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Sample records for stimulating hormone tsh

  1. Radioimmunoassay for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)

    1980-01-01

    An improved double antibody radioimmunoassay method is described for the determination of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in biological and other fluids. Highly purified second antibody is immobilised on to hydrophilic, hydrolyzed polyacrylamide particles of a suspendable size to form a solid phase second antibody reagent. The immobilised second antibody reagent is used to precipitate the reaction product of the first antibody with labelled and unlabelled thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH-anti-TSH-complex) so as to produce a two-phase system which permits rapid and efficient separation of bound TSH in the solid phase from free TSH in the liquid phase. Details of the preparation of this novel second antibody-polyacrylamide reagent and of the assay procedure for human TSH are described. (U.K.)

  2. Radioimmunoassay for thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)

    Blakemore, J.I.; Lewin, N.; Burgett, M.W.

    1978-01-01

    This invention provides a method for the radioimmunoassay of thyroid-stimulating hormone which utilizes a rapid and convenient version of a double antibody procedure. Highly purified second antibody is bound, by means of covalent bonds, to hydrolyzed polyacrylamide particles to produce a two-phase system. The solid phase comprises immobilized second antibody bound to the reaction product of labeled and unlabeled thyroid-stimulating hormone with the first antibody (first antibody-antigen complex) and the liquid phase comprises free (unbound) labeled and unlabeled thyroid-stimulating hormone. The two phases are separated and the radioactivity of either phase is measured

  3. TSH (Thyroid-stimulating hormone) test

    ... K. Brunner & Suddarth's Handbook of Laboratory and Diagnostic Tests. 2 nd Ed, Kindle. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; c2014. Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone, Serum; p. 484. ...

  4. Measurement of Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH) In Vitro

    Kirkham, K. E.; Hunter, W. M.; Jeffery, F. H.; Bennie, J. G. [Medical Research Council Clinical Endocrinology Unit, Edinburgh, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    1970-02-15

    Many of the methods of assay proposed for the quantitative measurement of human thyroid-stimulating hormone (H-TSH) have encountered major difficulties in relation to sensitivity and specificity. The development of radioimmunoassay techniques for the measurement of H-TSH not only resulted in increased sensitivity over the majority of existing techniques, but led to improvements in specificity and practicability. The purpose of this communication is to compare serum TSH values measured by a method of bioassay in vitro with those obtained by a radioimmunoassay developed in this laboratory using reagents provided by the National Pituitary Agency, United States of America. In the bioassay technique goitrous guinea-pig thyroid tissue is incubated in vitro with {sup 131}I and H-TSH during which time the tissue takes up {sup 131}I and binds it in organic combination. Measurements of the radioactive content of the culture medium are made before and after the addition of KSCN in order to discharge any {sup 131}I present in the tissue as iodide, the difference in count-rate being indirectly proportional to the amount of H-TSH present in the incubation fluid. The method can detect as little as 1.0 mU/100 ml serum. The radioimmunoassay technique used was that described by Odell and Garigan in instructions accompanying the reagents. However, modifications to their technique included the use of antiserum at a final dilution of 1/120 000 and the addition of H-TSH at a final concentration of 0.4 ng/ml to mixtures of antiserum and the standard preparation after an incubation period of five days. After a further five days incubation period, the separation of bound and free {sup 131}I-H-TSH was carried out by precipitating the bound hormone with NaCl and ethanol. The lower limit of detection in terms of the H-TSH standard A (MRC) is 5 {mu}U/ml serum (0.5 mU/100 ml). Serum was obtained from children aged one month to 16 years, adults aged 18-40 years and 66-85 years, patients

  5. MRI of the TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone) -secreting pituitary adenoma

    Kang, Byung Chul; Kim, Dong Ik; Chung, Tae Sup; Cho, Yong Kook; Lee, Eun Gig; Jung, Joon Keun

    1995-01-01

    To demonstrate and evaluate the value of MRI findings of the TSH(Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone, TSH, Thyrotropin)-secreting pituitary adenoma. The authors reviewed retrospectively the MR images of 4 patients with TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma. Evaluation of the anatomical location, signal characteristics, enhancement patterns, size, shape and circunferential changes were made. No characteristic common MR findings in size, shape, signal intensity, and circumferential changes of TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma waere observed among 4 cases (size; 5 x 7 mm to 10 x 11 mm, shape; ovoid to round signal intensity; high in 1 case on T1 and T2WI, isosignal intensity in the other 3 cases, circumferential change; stalk deviation in 1 case, no stalk deviation in 3 cases). But, the tumors were centrally located at the anterior pituitary gland and showed relatively homogeneous signal intensity on MR images of all 4 patients. We conclude that centrally-located mass at the anterior pituitary gland with homogeneous signal intensity on MR image may be suggestive of the TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma, although the MR findings are not specific for the disease

  6. Obtaining of stimulating hormone of the thyroid (hTSH) of Human Hypophysis

    Ayala, Jorge H; Carvajal G, Claudia; Anzola V, Cecilia; Gomez de, Myrian

    1993-01-01

    Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) was extracted from human frozen pituitary glands using a method for the integral extraction of most hormones present in the gland. A specific immunoradiometric method (IRMA) was standardized and used for the analysis of TSH content. The immunology potency of the final TSH preparation was 1365 mUI/mg by IRMA. Characterization by SDS-PAGE demonstrated the multicomponent nature of the hormone

  7. Fall in thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) may be an early marker of ipilimumab-induced hypophysitis.

    De Sousa, Sunita M C; Sheriff, Nisa; Tran, Chau H; Menzies, Alexander M; Tsang, Venessa H M; Long, Georgina V; Tonks, Katherine T T

    2018-06-01

    Hypophysitis develops in up to 19% of melanoma patients treated with ipilimumab, a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 antibody. Early detection may avert life-threatening hypopituitarism. We aimed to assess the incidence of ipilimumab-induced hypophysitis (IH) at a quaternary melanoma referral centre, and to determine whether cortisol or thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) monitoring could predict IH onset. We performed a retrospective cohort study of ipilimumab-treated patients at a quaternary melanoma referral centre in Australia. The inclusion criteria were patients with metastatic or unresectable melanoma treated with ipilimumab monotherapy, and cortisol and TSH measurements prior to ≥ 2 infusions. The main outcomes were IH incidence and TSH and cortisol patterns in patients who did and did not develop IH. Of 78 ipilimumab-treated patients, 46 met the study criteria and 9/46 (20%) developed IH at a median duration of 13.0 weeks (range 7.7-18.1) following ipilimumab initiation. All patients whose TSH fell ≥ 80% compared to baseline developed IH, and, in 5/9 patients with IH, TSH fell prior to cortisol fall and IH diagnosis. Pre-cycle-4 TSH was significantly lower in those who developed IH (0.31 vs. 1.73 mIU/L, P = 0.006). TSH fall was detected at a median time of 9.2 (range 7.7-16.4) weeks after commencing ipilimumab, and a median of 3.6 (range of - 1.4 to 9.7) weeks before IH diagnosis. There was no difference in TSH between the groups before cycles 1-3 or in cortisol before cycles 1-4. TSH fall ≥ 80% may be an early marker of IH. Serial TSH measurement during ipilimumab therapy may be an inexpensive tool to expedite IH diagnosis.

  8. Preparation of quality control samples in radioimmunoassay for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)

    Ali, O.M.

    2006-03-01

    To days, the radioimmunoassay is becomes the best technique to analysis different concentrations of substance, especially in medical and research laboratories. Although the specificity of RIA techniques, the quality controls must takes place to give good results as possible. In this dissertation i prepared quality control samples of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), to use it in RIA techniques and to control the reliability results of those laboratories which used these methods. We used China production kits of RIA method to determine the level of hormone (low-normal-high) concentration. Statistical parameters were used to drown the control chart of the mean to these data.(Author)

  9. Immunodetection of Luteinizing Hormone (LH, Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH, Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH and Prolactin (PRL in Brachionus calyciflorus (Rotifera: Monogononta

    Jesús Alvarado-Flores

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The endocrine system controls and coordinates behavioral, biochemical, and physiological processes through signal mechanisms using neuropeptides or products of neurosecretory cells. Among invertebrates, this system is poorly studied in rotifers, in which estrogens and androgens significantly affect sexual reproduction. This is the first report of the presence of the Luteinizing Hormone (LH, Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH, Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH and Prolactin (PRL in rotifers. Analyses included the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method with primary antibodies LH (Anti-Rat LH serum for RIA, PRL (Anti-Rat PRL serum for RIA, FSH (Anti-Rat FSH serum for RIA and TSH (Anti-Rat TSH serum for RIA. These hormones were found in females, males and parthenogenetic and sexual eggs of the freshwater Brachionus calyciflorus. The immunoreactivity of FSH, LH, TSH and PRL in females was observed in: ovaries, cerebrum, mastax, stomach, lorica, and the stomach gland. However, in males LH was observed only at the trochal disk and cerebrum. The hormones FSH, TSH and PRL, were observed in testicles, contractil vesicles, and cementary gland of males. Regarding amictic or parthenogenetic eggs, the hormones LH, FSH, TSH, and PRL were located mainly in the micromeres, and the staining in the macromeres was weak. On the other hand, in the mictic or sexual eggs the inner shell is stained for the hormones PRL and LH, opposite to the staining of FSH and TSH, located mainly in the embryo. In general, immuno-reactivity was observed in areas important for the reproductive, excretory, digestive and developmental processes. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (4: 1049-1058. Epub 2009 December 01.Se logró detectar la presencia de las hormonas: Hormona Luteinizante (LH, Hormona Folículo Estimulante (FSH, Hormona Estimulante de la Tiroides (TSH y Prolactina (PRL en Brachionus calyciflorus siendo el primer reporte de la presencia de dichas hormonas en rotíferos. Estas hormonas fueron

  10. Targeting the thyroid gland with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-nanoliposomes.

    Paolino, Donatella; Cosco, Donato; Gaspari, Marco; Celano, Marilena; Wolfram, Joy; Voce, Pasquale; Puxeddu, Efisio; Filetti, Sebastiano; Celia, Christian; Ferrari, Mauro; Russo, Diego; Fresta, Massimo

    2014-08-01

    Various tissue-specific antibodies have been attached to nanoparticles to obtain targeted delivery. In particular, nanodelivery systems with selectivity for breast, prostate and cancer tissue have been developed. Here, we have developed a nanodelivery system that targets the thyroid gland. Nanoliposomes have been conjugated to the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which binds to the TSH receptor (TSHr) on the surface of thyrocytes. The results indicate that the intracellular uptake of TSH-nanoliposomes is increased in cells expressing the TSHr. The accumulation of targeted nanoliposomes in the thyroid gland following intravenous injection was 3.5-fold higher in comparison to untargeted nanoliposomes. Furthermore, TSH-nanoliposomes encapsulated with gemcitabine showed improved anticancer efficacy in vitro and in a tumor model of follicular thyroid carcinoma. This drug delivery system could be used for the treatment of a broad spectrum of thyroid diseases to reduce side effects and improve therapeutic efficacy. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Use of a cytochemical bioassay for determination of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in clinical investigation

    Doehler, K.D.; Hashimoto, T.; Zur Muehlen, A. von

    1977-01-01

    Recently a highly sensitive cytochemical bioassay (CBA) for the determination of human TSH has been developed. We could show that this assay is specific for TSH and measurements done on plasma of normal euthyroid persons agree well with radioimmunological findings. Due to the extreme sensitivity of the CBA we were able to detect low but measurable TSH levels in patients with primary hyperthyroidism, which were not increased by TRH treatment before therapeutic treatment. After therapeutic treatment, TRH application was able to stimulate additional biologically active TSH release which, however, barely reached the lowest limit of detection by RIA. In certain pathological cases we were able to detect elevated plasma TSH levels, which were active immunologically but inactive biologically. (orig.) [de

  12. Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH Concentration at Birth in Belgian Neonates and Cognitive Development at Preschool Age

    Caroline Trumpff

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the study was to investigate the effect of MID during late pregnancy, assessed by the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH concentration at neonatal screening, on cognitive development of preschool children. A retrospective cohort study including 311 Belgian preschool children of 4–6 years old was conducted. Children were selected at random from the total list of neonates screened in 2008, 2009, and 2010 by the Brussels new-born screening center. Infants with congenital hypothyroidism, low birth weight, and/or prematurity were excluded from the selection. The selected children were stratified by gender and TSH-range (0.45–15 mIU/L. Cognitive abilities were assessed using Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence—third edition. In addition, several socioeconomic, parental, and child confounding factors were assessed. Neonatal TSH concentration—a surrogate marker for MID—was not associated with Full Scale and Performance IQ scores in children. Lower Verbal IQ scores were found in children with neonatal TSH values comprised between 10–15 mIU/L compared to lower TSH levels in univariate analysis but these results did not hold when adjusting for confounding factors. Current levels of iodine deficiency among pregnant Belgian women may not be severe enough to affect the neurodevelopment of preschool children.

  13. Comparative assessment of quality of immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) and chemiluminescence immunometric assay (CHEIMA) for estimation of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)

    Sajid, K.M.

    2009-01-01

    Biological substances like hormones, vitamins and enzymes are found in minute quantities in blood. Their estimation requires very sensitive and specific methods. The most modern method for estimation of thyroid stimulating hormone in serum is non-isotopic enzyme enhanced chemiluminescence immunometric method. In our laboratory immunoradiometric assay is in routine for the last many years. Recently interest has grown to establish non-isotopic techniques in laboratories of PAEC. However, the main requirement to adopt the new procedures is to compare their results, cost and other benefits with the existing method. Immunoassay laboratory of MINAR, therefore, conducted a study to compare the two methods. A total of 173 (males: 34 females: 139 age: between 1 and 65 years) cases of clinically confirmed thyroid status were included in the study. Serum samples of these cases were analyzed by two methods and results were compared by plotting precision profiles, correlation plots and calculating sensitivities and specificities of the methods. As the results in all the samples were not normally distributed Wilcoxon rank sum test was applied to compare the analytical results of two methods. The comparison shows that the results obtained in two methods are not completely similar (p=0.0003293), although analysis of samples in groups shows that some similarity exists between the results of hypo and hyperthyroid patients (p<=0.156 and p<=0.6138). This shows that results obtained in these two methods could sometimes disagree in final diagnosis. Although TSH-CHEIMA is analytically more sensitive than TSH-IRMA the clinical sensitivities and specificities of two methods are not significantly different. TSH-CHEIMA test completes in almost 2 hours whereas TSH-IRMA takes about 6 hours to complete. Comparison of costs shows that TSH-CHIEMA is almost 5 times more expensive than TSH-IRMA. We conclude that the two methods could sometimes disagree but the two techniques have almost same

  14. Rapid iterative stimulation (IS) of endogenous TSH (En-TSH) utilizing thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC)

    Degrossi, Osvaldo J.; Degrossi, Elina B.; Barmasch, Martha; Lopart, Iris; Mignogna, A.; Garcia del Rio, H.; Alvarez, Liliana; Pena, Marta

    2007-01-01

    In the follow up (F) of patients with DTC it is necessary to obtain high figures of serum TSH for determination of serum Tg and 131 I scan (WBS). For this object, the method, for a long time, was to withdrawal thyroid hormone therapy (generally l-T4) that produced hypothyroidism with the inconvenient for the patients, dramatics in certain cases. Our objective was to increase TSH by IS to shortening time of L-T4 withdrawal for F, ablation (A) or treatment (T) with 131 I. In 37 patients with DTC (G-1), aged 19-78 years, 34 with papillary DTC and 3 with follicular forms, 25 females, 12 males, 43 studies were carried out; 6 p carried 2 studies. The group was divided in 2 sub-groups: G-1A, 7 patients derived for A; G-1 B 36 patients for F or T with 131 I. Six patients carried out 2 studies; 4 of them for A and for F and 2 realizes 2 times F. All patients treated with I-T4 replaced this hormone for T3 during 3 weeks that was withdrawal the day before IS. In G-1A, between 8/10 days after surgery they begin IS. IS: At days 1, 3, 5 and 6, the patients were injected i.v. with 200 mcg of TRH; at 30 minutes of the 3rd injection blood TSH determination; immediately 370 MBq of 99m T was administered and at 30 minutes a WBS was carried out. At 30 minutes of the 4th injection blood figures of TSH, Tg and Tg-ab were determined; immediately the activity of 131 I indicated for each group was given to the patients; in G-1A, at 8 days and in G1-B, at 48 hours WBS were carried out. As a control group (G-2) 41 studies in 35 DTC patients that withdrawal-T4 for 4/5 weeks, were studied, aged 18-81 years, 31 females and 4 males; 32 with papillary and 3 follicular form; 18 for A (G-2A) and 23 for F (G-2B); 6 p carried out 2 studies. One for A and the second as the first control. In G-1, TSH values obtained were 26-360 UI/L (83 ± 54. In G-1A : 137 ± 109 and in G-1B 7, 62 ± 52). The 2 tracers 131 I and 99m Tc-Tc, produces show similar figures. In G-1A all p present thyroid remnants and

  15. Comparison of serum levels of Tri‐iodothyronine (T3, Thyroxine (T4, and Thyroid‐Stimulating Hormone (TSH in preeclampsia and normal pregnancy

    Nayereh Khadem

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The physiological changes in thyroid gland during pregnancy have been suggested as one of the pathophysiologic causes of preeclampsia.Objective: The aim of this study was comparison of serum levels of Tri‐iodothyronine (T3, Thyroxine (T4, and Thyroid‐Stimulating Hormone (TSH in preeclampsia and normal pregnancy. Materials and Methods: In this case‐control study, 40 normal pregnant women and 40 cases of preeclampsia in third trimester of pregnancy were evaluated. They were compared for serum levels of Free T3 (FT3, Free T4 (FT4 and TSH. The data was analyzed by SPSS software with the use of t‐student, Chi‐square, Independent sample T-test and Bivariate correlation test. p≤0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The mean age was not statistically different between two groups (p=0.297. No significant difference was observed in terms of parity between two groups (p=0.206. Normal pregnant women were not significantly different from preeclampsia cases in the view of FT3 level (1.38 pg/ml vs. 1.41 pg/ml, p=0.803, FT4 level (0.95 pg/ml vs. 0.96 pg/ml, p=0.834 and TSH level (3.51 μIU/ml vs. 3.10 μIU/ml, p=0.386. Conclusion: The findings of the present study do not support the hypothesis that changes in FT3, FT4 and TSH levels could be possible etiology of preeclampsia

  16. Cytogenetic and dosimetric effects of {sup 131}I in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma: comparison between stimulation with rhTSH and thyroid hormone withdrawal treatments

    Silva, Marcia Augusta da; Gomes Silva Valgode, Flavia; Carvalho Pinto Ribela, Maria Teresa; Bartolini, Paolo; Okazaki, Kayo [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), IPEN-CNEN/SP, Centro de Biotecnologia, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Armiliato Gonzalez, Julia; Calil Cury Guimaraes, Maria Ines; Buchpiguel, Carlos Alberto [Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Centro de Medicina Nuclear, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Yoriyaz, Helio [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Centro de Engenharia Nuclear, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2016-08-15

    A study directed to the cytogenetic and dosimetric aspects of radionuclides of medical interest is very valuable, both for an accurate evaluation of the dose received by the patients, and consequently of the genetic damage, and for the optimization of therapeutic strategies. Cytogenetic and dosimetric effects of {sup 131}I in lymphocytes of thyroidectomized differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) patients were evaluated through chromosome aberration (CA) technique: Euthyroid patients submitted to recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH) therapy (group A) were compared with hypothyroid patients left without levothyroxine treatment (group B). CA analysis was carried out prior to and 24 h, 1 week, 1 month and 1 year after radioiodine administration (4995-7030 MBq) in both groups. An activity-response curve of {sup 131}I (0.074-0.740 MBq/mL) was elaborated, comparing dicentric chromosomes in vivo and in vitro in order to estimate the absorbed dose through Monte Carlo simulations. In general, radioiodine therapy induced a higher total CA rate in hypothyroid patients as compared to euthyroid patients. The frequencies of dicentrics obtained in DTC patients 24 h after treatment were equivalent to those induced in vitro (0.2903 ± 0.1005 MBq/mL in group A and 0.2391 ± 0.1019 MBq/mL in group B), corresponding to absorbed doses of 0.65 ± 0.23 Gy and 0.53 ± 0.23 Gy, respectively. The effect on lymphocytes of internal radiation induced by {sup 131}I therapy is minimal when based on the frequencies of CA 1 year after the treatment, maintaining a higher quality of life for DTC patients receiving rhTSH-aided therapy. (orig.)

  17. Assessment of basal and stimulated TSH in the diagnosis of overt and subclinical hyperthyroidism

    Reinhardt, M.; Schuemichen, C.; Schaechtele, S.; Zimmerlin, M.; Moser, E.

    1995-01-01

    A TRH test was performed in 171 consecutive patients with a TSH basal below the reference range. TSH basal , TSH stimulated and ΔTSH were determined and compared, using assays of the second and third generation. Free thyroid hormones were elevated in 48 and normal in 123 patients. The sensitivity of all evaluated parameters to assess overt hyperthyroidism was between 94 and 98% with both assays, using a defined TSH threshold (mean of patients with overt hyperthyroidism + 2 standard deviations). However, specificity was much lower, only 34 and 23%, respectively, for the TSH basal . Significant improvement followed TRH-testing: specificity rose to 63 and 57%. The superior reproducibility of TSH values in the lower range, using the third generation assays, was of little value in the differentiation between subclinical and overt hyperthyroidism. (orig.) [de

  18. Radioimmunological determination of triiodo-thyronine (T3) and thyroidastimulating hormone (TSH) in routine diagnosis

    Vollmer, U.J.; Schmidt, H.A.E.

    1974-01-01

    The radioimmunological determination of triiodothyronine and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) provides two new methods for functional diagnoses of the thyroid. Changes and disturbances of the control mechanism had been difficult to detect with conventional methods. The measurement of the basal TSH rate has further therapeutic and diagnostic consequences such as, e.g., the determination of growth stages of strumae or preclinical hypothyreosis on the basis of increased basal TSH values. The results of the TRH test enable a more exact clarification. Substitution therapy should take into account the rate of the remaining basal TSH secretion as well as the clinical picture. The determination of the serum T 3 concentration enables the diagnosis of isolated triiodothyronine hyperthyreosis. Continuous control of the thyrostatic therapy by T 3 and TSH determination helps to prevent a condition in which hyperthyreosis persists even though all the normal parameters indicate a euthyroid function. The development of a preclinical hypothyreosis can also be detected early. The increased basal TSH secretion after strumectomy is a further proof of the urgent need for consequent prophylaxis of relapses (orig./AK) [de

  19. Effect of salinity level on TSH and thyroid hormones of grass carp, Ctenophayngodon idella

    Peyghan, Rahim; Enayati, Ala; Sabzevarizadeh, Mostafa

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid hormones (T3, T4) have marked effect on body metabolism and in controlling osmoregulation activity in fish. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of water salinity changes on thyroid hormones level and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) of grass carp. For this purpose 120 grass carp were divided randomly in to four groups (10 fish in each group and three replicates per treatment). Three groups were held in three different salinities at concentrations of 4, 8 and 12 g L-1. T...

  20. Radioiodine remnant ablation in differentiated thyroid cancer after combined endogenous and exogenous TSH stimulation.

    Vrachimis, A; Schober, O; Riemann, B

    2012-01-01

    Radioiodine remnant ablation (RRA) after (near-)total thyroidectomy (TE) is a key element in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). The use of exogenous TSH stimulation (rhTSH) prior to RRA has shown promising results as compared to conventional thyroid hormone withdrawal (THW). As yet, the efficacy of RRA after brief THW and single rhTSH administration has not been assessed. The study sample comprised 147 patients with DTC referred to our center between May 2008 and September 2010. All patients received TE with subsequent RRA. None of these 147 patients had evidence of distant metastasis. 93 patients had endogenous TSH stimulation 4-5 weeks after surgery (group I) and twenty-six received two rhTSH injections (group II). 28 patients were treated with a single rhTSH injection after a brief THW (group III). RRA-Efficacy was assessed three months after therapy by diagnostic whole-body scan and measurement of the tumour marker thyroglobulin (Tg) under TSH stimulation. Three categories of success were defined for remnant ablation. Based on the definition of successful remnant ablation no visible uptake and a Tg ≤ 2.0 ng/ml (category 1) was seen in 62/93 patients in group I, in 17/26 patients in group II (p = n.s.) and in 12/28 patients in group III (p 2.0 ng/ml (category 3) was found in 3/93 patients in group I and 1/26 patients in group II but in no patient in group III. The third strategy of remnant ablation using a single injection of rhTSH after a brief THW period resulted in a significant higher rate of patients with residual uptake in the thyroid bed and a Tg level below 2 ng/ml three months after remnant ablation in comparison to THW. However, the overall efficacy of the third protocol was not significantly different as compared to two rhTSH injections. Under the aspect of the supply shortage of rhTSH the combined endogenous and exogenous TSH stimulation may be an attractive alternative for remnant ablation in differentiated thyroid cancer.

  1. Iodine excretion during stimulation with rhTSH in differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    Loeffler, M.; Weckesser, M.; Franzius, C.; Kies, P.; Schober, O.

    2003-01-01

    Aim: Elevated iodine intake is a serious problem in the diagnostic and therapeutic application of 131 iodine in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. Therefore, iodine avoidance is necessary 3 months in advance. Additionally, endogenous stimulation requires withdrawal of thyroid hormone substitution for 4 weeks. Exogenous stimulation using recombinant human TSH (rhTSH) enables the continuous substitution of levothyroxine, which contains 65.4% of its molecular weight in iodine. Thus, a substantial source of iodine intake is maintained during exogenous stimulation. Although this amount of stable iodine is comparable to the iodine intake in regions of normal iodine supply, it may reduce the accumulation of radioiodine in thyroid carcinoma tissue. The aim of this study was to assess the iodine excretion depending on different ways of stimulation. Methods: Iodine excretion was measured in 146 patients in the long term follow up after differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Patients were separated into 2 groups, those on hormone withdrawal (G I) and rhTSH-stimulated patients on hormone substitution (G II). Results: Iodine excretion was significantly lower in hypothyroid patients (G I, median 50 μg/l, range: 25-600 μg/l) than in those under levothyroxine medication (G II, median 75 μg/l, 25-600 μg/l, p [de

  2. Growth hormone stimulation test

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003377.htm Growth hormone stimulation test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The growth hormone (GH) stimulation test measures the ability of ...

  3. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone and Bone Mineral Density

    van Vliet, Nicolien A; Noordam, Raymond; van Klinken, Jan B

    2018-01-01

    With population aging, prevalence of low bone mineral density (BMD) and associated fracture risk are increased. To determine whether low circulating thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels within the normal range are causally related to BMD, we conducted a two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR...

  4. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone values from cord blood in neonates ...

    Objectives: To determine thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels from cord blood in neonates and to establish the practice for possible application of congenital hypothyroidism screening in Ethiopia. Methods: TSH was measured from cord blood of 1207 consecutive new-borns in the maternal wards of St. Paul, Ghandi ...

  5. Thyroid-stimulating hormone pituitary adenomas.

    Clarke, Michelle J; Erickson, Dana; Castro, M Regina; Atkinson, John L D

    2008-07-01

    Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-secreting pituitary adenomas are rare, representing secreting or clinically silent TSH-immunostaining pituitary tumors among all pituitary adenomas followed at their institution between 1987 and 2003. Patient records, including clinical, imaging, and pathological and surgical characteristics were reviewed. Twenty-one patients (6 women and 15 men; mean age 46 years, range 26-73 years) were identified. Of these, 10 patients had a history of clinical hyperthyroidism, of whom 7 had undergone ablative thyroid procedures (thyroid surgery/(131)I ablation) prior to the diagnosis of pituitary adenoma. Ten patients had elevated TSH preoperatively. Seven patients presented with headache, and 8 presented with visual field defects. All patients underwent imaging, of which 19 were available for imaging review. Sixteen patients had macroadenomas. Of the 21 patients, 18 underwent transsphenoidal surgery at the authors' institution, 2 patients underwent transsphenoidal surgery at another facility, and 1 was treated medically. Patients with TSH-secreting tumors were defined as in remission after surgery if they had no residual adenoma on imaging and had biochemical evidence of hypo-or euthyroidism. Patients with TSH-immunostaining tumors were considered in remission if they had no residual tumor. Of these 18 patients, 9 (50%) were in remission following surgery. Seven patients had residual tumor; 2 of these patients underwent further transsphenoidal resection, 1 underwent a craniotomy, and 4 underwent postoperative radiation therapy (2 conventional radiation therapy, 1 Gamma Knife surgery, and 1 had both types of radiation treatment). Two patients had persistently elevated TSH levels despite the lack of evidence of residual tumor. On pathological analysis and immunostaining of the surgical specimen, 17 patients had samples that stained positively for TSH, 8 for alpha-subunit, 10 for growth hormone, 7 for prolactin, 2 for adrenocorticotrophic hormone

  6. Effect of salinity level on TSH and thyroid hormones of grass carp, Ctenophayngodon idella

    Rahim Peyghan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormones (T3, T4 have marked effect on body metabolism and in controlling osmoregulation activity in fish. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of water salinity changes on thyroid hormones level and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH of grass carp. For this purpose 120 grass carp were divided randomly in to four groups (10 fish in each group and three replicates per treatment. Three groups were held in three different salinities at concentrations of 4, 8 and 12 g L-1. The fourth group was reared in fresh water and considered as control. After three weeks blood samples were collected from the caudal peduncle vein. Then serum was separated and serum thyroid hormones and TSH were measured by LISA on Microwell plates. Our results indicated that the average of T3 levels in 4, 8 and 12 g L-1 groups were 0.43 ± 0.11, 0.22 ± 0.04 and 0.21 ± 0.04 μg dL-1, respectively. T3 levels in all experimental groups were significantly lower than those of control group (p 0.05. The level of TSH in salinities of 4 and 8 g L-1 groups was significantly higher than that of control group (p < 0.05. The results showed that increasing water salinity can have significant effect on thyroid activity by decreasing T3 and increasing T4 level in serum of grass carp in experimental condition.

