operators for real coded Genetic Algorithm. • Demonstrated supremacy of the strategy over the conventionally used algorithm. • Improvements of up to 29% in comparison to literature results. - Abstract: In this article we demonstrate the supremacy of the Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm-II with Simulated Binary Crossover and Polynomial Mutation operators for the multi-objective optimization of Stirling engine systems by providing three examples, viz., (i) finite time thermodynamic model, (ii) Stirling engine thermal model with associated irreversibility and (iii) polytropic finite speed based thermodynamics. The finite time thermodynamic model involves seven decision variables and consists of three objectives: output power, thermal efficiency and rate of entropy generation. In comparison to literature, it was observed that the used strategy provides a better Pareto front and leads to improvements of up to 29%. The performance is also evaluated on a Stirling engine thermal model which considers the associated irreversibility of the cycle and consists of three objectives involving eleven decision variables. The supremacy of the suggested strategy is also demonstrated on the experimentally validated polytropic finite speed thermodynamics based Stirling engine model for optimization involving two objectives and ten decision variables.

  1. Optimization of powered Stirling heat engine with finite speed thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmadi, Mohammad H.; Ahmadi, Mohammad Ali; Pourfayaz, Fathollah; Bidi, Mokhtar; Hosseinzade, Hadi; Feidt, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Based on finite speed method and direct method, the optimal performance is investigated. • The effects of major parameters on the optimal performance are investigated. • The accuracy of the results was compared with previous works. - Abstract: Popular thermodynamic analyses including finite time thermodynamic analysis was lately developed based upon external irreversibilities while internal irreversibilities such as friction, pressure drop and entropy generation were not considered. The aforementioned disadvantage reduces the reliability of the finite time thermodynamic analysis in the design of an accurate Stirling engine model. Consequently, the finite time thermodynamic analysis could not sufficiently satisfy researchers for implementing in design and optimization issues. In this study, finite speed thermodynamic analysis was employed instead of finite time thermodynamic analysis for studying Stirling heat engine. The finite speed thermodynamic analysis approach is based on the first law of thermodynamics for a closed system with finite speed and the direct method. The effects of heat source temperature, regenerating effectiveness, volumetric ratio, piston stroke as well as rotational speed are included in the analysis. Moreover, maximum output power in optimal rotational speed was calculated while pressure losses in the Stirling engine were systematically considered. The result reveals the accuracy and the reliability of the finite speed thermodynamic method in thermodynamic analysis of Stirling heat engine. The outcomes can help researchers in the design of an appropriate and efficient Stirling engine.

  2. Selection of stirling engine parameter and modes of joint operation with the Topaz II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirillov, E.Y.; Ogloblin, B.G.; Shalaev, A.I.

    1996-01-01

    In addition to a high-temperature thermionic conversion cycle, application of a low-temperature machine cycle, such as the Stirling engine, is being considered. To select the optimum mode for joint operation of the Topaz II system and Stirling engine, output electric parameters are obtained as a function of thermal power released in the TFE fuel cores. The hydraulic diagram used for joint operation of the Topaz II and the Stirling engine is considered. Requirements to hydraulic characteristics of the Stirling engine heat exchanges are formulated. Scope of necessary modifications to mount the Stirling Engine on the Topaz II is estimated. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  3. The kinematic Stirling engine as an energy conversion subsystem for paraboloidal dish solar thermal plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    The potential of a suitably designed and economically manufactured Stirling engine as the energy conversion subsystem of a paraboloidal dish-Stirling solar thermal power module was estimated. Results obtained by elementary cycle analyses were shown to match quite well the performance characteristics of an advanced kinematic Stirling engine, the United Stirling P-40, as established by current prototypes of the engine and by a more sophisticated analytic model of its advanced derivative. In addition to performance, brief consideration was given to other Stirling engine criteria such as durability, reliability, and serviceability. Production costs were not considered here.

  4. Use of biomass as fuel for Stirling motors; Uso de biomassa como combustivel para acionamento de motores Stirling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Robledo Wakin; Aradas, Maria Eugenia Coria; Cobas, Vladmir Rafael Melian; Lora, Electo Eduardo Silva [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Engenharia Mecanica. Nucleo de Estudos em Sistemas Termicos], e-mail: robledo@unifei.edu.br

    2004-07-01

    The search to increase the electrical generation, together with the need to decrease the pollution emission, has encouraged the alternative energy sources. Nowadays around the world there are a lot of alternative energy sources incentive programs. In Brazil have PROINFA - Alternative Energy Sources Incentive Program. An example of alternative energy sources is the use of biomass as combustible. In the electrical generation, the biomass can be used directly, having it's directly combustion, and transforming the thermal energy liberated in electrical energy, or can be transformed in gas or liquid, and after use technology as internal combustion engine and gas turbine to generate electricity with these combustibles. Few technologies can be used to generate electricity burning directly to the biomass. Among these technologies, have the Stirling engine. It is possible to use this engine because the Stirling engines are external combustion engines, and it has not contact between the work gas and the flue gas. In this way, the Stirling engine needs a heat source, independent of the combustible type that will be used, including solar source. In this work will be present this technology, the different kinds of Stirling engines according to their configuration, moreover will be present the ST 05 G Stirling engine, which is a 500 W engine, acquired by University Federal of Itajuba. Also are present the tests results of this engine, and the installation to work with wood waste as combustible. (author)

  5. Demonstration of a free piston Stirling engine driven linear alternator, phase I report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldwater, B.; Piller, S.; Rauch, J.; Cella, A.

    1977-01-01

    The results of the work performed under Phase I of the free piston Stirling engine demonstrator program are described. The objective of the program is to develop a 2 kW free piston Stirling engine/linear alternator energy conversion system, for an isotopic heat source, with a greater than 30% overall efficiency. Phase I was a 15-month effort to demonstrate the feasibility of the system through analysis and experimental testing of the individual components. An introduction to Stirling engines and the details of the tasks completed are presented in five major sections: (1) introduction to Stirling engine; (2) preliminary design of an advanced free piston Stirling demonstrator engine; (3) design and test of a 1 kWE output linear alternator; (4) test of a model free piston Stirling engine; and (5) development of a free piston Stirling engine computer simulation code

  6. Demonstration of a free piston Stirling engine driven linear alternator, phase I report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldwater, B.; Piller, S.; Rauch, J.; Cella, A.

    1977-03-30

    The results of the work performed under Phase I of the free piston Stirling engine demonstrator program are described. The objective of the program is to develop a 2 kW free piston Stirling engine/linear alternator energy conversion system, for an isotopic heat source, with a greater than 30% overall efficiency. Phase I was a 15-month effort to demonstrate the feasibility of the system through analysis and experimental testing of the individual components. An introduction to Stirling engines and the details of the tasks completed are presented in five major sections: (1) introduction to Stirling engine; (2) preliminary design of an advanced free piston Stirling demonstrator engine; (3) design and test of a 1 kWE output linear alternator; (4) test of a model free piston Stirling engine; and (5) development of a free piston Stirling engine computer simulation code.

  7. Improving Power Density of Free-Piston Stirling Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Maxwell H.; Prahl, Joseph M.; Loparo, Kenneth A.

    2016-01-01

    Analyses and experiments demonstrate the potential benefits of optimizing piston and displacer motion in a free-piston Stirling Engine. Isothermal analysis shows the theoretical limits of power density improvement due to ideal motion in ideal Stirling engines. More realistic models based on nodal analysis show that ideal piston and displacer waveforms are not optimal, often producing less power than engines that use sinusoidal piston and displacer motion. Constrained optimization using nodal analysis predicts that Stirling engine power density can be increased by as much as 58 percent using optimized higher harmonic piston and displacer motion. An experiment is conducted in which an engine designed for sinusoidal motion is forced to operate with both second and third harmonics, resulting in a piston power increase of as much as 14 percent. Analytical predictions are compared to experimental data and show close agreement with indirect thermodynamic power calculations, but poor agreement with direct electrical power measurements.

  8. Integrated two-cylinder liquid piston Stirling engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ning; Rickard, Robert; Pluckter, Kevin; Sulchek, Todd

    2014-10-01

    Heat engines utilizing the Stirling cycle may run on low temperature differentials with the capacity to function at high efficiency due to their near-reversible operation. However, current approaches to building Stirling engines are laborious and costly. Typically the components are assembled by hand and additional components require a corresponding increase in manufacturing complexity, akin to electronics before the integrated circuit. We present a simple and integrated approach to fabricating Stirling engines with precisely designed cylinders. We utilize computer aided design and one-step, planar machining to form all components of the engine. The engine utilizes liquid pistons and displacers to harness useful work from heat absorption and rejection. As a proof of principle of the integrated design, a two-cylinder engine is produced and characterized and liquid pumping is demonstrated.

  9. Integrated two-cylinder liquid piston Stirling engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ning; Rickard, Robert; Pluckter, Kevin; Sulchek, Todd, E-mail: todd.sulchek@me.gatech.edu [George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering and Parker H. Petit Institute for Bioengineering and Bioscience, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)

    2014-10-06

    Heat engines utilizing the Stirling cycle may run on low temperature differentials with the capacity to function at high efficiency due to their near-reversible operation. However, current approaches to building Stirling engines are laborious and costly. Typically the components are assembled by hand and additional components require a corresponding increase in manufacturing complexity, akin to electronics before the integrated circuit. We present a simple and integrated approach to fabricating Stirling engines with precisely designed cylinders. We utilize computer aided design and one-step, planar machining to form all components of the engine. The engine utilizes liquid pistons and displacers to harness useful work from heat absorption and rejection. As a proof of principle of the integrated design, a two-cylinder engine is produced and characterized and liquid pumping is demonstrated.

  10. Experimental study of the pressure characteristics in the Stirling refrigerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Yong Ju; Park, Seong Je; Kim, Hyo Bong; Koh, Deuk Yong

    2001-01-01

    The linear compressor have been widely used for pressure wave generation in the Stirling cryocooler and Stirling type pulse tube cryocooler for tactical purpose. The linear compressor has small and compact structure, and long life due to having non-contact sealing mechanism and the pressure drop through regenerator was ver important role in the motion of displacer in the expander of the Stirling cryocooler. In this study, the characteristic of the linear compressor and the pressure drop through regenerator in the expander was experimentally investigated. The results show resonance of the compressor is very important to get maximum performance and the gas spring force in the compression space of the compressor has effect on the characteristic of resonance and the results show the pressure drop through regenerator is very small than operating pressure change

  11. Micro power/heat cogeneration incorporating a stirling engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luft, S.

    2003-01-01

    The Stirling-engine for CHP-purpose developed by SOLO is a trend-setting technology. It represents the most suspicious perspective apart from the fuel-cell technology in order to become suitable to the requirements of the future power supply in the focus of the sustainability and the decentralized energy supply. The charm of the Stirling technology is based on the external combustion: a so far not known variability with the primary energy choice as well as a life span substantially extending, wear-free operation are possible thereby. The external combustion reduces also the maintenance and the emissions in a measure not known with conventional engine technologies. The development steps are finished. The result is the world-wide first concept for the commercial, stationary application of decentralized micro-CHP on Stirling technology basis, which goes into series. (orig.) [de

  12. The 1-kW solar Stirling experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giandomenico, A.

    1981-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to demonstrate electrical power generation using a small free-piston Stirling engine and linear alternator in conjunction with a parabolic solar collector. A test bed collector, formerly used at the JPL Table Mountain Observatory, was renovated and used to obtain practical experience and to determine test receiver performance. The collector was mounted on a two-axis tracker, with a cold water calorimeter mounted on the collector to measure its efficiency, while a separate, independently tracking radiometer was used to measure solar insolation. The solar receiver was designed to absorb energy from the collector, then transfer the resulting thermal energy to the Stirling engine. Successful testing of receiver/collector assembly yielded valuable inputs for design of the Stirling engine heater head.

  13. Integrated two-cylinder liquid piston Stirling engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Ning; Rickard, Robert; Pluckter, Kevin; Sulchek, Todd

    2014-01-01

    Heat engines utilizing the Stirling cycle may run on low temperature differentials with the capacity to function at high efficiency due to their near-reversible operation. However, current approaches to building Stirling engines are laborious and costly. Typically the components are assembled by hand and additional components require a corresponding increase in manufacturing complexity, akin to electronics before the integrated circuit. We present a simple and integrated approach to fabricating Stirling engines with precisely designed cylinders. We utilize computer aided design and one-step, planar machining to form all components of the engine. The engine utilizes liquid pistons and displacers to harness useful work from heat absorption and rejection. As a proof of principle of the integrated design, a two-cylinder engine is produced and characterized and liquid pumping is demonstrated.

  14. Improving Free-Piston Stirling Engine Power Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Maxwell H.

    2016-01-01

    Analyses and experiments demonstrate the potential benefits of optimizing piston and displacer motion in a free piston Stirling Engine. Isothermal analysis shows the theoretical limits of power density improvement due to ideal motion in ideal Stirling engines. More realistic models based on nodal analysis show that ideal piston and displacer waveforms are not optimal, often producing less power than engines that use sinusoidal piston and displacer motion. Constrained optimization using nodal analysis predicts that Stirling engine power density can be increased by as much as 58% using optimized higher harmonic piston and displacer motion. An experiment is conducted in which an engine designed for sinusoidal motion is forced to operate with both second and third harmonics, resulting in a maximum piston power increase of 14%. Analytical predictions are compared to experimental data showing close agreement with indirect thermodynamic power calculations, but poor agreement with direct electrical power measurements.

  15. Overview of NASA supported Stirling thermodynamic loss research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tew, R.C.; Geng, S.M.

    1994-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is funding research to characterize Stirling machine thermodynamic losses. NASA's primary goal is to improve Stirling design codes to support engine development for space and terrestrial power. However, much of the fundamental data is applicable to Stirling cooler and heat pump applications. The research results are reviewed. Much has been learned about oscillating-flow hydrodynamics, including laminar/turbulent transition, and tabulated data has been documented for further analysis. Now, with a better understanding of the oscillator-flow field, it is time to begin measuring the effects of oscillating flow and oscillating pressure level on heat transfer in heat exchanger flow passages and in cylinders. This critical phase of the work is just beginning

  16. Cool down time optimization of the Stirling cooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, M.; Chen, X. P.; Y Li, H.; Gan, Z. H.

    2017-12-01

    The cooling power is one of the most important performances of a Stirling cooler. However, in some special fields, the cool down time is more important. It is a great challenge to improve the cool down time of the Stirling cooler. A new split Stirling linear cryogenic cooler SCI09H was designed in this study. A new structure of linear motor is used in the compressor, and the machine spring is used in the expander. In order to reduce the cool down time, the stainless-steel mesh of regenerator is optimized. The weight of the cooler is 1.1 kg, the cool down time to 80K is 2 minutes at 296K with a 250J thermal mass, the cooling power is 1.1W at 80K, and the input power is 50W.

  17. Large eight.cylinder Stirling engine for biofuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Henrik; Biedermann, F.; Bovin, Jonas Kabell

    2003-01-01

    A large Stirling engine with an electric power output of 70 kW has been developed for small-scale CHP using wood chips and other sorts of biomass as fuel. The development of the engine is based on the results from the development of a four-cylinder Stirling engine with a power output of 35 k...... in the hot end connecting the expansion space with the hot end of the regenerator through the heater panel. However, this has resulted in comparably large dead volumes and flow losses in the connections between the heater and the regenerator/expansion volume. For the new eight-cylinder engine the design...... of the connections between the heater and the regenerator/expansion volume have been improved considerably, reducing the flow losses and internal dead volume. Results from simulations indicate an improvement of power output and efficiency of about 10%. A four cylinder double acting Stirling engine is basically...

  18. Experimental investigation of a thermoacoustic-Stirling refrigerator driven by a thermoacoustic-Stirling heat engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, E C; Dai, W; Zhang, Y; Ling, H

    2006-12-22

    In this paper, a thermally-driven thermoacoustic refrigerator system without any moving part is reported. This refrigeration system consists of a thermoacoustic-Stirling heat engine and a thermoacoustic-Stirling refrigerator; that is, the former is the driving source for the latter. Both the subsystems are designed to operate on traveling-wave mode. In the experiment, it was found that the DC-flows had significant negative effect on the heat engine and the refrigerator. To suppress these DC-flows, two flexible membranes were inserted into the two subsystems and worked very well. Then extensive experiments were made to test the influence of different parameters on refrigeration performance of the whole system. The system has so far achieved a no-load temperature of -65 degrees C, a cooling capacity of about 270 W at -20 degrees C and 405 W at 0 degrees C; in fact, the result showed a good prospect of the refrigeration system in room-temperature cooling such as food refrigeration and air-conditioning.

  19. Output characteristics of Stirling thermoacoustic engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Daming; Qiu Limin; Wang Bo; Xiao Yong; Zhao Liang

    2008-01-01

    A thermoacoustic engine (TE), which converts thermal energy into acoustic power by the thermoacoustic effect, shows several advantages due to the absence of moving parts, such as high reliability and long lifetime associated with reduced manufacturing costs. Power output and efficiency are important criteria of the performance of a TE. In order to increase the acoustic power output and thermal efficiency of a Stirling TE, the acoustic power distribution in the engine is studied with the variable load method. It is found that the thermal efficiency is independent of the output locations along the engine under the same acoustic power output. Furthermore, when the pressure ratio is kept constant at one location along the TE, it is beneficial to increasing the thermal efficiency by exporting more acoustic power. With nitrogen of 2.5 MPa as working gas and the pressure ratio at the compliance of 1.20 in the experiments, the acoustic power is measured at the compliance and the resonator simultaneously. The maximum power output, thermal efficiency and exergy efficiency reach 390.0 W, 11.2% and 16.0%, which are increased by 51.4%, 24.4% and 19.4%, respectively, compared to those with a single R-C load with 750 ml reservoir at the compliance. This research will be instructive for increasing the efficiency and making full use of the acoustic energy of a TE

  20. Dynamics of the Ross-Stirling engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doige, A G; Walker, G

    1986-01-01

    A computer model has been developed for the simulation of the dynamic loading in a Stirling engine having a Ross linkage as the drive mechanism. The model is based on a complete theoretical formulation of the dynamics of the system. The masses and moments of inertia of all moving components have been included in the model. The computer program can be used for determining the effect of changes in many design parameters on the geometry, velocities, accelerations, dynamic loading and reactions at all pin connections and engine-mount locations. In this paper, emphasis is given to assessing the general characteristics of the reaction forces at the pin connections and to the reduction of overall engine shaking forces by simple balancing methods. The most heavily loaded element in the engine is the pin connecting the crank and the yoke. The force at that location is a combination of a static load produced by gas pressure in the cylinders and a combined inertia load for the whole engine which increases with the square of the rotational speed. 6 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Stirling/hydraulic artificial heart power source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, R.P.; Bennett, A.; Emigh, S.G.; Griffith, W.R.; Noble, J.E.; Perrone, R.E.; White, M.A.; Martini, W.R.; Alexander, J.E.

    1977-01-01

    The REL power source combines the high efficiency of Stirling engines with the reliability, efficiency, and flexibility of hydraulic power transfer and control to ensure long system life and physiological effectiveness. Extended life testing has been achieved with an engine (2.6 years) and hydraulic actuator/controller (1.6 years). Peak power source efficiency is 15.5 percent on 5 to 10 watts delivered to the blood pump push plate with 33 watts steady thermal input. Planned incorporation of power source output control is expected to reduce daily average thermal input to 18 watts. Animal in-vivo tests with an assist heart have consistently demonstrated required performance by biological synchronization and effective ventricle relief. Volume and weight are 0.93 liter and 2.4 kg (excluding blood pump) with an additional 0.4 liter of low temperature foam insulation required to preclude tissue thermal damage. Carefully planned development of System 7 is expected to produce major reductions in size

  2. Cobalt-free nickel-base superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Yutaka; Yamazaki, Michio; Harada, Hiroshi

    1979-01-01

    Cobalt-free nickel-base cast superalloys have been developed. Cobalt is considered to be a beneficial element to strengthen the alloys but should be eliminated in alloys to be used for direct cycle helium turbine driven by helium gas from HTGR (high temp. gas reactor). The elimination of cobalt is required to avoid the formation of radioactive 60 Co from the debris or scales of the alloys. Cobalt-free alloys are also desirable from another viewpoint, i.e. recently the shortage of the element has become a serious problem in industry. Cobalt-free Mar-M200 type alloys modified by the additions of 0.15 - 0.2 wt% B and 1 - 1.5 wt% Hf were found to have a creep rupture strength superior or comparable to that of the original Mar-M200 alloy bearing cobalt. The ductility in tensile test at 800 0 C, as cast or after prolonged heating at 900 0 C (the tensile test was done without removing the surface layer affected by the heating), was also improved by the additions of 0.15 - 0.2% B and 1 - 1.5% Hf. The morphology of grain boundaries became intricated by the additions of 0.15 - 0.2% B and 1 - 1.5% Hf, to such a degree that one can hardly distinguish grain boundaries by microscopes. The change in the grain boundary morphology was considered, as suggested previously by one of the authors (M.Y.), to be the reason for the improvements in the creep rupture strength and tensile ductility. (author)

  3. Nanosize boride particles in heat-treated nickel base superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H.R.; Ojo, O.A.; Chaturvedi, M.C.

    2008-01-01

    Grain boundary microconstituents in aged nickel-based superalloys were studied by transmission electron microscopy techniques. A nanosized M 5 B 3 boride phase, possibly formed by intergranular solute desegregation-induced precipitation, was positively identified. The presence of these intergranular nanoborides provides reasonable clarification of a previously reported reduction of grain boundary liquation temperature during the weld heat affected zone thermal cycle

  4. Multiscale modelling of single crystal superalloys for gas turbine blades

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinga, T.

    2009-01-01

    Gas turbines are extensively used for power generation and for the propulsion of aircraft and vessels. Their most severely loaded parts, the turbine rotor blades, are manufactured from single crystal nickel-base superalloys. The superior high temperature behaviour of these materials is attributed to

  5. Double minimum creep of single crystal Ni-base superalloys

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    WU, X.; Wollgramm, P.; Somsen, C.; Dlouhý, Antonín; Kostka, A.; Eggeler, G.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 112, JUN (2016), s. 242-260 ISSN 1359-6454 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-22834S Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Single crystal Ni-base superalloys * Primary creep * Transmission electron microscopy * Dislocations * Stacking faults Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 5.301, year: 2016

  6. Linear Generator for a Free Piston Stirling Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OROS (POP Teodora Susana

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present some aspects about the design of a Stirling engine driven linear generator. There are summarised the main steps of the magnetic and electric calculations with application to a particular case of a cogeneration plant bassed on Stirling engine. The designed linear generator is of fixed coil and moving magnets type. There are presented and a finite element method (FEM simulation of magnetic field. The linear generator design starts with the characteristics of the rare earth permanent magnets existing on the market.

