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Sample records for sting viru keskuses

  1. Viru keskuse omanik SRV langes Venemaal suure kahju osaliseks / Andres Eilart

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Eilart, Andres

    2007-01-01

    Taani firma Nordrus Hotel Holdings keeldus Soome ehitusfirmalt SRV, mis on Viru keskuse põhiomanik, vastu võtmast Jekaterinburgi ehitatud hotellikompleksi. SRV on kohustatud maksma kahjutasu kokku 13,2 mln. dollarit

  2. Neil Jordan jagab pühapäeval Viru keskuses autogramme / Triin Tael

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tael, Triin

    2006-01-01

    10. Pimedate Ööde Filmifestivali oodatuim külaline saabub Tallinna 2. detsembril. 3. dets. Viru keskuses Rahva Raamatu kaupluses esitletakse raamatut: Jordan, Neil. Vari / tõlkinud Krista Kaer. Tallinn : Varrak, 2006

  3. Sting esitleb raamatut

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Inglise rocklaulja Gordon Matthew Sumneri raamatu "Sting. Murtud muusika" esitlusest Tallinnas Viru Keskuse Rahva Raamatus ja kontserdist Saku Suurhallis Broken Musicu nimelise tuuri raames 28. juulil

  4. Viru keskuses plahvatab mitu päeva järjest / Ants Vill

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vill, Ants, 1955-

    2008-01-01

    Allfilm koos Saksa, Soome ja Iiri partneritega alustas Tallinnas action-mängufilmi "Kid & Killer" võtteid (režissöör Hannu Salonen, stsenaristid Mart Kivastik ja Katrin Laur, operaator Rein Kotov, produtsent Piret Tibbo-Hudgins). 24-25. märtsil filmitakse Viru Keskuses

  5. V tsentre Viru otkrojetsja võstavka dizaina rojalei

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Disainiklaverite näitusest Viru Keskuses. Eksponeeritud on üle kümne eksklusiivse pianiino ja tiibklaveri maailma juhtivate klaveritootjate disaineritelt nagu Blüthner, Sauter Peter Maly Edition, Irmler Art Design by Rene Vindetti. 8.-10. juunini toimuvast orelite näitusest

  6. JUNESKO v uzhase ot tsentra "Viru" / Jekaterina Rodina

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rodina, Jekaterina

    2005-01-01

    UNESCO maailmapärandi komitee ekspert arutas Tallinna linnavõimudega bastionide ja linnamüüri kasutamise ning linna merele avamise küsimusi. Ekspert kritiseeris Tallinna linnaplaneerimist, näitena tõi Viru Keskuse vanalinna läheduses

  7. Varjete "Viru" vozvrashajetsja / Aleksandra Moorast

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Moorast, Aleksandra, 1980-

    2005-01-01

    Viru Varietee ajaloost (algus 1972), selle sulgemisest 1995 ja taassünnist. 30. okt. 2005 alustab Viru Varietee uuesti oma tegevust. Direktor ja tantsutrupi Golden Lady kunstiline juht on I. Kruglova

  8. Seltskond / Annika Haas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Haas, Annika

    2006-01-01

    Inglise rocklaulja Gordon Matthew Sumneri raamatu "Sting. Murtud muusika" esitlusest Tallinnas Viru Keskuse Rahva Raamatu kaupluses ja kontserdist Saku Suurhallis Broken Musicu nimelise tuuri raames 28. juulil

  9. Briti karikatuuri kuldaeg Kondase Keskuses

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Briti kunstnike William Hogarthi ja John Kay karikatuuride näitus Kondase Keskuses Viljandis 16. veebruarist 17. aprillini 2011. Eksponeeritavad tööd kuuluvad ameerika kultuuriloolase Rolan Paul Firnhaberi kogusse

  10. Viru pataljon saab uue ülema

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Severnoje Poberezhje 22. juuli lk. 4. 31. juulist saab Viru üksik-jalaväepataljoni ülemaks major Urmet Reimann, senine ülem major Neeme Kaarna jätkab teenistust kirdekorpuse staabiohvitserina Poolas

  11. Viru regi toimkond tänab / Hilje Pakkanen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pakkanen, Hilje

    2008-01-01

    Eesti Vabariigi 90. sünnipäeval 24. veebr. Rakvere Kolmainu kirikus esitatud virulaste regilaulust "Viru regi" (tutvu Lääne-Viru maavalitsuse kodulehel maakond/viru regi all aadressil http://www2.l-virumv.ee/id=23053)

  12. Viru väljaku projekt = Viru square project / Tiit Trummal

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Trummal, Tiit, 1954-

    1999-01-01

    Tallinna Viru väljaku linnaehituslik arengukava (kutsutud konkursi võistlustöö, 1996). Autorid: A. Alver, T. Trummal, T. Tammis, T. Laht, S. Koppel. Liikluslahenduse konsultant: D. Antov. Makett: A. Shaulys

  13. Stinging Insect Matching Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Kids ▸ Stinging Insect Matching Game Share | Stinging Insect Matching Game Stinging insects can ruin summer fun for those who are ... the difference between the different kinds of stinging insects in order to keep your summer safe and ...

  14. Jellyfish stings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Atlantic and Physalia utriculus in the Pacific). Sea nettle ( Chrysaora quinquecirrha ), one of the most common jellyfish ... nose and watery eyes Swallowing difficulty Sweating SEA NETTLE Mild skin rash (with mild stings) Muscle cramps ...

  15. Haabersti vaba aja keskus = Haabersti recreational centre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Haabersti vaba aja keskuse (Ehitajate tee 109A/2, Tallinn) sisekujundusest. Arhitektid: Peeter Pere ja Urmas Muru (AB Muru & Pere). Sisearhitekt: Katrin Kaevats (Salto AB). Katrin Kaevatsist, tema tähtsamad tööd. I-IV korruse plaan, värv. välisvaade, 11 sisevaadet, foto K. Kaevatsist

  16. Pärnu uus keskus kerkib

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    2007. a. oktoobris pandi Pärnu kesklinnas nurgakivi uuele linnasüdamele, kuhu kerkib kaubanduskeskus ja 400-kohaline parkimismaja. Aida tänav muudetakse jalakäijate alaks ja tekkiv promenaad kaetakse osaliselt klaaskatusega, promenaadi äärde ehitatakse üle 20000 m2 elamispinda. Keskuse arhitektid: Vilen Künnapu, Ain Padrik. Ehitab Eston Ehitus

  17. Viru tunnel saab uue ilme urbanistliku grafiti abil / Ilmar Kahro

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kahro, Ilmar

    2011-01-01

    MTÜ Linnalabor koostöös Tallinn 2011 SA-ga viis läbi Tallinnas Gonsiori ja Laikmaa tänava ristmiku all paikneva Viru tunneli kujunduskonkursi "Viru tunnel kunstigaleriiks". EKA skulptuuri eriala tudengi Eldar Jakubovi võidutööst "Avame linna"

  18. Viru Vesi sai ISO sertifikaadid / Külli Kriis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kriis, Külli, 1961-

    2005-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Severnoje Poberezhje 23. märts lk. 4. AS Viru Vesi sai Eestis teise vee-ettevõttena veevarustuse, kanalisatsiooni ning reoveepuhastuse teenuse pakkumise alal keskkonna- ja kvaliteedijuhtimissüsteemi sertifikaadid

  19. Sisustust Viru tänavalt / Piret Veigel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Veigel, Piret, 1961-

    2003-01-01

    Tallinnas Viru t. avatud uues sisustussalongis Rest Art pakutavast. Kaupluse esimene osa on pühendatud elutoale, tagumine ruum on sisustatud magamistoana. Pakutavad kodutekstiilid on kujundanud Külli Salum

  20. Viru poeg läheb sõtta / Yrjö Vanhanen, Risto Vahimets ; interv. Heidit Kaio

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vanhanen, Yrjö

    2006-01-01

    Intervjuu Viru poega arendava firma Pontos juhi Yrjö Vanhaneniga ja juristi Risto Vahimetsaga Viru hotelli juurdeehituse peatamisest Tallinna linnavalitsuse poolt. Kommenteerib Igor Volkov. Vt. samas: Tallinlased, seadke end valmis - Viru Poeg tuleb!

  1. Bio- ja geenitehnoloogia keskus on loodud / Erkki Truve

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Truve, Erkki, 1965-

    2002-01-01

    Tallinna Tehnikaülikooli nõukogu otsustas ümber kujundada senise materjaliteaduse ja geeni/biotehnoloogia keskuse kaheks uueks keskuseks: bio- ja geenitehnolooogia keskuseks ning materjaliteaduse keskuseks

  2. Bug Bites and Stings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or sting. Handling Bee and Wasp Stings A bee will usually leave behind a stinger attached to a venom sac. Try to remove it as quickly as ... child has had an allergic reaction to a bee or wasp sting in the past, see your ... shape on its underbelly. The venom (a toxic substance) in a black widow bite ...

  3. Kas Viru varietee tõuseb fööniksina tuhast? / Jaanus Kulli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kulli, Jaanus, 1955-

    2005-01-01

    Ants Vähejaus plaanib Golden Lady tantsutrupi näol Viru varietee taastada. Lisatud koreograaf Kalju Saarekese kommentaar pealkirjaga "Ma võiksin nad kohtusse kaevata" ning "Viru varietee sünnipäev 6. mail 1972"

  4. Maastrichti Jan van Eyck'i akadeemia,.Kaasaegse Kunsti Eesti Keskuse ja Salzburgi kunstiühingu ühisprojekt "Trichtlinnburg"...

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Projekt käsitleb massiturismi ja linnade arengu teemat. Viru Keskuses 9.-15. V Sanja Ivekovici ja Kaarel Kurismaa tööde näitus. "Tallinna vaatleja" Hobusepea galeriis hõlmab filmiprogrammi ja Tallinna miljööteemalise fotonäituse. Raekoja platsil Silja Saarepuu ja Villu Plingi objekt "Plats" (voldiku on kujundanud Maris Lindoja, fotod on teinud Arne Maasik). Jüri Ojaveri aktsioon "Pääsla" Pikal ja Hobusepea t. Eriks Bozhise aktsioon "Astud siin". Siram publitseerib ajalehte "Ilus elu". August Künnapu ja Jasper Zoova teevad Magasini t. Tallinna vanglasse seinamaali "Kolm pühameest". Marianne Männi ja Rauno Teideri projekt "Erutav Eestimaa". Laineli Parresti "Sabatants", algus Raekoja platsil. Tiina Tammetalu "Seirajad" trammides, Hirvepargis ja Kaarli pst. Antakse välja Liina Siibi toimetatud raamat "Tallinna praktikad"

  5. United Motors avas eile 100miljonilise BMW keskuse / Hille Tressum

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tressum, Hille

    2008-01-01

    United Motors avas Tallinna läheduses uue, 100 miljonit krooni maksma läinud BMW autokeskuse, lisaks salongile asub keskuses ka remonditöökoda, milles ettevõtte juht Ants Kanter näeb peamist sissetulekuallikat. Lisa: Taust

  6. Aquatic antagonists: lionfish stings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, J W

    2001-07-01

    Although lionfish can be found in all the oceans, the highest incidences of human stings appear to be in the tropics, especially in the Indo-Pacific area and Mediterranean Sea. The recent interest in tropical fish aquaria has expanded the geographic range of the stings of these animals.

  7. Eesti Lastekirjanduse Keskus = The Estonian Children's Literature Centre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Eesti Lastekirjanduse Keskuse hoone (1910, Pikk 73, Tallinn) sisekujundusest. Sisearhitektid: Malle Jürgenson, Krista Lepland ja Tea Tammelaan (Laika, Belka & Strelka OÜ). Varakambrit kaunistavad istmed erinevate illustraatorite tehtud maalingutega. Muinasjututoa aknaluuke kaunistavad Jüri Mildebergi loodud fantastilised tüübid. Pööningukorrust kujundas Piret Mildeberg. Sisearhitektidest, nende tähtsamad ühiselt tehtud tööd. 3 korruse plaani, värv. välisvaade, 9 sisevaadet, fotod sisearhitektidest

  8. Bee or Wasp Sting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hon, Kam Lun; Leung, Alexander K C

    2017-09-01

    While jogging in a local park in Hong Kong, a 55-year-old, previously healthy man was stung on the ventral aspect of his right wrist. The tiny stinger was gently removed with nail cutters and examined under a microscope at 80x magni cation; plucking the stinger is ill- advised as this may inject more venom into the wounded site. Two days after stinging, the microscopic appearance of the stinger con rmed the diagnosis to be from a bee instead of a wasp or other insect. A simple method of con rming the nature of insect stings and an overview of Hymenoptera stings and their management are provided herein.

  9. Insect Bites and Stings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most insect bites are harmless, though they sometimes cause discomfort. Bee, wasp, and hornet stings and fire ant bites usually hurt. Mosquito and flea bites usually itch. Insects can also spread diseases. In the United States, ...

  10. Insect bites and stings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... widow spider bite; Brown recluse bite; Flea bite; Honey bee or hornet sting; Lice bites; Mite bite; ... Saunders; 2016:chap 359. Otten EJ. Venomous animal injuries. In: Walls RM, Hockberger RS, Gausche-Hill M, ...

  11. Scorpion fish sting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002849.htm Scorpion fish sting To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Scorpion fish are members of the family Scorpaenidae, which includes ...

  12. Terminologija čokoladnih sladic v izbranem strokovnem viru

    OpenAIRE

    Vrhovnik, Lea

    2017-01-01

    Magistrsko delo z naslovom Terminologija čokoladnih sladic v izbranem strokovnem viru v teoretičnem delu obravnava tematiko čokoladnih sladic, njihov nastanek z razvojem slaščičarske obrti in odkritjem kakavovca ter njegovo predelavo v čokolado, ki predstavlja bistveno sestavino čokoladnih sladic. Posveča se tudi področjema terminologije in terminografije. V empiričnem delu je v ospredju izrazje s področja čokoladnih sladic, izpisano iz izbranega strokovnega vira z naslovom Zlata knjiga – čok...

  13. Marine animal stings or bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stings - marine animals; Bites - marine animals ... Things you can do to prevent a marine animal sting or bite include: Swim near a lifeguard. Observe posted signs that may warn of danger from jellyfish or other hazardous marine life. ...

  14. Tartu Keskkonnahariduse Keskuse Loodusmaja = Nature School of Tartu Environmental Education Centre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2015-01-01

    Tartu Keskkonnahariduse Keskuse Loodusmaja Lille tänav 10, valminud 2013. Arhitektuurivõistlus 2010. Arhitektid Martin Kinks, Risto Parve, Kai Süda, Margit Valma (Karisma Arhitktid), Diana Taalfeld (NU Arhitektuur). Sisearhitekt Tõnis Kalve

  15. Fassaadid ja muinsuskaitse : Viru väljak 2 maja saamislugu = Facades and Heritage Protection : the Story of No 2 Viru Square / Raivo Kotov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kotov, Raivo

    2008-01-01

    Viru väljak 2 ajaloomälestisena riikliku kaitse all olevas hoones (1849) asus Tallinna Aleksandri gümnaasium. Peale detailplaneeringu (I. Raud, K-Projekt) kehtestamist jäid osaliselt kaitsealuseks hoone fassaadid. Olemasoleva kaitsealuse fassaadi taha kerkiva ärihoone kolmas eskiisprojekt (KOKO Arhitektid, 2007) pälvis muinsuskaitse heakskiidu

  16. Hemichorea after multiple bee stings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jin Young; Kim, Ji Seon; Min, Jin Hong; Han, Kyu Hong; Kang, Jun Ho; Lee, Suk Woo; Kim, Hoon; Park, Jung Soo

    2014-02-01

    Bee sting is one of the most commonly encountered insect bites in the world. Despite the common occurrence of local and systemic allergic reactions, there are few reports of ischemic stroke after bee stings. To the best our knowledge, there have been no reports on involuntary hyperkinetic movement disorders after multiple bee stings. We report the case of a 50-year-old man who developed involuntary movements of the left leg 24 hours after multiple bee stings, and the cause was confirmed to be a right temporal infarction on a diffusion magnetic resonance imaging scan. Thus, we concluded that the involuntary movement disorder was caused by right temporal infarction that occurred after multiple bee stings.

  17. Modernistlik ruumikontseptsioon ja nõukogude ideoloogia kohtuvad Viru hotellis / Karen Jagodin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jagodin, Karen, 1982-

    2006-01-01

    Ajavahemikul 1964-1968 arhitektide Henno Sepmanni ja Mart Pordi poolt projekteeritud ning 1972. a. valminud Viru hotellist Tallinnas, põhjalikum ülevaade hoone interjöörist. Sisearhitektid Väino Tamm, Vello Asi, Taevo Gans, Mait Summatavet ja Loomet Raudsepp. II korruse naiste juuksuri ruumid kujundas Kirsti Laanemaa. II korruse banketisaalis oli Mari Adamsoni gobelään "Tare", suures restoranisaalis Aet Andresma-Tamme ja Mare Soovik-Lobjakase klaaskompositsioon "Pilved", Viru väljakul Edgar Viiese skulptuur "Merepiiga" (1981)

  18. Rhabdomyolysis Secondary to Bee Sting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okhan Akdur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Insect stings belonging to Hymenoptera defined as wasps, yellow jackets, bees, or hornets by human usually result in unserious clinical pictures that go with pain. Rhabdomyolysis following a bee sting is a rare condition. This paper emphasizes “rhabdomyolysis” as a rare complication of this frequently observed envenomation. Rare but severe clinical results may occur due to multiple bee stings, such as intravascular hemolysis, rhabdomyolysis, acute renal insufficiency, and hepatic dysfunction. In bee stings as in our case, clinicians should be alert for rhabdomyolysis in cases with generalized body and muscle pain. Early onset alkaline diuresis and management in patients with rhabdomyolysis are vital in protecting the renal functions and preventing morbidity and mortality.

  19. Identifying Insect Bites and Stings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Editor & Contributors Sponsors Sponsorship Opportunities Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Health Issues Conditions Abdominal ... birdbaths) and are attracted by bright colors and sweat. Bites result in stinging sensation followed by a ...

  20. Res Publica Ida-Viru piirkond valis uue juhatuse / Erik Gamzejev

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gamzejev, Erik, 1967-

    2002-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Severnoje Poberezhje 4. dets. lk. 1. Res Publica Ida-Viru piirkonna üldkogul valiti uus juhatus, Vladimir Sarantsevi sõnul oli koosolek enamiku Kohtla-Järve osakonna liikmete arvates õigustühine. Res Publica peasekretäri Tõnis Konsi kommentaare

  1. Catfish stings: A report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamali Dorooshi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Venomous catfish stings are a common environment hazard worldwide. Although these stings are often innocuous, significant morbidity may result from stings, including severe pain, retained foreign bodies, infection, respiratory compromise, arterial hypotension, and cardiac dysrhythmias. Treatment included hot water immersion, analgesia, wound exploration, and prophylactic antibiotics. In this article, two cases of stings by catfish referred to the poison center of Noor Hospital, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and their treatments have been reported.

  2. Rahuoperatsioonide Keskuses alustab sotsiaalse ja psühholoogilise toetuse sektsioon / Merle Tihaste, Marge Sillaste

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Parmak, Merle, 1968-

    2008-01-01

    Missioonidel osalevatele või pikaajalises lähetuses viibivatele kaitseväelastele ja nende peredele suunatud sotsiaalse ja psühholoogilise toetuse tagamiseks loodud sektsioonist Rahuoperatsioonide Keskuse koosseisus. Sektsiooni töömudelist, ülesannetest ja koostöövõrgustikust. Skeem: Sotsiaalse ja psühholoogilise toetuse sektsiooni töömudel ja partnerid

  3. Mõtisklus kivirannal : Visby rahvusvaheline heliloojate keskus kui loominguline pelgupaik / Mirjam Tally

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tally, Mirjam, 1976-

    2008-01-01

    Gotlandi saarel asuvast heliloojate keskusest. Lühiintervjuu hiljuti keskuses töötanud kahe heliloojaga - Lõuna-Koreast pärit, ent Floridas elava Suk-Jun Kim'i ja Lõuna-Aafrikast vabariigist pärit Clare Loveday'ga

  4. Protecting Yourself from Stinging Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from St ing in g In sect s Flying Insects Outdoor workers are at risk of being stung by flying insects (bees, wasps, and hornets) and fire ants. While ... If a worker is stung by a stinging insect: ■■ Have someone stay with the worker to be ...

  5. Management of corneal bee sting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razmjoo H

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Hassan Razmjoo1,2, Mohammad-Ali Abtahi1,2,4, Peyman Roomizadeh1,3, Zahra Mohammadi1,2, Seyed-Hossein Abtahi1,3,41Medical School, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (IUMS; 2Ophthalmology Ward, Feiz Hospital, IUMS; 3Isfahan Medical Students Research Center (IMSRC, IUMS; 4Isfahan Ophthalmology Research Center (IORC, Feiz Hospital, IUMS, Isfahan, IranAbstract: Corneal bee sting is an uncommon environmental eye injury that can result in various ocular complications with an etiology of penetrating, immunologic, and toxic effects of the stinger and its injected venom. In this study we present our experience in the management of a middle-aged male with a right-sided deep corneal bee sting. On arrival, the patient was complaining of severe pain, blurry vision with acuity of 160/200, and tearing, which he had experienced soon after the injury. Firstly, we administered conventional drugs for eye injuries, including topical antibiotic, corticosteroid, and cycloplegic agents. After 2 days, corneal stromal infiltration and edema developed around the site of the sting, and visual acuity decreased to 100/200. These conditions led us to remove the stinger surgically. Within 25 days of follow-up, the corneal infiltration decreased gradually, and visual acuity improved to 180/200. We suggest a two-stage management approach for cases of corneal sting. For the first stage, if the stinger is readily accessible or primary dramatic reactions, including infiltration, especially on the visual axis, exist, manual or surgical removal would be indicated. Otherwise, we recommend conventional treatments for eye injuries. Given this situation, patients should be closely monitored for detection of any worsening. If the condition does not resolve or even deteriorates, for the second stage, surgical removal of the stinger under local or generalized anesthesia is indicated.Keywords: bee sting, stinger, cornea, removal, management, surgery

  6. Wasp sting: An unusual fatal outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, P.; Mathew, P.; Pawar, B.; Calton, N.

    2008-01-01

    Wasp stings are not uncommon especially in populations living in theproximity of forested area-s all over the world. Local manifestationsfollowing stings are common and unusually life threatening anaphylaxis mayoccur, requiring prompt treatment. Multi organ failure and acute renalfailure following wasp stings are rare and histological evaluation suggestacute tubular necrosis secondary to hemolysis, rhabdomyolysis and directvenom toxicity. A rare complication of a patient following multiple waspstings with disseminated intravascular coagulation, acute renal failure andthrombotic microangiopathy is presented. (author)

  7. Lateral medullary syndrome after a scorpion sting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineeth Varghese Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Scorpion bites are a common problem in Southern parts of India. The sting of Mesobuthus tamulus belonging to the Buthidae family is known for being fatal. The toxidrome of scorpion sting is known for its effect on the cardiovascular system, and there have been rare reports of cerebrovascular accidents as well. We describe a case of lateral medullary syndrome secondary to scorpion sting. As per the knowledge of the authors, this is the first case report of the same.

  8. Management of Insect Sting Hypersensitivity: An Update

    OpenAIRE

    Pesek, Robert D.; Lockey, Richard F.

    2013-01-01

    Reactions to Hymenoptera insect stings are common. While most are self-limited, some induce systemic allergic reactions or anaphylaxis. Prompt recognition, diagnosis, and treatment of these reactions are important for improving quality-of-life and reducing the risk of future sting reactions. This review summarizes the current recommendations to diagnose and treat Hymenoptera sting induced allergic reactions and highlights considerations for various populations throughout the world.

  9. Bee sting after seizure and ischemic attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aynur Yurtseven

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Insect bites, bee stings are the most frequently encountered. Often seen after bee stings usually only local allergic reactions. Sometimes with very serious clinical condition may also be confronted. Of this rare clinical findings; polyneuritis, parkinsonism, encephalitis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, Guillain-Barre syndrome, myocardial infarction, pulmonary edema, hemorrhage, hemolytic anemia and renal disease has. Here a rare convulsions after a bee sting is presented.

  10. Sumerki klassitsizma / Iosef Kats

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kats, Iosef

    2004-01-01

    Tallinna Viru Keskuse juurde püstitatud Mare Mikofi kavandatud hiigelskulptuurist. Kuju on Mikofi versioon Weizenbergi "Hämarikust". Viru Keskuse arhitektide Vilen Künnapu ja Ain Padriku arvates peaks naiseskulptuur mahendama kaubakeskuse kubistlikku ja maskuliinset arhitektuuri

  11. Detection of Cyclic Dinucleotides by STING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiao-Xia; Su, Xiao-Dong

    2017-01-01

    STING (stimulator of interferon genes) is an essential signaling adaptor protein mediating cytosolic DNA-induced innate immunity for both microbial invasion and self-DNA leakage. STING is also a direct receptor for cytosolic cyclic dinucleotides (CDNs), including the microbial secondary messengers c-di-GMP (3',3'-cyclic di-GMP), 3',3'cGAMP (3',3'-cyclic GMP-AMP), and mammalian endogenous 2',3'cGAMP (2',3'-cyclic GMP-AMP) synthesized by cGAS (cyclic GMP-AMP synthase). Upon CDN binding, STING undergoes a conformational change to enable signal transduction by phosphorylation and finally to active IRF3 (Interferon regulatory factor 3) for type I interferon production. Here, we describe some experimental procedures such as Isothermal Titration Calorimetry and luciferase reporter assays to study the CDNs binding and activity by STING proteins.

  12. Insect Bites and Stings: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tips to remember. American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. http://www.aaaai.org/conditions-and-treatments/library/allergy-library/stinging-insect-allergy.aspx. Accessed Jan. 9, 2018. LoVecchio F. ...

  13. Beware of Bug Bites and Stings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and stings. These products contain ingredients such as colloidal oatmeal and sodium bicarbonate. Keep kids' nails short. ... Food and Drug Administration 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver Spring, MD 20993 1-888-INFO-FDA (1- ...

  14. Large local reactions to insect stings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, David B K

    2015-01-01

    Large local reactions (LLRs) are IgE-mediated late-phase inflammatory reactions that can cause great morbidity but are associated with a relatively low risk of future anaphylaxis. Patients with LLR may benefit from consultation with an allergist to help clarify the relative risk, to plan the best treatment for future stings, and to determine whether or not to pursue testing or venom immunotherapy (VIT). The chance of anaphylaxis to future stings is Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Sting Dynamics of Wind Tunnel Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-05-01

    Patterson AFB, AFFDL, Ohio, October 1964. 17. Brunk, James E. "Users Manual: Extended Capability Magnus Rotor and Ballistic Body 6-DOF Trajectory...measure "second-order" aerodynamic effects resulting, for example, from Reynolds number in- fluence. Consequently, all wind tunnel data systems are...sting-model interference effects , sting configurations normally consist of one or more linearly tapered sections combined with one or more untapered

  16. David James O'Brock-Kaljuvee : Viru Liimid oli omaniku kallis hobi / David James O'Brock-Kaljuvee ; interv. Gerli Romanovitsh

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    O'Brock-Kaljuvee, David James, 1970-

    2005-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Severnoje Poberezhje : Subbota. AS-i Viru Liimid juhatuse esimees oma ettevõttest, mille välismüük on kasvanud 20% ning esimest korda ollakse kasumis. Arvamust avaldavad Lembit Kaljuvee ja Tiit Vau

  17. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to remove a tick How to treat a bee sting When to see a dermatologist Burns Frostbite ... following tips: For painful bites , such as a bee sting, take an over-the-counter painkiller, such ...

  18. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a dermatologist Why see a board-certified dermatologist? Home Public and patients Skin, hair, and nail care ... bites and stings can be safely treated at home. To treat bug bites and stings at home, ...

  19. RRH: envenoming syndrome due to 200 stings from Africanized honeybees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Almeida Rosa da Silva

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Envenoming syndrome from Africanized bee stings is a toxic syndrome caused by the inoculation of large amounts of venom from multiple bee stings, generally more than five hundred. The incidence of severe toxicity from Africanized bee stings is rare but deadly. This report reveals that because of the small volume of distribution, having fewer stings does not exempt a patient from experiencing an unfavorable outcome, particularly in children, elderly people or underweight people.

  20. Hymenoptera Stings and the Acute Kidney Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashad Dongol

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Hymenoptera stings are a health concern. Apidae (bees, Vespidae (hornets, yellow jackets and wasps and Formicidae (ants are medically-important stinging insects under the order Hymenoptera. Clinical features from simple skin manifestations to severe and fatal organ injury are due to the hypersensitivity reactions and/ or the toxic effects of the venom inoculated. Here we discuss on Hymenoptera stings involving apids (honey bees and vespids (wasps, hornets and yellow jackets and their effect on renal function and associated morphological changes in the kidney. Despite the differences in venom composition and quantity released per sting in two insect groups, both lead to similar medical consequences, such as localised normal allergic reactions, mild to severe anaphylaxis and shock and multiple organ and tissue injury leading to multiple organ failure. Acute kidney injury (AKI is one of the unusual complications of Hymenoptera stings and has the basis of both immune-mediated and toxic effects. Evidence has proven that supportive therapy along with the standard medication is very efficient in completely restoring the kidney function without any recurrence.

  1. Giant Asian honeybee stings induced acute myocarditis: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    NP Dinamithra; S Sivansuthan

    2013-01-01

    Hymenopterid stings and subsequent allergic reactions including fatal anaphylaxis are a common indication for emergency department visits worldwide. Less commonly, multiple wasp stings can result in multi-system involvement ranging from intravascular hemolysis, rhabdomyolysis, acute renal failure, cardiac involvement, hepatic dysfunction and occasionally thrombocytopenia and coagulopathy. Here we report one case of multiple Giant Asian honey bee stings induced myocarditis.

  2. Giant Asian honeybee stings induced acute myocarditis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NP Dinamithra

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Hymenopterid stings and subsequent allergic reactions including fatal anaphylaxis are a common indication for emergency department visits worldwide. Less commonly, multiple wasp stings can result in multi-system involvement ranging from intravascular hemolysis, rhabdomyolysis, acute renal failure, cardiac involvement, hepatic dysfunction and occasionally thrombocytopenia and coagulopathy. Here we report one case of multiple Giant Asian honey bee stings induced myocarditis.

  3. Floristic survey of herbaceous and subshrubby aquatic and palustrine angiosperms of Viruá National Park, Roraima, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Suzana Maria; Barbosa, Tiago Domingos Mouzinho; Bittrich, Volker; do Amaral, Maria do Carmo Estanislau

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We provide and discuss a floristic survey of herbaceous and subshrubby aquatic and palustrine angiosperms of Viru? National Park (VNP). The VNP is located in the northern Amazon basin and displays phytophysiognomies distributed in a mosaic where these plants occur, as flooded forests, hydromorphic white-sand savannas, ?buritizais? and waterbodies. After expeditions between February/2010 and January/2015 and the analysis of specimens from regional herbaria, we list 207 species of herb...

  4. Uvula Bee Sting: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarungjit Kraiwattanapong

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available There have been several reports of Hymenoptera sting around the world, but only a few have been reported being stung at the oropharynx which is considered uncommon and can cause life threatening condition. The authors reported a case of a 41-year-old healthy man who had a bee sting at his uvula 4 hours before coming to the hospital. He felt a lump in his throat and had some degrees of difficult swallowing and breathing and had muffled voice. The uvula was swollen and there was a pinpoint penetrating lesion at the anterior surface of the uvula. No stinger was identified. Vital signs were stable with no stridor nor wheezing. Intraoperative examination to identify stinger was conducted and tissue at the stinging area was excised to confirm complete removal of the possible embedded foreign body.

  5. Masters of defence: biomechanics of stinging nettles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kaare H.; Knoblauch, Jan

    2017-11-01

    The techniques employed by plants and animals to defend themselves are very varied. Some involve extremely refined armaments. Stinging nettles employ hollow needle-like stinging hairs constructed from silica, the mineral from which we make glass, and they are filled with poison. The hairs are remarkably rigid and rarely break. Yet the tip is so sharp that the slightest touch cuts human skin, and so fragile that it breaks at that touch and releases poison into the wound. How the seemingly antagonist mechanical functions of rigidity and fragility are achieved, however, is unknown. We combine experiments on real and synthetic stingers to elucidate the poison injection mechanism. The design of plant stingers is compared to other natural systems and optimal stinging strategies are discussed. This work was supported by a research Grant (13166) from VILLUM FONDEN.

  6. Management of Corneal Bee Sting Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Ruju R; Gonzalez-Gonzalez, Luis A; Papakostas, Thanos D; Siracuse-Lee, Donna; Dunphy, Robert; Fanciullo, Lisa; Cakiner-Egilmez, Tulay; Daly, Mary K

    2017-01-01

    To review the management of keratitis after corneal bee stings and to report a case of deep stromal corneal infiltrate secondary to a retained bee stinger managed conservatively in a patient who presented three days after unsanitary manipulation of the stinger apparatus. Case report and review of literature. A 57-year-old male beekeeper was evaluated for pain, blurry vision, and photosensitivity after a corneal bee sting. Of note, the venom sac had been removed with dirty tweezers three days prior to his visit. On exam, a focal infiltrate with diffuse edema was seen surrounding a retained bee stinger in the peripheral cornea. Trace cells in the anterior chamber were also noted. Based on a high suspicion for infectious keratitis, a conservative treatment strategy was elected. Administration of broad-spectrum topical antibiotics with concomitant abstention of corticosteroids led to rapid resolution of the symptoms. Over 16 months of follow-up, the stinger has remained in situ without migration and the patient has maintained 20/20 visual acuity without complications. There is debate on the preferred method for the management of corneal injury secondary to bee stings, especially when it is associated with a retained stinger. We herein present our findings in our appraisal of reported cases. In the aftermath of an ocular bee sting, close surveillance for inflammation and infection is essential. Individual manifestations of these injuries vary in timing, type, and severity; therefore, the accessibility of the stinger and the evolving clinical picture should guide therapeutic decisions.

  7. Patients with massive honeybee stings: report of four cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahidi Sh

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Insect stings can cause local or systemic reactions that range from mild to fatal, and are among the most common causes of anaphylaxis. The major allergens of honeybee venom are phospholipase A2, hyaluronidase, acid phosphatase, allergen C and melitin. Phospholipase and melitin induce hemolysis, rhabdomyolysis and liver damage due to cell membrane breakdown, damage of the vascular endothelium and activation of the inflammatory response. Rhabdomyolysis has been implicated as the cause of acute renal failure in approximately 5-7% of cases. However, bee stings are a rare cause of rhabdomyolysis, and are usually associated with 50 or more stings. It has been reported that more than 250 bee stings are capable of causing death in humans. "nCase report: We report two cases of massive honeybee stings (>2000 with rhabdomyolysis, hemolysis and acute renal failure who survived with full recovery, and two cases of >500 honeybee stings who survived without significant complications.

  8. Sting jets in intense winter North-Atlantic windstorms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez-Alvarado, Oscar; Gray, Suzanne L; Clark, Peter A; Catto, Jennifer L

    2012-01-01

    Extratropical cyclones dominate autumn and winter weather over western Europe. The strongest cyclones, often termed windstorms, have a large socio-economic impact due to the strong surface winds and associated storm surges in coastal areas. Here we show that sting jets are a common feature of windstorms; up to a third of the 100 most intense North-Atlantic winter windstorms over the last two decades satisfy conditions for sting jets. The sting jet is a mesoscale descending airstream that can cause strong near-surface winds in the dry slot of the cyclone, a region not usually associated with strong winds. Despite their localized transient nature, these sting jets can cause significant damage, a prominent example being the storm that devastated southeast England on 16 October 1987. We present the first regional climatology of windstorms with sting jets. Previously analysed sting-jet cases appear to have been exceptional in their track over northwest Europe rather than in their strength. (letter)

  9. Acute pancreatitis and acute renal failure following multiple hornet stings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Sharma

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Hymenoptera is a class of insects that sting in order to subdue their prey. Humans coming into accidental contact with these insects results in stings that may cause from mild local reaction like weal formation around the sting site to severe systemic reactions such as intravascular hemolysis, acute renal failure, pulmonary edema, cerebral edema, and rarely pancreatitis. We report here the clinical course of a patient who developed concurrent acute pancreatitis and pigment-induced acute renal failure after multiple hornet stings.

  10. Acute Toxic Myocarditis and Pulmonary Oedema Developing from Scorpion Sting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Sahin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The majority of scorpion stings are generally seen with a set of simple clinical findings, such as pain, oedema, numbness, and tenderness in the area of the sting. However, occasionally events, such as toxic myocarditis, acute heart failure, acute pulmonary oedema, and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS, which occur in scorpion sting cases are a significant problem which determine mortality and morbidity. The case presented here was a 38-year-old man who developed acute toxic myocarditis, acute heart failure, and acute pulmonary oedema following a scorpion sting on the 3rd finger of his right hand.

  11. Cerebral edema associated to scorpion sting: a two-case sting report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. O. Romero

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Scorpionism is a public health problem in some places in Mexico. The clinical symptoms of envenomation by scorpion sting are by sympathetic and parasympathetic stimulation, developing systemic and local symptoms. The Central Nervous System (CNS is one of the organs that are affected. In some cases, cerebral edema develops. In this report we present two pediatric cases with the association of envenomation by scorpion sting and cerebral edema. The first case developed severe cerebral edema, which progressed to a fatal outcome; and the other case developed mild cerebral edema with a satisfactory evolution. The pathophysiology of this complication is not well known and probably is the consequence of hypoxia, secondary to respiratory failure, laryngospasm and seizures that are manifestations of envenomation by scorpion sting.

  12. Metro Plaza tõi Viru väljakule LED-valguse hõõguva tuledemängu / Maris Meiessaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Meiessaar, Maris

    2009-01-01

    2009. a. alguses Tallinnas Viru väljak 2 valmivast ärihoonest ja selle klaasfassaadide valgustusest. Ärihoone seisab 19. saj. ehitatud maja muinsuskaitse all oleva fassaadi taga. Autorid: büroo KOKO Arhitektid arhitektid Raivo Kotov ja Lembit-Kaur Stöör ning sisearhitektid Liis Lindvere ja Raili Paling. Ehitaja: Facio Ehitus

  13. Keskerakonna Ida-Viru piirkonna juht Eevi Paasmäe: "Mulle meeldib olla otsustamise juures!" / Eevi Paasmäe ; interv. Erik Gamzejev

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paasmäe, Eevi, 1952-

    2005-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Severnoje Poberezhje : Subbota 10. sets., lk. 3. Keskerakonna Ida-Viru piirkonna juht lõppenud kohalike valimiste tulemustest, erakonna edust. Arvamust avaldavad Riigikogu spiiker Toomas Varek ja Keskerakonna Jõhvi osakonna juht Villu Pung. Eevi Paasmäe CV

  14. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 0; c public SPOT Skin Cancer™ Diseases and treatments Skin, hair, and nail care Skin care Hair care / hair loss Injured skin Blisters Bug bites and stings How to remove a tick How to treat a bee sting When to see a dermatologist Burns Frostbite Splinters Treating sunburn Wound care Nail care ...

  15. Maaleht soovitab : Superstaarid esinevad Taskus. Monkist "Saaremaa valsini". Muusikapidu pärimusmuusika keskuses. Suvelõpupidu Marina külas. Hortus Musicus esineb Väravatornis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    18. sept. esinevad Tartus Tasku moe- ja vaba aja keskuses telekonkursil Eesti otsib Superstaari osalenud Jana Kask ja Arno Suislep ning saate "Kaks takti ette" võitja Margus Vaher. 18. sept. toimub Tallinna Kunstihoones kitarristide Tiit Pauluse ja Jaak Sooääre uue CD esitluskontsert. 19. sept. toimub Viljandi pärimusmuusika keskuses maailmamuusika-pidu. Suvelõpupeol 20. sept. Saarde vallas Grossi järve ääres Marina külas esinevad Virve Köster ja Audru Jõelaevanduse Punt. 20. sept. Tallinnas Väravatornis esineb vanamuusikaansambel Hortus Musicus

  16. Late Onset of Acute Urticaria after Bee Stings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko Asai

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Here we report the cases of five patients with a late onset of acute urticaria after a bee sting. The ages of the five Japanese patients ranged from 33 to 86 years (median: 61. All patients had no history of an allergic reaction to bee stings. The onset of urticaria was 6–14 days (median: 10 after a bee sting. Although four of the patients did not describe experiencing a bee sting at their presentation, the subsequent examination detected anti-bee-specific IgE antibodies. So, we think a history of a bee sting should thus be part of the medical interview sheet for patients with acute urticaria, and an examination of IgE for bees may help prevent a severe bee-related anaphylactic reaction in the future.

  17. Stinging and biting insect allergy: an Australian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solley, Graham O

    2004-12-01

    Stings and bites from various insects are responsible for many anaphylactic events. To document the clinical features of specific forms of anaphylaxis and investigate clinical concerns regarding stinging and biting insect allergy. All patients presenting for evaluation of adverse reactions to insect stings or bites between December 1980 and December 1997 had the clinical details of their reactions recorded and their reactions classified. The spectrum of clinical symptoms and signs is similar to that seen in anaphylaxis from other sources; stings on the head or neck are not more likely to cause life-threatening reactions than stings elsewhere on the body; a lesser reaction will not necessarily lead to a more serious reaction from a future sting; asthmatic patients do appear to have an increased risk of asthma as a feature of their anaphylactic response; anaphylaxis is usually confined to a particular insect species for the individual patient; patients who have had multiple stings at one time may have experienced true anaphylaxis and not a "toxic" response; and patients who have had anaphylaxis from other sources are at no greater risk than that of the general population of reacting similarly to insect stings or bites. Anaphylactic events from insect stings show the same clinical features as those from other sources. Systemic reactions seem confined to a specific insect species. Patients who experience RXN3 reactions from multiple stings at one time should undergo specific venom testing, because many have experienced true anaphylaxis and not a toxic response. Future consideration should be given to the role of beta-adrenergic antagonists and ACE inhibitors in patients with systemic reactions.

  18. STING Signaling Promotes Inflammation in Experimental Acute Pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qinglan; Wei, Yi; Pandol, Stephen J; Li, Lingyin; Habtezion, Aida

    2018-05-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is characterized by severe inflammation and acinar cell death. Transmembrane protein 173 (TMEM173 or STING) is a DNA sensor adaptor protein on immune cells that recognizes cytosolic nucleic acids and transmits signals that activate production of interferons and the innate immune response. We investigated whether leukocyte STING signaling mediates inflammation in mice with AP. We induced AP in C57BL/6J mice (control) and C57BL/6J-Tmem173gt/J mice (STING-knockout mice) by injection of cerulein or placement on choline-deficient DL-ethionine supplemented diet. In some mice, STING signaling was induced by administration of a pharmacologic agonist. AP was also induced in C57BL/6J mice with bone marrow transplants from control or STING-knockout mice and in mice with disruption of the cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (Cgas) gene. Pancreata were collected, analyzed by histology, and acini were isolated and analyzed by flow cytometry, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, immunoblots, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Bone-marrow-derived macrophages were collected from mice and tested for their ability to detect DNA from dying acinar cells in the presence and absence of deoxyribonuclease (DNaseI). STING signaling was activated in pancreata from mice with AP but not mice without AP. STING-knockout mice developed less severe AP (less edema, inflammation, and markers of pancreatic injury) than control mice, whereas mice given a STING agonist developed more severe AP than controls. In immune cells collected from pancreata, STING was expressed predominantly in macrophages. Levels of cGAS were increased in mice with vs without AP, and cGAS-knockout mice had decreased edema, inflammation, and other markers of pancreatic injury upon induction of AP than control mice. Wild-type mice given bone marrow transplants from STING-knockout mice had less pancreatic injury and lower serum levels of lipase and pancreatic trypsin activity following induction of AP than

  19. Floristic survey of herbaceous and subshrubby aquatic and palustrine angiosperms of Viruá National Park, Roraima, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Suzana Maria; Barbosa, Tiago Domingos Mouzinho; Bittrich, Volker; do Amaral, Maria do Carmo Estanislau

    2016-01-01

    We provide and discuss a floristic survey of herbaceous and subshrubby aquatic and palustrine angiosperms of Viruá National Park (VNP). The VNP is located in the northern Amazon basin and displays phytophysiognomies distributed in a mosaic where these plants occur, as flooded forests, hydromorphic white-sand savannas, "buritizais" and waterbodies. After expeditions between February/2010 and January/2015 and the analysis of specimens from regional herbaria, we list 207 species of herbaceous and subshrubby aquatic and palustrine angiosperms for the VNP, distributed in 85 genera in 37 families. We recorded six new occurrences for Brazil, two for the northern Brazilian region and 21 for Roraima state. These new occurrences, added to the other species listed here, highlight the floristic similarity between the study site and the Guiana Shield, an adjacent phytogeographical unit and geologically related to the origin of white-sand savannas.