  7. HiLo: Multicentre randomized phase III clinical trial of high vs low dose radioiodine, with or without recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone (rhTSH), for remnant ablation for differentiated thyroid cancer

    Mallick, U. [Freeman Hospital, Newcastle, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom); Harmer, C.; Clarke, S.; Moss, L.; Nicol, A.; Clarke, P.; Smellie, J.; McCready, R.; Farnell, K.; Franklyn, J.; John, R.; Nutting, C.; Yap, B.; Lemon, C.; Wadlsey, J.; Gerrard, G.; Roques, T.; Macias, E.; Whitaker, S.; Abdul-Hamid, A.; Alvarez, P.; Kadalayil, L.; Hackshaw, A.

    2012-07-01

    Recommended treatment for most patients with differentiated thyroid cancer is surgery followed by radioiodine ablation. Current practice in many centres is to use a high administered activity of 3.7 GBq (100 mCi). However, a lower activity (1.1 GBq or 30 mCi) has advantages including a shorter stay in hospital isolation and lower risk of side effects, including the risk of a second cancer. Also, Thyrogen (rhTSH) allows patients to continue thyroid hormone replacement during ablation, avoiding symptoms of hypothyroidism and also reduces total body radiation dose. We conducted a large randomized factorial multi centre trial to simultaneously address whether ablation success rates are similar using (i) either 1.1 GBq or 3.7 GBq, and (ii) either Thyrogen or thyroid hormone withdrawal. It is the first ever national prospective trial in thyroid cancer in the UK. Final results will be available in 2011

  8. Thyroid stimulating hormone increases hepatic gluconeogenesis via CRTC2.

    Li, Yujie; Wang, Laicheng; Zhou, Lingyan; Song, Yongfeng; Ma, Shizhan; Yu, Chunxiao; Zhao, Jiajun; Xu, Chao; Gao, Ling

    2017-05-05

    Epidemiological evidence indicates that thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) is positively correlated with abnormal glucose levels. We previously reported that TSH has direct effects on gluconeogenesis. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we observed increased fasting blood glucose and glucose production in a mouse model of subclinical hypothyroidism (only elevated TSH levels). TSH acts via the classical cAMP/PKA pathway and CRTC2 regulates glucose homeostasis. Thus, we explore whether CRTC2 is involved in the process of TSH-induced gluconeogenesis. We show that TSH increases CRTC2 expression via the TSHR/cAMP/PKA pathway, which in turn upregulates hepatic gluconeogenic genes. Furthermore, TSH stimulates CRTC2 dephosphorylation and upregulates p-CREB (Ser133) in HepG2 cells. Silencing CRTC2 and CREB decreases the effect of TSH on PEPCK-luciferase, the rate-limiting enzyme of gluconeogenesis. Finally, the deletion of TSHR reduces the levels of the CRTC2:CREB complex in mouse livers. This study demonstrates that TSH activates CRTC2 via the TSHR/cAMP/PKA pathway, leading to the formation of a CRTC2:CREB complex and increases hepatic gluconeogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Receptor

    Murat Tuncel

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR plays a pivotal role in thyroid hormone metabolism. It is a major controller of thyroid cell function and growth. Mutations in TSHR may lead to several thyroid diseases, most commonly hyperthyroidism. Although its genetic and epigenetic alterations do not directly lead to carcinogenesis, it has a crucial role in tumor growth, which is initiated by several oncogenes. This article will provide a brief review of TSHR and related diseases.

  10. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Resistance Syndrome – A Case Report

    SM Ashrafuzzaman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to thyrotropin or thyroid stimulating hormone (RTSH can be defined as decreased responsiveness to thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH characterized by high TSH with normal but occasionally low T4 and T3 usually in absence of goiter or ectopic thyroid. It can be diagnosed when TSH is >30 mIU/L but free T4 (FT4 is within normal limit. Patient usually presents in euthyroid state with abnormally high TSH but may also present with mild to overt hypothyroidism. The precise prevalence is not known, but 20-30% infants may show transient mild RTSH. In adults it is rare. Here we report a case of RTSH in which a 19 years old young girl presented in euthyroid state with mild goiter. Ibrahim Med. Coll. J. 2014; 8(1: 32-33

  11. Control of Pituitary Thyroid-stimulating Hormone Synthesis and Secretion by Thyroid Hormones during Xenopus Metamorphosis

    Serum thyroid hormone (TH) concentrations in anuran larvae rise rapidly during metamorphosis. Such a rise in an adult anuran would inevitably trigger a negative feedback response resulting in decreased synthesis and secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) by the pituitary....

  12. Influence of D-thyroxine on plasma thyroid hormone levels and TSH secretion

    Gless, K.H.; Oster, P.; Huefner, M.; Heidelberg Univ.

    1977-01-01

    Triiodothyronine (T 3 ), thyroxine (T 4 ), basal TSH and TSH after stimulation with TRH were determined by labelling with Iodine 127 in healthy subjects and patients treated with D-thyroxine (DT 4 ). After a dosage of 6 mg DT 4 , the D/L T 4 plasma concentration rose about 4-fold 4 hours after application and was only moderately elevated 14 hours later. To achieve constantly elevated T 4 levels, 3 mg DT 4 were applied in the further experiment every 12 hours. The D/L T 4 plasma concentration rose 2.5-4-fold, and there was a small but significant increase of the D/L T 3 plasma concentration. 74 hours after onset of treatment basal TSH was below detecable limits and the increase of TSH 30 min after injection of 200 μg TRH (TRH test) was only about 15% compared to zero time. The time course of TSH suppression was investigated after treatment with DT 4 and LT 4 (single dosage of 3 mg). TRH-tests were performed before, 10, 26, 50 and 74 hours after the first dosage of D or LT 4 . There was no difference in the time course of basal TSH and TSH stimulated by TRH. In 10 patients on DT 4 longterm therapy, basal and stimulated TSH were found to be below the detectable limits of 0.4 μg/ml. Our results show that (1) plasma half-life of DT 4 is less than 1 day, (2) TSH suppression after D and LT 4 treatment is very similar, and (3) in patients on lang-term DT 4 treatment, TSH plasma concentration is below detectable limits even after stimulation with TRH. (orig.) [de

  13. Human longevity is characterised by high thyroid stimulating hormone secretion without altered energy metabolism

    Jansen, S. W.; Akintola, A. A.; Roelfsema, F.; van der Spoel, E.; Cobbaert, C. M.; Ballieux, B. E.; Egri, P.; Kvarta-Papp, Z.; Gereben, B.; Fekete, C.; Slagboom, P. E.; van der Grond, J.; Demeneix, B. A.; Pijl, H.; Westendorp, R. G. J.

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have included subjects with the propensity to reach old age in good health, with the aim to disentangle mechanisms contributing to staying healthier for longer. The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis maintains circulating levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroid hormone (TH) in an inverse relationship. Greater longevity has been associated with higher TSH and lower TH levels, but mechanisms underlying TSH/TH differences and longevity remain unknown. The HPT a...

  14. The diagnostic effects of s-TSH and TRH stimulating test on subclinical thyroid function

    Lu Shujun; Wang Wenliang; Lu Shuyan; Zheng Linong; Hu Changjun; Fang Xiaozheng; Zheng Huian; Ma Meizhen

    2002-01-01

    The study was carried out to investigate the diagnostic effects of supersensitive TSH on diagnosing subclinical thyroid function with only once s-TSH detection and with TRH stimulating tests. TRH stimulating tests have been undertaken for 90 patients with different thyroid disease and 58 normal subjects. Diagnostic basal levels of s-TSH test in control group, subclinical hyperthyroidism group and subclinical hypothyroidism group were 2.20 +- 1.85 mIU/L, 0.54 +- 0.3 mIU/L and 9.08 +- 6.3 mIU/L, respectively, the levels of subclinical hyperthyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidism group were significantly higher than that of normal subjects group (P s -TSH>30 mIU/L. Dynamic observing of TRH stimulating tests have more effect than that of only once s-TSH detection in diagnosing subclinical thyroid function

  15. The influence of caloric deprivation and food composition on TSH, thyroid hormones and nuclear binding of T3 in mononuclear blood cells in obese women

    Matzen, L E; Kvetny, J

    1989-01-01

    In vivo changes in thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroxin (T4), triiodothyronine (T3) and nuclear binding of T3 (NBT3) in mononuclear blood cells were studied in obese women during seven days of caloric deprivation (maximum 1,100 kcal/d). In seven women given a high protein diet (80% protein...

  16. Examining recombinant human TSH primed {sup 131}I therapy protocol in patients with metastatic differentiated thyroid carcinoma: comparison with the traditional thyroid hormone withdrawal protocol

    Rani, Deepa; Kaisar, Sushma; Awasare, Sushma; Kamaldeep; Abhyankar, Amit; Basu, Sandip [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Radiation Medicine Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2014-09-15

    Recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH)-based protocol is a promising recent development in the management of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). The objectives of this prospective study were: (1) to assess the feasibility and efficacy of the rhTSH primed {sup 131}I therapy protocol in patients with DTC with distant metastatic disease, (2) to perform lesional dosimetry in this group of patients compared to the traditional protocol, (3) to document the practical advantages (patient symptoms and hospital stay) of the rhTSH protocol compared to the traditional thyroid hormone withdrawal protocol, (4) to document and record any adverse effect of this strategy, (5) to compare the renal function parameters, and (6) to compare the serum TSH values achieved in either of the protocols in this group of patients. The study included 37 patients with metastatic DTC having lung or skeletal metastases or both. A comparison of lesional radiation absorbed dose, hospital stay, renal function tests, and symptom profile was undertaken between the traditional thyroid hormone withdrawal protocol and rhTSH-based therapy protocol. Dosimetric calculations of metastatic lesions were performed using lesion uptake and survey meter readings for calculation of effective half-life. Non-contrast-enhanced CT was used for assessment of tumor volume. Quality of life was assessed using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QOL forms. A comparison of pretreatment withdrawal thyroglobulin (TG) was done with the withdrawal TG level 3 months after treatment. The mean effective half-life of {sup 131}I in metastatic lesions was less during the rhTSH protocol (29.49 h) compared to the thyroid hormone withdrawal protocol (35.48 h), but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.056). The mean 24-h % uptake of the lesions during the traditional protocol (4.84 %) was slightly higher than the 24-h % uptake during the rhTSH protocol (3.56 %), but

  17. Silent pituitary macroadenoma co-secreting growth hormone and thyroid stimulating hormone.

    Sen, Orhan; Ertorer, M Eda; Aydin, M Volkan; Erdogan, Bulent; Altinors, Nur; Zorludemir, Suzan; Guvener, Nilgun

    2005-04-01

    Silent pituitary adenomas are a group of tumors showing heterogenous morphological features with no hormonal function observed clinically. To date no explanation has been provided as to why these tumors remain "silent". We report a case of a silent macroadenoma with both growth hormone (GH) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) staining and secretion but with no clinical manifestations, in particular, the absence of features of acromegaly or hyperthyroidism. The relevant literature is reviewed.

  18. Ability of the rhTSH stimulation test to predict relapse in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma, after long-term follow-up

    MARCELINO, MAFALDA; LOPES, ANA FILIPA; MADUREIRA, DEOLINDA; FERREIRA, TERESA C.; LIMBERT, EDWARD; LEITE, VALERIANO

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of serum thyroglobulin (Tg) following thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) stimulation (sTg) has been recommended in the follow-up of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) patients, however, its routine use remains controversial. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the accuracy of sTg testing following recombinant human (rh) TSH stimulation in DTC patients, with a follow-up of 12.4 years. Retrospective studies were conducted of 125 DTC patients, who underwent rhTSH stimulation testing between 1999 and 2002. The exclusion criteria were: Patients with anti-Tg antibodies, Tg levels >1 ng/ml under TSH suppression and the absence of radioactive iodine (RAI) ablation therapy following surgery. In total, 49 patients were included in the study and all had been previously treated with total or near total thyroidectomy (with or without central neck dissection) and RAI, postoperatively. The Tg functional sensitivity was 1.0 ng/ml. The follow-up for patients was performed annually. During the median follow-up of 12.4 years after the rhTSH stimulation test, nine patients exhibited recurrence (18.4%). Of the nine patients, six exhibited sTg levels >2 ng/ml (positive result) and three exhibited levels <2 ng/ml (negative result). Relapse occurred at a mean of 5.9 years following the rhTSH stimulation test. The positive predictive value and negative predictive value (NPV) of positive sTg were 50 and 91.9%, respectively, with a sensitivity of 66.6% and a specificity of 85.0%. The rhTSH-stimulated Tg levels have a high NPV, allowing the identification of the patients who are free of the tumour. These results are consistent with the previously published data; however, to the best of our knowledge, this is the study with the longest follow-up duration after rhTSH stimulation. PMID:25663898

  19. Examining recombinant human TSH primed 131I therapy protocol in patients with metastatic differentiated thyroid carcinoma: comparison with the traditional thyroid hormone withdrawal protocol

    Rani, Deepa; Kaisar, Sushma; Awasare, Sushma; Kamaldeep; Abhyankar, Amit; Basu, Sandip

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH)-based protocol is a promising recent development in the management of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). The objectives of this prospective study were: (1) to assess the feasibility and efficacy of the rhTSH primed 131 I therapy protocol in patients with DTC with distant metastatic disease, (2) to perform lesional dosimetry in this group of patients compared to the traditional protocol, (3) to document the practical advantages (patient symptoms and hospital stay) of the rhTSH protocol compared to the traditional thyroid hormone withdrawal protocol, (4) to document and record any adverse effect of this strategy, (5) to compare the renal function parameters, and (6) to compare the serum TSH values achieved in either of the protocols in this group of patients. The study included 37 patients with metastatic DTC having lung or skeletal metastases or both. A comparison of lesional radiation absorbed dose, hospital stay, renal function tests, and symptom profile was undertaken between the traditional thyroid hormone withdrawal protocol and rhTSH-based therapy protocol. Dosimetric calculations of metastatic lesions were performed using lesion uptake and survey meter readings for calculation of effective half-life. Non-contrast-enhanced CT was used for assessment of tumor volume. Quality of life was assessed using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QOL forms. A comparison of pretreatment withdrawal thyroglobulin (TG) was done with the withdrawal TG level 3 months after treatment. The mean effective half-life of 131 I in metastatic lesions was less during the rhTSH protocol (29.49 h) compared to the thyroid hormone withdrawal protocol (35.48 h), but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.056). The mean 24-h % uptake of the lesions during the traditional protocol (4.84 %) was slightly higher than the 24-h % uptake during the rhTSH protocol (3.56 %), but the

  20. Plurihormonal pituitary adenoma immunoreactive for thyroid-stimulating hormone, growth hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and prolactin.

    Luk, Cynthia T; Kovacs, Kalman; Rotondo, Fabio; Horvath, Eva; Cusimano, Michael; Booth, Gillian L

    2012-01-01

    To describe the case of a patient with an unusual plurihormonal pituitary adenoma with immunoreactivity for thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), growth hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, prolactin, and α-subunit. We report the clinical, laboratory, imaging, and pathology findings of a patient symptomatic from a plurihormonal pituitary adenoma and describe her outcome after surgical treatment. A 60-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with headaches, blurry vision, fatigue, palpitations, sweaty hands, and weight loss. Her medical history was notable for hyperthyroidism, treated intermittently with methimazole. Magnetic resonance imaging disclosed a pituitary macroadenoma (2.3 by 2.2 by 2.0 cm), and preoperative blood studies revealed elevated levels of TSH at 6.11 mIU/L, free thyroxine at 3.6 ng/dL, and free triiodothyronine at 6.0 pg/mL. She underwent an uncomplicated transsphenoidal resection of the pituitary adenoma. Immunostaining of tumor tissue demonstrated positivity for not only TSH but also growth hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, prolactin, and α-subunit. The Ki-67 index of the tumor was estimated at 2% to 5%, and DNA repair enzyme O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase immunostaining was mostly negative. Electron microscopy showed the ultrastructural phenotype of a glycoprotein-producing adenoma. Postoperatively, her symptoms and hyperthyroidism resolved. Thyrotropin-secreting pituitary adenomas are rare. Furthermore, recent reports suggest that 31% to 36% of adenomas may show evidence of secretion of multiple pituitary hormones. This case emphasizes the importance of considering pituitary causes of thyrotoxicosis and summarizes the clinical and pathology findings in a patient with a plurihormonal pituitary adenoma.

  1. A patient with Graves’ disease showing only psychiatric symptoms and negativity for both TSH receptor autoantibody and thyroid stimulating antibody

    Hamasaki Hidetaka

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH and thyroid stimulating antibody (TSAb negative Graves’s disease (GD is extremely rare. Here we present such a patient. Case presentation The patient was a 76-year-old woman who was diagnosed as having schizophrenia forty years ago. She did not show characteristic symptoms for hyperthyroidism, such as swelling of thyroid, exophthalmos, tachycardia and tremor, however, she showed only psychomotor agitation. Serum free triiodothyronine and free thyroxine levels were elevated and TSH level was suppressed, suggesting the existence of hyperthyroidism. However, both the first generation TSH receptor autoantibody (TRAb1 and the thyroid stimulating autoantibody (TSAb were negative. Slightly increased blood flow and swelling was detected by thyroid echography. Thyroid scintigraphy demonstrated diffuse and remarkably elevated uptake of 123I uptake. Finally, we diagnosed her as having GD. She was treated by using methimazole, and hyperthyroidism and her psychiatric symptoms were promptly ameliorated. Discussion We experienced a patient with GD who did not show characteristic symptoms except for psychiatric symptoms, and also showed negativity for both TRAb1 and TSAb. Thyroid autoantibody-negative GD is extremely rare. Thyroid scintigraphy was useful to diagnose such a patient.

  2. Characterization of monoclonal antibodies directed against human thyroid stimulating hormone

    Soos, M.; Siddle, K.

    1982-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies directed against human thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were obtained from hybrid myelomas, following fusion of mouse NSI myeloma cells with mouse spleen cells. Ten different antibodies were obtained from 4 separate fusions. Eight antibodies were of the IgG 1 subclass. Affinities of antibodies for TSH were in the range 2 x 10 8 -5 x 10 10 M -1 . Five of the antibodies were specific for TSH and did not react with LH, FSH or hCG. The remaining antibodies reacted with all these hormones and were assumed to recognise their common (α) subunit. The 5 specific antibodies fell into 3 subgroups recognising distinct antigenic determinants, whereas the 5 non-specific antibodies recognised a single determinant or closely related set of sites. It is concluded that these antibodies should be valuable reagents for use in sensitive and specific two-site immunoradiometric assays. (Auth.)

  3. The appearance in thyroidectomized mice of immunoglobulins that bind TSH and stimulate FRTL-5 thyrocytes

    Gafny, M.; Ben-David, C.; Sirkis, N.; Gordon, A.; Gross, J.

    1992-01-01

    The model system chosen was the thyroidectomized mouse, exhibiting an elevated level of endogenous, circulating TSH. Mice were thyroidectomized by 131 I administration. Sera samples were drawn 1 to 14 months later. The following activities were measured in the immunoglobulin (Ig) fractions prepared: (a) TSH binding by elisa techniques, (b) iodide pump activity (as measured by 99m TcO 4 uptake) and (c) increased [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation into the DNA of FRTL-5 cells. TSH binding Igs were detected in 29/98 mice thyroidectomized for 7-14 months. Stimulation of technetium uptake was observed in 59/110 mice and stimulated labeled thymidine uptake in 37/102 mice, beginning eight and nine months after thyroidectomy, respectively. Of the positive animals, 51 showed a single stimulating activity. The incidence and the serum titers of Igs that stimulate technitium uptake increased significantly with time. Indeed, in the group tested 14 months post-thyroidectomy, 75% of the sera were positive for this antibody with a mean titer eightfold higher than the controls. Hybridomas were prepared from the spleen lymphocytes of thyroidectomized mice. Of these, 18 produced 99m TcO 4 uptake stimulating Igs, 12[ 3 H]thymidine-uptake stimulating Igs and 18 TSH binding Igs. Most of the hybridomas secreted Igs with a single bioactivity. One monoclonal antibody was isolated which neutralized the bioactivity of bTSH on FRTL-5 cells. 99m TcO 4 uptake was decreased by 50% and [ 3 H]thymidine uptake was virtually abolished. These results suggest that the hypothyroid mouse can develop anti-TSH antobodies and thyroid-stimulating antiidiotypic antiboides by an autoimmune process. (BN)

  4. Elaboration of a radioligand receptor assay for TSH and thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulins

    Wille, A.

    1980-01-01

    125 J-TSH is bound by membrane preparations from human thyroid glands. The removal of the radioactive hormone from the bond, interpreted by means of a standard curve, is an indicator of the unknown quantity of TSH or TSI. The specific binding of the TSH to the membrane proceeds as a function of hydrogen ion concentration, temperature, and incubation time. Since all globulins exhibit an unspecific binding to the membranes, it is necessary to separate the gamma globulin fraction from the serum in order to detect the TSI. The separation is achieved by QAE Sephadex A-50 columns. The displacement characteristics of the gamma globulin fractions are determined in the radioligand receptor assay. The classification into normal and pathological findings is done in accordance with the TSI index of Smith and Hall. The poor detection of TSI in the sera studied is attributed to the fact that the group of patients of this study had already been treated at the time the blood sera were taken. The TSH content of homogenates from human, postmortally taken pituitary glands is determined by the RRA and compared with the TSH values of the RIA. The comparison shows a positive correlation, with the TSH data of the RRA being above those of the radioimmunoassay. (orig./MG) [de

  5. Serum thyroid-stimulating hormone and cognition in older people.

    Ojala, Anna K; Schalin-Jäntti, Camilla; Pitkälä, Kaisu H; Tilvis, Reijo S; Strandberg, Timo E

    2016-01-01

    high TSH concentrations and cognitive decline are both very common among older people and could be linked. to assess cognition in our cohort of 335 home-dwelling older people (75 years and older) and to cross-sectionally relate the results to thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations. Our special focus was on the upper normal TSH range and subclinical hypothyroidism. cognitive performance was evaluated using the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's disease neuropsychological battery (CERAD-nb). The Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scale was used to evaluate severity of cognitive disorder. The APOEε4 genotype was also defined. Subjects were divided into quartiles based on the TSH concentrations, and results were compared between these groups. expected relations were observed between CERAD domains and both educational level and APOEε4 genotype. Female sex significantly associated with better performance in Boston naming (OR = 0.48; 95% CI = 0.27-0.85). In the whole cohort, higher TSH concentrations tended to associate with better scores in most parts of the CERAD-nb tests, but differences were not statistically significant. However, subjects with the highest TSH concentration (90th TSH percentile, range 4.14-14.4 mU/l) had better CDR scores compared with subjects with the lowest TSH concentration (10th percentile, range 0.001-0.63 mIU/l; OR 0.10; 95% CI 0.014-0.76). our results do not support the notion that higher TSH concentrations, not even in the range of subclinical hypothyroidism, would adversely affect cognition among older people. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. On the role of gallbladder emptying and incretin hormones for nutrient-mediated TSH suppression in patients with type 2 diabetes

    Sonne, David P; Lund, Asger; Faber, Jens

    2014-01-01

    test (OGTT) and three isocaloric (500 kcal) and isovolaemic (350 ml) liquid meals with increasing fat content with concomitant ultrasonographic evaluation of gallbladder emptying in 15 patients with type 2 diabetes and 15 healthy age, gender and BMI-matched controls (meal-study) and ii) 50 g......). We aimed to evaluate the influence of bile acid exposure and incretin hormones on thyroid function parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroid hormones (total T3 and free T4) were measured in plasma from two human studies: i) 75 g-oral glucose tolerance......-OGTT and isoglycaemic intravenous glucose infusions (IIGI) alone or in combination with glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1) and/or GLP2, in ten patients with type 2 diabetes (IIGI-study). In both studies, TSH levels declined (P

  7. Subclinical hypothyroidism diagnosed by thyrotropin-releasing hormone stimulation test in infertile women with basal thyroid-stimulating hormone levels of 2.5 to 5.0 mIU/L.

    Lee, You-Jeong; Kim, Chung-Hoon; Kwack, Jae-Young; Ahn, Jun-Woo; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Chae, Hee-Dong; Kang, Byung-Moon

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) diagnosed by thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) stimulating test in infertile women with basal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels of 2.5 to 5.0 mIU/L. This study was performed in 39 infertile women with ovulatory disorders (group 1) and 27 infertile women with male infertility only (group 2, controls) who had basal serum TSH levels of 2.5 to 5.0 mIU/L and a TRH stimulating test. Serum TSH levels were measured before TRH injection (TSH0) and also measured at 20 minutes (TSH1) and 40 minutes (TSH2) following intravenous injection of 400 µg TRH. Exaggerated TSH response above 30 mIU/L following TRH injection was diagnosed as SH. Group 1 was composed of poor responders (subgroup A), patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (subgroup B) and patients with WHO group II anovulation except poor responder or polycystic ovary syndrome (subgroup C). The prevalence of SH was significantly higher in group 1 of 46.2% (18/39) compared with 7.4% (2/27) in group 2 (P=0.001). TSH0, TSH1, and TSH2 levels were significantly higher in group 1 than the corresponding values in group 2 (Pstimulation test had better be performed in infertile women with ovulatory disorders who have TSH levels between 2.5 and 5.0 mIU/L for early detection and appropriate treatment of SH.

  8. Suplementasi Besi Mampu Memperbaiki Kadar Hormon TSH Anak Sekolah di Daerah Endemik GAKI

    Yusi Dwi Nurcahyani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Multiple nutritional and environmental influences contribute to the prevalence and severity of IDDs in iodine deficient areas, including iron. In many developing countries, children are at high risk of both goiter and iron deficiency anemia. Iron deficiency adversely affects thyroid metabolism and may reduce the efficacy of iodized salt. The aim of this study was to investigate whether iron supplementation can improve thyrothrophin hormone in school children in iodine deficient areas. A trial of iron supplementation was carried out in an area of endemic goiter in Kertek Wonosobo (n = 35, another group given placebo (n = 35. At baseline, anthropometri, TSH, ferritin, urinary iodine excretion and level of iodized salt were measured. After 13 weeks supplementation, the same data collecting was conducted. Supplement’s compliance during the study reached 100%. Two subject were excluded from from the analysis because they have extreme bio chemical data than the overall average. Statistical test showed no differences in age and gender proportion between groups. There were no significant difference in nutritional status, level of EIU, and level of iodine in salt between groups after the intervention, but there was a significant increase in ferritin level in the iron group (31.0 vs 44.8 μg/l, p<0.05. There were a significant difference in protein and iron intake, but no significant different in energy intake.These two group did not differ in TSH level change. After taking into account the modification variable effect of adequate protein > 70% RDA, the effect of iron supplementation was proved to be effective in changing TSH level (p <0.05. Our result indicate that increase in iron status can improve TSH hormone after considering adequate protein intake (RDA. Keywords : IDD, iron supplementation, thyroid function.   ABSTRAK Di daerah yang kekurangan iodium, pengaruh gizi dan lingkungan berkontribusi pada prevalensi dan tingkat keparahan GAKI

  9. Clinical evaluation of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) test with a sensitive immunoradiometric thyrotropin (TSH) assay kit

    Nakamura, Saeko; Demura, Reiko; Yamanaka, Yukako; Ishiwatari, Naoko; Jibiki, Kazuko; Odagiri, Emi; Demura, Hiroshi

    1987-01-01

    Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) test was performed using a commercially available immunoradiometric thyrotropin (TSH) assay kit (RIA-gnost hTSH) in patients with endocrine diseases. The basal serum concentration of TSH ranged from 0.2 to 2.9 μU/ml in healthy subjects. The values for endocrine diseases, except for Graves' disease, were almost within the normal range. A significant increase in TSH values caused by TRH test was observed in females compared with males (4.4 - 24.7 μU/ml vs 4.1 - 12.3 μU/ml). In cases of Graves' disease, there was a good correlation between the basal TSH value and the response of TSH to TRH. However, in the other endocrine diseases, including acromegaly, prolactinoma, anorexia nervosa, Cushing syndrome, and hypopituitarism, the response of TSH to TRH did not necessarily correlated with the basal TSH value. TRH test would be of value in elucidating pathophysiologic features, as well as in accurately diagnosing secretion reserve of TSH. (Namekawa, K.)