  7. Simulation of Temperature Fluctuations in Stirling Engine Regenerator Matrices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stig Kildegaard; Carlsen, Henrik; Thomsen, Per Grove

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study has been to create a model for studying the effects of fluctuations in regenerator matrix temperatures on Stirling engine performance. A one-dimensional model with axial discretisation of engine components has been formulated using the balance equations for mass, energy...... and accurately calculated. Simulation results have been compared to experimental data for a 9 kW Stirling engine and reasonable agreement has been found over a wide range of operating conditions using Helium or Nitrogen as working gas. Simulation results indicate that fluctuations in the regenerator matrix...... temperatures have significant impact on the regenerator loss, the engine power output, and the cycle efficiency....

  8. Evaluation Of Different Power Conditioning Options For Stirling Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrigos, A.; Blanes, J. M.; Carrasco, J. A.; Maset, E.; Montalban, G.; Ejea, J.; Ferreres, A.; Sanchis, E.

    2011-10-01

    Free-piston Stirling engines are an interesting alternative for electrical power systems, especially in deep space missions where photovoltaic systems are not feasible. This kind of power generators contains two main parts, the Stirling machine and the linear alternator that converts the mechanical energy from the piston movement to electrical energy. Since the generated power is in AC form, several aspects should be assessed to use such kind of generators in a spacecraft power system: AC/DC topologies, power factor correction, power regulation techniques, integration into the power system, etc. This paper details power generator operation and explores different power conversion approaches.

  9. Four-Cylinder Stirling-Engine Computer Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniele, C. J.; Lorenzo, C. F.

    1986-01-01

    Computer program developed for simulating steady-state and transient performance of four-cylinder Stirling engine. In model, four cylinders interconnected by four working spaces. Each working space contains seven volumes: one for expansion space, heater, cooler, and compression space and three for regenerator. Thermal time constant for regenerator mass associated with each regenator gas volume. Former code generates results very quickly, since it has only 14 state variables with no energy equation. Current code then used to study various aspects of Stirling engine in much more detail. Program written in FORTRAN IV for use on IBM 370 computer.

  10. IECEC '91; Proceedings of the 26th Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, Boston, MA, Aug. 4-9, 1991. Vol. 5 - Renewable resource systems, Stirling engines and applications, systems and cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Various papers on energy conversion engineering are presented. The general topics considered are: developments in nuclear power, energy from waste and biomass, system performance and materials in photovoltaics, solar thermal energy, wind energy systems, Stirling cycle analysis, Stirling cycle power, Stirling component technology, Stirling cooler/heat pump developments, Stirling engine concepts, Stirling engine design and optimization, Stirling engine dynamics and response, Stirling engine solar terrestrial, advanced cogeneration, AMTC, fossil fuel systems and technologies, marine energy

  11. Precipitation in Powder Metallurgy, Nickel Base Superalloys: Review of Modeling Approach and Formulation of Engineering (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2016-0333 PRECIPITATION IN POWDER- METALLURGY , NICKEL-BASE SUPERALLOYS: REVIEW OF MODELING APPROACH AND FORMULATION OF...PRECIPITATION IN POWDER- METALLURGY , NICKEL- BASE SUPERALLOYS: REVIEW OF MODELING APPROACH AND FORMULATION OF ENGINEERING (POSTPRINT) 5a...and kinetic parameters required for the modeling of γ′ precipitation in powder- metallurgy (PM), nickel-base superalloys are summarized. These

  12. A Comparison of the Plastic Flow Response of a Powder Metallurgy Nickel Base Superalloy (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2017-0225 A COMPARISON OF THE PLASTIC-FLOW RESPONSE OF A POWDER- METALLURGY NICKEL-BASE SUPERALLOY (POSTPRINT) S.L...COMPARISON OF THE PLASTIC-FLOW RESPONSE OF A POWDER- METALLURGY NICKEL-BASE SUPERALLOY (POSTPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER IN-HOUSE 5b. GRANT...behavior at hot-working temperatures and strain rates of the powder- metallurgy superalloy LSHR was determined under nominally-isothermal and transient

  13. Multiple Cylinder Free-Piston Stirling Machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berchowitz, David M.; Kwon, Yong-Rak

    In order to improve the specific power of piston-cylinder type machinery, there is a point in capacity or power where an advantage accrues with increasing number of piston-cylinder assemblies. In the case of Stirling machinery where primary energy is transferred across the casing wall of the machine, this consideration is even more important. This is due primarily to the difference in scaling of basic power and the required heat transfer. Heat transfer is found to be progressively limited as the size of the machine increases. Multiple cylinder machines tend to preserve the surface area to volume ratio at more favorable levels. In addition, the spring effect of the working gas in the so-called alpha configuration is often sufficient to provide a high frequency resonance point that improves the specific power. There are a number of possible multiple cylinder configurations. The simplest is an opposed pair of piston-displacer machines (beta configuration). A three-cylinder machine requires stepped pistons to obtain proper volume phase relationships. Four to six cylinder configurations are also possible. A small demonstrator inline four cylinder alpha machine has been built to demonstrate both cooling operation and power generation. Data from this machine verifies theoretical expectations and is used to extrapolate the performance of future machines. Vibration levels are discussed and it is argued that some multiple cylinder machines have no linear component to the casing vibration but may have a nutating couple. Example applications are discussed ranging from general purpose coolers, computer cooling, exhaust heat power extraction and some high power engines.

  14. Automotive Stirling engine development program. [fuel economy assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitzner, E. W.

    1978-01-01

    The Ford/DOE automotive Stirling engine development program is directed towards establishing the technological and developmental base that would enable a decision on whether an engineering program should be directed at Stirling engine production. The fuel economy assessment aims to achieve, with a high degree of confidence, the ERDA proposal estimate of 20.6 MPG (gasoline) for a 4500 lb 1WC Stirling engine passenger car. The current M-H fuel economy projection for the 170 HP Stirling engine is 15.7 MPG. The confidence level for this projection is 32%. A confidence level of 29% is projected for a 22.1 MPG estimate. If all of the planned analyses and test work is accomplished at the end of the one year effort, and the projected improvements are substantiated, the confidence levels would rise to 59% for the 20.6 MPG projection and 54% for the 22.1 MPG projection. Progress achieved thus far during the fuel economy assessment is discussed.

  15. Experimental and theoretical investigation of Stirling engine heater: Parametrical optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gheith, R.; Hachem, H.; Aloui, F.; Ben Nasrallah, S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A Stirling engine was investigated to optimize its operation and its performance. • The porous medium present the highest amount of heat exchanged in a Stirling engine. • The heater characteristics are determinant points to enhance the thermal exchange in Stirling engine. • All operation parameters influence the heater performances. • Thermal and exergy heater efficiencies are sensible to temperature and pressure. - Abstract: The aim of this work is to optimize γ Stirling engine performances with a special care given to the heater. This latter consists of 20 tubes in order to increase the exchange area between the working gas and the hot source. Different parameters were chosen to evaluate numerically and experimentally the heater. The selected four independent parameters are: heating temperature (300–500 °C), initial filling pressure (3–8 bar), cooling water flow rate (0.2–3 l/min) and frequency (2–7 Hz). The amount of energy exchanged in the heater is significantly influenced by the frequency and heating temperature but it is slightly enhanced with the increase in the cooling water flow rate. The thermal and the exergy efficiencies of the heater are very sensible to the temperature and pressure variations.

  16. Maximum Work of Free-Piston Stirling Engine Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Shinji

    2017-04-01

    Using the method of adjoint equations described in Ref. [1], we have calculated the maximum thermal efficiencies that are theoretically attainable by free-piston Stirling and Carnot engine generators by considering the work loss due to friction and Joule heat. The net work done by the Carnot cycle is negative even when the duration of heat addition is optimized to give the maximum amount of heat addition, which is the same situation for the Brayton cycle described in our previous paper. For the Stirling cycle, the net work done is positive, and the thermal efficiency is greater than that of the Otto cycle described in our previous paper by a factor of about 2.7-1.4 for compression ratios of 5-30. The Stirling cycle is much better than the Otto, Brayton, and Carnot cycles. We have found that the optimized piston trajectories of the isothermal, isobaric, and adiabatic processes are the same when the compression ratio and the maximum volume of the same working fluid of the three processes are the same, which has facilitated the present analysis because the optimized piston trajectories of the Carnot and Stirling cycles are the same as those of the Brayton and Otto cycles, respectively.

  17. Thermodynamic comparison of Peltier, Stirling, and vapor compression portable coolers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermes, Christian J.L.; Barbosa, Jader R.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A Peltier, a Stirling, and two vapor compression refrigerators were compared. ► Tests were carried out to obtain key performance parameters of the systems. ► The overall 2nd-law efficiency was splited to take into account the internal and external irreversibilities. ► The Stirling and vapor compression refrigeration systems presented higher efficiencies. ► The thermoelectric device was not at the same efficiency level as the other coolers. -- Abstract: The present study compares the thermodynamic performance of four small-capacity portable coolers that employ different cooling technologies: thermoelectric, Stirling, and vapor compression using two different compressors (reciprocating and linear). The refrigeration systems were experimentally evaluated in a climatized chamber with controlled temperature and humidity. Tests were carried out at two different ambient temperatures (21 and 32 °C) in order to obtain key performance parameters of the systems (e.g., power consumption, cooling capacity, internal air temperature, and the hot end and cold end temperatures). These performance parameters were compared using a thermodynamic approach that splits the overall 2nd law efficiency into two terms, namely, the internal and external efficiencies. In doing so, the internal irreversibilities (e.g., friction in the working fluid in the Stirling and vapor compression machines, Joule heating and heat conduction in the thermoelectric devices of the Peltier cooler) were separated from the heat exchanger losses (external irreversibilities), allowing the comparison between different refrigeration technologies with respect to the same thermodynamic baseline.

  18. Radioisotope power system based on derivative of existing Stirling engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schock, A.; Or, C.T.; Kumar, V.

    1995-01-01

    In a recent paper, the authors presented the results of a system design study of a 75-watt(c) RSG (Radioisotope Stirling Generator) for possible application to the Pluto Fast Flyby mission. That study was based on a Stirling engine design generated by MTI (Mechanical Technology, Inc.). The MTI design was a derivative of a much larger (13 kwe) engine that they had developed and tested for NASA's LERC. Clearly, such a derivative would be a major extrapolation (downsizing) from what has actually been built and tested. To avoid that, the present paper describes a design for a 75-watt RSG system based on derivatives of a small (11-watt) engine and linear alternator system that has been under development by STC (Stirling Technology Company) for over three years and that has operated successfully for over 15,000 hours as of March 1995. Thus, the STC engines would require much less extrapolation from proven designs. The design employs a heat source consisting of two standard General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules, coupled to four Stirling engines with linear alternators, any three of which could deliver the desired 75-watt(e) output if the fourth should fail. The four engines are coupled to four common radiators with redundant heatpipes for rejecting the engines' waste heat to space. The above engine and radiator redundancies promote system reliability. The paper describes detailed analyses to determine the effect of radiator geometry on system mass and performance, before and after an engine or heatpipe failure

  19. Degenerate r-Stirling Numbers and r-Bell Polynomials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, T.; Yao, Y.; Kim, D. S.; Jang, G.-W.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to exploit umbral calculus in order to derive some properties, recurrence relations, and identities related to the degenerate r-Stirling numbers of the second kind and the degenerate r-Bell polynomials. Especially, we will express the degenerate r-Bell polynomials as linear combinations of many well-known families of special polynomials.

  20. Operating single quantum emitters with a compact Stirling cryocooler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlehahn, A; Krüger, L; Gschrey, M; Schulze, J-H; Rodt, S; Strittmatter, A; Heindel, T; Reitzenstein, S

    2015-01-01

    The development of an easy-to-operate light source emitting single photons has become a major driving force in the emerging field of quantum information technology. Here, we report on the application of a compact and user-friendly Stirling cryocooler in the field of nanophotonics. The Stirling cryocooler is used to operate a single quantum emitter constituted of a semiconductor quantum dot (QD) at a base temperature below 30 K. Proper vibration decoupling of the cryocooler and its surrounding enables free-space micro-photoluminescence spectroscopy to identify and analyze different charge-carrier states within a single quantum dot. As an exemplary application in quantum optics, we perform a Hanbury-Brown and Twiss experiment demonstrating a strong suppression of multi-photon emission events with g((2))(0) Stirling-cooled single quantum emitter under continuous wave excitation. Comparative experiments performed on the same quantum dot in a liquid helium (LHe)-flow cryostat show almost identical values of g((2))(0) for both configurations at a given temperature. The results of this proof of principle experiment demonstrate that low-vibration Stirling cryocoolers that have so far been considered exotic to the field of nanophotonics are an attractive alternative to expensive closed-cycle cryostats or LHe-flow cryostats, which could pave the way for the development of high-quality table-top non-classical light sources.

  1. Operating single quantum emitters with a compact Stirling cryocooler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlehahn, A.; Krüger, L.; Gschrey, M.; Schulze, J.-H.; Rodt, S.; Strittmatter, A.; Heindel, T., E-mail: tobias.heindel@tu-berlin.de; Reitzenstein, S. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Technische Universität Berlin, 10623 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-01-15

    The development of an easy-to-operate light source emitting single photons has become a major driving force in the emerging field of quantum information technology. Here, we report on the application of a compact and user-friendly Stirling cryocooler in the field of nanophotonics. The Stirling cryocooler is used to operate a single quantum emitter constituted of a semiconductor quantum dot (QD) at a base temperature below 30 K. Proper vibration decoupling of the cryocooler and its surrounding enables free-space micro-photoluminescence spectroscopy to identify and analyze different charge-carrier states within a single quantum dot. As an exemplary application in quantum optics, we perform a Hanbury-Brown and Twiss experiment demonstrating a strong suppression of multi-photon emission events with g{sup (2)}(0) < 0.04 from this Stirling-cooled single quantum emitter under continuous wave excitation. Comparative experiments performed on the same quantum dot in a liquid helium (LHe)-flow cryostat show almost identical values of g{sup (2)}(0) for both configurations at a given temperature. The results of this proof of principle experiment demonstrate that low-vibration Stirling cryocoolers that have so far been considered exotic to the field of nanophotonics are an attractive alternative to expensive closed-cycle cryostats or LHe-flow cryostats, which could pave the way for the development of high-quality table-top non-classical light sources.

  2. The κ-Generalizations of Stirling Approximation and Multinominal Coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuaki Wada

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Stirling approximation of the factorials and multinominal coefficients are generalized based on the κ-generalized functions introduced by Kaniadakis. We have related the κ-generalized multinominal coefficients to the κ-entropy by introducing a new κ-product operation, which exists only when κ ≠ 0.

  3. Tsallis p, q-deformed Touchard polynomials and Stirling numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herscovici, O.; Mansour, T.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we develop and investigate a new two-parametrized deformation of the Touchard polynomials, based on the definition of the NEXT q-exponential function of Tsallis. We obtain new generalizations of the Stirling numbers of the second kind and of the binomial coefficients and represent two new statistics for the set partitions.

  4. Recent trends in superalloys research for critical aero-engine components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remy, Luc [Mine ParisTech, CNRS UMR 7633, 91 - Evry (France). Centre des Materiaux; Guedou, Jean-Yves [Snecma Safran Group, Moissy-Cramayel (France). Materials and Processes Dept.

    2010-07-01

    This paper is a brief survey of common research activity on superalloys for aero-engines between Snecma and Mines ParisTech Centre des Materiaux during recent years. First in disks applications, the development of new powder metallurgy superalloys is shown. Then grain boundary engineering is investigated in a wrought superalloy. Secondly, design oriented research on single crystals blades is shown: a damage model for low cycle fatigue is used for life prediction when cracks initiated at casting pores. The methodology developed for assessing coating life is illustrated for thermal barrier coating deposited on AMI single crystal superalloy. (orig.)

  5. Study of temperature distribution in a Stirling engine regenerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gheith, R.; Aloui, F.; Ben Nasrallah, S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A Gamma-Stirling engine is experimented to determine the optimal operation parameters. • A set of experiment reveals a difference of temperature between regenerator sides. • A phenomenon which consumes a part of the produced energy by the engine is highlighted. • A multi-objectif study based on experimental design methodology is developed. • The optimal set of operation parameters maximizing the engine power is proposed. - Abstract: A gamma Stirling engine is studied in this paper. A special care was accorded to the instrumentation of this engine and especially the instrumentation of the regenerator. A preliminarily set of experimental measurement reveals a difference of temperature between both regenerator sides. A second set of experiments was proposed to detect the influence of this phenomenon on Stirling engine performances. The asymmetry of heat transfer inside the Stirling engine regenerator’s is one of the important phenomenons which consume a part of the produced energy. Two experiments are made to find out the causes of this asymmetry. In order to know the influence of the different operation parameters on this new phenomenon the experimental design method is adopted. The experimental design is an alternative to identify the parameters sets allowing optimal Stirling engine performances. A central composite rotatable design was adopted for minimizing the asymmetry of temperature between both regenerator sides and maximizes the engine brake power. The selected four independent parameters are: heating temperature (300 °C–500 °C), initial filling pressure (3 bar–8 bar), cooling water flow rate (0.2 l/m–3 l/min) and operation time (4–20 min after study regime). The four adopted factors are experimentally varied. The results show that the heating temperature is the most significant factor for the studied phenomenon. The major damages caused by this phenomenon will be presented too

  6. Liquid air fueled open–closed cycle Stirling engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Weiqing; Wang, Jia; Cai, Maolin; Shi, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy of liquid air is divided into cryogenic energy and expansion energy. • Open–closed cycle Stirling mechanism is employed to improve efficiency. • The Schmidt theory is modified to describe temperature variation in cold space. - Abstract: An unconventional Stirling engine is proposed and its theoretical analysis is performed. The engine belongs to a “cryogenic heat engine” that is fueled by cryogenic medium. Conventional “cryogenic heat engine” employs liquid air as pressure source, but disregards its heat-absorbing ability. Therefore, its efficiency can only be improved by increasing vapor pressure, accordingly increasing the demand on pressure resistance and sealing. In the proposed engine, the added Stirling mechanism helps achieve its high efficiency and simplicity by utilizing the heat-absorbing ability of liquid air. On one hand, based on Stirling mechanism, gas in the hot space absorbs heat from atmosphere when expanding; gas in the cold space is cooled down by liquid air when compressed. Taking atmosphere as heat source and liquid air as heat sink, a closed Stirling cycle is formed. On the other hand, an exhaust port is set in the hot space. When expanding in the hot space, the vaporized gas is discharged through the exhaust port. Thus, an open cycle is established. To model and analyze the system, the Schmidt theory is modified to describe temperature variation in the cold space, and irreversible characteristic of regenerator is incorporated in the thermodynamic model. The results obtained from the model show that under the same working pressure, the efficiency of the proposed engine is potentially higher than that of conventional ones and to achieve the same efficiency, the working pressure could be lower with the new mechanism. Its efficiency could be improved by reducing temperature difference between the regenerator and the cold/hot space, increasing the swept volume ratio, decreasing the liquid–gas ratio. To keep

  7. Small Stirling dynamic isotope power system for robotic space missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bents, D.J.

    1992-08-01

    The design of a multihundred-watt Dynamic Isotope Power System (DIPS), based on the US Department of Energy (DOE) General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) and small (multihundred-watt) free-piston Stirling engine (FPSE), is being pursued as a potential lower cost alternative to radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG's). The design is targeted at the power needs of future unmanned deep space and planetary surface exploration missions ranging from scientific probes to Space Exploration Initiative precursor missions. Power level for these missions is less than a kilowatt. The incentive for any dynamic system is that it can save fuel and reduce costs and radiological hazard. Unlike DIPS based on turbomachinery conversion (e.g. Brayton), this small Stirling DIPS can be advantageously scaled to multihundred-watt unit size while preserving size and mass competitiveness with RTG's. Stirling conversion extends the competitive range for dynamic systems down to a few hundred watts--a power level not previously considered for dynamic systems. The challenge for Stirling conversion will be to demonstrate reliability and life similar to RTG experience. Since the competitive potential of FPSE as an isotope converter was first identified, work has focused on feasibility of directly integrating GPHS with the Stirling heater head. Thermal modeling of various radiatively coupled heat source/heater head geometries has been performed using data furnished by the developers of FPSE and GPHS. The analysis indicates that, for the 1050 K heater head configurations considered, GPHS fuel clad temperatures remain within acceptable operating limits. Based on these results, preliminary characterizations of multihundred-watt units have been established

  8. Recovery of Exhaust Waste Heat for ICE Using the Beta Type Stirling Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Aladayleh, Wail; Alahmer, Ali

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the potential of utilizing the exhaust waste heat using an integrated mechanical device with internal combustion engine for the automobiles to increase the fuel economy, the useful power, and the environment safety. One of the ways of utilizing waste heat is to use a Stirling engine. A Stirling engine requires only an external heat source as wasted heat for its operation. Because the exhaust gas temperature may reach 200 to 700°C, Stirling engine will work effectively....

  9. Overview of heat transfer and fluid flow problem areas encountered in Stirling engine modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tew, Roy C., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center has been managing Stirling engine development programs for over a decade. In addition to contractual programs, this work has included in-house engine testing and development of engine computer models. Attempts to validate Stirling engine computer models with test data have demonstrated that engine thermodynamic losses need better characterization. Various Stirling engine thermodynamic losses and efforts that are underway to characterize these losses are discussed.

  10. Microstructural Characterization and Modeling of SLM Superalloy 718

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tim M.; Sudbrack, Chantal K.; Bonacuse, Pete; Rogers, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Superalloy 718 is an excellent candidate for selective laser melting (SLM) fabrication due to a combination of excellent mechanical properties and workability. Predicting and validating the microstructure of SLM-fabricated Superalloy 718 after potential post heat-treatment paths is an important step towards producing components comparable to those made using conventional methods. At present, obtaining accurate volume fraction and size measurements of gamma-double-prime, gamma-prime and delta precipitates has been challenging due to their size, low volume fractions, and similar chemistries. A technique combining high resolution distortion corrected SEM imaging and with x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy has been developed to accurately and independently measure the size and volume fractions of the three precipitates. These results were further validated using x-ray diffraction and phase extraction methods and compared to the precipitation kinetics predicted by PANDAT and JMatPro. Discrepancies are discussed in context of materials properties, model assumptions, sampling, and experimental errors.