  20. Injuries, envenomations and stings from exotic pets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, Clifford; Steedman, Catrina

    2012-07-01

    A variety of exotic vertebrate and invertebrate species are kept as 'pets' including fishes, amphibians (for example, frogs and toads), reptiles (turtles, crocodiles, lizards and snakes), birds, mammals (for example, primates, civets, and lions), and invertebrates (for example spiders, scorpions, and centipedes), and ownership of some of these animals is rising. Data for 2009-2011 suggest that the number of homes with reptiles rose by approximately 12.5%. Recent surveys, including only some of these animals, indicated that they might be present in around 18.6% of homes (equal to approximately 42 million animals of which around 40 million are indoor or outdoor fish). Many exotic 'pets' are capable of causing injury or poisoning to their keepers and some contacts prove fatal. We examined NHS Health Episode Statistics for England using selected formal categories for hospital admissions and bed days for 2004-2010 using the following categories of injury, envenomation or sting; bitten or struck by crocodile or alligator; bitten or crushed by other reptiles: contact with venomous snakes and lizards; contact with scorpions. Between 2004 and 2010 these data conservatively show a total of 760 full consultation episodes, 709 admissions and 2,121 hospital bed days were associated with injuries probably from exotic pets. Injuries, envenomations and stings from exotic pets constitute a small but important component of emerging medical problems. Greater awareness of relevant injuries and medical sequelae from exotic pet keeping may help medics formulate their clinical assessment and advice to patients.

  1. Acute kidney injury complicating bee stings – a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Geraldo Bezerra; Vasconcelos, Adolfo Gomes; Rocha, Amanda Maria Timbó; de Vasconcelos, Vanessa Ribeiro; de Barros, João; Fujishima, Julye Sampaio; Ferreira, Nathália Barros; Barros, Elvino José Guardão; Daher, Elizabeth De Francesco

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bee stings can cause severe reactions and have caused many victims in the last years. Allergic reactions can be triggered by a single sting and the greater the number of stings, the worse the prognosis. The poisoning effects can be systemic and can eventually cause death. The poison components are melitin, apamin, peptide 401, phospholipase A2, hyaluronidase, histamine, dopamine, and norepinephrine, with melitin being the main lethal component. Acute kidney injury (AKI) can be observed in patients suffering from bee stings and this is due to multiple factors, such as intravascular hemolysis, rhabdomyolysis, hypotension and direct toxicity of the venom components to the renal tubules. Arterial hypotension plays an important role in this type of AKI, leading to ischemic renal lesion. The most commonly identified biopsy finding in these cases is acute tubular necrosis, which can occur due to both, ischemic injury and the nephrotoxicity of venom components. Hemolysis and rhabdomyolysis reported in many cases in the literature, were demonstrated by elevated serum levels of indirect bilirubin and creatine kinase. The severity of AKI seems to be associated with the number of stings, since creatinine levels were higher, in most cases, when there were more than 1,000 stings. The aim of this study is to present an updated review of AKI associated with bee stings, including the currently advised clinical approach. PMID:28591253

  2. Acute kidney injury complicating bee stings - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Geraldo Bezerra da; Vasconcelos, Adolfo Gomes; Rocha, Amanda Maria Timbó; Vasconcelos, Vanessa Ribeiro de; Barros, João de; Fujishima, Julye Sampaio; Ferreira, Nathália Barros; Barros, Elvino José Guardão; Daher, Elizabeth De Francesco

    2017-06-01

    Bee stings can cause severe reactions and have caused many victims in the last years. Allergic reactions can be triggered by a single sting and the greater the number of stings, the worse the prognosis. The poisoning effects can be systemic and can eventually cause death. The poison components are melitin, apamin, peptide 401, phospholipase A2, hyaluronidase, histamine, dopamine, and norepinephrine, with melitin being the main lethal component. Acute kidney injury (AKI) can be observed in patients suffering from bee stings and this is due to multiple factors, such as intravascular hemolysis, rhabdomyolysis, hypotension and direct toxicity of the venom components to the renal tubules. Arterial hypotension plays an important role in this type of AKI, leading to ischemic renal lesion. The most commonly identified biopsy finding in these cases is acute tubular necrosis, which can occur due to both, ischemic injury and the nephrotoxicity of venom components. Hemolysis and rhabdomyolysis reported in many cases in the literature, were demonstrated by elevated serum levels of indirect bilirubin and creatine kinase. The severity of AKI seems to be associated with the number of stings, since creatinine levels were higher, in most cases, when there were more than 1,000 stings. The aim of this study is to present an updated review of AKI associated with bee stings, including the currently advised clinical approach.

  3. V poiskah zhenskogo obraza / Iosef Kats

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kats, Iosef

    2007-01-01

    Keskaegsed ja kaasaegsed naisekujud Tallinna linnaruumis. Kaasaegsetest skulptuuridest on juttu Juta Eskeli "Tütarlapsest kausiga" Kaarli puiestee haljasalal ja Mare Mikofi "Hämarikust" Viru keskuse juures

  4. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... hair, and nail care Skin care Hair care / hair loss Injured skin Nail care Anti-aging skin care ... hair, and nail care Skin care Hair care / hair loss Injured skin Blisters Bug bites and stings How ...

  5. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

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    Full Text Available ... Part 1: Structure Part 2: Origin Part 3: Function Textbook Study notes Image library 3-D animated ... nail care Injured skin Bug bites and stings "); (function () { var a = "", b = [ "adid=aad-aad-1", "site= ...

  6. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

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    Full Text Available ... Tips to prevent and treat bug bites Although most bug bites are harmless, some can spread dangerous ... one’s greatest efforts, bug bites still happen. Fortunately, most bug bites and stings can be safely treated ...

  7. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

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    Full Text Available ... Excellence in Dermatopathology™ Excellence in Pediatric Dermatology™ Donate Search Menu Donate Member resources and programs Member benefits ... to bites and stings FIND A DERMATOLOGIST Advanced Search "); (function () { var a = "", b = [ "adid=aad-aad-6", " ...

  8. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

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    Full Text Available ... and Lectureship Clarence S. Livingood Award and Lectureship Marion B. Sulzberger Award and Lectureship Master Dermatologist Award Members ... skin Bug bites and stings "); (function () { var a = "", b = [ "adid=aad-aad-1", "site=ehs.con.aad. ...

  9. Virulent poxviruses inhibit DNA sensing by preventing STING activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgana, Iliana; Sumner, Rebecca P; Towers, Greg J; Maluquer de Motes, Carlos

    2018-02-28

    Cytosolic recognition of DNA has emerged as a critical cellular mechanism of host immune activation upon pathogen invasion. The central cytosolic DNA sensor cGAS activates STING, which is phosphorylated, dimerises and translocates from the ER to a perinuclear region to mediate IRF-3 activation. Poxviruses are dsDNA viruses replicating in the cytosol and hence likely to trigger cytosolic DNA sensing. Here we investigated the activation of innate immune signalling by 4 different strains of the prototypic poxvirus vaccinia virus (VACV) in a cell line proficient in DNA sensing. Infection with the attenuated VACV strain MVA activated IRF-3 via cGAS and STING, and accordingly STING dimerised and was phosphorylated during MVA infection. Conversely, VACV strains Copenhagen and Western Reserve inhibited STING dimerisation and phosphorylation during infection and in response to transfected DNA and cGAMP, thus efficiently suppressing DNA sensing and IRF-3 activation. A VACV deletion mutant lacking protein C16, thought to be the only viral DNA sensing inhibitor acting upstream of STING, retained the ability to block STING activation. Similar inhibition of DNA-induced STING activation was also observed for cowpox and ectromelia viruses. Our data demonstrate that virulent poxviruses possess mechanisms for targeting DNA sensing at the level of the cGAS-STING axis and that these mechanisms do not operate in replication-defective strains such as MVA. These findings shed light on the role of cellular DNA sensing in poxvirus-host interactions and will open new avenues to determine its impact on VACV immunogenicity and virulence. IMPORTANCE Poxviruses are dsDNA viruses infecting a wide range of vertebrates and include the causative agent of smallpox (variola virus) and its vaccine vaccinia virus (VACV). Despite smallpox eradication VACV remains of interest as a therapeutic. Attenuated strains are popular vaccine candidates, whereas replication-competent strains are emerging as

  10. Diagnostic methods for insect sting allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Robert G

    2004-08-01

    This review overviews advances from mid-2002 to the present in the validation and performance methods used in the diagnosis of Hymenoptera venom-induced immediate-type hypersensitivity. The general diagnostic algorithm for insect sting allergy is initially discussed with an examination of the AAAAI's 2003 revised practice parameter guidelines. Changes as a result of a greater recognition of skin test negative systemic reactors include repeat analysis of all testing and acceptance of serology as a complementary diagnostic test to the skin test. Original data examining concordance of venom-specific IgE results produced by the second-generation Pharmacia CAP System with the Johns Hopkins University radioallergosorbent test are presented. Diagnostic performance of honeybee venom-specific IgE assays used in clinical laboratories in North America is discussed using data from the Diagnostic Allergy Proficiency Survey conducted by the College of American Pathologists. Validity of venom-specific IgE antibody in postmortem blood specimens is demonstrated. The utility of alternative in-vivo (provocation) and in-vitro (basophil-based) diagnostic testing methods is critiqued. This overview supports the following conclusions. Improved practice parameter guidelines include serology and skin test as complementary in supporting a positive clinical history during the diagnostic process. Data are provided which support the analytical performance of commercially available venom-specific IgE antibody serology-based assays. Intentional sting challenge in-vivo provocation, in-vitro basophil flow cytometry (CD63, CD203c) based assays, and in-vitro basophil histamine and sulfidoleukotriene release assays have their utility in the study of difficult diagnostic cases, but their use will remain as supplementary, secondary diagnostic tests.

  11. [Hymenoptera stings in eyeball--clinical symptoms, patomechanism and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichocka-Jarosz, Ewa; Weglarz, Monika; Romanowska-Dixon, Bozena

    2009-01-01

    Eyeball is a rare stings location additionally with very special immunology response, with no systemic anaphylactic reactions. The ACAID (Anterior Chamber Associated Immune Deviation) phenomenon causes a special immunology privilege of the eyeball, which prevents late immunological answer reaction and destruction processes of the anterior part of the eye. In case that sting penetrates the eyeball local allergic reaction can appear despite ACAID phenomenon. Adequate treatment is necessary for those patients. It can lead to permanent visual acuity deterioration.

  12. Pulmonary Edema and Myocarditis Developing Due to Scorpion Stings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevdegul Karadas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Although most of the scorpion stings are harmless, deadly species of scorpions may cause multiorgan failure, neurotoxicity, cardiotoxicity, and pulmonary edema. The cases should be observed in the emergency department against the possibility of development of systemic effects. Fatal complications, in particular such as pulmonary edema, and myocarditis should be considered. In this study, a case of myocarditis and pulmonary edema was detected on the patient who had applied to the emergency department due to a scorpion sting is presented.

  13. Emission of pollutants and the dynamics of air quality in Ida-Viru County in 1995-1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liblik, Valdo; Kundel, Helmut; Maalma, Kaiu

    1999-01-01

    The organisation of monitoring atmospheric air in Ida-Viru County is described and data on the emission of pollutants in 1995-1998 are presented by industrial enterprises and by individual pollutants. A thorough analysis of the concentration of pollutants in the atmospheric air and air quality of towns and concrete air monitoring data are presented. Changes in the air quality are analysed by towns as well as by pollutants. An analysis of the dynamics of the changes in emissions and air quality showed that after a low concentration of pollutants in the atmospheric air in 1993-1995 a tendency towards worsening air quality occurred in 1995-1997. The concentration of some pollutants, for example phenol, has again reached the level of 1990-1991 when the largest amounts of pollutants were emitted into the air. These are signs of some new intensification of production activity in the region, but also of decreasing interest in environmental issues. Although according to reports the total volume of pollutants emitted into the atmosphere in Ida-Viru County has fallen nearly twice as compared with 1991, air monitoring data do not corroborate this. Hazardous pollution incidences may emerge at Saka and in the district of Jaerve in Kohtla-Jaerve in case of unfavourable weather conditions (no wind, high air temperature). The analysis of monitoring data revealed a necessity to improve the system of collecting and processing air monitoring data. For example, at present it is not possible to make a thorough analysis (including correlation analysis of the concentrations of pollutants and direction of winds) of the towns of Narva various objects on an undermine objective conclusions about the origin of pollutants cannot be drawn. It is necessary to guarantee that the existing automatic monitoring system OPSIS should be kept in working order as it is of great significance in monitoring and objective estimation of the air quality in Jaerve district in Kohtla-Jaerve. Presently OPSIS is

  14. Solos e geoambientes do Parque Nacional do Viruá e entorno, Roraima: visão integrada da paisagem e serviço ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Araujo Furtado de Mendonça

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Viruá National Park (PARNA Viruá occupies 227.011 ha, in the region of the low ‘Branco’ river, in Roraima state. This area includes an extensive mosaic of complex seasonally flooded forested and nonforested environments. The present work aimed to characterize pedological aspects and identify the geoenvironmental units of the Park and surroundings, in an integrated vision of the landscape and,additionally, estimate the carbon stocks in soils and geo-environments. We described and collected 29 soil profiles according with the main vegetation types of Campinaranas and Forests of PARNA Viruá and surroundings. The main soil classes are: Espodossolo Humilúvico, Neossolo Quartzarênico, Neossolo Flúvico, Neossolo Litólicos, Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo, Latossolo Vermelho, Cambissolo Háplico, Cambissolo Flúvico, Gleissolo Háplico and Plintossolo Háplico. The soils present an spatial distribution marked by abrupt limits and close association with the vegetation type. We identified three pedo-environments: (1 sandy soils of the Campinaranas; (2 soils associated with the inselbergs and adjacencies; and (3 alluvial soils. We mapped and described 18 geoenvironmental units in PARNA Viruá National Park and surroundings. The main geoenvironments are: i Sandy plains and Paleodunes with grassy and arborous Campinarana on ‘Neossolos Quartzarênicos hidromórficos’ and ‘Espodossolos’; and Floodplains and; ii Terraces with Igapó Forest on sandy hydromorphic soils, occupying 24.6 % and 20.1 % of the studied area, respectively. In terms of total soil carbon stocks, the geo-environments of the sandy complex of Campinaranas and associations stand out, with 9450.9 Gg C. The great extension and representativeness of the sandy areas of Campinaranas characterize PARNA Viruá Park as an important conservation unit for protecting Amazonian sandy soil systems. The areas under the domain of ‘Espodossolos’ possess the largest stocks of organic

  15. Characterization of Organic Matter under Different Pedoenvironments in the Viruá National Park, in Northern Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Frutuoso do Vale Júnior

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Soil organic matter (SOM fractions result from a variety of environmental processes, which affect incorporation and production rates, decomposition, alteration, and/or mineralization of organic matter. The aim of this study was to characterize SOM under the environments of rain forest, wooded campinarana (grasslands, arboreal-shrubby campinarana, grassy-woody campinarana, and pioneer plants of the Viruá National Park, in the north of the Brazilian Amazon. After chemical and physical characterization and soil classification, total organic carbon (TOC, total N, microbial activity, organic C from fulvic acid fractions (FA, humic acid (HA, and humin (Hu were determined at two depths (0.00-0.15 and 0.15-0.30 m. The TOC was lower in the grassy-woody campinarana, arboreal-shrubby campinarana, and pioneer formation areas than in the rain forest. Higher values of microbial activity were related to forest ecosystems in soils without physical or water restrictions and with better fertility compared to the other areas. The Hu predominated in all vegetation types studied, especially in the surface layer, because of the more soluble nature of HA and FA; and the higher values of HA/FA ratios in wooded campinaranas indicate that these environments contribute to higher losses of humic substances through fulvic acid forms, due to better drainage conditions.

  16. [Skin cell response after jellyfish sting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamicová, Katarína; Výbohová, Desanka; Fetisovová, Želmíra; Nováková, Elena; Mellová, Yvetta

    2016-01-01

    Jellyfish burning is not commonly part of the professional finding in the central Europe health care laboratory. Holiday seaside tourism includes different and unusual presentations of diseases for our worklplaces. Sea water-sports and leisure is commonly connected with jellyfish burning and changes in the skin, that are not precisely described. Authors focused their research on detection of morphological and quantitative changes of some inflammatory cells in the skin biopsy of a 59-years-old woman ten days after a jellyfish stinging. Because of a comparison of findings the biopsy was performed in the skin with lesional and nonlesional skin. Both excisions of the skin were tested by imunohistochemical methods to detect CD68, CD163, CD30, CD4, CD3, CD8, CD20 a CD1a, to detect histiocytes, as well as several clones of lymphocytes and Langerhans cells (antigen presenting cells of skin), CD 117, toluidin blue and chloracetase esterase to detect mastocytes and neutrophils. Material was tested by immunofluorescent methods to detect IgA, IgM, IgG, C3, C4, albumin and fibrinogen. Representative view-fields were documented by microscope photocamera Leica DFC 420 C. Registered photos from both samples of the skin were processed by morphometrical analysis by the Vision Assistant software. A student t-test was used for statistical analysis of reached results. Mean values of individual found cells in the sample with lesion and without lesion were as follows: CD117 -2.64/0.37, CD68-6.86/1.63, CD163-3.13/2.23, CD30-1.36/0.02, CD4-3.51/0.32, CD8-8.22/0.50, CD3-10.69/0.66, CD20-0.56/0.66, CD1a-7.97/0.47 respectively. Generally mild elevation of eosinofils in lesional skin was detected. Increased values of tested cells seen in excision from lesional skin when compared with nonlesional ones were statistically significant in eight case at the level p = 0.033 to 0.001. A not statistically significant difference was found only in the group of CD163+ histiocytes. Authors detected numbers

  17. The Evolution from Culture Communication to Brand Marketing : The development of ‘China Town Week’ brand of Kiinalaisen Kulttuurin Yhteistyön Keskus in Finland.

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Si; Lu, Qiuyi

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, there is much personnel, economic and cultural exchange in different countries because of the development of world economy’s globalization. Chinese culture is popular in the world, many Chinatowns are formed in different countries and serial activities of Chinese culture are organized every year in European countries, however without excessive promotion in Finland. Kiinalaisen Kulttuurin Yhteistyön Keskus was established for promoting Chinese Culture and Wisdom in Finland. This...

  18. Stinging insect allergy: state of the art 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tankersley, Michael S; Ledford, Dennis K

    2015-01-01

    Stinging insect allergy is responsible for more than 10% of all cases of anaphylaxis. The potential culprit insects are diverse and vary with geography. The incidence of insect allergy is declining in some areas and increasing in others, possibly due to effects of climate change, introduction of species into new areas, outdoor recreational activities, and movement of human populations that brings insects into contact with a greater number of people. Flying Hymenoptera and imported fire ant stings are responsible for the majority of patients evaluated for insect anaphylaxis. The most efficient means of identifying allergy to insects is skin testing although falsely positive and negative results occur. The limitations of testing coupled with the natural temporal variability of allergic sensitivity complicate the interpretation of test results. The clinical history is of paramount importance to be certain that the test results are relevant; therefore, screening or testing before a history of a sting reaction is not advisable. Mast cell disorders are associated with severe anaphylaxis from insect stings and should be considered in affected subjects. Insect immunotherapy, using venoms for most insects and whole-body extracts for imported fire ants, is proven effective in reducing the likelihood of anaphylaxis due to subsequent stings from 40%-60% to less than 5%. Future clinical application of component testing or in vitro cellular tests, such as the basophil activation test, may improve optimal choices for immunotherapy. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. A Call for sting treatment protocol: Case report of a 3 year old with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute Kidney Injury in children following bee sting envenomation is rare and survival is hinged on early recognition and prompt appropriate management. This report is aimed at raising awareness among healthcare workers, of one of the systemic effects of massive bee sting and the need to develop sting treatment protocol.

  20. Brain infarcts due to scorpion stings in children: MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-Bouzas, A.; Ballesteros-Maresma, A.; Morales-Resendiz, M.L.; Llamas-Ibarra, F.; Martinez-Lopez, M.

    2000-01-01

    We report two children with severe neurological complications after having been stung by a scorpion. Clinical and MRI findings suggested brain infarcts. The lesions seen were in pons in one child and the right hemisphere in the other. The latter also showed possible hyperemia in the infarcted area. No vascular occlusions were observed and we therefore think the brain infarcts were a consequence of the scorpion sting. The cause of the infarct may be hypotension, shock or depressed left ventricular function, all of which are frequent in severe poisoning by scorpion sting. (orig.)

  1. INVESTIGATION OF STINGING NETTLE (URTICA DIOICA L.) IN LITHUANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Jankauskienė, Zofija; Gruzdevienė, Elvyra

    2010-01-01

    Fiber nettle is a cultivated form of the wild nettle and could become a renewable recourse of natural fibres in Lithuania. The aim of research was to investigate propagation ability (shoot rooting) of stinging nettle, investigate influence of different crop density on plant biometrical indices, productivity. The investigation was carried out at the Upytė Research Station of LIA in 2008-2009. The shoots of stinging nettle were cut into segments, the top part of the stem and the segments of the...

  2. Radiologic Findings of Foreign Body Granuloma by the Bee Sting: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Won; Yang, Ik; Kim, Jeong Won; Jung, Ah Young; Chung, Soo Young; Kim, Hong Dae; Woo, Ji Young; Yoon, Sa Rah; Choi, Seon Hyeong

    2010-01-01

    Bee sting therapy is a folk remedy used for arthralgia. An adverse reaction to bee sting therapy can be variable, ranging from a local inflammatory reaction to generalized anaphylaxis. There have been reports of dermatologic findings pertaining to bee sting granulomas, which results from a foreign body reaction to the persistence of venom and stinger at the sting site. However to the best of our knowledge, the radiologic findings of bee sting granulomas have not been reported on in Korea. We describe the ultrasound and MRI findings of bee sting granulomas at the lower extremity in a 36-year-old woman who underwent bee-sting therapy for osteoarthritis of the knee joints 3 months prior

  3. Radiologic Findings of Foreign Body Granuloma by the Bee Sting: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Won; Yang, Ik; Kim, Jeong Won; Jung, Ah Young; Chung, Soo Young; Kim, Hong Dae; Woo, Ji Young; Yoon, Sa Rah; Choi, Seon Hyeong [Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-03-15

    Bee sting therapy is a folk remedy used for arthralgia. An adverse reaction to bee sting therapy can be variable, ranging from a local inflammatory reaction to generalized anaphylaxis. There have been reports of dermatologic findings pertaining to bee sting granulomas, which results from a foreign body reaction to the persistence of venom and stinger at the sting site. However to the best of our knowledge, the radiologic findings of bee sting granulomas have not been reported on in Korea. We describe the ultrasound and MRI findings of bee sting granulomas at the lower extremity in a 36-year-old woman who underwent bee-sting therapy for osteoarthritis of the knee joints 3 months prior.

  4. FIBIT - Fashion is back in Tallinn / Marina Poltavtseva

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poltavtseva, Marina

    2004-01-01

    Moepäevad FIBIT Viru keskuses. Üks idee algatajaid on moekunstnik Katrin Kuldma. 1. oktoobril näidatakse soome moekunstniku Ritva-Liisa Pohjalaineni kollektsiooni Allergia - From Dreams to the Unique. Teisi moedemonstratsioone, millede stilistideks on Riina Põldroos, Aldo Järvsoo, Tanel Veenre ja Katrin Kuldma. Rõivad on valitud Viru keskuse kauplustest

  5. Moda vernulas v Tallin / Marina Poltavtseva

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poltavtseva, Marina

    2005-01-01

    Tallinnas Viru Keskuses toimuvast moeürituste sarjast FIBIT. Keskne sündmus on Kuldnõela nominentide Katrin Kuldma, Tiina Talumehe, Thea Pilveti ja Evelin Lille kollektsioonide esitamine. Lisas "Primetshai marku!" juttu moekunstnik Oksana Tanditi uuest kollektsioonist, mida näidatakse ka Viru keskuses

  6. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... stings "); (function () { var a = "", b = [ "adid=aad-aad-1", "site=ehs.con.aad.aad", "size=160x600", "vpos=t", "hpos=l", "zone=public", "mcat1=de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c "); (function () { var a = "", b = [ "adid=aad-aad- ...

  7. Emerging options for the management of scorpion stings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chippaux JP

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Jean-Philippe ChippauxUMR 216 (Institute of Research for Development and University Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Cotonou, Bénin, FranceAbstract: Scorpion stings are common in many tropical countries. Although most scorpion stings cause only localized pain without life-threatening envenoming, about one third of stings cause systemic envenoming which can result in death. Children are particularly sensitive to scorpion envenoming. The severity of scorpion stings is related to the presence of neurotoxins in the venom that cause a sudden release of neurotransmitters from the autonomic nervous system, predominantly sympathetic. There is also a strong inflammatory response that worsens symptoms, including those of a respiratory nature. Several vital functions may be directly affected, including the cardiovascular, respiratory, and neuromuscular systems. Hypertension is constant at the beginning of systemic envenoming and sometimes has a severe cardiac and respiratory impact. Although controversial, immunotherapy is the only etiological treatment. Administered early, it prevents many complications and improves the outcome. New antivenoms are highly purified immunoglobulin fragments, the efficacy and safety of which are excellent. As a consequence, adverse reactions to antivenoms are now very rare and usually mild, which should limit any reluctance regarding their routine use. Symptomatic treatment is still necessary to support immunotherapy, especially in cases of delayed arrival at hospital. A combination of both approaches should be considered, based on local resources and constraints.Keywords: scorpion, envenoming, treatment, antivenom

  8. Saudi medicinal plants for the treatment of scorpion sting envenomation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Asmari, Abdulrahman; Manthiri, Rajamohamed Abbas; Abdo, Nasreddien; Al-Duaiji, Fawzi Abdullah; Khan, Haseeb Ahmad

    2017-09-01

    Scorpion sting envenoming poses major public health problems. The treatment modalities include antivenoms, chemical antidotes and phytotherapy, with varying degrees of effectiveness and side effects. In this investigation, we reviewed the use of Saudi medicinal plants for the treatment of scorpion sting patients. The relevant literature was collected using the online search engines including Science Direct, Google and PubMed with the help of specific keywords. We also used the printed and online resources at our institutional library to gather the relevant information on the use of medicinal plants for the treatment of scorpion sting patients. A descriptive statistics was used for data compilation and presentation. The results of this survey showed the use of at least 92 medicinal plants with beneficial effects for treating victims of stings of different scorpion species. These commonly used herbs spanned to 37 families whilst different parts of these plants were employed therapeutically for alleviation of envenomation symptoms. The application of leaves (41%) was preferred followed by roots (19%), whole plant (14%) and seeds (9%). The use of latex (4%), stem (3%), flowers (3%) and bark (3%) was also reported. In some cases, tannin (2%), rhizome (1%) and shoot (1%) were also used. In conclusion, herbal medicines are effectively used for the treatment of patients with scorpion envenomation. This type of medication is free from side effects as observed with chemical antidotes or antivenom therapy. It is important to identify the active ingredients of herbal drugs for improving their therapeutic potential in traditional medicine.

  9. Insect anaphylaxis: where are we? The stinging facts 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, James M; Khan, Fatima S; Demain, Jeffrey G

    2012-08-01

    Insect allergy remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. In 2011, the third iteration of the stinging insect hypersensitivity practice parameter was published, the first being published in 1999 and the second in 2004. Since the 2004 edition, our understanding of insect hypersensitivity has continued to expand and has been incorporated into the 2011 edition. This work will review the relevant changes in the management of insect hypersensitivity occurring since 2004 and present our current understanding of the insect hypersensitivity diagnosis and management. Since the 2004 commissioning by the Joint Task Force (JTF) on Practice Parameters of 'Stinging insect hypersensitivity: a practice parameter update', there have been important contributions to our understanding of insect allergy. These contributions were incorporated into the 2011 iteration. Similar efforts were made by the European Allergy Asthma and Clinical Immunology Interest Group in 2005 and most recently in 2011 by the British Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. Our understanding of insect allergy, including the natural history, epidemiology, diagnostic testing, and risk factors, has greatly expanded. This evolution of knowledge should provide improved long-term management of stinging insect hypersensitivity. This review will focus primarily on the changes between the 2004 and 2011 stinging insect practice parameter commissioned by the JTF on Practice Parameters, but will, where appropriate, highlight the differences between working groups.

  10. When can immunotherapy for insect sting allergy be stopped?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Ulrich R; Ring, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Stings by Hymenoptera (honey bees, vespids, ants) can cause systemic allergic reactions (SARs). Venom immunotherapy (VIT) is highly effective and reduces an allergic patient's risk of a recurrent SAR to less than 5-20%. The risk of a recurrent SAR to a re-sting decreases the longer VIT is continued. The recommended duration of VIT is at least 3 to 5 years. Risk factors for recurrent SARs to a sting after stopping VIT have been identified and discussed: Recommendations concerning stopping VIT: For patients without any of the identified risk factors, VIT should be continued for 5 rather than 3 years. In patients with definite risk factors, a longer duration of VIT has to be discussed before stopping it. In mast cell disorders, VIT for life is recommended. Because of the residual risk of SARs after VIT, all patients are advised to carry an epinephrine autoinjector indefinitely and to continue to take measures to avoid Hymenoptera stings. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... care Injured skin Bug bites and stings "); (function () { var a = "", b = [ "adid=aad-aad-1", "site=ehs. ... t", "hpos=l", "zone=public", "mcat1=de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c "); (function () { var a = "", b = [ "adid= ...

  12. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Private payer Medicare physician payment MACRA implementation Alternative payment models Fee schedule State policy State policy and action ... a dermatologist Why see a board-certified dermatologist? Home Public and patients Skin, hair, and nail care Injured skin Bug bites and stings "); (function () { var ...

  13. Soil-vegetation relationships and community structure in a "terra-firme"-white-sand vegetation gradient in Viruá National Park, northern Amazon, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, Bruno A F DE; Fernandes, Elpídio I; Schaefer, Carlos E G R; Mendonça, Júlia G F DE; Vasconcelos, Bruno N F

    2017-01-01

    Viruá National Park encompasses a vast and complex system of hydromorphic sandy soils covered largely by the white sand vegetation ("Campinarana") ecosystem. The purpose of this study was to investigate a vegetation gradient of "terra-firme"-white sand vegetation at the Viruá National Park. Nine plots representing three physiognomic units were installed for floristic and phytosociological surveys as well as to collect composite soil samples. The data were subjected to assessments of floristic diversity and similarity, phytosociological parameters and to statistical analyses, focused on principal components (PC) and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). The vegetation of the Campinaranas types and Forest differed in biomass and species density. Ten species, endemic to Brazil, were particularly well-represented. PC and CCA indicated a clear distinction between the studied plots, based on measured soil variables, especially base sum and clay, which were the most differentiating properties between Campinarana and Forest; For the separation of the Campinarana types, the main distinguishing variable was organic matter content and cation exchange capacity. Higher similarity of Campinaranas was associated to a monodominant species and the lower similarity of Forest was related to the high occurrence of locally rare species.

  14. MITA/STING and Its Alternative Splicing Isoform MRP Restrict Hepatitis B Virus Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuhui; Zhao, Kaitao; Su, Xi; Lu, Lu; Zhao, He; Zhang, Xianwen; Wang, Yun; Wu, Chunchen; Chen, Jizheng; Zhou, Yuan; Hu, Xue; Wang, Yanyi; Lu, Mengji; Chen, Xinwen; Pei, Rongjuan

    2017-01-01

    An efficient clearance of hepatitis B virus (HBV) requires the coordinated work of both the innate and adaptive immune responses. MITA/STING, an adapter protein of the innate immune signaling pathways, plays a key role in regulating innate and adaptive immune responses to DNA virus infection. Previously, we identified an alternatively spliced isoform of MITA/STING, called MITA-related protein (MRP), and found that MRP could specifically block MITA-mediated interferon (IFN) induction while retaining the ability to activate NF-κB. Here, we asked whether MITA/STING and MRP were able to control the HBV replication. Both MITA/STING and MRP significantly inhibited HBV replication in vitro. MITA overexpression stimulated IRF3-IFN pathway; while MRP overexpression activated NF-κB pathway, suggesting these two isoforms may inhibit HBV replication through different ways. Using a hydrodynamic injection (HI) mouse model, we found that HBV replication was reduced following MITA/STING and MRP expression vectors in mice and was enhanced by the knockout of MITA/STING (MITA/STING-/-). The HBV specific humoral and CD8+ T cell responses were impaired in MITA/STING deficient mice, suggesting the participation of MITA/STING in the initiation of host adaptive immune responses. In summary, our data suggest that MITA/STING and MRP contribute to HBV control via modulation of the innate and adaptive responses.

  15. Identification and function analysis of canine stimulator of interferon gene (STING).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuxiang; Zhu, Mengyan; Li, Gairu; Liu, Jie; Zhai, Xiaofeng; Wang, Ruyi; Zhang, Junyan; Xing, Gang; Gu, Jinyan; Yan, Liping; Lei, Jing; Sun, Haifeng; Shi, Zhiyu; Liu, Fei; Hu, Boli; Su, Shuo; Zhou, Jiyong

    2017-12-01

    Stimulator of interferon gene (STING) plays an important role in the cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS)-mediated activation of type I IFN responses. In this study, we identified and cloned canine STING gene. Full-length STING encodes a 375 amino acid product that shares the highest similarity with feline STING. Highest levels of mRNA of canine STING were detected in the spleen and lungs while the lowest levels in the heart and muscle. Analysis of its cellular localization showed that STING is localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum. STING overexpression induced the IFN response via the IRF3 and NF-κB pathways and up-regulated the expression of ISG15 and viperin. However, knockdown of STING did not inhibit the IFN-β response triggered by poly(dA:dT), poly(I:C), or SeV. Finally, overexpression of STING significantly inhibited the replication of canine influenza virus H3N2. Collectively, our findings indicate that STING is involved in the regulation of the IFN-β pathway in canine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Influenza A virus targets a cGAS-independent STING pathway that controls enveloped RNA viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Christian K; Rahbek, Stine H; Gad, Hans Henrik; Bak, Rasmus O; Jakobsen, Martin R; Jiang, Zhaozaho; Hansen, Anne Louise; Jensen, Simon K; Sun, Chenglong; Thomsen, Martin K; Laustsen, Anders; Nielsen, Camilla G; Severinsen, Kasper; Xiong, Yingluo; Burdette, Dara L; Hornung, Veit; Lebbink, Robert Jan; Duch, Mogens; Fitzgerald, Katherine A; Bahrami, Shervin; Mikkelsen, Jakob Giehm; Hartmann, Rune; Paludan, Søren R

    2016-02-19

    Stimulator of interferon genes (STING) is known be involved in control of DNA viruses but has an unexplored role in control of RNA viruses. During infection with DNA viruses STING is activated downstream of cGAMP synthase (cGAS) to induce type I interferon. Here we identify a STING-dependent, cGAS-independent pathway important for full interferon production and antiviral control of enveloped RNA viruses, including influenza A virus (IAV). Further, IAV interacts with STING through its conserved hemagglutinin fusion peptide (FP). Interestingly, FP antagonizes interferon production induced by membrane fusion or IAV but not by cGAMP or DNA. Similar to the enveloped RNA viruses, membrane fusion stimulates interferon production in a STING-dependent but cGAS-independent manner. Abolishment of this pathway led to reduced interferon production and impaired control of enveloped RNA viruses. Thus, enveloped RNA viruses stimulate a cGAS-independent STING pathway, which is targeted by IAV.

  17. Production of ''no-sting bee'' species by external irradiation and elucidation of the genetic mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Kazauhiro; Chanpen, Chanchao; Yasue, Hiroshi

    2004-01-01

    Various mutants in bees were observed by gamma-ray irradiation. No-sting bee appeared in some of colonies of an irradiated mature queen bee. The characteristic form and quality of no-sting bee appeared in next generation bee groups. Artificial inseminations of the queen bee were carried out. Mutation parts of the gene were analyzed by using adjusted DNA in samples of wild bees and no-sting bees. A change of band pattern in the no-sting bee was observed much more than the one in the wild bee. Mutation of the genome DNA was cleared by gamma irradiation. Apparent difference of gene amplification between the wild bees and no-sting bees were detected by using gene primer (RAPD). Polymorphism phenomena in the mutant of no-sting bee were observed in comparison with in the wild bee. (M. Suetake)

  18. Risk factors for scorpion stings in the beni mellal province of morocco

    OpenAIRE

    N Charrab; R El Oufir; A Soulaymani; I Semlali; A Mokhtari; R Soulaymani

    2009-01-01

    Scorpion stings comprise a serious problem throughout the globe, especially in regions where they are more frequent. In Morocco, Beni Mellal is one of the provinces most affected by this burden. This study aimed to trace the epidemiological profile of scorpion stings in Beni Mellal in order to improve patient care and prevent both morbidity and mortality. Our work is a retrospective study of scorpion stings based on medical charts of Beni Mellal. From 2002 to 2007, 8,340 cases were registered...

  19. An Isolated Bee Sting Involving Multiple Cranial Nerves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Motamed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hymenoptera stings are self-limiting events or due to allergic reactions. Sometimes envenomation with Hymenoptera can cause rare complications such as acute encephalopathy, peripheral neuritis, acute renal failure, nephrotic syndrome, silent myocardial infarction, rhabdomyolysis, conjunctivitis, corneal infiltration, lens subluxation, and optic neuropathy. The mechanism of peripheral nervous system damage is not clearly known. In our studied case after bee sting on face between the eyebrows with little erythema and  cm in size, bilateral blindness developed and gradually improved. Lateral movement of eyes was restricted with no pain. Involvement of cranial nerves including II, V, and VI was found. With conservative therapy after a year significant improvement has been achieved.

  20. Clinical and entomological factors influence the outcome of sting challenge studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, David B K; Breisch, Nancy L; Hamilton, Robert G; Guralnick, Miles W; Greene, Albert; Craig, Timothy J; Kagey-Sobotka, Anne

    2006-03-01

    The reported frequency of systemic reactions to challenge sting varies greatly. To evaluate the interaction of clinical and entomological factors that determine the outcome of a challenge sting. Patients allergic to yellow jacket were stung and monitored for systemic reaction. The frequency and severity of sting reactions were analyzed in relation to the species of insect used and patient characteristics. Objective systemic reactions occurred in 21 of 69 patients (30%) stung with Vespula maculifrons and in 8 of 71 patients (11%) with Vespula germanica (P=.005). Systemic reactions were more frequent in patients with a severe history (9/30; 30%) than in those with a mild or moderate history (21/145; 14%; P=.04). In only 1 of 111 patients (0.9%) was the reaction to sting challenge more severe than previous reactions. The reaction rate was higher when venom skin tests were positive at <1.0 microg/mL (17/75=23%) than when sensitivity was milder (9/100=9%; P=.012). We compared sting outcome and venom-induced histamine release in relation to insects collected in July or in October, and found no difference. Allergic reactions to sting challenge are determined by the species of yellow jacket used, the severity of previous sting reactions, and the degree of skin test sensitivity, but not by the time of year. These factors are important to clinicians when they evaluate the chance of reaction to a future sting and to researchers when they design and report sting challenge studies.

  1. Incidence and severity of scorpion stings in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Laïd

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Scorpion stings are a public health problem in the Maghreb region. In Algeria, epidemiological data were collected over the past twenty years by the Algerian health authorities. This study is an analysis of morbidity and mortality data collected from 2001 to 2010. Annual incidence and mortality due to scorpion envenoming were 152 ± 3.6 stings and 0.236 ± 0.041 deaths per 100,000 people (95% CI, respectively. The risk of being stung by a scorpion was dramatically higher in southern areas and central highlands due to environmental conditions. Incidence of envenoming was especially higher in the adult population, and among young males. In contrast, mortality was significantly higher among children under 15 years, particularly ages 1-4. Upper limbs were more often affected than lower limbs. Most stings occurred at night, indoors and during the summer. Data collected since 2001 showed a reduction of mortality by nearly 50%, suggesting that the medical care defined by the national anti-scorpion project is bearing fruit.

  2. Stinging Nettle: the Bad, the Good, the Unknown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis J. Baumgardner

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica is native to most of the United States. It has a characteristic description and distribution in the environment. Physical contact with numerous tiny needlelike hairs present on leaves and stems of this plant may result in a contact urticarial dermatitis due to chemical and mechanical irritation triggered by skin penetration of the hairs. The manifestations are self-limited in humans and may be treated by washing the skin, topical preparations and oral antihistamines. Explanation of the natural history of these encounters to the patient is helpful in reducing the sometimes significant anxiety. Preparations and extracts of stinging nettle have been proposed for treatment of a variety of inflammatory and other disorders including osteoarthritis, benign prostatic hypertrophy, allergic rhinitis and asthma, bleeding problems and diabetes. While in vitro studies have shown that stinging nettle possesses a number of potentially beneficial anti-inflammatory and modulating properties, beneficial effects have often not been confirmed by well-designed clinical trials. Further study, perhaps with novel types of extracts, are needed to determine the clinical utility of this plant in human inflammatory-related conditions and diabetes mellitus.

  3. Bee sting therapy-induced hepatotoxicity: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqutub, Adel Nazmi; Masoodi, Ibrahim; Alsayari, Khalid; Alomair, Ahmed

    2011-10-27

    The use of bee venom as a therapeutic agent for the relief of joint pains dates back to Hippocrates, and references to the treatment can be found in ancient Egyptian and Greek medical writings as well. Also known as apitherapy, the technique is widely used in Eastern Europe, Asia, and South America. The beneficial effects of bee stings can be attributed to mellitinin, an anti-inflammatory agent, known to be hundred times stronger than cortisone. Unfortunately, certain substances in the bee venom trigger allergic reactions which can be life threatening in a sensitized individual. Multiple stings are known to cause hemolysis, kidney injury, hepatotoxicity and myocardial infarction. The toxicity can be immediate or can manifest itself only weeks after the exposure. We describe hepatotoxicity in a 35-year-old female, following bee sting therapy for multiple sclerosis. She presented to our clinic 3 wk after therapy with a history of progressive jaundice. The patient subsequently improved, and has been attending our clinic now for the last 9 mo.

  4. A scanning proton microprobe study of stinging emergences from the leaf of the common stinging nettle urtica dioica l.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, N. P.; Perry, C. C.; Williams, R. J. P.; Watt, F.; Grime, G. W.

    1988-03-01

    Proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) combined with the Oxford scanning proton microprobe (SPM) was used to investigate the abundance and spatial distribution of inorganic elements in mineralising stinging emergences from the leaf of the Common Stinging Nettle, Urtica dioica L. Elemental maps and point analytical data were collected for emergences at two stages of maturity. In all emergences calcium and silicon were spatially organised and present at high concentration. The inorganic elements K, P, S and Mn were also spatially organised during mineralisation, but at maturity these elements were present only at background levels and then showed no specific localisation. The observed changes in the inorganic content of the emergences are obviously related to the mineralisation processes. The possible biochemical significance of the distribution of the elements is discussed.

  5. Clinical features of severe wasp sting patients with dominantly toxic reaction: analysis of 1091 cases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuihong Xie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Massive wasp stings have been greatly underestimated and have not been systematically studied. The aim of this study was to identify the clinical features and treatment strategies of severe wasp stings. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A multicenter retrospective study was undertaken in 35 hospitals and medical centers including 12 tertiary care hospitals and 23 secondary care hospitals in the Hubei Province, China. The detailed clinical data of 1091 hospitalized wasp sting patients were investigated. Over three-fourths (76.9% of the cases had 10 or more stings and the in-hospital mortality of patients was 5.1%. Forty-eight patients died of organ injury following toxic reactions to the stings, whereas six died from anaphylactic shock. The in-hospital mortality in patients with >10 stings was higher than that of ≤10 stings (5.2% vs. 1.0%, p = 0.02. Acute kidney injury (AKI was seen in 21.0% patients and most patients required blood purification therapy. Rhabdomyolysis was seen in 24.1% patients, hemolysis in 19.2% patients, liver injury in 30.1% patients, and coagulopathy in 22.5% patients. Regression analysis revealed that high creatinine level, shock, oliguria, and anemia were risk factors for death. Blood purification therapy was beneficial for patients with ≥20 stings and delayed hospital admission of patients (≥4 hours after sting. CONCLUSIONS: In China, most patients with multiple wasp stings presented with toxic reactions and multiple organ dysfunction caused by the venom rather than an anaphylactic reaction. AKI is the prominent clinical manifestation of wasp stings with toxic reaction. High creatinine levels, shock, oliguria, and anemia were risk factors for death.

  6. Hymenoptera stings in Brazil: a neglected health threat in Amazonas State

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Allyson Guimarães; Chaves, Bárbara Aparecida; Murta, Felipe Leão Gomes; Sachett, Jacqueline Almeida Gonçalves; Sampaio, Vanderson Souza; Silva, Vanessa Costa; Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo

    2018-01-01

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: Hymenoptera injuries are commonly caused by stinging insects. In Amazonas state, Brazil, there is no information regarding distribution, profile, and systemic manifestations associated with Hymenoptera injuries. METHODS: This study aimed to identify risk factors for systemic manifestation using the Brazilian Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (2007 to 2015). RESULTS: Half of Hymenoptera injuries were caused by bee stings. Hymenoptera injuries were concentrate...