  10. Clinical evaluation of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) test with a sensitive immunoradiometric thyrotropin (TSH) assay kit

    Nakamura, Saeko; Demura, Reiko; Yamanaka, Yukako; Ishiwatari, Naoko; Jibiki, Kazuko; Odagiri, Emi; Demura, Hiroshi

    1987-10-01

    Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) test was performed using a commercially available immunoradiometric thyrotropin (TSH) assay kit (RIA-gnost hTSH) in patients with endocrine diseases. The basal serum concentration of TSH ranged from 0.2 to 2.9 ..mu..U/ml in healthy subjects. The values for endocrine diseases, except for Graves' disease, were almost within the normal range. A significant increase in TSH values caused by TRH test was observed in females compared with males (4.4 - 24.7 ..mu..U/ml vs 4.1 - 12.3 ..mu..U/ml). In cases of Graves' disease, there was a good correlation between the basal TSH value and the response of TSH to TRH. However, in the other endocrine diseases, including acromegaly, prolactinoma, anorexia nervosa, Cushing syndrome, and hypopituitarism, the response of TSH to TRH did not necessarily correlated with the basal TSH value. TRH test would be of value in elucidating pathophysiologic features, as well as in accurately diagnosing secretion reserve of TSH. (Namekawa, K.).

  11. Human longevity is characterised by high thyroid stimulating hormone secretion without altered energy metabolism.

    Jansen, S W; Akintola, A A; Roelfsema, F; van der Spoel, E; Cobbaert, C M; Ballieux, B E; Egri, P; Kvarta-Papp, Z; Gereben, B; Fekete, C; Slagboom, P E; van der Grond, J; Demeneix, B A; Pijl, H; Westendorp, R G J; van Heemst, D

    2015-06-19

    Few studies have included subjects with the propensity to reach old age in good health, with the aim to disentangle mechanisms contributing to staying healthier for longer. The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis maintains circulating levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroid hormone (TH) in an inverse relationship. Greater longevity has been associated with higher TSH and lower TH levels, but mechanisms underlying TSH/TH differences and longevity remain unknown. The HPT axis plays a pivotal role in growth, development and energy metabolism. We report that offspring of nonagenarians with at least one nonagenarian sibling have increased TSH secretion but similar bioactivity of TSH and similar TH levels compared to controls. Healthy offspring and spousal controls had similar resting metabolic rate and core body temperature. We propose that pleiotropic effects of the HPT axis may favour longevity without altering energy metabolism.

  12. Age and body composition influence TSH concentrations after administration of rhTSH.

    Holthausen, F F; von Müller, F; Happel, C; Kranert, W T; Grünwald, F

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies listed body surface area (BSA), lean body mass (LBM), and age as modifying factors on the TSH concentrations after administration of recombinant human thyrotropin (rhTSH). The purpose of this study was to identify the main modifying factors on serum TSH levels and to compare the stimulation via single rhTSH injection after a short thyroid hormone withdrawal (THW) with that of the standard stimulating protocol. 106 patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) undergoing radioiodine therapy (RIT) after rhTSH administration were obtained through chart review. Two groups were evaluated: Group I was treated with a single rhTSH administration after two weeks of T3 therapy followed by one week of THW. Group II was stimulated according to the international standard protocol via rhTSH injections for two consecutive days. Serum TSH concentrations were documented prior to rhTSH administration (day 1 TSH), one day after (day 3 TSH) and 3-6 days after (mean 4.2 days, day 6 TSH) the last rhTSH injection. The following data was collected: age, gender, weight, height, BMI, LBM, BSA, residual thyroid tissue, CRP, creatinine, GFR, liver enzymes, alkaline phosphatase, cholesterol, and triglycerides. Group I: Age combined with anthropometric factors like BMI (TSH increase and day 6 TSH), BSA (TSH decrease), and gender (day 6 TSH) are the main modifying factors on serum TSH concentrations after rhTSH administration. Group II: Age and lean body mass (LBM) showed a significant impact on day 3 TSH, TSH increase (day 3-day 1), and TSH decrease (day 6-day 3). Day 6 TSH was found to be influenced by GFR (group II). Age and anthropometric parameters have significant independent influence on TSH concentrations after rhTSH injection in both groups. Anthropometric parameters (BSA, LBM) and demographic parameters (female gender) show strong influence on TSH concentrations. Further research should be conducted to examine the influence of body compartments on TSH levels

  13. First-trimester maternal serum human thyroid-stimulating hormone in chromosomally normal and Down syndrome pregnancies

    Pratt, JJ; de Wolf, BTHM; Mantingh, A

    Maternal serum human thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were investigated in chromosomally normal and Down syndrome pregnancies to determine whether TSH can be used as a marker for Down syndrome in the first trimester. Measurements were conducted on stored serum samples collected from 23 Down

  14. Use of thyroid-stimulating hormone tests for identifying primary hypothyroidism in family medicine patients.

    Birk-Urovitz, Elizabeth; Elisabeth Del Giudice, M; Meaney, Christopher; Grewal, Karan

    2017-09-01

    To assess the use of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) tests for identifying primary hypothyroidism in 2 academic family medicine settings. Descriptive study involving a retrospective electronic chart review of family medicine patients who underwent TSH testing. Two academic family practice sites: one site is within a tertiary hospital in Toronto, Ont, and the other is within a community hospital in Newmarket, Ont. A random sample of 205 adult family medicine patients who had 1 or more TSH tests for identifying potential primary hypothyroidism between July 1, 2009, and September 15, 2013. Exclusion criteria included a previous diagnosis of any thyroid condition or abnormality, as well as pregnancy or recent pregnancy within the year preceding the study period. The proportion of normal TSH test results and the proportion of TSH tests that did not conform to test-ordering guidelines. Of the 205 TSH test results, 200 (97.6%, 95% CI 94.4% to 99.2%) showed TSH levels within the normal range. All 5 patients with abnormal TSH test results had TSH levels above the upper reference limits. Nearly one-quarter (22.4%, 95% CI 16.9% to 28.8%) of tests did not conform to test-ordering guidelines. All TSH tests classified as not conforming to test-ordering guidelines showed TSH levels within normal limits. There was a significant difference ( P hypothyroidism case finding and screening was high, and the overall proportion of TSH tests that did not conform to test-ordering guidelines was relatively high as well. These results highlight a need for more consistent TSH test-ordering guidelines for primary hypothyroidism and perhaps some educational interventions to help curtail the overuse of TSH tests in the family medicine setting. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.

  15. Effects of thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) on the thyrotropin (TSH) response to TSH-releasing hormone (TRH) in the rat

    Boado, R.J.; Ulloa, E.R.; Zaninovich, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    Wistar rats were treated with 7.8 or 260 nmols T4/100 g BW, 1.5 or 260 nmols T3/100 g BW, or saline as control. Twenty minutes later 1 μg TRH/100 g BW was injected iv. Heparinized blood samples were drawn at times 0 and 30 minutes (10 min post-TRH) for determination of plasma TSH, T4 and T3 by RIA. Other group of rats were administered with 150 μCi of 3',5'- 125 I-T4 prepared by iodination of 3,5-diiodothyronine. Thirty minutes later the hypophyses were removed, and chromatographed. Other group of animals were treated with 5 mg of iopanoic acid (IOP)/100 g BW. Thereafter, rats were injected iv with 260 nmols T4 or T3/100 g BW and the TRH-test performed as described above. In the control group there was a 11-fold increase in plasma TSH at 10 minutes post-TRH. In rats treated with 260 nmols T4 the post-TRH increment in plasma TSH was 5+-1-fold (p 125 I-T3 in the hypophyses 30 minutes after 125 I-T4 administration. The present data indicate that T4 is capable of depressing the release of TSH in response to TRH stimulation in normal rats. (M.E.L.) [es

  16. [Harmonization of TSH Measurements.

    Takeoka, Keiko; Hidaka, Yoh; Hishinuma, Akira; Ikeda, Katsuyoshi; Okubo, Shigeo; Tsuchiya, Tatsuyuki; Hashiguchi, Teruto; Furuta, Koh; Hotta, Taeko; Matsushita, Kazuyuki; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; Murakami, Masami; Maekawa, Masato

    2016-05-01

    The measured concentration of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) differs depending on the reagents used. Harmonization of TSH is crucial because the decision limits are described in current clinical practice guide- lines as absolute values, e.g. 2.5 mIU/L in early pregnancy. In this study, we tried to harmonize the report- ed concentrations of TSH using the all-procedure trimmed mean. TSH was measured in 146 serum samples, with values ranging from 0.01 to 18.8 mIU/L, using 4 immunoassays. The concentration of TSH was highest with E test TOSOH and lowest with LUMIPULSE. The concentrations with each reagent were recalculated with the following formulas: E test TOSOH 0.855x-0.014; ECLusys 0.993x+0.079; ARCHITECT 1.041x- 0.010; and LUMIPULSE 1.096x-0.015. Recalculation eliminated the between-assay discrepancy. These formulas may be used until harmonization of TSH is achieved by the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC).

  17. Disappearance of some autonomously functioning thyroid nodules following TSH stimulation: Pathogenetic hypothesis

    Vattimo, A.; Pisani, M.; Martini, G.

    1983-04-01

    The disappearance of a hot nodule following TSH stimulation has been observed in 6 subjects with autonomously functioning thyroid nodule, in the thyroid scan obtained using sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate and /sup 131/I. These findings have been related by many workers to the hyperreactivity of the nodular tissue to TSH: the disappearance of the nodule is due to a more rapid turnover of the tracer. In this work a new pathogenetic hypothesis is proposed: the disappearance of hot thyroid nodules might be due to ischaemia induced by the reaction of the healthy tissue, which had previously been inhibited. This hypothesis is confirmed by the scans performed shortly after administration of the tracers.

  18. Disappearance of some autonomously functioning thyroid nodules following TSH stimulation: Pathogenetic hypothesis

    Vattimo, A.; Pisani, M.; Martini, G.

    1983-01-01

    The disappearance of a hot nodule following TSH stimulation has been observed in 6 subjects with autonomously functioning thyroid nodule, in the thyroid scan obtained using sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate and 131 I. These findings have been related by many workers to the hyperreactivity of the nodular tissue to TSH: the disappearance of the nodule is due to a more rapid turnover of the tracer. In this work a new pathogenetic hypothesis is proposed: the disappearance of hot thyroid nodules might be due to ischaemia induced by the reaction of the healthy tissue, which had previously been inhibited. This hypothesis is confirmed by the scans performed shortly after administration of the tracers. (orig.) [de

  19. Lesion dose in differentiated thyroid carcinoma metastases after rhTSH or thyroid hormone withdrawal: {sup 124}I PET/CT dosimetric comparisons

    Freudenberg, Lutz Stefan; Jentzen, Walter; Brandau, Wolfgang; Bockisch, Andreas [University of Duisburg/Essen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Essen (Germany); Petrich, Thorsten; Knapp, Wolfram H. [Hanover University School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hanover (Germany); Froemke, Cornelia [Hanover University School of Medicine, Institute of Biometry, Hanover (Germany); Marlowe, Robert J. [Spencer-Fontayne Corporation, Jersey City, NJ (United States); Heusner, Till [University of Duisburg/Essen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    Renal radioiodine excretion is {proportional_to}50% faster during euthyroidism versus hypothyroidism. We therefore sought to assess lesion dose/GBq of administered {sup 131}I activity (LDpA) in iodine-avid metastases (IAM) of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) in athyreotic patients after recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH) versus after thyroid hormone withdrawal (THW). We retrospectively compared mean LDpA between groups of consecutive patients (N = 63) receiving {sup 124}I positron emission tomography/computed tomography ({sup 124}I PET/CT) aided by rhTSH (n = 27) or THW (n = 36); we prospectively compared LDpA after these stimulation methods within another individual. Data derived from serial PET scans and one CT scan performed 2-96 h post-{sup 124}I ingestion. A mixed model analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) calculated the treatment groups' mean LDpAs adjusting for statistically significant baseline intergroup differences: non-IAM were more prevalent, median IAM count/patient lower in cervical lymph nodes and higher in distant sites, median stimulated thyroglobulin higher, mean cumulative radioiodine activity greater and prior diagnostic scintigraphy more frequent in the rhTSH patients. Mean LDpAs were: rhTSH group (n = 71 IAM), 30.6 Gy/GBq; THW group (n = 66 IAM), 51.8 Gy/GBq. The difference in group means (rhTSH less THW), -21.2 Gy/GBq, was statistically non-significant (p = 0.1667). However, the 95% confidence interval of that difference (-51.4 to + 9 Gy/GBq) suggested a trend favouring THW. The within-patient comparison found 2.9- to 10-fold higher LDpAs under THW. We found some suggestions, but no statistically significant evidence, that rhTSH administration results in a lower radiation dose to DTC metastases than does THW. A large, well-controlled, prospective within-patient study should resolve this issue. (orig.)

  20. WOMEN IN CANCER THEMATIC REVIEW: Thyroid-stimulating hormone in thyroid cancer: does it matter?

    Nieto, Hannah; Boelaert, Kristien

    2016-11-01

    Differentiated thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy and the incidence is increasing rapidly worldwide. Appropriate diagnosis and post-treatment monitoring of patients with thyroid tumours are critical. Fine needle aspiration cytology remains the gold standard for diagnosing thyroid cancer, and although there have been significant refinements to this technique, diagnostic surgery is often required for patients suspected to have malignancy. Serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is higher in patients with malignant thyroid nodules than in those with benign disease, and TSH is proportionally increased in more aggressive tumours. Importantly, we have shown that the pre-operative serum TSH concentration independently predicts the presence of malignancy in subjects presenting with thyroid nodules. Establishing the use of TSH measurements in algorithms identifying high-risk thyroid nodules in routine clinical practice represents an exciting, cost-efficient and non-invasive approach to optimise thyroid cancer diagnosis. Binding of TSH to receptors on thyrocytes stimulates a number of growth promoting pathways both in normal and malignant thyroid cells, and TSH suppression with high doses of levothyroxine is routinely used after thyroidectomy to prevent cancer recurrence, especially in high-risk tumours. This review examines the relationship between serum TSH and thyroid cancer and reflects on the clinical potential of TSH measurements in diagnosis and disease monitoring. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  1. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) blood test

    ... ency/article/003710.htm Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) blood test measures the level of FSH in blood. FSH ...

  2. Analysis of clinical factors for the determination of optimal serum level of thyrotropin after recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone administration

    Son, Seung Hyun; Lee, Sang Woo; Jung, Ji Hoon; Kim, Choon Young; Kim, Do Hoon; Jeong, Shin Young; Ahn, Byeong Cheol; Lee, Jae Tae

    2015-01-01

    To determine the optimal levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels after administration of recombinant human TSH (rhTSH) to patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), we have analyzed the clinical parameters that affected the degree of the increase in serum levels of TSH. We retrospectively analyzed 276 patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), post-thyroidectomy and remnant ablation. Pearson’s correlation coefficient test was used to evaluate the correlation between serum levels of TSH after rhTSH stimulation and various clinical factors, including age, sex, height, weight, body mass index (BMI), body surface area (BSA), serum blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Linear regression analysis was used to determine the predictors of the degree of increase in serum TSH level after rhTSH stimulation. After the rhTSH injections, all subjects achieved TSH levels of >30 μU/mL, with a mean of 203.8 ± 83.4 μU/mL. On univariate analysis, age (r = 0.255) and serum creatinine (r = 0.169) level were positive predictors for higher levels of serum TSH after rhTSH stimulation, while weight (r = –0.239), BMI (r = –0.223), BSA (r = –0.217), and estimated GFR (r = –0.199) were negative predictors. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that serum creatinine was the most powerful independent predictor for serum levels of TSH, followed by age, BSA, and BMI. An increment in serum TSH after rhTSH stimulation was significantly affected by age, BSA, BMI, and creatinine, with creatinine being the most powerful predictor. By understanding the difference in the increased levels of TSH in various subjects, their dose of rhTSH can be adjusted during scheduling for radioiodine ablation, or during follow-up (recurrence surveillance) after surgery and ablation

  3. Analysis of clinical factors for the determination of optimal serum level of thyrotropin after recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone administration

    Son, Seung Hyun; Lee, Sang Woo; Jung, Ji Hoon; Kim, Choon Young; Kim, Do Hoon; Jeong, Shin Young; Ahn, Byeong Cheol; Lee, Jae Tae [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Kyungpook National University Medical Center and School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    To determine the optimal levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels after administration of recombinant human TSH (rhTSH) to patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), we have analyzed the clinical parameters that affected the degree of the increase in serum levels of TSH. We retrospectively analyzed 276 patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), post-thyroidectomy and remnant ablation. Pearson’s correlation coefficient test was used to evaluate the correlation between serum levels of TSH after rhTSH stimulation and various clinical factors, including age, sex, height, weight, body mass index (BMI), body surface area (BSA), serum blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Linear regression analysis was used to determine the predictors of the degree of increase in serum TSH level after rhTSH stimulation. After the rhTSH injections, all subjects achieved TSH levels of >30 μU/mL, with a mean of 203.8 ± 83.4 μU/mL. On univariate analysis, age (r = 0.255) and serum creatinine (r = 0.169) level were positive predictors for higher levels of serum TSH after rhTSH stimulation, while weight (r = –0.239), BMI (r = –0.223), BSA (r = –0.217), and estimated GFR (r = –0.199) were negative predictors. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that serum creatinine was the most powerful independent predictor for serum levels of TSH, followed by age, BSA, and BMI. An increment in serum TSH after rhTSH stimulation was significantly affected by age, BSA, BMI, and creatinine, with creatinine being the most powerful predictor. By understanding the difference in the increased levels of TSH in various subjects, their dose of rhTSH can be adjusted during scheduling for radioiodine ablation, or during follow-up (recurrence surveillance) after surgery and ablation.

  4. Evaluation of Serum Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Concentration as a Diagnostic Test for Hyperthyroidism in Cats.

    Peterson, M E; Guterl, J N; Nichols, R; Rishniw, M

    2015-01-01

    In humans, measurement of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentration is commonly used as a first-line discriminatory test of thyroid function. Recent reports indicate that canine TSH (cTSH) assays can be used to measure feline TSH and results can help diagnose or exclude hyperthyroidism. To investigate the usefulness of cTSH measurements as a diagnostic test for cats with hyperthyroidism. Nine hundred and seventeen cats with untreated hyperthyroidism, 32 euthyroid cats suspected of having hyperthyroidism, and 131 clinically normal cats. Prospective study. Cats referred to the Animal Endocrine Clinic for suspected hyperthyroidism were evaluated with serum T4, T3, free T4 (fT4), and TSH concentrations. Thyroid scintigraphy was used as the gold standard to confirm or exclude hyperthyroidism. Median serum TSH concentration in the hyperthyroid cats (hyperthyroid cats had measurable TSH concentrations (≥0.03 ng/mL), whereas 114 (69.9%) of the 163 euthyroid cats had detectable concentrations. Combining serum TSH with T4 or fT4 concentrations lowered the test sensitivity of TSH from 98.0 to 97.0%, but markedly increased overall test specificity (from 69.9 to 98.8%). Serum TSH concentrations are suppressed in 98% of hyperthyroid cats, but concentrations are measurable in a few cats with mild-to-moderate hyperthyroidism. Measurement of serum TSH represents a highly sensitive but poorly specific test for diagnosis of hyperthyroidism and is best measured in combination with T4 and fT4. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  5. The thyroid nodule. Thyrotropin and peripheral thyroid hormones; Der Schilddruesenknoten. TSH und periphere Hormone

    Zimny, M. [Klinikum Hanau (Germany). Inst. fuer Nuklearmedizin

    2008-09-15

    Thyrotropin, free triodothyronine and thyroxine represent the standard serological parameters for the diagnostic work-up of the thyroid but only a minority of thyroid nodules present with subclinical or overt thyroid disorders. Besides a review of the regulation and principle of function of thyroid hormones as well as the effects of subclinical or overt hyperthyroidism, the significant role of these parameters beyond the assessment of hyperthyroidism in thyroid nodules is discussed. There is evidence that the level of thyrotropin within the normal range is predictive for the relevance of autonomous functioning nodules and the risk of malignancy of non-functioning thyroid nodules. Furthermore, the ratio of triodothyronine and thyroxine indicates the etiology of hyperthyroidism. Thyrotropin represents the main parameter to determine the adequate dose of thyroid hormone therapy of thyroid nodules. (orig.)

  6. Relationship of serum thyroid stimulating hormone with body mass index in healthy adults

    Amrita Solanki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate any possible relationship between serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH with body mass index (BMI in healthy adults. Materials and Methods: A total of 417 subjects aged 18-60 years who volunteered to get screened for thyroid illness with serum TSH have been enrolled from November 2012 to July 2013. Patients were divided into four groups based on BMI value: Underweight (BMI <18 kg/m 2 , normal (BMI: 18-22.9 kg/m 2 , overweight (BMI: 23-24.9 kg/m 2 , and obese (BMI ≥25 kg/m 2 . Result: In our study we found a significant variation (P < 0.001 in TSH with increasing BMI. As the BMI increased, mean TSH in the BMI range also increased. The individuals with higher BMI had higher TSH and this trend continued from underweight to Obese. The mean TSH of underweight group was 1.6036 mIU/L, normal weight group 2.1727 mIU/L, overweight group 2.2870 mIU/L and obese group 2.6416 mIU/L. Conclusion: In this study we found a significant relationship between serum TSH and BMI and mean TSH increased as BMI increased. Further large scale data from the population is required to confirm our findings.

  7. Neonatal thyroid-stimulating hormone concentrations in Belgium: a useful indicator for detecting mild iodine deficiency?

    Stefanie Vandevijvere

    Full Text Available It has been proposed that neonatal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH concentrations are a good indicator of iodine deficiency in the population. A frequency of neonatal TSH concentrations above 5 mU/L below 3% has been proposed as the threshold indicating iodine sufficiency. The objective of the present study was to evaluate feasibility and usefulness of nation-wide neonatal TSH concentration screening results to assess iodine status in Belgium. All newborns born in Belgium during the period 2009-2011 (n = 377713 were included in the study, except those suffering from congenital hypothyroidism and premature neonates. The frequency of neonatal TSH concentrations above 5 mU/L from 2009 to 2011 in Belgium fluctuated between 2.6 and 3.3% in the centres using the same TSH assay. There was a significant inverse association between neonatal TSH level and birth weight. The longer the duration between birth and screening, the lower the TSH level. Neonatal TSH levels were significantly lower in winter than in spring or autumn and significantly lower in spring and summer than in autumn while significantly higher in spring compared to summer. In conclusion, despite that pregnant women in Belgium are mildly iodine deficient, the frequency of neonatal TSH concentrations above 5 mU/L was very low, suggesting that the neonatal TSH threshold proposed for detecting iodine deficiency needs to be re-evaluated. Although neonatal TSH is useful to detect severe iodine deficiency, it should not be recommended presently for the evaluation of iodine status in mildly iodine deficient regions.

  8. Comparison between thyroid hormone withdrawal and recombinant human TSH administration before radioiodine treatment for advanced thyroid cancer

    Coelho, Sabrina M.; Corbo, Rossana; Buescu, Alexandru; Carvalho, Denise P.; Vaisman, Mario

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Radioiodine treatment is traditionally performed after thyroid hormone withdrawal. However, induction of hypothyroidism is associated with physical and psychological symptoms and a possible induction of tumor growth. This is particularly harmful in patients with advanced thyroid cancer (ATC). The objective of this study was to compare the thyroxine withdrawal and the recombinant human TSH (rh TSH) administration in patients with non-radioiodine responsive ATC after retinoic acid (RA) therapy for induction of iodine uptake. Patients were treated with isotretinoin (1.0 to 1.5 mg/kg/d) for 5 weeks, then, thyroxine (LT 4 ) was discontinued 4 weeks before therapeutic dose (150 mCi). Based on the presence of a satisfactory response to RA (increased iodine uptake, reduction of serum thyroglobulin and tumor regression), another cycle of RA was offered, then rh TSH was used (0.9 mg in two consecutive days). A total of 8 patients (1 follicular, 1 poorly differentiated and 6 papillary carcinomas) were treated. In a patient with pituitary adenoma the endogenous TSH did not rise after T 4 withdrawal, and rh TSH was administered before radioiodine therapy. Although an increase in iodine uptake was observed after RA therapy in the patient with poorly differentiated cancer, the tumor continued to progress and patient died of respiratory insufficiency. Four out of 7 patients had at least a partial response and were selected for re-treatment. Post-therapeutic whole body scan was similar using both protocols, but patients had fewer side effects with rh TSH. One patient who had no compressive symptoms during LT 4 withdrawal did present dysphagia and dysphonia secondary to tumor swelling, 6 hours after the last rh TSH injection. Glucocorticoid was administered and symptoms were reversed after 10 days. Conclusion: Radioiodine uptake using rh TSH was comparable to T 4 withdrawal and is particularly useful when endogenous TSH cannot rise. However, the possibility of compressive

  9. Relationship between thyroid stimulating hormone and night shift work.

    Moon, So-Hyun; Lee, Bum-Joon; Kim, Seong-Jin; Kim, Hwan-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Night shift work has well-known adverse effects on health. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between thyroid diseases and night shift work. This study aimed to examine night shift workers and their changes in thyroid stimulating hormones (TSH) levels over time. Medical check-up data (2011-2015) were obtained from 967 female workers at a university hospital in Incheon, Korea. Data regarding TSH levels were extracted from the records, and 2015 was used as a reference point to determine night shift work status. The relationships between TSH levels and night shift work in each year were analyzed using the general linear model (GLM). The generalized estimating equation (GEE) was used to evaluate the repeated measurements over the 5-year period. The GEE analysis revealed that from 2011 to 2015, night shift workers had TSH levels that were 0.303 mIU/L higher than the levels of non-night shift workers (95 % CI: 0.087-0.519 mIU/L, p  = 0.006) after adjusting for age and department. When we used TSH levels of 4.5 ≥ mIU/L to identify subclinical hypothyroidism, night shift workers exhibited a 1.399 fold higher risk of subclinical hypothyroidism (95 % CI: 1.050-1.863, p  = 0.022), compared to their non-night shift counterparts. This result of this study suggests that night shift workers may have an increased risk of thyroid diseases, compared to non-night shift workers.

  10. Growth hormone stimulation test - series (image)

    The growth hormone (GH) is a protein hormone released from the anterior pituitary gland under the control of the hypothalamus. In children, GH has growth-promoting effects on the body. It stimulates the ...

  11. Hyperthyroidism due to inappropriate secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone: diagnosis and management.

    Hermus, A; Ross, H; van Liessum, P; Naber, A; Smals, A; Kloppenborg, P

    1991-06-01

    The case histories of three patients with hyperthyroidism due to overproduction of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) by the pituitary gland are described. In the first patient treatment with the T3-metabolite 3,5,3'-triiodothyroacetic acid (TRIAC) led to complete clinical and biochemical normalization. In the second patient treatment with the dopaminergic agonist bromocriptine led to a temporal amelioration of hyperthyroidism. In the third patient, who was the only one with a proven pituitary adenoma, hypersecretion of TSH could be controlled by administration of the somatostatin analogue octreotide. It is emphasized that patients with this disorder should preferably not be treated with thyrostatic drugs, radioactive iodine or thyroid surgery. The success rate of these treatment modalities is lower than normal, they may lead to an increase of goiter size, and they potentially may promote growth or development of a TSH-producing adenoma. Treatment should be aimed at diminishing TSH hypersecretion.

  12. Elevated thyroid stimulating hormone in a neonate: Drug induced or disease?

    Sunil Kumar Kota

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dyshormonogenesis is an uncommon cause of congenital hypothyroidism. The most common abnormality is absent or insufficient thyroid peroxidase enzyme. Maternal intake of antithyroid drug can also lead to elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH in a neonate, albeit the scenario is temporary. We report one such interesting case where a clinically euthyroid neonate borne to a mother on antithyroid drug presents on 12 th day of life with reports of elevated TSH and increased tracer uptake in 99mTc thyroid scan. Disproportionately high TSH in comparison to low maternal antithyroid drug dosage and further elevation of TSH after stopping mother′s antithyroid drugs ruled out maternal antithyroid drug-induced congenital hypothyroidism in the baby. Early institution of therapy in these patients can prevent mental retardation and other features of hypothyroidism.

  13. Extended hormone binding site of the human thyroid stimulating hormone receptor: distinctive acidic residues in the hinge region are involved in bovine thyroid stimulating hormone binding and receptor activation.

    Mueller, Sandra; Kleinau, Gunnar; Jaeschke, Holger; Paschke, Ralf; Krause, Gerd

    2008-06-27

    The human thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (hTSHR) belongs to the glycoprotein hormone receptors that bind the hormones at their large extracellular domain. The extracellular hinge region of the TSHR connects the N-terminal leucine-rich repeat domain with the membrane-spanning serpentine domain. From previous studies we reasoned that apart from hormone binding at the leucine-rich repeat domain, additional multiple hormone contacts might exist at the hinge region of the TSHR by complementary charge-charge recognition. Here we investigated highly conserved charged residues in the hinge region of the TSHR by site-directed mutagenesis to identify amino acids interacting with bovine TSH (bTSH). Indeed, the residues Glu-297, Glu-303, and Asp-382 in the TSHR hinge region are essential for bTSH binding and partially for signal transduction. Side chain substitutions showed that the negative charge of Glu-297 and Asp-382 is necessary for recognition of bTSH by the hTSHR. Multiple combinations of alanine mutants of the identified positions revealed an increased negative effect on hormone binding. An assembled model suggests that the deciphered acidic residues form negatively charged patches at the hinge region resulting in an extended binding mode for bTSH on the hTSHR. Our data indicate that certain positively charged residues of bTSH might be involved in interaction with the identified negatively charged amino acids of the hTSHR hinge region. We demonstrate that the hinge region represents an extracellular intermediate connector for both hormone binding and signal transduction of the hTSHR.