  11. Analysis of laser beam weldability of Inconel 738 superalloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egbewande, A.T.; Buckson, R.A.; Ojo, O.A.

    2010-01-01

    The susceptibility of pre-weld heat treated laser beam welded IN 738 superalloy to heat affected zone (HAZ) cracking was studied. A pre-weld heat treatment that produced the minimal grain boundary liquation resulted in a higher level of cracking compared to those with more intergranular liquation. This deviation from the general expectation of influence of intergranular liquation extent on HAZ microfissuring is attributable to the reduction in the ability of the base alloy to accommodate welding tensile stress that accompanied a pre-weld heat treatment condition designed to minimize intergranular liquation. Furthermore, in contrast to what has been generally reported in other nickel-based superalloys, a decrease in laser welding speed resulted in increased HAZ cracking in the IN 738, which can be attributed to exacerbated process instability at lower welding speeds.

  12. Phase Stability of a Powder Metallurgy Disk Superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabb, Timothy P.; Gayda, John; Kantzos, P.; Telesman, Jack; Gang, Anita

    2006-01-01

    Advanced powder metallurgy superalloy disks in aerospace turbine engines now entering service can be exposed to temperatures approaching 700 C, higher than those previously encountered. They also have higher levels of refractory elements, which can increase mechanical properties at these temperatures but can also encourage phase instabilities during service. Microstructural changes including precipitation of topological close pack phase precipitation and coarsening of existing gamma' precipitates can be slow at these temperatures, yet potentially significant for anticipated disk service times exceeding 1,000 h. The ability to quantify and predict such potential phase instabilities and degradation of capabilities is needed to insure structural integrity and air worthiness of propulsion systems over the full life cycle. A prototypical advanced disk superalloy was subjected to high temperature exposures, and then evaluated. Microstructural changes and corresponding changes in mechanical properties were quantified. The results will be compared to predictions of microstructure modeling software.

  13. Microstructure evolution during dynamic recrystallization of hot deformed superalloy 718

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.; Shao, W.Z.; Zhen, L.; Zhang, X.M.

    2008-01-01

    Microstructure evolution during dynamic recrystallization (DRX) of superalloy 718 was studied by optical microscope and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique. Compression tests were performed at different strains at temperatures from 950 deg. C to 1120 deg. C with a strain rate of 10 -1 s -1 . Microstructure observations show that the recrystallized grain size as well as the fraction of new grains increases with the increasing temperature. A power exponent relationship is obtained between the dynamically recrystallized grain size and the peak stress. It is found that different nucleation mechanisms for DRX are operated in hot deformed superalloy 718, which is closely related to deformation temperatures. DRX nucleation and development are discussed in consideration of subgrain rotation or twinning taking place near the original grain boundaries. Particular attention is also paid to the role of continuous dynamic recrystallization (CDRX) at both higher and lower temperatures

  14. Surface modification, microstructure and mechanical properties of investment cast superalloy

    OpenAIRE

    M. Zielińska; K. Kubiak; J. Sieniawski

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this work is to determine physical and chemical properties of cobalt aluminate (CoAl2O4) modifiers produced by different companies and the influence of different types of modifiers on the grain size, the microstructure and mechanical properties of high temperature creep resisting superalloy René 77.Design/methodology/approach: The first stage of the research work took over the investigations of physical and chemical properties of cobalt aluminate manufactured by three diff...

  15. Powder-metallurgy superalloy strengthened by a secondary gamma phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotval, P. S.

    1971-01-01

    Description of experiments in which prealloyed powders of superalloy compositions were consolidated by extrusion after the strengthening by precipitation of a body-centered tetragonal gamma secondary Ni3 Ta phase. Thin foil electron microscopy showed that the mechanical properties of the resultant powder-metallurgy product were correlated with its microstructure. The product exhibited high strength at 1200 F without loss of ductility, after thermomechanical treatment and aging.

  16. Thermodynamic analysis and experimental investigation of a Solo V161 Stirling cogeneration unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogdakis, E.D.; Antonakos, G.D.; Koronaki, I.P.

    2012-01-01

    In order to investigate the Stirling engine implementation technology, a Solo Stirling Engine V161 cogeneration module has been installed at the Laboratory of Applied Thermodynamics of National Technical University of Athens. A special thermodynamic analysis of the engine's performance has been conducted introducing and utilizing specially designed computing codes along with the thermal balance study of the unit. Measurements were conducted under different operational conditions concerning various heat load stages of the engine, working pressure, as well as electric power production. Analysis of the experimental results has shown that the overall performance of the Stirling unit proved very promising and quite adequate for various areal applications, equally competing with other CHP systems. The performance of the unit experienced significant stability all over the operating range. The power stand ratio 0.35 differentiates Stirling cogeneration units from others that use diverging technologies significantly. The energy savings using a Stirling CHP unit, in respect to the concurrent use of a thermal and an electrical system at the same equivalent power has revealed 36.8%. -- Highlights: ► Thermodynamic analysis of an a-type Stirling engine. ► Development of generated electrical and thermal power of the m-CHP Solo Stirling Unit to engine's load comparison. ► Stirling m-CHP until heat balance analysis. ► Evaluation of the Solo Stirling V161 unit efficiency.

  17. Thermodynamic analysis of SOFC (solid oxide fuel cell) - Stirling hybrid plants using alternative fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2013-01-01

    A novel hybrid power system (∼10 kW) for an average family home is proposed. The system investigated contains a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) on top of a Stirling engine. The off-gases produced in the SOFC cycle are fed to a bottoming Stirling engine, at which additional power is generated...... to that of a stand-alone Stirling engine or SOFC plant. For the combined SOFC and Stirling configuration, the overall power production was increased by approximately 10% compared to that of a stand-alone SOFC plant. System efficiencies of approximately 60% are achieved, which is remarkable for such small plant sizes...

  18. Plant Characteristics af a Multi-Fuel Sofc-Stirling Hybrid Configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2012-01-01

    A novel hybrid system ( kWe) for an average family house including heating is proposed. The system investigated, contains of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) on top of a Stirling engine. The off-gases produced in the SOFC cycle is fed to the bottoming Stirling engine wherein additional power...... efficiency compared with the stand alone Stirling engine or SOFC plant. For the SOFC and Stirling combined configuration, the overall power production has increased by about 10% compared to the stand alone SOFC plant. System efficiencies of about 60% are achieved which is remarkable for such small plant...

  19. Performance Analysis and Optimization of a Solar Powered Stirling Engine with Heat Transfer Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-En Ho

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the optimization of the performance of a solar powered Stirling engine based on finite-time thermodynamics. Heat transference in the heat exchangers between a concentrating solar collector and the Stirling engine is studied. The irreversibility of a Stirling engine is considered with the heat transfer following Newton's law. The power generated by a Stirling engine is used as an objective function for maximum power output design with the concentrating solar collector temperature and the engine thermal efficiency as the optimization parameters. The maximum output power of engine and its corresponding system parameters are determined using a genetic algorithm.

  20. Rafting in single crystal nickel-base superalloys – An overview

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Page 1 ... aircraft engines as well as land-based power generation applications. Microstruc- ture and high temperature mechanical properties are the major factors controlling the performance of SX ... Single crystal (SX) superalloys are a group of nickel-base superalloys. They exhibit superior high temperatur mechanical ...

  1. Erosion–corrosion behaviour of Ni-based superalloy Superni-75 in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    microscopy/energy-dispersive analysis (SEM/EDAX) and electron probe micro ... gas turbines and they have designated this alloy as superalloy Superni-75. ... The nickel-based superalloy Superni-75 (19·5Cr-3Fe-0·3Ti-0·1C- Balance Ni) was ...

  2. The Mechanical Properties of Candidate Superalloys for a Hybrid Turbine Disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabb, Timothy P.; MacKay, Rebecca A.; Draper, Susan L.; Sudbrack, Chantal K.; Nathal, Michael V.

    2013-01-01

    The mechanical properties of several cast blade superalloys and one powder metallurgy disk superalloy were assessed for potential use in a dual alloy hybrid disk concept of joined dissimilar bore and web materials. Grain size was varied for each superalloy class. Tensile, creep, fatigue, and notch fatigue tests were performed at 704 to 815 degC. Typical microstructures and failure modes were determined. Preferred materials were then selected for future study as the bore and rim alloys in this hybrid disk concept. Powder metallurgy superalloy LSHR at 15 micron grain size and single crystal superalloy LDS-1101+Hf were selected for further study, and future work is recommended to develop the hybrid disk concept.

  3. High temperature oxidation and corrosion behavior of Ni-base superalloy in He environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Gyoeng Geun; Park, Ji Yeon; Jung, Su jin

    2010-11-01

    Ni-base superalloy is considered as a IHX (Intermediate Heat Exchanger) material for VHTR (Very High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor). The helium environment in VHTR contains small amounts of impure gases, which cause oxidation, carburization, and decarburization. In this report, we conducted the literature survey about the high temperature behavior of Ni-base superalloys in air and He environments. The basic information of Ni-base superalloy and the basic metal-oxidation theory were briefly stated. The He effect on the corrosion of Ni-base superalloy was also summarized. This works would provide a brief suggestion for the next research topic for the application of Ni-base superalloy to VHTR

  4. Stirling cryocooler test results and design model verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimko, M.A.; Stacy, W.D.; McCormick, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on progress in developing a long-life Stirling cycle cryocooler for space borne applications. It presents the results from tests on a preliminary breadboard version of the cryocooler used to demonstrate the feasibility of the technology and to validate the regenerator design code used in its development. This machine achieved a cold-end temperature of 65 K while carrying a 1/2 Watt cooling load. The basic machine is a double-acting, flexure-bearing, split Stirling design with linear electromagnetic drives for the expander and compressors. Flat metal diaphragms replace pistons for both sweeping and sealing the machine working volumes. In addition, the double-acting expander couples to a laminar-channel counterflow recuperative heat exchanger for regeneration. A PC compatible design code was developed for this design approach that calculates regenerator loss including heat transfer irreversibilities, pressure drop, and axial conduction in the regenerator walls

  5. RE-1000 free-piston Stirling engine update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, J. G.

    1985-01-01

    A free piston Stirling engine was tested. The tests performed over the past several years on the single cylinder engine were designed to investigate the dynamics of a free piston Stirling engine. The data are intended to be used primarily for computer code validation. The tests designed to investigate the sensitivity of the engine performance to variations in working space pressure, heater and cooler temperatures, regenerator porosity, power piston mass and displacer dynamics were completed. In addition, some data were recorded with alternate working fluids. A novel resonant balance system for the engine was also tested. Some preliminary test results of the tests performed are presented along with an outline of future tests to be run with the engine coupled to a hydraulic output unit. A description of the hydraulic output unit is given.

  6. Optimal power and efficiency of quantum Stirling heat engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yong; Chen, Lingen; Wu, Feng

    2017-01-01

    A quantum Stirling heat engine model is established in this paper in which imperfect regeneration and heat leakage are considered. A single particle which contained in a one-dimensional infinite potential well is studied, and the system consists of countless replicas. Each particle is confined in its own potential well, whose occupation probabilities can be expressed by the thermal equilibrium Gibbs distributions. Based on the Schrödinger equation, the expressions of power output and efficiency for the engine are obtained. Effects of imperfect regeneration and heat leakage on the optimal performance are discussed. The optimal performance region and the optimal values of important parameters of the engine cycle are obtained. The results obtained can provide some guidelines for the design of a quantum Stirling heat engine.

  7. Thermodynamic analysis of a Stirling engine including regenerator dead volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puech, Pascal; Tishkova, Victoria [Universite de Toulouse, UPS, CNRS, CEMES, 29 rue Jeanne Marvig, F-31055 Toulouse (France)

    2011-02-15

    This paper provides a theoretical investigation on the thermodynamic analysis of a Stirling engine with linear and sinusoidal variations of the volume. The regenerator in a Stirling engine is an internal heat exchanger allowing to reach high efficiency. We used an isothermal model to analyse the net work and the heat stored in the regenerator during a complete cycle. We show that the engine efficiency with perfect regeneration doesn't depend on the regenerator dead volume but this dead volume strongly amplifies the imperfect regeneration effect. An analytical expression to estimate the improvement due to the regenerator has been proposed including the combined effects of dead volume and imperfect regeneration. This could be used at the very preliminary stage of the engine design process. (author)

  8. A parametric investigation on a solar dish-Stirling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholamalizadeh, Ehsan; Chung, Jae Dong

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the performance of a solar dish-Stirling system. A mathematical model for the overall thermal efficiency of the solar-powered high-temperature-differential dish-Stirling engine is described. This model takes into account pressure losses due to fluid friction which is internal to the engine, mechanical friction between the moving parts, actual heat transfer includes the effects of both internal and external irreversibilities of the cycle and finite regeneration processes time. Validation was done through comparison with the actual power output of the "EuroDish" system. Moreover, the effects of dish diameter and working fluid on the performance of the system were studied. An increase of about 7.2% was observed for the power output using hydrogen as the working fluid rather than helium. Also, the focal distance for any diameter of dish was calculated.

  9. Thermal energy storage for the Stirling engine powered automobile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, D. T. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    A thermal energy storage (TES) system developed for use with the Stirling engine as an automotive power system has gravimetric and volumetric storage densities which are competitive with electric battery storage systems, meets all operational requirements for a practical vehicle, and can be packaged in compact sized automobiles with minimum impact on passenger and freight volume. The TES/Stirling system is the only storage approach for direct use of combustion heat from fuel sources not suitable for direct transport and use on the vehicle. The particular concept described is also useful for a dual mode TES/liquid fuel system in which the TES (recharged from an external energy source) is used for short duration trips (approximately 10 miles or less) and liquid fuel carried on board the vehicle used for long duration trips. The dual mode approach offers the potential of 50 percent savings in the consumption of premium liquid fuels for automotive propulsion in the United States.

  10. Mechanically-cooled germanium detector using two stirling refrigerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katagiri, Masaki; Kobayashi, Yoshii; Takahashi, Koji

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, we present a developed mechanically-cooled germanium gamma-ray detector using Stirling refrigerators. Two Stirling refrigerators having cooling faculty of 1.5W at 80K were used to cool down a germanium detector element to 77K instead of a dewar containing liquid nitrogen. An 145cm 3 (56.0mmf x 59.1 mml) closed-end Ge(I) detector having relative detection efficiency of 29.4% was attached at the refrigerators. The size of the detector was 60cml x 15cmh x 15cmw. The lowest cooling temperature, 70K was obtained after 8 hours operation. The energy resolutions for 1.33MeV gamma-rays and for pulser signals were 2.43keV and 1.84keV at an amplifier shaping time of 2μsec, respectively

  11. Simulational nanoengineering: Molecular dynamics implementation of an atomistic Stirling engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapaport, D C

    2009-04-01

    A nanoscale-sized Stirling engine with an atomistic working fluid has been modeled using molecular dynamics simulation. The design includes heat exchangers based on thermostats, pistons attached to a flywheel under load, and a regenerator. Key aspects of the behavior, including the time-dependent flows, are described. The model is shown to be capable of stable operation while producing net work at a moderate level of efficiency.

  12. Optimization design and performance analysis of a miniature stirling engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Zhanping; Yang, Bo; Pan, Lisheng; Hao, Changsheng

    2017-10-01

    Under given operation conditions, a stirling engine of 2 kW is designed which takes hydrogen as working medium. Through establishment of adiabatic model, the ways are achieved about performance improving. The ways are raising the temperature of hot terminal, lowering the temperature of cold end, increasing the average cycle pressure, speeding up the speed, phase angle being 90°, stroke volume ratio approximating to 1 and increasing the performance of regenerator.

  13. Split-Stirling Cryogenic Refrigerators For Detector Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrfeld, Daniel

    1983-08-01

    Unfortunately, for user and manufacturer both, the closed-cycle cryogenic cooler to date has deserved its reputation as the "weak-link" in IR systems. When the cooler requires service at intervals of a few hundred hours at best, the quality of the system it serves is unfairly diminished. This paper addresses technological advances in the art of Stirling-cycle coolers which will increasingly cause that image of military cryocoolers to change for the better. A family of split-cycle coolers designed for long MTBF and in the final stages of development is the focus of the discussion. Their technological evolution, from multi-year-MTBF satellite system Stirling coolers developed in the U.S., and the UA 7011 cooler (tne first all-linear, military, production cooler) developed in Holland, is explained. Three new machines are discussed. Both 1/4 watt and 1 watt (nominal capacity) at 80°K linear-resonant, free-dispLacer Stirling coolers designed for thousands of hours of service-free operation are examined. The third machine is an advanced 1/4 watt at 80°K Stirling cooler incorporating the same component improvements in its free-displacer while utilizing a crankshaft-driven compressor. All three are designed to be compatible with standard U.S. 60 element and 120/180 element detector/dewars. The technologies of linear-resonant compressor and free-displacer expanders as embodied in these machines is discussed in sufficient detail that the reasons for their superior performance will he clear.

  14. Optimization of Stirling and Ericsson cycles by solar radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badescu, V.

    This paper considers a model consisting of a source of radiation (the sun) and two energy converters. The first converter (the absorber) transforms the solar radiation into heat while the second one (which is a Stirling or Ericsson engine) uses heat to produce mechanical work. Polarization coefficients were introduced to characterize the radiation emitted by two components of the system (the sun and the first converter). The maximum conversion efficiency of solar radiation into work was studied.

  15. Linear motor driven Stirling coolers for military and commercial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the design and performance of a miniature, closed cycle, split stirling, cryogenic cooler that provides 1 watt of cooling at 80 K. The compressor uses two opposed linear motors to drive opposed pistons and the expander uses a pneumatically driven displacer. A single electronics module and compressor has been developed to drive three different expanders that have nominal cold cylinder diameters of 5, 8 and 13 mm

  16. A Stirling engine analysis method based upon moving gas nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, W. R.

    1986-01-01

    A Lagrangian nodal analysis method for Stirling engines (SEs) is described, validated, and applied to a conventional SE and an isothermalized SE (with fins in the hot and cold spaces). The analysis employs a constant-mass gas node (which moves with respect to the solid nodes during each time step) instead of the fixed gas nodes of Eulerian analysis. The isothermalized SE is found to have efficiency only slightly greater than that of a conventional SE.

  17. The study, design and simulation of a free piston Stirling engine linear alternatorThe study, design and simulation of a free piston Stirling engine linear alternator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora Susana Oros

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study, design and simulation of a Free Piston Stirling Engine Linear Alternator. There are presented the main steps of the magnetic and electric calculations for a permanent magnet linear alternator of fixed coil and moving magnets type. Finally, a detailed thermal, mechanical and electrical model for a Stirling engine linear alternator have been made in SIMULINK simulation program. The linear alternator simulation model uses a controllable DC voltage which simulates the linear alternator combined with a rectifier, a variable load and a DC-DC converter, which compensates for the variable nature of Stirling engine operation, and ensures a constant voltage output regardless of the load.

  18. Hybrid heat recovery - flat plate Stirling engine system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanizh, A.M.; Budin, R.; Sutlovizh, I.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, the possibility of process condensate heat recovery for boiler water preheating as well as for combined heat and power production for chosen process in textile industry has been investigated. The garment industry requires low pressure process steam or hot water for which production expensive fossil fuel should be used. Fuel usage can be reduced by various energy conservation methods. During the process a great quantity of hot condensate or waste hot water is rejected in the sewage system. To reduce heat wastes and improve technological process this condensate could be returned to the boiler for feed water preheating. When 60% condensate is returned to the steam generator about 8 % natural gas is saved. The rest of the condensate should be used for driving low temperature flat plate Stirling motor the advantage of the flat plate Stirling engine is ability to work at low temperatures. This engine produces electrical energy which can put in motion an electrogenerator in the same plant. While Stirling engine can be used electrical power and economical effect could be much greater using such a hybrid system the process waste heat is not only converted into useful work but at the same time thermal pollution is greatly diminished. (Author)

  19. A free-piston Stirling cryocooler using metal diaphragms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caughley, Alan; Sellier, Mathieu; Gschwendtner, Michael; Tucker, Alan

    2016-12-01

    A novel concept for a free-piston Stirling cryocooler has been proposed. The concept uses a pair of metal diaphragms to seal and suspend the displacer of a free-piston Stirling cryocooler. The diaphragms allow the displacer to move without rubbing or moving seals, potentially resulting in a long-life mechanism. When coupled to a metal diaphragm pressure wave generator, the system produces a complete Stirling cryocooler with no rubbing parts in the working gas space. Initial modelling of this concept using the Sage modelling tool indicates the potential for a useful cryocooler. A proof-of-concept prototype was constructed and achieved cryogenic temperatures. A second prototype was designed and constructed using the experience gained from the first. The prototype produced 29 W of cooling at 77 K and reached a no-load temperature of 56 K. Sage predicted the macroscopic behaviour of the prototype well but did not provide sufficient insights to improve performance significantly. This paper presents details of the development, modelling and testing of the proof-of-concept prototype and a second, improved prototype.

  20. Free-piston Stirling technology for space power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaby, Jack G.

    1989-01-01

    An overview is presented of the NASA Lewis Research Center free-piston Stirling engine activities directed toward space power. This work is being carried out under NASA's new Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The overall goal of CSTI's High Capacity Power element is to develop the technology base needed to meet the long duration, high capacity power requirements for future NASA space missions. The Stirling cycle offers an attractive power conversion concept for space power needs. Discussed here is the completion of the Space Power Demonstrator Engine (SPDE) testing-culminating in the generation of 25 kW of engine power from a dynamically-balanced opposed-piston Stirling engine at a temperature ratio of 2.0. Engine efficiency was approximately 22 percent. The SPDE recently has been divided into two separate single-cylinder engines, called Space Power Research Engine (SPRE), that now serve as test beds for the evaluation of key technology disciplines. These disciplines include hydrodynamic gas bearings, high-efficiency linear alternators, space qualified heat pipe heat exchangers, oscillating flow code validation, and engine loss understanding.