  7. Chem I Supplement: Bee Sting: The Chemistry of an Insect Venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Rod; Peck, Larry

    1980-01-01

    Considers various aspects of bee stings including the physical mechanism of the venom apparatus in the bee, categorization of physiological responses of nonprotected individuals to bee sting, chemical composition of bee venom and the mechanisms of venom action, and areas of interest in the synthesis of bee venom. (CS)

  8. Venom immunotherapy for preventing allergic reactions to insect stings : a systematic review and health economic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boyle, R.; Elremeli, M.; Cherry, M.; Oude Elberink, J.N.G.; Bulsara, M.; Mahon, J.; Daniels, M.; Hockenhull, J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Venom immunotherapy (VIT) is commonly used for preventing further allergic reactions to insect stings in people who have had a sting reaction. The efficacy and safety of this treatment has not previously been assessed by a high-quality systematic review. Objectives To assess the effects

  9. Epidemiological study of scorpion stings in Saudi Arabia between 1993 and 1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Al-Sadoon

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation evaluated the epidemiological aspects of scorpion stings in different areas of Saudi Arabia. A total of 72,168 cases of scorpion stings recorded in Ministry of Health Medical Centers in 11 selected areas of Saudi Arabia were analyzed based on area, age, sex, time of sting, sting site, treatment outcome, time of year, and scorpion species. Stings occurred throughout the year; the highest frequency was in June (15.08%, the lowest in February (2.52%. Most patients were male (61.8%; the majority of which were more than 15 years old (65.4%. Nocturnal envenomation (47.74% was more common than diurnal (43.91%; most stings were in exposed limbs (90.95%, mainly in the lower limbs (63%. Most envenomings were mild (74.48% and all evolved to cure, except for one death. Envenomation was characterized by local pain, erythema, headache, vomiting, and anxiety. This study found that the Leiurus quinquestriatus (Ehrenberg 1828, Androctonus crassicauda (Olivier 1807, and Apistobuthus pterygocercus (Finnegan 1807 were responsible for most of the stings, indicating their medical importance in Saudi Arabia. The study shows low threat to life despite the high number of stings; this is a result of the availability of medical facilities and the multi-center antivenom use in different areas of Saudi Arabia.

  10. The contribution of sting-jet windstorms to extreme wind risk in the North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Neil C.; Gray, Suzanne L.; Clark, Peter A.

    2016-04-01

    Windstorms are a major winter weather risk for many countries in Europe. These storms are predominantly associated with explosively-developing extratropical cyclones that track across the region. A substantial body of literature exists on the synoptic-scale dynamics, predictability and climatology of such storms. More recently, interest in the mesoscale variability of the most damaging winds has led to a focus on the role of sting jets in enhancing windstorm severity. We present a present-era climatology of North Atlantic cyclones that had potential to produce sting jets. Considering only explosively-developing cyclones, those with sting-jet potential are more likely to have higher relative vorticity and associated low-level wind maxima. Furthermore, the strongest winds for sting-jet cyclones are more often in the cool sector, behind the cold front, when compared with other explosively-developing cyclones which commonly have strong warm-sector winds too. The tracks of sting-jet cyclones, and explosively-developing cyclones in general, show little offset from the climatological storm track. While rare over Europe, sting-jet cyclones are relatively frequent within the main storm track with up to one third of extratropical cyclones exhibiting sting-jet potential. Thus, the rarity and, until recently, lack of description of sting-jet windstorms is more due to the climatological storm track location away from highly-populated land masses, than due to an actual rarity of such storms in nature.

  11. Unusual fatal multiple-organ dysfunction and pancreatitis induced by a single wasp sting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Azad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute onset of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS is a well-known complication following multiple wasp stings. However, MODS after a single wasp sting has been rarely reported in children and acute pancreatitis have probably never been observed before. Herein we describe the case of a 12-year-old boy who had urticaria and abdominal pain after a single wasp sting. The child gradually developed MODS while his abdominal complaints were worsening. Despite aggressive supportive management, the child did not survive. Afterward, the cause of the acute abdomen was finally diagnosed as acute pancreatitis. Both MODS and pancreatitis following a single wasp sting are very unusual. Thus, although pancreatitis is rarely manifested, it should be suspected after a wasp sting if there are predominant abdominal symptoms.

  12. Stinging insect allergy: current perspectives on venom immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludman SW

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sian W Ludman,1 Robert J Boyle2 1Paediatric Allergy Department, St Mary's Hospital, Imperial Healthcare NHS Trust, London, UK; 2Department of Paediatrics, Imperial College London, London, UKAbstract: Systemic allergic reactions to insect stings affect up to 5% of the population during their lifetime, and up to 32% of beekeepers. Such reactions can be fatal, albeit very rarely, and fear of a further systemic reaction (SR can lead to significant anxiety and quality of life impairment. A recent Cochrane systematic review confirmed that venom immunotherapy (VIT is an effective treatment for people who have had a systemic allergic reaction to an insect sting. VIT reduces risk of a further SR (relative risk 0.10, 95% confidence interval 0.03–0.28, but VIT also reduces risk of a future large local reaction, and significantly improves disease-specific quality of life. However, health economic analysis showed that VIT is generally not cost effective for preventing future SRs; most people are stung infrequently, most SRs resolve without long-term consequences, and a fatal outcome is extremely rare. VIT only becomes cost effective if one is stung frequently (eg, beekeepers or if quality of life improvement is considered. Thus, for most people with insect sting allergy, anxiety and quality of life impairment should be the overriding consideration when making treatment decisions, highlighting the importance of a patient-centered approach. Areas which need to be explored in future research include efforts to improve the safety and convenience of VIT such as the use of sublingual immunotherapy; quality of life effects of venom allergy in children and adolescents as well as their parents; and the optimal duration of treatment.Keywords: anaphylaxis, quality of life

  13. Sting microsculpture in the digger wasp Bembix rostrata (Hymenoptera, Crabronidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Matushkina

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The sting microsculpture of the digger wasp Bembix rostrata (Fabricius, 1781 (Hymenoptera, Crabronidae is studied with the scanning electron microscope (SEM for the first time. As in many other hymenopterans, the second valvifer of B. rostrata possesses two fields of styloconic sensilla (hair plates of proprioceptive function. The presence of two paired fields of campaniform sensilla on the second valvula and second valvifer is first shown in an apoid wasp. The first and the second valvulae bear scattered sensilla-like structures on the external surface, more numerous apically. The first valvula has two subapical barbs externally and a pair of valvilli on its inner surface, whereas the outer surface of the second valvula is smooth. The third valvula is sclerotized externally, consisting of proximal and distal parts, and bearing four sensilla morphotypes of mechanoreceptive and probably chemoreceptive functions. The inner surface of the valvulae and the membranous cuticle that is touching the sting have microstructures of different shapes directed distally. Functional aspects of characters studied are discussed.

  14. Dampened STING-Dependent Interferon Activation in Bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jiazheng; Li, Yang; Shen, Xurui; Goh, Geraldine; Zhu, Yan; Cui, Jie; Wang, Lin-Fa; Shi, Zheng-Li; Zhou, Peng

    2018-03-14

    Compared with terrestrial mammals, bats have a longer lifespan and greater capacity to co-exist with a variety of viruses. In addition to cytosolic DNA generated by these viral infections, the metabolic demands of flight cause DNA damage and the release of self-DNA into the cytoplasm. However, whether bats have an altered DNA sensing/defense system to balance high cytosolic DNA levels remains an open question. We demonstrate that bats have a dampened interferon response due to the replacement of the highly conserved serine residue (S358) in STING, an essential adaptor protein in multiple DNA sensing pathways. Reversing this mutation by introducing S358 restored STING functionality, resulting in interferon activation and virus inhibition. Combined with previous reports on bat-specific changes of other DNA sensors such as TLR9, IFI16, and AIM2, our findings shed light on bat adaptation to flight, their long lifespan, and their unique capacity to serve as a virus reservoir. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A STING-activating nanovaccine for cancer immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Min; Wang, Hua; Wang, Zhaohui; Cai, Haocheng; Lu, Zhigang; Li, Yang; Du, Mingjian; Huang, Gang; Wang, Chensu; Chen, Xiang; Porembka, Matthew R.; Lea, Jayanthi; Frankel, Arthur E.; Fu, Yang-Xin; Chen, Zhijian J.; Gao, Jinming

    2017-07-01

    The generation of tumour-specific T cells is critically important for cancer immunotherapy. A major challenge in achieving a robust T-cell response is the spatiotemporal orchestration of antigen cross-presentation in antigen-presenting cells with innate stimulation. Here, we report a minimalist nanovaccine, comprising a simple physical mixture of an antigen and a synthetic polymeric nanoparticle, PC7A NP, which generates a strong cytotoxic T-cell response with low systemic cytokine expression. Mechanistically, the PC7A NP achieves efficient cytosolic delivery of tumour antigens to antigen-presenting cells in draining lymph nodes, leading to increased surface presentation while simultaneously activating type I interferon-stimulated genes. This effect is dependent on stimulator of interferon genes (STING), but not the Toll-like receptor or the mitochondrial antiviral-signalling protein (MAVS) pathway. The nanovaccine led to potent tumour growth inhibition in melanoma, colon cancer and human papilloma virus-E6/E7 tumour models. The combination of the PC7A nanovaccine and an anti-PD-1 antibody showed great synergy, with 100% survival over 60 days in a TC-1 tumour model. Rechallenging of these tumour-free animals with TC-1 cells led to complete inhibition of tumour growth, suggesting the generation of long-term antitumour memory. The STING-activating nanovaccine offers a simple, safe and robust strategy in boosting anti-tumour immunity for cancer immunotherapy.

  16. Recurrent Loss of STING Signaling in Melanoma Correlates with Susceptibility to Viral Oncolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Tianli; Konno, Hiroyasu; Barber, Glen N

    2016-11-15

    The innate immunoregulator STING stimulates cytokine production in response to the presence of cytosolic DNA, which can arise following DNA damage. Extrinsic STING signaling is also needed for antigen-presenting cells to stimulate antitumor T-cell immunity. Here, we show that STING signaling is recurrently suppressed in melanoma cells, where this event may enable immune escape after DNA damage. Mechanistically, STING signaling was suppressed most frequently by epigenetic silencing of either STING or the cyclic GMP-AMP synthase, which generates STING-activating cyclic dinucleotides after binding cytosolic DNA species. Loss of STING function rendered melanoma cells unable to produce type I IFN and other immune cytokines after exposure to cytosolic DNA species. Consequently, such cells were highly susceptible to infection with DNA viruses including HSV1, a variant of which is being developed presently as a therapeutic oncolytic virus [talimogene laherparepvec (T-VEC)]. Our findings provide insight into the basis for susceptibility to viral oncolysis by agents such as HSV1. Cancer Res; 76(22); 6747-59. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. Inherited STING-activating mutation underlies a familial inflammatory syndrome with lupus-like manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremiah, Nadia; Neven, Bénédicte; Gentili, Matteo; Callebaut, Isabelle; Maschalidi, Sophia; Stolzenberg, Marie-Claude; Goudin, Nicolas; Frémond, Marie-Louis; Nitschke, Patrick; Molina, Thierry J; Blanche, Stéphane; Picard, Capucine; Rice, Gillian I; Crow, Yanick J; Manel, Nicolas; Fischer, Alain; Bader-Meunier, Brigitte; Rieux-Laucat, Frédéric

    2014-12-01

    Innate immunity to viral infection involves induction of the type I IFN response; however, dysfunctional regulation of this pathway leads to inappropriate inflammation. Here, we evaluated a nonconsanguineous family of mixed European descent, with 4 members affected by systemic inflammatory and autoimmune conditions, including lupus, with variable clinical expression. We identified a germline dominant gain-of-function mutation in TMEM173, which encodes stimulator of type I IFN gene (STING), in the affected individuals. STING is a key signaling molecule in cytosolic DNA-sensing pathways, and STING activation normally requires dimerization, which is induced by 2'3' cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) produced by the cGAMP synthase in response to cytosolic DNA. Structural modeling supported constitutive activation of the mutant STING protein based on stabilized dimerization. In agreement with the model predictions, we found that the STING mutant spontaneously localizes in the Golgi of patient fibroblasts and is constitutively active in the absence of exogenous 2'3'-cGAMP in vitro. Accordingly, we observed elevated serum IFN activity and a type I IFN signature in peripheral blood from affected family members. These findings highlight the key role of STING in activating both the innate and adaptive immune responses and implicate aberrant STING activation in features of human lupus.

  18. Comparison of nutritional properties of Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) flour with wheat and barley flours

    OpenAIRE

    Adhikari, Bhaskar Mani; Bajracharya, Alina; Shrestha, Ashok K.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Stinging nettle?(Urtica dioica. L) is a wild, unique herbaceous perennial flowering plant with Stinging hairs. It has a long history of use as a food sources as a soup or curries, and also used as a fiber as well as a medicinal herb. The current aim was to analyze the composition and bioactive compounds in Nepalese Stinging nettle. Chemical analysis showed the relatively higher level of crude protein (33.8%), crude fiber (9.1%), crude fat (3.6%), total ash (16.2%), carbohydrate (37.4...

  19. Evaluation and validation of a bee venom sting challenge performed by a micro-syringe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortellini, Gabriele; Severino, Maurizio; Francescato, Elisabetta; Turillazzi, Stefano; Spadolini, Igino; Rogkakou, Anthi; Passalacqua, Giovanni

    2012-12-01

    The honeybee sting challenge is considered a reliable procedure to evaluate the efficacy of specific immunotherapy, but it is difficult and unpractical to perform in clinical practice, because live insects are required. To assess the feasibility and reliability of a challenge test using a micro-syringe, and compared the procedure with sting challenge. Patients on bee venom immunotherapy and without systemic reactions at field sting were enrolled. They underwent a sting challenge with live bee, and large local reactions were assessed up to 48 hours. Those patients displaying systemic reactions at the sting challenge were excluded from the syringe challenge for ethical reasons. The syringe challenge was done by injecting 0.5 μL fresh unfiltered bee venom at 2 mm depth (the length of the sting left by a bee). The same follow-up as at the first challenge was performed. Bee-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) and tryptase were measured after each challenge. Nineteen patients underwent the sting challenge with live bees. Four had immediate systemic reactions (urticaria or asthma) and were excluded from the second challenge. The remaining 15 patients with large local reaction underwent the syringe challenge. No significant difference was seen in the maximum area of the large local reactions between the challenge with live bees and the syringe challenge. Also, no change was seen in tryptase and specific antibodies. This preliminary study suggests that the micro-syringe challenge with honeybee venom is feasible and produces results indistinguishable from those of the traditional sting challenge. Copyright © 2012 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Scorpion sting: a public health problem in El Kelaa des Sraghna (Morocco)

    OpenAIRE

    El Oufir, R.; Semlali, I.; Idrissi, M.; Soulaymani, A.; Benlarabi, S.; Khattabi, A.; Ait Moh, M.; Soulaymani Bencheikh, R.

    2008-01-01

    The present study aimed at verifying the impact of a Moroccan strategy against scorpion stings and specifically at identifying the epidemiological features of patients envenomed or just stung by scorpions. It included 11,907 patients from El Kelaa des Sraghna Province, Morocco, who were evaluated over five years (2001-2005). Most stings occurred during the hot period and mainly at night. The average incidence was 3.2 per 1,000 inhabitants; patients

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging correlates of bee sting induced multiple organ dysfunction syndrome: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sushant K; Zeng, Li-Chuan; Li, Bing; Niu, Xiang-Ke; Wang, Jing-Liang; Bhetuwal, Anup; Yang, Han-Feng

    2014-09-28

    Occasionally systemic complications with high risk of death, such as multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), can occur following multiple bee stings. This case study reports a patient who presented with MODS, i.e., acute kidney injury, hepatic and cardiac dysfunction, after multiple bee stings. The standard clinical findings were then correlated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, which demonstrates that MRI may be utilized as a simpler tool to use than other multiple diagnostics.

  2. Management of stinging insect hypersensitivity: a 5-year retrospective medical record review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Thomas; Dietrich, Jeffrey; Hagan, Larry

    2006-08-01

    The Joint Task Force on Practice Parameters for Allergy and Immunology recommends that patients with a history of a systemic reaction to an insect sting be educated on ways to avoid insect stings, carry injectable epinephrine for emergency self-treatment, undergo specific IgE testing for stinging insect sensitivity, and be considered for immunotherapy. To review frontline providers' documented care and recommendations for imported fire ant and flying insect hypersensitivity reactions. A retrospective medical record review was performed of emergency department and primary care clinic visits between November 1, 1999, and November 30, 2004. Using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, codes, medical records were selected for review to identify patients with potential insect hypersensitivity. A total of 769 medical records from patients who experienced an insect sting were reviewed. Of 120 patients with a systemic reaction, 66 (55.0%) received a prescription for injectable epinephrine, and 14 (11.7%) were given information regarding avoidance of the offending insect. Forty-seven patients with systemic reactions (39.2%) were referred to an allergist. Of 28 patients who kept their appointments and underwent skin testing, 3 had negative results and 25 (89%) had positive results and were advised to start immunotherapy. Adherence to the stinging insect hypersensitivity practice parameter recommendations is poor. Many patients who have experienced a systemic reaction after an insect sting and have sought medical care are not afforded an opportunity for potentially lifesaving therapy.

  3. Epidemiological aspects of scorpion stings in Al-Jouf province, SaudiArabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarrar, Bashir M.; Al-Rowaily, Meshref A.

    2008-01-01

    Information on scorpion stings is available for many parts of SaudiArabia, but not for the Al-Jouf Province. We reviewed and analyzed 1449 casesof scorpion stings that presented to the emergency department of thehospitals and medical centers in Al-Jouf Province during a 2-year period(2005-2006). The majority of patients (92.7%) manifested class I envenomationwith local pain at the sting site as the primary complaint. Systemic toxicitywas noticed in 7.3% of cases but no deaths were reported. Scorpion stingswere recorded throughout the year with the highest seasonal incidence in thesummer (64.3%) and the lowest during the winter (10.6%). The highest monthlyincidence was in June (21.5%) and the lowest in December (1.5%). Most of thepatients were male (77.3%) and the age of 44.2% of victims ranged between 15to 30 years. Diurnal stings exceeded the nocturnal ones with a ratio of 3:2and most of the stings were located mainly on the exposed limbs (88.6%),especially the lower limbs (51.7%). Leiurus quinquestriatus and Androctouscrassicauda were incriminated in most recorded cases. Our findings indicatethat scorpion stings are common in Al-Jouf Province, especially during thesummer. The overall threat to human health was found to be low. (author)

  4. Lugu sellest, kuidas Kägu laadal käis / Anne Kivinukk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kivinukk, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Euroopa õpilasfirmade võistlusest, mille üheks osaks oli Viru keskuses korraldatud laat. Vestlusest ürituse korraldaja sihtasutuse Junior Achievement juhataja Epp Vodjaga keskkonnateema olulisusest firmade tegevuses

  5. Pillide kuningannal oma fond / Eda Liiväär

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Liiväär, Eda

    2006-01-01

    Eesti Rahvuskultuuri Fondi allfondi - Eesti Klaverifondi avamise tähistamisest disainklaverite näituse ja Rein Rannapi kontserdiga 8. juunil Viru keskuses. OÜ Reval Piano poolt loodud sihtasutusest Eesti Rahvuslik Klaverimuuseum

  6. Sisearhitektuuri uudised / Aino Ingrid Sepp, Aale Kask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sepp, Aino Ingrid

    2007-01-01

    Tallinnas lillesalongi Masha sisekujunduse autorid on Ahti Lyra ja Kristiine Lõuk. Pärnu ööklubi Str sisekujunduse autor on Hannes Praks. Tallinna Viru keskuse avatud baari sisekujunduse autorid on Kärt Villmann ja Andres Rohtla

  7. Kirev moepilt / Britt Rosen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rosen, Britt, 1968-

    2007-01-01

    FIBITi moepäevadest Tallinnas Viru keskuses, stilistid Gerli Tinn, Liisi Eesmaa, Kirill Safonov. Kuldnõela auhinna pälvis Katrin Kuldma kollektsiooni Chocolat eest. Oma loomingut esitlesid Reet Aus, Tiiu Roosma, Marika Siska

  8. Kirev moepillerkaar / Britt Rosen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rosen, Britt, 1968-

    2008-01-01

    FIBITi moepäevad ja Kuldnõela gala Viru keskuses. Eesti parima moekunstniku tiitli pälvis Riina Põldroos. Kommentaarid Riina Põldroosilt, Aldo Järvsoolt, Urmas Väljaotsalt, Kirill Safonovilt. 17 ill

  9. Stalo izvestno imja lutshshego dizainera Estonii za proshlõi god

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Kuldnõela nominentide gala toimus 7. märtsil FIBIT moepäevadel Viru Keskuses. Kuldnõela auhinna sai Riina Põldroos. Riina Põldroosi, Jaanika Sootna, Oksana Tanditi ja Tiia Orgna kollektsioonidest sõnas ja pildis

  10. Moda opjat vernulas v Tallinn - Fashion Is Back In Tallinn

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Moeüritus Fashion is Back in Tallinn (FIBIT) Viru Keskuses Tallinnas. Gala-etendusel "Sinine, Must ja Valge" esitletud Anu Samarüütel-Longi, Tanel Veenre ja Arne Niidu moekollektsioonidest. Lisaks värvilised fotod

  11. Tallinskaja nedelja modõ / Jevgenia Gorski

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gorski, Jevgenia

    2007-01-01

    Tallinna moenädal (Tallinn Fashion Week) Estonia teatri kammersaalis. Korraldajaks kevadel loodud Eesti Moedisaini Liit. Moenädala programmi lülitatakse ka Viru keskuse moeürituste sari FIBIT. Kommenteerib Oksana Tandit

  12. Raamat / Tanel Verk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Verk, Tanel

    2007-01-01

    Dirigent Neeme Järvi elulooalbumi "Neeme Järvi. Kunstniku elu / The Maestro's Touch" esitlusest Tallinnas Viru Keskuse raamatupoes Rahva Raamat, pidulikust albumi esitlusest 15. aug. Eesti Teatri- ja Muusikamuuseumis

  13. Koolitamine : andmisrõõm või edevus? / Ants Vasar, Arne Kaasik, Hele Hammer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vasar, Ants

    2007-01-01

    Küsimusele, miks olete hakanud ettevõtjana koolitajaks, vastavad ASi Viru Keskus juhatuse liige Ants Vasar, Columbus IT Partner Eesti ASi pertner ja nõukogu esimees Arne Kaasik ja Amserv Grupi finantsdirektor Hele Hammer

  14. Eesti joonisfilmi austaja esitles oma raamatut / A. R.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    A. R.

    2005-01-01

    Kanadalane Chris J. Robinson esitles Viru keskuses Rahva Raamatu poes oma Varraku kirjastuse vahendusel 2003.a. ilmunud raamatut "Between Genius & Utter Illiteracy : A Story of Estonian Animation", mis on eesti animatsiooni ajalugu, mille kirjutamiseni eestlased pole veel jõudnud

  15. Kuulus dress ka Evelinile!

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Proua Evelin Ilves kinkis Eestis esinenud popstaar Madonnale eesti rahvusmotiividega dressid. Sarnased spordirõivad tulevad müügile ka Tallinnas Viru keskuses Bastioni esinduskaupluses. Proua Evelin Ilvesele valmistatakse ainulaadsed valgest kangast dressid

  16. Kas madonnale disainitud dress lõpetas prügikastis? / Kais Allkivi, Katrin Pauts

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Allkivi, Kais

    2009-01-01

    Viru keskuse Bastioni poes tulevad müügile 25 rahvusmustriga dressi, mis on peaaegu identsed esileedi Evelin Ilvese palvel Bastioni moedisaineri Merike Pääro poolt Madonnale disainitud spordirõivastega

  17. Номинанты на премию Oscar в мире моды / Бритт Розен

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Розен, Бритт, 1968-

    2009-01-01

    Eesti moeauhinna Kuldnõel nominendid 2008 on moekunstnikud Tiina Talumees, Liivia Leškin, Liisi Eesmaa ja Aldo Järvsoo. Nominentide uuemast moeloomingust. Kuldnõela galaetendus toimub 6. märtsil 2009 Viru keskuses

  18. Floor of the nose mucosa lysis and labial abscess caused by a bee sting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemán Navas, Ramón Manuel; Martínez Mendoza, María Guadalupe; Herrera, Henry; Herrera, Helen Piccolo de

    2009-01-01

    Hymenoptera order includes bees, which have a stinging apparatus at the tail capable of delivering venom to the affected tissues. Myocardial infarction, acute renal failure, Necrotizing fasciitis, fatal infection and hemifacial asymmetry, are some of the unusual reactions reported following hymenoptera stings. This paper reports a case of bee sting in the right floor of the nose that mimicked an odontogenic infection affecting the upper lip, canine space and nasal cavity such as in cases of infection secondary to pulpal or periodontal pathology of the anterior teeth. After a thorough clinical and radiographic examination, odontogenic infection was discarded and the diagnosis of floor of the nose mucosal lysis and lip abscess secondary to a bee sting was made. This case was successfully managed with adequate incision, drainage and antibiotics without any further complication. There are several reports of unusual reactions following hymenoptera stings. However, just a few of them referred to infections of local reactions and none of them related to the anatomic location affected in the patient of the present case. Early diagnosis and treatment prevented infection dissemination and the likelihood of tissue necrosis as in previously reported cases of Necrotizing fasciitis.

  19. Single amino acid change in STING leads to constitutive active signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric D Tang

    Full Text Available The production of cytokines by the immune system in response to cytosolic DNA plays an important role in host defense, autoimmune disease, and cancer immunogenicity. Recently a cytosolic DNA signaling pathway that is dependent on the endoplasmic reticulum adaptor and cyclic dinucleotide sensor protein STING has been identified. Association of cytosolic DNA with cyclic-GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS activates its enzymatic activity to synthesize the cyclic dinucleotide second messenger cGAMP from GTP and ATP. Direct detection of cGAMP by STING triggers the activation of IRF3 and NF-kB, and the production of type I interferons and proinflammatory cytokines. The mechanism of how STING is able to mediate downstream signaling remains incompletely understood although it has been shown that dimerization is a prerequisite. Here, we identify a single amino acid change in STING that confers constitutive active signaling. This mutation appears to both enhance ability of STING to both dimerize and associate with its downstream target TBK1.

  20. Single amino acid change in STING leads to constitutive active signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Eric D; Wang, Cun-Yu

    2015-01-01

    The production of cytokines by the immune system in response to cytosolic DNA plays an important role in host defense, autoimmune disease, and cancer immunogenicity. Recently a cytosolic DNA signaling pathway that is dependent on the endoplasmic reticulum adaptor and cyclic dinucleotide sensor protein STING has been identified. Association of cytosolic DNA with cyclic-GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) activates its enzymatic activity to synthesize the cyclic dinucleotide second messenger cGAMP from GTP and ATP. Direct detection of cGAMP by STING triggers the activation of IRF3 and NF-kB, and the production of type I interferons and proinflammatory cytokines. The mechanism of how STING is able to mediate downstream signaling remains incompletely understood although it has been shown that dimerization is a prerequisite. Here, we identify a single amino acid change in STING that confers constitutive active signaling. This mutation appears to both enhance ability of STING to both dimerize and associate with its downstream target TBK1.

  1. Risk factors for scorpion stings in the beni mellal province of morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Charrab

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Scorpion stings comprise a serious problem throughout the globe, especially in regions where they are more frequent. In Morocco, Beni Mellal is one of the provinces most affected by this burden. This study aimed to trace the epidemiological profile of scorpion stings in Beni Mellal in order to improve patient care and prevent both morbidity and mortality. Our work is a retrospective study of scorpion stings based on medical charts of Beni Mellal. From 2002 to 2007, 8,340 cases were registered in this province with an average incidence of 1.36‰. The stings were more frequent in summer months, particularly July and August, and between 6 p.m. and 6 a.m. (59.8%. The average age of victims was 26.54 ± 18.42 years. Children were affected in 30.3% of the cases. Of all registered cases, 67.3% of the patients received medical aid in less than an hour after the sting. The envenomation rate (Class II and Class III was 12.4% and the overall case-fatality rate was 0.42% with a mortality rate of 0.005‰. Statistical analysis of the various studied factors revealed a significant connection among the envenomation class, patient age and evolution.

  2. Effects of a honeybee sting on the serum free amino acid profile in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Matysiak

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the response to a honeybee venom by analyzing serum levels of 34 free amino acids. Another goal of this study was to apply complex analytic-bioinformatic-clinical strategy based on up-to-date achievements of mass spectrometry in metabolomic profiling. The amino acid profiles were determined using hybrid triple quadrupole/linear ion trap mass spectrometer coupled with a liquid chromatography instrument. Serum samples were collected from 27 beekeepers within 3 hours after they were stung and after a minimum of 6 weeks following the last sting. The differences in amino acid profiles were evaluated using MetaboAnalyst and ROCCET web portals. Chemometric tests showed statistically significant differences in the levels of L-glutamine (Gln, L-glutamic acid (Glu, L-methionine (Met and 3-methyl-L-histidine (3MHis between the two analyzed groups of serum samples. Gln and Glu appeared to be the most important metabolites for distinguishing the beekeepers tested shortly after a bee sting from those tested at least 6 weeks later. The role of some amino acids in the response of an organism to the honeybee sting was also discussed. This study indicated that proposed methodology may allow to identify the individuals just after the sting and those who were stung at least 6 weeks earlier. The results we obtained will contribute to better understanding of the human body response to the honeybee sting.

  3. Survival after anaphylaxis induced by a bumblebee sting in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Emily; Mandell, Deborah C; Waddell, Lori S

    2013-01-01

    A 3.5 yr old castrated male miniature schnauzer was referred with a history of collapse after a bee sting to the left hind limb. At the time of presentation, 14 hr after the sting, the dog was hypotensive, comatose, seizuring, and had a brief period of cardiac arrest. Over the following 48 hr, the dog developed azotemia, severely elevated liver enzyme levels, hypertension, hematochezia, hematemesis, and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). The dog's neurologic status improved slowly, but significant behavioral abnormalities remained. The dog was discharged after 7 days with ongoing polyuria, polydipsia, and behavioral changes. The polydipsia and polyuria resolved within a few days, but the behavioral changes continued for 6 wk. Reports of anaphylaxis from any cause are sparse in the veterinary literature. This is the first report of suspected anaphylaxis following a bee sting. There are no previous reports of behavioral changes after physical recovery from anaphylaxis.

  4. cGAS/STING Pathway in Cancer: Jekyll and Hyde Story of Cancer Immune Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debojit Bose

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The last two decades have witnessed enormous growth in the field of cancer immunity. Mechanistic insights of cancer immunoediting have not only enhanced our understanding but also paved the way to target and/or harness the innate immune system to combat cancer, called cancer immunotherapy. Cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS/Stimulator of interferon genes(STING pathway has recently emerged as nodal player in cancer immunity and is currently being explored as potential therapeutic target. Although therapeutic activation of this pathway has shown promising anti-tumor effects in vivo, evidence also indicates the role of this pathway in inflammation mediated carcinogenesis. This review highlights our current understanding of cGAS/STING pathway in cancer, its therapeutic targeting and potential alternate approaches to target this pathway. Optimal therapeutic targeting and artificial tunability of this pathway still demand in depth understanding of cGAS/STING pathway regulation and homeostasis.

  5. Acute tubulo-interstitial nephritis leading to acute renal failure following multiple hornet stings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambery Pradeep

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hornet stings are generally associated with local and occasionally anaphylactic reactions. Rarely systemic complications like acute renal failure can occur following multiple stings. Renal failure is usually due to development of acute tubular necrosis as a result of intravascular haemolysis, rhabdomyolysis or shock. Rarely it can be following development of acute tubulo-interstitial nephritis. Case presentation We describe a young male, who was stung on face, head, shoulders and upper limbs by multiple hornets (Vespa orientalis. He developed acute renal failure as a result of acute tubulo-interstitial nephritis and responded to steroids. Conclusion Rare causes of acute renal failure like tubulo-interstitial nephritis should be considered in a patient with persistent oliguria and azotemia following multiple hornet stings. Renal biopsy should be undertaken early, as institution of steroid therapy may help in recovery of renal function

  6. Regulation and function of the cGAS-STING pathway of cytosolic DNA sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qi; Sun, Lijun; Chen, Zhijian J

    2016-09-20

    The recognition of microbial nucleic acids is a major mechanism by which the immune system detects pathogens. Cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) synthase (cGAS) is a cytosolic DNA sensor that activates innate immune responses through production of the second messenger cGAMP, which activates the adaptor STING. The cGAS-STING pathway not only mediates protective immune defense against infection by a large variety of DNA-containing pathogens but also detects tumor-derived DNA and generates intrinsic antitumor immunity. However, aberrant activation of the cGAS pathway by self DNA can also lead to autoimmune and inflammatory disease. Thus, the cGAS pathway must be properly regulated. Here we review the recent advances in understanding of the cGAS-STING pathway, focusing on the regulatory mechanisms and roles of this pathway in heath and disease.

  7. cGAS/STING Pathway in Cancer: Jekyll and Hyde Story of Cancer Immune Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Debojit

    2017-11-18

    The last two decades have witnessed enormous growth in the field of cancer immunity. Mechanistic insights of cancer immunoediting have not only enhanced our understanding but also paved the way to target and/or harness the innate immune system to combat cancer, called cancer immunotherapy. Cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS)/Stimulator of interferon genes(STING) pathway has recently emerged as nodal player in cancer immunity and is currently being explored as potential therapeutic target. Although therapeutic activation of this pathway has shown promising anti-tumor effects in vivo, evidence also indicates the role of this pathway in inflammation mediated carcinogenesis. This review highlights our current understanding of cGAS/STING pathway in cancer, its therapeutic targeting and potential alternate approaches to target this pathway. Optimal therapeutic targeting and artificial tunability of this pathway still demand in depth understanding of cGAS/STING pathway regulation and homeostasis.

  8. The split-sting trait in Apis mellifera induced by cobalt 60 gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Vera Lucia Maciel

    1993-01-01

    The Split-Sting (SS) trait in honey bees, induced by gamma radiation, was discovered by Soares (1975). Bees with this trait are unable to sting, because the parts that compose the sting are separated. Many studies have been done in order to understand this new mutation. We studied the effect of gamma radiation on induction of the SS trait in feral bee strains. The doses were applied to the phase of larvae of queens with 5 days old. The following results were obtained: all doses of radiation induced the SS trait. There was an increase in the percentage of queens with SS with an increase in radiation dose; the SS trait induced by radiation is probably phenocopy; SS bees were observed in nature; increase of the rate mortality and malformation with an increase in radiation dose. (author)

  9. [Scorpion stings in an area of Nordeste de Amaralina, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Amorim, Andréa Monteiro; Carvalho, Fernando Martins; Lira-da-Silva, Rejâne Maria; Brazil, Tania Kobler

    2003-01-01

    An epidemiological study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of individuals who referred scorpion sting accidents in a population sample from Areal, a neighborhood northeast of Amaralina, Salvador City, State of Bahia, Brazil. A random, systematic sample of 1,367 individuals was taken, corresponding to 44.4% of the total population. Eighty-two residents referred scorpion sting since they were resident in Areal, giving a prevalence coefficient of 6% (95% CI 4.7 - 7.3). The prevalence of persons stung by scorpions increased according to greater time spent in the domicile and more advanced age. It was remarkable that 92.7% of the scorpions stings occurred within the home. The incidence coefficient estimated for the most recent period of time (January to July, 2000) was 1.15 cases/1,000 inhabitants per month, comparable to the highest ever reported for an epidemic area.

  10. Scorpion sting: a public health problem in El Kelaa des Sraghna (Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. El Oufir

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at verifying the impact of a Moroccan strategy against scorpion stings and specifically at identifying the epidemiological features of patients envenomed or just stung by scorpions. It included 11,907 patients from El Kelaa des Sraghna Province, Morocco, who were evaluated over five years (2001-2005. Most stings occurred during the hot period and mainly at night. The average incidence was 3.2 per 1,000 inhabitants; patients <15 years accounted for 34%, and the envenomation rate was 12%. Average lethality rate was 0.7%. Our work evaluated the efficacy of the adopted strategy based on indicators of follow-up, morbidity and lethality due to scorpion sting and envenomation.

  11. Stinging insect identification: Are the allergy specialists any better than their patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Troy W; Forester, Joseph P; Johnson, Monica L; Sikora, Jeremy M; Stolfi, Adrienne; Stahl, Mark C

    2016-05-01

    It has been reported that the general population is not skillful at identifying stinging insects with the exception of the honeybee. No information is available to evaluate allergy physicians' accuracy with stinging insect identification. To measure the accuracy of allergists' ability to identify stinging insects and assess their common practices for evaluating individuals with suspected insect hypersensitivity. A picture-based survey and a dried specimen insect box were constructed to determine allergists' and nonallergists' accuracy in identifying insects. Allergists attending the 2013 American College of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology meeting were invited to participate in the study. Common practice approaches for evaluating individuals with stinging insect hypersensitivity were also investigated using a brief questionnaire. Allergy physicians are collectively better at insect identification than nonallergists. Overall, the mean (SD) number of correct responses for nonallergists was 5.4 (2.0) of a total of 10. This score was significantly lower than the score for allergists (6.1 [2.0]; P = .01) who participated in the study. Most allergists (78.5%) test for all stinging insects and use skin testing (69.5%) as the initial test of choice for evaluating individuals with insect hypersensitivity. Overall, allergists are more skilled at Hymenoptera identification. Most allergy specialists reported testing for all stinging insects when evaluating insect hypersensitivity, and skin testing was the preferred testing method in nearly 70% of allergists. These data support the practice parameter's recommendation to consider testing for all flying Hymenoptera insects during venom evaluation, which most of the participating allergists surveyed incorporate into their clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Increased wind risk from sting-jet windstorms with climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Alvarado, Oscar; Gray, Suzanne L.; Hart, Neil C. G.; Clark, Peter A.; Hodges, Kevin; Roberts, Malcolm J.

    2018-04-01

    Extra-tropical cyclones dominate autumn and winter weather over western Europe. The strongest cyclones, often termed windstorms, have a large socio-economic impact on landfall due to strong surface winds and coastal storm surges. Climate model integrations have predicted a future increase in the frequency of, and potential damage from, European windstorms and yet these integrations cannot properly represent localised jets, such as sting jets, that may significantly enhance damage. Here we present the first prediction of how the climatology of sting-jet-containing cyclones will change in a future warmer climate, considering the North Atlantic and Europe. A proven sting-jet precursor diagnostic is applied to 13 year present-day and future (~2100) climate integrations from the Met Office Unified Model in its Global Atmosphere 3.0 configuration. The present-day climate results are consistent with previously-published results from a reanalysis dataset (with around 32% of cyclones exhibiting the sing-jet precursor), lending credibility to the analysis of the future-climate integration. The proportion of cyclones exhibiting the sting-jet precursor in the future-climate integration increases to 45%. Furthermore, while the proportion of explosively-deepening storms increases only slightly in the future climate, the proportion of those storms with the sting-jet precursor increases by 60%. The European resolved-wind risk associated with explosively-deepening storms containing a sting-jet precursor increases substantially in the future climate; in reality this wind risk is likely to be further enhanced by the release of localised moist instability, unresolved by typical climate models.

  13. Hymenoptera stings in Brazil: a neglected health threat in Amazonas State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allyson Guimarães Costa

    Full Text Available Abstract INTRODUCTION: Hymenoptera injuries are commonly caused by stinging insects. In Amazonas state, Brazil, there is no information regarding distribution, profile, and systemic manifestations associated with Hymenoptera injuries. METHODS: This study aimed to identify risk factors for systemic manifestation using the Brazilian Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (2007 to 2015. RESULTS: Half of Hymenoptera injuries were caused by bee stings. Hymenoptera injuries were concentrated in Manaus, and 13.36% of cases displayed systemic signs. Delayed medical assistance (4 to 12 hours presented four times more risk for systemic manifestations. CONCLUSIONS: Simple clinical observations and history of injury are critical information for prognostic improvement.

  14. [Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.)--botanical characteristics, biochemical composition and health benefits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubczyk, Karolina; Janda, Katarzyna; Szkyrpan, Sylwia; Gutowska, Izabela; Wolska, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) belongs to the family Urticaceae. It grows in the wild form in Asia, Europe, North America and North Africa. Stinging nettle is also a widespread ruderal plant found in Poland. Urtica dioica L., as a plant rich in biologically active compounds, is considered one of the most important plants used in phytotherapy. In vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated its antioxidant, antiplatelet, hypoglycaemic and hypocholesterolemic properties. Research conducted in recent years indicates the possibility of using nettle in chemoprevention, diabetes, benign prostatic hyperplasia and urologic diseases.

  15. Kaljujooniste keskus Arizonas / Andres Kurg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kurg, Andres, 1975-

    1998-01-01

    Arhitekt William Bruderi projekteeritud kaljujooniste uurimis- ja eksponeerimiskeskus Phoenixis, Arizonas säilitab kivijooniseid, mille autoriteks olid sealset piirkonda kuni 16. sajandini asustanud hohokamid

  16. Workshop Polli Talu Loomingulises Keskuses

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    MAP Intermedia Performance Collaboration'i (USA) workshop. Brendan McCall (liikumine), N. B. Aldrich (heli) ja Zach Poff (video) workshop tutvustab kolme kunstniku koostööd. Näidatakse ka multimeedia etendust, mis on külaliskunstnikel valminud Polli talus

  17. Rapla keskuse remake / Kaur Sarv

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sarv, Kaur

    2013-01-01

    2. Tallinna arhitektuuribiennaali satelliit - Rapla KEK-i hoone (Rapla Okta Centrum) taaskasutamise töötuba, selle tulemused ja ettepanekud. Töötuba aitas korraldada Hollandi urbanistide rühmitus Failed Architecture

  18. Identification and isolation of stimulator of interferon genes (STING): an innate immune sensory and adaptor gene from camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premraj, A; Aleyas, A G; Nautiyal, B; Rasool, T J

    2013-10-01

    The mechanism by which type I interferon-mediated antiviral response is mounted by hosts against invading pathogen is an intriguing one. Of late, an endoplasmic reticulum transmembrane protein encoded by a gene called stimulator of interferon genes (STING) is implicated in the innate signalling pathways and has been identified and cloned in few mammalian species including human, mouse and pig. In this article, we report the identification of STING from three different species of a highly conserved family of mammals - the camelids. cDNAs encoding the STING of Old World camels - dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) and bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus) and a New World camel - llama (Llama glama) were amplified using conserved primers and RACE. The complete STING cDNA of dromedary camel is 2171 bp long with a 706-bp 5' untranslated regions (UTR), an 1137-bp open reading frame (ORF) and a 328-bp 3' UTR. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the ORF of STING from these three camelids indicate high level of similarity among camelids and conservation of critical amino acid residues across different species. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed high levels of STING mRNA expression in blood, spleen, lymph node and lung. The identification of camelid STING will help in better understanding of the role of this molecule in the innate immunity of the camelids and other mammals. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Sting_RDB: a relational database of structural parameters for protein analysis with support for data warehousing and data mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, S R M; Almeida, G V; Souza, K R R; Rodrigues, D N; Kuser-Falcão, P R; Yamagishi, M E B; Santos, E H; Vieira, F D; Jardine, J G; Neshich, G

    2007-10-05

    An effective strategy for managing protein databases is to provide mechanisms to transform raw data into consistent, accurate and reliable information. Such mechanisms will greatly reduce operational inefficiencies and improve one's ability to better handle scientific objectives and interpret the research results. To achieve this challenging goal for the STING project, we introduce Sting_RDB, a relational database of structural parameters for protein analysis with support for data warehousing and data mining. In this article, we highlight the main features of Sting_RDB and show how a user can explore it for efficient and biologically relevant queries. Considering its importance for molecular biologists, effort has been made to advance Sting_RDB toward data quality assessment. To the best of our knowledge, Sting_RDB is one of the most comprehensive data repositories for protein analysis, now also capable of providing its users with a data quality indicator. This paper differs from our previous study in many aspects. First, we introduce Sting_RDB, a relational database with mechanisms for efficient and relevant queries using SQL. Sting_rdb evolved from the earlier, text (flat file)-based database, in which data consistency and integrity was not guaranteed. Second, we provide support for data warehousing and mining. Third, the data quality indicator was introduced. Finally and probably most importantly, complex queries that could not be posed on a text-based database, are now easily implemented. Further details are accessible at the Sting_RDB demo web page: http://www.cbi.cnptia.embrapa.br/StingRDB.