  14. Dual control of pituitary thyroid stimulating hormone secretion by thyroxine and triiodothyronine in athyreotic patients

    Hoermann, Rudolf; Midgley, John E. M.; Dietrich, Johannes W.; Larisch, Rolf

    2017-01-01

    Background: Patient responses to levothyroxine (LT4) monotherapy vary considerably. We sought to differentiate contributions of FT4 and FT3 in controlling pituitary thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) secretion. Methods: We retrospectively assessed the relationships between TSH and thyroid hormones in 319 patients with thyroid carcinoma through 2914 visits on various LT4 doses during follow-up for 5.5 years (median, IQR 4.2, 6.9). We also associated patient complaints with the relationships. Results: Under varying dose requirements (median 1.84 µg/kg, IQR 1.62, 2.11), patients reached TSH targets below 0.4, 0.1 or 0.01 mIU/l at 73%, 54% and 27% of visits. While intercept, slope and fit of linearity of the relationships between lnTSH and FT4/FT3 varied between individuals, gender, age, LT4 dose and deiodinase activity influenced the relationships in the cohort (all p < 0.001). Deiodinase activity impaired by LT4 dose significantly affected the lnTSH–FT4 relationship. Dose increase and reduced conversion efficiency displaced FT3–TSH equilibria. In LT4-treated patients, FT4 and FT3 contributed on average 52% versus 38%, and by interaction 10% towards TSH suppression. Symptomatic presentations (11%) accompanied reduced FT3 concentrations (–0.23 pmol/l, p = 0.001) adjusted for gender, age and BMI, their relationships being shifted towards higher TSH values at comparable FT3/FT4 levels. Conclusions: Variation in deiodinase activity and resulting FT3 levels shape the TSH–FT4 relationship in LT4-treated athyreotic patients, suggesting cascade control of pituitary TSH production by the two hormones. Consequently, measurement of FT3 and calculation of conversion efficiency may identify patients with impaired biochemistry and a resulting lack of symptomatic control. PMID:28794850

  15. Do Thyroxine and Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Levels Reflect Urinary Iodine Concentrations?

    Soldin, Offie P.; Tractenberg, Rochelle E.; Pezzullo, John C.

    2013-01-01

    The toxicity of environmental chemicals such as nitrates, thiocynates, and perchlorates, some therapeutics, and dietary goitrogens can lower thyroidal iodine uptake and result in hypothyroidism and goiter. Iodine sufficiency, essential for normal thyroid hormone synthesis, is critical during gestation to assure that sufficient thyroxine (T4) and iodine reach the developing fetus. Spot urinary iodide (UI) measurements are used globally to indicate and monitor iodine sufficiency of populations. In individuals, however, UI are not routinely measured; instead, normal serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and T4 concentrations serve as surrogate indicators of iodine sufficiency as well as thyroidal health. Our objective was to examine the relationship between UI concentrations and serum T4 and TSH concentrations in individuals in an ‘‘iodine-sufficient population.’’ Using a cross-sectional sample of the US population (n = 7628) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III; 1988–1994) database, we examined the relationship among UI, T4, and TSH in pregnant and nonpregnant women and in men (15–44 years). There was a lack of relationship between UI (or UI/Cr) concentrations and serum T4 or TSH concentrations. Therefore, TSH and T4 are not appropriate markers of UI concentrations in this population. Monitoring the status of iodine nutrition of individuals in the United States may be important because serum TSH and T4 concentrations do not indicate low iodine status. PMID:15795649

  16. Thyroid stimulating hormone and leptin levels and severe growth retardation among beta- thalassaemic patients

    Dayer, D.; Salahcheh, M.; Jazayeri, S.M.H.; Kaydani, G.A.; Kadkhodaei Elyaderani, M.K.; Shaneh, S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: It has been proposed that thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) influences leptin secretion from adipocytes. We evaluated the association between TSH and leptin levels in thalassaemic patients with growth retardation. Methodology: Blood samples were collected from 30 major thalassaemic patients and 24 normal subjects (range: 12 - 20 y). Both Leptin and TSH were measured by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) method. The anthropomorphic data were collected based on standard methods. Independent sample t-test and Pearson's correlation were used to analyze data. Results: Patients had severe growth retardation. Mean concentration of leptin in thalassaemic mean value of serum TSH concentration of lepton in thalassaemic patients was significantly lower than normal subjects (2.26 +- 2,61 vs 13.14 +- 15.95 ng/ml). The mean value os serum TSH concentration in beta- thalassaemic patients was higher than normal subjects. But the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.146). There was no marked relationship between TSH and leptin concentration in thalassaemic patients (r= -0.022, P =0.909) and in control group (r =0.289, P=0.214). Conclusion: In beta - thalassaemic patients and normal group leptin secretion is a not affected by TSH concentration. (author)

  17. Graves' Disease Mechanisms: The Role of Stimulating, Blocking, and Cleavage Region TSH Receptor Antibodies

    Morshed, S. A.; Davies, T. F.

    2016-01-01

    The immunologic processes involved in Graves' disease (GD) have one unique characteristic – the autoantibodies to the TSH receptor (TSHR) – which have both linear and conformational epitopes. Three types of TSHR antibodies (stimulating, blocking, and cleavage) with different functional capabilities have been described in GD patients, which induce different signaling effects varying from thyroid cell proliferation to thyroid cell death. The establishment of animal models of GD by TSHR antibody transfer or by immunization with TSHR antigen has confirmed its pathogenic role and, therefore, GD is the result of a breakdown in TSHR tolerance. Here we review some of the characteristics of TSHR antibodies with a special emphasis on new developments in our understanding of what were previously called “neutral” antibodies and which we now characterize as autoantibodies to the “cleavage” region of the TSHR ectodomain. PMID:26361259

  18. Localization of the aromatase enzyme expression in the human pituitary gland and its effect on growth hormone, prolactin, and thyroid stimulating hormone axis.

    Caglar, Asli Sezgin; Kapucu, Aysegul; Dar, Kadriye Akgun; Ozkaya, Hande Mefkure; Caglar, Erkan; Ince, Haluk; Kadioglu, Pinar

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate aromatase expression in prolactin (PRL), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), and growth hormone (GH) secreting cells. Nontumoral human pituitary specimens were obtained from autopsy samples. Aromatase co-expression was determined by double immunohistochemical staining and assessed using H scores. H scores for GH-aromatase co-expression (GH-aromatase), TSH-aromatase co-expression (TSH-aromatase), and PRL-aromatase co-expression (PRL-aromatase) were 83.1 ± 13.1, 95.6 ± 16.1, and 83.7 ± 14.5, respectively. TSH producing cells exhibited the highest H score for co-expression of aromatase (p 0.05 for all). There was a negative correlation between the H scores for aromatase and PRL-aromatase, GH-aromatase and TSH-aromatase, respectively (r = -0.592, p 0.05 for all). Age was negatively correlated with PRL-aromatase H score (r = -0.373, p = 0.008). Our study demonstrated significant aromatase co-expression in PRL, GH, and TSH secreting cells of the human anterior pituitary gland. The mutual paracrinal regulation between aromatase and three adenohypophyseal hormones indicates that aromatase may have a regulatory role on the synthesis and secretion of these hormones.

  19. Diagnostic accuracy of basal TSH determinations based on the intravenous TRH stimulation test: an evaluation of 2570 tests and comparison with the literature.

    Moncayo, Helga; Dapunt, Otto; Moncayo, Roy

    2007-08-02

    Basal TSH levels reflect the metabolic status of thyroid function, however the definition and interpretation of the basal levels of TSH is a matter of controversial debate. The aim of this study was to evaluate basal TSH levels in relation to the physiological response to i.v. TRH stimulation. A series of 2570 women attending a specialized endocrine unit were evaluated. A standardized i.v. TRH stimulation test was carried out by applying 200 mug of TRH. TSH levels were measured both in the basal and the 30 minute blood sample. The normal response to TRH stimulation had been previously determined to be an absolute value lying between 2.5 and 20 mIU/l. Both TSH values were analyzed by cross tabulation. In addition the results were compared to reference values taken from the literature. Basal TSH values were within the normal range (0.3 to 3.5 mIU/l) in 91,5% of cases, diminished in 3,8% and elevated in 4.7%. Based on the response to TRH, 82.4% were considered euthyroid, 3.3% were latent hyperthyroid, and 14.3% were latent hypothyroid. Combining the data on basal and stimulated TSH levels, latent hypothyroidism was found in the following proportions for different TSH levels: 5.4% for TSH basal TSH levels in relation to latent hypothyroidism. A grey area can be identified for values between 3.0 and 3.5 mIU/l.

  20. Thyroid stimulating hormone and subclinical thyroid dysfunction

    Guo Yongtie

    2008-01-01

    Subclinical thyroid dysfunction has mild clinical symptoms. It is nonspecific and not so noticeable. It performs only for thyroid stimulating hormone rise and decline. The value of early diagnosis and treatment of thyroid stimulating hormone in subclinical thyroid dysfunction were reviewed. (authors)

  1. A Sensitive Tg Assay or rhTSH Stimulated Tg : What's the Best in the Long-Term Follow-Up of Patients with Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma?

    Persoon, Adrienne C. M.; Jager, Pieter L.; Sluiter, Wim J.; Plukker, John T. M.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Links, Thera P.

    2007-01-01

    Sensitivity of thyroglobulin (Tg) measurement in the follow-up of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) can be optimized by using a sensitive Tg assay and rhTSH stimulation. We evaluated the diagnostic yield of a sensitive Tg assay and rhTSH stimulated Tg in the detection of recurrences in the

  2. Comparison of the Influence on the Liver Function Between Thyroid Hormone Withdrawal and rh-TSH Before High-Dose Radioiodine Therapy in Patients with Well-Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    Han, Yeon-Hee; Lim, Seok Tae; Yun, Kuk-No; Yim, Sung Kyun; Kim, Dong Wook; Jeong, Hwan-Jeong; Sohn, Myung-Hee [Chonbuk National Univ. Medical School and Hospital, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    An elevated thyroid stimulating hormone level (TSH) is essential to stimulate the uptake of radioiodine into thyroid remnants and metastases and metastases of thyroid cancer when a patient under-goes high-dose radioiodine therapy. Nowadays, recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone (rh-TSH) is increasingly used instead of the classic method of thyroid hormone withdrawal (THW). However, beyond the therapeutic effects, clinical differences between the two methods have not yet been clearly demonstrated. The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of the two methods, especially on liver function. We identified 143 evaluable patients who were further divided into two groups: THW and rh-TSH. We first reviewed the aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels, which were measured during the admission period for total thyroidectomy. We called these liver enzyme levels 'base AST' and 'base ALT.' We also assessed other chemistry profiles, including AST, ALT, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin (TB), and triglyceride (TG), which were measured on admission day for high-dose radioiodine therapy. We called these liver enzyme levels 'follow-up AST'and 'follow-up ALT.' We compared the changes in base and follow-up liver enzyme levels and the other chemistry profiles between the two groups. The base AST and base ALT levels of the two groups were within normal range, and there was no significant difference between the two groups. In contrast to these base liver enzyme levels, follow-up AST and ALT levels than did the rh-TSH group. Patients in the THW group. Patients in the THW group also had higher levels of total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol than did the patients in the rh-TSH group. However there were no statistically significant differences in ALP, total bilirubin, and triglyceride levels between the two groups. In this retrospective analysis of liver

  3. Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone, White Matter Hyperintensities, and Functional Outcome in Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients

    Christopher O. Leonards

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH concentrations are frequently altered in acute ischemic stroke patients. It is becoming increasingly apparent that various hormones in the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis may be associated with functional stroke outcome. We have previously shown that white matter hyperintensities (WMH of presumed vascular origin are strong indicators of functional outcome. It is unclear whether an association exists between WMH and TSH. We therefore sought to determine whether TSH levels, measured in acute ischemic stroke patients, are associated with WMH and functional outcome. Methods: We analyzed all first ischemic stroke patients who participated in the Berlin ‘Cream & Sugar' Study (NCT 01378468 and completed a 1-year follow-up assessment from January 2009 to March 2013. Patients were stratified into 3 groups: (1 low TSH (0.1-0.44 μU/ml; (2 normal TSH (0.44-2.5 μU/ml, and (3 high TSH (2.5-20 μU/ml. WMH were assessed using the Fazekas and Wahlund visual rating scales. Functional outcome was assessed using the modified Rankin Scale and was performed via telephone at 1 year by a certified rater. Results: 183 patients were included [median age 66, interquartile range (IQR 54-75; 33% females; median National Institute of Health Stroke Scale 3, IQR 1-4, range 0-24]. Venous samples were collected a median of 4 days (IQR 3-5 following initial symptom onset between 8 and 9 a.m. following a 10-hour fast. Patients with normal TSH levels (n = 132; 72% had significantly higher rates of prestroke diabetes than patients with high TSH levels (normal TSH 17%; high TSH 1%; p = 0.03. Additionally, patients with normal TSH levels tended to have higher estimated glomerular filtration rates than patients with high and low TSH concentrations (normal TSH median estimated glomerular filtration rates: 83 ml/min/1.73 m2; high TSH median estimated glomerular filtration rates: 76 ml/min/1.73 m2; low TSH median: 78 ml/min/1.73 m2; p

  4. Site-specific PEGylation of human thyroid stimulating hormone to prolong duration of action.

    Qiu, Huawei; Boudanova, Ekaterina; Park, Anna; Bird, Julie J; Honey, Denise M; Zarazinski, Christine; Greene, Ben; Kingsbury, Jonathan S; Boucher, Susan; Pollock, Julie; McPherson, John M; Pan, Clark Q

    2013-03-20

    Recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone (rhTSH or Thyrogen) has been approved for thyroid cancer diagnostics and treatment under a multidose regimen due to its short circulating half-life. To reduce dosing frequency, PEGylation strategies were explored to increase the duration of action of rhTSH. Lysine and N-terminal PEGylation resulted in heterogeneous product profiles with 40% or lower reaction yields of monoPEGylated products. Eleven cysteine mutants were designed based on a structure model of the TSH-TSH receptor (TSHR) complex to create unique conjugation sites on both α and β subunits for site-specific conjugation. Sequential screening of mutant expression level, oligomerization tendency, and conjugation efficiency resulted in the identification of the αG22C rhTSH mutant for stable expression and scale-up PEGylation. The introduced cysteine in the αG22C rhTSH mutant was partially blocked when isolated from conditioned media and could only be effectively PEGylated after mild reduction with cysteine. This produced a higher reaction yield, ~85%, for the monoPEGylated product. Although the mutation had no effect on receptor binding, PEGylation of αG22C rhTSH led to a PEG size-dependent decrease in receptor binding. Nevertheless, the 40 kDa PEG αG22C rhTSH showed a prolonged duration of action compared to rhTSH in a rat pharmacodynamics model. Reverse-phase HPLC and N-terminal sequencing experiments confirmed site-specific modification at the engineered Cys 22 position on the α-subunit. This work is another demonstration of successful PEGylation of a cysteine-knot protein by an engineered cysteine mutation.

  5. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) inhibits stimulated thyroid hormone secretion in the mouse

    Ahren, B.

    1987-01-01

    It is known that epidermal growth factor (EGF) inhibits iodide uptake in the thyroid follicular cells and lowers plasma levels of thyroid hormones upon infusion into sheep and ewes. In this study, the effects of EGF on basal and stimulated thyroid hormone secretion were investigated in the mouse. Mice were pretreated with 125 I and thyroxine; the subsequent release of 125 I is an estimation of thyroid hormone secretion. It was found that basal radioiodine secretion was not altered by intravenous injection of EGF (5 micrograms/animal). However, the radioiodine secretion stimulated by both TSH (120 microU/animal) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP; 5 micrograms/animal) were inhibited by EGF (5 micrograms/animal). At a lower dose level (0.5 microgram/animal), EGF had no influence on stimulated radioiodine secretion. In conclusion, EGF inhibits stimulated thyroid hormone secretion in the mouse

  6. A patient with thyrotropinoma cosecreting growth hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone with low alpha-glycoprotein: a new subentity?

    Elhadd, Tarik A; Ghosh, Sujoy; Teoh, Wei Leng; Trevethick, Katy Ann; Hanzely, Zoltan; Dunn, Laurence T; Malik, Iqbal A; Collier, Andrew

    2009-08-01

    Thyrotropinomas are rare pituitary tumors. In 25 percent of cases there is autonomous secretion of a second pituitary hormone, adding to the clinical complexity. We report a patient with thyrotropin (TSH)-dependant hyperthyroidism along with growth hormone (GH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) hypersecretion but low alpha-glycoprotein (alpha-subunit) concentrations, a hitherto unique constellation of findings. A 67-year-old Scottish lady presented with longstanding ankle edema, paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, uncontrolled hypertension, fine tremors, warm peripheries, and agitation. Initial findings were a small goiter, elevated serum TSH of 7.37 mU/L (normal range, 0.30-6.0 mU/L), a free-thyroxine concentration of 34.9 pmol/L (normal range, 9.0-24.0 pmol/L), a flat TSH response to TSH-releasing hormone, and serum alpha-subunit of 3.1 IU/L (normal, hormone beta receptor by genotyping. Serum FSH was 56.8 U/L, but the luteinizing hormone (LH) was 23.6 U/L (postmenopausal FSH and LH reference ranges both >30 U/L) Basal insulin-like growth factor I was elevated to 487 microg/L with the concomitant serum GH being 14.1 mU/L, and subsequent serum GH values 30 minutes after 75 g oral glucose being 19.1 mU/L and 150 minutes later being 13.7 mU/L. An magnetic resonance imaging pituitary revealed a macroadenoma. Pituitary adenomectomy was performed with the histology confirming a pituitary adenoma, and the immunohistochemistry staining showed positive reactivity for FSH with scattered cells staining for GH and TSH. Staining for other anterior pituitary hormones was negative. After pituitary surgery she became clinically and biochemically euthyroid, the serum IFG-1 became normal, but the pattern of serum FSH and LH did not change. This case of plurihormonal thyrotropinoma is unique in having hypersecretion of TSH, GH, and FSH with low alpha-subunit. Such a combination may represent a new subentity of TSHomas.

  7. Association of High Vitamin D Status with Low Circulating Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Independent of Thyroid Hormone Levels in Middle-Aged and Elderly Males

    Qingqing Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A recent study has reported that high circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] is associated with low circulating thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH levels, but only in younger individuals. The goal of the present study was to explore the relationship between vitamin D status and circulating TSH levels with thyroid autoimmunity and thyroid hormone levels taken into consideration in a population-based health survey of middle-aged and elderly individuals. Methods. A total of 1,424 Chinese adults, aged 41–78 years, were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Serum levels of 25(OHD, TSH, thyroid hormones, and thyroid autoantibodies were measured. Results. The prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency was 94.29% in males and 97.22% in females, and the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was 55.61% in males and 69.64% in females. Vitamin D status was not associated with positive thyroid autoantibodies after controlling for age, gender, body mass index, and smoking status. Higher 25(OHD levels were associated with lower TSH levels after controlling for age, FT4 and FT3 levels, thyroid volume, the presence of thyroid nodule(s, and smoking status in males. Conclusion. High vitamin D status in middle-aged and elderly males was associated with low circulating TSH levels independent of thyroid hormone levels.

  8. TSH Isoforms: About a Case of Hypothyroidism in a Down's Syndrome Young Adult

    Anne-Sophie Gauchez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. For unknown reasons, the prevalence of thyroid autoimmune disorders is higher in patients with Down's syndrome than in the general population. The present case strongly supports a recent evaluation of propagating screening for thyroid disease in this group of patients to assure early diagnosis of hypothyroidism. Methods. In a 25-year-old man diagnosed with Down's syndrome, clinical manifestations of hypothyroidism were lacking, but profound biochemical abnormalities were found with particularly high levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH. Antigenic properties of TSH were characterized using a panel of anti-TSH antibodies. Results. Technical problems not infrequently associated with TSH measurements are convincingly ruled out. Antigenic characterization of the patient's circulating TSH revealed circulating forms of TSH different from pituitary TSH which closely resembled TSH recombinant human hormone. Conclusions. It appears counterintuitive that the bioactivity of TSH decreases in the hypothyroid state as higher bioactivity of TSH is anticipated in hypothyroidism promoted by an increased hypothalamic TRH drive. In contrast, diminished negative thyroid hormone feedback will enhance posttranslational glycosylation of TSH subunits and increase sialylation of the carbohydrate side chains. Both exert a negative effect on TSH bioactivity, only compensated by the very high levels of the hormone as in the present case.

  9. Carriers of a VEGFA enhancer polymorphism selectively binding CHOP/DDIT3 are predisposed to increased circulating levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone

    Ahluwalia, Tarun Veer Singh; Troelsen, Jesper Thorvald; Balslev-Harder, Marie

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Levels of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) indicate thyroid function, because thyroid hormone negatively controls TSH release. Genetic variants in the vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) gene are associated with TSH levels. The aim of this study was to characterise...... levels (p=0.0014). The SNP rs881858 is located in a binding site for CHOP (C/EBP homology protein) and c/EBPβ (ccaat enhancer binding protein β). Reporter-gene analysis showed increased basal enhancer activity of the rs881858 A-allele versus the G-allele (34.5±9.9% (average±SEM), p=0.0012), while co...

  10. Using Hashimoto thyroiditis as gold standard to determine the upper limit value of thyroid stimulating hormone in a Chinese cohort.

    Li, Yu; Chen, Dong-Ning; Cui, Jing; Xin, Zhong; Yang, Guang-Ran; Niu, Ming-Jia; Yang, Jin-Kui

    2016-11-06

    Subclinical hypothyroidism, commonly caused by Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT), is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. This disorder is defined as merely having elevated serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels. However, the upper limit of reference range for TSH is debated recently. This study was to determine the cutoff value for the upper normal limit of TSH in a cohort using the prevalence of Hashimoto thyroiditis as "gold" calibration standard. The research population was medical staff of 2856 individuals who took part in health examination annually. Serum free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), TSH, thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPAb), thyroglobulin antibody (TGAb) and other biochemistry parameters were tested. Meanwhile, thyroid ultrasound examination was performed. The diagnosis of HT was based on presence of thyroid antibodies (TPAb and TGAb) and abnormalities of thyroid ultrasound examination. We used two different methods to estimate the cutoff point of TSH based on the prevalence of HT. Joinpoint regression showed the prevalence of HT increased significantly at the ninth decile of TSH value corresponding to 2.9 mU/L. ROC curve showed a TSH cutoff value of 2.6 mU/L with the maximized sensitivity and specificity in identifying HT. Using the newly defined cutoff value of TSH can detect patients with hyperlipidemia more efficiently, which may indicate our approach to define the upper limit of TSH can make more sense from the clinical point of view. A significant increase in the prevalence of HT occurred among individuals with a TSH of 2.6-2.9 mU/L made it possible to determine the cutoff value of normal upper limit of TSH.

  11. Lack of effect of the dopamine D1 antagonist, NNC 01-0687, on unstimulated and stimulated release of anterior pituitary hormones in males

    Grodum, E; Andersen, M; Hangaard, J

    1998-01-01

    -blind placebo controlled cross-over study for three days with a wash-out period of 14 days. Hormonal responses (PRL, LH, FSH, GH, TSH, thyroid hormones and testosterone), unstimulated and LHRH/TRH stimulated, were studied on days 1 and 3. No significant difference (p > 0.05) between placebo and active periods...

  12. Use of recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone for evaluation of thyroid function in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    Mayer, Jörg; Wagner, Robert; Mitchell, Mark A; Fecteau, Kellie

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of administration of recombinant human (rh) thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) for evaluation of thyroid function in euthyroid guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus). Prospective, experimental study. 10 healthy, sexually intact, pet guinea pigs (approx 1 year of age). Guinea pigs were given rhTSH (100 μg, IM); plasma thyroxine concentrations were determined prior to and 3 and 4 hours after rhTSH injection. The animals were housed in 2 groups on the basis of sex and fed different commercial maintenance diets according to their husbandry. There was no significant difference in thyroxine concentrations between males and females before or after rhTSH injection. There was also no difference between thyroxine concentrations at 3 versus 4 hours after rhTSH injection. There was a significant difference between thyroxine concentrations before (median, 9.05 nmol/L [0.70 μg/dL]; 10% to 90% range, 7.39 to 16.99 nmol/L [0.57 to 1.32 μg/dL]) and after (mean ± SD, 23.95 ± 4.2 nmol/L) rhTSH injection. Euthyroid guinea pigs had plasma thyroxine concentrations of at least 7.30 nmol/L (0.57 μg/dL) and an increase of at least 2.6 times prestimulation thyroxine concentrations at 3 or 4 hours after stimulation. The results suggested that rhTSH administered IM can be used for the TSH stimulation testing in guinea pigs. We suggest thyroxine concentration in a euthyroid guinea pig should at least double 3 to 4 hours after rhTSH injection.

  13. Serum Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Levels and Body Mass Index Percentiles in Children with Primary Hypothyroidism on Levothyroxine Replacement.

    Shaoba, Asma; Basu, Sanjib; Mantis, Stelios; Minutti, Carla

    2017-12-15

    To determine the association, if any, between thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels and body mass index (BMI) percentiles in children with primary hypothyroidism who are chemically euthyroid and on treatment with levothyroxine. This retrospective cross-sectional study consisted of a review of medical records from RUSH Medical Center and Stroger Hospital, Chicago, USA of children with primary hypothyroidism who were seen in the clinic from 2008 to 2014 and who were chemically euthyroid and on treatment with levothyroxine for at least 6 months. The patients were divided into two groups based on their TSH levels (0.34-hypothyroidism who are chemically euthyroid on treatment with levothyroxine, there is a positive association between higher TSH levels and higher BMI percentiles. However, it is difficult to establish if the higher TSH levels are a direct cause or a consequence of the obesity. Further studies are needed to establish causation beyond significant association.

  14. Highly sensitive determination of TSH in the follow-up of TSH-suppressive therapy of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer

    Mann, K.; Saller, B.; Mehl, U.; Hoermann, R.; Moser, E.

    1988-01-01

    Basal and TRH-stimulated TSH levels were determined in 72 patients with differentiated thyroid cancer on hormonal treatment, using a highly sensitive immunoradiometric assay (IRMAclon, Henning). 43 patients were under treatment with levothyroxine (T 4 ), 29 patients with triiodothyronine (T 3 ). In 33/43 patients (77%) under T 4 - and in 18/29 patients (62%) under T 3 -treatment basal TSH levels were below 0.1 mU/l. 3 patients showed a significant response (to above 0.5 mU/l) in the TRH test despite basal values of less than 0.1 mU/l. In 2 patients with elevated basal TSH levels (0.23 and 0.60 mU/l, resp.) in the IRMAclon, total suppression of TSH secretion was suggested by a failure of TSH to rise after TRH. By retesting these samples in an own TSH IRMA, basal and stimulated TSH values were below 0.1 mU/l. In conclusion, basal and TRH-stimulated TSH levels are well correlated in most patients with thyroid cancer under hormonal treatment. However, in some cases (5/72) determination of basal TSH could not clearly define the degree of thyrotropic suppression. Thus, TRH testing is still necessary to establish definitely complete TSH suppression in patients with thyroid carcinoma under suppressive treatment. (orig.) [de

  15. Is routine measurement of TSH in hospitalized patients necessary?

    Amir Bashkin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available TSH routine testing in hospitalized patients has low efficacy, but may be beneficial in a selected subgroup of patients. Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy of routine thyroid function tests among patients admitted to internal medicine departments. It is a retrospective study. A randomly selected cohort of hospitalized patients with abnormal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH blood tests drawn as part of admission protocol. Patient data were collected from the electronic medical files and analyzed for its efficacy. TSH as a screening test was proven unnecessary in 75% (174 of the study population. Leading causes were non-thyroidal illness syndrome, drugs affecting the test results and subclinical disorders. TSH testing was found to be clinically helpful in only 9 patients; however, all of them had other clinical need for TSH testing. We found a clinically abnormal TSH in 20 patients, hypothyroidism in 11 patients and thyrotoxicosis in 9 patients. Low efficacy ascribed to TSH screening test by this study correlates with recent recommendations that indicate TSH screening in admitted patients only with accompanying clinical suspicion. Most probably, the majority of patients found by screening to have thyrotoxicosis have non-thyroidal illness or drug effects so the threshold for FT4 to diagnose overt thyrotoxicosis should be higher than that in ambulatory patients. In elderly patients, clinically relevant TSH disturbances are more frequent and are harder to diagnose, therefore, TSH screening in this group of patients might be beneficial.

  16. A genome-wide association study of thyroid stimulating hormone and free thyroxine in Danish children and adolescents

    Nielsen, Tenna Ruest Haarmark; Appel, Emil Vincent Rosenbaum; Svendstrup, Mathilde

    2017-01-01

    BackgroundHypothyroidism is associated with obesity, and thyroid hormones are involved in the regulation of body composition, including fat mass. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in adults have identified 19 and 6 loci associated with plasma concentrations of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH......) and free thyroxine (fT4), respectively.ObjectiveThis study aimed to identify and characterize genetic variants associated with circulating TSH and fT4 in Danish children and adolescents and to examine whether these variants associate with obesity.MethodsGenome-wide association analyses of imputed genotype...... data with fasting plasma concentrations of TSH and fT4 from a population-based sample of Danish children, adolescents, and young adults, and a group of children, adolescents, and young adults with overweight and obesity were performed (N = 1,764, mean age = 12.0 years [range 2.5-24.7]). Replication...