  1. Parametric study on beta-type Stirling engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abuelyamen, A.; Ben-Mansour, R.; Abualhamayel, H.; Mokheimer, Esmail M.A.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A parametric study of laminar flow for a β-type Stirling engine was performed. • The optimum charge pressure varies from gas to another. • Stirling engine runs better below the optimum charge pressure for H 2 and He. • Power output increases with temperature while thermal efficiency decreases. • For air and He, output power increases with temperature differences (T H − T C ). - Abstract: In this work, a parametric study on a β-type Stirling engine with no regenerator was conducted numerically using ANSYS fluent 14.5 software. The three parameters that were studied are; initial charge pressure, thermal boundary condition; and three different types of working fluids (Air, He and H 2 ). Variable thermal properties of these gases were adopted to get more realistic results. The results include a comparison of the amount of heat transfer, power output, and thermal efficiency. It was found that the best engine performance is achieved when H 2 gas is used as working fluid. Moreover, results revealed that each of the power output and the efficiency has different optimum charge pressure. Additionally, it was found that there is a small variation in the pressure across the engine chambers, which results in miss matching between the net heat transfer rates and power output calculated from PV-diagram. This error is higher when the air is used as working fluid, especially at high charge pressure.

  2. Feasibility study of dish/stirling power systems in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilanlı, Gülin Acarol; Eray, Aynur

    2017-06-01

    In this study, two different commercial dish/stirling systems, SES (Stirling Energy Systems) and WGA-ADDS (WGAssociates - Advanced Dish Development System), are modeled using the "System Advisor Model" (SAM) modeling software in designated settlement areas. Both systems are modeled for the US state of Albuquerque, where they were designed, and Turkish provinces of Ankara, Van, Muğla, Mersin, Urfa and Konya. At first, the dish/stirling system is optimized according to the power output values and the system loss parameters. Then, the layout of the solar field is designed with an installed capacity of 600kW both of SES and WGA-ADDS systems, Upon securing the most suitable layout, the system is modeled for the aforementioned settlements using the optimum output values gathered from the parametric analysis. As a result of the simulation studies, the applicability of this model is discussed according to the power output and the efficiency. Although Turkey is located in an area called "the sun belt" where solar energy technologies can be used, there is no advanced application of these systems. This study aims to discuss the application of these systems in detail and to pave the way for future studies in this field.

  3. Preliminary Results from Simulations of Temperature Oscillations in Stirling Engine Regenerator Matrices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stig Kildegård; Carlsen, Henrik; Thomsen, Per Grove

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study has been to create a Stirling engine model for studying the effects of regenerator matrix temperature oscillations on Stirling engine performance. A one-dimensional model with axial discretisation of engine components has been formulated using the control volume method...

  4. Simulation, design and thermal analysis of a solar Stirling engine using MATLAB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shazly, J.H.; Hafez, A.Z.; El Shenawy, E.T.; Eteiba, M.B.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Modeling and simulation for a prototype of the solar-powered Stirling engine. • The solar-powered Stirling engine working at the low temperature range. • Estimating output power from the solar Stirling engine using Matlab program. • Solar radiation simulation program presents a solar radiation data using MATLAB. - Abstract: This paper presents the modeling and simulation for a prototype of the solar-powered Stirling engine working at the low temperature range. A mathematical model for the thermal analysis of the solar-powered low temperature Stirling engine with heat transfer is developed using Matlab program. The model takes into consideration the effect of the absorber temperature on the thermal analysis like as radiation and convection heat transfer between the absorber and the working fluid as well as radiation and convection heat transfer between the lower temperature plate and the working fluid. Hence, the present analysis provides a theoretical guidance for designing and operating of the solar-powered low temperature Stirling engine system, as well as estimating output power from the solar Stirling engine using Matlab program. This study attempts to demonstrate the potential of the low temperature Stirling engine as an option for the prime movers for Photovoltaic tracking systems. The heat source temperature is 40–60 °C as the temperature available from the sun directly

  5. Modeling for control of a kinematic wobble-yoke Stirling engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia-Canseco, Eloisa; Alvarez-Aguirre, Alejandro; Scherpen, Jacquelien M. A.

    In this paper we derive the dynamical model of a four-cylinder double-acting wobble-yoke Stirling engine. In addition to the classical thermodynamics methods that dominate the literature of Stirling mechanisms, we present a control systems viewpoint to analyze the dynamic properties of the engine.

  6. One-dimensional numerical simulation of the Stirling-type pulse-tube refrigerator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etaati, M.; Mattheij, R.M.M.; Tijsseling, A.S.; Waele, de A.T.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Change of title: One-dimensional numerical simulation of the Stirling-type pulse-tube cooler. Pulse-tube refrigeration (PTR) is a new technology for cooling down to extremely low temperatures. In this paper a particular type, the so-called Stirling single-stage refrigerator, is considered. A

  7. Numerical simulation for the design analysis of kinematic Stirling engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araoz, Joseph A.; Salomon, Marianne; Alejo, Lucio; Fransson, Torsten H.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A thermodynamic analysis for kinematic Stirling engines was presented. • The analysis integrated thermal, mechanical and thermodynamic interactions. • The analyses considered geometrical and operational parameters. • The results allowed to map the performance of the engine. • The analysis allow the design assessment of Stirling engines. - Abstract: The Stirling engine is a closed-cycle regenerative system that presents good theoretical properties. These include a high thermodynamic efficiency, low emissions levels thanks to a controlled external heat source, and multi-fuel capability among others. However, the performance of actual prototypes largely differs from the mentioned theoretical potential. Actual engine prototypes present low electrical power outputs and high energy losses. These are mainly attributed to the complex interaction between the different components of the engine, and the challenging heat transfer and fluid dynamics requirements. Furthermore, the integration of the engine into decentralized energy systems such as the Combined Heat and Power systems (CHP) entails additional complications. These has increased the need for engineering tools that could assess design improvements, considering a broader range of parameters that would influence the engine performance when integrated within overall systems. Following this trend, the current work aimed to implement an analysis that could integrate the thermodynamics, and the thermal and mechanical interactions that influence the performance of kinematic Stirling engines. In particular for their use in Combined Heat and Power systems. The mentioned analysis was applied for the study of an engine prototype that presented very low experimental performance. The numerical methodology was selected for the identification of possible causes that limited the performance. This analysis is based on a second order Stirling engine model that was previously developed and validated. The

  8. The 23rd Stirling Physics Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    derived from a standard Tesla coil with a high-Q secondary. This is capable of delivering around a million volts, which produce fantastic lightning flashes. A volunteer from the audience was invited to enter a huge Faraday Cage which was then subjected to these high voltage sparks! For a while the door of the cage jammed but eventually the victim emerged unscathed! This is, of course, not just an entertainment. The Gusto show is taken into schools and targeted at lower secondary pupils about to make their subject choices. The team also gives large scale physics demonstration lectures and could play to 10 000 children in a month. So physics is fun and physics is relevant to everyday life! Support for physics teachers Lesley Glasser chaired the afternoon session, which she opened by introducing the Institute's Education Officer. The Stirling Meeting would not be the same without the `commercial slot' presented again so ably by Catherine Wilson. Physics teachers are an endangered species and the Institute is determined to do whatever it can to support them. Plans are afoot to make sure the Schools Lectures are modified, if necessary, to take account of the educational differences in Scotland. The London-based `Physics in Perspective' course not only introduces sixth-formers to some of the frontiers of physics but gives enough free time for them to visit places of interest in the city - from the Science Museum to Soho. `So they associate physics with enjoyment!' Another Scottish Update Course is planned for teachers, and a brand new glossy booklet, sent free to all schools, will show pupils that choosing physics is a `Smart Move'. Finally the Institute has just started a major post-16 curriculum project which will include a variety of support materials to keep teachers abreast of continuing developments in physics. Each year, IoP Teacher of Physics Awards are given to `outstanding teachers of physics who inspire others to continue with and enjoy their physics'. Ann Jarvie

  9. Recovery of Exhaust Waste Heat for ICE Using the Beta Type Stirling Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wail Aladayleh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the potential of utilizing the exhaust waste heat using an integrated mechanical device with internal combustion engine for the automobiles to increase the fuel economy, the useful power, and the environment safety. One of the ways of utilizing waste heat is to use a Stirling engine. A Stirling engine requires only an external heat source as wasted heat for its operation. Because the exhaust gas temperature may reach 200 to 700°C, Stirling engine will work effectively. The indication work, real shaft power and specific fuel consumption for Stirling engine, and the exhaust power losses for IC engine are calculated. The study shows the availability and possibility of recovery of the waste heat from internal combustion engine using Stirling engine.

  10. Results from tests of a Stirling engine and wood chips gasifier plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Henrik; Bovin, Jonas Kabell; Werling, J.

    2002-01-01

    The combination of thermal gasification and a Stirling engine is an interesting concept for use in small Combined Heat and Power (CHP) plants based on biomass, because the need for gas cleaning is eliminated and problems with fouling of the Stirling engine heater are considerably reduced....... Furthermore, the overall electric efficiency of the system can be improved. At the Technical University of Denmark a small CHP plant based on a Stirling engine and an updraft gasifier has been developed and tested successfully. The advantages of updraft gasifiers are the simplicity and that the amount...... of the Stirling engine reduces the problems with tar to a minor problem in the design of the burner. The Stirling engine, which has an electric power output of 35 kW, is specifically designed for utilisation of fuels with a content of particles. The gas burner for the engine is designed for low specific energy...

  11. Performance analysis on free-piston Stirling cryocooler based on an idealized mathematical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Y. X.; Chao, Y. J.; Gan, Z. H.; Li, S. Z.; Wang, B.

    2017-12-01

    Free-piston Stirling cryocoolers have extensive applications for its simplicity in structure and decrease in mass. However, the elimination of the motor and the crankshaft has made its thermodynamic characteristic different from that of Stirling cryocoolers with displacer driving mechanism. Therefore, an idealized mathematical model has been established, and with this model, an attempt has been made to analyse the thermodynamic characteristic and the performance of free-piston Stirling cryocooler. To certify this mathematical model, a comparison has been made between the model and a numerical model. This study reveals that due to the displacer damping force necessary for the production of cooling capacity, the free-piston Stirling cryocooler is inherently less efficient than Stirling cryocooler with displacer driving mechanism. Viscous flow resistance and incomplete heat transfer in the regenerator are the two major causes of the discrepancy between the results of the idealized mathematical model and the numerical model.

  12. A comparison of radioisotope Brayton and Stirling system for lunar surface mobile power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harty, R.B.

    1991-01-01

    A study was performed by the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell 2.5-kWe modular dynamic isotope power system (DIPS) using a Stirling power conversion system. The results of this study were compared with similar results performed under the DIPS program using a Brayton power conversion system. The study indicated that the Stirling power module has 20% lower mass and 40% lower radiator area than the Brayton module. However, the study also revealed that because the Stirling power module requires a complex heat pipe arrangment to transport heat from the isotope to the Stirling heater head and a pumped NaK heat rejection loop, the Stirling module is much more difficult to integrate with the isotope heat source and heat rejection system

  13. Innovative technologies for powder metallurgy-based disk superalloys: Progress and proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong-Lin, Jia; Chang-Chun, Ge; Qing-Zhi, Yan

    2016-02-01

    Powder metallurgy (PM) superalloys are an important class of high temperature structural materials, key to the rotating components of aero engines. In the purview of the present challenges associated with PM superalloys, two novel approaches namely, powder preparation and the innovative spray-forming technique (for making turbine disk) are proposed and studied. Subsequently, advanced technologies like electrode-induction-melting gas atomization (EIGA), and spark-plasma discharge spheroidization (SPDS) are introduced, for ceramic-free superalloy powders. Presently, new processing routes are sought after for preparing finer and cleaner raw powders for disk superalloys. The progress of research in spray-formed PM superalloys is first summarized in detail. The spray-formed superalloy disks specifically exhibit excellent mechanical properties. This paper reviews the recent progress in innovative technologies for PM superalloys, with an emphasis on new ideas and approaches, central to the innovation driving techniques like powder processing and spray forming. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 50974016 and 50071014).

  14. Microstructural and mechanical characterization of injection molded 718 superalloy powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Özgün, Özgür [Bingol University, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Mechanical Eng. Dep., 12000 Bingol (Turkey); Gülsoy, H. Özkan, E-mail: ogulsoy@marmara.edu.tr [Marmara University, Technology Faculty, Metallurgy and Materials Eng. Dep., 34722 Istanbul (Turkey); Yılmaz, Ramazan [Sakarya University, Technology Faculty, Metallurgy and Materials Eng. Dep., 54187 Sakarya (Turkey); Fındık, Fehim [Sakarya University, Technology Faculty, Metallurgy and Materials Eng. Dep., 54187 Sakarya (Turkey) and International University of Sarajevo, Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Department of Mechanical Engineering, 71000 Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnia and Herzegowina)

    2013-11-05

    Highlights: •Microstructural and mechanical properties of injection molded Nickel 718 superalloy were studied. •The maximum sintered density achieved this study was 97.3% at 1290 °C for 3 hours. •Tensile strength of 1022 MPa and elongation of 5.3% were achieved for sintered-heat treated samples. -- Abstract: This study concerns with the determination of optimum production parameters for injection molding 718 superalloy parts. And at the same time, microstructural and mechanical characterization of these produced parts was also carried out. At the initial stage, 718 superalloy powders were mixed with a multi-component binder system for preparing feedstock. Then the prepared feedstock was granulated and shaped by injection molding. Following this operation, the shaped samples were subjected to the debinding process. These samples were sintered at different temperatures for various times. Samples sintered under the condition that gave way to the highest relative density (3 h at 1290 °C) were solution treated and aged respectively. Sintered, solution treated and aged samples were separately subjected to microstructural and mechanical characterization. Microstructural characterization operations such as X-ray diffraction, optical microscope (OM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and elemental analysis showed that using polymeric binder system led to plentiful carbide precipitates to be occurred in the injection molded samples. It is also observed that the volume fractions of the intermetallic phases (γ′ and γ″) obtained by aging treatment were decreased due to the plentiful carbide precipitation in the samples. Mechanical characterization was performed by hardness measurements and tensile tests.

  15. Hot deformation behavior of delta-processed superalloy 718

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y., E-mail: wangyanhit@yahoo.cn [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Shao, W.Z.; Zhen, L.; Zhang, B.Y. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2011-03-25

    Research highlights: {yields} The peak stress for hot deformation can be described by the Z parameter. {yields} The grain size of DRX was inversely proportional to the Z parameter. {yields} The dissolution of {delta} phases was greatly accelerated under hot deformation. {yields}The {delta} phase stimulated nucleation can serve as the main DRX mechanism. - Abstract: Flow stress behavior and microstructures during hot compression of delta-processed superalloy 718 at temperatures from 950 to 1100 deg. C with strain rates of 10{sup -3} to 1 s{sup -1} were investigated by optical microscopy (OM), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The relationship between the peak stress and the deformation conditions can be expressed by a hyperbolic-sine type equation. The activation energy for the delta-processed superalloy 718 is determined to be 467 kJ/mol. The change of the dominant deformation mechanisms leads to the decrease of stress exponent and the increase of activation energy with increasing temperature. The dynamically recrystallized grain size is inversely proportional to the Zener-Hollomon (Z) parameter. It is found that the dissolution rate of {delta} phases under hot deformation conditions is much faster than that under static conditions. Dislocation, vacancy and curvature play important roles in the dissolution of {delta} phases. The main nucleation mechanisms of dynamic recrystallization (DRX) for the delta-processed superalloy 718 include the bulging of original grain boundaries and the {delta} phase stimulated DRX nucleation, which is closely related to the dissolution behavior of {delta} phases under certain deformation conditions.

  16. Study of the oxidation kinetics of the MA 956 superalloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Alonso, M.C.; Gonzalez-Carrasco, J.L.; Escudero, M.L.

    1998-01-01

    This work deals with the oxidation kinetics of the MA 956 superalloy in the temperature range of 800-1,200 degree centigree for up to 200 h exposure. During oxidation the alloy develops a fine, compact and very well adhered α-alumina layer, the thickness of which increases with increasing time and temperature. The oxidation kinetics obeys a sub parabolic type behaviour. The scale growth seems to occur by two different oxidation mechanisms; above 1,050 degree centigree, the oxidation process would be controlled by α-alumina, and below 900 degree centigree by γ-alumina. (Author) 17 refs

  17. Oxidation behavior and compositional analysis of aluminized superalloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, F.A.; Nawaz, F.

    2003-01-01

    The high temperature oxidation behavior of superalloy specimens used for the manufacture of turbine blades has been examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fine-probe spot and line scan EDS microanalysis techniques. The performance of aluminized coating applied to the specimens has also been examined. It was observed that complex oxides are formed in both coated and uncoated specimens. However the coated specimens revealed a greater stability of gamma phase and integrity of aluminized coating as compared with uncoated specimens. The microchemical and microstructural changes that occurred during oxidation have been analyzed to examine characteristics of oxide layers. (author)

  18. Microstructural causes of negative creep in cast superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, G.

    1990-01-01

    The dissertation examines by means of microstructural investigations and modelling calculations two types of superalloys: the nickel-base cast alloy IN 738 LC (γ'-hardened, containing MC and M 23 C 6 carbides), and the cobalt-base cast alloy FSX 414 (containing M 23 C 6 carbides, solid solution-hardened). The task was to determine the causes of microstructural volume contraction, in order to improve and facilitate explanation and extrapolation of the materials' long-term behaviour at high temperatures, and to derive if possible information on appropriate measures preventing negative creep, which may lead to critical damage of bolted joints, for instance. (orig./MM) [de

  19. High temperature deformation mechanisms of L12-containing Co-based superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, Michael Shaw

    Ni-based superalloys have been used as the structural material of choice for high temperature applications in gas turbine engines since the 1940s, but their operating temperature is becoming limited by their melting temperature (Tm =1300degrees C). Despite decades of research, no viable alternatives to Ni-based superalloys have been discovered and developed. However, in 2006, a ternary gamma' phase was discovered in the Co-Al-W system that enabled a new class of Co-based superalloys to be developed. These new Co-based superalloys possess a gamma-gamma' microstructure that is nearly identical to Ni-based superalloys, which enables these superalloys to achieve extraordinary high temperature mechanical properties. Furthermore, Co-based alloys possess the added benefit of exhibiting a melting temperature of at least 100degrees C higher than commercial Ni-based superalloys. Superalloys used as the structural materials in high pressure turbine blades must withstand large thermomechanical stresses imparted from the rotating disk and hot, corrosive gases present. These stresses induce time-dependent plastic deformation, which is commonly known as creep, and new superalloys must possess adequate creep resistance over a broad range of temperature in order to be used as the structural materials for high pressure turbine blades. For these reasons, this research focuses on quantifying high temperature creep properties of new gamma'-containing Co-based superalloys and identifying the high temperature creep deformation mechanisms. The high temperature creep properties of new Co- and CoNi-based alloys were found to be comparable to Ni-based superalloys with respect to minimum creep rates and creep-rupture lives at 900degrees C up to the solvus temperature of the gamma' phase. Co-based alloys exhibited a propensity for extended superlattice stacking fault formation in the gamma' precipitates resulting from dislocation shearing events. When Ni was added to the Co-based compositions

  20. Precipitate microstructure evolution in exposed IN738LC superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strunz, Pavel, E-mail: strunz@ujf.cas.cz [Nuclear Physics Institute ASCR, CZ-25068 Řež near Prague (Czech Republic); Petrenec, Martin [Institute of Physics of Materials of the AS CR, Brno (Czech Republic); Gasser, Urs [Laboratory for Neutron Scattering, PSI, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Tobiáš, Jiří; Polák, Jaroslav [Institute of Physics of Materials of the AS CR, Brno (Czech Republic); Šaroun, Jan [Nuclear Physics Institute ASCR, CZ-25068 Řež near Prague (Czech Republic)

    2014-03-15

    Highlights: • Evolution of γ′-phase morphology in IN738LC Ni-base superalloy was examined by SANS. • In situ tests at high temperatures revealed trimodal precipitate distribution. • Formation, dissolution and (slow) kinetics of small γ′ precipitates was determined. • Equilibrium volume fraction of γ′ phase is significantly higher than 45%. • The small γ′ precipitates arise regardless the application of the mechanical load. -- Abstract: Nickel base superalloy IN738LC has been studied after low-cycle fatigue by Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS). Samples subjected to high-temperature low-cycle fatigue were annealed at various temperatures to change the size and the distribution of precipitates. Ex and in situ SANS and TEM studies were performed. It was found that additional precipitates are formed either during slow cooling from high temperatures or after reheating above 570 °C. Their size and distribution were evaluated. The precipitates arise regardless the application of the mechanical load. Nevertheless, these small precipitates influence low-cycle fatigue resistance. From the SANS data, it can be also deduced that the equilibrium volume fraction of γ′-precipitates at temperatures from room temperature to 825 °C is significantly higher than 45%. The kinetics of formation of small and medium-size γ′ precipitates at 700 and 800 °C was determined as well.

  1. Effects of cobalt in nickel-base superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tien, J. K.; Jarrett, R. N.

    1983-01-01

    The role of cobalt in a representative wrought nickel-base superalloy was determined. The results show cobalt affecting the solubility of elements in the gamma matrix, resulting in enhanced gamma' volume fraction, in the stabilization of MC-type carbides, and in the stabilization of sigma phase. In the particular alloy studied, these microstructural and microchemistry changes are insufficient in extent to impact on tensile strength, yield strength, and in the ductilities. Depending on the heat treatment, creep and stress rupture resistance can be cobalt sensitive. In the coarse grain, fully solutioned and aged condition, all of the alloy's 17% cobalt can be replaced by nickel without deleteriously affecting this resistance. In the fine grain, partially solutioned and aged condition, this resistance is deleteriously affected only when one-half or more of the initial cobalt content is removed. The structure and property results are discussed with respect to existing theories and with respect to other recent and earlier findings on the impact of cobalt, if any, on the performance of nickel-base superalloys.

  2. Failure mechanisms of superhard materials when cutting superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Focke, A.E.; Westermann, F.E.; Ermi, A.; Yavelak, J.; Hoch, M.