  20. Identification and expression analysis of the sting gene, a sensor of viral DNA, in common carp Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, X L; Chen, J J; Cao, Y; Nie, G X; Su, J G

    2016-05-01

    Stimulator of interferon gene (sting) was identified and characterized from common carp Cyprinus carpio. The sting messenger (m)RNA encoded a polypeptide of 402 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 46·184 kDa and an isoelectronic point of 6·08. The deduced protein of sting contained a signal peptide, three transmembrane motifs in the N-terminal region and four putative motifs (RXR) found in resident endoplasmic reticulum proteins. mRNA expression of sting was present in twelve investigated tissues, and was up-regulated by koi herpesvirus (KHV) in vivo and in vitro. The transcription of sting was altered by poly(I:C) and poly(dT:dA) stimulation in vitro. The findings suggested that sting is an inducible gene involved in innate immunity against DNA- and RNA-derived pathogens. To investigate defence mechanisms in C. carpio development, sting level in embryos, larvae and juvenile fish was monitored following KHV challenge. The sting message was negligible in embryos prior to hatching, but observed at higher transcriptional levels throughout larval and juvenile stages. Investigation showed the mRNA expression profiles of genes encoding for proteins promoting various functions in the interferon pathway, from pattern recognition receptors to antiviral genes, to be significantly induced in all examined organs by in vivo infection with KHV. Following KHV infection, the ifn message was significantly downregulated in spleen, head kidney, brain and hepatopancreas but notably up-regulated in gill, intestine and skin, suggesting that ifn induction might be related to the mucosal immune system and virus anti-ifn mechanisms. These results provided the basis for further research into the role and mechanisms of sting in fishes. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  1. The inhibiting effects of components of stinging nettle roots on experimentally induced prostatic hyperplasia in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichius, J J; Renneberg, H; Blaschek, W; Aumüller, G; Muth, C

    1999-10-01

    Direct implanting of fetal urogenital sinus (UGS) tissue into the ventral prostate gland of adult mice led to a 4-fold weight increase of the manipulated prostatic lobe. The induced growth could be reduced by the polysaccharide fraction (POLY-M) of the 20% methanolic extract of stinging nettle roots by 33.8%.

  2. A randomized crossover study of bee sting therapy for multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselius, T; Heersema, DJ; Mostert, JP; Heerings, M; Admiraal-Behloul, F; Talebian, A; van Buchem, MA; De Keyser, J

    2005-01-01

    Background: Bee sting therapy is increasingly used to treat patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) in the belief that it can stabilize or ameliorate the disease. However, there are no clinical studies to justify its use. Methods: In a randomized, crossover study, we assigned 26 patients with

  3. Experimental Research on an Active Sting Damper in a Low Speed Acoustic Wind Tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinjin Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind tunnels usually use long cantilever stings to support aerodynamic models in order to reduce support system flow interference on experimental data. However, such support systems are a potential source of vibration problems which limit the test envelope and affect data quality due to the inherently low structural damping of the systems. When exposed to tunnel flow, turbulence and model flow separation excite resonant Eigenmodes of a sting structure causing large vibrations due to low damping. This paper details the development and experimental evaluation of an active damping system using piezoelectric devices with balance signal feedback both in a lab and a low speed acoustic wind tunnel and presents the control algorithm verification tests with a simple cantilever beam. It is shown that the active damper, controlled separately by both PID and BP neural network, has effectively attenuated the vibration. For sting mode only, 95% reduction of displacement response under exciter stimulation and 98% energy elimination of sting mode frequency have been achieved.

  4. Epidemiological review of scorpion stings in Qatar. The need for regional management guidelines in emergency departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkahlout, Baha H; Abid, Muhammad M; Kasim, Mohammad M; Haneef, Shumaila M

    2015-07-01

    To review the epidemiology of scorpion sting in Qatar, to explore both the clinical significance, and the role of the emergency department (ED) in the management of such cases. In this retrospective study, we reviewed the records of all scorpion sting cases presented to the ED of Hamad General Hospital, Doha, Qatar between October 2010 and May 2013. A total of 111 cases of scorpion stings were reviewed, 81 (72.9%) were males and 30 (27.1%) were females, with a mean age of 38 years. Localized pain was the most frequent presenting complaint (89 [80.2%]), whereas localized redness (44 [39.6%]) and swelling (38 [34.2%]) were the most common clinical signs. Abroug's classification was used, and all cases  were found to be class I. All patients received symptomatic treatment and were sent home. Scorpion sting problem in Qatar has a low clinical significance. Data from such studies should be utilized to create more specific (local) management guidelines, which should be more efficient with more rational utilization of ED resources.

  5. Molecular Pathways: Targeting the Stimulator of Interferon Genes (STING) in the Immunotherapy of Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales, Leticia; Gajewski, Thomas F

    2015-11-01

    Novel immunotherapy approaches are transforming the treatment of cancer, yet many patients remain refractory to these agents. One hypothesis is that immunotherapy fails because of a tumor microenvironment that fails to support recruitment of immune cells, including CD8(+) T cells. Therefore, new approaches designed to initiate a de novo antitumor immune response from within the tumor microenvironment are being pursued. Recent evidence has indicated that spontaneous activation of the Stimulator of Interferon Genes (STING) pathway within tumor-resident dendritic cells leads to type I IFN production and adaptive immune responses against tumors. This pathway is activated in the presence of cytosolic DNA that is detected by the sensor cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) and generates cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP), which binds and activates STING. As a therapeutic approach, intratumoral injection of STING agonists has demonstrated profound therapeutic effects in multiple mouse tumor models, including melanoma, colon, breast, prostate, and fibrosarcoma. Better characterization of the STING pathway in human tumor recognition, and the development of new pharmacologic approaches to engage this pathway within the tumor microenvironment in patients, are important areas for clinical translation. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  6. Some preliminary notes on Surinam Sting Rays, including the description of a new species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeseman, M.

    1948-01-01

    In Dr. D. C. Geijskes' collection of Surinam fishes, mentioned in my previous paper on this subject (Boeseman, 1948), I found six specimens belonging to the so-called "sting rays" (Dasyatidae), representing three different species, and all very interesting in some respects. I. Dasyatis schmardae

  7. Impact of Stinging Jellyfish Proliferations along South Italian Coasts: Human Health Hazards, Treatment and Social Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella De Donno

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Stinging jellyfish outbreaks represent a health hazard, causing contact dermatitis and systemic reactions. This study investigated the epidemiology, severity, and treatment protocols of jellyfish stings in a coastal area with high tourist development and frequent stinging jellyfish outbreaks of the central Mediterranean (Salento, Southern Italy, and the associated costs for the Italian National Health Service. In 2007–2011, 1,733 bathers (mostly children and females sought medical assistance following jellyfish stings, the main cause of human pathologies due to contact with marine organisms. The majority of events were reported in the years 2007–2009, whereas the occurrence of cnidarian jellyfish outbreaks has been increasingly reported in the same area since summer 2010. Most symptoms were limited to local and cutaneous reactions; conversely, 8.7% of cases evoked complications, mainly due to allergic reactions. The main drugs used were corticosteroids, locally applied and systemic (46% and 43%, respectively, and with ammonia (74% as the main non-pharmacological treatment. The estimated cost of jellyfish-related first-aid services along the Salento coastline over the 5-year period was approximately 400,000 Euros. Therefore the management of jellyfish outbreak phenomena need coordinated research efforts towards a better understanding of underlying ecological mechanisms, together with the adoption of effective prevention policy, mitigation strategies, and appropriate planning of health services at tourist hot spots.

  8. Toxicity of organophosphorus pesticide sumithion on larval stages of stinging catfish Heteropneustes fossilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shahjahan, M.; Kabir, M.F.; Sumon, Kizar Ahmed; Bhowmik, Lipi Rani; Rashid, Harunur

    2017-01-01

    Sumithion is widely used to control brittle in paddy fields and tiger bug in fish larval rearing ponds. The objective of this study was to elucidate the toxic effects of sumithion on larval stages of stinging catfish Heteropneustes fossilis. Larvae were exposed to two concentrations (150 and 250

  9. Processing, Targeting, and Antifungal Activity of Stinging Nettle Agglutinin in Transgenic Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Does, Mirjam P.; Houterman, Petra M.; Dekker, Henk L.; Cornelissen, Ben J.C.

    1999-01-01

    The gene encoding the precursor to stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) isolectin I was introduced into tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). In transgenic plants this precursor was processed to mature-sized lectin. The mature isolectin is deposited intracellularly, most likely in the vacuoles. A gene construct lacking the C-terminal 25 amino acids was also introduced in tobacco to study the role of the C terminus in subcellular trafficking. In tobacco plants that expressed this construct, the mutant precursor was correctly processed and the mature isolectin was targeted to the intercellular space. These results indicate the presence of a C-terminal signal for intracellular retention of stinging nettle lectin and most likely for sorting of the lectin to the vacuoles. In addition, correct processing of this lectin did not depend on vacuolar deposition. Isolectin I purified from tobacco displayed identical biological activities as isolectin I isolated from stinging nettle. In vitro antifungal assays on germinated spores of the fungi Botrytis cinerea, Trichoderma viride, and Colletotrichum lindemuthianum revealed that growth inhibition by stinging nettle isolectin I occurs at a specific phase of fungal growth and is temporal, suggesting that the fungi had an adaptation mechanism. PMID:10364393

  10. Epidemiological Survey of Scorpion Sting Cases and Identification of Scorpion Fauna in Hamadan City, Iran (2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nazari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Iran is among the countries with a variety of scorpion species, particu-larly dangerous ones. Death due to scorpion sting occurs in all parts of the country. Mortality from scorpion sting depends on various factors such as scorpion species, age of the stung per-son, stung body site and geographical area. Considering the fact that so far no research on the fauna and epidemiological aspect of scorpion stings has been done in Hamadan city, we con-ducted this research. Materials & Methods: This is a cross sectional- descriptive study. To determine the scorpion fauna of the region using a random cluster sampling in specified locations from May to Sep-tember in 2013 and was attempting we caught scorpions and put them in containers of alcohol (70% and identified them based on Iran scorpions´ key. In order to investigate cases of scor-pion stings, we referred to the health center of Hamadan province and using questionnaires, we collected data related to the patients during 2010-2013. The data were analyzed by SPSS software. Results: A total of 98 collected scorpion species named Mesobuthus eupeus, Androctonus crassicauda, Odontobuthus doriae and Razianus zarudnyi (Family: Buthidae, were identified. Mesobuthus eupeus species with 89.7% of the samples collected had the highest frequency. Totally, 797 cases of scorpion sting were documented in the Health Center of Hamadan Prov-ince, including 498 (62.5% male and 299 (37.5% females. The results of this study showed that most cases of scorpion stings in the age group of 25 to 34 years, in 2011 in July and in the rural areas were 29.6%, 33.1%, 28.9%, 64.4%, respectively. The most stung organs were hands, with 48.2%. All patients (100% during the study were treated. Conclusion: Due to the low-risk species of scorpions in the region and lack of mortality reports in the past few years, it is recommended to revise administering anti-scorpion serum in the health centers. Adequate

  11. A Very Big Hand Is a Very Big Problem: Soft-Tissue Infection, Venous Thrombosis, or Just an Insect Sting?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Damanti

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A 67-year-old woman developed severe edema of her right hand and forearm, for which she was treated with antibiotics, without benefit. The echography excluded a venous thrombosis. Subsequently, she referred a wasp sting before the development of the edema. Specific Hymenoptera venom immunoglobulin E (IgE was found to be positive for paper wasp and yellow jacket. A large local reaction (LLR was diagnosed due to the hymenoptera sting. Self-injectable epinephrine was prescribed for possible, though unlikely, systemic reactions following hymenoptera stings.

  12. Insect Sting Reactions and Specific IgE to Venom and Major Allergens in a General Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbech, H; Tang, L; Linneberg, A

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Insect sting reactions are frequently reported, but population studies documenting the frequency and the relation to IgE-sensitization and serum tryptase are scarce. METHODS: Questionnaire data and results from measurements of specific IgE against venom, major allergens and cross...... or wasp. IgE to CCDs occurred in only 0.7%, but 80% of these were DS. Finally, 36% with IgE to CCDs had had symptoms, mostly local. Serum tryptase was not associated with a history of sting reactions. CONCLUSIONS: In a temperate climate, self-reported insect sting reactions and sensitization to venom...

  13. Risk of anaphylaxis in patients with large local reactions to hymenoptera stings: a retrospective and prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucci, Stefano; D'Alò, Simona; De Pasquale, Tiziana; Illuminati, Ilenia; Makri, Elena; Incorvaia, Cristoforo

    2015-01-01

    In the few studies available, the risk of developing systemic reactions (SR) to hymenoptera stings in patients with previous large local reactions (LLRs) to stings ranges from 0 to 7 %. We evaluated both retrospectively and prospectively the risk of SRs in patients with LLRs to stings. An overall number of 477 patients, 396 with an SR as the first manifestation of allergy and 81 with a history of only LLRs after hymenoptera stings, were included in the study. All patients had clinical history and allergy testing (skin tests and/or specific IgE) indicative of allergy to venom of only one kind of Hymenoptera. Of the 81 patient with LLRs, 53 were followed-up for 3 years by annual control visits, while the 396 patients with SR were evaluated retrospectively. Among the 396 patients with an SR, only 17 (4.2 %) had had a previous LLR as debut of allergy, after an history of normal local reactions to Hymenoptera stings. All the 81 patients with a history of only LLRs had previously had at least two LLRs, with an overall number of 238 stings and no SR. Among the 53 patients who were prospectively evaluated we found that 31 of them (58.3 %) were restung by the same type of insect, with an overall number of 59 stings, presenting only LLRs and no SR. Our findings confirm that patients with repeated LLRs to stings had no risk of SR, while a single LLR does not exclude such risk. This has to be considered in the management of patients with LLRs.

  14. Disease-associated mutations identify a novel region in human STING necessary for the control of type I interferon signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Melki, Isabelle; Rose, Yoann; Uggenti, Carolina; Van Eyck, Lien; Frémond, Marie-Louise; Kitabayashi, Naoki; Rice, Gillian I; Jenkinson, Emma M; Boulai, Anaïs; Jeremiah, Nadia; Gattorno, Marco; Volpi, Sefano; Sacco, Olivero; Terheggen-Lagro, Suzanne W J; Tiddens, Harm A W M

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gain-of-function mutations in transmembrane protein 173 (TMEM173) encoding stimulator of interferon genes (STING) underlie a recently described type I interferonopathy called STING-associated vasculopathy with onset in infancy (SAVI).OBJECTIVES: We sought to define the molecular and cellular pathology relating to 3 individuals variably exhibiting the core features of the SAVI phenotype including systemic inflammation, destructive skin lesions, and interstitial lung disease.METHODS...

  15. Sensing of HSV-1 by the cGAS-STING pathway in microglia orchestrates antiviral defence in the CNS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinert, Line S; Lopušná, Katarína; Winther, Henriette

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is the most common form of acute viral encephalitis in industrialized countries. Type I interferon (IFN) is important for control of herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) in the central nervous system (CNS). Here we show that microglia are the main source of HSV-induced t......Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is the most common form of acute viral encephalitis in industrialized countries. Type I interferon (IFN) is important for control of herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) in the central nervous system (CNS). Here we show that microglia are the main source of HSV......-induced type I IFN expression in CNS cells and these cytokines are induced in a cGAS-STING-dependent manner. Consistently, mice defective in cGAS or STING are highly susceptible to acute HSE. Although STING is redundant for cell-autonomous antiviral resistance in astrocytes and neurons, viral replication...... is strongly increased in neurons in STING-deficient mice. Interestingly, HSV-infected microglia confer STING-dependent antiviral activities in neurons and prime type I IFN production in astrocytes through the TLR3 pathway. Thus, sensing of HSV-1 infection in the CNS by microglia through the cGAS-STING pathway...

  16. A Foreign Body Granuloma of the Buccal Mucosa Induced by Honeybee Sting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiko Yamamoto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A foreign body granuloma of the buccal mucosa induced by honeybee sting was reported. The patient was an 82-year-old female who presented with a submucous mass at the right buccal mucosa. The mass was 20 mm in diameter, elastically firm, partly mobile without pain or tenderness, and covered with almost normal mucosa. MR image did not delineate the lesion clearly. Under clinical diagnosis of a benign tumor, the lesion was excised under local anesthesia. The excised lesion was 14×11×9 mm in size and solid and yellowish in cut surface. Histologically, the lesion consisted of granulomatous tissue with a few narrow, curved, eosinophilic structures compatible with decomposed fragments of a honeybee sting and was diagnosed as a foreign body granuloma, although the patient did not recall being stung.

  17. Study of stinging nettle (urtica dioica l.) Fibers reinforced green composite materials : a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agus Suryawan, I. G. P.; Suardana, N. P. G.; Suprapta Winaya, I. N.; Budiarsa Suyasa, I. W.; Tirta Nindhia, T. G.

    2017-05-01

    Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica L., latin) is a wild plant that grows in Indonesia, Asia, and Europe. Nettle in Bali, Indonesia is called as Lateng, Jelatang. Nettle plant has a very strong fiber and high fixed carbon. Nettle plants are covered with fine hairs, especially in the leaves and stems. When it is touched, it will release chemicals, sting and trigger inflammation that causes redness, itching, bumps and irritation to the skin. Nettle plants grow in the wild, regarded as a weed in the agricultural industry, easy to grow and snatch food from the parent plant. The main objective of this paper is to review of the potential nettle fibers and then explain about the potential of local nettle plant in Indonesia. Nettle is a plant group at the end of bast. Its plant fibers taken from the bark, as reinforcement in composite materials. Nettle fibers have three main advantages such as strong, lightweight and low environmental impact.

  18. Influence of the Sting Nematode, Belonolaimus longicaudalus, on Young Citrus Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, D T

    1985-10-01

    The sting nematode, Belonolaimus longicaudatus, was associated with poor growth of citrus in a central Florida nursery. Foliage of trees was sparse and chlorotic. Affected rootstocks included Changsha and Cleopatra mandarin orange; Flying Dragon, Rubidoux, and Jacobsen trifoliate orange; Macrophylla and Milam lemon; Palestine sweet lime; sour orange; and the hybrids - Carrizo, Morton, and Rusk citrange and Swingle citrumelo. Root symptoms included apical swelling, development of swollen terminals containing 3-5 apical meristems and hyperplastic tissue, coarse roots, and a reduction in the number of fibrous roots. Population densities as high as 392 sting nematodes per liter soil were detected, with 80% of the population occurring in the top 30 cm of soil; however, nematodes were detected to 107 cm deep. Although an ectoparasite, the nematode was closely associated with citrus root systems and was transported with bare root nursery stock. Disinfestation was accomplished by hot water treatment (49 C for 5 minutes).

  19. The common HAQ STING variant impairs cGAS-dependent antibacterial responses and is associated with susceptibility to Legionnaires' disease in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan S Ruiz-Moreno

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS-STING pathway is central for innate immune sensing of various bacterial, viral and protozoal infections. Recent studies identified the common HAQ and R232H alleles of TMEM173/STING, but the functional consequences of these variants for primary infections are unknown. Here we demonstrate that cGAS- and STING-deficient murine macrophages as well as human cells of individuals carrying HAQ TMEM173/STING were severely impaired in producing type I IFNs and pro-inflammatory cytokines in response to Legionella pneumophila, bacterial DNA or cyclic dinucleotides (CDNs. In contrast, R232H attenuated cytokine production only following stimulation with bacterial CDN, but not in response to L. pneumophila or DNA. In a mouse model of Legionnaires' disease, cGAS- and STING-deficient animals exhibited higher bacterial loads as compared to wild-type mice. Moreover, the haplotype frequency of HAQ TMEM173/STING, but not of R232H TMEM173/STING, was increased in two independent cohorts of human Legionnaires' disease patients as compared to healthy controls. Our study reveals that the cGAS-STING cascade contributes to antibacterial defense against L. pneumophila in mice and men, and provides important insight into how the common HAQ TMEM173/STING variant affects antimicrobial immune responses and susceptibility to infection.ClinicalTrials.gov DRKS00005274, German Clinical Trials Register.

  20. The common HAQ STING variant impairs cGAS-dependent antibacterial responses and is associated with susceptibility to Legionnaires' disease in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Moreno, Juan S; Hamann, Lutz; Shah, Javeed A; Verbon, Annelies; Mockenhaupt, Frank P; Puzianowska-Kuznicka, Monika; Naujoks, Jan; Sander, Leif E; Witzenrath, Martin; Cambier, John C; Suttorp, Norbert; Schumann, Ralf R; Jin, Lei; Hawn, Thomas R; Opitz, Bastian

    2018-01-01

    The cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS)-STING pathway is central for innate immune sensing of various bacterial, viral and protozoal infections. Recent studies identified the common HAQ and R232H alleles of TMEM173/STING, but the functional consequences of these variants for primary infections are unknown. Here we demonstrate that cGAS- and STING-deficient murine macrophages as well as human cells of individuals carrying HAQ TMEM173/STING were severely impaired in producing type I IFNs and pro-inflammatory cytokines in response to Legionella pneumophila, bacterial DNA or cyclic dinucleotides (CDNs). In contrast, R232H attenuated cytokine production only following stimulation with bacterial CDN, but not in response to L. pneumophila or DNA. In a mouse model of Legionnaires' disease, cGAS- and STING-deficient animals exhibited higher bacterial loads as compared to wild-type mice. Moreover, the haplotype frequency of HAQ TMEM173/STING, but not of R232H TMEM173/STING, was increased in two independent cohorts of human Legionnaires' disease patients as compared to healthy controls. Our study reveals that the cGAS-STING cascade contributes to antibacterial defense against L. pneumophila in mice and men, and provides important insight into how the common HAQ TMEM173/STING variant affects antimicrobial immune responses and susceptibility to infection. ClinicalTrials.gov DRKS00005274, German Clinical Trials Register.

  1. The common HAQ STING variant impairs cGAS-dependent antibacterial responses and is associated with susceptibility to Legionnaires’ disease in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Lutz; Verbon, Annelies; Mockenhaupt, Frank P.; Puzianowska-Kuznicka, Monika; Naujoks, Jan; Sander, Leif E.; Witzenrath, Martin; Schumann, Ralf R.; Hawn, Thomas R.

    2018-01-01

    The cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS)-STING pathway is central for innate immune sensing of various bacterial, viral and protozoal infections. Recent studies identified the common HAQ and R232H alleles of TMEM173/STING, but the functional consequences of these variants for primary infections are unknown. Here we demonstrate that cGAS- and STING-deficient murine macrophages as well as human cells of individuals carrying HAQ TMEM173/STING were severely impaired in producing type I IFNs and pro-inflammatory cytokines in response to Legionella pneumophila, bacterial DNA or cyclic dinucleotides (CDNs). In contrast, R232H attenuated cytokine production only following stimulation with bacterial CDN, but not in response to L. pneumophila or DNA. In a mouse model of Legionnaires’ disease, cGAS- and STING-deficient animals exhibited higher bacterial loads as compared to wild-type mice. Moreover, the haplotype frequency of HAQ TMEM173/STING, but not of R232H TMEM173/STING, was increased in two independent cohorts of human Legionnaires’ disease patients as compared to healthy controls. Our study reveals that the cGAS-STING cascade contributes to antibacterial defense against L. pneumophila in mice and men, and provides important insight into how the common HAQ TMEM173/STING variant affects antimicrobial immune responses and susceptibility to infection. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov DRKS00005274, German Clinical Trials Register PMID:29298342

  2. Prospective study of Chironex fleckeri and other box jellyfish stings in the "Top End" of Australia's Northern Territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Bart J; Jacups, Susan P

    To describe the epidemiology and clinical features of box jellyfish envenoming in the Top End of the Northern Territory and, in particular, confirmed stings from the major Australian box jellyfish, Chironex fleckeri. Prospective collection of clinical data and skin scrapings or sticky-tape tests for nematocyst identification from patients presenting to Royal Darwin Hospital and remote coastal community health clinics in the Northern Territory, spanning 10 950 km of coastline; analysis of tidal, weather and seasonal data. All patients with jellyfish sting details recorded between 1 April 1991 and 30 May 2004. Demographic and clinical features, use of C. fleckeri antivenom, and associations between weather, seasonal and tidal factors and confirmed C. fleckeri stings. Of 606 jellyfish stings documented, 225 were confirmed to have been caused by C. fleckeri. 37% of C. fleckeri stings were in children, 92% occurred during the "stinger season" (1 October to 1 June), 83% occurred in water 1 m or less deep, and 17% occurred while victims were entering the water. Stings were least common on outgoing tides (P < 0.001) and commonest between 15:00 and 18:00 (P < 0.001) and on days with wind speed less than that month's average (P < 0.001). Nearly all victims experienced immediate pain, but this could often be controlled with ice; only 30% required parenteral narcotics and 8% required hospital admission. Cardiorespiratory arrest occurred within several minutes of the sting in the one fatal case, involving a 3-year-old girl with only 1.2 m of visible tentacle contact. C. fleckeri antivenom was given to another 21 patients, none of whom had life-threatening features at the time they were given antivenom. Most C. fleckeri stings are not life-threatening; patients who die usually have cardiopulmonary arrest within minutes of the sting. The potential benefit of antivenom and magnesium under these circumstances remains to be shown, but a protocol with their rapid use is recommended

  3. Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy after Bee Sting and Treatment with Zolpidem: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turgay Demir

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE, a metabolic encephalopathy, develops as a result of cessation or reduction of oxygen and blood flow to the brain. The clinical picture may vary in severity from minimal neurologic deficits to coma. In living patients, permanent neuropsychological sequelae can develop. Herein, we present a case of HIE that occured after anaphylactic reaction due to bee sting, which was treatedm with zolpidem.

  4. Antiproliferative effect on human prostate cancer cells by a stinging nettle root (Urtica dioica) extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, L; Müller, H H; Lenz, C; Laubinger, H; Aumüller, G; Lichius, J J

    2000-02-01

    In the present study the activity of a 20% methanolic extract of stinging nettle roots (Urtica dioica L., Urticaceae) on the proliferative activity of human prostatic epithelial (LNCaP) and stromal (hPCPs) cells was evaluated using a colorimetric assay. A concentration-dependent and significant (p nettle roots observed both in an in vivo model and in an in vitro system clearly indicates a biologically relevant effect of compounds present in the extract.

  5. cGAS produces a 2'-5'-linked cyclic dinucleotide second messenger that activates STING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ablasser, Andrea; Goldeck, Marion; Cavlar, Taner; Deimling, Tobias; Witte, Gregor; Röhl, Ingo; Hopfner, Karl-Peter; Ludwig, Janos; Hornung, Veit

    2013-06-20

    Detection of cytoplasmic DNA represents one of the most fundamental mechanisms of the innate immune system to sense the presence of microbial pathogens. Moreover, erroneous detection of endogenous DNA by the same sensing mechanisms has an important pathophysiological role in certain sterile inflammatory conditions. The endoplasmic-reticulum-resident protein STING is critically required for the initiation of type I interferon signalling upon detection of cytosolic DNA of both exogenous and endogenous origin. Next to its pivotal role in DNA sensing, STING also serves as a direct receptor for the detection of cyclic dinucleotides, which function as second messenger molecules in bacteria. DNA recognition, however, is triggered in an indirect fashion that depends on a recently characterized cytoplasmic nucleotidyl transferase, termed cGAMP synthase (cGAS), which upon interaction with DNA synthesizes a dinucleotide molecule that in turn binds to and activates STING. We here show in vivo and in vitro that the cGAS-catalysed reaction product is distinct from previously characterized cyclic dinucleotides. Using a combinatorial approach based on mass spectrometry, enzymatic digestion, NMR analysis and chemical synthesis we demonstrate that cGAS produces a cyclic GMP-AMP dinucleotide, which comprises a 2'-5' and a 3'-5' phosphodiester linkage >Gp(2'-5')Ap(3'-5')>. We found that the presence of this 2'-5' linkage was required to exert potent activation of human STING. Moreover, we show that cGAS first catalyses the synthesis of a linear 2'-5'-linked dinucleotide, which is then subject to cGAS-dependent cyclization in a second step through a 3'-5' phosphodiester linkage. This 13-membered ring structure defines a novel class of second messenger molecules, extending the family of 2'-5'-linked antiviral biomolecules.

  6. Adenovirus Detection by the cGAS/STING/TBK1 DNA Sensing Cascade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Eric; Stein, Saskia

    2014-01-01

    Adenovirus (Ad) infection triggers a cell-specific antiviral response following exposure of viral DNA to the intracellular compartment. A variety of DNA sensors (DAI, AIM2, DDx41, RNA polymerase [Pol] III, and IFI16 [p204]) have been identified in recent years; however, the DNA sensor involved in detection of adenovirus has not been established. Cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS), a DNA sensor that produces a cyclic guanine-adenine dinucleotide (cGAMP) inducer of STING, has been examined to determine its role in generating an antiadenoviral response. Short hairpin RNA (shRNA) lentiviral vectors targeting TBK1, STING, and cGAS were established in murine MS1 endothelial and RAW 264.7 macrophage cell lines. Knockdown of TBK1, STING, and cGAS results in a dramatic reduction in the activation of the primary antiviral response marker phosphorylated interferon (IFN) response factor 3 (IRF3) following exposure to adenovirus. Furthermore, activation of secondary type I IFN signaling targets (ptyrSTAT1 and ptyrSTAT2 [ptyrSTAT1/2]) was also compromised. Consistent with compromised activation of primary and secondary response markers, transcriptional activation of IRF3-responsive genes (beta IFN [IFN-β], ISG15, ISG54) and secondary response transcripts were diminished in cells knocked down in cGAS, STING, or TBK1. These data establish cGAS as the dominant cytosolic DNA sensor responsible for detection of internalized adenovirus leading to induction of the type I interferon antiviral cascade. PMID:24198409

  7. Lesions caused by Africanized honeybee stings in three cattle in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Caldas, Saulo Andrade; Gra?a, Fl?vio Augusto Soares; de Barros, J?lia Soares Monteiro; Rolim, M?rcia Farias; Peixoto, Tiago da Cunha; Peixoto, Paulo Vargas

    2013-01-01

    p. 1-5 We report three cases of stings by Africanized bees in cattle in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Erythema, subcutaneous edema, necrosis accompanied by skin detachment, and subsequent skin regeneration were observed, especially on the head and dewlap. Histopathological examinations performed 45 days later revealed complete skin reepithelialization with moderate dermal fibrosis. The clinical picture and differential diagnosis are discussed in the present manuscript, w...

  8. Chemical Composition and Immuno-Modulatory Effects of Urtica dioica L. (Stinging Nettle) Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francišković, Marina; Gonzalez-Pérez, Raquel; Orčić, Dejan; Sánchez de Medina, Fermín; Martínez-Augustin, Olga; Svirčev, Emilija; Simin, Nataša; Mimica-Dukić, Neda

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this work was to determine the chemical profile of stinging nettle and to provide an insight into the mechanisms by which it ameliorates the immune response. Qualitative and quantitative liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analyses indicated that phenolic acids (5-O-caffeoylquinic acid as dominant) and flavonol glycosides (rutin, isoquercitrin, and kaempferol 3-O-glucoside) are present in the aerial parts, while lignans (secoisolariciresinol, 9,9'-bisacetyl-neo-olivil and their glucosides) were detected in the root. Herb and root extracts expressed selective inhibition toward cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase branches in human platelets: root extracts were better at inhibiting thromboxane production, while herb extracts were more specific toward inhibition of 12-lipoxygenase pathway. Stinging nettle extracts mildly increased monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and growth-related oncogene release from nonstimulated intestinal epithelial cells, stimulating MyD88/NF-κB/p38 signaling, hence preserving the epithelial integrity and enhancing intestinal steady-state defense. Additionally, root extract reduced lipopolysaccharide-induced monocyte chemoattractant protein-1/growth-related oncogene secretion and cyclooxygenase-2 expression in intestinal epithelial cells, thus showing the potential protective effect against tissue damage caused by inflammation processes. These observations suggest that stinging nettle is an interesting candidate for the development of phytopharmaceuticals or dietary supplements for cotreatment of various inflammatory diseases, particularly inflammatory bowel diseases. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Wasp venom is appropriate for immunotherapy of patients with allergic reaction to the European hornet sting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosnik, Mitja; Korosec, Peter; Silar, Mira; Music, Ema; Erzen, Renato

    2002-02-01

    To identify whether it is the yellow jacket (Vespula germanica) or European hornet (Vespa crabro) venom that induces sensitization in patients with IgE-mediated allergic reaction to the venom from the sting of a European hornet. Since these patients usually have positive skin tests and specific IgE to all vespid venoms, it would be useful to distinguish cross-reactors from non-cross-reactors to perform immunotherapy with the venom that induced the sensitization. We performed inhibition tests in 24 patients who had experienced anaphylactic reaction after being stung by a European hornet. Of 24 patients with allergic reaction after Vespa crabro sting, 17 were sensitized only to epitopes of Vespula germanica venom. Only 4 out of 24 patients were sensitized to epitopes completely cross-reactive with Dolichovespula arenaria venom. In Slovenia, the vast majority of patients with anaphylactic reaction to Vespa crabro sting seem to be sensitized to Vespula germanica venom. We consider wasp venom an appropriate immunotherapeutic agent for such patients, except for those with proven primary sensitization to specific epitopes of Vespa crabro venom. Fluorescence enzyme immunoassay inhibition should be considered a convenient tool for the identification of primary sensitization in patients allergic to vespid venoms.

  10. The mechanism of double-stranded DNA sensing through the cGAS-STING pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Chang; Li, Xin; Li, Pingwei

    2014-12-01

    Microbial nucleic acids induce potent innate immune responses by stimulating the expression of type I interferons. Cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) is a cytosolic dsDNA sensor mediating the innate immunity to microbial DNA. cGAS is activated by dsDNA and catalyze the synthesis of a cyclic dinucleotide cGAMP with 2',5' and 3',5'phosphodiester linkages. cGAMP binds to the adaptor STING located on the endoplasmic reticulum membrane and mediates the recruitment and activation of the protein kinase TBK1 and transcription factor IRF3. Phosphorylated IRF3 translocates to the nucleus and initiates the transcription of the IFN-β gene. The crystal structures of cGAS and its complex with dsDNA, STING and its complex with various cyclic dinucleotides have been determined recently. Here we summarize the results from these structural studies and provide an overview about the mechanism of cGAS activation by dsDNA, the catalytic mechanism of cGAS, and the structural basis of STING activation by cGAMP. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Cyclic GMP-AMP Containing Mixed Phosphodiester Linkages Is An Endogenous High Affinity Ligand for STING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu; Shi, Heping; Wu, Jiaxi; Zhang, Xuewu; Sun, Lijun; Chen, Chuo; Chen, Zhijian J.

    2013-01-01

    The presence of microbial or self DNA in the cytoplasm of mammalian cells is a danger signal detected by the DNA sensor cyclic-GMP-AMP (cGAMP) synthase (cGAS), which catalyzes the production of cGAMP that in turn serves as a second messenger to activate innate immune responses. Here we show that endogenous cGAMP in mammalian cells contains two distinct phosphodiester linkages, one between 2′-OH of GMP and 5′-phosphate of AMP, and the other between 3′-OH of AMP and 5′-phosphate of GMP. This molecule, termed 2′3′-cGAMP, is unique in that it binds to the adaptor protein STING with a much greater affinity than cGAMP molecules containing other combinations of phosphodiester linkages. The crystal structure of STING bound to 2′3′-cGAMP revealed the structural basis of this high-affinity binding and a ligand-induced conformational change in STING that may underlie its activation. PMID:23747010

  12. Wasp sting induced STEMI with complete coronary artery occlusion: a case of Kounis syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Benjamin; Choudhury, Tawfiqur Rahman; Hindle, Mark; Galasko, Gavin

    2017-09-07

    A 45-year-old previously healthy man with minimal coronary artery disease on imaging presented with an acute MI after sustaining a wasp sting following previous non-eventful exposures throughout his life. This is the first case of Kounis syndrome with optical coherence tomography imaging and proven IgE wasp venom hypersensitivity. The Hymenoptera venom is composed of allergenic proteins and vasoactive amines which are responsible for venom toxicity. This patient also has a history of atopy giving a predisposition for developing IgE-mediated allergic reactions. Hymenoptera stings can be severe in atopic individuals and anaphylaxis may ensue. However, it is a rare cause of myocardial infarction (MI) (Kounis syndrome). Multiple wasp stings in the past may have contributed to sensitisation. Kounis syndrome is a rare clinical manifestation which should remain in the minds of physicians, especially with younger patients with no history of ischaemic heart disease or few risk factors. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. Diagnosis of stinging insect allergy: utility of cellular in-vitro tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Kathrin; Bircher, Andreas J; Heijnen, Ingmar Afm

    2009-08-01

    Diagnosis of stinging insect allergy is based on a detailed history, venom skin tests, and detection of venom-specific IgE. As an additional diagnostic tool, basophil responsiveness to venom allergens has been shown to be helpful in selected patients. This review summarizes the current diagnostic procedures for stinging insect allergy and discusses the latest developments in cellular in-vitro tests. Cellular assays have been evaluated in patients with Hymenoptera venom allergy. The diagnostic performance of the cellular mediator release test is similar to that of the flow cytometric basophil activation test (BAT), but the BAT has been the most intensively studied. BAT offers the possibility to assess basophil reactivity to allergens in their natural environment and to simultaneously analyze surface marker expression and intracellular signaling. It has been demonstrated that BAT represents a valuable additional diagnostic tool in selected patients when used in combination with other well established tests. A major limitation is the current lack of unified, standardized protocols. Flow cytometry offers huge possibilities to enhance knowledge of basophil functions. The BAT may be used as an additional test to confirm the diagnosis of stinging insect allergy in selected patients, provided that it is performed by an experienced laboratory using a validated assay. Test results have to be interpreted by clinicians familiar with the methodological aspects. The utility of the BAT to confirm allergy diagnosis and to predict the risk of subsequent systemic reactions may be improved by combined analysis of multiple surface markers and intracellular signaling pathways.

  14. Impact of scorpion stings on electrocardiographic changes and relationship with body oxidant and antioxidant status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behcet, A.; Zengin, S.; Yildirim, C.; Ercan, S.; Davutoglu, V.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate electrocardiogram changes due to scorpion stings and association between oxidative stress index, body oxidant/antioxidant system and the electrocardiogram changes. Methods: The study was conducted at the Faculty of Medicine, Gaziantep University, Turkey, between May 2009 and October 2010. It comprised 44 patients admitted to the emergency department for scorpion sting, and a control group of matched age and gender of 20 persons. Electrocardiograms were taken promptly in the most painful phases of the patients. Cardiac parameters were measured. Erythrocyte packages were prepared to detect toxin/antioxidant levels. SPSS 18 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Of the 44 patients, 22 (50%) were male. Overall average age of the patients was 45.22+-17.99 years. None of the patients required intensive care and none of them had limb losses. Cardiac parameters of the patients in electrocardiogram were higher (p 0.05). Conclusion: Scorpion stings associated with electrocardiogram changes. The mechanism of this relationship is not related with the status of body oxidative stress index and body oxidant and antioxidant capacity. Some parameters warrant further study in terms of potential serious arrhythmias in scorpionism. (author)

  15. [National strategy in the battle against scorpion stings and envenomations. Application and evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulaymani Bencheikh, R; Faraj, Z; Semlali, I; Ouammi, L; Badri, M

    2003-11-01

    Scorpion stings represent the first cause of poisoning with an incidence of 30 to 50% of all declared cases in the Centre Anti Poison of Morocco (CAPM). Aware of this increasing problem, the CAPM paid special attention to this pathology. Thanks to its retrospective and prospective studies, the scorpion species mapping has been determined as well as the demographic features of stung patients, the nature and the chronology of clinical events in scorpion envenimation, and the epidemiological, clinical and therapeutical factors of severity. On this basis, the CAPM worked out a national strategy to struggle against scorpion stings whose aim was to decrease the morbidity and mortality caused by stings of scorpion as well as to rationalise economic expenses. The components of this strategy were based on the training of the medical and paramedical staff, on information, education, communication involving different sectors, on identification of needs and on follow-up and assessment. A nationwide campaign was implemented to change the population and health-care staff's behaviour regarding this pathology. Its evaluation permitted to improve the compilation of cases with census of 14104 cases, to reduce lethality rate and to rationalise expenses while banishing some medicines and avoiding useless hospitalization.

  16. Comparison of nutritional properties of Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) flour with wheat and barley flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Bhaskar Mani; Bajracharya, Alina; Shrestha, Ashok K

    2016-01-01

    Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica. L) is a wild, unique herbaceous perennial flowering plant with Stinging hairs. It has a long history of use as a food sources as a soup or curries, and also used as a fiber as well as a medicinal herb. The current aim was to analyze the composition and bioactive compounds in Nepalese Stinging nettle. Chemical analysis showed the relatively higher level of crude protein (33.8%), crude fiber (9.1%), crude fat (3.6%), total ash (16.2%), carbohydrate (37.4%), and relatively lower energy value (307 kcal/100 g) as compared to wheat and barley flours. Analysis of nettle powder showed significantly higher level of bioactive compounds: phenolic compounds as 129 mg Gallic acid equivalent/g; carotenoid level 3497 μg/g; tannin 0.93 mg/100 g; anti-oxidant activity 66.3 DPPH inhibition (%), as compared to wheat and barley. This study further established that nettle plants as very good source of energy, proteins, high fiber, and a range of health benefitting bioactive compounds.

  17. Epidemiology of Pediatric Bite/Sting Injuries. One-Year Study of a Pediatric Emergency Department in Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Hemmo-Lotem

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal bite/sting injuries are a known source of morbidity with a significantly higher incidence among children who are most often bitten in the face, head, and neck. The objective of this study was to provide a better understanding of bite/sting injuries treated at the pediatric emergency department in order to guide preventive efforts.The sociodemographic, epidemiological, and clinical data on all bite/sting injuries treated in one representative pediatric emergency department in Israel over a 1-year period were retrieved and analyzed. Two hundred of the 9,309 pediatric trauma cases treated in the emergency department were bite/sting injuries (2.1%. Non-Jewish patients were under-represented in this subgroup. The majority of patients were males (61.5%. Age distribution from 0–12 years was fairly even, except for an unexplained peak at 8 years. Dogs inflicted 56%, cats 11%, and hornets 9.5% of the injuries. Limbs were affected in 64% and the head and neck in 27%. Specialists, mostly plastic surgeons, were consulted in 42 cases (21%. The incidence rate for hospitalization (7% was similar to that seen in other types of injuries. Children with scorpion or hornet stings and young age were more likely to be hospitalized. Preventive and educational aspects are discussed.

  18. STING-Dependent Cytosolic DNA Sensing Promotes Radiation-Induced Type I Interferon-Dependent Antitumor Immunity in Immunogenic Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Liufu; Liang, Hua; Xu, Meng; Yang, Xuanming; Burnette, Byron; Arina, Ainhoa; Li, Xiao-Dong; Mauceri, Helena; Beckett, Michael; Darga, Thomas; Huang, Xiaona; Gajewski, Thomas F; Chen, Zhijian J; Fu, Yang-Xin; Weichselbaum, Ralph R

    2014-11-20

    Ionizing radiation-mediated tumor regression depends on type I interferon (IFN) and the adaptive immune response, but several pathways control I IFN induction. Here, we demonstrate that adaptor protein STING, but not MyD88, is required for type I IFN-dependent antitumor effects of radiation. In dendritic cells (DCs), STING was required for IFN-? induction in response to irradiated-tumor cells. The cytosolic DNA sensor cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) synthase (cGAS) mediated sensing of irradiated-tumor cells in DCs. Moreover, STING was essential for radiation-induced adaptive immune responses, which relied on type I IFN signaling on DCs. Exogenous IFN-? treatment rescued the cross-priming by cGAS or STING-deficient DCs. Accordingly, activation of STING by a second messenger cGAMP administration enhanced antitumor immunity induced by radiation. Thus radiation-mediated antitumor immunity in immunogenic tumors requires a functional cytosolic DNA-sensing pathway and suggests that cGAMP treatment might provide a new strategy to improve radiotherapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The innate immune DNA sensor cGAS produces a noncanonical cyclic dinucleotide that activates human STING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diner, Elie J; Burdette, Dara L; Wilson, Stephen C; Monroe, Kathryn M; Kellenberger, Colleen A; Hyodo, Mamoru; Hayakawa, Yoshihiro; Hammond, Ming C; Vance, Russell E

    2013-05-30

    The presence of foreign DNA in the cytosol of mammalian cells elicits a potent antiviral interferon response. Recently, cytosolic DNA was proposed to induce the synthesis of cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) upon binding to an enzyme called cGAMP synthase (cGAS). cGAMP activates an interferon response by binding to a downstream receptor called STING. Here, we identify natural variants of human STING (hSTING) that are poorly responsive to cGAMP yet, unexpectedly, are normally responsive to DNA and cGAS signaling. We explain this paradox by demonstrating that the cGAS product is actually a noncanonical cyclic dinucleotide, cyclic [G(2'-5')pA(3'-5')p], which contains a single 2'-5' phosphodiester bond. Cyclic [G(2'-5')pA(3'-5')p] potently activates diverse hSTING receptors and, therefore, may be a useful adjuvant or immunotherapeutic. Our results indicate that hSTING variants have evolved to distinguish conventional (3'-5') cyclic dinucleotides, known to be produced mainly by bacteria, from the noncanonical cyclic dinucleotide produced by mammalian cGAS. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The DNA Inflammasome in Human Myeloid Cells Is Initiated by a STING-Cell Death Program Upstream of NLRP3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaidt, Moritz M.; Ebert, Thomas S.; Chauhan, Dhruv; Ramshorn, Katharina; Pinci, Francesca; Zuber, Sarah; O’Duill, Fionan; Schmid-Burgk, Jonathan L.; Hoss, Florian; Buhmann, Raymund; Wittmann, Georg; Latz, Eicke; Subklewe, Marion; Hornung, Veit

    2018-01-01

    Summary Detection of cytosolic DNA constitutes a central event in the context of numerous infectious and sterile inflammatory conditions. Recent studies have uncovered a bipartite mode of cytosolic DNA recognition, in which the cGAS-STING axis triggers antiviral immunity, whereas AIM2 triggers inflammasome activation. Here, we show that AIM2 is dispensable for DNA-mediated inflammasome activation in human myeloid cells. Instead, detection of cytosolic DNA by the cGAS-STING axis induces a cell death program initiating potassium efflux upstream of NLRP3. Forward genetics identified regulators of lysosomal trafficking to modulate this cell death program, and subsequent studies revealed that activated STING traffics to the lysosome, where it triggers membrane permeabilization and thus lysosomal cell death (LCD). Importantly, the cGAS-STING-NLRP3 pathway constitutes the default inflammasome response during viral and bacterial infections in human myeloid cells. We conclude that targeting the cGAS-STING-LCD-NLRP3 pathway will ameliorate pathology in inflammatory conditions that are associated with cytosolic DNA sensing. PMID:29033128

  1. The Innate Immune DNA Sensor cGAS Produces a Noncanonical Cyclic Dinucleotide that Activates Human STING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elie J. Diner

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The presence of foreign DNA in the cytosol of mammalian cells elicits a potent antiviral interferon response. Recently, cytosolic DNA was proposed to induce the synthesis of cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP upon binding to an enzyme called cGAMP synthase (cGAS. cGAMP activates an interferon response by binding to a downstream receptor called STING. Here, we identify natural variants of human STING (hSTING that are poorly responsive to cGAMP yet, unexpectedly, are normally responsive to DNA and cGAS signaling. We explain this paradox by demonstrating that the cGAS product is actually a noncanonical cyclic dinucleotide, cyclic [G(2′-5′pA(3′-5′p], which contains a single 2′-5′ phosphodiester bond. Cyclic [G(2′-5′pA(3′-5′p] potently activates diverse hSTING receptors and, therefore, may be a useful adjuvant or immunotherapeutic. Our results indicate that hSTING variants have evolved to distinguish conventional (3′-5′ cyclic dinucleotides, known to be produced mainly by bacteria, from the noncanonical cyclic dinucleotide produced by mammalian cGAS.