  17. Relationship between thyroid stimulating hormone and various components of metabolic syndrome

    Majeed, S.; Hashim, R.

    2015-01-01

    To determine the relation between thyroid stimulating hormone and various components of metabolic syndrome. Study Design: Descriptive cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Pathology department, Army Medical College of National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST) Islamabad and Military Hospital (MH), Rawalpindi, Pakistan; from January to March 2013. Material and Methods: Hundred adult inhabitants (30-60 years) of Rawalpindi participated in this study. Subjects who fulfilled the WHO criteria for metabolic syndrome (MetS) were included and those who had any thyroid illness, or were using any thyroid medications were excluded from this study. For thyroid function tests (TFT's), serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), total tri-iodothyronine (TT3), free throxine (FT4) were estimated. Insulin resistance (IR) was measured by Homeostasis Model Assessment for IR (HOMA-IR). Data was analyzed by SPSS-18. Results: Out of 50 subjects of control group, 26 (52%) were male and 24 (48%) were female. Basal metabolic rate (BMI), serum triglyceride (TG), HOMA-IR were higher and serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) was lower in MetS patients. There was no significant difference in serum TT3 and FT4 between MetS patients and control group, however, mean serum TSH levels were higher in MetS (2.622 + 0.924 vs 5.002 + 1.074 mIU/l, p<0.001). In correlation analysis, serum TSH was positively and significantly correlated with BMI (r=0.344, p=0.014) and HOMA-IR (r=0.419, p<0.002). Conclusion: These results suggest that serum TSH correlates with various components of metabolic syndrome patients. Analysis of serum TSH levels in metabolic syndrome patients may prove beneficial in preventing the various cardiometabolic complications in such patients. (author)

  18. contribution of growth hormone-releasing hormone and

    The strategy used was to stimulate GH secretion in 8 young ... treatment with two oral doses of 50 mg atenolol (to inhibit .... had normal baseline thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) ..... production rate of 14% per decade has been documented.'".

  19. Regulation of Thyroid Hormone Bioactivity in Health and Disease

    R.P. Peeters (Robin)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractTThyroid hormone plays an essential role in a variety of metabolic processes in the human body. Examples are the effects of thyroid hormone on metabolism and on the heart. The production of thyroid hormone by the thyroid is regulated by thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) via the TSH

  20. Effect of race, gender and age on thyroid and thyroid stimulating hormone levels in north west frontier province, Pakistan

    Ahmed, Z.; Khan, M.A.; Haq, A.U.

    2009-01-01

    Thyroid is one of the ductless endocrine gland, which is located immediately below the larynx on either side of and anterior to the trachea. The principal hormones of thyroid gland are thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). The current study was carried out to investigate the impact of race, gender and area on the levels of Thyroxine (T4), Triiodothyronine (T3) and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) in normal healthy individuals. Methods: Serum levels of T4, T3 and TSH in 498 normal healthy individuals belonging to different districts of North West Frontier Province, Pakistan, were examined. Serum T4 and T3 were analysed by Radio Immuno Assay (RIA) method whereas TSH was estimated by Immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) method. Results: Levels of T4, T3 and TSH ranged from 53 to 167 m mu mol/L and 0.3-4.8 mu mol/L respectively. The levels of these hormones show significant change from the reference values that are used in clinical laboratories as well as in Institute of Rauclear Medicine (IRNUM), Peshawar, Pakistan. Conclusion: It is concluded that the age, gender, race and area, all have an appreciable effect on the levels T4, T3 and TSH. (author)

  1. A case of myxedema coma caused by isolated thyrotropin stimulating hormone deficiency and Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

    Iida, Keiji; Hino, Yasuhisa; Ohara, Takeshi; Chihara, Kazuo

    2011-01-01

    Myxedema coma (MC) is a rare, but often fatal endocrine emergency. The majority of cases that occur in elderly women with long-standing primary hypothyroidism are caused by particular triggers. Conversely, MC of central origin is extremely rare. Here, we report a case of MC with both central and primary origins. A 56-year-old woman was transferred to our hospital due to loss of consciousness; a chest x-ray demonstrated severe cardiomegaly. Low body temperature, bradycardia, and pericardial effusion suggested the presence of hypothyroidism. Endocrinological examination revealed undetectable levels of serum free thyroxine (T(4)) and free triiodothyronine (T(3)), whereas serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were not elevated. The woman's serum anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody and anti-thyroglobulin antibody tests were positive, indicating that she had Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Provocative tests to the anterior pituitary revealed that she had TSH and growth hormone (GH) deficiency; however, GH levels were restored after supplementation with levothyroxine for 5 months. This was not only a rare case of MC with TSH deficiency and Hashimoto's thyroiditis; the patient also developed severe osteoporosis and possessed transient elevated levels of serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). This atypical case may suggest the role of anterior pituitary hormone deficiencies, as well as hypothyroidism, in the regulation of bone metabolism.

  2. Purification of bovine thyroid-stimulating hormone by a monoclonal antibody

    Lock, A.J.; van Denderen, J.; Aarden, L.A.

    1988-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody directed against bovine TSH was obtained by hybridoma technology. This antibody was specific for TSH and did not react with bovine LH and FSH. Affinity chromatography of crude TSH was performed on anti-TSH Sepharose. Bovine TSH was purified in a single step to near homogeneity by this technique, as shown by cation exchange chromatography and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the purified TSH. The biological activity of the hormone was not affected during the purification, as determined by [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation of the TSH-dependent FRTL5 cell line. The results indicate that affinity purification of TSH by means of a monoclonal antibody is a simple one-step procedure for the production of biologically active, highly purified TSH

  3. The association between soya consumption and serum thyroid-stimulating hormone concentrations in the Adventist Health Study-2.

    Tonstad, Serena; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Messina, Mark; Haddad, Ella; Fraser, Gary E

    2016-06-01

    Consumers may choose soya foods as healthful alternatives to animal products, but concern has arisen that eating large amounts of soya may adversely affect thyroid function. The present study aimed to examine the association between soya food consumption and serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations in North American churchgoers belonging to the Seventh-day Adventist denomination that encourages vegetarianism. Participants completed six repeated 24 h dietary recalls within a 6-month period. Soya protein and soya isoflavone intakes were estimated, and their relationships to TSH concentrations measured at the end of 6 months were calculated using logistic regression analyses. Calibration sub-study of the Adventist Health Study-2. Women (n 548) and men (n 295) who were not taking thyroid medications. In men, age and urinary iodine concentrations were associated with high serum TSH concentrations (>5 mIU/l), while among women White ethnicity was associated with high TSH. In multivariate models adjusted for age, ethnicity and urinary iodine, soya isoflavone and protein intakes were not associated with high TSH in men. In women higher soya isoflavone consumption was associated with higher TSH, with an adjusted odds ratio (highest v. lowest quintile) of 4·17 (95 % CI 1·73, 10·06). Likewise, women with high consumption of soya protein (midpoint of highest quintile, 11 g/d) v. low consumption (midpoint of lowest quintile, 0 g/d) carried increased odds of high TSH (OR=2·69; 95 % CI 1·34, 5·30). In women high consumption of soya was associated with elevated TSH concentrations. No associations between soya intake and TSH were found in men.

  4. Thyroid stimulating hormone and serum, plasma, and platelet brain-derived neurotrophic factor during a 3-month follow-up in patients with major depressive disorder.

    Baek, Ji Hyun; Kang, Eun-Suk; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David; Nierenberg, Andrew A; Lee, Dongsoo; Heo, Jung-Yoon; Jeon, Hong Jin

    2014-12-01

    Thyroid dysfunction and elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) are common in patients with depression. TSH might exert its function in the brain through blood levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). BDNF decreases during depressed states and normalize after treatment. The gap is that the association between TSH and BDNF in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) is unknown. We studied 105 subjects ≥18 years of age with MDD and measured serum, plasma, and platelet BDNF at baseline, 1 month and 3 months during antidepressant treatment. Other baseline measurements included hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis hormones such as TSH, triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4); hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hormones and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis hormones and prolactin. Linear mixed model effect analyses revealed that baseline TSH level was negatively associated with changes of serum BDNF from baseline to 3 months (F=7.58, p=0.007) after adjusting for age, sex, and body mass index, but was not associated with plasma and platelet BDNF. In contrast, T3 and T4, HPA axis hormones, HPG axis hormones, and prolactin were not associated with serum, plasma, or platelet BDNF levels. Patients in the highest quartile of TSH showed significantly lower serum BDNF than in the other quartiles (F=4.54, p=0.038), but no significant differences were found based on T3 and T4 levels. TSH was only measured at baseline. Higher TSH is associated with lower baseline and reduced the increase of serum BDNF levels during antidepressant treatment in patients with MDD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Thyroid stimulating hormone levels in cord blood are not influenced by non-thyroidal mothers' diseases

    Laura Sterian Ward

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Screening programs not only offer the opportunity to trace and treat almost all cases of congenital hypothyroidism but also mean large savings to the health system. However, carefully planned strategies are necessary to extend their benefits and reduce costs. OBJECTIVE: To determine the possible influence of maternal diseases that affect maternal-fetal placenta dynamics on primary thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH screening for congenital hypothyroidism. DESIGN: Prospective non-randomized clinical trial with at least 3 months of follow-up. SETTING: A public university referral center [CAISM/Hospital das Clínicas, Faculty of Medicine, University of Campinas, Campinas, SP]. PARTICIPANTS: 415 neonates divided into 5 groups: eighty-three infants born from cardiac mothers; 98 from mothers that had toxemia; 54 of the mothers had diabetes mellitus; 40 were HIV positive and 140 had no diseases. INTERVENTION: All newborns had cord blood samples collected on filter paper at birth. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: TSH was measured from dried blood spots using a homemade immunofluorescence assay (sensitivity in dried blood spots = 0.1 mU/L. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the mean TSH levels among the 5 groups. Moreover, TSH levels were around 5 mU/L in 48% of the newborns, indicating that our region is severely deficient in iodine. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that primary TSH screening programs using cord blood are not affected by maternal diseases. We suggest that, besides its technical advantages over heel punctures with T4 primary approaches, neonatal screening using primary cord blood TSH may also be used as a monitoring tool for evaluation and control of iodine deficiency disorders (IDD.

  6. Relationship of thyroid-stimulating hormone with metabolic syndrome in a sample of euthyroid Pakistani population

    Saleem, M.S.; Khan, K.A.

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic Syndrome is a group of factors that predispose to cardiovascular diseases. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is rising rapidly. Recently, a few studies have suggested that lower thyroid function in the reference range may be associated with metabolic syndrome, but the issue remains unsettled. We aimed to elucidate the relationship between thyroid function and components of metabolic syndrome in a sample of euthyroid Pakistani population. Methods: This analytical, cross-sectional study was conducted at the Department of Physiology, University of Health Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan, and extended over a period of 12 months. It included 100 subjects with metabolic syndrome in the study group and thirty subjects without metabolic syndrome in the control group with age ranging 45-55 years. Both groups had normal thyroid function. After a detailed history and clinical examination, fasting blood was analysed for glucose, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol along with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine. Results: Serum TSH was significantly higher in study group than in control group (p=0.040). Serum free thyroxine values of study group were slightly but not significantly lower than those of control group. Serum TSH correlated significantly and positively with serum triglycerides in all subjects and with waist circumference and diastolic blood pressure in men. Serum TSH showed a positive and linear relationship with the number of components of metabolic syndrome (p=0.016) in all subjects. Conclusion: High-normal TSH is associated with metabolic syndrome and its components. There may be increased risk of cardiovascular diseases with high-normal TSH levels. (author)

  7. Neonatal thyroid-stimulating hormone concentration and psychomotor development at preschool age.

    Trumpff, Caroline; De Schepper, Jean; Vanderfaeillie, Johan; Vercruysse, Nathalie; Van Oyen, Herman; Moreno-Reyes, Rodrigo; Tafforeau, Jean; Vandevijvere, Stefanie

    2016-12-01

    Thyroid hormones are essential for normal brain development. The aim of this study is to assess if high concentration of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) that is below the clinical threshold (5-15 mIU/L) at neonatal screening is linked to psychomotor development impairments in the offspring at preschool age. A total of 284 Belgian preschool children 4-6 years old and their mothers were included in the study. The children were randomly selected from the total list of neonates screened in 2008, 2009 and 2010 by the Brussels newborn screening centre. The sampling was stratified by gender and TSH range (0.45-15 mIU/L). Infants with congenital hypothyroidism (>15 mIU/L), low birth weight and/or prematurity were excluded. Psychomotor development was assessed using the Charlop-Atwell scale of motor coordination. The iodine status of children was determined using median urinary iodine concentration. Socioeconomic, parental and child potential confounding factors were measured through a self-administered questionnaire. TSH level was not significantly associated with total motor score (average change in z-score per unit increase in TSH is 0.02 (-0.03, 0.07), p=0.351), objective motor score (p=0.794) and subjective motor score (p=0.124). No significant associations were found using multivariate regression model to control confounding factors. Mild thyroid dysfunction in the newborn-reflected by an elevation of TSH that is below the clinical threshold (5-15 mIU/L)-was not associated with impaired psychomotor development at preschool age. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Receptor Antibodies in Pregnancy: Clinical Relevance

    Bucci, Ines; Giuliani, Cesidio; Napolitano, Giorgio

    2017-01-01

    Graves’ disease is the most common cause of thyrotoxicosis in women of childbearing age. Approximately 1% of pregnant women been treated before, or are being treated during pregnancy for Graves’ hyperthyroidism. In pregnancy, as in not pregnant state, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor (TSHR) antibodies (TRAbs) are the pathogenetic hallmark of Graves’ disease. TRAbs are heterogeneous for molecular and functional properties and are subdivided into activating (TSAbs), blocking (TBAbs), or neutral (N-TRAbs) depending on their effect on TSHR. The typical clinical features of Graves’ disease (goiter, hyperthyroidism, ophthalmopathy, dermopathy) occur when TSAbs predominate. Graves’ disease shows some peculiarities in pregnancy. The TRAbs disturb the maternal as well as the fetal thyroid function given their ability to cross the placental barrier. The pregnancy-related immunosuppression reduces the levels of TRAbs in most cases although they persist in women with active disease as well as in women who received definitive therapy (radioiodine or surgery) before pregnancy. Changes of functional properties from stimulating to blocking the TSHR could occur during gestation. Drug therapy is the treatment of choice for hyperthyroidism during gestation. Antithyroid drugs also cross the placenta and therefore decrease both the maternal and the fetal thyroid hormone production. The management of Graves’ disease in pregnancy should be aimed at maintaining euthyroidism in the mother as well as in the fetus. Maternal and fetal thyroid dysfunction (hyperthyroidism as well as hypothyroidism) are in fact associated with several morbidities. Monitoring of the maternal thyroid function, TRAbs measurement, and fetal surveillance are the mainstay for the management of Graves’ disease in pregnancy. This review summarizes the biochemical, immunological, and therapeutic aspects of Graves’ disease in pregnancy focusing on the role of the TRAbs in maternal and fetal

  9. Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Receptor Antibodies in Pregnancy: Clinical Relevance

    Ines Bucci

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Graves’ disease is the most common cause of thyrotoxicosis in women of childbearing age. Approximately 1% of pregnant women been treated before, or are being treated during pregnancy for Graves’ hyperthyroidism. In pregnancy, as in not pregnant state, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH receptor (TSHR antibodies (TRAbs are the pathogenetic hallmark of Graves’ disease. TRAbs are heterogeneous for molecular and functional properties and are subdivided into activating (TSAbs, blocking (TBAbs, or neutral (N-TRAbs depending on their effect on TSHR. The typical clinical features of Graves’ disease (goiter, hyperthyroidism, ophthalmopathy, dermopathy occur when TSAbs predominate. Graves’ disease shows some peculiarities in pregnancy. The TRAbs disturb the maternal as well as the fetal thyroid function given their ability to cross the placental barrier. The pregnancy-related immunosuppression reduces the levels of TRAbs in most cases although they persist in women with active disease as well as in women who received definitive therapy (radioiodine or surgery before pregnancy. Changes of functional properties from stimulating to blocking the TSHR could occur during gestation. Drug therapy is the treatment of choice for hyperthyroidism during gestation. Antithyroid drugs also cross the placenta and therefore decrease both the maternal and the fetal thyroid hormone production. The management of Graves’ disease in pregnancy should be aimed at maintaining euthyroidism in the mother as well as in the fetus. Maternal and fetal thyroid dysfunction (hyperthyroidism as well as hypothyroidism are in fact associated with several morbidities. Monitoring of the maternal thyroid function, TRAbs measurement, and fetal surveillance are the mainstay for the management of Graves’ disease in pregnancy. This review summarizes the biochemical, immunological, and therapeutic aspects of Graves’ disease in pregnancy focusing on the role of the TRAbs in maternal and

  10. Recombinant human TSH in differentiated thyroid cancer: a nuclear medicine perspective

    Zanotti-Fregonara, P. [CEA, DSV, I2BM, SHFJ, LMNRB, Orsay (France); Rubello, D. [Osped S Maria Misericordia, IRCCS, IOV, Dept Nucl Med, PET Ctr, I-45100 Rovigo (Italy); Hindie, E. [Hop St Louis, Dept Nucl Med, Paris (France)

    2008-07-01

    The use of recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH) in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is widely discussed in the literature with regard to the diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of the management of DTC patients. However, some controversy about the appropriate indications, advantages and potential disadvantages of the use of rhTSH may still exist within the community of nuclear medicine physicians. In our opinion, the clinical benefits of rhTSH in avoiding hypothyroidism outweigh its somewhat lesser diagnostic accuracy. However, we disagree on designating rhTSH as the 'golden standard' to obtain TSH stimulation, as suggested by some authors. Thus, the first follow-up examination after ablation, which is determinant for patients' prognostic classification, can be either done under rhTSH stimulation or after hormone withdrawal. In our practice, and for higher risk patients, we still favour performing the initial follow-up after thyroid hormone withdrawal. rhTSH also shows the ability to enhance radioiodine concentration into thyroid cells. This characteristic is obviously of great interest among the nuclear medicine community. In clinical practice, it seems preferable to perform {sup 131}I treatment for metastatic disease during hypothyroidism. rhTSH may find its utility for the treatment of specific populations of patients, i.e. those in whom hormone withdrawal is medically contraindicated or in whom adequate endogenous TSH levels cannot be obtained due to reduced pituitary reserve or continued thyroxine production by metastatic tissue. In conclusion, rhTSH has demonstrated to be a reliable alternative to hypothyroidism for the stimulation of Tg in the follow-up of thyroid cancer patients. However, its use must be more carefully chosen in the therapeutic setting. Our feeling is that rhTSH should no tbe used for remnant ablation in high-risk patients and for the treatment of metastatic disease, except for specific populations of

  11. Recombinant human TSH in differentiated thyroid cancer: a nuclear medicine perspective

    Zanotti-Fregonara, P.; Rubello, D.; Hindie, E.

    2008-01-01

    The use of recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH) in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is widely discussed in the literature with regard to the diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of the management of DTC patients. However, some controversy about the appropriate indications, advantages and potential disadvantages of the use of rhTSH may still exist within the community of nuclear medicine physicians. In our opinion, the clinical benefits of rhTSH in avoiding hypothyroidism outweigh its somewhat lesser diagnostic accuracy. However, we disagree on designating rhTSH as the 'golden standard' to obtain TSH stimulation, as suggested by some authors. Thus, the first follow-up examination after ablation, which is determinant for patients' prognostic classification, can be either done under rhTSH stimulation or after hormone withdrawal. In our practice, and for higher risk patients, we still favour performing the initial follow-up after thyroid hormone withdrawal. rhTSH also shows the ability to enhance radioiodine concentration into thyroid cells. This characteristic is obviously of great interest among the nuclear medicine community. In clinical practice, it seems preferable to perform 131 I treatment for metastatic disease during hypothyroidism. rhTSH may find its utility for the treatment of specific populations of patients, i.e. those in whom hormone withdrawal is medically contraindicated or in whom adequate endogenous TSH levels cannot be obtained due to reduced pituitary reserve or continued thyroxine production by metastatic tissue. In conclusion, rhTSH has demonstrated to be a reliable alternative to hypothyroidism for the stimulation of Tg in the follow-up of thyroid cancer patients. However, its use must be more carefully chosen in the therapeutic setting. Our feeling is that rhTSH should no tbe used for remnant ablation in high-risk patients and for the treatment of metastatic disease, except for specific populations of patients. (O.M.)

  12. Association of TSH With Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Overweight and Obese Children During Lifestyle Intervention.

    Rijks, Jesse M; Plat, Jogchum; Dorenbos, Elke; Penders, Bas; Gerver, Willem-Jan M; Vreugdenhil, Anita C E

    2017-06-01

    Overweight and obese children have an increased risk to develop cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in which thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) has been suggested as an intermediary factor. However, results of cross-sectional studies are inconclusive, and intervention studies investigating changes in TSH concentrations in association with changes in cardiovascular risk parameters in overweight and obese children are scarce. To gain insight in associations of circulating TSH concentrations and cardiovascular risk parameters in overweight and obese children. Nonrandomized lifestyle intervention. Centre for Overweight Adolescent and Children's Healthcare. Three hundred thirty euthyroid overweight and obese children. Long-term lifestyle intervention. TSH concentrations, pituitary TSH release in response to thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), and cardiovascular risk parameters. At baseline, serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triacylglycerol (TAG), and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 concentrations were significantly associated with serum TSH concentrations. TSH release by the pituitary in response to exogenous TRH was not associated with cardiovascular risk parameters. During lifestyle intervention, several cardiovascular risk parameters significantly improved. In children whose body mass index z score improved, changes in TSH concentrations were significantly associated with changes in TC, LDL-C, and TAG concentrations. In euthyroid overweight and obese children, circulating TSH concentrations are positively associated with markers representing increased CVD risk. Changes in TSH concentrations are also associated with changes in lipid concentrations in children with successful weight loss, which is consistent with TSH being an intermediary factor in modulating lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  13. Childhood lead toxicity and impaired release of thyrotropin-stimulating hormone

    Huseman, C.A.; Moriarty, C.M.; Angle, C.R.

    1987-01-01

    Decreased stature of children is epidemiologically associated with increased blood lead independent of multiple socioeconomic and nutritional variables. Since endocrine dysfunction occurs in adult lead workers, they studied two girls, 2 years of age, before and after calcium disodium edetate chelation for blood leads (PbB) of 19-72 μg/dl. The height of both children had crossed from the 50th to below the 10th percentile during the course of chronic lead toxicity. Basal free T 4 , T 4 , T 3 , cortisol, somatomedin C, and sex steroids were normal. A decrease in the growth hormone response and elevation of basal prolcatin and gonadotropins were noted in one. Both children demonstrated blunted thyrotropin-stimulating hormone (TSH) responses to thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) in six of seven challenges. This prompted in vitro studies of cultured cells from rat pituitarities. After incubation of pituitary cells with 0.1-10 μM Pb 2+ for 2 hr, followed by the addition of TRH, there was a dose-dependent inhibition of TSH release Lead did not interfere with the assay of TSH. To investigate the interaction of lead and calcium, 45 Ca 2+ kinetic analyses were done on rat pituitary slices after 1 hr incubation with 1.0 μM lead. The impaired late efflux was consistent with a decrease in the size and exchangeability of the tightly bound pool of intracellular microsomal or mitochondrial calcium. The rat pituitary cell model provides a model for the decreased TSH release of lead poisoning, supports the biological plausibility of a neuroendocrine effect on growth, and suggests that interference with calcium-mediated intracellular responses is a basic mechanism of lead toxicity

  14. Low serum thyroid-stimulating hormone levels are associated with lipid profile in depressive patients with long symptom duration.

    Peng, Rui; Li, Yan

    2017-08-01

    The current study was designed to investigate the association between serum thyroid hormones and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels with lipid profile in depressive disorder. A total of 370 depressive individuals aged 18 years and above were recruited in this cross-section study. All participants underwent a Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) and recorded the duration of their symptoms. The serum levels of total cholesterol (TCH), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), lipoprotein A (Lp(a)), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3) and TSH levels were determined and the ratios of TCH/HDL-C were assessed. Depressed subjects with a symptom duration ≥3 years had higher TG levels, increased TCH/HDL-C ratios and lower levels of HDL-C, FT4 and TSH compared with depressive patients with a symptom duration <3 years. Correlation analysis displayed that TSH is positively and significantly associated with TCH and LDL-C (p<0.05); the above FT4 and FT3 are negatively, significantly and respectively associated with TCH/HDL-C (p<0.05) and TCH, HDL-C, LDL-C (p<0.05). Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that serum TG and TSH levels are associated with depressive symptom duration. According to our results,These findings indicate that low serum TSH levels are associated with lipid profile, TG and TSH levels have significant association with symptom duration in depressive patients. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Relationship Between Circulating Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone, Free Thyroxine, and Free Triiodothyronine Concentrations and 9-Year Mortality in Euthyroid Elderly Adults.

    Ceresini, Graziano; Marina, Michela; Lauretani, Fulvio; Maggio, Marcello; Bandinelli, Stefania; Ceda, Gian P; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2016-03-01

    To determine the association between plasma thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (FT3), and free thyroxine (FT4) levels and all-cause mortality in older adults who had levels of all three hormones in the normal range. Longitudinal. Community-based. Euthyroid Invecchiare in Chianti study participants aged 65 and older (N = 815). Plasma TSH, FT3, and FT4 levels were predictors, and 9-year all-cause mortality was the outcome. Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for confounders were used to examine the relationship between TSH, FT3, and FT4 quartiles and all-cause mortality over 9 years of follow-up. During follow-up (mean person-years 8,643.7, range 35.4-16,985.0), 181 deaths occurred (22.2%). Participants with TSH in the lowest quartile had higher mortality than the rest of the population. After adjusting for multiple confounders, participants with TSH in the lowest quartile (hazard ratio = 2.22, 95% confidence interval = 1.19-4.22) had significantly higher all-cause mortality than those with TSH in the highest quartile. Neither FT3 nor FT4 was associated with mortality. In elderly euthyroid subjects, normal-low TSH is an independent risk factor for all-cause mortality. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  16. Serum concentrations of thyroid and adrenal hormones and TSH in men after repeated 1 h-stays in a cold room.

    Korhonen, I; Hassi, J; Leppäluoto, J

    2001-11-01

    We exposed six healthy men to 1-h cold air (10 degrees C) daily for 11 days and measured adrenal and thyroid hormones and TSH in serum before and after the cold air exposure on days 0, 5 and 10. We observed that on days 0, 5 and 10 the resting levels and the levels after the cold exposure in serum adrenaline, thyroid hormones and TSH did not significantly change, whereas the serum noradrenaline levels showed a significant 2.2-2.5-fold increase in response to the cold air exposures. The increases were similar indicating that the subjects did not show signs of habituation in their noradrenaline responses. Therefore the 1-h cold air exposure is not sufficiently intensive to reduce the cold-induced sympathetic response.

  17. A genome-wide association study of thyroid stimulating hormone and free thyroxine in Danish children and adolescents.

    Tenna Ruest Haarmark Nielsen

    Full Text Available Hypothyroidism is associated with obesity, and thyroid hormones are involved in the regulation of body composition, including fat mass. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS in adults have identified 19 and 6 loci associated with plasma concentrations of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH and free thyroxine (fT4, respectively.This study aimed to identify and characterize genetic variants associated with circulating TSH and fT4 in Danish children and adolescents and to examine whether these variants associate with obesity.Genome-wide association analyses of imputed genotype data with fasting plasma concentrations of TSH and fT4 from a population-based sample of Danish children, adolescents, and young adults, and a group of children, adolescents, and young adults with overweight and obesity were performed (N = 1,764, mean age = 12.0 years [range 2.5-24.7]. Replication was performed in additional comparable samples (N = 2,097, mean age = 11.8 years [1.2-22.8]. Meta-analyses, using linear additive fixed-effect models, were performed on the results of the discovery and replication analyses.No novel loci associated with TSH or fT4 were identified. Four loci previously associated with TSH in adults were confirmed in this study population (PDE10A (rs2983511: β = 0.112SD, p = 4.8 ∙ 10-16, FOXE1 (rs7847663: β = 0.223SD, p = 1.5 ∙ 10-20, NR3C2 (rs9968300: β = 0.194SD, p = 2.4 ∙ 10-11, VEGFA (rs2396083: β = 0.088SD, p = 2.2 ∙ 10-10. Effect sizes of variants known to associate with TSH or fT4 in adults showed a similar direction of effect in our cohort of children and adolescents, 11 of which were associated with TSH or fT4 in our study (p<0.0002. None of the TSH or fT4 associated SNPs were associated with obesity in our cohort, indicating no pleiotropic effects of these variants on obesity.In a group of Danish children and adolescents, four loci previously associated with plasma TSH concentrations in adults, were associated with plasma TSH

  18. Lower-normal TSH is associated with better metabolic risk factors: a cross-sectional study on spanish men

    Background and aims: Subclinical thyroid conditions, defined by normal thyroxin (T4) but abnormal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels, may be associated with cardiovascular and metabolic risk. More recently, TSH levels within the normal range have been suggested to be associated with metabolic ...

  19. Treatment room length-of-stay and patient throughput with radioiodine thyroid remnant ablation in differentiated thyroid cancer: comparison of thyroid-stimulating hormone stimulation methods.