    1975-01-01

    The present research studies the reasons for the failure of tungsten carbide tools while cutting superalloys. There is a continuous layer of the superalloy in the bottom of the crater which from time to time is torn away locally, taking tungsten carbide crystal with it. Under recommended cutting conditions a plateau (unworn cutting surface) separates the crater from the cutting edge of the tool when cutting AISI 4340. This plateau is totally absent in all cutting of Inconel 718, even in short, two-minute tests. The crater intersects the cutting edge--only a thin wedge of carbide is left which either breaks off or deforms and wears very rapidly. Temperature measurements carried out by use of an infrared detector aimed on the corner of the tungsten carbide indicate at recommended speeds a sharp rise of the temperature at the beginning of the cutting operation, then a steady-state very slow increase as the cutting continues, and finally just before tool failure a very rapid increase in the temperature again. Scanning and replica electron microscopy through the crater and flank face shows that both under the crater and in the back of the cutting edge a fairly deep layer of ''disturbed metal'' exists in which the tungsten carbide grains are much smaller and have much more rounded edges than in the original material. 10 figures, 4 tables

  3. Microstrain evolution during creep of a high volume fraction superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, S. [Materials Department, New Mexico Tech, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Brown, D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bourke, M.A.M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Daymond, M.R. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, ISIS Facility, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Majumdar, B.S. [Materials Department, New Mexico Tech, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States)]. E-mail: majumdar@nmt.edu

    2005-06-15

    The creep of superalloys containing a high volume fraction of {gamma}' phase is significantly influenced by initial misfit and by the evolution of internal stresses. An in situ neutron diffraction technique was used to monitor elastic microstrains in a polycrystalline superalloy, CM247 LC. The misfit was nearly zero at room temperature and it increased to -0.17% at 900 deg. C. These values are rationalized in terms of thermal mismatch using an eigenstrain formulation and a simple formula is derived to relate the thermal mismatch to the misfit strain. During creep at 425 MPa at 900 deg. C, the material exhibited primarily tertiary behavior. For grains with [0 0 1] axis close to the loading direction, the elastic microstrain in the loading direction increased with creep time for the {gamma}' phase, whereas the opposite occurred for the {gamma} phase. These results are explained in terms of constrained deformation in the narrow {gamma} channels and by an interface dislocation buildup. TEM analysis of the crept microstructure provides evidence of the interface dislocation network.

  4. Design of stirling engine operating at low temperature difference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedlák Josef

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many sources of free energy available in the form of heat that is often simply wasted. The aim of this paper is to design and build a low temperature differential Stirling engine that would be powered exclusively from heat sources such as waste hot water or focused solar rays. A prototype is limited to a low temperature differential modification because of a choice of ABSplus plastic as a construction material for its key parts. The paper is divided into two parts. The first part covers a brief history of Stirling engine and its applications nowadays. Moreover, it describes basic principles of its operation that are supplemented by thermodynamic relations. Furthermore, an analysis of applied Fused Deposition Modelling has been done since the parts with more complex geometry had been manufactured using this additive technology. The second (experimental part covers 4 essential steps of a rapid prototyping method - Computer Aided Design of the 3D model of Stirling engine using parametric modeller Autodesk Inventor, production of its components using 3D printer uPrint, assembly and final testing. Special attention was devoted to last two steps of the process since the surfaces of the printed parts were sandpapered and sprayed. Parts, where an ABS plus plastic would have impeded the correct function, had been manufactured from aluminium and brass by cutting operations. Remaining parts had been bought in a hardware store as it would be uneconomical and unreasonable to manufacture them. Last two chapters of the paper describe final testing, mention the problems that appeared during its production and propose new approaches that could be used in the future to improve the project.

  5. Test results and commercialization plans for long life Stirling generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erbeznik, R.M.; White, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    Many optimistic predictions regarding commercialization of Stirling engines have been announced over the years, but to date no real successes have emerged. STC is excited to announce the availability of beta prototypes for its RemoteGen trademark family of free-piston Stirling generators. STC is working with suppliers, manufacturers, and beta customers to commercialize the RemoteGen family of generators. STC is proving that these machines overcome previously inhibiting barriers by providing long life, high reliability, cost effective mass production, and market relevance. Stirling power generators are generally acknowledged to offer much higher conversion efficiencies than direct energy conversion systems. Life and reliability, on the other hand, are generally considered superior for direct conversion systems, as established by the exceptional endurance records (though with degradation) for thermoelectric (TE) and photovoltaic (PV) systems. STC's unique approaches combine dynamic system efficiency with static system reliability. The RemoteGen family presently includes a 10-watt RG-10, a 350-watt RG-350, and with 1-kW and 3-kW sizes planned for the future. They all use the same basic configuration with flexure bearings, clearance seals, and moving iron linear alternators. The third generation RG-10 has entered limited production with a radioisotope-fueled version, and a niche market for a propane-fueled version has been identified. Market analysis has led STC to focus on early commercial production of the RG-350. The linear alternator power module portion of the RG-350 is also used in its sister BeCool trademark family of coolers as the linear motor. By using a common power module, both programs will benefit by each other's commercialization efforts. The technology behind the RemoteGen generators, test results, and plans for commercialization are described in this paper

  6. Third generation development of an 11-watt Stirling converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, W.L.; Ross, B.A.; Penswick, L.B.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes recent design enhancements, performance results, and development of an artificial neural network (ANN) model related to the Radioisotope Stirling Generator (RSG), an 11-watt converter designed for remote power applications. Design enhancements include minor changes to improve performance, increase reliability, facilitate fabrication and assembly for limited production, and reduce mass. Innovative modifications were effected to increase performance and improve reliability of the vacuum foil insulation (VFI) package and linear alternator. High and low operating temperature acceptance testing of the Engineering Model (EM) demonstrated the robust system characteristics. These tests were conducted for 1 week of operation each, with rejector temperatures of 95 C and 20 C, respectively. Endurance testing continues for a complete Stirling converter, the Development Model (DM), with over 25,000 hours of maintenance-free operation. Endurance testing of flexures has attained over 540 flexure-years and endurance testing of linear motors/alternators has achieved nearly 27,000 hours of operation without failure. An ANN model was developed and tested successfully on the DM. Rejection temperatures were varied between 3 C and 75 C while load voltages ranged between engine stall and displacer overstroke. The trained ANN model, based solely on externally measured parameters, predicted values of piston amplitude, displacer amplitude, and piston-displacer phase angle within ±2% of the measured values over the entire operating regime. The ANN model demonstrated its effectiveness in the long-term evaluation of free-piston Stirling machines without adding the complexity, reduced reliability, and increased cost of sophisticated diagnostic instrumentation

  7. Stirling converters for space dynamic power concepts with 2 to 130 We output

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, B.A.

    1995-01-01

    Three innovative Stirling converter concepts are described. Two concepts are based on Pluto Fast Flyby (PFF) mission requirements, where two General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules provide the thermal input. The first concept (PFF2) considers a power system with two opposed Stirling converters; the second concept (PFF4) considers four opposed Stirling converters. For both concepts the Stirling converters are designed to vary their power production capability to compensate for the failure of one Stirling converter. While the net thermal efficiency of PFF4 is a few percentage points lower than PFF2, the total Stirling converter mass of PFF4 is half that for PFF2. The third concept (ITTI) is designed to supply 2 watts of power for weather stations on the Martian surface. The predicted thermal performance of the ITTI is low compared to PFF2 and PFF4, yet the ITTI concept offers significant advantages compared to currently available power systems at the 2-watt power level. All three concepts are based on long-life technology demonstrated by an 11-watt output Stirling generator that as of March 1995 has accumulated over 15,000 operating hours without maintenance

  8. Thermodynamic design of Stirling engine using multi-objective particle swarm optimization algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan, Chen; Wang, Xinggang; Shu, Shuiming; Jing, Changwei; Chang, Huawei

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An improved thermodynamic model taking into account irreversibility parameter was developed. • A multi-objective optimization method for designing Stirling engine was investigated. • Multi-objective particle swarm optimization algorithm was adopted in the area of Stirling engine for the first time. - Abstract: In the recent years, the interest in Stirling engine has remarkably increased due to its ability to use any heat source from outside including solar energy, fossil fuels and biomass. A large number of studies have been done on Stirling cycle analysis. In the present study, a mathematical model based on thermodynamic analysis of Stirling engine considering regenerative losses and internal irreversibilities has been developed. Power output, thermal efficiency and the cycle irreversibility parameter of Stirling engine are optimized simultaneously using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm, which is more effective than traditional genetic algorithms. In this optimization problem, some important parameters of Stirling engine are considered as decision variables, such as temperatures of the working fluid both in the high temperature isothermal process and in the low temperature isothermal process, dead volume ratios of each heat exchanger, volumes of each working spaces, effectiveness of the regenerator, and the system charge pressure. The Pareto optimal frontier is obtained and the final design solution has been selected by Linear Programming Technique for Multidimensional Analysis of Preference (LINMAP). Results show that the proposed multi-objective optimization approach can significantly outperform traditional single objective approaches

  9. β Style Free-Piston Stirling Engine Control System Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For the Free-Piston Stirling Engines (FPSE control system, a three -phase bridge circuit is reused as the system output about rectifier and start inverter. When FPSE system is in the power stage, the double closed loop control strategy and optimization algorithm of PI control parameters is adopted to ensure the highest system transmission efficiency under the requirements of the system output power and guarantee the stability of the running system. The simulation results prove the effectiveness of the above research content.

  10. Stochastic Stirling Engine Operating in Contact with Active Baths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Zakine

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A Stirling engine made of a colloidal particle in contact with a nonequilibrium bath is considered and analyzed with the tools of stochastic energetics. We model the bath by non Gaussian persistent noise acting on the colloidal particle. Depending on the chosen definition of an isothermal transformation in this nonequilibrium setting, we find that either the energetics of the engine parallels that of its equilibrium counterpart or, in the simplest case, that it ends up being less efficient. Persistence, more than non-Gaussian effects, are responsible for this result.

  11. Stochastic Stirling Engine Operating in Contact with Active Baths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakine, Ruben; Solon, Alexandre; Gingrich, Todd; van Wijland, Frédéric

    2017-04-01

    A Stirling engine made of a colloidal particle in contact with a nonequilibrium bath is considered and analyzed with the tools of stochastic energetics. We model the bath by non Gaussian persistent noise acting on the colloidal particle. Depending on the chosen definition of an isothermal transformation in this nonequilibrium setting, we find that either the energetics of the engine parallels that of its equilibrium counterpart or, in the simplest case, that it ends up being less efficient. Persistence, more than non Gaussian effects, are responsible for this result.

  12. NASA/DOE automotive Stirling engine project: Overview 1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beremand, D. G.; Shaltens, R. K.

    1986-01-01

    The DOE/NASA Automotive Stirling Engine Project is reviewed and its technical progress and status are presented. Key technologies in materials, seals, and piston rings are progressing well. Seven first-generation engines, and modifications thereto, have accumulated over 15,000 hr of test time, including 1100hr of in-vehicle testing. Results indicate good progress toward the program goals. The first second-generation engine is now undergoing initial testing. It is expected that the program goal of a 30-percent improvement in fuel economy will be achieved in tests of a second-generation engine in a Celebrity vehicle.

  13. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF AN AIR CHARGED LOW POWERED STIRLING ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can ÇINAR

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an air charged, low powered manufactured ? type Stirling engine was investigated experimentally. Tests were conducted at 800, 900 and 1000 °C hot source temperatures, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5 bars air charge pressure. The variation of engine power depending on the charge pressure and hot source temperature for two different heat transfer area was investigated experimentally. Maximum output power was obtained at 1000 °C and 3 bars charge pressure as 58 W at 441 rpm. Engine speed was reached at 846 rpm without load.

  14. Development of a Thermoacoustic Stirling Engine Technology Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reissner, Alexander; Gerger, Joachim; Hummel, Stefan; Reißig, Jannis; Pawelke, Roland

    2014-08-01

    Waste heat is a primary source of energy loss in many aerospace and terrestrial applications. FOTEC, an Austrian Research Company located in Wiener Neustadt, is presently developing a micro power converter, promising high efficiencies even for small- scale applications. The converter is based on an innovative thermoacoustic stirling engine concept without any moving parts. Such a maintenance-free engine system would be particularly suitable for advanced space power systems (radioisotope, waste heat) or even within the scope of terrestrial energy harvesting. This paper will summarizes the status of our ongoing efforts on this micro power converter technology.

  15. Integral finned heater and cooler for stirling engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, John A.

    1984-01-01

    A piston and cylinder for a Stirling engine and the like having top and bottom meshing or nesting finned conical surfaces to provide large surface areas in close proximity to the working gas for good thermal (addition and subtraction of heat) exchange to the working gas and elimination of the usual heater and cooler dead volume. The piston fins at the hot end of the cylinder are perforated to permit the gas to pass into the piston interior and through a regenerator contained therein.

  16. Development and validation of the Stirling Eating Disorder Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, G J; Power, K G; Miller, H R; Freeman, C P; Yellowlees, A; Dowds, T; Walker, M; Parry-Jones, W L

    1994-07-01

    The development and reliability/validity check of an 80-item, 8-scale measure for use with eating disorder patients is presented. The Stirling Eating Disorder Scales (SEDS) assess anorexic dietary behavior, anorexic dietary cognitions, bulimic dietary behavior, bulimic dietary cognitions, high perceived external control, low assertiveness, low self-esteem, and self-directed hostility. The SEDS were administered to 82 eating disorder patients and 85 controls. Results indicate that the SEDS are acceptable in terms of internal consistency, reliability, group validity, and concurrent validity.

  17. Parametric System Model for a Stirling Radioisotope Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    A Parametric System Model (PSM) was created in order to explore conceptual designs, the impact of component changes and power level on the performance of the Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG). Using the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS approximately 250 Wth) modules as the thermal building block from which a SRG is conceptualized, trade studies are performed to understand the importance of individual component scaling on isotope usage. Mathematical relationships based on heat and power throughput, temperature, mass, and volume were developed for each of the required subsystems. The PSM uses these relationships to perform component- and system-level trades.

  18. Free-Piston Stirling Machine for Extreme Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, James Gary (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A free piston Stirling machine including a thermal buffer tube extending from the machine's expansion space and surrounded by its heat rejector and its regenerator, a displacer cylinder extending from the thermal buffer tube to the compression space and surrounded by the heat rejecting heat exchanger, and a displacer that reciprocates within an excursion limit that extends into the regenerator by no more than 20% of the length of the regenerator during normal operation and preferably within excursion limits that are substantially the length of the heat rejector.

  19. Inhibition delay increases neural network capacity through Stirling transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogaret, Alain; King, Alastair

    2018-03-01

    Inhibitory neural networks are found to encode high volumes of information through delayed inhibition. We show that inhibition delay increases storage capacity through a Stirling transform of the minimum capacity which stabilizes locally coherent oscillations. We obtain both the exact and asymptotic formulas for the total number of dynamic attractors. Our results predict a (ln2) -N-fold increase in capacity for an N -neuron network and demonstrate high-density associative memories which host a maximum number of oscillations in analog neural devices.

  20. A nonproprietary, nonsecret program for calculating Stirling cryocoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, W. R.

    1985-01-01

    A design program for an integrated Stirling cycle cryocooler was written on an IBM-PC computer. The program is easy to use and shows the trends and itemizes the losses. The calculated results were compared with some measured performance values. The program predicts somewhat optimistic performance and needs to be calibrated more with experimental measurements. Adding a multiplier to the friction factor can bring the calculated rsults in line with the limited test results so far available. The program is offered as a good framework on which to build a truly useful design program for all types of cryocoolers.

  1. Creep properties of heat-resistant superalloys for nuclear plants in helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Shigeki; Satoh, Keisuke; Honda, Yoshio; Matsuda, Shozo; Murase, Hirokazu

    1979-01-01

    Creep properties of candidate superalloys for VHTR components in a helium environment at both temperatures of 800 0 C and 900 0 C were compared with those of the same alloys in the atmospheric condition, and the superalloys were contrasted with each other from the viewpoint of high temperature structural design. At 800 0 C, no significant effect of a helium environment on creep properties of the superalloys is observed. At 900 0 C, however, creep strength of Inconel 617, Incoloy 800 and Incoloy 807 in the helium environment decrease more than in the atmospheric environment. In Hastelloy X and Inconel 625, there is no significant difference between creep strengths in helium and those in the atmospheric condition. Concerning So and St values in helium at 900 0 C, Inconel 617 and Hastelloy X are clearly superior to other superalloys. (author)

  2. Advanced Scale Bridging Microstructure Analysis of Single Crystal Ni-Base Superalloys

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Parsa, A. B.; Wollgramm, P.; Buck, H.; Somsen, C.; Kostka, A.; Povstugar, I.; Choi, P.-P.; Raabe, D.; Dlouhý, Antonín; Müller, J.; Spiecker, E.; Demtroder, K.; Schreuer, J.; Neuking, K.; Eggeler, G.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 2 (2015), s. 216-230 ISSN 1438-1656 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : High temperature materials * Nickel based superalloys * EPMA * HRTEM Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 1.817, year: 2015

  3. High Temperature Degradation of Powder-processed Ni-based Superalloy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Luptáková, Natália; Pizúrová, Naděžda; Roupcová, Pavla; Dymáček, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 2 (2015), s. 85-94 ISSN 1335-0803 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : powder materials * polycrystalline Ni-based superalloy * creep machine grips * oxidation Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy

  4. High temperature properties of polycrystalline γ"'-strengthened cobalt-base superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The recent discovery of a stable γ"'-phase in Co-based superalloys opened up a pathway for the development of a new high temperature material class, which is similar in microstructure and properties to the modern γ"'-hardened Ni-based superalloys. In this work, the first attempt was done to check the influence of several for Ni-based superalloys typical alloying elements on the properties of the new Co-based superalloys. It became clear that the basic characteristics of the first experimental alloys are similar to those of the γ"'-hardened Ni-based alloys. The results of the multinary experimental alloys show that, based on the insight gained so far, targeted alloy development is possible. These materials have the potential to be used as disc materials in turbines.

  5. Nickel-base superalloy powder metallurgy: state-of-the-art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, M.M.; Athey, R.L.; Moore, J.B.

    1975-01-01

    Development of powder metallurgical methods for fabrication of Ni-base superalloy turbine engine disks is reviewed. Background studies are summarized and current state-of-art is discussed for the F100 jet engine, advanced applications, and forging processes

  6. Recovery of creep properties of the nickel-base superalloy nimonic 105

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Girdwood, RB

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Uniaxial constant stress creep tests were performed on the wrought nickel-base superalloy Nimonic 105. Entire creep curves were recorded and curve shapes analysed using the Theta Projection Concept. Rejuventive procedures were applied to pre...

  7. Microstructural studies of carbides in MAR-M247 nickel-based superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczotok, A.; Rodak, K.

    2012-05-01

    Carbides play an important role in the strengthening of microstructures of nickel-based superalloys. Grain boundary carbides prevent or retard grain-boundary sliding and make the grain boundary stronger. Carbides can also tie up certain elements that would otherwise promote phase instability during service. Various types of carbides are possible in the microstructure of nickel-based superalloys, depending on the superalloy composition and processing. In this paper, scanning electron and scanning transmission electron microscopy studies of carbides occurring in the microstructure of polycrystalline MAR-M247 nickel-based superalloy were carried out. In the present work, MC and M23C6 carbides in the MAR-M247 microstructure were examined.

  8. Biomass gasification integrated with a solid oxide fuel cell and Stirling engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    An integrated gasification solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and Stirling engine for combined heat and power application is analyzed. The target for electricity production is 120 kW. Woodchips are used as gasification feedstock to produce syngas, which is then used to feed the SOFC stacks...... for electricity production. Unreacted hydrocarbons remaining after the SOFC are burned in a catalytic burner, and the hot off-gases from the burner are recovered in a Stirling engine for electricity and heat production. Domestic hot water is used as a heat sink for the Stirling engine. A complete balance...

  9. Study of Stirling Engine Efficiency Coefficient under Conditions Being Close to Real Ones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Abramian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An absolute internal efficiency coefficient of the Stirling engine has been obtained without regenerator and with regenerator under conditions when van der Waals gas serves as a working medium. The paper reveals that while taking into account own volume of molecules thermal efficiency coefficient of the Stirling engine depends on mole number of the working medium  and it is slightly increasing  in comparison with the case of an ideal gas. The paper gives consideration to heat losses while the Stirling machine operates with heat regeneration. Dependence of regeneration rate on time of heat transfer has been obtained in the paper. 

  10. A simple method of calculating Stirling engines for engine design optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, W. R.

    1978-01-01

    A calculation method is presented for a rhombic drive Stirling engine with a tubular heater and cooler and a screen type regenerator. Generally the equations presented describe power generation and consumption and heat losses. It is the simplest type of analysis that takes into account the conflicting requirements inherent in Stirling engine design. The method itemizes the power and heat losses for intelligent engine optimization. The results of engine analysis of the GPU-3 Stirling engine are compared with more complicated engine analysis and with engine measurements.

  11. Analysis of Effective and Internal Cyclic Stress Components in the Inconel Superalloy Fatigued at Elevated Temperature

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šmíd, Miroslav; Petrenec, Martin; Polák, Jaroslav; Obrtlík, Karel; Chlupová, Alice

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 278, 4 July (2011), s. 393-398 ISSN 1022-6680. [European Symposium on Superalloys and their Application. Wildbad Kreuth, 25.5.2010-28.5.2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/08/1631 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : low cycle fatigue * superalloys * high temperature * hysteresis loop * effective and internal stresses Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics; JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics (UFM-A)

  12. Design of high entropy alloys based on the experience from commercial superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z.; Huang, Y.; Wang, J.; Liu, C. T.

    2015-01-01

    High entropy alloys (HEAs) have been drawing increasing attention recently and gratifying results have been obtained. However, the existing metallurgic rules of HEAs could not provide specific information of selecting candidate alloys for structural applications. Our brief survey reveals that many commercial superalloys have medium and even to high configurational entropies. The experience of commercial superalloys provides a clue for helping us in the development of HEAs for structural applications.

  13. Effects of cutting parameters on machinability characteristics of Ni-based superalloys: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaya Eren

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nickel based superalloys offer high strength, corrosion resistance, thermal stability and superb thermal fatigue properties. However, they have been one of the most difficult materials to machine due to these properties. Although we are witnessing improved machining strategies with the developing machining, tooling and inspection technologies, machining of nickel based superalloys is still a challenging task due to in-process strains and post process part quality demands.

  14. Predicting the morphologies of {\\gamma}' precipitates in cobalt-based superalloys

    OpenAIRE

    Jokisaari, Andrea M.; Naghavi, Shahab S.; Wolverton, Chris; Voorhees, Peter W.; Heinonen, Olle G.

    2017-01-01

    Cobalt-based alloys with {\\gamma}/{\\gamma}' microstructures have the potential to become the next generation of superalloys, but alloy compositions and processing steps must be optimized to improve coarsening, creep, and rafting behavior. While these behaviors are different than in nickel-based superalloys, alloy development can be accelerated by understanding the thermodynamic factors influencing microstructure evolution. In this work, we develop a phase field model informed by first-princip...