  2. Disease-associated mutations identify a novel region in human STING necessary for the control of type I interferon signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melki, Isabelle; Rose, Yoann; Uggenti, Carolina; Van Eyck, Lien; Frémond, Marie-Louise; Kitabayashi, Naoki; Rice, Gillian I; Jenkinson, Emma M; Boulai, Anaïs; Jeremiah, Nadia; Gattorno, Marco; Volpi, Sefano; Sacco, Olivero; Terheggen-Lagro, Suzanne W J; Tiddens, Harm A W M; Meyts, Isabelle; Morren, Marie-Anne; De Haes, Petra; Wouters, Carine; Legius, Eric; Corveleyn, Anniek; Rieux-Laucat, Frederic; Bodemer, Christine; Callebaut, Isabelle; Rodero, Mathieu P; Crow, Yanick J

    2017-08-01

    Gain-of-function mutations in transmembrane protein 173 (TMEM173) encoding stimulator of interferon genes (STING) underlie a recently described type I interferonopathy called STING-associated vasculopathy with onset in infancy (SAVI). We sought to define the molecular and cellular pathology relating to 3 individuals variably exhibiting the core features of the SAVI phenotype including systemic inflammation, destructive skin lesions, and interstitial lung disease. Genetic analysis, conformational studies, in vitro assays and ex vivo flow-cytometry were performed. Molecular and in vitro data demonstrate that the pathology in these patients is due to amino acid substitutions at positions 206, 281, and 284 of the human STING protein. These mutations confer cGAMP-independent constitutive activation of type I interferon signaling through TBK1 (TANK-binding kinase), independent from the alternative STING pathway triggered by membrane fusion of enveloped RNA viruses. This constitutive activation was abrogated by ex vivo treatment with the janus kinase 1/2 inhibitor ruxolitinib. Structural analysis indicates that the 3 disease-associated mutations at positions 206, 281, and 284 of the STING protein define a novel cluster of amino acids with functional importance in the regulation of type I interferon signaling. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The common HAQ STING variant impairs cGAS-dependent antibacterial responses and is associated with susceptibility to Legionnaires’ disease in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz-Moreno, J.S. (Juan S.); Hamann, L. (Lutz); Shah, J.A. (Javeed A.); A. Verbon (Annelies); Mockenhaupt, F.P. (Frank P.); Puzianowska-Kuznicka, M. (Monika); Naujoks, J. (Jan); Sander, L.E. (Leif E.); Witzenrath, M. (Martin); Cambier, J.C. (John C.); Suttorp, N. (Norbert); Schumann, R.R. (Ralf R.); Jin, L. (Lei); T.R. Hawn; Opitz, B. (Bastian)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractThe cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS)-STING pathway is central for innate immune sensing of various bacterial, viral and protozoal infections. Recent studies identified the common HAQ and R232H alleles of TMEM173/STING, but the functional consequences of these variants for primary

  4. LACK OF REPRODUCIBILITY OF A SINGLE NEGATIVE STING CHALLENGE RESPONSE IN THE ASSESSMENT OF ANAPHYLACTIC RISK IN PATIENTS WITH SUSPECTED YELLOW JACKET HYPERSENSITIVITY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    FRANKEN, HH; DUBOIS, AEJ; MINKEMA, HJ; VANDERHEIDE, S; DEMONCHY, JGR

    To investigate the reproducibility of a single negative response to sting challenge with a living insect, we rechallenged a group of 61 patients who showed no clinical response to a first sting challenge. All patients had previously had symptoms suggestive of anaphylaxis after a yellow jacket field

  5. Bruton’s Tyrosine Kinase Phosphorylates DDX41 and Activates Its Binding of dsDNA and STING to Initiate Type 1 Interferon Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koon-Guan Lee

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The innate immune system senses cytosolic dsDNA and bacterial cyclic dinucleotides and initiates signaling via the adaptor STING to induce type 1 interferon (IFN response. We demonstrate here that BTK-deficient cells have impaired IFN-β production and TBK1/IRF3 activation when stimulated with agonists or infected with pathogens that activate STING signaling. BTK interacts with STING and DDX41 helicase. The kinase and SH3/SH2 interaction domains of BTK bind, respectively, the DEAD-box domain of DDX41 and transmembrane region of STING. BTK phosphorylates DDX41, and its kinase activities are critical for STING-mediated IFN-β production. We show that Tyr364 and Tyr414 of DDX41 are critical for its recognition of AT-rich DNA and binding to STING, and tandem mass spectrometry identifies Tyr414 as the BTK phosphorylation site. Modeling studies further indicate that phospho-Tyr414 strengthens DDX41’s interaction with STING. Hence, BTK plays a critical role in the activation of DDX41 helicase and STING signaling.

  6. IFI16 and cGAS cooperate in the activation of STING during DNA sensing in human keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almine, Jessica F; O'Hare, Craig A J; Dunphy, Gillian; Haga, Ismar R; Naik, Rangeetha J; Atrih, Abdelmadjid; Connolly, Dympna J; Taylor, Jordan; Kelsall, Ian R; Bowie, Andrew G; Beard, Philippa M; Unterholzner, Leonie

    2017-02-13

    Many human cells can sense the presence of exogenous DNA during infection though the cytosolic DNA receptor cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS), which produces the second messenger cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP). Other putative DNA receptors have been described, but whether their functions are redundant, tissue-specific or integrated in the cGAS-cGAMP pathway is unclear. Here we show that interferon-γ inducible protein 16 (IFI16) cooperates with cGAS during DNA sensing in human keratinocytes, as both cGAS and IFI16 are required for the full activation of an innate immune response to exogenous DNA and DNA viruses. IFI16 is also required for the cGAMP-induced activation of STING, and interacts with STING to promote STING phosphorylation and translocation. We propose that the two DNA sensors IFI16 and cGAS cooperate to prevent the spurious activation of the type I interferon response.

  7. STING activation enhances cetuximab-mediated NK cell activation and DC maturation and correlates with HPV+ status in head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shanhong; Concha-Benavente, Fernando; Shayan, Gulidanna; Srivastava, Raghvendra M; Gibson, Sandra P; Wang, Lin; Gooding, William E; Ferris, Robert L

    2018-03-01

    The intracellular DNA sensor stimulator of interferon genes (STING) has recently been shown to play a vital role in anti-viral and anti-tumor immune responses stimulating cytokine production. While human papillomavirus (HPV) is a causative agent for a subset of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) with unique etiology and clinical outcome, how the STING pathway is regulated in a virus-induced tumor microenvironment is not well understood. Since STING inactivation likely reflects immunoescape via innate immunity, we hypothesized that its restoration would improve efficacy of the immune modulatory monoclonal antibody (mAb), cetuximab. We correlated STING protein expression with clinical parameters by immunohistochemistry (n = 106) and its mRNA expression from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) in HNSCC tissue specimens. STING protein expression was tested for association with cancer-specific survival (CSS). We further examined the impact of STING activation on cetuximab-mediated immunity using an in vitro NK:DC:tumor cells co-culture system. In this study, we found that expression of STING both at the protein and mRNA level was higher in HPV positive (HPV + ) specimens but unrelated to TNM stage or cancer-specific survival. Our in vitro studies verified that STING activation enhanced cetuximab mediated NK cell activation and DC maturation. Our findings suggest a novel role of STING in HPV-related carcinogenesis, in which activation of the STING signaling pathway may facilitate anti-tumor response in HNSCC patients, particularly in combination with therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) such as cetuximab, an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Opposing roles of Toll-like receptor and cytosolic DNA-STING signaling pathways for Staphylococcus aureus cutaneous host defense.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip O Scumpia

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Successful host defense against pathogens requires innate immune recognition of the correct pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs by pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs to trigger the appropriate gene program tailored to the pathogen. While many PRR pathways contribute to the innate immune response to specific pathogens, the relative importance of each pathway for the complete transcriptional program elicited has not been examined in detail. Herein, we used RNA-sequencing with wildtype and mutant macrophages to delineate the innate immune pathways contributing to the early transcriptional response to Staphylococcus aureus, a ubiquitous microorganism that can activate a wide variety of PRRs. Unexpectedly, two PRR pathways-the Toll-like receptor (TLR and Stimulator of Interferon Gene (STING pathways-were identified as dominant regulators of approximately 95% of the genes that were potently induced within the first four hours of macrophage infection with live S. aureus. TLR signaling predominantly activated a pro-inflammatory program while STING signaling activated an antiviral/type I interferon response with live but not killed S. aureus. This STING response was largely dependent on the cytosolic DNA sensor cyclic guanosine-adenosine synthase (cGAS. Using a cutaneous infection model, we found that the TLR and STING pathways played opposite roles in host defense to S. aureus. TLR signaling was required for host defense, with its absence reducing interleukin (IL-1β production and neutrophil recruitment, resulting in increased bacterial growth. In contrast, absence of STING signaling had the opposite effect, enhancing the ability to restrict the infection. These results provide novel insights into the complex interplay of innate immune signaling pathways triggered by S. aureus and uncover opposing roles of TLR and STING in cutaneous host defense to S. aureus.

  9. A 'difficult' insect allergy patient: reliable history of a sting, but all testing negative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, James M; Olsen, Jonathan A; Carlson, John

    2015-08-01

    Few conditions are as treatable as allergy to stinging insects, with venom immunotherapy (VIT) providing up to 98% protection to subsequent stings. The challenge with VIT is not in the treatment, but in the diagnosis. To offer VIT, one must determine a history of a systemic reaction to a stinging insect in conjunction with the presence venom-specific IgE. Current diagnostic methods, although sensitive and specific, are imperfect, and some newer testing options are not widely available. A conundrum occasionally faced is the patient with a reliable and compelling history of a systemic allergic reaction yet negative venom-specific testing. This diagnostic dilemma presents an opportunity to consider possible causes for this diagnostic challenge. Our evolving understanding of the role of occult mast cell disease may begin to help us understand this situation and develop appropriate management strategies. Venom-specific skin testing has long been the cornerstone of the evaluation of venom sensitivity and is often combined with in-vitro assays to add clarity, but even these occasionally may fall short. Exploring novel venom diagnostic testing methods may help to fill in some of the diagnostic gaps. Do currently available venom vaccines contain all the key venom species? Are there enough differences between insect species that we may simply be missing the relevant allergens? What is the significance of the antigenicity of carbohydrate moieties in venoms? What is the role of recombinant venom extracts? VIT is the definitive treatment for insect allergic individuals. To utilize VIT, identification of the relevant Hymenoptera is necessary. Unfortunately, this cannot always be accomplished. This deficiency can have several causes: a potential comorbid condition such as occult mast cell disease, limitations of currently available diagnostic resources, or testing vaccines with an insufficient coverage of relevant venom allergens. Exploring these potential causes may help to

  10. Analysis of vesicle fluid following the sting of the lionfish Pterois volitans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, P S; McKinney, H E; Rees, R S; Heggers, J P

    1987-01-01

    Fluid aspirated from blisters following a lionfish (Pterois volitans) sting was analyzed utilizing combined capillary column gas chromatography and negative ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Analysis for prostaglandin F2 alpha demonstrated 16.91 ng/ml, for prostaglandin E2 0.143 ng/ml, for 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha less than 0.1 ng/ml (nondetectable) and for thromboxane B2 1.65 ng/ml. Platelet aggregation studies showed that blister fluid caused aggregation of isolated platelets only, which was inhibited by heat treatment or by the presence of normal donor plasma.

  11. Mineral Properties and Dietary Value of Raw and Processed Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Rutto, Laban K.; Xu, Yixiang; Ramirez, Elizabeth; Brandt, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) has a long history of usage and is currently receiving attention as a source of fiber and alternative medicine. In many cultures, nettle is also eaten as a leafy vegetable. In this study, we focused on nettle yield (edible portion) and processing effects on nutritive and dietary properties. Actively growing shoots were harvested from field plots and leaves separated from stems. Leaf portions (200 g) were washed and processed by blanching (1 min at 96–98°C) o...

  12. Cre-dependent DNA recombination activates a STING-dependent innate immune response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pépin, Geneviève; Ferrand, Jonathan; Höning, Klara; Jayasekara, W. Samantha N.; Cain, Jason E.; Behlke, Mark A.; Gough, Daniel J.; G. Williams, Bryan R.; Hornung, Veit

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Gene-recombinase technologies, such as Cre/loxP-mediated DNA recombination, are important tools in the study of gene function, but have potential side effects due to damaging activity on DNA. Here we show that DNA recombination by Cre instigates a robust antiviral response in mammalian cells, independent of legitimate loxP recombination. This is due to the recruitment of the cytosolic DNA sensor STING, concurrent with Cre-dependent DNA damage and the accumulation of cytoplasmic DNA. Importantly, we establish a direct interplay between this antiviral response and cell–cell interactions, indicating that low cell densities in vitro could be useful to help mitigate these effects of Cre. Taking into account the wide range of interferon stimulated genes that may be induced by the STING pathway, these results have broad implications in fields such as immunology, cancer biology, metabolism and stem cell research. Further, this study sets a precedent in the field of gene-engineering, possibly applicable to other enzymatic-based genome editing technologies. PMID:27166376

  13. Human microglia and astrocytes express cGAS-STING viral sensing components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, Austin M; Marriott, Ian

    2017-09-29

    While microglia and astrocytes are known to produce key inflammatory and anti-viral mediators following infection with replicative DNA viruses, the mechanisms by which these cell types perceive such threats are poorly understood. Recently, cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) has been identified as an important cytosolic sensor for DNA viruses and retroviruses in peripheral leukocytes. Here we confirm the ability of human microglial and astrocytic cell lines and primary human glia to respond to foreign intracellular double stranded DNA. Importantly, we provide the first demonstration that human microglia and astrocytes show robust levels of cGAS protein expression at rest and following activation. Furthermore, we show these cell types also constitutively express the critical downstream cGAS adaptor protein, stimulator of interferon genes (STING). The present finding that human glia express the principle components of the cGAS-STING pathway provides a foundation for future studies to investigate the relative importance of these molecules in clinically relevant viral CNS infections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Historical perspective and human consequences of Africanized bee stings in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, R S; Almeida, R A M B; Barraviera, S R C S; Barraviera, B

    2012-01-01

    In 1956, Africanized bees began to spread in the American continent from southern Brazil, where original African bees mated with European bees. A few years later, in 1990, these Africanized bees reached the United States and were found in Texas. Currently, these hybrid bees are found in several North American states and will probably reach the Canadian border in the future. Although the presence of Africanized bees had produced positive effects on Brazilian economy, including improvement in crop pollination and in honey production, turning Brazil into a major exporter, the negative impacts-such as swarming, aggressive behavior, and the ability to mass attack-resulted in serious and fatal envenomation with humans and animals. Victims of bee attacks usually develop a severe envenomation syndrome characterized by the release of a large amount of cytokines [interleukins (IL) IL-1, IL-6, IL-8], and tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Subsequently, such cytokines produce an acute inflammatory response that triggers adverse effects on skeletal muscles; bone marrow; hepatic and renal functions; and cardiovascular, central nervous, and immune systems. Finally, the aim of the present review is to study historical characteristics and current status of Africanized bees' spread, the composition of their venom, the impact of the bees on the Brazilian economy and ecology, and clinical aspects of their stings including immune response, and to suggest a protocol for bee sting management since there is no safe and effective antivenom available.

  15. The antioxidant activity of kombucha fermented milk products with stinging nettle and winter savory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitas Jasmina S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the antioxidant activity of fermented milk products obtained by kombucha fermentation. Two starter cultures were used as follows: starter obtained after kombucha fermentation on sweetened stinging nettle extract; as well as starter obtained after kombucha fermentation on sweetened winter savory extract. The starters were added to milk with 0.8, 1.6 and 2.8% milk fat. Fermentation was carried out at 37, 40 and 43oC and stopped when the pH reached 4.5. Antioxidant activity to hydroxyl and DPPH radicals was monitored using response surface methodology. Kombucha fermented milk products with stinging nettle (KSN and with winter savory (KWS showed the same antioxidant response to hydroxyl and different response to DPPH radicals. Synergetic effect of milk fat and fermentation temperature to antioxidant activity to hydroxyl radicals for both types of kombucha fermented milk products (KSN and KWS was established. Optimum processing conditions in term of antioxidant activity are: milk fat around 2.8% and process temperature around 41 and 43°C for KSN and KWS respectively.

  16. [The epidemiological situation of scorpion stings in the Beni Mellal province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrab, Nezha; Soulaymani, Rachida; Mokhtari, Abdelrhani; Semlali, Ilham; El Oufir, Rhizlane; Soulaymani, Abdelmajid

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work is to analyse and interpret data from patients bitten by scorpions in a province of Morocco in order to reduce morbidity and mortality caused by scorpion venom. A study was conducted of 901 cases of poisoning among 6959 cases of scorpion stings recorded between January 2002 and December 2006 from bites recorded in Beni Mellal. The results show that poisoning strongly coincides with the summer period, especially in July and August. All age groups are affected by this disease with an average age of 17.28 +/- 17.91 years. For the time post injection, 35.2% were able to check in under an hour. On the other hand, 70.9% reach a health facility with symptoms (class II) and 29.1% with signs of distress (Class III). Finally, the evolution of patients is mostly positive in 94.7% of cases, and the case fatality rate from scorpion sting poisoning is 3.88%.

  17. Case report of jelly fish stinging in Bay of Bengal: A report from Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Main Uddin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Jelly fish or jellies are the members of the phylum Cnidaria (Coelenterata, consisting of a gelatinous umbrella-shaped bell and trailing tentacles. Sting contains toxic peptide, pbospholipase A and histamine-liberating factor. Jelly fish stinging in Bangladesh is rare. Yet, from a management point of view, this epizoonozis might gain importance given the ever-growing popularity of seaside fishering and tourism. We are presenting a case of jelly fish contact illness in Cox's Bazar Medical College. Case Report: A 30 year old male patient was stung by a jellyfish while tishering in the Bay of Bengal near Teknaf of Cox's Bazar District on 3rd June' 2013. A couple of minutes later urticaria were formed in the contact area accompanied by a bmniug and sore sensation. Within few minutes be developed severe abdominal pain, bodyache and parestbaesia. Immediate decontmninalion was done by patient himself with sea water though ideally it should be with 5% acetic acid. Routine laboratory investigations show no abnormality except non-significant ST elevation in ECG. The patient was managed conservatively with antihistamine, corticosteroids and antibiotics and recovered completely within four days.

  18. Jellyfish stinging is driven by the moving front of the nematocyst's tubule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavit, Uri; Park, Sinwook; Piriatinskiy, Gadi; Yossifon, Gilad; Lotan, Tamar

    2017-11-01

    Nematocysts are ultra-fast stinging organelles that are utilized by the Cnidaria phylum for prey capture, defense and locomotion. They consist of a capsule and a tubule and exert high pressure and acceleration to penetrate the target organism. Previous studies report that the ejection and elongation of the tubule are driven by a buildup of osmotic potential in the capsule. We question this explanation using a microfluidic system that controls the osmotic potential by directing the tubule through oil, where no osmotic potential can develop, while keeping the capsule in water. It was found that the time needed for elongation through oil is orders of magnitude larger than through water. Our mathematical model shows that the p γGlu concentration in the tubule is higher than in the capsule and the internal pressure that develops there serves as the elongation driving force. These findings imply that modifications of the environment along the tubule route have the potential to slow down the process and reduce its impact. This may shed light on prey defense strategies, human protection against jellyfish stinging, the use of nematocysts for drug delivery and exploration of osmotic based methods for nanotubes production and elongation.

  19. Experimental and Computational Studies of the Flow Over a Sting Mounted Planetary Probe Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Michael S.; Harvey, John K.; Boyd, Iain D.; George, Jyothish; Horvath, Thomas J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of a series of experimental studies in the LENS shock tunnel and computations with DSMC and Navier Stokes codes which have been made to examine the aerothermal and flowfield characteristics of the flow over a sting-supported planetary probe configuration in hypervelocity air and nitrogen flows. The experimental program was conducted in the LENS hypervelocity shock tunnel at total enthalpies of 5and 10 MJkg for a range of reservoir pressure conditions from 70 to 500 bars. Heat transfer and pressure measurements were made on the front and rear face of the probe and along the supporting sting. High-speed and single shot schlieren photography were also employed to examine the flow over the model and the time to establish the flow in the base recirculation region. Predictions of the flowfield characteristics and the distributions of heat transfer and pressure were made with DSMC codes for rarefied flow conditions and with the Navier-Stokes solvers for the higher pressure conditions where the flows were assumed to be laminar. Analysis of the time history records from the heat transfer and pressure instrumentation on the face of the probe and in the base region indicated that the base flow was fully established in under 4 milliseconds from flow initiation or between 35 and 50 flow lengths based on base height. The measurements made in three different tunnel entries with two models of identical geometries but with different instrumentation packages, one prepared by NASA Langley and the second prepared by CUBRC, demonstrated good agreement between heat transfer measurements made with two different types of thin film and coaxial gage instrumentation. The measurements of heat transfer and pressure to the front face of the probe were in good agreement with theoretical predictions from both the DSMC and Navier Stokes codes. For the measurements made in low density flows, computations with the DSMC code were found to compare well with the

  20. STING-IRF3 Triggers Endothelial Inflammation in Response to Free Fatty Acid-Induced Mitochondrial Damage in Diet-Induced Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yun; Luo, Wei; Zhang, Lin; Wu, Weiwei; Yuan, Liangshuai; Xu, Hao; Song, Juhee; Fujiwara, Keigi; Abe, Jun-ichi; LeMaire, Scott A.; Wang, Xing Li; Shen, Ying. H.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Metabolic stress in obesity induces endothelial inflammation and activation, which initiates adipose tissue inflammation, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular diseases. However, the mechanisms underlying endothelial inflammation induction are not completely understood. Stimulator of interferon genes (STING) is an important molecule in immunity and inflammation. In the present study, we sought to determine the role of STING in palmitic acid (PA)-induced endothelial activation/inflammation. Approach and Results In cultured endothelial cells, PA treatment activated STING, as indicated by its perinuclear translocation and binding to interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), leading to IRF3 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. The activated IRF3 bound to the promoter of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and induced ICAM-1 expression and monocyte–endothelial cell adhesion. When analyzing the upstream signaling, we found that PA activated STING by inducing mitochondrial damage. PA treatment caused mitochondrial damage and leakage of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) into the cytosol. Through the cytosolic DNA sensor cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS), the mitochondrial damage and leaked cytosolic mtDNA activated the STING-IRF3 pathway and increased ICAM-1 expression. In mice with diet-induced obesity, the STING-IRF3 pathway was activated in adipose tissue. However, STING deficiency (Stinggt/gt) partially prevented diet-induced adipose tissue inflammation, obesity, insulin resistance, and glucose intolerance. Conclusions The mitochondrial damage-cGAS-STING-IRF3 pathway is critically involved in metabolic stress-induced endothelial inflammation. STING may be a potential therapeutic target for preventing cardiovascular diseases and insulin resistance in obese individuals. PMID:28302626

  1. A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF CLINICOEPIDEMIOLOGY AND TREATMENT OUTCOME OF SCORPION STING IN KONASEEMA REGION OF ANDHRA PRADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayatri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Scorpions live in warm, dry regions throughout India. They inhabit commonly the crevices of dwellings, underground burrows, under logs or debris, paddy husk, sugar cane fields, coconut and banana. Scorpion stings are primarily due to accidental contact with scorpion. Konaseema region of Andhra Pradesh is delta of Godavari river. Because of good irrigation there is rich cultivation of banana and paddy and there are plenty of coconut plantations, so that is a good habitat for scorpions. METHOD Present study is a hospital based retrospective study. All the data related to the scorpion sting in Konaseema Institute of Medical Sciences admitted during Jan 2012 to Jan 2016 has been collected. RESULT Total 54 patients of all the age group and both the sexes were included in to the study. Out of 54 patients, 32 were male and 22 were female. Regarding signs of scorpion sting, tachycardia was present in 40 patients, ten patients developed hypertension. Six patients developed arrhythmia. Dyspnoea and convulsion was present in 6 and 2 patients respectively. DISCUSSION Scorpion venom is classified as per its structure, mode of action and binding site. Regarding complications of scorpion sting, four patients developed pulmonary oedema and 3 having convulsion. Out of all 54 patients, 53 were recovered and 1 patient died. CONCLUSION With the availability of potent vasodilators like prazosin and good ICU facilities, the incidence of death and complication due to scorpion bite has reduced.

  2. The cGAS/STING Pathway Detects Streptococcus pneumoniae but Appears Dispensable for Antipneumococcal Defense in Mice and Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Moreno, Juan Sebastian; Hamann, Lutz; Jin, Lei; Sander, Leif E; Puzianowska-Kuznicka, Monika; Cambier, John; Witzenrath, Martin; Schumann, Ralf R; Suttorp, Norbert; Opitz, Bastian

    2018-03-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a frequent colonizer of the upper respiratory tract and a leading cause of bacterial pneumonia. The innate immune system senses pneumococcal cell wall components, toxin, and nucleic acids, which leads to production of inflammatory mediators to initiate and control antibacterial defense. Here, we show that the cGAS (cyclic GMP-AMP [cGAMP] synthase)-STING pathway mediates detection of pneumococcal DNA in mouse macrophages to primarily stimulate type I interferon (IFN) responses. Cells of human individuals carrying HAQ TMEM173 , which encodes a common hypomorphic variant of STING, were largely or partly defective in inducing type I IFNs and proinflammatory cytokines upon infection. Subsequent analyses, however, revealed that STING was dispensable for restricting S. pneumoniae during acute pneumonia in mice. Moreover, explorative analyses did not find differences in the allele frequency of HAQ TMEM173 in nonvaccinated pneumococcal pneumonia patients and healthy controls or an association of HAQ TMEM173 carriage with disease severity. Together, our results indicate that the cGAS/STING pathway senses S. pneumoniae but plays no major role in antipneumococcal immunity in mice and humans. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  3. Epidemiologic Investigation of Hornet and Paper Wasp Stings in Forest Workers and Electrical Facility Field Workers in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumeko Hayashih

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions:: 21% of FWs and 14% of EFFWs had experienced systemic reactions to Hymenoptera stings with a higher frequency compared with office workers in the same area. 40% of FWs and 30% of EFFWs had sera that were sIgE positive to Hymenoptera venom.

  4. Efficacy of fungicide combinations, phosphoric acid, and plant extract from stinging nettle on potato late blight management and tuber yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans is a major constraint to potato production. Inadequate management of the disease has often resulted in heavy losses in various production regions. We assessed the efficacy of fungicides, phosphoric acid, and stinging nettle plant extract combinations for...

  5. Use of lupin, Lupinus perennis, mango, Mangifera indica, and stinging nettle, Urtica dioica, as feed additives to prevent Aeromonas hydrophila infection in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, E; Austin, B

    2010-05-01

    Feeding rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), with 1% lupin, Lupinus perennis, mango, Mangifera indica, or stinging nettle, Urtica dioica, for 14 days led to reductions in mortality after challenge with Aeromonas hydrophila. In addition, there was significant enhancement in serum bactericidal activity, respiratory burst and lysozyme activity in the treatment groups compared to the controls. Use of lupin and mango led to the highest number of red blood and white blood cells in recipient fish, with use of stinging nettle leading to the highest haematocrit and haemoglobin values; the highest value of mean corpuscular volume and haemoglobin was in the control groups and those fed with stinging nettle.

  6. The correlation between anti phospholipase A 2 specific IgE and clinical symptoms after a bee sting in beekeepers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Matysiak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Beekeepers are a group of people with high exposure to honeybee stings and with a very high risk of allergy to bee venom. Therefore, they are a proper population to study the correlations between clinical symptoms and results of diagnostic tests. Aim: The primary aim of our study was to assess the correlations between total IgE, venom- and phospholipase A 2 -specific IgE and clinical symptoms after a bee sting in beekeepers. The secondary aim was to compare the results of diagnostic tests in beekeepers and in individuals with standard exposure to bees. Material and methods: Fifty-four individuals were divided into two groups: beekeepers and control group. The levels of total IgE (tIgE, venom-specific IgE (venom sIgE, and phospholipase A 2 -specific IgE (phospholipase A 2 sIgE were analyzed. Results: Our study showed no statistically significant correlation between the clinical symptoms after a sting and tIgE in the entire analyzed group. There was also no correlation between venom sIgE level and clinical symptoms either in beekeepers or in the group with standard exposure to bees. We observed a statistically significant correlation between phospholipase A 2 sIgE level and clinical signs after a sting in the group of beekeepers, whereas no such correlation was detected in the control group. Significantly higher venom-specific IgE levels in the beekeepers, as compared to control individuals were shown. Conclusions : In beekeepers, the severity of clinical symptoms after a bee sting correlated better with phospholipase A 2 sIgE than with venom sIgE levels.

  7. Clinical features and management of ocular lesions after stings by hymenopteran insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K S Siddharthan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the ocular alterations and the management after stings from Hymenopteran insects. In all the five patients, the insect was identified as bee. The patients presented with significant corneal edema, which resolved dramatically in three of them after removal of stingers. Among the other two one went for permanent corneal decompensation and the other developed Intumuscent cataract with increased intraocular pressure. Although a rare occurrence, ocular trauma caused by Hymenopteran insects has a potential to cause severe ocular damage in humans. A high level of clinical suspicion and immediate removal of the stingers along with administration of high doses of topical and systemic steroids is a must to prevent chances of permanent corneal damage and intraocular complications.

  8. ABO blood groups, Rhesus factor, and anaphylactic reactions due to Hymenoptera stings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pałgan, Krzysztof; Bartuzi, Zbigniew; Chrzaniecka, Elżbieta

    2017-09-21

    Numerous publications indicate that the prevalence of some infectious, neoplastic and immunological diseases are associated with ABO blood groups. The aim of this study was to verify whether ABO and Rh blood groups are associated with severe anaphylactic reactions after Hymenoptera stings. A study was undertaken of 71,441 Caucasian subjects living in the same geographic area. The study group included 353 patients with diagnosed systemic anaphylaxis to Hymenoptera venom. Control group included 71,088 healthy blood donors. Frequencies of ABO and Rhesus groups in the study and control groups were compared using univariate and multivariate analyses. No statistically significant interactions were observed between the ABO blood group and anaphylactic reactions to Hymenoptera.

  9. Primary cutaneous nocardiosis caused by Nocardia brasiliensis following a wasp sting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, L; Xu, X; Ran, Y

    2017-04-10

    We report a case of an 87-year-old woman who presented with painful erythema of her right forearm 10 days after she had been stung by a wasp on her right hand. The lesion had rapidly deteriorated during the week before presentation, and treatment with antibiotics and glucocorticoids did not improve the condition. After careful evaluation, we performed cultures from the lesion aspiration, and morphological and genetic analysis of bacteria cultures confirmed a bacterial infection with Nocardia brasiliensis. The patient recovered after 3 weeks. Primary cutaneous nocardiosis due to Nocardia spp. is relatively uncommon in clinics, but it was the distance of the lesions from the affected area of the wasp sting that has made this an even rarer case and of interest to report. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.

  10. V zhenskom gorode Tallinne / Iosef Kats

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kats, Iosef

    2006-01-01

    Naine Tallinna toponüümikas, folklooris, ajaloos ja materiaalsetes mälestusmärkides tänapäeval. Naise skulptuurseid kujutisi Tallinnas: A. Weizenbergi "Linda" Lindamäel, A. Adamsoni Russalka, A. Volzi egiptlannad Pikk 18 fassaadil, laternahoidjad linnavalitsuse hoonel, "Naine vaagnaga" Tornide väljakul, M. Mikofi "Nõmme ema" ja "Hämarik" Viru keskuse juures, "Mustamäe kaunitar" Parditiigis, Viru hotelli juurest eemaldatud "Merineiu", naisefiguur Shnelli tiigi ääres

  11. Scorpion Stings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if you're camping or staying in rustic accommodations — shake out your clothing, bedding and packages often. ... a not-for-profit organization and proceeds from Web advertising help support our mission. Mayo Clinic does ...

  12. Bee Stings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Don't wear loose clothing, which can trap bees between the cloth and your skin. When driving, keep your windows rolled up. Be careful when mowing the lawn or trimming vegetation, activities that might arouse insects in a beehive or wasp nest. Have hives and nests near your home removed ...

  13. Epidemiology of allergic reactions to hymenoptera stings in Irish school children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jennings, Aisling

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this was to study generate the first epidemiological data regarding the prevalence of hymenoptera allergy among school children in Ireland. Questionnaires, including six sting-specific questions (1), were distributed to the parents of primary school children aged 6-8 and 11-13, divided equally between rural and urban backgrounds. From 110 schools, 4112 questionnaires were returned. A total of 1544 (37.5%) children had been stung in their lifetime. Among the total, 5.8% of children stung experienced a large local reaction, 3.4% had a mild (cutaneous) systemic reaction (MSR) and 0.8% experienced a moderate\\/severe systemic reaction (SSR); these figures respectively represent 2.2%, 1.3% and 0.2% of the total study group. On logistic regression analysis, older children and rural children were at a higher risk of being stung (OR 1.7; 95% CI 1.4-2.; OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.4-1.8 respectively). Rural dwellers and asthma sufferers were more likely to experience an SSR (OR 4.3; 95% CI 1.4-13.5 and OR 2.8; 95% CI 1.8-4.3, respectively). Hymenoptera stings are more common in rural than urban dwelling Irish children. Asthma imparted a greater risk of SSR in this study population. Severe reactions are unusual overall, occurring in <1% of those stung, a lower prevalence than in Israeli teenagers but in keeping with other European reports relating to young children.

  14. Consequences of Stinging Plankton Blooms on Finfish Mariculture in the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mar Bosch-Belmar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, caged finfish mariculture across European seas suffered production losses by severe fish mortality, following episodic outbreaks of invertebrate cnidarian stingers. Due to their stinging cells and injectable venoms, medusozoan jellyfish, or drifting propagules of polyp colonies at high density may impair caged fish health through toxic effects on vulnerable tissues of gills and skin, and related secondary bacterial infections. Gill disorders in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax fish farms along the Spanish Mediterranean coast are commonly reported, but regular monitoring of the frequency of cnidarian outbreaks and their potential impacts on caged fish is still poorly enforced. In this study, two sea bass mariculture farms in Southern Spain (Málaga; Almería were monitored biweekly for zooplankton, phytoplankton and fish gills condition, over 13 or 30 months for the Málaga and Almería facilities, respectively, within the period 2012–2014. Significant, direct correlations were found among low water temperature, recorded fish mortalities, and high abundances of planktonic cnidarians, particularly of the hydrozoan siphonophores Muggiaea atlantica and M. kochii, and the larval stage of Ectopleura larynx, a common member of cage biofouling communities. A significant relationship between cnidarian densities and the quantitative scoring of gill pathology was also observed. In addition, high densities of long-bristled planktonic diatoms (Chaetoceros spp. coincided with a major fish mortality event (April 2012, Almería farm. Standardised monitoring of plankton dynamics and composition may help in promoting response capacities of Mediterranean mariculture managers to fish health challenges (such as stinging plankton blooms by (a improving diagnostic tools and preventative countermeasures and (b supporting the development of science-based spatial planning and sustainable growth of coastal mariculture.

  15. A mimic of sexually-motivated homicide: insect stings and heat exhaustion in a forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Nancy X; Pollanen, Michael S

    2017-06-01

    We report the case a woman who was found dead in a forest. The body was nude and the position of the body suggested a sexually motivated homicide. We concluded that death was not related to homicide, but was related to the conjunction of environmental factors, including insect stings, and acute psychosis. A medicolegal death investigation with postmortem examination was undertaken to determine cause of death. At the scene, the body was supine with legs spread apart and the knees flexed, exposing the external genitalia. There were multiple apparent bruises on the body and neck. At autopsy, based on macroscopic and microscopic examination, the apparent bruises were found to be hemorrhagic insect bites. No significant injuries were present and no semen was found. Death appeared to be related to heat exhaustion and innumerable insect stings. Investigation of the medical history revealed longstanding schizoaffective disorder with episodic psychotic decompensations. In the past, during an acute psychotic episode the decedent removed her clothing and ran wildly in a forest, until she was rescued in a state of exhaustion and marked agitation, and taken to hospital for treatment. We concluded that the same circumstances had been repeated but with a fatal outcome. This case is an example of a mimic of sexually-motivated homicide and is a reminder to forensic pathologists to avoid tunnel vision. We need to be skeptical of the allure of common sense based on first impressions of the scene and the body. Forensic pathologists must be unafraid to scientifically explore improbable, but true, alternate explanations.

  16. Poison and alarm: the Asian hornet Vespa velutina uses sting venom volatiles as an alarm pheromone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ya-Nan; Wen, Ping; Dong, Shi-Hao; Tan, Ken; Nieh, James C

    2017-02-15

    In colonial organisms, alarm pheromones can provide a key fitness advantage by enhancing colony defence and warning of danger. Learning which species use alarm pheromone and the key compounds involved therefore enhances our understanding of how this important signal has evolved. However, our knowledge of alarm pheromones is more limited in the social wasps and hornets compared with the social bees and ants. Vespa velutina is an economically important and widespread hornet predator that attacks honey bees and humans. This species is native to Asia and has now invaded Europe. Despite growing interest in V. velutina , it was unknown whether it possessed an alarm pheromone. We show that these hornets use sting venom as an alarm pheromone. Sting venom volatiles were strongly attractive to hornet workers and triggered attacks. Two major venom fractions, consisting of monoketones and diketones, also elicited attack. We used gas chromatography coupled to electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) to isolate 13 known and 3 unknown aliphatic ketones and alcohols in venom that elicited conspicuous hornet antennal activity. Two of the unknown compounds may be an undecen-2-one and an undecene-2,10-dinone. Three major compounds (heptan-2-one, nonan-2-one and undecan-2-one) triggered attacks, but only nonan-2-one did so at biologically relevant levels (10 hornet equivalents). Nonan-2-one thus deserves particular attention. However, the key alarm releasers for V. velutina remain to be identified. Such identification will help to illuminate the evolution and function of alarm compounds in hornets. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Structure-function analysis of STING activation by c[G(2',5')pA(3',5')p] and targeting by antiviral DMXAA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Pu; Ascano, Manuel; Zillinger, Thomas; Wang, Weiyi; Dai, Peihong; Serganov, Artem A; Gaffney, Barbara L; Shuman, Stewart; Jones, Roger A; Deng, Liang; Hartmann, Gunther; Barchet, Winfried; Tuschl, Thomas; Patel, Dinshaw J

    2013-08-15

    Binding of dsDNA by cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) synthase (cGAS) triggers formation of the metazoan second messenger c[G(2',5')pA(3',5')p], which binds the signaling protein STING with subsequent activation of the interferon (IFN) pathway. We show that human hSTING(H232) adopts a "closed" conformation upon binding c[G(2',5')pA(3',5')p] and its linkage isomer c[G(2',5')pA(2',5')p], as does mouse mSting(R231) on binding c[G(2',5')pA(3',5')p], c[G(3',5')pA(3',5')p] and the antiviral agent DMXAA, leading to similar "closed" conformations. Comparing hSTING to mSting, 2',5'-linkage-containing cGAMP isomers were more specific triggers of the IFN pathway compared to the all-3',5'-linkage isomer. Guided by structural information, we identified a unique point mutation (S162A) placed within the cyclic-dinucleotide-binding site of hSTING that rendered it sensitive to the otherwise mouse-specific drug DMXAA, a conclusion validated by binding studies. Our structural and functional analysis highlights the unexpected versatility of STING in the recognition of natural and synthetic ligands within a small-molecule pocket created by the dimerization of STING. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Brief Report: Blockade of TANK-Binding Kinase 1/IKKɛ Inhibits Mutant Stimulator of Interferon Genes (STING)-Mediated Inflammatory Responses in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frémond, Marie-Louise; Uggenti, Carolina; Van Eyck, Lien; Melki, Isabelle; Bondet, Vincent; Kitabayashi, Naoki; Hertel, Christina; Hayday, Adrian; Neven, Bénédicte; Rose, Yoann; Duffy, Darragh; Crow, Yanick J; Rodero, Mathieu P

    2017-07-01

    Gain-of-function mutations in TMEM173, encoding the stimulator of interferon (IFN) genes (STING) protein, underlie a novel type I interferonopathy that is minimally responsive to conventional immunosuppressive therapies and associated with high frequency of childhood morbidity and mortality. STING gain-of-function causes constitutive oversecretion of IFN. This study was undertaken to determine the effects of a TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK-1)/IKKɛ inhibitor (BX795) on secretion and signaling of IFN in primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with mutations in STING. PBMCs from 4 patients with STING-associated disease were treated with BX795. The effect of BX795 on IFN pathways was assessed by Western blotting and an IFNβ reporter assay, as well as by quantification of IFNα in cell lysates, staining for STAT-1 phosphorylation, and measurement of IFN-stimulated gene (ISG) messenger RNA (mRNA) expression. Treatment of PBMCs with BX795 inhibited the phosphorylation of IFN regulatory factor 3 and IFNβ promoter activity induced in HEK 293T cells by cyclic GMP-AMP or by genetic activation of STING. In vitro exposure to BX795 inhibited IFNα production in PBMCs of patients with STING-associated disease without affecting cell survival. In addition, BX795 decreased STAT-1 phosphorylation and ISG mRNA expression independent of IFNα blockade. These findings demonstrate the effect of BX795 on reducing type I IFN production and IFN signaling in cells from patients with gain-of-function mutations in STING. A combined inhibition of TBK-1 and IKKɛ therefore holds potential for the treatment of patients carrying STING mutations, and may also be relevant in other type I interferonopathies. © 2017, American College of Rheumatology.

  19. Induction of PLSCR1 in a STING/IRF3-dependent manner upon vector transfection in ovarian epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthik M Kodigepalli

    Full Text Available Toll-like receptors (TLRs are the primary sensors of the innate immune system that recognize pathogenic nucleic acids including double-stranded plasmid DNA (dsDNA. TLR signaling activates multiple pathways including IRF3 which is involved in transcriptional induction of inflammatory cytokines (i.e. interferons (IFNs. Phospholipid scramblase 1, PLSCR1, is a highly inducible IFN-regulated gene mediating anti-viral properties of IFNs. Herein, we report a novel finding that dsDNA transfection in T80 immortalized normal ovarian surface epithelial cell line leads to a marked increase in PLSCR1 mRNA and protein. We also noted a comparable response in primary mammary epithelial cells (HMECs. Similar to IFN-2α treated cells, de novo synthesized PLSCR1 was localized predominantly to the plasma membrane. dsDNA transfection, in T80 and HMEC cells, led to activation of MAPK and IRF3. Although inhibition of MAPK (using U0126 did not modulate PLSCR1 mRNA and protein, IRF3 knockdown (using siRNA significantly ablated the PLSCR1 induction. In prior studies, the activation of IRF3 was shown to be mediated by cGAS-STING pathway. To investigate the contribution of STING to PLSCR1 induction, we utilized siRNA to reduce STING expression and observed that PLSCR1 protein was markedly reduced. In contrast to normal T80/HMECs, the phosphorylation of IRF3 as well as induction of STING and PLSCR1 were absent in ovarian cancer cells (serous, clear cell, and endometrioid suggesting that the STING/IRF3 pathway may be dysregulated in these cancer cells. However, we also noted induction of different TLR and IFN mRNAs between the T80 and HEY (serous epithelial ovarian carcinoma cell lines upon dsDNA transfection. Collectively, these results indicate that the STING/IRF3 pathway, activated following dsDNA transfection, contributes to upregulation of PLSCR1 in ovarian epithelial cells.