    Vallejo Casas, Juan Antonio; Mena Bares, Luisa M; Gálvez, María Angeles; Marlowe, Robert J; Latre Romero, José M; Martínez-Paredes, María

    2011-09-01

    We sought to empirically compare treatment room length-of-stay and patient throughput for recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH)-aided thyroid remnant ablation with thyroid hormone withdrawal (THW)-aided ablation in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). We retrospectively reviewed charts of all eligible (near) totally thyroidectomized patients with DTC undergoing ablation and 1-year ablation success evaluation at our tertiary referral centre from January 2003 to February 2009 (N=274). M1 disease caused exclusion unless discovered by a postablation scan or present when rhTSH was the only tolerable stimulation method. We extracted data on the length-of-stay, defined as the time between treatment room admission and discharge, and patient throughput, defined as patients ablated per treatment room per week. The treatment room discharge criterion was a whole-body dose rate of less than 60 μSv/h at 50 cm. The treatment groups (rhTSH, n=187; THW, n=87) had mostly statistically similar characteristics, but differed in primary tumour status distribution. In addition, at ablation, the rhTSH patients had a greater prevalence of prior diagnostic scintigraphy, higher mean serum TSH, and shorter interval since surgery, and received a 5.6% larger mean ablation activity. On average, rhTSH patients had a significantly lower peak whole-body dose rate (57.1 vs. 83.4 μSv/h at 50 cm; P<0.0001) and a significantly shorter treatment room stay than did the THW patients (1.41 vs. 2.02 days; P<0.001). rhTSH use allowed significantly more patients to be ablated per room per week (2.7 vs. 1.2; P<0.001). Relative to THW, rhTSH use to aid ablation reduced mean treatment room length-of-stay by almost one-third and more than doubled the average weekly patient throughput, both of which were significant differences.

  20. Near-lethal respiratory failure after recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone use in a patient with metastatic thyroid carcinoma.

    Goffman, Thomas; Ioffe, Vladimir; Tuttle, Michael; Bowers, John T; Mason, M Elizabeth

    2003-08-01

    A patient with widely metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer who had been heavily pretreated with (131)I was given recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone (rhTSH) prior to (131)I treatment. Clinical and physical data from both this case and the literature suggest that the recombinant hormone, not the (131)I, may have caused a significant portion of the tumor swelling, which in turn was the most likely cause of the patient's symptoms. The potential effect of (131)I-induced tumor swelling and direct radiation effect on the lung is also analyzed. We review the potential hazards associated with rhTSH in patients with metastasis and propose means of minimizing this risk.

  1. Methylation of the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor: diagnostic marker of malignity in thyroid cancer

    Marrero Rodriguez, Maria Teresa

    2007-01-01

    The methylation state of the gene promoter for the receptor of the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in the diagnosis of thyroid tumors of epithelial origin was analyzed. The study was conducted in thyroid tissue obtained from paraffin blocks of different thyroid pathologies (papillary, follicular and undifferentiated carcinoma and follicular adenomas). The work was done by using the DNA modification technique with sodium bisulfite, and polymerase chain reaction was applied to analyze the gene methylation state. Methylation of the promoter for the gene of the TSH receptor was found in the papillary carcinomas (33 of 40; 82.5 %), in 10 undifferentiated carcinomas (100 %), and in 10 of the 15 follicular carcinomas analyzed (66.6 %). No methylation was observed in the 8 follicular adenomas under study. The methylation of the gene for the TSH receptor was proposed as a new diagnostic marker of malignity and as a basis for using demethylating agents together with radioiodine therapy in patients with thyroid cancer of epithelial origin that do not respond to therapy. (Author)

  2. Metastatic Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma Secreting Thyroid Hormone and Radioiodine Avid without Stimulation: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Syed A. Abid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This is an extremely rare case of a patient with metastatic follicular thyroid cancer who continued to produce thyroid hormone and was iodine scan positive without stimulation after thyroidectomy and radioiodine (I-131 therapy. Patient Findings. A 76-year-old Caucasian male was diagnosed with metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma on lung nodule biopsy. Total thyroidectomy was performed and he was ablated with 160 mCi of I-131 after recombinant human thyrotropin (rhTSH stimulation. Whole body scan (WBS after treatment showed uptake in bilateral lungs, right sacrum, and pelvis. The thyroglobulin decreased from 2,063 to 965 four months after treatment but rapidly increased to 2,506 eleven months after I-131. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH remained suppressed and free T4 remained elevated after I-131 therapy without thyroid hormone supplementation. He was treated with an additional 209 mCi with WBS findings positive in lung and pelvis. Despite I-131, new metastatic lesions were noted in the left thyroid bed and large destructive lesion to the first cervical vertebrae four months after the second I-131 dose. Conclusions. This case is exceptional because of its rarity and also due to the dissociation between tumor differentiation and aggressiveness. The metastatic lesions continued to secrete thyroid hormone and remained radioiodine avid with rapid progression after I-131 therapy.

  3. Hyperthyroid-associated osteoporosis is exacerbated by the loss of TSH signaling

    The osteoporosis associated with human hyperthyroidism has traditionally been attributed to elevated thyroid hormone levels. There is evidence, however, that thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which is low in most hyperthyroid states, directly affects the skeleton. Importantly, Tshr-knockout mice ar...

  4. Human longevity is characterised by high thyroid stimulating hormone secretion without altered energy metabolism

    Jansen, S W; Akintola, A A; Roelfsema, F

    2015-01-01

    hormone (TH) in an inverse relationship. Greater longevity has been associated with higher TSH and lower TH levels, but mechanisms underlying TSH/TH differences and longevity remain unknown. The HPT axis plays a pivotal role in growth, development and energy metabolism. We report that offspring...... of nonagenarians with at least one nonagenarian sibling have increased TSH secretion but similar bioactivity of TSH and similar TH levels compared to controls. Healthy offspring and spousal controls had similar resting metabolic rate and core body temperature. We propose that pleiotropic effects of the HPT axis...... may favour longevity without altering energy metabolism....

  5. De novo triiodothyronine formation from thyrocytes activated by thyroid-stimulating hormone.

    Citterio, Cintia E; Veluswamy, Balaji; Morgan, Sarah J; Galton, Valerie A; Banga, J Paul; Atkins, Stephen; Morishita, Yoshiaki; Neumann, Susanne; Latif, Rauf; Gershengorn, Marvin C; Smith, Terry J; Arvan, Peter

    2017-09-15

    The thyroid gland secretes primarily tetraiodothyronine (T 4 ), and some triiodothyronine (T 3 ). Under normal physiological circumstances, only one-fifth of circulating T 3 is directly released by the thyroid, but in states of hyperactivation of thyroid-stimulating hormone receptors (TSHRs), patients develop a syndrome of relative T 3 toxicosis. Thyroidal T 4 production results from iodination of thyroglobulin (TG) at residues Tyr 5 and Tyr 130 , whereas thyroidal T 3 production may originate in several different ways. In this study, the data demonstrate that within the carboxyl-terminal portion of mouse TG, T 3 is formed de novo independently of deiodination from T 4 We found that upon iodination in vitro , de novo T 3 formation in TG was decreased in mice lacking TSHRs. Conversely, de novo T 3 that can be formed upon iodination of TG secreted from PCCL3 (rat thyrocyte) cells was augmented from cells previously exposed to increased TSH, a TSHR agonist, a cAMP analog, or a TSHR-stimulating antibody. We present data suggesting that TSH-stimulated TG phosphorylation contributes to enhanced de novo T 3 formation. These effects were reversed within a few days after removal of the hyperstimulating conditions. Indeed, direct exposure of PCCL3 cells to human serum from two patients with Graves' disease, but not control sera, led to secretion of TG with an increased intrinsic ability to form T 3 upon in vitro iodination. Furthermore, TG secreted from human thyrocyte cultures hyperstimulated with TSH also showed an increased intrinsic ability to form T 3 Our data support the hypothesis that TG processing in the secretory pathway of TSHR-hyperstimulated thyrocytes alters the structure of the iodination substrate in a way that enhances de novo T 3 formation, contributing to the relative T 3 toxicosis of Graves' disease.

  6. Biological impact of the TSH-beta splice variant in health and disease

    John R. Klein

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, a glycoprotein hormone composed of alpha and beta chains, is produced by thryrotrope cells of the anterior pituitary. Within the conventional endocrine loop, pituitary-derived TSH binds to receptors in the thyroid, resulting in the release of the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4 and triiodothyronine (T3. T4 and T3 in turn regulate nearly every aspect of mammalian physiology, including basal metabolism, growth and development, and mood and cognition. Although TSH-beta has been known for years to be produced by cells of the immune system, the significance of that has remained largely unclear. Recently, a splice variant of TSH-beta (TSH-beta-v, which consists of a truncated but biologically functional portion of the native form of TSH-beta, was shown to be produced by bone marrow cells and peripheral blood leukocytes, particularly cells of the myeloid/monocyte lineage. In contrast, full-length native TSH-beta is minimally produced by cells of the immune system. The present article will describe the discovery of the TSH-beta-v and will discuss its potential role in immunity and autoimmunity, inflammation, and bone remodeling.

  7. Allosteric activation of the follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) receptor by selective, nonpeptide agonists.

    Yanofsky, Stephen D; Shen, Emily S; Holden, Frank; Whitehorn, Erik; Aguilar, Barbara; Tate, Emily; Holmes, Christopher P; Scheuerman, Randall; MacLean, Derek; Wu, May M; Frail, Donald E; López, Francisco J; Winneker, Richard; Arey, Brian J; Barrett, Ronald W

    2006-05-12

    The pituitary glycoprotein hormones, luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), act through their cognate receptors to initiate a series of coordinated physiological events that results in germ cell maturation. Given the importance of FSH in regulating folliculogenesis and fertility, the development of FSH mimetics has been sought to treat infertility. Currently, purified and recombinant human FSH are the only FSH receptor (FSH-R) agonists available for infertility treatment. By screening unbiased combinatorial chemistry libraries, using a cAMP-responsive luciferase reporter assay, we discovered thiazolidinone agonists (EC50's = 20 microm) of the human FSH-R. Subsequent analog library screening and parallel synthesis optimization resulted in the identification of a potent agonist (EC50 = 2 nm) with full efficacy compared with FSH that was FSH-R-selective and -dependent. The compound mediated progesterone production in Y1 cells transfected with the human FSH-R (EC50 = 980 nm) and estradiol production from primary rat ovarian granulosa cells (EC50 = 10.5 nm). This and related compounds did not compete with FSH for binding to the FSH-R. Use of human FSH/thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor chimeras suggested a novel mechanism for receptor activation through a binding site independent of the natural hormone binding site. This study is the first report of a high affinity small molecule agonist that activates a glycoprotein hormone receptor through an allosteric mechanism. The small molecule FSH receptor agonists described here could lead to an oral alternative to the current parenteral FSH treatments used clinically to induce ovarian stimulation for both in vivo and in vitro fertilization therapy.

  8. Comparison of the Levels of LH and FSH, TSH, Prolactin, Progesterone and Estradiol Hormones between Iranian Infertile Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Healthy Women

    Amir Hossein Hashemi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS with the prevalence of 5 to 7% among Iranian women is a leading cause of infertility and endocrine disorder. Metabolic disorders such as increased levels of LH and FSH hormones in these patients was common and influences health of women with PCOS in long-term. Treatment of female infertility and other complications in many cases need to regulate hormones and receive exogenous hormone, and then the effect of female hormones on the disease is very important. In this study, levels of Luteinizing hormone (LH and Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and other female hormones among Iranian women with PCOS and infertility and healthy people were measured in this regard and values were compared. The result of this study showed that LH and progesterone hormone levels were significantly different in this syndrome than healthy women.

  9. Cost-effectiveness of using recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone before radioiodine ablation for thyroid cancer treatment in Spanish hospitals.

    Vallejo, J A; Muros, M A

    In thyroid cancer treatment, the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) must be elevated before radioiodine ablation, either by exogenous (with recombinant human thyrotropin [rhTSH]) or endogenous stimulation by thyroid hormone withdrawal (THW). The use of rhTSH avoids hypothyroidism and favours the subsequent elimination of radioiodine, but involves the cost of the product. For this reason, a cost-effectiveness analysis was performed, taking into account all costs involved and the benefits associated with the use of this therapy. Using a Markov modelling with two analysis arms (rhTSH and THW), stratified into high (100mCi/3700 MBq) and low (30mCi/1110 MBq) radioiodine doses, and using 17 weekly cycles, the incremental cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) related to the use of rhTSH was determined. The clinical inputs included in the model were based on published studies and in a treatment survey conducted in Spain. Radioablation preparation with rhTSH is superior to THW, showing additional benefits (0.048 AVAC), as well as cost savings (-€614.16), with an incremental cost-effectiveness rate (ICER) of -€12,795/QALY. The univariate and multivariate sensitivity analyses showed the result to be robust. The use of rhTSH previous to radioablation in Spain has cost savings, as well as a series of health benefits for the patient, making it highly cost-effective. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  10. Thyroid hormones profile in students of Makerere College of Health ...

    Serum concentrations of thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3) and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) are used to assess thyroid function. It is recommended that each laboratory or hospital should establish its own reference values of T4, T3 and TSH for their clients because these hormones vary with ethnicity, geographical ...

  11. Sick leave for follow-up control in thyroid cancer patients: comparison between stimulation with Thyrogen and thyroid hormone withdrawal.

    Borget, I; Corone, C; Nocaudie, M; Allyn, M; Iacobelli, S; Schlumberger, M; De Pouvourville, G

    2007-05-01

    The clinical benefits of recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH; Thyrogen) are well established as an alternative stimulation procedure to thyroid hormone withdrawal in the diagnostic follow-up of thyroid cancer patients. By avoiding periods of hypothyroidism, patients do not suffer from a decreased quality of life and keep their ability to work. This study compared the frequency, the duration and the cost of sick leave for follow-up control between rhTSH and withdrawal. The study population consisted of patients with thyroid carcinoma first treated by thyroidectomy and radioiodine ablation. Patients were recruited at their control visit between October 2004 and May 2006 in three hospitals, both prospectively and retrospectively. Collection data consisted of patient information, job characteristics and duration of sick leave during the month before and the month after control. The valuation of sick leave used the friction cost method. Among the 306 patients included, 292 (95%) completed the entire questionnaire. The mean age was 46.7 years. Among the 194 active patients, patients treated with rhTSH, when compared with patients treated by withdrawal, were less likely to require sick leave (11 vs 33%; P=0.001). The mean duration of sick leave was shorter (3.1 vs 11.2 days; P=0.002) and indirect costs due to absenteeism accounted for 454 Euro +/- 1673 vs 1537 Euro +/- 2899 for withdrawal stimulation. For active patients, rhTSH treatment reduced the length and the cost of sick leave by 8.1 days and 1083 Euro per control respectively, when compared with withdrawal treatment.

  12. Comparison of therapeutic efficacy and clinical parameters between recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone and thyroid hormone withdrawal in high-dose radioiodine treatment with differentiated thyroid cancer

    Choi, Se Hun; Na, Chang Ju; Kim, Jeong Hun; Han, Yeon Hee; KIm, Hee Kwon; Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Sohn, Myung Hee; Lim, Seok Tae [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Chonbuk National University Medical School and Hospital, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    High-dose radioiodine treatment (HD-RIT) after injection of recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone (rh-TSH) has become widely used. This study compared the therapeutic efficacy of HD-RIT and clinical parameters between rh-TSH supplement and thyroid hormone withdrawal (THW) after total thyroidectomy in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. We retrospectively reviewed 266 patients (47 male and 219 female; age, 49.0 ± 10.9 years) with differentiated thyroid cancer detected from September 2011 to September 2012. Patients comprised THW (217, 81.6 %) and rh-TSH (49, 18.4 %). Inclusion criteria were: first HD-RIT; any TN stage; absence of distant metastasis. To evaluate the complete ablation of the remnant thyroid tissue or metastasis, we reviewed stimulated serum thyroglobulin (sTg), I-123 whole-body scan (RxWBS) on T4 off-state, and thyroid ultrasonography (US) or [F-18]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18 FDG PET/CT) 6–8 months after HD-RIT. We defined a complete ablation state when all three of the follow-up conditions were satisfied; <2.0 ng/ml of the sTg, I-123 RxWBS (−), and thyroid US or F-18 FDG PET/CT (−). If one of the three was positive, ablation was considered incomplete. We also compared various clinical biomarkers (body weight, body mass index, liver and kidney function) between THW and rh-TSH groups. The rates of complete ablation were 73.7 % (160/217) for the THW group and 73.5 % (36/49) for the rh-TSH group. There was no significant difference between the two groups (p = 0.970). The follow-up aspartate transaminase (p = 0.001) and alanine transaminase (p = 0.001) were significantly higher in the THW group. The renal function parameters of blood urea nitrogen (p = 0.001) and creatinine (p = 0.005) tended to increase in the THW group. The change of body weight was + Δ0.96 (±1.9) kg for the THW group and was decreased by -Δ1.39 (±1.5) kg for the rh-TSH group. The change

  13. Targeting thyroid diseases with TSH receptor analogs.

    Galofré, Juan C; Chacón, Ana M; Latif, Rauf

    2013-12-01

    The thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor (TSHR) is a major regulator of thyroid function and growth, and is the key antigen in several pathological conditions including hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, and thyroid tumors. Various effective treatment strategies are currently available for many of these clinical conditions such as antithyroid drugs or radioiodine therapy, but they are not devoid of side effects. In addition, treatment of complications of Graves' disease such as Graves' ophthalmopathy is often difficult and unsatisfactory using current methods. Recent advances in basic research on both in vitro and in vivo models have suggested that TSH analogs could be used for diagnosis and treatment of some of the thyroid diseases. The advent of high-throughput screening methods has resulted in a group of TSH analogs called small molecules, which have the potential to be developed as promising drugs. Small molecules are low molecular weight compounds with agonist, antagonist and, in some cases, inverse agonist activity on TSHR. This short review will focus on current advances in development of TSH analogs and their potential clinical applications. Rapid advances in this field may lead to the conduct of clinical trials of small molecules related to TSHR for the management of Graves' disease, thyroid cancer, and thyroid-related osteoporosis in the coming years. Copyright © 2012 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Can neonatal TSH screening reflect trends in population iodine intake?

    Burns, Robert

    2008-08-01

    The distribution of neonatal blood thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations has been used as an index reflecting population dietary iodine intake, with higher concentrations being indicative of lower iodine intake. We examined this distribution in neonates born in Ireland, where the pregnant population has shown a recent decline in urinary iodine (UI) excretion. Our objectives were to determine if any alteration was observed in the percentage of values > 5.0 mIU\\/L and whether a trend in neonatal blood TSH was apparent.

  15. Recombinant TSH in follow-up and therapy of differentiated thyroid carcinoma; Rekombinantes TSH in der Nachsorge und Therapie des differenzierten Schilddruesenkarzinoms

    Luster, M.; Reiners, C. [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    2000-03-01

    I-131-scintigraphy and serum thyroglobulin testing - if possible under stimulation of thyrotropin - are besides physical examination and ultrasonography crucial for the optimal follow-up of patients with well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma. This required physicians to withdraw patients from thyroid hormone suppression therapy (THST) for several weeks in order to raise endogenous TSH-levels. Clinical hypothyroidism often results in substantial patient discomfort, with sometimes major psychic alterations; the subsequent disability to work is occasionally an unpleasant consequence from an economical point of view. The temporary use of bovine, and for a short period of time human TSH is obsolete today because of a high risk of allergic reactions or the potential transmission of the Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, respectively. Lately recombinant human TSH (rhTSH, Thyrogen {sup trademark}), a hormone that was developed with the help of genetic engineering techniques, is available; its pharmacological safety has been demonstrated in previous phase-I/II-studies. The results of a phase-III-study showed in the majority of patients a marked rise in thyroglobulin levels after rhTSH. In all cases an adequate TSH level (>100 mU/l) was achieved after i.m. injection of recombinant TSH. Wholebody-scans showed a high level of accordance (>90%) in addition to a substantially lower background-activity. A tumour-background-ratio corresponding to conventional imaging could be demonstrated. (orig.) [German] Neben der klinischen Untersuchung und der Sonographie stellen die I-131-Szintigraphie sowie der Tumormarker Thyreoglobulin (Tg) - die Bestimmung von Tg moeglichst unter Stimulationsbedingungen - die Saeulen des Nachsorgekonzeptes beim differenzierten Schilddruesenkarzinom dar. Zur Induktion der endogenen TSH-Stimulation war es bislang erforderlich, eine mehrwoechige Phase des Absetzens der suppressiven Schilddruesenhormongabe mit konsekutiver Hypothyreose herbeizufuehren. Die

  16. Non-surgical approach to the benign nodular goiter: new opportunities by recombinant human TSH-stimulated (131)I-therapy

    Bonnema, Steen Joop; Fast, Søren; Hegedüs, Laszlo

    2011-01-01

    The optimal treatment strategy in a goiter patient depends-among other factors-on goiter size, the degree of cosmetic or compressive symptoms, the age of the patient, the impact on the upper airways, the wish to maintain normal thyroid function, the ability of the thyroid gland to take up (131)I......, and the possibility of thyroid malignancy. When treatment is warranted in a patient with benign goiter, the choice usually stands between surgery and (131)I-therapy. Focal destructive treatment, by ethanol sclerotherapy or interstitial laser photocoagulation, may be considered in patients with a solitary benign...... nodule. If thyroid hyperfunction due to nodular autonomy is the dominant problem, life-long anti-thyroid drug treatment may be relevant in elderly individuals. With the advent of recombinant human TSH (rhTSH) stimulation the goiter reduction following (131)I-therapy is significantly enhanced...

  17. Ultrasensitive TSH: a new approach to hyperthyroidism diagnosis

    Gibold, G.; Liehn, J.C.; Deltour, G.; Delisle, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    The value of new ultrasensible and rapid immunoradiometric assay of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) for the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism was assessed in 130 patients with suspected hyperthyroidism and in 330 controls. The diagnosis was established by the clinical evaluation, thyroid scintigraphy and serum concentrations of thyroid hormones. Using the ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) curve methodology which allows the optimization of sensitivity and specificity, the physician can choose the Cut-off value between hyperthyroidism and euthyroidism. Two points of the curve seem to be interesting: using the cut-off value of 0.1 mUI/1, sensitivity is 0.98 and specificity is 0.98; using the cut-off value of 0.3 mUI/1, sensitivity is 1.00 and specificity is 0.92. Using the association TSH and FT4 (Free Thyroxin), sensitivity is 0.94 and specificity is 0.99. Sixty four per cent of euthyroid patients with TSH under 0.3 mUI/1 have one or several hot nodules and only two have no thyroid disease. A TRH (Thyrotrophin Releasing Hormone) test was carried out in 63 patients with suspected thyrotoxicosis: basal and TRH stimulated TSH levels were under 0.1 mUI/1. This immunoradiometric assay for TSH may simplify the approach to thyroid function testing in patients with suspected thyrotoxicosis: a basal TSH under 0.3 mUI/1 is sufficient to confirm a clinical suspicion of thyrotoxicosis without TRH test within four hours. In a department devoted to testing thyroid function, this new method provides a great benefit in cost and work [fr

  18. A genome-wide association study of thyroid stimulating hormone and free thyroxine in Danish children and adolescents

    Nielsen, Tenna Ruest Haarmark; Appel, Emil Vincent Rosenbaum; Svendstrup, Mathilde

    2017-01-01

    BackgroundHypothyroidism is associated with obesity, and thyroid hormones are involved in the regulation of body composition, including fat mass. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in adults have identified 19 and 6 loci associated with plasma concentrations of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH...... data with fasting plasma concentrations of TSH and fT4 from a population-based sample of Danish children, adolescents, and young adults, and a group of children, adolescents, and young adults with overweight and obesity were performed (N = 1,764, mean age = 12.0 years [range 2.5-24.7]). Replication...... associated with TSH in adults were confirmed in this study population (PDE10A (rs2983511: beta = 0.112SD, p = 4.8.10(-16)), FOXE1 (rs7847663: beta = 0.223SD, p = 1.5 . 10(-20)), NR3C2 (rs9968300: beta = 0.194SD), p = 2.4 . 10(-11)), VEGFA (rs2396083: beta = 0.088SD, p = 2.2 . 10(-10))). Effect sizes...

  19. TSH, thyroid hormones and nuclear-binding of T3 in mononuclear blood cells from obese and non-obese women

    Matzen, L E; Kvetny, J; Pedersen, K K

    1989-01-01

    The specific nuclear-binding of T3 (NBT3) in mononuclear blood cells, and the concentrations of TSH, thyroid hormones, and binding proteins were measured after overnight fasting in 12 obese and in 14 non-obese women, none of the subjects were taking any medicine. The concentrations of TSH and free...... plus bound-T3 (TT3) were significantly higher in the obese (p less than 0.05), concentrations of T4 and binding proteins did not differ. The NBT3 was significantly lower in the obese women; the maximal binding capacity (MBC) was 34.5 +/- 11.6 fmol/mg DNA in the obese subjects and 50.0 +/- 11.6 fmol....../mg DNA in the non-obese subjects (p less than 0.02). The binding affinities did not differ. We have previously shown that increasing T3 concentrations within the physiological range down-regulates NBT3. Therefore, the reduced NBT3 in the obese women was probably secondary to the increased TT3...

  20. TSH elevations as the first laboratory evidence for pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ib (PHP-Ib)†

    Molinaro, Angelo; Tiosano, Dov; Takatani, Rieko; Chrysis, Dionisios; Russell, William; Koscielniak, Nikolas; Kottler, Marie-Laure; Agretti, Patrizia; De Marco, Giuseppina; Ahtiainen, Petteri; Christov, Marta; Mäkitie, Outi; Tonacchera, Massimo; Jüppner, Harald

    2015-01-01

    Hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia because of resistance towards parathyroid hormone (PTH) in the proximal renal tubules are the most prominent abnormalities in patients affected by pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ib (PHP-Ib). In this rare disorder that is caused by GNAS methylation changes, resistance can occur towards other hormones, such as thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), that mediate their actions through G protein-coupled receptors. However, these additional laboratory abnormalities are...

  1. Asp330 and Tyr331 in the C-terminal cysteine-rich region of the luteinizing hormone receptor are key residues in hormone-induced receptor activation

    M.W.P. Bruysters (Martijn); M. Verhoef-Post (Miriam); A.P.N. Themmen (Axel)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThe luteinizing hormone (LH) receptor plays an essential role in male and female gonadal function. Together with the follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) receptors, the LH receptor forms the family of glycoprotein hormone receptors. All glycoprotein

  2. Serum concentration of thyroxin and thyroid stimulating hormone in children suspected of thyroid dysfunction

    Elahi, S.; Syed, Z.; Rasheed, H.; Aman, Z.; Yasmeen, R.

    2010-01-01

    This study was planned to investigate serum concentration of free thyroxin (FT/sub 4/) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) as well as thyroid dysfunctions in children attending CENUM, Mayo Hospital Lahore. A total of 227 children (131 female and 96 male) were selected for this study. Their age range was 1 to 12 years (mean 7.6 +- 3.4 years). 45 (19.8%) children had goiter with significantly more frequency in female as compared to male children (28.2% V s 8.3%; p<0.05). More than 70% of the children had F/sub 4/ and TSH within their respective normal ranges (euthyroid). Thyroid dysfunctions were detected in 11.0% children (7.5% hypothyroidism; 3.5% hyperthyroidism). Only the incidence of hyperthyroidism was significantly more in goiterous children. There was no significant difference in the incidence of hyperthyroidism but hypothyroidism was significant (p<0.05) more common in female children. (author)

  3. Preconceptional antithyroid peroxidase antibodies, but not thyroid-stimulating hormone, are associated with decreased live birth rates in infertile women.