  15. Welding and Weldability of Directionally Solidified Single Crystal Nickel-Base Superalloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitek, J M; David, S A; Reed, R W; Burke, M A; Fitzgerald, T J

    1997-09-01

    Nickel-base superalloys are used extensively in high-temperature service applications, and in particular, in components of turbine engines. To improve high-temperature creep properties, these alloys are often used in the directionally-solidified or single-crystal form. The objective of this CRADA project was to investigate the weldability of both experimental and commercial nickel-base superalloys in polycrystalline, directionally-solidified, and single-crystal forms.

  16. Análisis de irreversibilidades en el comportamiento de un motor Stirling // Analysis of irreversibilities on performance of a Stirling engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José González-Bayón

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio es determinar el efecto de las irreversibilidades (internas y externasdebidas a la transferencia de calor y las pérdidas de presión debidas a la fricción sobre elrendimiento de Segunda Ley de un motor Stirling de tipo considerando el volumen muerto. Elmotor Stirling es analizado usando un modelo matemático basado en las leyes de la termodinámicapara procesos con una velocidad finita. Se asume un modelo isotérmico de motor con volúmenes deespacio muerto en la zona caliente, zona fría y en el regenerador. Los resultados obtenidos muestranque a pesar de que teóricamente el motor Stirling posee un rendimiento igual al de Carnot, en lapráctica su rendimiento puede ser de 2 a 5 veces menor que éste, dependiendo de la eficiencia delregenerador, del volumen muerto, de la diferencia de temperatura entre fluido y focos térmicos y delas rpm a que se opere el motor.Palabras claves: motor Stirling, motor térmico regenerativo, análisis de irreversibilidades.____________________________________________________________________AbstractThe study aims to determine the effect of the internal and external irreversibilities caused by heattransfer and pressure losses due to friction on the Second Law performance of a Stirling engine tipewith death volume include. The Stirling engine is analyzed using a mathematical model based onthe laws of thermodynamics for processes with finite speed. It is assumed an isothermic model of themotor with death volume on hot zone, cold zone and regenerator. The results of this study show thatthe real cycle efficiency of the Sirling engine is approximately 2 to 5 times minor than the efficiency ofCarnot cycle as function of the regenerator efficiency, death volume, temperature difference betweenfluid and termic source and motor speed.Key words: stirling engine, regenerative heat engine, irreversibilities analysis.

  17. The Effect of Forging Variables on the Supersolvus Heat-Treatment Response of Powder-Metallurgy Nickel-Base Superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2015-0160 THE EFFECT OF FORGING VARIABLES ON THE SUPERSOLVUS HEAT-TREATMENT RESPONSE OF POWDER - METALLURGY NICKEL-BASE SUPERALLOYS... POWDER - METALLURGY NICKEL- BASE SUPERALLOYS (POSTPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-house 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62102F 6. AUTHOR...treatment (SSHT) of two powder - metallurgy , gamma–gamma prime superalloys, IN-100 and LSHR, was established. For this purpose, isothermal, hot

  18. Development of mini linac-based positron source and an efficient positronium convertor for positively charged antihydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muranaka, T.; Debu, P.; Dupré, P.; Liszkay, L.; Mansoulie, B.; Pérez, P.; Rey, J. M.; Ruiz, N.; Sacquin, Y.; Crivelli, P.; Gendotti, U.; Rubbia, A.

    2010-04-01

    We have installed in Saclay a facility for an intense positron source in November 2008. It is based on a compact 5.5 MeV electron linac connected to a reaction chamber with a tungsten target inside to produce positrons via pair production. The expected production rate for fast positrons is 5·1011 per second. The study of moderation of fast positrons and the construction of a slow positron trap are underway. In parallel, we have investigated an efficient positron-positronium convertor using porous silica materials. These studies are parts of a project to produce positively charged antihydrogen ions aiming to demonstrate the feasibility of a free fall antigravity measurement of neutral antihydrogen.

  19. Development of mini linac-based positron source and an efficient positronium convertor for positively charged antihydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muranaka, T; Debu, P; Dupre, P; Liszkay, L; Mansoulie, B; Perez, P; Rey, J M; Ruiz, N; Sacquin, Y; Crivelli, P; Gendotti, U; Rubbia, A

    2010-01-01

    We have installed in Saclay a facility for an intense positron source in November 2008. It is based on a compact 5.5 MeV electron linac connected to a reaction chamber with a tungsten target inside to produce positrons via pair production. The expected production rate for fast positrons is 5·10 11 per second. The study of moderation of fast positrons and the construction of a slow positron trap are underway. In parallel, we have investigated an efficient positron-positronium convertor using porous silica materials. These studies are parts of a project to produce positively charged antihydrogen ions aiming to demonstrate the feasibility of a free fall antigravity measurement of neutral antihydrogen.

  20. Development of mini linac-based positron source and an efficient positronium convertor for positively charged antihydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muranaka, T; Debu, P; Dupre, P; Liszkay, L; Mansoulie, B; Perez, P; Rey, J M; Ruiz, N; Sacquin, Y [Irfu, CEA-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Crivelli, P; Gendotti, U; Rubbia, A, E-mail: tomoko.muranaka@cea.f [Institut fuer TelichenPhysik, ETHZ, CH-8093 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2010-04-01

    We have installed in Saclay a facility for an intense positron source in November 2008. It is based on a compact 5.5 MeV electron linac connected to a reaction chamber with a tungsten target inside to produce positrons via pair production. The expected production rate for fast positrons is 5{center_dot}10{sup 11} per second. The study of moderation of fast positrons and the construction of a slow positron trap are underway. In parallel, we have investigated an efficient positron-positronium convertor using porous silica materials. These studies are parts of a project to produce positively charged antihydrogen ions aiming to demonstrate the feasibility of a free fall antigravity measurement of neutral antihydrogen.

  1. Determining the Status of Organizational Agility Capabilities in complementary and convertor Agricultural Industries using the Fuzzy Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Manufacturing industries of agricultural products, which constitute a considerable part of different countries’ economies, are seeking new profitable opportunities by increasing competition at the international level. Organizational agility is new method and philosophy of production that seeks to react effectively to the variable and unpredictable environment and to utilize the changes as chances for organizational progress and profitability. In this regard, the present research aims to survey the capabilities of organizational agility in complementary and convertor agricultural industries. For this purpose, based on organizational agility literature, four variables- responsiveness, competency, flexibility, and quickness- were examined as the agility capabilities. The research method was descriptive, and the statistical population included 142 managers of Agricultural industries in East Azarbaijan Province during the year 2012. The study sample was calculated 117 using simple random sampling technique. For data collection, the questionnaire was designed by some scholars. The data was analyzed by means of descriptive statistics, inferential statistics and fuzzy set theory. The results showed that the complementary and the convertor agricultural industries of the province have obtained scores higher than the average for the capabilities of responsiveness, flexibility, and quickness but a lower one for the capability of the competency. With regard to the fact that compiling the strategic vision, technological ability, and introducing the new products are among the main components of achieving competency, it is suggested that managers of this sector should, in order to reinforce competency in agricultural industries, pay special attention to compiling the strategic vision, making use of information technology, and using the new opportunities of the market to introduce the new products.

  2. Response of CR-39 SSNTD to high energy neutrons using zirconium convertors - a Monte Carlo and experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, Rupali; Sapra, B.K.; Bakshi, A.K.; Datta, D.; Biju, K.; Suryanarayana, S.V.; Nayak, B.K.

    2016-01-01

    Neutron dosimetry in ion accelerators is a challenging field as the neutron spectrum varies from thermal, to fast and high-energy neutrons usually extending beyond 20 MeV. Solid-state Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs) have been increasingly used in numerous fields related to nuclear physics. Extensive work has also been carried out on determining the response characteristics of such detectors as nuclear spectrometers. In nuclear reaction studies, identification of reaction products according to their type and energy is frequently required. For normally incident particles, energy-dispersive track-diameter methods have become useful scientific tools using CR-39 SSNTD. CR-39 along with 1 mm polyethylene convertor can cover a neutron energy range from 100 keV to 10 MeV. The neutron interacts with the hydrogen in CR-39 producing recoil protons from elastic collisions. This detectable neutron energy range can be increased by modification in the radiator/convertor used along with CR-39. CR39 detectors placed in conjunction with judiciously chosen thicknesses of a polyethylene radiator and a lead absorber (or degrader) are used to increase energy range upto 19 MeV. A portable neutron counter has been proposed for high-energy neutron measurement with 1 cm thick Zirconium (Zr) as the converter outside a spherical HDPE shell of 7 inch diameter. Zr metal has been found to show (n,2n) cross section for energies above 10 MeV starting from 0.01 barns for 8 MeV upto 1 barns for 22 MeV. Above these energies, the experimental data is scarce. In this paper, Zr was used in conjunction with CR-39 which showed an enhancement of track density on the CR-39. This paper demonstrates the enhancement of neutron response using Zr on CR-39 with both theoretical and experimental studies

  3. Many-objective thermodynamic optimization of Stirling heat engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Vivek; Savsani, Vimal; Mudgal, Anurag

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a rigorous investigation of many-objective (four-objective) thermodynamic optimization of a Stirling heat engine. Many-objective optimization problem is formed by considering maximization of thermal efficiency, power output, ecological function and exergy efficiency. Multi-objective heat transfer search (MOHTS) algorithm is proposed and applied to obtain a set of Pareto-optimal points. Many objective optimization results form a solution in a four dimensional hyper objective space and for visualization it is represented on a two dimension objective space. Thus, results of four-objective optimization are represented by six Pareto fronts in two dimension objective space. These six Pareto fronts are compared with their corresponding two-objective Pareto fronts. Quantitative assessment of the obtained Pareto solutions is reported in terms of spread and the spacing measures. Different decision making approaches such as LINMAP, TOPSIS and fuzzy are used to select a final optimal solution from Pareto optimal set of many-objective optimization. Finally, to reveal the level of conflict between these objectives, distribution of each decision variable in their allowable range is also shown in two dimensional objective spaces. - Highlights: • Many-objective (i.e. four objective) optimization of Stirling engine is investigated. • MOHTS algorithm is introduced and applied to obtain a set of Pareto points. • Comparative results of many-objective and multi-objectives are presented. • Relationship of design variables in many-objective optimization are obtained. • Optimum solution is selected by using decision making approaches.

  4. Magnetic bearings for free-piston Stirling engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curwen, P. W.; Fleming, D. P.; Rao, D. K.; Wilson, D. S.

    1992-01-01

    The feasibility and efficacy of applying magnetic bearings to free-piston Stirling-cycle power conversion machinery currently being developed for long-term space missions are assessed. The study was performed for a 50-kWe Reference Stirling Space Power Converter (RSSPC) which currently uses hydrostatic gas bearings to support the reciprocating displacer and power piston assemblies. Active magnetic bearings of the attractive electromagnetic type are feasible for the RSSPC power piston. Magnetic support of the displacer assembly would require unacceptable changes to the design of the current RSSPC. However, magnetic suspension of both displacer and power piston is feasible for a relative-displacer version of the RSSPC. Magnetic suspension of the RSSPC power piston can potentially increase overall efficiency by 0.5 to 1 percent (0.1 to 0.3 efficiency points). Magnetic bearings will also overcome several operational concerns associated with hydrostatic gas bearing systems. These advantages, however, are accompanied by a 5 percent increase in specific mass of the RSSPC.

  5. Development of a small Stirling cycle cooler for spaceflight applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werrett, S.T.; Bradshaw, T.W.; Davey, G.; Delderfield, T.W.; Peskett, G.D.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the development, from a previously proven design approach, of a robust and simple Stirling cycle cooler with long life potential. The need for a closed cycle refrigerator for use in a spacecraft borne infra-red radiometer is explained. The refrigerator is to supply 1 watt of cooling at 80 K for less than 80 watts of input power, be able to survive the launch environment and subsequently run for 26000 hours. Clearance seals achieved with a spring suspension developed from earlier space proven mechanisms have led to the production of a linear split Stirling cycle machine with no apparent life limiting features. A servo control system, in conjunction with moving coil motors and LVDT position sensors, permits running of balanced pairs of mechanisms. The working fluid, helium at a pressure of 1.2 MPa, is contained within titanium bodies having gold O-ring seals. A vacuum bakeout procedure, based upon experience and outgassing trials, reduces residual contaminant release to acceptable levels. A prototype refrigerator has been subjected to a vibration test and has subsequently run for 6000 hours with no detectable change in performance

  6. General performance characteristics of an irreversible ferromagnetic Stirling refrigeration cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, G.; Tegus, O.; Zhang, L.; Brueck, E.

    2004-01-01

    A new magnetic-refrigeration-cycle model using ferromagnetic materials as a cyclic working substance is set up, in which finite-rate heat transfer, heat leak and regeneration time are taken into account. On the basis of the thermodynamic properties of a ferromagnetic material, the general performance characteristics of the ferromagnetic Stirling refrigeration cycle are investigated and the effects of some key irreversibilities on the performance of the cycle are revealed. By using the optimal-control theory, the optimal relation between the coefficient of performance and the cooling rate is derived and some important performance bounds, e.g., the maximum cooling rate, the maximum coefficient of performance, are determined. Moreover, the optimal operating regions for cooling rate, coefficient of performance and the optimal operating temperatures of a cyclic working substance in the two heat-transfer processes are obtained. Furthermore, the influences of magnetization and magnetic field on the performance characteristics of the cycle are discussed. The results obtained here have general significance and can be deduced to the related ones of the Stirling refrigeration cycle using paramagnetic salt as a cyclic working substance

  7. Controlled rate cooling of fungi using a stirling cycle freezer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Matthew J; Kasulyte-Creasey, Daiva; Kermode, Anthony; San, Shwe Phue; Buddie, Alan G

    2014-01-01

    The use of a Stirling cycle freezer for cryopreservation is considered to have significant advantages over traditional methodologies including N2 free operation, application of low cooling rates, reduction of sample contamination risks and control of ice nucleation. The study assesses the suitability of an 'N2-free' Stirling Cycle controlled rate freezer for fungi cryopreservation. In total, 77 fungi representing a broad taxonomic coverage were cooled using the N2 free cooler following a cooling rate of -1 degrees C min(-1). Of these, 15 strains were also cryopreserved using a traditional 'N2 gas chamber' controlled rate cooler and a comparison of culture morphology and genomic stability against non-cryopreserved starter cultures was undertaken. In total of 75 fungi survived cryopreservation, only a recalcitrant Basidiomycete and filamentous Chromist failed to survive. No changes were detected in genomic profile after preservation, suggesting that genomic function is not adversely compromised as a result of using 'N2 free' cooling. The results demonstrate the potential of 'N2-free' cooling for the routine cryopreservation of fungi in Biological Resource Centres.

  8. Initial Mechanical Testing of Superalloy Lattice Block Structures Conducted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, David L.; Whittenberger, J. Daniel

    2002-01-01

    The first mechanical tests of superalloy lattice block structures produced promising results for this exciting new lightweight material system. The testing was performed in-house at NASA Glenn Research Center's Structural Benchmark Test Facility, where small subelement-sized compression and beam specimens were loaded to observe elastic and plastic behavior, component strength levels, and fatigue resistance for hundreds of thousands of load cycles. Current lattice block construction produces a flat panel composed of thin ligaments arranged in a three-dimensional triangulated trusslike structure. Investment casting of lattice block panels has been developed and greatly expands opportunities for using this unique architecture in today's high-performance structures. In addition, advances made in NASA's Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology Program have extended the lattice block concept to superalloy materials. After a series of casting iterations, the nickel-based superalloy Inconel 718 (IN 718, Inco Alloys International, Inc., Huntington, WV) was successfully cast into lattice block panels; this combination offers light weight combined with high strength, high stiffness, and elevated-temperature durability. For tests to evaluate casting quality and configuration merit, small structural compression and bend test specimens were machined from the 5- by 12- by 0.5-in. panels. Linear elastic finite element analyses were completed for several specimen layouts to predict material stresses and deflections under proposed test conditions. The structural specimens were then subjected to room-temperature static and cyclic loads in Glenn's Life Prediction Branch's material test machine. Surprisingly, the test results exceeded analytical predictions: plastic strains greater than 5 percent were obtained, and fatigue lives did not depreciate relative to the base material. These assets were due to the formation of plastic hinges and the redundancies inherent in lattice block construction

  9. Design, construction and experimental investigation of a Stirling refrigerator for freezing in supermarkets. Final report; Auslegung, Bau und experimentelle Untersuchung einer Stirling-Kaeltemaschine fuer die Tiefkuehlung in Supermaerkten. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steimle, F.; Schikora, H.; Mai, M.; Siegel, A.

    2000-10-01

    Several theoretical investigations have shown that Stirling refrigerators could be a promising alternative for refrigeration at 'near-ambient' temperatures (above -40 C). These theoretical statements shall be validated in an actual research project by measurements taken from a Stirling refrigerator that is optimised for this range of temperature. In this paper first measurement results of this new developed Solo 161 Stirling refrigerator will be presented. Problems are investigated by detailed measurements. Possible improvements are described. (orig.) [German] Verschiedene theoretische Untersuchungen haben gezeigt, dass Stirling-Kaeltemaschinen eine interessante Alternative fuer die Kaelteerzeugung im sog. 'umgebungsnahen' Temperaturbereich (oberhalb von -40 C) darstellen koennten. In einem derzeit laufenden Forschungsvorhaben sollen diese theoretischen Untersuchungen durch Messungen an einer fuer diesen Temperaturbereich optimierten Stirling-Kaeltemaschine ueberprueft werden. In diesem Aufsatz werden erste Messergebnisse dieser neu entwickelten Solo 161 Stirling-Kaeltemaschine praesentiert. Anhand detaillierter Messergebnisse werden Schwachstellen lokalisiert und moegliche Verbesserungsmassnahmen beschrieben. (orig.)

  10. Application Model for a Stirling Engine Micro-Generation System in Caravans in Different European Locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ulloa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a simple model obtained from a commercial Stirling engine and used for heating a caravan. The Stirling engine has been tested in the lab under different electrical load conditions, and the operating points obtained are presented. As an application of the model, a series of transient simulations was performed using TRNSYS. During these simulations, the caravan is traveling throughout the day and is stationary at night. Therefore, during the night-time hours, the heating system is turned on by means of the Stirling engine. The study was performed for each month of the year in different European cities. The different heating demand profiles for different cities induce variation in the electricity production, as it has been assumed that electricity is only generated when the thermal demand requires the operation of the Stirling system. As a result, a comparison of the expected power generation in different European cities is presented.

  11. Enhanced air/fuel mixing for automotive stirling engine turbulator-type combustors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riecke, George T.; Stotts, Robert E.

    1992-01-01

    The invention relates to the improved combustion of fuel in a combustion chamber of a stirling engine and the like by dividing combustion into primary and secondary combustion zones through the use of a diverter plate.

  12. Quantum Stirling heat engine and refrigerator with single and coupled spin systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao-Li; Niu, Xin-Ya; Xiu, Xiao-Ming; Yi, Xue-Xi

    2014-02-01

    We study the reversible quantum Stirling cycle with a single spin or two coupled spins as the working substance. With the single spin as the working substance, we find that under certain conditions the reversed cycle of a heat engine is NOT a refrigerator, this feature holds true for a Stirling heat engine with an ion trapped in a shallow potential as its working substance. The efficiency of quantum Stirling heat engine can be higher than the efficiency of the Carnot engine, but the performance coefficient of the quantum Stirling refrigerator is always lower than its classical counterpart. With two coupled spins as the working substance, we find that a heat engine can turn to a refrigerator due to the increasing of the coupling constant, this can be explained by the properties of the isothermal line in the magnetic field-entropy plane.

  13. Experimental study on the Stirling refrigerator for cooling of infrared detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, S. J.; Hong, Y. J.; Kim, H. B.; Koh, D. Y. [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J. H.; Yu, B. K. [Wooyoung, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    A Stirling cryocooler is relatively compact, reliable, commercially available, and uses helium as a working fluid. The FPFD Stirling cryocooler consists of two compressor pistons driven by linear motors which makes pressure waves and a pneumatically driven displacer piston with regenerator. A Free Piston and Free Displacer (FPFD) Stirling cryocooler for cooling infrared and cryo-sensors is currently under development at KIMM(Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials). In order to evaluate the feasibility of using a linear motor driving cryocooler, prototype Stirling cryocooler with a nominal cooling capacity of 0.5W at 80K was designed, fabricated and tested. The prototype has achieved no load temperature of 51K and cooling power of 0.33W.

  14. Experimental study on the Stirling refrigerator for cooling of infrared detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S. J.; Hong, Y. J.; Kim, H. B.; Koh, D. Y.; Kim, J. H.; Yu, B. K.

    2001-01-01

    A Stirling cryocooler is relatively compact, reliable, commercially available, and uses helium as a working fluid. The FPFD Stirling cryocooler consists of two compressor pistons driven by linear motors which makes pressure waves and a pneumatically driven displacer piston with regenerator. A Free Piston and Free Displacer (FPFD) Stirling cryocooler for cooling infrared and cryo-sensors is currently under development at KIMM(Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials). In order to evaluate the feasibility of using a linear motor driving cryocooler, prototype Stirling cryocooler with a nominal cooling capacity of 0.5W at 80K was designed, fabricated and tested. The prototype has achieved no load temperature of 51K and cooling power of 0.33W

  15. Cost and price estimate of Brayton and Stirling engines in selected production volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortgang, H. R.; Mayers, H. F.

    1980-01-01

    The methods used to determine the production costs and required selling price of Brayton and Stirling engines modified for use in solar power conversion units are presented. Each engine part, component and assembly was examined and evaluated to determine the costs of its material and the method of manufacture based on specific annual production volumes. Cost estimates are presented for both the Stirling and Brayton engines in annual production volumes of 1,000, 25,000, 100,000 and 400,000. At annual production volumes above 50,000 units, the costs of both engines are similar, although the Stirling engine costs are somewhat lower. It is concluded that modifications to both the Brayton and Stirling engine designs could reduce the estimated costs.