  20. Sumoylation Promotes the Stability of the DNA Sensor cGAS and the Adaptor STING to Regulate the Kinetics of Response to DNA Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ming-Ming; Yang, Qing; Xie, Xue-Qin; Liao, Chen-Yang; Lin, Heng; Liu, Tian-Tian; Yin, Lei; Shu, Hong-Bing

    2016-09-20

    During viral infection, sensing of cytosolic DNA by the cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) activates the adaptor protein STING and triggers an antiviral response. Little is known about the mechanisms that determine the kinetics of activation and deactivation of the cGAS-STING pathway, ensuring effective but controlled innate antiviral responses. Here we found that the ubiquitin ligase Trim38 targets cGas for sumoylation in uninfected cells and during the early phase of viral infection. Sumoylation of cGas prevented its polyubiquitination and degradation. Trim38 also sumoylated Sting during the early phase of viral infection, promoting both Sting activation and protein stability. In the late phase of infection, cGas and Sting were desumoylated by Senp2 and subsequently degraded via proteasomal and chaperone-mediated autophagy pathways, respectively. Our findings reveal an essential role for Trim38 in the innate immune response to DNA virus and provide insight into the mechanisms that ensure optimal activation and deactivation of the cGAS-STING pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF EPIDEMIOLOGY CLINICAL COURSE AND TREATMENT OUTCOME OF SCORPION STING IN PAEDIATRIC AGE GROUP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION We know that habitat of scorpion is warm, and dry region. They inhibit commonly under logs, debris, paddy husk, sugar cane fields, and Coconut and banana plantations. (1 Konaseema region of Andhra Pradesh is famous for paddy, banana and coconut which are good habitat for scorpion. It is a retrospective study in which all the date of scorpion sting cases admitted in Konaseema institute of medical science and general hospital the only referral hospital in Konaseema region in last 3 years that is from Oct 2012 to Nov 2015 was collected. Mesobuthus tamulus is common in Andhra Pradesh. With the combined use of SAV and prazosin mortality has been reduced. But the awareness about the scorpion to the parent and its habitat will prevent the sting.

  2. STING agonists enable antiviral cross-talk between human cells and confer protection against genital herpes in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skouboe, Morten K; Knudsen, Alice; Reinert, Line S

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in immunomodulatory therapy as a means to treat various conditions, including infectious diseases. For instance, Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists have been evaluated for treatment of genital herpes. However, although the TLR7 agonist imiquimod...... herpes simplex virus (HSV) 2 replication and improved the clinical outcome of infection. More importantly, local application of CDNs at the genital epithelial surface gave rise to local IFN activity, but only limited systemic responses, and this treatment conferred total protection against disease...... to TLRs, STING is expressed broadly, including in epithelial cells. Here we report that natural and non-natural STING agonists strongly induce type I IFNs in human cells and in mice in vivo, without stimulating significant inflammatory gene expression. Systemic treatment with 2'3'-cGAMP reduced genital...

  3. STING agonists enable antiviral cross-talk between human cells and confer protection against genital herpes in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skouboe, Morten K; Knudsen, Alice; Reinert, Line S; Boularan, Cedric; Lioux, Thierry; Perouzel, Eric; Thomsen, Martin K; Paludan, Søren R

    2018-04-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in immunomodulatory therapy as a means to treat various conditions, including infectious diseases. For instance, Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists have been evaluated for treatment of genital herpes. However, although the TLR7 agonist imiquimod was shown to have antiviral activity in individual patients, no significant effects were observed in clinical trials, and the compound also exhibited significant side effects, including local inflammation. Cytosolic DNA is detected by the enzyme cyclic GMP-AMP (2'3'-cGAMP) synthase (cGAS) to stimulate antiviral pathways, mainly through induction of type I interferon (IFN)s. cGAS is activated upon DNA binding to produce the cyclic dinucleotide (CDN) 2'3'-cGAMP, which in turn binds and activates the adaptor protein Stimulator of interferon genes (STING), thus triggering type I IFN expression. In contrast to TLRs, STING is expressed broadly, including in epithelial cells. Here we report that natural and non-natural STING agonists strongly induce type I IFNs in human cells and in mice in vivo, without stimulating significant inflammatory gene expression. Systemic treatment with 2'3'-cGAMP reduced genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) 2 replication and improved the clinical outcome of infection. More importantly, local application of CDNs at the genital epithelial surface gave rise to local IFN activity, but only limited systemic responses, and this treatment conferred total protection against disease in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised mice. In direct comparison between CDNs and TLR agonists, only CDNs acted directly on epithelial cells, hence allowing a more rapid and IFN-focused immune response in the vaginal epithelium. Thus, specific activation of the STING pathway in the vagina evokes induction of the IFN system but limited inflammatory responses to allow control of HSV2 infections in vivo.

  4. Stings and Scams: ‘Fake News,’ the First Amendment, and the New Activist Journalism

    OpenAIRE

    Dorf, Michael; Tarrow, Sidney

    2017-01-01

    Constitutional law, technological innovations, and the rise of a cultural “right to know” have recently combined to yield “fake news,” as illustrated by an anti-abortion citizen-journalist sting operation that scammed Planned Parenthood. We find that the First Amendment, as construed by the Supreme Court, offers scant protection for activist journalists to go undercover to uncover wrongdoing, while providing substantial protection for the spread of falsehoods. By providing activists the means...

  5. An RNA-Based Fluorescent Biosensor for High-Throughput Analysis of the cGAS-cGAMP-STING Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Debojit; Su, Yichi; Marcus, Assaf; Raulet, David H; Hammond, Ming C

    2016-12-22

    In mammalian cells, the second messenger (2'-5',3'-5') cyclic guanosine monophosphate-adenosine monophosphate (2',3'-cGAMP), is produced by the cytosolic DNA sensor cGAMP synthase (cGAS), and subsequently bound by the stimulator of interferon genes (STING) to trigger interferon response. Thus, the cGAS-cGAMP-STING pathway plays a critical role in pathogen detection, as well as pathophysiological conditions including cancer and autoimmune disorders. However, studying and targeting this immune signaling pathway has been challenging due to the absence of tools for high-throughput analysis. We have engineered an RNA-based fluorescent biosensor that responds to 2',3'-cGAMP. The resulting "mix-and-go" cGAS activity assay shows excellent statistical reliability as a high-throughput screening (HTS) assay and distinguishes between direct and indirect cGAS inhibitors. Furthermore, the biosensor enables quantitation of 2',3'-cGAMP in mammalian cell lysates. We envision this biosensor-based assay as a resource to study the cGAS-cGAMP-STING pathway in the context of infectious diseases, cancer immunotherapy, and autoimmune diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Cyclic GMP-AMP containing mixed phosphodiester linkages is an endogenous high-affinity ligand for STING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu; Shi, Heping; Wu, Jiaxi; Zhang, Xuewu; Sun, Lijun; Chen, Chuo; Chen, Zhijian J

    2013-07-25

    The presence of microbial or self DNA in the cytoplasm of mammalian cells is a danger signal detected by the DNA sensor cyclic-GMP-AMP (cGAMP) synthase (cGAS), which catalyzes the production of cGAMP that in turn serves as a second messenger to activate innate immune responses. Here we show that endogenous cGAMP in mammalian cells contains two distinct phosphodiester linkages, one between 2'-OH of GMP and 5'-phosphate of AMP, and the other between 3'-OH of AMP and 5'-phosphate of GMP. This molecule, termed 2'3'-cGAMP, is unique in that it binds to the adaptor protein STING with a much greater affinity than cGAMP molecules containing other combinations of phosphodiester linkages. The crystal structure of STING bound to 2'3'-cGAMP revealed the structural basis of this high-affinity binding and a ligand-induced conformational change in STING that may underlie its activation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. 6. juulini on Viljandi Kondase keskuses...

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Mare Hundi koostatud ja kujundatud näitus "Fotograaf Jaan Riet ja Viljandi", mis tutvustab J. Rieti ja tema perekonna fotograafiaalast tegevust, nende Karl Burmani projekteeritud juugendlikku elumaja-ateljeed Viljandis ning abikaasa Maria Rieti rajatud dendroparki

  8. Wõro keskus = Wõro Centre / Ilmar Jalas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jalas, Ilmar, 1954-

    2001-01-01

    Võrus Jüri t. 22a asuva ärihoone projekteeris Arhitektuuribüroo JVR. Arhitekt Ilmar Jalas, kaasa töötas Andrus Andrejev. Konstruktsioonid: Jaan Port, eriosad: Tiiu Välba. Projekt 2000-2001, hoone valmis 2001. 7 ill.: asendiplaan, korruste plaanid, välisvaated

  9. Vaba aja keskus Tasku = Tasku centre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Tasku kompleksi Tartus Turu t. 2 projekteeris Arhitektuuribüroo Kalle Rõõmus. Tasku kaubandus- ja konverentsikeskuse sisekujundusest. Sisearhitektid Argo Vaikla, Katrin Vaikla, Mari-Liis Süld ja Liis Tarbe. Sisearhitektide tähtsamate tööde loetelu

  10. EKA e-meedia keskus korraldab...

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Adobe AfterEffects'i (algkursus 28.-31. III, 1. IV, registreerimine kuni 23. III, edasijõudnute kursus 22.-24. III, registreerimine kuni 18. III, juhendab Manuel Zadok Prantsusmaalt) ja Macromedia Flash'i (juhendab Raitis Smits Lätist) kursused

  11. Brucella abortus Triggers a cGAS-Independent STING Pathway To Induce Host Protection That Involves Guanylate-Binding Proteins and Inflammasome Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa Franco, Miriam M; Marim, Fernanda; Guimarães, Erika S; Assis, Natan R G; Cerqueira, Daiane M; Alves-Silva, Juliana; Harms, Jerome; Splitter, Gary; Smith, Judith; Kanneganti, Thirumala-Devi; de Queiroz, Nina M G P; Gutman, Delia; Barber, Glen N; Oliveira, Sergio C

    2018-01-15

    Immunity against microbes depends on recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns by innate receptors. Signaling pathways triggered by Brucella abortus DNA involves TLR9, AIM2, and stimulator of IFN genes (STING). In this study, we observed by microarray analysis that several type I IFN-associated genes, such as IFN-β and guanylate-binding proteins (GBPs), are downregulated in STING knockout (KO) macrophages infected with Brucella or transfected with DNA. Additionally, we determined that STING and cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) are important to engage the type I IFN pathway, but only STING is required to induce IL-1β secretion, caspase-1 activation, and GBP2 and GBP3 expression. Furthermore, we determined that STING but not cGAS is critical for host protection against Brucella infection in macrophages and in vivo. This study provides evidence of a cGAS-independent mechanism of STING-mediated protection against an intracellular bacterial infection. Additionally, infected IFN regulatory factor-1 and IFNAR KO macrophages had reduced GBP2 and GBP3 expression and these cells were more permissive to Brucella replication compared with wild-type control macrophages. Because GBPs are critical to target vacuolar bacteria, we determined whether GBP2 and GBP chr3 affect Brucella control in vivo. GBP chr3 but not GBP2 KO mice were more susceptible to bacterial infection, and small interfering RNA treated-macrophages showed reduction in IL-1β secretion and caspase-1 activation. Finally, we also demonstrated that Brucella DNA colocalizes with AIM2, and AIM2 KO mice are less resistant to B. abortus infection. In conclusion, these findings suggest that the STING-dependent type I IFN pathway is critical for the GBP-mediated release of Brucella DNA into the cytosol and subsequent activation of AIM2. Copyright © 2018 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  12. Clinico-epidemiology of stings and envenoming of Hottentotta tamulus (Scorpiones: Buthidae), the Indian red scorpion from Jaffna Peninsula in northern Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kularatne, Senanayake A M; Dinamithra, Nandana P; Sivansuthan, Sivapalan; Weerakoon, Kosala G A D; Thillaimpalam, Bhanu; Kalyanasundram, Vithiya; Ranawana, Kithsiri B

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, stings of a lethal scorpion species were recorded from Jaffna Peninsula in the northern dry zone of Sri Lanka. This species was identified as Hottentotta tamulus (Scorpiones: Buthidae) which is the Indian red scorpion commonly found in Maharashtra, India. The Teaching Hospital, Jaffna recorded 84 H. tamulus stings over a year in 2012 and of them, 23 cases provided offending scorpions (proven cases). Three localities in Jaffna were recorded as hotspots of scorpion stings namely Palali, Achchuvali and Karainagar. Of the proven cases, 13 (57%) and 10 (43%) were males and females respectively and had a mean age of 30 years (SD ± 20 years). Among them, 5 (22%) were children below 12 years. In 13 (57%) patients stings occurred inside their houses including two children (40%). Six (26%) stings occurred at night when the victims were in sleep. Median time taken to arrive at the hospital from the time of stinging was 58 min (range 8-550 min). Signs of over activation of autonomic nervous system predominated the clinical picture-tachycardia in 14 (61%), high blood pressure in 11 (48%), excessive sweating in 9 (39%), excessive salivation in 5 (22%), hypotension in 4 (17%) and piloerection in 3 (13%). Children showed higher predilection to develop tachycardia - 4 (80%) and excessive salivation - 3 (60%). Priapism was not observed and 17 (74%) patients have developed intense pain at the site of sting. The commonest ECG change was tachycardia (73%) and occasional T wave inversion. Prazosin as a treatment was given to 22 (96%) patients. All patients made recovery and 13 (57%) patients left the hospital within two days. In future, there is a potential risk of spreading this species to elsewhere in the country and may disturb the ecological balance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Phenotypic and molecular analysis of a pasteuria strain parasitic to the sting nematode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekal, S; Borneman, J; Springer, M S; Giblin-Davis, R M; Becker, J O

    2001-06-01

    Pasteuria strain S-1 was found to parasitize the sting nematode Belonolaimus longicaudatus. S-1 spores attached to several strains of B. longicaudatus from different geographical locations within the United States. However, they did not adhere to any of the following species: Heterodera schachtii, Longidorus africanus, Meloidogyne hapla, M. incognita, M. javanica, Pratylenchus brachyurus, P. scribneri, P. neglectus, P. penetrans, P. thornei, P. vulnus, and Xiphinema spp. The 16S rRNA genes from Pasteuria strain S-1 and P. penetrans strain Pp from Senegal were obtained by PCR amplification. A DNA sequence analysis showed that the S-1 16S rRNA had 96% or less similarity to the 16S rRNA genes from all previously reported Pasteuria species. Diverse phylogenetic methods all provided robust support for an association of Pasteuria strain S-1, Pasteuria strain NA parasitic to H. glycines, and P. penetrans strain Pp, to the exclusion of P. ramosa. In addition, our study showed intraspecific variation within P. penetrans as inferred by its 98% similarity to P. penetrans strain Pp.

  14. [Prevalence of hymenoptera sting allergy in veterinary medicine students from Monterey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias Cruz, Alfredo; Monsiváis Toscano, Gina; Gallardo Martínez, Gabriela; González Díaz, Sandra Nora; Galindo Rodríguez, Gabriela

    2007-01-01

    The reported prevalence of allergic systemic reactions to hymenoptera venom occur in up to 3.3% and large local reactions occur in 17% in the general population. To investigate the prevalence of hymenoptera sting allergy in a group of veterinary medicine students from Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. A transverse and observational study was done with 64 students of veterinary medicine. We conducted a questionnaire about the students' history of insect allergy and atopy. Skin test with allergenic extracts of bee and ant were practiced to all subjects. We performed aeroallergen skin prick test to the subjets with suspected atopy. Students age ranged from 17 to 25 years (mean 20.2) and 37 were males. Twenty students (31.3%) had clinical history of atopy and positive skin tests to aeroallergens. On the other hand, 5 students (7.8%), including 2 atopic, had suffered large local reactions, but none of them had suffered systemic reactions. Bee and ant skin tests were positive in 15.6% and 31.3% of the students respectively. There was no difference in the prevalence of hymenoptera allergy between atopic and non atopic subjects (p < 0.05). Further, the frequency of atopy in subjects with positive skin tests for bee and ant was 50%. The prevalence of large local reactions and hymenoptera sensitization found in this group was similar to that found in other epidemiologic studies.

  15. The cGAS-cGAMP-STING pathway connects DNA damage to inflammation, senescence, and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tuo; Chen, Zhijian J

    2018-05-07

    Detection of microbial DNA is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism that alerts the host immune system to mount a defense response to microbial infections. However, this detection mechanism also poses a challenge to the host as to how to distinguish foreign DNA from abundant self-DNA. Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (GMP)-adenosine monophosphate (AMP) synthase (cGAS) is a DNA sensor that triggers innate immune responses through production of the second messenger cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP), which binds and activates the adaptor protein STING. However, cGAS can be activated by double-stranded DNA irrespective of the sequence, including self-DNA. Although how cGAS is normally kept inactive in cells is still not well understood, recent research has provided strong evidence that genomic DNA damage leads to cGAS activation to stimulate inflammatory responses. This review summarizes recent findings on how genomic instability and DNA damage trigger cGAS activation and how cGAS serves as a link from DNA damage to inflammation, cellular senescence, and cancer. © 2018 Li and Chen.

  16. Biopolymers codelivering engineered T cells and STING agonists can eliminate heterogeneous tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tyrel T; Moffett, Howell F; Stephan, Sirkka B; Opel, Cary F; Dumigan, Amy G; Jiang, Xiuyun; Pillarisetty, Venu G; Pillai, Smitha P S; Wittrup, K Dane; Stephan, Matthias T

    2017-06-01

    Therapies using T cells that are programmed to express chimeric antigen receptors (CAR T cells) consistently produce positive results in patients with hematologic malignancies. However, CAR T cell treatments are less effective in solid tumors for several reasons. First, lymphocytes do not efficiently target CAR T cells; second, solid tumors create an immunosuppressive microenvironment that inactivates T cell responses; and third, solid cancers are typified by phenotypic diversity and thus include cells that do not express proteins targeted by the engineered receptors, enabling the formation of escape variants that elude CAR T cell targeting. Here, we have tested implantable biopolymer devices that deliver CAR T cells directly to the surfaces of solid tumors, thereby exposing them to high concentrations of immune cells for a substantial time period. In immunocompetent orthotopic mouse models of pancreatic cancer and melanoma, we found that CAR T cells can migrate from biopolymer scaffolds and eradicate tumors more effectively than does systemic delivery of the same cells. We have also demonstrated that codelivery of stimulator of IFN genes (STING) agonists stimulates immune responses to eliminate tumor cells that are not recognized by the adoptively transferred lymphocytes. Thus, these devices may improve the effectiveness of CAR T cell therapy in solid tumors and help protect against the emergence of escape variants.

  17. Chemical and Biological Analysis of Malaysian Sting less Bee Propolis Extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurhamizah Ibrahim; Nurul Farah Shakila Mohd Niza; Muhammad Muslim Mohd Rodi; Abdul Jamil Zakaria; Zhari Ismail; Khamsah Suryati Mohd; Khamsah Suryati Mohd

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate chemical and biological profile of methanol extracts from Malaysian propolis produced by two commonly found sting less bee species, Heterotrigona itama (MHI) and Geniotrigona thoracica (MGT). Test samples were analyzed for physicochemical parameters such as moisture, fat, crude fibre, crude protein, carbohydrate and ash content. Tests for phyto chemical screening by thin layer chromatography of both extracts revealed that presence of terpenoids, flavonoids, phenols and essential oils but steroids, saponin and coumarins only occur in MHI. Both extracts displayed a characteristic profile and vary from each other. Accordingly, MHI possess higher antioxidant activity with an IC_5_0 of 15.0 ± 0.21 μg/ mL compared to MGT with IC_5_0 of 270.0 ± 0.19 μg/ mL. MHI showed moderate nitric oxide scavenging activity, while MGT only showed mild inhibition. Antidiabetic activity was determined by α-glucosidase inhibition and found significantly better than that of acarbose (positive control). In conclusion, data gathered in this study revealed that bee species play role in determining the chemical and biological profile of particular propolis and should put into account in decision of further development for propolis. (author)

  18. Mineral Properties and Dietary Value of Raw and Processed Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yixiang; Ramirez, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) has a long history of usage and is currently receiving attention as a source of fiber and alternative medicine. In many cultures, nettle is also eaten as a leafy vegetable. In this study, we focused on nettle yield (edible portion) and processing effects on nutritive and dietary properties. Actively growing shoots were harvested from field plots and leaves separated from stems. Leaf portions (200 g) were washed and processed by blanching (1 min at 96–98°C) or cooking (7 min at 98-99°C) with or without salt (5 g·L−1). Samples were cooled immediately after cooking and kept in frozen storage before analysis. Proximate composition, mineral, amino acid, and vitamin contents were determined, and nutritive value was estimated based on 100 g serving portions in a 2000 calorie diet. Results show that processed nettle can supply 90%–100% of vitamin A (including vitamin A as β-carotene) and is a good source of dietary calcium, iron, and protein. We recommend fresh or processed nettle as a high-protein, low-calorie source of essential nutrients, minerals, and vitamins particularly in vegetarian, diabetic, or other specialized diets. PMID:26904610

  19. Mineral Properties and Dietary Value of Raw and Processed Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laban K. Rutto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L. has a long history of usage and is currently receiving attention as a source of fiber and alternative medicine. In many cultures, nettle is also eaten as a leafy vegetable. In this study, we focused on nettle yield (edible portion and processing effects on nutritive and dietary properties. Actively growing shoots were harvested from field plots and leaves separated from stems. Leaf portions (200 g were washed and processed by blanching (1 min at 96–98°C or cooking (7 min at 98-99°C with or without salt (5 g·. Samples were cooled immediately after cooking and kept in frozen storage before analysis. Proximate composition, mineral, amino acid, and vitamin contents were determined, and nutritive value was estimated based on 100 g serving portions in a 2000 calorie diet. Results show that processed nettle can supply 90%–100% of vitamin A (including vitamin A as β-carotene and is a good source of dietary calcium, iron, and protein. We recommend fresh or processed nettle as a high-protein, low-calorie source of essential nutrients, minerals, and vitamins particularly in vegetarian, diabetic, or other specialized diets.

  20. Mineral Properties and Dietary Value of Raw and Processed Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutto, Laban K; Xu, Yixiang; Ramirez, Elizabeth; Brandt, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) has a long history of usage and is currently receiving attention as a source of fiber and alternative medicine. In many cultures, nettle is also eaten as a leafy vegetable. In this study, we focused on nettle yield (edible portion) and processing effects on nutritive and dietary properties. Actively growing shoots were harvested from field plots and leaves separated from stems. Leaf portions (200 g) were washed and processed by blanching (1 min at 96-98°C) or cooking (7 min at 98-99°C) with or without salt (5 g·L(-1)). Samples were cooled immediately after cooking and kept in frozen storage before analysis. Proximate composition, mineral, amino acid, and vitamin contents were determined, and nutritive value was estimated based on 100 g serving portions in a 2000 calorie diet. Results show that processed nettle can supply 90%-100% of vitamin A (including vitamin A as β-carotene) and is a good source of dietary calcium, iron, and protein. We recommend fresh or processed nettle as a high-protein, low-calorie source of essential nutrients, minerals, and vitamins particularly in vegetarian, diabetic, or other specialized diets.

  1. Ameliorative effects of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) on testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahata, A; Dixit, V K

    2012-05-01

    The present study investigated the effects of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) (UD) on benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) induced by testosterone. In vitro studies were conducted to assess the 5α-reductase inhibitory potential of UD. Two biochemical markers viz., β-sitosterol and scopoletin, were isolated and characterised in the extracts utilising High-performance thin layer chromatographic, FTIR, NMR and overlain UV spectral studies. Hyperplasia was induced in rats by subcutaneous administration of testosterone (3 mg kg(-1) s.c.) for 28 days in all the groups except the vehicle-treated group. Simultaneous administration of petroleum ether and ethanolic extracts (10, 20 and 50 mg kg(-1) p.o.) and isolated β-sitosterol (10 and 20 mg kg(-1) p.o.) was undertaken. Finasteride was used as a positive control (1 mg kg(-1) p.o.). Measurement of prostate/body weight ratio, weekly urine output and serum testosterone levels, prostate-specific antigen levels (on day 28) and histological examinations carried out on prostates from each group led us to conclude that UD can be used as an effective drug for the management of BPH. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Pediatric epidemiological aspects of scorpionism and report on fatal cases from Tityus stigmurus stings (Scorpiones: Buthidae in State of Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleide Maria Ribeiro de Albuquerque

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Envenomation by scorpion stings is a major public health problem in numerous tropical countries because of its frequent incidence and potential severity. Approximately 1,900 species of scorpions are known in the world, and at least 130 of these have been described in Brazil. Methods This work reports on 3 child deaths caused by Tityus stigmurus stings and characterizes epidemiological and clinical surveys on pediatric cases of scorpionism recorded in the Centro de Assistência Toxicológica de Pernambuco (Ceatox-PE. Results Scorpion stings accounted for more than 60% of all cases recorded for venomous animals. The children were from 37 cities of the Pernambuco state and accounted for 28.8% of the victims treated for scorpion stings, with the highest incidence in the metropolitan area of Recife. Stings occurred throughout the year and slightly increased during the rainy season. Independent of the elapsed time for a prognosis, most cases showed mild symptoms. Three moderate cases that resulted in death featured cardiogenic shock and/or pulmonary edema or severe neurological symptoms. For the first time, death attributed to T. stigmurus was confirmed by the presence of the scorpion. Conclusions These results suggest that scorpionism in Pernambuco is a public health problem that needs to be monitored carefully throughout the year by the government.

  3. DsbA-L prevents obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance by suppressing the mtDNA release-activated cGAS-cGAMP-STING pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Juli; Cervantes, Christopher; Liu, Juan; He, Sijia; Zhou, Haiyan; Zhang, Bilin; Cai, Huan; Yin, Dongqing; Hu, Derong; Li, Zhi; Chen, Hongzhi; Gao, Xiaoli; Wang, Fang; O'Connor, Jason C; Xu, Yong; Liu, Meilian; Dong, Lily Q; Liu, Feng

    2017-11-14

    Chronic inflammation in adipose tissue plays a key role in obesity-induced insulin resistance. However, the mechanisms underlying obesity-induced inflammation remain elusive. Here we show that obesity promotes mtDNA release into the cytosol, where it triggers inflammatory responses by activating the DNA-sensing cGAS-cGAMP-STING pathway. Fat-specific knockout of disulfide-bond A oxidoreductase-like protein (DsbA-L), a chaperone-like protein originally identified in the mitochondrial matrix, impaired mitochondrial function and promoted mtDNA release, leading to activation of the cGAS-cGAMP-STING pathway and inflammatory responses. Conversely, fat-specific overexpression of DsbA-L protected mice against high-fat diet-induced activation of the cGAS-cGAMP-STING pathway and inflammation. Taken together, we identify DsbA-L as a key molecule that maintains mitochondrial integrity. DsbA-L deficiency promotes inflammation and insulin resistance by activating the cGAS-cGAMP-STING pathway. Our study also reveals that, in addition to its well-characterized roles in innate immune surveillance, the cGAS-cGAMP-STING pathway plays an important role in mediating obesity-induced metabolic dysfunction.

  4. Human plasmacytoid dentritic cells elicit a Type I Interferon response by sensing DNA via the cGAS-STING signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, Christian; Fox, Mario; Tewary, Poonam; Steinhagen, Almut; Ellerkmann, Richard K; Klinman, Dennis; Baumgarten, Georg; Hornung, Veit; Steinhagen, Folkert

    2016-07-01

    Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are a major source of type I interferon (IFN) and are important for host defense by sensing microbial DNA via TLR9. pDCs also play a critical role in the pathogenesis of IFN-driven autoimmune diseases. Yet, this autoimmune reaction is caused by the recognition of self-DNA and has been linked to TLR9-independent pathways. Increasing evidence suggests that the cytosolic DNA receptor cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) synthase (cGAS) is a critical component in the detection of pathogens and contributes to autoimmune diseases. It has been shown that binding of DNA to cGAS results in the synthesis of cGAMP and the subsequent activation of the stimulator of interferon genes (STING) adaptor to induce IFNs. Our results show that the cGAS-STING pathway is expressed and activated in human pDCs by cytosolic DNA leading to a robust type I IFN response. Direct activation of STING by cyclic dinucleotides including cGAMP also activated pDCs and knockdown of STING abolished this IFN response. These results suggest that pDCs sense cytosolic DNA and cyclic dinucleotides via the cGAS-STING pathway and that targeting this pathway could be of therapeutic interest. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Epidemiological and spatial analysis of scorpion stings in two regions of Morocco: Marrakesh-Tensift-Al Haouz and Souss-Massa-Draa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moulay Abdelmonaim El Hidan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe and compare the epidemiological features of scorpionism during six years (2005–2010 in two regions of Morocco: Marrakesh-Tensift-Al Haouz and Souss-MassaDraa. Methods: Clinical and epidemiological data were obtained from medical records of the Moroccan Poison Control Center during 2005–2010. The data comprised demographics, sting characteristics and clinical severity classes. Digital maps were produced for envenomation and death incidence with the distribution of all scorpion species present on the studied area. Results: A total of 75313 scorpion sting cases were notified. The incidence of scorpion stings was 244 cases/100000 population/year and was significantly higher at Marrakesh-Tensift-Al Haouz than Souss-Massa-Draa. The general lethality rate was on an average of 0.28% with a higher rate in Marrakesh-Tensift-Al Haouz compared to Souss-Massa-Draa. There was a different distribution of cases between genders in the two studied regions. With respect to age groups, adults (more than 15 years were affected most compared to children. When analyzed according to the incidence in each province, the highest envenomation incidence was observed in Chichaoua. Concerning lethality, the highest lethality incidence was observed in the Kelaa. Based on this study, we could distinguish three zones: low scorpion stings occurrence without death, high incidence with low lethality and high scorpion stings rate with high lethality. Conclusions: Our data clearly demonstrate the correlation between scorpion stings incidence and the percentage of rural population in the different provinces. Additionally, the lethality incidence could be linked to the scorpion species of the studied area.

  6. Delayed allergic dermatitis presenting as a keloid-like reaction caused by sting from an Indo-Pacific Portuguese man-o'-war (Physalia utriculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, B E K; Dayrit, J F; Haddad, V

    2017-03-01

    Cnidarian envenomations are common occurrences in the tropics that can affect holidaymakers. The cutaneous reactions are classified as immediate or delayed types. Delayed allergic reactions are persistently recurring dermatitis, which can occur within 1-4 weeks from the initial sting, and may last for several months. Hypertrophic scar-like or keloid-like reactions are rare, and are believed to be a type IV hypersensitivity reaction to sequestered antigens from stinging filaments. We report an unusual case of delayed allergic dermatitis with keloid-like presentation caused by Physalia utriculus. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.

  7. Use of sting-response techniques for simulate diagnostics in human esophagus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, I.; Gonzalez, Y.; Valdes, L.; Alfonso, J.A.; Estevez, E.

    2003-01-01

    In this work a study of simulation of the gamma graphic studies that are carried out in human esophagus in the Dept. of Nuclear Medicine of the 'Celestino Hernandez Robau Hospital of Santa Clara is presented. For the investigation tubular reactors were used and sting-response techniques with radioactive tracer of Technetium 99 metastable to a concentration of 1 mCi and several flows were applied. The distribution curves of residences times were obtained, those that respond to an equation of the type: Y = A + B exp (- exp((x-C)/D)) - ((x-C/D)+1). They were also carried out, optimizations studies of the doses of the radioactive to give to the patients from 1 mCi (that is the one used in studies) up to 0,5 mCi, and the influences on the obtained distributions of residence time were analyzed. It was confirmed the possibility to lower the doses with clear information of the signal. It was also carried out a simulation of the attenuation of the radiations that takes place in the patients by the interposition of tissues among the analyzed organ, and the detection equipment. It was used paraffin for tissue simulation. It was found the almost independence of the intensity of the radiations with the thickness, for the assayed doses. Lastly it was found a complex mathematical model that responds to the diagnostic curves obtained in these studies, being correlated the coefficients of the pattern with the most important physical parameters of the system, giving it a practical and useful value, all time that the error among the values that this it predicts and the experimental ones do not surpass of 5%. (Author)

  8. Measuring the representational space of music with fMRI: a case study with Sting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitin, Daniel J; Grafton, Scott T

    2016-12-01

    Functional brain imaging has revealed much about the neuroanatomical substrates of higher cognition, including music, language, learning, and memory. The technique lends itself to studying of groups of individuals. In contrast, the nature of expert performance is typically studied through the examination of exceptional individuals using behavioral case studies and retrospective biography. Here, we combined fMRI and the study of an individual who is a world-class expert musician and composer in order to better understand the neural underpinnings of his music perception and cognition, in particular, his mental representations for music. We used state of the art multivoxel pattern analysis (MVPA) and representational dissimilarity analysis (RDA) in a fixed set of brain regions to test three exploratory hypotheses with the musician Sting: (1) Composing would recruit neutral structures that are both unique and distinguishable from other creative acts, such as composing prose or visual art; (2) listening and imagining music would recruit similar neural regions, indicating that musical memory shares anatomical substrates with music listening; (3) the MVPA and RDA results would help us to map the representational space for music, revealing which musical pieces and genres are perceived to be similar in the musician's mental models for music. Our hypotheses were confirmed. The act of composing, and even of imagining elements of the composed piece separately, such as melody and rhythm, activated a similar cluster of brain regions, and were distinct from prose and visual art. Listened and imagined music showed high similarity, and in addition, notable similarity/dissimilarity patterns emerged among the various pieces used as stimuli: Muzak and Top 100/Pop songs were far from all other musical styles in Mahalanobis distance (Euclidean representational space), whereas jazz, R&B, tango and rock were comparatively close. Closer inspection revealed principaled explanations for the

  9. The effect of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) seed oil on experimental colitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genc, Zeynep; Yarat, Aysen; Tunali-Akbay, Tugba; Sener, Goksel; Cetinel, Sule; Pisiriciler, Rabia; Caliskan-Ak, Esin; Altıntas, Ayhan; Demirci, Betul

    2011-12-01

    This study investigated the effect of Urtica dioica, known as stinging nettle, seed oil (UDO) treatment on colonic tissue and blood parameters of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in rats. Experimental colitis was induced with 1 mL of TNBS in 40% ethanol by intracolonic administration with a 8-cm-long cannula with rats under ether anesthesia, assigned to a colitis group and a colitis+UDO group. Rats in the control group were given saline at the same volume by intracolonic administration. UDO (2.5 mL/kg) was given to the colitis+UDO group by oral administration throughout a 3-day interval, 5 minutes later than colitis induction. Saline (2.5 mL/kg) was given to the control and colitis groups at the same volume by oral administration. At the end of the experiment macroscopic lesions were scored, and the degree of oxidant damage was evaluated by colonic total protein, sialic acid, malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione levels, collagen content, tissue factor activity, and superoxide dismutase and myeloperoxidase activities. Colonic tissues were also examined by histological and cytological analysis. Pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6), lactate dehydrogenase activity, and triglyceride and cholesterol levels were analyzed in blood samples. We found that UDO decreased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, lactate dehydrogenase, triglyceride, and cholesterol, which were increased in colitis. UDO administration ameliorated the TNBS-induced disturbances in colonic tissue except for MDA. In conclusion, UDO, through its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant actions, merits consideration as a potential agent in ameliorating colonic inflammation.

  10. Nanoparticulate STING agonists are potent lymph node-targeted vaccine adjuvants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Melissa C; Crespo, Monica P; Abraham, Wuhbet; Moynihan, Kelly D; Szeto, Gregory L; Chen, Stephanie H; Melo, Mariane B; Mueller, Stefanie; Irvine, Darrell J

    2015-06-01

    Cyclic dinucleotides (CDNs) are agonists of stimulator of IFN genes (STING) and have potential as vaccine adjuvants. However, cyclic di-GMP (cdGMP) injected s.c. shows minimal uptake into lymphatics/draining lymph nodes (dLNs) and instead is rapidly distributed to the bloodstream, leading to systemic inflammation. Here, we encapsulated cdGMP within PEGylated lipid nanoparticles (NP-cdGMP) to redirect this adjuvant to dLNs. Compared with unformulated CDNs, encapsulation blocked systemic dissemination and markedly enhanced dLN accumulation in murine models. Delivery of NP-cdGMP increased CD8+ T cell responses primed by peptide vaccines and enhanced therapeutic antitumor immunity. A combination of a poorly immunogenic liposomal HIV gp41 peptide antigen and NP-cdGMP robustly induced type I IFN in dLNs, induced a greater expansion of vaccine-specific CD4+ T cells, and greatly increased germinal center B cell differentiation in dLNs compared with a combination of liposomal HIV gp41 and soluble CDN. Further, NP-cdGMP promoted durable antibody titers that were substantially higher than those promoted by the well-studied TLR agonist monophosphoryl lipid A and comparable to a much larger dose of unformulated cdGMP, without the systemic toxicity of the latter. These results demonstrate that nanoparticulate delivery safely targets CDNs to the dLNs and enhances the efficacy of this adjuvant. Moreover, this approach can be broadly applied to other small-molecule immunomodulators of interest for vaccines and immunotherapy.

  11. Nemad olid seal!

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    19. septembril esitles Sass Henno Viru keskuse Rahva Raamatus oma teose "Mina oli siin" kolmandat trükki. Esitlusel osalesid ka näitlejad raamatu alusel valminud uuest Eesti mängufilmist, mis kogus esimesel nädalavahetusel kinodes üle 7000 vaataja

  12. Anneli Remme soovitab : Eesti Muusika Päevad 2005 / Anneli Remme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Remme, Anneli, 1968-

    2005-01-01

    Eesti Muusika Päevadest 2005: 7.-14. apr. Estonia kontserdisaalis, Viru Keskuses, Eesti Teatri- ja Muusikamuuseumis, Rahvusooperis Estonia, Õpetajate majas, Eesti Muusikaakadeemias, vanalinna tänavatel, Kinomajas, Stereo Lounge'is, Kanuti Gildi saalis, Eesti Kunstiakadeemias ja Metodisti kirikus (festivali peaheliloojaks valiti Arvo Pärt, autorikontsert tuleb Eino Tambergilt). Festivali kava: www.helilooja.ee

  13. Raamatupood kuusemetsa ja kadunud salliga / Ell-Maaja Randküla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Randküla, Ell-Maaja, 1939-2016

    2005-01-01

    Raamatukauplus Rahva Raamat Tallinnas Viru Keskuses. Sisekujundus: Margus Tammik ja Hannes Praks, OÜ Kohvi. Ehitaja: AS Merko Ehitus. H. Praksist ja M. Tammikust, nende tähtsamad tööd. Ill.: plaan 12 värv. vaadet

  14. Originaalne foon rõivastele / Ell-Maaja Randküla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Randküla, Ell-Maaja, 1939-2016

    2005-01-01

    Tallinnas Viru Keskuses asuva Bastioni kaupluseketi sisekujundus. Kujundaja: Maile Grünberg, AS Grünberg. Teostus: OÜ Estconde Interior. Ehitaja: AS Merko Ehitus. Maile Grünbergist, tema tähtsamad tööd, autasud ja preemiad. Ill.: 5 värv. vaadet

  15. Sombreerodeta! : Argentina pealinn Eesti keskväljakul / Kristjan Arunurm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Arunurm, Kristjan

    2007-01-01

    Restoranist Buenos Aires Tallinnas Viru väljakul Foorumi keskuses. Sisekujundajad Janno Roos ja Andres Labi (Ruumilabor), nende kommentaarid. Interjööri aktsentideks on ligi pool tuhat suurt puumuna, erilise kujuga toolid jm. 6 värv. vaadet

  16. Sügisene moevaatemäng / Britt Rosen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rosen, Britt, 1968-

    2008-01-01

    FIBITi moepäevad Viru keskuses, korraldaja Anu Kikas. Arne Niidu, Anu Samarüütel-Longi, Tanel Veenre kollektsioonidest. Kalle Aasamäe, Lilli Jahilo, Aet Alevi, Anu Samarüütel-Longi ja Tanel Veenre kommentaarid

  17. FIBIT : k patriotizmu tsherez kubizm i gotiku / Olesja Truvorova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Truvorova, Olesja

    2008-01-01

    Moeshõul "Sinine, Must ja Valge" esitletud Anu Samarüütel-Longi, Tanel Veenre ja Arne Niidu moekollektsioonidest. Etendus toimus moeüritusel Fashion is Back in Tallinn (FIBIT) Viru Keskuses Tallinnas. Lisaks värvilised fotod Stanislav Rõshkevitshilt

  18. Glamuursed ärinaised / Ingrid Kohtla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kohtla, Ingrid

    2005-01-01

    Nõuandeid edukaks karjääriks annavad Viru Keskuse turundusjuht Mari-Liis Kapustin, EAS Turismiarenduskeskuse direktor Maarika Liivamägi, Maybelline New York ja Garnier tootejuht Marju Märtson ning Angel Cafe ja Gay Clubi tegevjuht Maret Soom

  19. Kuldma, Aus, Roosma ja Siska

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    2006. aasta Kuldnõela võitja kuulutatakse välja Tallinnas Viru keskuses 9.03.2007. Kandidaadid Katrin Kuldma kollektsiooniga Chocolate, Reet Aus kaubamärgiga Re Use, Tiiu Roosma pesukollektsiooniga BonBon Lingerie ja Marika Siska kaubamärgiga Sangar

  20. Sügiskaamose puhul tõttavad appi kolmed moepäevad / Mari Rebane

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rebane, Mari

    2007-01-01

    4.10.2007 alanud Tallinna moenädal Tallinn Fashion Week Estonia teatri kammersaalis toob vaatajateni kodumaiste moedisainerite loomingut. Moenädala raames toimub Viru keskuses ka sügisene FIBIT ning Montoni kauplustes Tallinnas ja Tartus antakse tasuta stiilinõuandeid

  1. Estonian annual retail conference / Oksana Kostina

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kostina, Oksana

    2005-01-01

    Eesti jaekaubanduse aastakonverentsil mais 2005 jagati välja aasta kaubandussaavutuste auhinnad. Esimese koha pälvis Eesti suurim kaubanduskeskus Viru Keskus, mida 2004. aastal külastas 7,5 mln inimest ja mille keskmine päevane käive oli 3,3 mln krooni. Teise koha sai Tallinna Kaubamaja ning kolmanda Baltika Grupp

  2. John Smith iz Stuttgarta pereselilsja v Rapla. Sledujushtshaja stantsija - Veneetsia / Ilja Sundelevitsh

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sundelevitsh, Ilja

    2003-01-01

    John Smithi (Marko Mäetamm ja Kaido Ole) näitusest Tallinna Kunstihoones. John Smithi biograafia. Sirje Helme koostatud näitusest "Leidlaps" galeriis 008 (Tallinna Viru keskuses kaupluse Sity Sokos tühjaksjäänud ruumides). Esile tõstetud Jüri Kase töid

  3. Christophe Couderc, Le théâtre tragique au Siècle d’or. Cristóbal de Virués, Lope de Vega, Calderón de la Barca - Christophe Couderc and Hélène Tropé, eds., La tragédie espagnole et son contexte européen. xvie-xviie siècles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Giuliani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Review of Christophe Couderc, Le théâtre tragique au Siècle d’or. Cristóbal de Virués, Lope de Vega, Calderón de la Barca, CNED, Paris, 2012, 170 pp. ISBN: 978213060871 and Christophe Couderc and Hélène Tropé, eds., La tragédie espagnole et son contexte européen. xvie-xviie siècles, Presses Sorbonne Nouvelle, Paris, 2013, 266 pp. ISBN: 9782878546118.

  4. [The influence of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) extracts on the activity of catalase in THP1 monocytes/macrophages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolska, Jolanta; Janda, Katarzyna; Szkyrpan, Sylwia; Gutowska, Izabela

    2015-01-01

    Stinging nettle (Urtica dioicd L.) is one of the most valuable plants used in phytotherapy. The herbal raw material is a herb (Urticae herba), leaves (Urticae folium), roots (Urticae radix) and seeds (Urticae semina). This plant is a good source of vitamins, minerals, fibre, protein and biologically active compounds with antioxidant properties. The literature provides limited information about the chemical composition and properties of the seed heads. No papers are available on the effect of extracts of this plant on catalase activity in human cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) extracts on the antioxidant activity of catalase in THP1 macrophages. Two types of extracts: water and alcohol, at two different concentrations, were used in experiments. Nettle was collected in September and October in 2012 in the area of Szczecin. The collected plant material was frozen and lyophilized. After those procedures water and alcohol extracts of nettle were prepared and then added to THP1 cells. The antioxidant activity of catalase was established with the spectrophotometric method. The study showed that both extracts (water and alcohol) significantly increased the antioxidant activity of catalase in THP1 cells. The increase in catalase was directly proportional to the concentration of the added alcohol extract.