    Seungdamrong, Aimee; Steiner, Anne Z; Gracia, Clarisa R; Legro, Richard S; Diamond, Michael P; Coutifaris, Christos; Schlaff, William D; Casson, Peter; Christman, Gregory M; Robinson, Randal D; Huang, Hao; Alvero, Ruben; Hansen, Karl R; Jin, Susan; Eisenberg, Esther; Zhang, Heping; Santoro, Nanette

    2017-10-25

    To study whether preconceptual thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and antithyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibodies are associated with poor reproductive outcomes in infertile women. Secondary analysis of data from two multicenter, randomized, controlled trials conducted by the Reproductive Medicine Network of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the association between preconceptual TSH levels and anti-TPO antibodies. Not applicable. Serum samples from 1,468 infertile women were utilized. None. Cumulative conception, clinical pregnancy, miscarriage, and live birth rates were calculated. Conception, clinical pregnancy, miscarriage, and live birth rates did not differ between patients with TSH ≥2.5 mIU/L vs. TSH < 2.5 mIU/L. Women with anti-TPO antibodies had similar conception rates (33.3% vs. 36.3%) but higher miscarriage rates (43.9% vs. 25.3%) and lower live birth rates (17.1% vs. 25.4%) than those without anti-TPO antibodies. Adjusted, multivariable logistic regression models confirmed elevated odds of miscarriage (odds ratio 2.17, 95% confidence interval 1.12-4.22) and lower odds of live birth (oddr ratio 0.58, 95% confidence interval 0.35-0.96) in patients with anti-TPO antibodies. In infertile women, preconceptional TSH ≥2.5 mIU/L is not associated with adverse reproductive outcomes; however, anti-TPO antibodies are associated with increased risk of miscarriage and decreased probability of live birth. PPCOS II NCT00719186; AMIGOS NCT01044862. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Comparison of 24 hr total body radio-iodine retention for hypothyroid vs. thyrogen (rhTSH) stimulated whole body surveillance scan

    Jana, S.; Young, I.; Bukberg, P.; Luo, J.Q.; Dakhel, M.; Heiba, S.; El-Zeftawy, H.; Abdel-Dayem, H.M.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: Recently rhTSH has been used for WBS to avoid hypothyroid symptoms from T4/T3 withdrawal. There is limited data available in the current literature comparing total body radio-iodine clearance between hypothyroid pts and pts receiving rhTSH. Significant differences in radio-iodine clearance may influence the dose of radio-iodine required for diagnostic scanning or treatment of pts on a rhTSH protocol. Methods: To retrospectively compare the 24 hr total body I-123 retention in thyroid cancer pts who were made hypothyroid in preparation for radio-iodine scanning with the I-123 retention in pts who received thyrogen (rhTSH) but were maintained on thyroid hormone replacement. Inclusion criteria were as follows: Histologically diagnosed well diff. thyroid Ca s/p surgery and I-131 Rx in the past who were clinically disease free at the time of scanning. No abn. visible I-123 uptake on WBS and 24 hr neck uptake ≤ 1%. Tg level ≤ 2ng off T4/T3 or ≤ 2ng increase from basal level after rhTSH. Anti-Tg Ab negative. Serum Creatine ≤ 1.4 mg/dl. Serum ALT < 35, AST < 35. Total 78 pts were divided into the following 3 groups (Gp): Gp-1 (29 pts) received 2 IM inj. Of 0.9 mg rhTSH 24 and 48 hrs prior to oral dose of 10 mCi I-123. Gp-2 (30 pts) followed hypothyroid protocol i.e., off T4 ≥ 4 wks or T3 ≥ 10 days in order to achieve TSH ≥ 30 MIU/L. The dose of I-123 was 5 mCi. Gp-3 (19 pts) similar to Gp-2 i.e., hypothyroid but scanned using 10 mCi of I-123. Imaging protocol: Pts were scanned 4 hrs and 24 hrs after I-123 administration in a dual head gamma camera for 30 mins. Total body and neck counting were obtained from the geometric mean of Ant and Post images with appropriate decay correction. 24 hr total body retention (TBR) of I-123 were calculated and expressed in %, considering 100% at 4 hrs. Results: Demographic Profile of 3 Patient Groups. AST/ALT was < 35 and 24 hrs neck uptake was ≤ 1.0% all pts. Comparison of 24 hr % TBR of I-123 in 3 Patient Groups

  5. Serum thyrotropin (TSH) levels in patients with suppressed pituitary function

    Vasavada, P.; Chen, I.; Maxon, H.; Barnes, E.; Sperling, M.

    1984-01-01

    The diagnosis of borderline hyperthyroidism is difficult. A sensitive radioimmunoassay capable of detecting subnormal levels of serum TSH may be of value in confirming this diagnosis because of the suppressed pituitary function in this disease state. This sensitive assay may also be useful in monitoring the suppression of pituitary function in thyroid cancer patients receiving thyroid hormone therapy. A sensitive radioimmunoassay capable of detecting serum TSH levels as low as 0.25 μU/m1 with coefficients of variation less than 17.2% was used to measure serum TSH levels in 80 healthy subjects, 44 hyperthyroid patients, and 25 athyrotic thyroid cancer patients on daily suppressive doses of thyroxine. All healthy subjects had detectable TSH levels with a mean value of 1.17 and two standard deviation ranges of 0.41 - 2.70 μU/m1 (lognormal distribution). Although the mean +-1 SEM value of 0.63 +- 0.003 μUm1 for hyperthyroid patients and 0.76 +- 0.08 μU/ml for thyroid cancer patients were significantly lower than that of healthy subjects (t-test, p<0.05), subnormal levels of serum TSH were found in only 28.6% (12/42) and 24% (6/25) of hyperthyroid and thyroid cancer patients, respectively. TSH stimulation tests performed in 6 of the cancer patients all gave suppressed responses. Because of considerable overlap, serum TSH levels alone cannot distinguish hyperthyroidsm from euthyroidism. However, a sensitive TSH radioimmunoassay such as the one described here may be of value in evaluating the extent of pituitary suppression in thyroid cancer therapy

  6. Thyrotropin (TSH) regulates triiodothyronine (T3) production in the unicellular Tetrahymena.

    Csaba, G; Pállinger, Eva

    2011-09-01

    The aim of the experiments was to study the regulation of triiodothyronine (T3) production in the unicellular Tetrahymena. Untreated and troph-hormone treated specimen were prepared and in different timepoints T3 content was measured and compared by immunocytochemical flow cytometry. 0.1 or 0.001 IU TSH in tryptone-yeast medium stimulated T3 synthesis at 10, 20, 30 min, but does not stimulate after 1 h. The overlapping gonadotropic hormone (GTH) also did it, however only at 10 min. In Losina salt solution (physiological for Tetrahymena) the effect was weaker, however outer amino acid source was not absolutely needed for the production of the hormone. The results show that the TSH regulation of thyroid hormone synthesis (storage, secretion) and troph-hormone overlap can be deduced to a unicellular level. This may allow the hypothesis that the endocrine mechanisms proved at a low level of phylogeny are preserved for the higher ranked organisms.

  7. Effect of 30 mCi radioiodine on multinodular goiter previously treated with recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone

    Paz-Filho, G.J.; Mesa-Junior, C.O.; Boguszewski, C.L.; Carvalho, G.A.; Graf, H. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Hospital de Clinicas. Servico de Endocrinologia e Metabologia; Olandoski, M. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Nucleo de Bioestatistica; Woellner, L.C. [Centro de Medicina Nuclear, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Goedert, C.A. [Centro de Tomografia Computadorizada, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2007-12-15

    Recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH) enhances {sup 131}I uptake, permitting a decrease in radiation for the treatment of multinodular goiter (MNG). Our objective was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a single 0.1-mg dose of rhTSH, followed by 30 mCi {sup 131}I, in patients with MNG. Seventeen patients (15 females, 59.0 {+-} 13.1 years), who had never been submitted to {sup 131}I therapy, received a single 0.1-mg injection of rhTSH followed by 30 mCi {sup 131}I on the next day. Mean basal thyroid volume measured by computed tomography was 106.1 {+-} 64.4 mL. {sup 131}I 24-h uptake, TSH, free-T4, T3, thyroglobulin, anti-thyroid antibodies, and thyroid volume were evaluated at regular intervals of 12 months. Mean {sup 131}I 24-h uptake increased from 18.1 {+-} 9.7 to 49.6 {+-} 13.4% (P < 0.001), a median 2.6-fold increase (1.2 to 9.2). Peak hormonal levels were 10.86 {+-} 5.44 mU/L for TSH (a median 15.5-fold increase), 1.80 {+-} 0.48 ng/dL for free-T4, 204.61 {+-} 58.37 ng/dL for T3, and a median of 557.0 ng/mL for thyroglobulin. The adverse effects observed were hyperthyroidism (17.6%), painful thyroiditis (29.4%) and hypothyroidism (52.9%). Thyroid volume was reduced by 34.3 {+-} 14.3% after 6 months (P < 0.001) and by 46.0 {+-} 14.6% after 1 year (P < 0.001). Treatment of MNG with a single 0.1-mg dose of rhTSH, followed by a fixed amount of radioactivity of {sup 131}I, leads to an efficacious decrease in thyroid volume for the majority of the patients, with a moderate incidence of non-serious and readily treatable adverse effects. (author)

  8. Effect of 30 mCi radioiodine on multinodular goiter previously treated with recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone

    G.J. Paz-Filho

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH enhances 131I uptake, permitting a decrease in radiation for the treatment of multinodular goiter (MNG. Our objective was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a single 0.1-mg dose of rhTSH, followed by 30 mCi 131I, in patients with MNG. Seventeen patients (15 females, 59.0 ± 13.1 years, who had never been submitted to 131I therapy, received a single 0.1-mg injection of rhTSH followed by 30 mCi 131I on the next day. Mean basal thyroid volume measured by computed tomography was 106.1 ± 64.4 mL. 131I 24-h uptake, TSH, free-T4, T3, thyroglobulin, anti-thyroid antibodies, and thyroid volume were evaluated at regular intervals of 12 months. Mean 131I 24-h uptake increased from 18.1 ± 9.7 to 49.6 ± 13.4% (P < 0.001, a median 2.6-fold increase (1.2 to 9.2. Peak hormonal levels were 10.86 ± 5.44 mU/L for TSH (a median 15.5-fold increase, 1.80 ± 0.48 ng/dL for free-T4, 204.61 ± 58.37 ng/dL for T3, and a median of 557.0 ng/mL for thyroglobulin. The adverse effects observed were hyperthyroidism (17.6%, painful thyroiditis (29.4% and hypothyroidism (52.9%. Thyroid volume was reduced by 34.3 ± 14.3% after 6 months (P < 0.001 and by 46.0 ± 14.6% after 1 year (P < 0.001. Treatment of MNG with a single 0.1-mg dose of rhTSH, followed by a fixed amount of radioactivity of 131I, leads to an efficacious decrease in thyroid volume for the majority of the patients, with a moderate incidence of non-serious and readily treatable adverse effects.

  9. Effects of forced swimming stress on thyroid function, pituitary thyroid-stimulating hormone and hypothalamus thyrotropin releasing hormone expression in adrenalectomy Wistar rats.

    Sun, Qiuyan; Liu, Aihua; Ma, Yanan; Wang, Anyi; Guo, Xinhong; Teng, Weiping; Jiang, Yaqiu

    2016-11-01

    In order to study the impact that is imposed on the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis of adrenalectomy male Wistar rats by stress caused by swimming, the blood level of triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), the expression of TSHβ mRNA at the pituitary and thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) expression at the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) were measured. A total of 50 male Wistar rats of 6-8 weeks of age and with an average weight of 190-210 grams were randomly divided into the following two groups: The surgical (without adrenal glands) and non-surgical (adrenalectomy) group. These two groups were then divided into the following five groups, according to the time delay of sacrifice following forced swim (10 min, 2 h, 12 h and 24 h) and control (not subjected to swimming) groups. A bilateral adrenalectomy animal model was established. Serum TSH in the blood was measurement by chemiluminescent immunoassay, and cerebrum tissue were excised for the measurement of TRH expression using an immunohistochemistry assay. In addition, pituitaries were excised for the extraction of total RNA. Finally, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed for quantitation of TSHβ. Following swimming, the serum T3, T4 and TSH, the TSHβ mRNA expression levels in the pituitary and the TRH expression in the PVN of the surgical group were gradually increased. In the non-surgical group, no significant differences were observed in the serum T3, T4 and TSH levels compared with the control group. The TSHβ mRNA expression at the pituitary showed a similar result. Furthermore, the TRH expression at PVN was gradually increased and stress from swimming could increase the blood T4, T3 and TSH levels, TSHβ mRNA expression at the pituitary and TRH expression at the PVN in adrenalectomy Wistar rats. Moreover, the index in the surgical group changed significantly compared with the non-surgical group. In conclusion, the results

  10. Recombinant TSH in follow-up and therapy of differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    Luster, M.; Reiners, C.

    2000-01-01

    I-131-scintigraphy and serum thyroglobulin testing - if possible under stimulation of thyrotropin - are besides physical examination and ultrasonography crucial for the optimal follow-up of patients with well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma. This required physicians to withdraw patients from thyroid hormone suppression therapy (THST) for several weeks in order to raise endogenous TSH-levels. Clinical hypothyroidism often results in substantial patient discomfort, with sometimes major psychic alterations; the subsequent disability to work is occasionally an unpleasant consequence from an economical point of view. The temporary use of bovine, and for a short period of time human TSH is obsolete today because of a high risk of allergic reactions or the potential transmission of the Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, respectively. Lately recombinant human TSH (rhTSH, Thyrogen trademark ), a hormone that was developed with the help of genetic engineering techniques, is available; its pharmacological safety has been demonstrated in previous phase-I/II-studies. The results of a phase-III-study showed in the majority of patients a marked rise in thyroglobulin levels after rhTSH. In all cases an adequate TSH level (>100 mU/l) was achieved after i.m. injection of recombinant TSH. Wholebody-scans showed a high level of accordance (>90%) in addition to a substantially lower background-activity. A tumour-background-ratio corresponding to conventional imaging could be demonstrated. (orig.) [de

  11. T cell lymphoblastic lymphoma/leukemia within an adrenocorticotropic hormone and thyroid stimulating hormone positive pituitary adenoma: A cytohistological correlation emphasizing importance of intra-operative squash smear.

    Gupta, Rakesh K; Saran, Ravindra K; Srivastava, Arvind K; Jagetia, Anita; Garg, Lalit; Sharma, Mehar C

    2017-08-01

    We present a rare case of primary pituitary T cell lymphoma/leukemia (T-LBL) in association with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) expressing pituitary adenoma in a 55-year-old woman highlighting the importance of intra-operative squash smears examination. The patient presented with complaints of headache, diminution of vision and recent onset altered sensorium. MRI revealed a mass lesion in the sellar-suprasellar region with non-visualization of pituitary gland separately, extending to involve adjacent structures diagnosed as invasive pituitary macroadenoma. Intra-operative tissue was sent for squash smear examination. The cytology showed a tumor comprising of sheets of immature lymphoid cells intermixed with clusters of pituitary acinar cells with many mitoses and tingible body macrophages. A diagnosis of presence of immature lymphoid cells within the pituitary was offered and differentials of infiltration by lymphoma cells from systemic disease versus primary central nervous lymphoma-like lymphoma arising in the pituitary adenoma were considered. Later paraffin section examination and immunohistochemistry corroborated with the squash findings and a final diagnosis of primary pituitary T cell lymphoma/leukemia in association with ACTH and TSH expressing pituitary adenoma was made. To date, only six cases of primary pituitary T cell lymphomas, including three T-LBL cases, have been reported. This is the seventh case and first one additionally describing cytohistological correlation and importance of intra-operative cytology. © 2017 Japanese Society of Neuropathology.

  12. Correlation between the estimated molecular weight and the immunological properties of 125I-TSH

    Quiroga, S.E.; Ciscato, V.A.; Barmasch, M.; Kurcbart, H.; Veira de Giacomini, S.; Altschuler, N.; Caro, R.A.

    1976-09-01

    Thyrotropic Stimulating Hormone (TSH) was radioiodinated by the Chloramine T method in order to be used in radioimmu-noassay procedures. It was purified by gel filtration and each fraction of the eluate was analyzed in order to determine which one had the most suitable behaviour for that use. The molecular weight of each fraction was estimated, as well as its immunological reactivity and its non-specific binding. The 125 I-TSH fraction with better properties was the closest to the molecular weight of the native hormone, which is found at the posterior shoulder of the main proteic peak of the elution pattern. (author) [es

  13. Serial changes of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone after total thyroidectomy or withdrawal of suppressive thyroxine therapy in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer

    Bae, Jin Ho; Lee, Jae Tae; Seo, Ji Hyoung [School of Medicine, Kyungpook National Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-12-01

    Radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy and whole-body scanning are the fundamentals of treatment and follow-up of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. It is generally accepted that a Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH) level of at least 30 {mu}U/ml is a prerequisite for the effective use of RAI, and that it requires 4-6 weeks of off-thyroxine to attain these levels. Because thyroxine withdrawal and the consequent hypothyroidism are often poorly tolerated, and occasionally might be hazardous, it is important to be certain that these assumptions are correct. We have measured serial changes in serum TSH after total thyroidectomy or withdrawl of thyroxine in patients with thyroid cancer. Serum TSH levels were measured weekly after thyroidectomy in 10 patients (group A) and after the discontinuation of thyroxine in 12 patients (group B). Symptoms and signs of hypothyroidism were also evaluated weekly by modified Billewicz diagnostic index. By the second week, 78% of group A patients and 17% of group B patients had serum TSH levels {>=} 30 {mu}U/ml. By the third week, 89% of group A patients and 90% of group B patients had serum TSH levels {>=} 30 {mu}U/ml. By the fourth week, all patients in two groups achieved target TSH levels and there were no overt hypothyroidism. In all patients, serum TSH elevated to the target concentration ({>=} 30 {mu}U/ml) within 4 weeks without significant manifestation of hypothyroidism. The schedule of RAI administration could be adjusted to fit. the needs and circumstances of individual patients with a shorter preparation period than the conventional.

  14. Nanogold–polyaniline–nanogold microspheres-functionalized molecular tags for sensitive electrochemical immunoassay of thyroid-stimulating hormone

    Cui Yuling; Chen Huafeng; Hou Li; Zhang Bing; Liu Bingqian; Chen Guonan; Tang Dianping

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A novel immunosensing strategy was designed for detection of thyroid-stimulating hormone. ► Using nanogold–polyaniline–nanogold microspheres as molecular tags. ► Improvement of electrochemical activity of nanolabels. ► Combination enzyme labels with nanolabels for signal amplification. - Abstract: Methods based on nanomaterial labels have been developed for electrochemical immunosensors and immunoassays, but most involved low sensitivity. Herein a novel class of molecular tags, nanogold–polyaniline–nanogold microspheres (GPGs), was first synthesized and functionalized with horseradish peroxidase-conjugated thyroid-stimulating hormone antibody (HRP-Ab 2 ) for sensitive electrochemical immunoassay of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). X-ray diffraction, confocal Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope were employed to characterize the prepared GPGs. Based on a sandwich-type immunoassay format, the assay was performed in pH 5.0 acetate buffer containing 6.0 mmol L −1 H 2 O 2 by using GPG-labeled HRP-Ab 2 as molecular tags. Compared with pure polyaniline nanospheres and gold nanoparticles alone, the GPG hybrid nanostructures increased the surface area of the nanomaterials, and enhanced the immobilized amount of HRP-Ab 2 . Several labeling protocols comprising HRP-Ab 2 , nanogold particle-labeled HRP-Ab 2 , and polyaniline nanospheres-labeled HRP-Ab 2 , were also investigated for determination of TSH and improved analytical features were obtained by using the GPG-labeled HRP-Ab 2 . With the GPG labeling method, the effects of incubation time and pH of acetate buffer on the current responses of the immunosensors were also studied. The strong attachment of HRP-Ab 2 to the GPGs resulted in a good repeatability and intermediate precision down to 7%. The dynamic concentration range spanned from 0.01 to 20 μIU mL −1 with a detection limit (LOD) of 0.005 μIU mL −1 TSH at the 3s B criterion

  15. Effect of subcutaneous injection of a long-acting analogue of somatostatin (SMS 201-995) on plasma thyroid-stimulating hormone in normal human subjects

    Itoh, S.; Tanaka, K.; Kumagae, M.; Takeda, F.; Morio, K.; Kogure, M.; Hasegawa, M.; Horiuchi, T.; Watabe, T.; Miyabe, S.

    1988-01-01

    SMS 201-995 (SMS), a synthetic analogue of somatostatin (SRIF) has been shown to be effective in the treatment of the hypersecretion of hormones such as in acromegaly. However, little is known about the effects of SMS on the secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in normal subjects. In this study, plasma TSH was determined with a highly sensitive immunoradiometric assay, in addition to the concentration of SMS in plasma and urine with a radioimmunoassay, following subcutaneous injection of 25, 50, 100 ..mu..g of SMS or a placebo to normal male subjects, at 0900 h after an overnight fast. The plasma concentrations of SMS were dose-responsive and the peak levels were 1.61 +/- 0.09, 4.91 +/- 0.30 and 8.52 +/- 1.18 ng/ml, which were observed at 30, 15 and 45 min after the injection of 25, 50, and 100 ..mu..g of SMS, respectively. Mean plasma disappearance half-time of SMS was estimated to be 110 +/- 3 min. Plasma TSH was suppressed in a dose dependent manner and the suppression lasted for at least 8 hours. At 8 hours after the injection of 25, 50, and 100 ..mu..g of SMS, the plasma TSH levels were 43.8 +/- 19.4, 33.9 +/- 9.4 and 24.9 +/- 3.2%, respectively, of the basal values.

  16. Heterogeneous time-resolved electrochemiluminoimmunoassay of thyroid stimulating hormone with magnetic beads at oxide-covered aluminum electrode

    Ala-Kleme, Timo, E-mail: timo.ala-kleme@utu.fi

    2017-06-15

    The heterogeneous immunoassay of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was detected by the time-resolved cathodic electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (tr-CECLIA) method using magnetic beads as a mobile support. The magnetic beads coated with sandwich type TSH immunoassay were captured with a magnet for washing and detection processes. The time-resolved cathodic electrochemiluminescence (tr-CECL) signal of Tb(III) chelate label was generated by cathodic pulse polarization in the aluminum working electrode and platinum counter electrode system. The detection method causes injection of high energy electrons into the aqueous solution near the aluminum electrode and creates rigid simultaneous oxidative and reductive conditions that excitate the Tb(III) chelate used as a label luminophore in the heterogeneous sandwich type immunoassay of TSH in the surface of the magnetic beads. The limit of detection of the method was about 50 mIU L{sup −1}. The precision of it was noticed to be good; the coefficient variation percentage was realized to be lower than 10 %. Unfortunately the limit of detection is not good enough for determination of analyte levels of very low concentrations for instance TSH in body fluids. The possible application areas of the method are in highly sophisticated micro or nano fluidic detection and sensor systems where the aspiration level of the analyte detection limit is not very high and the mobility and manageability and the large surface area of the magnetic beads can be utilized efficiently in separating, washing, moving, coating and detecting processes. In the case of tr-CECLIA the presented method makes possible to use multipurpose working electrodes instead of disposable ones.

  17. Chronic food restriction and the circadian rhythms of pituitary-adrenal hormones, growth hormone and thyroid-stimulating hormone.

    Armario, A; Montero, J L; Jolin, T

    1987-01-01

    Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to food restriction so that they ate 65% of food ingested by control rats. While control rats had free access to food over the 24-hour period, food-restricted rats were provided with food daily at 10 a.m. The experimental period lasted for 34 days. On day 35, rats from both experimental groups were killed at 08.00, 11.00, 14.00, 24.00 and 02.00 h. Food restriction modified the circadian rhythms of ACTH and corticosterone. In addition, total circulating corticosterone throughout the day was higher in food-restricted than in control rats. In contrast, food restriction resulted in depressed secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone and growth hormone. The results indicate that time of food availability entrained circadian corticosterone rhythm but not thyroid-stimulating hormone and growth hormone rhythms.

  18. Effects of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism on rat growth hormone release induced by thyrotropin-releasing hormone.

    Chihara, K; Kato, Y; Ohgo, S; Iwasaki, Y; Maeda, K

    1976-06-01

    The effect of synthetic thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) on the release of growth hormone (GH) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) was investigated in euthyroid, hypothyroid, and hyperthyroid rats under urethane anesthesia. In euthyroid control rats, intravenous injection of TRH (200 ng/100 g BW) resulted in a significant increase in both plasma GH and TSH. In rats made hypothyroid by treatment with propylthiouracil or by thyroidectomy, basal GH and TSH levels were significantly elevated with exaggerated responses to TRH. In contrast, plasma GH and TSH responses to TRH were both significantly inhibited in rats made hyperthyroid by L-thyroxine (T4) treatment. These results suggest that altered thyroid status influences GH release as well as TSH secretion induced by TRH in rats.

  19. Increasing Goat Productivity Through the Improvement of Endogenous Secretion of Pregnant Hormones Using Follicle Stimulating Hormone

    Andriyanto Andriyanto

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Previous studies reported that the improvement of endogenous estrogen and progesterone secretions during gestation improved fetal prenatal growth, birth weight, mammary gland growth and development, milk production, litter size, pre- and post-weaning growths. An experiment was conducted to apply the improvement of endogenous secretion of pregnant hormones during pregnancy to increase goat productivity. Thirty-six female ettawah-cross does were divided into 2 groups. Group 1 (control: 18 does included does without improvement of endogenous secretion of pregnant hormones and Group 2 (treatment: 18 does included does with improvement of endogenous secretion of pregnant hormones using follicle stimulating hormones to stimulate super ovulation. The application of this technology increased total offspring born (control: 25 offspring; treatment: 42 offspring, average litter size (control: 1.88; treatment: 2.33, offspring birth weight (control: 2.85±0.50 kg; treatment: 3.82±0.40 kg, and does milk production (control: 1.36±0.34 L/does/day; treatment: 2.10±0.21 L/does/day. Offspring born to does with improved endogenous secretion of pregnant hormones had better weaning weight (control: 11.17±1.99 kg/offspring; treatment: 14.5±1.11 kg/offspring. At weaning period, does with improved endogenous secretion of pregnant hormones produced offspring with total weaning weight twice as heavy as control does (control: 189.9 kg; treatment: 403.6 kg. By a simple calculation of economic analysis, this technology application could increase gross revenue per does until weaning by Rp. 432.888,89. It was concluded that this technology is economically feasible to be applied in small-scale farm. Key Words: follicle stimulating hormone, pregnant hormones, endogenous secretion, super ovulation, ettawah-cross does

  20. Lowered quality of life in mood disorders is associated with increased neuro-oxidative stress and basal thyroid-stimulating hormone levels and use of anticonvulsant mood stabilizers.

    Nunes, Caroline Sampaio; Maes, Michael; Roomruangwong, Chutima; Moraes, Juliana Brum; Bonifacio, Kamila Landucci; Vargas, Heber Odebrecht; Barbosa, Decio Sabbatini; Anderson, George; de Melo, Luiz Gustavo Piccoli; Drozdstoj, Stoyanov; Moreira, Estefania; Carvalho, André F; Nunes, Sandra Odebrecht Vargas

    2018-04-17

    Major affective disorders including bipolar disorder (BD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) are associated with impaired health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Oxidative stress and subtle thyroid abnormalities may play a pathophysiological role in both disorders. Thus, the current study was performed to examine whether neuro-oxidative biomarkers and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels could predict HRQoL in BD and MDD. This cross-sectional study enrolled 68 BD and 37 MDD patients and 66 healthy controls. The World Health Organization (WHO) QoL-BREF scale was used to assess 4 QoL subdomains. Peripheral blood malondialdehyde (MDA), advanced oxidation protein products, paraoxonaxe/CMPAase activity, a composite index of nitro-oxidative stress, and basal TSH were measured. In the total WHOQoL score, 17.3% of the variance was explained by increased advanced oxidation protein products and TSH levels and lowered CMPAase activity and male gender. Physical HRQoL (14.4%) was associated with increased MDA and TSH levels and lowered CMPAase activity. Social relations HRQoL (17.4%) was predicted by higher nitro-oxidative index and TSH values, while mental and environment HRQoL were independently predicted by CMPAase activity. Finally, 73.0% of the variance in total HRQoL was explained by severity of depressive symptoms, use of anticonvulsants, lower income, early lifetime emotional neglect, MDA levels, the presence of mood disorders, and suicidal ideation. These data show that lowered HRQoL in major affective disorders could at least in part result from the effects of lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, lowered antioxidant enzyme activities, and higher levels of TSH. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. T3 Regulates a Human Macrophage-Derived TSH-β Splice Variant: Implications for Human Bone Biology.

    Baliram, R; Latif, R; Morshed, S A; Zaidi, M; Davies, T F

    2016-09-01

    TSH and thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) are intimately involved in bone biology. We have previously reported the presence of a murine TSH-β splice variant (TSH-βv) expressed specifically in bone marrow-derived macrophages and that exerted an osteoprotective effect by inducing osteoblastogenesis. To extend this observation and its relevance to human bone biology, we set out to identify and characterize a TSH-β variant in human macrophages. Real-time PCR analyses using human TSH-β-specific primers identified a 364-bp product in macrophages, bone marrow, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells that was sequence verified and was homologous to a human TSH-βv previously reported. We then examined TSH-βv regulation using the THP-1 human monocyte cell line matured into macrophages. After 4 days, 46.1% of the THP-1 cells expressed the macrophage markers CD-14 and macrophage colony-stimulating factor and exhibited typical morphological characteristics of macrophages. Real-time PCR analyses of these cells treated in a dose-dependent manner with T3 showed a 14-fold induction of human TSH-βv mRNA and variant protein. Furthermore, these human TSH-βv-positive cells, induced by T3 exposure, had categorized into both M1 and M2 macrophage phenotypes as evidenced by the expression of macrophage colony-stimulating factor for M1 and CCL-22 for M2. These data indicate that in hyperthyroidism, bone marrow resident macrophages have the potential to exert enhanced osteoprotective effects by oversecreting human TSH-βv, which may exert its local osteoprotective role via osteoblast and osteoclast TSH receptors.

  2. Effective visualization of suppressed thyroid tissue by means of baseline 99mTc-methoxy isobutyl isonitrile in comparison with 99mTc-pertechnetate scintigraphy after TSH stimulation.

    Vattimo, A; Bertelli, P; Burroni, L

    1992-01-01

    Baseline 99mTc-MIBI thyroid scintigraphy was compared with 99mTc-pertechnetate scintigraphy after TSH stimulation in seven patients with suppressed thyroid tissue due to an autonomously functioning thyroid nodule (AFTN). In all patients the suppressed thyroid tissue was visualized by means of both baseline 99mTc-MIBI and post-TSH 99mTc-pertechnetate scintigraphy, and in some cases the former technique provided better visualization. In one patient presenting a "warm" nodule T3-suppression did not affect the nodular/extranodular uptake ratio of 99mTc-MIBI, whereas the 99mTc-pertechnetate uptake ratio increased significantly. This leads us to hypothesize that the thyroid uptake of 99mTc-MIBI is not related to TSH control, but rather to other mechanisms such as the blood flow. Since exogenous TSH is no longer available, 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy can be successfully used in the place of repeated 99mTc-pertechnetate scintigraphy after TSH stimulation in the assessment of AFTN.