  16. Optimising mechanical properties of hot forged nickel superalloy 625 components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singo, Nthambe; Coles, John; Rosochowska, Malgorzata; Lalvani, Himanshu; Hernandez, Jose; Ion, William

    2018-05-01

    Hot forging and subsequent heat treatment were resulting in substandard mechanical properties of nickel superalloy, Alloy 625, components. The low strength was found to be due to inadequate deformation during forging, excessive grain growth and precipitation of carbides during subsequent heat treatment. Experimentation in a drop forging company and heat treatment facility led to the establishment of optimal parameters to minimise grain size and mitigate the adverse effects of carbide precipitation, leading to successful fulfilment of mechanical property specifications. This was achieved by reducing the number of operations, maximising the extent of deformation by changing the slug dimensions and its orientation in the die, and minimising the time of exposure to elevated temperatures in both the forging and subsequent heat treatment processes to avoid grain growth.

  17. Fiber laser welding of nickel based superalloy Inconel 625

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicki, Damian M.

    2013-01-01

    The paper describes the application of single mode high power fiber laser (HPFL) for the welding of nickel based superalloy Inconel 625. Butt joints of Inconel 625 sheets 0,8 mm thick were laser welded without an additional material. The influence of laser welding parameters on weld quality and mechanical properties of test joints was studied. The quality and mechanical properties of the joints were determined by means of tensile and bending tests, and micro hardness tests, and also metallographic examinations. The results showed that a proper selection of laser welding parameters provides non-porous, fully-penetrated welds with the aspect ratio up to 2.0. The minimum heat input required to achieve full penetration butt welded joints with no defect was found to be 6 J/mm. The yield strength and ultimate tensile strength of the joints are essentially equivalent to that for the base material.

  18. Computer aided design of nickel-base superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, P.J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes a computer aided design process for Ni-base superalloys developed and employed at ASEA Brown Boveri. The technique involves a series of modules each of which predicts a particular property of a hypothetical new composition. In the first stage of the development of this design techniques modules were produced to predict phase stability, using PHACOMP, and high temperature creep strength and hot corrosion resistance, using multiple linear regression equations derived from the data in the literature. Alloys designed using these technique are also discussed and, in particular, shortcomings of the design process are highlighted. This information was then used to produce a revamped design methodology involving extra modules, including prediction of an alloy's gamma-prime content. (orig.)

  19. N18, powder metallurgy superalloy for disks: Development and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guedou, J.Y.; Lautridou, J.C.; Honnorat, Y. (SNECMA, Evry (France). Materials and Processes Dept.)

    1993-08-01

    The preliminary industrial development of a powder metallurgy (PM) superalloy, designated N18, for disk applications has been completed. This alloy exhibits good overall mechanical properties after appropriate processing of the material. These properties have been measured on both isothermally forged and extruded billets, as well as on specimens cut from actual parts. The temperature capability of the alloy is about 700 C for long-term applications and approximately 750 C for short-term use because of microstructural instability. Further improvements in creep and crack propagation properties, without significant reduction in tensile strength, are possible through appropriate thermomechanical processing, which results in a large controlled grain size. Spin pit tests on subscale disks have confirmed that the N18 alloy has a higher resistance than PM Astrology and is therefore an excellent alloy for modern turbine disk applications.

  20. STABILITY ANALYSIS OF RADIAL TURNING PROCESS FOR SUPERALLOYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto JIMÉNEZ

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Stability detection in machining processes is an essential component for the design of efficient machining processes. Automatic methods are able to determine when instability is happening and prevent possible machine failures. In this work a variety of methods are proposed for detecting stability anomalies based on the measured forces in the radial turning process of superalloys. Two different methods are proposed to determine instabilities. Each one is tested on real data obtained in the machining of Waspalloy, Haynes 282 and Inconel 718. Experimental data, in both Conventional and High Pressure Coolant (HPC environments, are set in four different states depending on materials grain size and Hard-ness (LGA, LGS, SGA and SGS. Results reveal that PCA method is useful for visualization of the process and detection of anomalies in online processes.

  1. Electron-microscopic investigations of dispersion-strengthened superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, J.H.; Arzt, E.

    1988-01-01

    Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) superalloys possess a high creep strength up to temperatures above 1000 0 C. This is due to a fine dispersion of incoherent Y 2 O 3 particles in connection with a highly elongated grain structure. To investigate the production and properties of ODS alloys, the grain structure was studied and the shape and distribution of dispersoids were characterized after each of the various production steps. Because the interactions between lattice dislocations and dispersoids control the deformation behaviour at high temperatures, the dislocation-dispersoid configurations in crept specimens have been studied by a TEM stereo technique and under weak-beam conditions. It was possible to detect strain fields around the dispersoids using TEM. The results lead to an improved understanding of dispersion strengthening at high temperatures and provide guidelines for the optimum use of this strengthening mechanism. (orig.) [de

  2. Performance analysis of dish solar stirling power system; Stirling engine wo mochiita taiyonetsu hatsuden system no seino yosoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchiya, K; Yamaguchi, I [Meiji University, Tokyo (Japan); Naito, Y; Momose, Y [Aisin Seiki Co. Ltd., Aichi (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    In order to estimate the performance of the dish solar Stirling power system, matching and control of each component system were studied, and the performance of the 25kWe class power system was estimated on the basis of direct solar radiation measured in Miyako island, Okinawa. Application of a Stirling engine to solar heat power generation is highly effective in spite of its small scale. The total system is composed of a converging system, heat receiver, engine/generator system and control system. As the simulation result, the generator output is nearly proportional to direct solar radiation, and the system efficiency approaches to a certain constant value with an increase in direct solar radiation. As accumulated solar radiation is large, the influence of slope error of the converging mirror is comparatively small. The optimum aperture opening ratio of the heat receiver determined on the basis of mean direct solar radiation (accumulated solar radiation/{Delta}t (simulated operation time of the system)), corresponds to the primary approximation of the opening ratio for a maximum total generated output under variable direct solar radiation. 6 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Integration of a wood pellet burner and a Stirling engine to produce residential heat and power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardozo, Evelyn; Erlich, Catharina; Malmquist, Anders; Alejo, Lucio

    2014-01-01

    The integration a Stirling engine with a pellet burner is a promising alternative to produce heat and power for residential use. In this context, this study is focused on the experimental evaluation of the integration of a 20 kW th wood pellet burner and a 1 kW e Stirling engine. The thermal power not absorbed by the engine is used to produce hot water. The evaluation highlights the effects of pellet type, combustion chamber length and cycling operation on the Stirling engine temperatures and thermal power absorbed. The results show that the position of the Stirling engine is highly relevant in order to utilize as much as possible of the radiative heat from the burner. Within this study, only a 5 cm distance change between the Stirling engine and the pellet burner could result in an increase of almost 100 °C in the hot side of the engine. However, at a larger distance, the temperature of the hot side is almost unchanged suggesting dominating convective heat transfer from the hot flue gas. Ash accumulation decreases the temperature of the hot side of the engine after some cycles of operation when a commercial pellet burner is integrated. The temperature ratio, which is the relation between the minimum and maximum temperatures of the engine, decreases when using Ø8 mm wood pellets in comparison to Ø6 mm pellets due to higher measured temperatures on the hot side of the engine. Therefore, the amount of heat supplied to the engine is increased for Ø8 mm wood pellets. The effectiveness of the engine regenerator is increased at higher pressures. The relation between temperature of the hot side end and thermal power absorbed by the Stirling engine is nearly linear between 500 °C and 660 °C. Higher pressure inside the Stirling engine has a positive effect on the thermal power output. Both the chemical and thermal losses increase somewhat when integrating a Stirling engine in comparison to a stand-alone boiler for only heat production. The overall efficiency

  4. Commercialization possibilities of Stirling engine technology for microscale power generation in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Backman, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The presented master’s thesis has evaluated the possibility of commercializing a research project at the Royal Institute of Technologys (KTH) Department of Energy Technology (EGI) in Stockholm, Sweden, where a Stirling engine is used for renewable microscale power generation.  The purpose of the thesis has been to evaluate the current market situation and future prospects by composing a business plan under the working name MicroStirling. In the business plan a potential target group consistin...

  5. The Stirling engine. Simply explained, easily constructed. 9. rev. and enl. ed.; Der Stirlingmotor. Einfach erklaert und leicht gebaut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viebach, Dieter

    2010-07-01

    Subsequently to a easily comprehensively description of the function and characteristics of Stirling engines, the author of the book under consideration describes the construction of a model Stirling engine on the basis of clear construction drawings. A delicacy for experienced modelers: The 'amazing model', a miniature Stirling engine consisting of beverage cans, has been running with the warmth of the human hand. Even in this technically demanding model, the construction will be described accurately by detailed construction drawings.

  6. Optimum performance characteristics of a solar-driven Stirling heat engine system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Tianjun; Lin, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: T–S diagram of the SHE cycle. - Highlights: • Based on Lagrange multiplier method, the optimal performance are investigated. • The energy balance between the absorber and the hot side of Stirling heat engine is considered. • The effects of major parameters on the optimal performance are investigated. - Abstract: A solar-driven Stirling heat engine system composed of a Stirling heat engine, a solar collector, and a heat sink is presented, in which the radiation and convection heat losses of the solar collector, the heat-leak between the thermal absorber and heat sink, the regenerative losses of the Stirling heat engine, and the energy balance between the thermal absorber and the high isothermal process of the Stirling heat engine are taken into consideration. Based on the irreversible thermodynamics and Lagrange multiplier method, the maximum power output and the corresponding optimal efficiency of the system are determined and the absorber temperature that maximizes the optimal system efficiency is calculated numerically. The influences of some system parameters such as the concentrating ratio, the volume ratio during the regenerative processes and irreversibilities of heat exchange processes on the optimal efficiency are analyzed in details. The results obtained here may provide a new idea to design practical solar-driven Stirling heat engine system

  7. Overview of the 1985 NASA Lewis Research Center SP-100 free-piston stirling engine activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slaby, J.G.

    1985-01-01

    An overview of the 1985 (NASA) Lewis Research Center free-piston Stirling engine activities in support of the SP-100 Program is presented. The SP-100 program is being conducted in support of the Department of Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and the Department of Energy (DOE), and NASA. This effort is keyed on the design, fabrication, assembly, and testing of a 25 kW /SUB e/ Stirling space-power technology-feasibility demonstrator engine. Another facet of the SP-100 project covers the status of a 9000-hr goal endurance test conducted on a 2 kW /SUB e/ free-piston Stirling/ linear alternator system employing hydrostatic gas bearings. Dynamic balancing of the RE-1000 engine (a 1 kW /SUB e/ free-piston Stirling engine) using a passive dynamic absorber will be discussed along with the results of a parametric study showing the relationships of Stirling power converter specific weight and efficiency as functions of Stirling engine heater to cooler temperature ratio. Planned tests will be described covering a hydrodynamic gas bearing concept for potential SP-100 application

  8. Thermodynamic analysis of SOFC (solid oxide fuel cell)–Stirling hybrid plants using alternative fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2013-01-01

    A novel hybrid power system (∼10 kW) for an average family home is proposed. The system investigated contains a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) on top of a Stirling engine. The off-gases produced in the SOFC cycle are fed to a bottoming Stirling engine, at which additional power is generated. Simulations of the proposed system were conducted using different fuels, which should facilitate the use of a variety of fuels depending on availability. Here, the results for natural gas (NG), ammonia, di-methyl ether (DME), methanol and ethanol are presented and analyzed. The system behavior is further investigated by comparing the effects of key factors, such as the utilization factor and the operating conditions under which these fuels are used. Moreover, the effect of using a methanator on the plant efficiency is also studied. The combined system improves the overall electrical efficiency relative to that of a stand-alone Stirling engine or SOFC plant. For the combined SOFC and Stirling configuration, the overall power production was increased by approximately 10% compared to that of a stand-alone SOFC plant. System efficiencies of approximately 60% are achieved, which is remarkable for such small plant sizes. Additionally, heat is also produced to heat the family home when necessary. - Highlights: • Integrating a solid oxide fuel with a Stirling engine • Design of multi-fuel hybrid plants • Plants running on alternative fuels; natural gas, methanol, ethanol, DME and ammonia • Thermodynamic analysis of hybrid SOFC–Stirling engine plants

  9. MANUFACTURING AND TESTING OF A V-TYPE STIRLING ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Demir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a V-type Stirling engine with 163 cc total swept volume was designed and manufactured. Air was used as working fluid. Performance tests were conducted at the range of 1-3 bar charge pressure and within the range of hot source temperature 700-1050 °C. Experimental results are given. Variation of engine power and torque with hot source temperature at various air charge pressure are tested. Also variation of engine torque with engine speed for different air charge pressure are tested. According to experimental analysis, the maximum engine power was obtained as 21.334 W at 1050 ˚C hot source temperature and 1.5 bars charge pressure.

  10. Microfabricated Segmented-Involute-Foil Regenerator for Stirling Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mounir; Danila, Daniel; Simon, Terrence; Mantell, Susan; Sun, Liyong; Gedeon, David; Qiu, Songgang; Wood, Gary; Kelly, Kevin; McLean, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    An involute-foil regenerator was designed, microfabricated, and tested in an oscillating-flow test rig. The concept consists of stacked involute-foil nickel disks (see figure) microfabricated via a lithographic process. Test results yielded a performance of about twice that of the 90-percent random-fiber currently used in small Stirling converters. The segmented nature of the involute- foil in both the axial and radial directions increases the strength of the structure relative to wrapped foils. In addition, relative to random-fiber regenerators, the involute-foil has a reduced pressure drop, and is expected to be less susceptible to the release of metal fragments into the working space, thus increasing reliability. The prototype nickel involute-foil regenerator was adequate for testing in an engine with a 650 C hot-end temperature. This is lower than that required by larger engines, and high-temperature alloys are not suited for the lithographic microfabrication approach.

  11. Stirling engine power control and motion conversion mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, David T.

    1983-01-01

    A motion conversion device for converting between the reciprocating motion of the pistons in a Stirling engine and the rotating motion of its output shaft, and for changing the stroke and phase of the pistons, includes a lever pivoted at one end and having a cam follower at the other end. The piston rod engages the lever intermediate its ends and the cam follower engages a cam keyed to the output shaft. The lever pivot can be moved to change the length of the moment arm defined between the cam follower and the piston rod the change the piston stroke and force exerted on the cam, and the levers can be moved in opposite directions to change the phase between pistons.

  12. Palm Power Free-Piston Stirling Engine Control Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiter, Douglas E.; Holliday, Ezekiel

    2007-01-01

    A prototype 35We, JP-8 fueled, soldier-wearable power system for the DARPA Palm Power program has been developed and tested by Sunpower. A hermetically-sealed 42We Sunpower Free-Piston Stirling Engine (FPSE) with integral linear alternator is the prime mover for this system. To maximize system efficiency over a broad range of output power, a non-dissipative, highly efficient electronic control system which modulates engine output power by varying piston stroke and converts the AC output voltage of the FPSE into 28Vdc for the Palm Power end user, has been designed and demonstrated as an integral component of the Palm Power system. This paper reviews the current status and progress made in developing the control electronics for the Palm Power system, in addition to describing the operation and demonstrated performance of the engine controller in the context of the current JP-8 fueled Palm Power system.

  13. Free-piston Stirling component test power converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dochat, George; Dhar, Manmohan

    1991-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been evaluating free-piston Stirling power converters (FPSPCs) for use on a wide variety of space missions. They provide high reliability, long life, and efficient operation and can be coupled with all potential heat sources, various heat input and heat rejection systems, and various power management and distribution systems. FPSPCs can compete favorably with alternative power conversion systems over a range of hundreds of watts to megawatts. Mechanical Technology Incorporated (MTI) is developing FPSPC technology under contract to NASA Lewis Research Center and will demonstrate this technology in two full-scale power converters operating at space temperature conditions. The testing of the first of these, the component test power converter (CTPC), was initiated in Spring 1991 to evaluate mechanical operation at space operating temperatures. The CTPC design, hardware fabrication, and initial test results are reviewed.

  14. Thermal Model of a Dish Stirling Cavity-Receiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Gil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a thermal model for a dish Stirling cavity based on the finite differences method. This model is a theoretical tool to optimize the cavity in terms of thermal efficiency. One of the main outcomes of this work is the evaluation of radiative exchange using the radiosity method; for that purpose, the view factors of all surfaces involved have been accurately calculated. Moreover, this model enables the variation of the cavity and receiver dimensions and the materials to determine the optimal cavity design. The tool has been used to study the cavity optimization regarding geometry parameters and material properties. Receiver absorptivity has been identified as the most influential property of the materials. The optimal aperture height depends on the minimum focal space.

  15. Multimodal tuned dynamic absorber for split Stirling linear cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veprik, A.; Tuito, A.

    2017-02-01

    Forthcoming low size, weight, power and price split Stirling linear cryocoolers may rely on electro-dynamically driven single-piston compressors and pneumatically driven expanders interconnected by the configurable transfer line. For compactness, compressor and expander units may be placed in a side-by-side manner, thus producing tonal vibration export comprising force and moment components. In vibration sensitive applications, this may result in excessive angular line of sight jitter and translational defocusing affecting the image quality. The authors present Multimodal Tuned Dynamic Absorber (MTDA), having one translational and two tilting modes essentially tuned to the driving frequency. The dynamic reactions (force and moment) produced by such a MTDA are simultaneously counterbalancing force and moment vibration export produced by the cryocooler. The authors reveal the design details, the method of fine modal tuning and outcomes of numerical simulation on attainable performance.

  16. Characterization of the power and efficiency of Stirling engine subsystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García, D.; González, M.A.; Prieto, J.I.; Herrero, S.; López, S.; Mesonero, I.; Villasante, C.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We review experimental data from a V160 engine developed for cogeneration. • We also investigate the V161 solar engine. • The possible margin of improvement is evaluated for each subsystem. • The procedure is based on similarity models and thermodynamic models. • The procedure may be of general interest for other prototypes. - Abstract: The development of systems based on Stirling machines is limited by the lack of data about the performance of the various subsystems that are located between the input and output power sections. The measurement of some of the variables used to characterise these internal subsystems presents difficulties, particularly in the working gas circuit and the drive mechanism, which causes experimental reports to rarely be comprehensive enough for analysing the whole performance of the machine. In this article, we review experimental data from a V160 engine developed for cogeneration to evaluate the general validity; we also investigate one of the most successful prototypes used in dish-Stirling systems, the V161 engine, for which a seemingly small mechanical efficiency value has been recently predicted. The procedure described in this article allows the possible margin of improvement to be evaluated for each subsystem. The procedure is based on similarity models, which have been previously developed through experimental data from very different prototypes. Thermodynamic models for the gas circuit are also considered. Deduced characteristic curves show that both prototypes have an advanced degree of development as evidenced by relatively high efficiencies for each subsystem. The analyses are examples that demonstrate the qualities of dimensionless numbers in representing physical phenomena with maximum generality and physical meaning

  17. Stirling Space Engine Program. Volume 1; Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Manmohan

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this program was to develop the technology necessary for operating Stirling power converters in a space environment and to demonstrate this technology in full-scale engine tests. Hardware development focused on the Component Test Power Converter (CTPC), a single cylinder, 12.5-kWe engine. Design parameters for the CTPC were 150 bar operating pressure, 70 Hz frequency, and hot-and cold-end temperatures of 1050 K and 525 K, respectively. The CTPC was also designed for integration with an annular sodium heat pipe at the hot end, which incorporated a unique "Starfish" heater head that eliminated highly stressed brazed or weld joints exposed to liquid metal and used a shaped-tubed electrochemical milling process to achieve precise positional tolerances. Selection of materials that could withstand high operating temperatures with long life were another focus. Significant progress was made in the heater head (Udimet 700 and Inconel 718 and a sodium-filled heat pipe); the alternator (polyimide-coated wire with polyimide adhesive between turns and a polyimide-impregnated fiberglass overwrap and samarium cobalt magnets); and the hydrostatic gas bearings (carbon graphite and aluminum oxide for wear couple surfaces). Tests on the CTPC were performed in three phases: cold end testing (525 K), engine testing with slot radiant heaters, and integrated heat pipe engine system testing. Each test phase was successful, with the integrated engine system demonstrating a power level of 12.5 kWe and an overall efficiency of 22 percent in its maiden test. A 1500-hour endurance test was then successfully completed. These results indicate the significant achievements made by this program that demonstrate the viability of Stirling engine technology for space applications.

  18. CFD analysis of a diaphragm free-piston Stirling cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caughley, Alan; Sellier, Mathieu; Gschwendtner, Michael; Tucker, Alan

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis of a novel free-piston Stirling cryocooler that uses a pair of metal diaphragms to seal and suspend the displacer. The diaphragms allow the displacer to move without rubbing or moving seals. When coupled to a metal diaphragm pressure wave generator, the system produces a complete Stirling cryocooler with no rubbing parts in the working gas space. Initial modelling of this concept using the Sage modelling tool indicated the potential for a useful cryocooler. A proof-of-concept prototype was constructed and achieved cryogenic temperatures. A second prototype was designed and constructed using the experience gained from the first. The prototype produced 29 W of cooling at 77 K and reached a no-load temperature of 56 K. The diaphragm's large diameter and short stroke produces a significant radial component to the oscillating flow fields inside the cryocooler which were not modelled in the one-dimensional analysis tool Sage that was used to design the prototypes. Compared with standard pistons, the diaphragm geometry increases the gas-to-wall heat transfer due to the higher velocities and smaller hydraulic diameters. A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model of the cryocooler was constructed to understand the underlying fluid-dynamics and heat transfer mechanisms with the aim of further improving performance. The CFD modelling of the heat transfer in the radial flow fields created by the diaphragms shows the possibility of utilizing the flat geometry for heat transfer, reducing the need for, and the size of, expensive heat exchangers. This paper presents details of a CFD analysis used to model the flow and gas-to-wall heat transfer inside the second prototype cryocooler, including experimental validation of the CFD to produce a robust analysis.

  19. Comparative analysis of linear motor geometries for Stirling coolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    R, Rajesh V.; Kuzhiveli, Biju T.

    2017-12-01

    Compared to rotary motor driven Stirling coolers, linear motor coolers are characterized by small volume and long life, making them more suitable for space and military applications. The motor design and operational characteristics have a direct effect on the operation of the cooler. In this perspective, ample scope exists in understanding the behavioural description of linear motor systems. In the present work, the authors compare and analyze different moving magnet linear motor geometries to finalize the most favourable one for Stirling coolers. The required axial force in the linear motors is generated by the interaction of magnetic fields of a current carrying coil and that of a permanent magnet. The compact size, commercial availability of permanent magnets and low weight requirement of the system are quite a few constraints for the design. The finite element analysis performed using Maxwell software serves as the basic tool to analyze the magnet movement, flux distribution in the air gap and the magnetic saturation levels on the core. A number of material combinations are investigated for core before finalizing the design. The effect of varying the core geometry on the flux produced in the air gap is also analyzed. The electromagnetic analysis of the motor indicates that the permanent magnet height ought to be taken in such a way that it is under the influence of electromagnetic field of current carrying coil as well as the outer core in the balanced position. This is necessary so that sufficient amount of thrust force is developed by efficient utilisation of the air gap flux density. Also, the outer core ends need to be designed to facilitate enough room for the magnet movement under the operating conditions.