  5. The Mauve Stinger Pelagia noctiluca (Forsskål, 1775. Distribution, Ecology, Toxicity and Epidemiology of Stings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Pane

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The toxicity of Cnidaria is a subject of concern due to its influence on humans. In particular, jellyfish blooms can highly affect human economical activities, such as bathing, fishery, tourism, etc., as well as the public health. Stinging structures of Cnidaria (nematocysts produce remarkable effects on human skin, such as erythema, swelling, burning and vesicles, and at times further severe dermonecrotic, cardio- and neurotoxic effects, which are particularly dangerous in sensitive subjects. In several zones the toxicity of jellyfish is a very important health problem, thus it has stimulated the research on these organisms; to date toxicological research on Cnidarian venoms in the Mediterranean region is not well developed due to the weak poisonousness of venoms of jellyfish and anemones living in this area. In spite of this, during last decades several problems were also caused in the Mediterranean by stinging consequent to Cnidarian blooms mainly caused by Pelagia noctiluca (Forsskål, 1775 which is known to be the most venomous Mediterranean jellyfish. This paper reviews the knowledge on this jellyfish species, particularly considering its occurrence and toxicity.

  6. X-ray structure of human STING with novel cyclic dinucleotides as a tool for discovering new treatments of chronic hepatitis B

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smola, Miroslav; Bouřa, Evžen

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 1 (2017), s. 34 ISSN 2336-7202. [Mezioborové setkání mladých biologů, biochemiků a chemiků /17./. 30.05.2017-01.06.2017, Milovy] Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : hepatitis B * STING activator Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  7. Bit keskus. (Uuendusliku Tehnoloogia Keskus) Inca, Mallorca, Hispaania / Alberto Campo Baeza

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Campo Baeza, Alberto

    1998-01-01

    High-tech büroo kolmnurksel krundil industriaalpargis. Krundi sisemuses suletud alal "salaaed" apelsinipuudega. Seintel ronivad aromaatse lõhnaga taimed: jasmiinid, vistaaria, viinapuud. Konkurss 1995, ehitus 1997-1998. Arhitekt Alberto Campo Baeza (koos: L. Ignacio Aguirre Lopez, Anton Garcia Abril, Antonio Perez Villegas)

  8. Impaired STING Pathway in Human Osteosarcoma U2OS Cells Contributes to the Growth of ICP0-Null Mutant Herpes Simplex Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschamps, Thibaut; Kalamvoki, Maria

    2017-05-01

    Human herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is a widespread pathogen, with 80% of the population being latently infected. To successfully evade the host, the virus has evolved strategies to counteract antiviral responses, including the gene-silencing and innate immunity machineries. The immediately early protein of the virus, infected cell protein 0 (ICP0), plays a central role in these processes. ICP0 blocks innate immunity, and one mechanism is by degrading hostile factors with its intrinsic E3 ligase activity. ICP0 also functions as a promiscuous transactivator, and it blocks repressor complexes to enable viral gene transcription. For these reasons, the growth of a ΔICP0 virus is impaired in most cells, except cells of the human osteosarcoma cell line U2OS, and it is only partially impaired in cells of the human osteosarcoma cell line Saos-2. We found that the two human osteosarcoma cell lines that supported the growth of the ΔICP0 virus failed to activate innate immune responses upon treatment with 2'3'-cyclic GAMP (2'3'-cGAMP), the natural agonist of STING (i.e., stimulator of interferon genes) or after infection with the ΔICP0 mutant virus. Innate immune responses were restored in these cells by transient expression of the STING protein but not after overexpression of interferon-inducible protein 16 (IFI16). Restoration of STING expression resulted in suppression of ΔICP0 virus gene expression and a decrease in viral yields. Overexpression of IFI16 also suppressed ΔICP0 virus gene expression, albeit to a lesser extent than STING. These data suggest that the susceptibility of U2OS and Saos-2 cells to the ΔICP0 HSV-1 is in part due to an impaired STING pathway. IMPORTANCE The DNA sensor STING plays pivotal role in controlling HSV-1 infection both in cell culture and in mice. The HSV-1 genome encodes numerous proteins that are dedicated to combat host antiviral responses. The immediate early protein of the virus ICP0 plays major role in this process as it targets

  9. The use of new facility by means internal balance with sting support for wide range Angle of Attack aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subagyo; Daryanto, Yanto; Risnawan, Novan

    2018-04-01

    The development of facilities for the testing of wide range angle of attack aircraft in the wind tunnel at subsonic regime has done and implemented. Development required to meet the test at an angle of attack from -20 ° to 40 °. Testing the wide range angle of attack aircraft with a wide variation of the angle of attack become important needs. This can be done simply by using the sting support-equipped by internal balance to measure the forces and moments component aerodynamics. The results of development and use on the wide range angle of attack aircraft testing are aerodynamics characteristics in the form of the coefficient three components forces and the three components of the moment. A series of test aircraft was successfully carried out and the results are shown in the form of graphs of characteristic of aerodynamics at wind speed 70 m/s.

  10. Urtica dioica (Stinging Nettle): A Neglected Plant With Emerging Growth Promoter/Immunostimulant Properties for Farmed Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vico, Gionata; Guida, Vincenzo; Carella, Francesca

    2018-01-01

    Urtica dioica (stinging nettle), is a perennial plant belonging to the family of Urticaceae , genus Urtica . Despite the use of nettle in folk veterinary medicine is well documented, U. dioica is today an underestimated and frequently neglected plant, considered by the contemporary agriculture as a weed to be eliminated. This mini review focus on very recent studies on dietary administration of U. dioica , both as a single herb or in combination with other herbs, to enhance growth and stimulate farmed fish immunity, thus enabling the fish to be more resistant against bacterial infections. Such an emerging feature, together with cost-effectiveness, adequate availability, and easy processing of nettle, could make this herb an excellent, inexpensive and widely used dietary supplement on intensive fish farms.

  11. Urtica dioica (Stinging Nettle): A Neglected Plant With Emerging Growth Promoter/Immunostimulant Properties for Farmed Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vico, Gionata; Guida, Vincenzo; Carella, Francesca

    2018-01-01

    Urtica dioica (stinging nettle), is a perennial plant belonging to the family of Urticaceae, genus Urtica. Despite the use of nettle in folk veterinary medicine is well documented, U. dioica is today an underestimated and frequently neglected plant, considered by the contemporary agriculture as a weed to be eliminated. This mini review focus on very recent studies on dietary administration of U. dioica, both as a single herb or in combination with other herbs, to enhance growth and stimulate farmed fish immunity, thus enabling the fish to be more resistant against bacterial infections. Such an emerging feature, together with cost-effectiveness, adequate availability, and easy processing of nettle, could make this herb an excellent, inexpensive and widely used dietary supplement on intensive fish farms. PMID:29632497

  12. An abundant 'Candidatus Phytoplasma solani' tuf b strain is associated with grapevine, stinging nettle and Hyalesthes obsoletus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryan, A; Brader, G; Mörtel, J; Pastar, M; Riedle-Bauer, M

    2014-10-01

    Bois noir (BN) associated with ' Candidatus Phytoplasma solani' (Stolbur) is regularly found in Austrian vine growing regions. Investigations between 2003 and 2008 indicated sporadic presence of the confirmed disease vector Hyalesthes obsoletus and frequent infections of bindweed and grapevine. Infections of nettles were rare. In contrast present investigations revealed a mass occurrence of H. obsoletus almost exclusively on stinging nettle. The high population densities of H. obsoletus on Urtica dioica were accompanied by frequent occurrence of ' Ca. P. solani' in nettles and planthoppers. Sequence analysis of the molecular markers secY, stamp, tuf and vmp1 of stolbur revealed a single genotype named CPsM4_At1 in stinging nettles and more than 64 and 90 % abundance in grapevine and H. obsoletus , respectively. Interestingly, this genotype showed tuf b type restriction pattern previously attributed to bindweed associated ' Ca. P. solani' strains, but a different sequence assigned as tuf b2 compared to reference tuf b strains. All other marker genes of CPsM4_At1 clustered with tuf a and nettle derived genotypes verifying distinct nettle phytoplasma genotypes. Transmission experiments with H. obsoletus and Anaceratagallia ribauti resulted in successful transmission of five different strains including the major genotype to Catharanthus roseus and in transmission of the major genotype to U. dioica . Altogether, five nettle and nine bindweed associated genotypes were described. Bindweed types were verified in 34 % of grapevine samples, in few positive Reptalus panzeri , rarely in bindweeds and occasionally in Catharanthus roseus infected by H. obsoletus or A. ribauti . ' Candidatus Phytoplasma convolvuli' (bindweed yellows) was ascertained in nettle and bindweed samples.

  13. CD11c-targeted Delivery of DNA to Dendritic Cells Leads to cGAS- and STING-dependent Maturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Marlene F.; Christensen, Esben; Degn, Laura L.T.

    2018-01-01

    monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDC) and human monocytic THP-1 cells to targeted and untargeted DNA. We used an anti-CD11c antibody conjugated with double-stranded DNA to analyze the maturation status of human moDCs, as well as maturation using a cGAS KO and STING KO THP-1 cell maturation model. We...... with boosting the existing tumor-specific T-cell response. One way to achieve this could be by increasing the level of maturation of dendritic cells locally and in the draining lymph nodes. When exposed to cancer cells, dendritic cells may spontaneously mature because of dangerassociated molecular patterns...... derived from the tumor cells. Doublestranded DNA play a particularly important role in the activation of the dendritic cells, through engagement of intracellular DNAsensors, and signaling through the adaptor protein STING. In the present study, we have investigated the maturational response of human...

  14. Epidemiological and spatial analysis of scorpion stings in two regions of Morocco: Marrakesh-Tensift-Al Haouz and Souss-Massa-Draa

    OpenAIRE

    Moulay Abdelmonaim El Hidan; Oulaid Touloun; Rhizlane El Oufir; Ali Boumezzough

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To describe and compare the epidemiological features of scorpionism during six years (2005–2010) in two regions of Morocco: Marrakesh-Tensift-Al Haouz and Souss-MassaDraa. Methods: Clinical and epidemiological data were obtained from medical records of the Moroccan Poison Control Center during 2005–2010. The data comprised demographics, sting characteristics and clinical severity classes. Digital maps were produced for envenomation and death incidence with the distri...

  15. Modified vaccinia virus Ankara triggers type I IFN production in murine conventional dendritic cells via a cGAS/STING-mediated cytosolic DNA-sensing pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peihong Dai

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA is an attenuated poxvirus that has been engineered as a vaccine against infectious agents and cancers. Our goal is to understand how MVA modulates innate immunity in dendritic cells (DCs, which can provide insights to vaccine design. In this study, using murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells, we assessed type I interferon (IFN gene induction and protein secretion in response to MVA infection. We report that MVA infection elicits the production of type I IFN in murine conventional dendritic cells (cDCs, but not in plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs. Transcription factors IRF3 (IFN regulatory factor 3 and IRF7, and the positive feedback loop mediated by IFNAR1 (IFN alpha/beta receptor 1, are required for the induction. MVA induction of type I IFN is fully dependent on STING (stimulator of IFN genes and the newly discovered cytosolic DNA sensor cGAS (cyclic guanosine monophosphate-adenosine monophosphate synthase. MVA infection of cDCs triggers phosphorylation of TBK1 (Tank-binding kinase 1 and IRF3, which is abolished in the absence of cGAS and STING. Furthermore, intravenous delivery of MVA induces type I IFN in wild-type mice, but not in mice lacking STING or IRF3. Treatment of cDCs with inhibitors of endosomal and lysosomal acidification or the lysosomal enzyme Cathepsin B attenuated MVA-induced type I IFN production, indicating that lysosomal enzymatic processing of virions is important for MVA sensing. Taken together, our results demonstrate a critical role of the cGAS/STING-mediated cytosolic DNA-sensing pathway for type I IFN induction in cDCs by MVA. We present evidence that vaccinia virulence factors E3 and N1 inhibit the activation of IRF3 and the induction of IFNB gene in MVA-infected cDCs.

  16. Lipophilic stinging nettle extracts possess potent anti-inflammatory activity, are not cytotoxic and may be superior to traditional tinctures for treating inflammatory disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tyler A; Sohn, Johann; Inman, Wayne D; Bjeldanes, Leonard F; Rayburn, Keith

    2013-01-15

    Extracts of four plant portions (roots, stems, leaves and flowers) of Urtica dioica (the stinging nettle) were prepared using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) involving water, hexanes, methanol and dichloromethane. The extracts were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities in an NF-κB luciferase and MTT assay using macrophage immune (RAW264.7) cells. A standardized commercial ethanol extract of nettle leaves was also evaluated. The methanolic extract of the flowering portions displayed significant anti-inflammatory activity on par with a standard compound celastrol (1) but were moderately cytotoxic. Alternatively, the polar extracts (water, methanol, ethanol) of the roots, stems and leaves displayed moderate to weak anti-inflammatory activity, while the methanol and especially the water soluble extracts exhibited noticeable cytotoxicity. In contrast, the lipophilic dichloromethane extracts of the roots, stems and leaves exhibited potent anti-inflammatory effects greater than or equal to 1 with minimal cytotoxicity to RAW264.7 cells. Collectively these results suggest that using lipophilic extracts of stinging nettle may be more effective than traditional tinctures (water, methanol, ethanol) in clinical evaluations for the treatment of inflammatory disorders especially arthritis. A chemical investigation into the lipophilic extracts of stinging nettle to identify the bioactive compound(s) responsible for their observed anti-inflammatory activity is further warranted. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  17. Effects of stinging nettle root extracts and their steroidal components on the Na+,K(+)-ATPase of the benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, T; Homma, M; Oka, K

    1994-02-01

    The effects of organic-solvent extracts of Urtica dioica (Urticaceae) on the Na+,K(+)-ATPase of the tissue of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) were investigated. The membrane Na+,K(+)-ATPase fraction was prepared from a patient with BPH by a differential centrifugation of the tissue homogenate. The enzyme activity was inhibited by 10(-4)-10(-5) M of ouabain. The hexane extract, the ether extract, the ethyl acetate extract, and the butanol extract of the roots caused 27.6-81.5% inhibition of the enzyme activity at 0.1 mg/ml. In addition, a column extraction of stinging nettle roots using benzene as an eluent afforded efficient enzyme inhibiting activity. Steroidal components in stinging nettle roots, such as stigmast-4-en-3-one, stigmasterol, and campesterol inhibited the enzyme activity by 23.0-67.0% at concentrations ranging from 10(-3)-10(-6) M. These results suggest that some hydrophobic constituents such as steroids in the stinging nettle roots inhibited the membrane Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity of the prostate, which may subsequently suppress prostate-cell metabolism and growth.

  18. TRIM30α Is a Negative-Feedback Regulator of the Intracellular DNA and DNA Virus-Triggered Response by Targeting STING.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanming Wang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Uncontrolled immune responses to intracellular DNA have been shown to induce autoimmune diseases. Homeostasis regulation of immune responses to cytosolic DNA is critical for limiting the risk of autoimmunity and survival of the host. Here, we report that the E3 ubiquitin ligase tripartite motif protein 30α (TRIM30α was induced by herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 infection in dendritic cells (DCs. Knockdown or genetic ablation of TRIM30α augmented the type I IFNs and interleukin-6 response to intracellular DNA and DNA viruses. Trim30α-deficient mice were more resistant to infection by DNA viruses. Biochemical analyses showed that TRIM30α interacted with the stimulator of interferon genes (STING, which is a critical regulator of the DNA-sensing response. Overexpression of TRIM30α promoted the degradation of STING via K48-linked ubiquitination at Lys275 through a proteasome-dependent pathway. These findings indicate that E3 ligase TRIM30α is an important negative-feedback regulator of innate immune responses to DNA viruses by targeting STING.

  19. Lipophilic stinging nettle extracts possess potent anti-inflammatory activity, are not cytotoxic and may be superior to traditional tinctures for treating inflammatory disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tyler A.; Sohn, Johann; Inman, Wayne D.; Bjeldanes, Leonard F.; Rayburn, Keith

    2012-01-01

    Extracts of four plant portions (roots, stems, leaves and flowers) of Urtica dioica, (the stinging nettle) were prepared using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) involving water, hexanes, methanol and dichloromethane. The extracts were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activity in an NF-κB luciferase and MTT assay using macrophage immune (RAW264.7) cells. A standardized commercial ethanol extract of nettle leaves were also evaluated. The methanolic extract of the flowering portions displayed significant anti-inflammatory activity on par with the standard anti-inflammatory agent celastrol (1) but was moderately cytotoxic. Alternatively, the polar extracts (water, methanol, ethanol) of the roots, stems and leaves plant portions displayed moderate to weak anti-inflammatory activity, while the methanol and especially the water soluble extracts exhibited noticeable cytotoxicity. In contrast, the lipophilic dichloromethane extracts of the roots, stems and leaves exhibited potent anti-inflammatory effects ≥ 1 with minimal cytotoxicity to RAW264.7 cells. Collectively these results suggest that using lipophilic extracts of the roots, stems or leaves of stinging nettle may be more effective then traditional tinctures (water, methanol, ethanol) to undergo clinical evaluations for the treatment of inflammatory disorders including arthritis. A chemical investigation into the lipophillic extracts of stinging nettle to identify the bioactive compound(s) responsible for their observed anti-inflammatory activity is further warranted. PMID:23092723

  20. First successful case of in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer with venom immunotherapy for hymenoptera sting allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tucker Michael J

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To describe immune and endocrine responses in severe hymenoptera hypersensitivity requiring venom immunotherapy (VIT during in vitro fertilization (IVF. Case presentation A 39-year old patient was referred for history of multiple miscarriage and a history of insect sting allergy. Four years earlier, she began subcutaneous injection of 100 mcg mixed vespid hymenoptera venom/venom protein every 5–6 weeks. The patient had one livebirth and three first trimester miscarriages. Allergy treatment was maintained for all pregnancies ending in miscarriage, although allergy therapy was discontinued for the pregnancy that resulted in delivery. At our institution ovulation induction incorporated venom immunotherapy (VIT during IVF, with a reduced VIT dose when pregnancy was first identified. Serum IgE was monitored with estradiol during ovulation induction and early pregnancy. Response to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation was favorable while VIT was continued, with retrieval of 12 oocytes. Serum RAST (yellow jacket IgE levels fluctuated in a nonlinear fashion (range 36–54% during gonadotropin therapy and declined after hCG administration. A healthy female infant was delivered at 35 weeks gestation. The patient experienced no untoward effects from any medications during therapy. Conclusion Our case confirms the safety of VIT in pregnancy, and demonstrates RAST IgE can remain

  1. Effect of soybean diet: Growth and conversion efficiencies of fingerling of stinging cat fish, Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzzammil Iqbal Siddiqui

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Replacement of 15% protein from soybean meal in Diet II was feasible for the stinging cat fish, Heteropneustes fossilis and no significant differences in growth parameters were found in fish fed soybean meal-based diets compared to those fed control diet (Diet I. Live weight gain percent (165% obtained in fish fed soybean meal based diet was not significantly different to that achieved (171% in fish fed Diet I. Specific growth rate percent, SGR (2.79%, feed conversion ratio FCR (1.40 and protein efficiency ratio PER (1.79 recorded in fish fed Diet II were also more less comparable to those fed control diet. Mortality was not recorded in the period of the feeding trial. Body composition of the fish fed soybean meal based diet (Diet II was also comparable to that fed control diet. Significantly higher fat content was noted in fish fed Diet II. However, the protein contents were not changed in fish fed Diet I and II. Similarly, no significant differences (P > 0.05 in protein productive value were noted between the two groups. However, ash content differed significantly (P < 0.05 in fish fed Diet I and II. Although soybean meal-based diet depressed growth and feed conversion efficiencies of the fish to some extent, inclusion of soybean meal was found to be cost-effective alternative to fish meal.

  2. STING Millennium: a web-based suite of programs for comprehensive and simultaneous analysis of protein structure and sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neshich, Goran; Togawa, Roberto C.; Mancini, Adauto L.; Kuser, Paula R.; Yamagishi, Michel E. B.; Pappas, Georgios; Torres, Wellington V.; Campos, Tharsis Fonseca e; Ferreira, Leonardo L.; Luna, Fabio M.; Oliveira, Adilton G.; Miura, Ronald T.; Inoue, Marcus K.; Horita, Luiz G.; de Souza, Dimas F.; Dominiquini, Fabiana; Álvaro, Alexandre; Lima, Cleber S.; Ogawa, Fabio O.; Gomes, Gabriel B.; Palandrani, Juliana F.; dos Santos, Gabriela F.; de Freitas, Esther M.; Mattiuz, Amanda R.; Costa, Ivan C.; de Almeida, Celso L.; Souza, Savio; Baudet, Christian; Higa, Roberto H.

    2003-01-01

    STING Millennium Suite (SMS) is a new web-based suite of programs and databases providing visualization and a complex analysis of molecular sequence and structure for the data deposited at the Protein Data Bank (PDB). SMS operates with a collection of both publicly available data (PDB, HSSP, Prosite) and its own data (contacts, interface contacts, surface accessibility). Biologists find SMS useful because it provides a variety of algorithms and validated data, wrapped-up in a user friendly web interface. Using SMS it is now possible to analyze sequence to structure relationships, the quality of the structure, nature and volume of atomic contacts of intra and inter chain type, relative conservation of amino acids at the specific sequence position based on multiple sequence alignment, indications of folding essential residue (FER) based on the relationship of the residue conservation to the intra-chain contacts and Cα–Cα and Cβ–Cβ distance geometry. Specific emphasis in SMS is given to interface forming residues (IFR)—amino acids that define the interactive portion of the protein surfaces. SMS may simultaneously display and analyze previously superimposed structures. PDB updates trigger SMS updates in a synchronized fashion. SMS is freely accessible for public data at http://www.cbi.cnptia.embrapa.br, http://mirrors.rcsb.org/SMS and http://trantor.bioc.columbia.edu/SMS. PMID:12824333

  3. Partial venom gland transcriptome of a Drosophila parasitoid wasp, Leptopilina heterotoma, reveals novel and shared bioactive profiles with stinging Hymenoptera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heavner, Mary E.; Gueguen, Gwenaelle; Rajwani, Roma; Pagan, Pedro E.; Small, Chiyedza; Govind, Shubha

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of natural host-parasite relationships reveals the evolutionary forces that shape the delicate and unique specificity characteristic of such interactions. The accessory long gland-reservoir complex of the wasp Leptopilina heterotoma (Figitidae) produces venom with virus-like particles. Upon delivery, venom components delay host larval development and completely block host immune responses. The host range of this Drosophila endoparasitoid notably includes the highly-studied model organism, Drosophila melanogaster. Categorization of 827 unigenes, using similarity as an indicator of putative homology, reveals that approximately 25% are novel or classified as hypothetical proteins. Most of the remaining unigenes are related to processes involved in signaling, cell cycle, and cell physiology including detoxification, protein biogenesis, and hormone production. Analysis of L. heterotoma’s predicted venom gland proteins demonstrates conservation among endo- and ectoparasitoids within the Apocrita (e.g., this wasp and the jewel wasp Nasonia vitripennis) and stinging aculeates (e.g., the honey bee and ants). Enzyme and KEGG pathway profiling predicts that kinases, esterases, and hydrolases may contribute to venom activity in this unique wasp. To our knowledge, this investigation marks the first functional genomic study for a natural parasitic wasp of Drosophila. Our findings will help explain how L. heterotoma shuts down its hosts’ immunity and shed light on the molecular basis of a natural arms race between these insects. PMID:23688557

  4. Ethanol-induced effects on sting extension response and punishment learning in the western honey bee (Apis mellifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel A Giannoni-Guzmán

    Full Text Available Acute ethanol administration is associated with sedation and analgesia as well as behavioral disinhibition and memory loss but the mechanisms underlying these effects remain to be elucidated. During the past decade, insects have emerged as important model systems to understand the neural and genetic bases of alcohol effects. However, novel assays to assess ethanol's effects on complex behaviors in social or isolated contexts are necessary. Here we used the honey bee as an especially relevant model system since bees are typically exposed to ethanol in nature when collecting standing nectar crop of flowers, and there is recent evidence for independent biological significance of this exposure for social behavior. Bee's inhibitory control of the sting extension response (SER and a conditioned-place aversion assay were used to study ethanol effects on analgesia, behavioral disinhibition, and associative learning. Our findings indicate that although ethanol, in a dose-dependent manner, increases SER thresholds (analgesic effects, it disrupts the ability of honey bees to inhibit SER and to associate aversive stimuli with their environment. These results suggest that ethanol's effects on analgesia, behavioral disinhibition and associative learning are common across vertebrates and invertebrates. These results add to the use of honey bees as an ethanol model to understand ethanol's effects on complex, socially relevant behaviors.

  5. Immunological responses and disease resistance of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) juveniles following dietary administration of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeidi Asl, Mohammad Reza; Adel, Milad; Caipang, Christopher Marlowe A; Dawood, Mahmoud A O

    2017-12-01

    The present study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) on growth performance, skin mucus, immune response and disease resistance of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed with diets supplemented with U. dioica at 0, 1, 2 and 3%. After 8 weeks of feeding, the addition of U. dioica at 3% level resulted in improved weight gain, specific growth rate and feed conversion ratio significantly when compared to the other groups (P nettle when measured after 4 weeks; while, total red blood cells, white blood, Htc, Hb, lymphocyte and neutrophil populations significantly increased after 8 weeks in the same group (P nettle at 3% when compared to the other groups after 8 weeks; however, triglycerides decreased significantly in the same group on the 4th and 8th week (P nettle supplementation exhibited improved antagonistic activities against several bacterial pathogens (Streptococcus iniae, Yersinia ruckeri, Vibrio anguillarum and Lactococcus garviae), skin mucus enzymes activities (alkaline phosphatase, lysozyme, protease and esterase) and protein levels in 2 and 3% groups with the highest being in case of 3% group when compared to the other groups (P nettle. The present findings demonstrated that dietary administration of U. dioica enhanced growth and stimulated fish immunity; thus, enabling the fish to be more resistant against bacterial infections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The split-sting trait in Apis mellifera induced by cobalt 60 gamma radiation; Inducao do carater ferrao aberto em abelhas Apis mellifera por irradiacao gama de cobalto-60

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Vera Lucia Maciel

    1993-12-31

    The Split-Sting (SS) trait in honey bees, induced by gamma radiation, was discovered by Soares (1975). Bees with this trait are unable to sting, because the parts that compose the sting are separated. Many studies have been done in order to understand this new mutation. We studied the effect of gamma radiation on induction of the SS trait in feral bee strains. The doses were applied to the phase of larvae of queens with 5 days old. The following results were obtained: all doses of radiation induced the SS trait. There was an increase in the percentage of queens with SS with an increase in radiation dose; the SS trait induced by radiation is probably phenocopy; SS bees were observed in nature; increase of the rate mortality and malformation with an increase in radiation dose. (author) 55 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. The split-sting trait in Apis mellifera induced by cobalt 60 gamma radiation; Inducao do carater ferrao aberto em abelhas Apis mellifera por irradiacao gama de cobalto-60

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Vera Lucia Maciel

    1994-12-31

    The Split-Sting (SS) trait in honey bees, induced by gamma radiation, was discovered by Soares (1975). Bees with this trait are unable to sting, because the parts that compose the sting are separated. Many studies have been done in order to understand this new mutation. We studied the effect of gamma radiation on induction of the SS trait in feral bee strains. The doses were applied to the phase of larvae of queens with 5 days old. The following results were obtained: all doses of radiation induced the SS trait. There was an increase in the percentage of queens with SS with an increase in radiation dose; the SS trait induced by radiation is probably phenocopy; SS bees were observed in nature; increase of the rate mortality and malformation with an increase in radiation dose. (author) 55 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. The use of concentrated heat after insect bites/stings as an alternative to reduce swelling, pain, and pruritus: an open cohort-study at German beaches and bathing-lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller C

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Christian Müller1,*, Beatrice Großjohann1,*, Lutz Fischer2,*1Department of Medical Science and Operations, RIEMSER Arzneimittel AG, An der Wiek 7, 17489 Greifswald, 2Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Medicine, University Greifswald, Friedrich-Loeffler-Straße 23b, 17493 Greifswald, Germany *These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Swelling, pain, and pruritus are the most relevant symptoms after insect bites/stings. Glucocorticoids and antihistamines are well established in insect sting treatment. Bite Away® is a CE-certified medical device of class 2A (noninvasive device intended for administration to the body, which exchanges energy with the patient in a therapeutic manner to reduce swelling, pruritus, and pain after insect bites/stings via non-invasive administration of concentrated heat to the skin. We therefore performed a prospective, non-interventional, single-arm cohort study with 146 volunteers using the visual analog scale (VAS for insect bites/stings to study the reduction of swelling, pruritus, and pain. Demographic data, time from insect sting to treatment, number and duration of administrations of concentrated heat, relevant symptoms, and the development of a VAS score of swelling, pruritus, and pain on baseline, after 2, 5, and 10 minutes after administration, were registered.Results: In total 146 subjects with a mean age of 29.4 ± 20.7 years (range 2–81 were enrolled in the study. Ninety-three (63.7% of the subjects were stung by wasps, 33 (22.6% of the subjects were bitten by mosquitoes, and eight suffered bee stings (5.3%. VAS score swelling decreased with statistical significance after the use of Bite Away® from 4 before treatment to 2 and 1 after 2–5 and 10 minutes, respectively. VAS pain score was 6 before treatment, 2 after 2 minutes, 1 after 5 minutes, and 0 after 10 minutes (median. VAS pruritus score was only available for 52 (35.2% of the patients. The score decreased from 5 before

  9. Does stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) have an effect on bone formation in the expanded inter-premaxillary suture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irgin, Celal; Çörekçi, Bayram; Ozan, Fatih; Halicioğlu, Koray; Toptaş, Orçun; Birinci Yildirim, Arzu; Türker, Arzu; Yilmaz, Fahri

    2016-09-01

    To determine whether systemically given stinging nettle (SN) has an effect on bone formation in response to expansion of the rat inter-premaxillary suture. A total of 28 male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into 4 equal groups: control (C), only expansion (OE), SN extract given only during the expansion and retention periods (SN group; a total of 17days), and SN extract given during the nursery phase before expansion (a period of 40days) and during the expansion and retention periods (N+SN group; a total of 57days). After the 5-day expansion period was completed, the rats in the OE, SN, and N+SN groups underwent 12days of mechanical retention, after which they were sacrificed, and their premaxilla were dissected and fixed. A histologic evaluation was done to determine the number of osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and capillaries, as well as the number and intensity of inflammatory cells and new bone formation. Statistically significant differences were found between the groups in all histologic parameters except the ratio of intensities of inflammatory cells. New bone formation and the number of capillaries were significantly higher in the SN groups than in the other groups. The statistical analysis also showed that the numbers of osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and capillaries were highest in the N+SN group. Systemic administration of SN may be effective in accelerating new bone formation and reducing inflammation in the maxillary expansion procedure. It may also be beneficial in preventing relapse after the expansion procedure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Deficiency of the AIM2-ASC Signal Uncovers the STING-Driven Overreactive Response of Type I IFN and Reciprocal Depression of Protective IFN-γ Immunity in Mycobacterial Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shanshan; Shen, Hongbo; Lian, Qiaoshi; Jin, Wenlong; Zhang, Ronghua; Lin, Xuan; Gu, Wangpeng; Sun, Xiaoyu; Meng, Guangxun; Tian, Zhigang; Chen, Zheng W; Sun, Bing

    2018-02-01

    The nucleic acids of Mycobacterium tuberculosis can be detected by intracellular DNA sensors, such as cyclic GMP-AMP synthase and absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2), which results in the release of type I IFN and the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β. However, whether cross-talk occurs between AIM2-IL-1β and cyclic GMP-AMP synthase-type I IFN signaling upon M. tuberculosis infection in vivo is unclear. In this article, we demonstrate that mycobacterial infection of AIM2 -/- mice reciprocally induces overreactive IFN-β and depressive IFN-γ responses, leading to higher infection burdens and more severe pathology. We also describe the underlying mechanism whereby activated apoptosis-associated speck-like protein interacts with a key adaptor, known as stimulator of IFN genes (STING), and inhibits the interaction between STING and downstream TANK-binding kinase 1 in bone marrow-derived macrophages and bone marrow-derived dendritic cells, consequently reducing the induction of type I IFN. Of note, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein expression is inversely correlated with IFN-β levels in PBMCs from tuberculosis patients. These data demonstrate that the AIM2-IL-1β signaling pathway negatively regulates the STING-type I IFN signaling pathway by impeding the association between STING and TANK-binding kinase 1, which protects the host from M. tuberculosis infection. This finding has potential clinical significance. Copyright © 2018 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  11. Modeling the accumulation of As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in grasses (Agrotis sp. and Poa sp. and stinging nettle (Urtica dioica on selected sites taking into account soil physico-chemical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boshoff M.C.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of soil properties on the accumulation of metals in two vegetation types was evaluated at 10 sites with a wide variation in soil physicochemical properties pH, organic carbon, clay percentage , total soil metal concentration and exchangeable soil metal content. Accumulation modeling was conducted for grasses (Agrostis sp. and Poa sp. and stinging nettle (Urtica dioica.

  12. Modeling the accumulation of As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in grasses (Agrotis sp. and Poa sp. and stinging nettle (Urtica dioica on selected sites taking into account soil physico-chemical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boshoff M. C.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of soil properties on the accumulation of metals in two vegetation types was evaluated at 10 sites with a wide variation in soil physicochemical properties pH, organic carbon, clay percentage , total soil metal concentration and exchangeable soil metal content. Accumulation modeling was conducted for grasses (Agrostis sp. and Poa sp. and stinging nettle (Urtica dioica.

  13. Kaks Jeanne d'Arci ja Nosferatu / Sirje Normet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Normet, Sirje

    2006-01-01

    IX Pimedate Ööde Filmifestival. Lähemalt kontsert-filmiseansist Tallinnas, kus Theodor Dreyeri tummfilmi "Jeanne d'Arci kannatused" (Prantsusmaa 1928) saatis prantsuse muusik Hector Zazou; Dzhanik Faizijevi mängufilmist "Türgi gambiit" (Venemaa 2005); Friedrich Wilhelm Murnau õudusfilmist "Nosferatu - õuduste sümfoonia" (Saksamaa 1922), mida näidati 1. dets. Viru Keskuses ja mille taustaks mängis ansambel Kriminaalne Elevant

  14. Uued filmid: õiglus, õilsus ja maagiline kiiker / Kaarel Kressa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kressa, Kaarel, 1983-

    2011-01-01

    Viru keskuse Katusekinos esilinastub 30. juunil Jaak Kilmi ja Kiur Aarma "Mattise martüürium". Lõppesid Eesti-Soome koostööptojekti "Rat King" võtted. Lõpevad Eesti-Läti-Valgevene ühistöö, "Peeter Simmi "Üksiku saare" võtted. Sellel aastal peaksid algama Ain Mäeotsa filmi "Deemonid", Kadri Kõusaare filmi "Euroopa psühho", Hardi Volmeri filmi "Remont" ja Kanadas Tanel Toomi filmi "Black Ice" võtted

  15. Rock'n'roll'i hotellipidaja / Ants Johanson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Johanson, Ants, 1962-

    2008-01-01

    Ansamblist Rock Hotel (ansambli 30. sünnipäeva tähistamise juubelikontsertdid toimuvad 14. okt. Pärnu Endla teatris, 15. okt. Rakvere Teatris, 16. okt. Viljandi Pärimusmuusika Aidas, 17. okt. Paide kultuurikeskuses, 18. okt. Võru kultuurimajas Kannel, 19. okt. Vanemuise väikeses majas ja 20. okt. Vene Teatris, 9. okt. toimub Tallinnas Viru Keskuse kaupluses Rahva Raamat mälestusteraamatu "Aeg meid muutnud on? - Rock-Hotel 30" esitlus)

  16. Elektroonilise kunsti sümpoosion

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    ISEA 2004 Tallinna näitused avatakse 17. VIII Rotermanni soolalaos, Tallinna Kunstihoones, Ku galeriis, Tallinna Linnagaleriis, Eesti Tarbekunsti- ja Disainimuuseumis, Elioni majas, Viru Keskuses, Eesti Kunstiakadeemias, Bon-Boni ööklubis, Multikultuurimajas. Loetletud osalejaid, toimuvad klubiõhtud, moedemonstratsioon, töötoad. 17. ja 18. VIII kinos "Kosmos" ja EKA-s toimuval konverentsil esinejaid. Programmi koordinaator Mare Tralla

  17. Perekond on kolmes kohas / Ave Randviir

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Randviir, Ave, 1981-

    2006-01-01

    Tallinn Pride 2006 kultuurinädala raames Viru keskuses samasooliste paaride suhteid kujutav maalinäitus "Meie oleme perekond". Esinevad Tiina Tammetalu, Lilian Mosolainen ja Pille Neeve. Samanimeline näitus Cafe Angel'is Chintis Lundgreni ja Heikki-Erich Merila töödest ning kinos Sõprus kunstnike ühenduse Infotankistid (Anu Vahtra, Reimo Võsa-Tangsoo, Katrin Tees, Maris Mändel, Taavi Suits, Sulo Kallas, Piret Räni) fotonäitus

  18. Maestro audients / Jaanus Hämarsoo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hämarsoo, Jaanus

    2008-01-01

    President Arnold Rüütel Ivo Parbuse raamatu "Eri Klas. Kultuuri suursaadik" esitlusel Viru keskuses. Fotode allkirjad: Ühte kaadrisse on jäänud Arnold Rüütel ning tema kunagine kolleeg Toompealt, praegune kinnisvarahai Indrek Toome; Klasi pühenduse ja pookstaavid sai raamatusse ka Rüütel, kelle järel oli au astuda maestro laua ette Kinnisvaradefirmade Liidu tegevdirektoril Tõnis Rüütlil

  19. Homme kell 18 avatakse Villa Manini kaasaja kunsti keskuses...

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Uue Euroopa foto- ja videokunstinäitus "Instant Europe", kus on väljas kümne hiljaaegu Euroopa Liitu astunud riigi - Küpros, Eesti, Läti, Leedu, Malta, Poola, Tšehhi, Slovakkia, Sloveenia, Ungari - kunstnike tööd. Kuraatorid Francesco Bonami ja Sarah Cosulich Canarutto. Eestit esindavad Jaan Toomik, Kai Kaljo, Ene-Liis Semper ja Liina Siib

  20. Kaasaegse Kunsti Eesti Keskus kuulutab välja...

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Veneetsia 53. rahvusvahelise kunstibiennaali Eesti ekspositsiooni konkurss. Eesti näituse asukoht Veneetsias 2009. a. on Palazzo Malipiero (II korrus), S. Marco 3079. Projektide esitamise tähtaeg 2008. a. 31 juuli kell 12

  1. 7. X avati Viljandis Kondase keskuses litograafianäitus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Eesti Litograafiakeskuse korraldatud näitusel tutvustatakse litograafiatehnikat ja selle ajaloolist arengut. Väljas on Pärnus 5.-25. IX Eesti I litograafiasümpoosioni raames toimunud näitustel "Old Stars" ja "Young Generation" eksponeeritud eesti graafikute litotehnikas teosed ning näituse koostajate Jaak Visnapi ja Kadri Alesmaa looming

  2. Tartu Waldorf-keskus : arhitektuurne ideekonkurss / Mikk Pärdi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pärdi, Mikk

    2013-01-01

    Arhitektuurivõistluse eesmärgiks oli leida terviklik lahendus Tartu Waldorf-keskusele: lasteaed, 12-klassiline kool ja sotsiaalkeskus. Rudolf Steinerist ja lühidalt Waldorf-pedagoogikast. Waldorf-koolide arhitektuurist. Võistlustöödest, I preemia pälvinud tööst "Birch" (Joachim Zimmer, Imme Denker, Saksamaa)

  3. Uued näitused Pärnus Chaplini keskuses

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1998-01-01

    11. jaan. - 26. veebr. Erika Pedaku isiknäitus "Protsess", eksponeeritud Kyoto V rahvusvahelisel tekstiilivõistlusel Excellence Awardiga pärjatud vaip "Roheline" ja viis uuemat tööd ning ajalooline läbilõige eesti vaibakunsti arengust "Soojad mustrid", mille dominant on 1915. a. Oskar Kallise kavandi järgi kootud vaip "Ussikuningas".

  4. AS Balti Ameerika Auto Keskus Peterburi tee 50

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1998-01-01

    Tallinna 'Chrysleri' ja 'Jeepi' autokeskuse hoonekompleksis on eristatavad kolm osa: kahekorruseline müügisalong, ühekorruseline töökoda ja hooldusruunid, ladu ning olmeplokk. Klaasfassaadiga automüügisaal ulatub hoonest välja sammastega ümbritsetud poolkaarest paadikujulise siiluna. Peatöövõtja: AS Feer Ehituse projektijuht: AS TSM. Projekteerija: Arhitektuuribüroo R. Puusepp. Arhitekt Aare Saks (FFNS, Rootsi). Sisekujundus Rein Nurmse. Projekt 1996, valmis 1997

  5. Eesti Posti Ida piirkonna keskus tuleb Rakverre / Eda Post

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Post, Eda, 1983-

    2005-01-01

    Eesti Posti nõukogu kiitis heaks ettepaneku moodustada kulude kokkuhoiuks olemasoleva kaheteistkümne asemel viis regionaalset juhtimisüksust - Põhja, Ida, Lõuna, Edela ja Lääne. Lisa: Postiregioonid

  6. A VARIA T OF RIFT VALLEY FEVER VIRU

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The clinical picture produced in mice. When inoculated .... have very pale mottled livers and the clinical picture in the ... unlikely to prove positive, attention was directed towards ..... selective intraperitoneal passage of liver or blood a viscero-.

  7. and rheumatologic manifestations of chronic hepatitis C viru

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enas Abdallah El-attar

    2013-04-17

    Apr 17, 2013 ... Immunological profile rheumatoid factor RF, ANA, C3, C4. Cryoglobulins. ..... standing disease process as 32% of our studied patients had liver cirrhosis. ..... graphic synovitis and predict power Doppler persistence in early.

  8. The effect of extracts of the roots of the stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) on the interaction of SHBG with its receptor on human prostatic membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hryb, D J; Khan, M S; Romas, N A; Rosner, W

    1995-02-01

    Extracts from the roots of the stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) are used in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. The mechanisms underlying this treatment have not been elucidated. We set out to determine whether specific extracts from U. dioica had the ability to modulate the binding of sex hormone-binding globulin to its receptor on human prostatic membranes. Four substances contained in U. dioica were examined: an aqueous extract; an alcoholic extract; U. dioica agglutinin, and stigmasta-4-en-3-one. Of these, only the aqueous extract was active. It inhibited the binding of 125I-SHBG to its receptor. The inhibition was dose related, starting at about 0.6 mg/ml and completely inhibited binding at 10 mg/ml.

  9. Scorpion sting in Zimbabwe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was cardiac involvement, and ... African scorpionism (defined as systemic symptoms and signs following .... neurotoxins which are 30 - 70 amino acid single-chain peptides ... failure and pulmonary oedema commonly seen.'3. ' " Studies.

  10. Bug Bites and Stings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can carry other diseases, such as malaria and dengue fever. Spider Bites Most spider bites are minor, ... Clean the area with soap and water, and treat with an antiseptic or antibiotic cream to avoid ...

  11. Stinging Insect Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... yellow jackets. Their nests are gray or brown, football-shaped and made of a paper material similar ... must still have someone take you to an emergency room immediately if you are stung. Those with ...

  12. Wings and Stings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FAAP, of the division of Allergies, Asthma and Immunology at San Diego’s Scripps Clinic. While this figure ... of Scripps Clinic’s division of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology in San Diego. But what if you do ...

  13. Stinging Insect Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it is important to identify them. Yellow jackets' nests are made of a paper-maché material and ... hollow trees or cavities of buildings. Paper wasps' nests are usually made of a paper-like material ...

  14. Acidente provocado por picada de abelhas como causa de morte de cães Bee sting as cause of death in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Almeida Fighera

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Acidentes causados por himenópteros são freqüentes em animais domésticos, mas apenas raramente reportados na literatura. Este relato descreve seis casos fatais de reação tóxica sistêmica decorrente de acidente por abelhas (Apis mellifera em cães. Os principais sinais clínicos foram icterícia e hemoglobinúria. Outros achados incluíram anorexia, apatia, vômito, diarréia e dispnéia. Na necropsia, cinco dos seis cães apresentavam icterícia, fígado vermelho-alaranjado, rins intensamente enegrecidos e urina com coloração semelhante à do vinho tinto. Na histologia, havia necrose hepática centrolobular e nefrose hemoglobinúrica, lesões típicas de crise hemolítica intravascular.Hymenopteran stinging events are frequent cause of disease and death in domestic animals, but rarely reported in the literature. This paper reports six cases of envenomation by bee (Apis mellifera sting in dogs with fatal outcome. The main clinical signs were icterus and hemoglobinuria. Other findings included anorexia, apathy, vomiting, diarrhea, and dyspnea. Necropsy findings in five dogs included icterus, red-orange discoloration of the liver, dark-red kidneys with an red-wine aspect to the urine. Histologically, there were centrolobular necrosis in the liver and hemoglobinuric nephosis, typical lesions of intravascular hemolysis.

  15. Mortality due to Hymenoptera stings in Costa Rica, 1985-2006 Mortalidad por picaduras de himenópteros en Costa Rica, 1985-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Prado

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze mortality due to Hymenoptera stings in Costa Rica during 1985-2006. METHODS: Records of deaths due to Hymenoptera stings in 1985-2006 were retrieved from Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos (National Statistics and Census Institute. Mortality rates were calculated on the basis of national population reports, as of 1 July of each year. Information for each case included age, gender, and the province in which the death occurred. In addition, reports of Hymenoptera sting accidents received by the Centro Nacional de Intoxicaciones (National Poison Center, CNI in 1995-2006 were obtained to assess exposure to these insects. RESULTS: Over the 22-year period analyzed, 52 fatalities due to Hymenoptera stings were recorded. Annual mortality rates varied from 0-1.73 per 1 million inhabitants, with a mean of 0.74 (95% confidence interval: 0.46-0.93. The majority of deaths occurred in males (88.5%, representing a male to female ratio of 7.7:1. A predominance of fatalities was observed in the elderly (50 years of age and older, as well as in children less than 10 years of age. The province with the highest mortality rate was Guanacaste. The CNI documented 1 591 reports of Hymenoptera stings (mostly by bees in 1995-2006, resulting in an annual average of 133 cases, with only a slight predominance of males over females (1.4:1. CONCLUSIONS: Stings by Hymenoptera, mostly by bees, constitute a frequent occurrence in Costa Rica that can be life-threatening in a small proportion of cases, most often in males and the elderly. The annual number of fatalities fluctuated from 0-6, averaging 2.4 deaths per year. Awareness should be raised not only among the general population, but also among health care personnel that should consider this risk in the clinical management of patients stung by Hymenoptera.OBJETIVO: Analizar la mortalidad por picaduras de himenópteros en Costa Rica en el período de 1985 a 2006. MÉTODOS: Se obtuvieron los

  16. Antiproliferative effect of a polysaccharide fraction of a 20% methanolic extract of stinging nettle roots upon epithelial cells of the human prostate (LNCaP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichius, J J; Lenz, C; Lindemann, P; Müller, H H; Aumüller, G; Konrad, L

    1999-10-01

    In Germany, plant extracts are often used in the treatment of early stages of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). The effects of different concentrations of the polysaccharide fraction of the 20% methanolic extract of stinging nettle roots (POLY-M) on the cellular proliferation of lymph node carcinoma of the prostate (LNCaP) cells were determined by measurement of the genomic DNA content of the samples. All concentrations of POLY-M showed an inhibitory effect on the growth of the LNCaP cells during 7 days except the two lowest concentrations. The reduced proliferation of POLY-M treated LNCaP cells was significantly (p < 0.05) different from the untreated control. The inhibition was time- and concentration-dependent with the maximum suppression (50%) on day 6 and at concentrations of 1.0E-9 and 1.0E-11 mg/ml. No cytotoxic effect of POLY-M on cell proliferation was observed. The in vitro results show for the first time an antiproliferative effect of Urtica compounds on human prostatic epithelium and confirm our previous in vivo findings.

  17. Molecular cloning and tissue-specific transcriptional regulation of the first peroxidase family member, Udp1, in stinging nettle (Urtica dioica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douroupi, Triantafyllia G; Papassideri, Issidora S; Stravopodis, Dimitrios J; Margaritis, Lukas H

    2005-12-05

    A full-length cDNA clone, designated Udp1, was isolated from Urtica dioica (stinging nettle), using a polymerase chain reaction based strategy. The putative Udp1 protein is characterized by a cleavable N-terminal signal sequence, likely responsible for the rough endoplasmic reticulum entry and a 310 amino acids mature protein, containing all the important residues, which are evolutionary conserved among different members of the plant peroxidase family. A unique structural feature of the Udp1 peroxidase is defined into the short carboxyl-terminal extension, which could be associated with the vacuolar targeting process. Udp1 peroxidase is differentially regulated at the transcriptional level and is specifically expressed in the roots. Interestingly, wounding and ultraviolet radiation stress cause an ectopic induction of the Udp1 gene expression in the aerial parts of the plant. A genomic DNA fragment encoding the Udp1 peroxidase was also cloned and fully sequenced, revealing a structural organization of three exons and two introns. The phylogenetic relationships of the Udp1 protein to the Arabidopsis thaliana peroxidase family members were also examined and, in combination with the homology modelling approach, dictated the presence of distinct structural elements, which could be specifically involved in the determination of substrate recognition and subcellular localization of the Udp1 peroxidase.

  18. MyD88 and STING signaling pathways are required for IRF3-mediated IFN-β induction in response to Brucella abortus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo A de Almeida

    Full Text Available Type I interferons (IFNs are cytokines that orchestrate diverse immune responses to viral and bacterial infections. Although typically considered to be most important molecules in response to viruses, type I IFNs are also induced by most, if not all, bacterial pathogens. In this study, we addressed the role of type I IFN signaling during Brucella abortus infection, a facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen that causes abortion in domestic animals and undulant fever in humans. Herein, we have shown that B. abortus induced IFN-β in macrophages and splenocytes. Further, IFN-β induction by Brucella was mediated by IRF3 signaling pathway and activates IFN-stimulated genes via STAT1 phosphorylation. In addition, IFN-β expression induced by Brucella is independent of TLRs and TRIF signaling but MyD88-dependent, a pathway not yet described for Gram-negative bacteria. Furthermore, we have identified Brucella DNA as the major bacterial component to induce IFN-β and our study revealed that this molecule operates through a mechanism dependent on RNA polymerase III to be sensed probably by an unknown receptor via the adaptor molecule STING. Finally, we have demonstrated that IFN-αβR KO mice are more resistant to infection suggesting that type I IFN signaling is detrimental to host control of Brucella. This resistance phenotype is accompanied by increased IFN-γ and NO production by IFN-αβR KO spleen cells and reduced apoptosis.

  19. CARMA SURVEY TOWARD INFRARED-BRIGHT NEARBY GALAXIES (STING). III. THE DEPENDENCE OF ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR GAS SURFACE DENSITIES ON GALAXY PROPERTIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Tony; Xue, Rui; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Fisher, David B.; Vogel, Stuart N.; Leroy, Adam K.; Blitz, Leo; Rosolowsky, Erik; Bigiel, Frank; Ott, Jürgen; Rahman, Nurur; Walter, Fabian

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the correlation between CO and H I emission in 18 nearby galaxies from the CARMA Survey Toward IR-Bright Nearby Galaxies (STING) at sub-kpc and kpc scales. Our sample, spanning a wide range in stellar mass and metallicity, reveals evidence for a metallicity dependence of the H I column density measured in regions exhibiting CO emission. Such a dependence is predicted by the equilibrium model of McKee and Krumholz, which balances H 2 formation and dissociation. The observed H I column density is often smaller than predicted by the model, an effect we attribute to unresolved clumping, although values close to the model prediction are also seen. We do not observe H I column densities much larger than predicted, as might be expected were there a diffuse H I component that did not contribute to H 2 shielding. We also find that the H 2 column density inferred from CO correlates strongly with the stellar surface density, suggesting that the local supply of molecular gas is tightly regulated by the stellar disk

  20. MyD88 and STING Signaling Pathways Are Required for IRF3-Mediated IFN-β Induction in Response to Brucella abortus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Leonardo A.; Carvalho, Natalia B.; Oliveira, Fernanda S.; Lacerda, Thais L. S.; Vasconcelos, Anilton C.; Nogueira, Lucas; Bafica, Andre; Silva, Aristóbolo M.; Oliveira, Sergio C.

    2011-01-01

    Type I interferons (IFNs) are cytokines that orchestrate diverse immune responses to viral and bacterial infections. Although typically considered to be most important molecules in response to viruses, type I IFNs are also induced by most, if not all, bacterial pathogens. In this study, we addressed the role of type I IFN signaling during Brucella abortus infection, a facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen that causes abortion in domestic animals and undulant fever in humans. Herein, we have shown that B. abortus induced IFN-β in macrophages and splenocytes. Further, IFN-β induction by Brucella was mediated by IRF3 signaling pathway and activates IFN-stimulated genes via STAT1 phosphorylation. In addition, IFN-β expression induced by Brucella is independent of TLRs and TRIF signaling but MyD88-dependent, a pathway not yet described for Gram-negative bacteria. Furthermore, we have identified Brucella DNA as the major bacterial component to induce IFN-β and our study revealed that this molecule operates through a mechanism dependent on RNA polymerase III to be sensed probably by an unknown receptor via the adaptor molecule STING. Finally, we have demonstrated that IFN-αβR KO mice are more resistant to infection suggesting that type I IFN signaling is detrimental to host control of Brucella. This resistance phenotype is accompanied by increased IFN-γ and NO production by IFN-αβR KO spleen cells and reduced apoptosis. PMID:21829705

  1. Tendencia de la mortalidad por picaduras de alacrán en México, 1979-2003 Trends in mortality from scorpion stings in Mexico, 1979-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Celis

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Describir la tendencia de la mortalidad por picaduras de alacrán en México y sus estados federativos en el período de 1979 a 2003. MÉTODOS: Se estimaron las tasas crudas y estandarizadas de mortalidad por picaduras de alacrán y las tendencias durante el período estudiado a partir de los datos oficiales de mortalidad en México, según la 9.ª y la 10.ª revisiones de la Clasificación Internacional de Enfermedades (códigos E905.2 y X22, respectivamente. Los resultados se estratificaron por grupos de edad. Las frecuencias de muertes por picaduras de alacrán se compararon mediante el riesgo relativo (RR y sus intervalos de confianza de 95% (IC95%. RESULTADOS: Entre 1979 y 2003, en México se registraron 6 077 muertes por picaduras de alacrán. Se observó una tendencia descendente estadísticamente significativa en la mortalidad estandarizada (beta = -0,195; P OBJECTIVE: To describe the trends in mortality from scorpion stings in Mexico as a whole and in each of its states for the period of 1979 to 2003. METHODS: We estimated the crude and standardized mortality rates due to scorpion stings and the trends during the period studied based on official mortality data for Mexico, using the codes (E905.2 and X22, respectively from the 9th and 10th editions of the International Classification of Diseases. The results were stratified by age group. The frequencies of deaths from scorpion stings were compared using relative risk (RR, with 95% confidence intervals (CIs. RESULTS: Between 1979 and 2003 in Mexico, 6 077 deaths from scorpion stings were registered. A statistically significant downward trend was found in standardized mortality rates (beta = -0.195; P < 0.001, with a total reduction of 86.5% for the period of 2001-2003 versus 1979-1982. For the 2001-2003 period, the highest mortality rates were in children under 1 year of age (7.07 per 1 000 000, children 1 to 4 years old (3.78 per 1 000 000, persons 60 and older (0.84 per 1 000

  2. Use of sting-response techniques for simulate diagnostics in human esophagus; Uso de tecnicas estimulo-respuesta para simular diagnosticos en esofago humano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, I.; Gonzalez, Y.; Valdes, L.; Alfonso, J.A.; Estevez, E. [Facultad de Quimica Farmacia, Universidad Central de Las Villas (Cuba)

    2003-07-01

    In this work a study of simulation of the gamma graphic studies that are carried out in human esophagus in the Dept. of Nuclear Medicine of the 'Celestino Hernandez Robau Hospital of Santa Clara is presented. For the investigation tubular reactors were used and sting-response techniques with radioactive tracer of Technetium 99 metastable to a concentration of 1 mCi and several flows were applied. The distribution curves of residences times were obtained, those that respond to an equation of the type: Y = A + B exp (- exp((x-C)/D)) - ((x-C/D)+1). They were also carried out, optimizations studies of the doses of the radioactive to give to the patients from 1 mCi (that is the one used in studies) up to 0,5 mCi, and the influences on the obtained distributions of residence time were analyzed. It was confirmed the possibility to lower the doses with clear information of the signal. It was also carried out a simulation of the attenuation of the radiations that takes place in the patients by the interposition of tissues among the analyzed organ, and the detection equipment. It was used paraffin for tissue simulation. It was found the almost independence of the intensity of the radiations with the thickness, for the assayed doses. Lastly it was found a complex mathematical model that responds to the diagnostic curves obtained in these studies, being correlated the coefficients of the pattern with the most important physical parameters of the system, giving it a practical and useful value, all time that the error among the values that this it predicts and the experimental ones do not surpass of 5%. (Author)

  3. No Sting Barrier Film to Protect Skin in Adult Patients: Findings From a Scoping Review With Implications for Evidence-Based Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheli, Chiara; Palese, Alvisa; Canzan, Federica; Ambrosi, Elisa

    2017-10-01

    In the industrialized world, approximately 1-1.5% of the population has received treatments for skin lesions. In the 1990s, a polymeric barrier film called the No Sting Barrier Film (NSBF) was developed as an alternative to petrolatum-based ointments and zinc oxide formulas. To date, few studies have explored the effectiveness of NSBF in protecting skin integrity. To map the methods, fields and outcomes used to produce evidence on NSBF effectiveness. A scoping review was performed in 2015. A search strategy for identifying relevant studies was designed and performed. Systematic reviews, meta-analyses, randomized controlled trials, controlled clinical trials, and comparative studies for all types of interventions were included; research conducted in any clinical context was eligible for inclusion. Studies were selected by two reviewers; data extraction and analysis also was performed by two reviewers and disagreements were discussed. Six studies were included. NSBF's potential as a skin protector was investigated with respect to (a) chronic wounds (pressure ulcers or vascular leg ulcers); (b) urinary or fecal incontinence; and (c) post-mastectomy irradiation. The principal clinical outcomes investigated were, respectively: (a) wound healing, wound exudates and erythema control; (b) incidence of incontinence-associated dermatitis and skin reactions; and (c) intensity of pruritus and skin reactions. Pain and comfort were measured in all clinical applications. The main process outcomes investigated were: (a) ease of application, (b) application and removal time, and (c) costs. Zinc oxide and petroleum formulations were the most common comparison interventions in research on chronic ulcers and incontinence; sorbolene cream and topical corticosteroids were the most frequent comparisons in the context of post-mastectomy irradiation. NBSF may be used for peri-wound skin protection in patients with chronic wounds, with urinary or fecal incontinence and for women undergoing

  4. Cyto-architectural Alterations in the Corpuscles of Stannius of Stinging Catfish Heteropneustes fossilis after Exposure to a Botanical Pesticide (Nerium indicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ManiRam Prasad

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: This investigation describes the cyto-architectural alterations observed in the corpuscles of Stannius of stinging catfish Heteropneustes fossilis after treatment with a botanical pesticide Nerium indicum. Methods: Heteropneustes fossilis were subjected to 11.27 and 2.81 mg/L of Nerium indicum leaf extract over short- and long-term exposure periods, respectively. Blood was collected for calcium analysis and corpuscles of Stannius (CS gland were fixed on 24, 48, 72 and 96 h in the short-term experiment and after 7, 14, 21, and 28 days in the long-term experiment. Results: Serum calcium levels decreased from 48 h to 96 h. CS remains unaffected till 72 h. After the 96-hour treatment, increased granulation was observed in AF- positive cells. Nuclear volume of these cells exhibited no change throughout the short-term treatment. Slight increases in nuclear volume of AF-negative cells were recorded after 96 h. Nerium indicum caused decreases in serum calcium levels of H. fossilis from day 14 to 28. CS exhibited no alterations up to 14 days of exposure. AF-positive cells of CS depicted increased granulation after 21 days of treatment. Nuclear volume of these cells exhibited a slight decrease from day 21 to 28. Heavy accumulation of AF-positive granules was observed and few degenerating cells were noticed. Nuclear volume of AF-negative cells increased after 21 and 28 days of treatment. Vacuolization and degeneration occurred in certain places. Conclusion: It is inferred from the present study that the botanical pesticide Nerium indicum induced severe changes in the corpuscles of Stannius of catfish.

  5. Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica L. Attenuates FFA Induced Ceramide Accumulation in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes in an Adiponectin Dependent Manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana N Obanda

    Full Text Available Excess dietary lipids result in the accumulation of lipid metabolites including ceramides that can attenuate insulin signaling. There is evidence that a botanical extract of Urtica dioica L. (stinging nettle improves insulin action, yet the precise mechanism(s are not known. Hence, we examined the effects of Urtica dioica L. (UT on adipocytes.We investigated the effects of an ethanolic extract of UT on free fatty acid (palmitic acid induced inhibition of insulin-stimulated Akt serine phosphorylation and modulation of ceramidase expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Adipocytes were exposed to excess FFAs in the presence or absence of UT. Effects on adiponectin expression, ceramidase expression, ceramidase activity, ceramide accumulation and insulin signaling were determined.As expected, FFAs reduced adiponectin expression and increased the expression of ceramidase enzymes but not their activity. FFA also induced the accumulation of ceramides and reduced insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt in adipocytes. The effects of FFA were partially reversed by UT. UT enhanced adiponectin expression and ceramidase activity in the presence of excess FFAs. UT abated ceramide accumulation and increased insulin sensitivity via enhanced Akt phosphorylation. A siRNA knockdown of adiponectin expression prevented UT from exerting positive effects on ceramidase activity but not Akt phosphorylation.In adipocytes, the ability of UT to antagonize the negative effects of FFA by modulating ceramidase activity and ceramide accumulation is dependent on the presence of adiponectin. However, the ability of UT to enhance Akt phosphorylation is independent of adiponectin expression. These studies demonstrate direct effects of UT on adipocytes and suggest this botanical extract is metabolically beneficial.

  6. Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica L.) Attenuates FFA Induced Ceramide Accumulation in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes in an Adiponectin Dependent Manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obanda, Diana N; Zhao, Peng; Richard, Allison J; Ribnicky, David; Cefalu, William T; Stephens, Jacqueline M

    2016-01-01

    Excess dietary lipids result in the accumulation of lipid metabolites including ceramides that can attenuate insulin signaling. There is evidence that a botanical extract of Urtica dioica L. (stinging nettle) improves insulin action, yet the precise mechanism(s) are not known. Hence, we examined the effects of Urtica dioica L. (UT) on adipocytes. We investigated the effects of an ethanolic extract of UT on free fatty acid (palmitic acid) induced inhibition of insulin-stimulated Akt serine phosphorylation and modulation of ceramidase expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Adipocytes were exposed to excess FFAs in the presence or absence of UT. Effects on adiponectin expression, ceramidase expression, ceramidase activity, ceramide accumulation and insulin signaling were determined. As expected, FFAs reduced adiponectin expression and increased the expression of ceramidase enzymes but not their activity. FFA also induced the accumulation of ceramides and reduced insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt in adipocytes. The effects of FFA were partially reversed by UT. UT enhanced adiponectin expression and ceramidase activity in the presence of excess FFAs. UT abated ceramide accumulation and increased insulin sensitivity via enhanced Akt phosphorylation. A siRNA knockdown of adiponectin expression prevented UT from exerting positive effects on ceramidase activity but not Akt phosphorylation. In adipocytes, the ability of UT to antagonize the negative effects of FFA by modulating ceramidase activity and ceramide accumulation is dependent on the presence of adiponectin. However, the ability of UT to enhance Akt phosphorylation is independent of adiponectin expression. These studies demonstrate direct effects of UT on adipocytes and suggest this botanical extract is metabolically beneficial.

  7. cGAS-STING-TBK1-IRF3/7 induced interferon-β contributes to the clearing of non tuberculous mycobacterial infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruangkiattikul, Nanthapon; Nerlich, Andreas; Abdissa, Ketema; Lienenklaus, Stefan; Suwandi, Abdulhadi; Janze, Nina; Laarmann, Kristin; Spanier, Julia; Kalinke, Ulrich; Weiss, Siegfried; Goethe, Ralph

    2017-10-03

    Type I interferons (IFN-I), such as IFN-α and IFN-β are important messengers in the host response against bacterial infections. Knowledge about the role of IFN-I in infections by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) is limited. Here we show that macrophages infected with pathogens of the Mycobacterium avium complex produced significantly lower amounts of IFN-β than macrophages infected with the opportunistic pathogen M. smegmatis. To dissect the molecular mechanisms of this phenomenon, we focused on the obligate pathogen Mycobacterium avium ssp paratuberculosis (MAP) and the opportunistic M. smegmatis. Viability of both bacteria was required for induction of IFN-β in macrophages. Both bacteria induced IFN-β via the cGAS-STING-TBK1-IRF3/7-pathway of IFN-β activation. Stronger phosphorylation of TBK1 and higher amounts of extracellular bacterial DNA in the macrophage cytosol were found in M. smegmatis infected macrophages than in MAP infected macrophages. After intraperitoneal infection of mice, a strong Ifnb induction by M. smegmatis correlated with clearance of the bacteria. In contrast, MAP only induced weak Ifnb expression which correlated with bacterial persistence and increased number of granulomas in the liver. In mice lacking the type I interferon receptor we observed improved survival of M. smegmatis while survival of MAP was similar to that in wildtype mice. On the other hand, treatment of MAP infected wildtype mice with the IFN-I inducer poly(I:C) or recombinant IFN-β impaired the survival of MAP. This indicates an essential role of IFN-I in clearing infections by MAP and M. smegmatis. The expression level of IFN-I is decisive for transient versus persistent NTM infection.

  8. [Stinging nettle root extract (Bazoton-uno) in long term treatment of benign prostatic syndrome (BPS). Results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled multicenter study after 12 months].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, T; Rübben, H

    2004-03-01

    Phytotherapy of BPS has a long tradition in Germany; nevertheless, data referring to single phytotherapeutic agents are rare. We therefore performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter study for 1 year with Bazoton uno (459 mg dry extract of stinging nettle roots) with 246 patients. The IPSS decreased on average from 18.7+/-0.3 to 13.0+/-0.5 with a statistically significant difference compared to placebo (18.5+/-0.3 to 13.8+/-0.5; p=0.0233). The median Q(max) increased by 3.0+/-0.4 ml/s in comparison to 2.9+/-0.4 ml/s (placebo), thus not statistically significantly different, as well as the median volume of residual urine, which changed from 35.5+/-3.4 ml before therapy to 20.0+/-2.8 ml and from 40.0+/-4.0 ml to 21.0+/-2.9 ml under placebo application. The number of adverse events (29/38) as well as urinary infections etc. (3/10 events) was smaller under Bazoton uno therapy compared to placebo. Treatment with Bazoton uno can therefore be considered a safe therapeutic option for BPS, especially for reducing irritative symptoms and BPS-associated complications due to the postulated antiphlogistic and antiproliferative effects of the stinging nettle extract. A strong increase of Q(max) or reduction of residual urine are not to be expected.

  9. El uso de guantes como factor protector contra picaduras de alacrán durante la pizca de maíz en el estado de Guerrero, México The use of gloves as protector factor against scorpion stings during corn picking in the state of Guerrero, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ascencio Villegas-Arrizón

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar factores asociados a la picadura de alacrán durante la recolección de maíz, entre campesinos del estado de Guerrero. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal hecho en 2004, sobre picaduras de alacrán durante el ciclo agrícola 2003, con encuesta a hogares en 14 comunidades del estado de Guerrero, seleccionadas de forma aleatoria. Se obtuvieron frecuencias simples y análisis bivariado para identificar los factores asociados a la picadura de alacrán durante la pizca de maíz. Se estimó razón de momios para valorar la magnitud del efecto. RESULTADOS: La incidencia de picadura de alacrán fue de 15% (500/3 294 en 2003. El empleo de guantes se acompañó de menor riesgo de picaduras de alacrán en la mano (RM = 0.11; IC 95% 0.06-0.18. Usar sólo un guante podría evitar 133 picaduras por cada 1 000 campesinos que ahora no los utilizan. Los costos implicados por la picadura de alacrán sumaron 505.90 pesos (46 dólares estadounidenses. CONCLUSIONES: Es necesario promover el uso de guantes entre campesinos que viven en zonas con alta endemicidad de alacranes. Asimismo, extender la red de suministro de suero antialacrán a toda el área rural donde predominan especies muy tóxicas y orientar a los campesinos sobre la importancia de buscar atención oportuna en las unidades de salud.OBJECTIVE: Identify factors associated with scorpion stings among farm workers who pick corn in the Mexican state of Guerrero. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cross-sectional survey in 14 randomly selected communities in the state of Guerrero.Simple frequencies were obtained and bivariate analysis was used to identify factors associated with scorpion stings while picking corn. Odds ratio was estimated to evaluate the magnitude of the effect. RESULTS: The incidence of scorpion stings was 15% (500/3 294 in 2003. Use of gloves was associated with a dramatic reduction in risk of scorpion stings to the hands (OR = 0.11; IC95% 0.06-0.18. Scorpion stings are a

  10. Extracts from fruits of saw palmetto (Sabal serrulata) and roots of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica): viable alternatives in the medical treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia and associated lower urinary tracts symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, E

    2001-08-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and associated lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are very common disorders in aging men. Despite the great clinical importance, many aspects of their aetiology remain uncertain although it is generally accepted that advanced age and testicular androgens are important requirements for the development of these complaints. The currently available therapeutic options include watchful waiting, changes of life style, medical treatments and invasive therapies. In many European countries the use of phytopharmaceuticals for the management of BPH and related LUTS is common and these products represent up to 80 % of all drugs prescribed for this disorder. In particularly, extracts from the fruits of saw palmetto (Sabal serrulata, syn. Serenoa repens) and the roots of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) are popular. During the last years numerous papers have been published which elaborated on the pharmacological activities and the clinical assessment of these herbal remedies. These investigations have not only broadened the scientific basis for the rational use of phytotherapeutics but have also provided evidence for their therapeutic efficacy and favourable safety profile.

  11. Effects of dietary administration of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) on the growth performance, biochemical, hematological and immunological parameters in juvenile and adult Victoria Labeo (Labeo victorianus) challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngugi, Charles C; Oyoo-Okoth, Elijah; Mugo-Bundi, James; Orina, Paul Sagwe; Chemoiwa, Emily Jepyegon; Aloo, Peninah A

    2015-06-01

    We investigated effects of dietary administration of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) on growth performance, biochemical, hematological and immunological parameters in juvenile and adult Victoria Labeo (Labeo victorianus) against Aeromonas hydrophila. Fish were divided into 4 groups and fed for 4 and 16 weeks with 0%, 1%, 2% and 5% of U. dioica incorporated into the diet. Use of U. dioica in the diet resulted in improved biochemical, hematological and immunological parameters. Among the biochemical parameters; plasma cortisol, glucose, triglyceride and cholesterol decreased while total protein and albumin in fish increased with increasing dietary inclusion of U. dioica. Among the haematology parameters: red blood cell (RBC), white blood cell (WBC) counts, haematocrit (Htc), mean cell haemoglobin (MCH), mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and netrophiles increased with increasing dietary inclusion levels of U. dioica, some depending on the fish age. Serum immunoglobulins, lysozyme activity and respiratory burst were the main immunological parameters in the adult and juvenile L. victorianus measured and they all increased with increasing herbal inclusion of U. dioica in the diet. Dietary incorporation of U. dioica at 5% showed significantly higher relative percentage survival (up to 95%) against A. hydrophila. The current results demonstrate that using U. dioica can stimulate fish immunity and make L. victorianus more resistant to bacterial infection (A. hydrophila). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Fire analyses in central and disposal tunnels by APROS; Keskus- ja loppusijoitustunneleiden palotarkasteluja APROSilla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peltokorpi, L.; Kukkola, T.; Nieminen, J. [Fortum Power and Heat Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2012-12-15

    The central tunnels and the disposal tunnels on the north-east disposal area are the target areas of the fire studies. Target is to maintain under pressure in the fire zone in case of a fire. In the central tunnels a fire of a drilling jumbo with moderate fire propagation is used as heat release rate. In the disposal tunnel the heat release rate of a canister transfer and installation vehicle fire received as a result of the pyrolysis analyze as well as an average heat release rate of a van fire are used. Inlet air is to be conducted to the back end of the fire zone and the exhaust is to be lead out from the beginning of the fire zone. The worst location of the fire is in the beginning of the fire zone just below of the exhaust air clap valve. The size of the fire zone does not have big impact on pressure. In all analyzed cases the fire zone remains too long time over pressurized. Inlet air flow of a 30 m{sup 3}/s is too much. The rotation controlled booster blowers will solve the pressure problems of the fire zone in fire cases. The rotation is controlled by the fire zone pressure. The fire of the canister transfer and installation vehicle in the central tunnel will not cause problems. The disposal tunnel fire door should be kept open, if the canister transfer and installation vehicle or the bentonite blocks transfer and installation vehicle is driven into the disposal tunnel. If a fire is caught in the disposal tunnel then the fire zone in the central tunnel is to be closed and the pressure is controlled by the rotation controlled booster blowers. If a personnel car or a van is driven into the disposal tunnel, then fire door of the disposal is to be kept closed against fires in the central tunnel. (orig.)

  13. 18. XII kell 12 kaitstakse EKA E-meedia keskuses 4 magistritööd...

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    Kristel Sibul "Kehatud kehad - kehad ja identiteet internetis" (juh. Katrin Kivimaa), Ivika Kivi "Virtuaalsed õpitarkvarad" (juh. Mare Emmott Tralla), Maris Lindoja "Digitaalne ruum" (juh. Andres Kurg), Raul Keller "Corporate Consulting in the Digital Age - Jamming vith the Culture" (juh. Richard Barbrook)

  14. Viimsi keskuse muutumised ajas = Alterations of the Viimsi Centre in Time / Triin Ojari

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ojari, Triin, 1974-

    2002-01-01

    Viimsi keskusesse on hooneid projekteerinud arhitektid Rein Veber, Ado Eigi, Rein Hansberg, Andres Alver, planeeringu autor on Rein Veber. 2002. a. valmis soomlase Matti Anttila büroo Architecture Workshop 2 koostatud üldplaneeringu ideeprojekt. 1 ill

  15. AHHAA keskus Tartus = The Ahhaa Science Centre in Tartu / Triin Ojari

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ojari, Triin, 1974-

    2011-01-01

    2011. a. valminud AHHAA teaduskeskuse arhitektid on Ain Padrik ja Vilen Künnapu (AB Künnapu & Padrik), sisearhitektid Tea Tammelaan, Krista Lepland ja Malle Jürgenson (Laika, Belka & Strelka). Projekt: 2008

  16. Tallinna Sakala keskuse projekt kütab kirgi / Aivo Vahemets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vahemets, Aivo

    2004-01-01

    Raine Karbi projekteeritud hoone ümberehituse projekt telliti Inglismaalt büroost Burrow&Cave, OÜ Arhitektuuriagentuuri projektist loobuti. Eesti Arhitektide Liidu esinaise Margit Mutso ja arhitektuurinõukogu esimehe Peep Aaviksoo kommentaar

  17. Eesti saab kaasaegse veiste kogumise keskuse / Lii Sammler ; kommenteerinud Aldo Vaan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sammler, Lii, 1963-

    2016-01-01

    Oktoobris avab Eesti Tõuloomakasvatajate Ühistu Harjumaal Kaunissaares loomade kogumiskeskuse. See annab võimaluse loomad enne eksporti kokku koondada ja vajalikud uuringud teha. Vestlusest Eesti Tõuloomakasvatajate Ühistu juhatuse esimehe Tanel Bulitkoga

  18. Eri riikide noored üritavad lahendada Ida-Viru probleeme / Ishtvan Ban

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ban, Ishtvan

    2003-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Severnoje Poberezhje, 8. aug., lk. 3. Kohtla-Nõmmel programmi 'Euroopa Noored' toetusel toimunud rahvusvahelisest noorte kohtumisest, kus arutati Ida-Virumaa keskkonna ja turismi probleeme

  19. Primary state formation in the Viru Valley, north coast of Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millaire, Jean-François

    2010-04-06

    The origins of urban life and functioning states are two of the most fascinating research problems in anthropological archeology and a topic that has intrigued generations of scholars working on the Peruvian north coast. In this region, Andeanists have documented the rise of Moche as a dominant culture during the first millennium A.D., and the emergence of urban life and stately institutions at this society's principal center. Although there is a broad consensus that Moche represents an archaic state, it is still unclear whether it is an example of primary state formation or a case of a second-generation state. To document this question, archaeological excavations were recently carried out at the Gallinazo Group site in the Virú Valley. Results from a radiocarbon dating program indicate that a functioning state probably emerged in this valley during the second century B.C., possibly preceding Moche by a few centuries. These results necessarily raise question regarding the nature of state development on the north coast of Peru and, in particular, whether there was a single center of state development in this region or multiple sites where similar conditions and processes led to the parallel emergence of functioning states.

  20. Viru tänava rendihind 15 korda maailma tipust madalam / Andres Kärssin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kärssin, Andres, 1971-

    2003-01-01

    Kinnisvaranõustaja Cushman & Wakefield Healey & Baker novembri alguses valminud iga-aastase maailma kallimate ostupiirkondade rendihindade analüüsi tulemustest. Tabel: Eesti ja Läti kauplusepinnad võrreldes muu maailmaga odavad

  1. Kolme ekspeaministri talk-show Ida-Viru ärieliidi ees / Erik Gamzejev

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gamzejev, Erik, 1967-

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Severnoje Poberezhje : Subbota 16. veebr., lk. 1. Majandusminister Juhan Parts, IRL esimees ja parlamendiliige Mart Laar ja Sillamäe sadama ning Silmeti suuraktsionär Tiit Vähi kohtusid Ida-Virumaa suurettevõtete juhtidega. Lisa: Mart Laar; Tiit Vähi; Juhan Parts

  2. Viru vangla. Konkursi "Aasta Betoonehitis 2008" nominent / Arhitektuuribüroo Kalle Rõõmus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    2 välisvaadet, sisevaade; fotod: Marko Mumm; projekteerija, konstruktsioonid: AS ETP Grupp; ehitaja: AS Merko Ehitus; betooni tarnijad: AS ALTT, AS Betoneks, AS E-Betoonelement, AS HC Betoon, AS Lasbet, OÜ Liisbet Invest, AS Narva-Bark, AS Tartu Maja Betoontooted

  3. Vene keele trump on Ida-Viru valimisvõitluses rolli kaotamas / Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 22. veebr. lk. 4. Vaatluse all on Lääne-Virumaa ja Ida-Virumaa kandidaadid parlamendivalimistel. Lisa: Ringkond nr. 6; Ringkond nr. 7. Vt samas: Spiiker ja endine miss hääli püüdmas

  4. Charakterizace integrasy Masonova-Pfizerova opičího viru

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krejčík, Z.; Snášel, Jan; Rosenberg, Ivan; Ruml, T.; Pichová, Iva

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 96, č. 4 (2002), s. 223 ISSN 0009-2770. [Sigma-Aldrich konference mladých chemiků, biochemiků a molekulárních biologů. 22.05.2002-25.05.2002, Velké Meziříčí] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : Mason-Pfizer monkey virus Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  5. Jellyfish Stings and Their Management: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Mastrangelo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Jellyfish (cnidarians have a worldwide distribution. Despite most being harmless, some species may cause local and also systemic reactions. Treatment of jellyfish envenomation is directed at: alleviating the local effects of venom, preventing further nematocyst discharges and controlling systemic reactions, including shock. In severe cases, the most important step is stabilizing and maintaining vital functions. With some differences between species, there seems to be evidence and consensus on oral/topical analgesics, hot water and ice packs as effective painkillers and on 30 s application of domestic vinegar (4%–6% acetic acid to prevent further discharge of unfired nematocysts remaining on the skin. Conversely, alcohol, methylated spirits and fresh water should be carefully avoided, since they could massively discharge nematocysts; pressure immobilization bandaging should also be avoided, as laboratory studies show that it stimulates additional venom discharge from nematocysts. Most treatment approaches are presently founded on relatively weak evidence; therefore, further research (especially randomized clinical trials is strongly recommended. Dissemination of appropriate treatment modalities should be deployed to better inform and educate those at risk. Adequate signage should be placed at beaches to notify tourists of the jellyfish risk. Swimmers in risky areas should wear protective equipment.

  6. Take a Bite Out of Mosquito Stings

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Academy of Allergy Asthma & Immunology Menu Search Main navigation Skip to content Conditions & Treatments Allergies Asthma Primary Immunodeficiency Disease Related Conditions Drug Guide Conditions Dictionary Just ...

  7. Scorpion sting pain: Which way to treat?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-02-14

    Feb 14, 2011 ... This results in pain sensation and stimulates various physiological reactions such as a rise in pulse and blood pressure. Pain, which is left untreated, results in varying responses including aggression, depression, insomnia, increased cardiac work and oxygen consumption as well as behavioral changes.

  8. Eesti Metodisti Kirik : Balti Misjoni Keskus, Narva mnt. 51, Tallinn = Estonian Methodist Church / Vilen Künnapu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Künnapu, Vilen, 1948-

    2000-01-01

    Projekteerija Arhitektuuribüroo Künnapu & Padrik. Arhitektid Vilen Künnapu, Ain Padrik. Konstruktsioonide autor Andres Laur. Sisekujundajad Argo ja Katrin Vaikla. Projekt 1994, valmis 2000. Kirik on klaasja pikliku koolitiivaga (teoloogiline seminar). 7 ill.: I korruse plaan, lõige, välis- ja sisevaated

  9. "Andke vene kunstnikele vaid toetuspunkt..." : intervjuu Moskva Riikliku Kaasaegse Kunsti Keskuse teaduri Irina Gorlovaga / Irina Gorlova ; interv. Reet Varblane

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gorlova, Irina

    2002-01-01

    Irina Gorlova ja Leonid Bazhanovi kureeritud vene kunstnike Dmitri Gutovi, Sergei Shutovi ja Vadim Zahharovi näitusest "Ristumised" Hansapanga galeriis. I. Gorlova suhtumisest 1960ndate avangardistide põlvkonda, Ülo Soosterist, Ilja Kabakovist, sürrealismist ja praegusest vene kunstist, Oleg Kulikust, Aleksandr Brenerist, Aleksandr Ponomarjovist

  10. Kaasaegse Kunsti Eesti Keskus kui kunstidiiler / Rael Artel, Kai Kaljo, Marco Laimre, Marge Monko ; intervjueerinud Reet Varblane

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Vestlusringis osalenud vabakutseline kuraator Rael Artel, Tallinna Ülikooli dotsent, kunstnik Kai Kaljo, EKA fotoosakonna professor, kunstnik Marco Laimre ja EKA fotoosakonna dotsent, kunstnik Marge Monko arutavad, millist rolli peaks KKEK täitma praegu, 21. sajandi teisel kümnendil avatud maailma tingimustes

  11. George C. Marshalli Keskuse NATO ja Euroopa kaitsepoliitika uuringute professori hr. Richard Cohen'i ettekanne / Richard Cohen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Cohen, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Proceedings of the 8th International conference Estonia and the European Union : Estonia on its way to a changing Europe : October 31-November 2, 2001. - Tallinn, lk. 93-97. Parlament on kõige parem töövahend tegelemaks küsimustega, mis on seotud Euroopa julgeoleku- ja kaitsepoliitikaga laiemas mõttes

  12. Eesti kunst Euroopa südames : kümme kunstnikku Borchette'i keskuses / Roger Pierre Turine

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Turine, Roger Pierre

    1998-01-01

    Eesti Vabariigi 80. aastapäeva ürituste raames Brüsselis avatud eesti kunsti väljapanekust. "La Libre Belgique"'i kunstikriitik R. P. Turine L. Lapini, R. Meele, J. Kase, A. Lille, V. Vinogradovi, A. Toltsi, P. Pere, S. Runge, K. Ole, P. Pärna töödest. Kuraator Sirje Helme selgitus ja galerist Ruben Forni arvamus näituse kohta.

  13. "Café Picasso" Järve Keskuses = "Café Picasso" in the Järve Shopping Centre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    2002. a. valminud kohviku sisekujundusest. Sisearhitekt Mari Kurismaa. Must-valgetel laminaadist lauaplaatidel on fragmendid Jüri Kase joonistustest sarjast "Hommage ̉ Picasso". Samade motiividega on kujundatud ka osa kohviku nõudest. 5 ill

  14. Eesti Lastekirjanduse Keskuse hoone sisekujundus. Tallinn, Pikk 73 / Malle Jürgenson, Krista Lepland, Tea Tammelaan...[jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    3 korruse plaani, värv. välisvaade, 9 sisevaadet; fotod: Velvet Stuudiod; muinasjututoa aknaluuke kaunistavad Jüri Mildebergi loodud fantastilised tüübid, pööningukorrust kujundas Piret Mildeberg

  15. Archaeological investigations in Tallinn at Viru street 8 site and in the area of bastions / Peeter Talvar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Talvar, Peeter

    2006-01-01

    Tehti kindlaks nelja puithoone jäänused, millest kolm olid rajatud 13. sajandi keskel ja üks 14. sajandi esimesel poolel. Lisaks puithoonetele leiti ka kaks paekivimüüri. Leiumaterjalist. Mitmekesine oli päevavalgele tulnud kangatükkide valik. Ühe hoone nahaleidude põhjal nähtub, et sellel kinnistul töötas kingsepp. Wismari raveliini ja Skåne bastioni müüristiku väljakaevamistest

  16. SA Virumaa Muuseumid Viru-Nigula pastopraadimuuseum / Fredi-Armand Tomps, Leila Pärtelpoeg, Annes Hermann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tomps, Fredi-Armand, 1928

    2008-01-01

    12 ill.; fotod: Sven Arbet, Arvi Kriis; pastoraadimajas on renoveeritud esimesed ruumid, s.h. saal (arhitekt Fredi Tomps, sisearhitekt Leila Pärtelpoeg); sohva koopia on valminud 1990-ndate algul L. Pärtelpoja jooniste järgi Tartu kunstikooli mööbliosakonna õpilaste diplomitööna Annes Hermanni juhendamisel

  17. Cornerstones at the onset of scientific approach in sports training and physical education in Estonia / Atko Viru

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Viru, Atko-Meeme, 1932-2007

    2003-01-01

    Kolmest spordiraamatust: Pihkala, Lauri. Poiste spordi õpetus. Tallinn, 1918 ; Kalamees, Aleksander. Algkooli kehakasvatuse käsiraamat. Tallinn, 1936 ; Kask, Mihkel. Sporditervishoid. Tartu ; Tallinn, 1939

  18. Mechanismus RNA katalýzy samoštěpící reakce ribozymu viru hepatitidy D

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Banáš, Pavel; Rulíšek, Lubomír; Hánošová, V.; Svozil, Daniel; Walter, N.G.; Šponer, Jiří; Otyepka, M.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 102, č. 8 (2008), s. 657 ISSN 0009-2770. [60. jubilejní sjezd asociací českých a slovenských chemických společností. 01.09.2008-04.09.2008, Olomouc] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC512; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06030; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA400040802; GA AV ČR 1QS500040581 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : QM/MM calculations * ribozyme * RNA catalysis Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  19. Ida-Viru maavanema koht läheb ilmselt sotsidele / Maria-Elisa Rannajõe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rannajõe, Maria-Elisa

    2007-01-01

    SDE peasekretäri Randel Läntsi sõnul peab maavanema kandidaat olema vastuvõetav nii omavalitsuste juhtidele kui ka valitsusliidule. Põlva maavanema kandidaadiks on nimetatud IRL-i kuuluv Priit Sibul

  20. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

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  10. Henoch Schonlein purpura associated with bee sting: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Gálvez-Olortegui

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available La púrpura de Henoch Schonlein es una vasculitis común en la infancia, caracterizada por una púrpura palpable no trombocitopénica y manifestaciones sistémicas. Está relacionada con patologías desencadenantes como las infecciones y las picaduras de insectos. Presentamos el caso de una escolar de 6 años, de sexo femenino, con lesiones maculopapulares palpables en miembros inferiores, prurito, dolor leve, edema de pies, limitación al movimiento y antecedente de picadura de abeja. Se realizó biopsia cutánea de muslo con reporte de vasculitis leucocitoclástica y se diagnosticó como púrpura de Henoch Schonlein. Se indicó reposo y se le administró hidratación oral. Evolucionó favorablemente y fue dada de alta a los cinco días. Este es el quinto caso de púrpura de Henoch Schonlein asociado a picadura de abeja, la que se presentó sin complicaciones a diferencia de los reportes de caso previos.

  11. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

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  20. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

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  4. Analysis of the Reliable STING Early Warning System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    verr much appreciated. II .. . . . . . . . . . iV, , . . .l . . al I ll I III I I I III - 7 --7 ,,- ..11! I. INTRODUCTION A. BACKGROUND The U.S. Army is...information to a variety of elements ranging from the division staff to de ~loyed maneuver units, this study will focus on the air defense information...aircraft type . TABLE I Example Track Report ELEMENTS OF INFORMATION EXAMPLE IDENTIFICATION .................... HOSTILE TRACK DESIGNATOR

  5. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

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  15. Issues in stinging insect allergy immunotherapy: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finegold, Ira

    2008-08-01

    The treatment of insect allergy by desensitization still continues to present with some unanswered questions. This review will focus mainly on articles that have dealt with these issues in the past 2 years. With the publication in 2007 of Allergen Immunotherapy: a practice parameter second update, many of the key issues were reviewed and summarized. Other recent studies deal with omalizumab pretreatment of patients with systemic mastocytosis and very severe allergic reactions to immunotherapy. It would appear that venom immunotherapy is somewhat unique compared to inhalant allergen immunotherapy in that premedication prior to rush protocols may not be necessary and that intervals of therapy may be longer than with allergen immunotherapy. The use of concomitant medications such as beta-blockers may be indicated in special situations. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors can be stopped temporarily before venom injections to prevent reactions. The issue of when to discontinue immunotherapy remains unsettled and should be individualized to patient requirements. The newest revision of the Immunotherapy Parameters provides much needed information concerning successful treatment with immunotherapy of Hymenoptera-sensitive patients.

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