  20. Vibration-free stirling cryocooler for high definition microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riabzev, S. V.; Veprik, A. M.; Vilenchik, H. S.; Pundak, N.; Castiel, E.

    2009-12-01

    The normal operation of high definition Scanning Electronic and Helium Ion microscope tools often relies on maintaining particular components at cryogenic temperatures. This has traditionally been accomplished by using liquid coolants such as liquid Nitrogen. This inherently limits the useful temperature range to above 77 K, produces various operational hazards and typically involves elevated ownership costs, inconvenient logistics and maintenance. Mechanical coolers, over-performing the above traditional method and capable of delivering required (even below 77 K) cooling to the above cooled components, have been well-known elsewhere for many years, but their typical drawbacks, such as high purchasing cost, cooler size, low reliability and high power consumption have so far prevented their wide-spreading. Additional critical drawback is inevitable degradation of imagery performance originated from the wideband vibration export as typical for the operation of the mechanical cooler incorporating numerous movable components. Recent advances in the development of reliable, compact, reasonably priced and dynamically quiet linear cryogenic coolers gave rise to so-called "dry cooling" technologies aimed at eventually replacing the traditional use of outdated liquid Nitrogen cooling facilities. Although much improved these newer cryogenic coolers still produce relatively high vibration export which makes them incompatible with modern high definition microscopy tools. This has motivated further research activity towards developing a vibration free closed-cycle mechanical cryocooler. The authors have successfully adapted the standard low vibration Stirling cryogenic refrigerator (Ricor model K535-LV) delivering 5 W@40 K heat lift for use in vibration-sensitive high definition microscopy. This has been achieved by using passive mechanical counterbalancing of the main portion of the low frequency vibration export in combination with an active feed-forward multi

  1. Superalloy Lattice Block Developed for Use in Lightweight, High-Temperature Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebsur, Mohan G.; Whittenberger, J. Daniel; Krause, David L.

    2003-01-01

    Successful development of advanced gas turbine engines for aircraft will require lightweight, high-temperature components. Currently titanium-aluminum- (TiAl) based alloys are envisioned for such applications because of their lower density (4 g/cm3) in comparison to superalloys (8.5 g/cm3), which have been utilized for hot turbine engine parts for over 50 years. However, a recently developed concept (lattice block) by JAMCORP, Inc., of Willmington, Massachusetts, would allow lightweight, high-temperature structures to be directly fabricated from superalloys and, thus, take advantage of their well-known, characterized properties. In its simplest state, lattice block is composed of thin ligaments arranged in a three dimensional triangulated trusslike configuration that forms a structurally rigid panel. Because lattice block can be fabricated by casting, correctly sized hardware is produced with little or no machining; thus very low cost manufacturing is possible. Together, the NASA Glenn Research Center and JAMCORP have extended their lattice block methodology for lower melting materials, such as Al alloys, to demonstrate that investment casting of superalloy lattice block is possible. This effort required advances in lattice block pattern design and assembly, higher temperature mold materials and mold fabrication technology, and foundry practice suitable for superalloys (ref. 1). Lattice block panels have been cast from two different Ni-base superalloys: IN 718, which is the most commonly utilized superalloy and retains its strength up to 650 C; and MAR M247, which possesses excellent mechanical properties to at least 1100 C. In addition to the open-cell lattice block geometry, same-sized lattice block panels containing a thin (1-mm-thick) solid face on one side have also been cast from both superalloys. The elevated-temperature mechanical properties of the open cell and face-sheeted superalloy lattice block panels are currently being examined, and the

  2. Microstructural analysis of laser weld fusion zone in Haynes 282 superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osoba, L.O. [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T 5V6 (Canada); Ding, R.G. [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Ojo, O.A., E-mail: ojo@cc.umanitoba.ca [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T 5V6 (Canada)

    2012-03-15

    Analytical electron microscopy and spectroscopy analyses of the fusion zone (FZ) microstructure in autogenous laser beam welded Haynes 282 (HY 282) superalloy were performed. The micro-segregation patterns observed in the FZ indicate that Co, Cr and Al exhibited a nearly uniform distribution between the dendrite core and interdendritic regions while Ti and Mo were rejected into the interdendritic liquid during the weld solidification. Transmission electron diffraction analysis and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis revealed the second phase particles formed along the FZ interdendritic region to be Ti-Mo rich MC-type carbide particles. Weld FZ solidification cracking, which is sometimes associated with the formation of {gamma}-{gamma}' eutectic in {gamma}' precipitation strengthened nickel-base superalloys, was not observed in the HY 282 superalloy. Modified primary solidification path due to carbon addition in the newly developed superalloy is used to explain preclusion of weld FZ solidification cracking in the material. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A newly developed superalloy was welded by CO{sub 2} laser beam joining technique. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electron microscopy characterization of the weld microstructure was performed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Identified interdendritic microconstituents consist of MC-type carbides. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Modification of primary solidification path is used to explain cracking resistance.

  3. Effect of tensile mean stress on fatigue behavior of single-crystal and directionally solidified superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalluri, Sreeramesh; Mcgaw, Michael A.

    1990-01-01

    Two nickel base superalloys, single crystal PWA 1480 and directionally solidified MAR-M 246 + Hf, were studied in view of the potential usage of the former and usage of the latter as blade materials for the turbomachinery of the space shuttle main engine. The baseline zero mean stress (ZMS) fatigue life (FL) behavior of these superalloys was established, and then the effect of tensile mean stress (TMS) on their FL behavior was characterized. At room temperature these superalloys have lower ductilities and higher strengths than most polycrystalline engineering alloys. The cycle stress-strain response was thus nominally elastic in most of the fatigue tests. Therefore, a stress range based FL prediction approach was used to characterize both the ZMS and TMS fatigue data. In the past, several researchers have developed methods to account for the detrimental effect of tensile mean stress on the FL for polycrystalline engineering alloys. However, the applicability of these methods to single crystal and directionally solidified superalloys has not been established. In this study, these methods were applied to characterize the TMS fatigue data of single crystal PWA 1480 and directionally solidified MAR-M 246 + Hf and were found to be unsatisfactory. Therefore, a method of accounting for the TMS effect on FL, that is based on a technique proposed by Heidmann and Manson was developed to characterize the TMS fatigue data of these superalloys. Details of this method and its relationship to the conventionally used mean stress methods in FL prediction are discussed.

  4. Microstructural analysis of laser weld fusion zone in Haynes 282 superalloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osoba, L.O.; Ding, R.G.; Ojo, O.A.

    2012-01-01

    Analytical electron microscopy and spectroscopy analyses of the fusion zone (FZ) microstructure in autogenous laser beam welded Haynes 282 (HY 282) superalloy were performed. The micro-segregation patterns observed in the FZ indicate that Co, Cr and Al exhibited a nearly uniform distribution between the dendrite core and interdendritic regions while Ti and Mo were rejected into the interdendritic liquid during the weld solidification. Transmission electron diffraction analysis and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis revealed the second phase particles formed along the FZ interdendritic region to be Ti–Mo rich MC-type carbide particles. Weld FZ solidification cracking, which is sometimes associated with the formation of γ–γ' eutectic in γ' precipitation strengthened nickel-base superalloys, was not observed in the HY 282 superalloy. Modified primary solidification path due to carbon addition in the newly developed superalloy is used to explain preclusion of weld FZ solidification cracking in the material. - Highlights: ► A newly developed superalloy was welded by CO 2 laser beam joining technique. ► Electron microscopy characterization of the weld microstructure was performed. ► Identified interdendritic microconstituents consist of MC-type carbides. ► Modification of primary solidification path is used to explain cracking resistance.

  5. Influence of Short-time Oxidation on Corrosion Properties of Directionally Solidified Superalloys with Different Orientations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Luo-ning

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the corrosion performance on intersecting and longitudinal surfaces of unoxidized and oxidized directionally solidified superalloys, Ni-base directionally solidified superalloy DZ125 and Co-base directionally solidified superalloy DZ40M were selected. Oxidation behavior on both alloys with different orientations was investigated at 1050℃ at different times, simulating the oxidation process of vanes or blades in service; subsequent electrochemical performance in 3.5%NaCl aqueous solution was studied on two orientations of unoxidized and oxidized alloys, simulating the corrosion process of superalloy during downtime. The results show that grain boundaries and sub-boundaries of directionally solidified superalloys are susceptible to corrosion and thus longitudinal surface with lower area fraction of grain boundaries has higher corrosion resistance. Compared to intersecting surface of alloys, the structure of grain boundaries of longitudinal surface is less conducive to diffusion and thus the oxidation rate on longitudinal surface is lower. Formation of oxide layers on alloys after short-time oxidation provides protective effect and enhances the corrosion resistance.

  6. Thermodynamic assessment of liquid composition change during solidification and its effect on freckle formation in superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long Zhengdong; Liu Xingbo; Yang Wanhong; Chang, K.-M.; Barbero, Ever

    2004-01-01

    The solidification macrosegregation, i.e. freckle, becomes more and more concerned with ever increasing demand for the large ingot size of superalloys. The evaluation of freckle formation is very difficult because of the less understanding of freckle formation mechanism and complex solidification behaviors of multi-component superalloys. The macrostructure of typical Nb-bearing and Ti-bearing superalloys in horizontally directional solidification and vacuum arc remelting (VAR) ingots were investigated to clarify the freckle formation mechanism. The thermodynamic approach was proposed to simulate the solidification behaviors. The relative Ra numbers, a reliable criterion, of freckle formation for some alloys were obtained based on the results of thermodynamic calculations. This thermodynamic approach was evaluated through comparison of the calculations from semi-experimental results. The Ra numbers obtained by thermodynamic approach are in good agreement with the ingot size capability of the industry melting shops, which is limited mainly by freckle defects

  7. A comparative study of the corrosion resistance of incoloy MA 956 and PM 2000 superalloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maysa Terada

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Austenitic stainless steels, titanium and cobalt alloys are widely used as biomaterials. However, new medical devices require innovative materials with specific properties, depending on their application. The magnetic properties are among the properties of interest for some biomedical applications. However, due to the interaction of magnetic materials with Magnetic Resonance Image equipments they might used only as not fixed implants or for medical devices. The ferromagnetic superalloys, Incoloy MA 956 and PM 2000, produced by mechanical alloying, have similar chemical composition, high corrosion resistance and are used in high temperature applications. In this study, the corrosion resistance of these two ferritic superalloys was compared in a phosphate buffer solution. The electrochemical results showed that both superalloys are passive in this solution and the PM 2000 present a more protective passive film on it associated to higher impedances than the MA 956.

  8. A new method in prediction of TCP phases formation in superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mousavi Anijdan, S.H.; Bahrami, A.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to develop a model for prediction of topologically closed-packed (TCP) phases formation in superalloys. In this study, artificial neural networks (ANN), using several different network architectures, were used to investigate the complex relationships between TCP phases and chemical composition of superalloys. In order to develop an optimum ANN structure, more than 200 experimental data were used to train and test the neural network. The results of this investigation shows that a multilayer perceptron (MLP) form of the neural networks with one hidden layer and 10 nodes in the hidden layer has the lowest mean absolute error (MAE) and can be accurately used to predict the electron-hole number (N v ) and TCP phases formation in superalloys

  9. Degradation of creep properties in a long-term thermally exposed nickel base superalloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zrnik, J.; Strunz, P.; Vrchovinsky, V.; Muransky, O.; Novy, Z.; Wiedenmann, A.

    2004-01-01

    When exposed for long time at elevated temperatures of 430 and 650 deg. C the nickel base superalloy EI 698 VD can experience a significant decrease in creep resistance. The cause of the creep degradation of nickel base superalloy is generally attributed to the microstructural instability at prolonged high temperature exposure. In this article, the creep-life data, generated on long thermally exposed nickel base superalloy EI698 VD were related to the local microstructural changes observed using SEM and TEM analysing techniques. While structure analysis provided supporting evidence concerning the changes associated with grain boundary carbide precipitation, no persuasive evidence of a morphological and/or dimensional gamma prime change was showed. For clarifying of the role of gamma prime precipitates on alloy on creep degradation, the SANS (small angle neutron scattering) experiment was crucial in the characterization of the bulk-averaged gamma prime morphology and its size distribution with respect to the period of thermal exposure

  10. Zinc-induced embrittlement in nickel-base superalloys by simulation and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otis, Richard; Waje, Mahesh; Lindwall, Greta; Jefferson, Tiffany; Lange, Jeremy; Liu, Zi-Kui

    2017-09-01

    The high cost of Re has driven interest in processes for recovering Re from scrap superalloy parts. In this work thermodynamic modelling is used to study Zn-induced embrittlement of a superalloy and to direct experiments. Treating superalloy powder with Zn vapour reduces the average particle size after milling from approximately ?m to 0.5-10 ?m, vs. ?m for untreated powder. Simulations predict the required treatment time to increase with temperature. Agreement between predictions and experiments suggests that an embrittling liquid forms in less than an hour of Zn vapour treatment between 950-1000 ?C and partial pressures of Zn between 14-34 kPa (2-5 psi).

  11. Alloying effects of refractory elements in the dislocation of Ni-based single crystal superalloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiyu Ma

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The alloying effects of W, Cr and Re in the [100] (010 edge dislocation cores (EDC of Ni-based single crystal superalloys are investigated using first-principles based on the density functional theory (DFT. The binding energy, Mulliken orbital population, density of states, charge density and radial distribution functions are discussed, respectively. It is clearly demonstrated that the addition of refractory elements improves the stability of the EDC systems. In addition, they can form tougher bonds with their nearest neighbour (NN Ni atoms, which enhance the mechanical properties of the Ni-based single crystal superalloys. Through comparative analysis, Cr-doped system has lower binding energy, and Cr atom has evident effect to improve the systemic stability. However, Re atom has the stronger alloying effect in Ni-based single crystal superalloys, much more effectively hindering dislocation motion than W and Cr atoms.

  12. Stirling micro cogeneration unit for single-family houses. Compact and assembly-friendly; Stirling-Mikro-BHKW fuer den Einsatz im Einfamilienhaus. Kompakt und montagefreundlich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gimsa, Andreas [Enerlyt Technik GmbH, Potsdam (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Enerlyt of Potsdam is a manufacturer working on a micro cogeneration unit based on a Stirling engine whose thermodynamic cycle has lower losses, e.g. by making the expansion pistons bigger than the compression pistons. The unit can be operated with various fuels. The author describes the function and state of development of the unit. (orig.)

  13. No money printing machine. The market for cogeneration units with a Stirling engine begins to increase; Keine Gelddruckmaschinen. Markt fuer Stirling-KWK-Geraete kommt in Bewegung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, Wolfgang

    2012-10-15

    The serial production of micro combined heat and power units with a Stirling engine is started. However, it is becoming apparent, that from economic reasons units of the 1-kW{sub el.}-class designed for single-family houses and two-family houses are increasingly used as a base load unit in multi-family houses and small trades.

  14. Implementation of a high precision multi-measurement time-to-digital convertor on a Kintex-7 FPGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Jie; Wang, Yonggang; Cao, Qiang; Liu, Chong

    2018-05-01

    Time-to-digital convertors (TDCs) based on field programmable gate array (FPGA) are becoming more and more popular. Multi-measurement is an effective method to improve TDC precision beyond the cell delay limitation. However, the implementation of TDC with multi-measurement on FPGAs manufactured with 28 nm and more advanced process is facing new challenges. Benefiting from the ones-counter encoding scheme, which was developed in our previous work, we implement a ring oscillator multi-measurement TDC on a Xilinx Kintex-7 FPGA. Using the two TDC channels to measure time-intervals in the range (0 ns-30 ns), the average RMS precision can be improved to 5.76 ps, meanwhile the logic resource usage remains the same with the one-measurement TDC, and the TDC dead time is only 22 ns. The investigation demonstrates that the multi-measurement methods are still available for current main-stream FPGAs. Furthermore, the new implementation in this paper could make the trade-off among the time precision, resource usage and TDC dead time better than ever before.

  15. Fort Huachuca to Benefit from New Solar Technology: Dish-Stirling System Couples Solar Power with Engine to Generate Electricity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1995-01-01

    ... in partnership with industry. A prototype dish-Stirling solar system, which consists of a large dish of solar concentrators and a Stirling heat engine, will be installed at Fort Huachuca in July and should be in operation about two weeks later...

  16. Emotional and Psychological Well-Being in Children: The Development and Validation of the Stirling Children's Well-Being Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddle, Ian; Carter, Greg F. A.

    2015-01-01

    The Stirling Children's Well-being Scale (SCWBS) was developed by the Stirling Council Educational Psychology Service (UK) as a holistic, positively worded measure of emotional and psychological well-being in children aged eight to 15 years. Drawing on current theories of well-being and Positive Psychology, the aim was to provide a means of…

  17. A Review on Inertia and Linear Friction Welding of Ni-Based Superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamanfar, Ahmad; Jahazi, Mohammad; Cormier, Jonathan

    2015-04-01

    Inertia and linear friction welding are being increasingly used for near-net-shape manufacturing of high-value materials in aerospace and power generation gas turbines because of providing a better quality joint and offering many advantages over conventional fusion welding and mechanical joining techniques. In this paper, the published works up-to-date on inertia and linear friction welding of Ni-based superalloys are reviewed with the objective to make clarifications on discrepancies and uncertainties reported in literature regarding issues related to these two friction welding processes as well as microstructure, texture, and mechanical properties of the Ni-based superalloy weldments. Initially, the chemical composition and microstructure of Ni-based superalloys that contribute to the quality of the joint are reviewed briefly. Then, problems related to fusion welding of these alloys are addressed with due consideration of inertia and linear friction welding as alternative techniques. The fundamentals of inertia and linear friction welding processes are analyzed next with emphasis on the bonding mechanisms and evolution of temperature and strain rate across the weld interface. Microstructural features, texture development, residual stresses, and mechanical properties of similar and dissimilar polycrystalline and single crystal Ni-based superalloy weldments are discussed next. Then, application of inertia and linear friction welding for joining Ni-based superalloys and related advantages over fusion welding, mechanical joining, and machining are explained briefly. Finally, present scientific and technological challenges facing inertia and linear friction welding of Ni-based superalloys including those related to modeling of these processes are addressed.

  18. Design, Analysis and Optimization of a Solar Dish/Stirling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Danial Nazemi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a mathematical model by which the thermal and physical behavior of a solar dish/Stirling system was investigated, then the system was designed, analysed and optimized. In this regard, all of heat losses in a dish/Stirling system were calculated, then, the output net-work of the Stirling engine was computed, and accordingly, the system efficiency was worked out. These heat losses include convection and conduction heat losses, radiation heat losses by emission in the cavity receiver, reflection heat losses of solar energy in the parabolic dish, internal and external conduction heat losses, energy dissipation by pressure drops, and energy losses by shuttle effect in displacer piston in the Stirling engine. All of these heat losses in the parabolic dish, cavity receiver and Stirling engine were calculated using mathematical modeling in MatlabTM software. For validation of the proposed model, a 10 kW solar dish/Stirling system was designed and the simulation results were compared with the Eurodish system data with a reasonable degree of agreement. This model is used to investigate the effect of geometric and thermodynamic parameters including the aperture diameter of the parabolic dish and the cavity receiver, and the pressure of the compression space of the Stirling engine, on the system performance. By using the PSO method, which is an intelligent optimization technique, the total design was optimized and the optimal values of decision-making parameters were determined. The optimization has been done in two scenarios. In the first scenario, the optimal value of each designed parameter has been changed when the other parameters are equal to the designed case study parameters. In the second scenario, all of parameters were assumed in their optimal values. By optimization of the modeled dish/Stirling system, the total efficiency of the system improved to 0.60% in the first scenario and it increased from 21.69% to 22.62% in the second

  19. Corrosion Behavior of Superalloys in Hot Lithium Molten Salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Soo-Haeng; Hur, Jin-Mok; Seo, Chung-Seok; Park, Seoung-Won

    2006-01-01

    The Li-reduction process involves the chemical reduction of spent fuel oxides by liquid lithium metal in a molten LiCl salt bath at 650 .deg. C followed by a separate electrochemical reduction of lithium oxide (Li 2 O), which builds up in the salt bath. This process requires a high purity inert gas atmosphere inside remote hot cell nuclear facility to prevent unwanted Li oxidation and fires during the handling of chemically active Li metal. In light of the limitations of the Li-reduction process, a direct electrolytic reduction technology is being developed by KAERI to enhance process safety and economic viability. The electrolytic reduction of spent oxide fuel involves the liberation of oxygen in a molten LiCl electrolyte, which results in a chemically aggressive environment that is too corrosive for typical structural materials. Even so, the electrochemical process vessel must be resilient at ∼ 650 .deg. C in the presence of oxygen to enable high processing rates and an extended service life. But, the mechanism and the rate of the corrosion of metals in LiCl-Li 2 O molten salt under oxidation condition are not clear. In the present work, the corrosion behavior and corrosion mechanism of superalloys have been studied in the molten salt of LiCl-Li 2 O under oxidation condition

  20. Structural Performance of Inconel 625 Superalloy Brazed Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianqiang; Demers, Vincent; Cadotte, Eve-Line; Turner, Daniel; Bocher, Philippe

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate tensile and fatigue behaviors of Inconel 625 superalloy brazed joints after transient liquid-phase bonding process. Brazing was performed in a vacuum furnace using a nickel-based filler metal in a form of paste to join wrought Inconel 625 plates. Mechanical tests were carried out on single-lap joints under various lap distance-to-thickness ratios. The fatigue crack initiation and crack growth modes were examined via metallographic analysis, and the effect of local stress on fatigue life was assessed by finite element simulations. The fatigue results show that fatigue strength and endurance limit increase with overlap distance, leading to a relatively large scatter of results. Fatigue cracks nucleated in the high-stressed region of the weld fillets from brittle eutectic phases or from internal brazing cavities. The present work proposes to rationalize the results by using the local stress at the brazing fillet. When using this local stress, all fatigue-obtained results find themselves on a single S- N curve, providing a design curve for any joint configuration in fatigue solicitation.