  3. Clinical experience of a sensitive immunoradiometric thyrotropin (TSH) assay kit (RIA-gnost hTSH)

    Nakamura, Saeko; Jibiki, Kazuko; Demura, Reiko; Koike, Sachiko; Kurihara, Shigeko; Odagiri, Emi; Demura, Hiroshi

    1987-01-01

    A commercially available immunoradiometric thyrotropin (TSH) assay kit (RIA-gnost hTSH) was used to study the concentration of TSH in serum in a series of 124 patients with thyroid dysfunction and 35 normal controls. Laboratory test for RIA-gnost hTSH showed a detection limit for TSH to be 0.03 μU/ml. The basal serum concentration of TSH in normal controls ranged from 0.17 to 3.21 μU/ml, with a mean of 0.74 μU/ml. It was less than 0.04 μU/ml in all 28 untreated patients with Graves' disease, indicating the discrimination between normal and hyperthyroid subjects. In the case of untreated 7 patients with hypothalamic hypopituitarism, the basal TSH concentration ranged from 0.80 to 13.5 μU/ml. There was no consistent tendency for changes in TSH levels with normalization of free thyroxine in 8 treated patients with Graves' disease. The basal serum concentration of TSH reflected the response of TSH to thyrotropin releasing hormone in 10 treated patients with Graves' disease. The use of the RIA-gnost hTSH would be of clinical significance in the diagnosis and management of patients with Graves' disease or hypopituitarism. (Namekawa, K.)

  4. Hyperthyroidism due to thyroid-stimulating hormone secretion after surgery for Cushing's syndrome: a novel cause of the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone.

    Tamada, Daisuke; Onodera, Toshiharu; Kitamura, Tetsuhiro; Yamamoto, Yuichi; Hayashi, Yoshitaka; Murata, Yoshiharu; Otsuki, Michio; Shimomura, Iichiro

    2013-07-01

    Hyperthyroidism with the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of TSH (SITSH) occurred by a decrease in hydrocortisone dose after surgery for Cushing's syndrome. This is a novel cause of SITSH. The aim of this study was to describe and discuss 2 cases of SITSH patients that were found after surgery for Cushing's syndrome. We also checked whether SITSH occurred in 7 consecutive patients with Cushing's syndrome after surgery. A 45-year-old Japanese woman with ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome and a 37-year-old Japanese man with ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome presented SITSH caused by insufficient replacement of hydrocortisone for postoperative adrenal insufficiency. When the dose of hydrocortisone was reduced to less than 20 mg/d within 18 days after surgery, SITSH occurred in both cases. We examined whether the change of the hydrocortisone dose induced the secretion of TSH. Free T₃ and TSH were normalized by the hydrocortisone dose increase of 30 mg/d, and these were elevated by the dose decrease of 10 mg/d. We also checked TSH and thyroid hormone levels of the 7 consecutive patients with Cushing's syndrome after surgery. Six (66.6 %) of 9 patients showed SITSH. This is the first report that insufficient replacement of hydrocortisone after surgery for Cushing's syndrome caused SITSH. Hyperthyroidism by SITSH as well as adrenal insufficiency can contribute to withdrawal symptoms of hydrocortisone replacement. We need to consider the possibility of SITSH for the pathological evaluation of withdrawal syndrome of hydrocortisone replacement.

  5. Radioimmunoassay of serum T3, T4 and TSH during anesthesia and operation

    Gosheva-Antonova, Ts.; Zakharieva, B.; Kurtev, I.

    1987-01-01

    The serum concentrations of thyroxine (T 3 ), triiodothyronine (T 4 ) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) were determined in 31 partients before and during urologic operations on the 30th and 60th minute since the onset of the operation, performed under endotracheal halotane or neuroleptanesthesia (NLA) in assisted breathing and intravenous drip anesthesia with ketalar-diazepam in spontaneous breathing. There was statistically significant rise in T 4 level, decrease in T 3 and negligible changes in TSH level, in patients operated under halotane anesthesia. In those operated under NLA, T 4 tended initially to be elevated, with subseguent fall to starting level, with a tendency toward rise in TSH and stable unchanged T 3 level. Ketalar-diazepam anesthesia was applied only to patients subjected to transurethral resections. T 4 in them tended to be decreased, while T 3 and TSH showed negligible changes. Since the operations of patients anesthesized with halotane and NLA had similar localizations and severity, the differences in the thyroid hormone reactions could be associated with the type of anesthesia. The negligible changes in TSH are highly suggestive that this hormone is not influenced by the operation stress and anesthetics, and does hot exert regulating effect upon the thyroid status under these conditions. The milder reactions in patients operated under ketalar-diazepam anestesia may largely be associated with the milder operation stress in transurethal resection

  6. Pre-therapeutic blood dosimetry in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma using 124-iodine. Predicted blood doses correlate with changes in blood cell counts after radioiodine therapy and depend on modes of TSH stimulation and number of preceding radioiodine therapies

    Hartung-Knemeyer, V.; Nagarajah, J.; Jentzen, W.; Ruhlmann, M.; Freudenberg, L.S.; Stahl, A.R.; Bockisch, A.; Rosenbaum-Krumme, S.J.

    2012-01-01

    Pre-therapeutic blood dosimetry prior to a high-dose radioiodine therapy (RAIT) is recommended and a blood dose of 2 Gy is considered to be safe. In this study, changes in the blood cell count after radioiodine therapy of high risk differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) were analyzed and compared with the results of the pre-therapeutic blood dosimetry using 124 I. Moreover, the influence of different modes of TSH stimulation and the number of preceding radioiodine therapies on the blood dose were assessed. 198 patients with locally advanced or metastasized DTC received a pre-therapeutic blood dosimetry using 124 I. To analyze the influence of the modes of TSH stimulation and the number of preceding RAITs on blood dose subgroups were built as follows: patients with endogenous TSH stimulation versus patients with exogenous TSH stimulation and patients with no preceding RAIT versus patients with at least one preceding RAIT. In 124/198 patients subsequent RAIT was performed. In 73/124 patients, hemograms were performed from day 2 to 12 month after RAIT. There was no high-grade bone marrow toxicity (id est (i.e.) ≥grade 3) in patients receiving less than 2 Gy blood dose-independent of the therapeutic history. Within the first month after radioiodine therapy, there was an overall decrease in the white blood cell and platelet counts. The erythrocyte count was essentially stable. There was a correlation between cell count decrease and predicted blood doses (Spearman's correlation coefficient >-0.6 each) for the white cell line and the platelets. With regard to the subgroups, the blood dose per administered 131 I activity (BDpA) was significantly higher in patients with endogenous TSH stimulation (median 0.08 Gy/GBq) than in patients with exogenous TSH stimulation (0.06 Gy/GBq) and in patients with no previous RAIT (0.08 Gy/GBq) compared to patients who had previously undergone at least one RAIT (0.07 Gy/GBq). The range of BDpA among DTC patients is rather wide. Our

  7. Clinical relevancy of a sensitive TSH-RIA

    Seidel, C.; Ziegelitz, D.; Weber, A.; Dittmer, T.; Gerl, H.; Knappe, G.; Correns, H.J.

    1982-01-01

    Based on a sensitive TSH-RIA (measuring range 0.2-25 mU/l, 50%-intercept 2 mU/l, coefficients of between-assay-variation 5-10%) and on nearly 1200 cases, it is demonstrated that clinical results can be received by determination of basal serum TSH alone. Values above 0.5 mU TSH/l indicate positive TRH tests in a good correlation between increasing basal concentrations and pituitary TSH reserve. TSH levels below 0.3 mU/l proceed with negative TRH tests. In selected healthy subjects, we found all TSH values between 0.7 and nearly 5 mU/l (x-bar = 1.99). In euthyroid goiters TSH levels are normally in the same range, but in nodular goiters, subnormal values were found accumulated. TSH levels below 0.3 mU/l are helpful to discover non-suppressibility. Hormone treatment of goiters is successful above all in case of high-normal pretherapeutic TSH values. 'Fine-tuning' of hormone dosage (goiter treatment, postoperative prophylaxis, suppression therapy in thyroid carcinoma) as well as monitoring of thyrotoxicosis treatment is recommended to be performed by means of basal TSH determination. In pituitary disorders, thyroid hormone treatment seems to be necessary only at TSH levels below 0.5 mU/l. Combination of basal TSH and total T 3 is economical and describes nearly all functional situations in diagnosis and treatment of thyroid diseases. (author)

  8. Iterative stimulation of endogenous TSH for ablation. Followup and/or treatment with I-131 in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    Degrossi, Osvaldo J.; Garcia del Rio, Hernan; Alvarez, L.; Pena, M.; Faure, E.

    2006-01-01

    In patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma it is indispensable to raise the values of TSH to determine thyroglobulin and to effect the total tracking with radioiodine. Traditionally to raise the endogenous TSH it is necessary to suspend the opotherapy during a prolonged time with the consistent hypothyroidism. The objective of this work is to increase the endogenous TSH, shortening the time of abstinence of opotherapy [es

  9. [Clinical studies on regulatory system of thyroid hormone secretion and serum triiodothyronine. Part. I. Solid-state radioimmunoassy for human serum TSH and its clinical application (author's transl)].

    Takeda, Y

    1975-01-20

    A solid-state RIA method using a plastic microtiter plate for human TSH was developed: 1) The choice of carrier protein for standard TSH was critical in this method and pooled sera from untreated Graves patients was found to be suitable for this purpose. The mean lowest detectable TSH level was 0.2 muU/assay, which was almost equal to those reported by other methods. This method is superior in simple assay procedure, especially in the separation of bound and free TSH and in the shorter incubation time required in the double antibody method. 2) Serum TSH concentration in 22 normal subjects, 17 patients with Graves' disease, 35 Hashimoto's thyroiditis, 18 primary hypothyrodism, 16 simple goiter, 4 nodular goiter and 7 secondary hypothyroidism was estimated as 4.7 +/- 2.0 muU/ml (mean +/- s.d.), 2.1 +/- 0.2 mu/U/ml, 14.1 +/- 26.5 muU/ml, 211 +/- 177 muU/ml, 3.6 +/- 2.4 muU/ml, 3.2 +/- 2.4 muU/ml and 2.6 +/- 1.0 muU/ml, respectively. 3) A statistically significant and hyperbolic inverse correlation (r= --0.37, N=90) was found between TSH and T4 levels. Some cases with normal T4 level were found to be high in TSH levels. It was also noted that 36 of 65 euthyroid cases (55.4%) who had been treated with 131I for Graves' disease showed elevated TSH levels. 4) After intravenous injection of 500 mug TRH, TSH level reached its peak value of 8 to 32 muU/ml at 15 to 45 minutes in normal subjects. Low to no response was found in patients with Graves' disease. An exaggerated response in patients with primary hypothyroidism to TRH was observed and an inhibitory process in TSH production at the pituitary level was suggested in patients with Cushing syndrome. Hypothyroid patients with pituitary lesion showed low or no response, on the other hand some hypothyroid patients with lesions around the pituitary and hypothalamus showed high basal TSH and exaggerated response to TRH.

  10. Thyrotropic Activity of Various Adenohypophyseal Hormones of the Bullfrog(Endocrinology)

    MAKOTO, SAKAI; YOICHI, HANAOKA; SHIGEYASU, TANAKA; HIROAKI, HAYASHI; SAKAE, KIKUYAMA; Department of Biology, School of Education, Waseda University; Institute of Endocrinology, Gunma University; Institute of Endocrinology, Gunma University; Institute of Endocrinology, Gunma University; Department of Biology, School of Education, Waseda University

    1991-01-01

    The effects of adenohypophyseal hormones of the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) origin on the in vitro release of thyroxine (T_4) from the thyroid of prometamorphic larvae were studied. The bullfrog thyrotropin (TSH) preparation was 4 times as potent as bovine TSH in this model. Bullfrog luteinizing hormones (LHS) (I-IV) and follicle-stimulating hormones (FSHS) (I-IV), which were classified according to their isoelectric points, were tested for their thyrotropic activity and demons-trated about 1...

  11. Recent Advances in Thyroid Hormone Regulation: Toward a New Paradigm for Optimal Diagnosis and Treatment

    Rudolf Hoermann; John E. M. Midgley; Rolf Larisch; Johannes W. Dietrich; Johannes W. Dietrich; Johannes W. Dietrich

    2017-01-01

    In thyroid health, the pituitary hormone thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) raises glandular thyroid hormone production to a physiological level and enhances formation and conversion of T4 to the biologically more active T3. Overstimulation is limited by negative feedback control. In equilibrium defining the euthyroid state, the relationship between TSH and FT4 expresses clusters of genetically determined, interlocked TSH–FT4 pairs, which invalidates their statistical correlation within the eu...

  12. Maternal TSH level and TPOAb status in early pregnancy and their relationship to the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Ying, Hao; Tang, Yu-Ping; Bao, Yi-Rong; Su, Xiu-Juan; Cai, XueYa; Li, Yu-Hong; Wang, De-Fen

    2016-12-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism is common in pregnant women and often related to adverse pregnancy outcomes, but its relationship with gestational diabetes remains controversial. In particular, the impact of thyroperoxidase antibodies status on the relationship between subclinical hypothyroidism and gestational diabetes is not clear. We investigated the association between combined thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level and thyroperoxidase antibodies status in early pregnancy (gestation) and gestational diabetes mellitus. A total of 7084 pregnant women met the inclusion criteria, which included thyroperoxidase antibodies-positive subclinical hypothyroidism [TSH(H)TPOAb(+)] (n = 78), thyroperoxidase antibodies-negative subclinical hypothyroidism [TSH(H)TPOAb(-)] (n = 281), thyroperoxidase antibodies-positive euthyroidism [TSH(N)TPOAb(+)] (n = 648), and thyroperoxidase antibodies-negative euthyroidism [TSH(N)TPOAb(-)] (n = 6077). Of the 7084 cases included in our study, 1141 cases were diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus at 24-28 weeks of pregnancy. The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus in TSH(N)TPOAb(-), TSH(H)TPOAb(-), TSH(N)TPOAb(+), and TSH(H)TPOAb(+) was 14.65, 19.57, 24.85, and 46.15 %, respectively. Compared with TSH(N)TPOAb(-) women, the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus was increased in all other groups of women in early pregnancy. After dividing early pregnancy into first and second trimesters, we found that TSH(H)TPOAb(-) women in the first trimester do not show this increase. Our study suggests that subclinical hypothyroidism and thyroperoxidase antibodies-positive euthyroidism in early pregnancy are associated with an increased risk of gestational diabetes mellitus.

  13. A comprehensive curated resource for follicle stimulating hormone signaling

    Sharma Jyoti

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH is an important hormone responsible for growth, maturation and function of the human reproductive system. FSH regulates the synthesis of steroid hormones such as estrogen and progesterone, proliferation and maturation of follicles in the ovary and spermatogenesis in the testes. FSH is a glycoprotein heterodimer that binds and acts through the FSH receptor, a G-protein coupled receptor. Although online pathway repositories provide information about G-protein coupled receptor mediated signal transduction, the signaling events initiated specifically by FSH are not cataloged in any public database in a detailed fashion. Findings We performed comprehensive curation of the published literature to identify the components of FSH signaling pathway and the molecular interactions that occur upon FSH receptor activation. Our effort yielded 64 reactions comprising 35 enzyme-substrate reactions, 11 molecular association events, 11 activation events and 7 protein translocation events that occur in response to FSH receptor activation. We also cataloged 265 genes, which were differentially expressed upon FSH stimulation in normal human reproductive tissues. Conclusions We anticipate that the information provided in this resource will provide better insights into the physiological role of FSH in reproductive biology, its signaling mediators and aid in further research in this area. The curated FSH pathway data is freely available through NetPath (http://www.netpath.org, a pathway resource developed previously by our group.

  14. Serum thyroid stimulating hormone, total and free T4 during the neonatal period: Establishing regional reference intervals

    Sara Sheikhbahaei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Congenital hypothyroidism (CH, the most common etiology of preventable mental retardation in children, is estimated to be more prevalent among Asian population. Aims: Since thyroid function tests (TFTs varied among different ages and geographical regions, in this study, the neonatal thyroid reference intervals in a healthy neonatal population is determined for the first time in Iran. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study performed on 246 healthy term newborns aged between 2 days and 1 month. Materials and Methods: Blood samples were obtained by venipuncture from all subjects. The median, 2.5 th , 5 th , 95 th , and 97.5 th percentile of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, as well as the total and free T4 were assessed among different age groups. Statistical Analysis Used: Predictive Analytics Software (PASW Statistics 18 was used for the analysis. Results: Serum TSH, total and free T4 concentration peaked in 5 th to 7 th days of life, continued over 2 weeks, then decreased and started reaching to adult reference range. A significant negative correlation between age and serum concentration of TSH (P = 0.02, total T4 (P = 0.01 and free T4 (P = 0.01 was found. Conclusion: This study yielded fairly different values for TFTs compared compared values found in other countries and also different from values reported for laboratory kits we used. These differences were assumed to be due to variations in ethnicity, age, and laboratory methods used. Due to the lack of international standardization, conducting multicenter studies helps in making a more precise evaluation of thyroid status in neonates.

  15. alpha-Melanocyte-stimulating-hormone precursors in the pig pituitary

    Fenger, M

    1986-01-01

    The occurrence of intermediates from the processing of ACTH-(1-39) [adrenocorticotropic hormone-(1-39)] to alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone was investigated in normal pig pituitaries by the use of sensitive and specific radioimmunoassays for ACTH-(1-13), ACTH-(1-14), ACTH-(1-13)-NH2 and ACTH-(1......) were detected in lower amounts in both the intermediate lobe and the anterior lobe. ACTH-(1-17), ACTH-(1-13) and their acetylated analogues could not be detected in the anterior lobe or the intermediate lobe. The results suggest that an endopeptidase initially cleaves ACTH-(1-39) at the Lys-16-Arg-17...... bond. ACTH-(1-16) is then processed by a pituitary carboxypeptidase to ACTH-(1-14) and ACTH-(17-39) by the aminopeptidase to ACTH-(18-39)....

  16. Clinical classification of supressed and low normal basal serum TSH concentrations in euthyroidism

    Seidel, C.; Ziegelitz, D.; Correns, H.J.

    1981-01-01

    By use of highly sensitive and accurate TSH radioimmunoassay it can be shown up that beginnung with suppressed TSH-levels in serum during increasing TSH-levels TSH response after TRH injection increases concomitantly, i.e. there is positive correlation between basal TSH and TSH response after TRH. TRH mediated TSH-increase shows positive correlation to thyroidal suppressibility with thyroid hormones. The results demonstrate the importance of a highly sensitive and accurate TSH radioimmunoassay for clinical work especially for exclusion of hyperthyroidism or thyroidal autonomy for therapeutics of goiter, prevention of reoccurring goiter and control of thyroidal suppression. (orig.) [de

  17. Clinical classification of suppressed and low normal basal serum TSH concentrations in euthyroidism

    Seidel, C.; Ziegelitz, D.; Correns, H.J.

    1981-02-01

    By use of highly sensitive and accurate TSH radioimmunoassay it can be shown that beginning with suppressed TSH-levels in serum during increasing TSH-levels TSH response after TRH injection increases concomitantly, i.e. there is positive correlation between basal TSH and TSH response after TRH. TRH mediated TSH-increase shows positive correlation to thyroidal suppressibility with thyroid hormones. The results demonstrate the importance of a highly sensitive and accurate TSH radioimmunoassay for clinical work especially for exclusion of hyperthyroidism or thyroidal autonomy for therapeutics of goiter, prevention of reoccurring goiter and control of thyroidal suppression.

  18. Application of europium(III) chelates-bonded silica nanoparticle in time-resolved immunofluorometric detection assay for human thyroid stimulating hormone

    Zhou Yulin; Xia Xiaohu; Xu Ye; Ke Wei; Yang Wei; Li Qingge

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A rapid and ultrasensitive TSH immunoassay was developed using fluorescent silica nanoparticles-based TrIFA. ► The assay is of high sensitivity with short period time request. ► method can be potentially used at hospitals for daily clinical practice in hTSH screening. - Abstract: Eu(III) chelate-bonded silica nanoparticle was used as a fluorescent label to develop a highly sensitive time-resolved immunofluorometric assay (TrIFA) for human thyroid stimulating hormone (hTSH). The limit of detection of the assay calculated according to the 2SD method was 0.0007 mIU L −1 and became 0.003 mIU L −1 when serum-based matrix was used for calibrators, indicating that this TrIFA is comparable with the most sensitive assays. The linear range was from 0.005 to 100 mIU L −1 of hTSH with coefficient of variation between 1.9% and 8.3%. The correlation study using 204 blood spot samples from newborns showed that the results from this new method were coincident with that of the commercial dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluorescence immunoassay (DELFIA) system, with a correlation coefficient of 0.938. The fluorescent nanoparticle label allows directly reading the fluorescent signal, omitting the signal development step required for the DELFIA system, and the whole procedure of this assay is fulfilled within 2 h. Thus, we developed a novel, sensitive, quantitative and simple nanoparticle label-based TrIFA assay, suitable for routine application in hTSH screening of neonatal hypothyroidism.

  19. Application of europium(III) chelates-bonded silica nanoparticle in time-resolved immunofluorometric detection assay for human thyroid stimulating hormone

    Zhou Yulin [Xiamen Branch of Fujian Newborn Screening Centre and Xiamen Prenatal Diagnosis Centre, Xiamen Maternal and Children' s Health Care Hospital, Xiamen, Fujian 361003 (China); Xia Xiaohu; Xu Ye; Ke Wei [Engineering Research Centre of Molecular Diagnostics Laboratory, MOE, Department of Biomedical Sciences and the Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Cell Biology and Tumor Cell Engineering, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Yang Wei, E-mail: weiyang@xmu.edu.cn [Engineering Research Centre of Molecular Diagnostics Laboratory, MOE, Department of Biomedical Sciences and the Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Cell Biology and Tumor Cell Engineering, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Li Qingge, E-mail: qgli@xmu.edu.cn [Engineering Research Centre of Molecular Diagnostics Laboratory, MOE, Department of Biomedical Sciences and the Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Cell Biology and Tumor Cell Engineering, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China)

    2012-04-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A rapid and ultrasensitive TSH immunoassay was developed using fluorescent silica nanoparticles-based TrIFA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The assay is of high sensitivity with short period time request. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer method can be potentially used at hospitals for daily clinical practice in hTSH screening. - Abstract: Eu(III) chelate-bonded silica nanoparticle was used as a fluorescent label to develop a highly sensitive time-resolved immunofluorometric assay (TrIFA) for human thyroid stimulating hormone (hTSH). The limit of detection of the assay calculated according to the 2SD method was 0.0007 mIU L{sup -1} and became 0.003 mIU L{sup -1} when serum-based matrix was used for calibrators, indicating that this TrIFA is comparable with the most sensitive assays. The linear range was from 0.005 to 100 mIU L{sup -1} of hTSH with coefficient of variation between 1.9% and 8.3%. The correlation study using 204 blood spot samples from newborns showed that the results from this new method were coincident with that of the commercial dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluorescence immunoassay (DELFIA) system, with a correlation coefficient of 0.938. The fluorescent nanoparticle label allows directly reading the fluorescent signal, omitting the signal development step required for the DELFIA system, and the whole procedure of this assay is fulfilled within 2 h. Thus, we developed a novel, sensitive, quantitative and simple nanoparticle label-based TrIFA assay, suitable for routine application in hTSH screening of neonatal hypothyroidism.

  20. Thyroid storm induced by TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma: a case report.

    Fujio, Shingo; Ashari; Habu, Mika; Yamahata, Hitoshi; Moinuddin, F M; Bohara, Manoj; Arimura, Hiroshi; Nishijima, Yui; Arita, Kazunori

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid stimulating hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas (TSHomas) are uncommon tumors of the anterior pituitary gland. Patients with TSHomas may present with hyperthyroidism, but the incidence of thyroid storm due to TSHomas has yet to be determined. We report a rare case of thyroid storm caused by TSHoma in a 54-year-old woman. Preoperatively she had symptoms of excessive sweating and palpitation. Blood tests showed inappropriate secretion of TSH with blood TSH 6.86 μ U/mL, fT3 19.8 pg/mL, and fT4 5.95 ng/dL. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a pituitary tumor with maximum diameter of 13 mm that was extirpated through transsphenoidal route. After operation the patient was stuporous and thyroid storm occurred presenting with hyperthermia, hypertension, and tachycardia. It was well managed with nicardipine, midazolam, steroids, and potassium iodide. Immunohistochemical staining of tumor specimen was positive for TSH and growth hormone (GH). One year after operation, fT3 and fT4 levels were still high. As her tumor was diagnosed to be GH- and TSH-producing adenoma, octreotide injection therapy was started, which normalized thyroid hormone levels. This is the second reported case with thyroid storm due to TSHoma and emphasizes the importance of strategies with interdisciplinary cooperation for prevention of such emergency conditions.

  1. Mapping the follicle-stimulating hormone-induced signalling networks

    Pauline eGloaguen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH is a central regulator of male and female reproductive function. Over the last decade, there has been a growing perception of the complexity associated with FSH-induced cellular signalling. It is now clear that the canonical Gs/cAMP/PKA pathway is not the sole mechanism that must be considered in FSH biological actions. In parallel, consistent with the emerging concept of biased agonism, several examples of ligand-mediated selective signalling pathway activation by gonadotropin receptors have been reported. In this context, it is important to gain an integrative view of the signalling pathways induced by FSH and how they interconnect to form a network. In this review, we propose a first attempt at building topological maps of various pathways known to be involved in the FSH-induced signalling network. We discuss the multiple facets of FSH-induced signalling and how they converge to the hormone integrated biological response. Despite of their incompleteness, these maps of the FSH-induced signalling network represent a first step towards gaining a system-level comprehension of this hormone’s actions, which may ultimately facilitate the discovery of novel regulatory processes and therapeutic strategies for infertilities and non-steroidal contraception.

  2. [A case of GH and TSH secreting pituitary macroadenoma].

    Gołkowski, Filip; Buziak-Bereza, Monika; Stefańska, Agnieszka; Trofimiuk, Małgorzata; Pantofliński, Jacek; Huszno, Bohdan; Czepko, Ryszard; Adamek, Dariusz

    2006-01-01

    A case of GH and TSH secreting pituitary macroadenoma is reported. A 45-year-old female presented clinical features of acromegaly (the abnormal growth of the hands and feet, with lower jaw protrusion), diabetes mellitus, hypertension, nodular goiter and hyperthyroidism of unclear origin. NMR pituitary imaging revealed intra and extrasellar tumor. The laboratory examinations showed very high plasma levels of GH and IGF-1 and normal level of TSH coexisting with high plasma levels of free thyroid hormones. Pharmacological pretreatment with somatostatin analogues caused the substantial reduction of GH and TSH plasma levels. Histological and immunohistochemical examination of the tissue obtained at transsphenoidal surgery showed GH and TSH secreting adenoma. The laboratory examinations after surgery showed normal GH and IGF-1 plasma levels and reduced insulin requirement, what indicates radical operation. The very low plasma levels of TSH and free thyroid hormones after surgery and immunohistochemical examination suggest central hyperthyroidism due to TSH secreting pituitary tumor (thyrotropinoma).

  3. Discrepancies between Antimullerian Hormone and Follicle Stimulating Hormone in Assisted Reproduction

    Munawar Hussain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Data from 107 women undergoing their first IVF/ICSI were analyzed. Relationships between antimullerian hormone (AMH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH were analyzed after dividing patients into four groups according to AMH/FSH levels. Concordance was noted in 57% of women (both AMH/FSH either normal or abnormal while 43%of women had discordant values (AMH/FSH one hormone normal and the other abnormal. Group 1 (AMH and FSH in normal range and group 2 (normal AMH and high FSH were younger compared to group 3 (low AMH and normal FSH and group 4 (both AMH/FSH abnormal. Group 1 showing the best oocyte yield was compared to the remaining three groups. Groups 3 and 4 required higher dose of gonadotrophins for controlled ovarian hyperstimulation showing their low ovarian reserve. There was no difference in cycle cancellation, clinical pregnancy, and live birth/ongoing pregnancy rate in all groups. These tests are useful to predict ovarian response but whether AMH is a substantially better predictor is not yet established.

  4. Association of TSH Elevation with All-Cause Mortality in Elderly Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Mei-Hsing Chuang

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is a widespread condition in the global population and is more common in the elderly. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH level increases with aging, and hypothyroidism is highly prevalent in CKD patients. However, the relationship between low thyroid function and mortality in CKD patients is unclear. Therefore, we conducted a retrospective cohort study to examine the relationship between TSH elevation and all-cause mortality in elderly patients with CKD. This retrospective cohort study included individuals ≥65 years old with CKD (n = 23,786 in Taipei City. Health examination data from 2005 to 2010 were provided by the Taipei Databank for Public Health Analysis. Subjects were categorized according to thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH level as follows: low normal (0.34<TSH<1.074 mIU/L, middle normal (1.074≤TSH≤2.46 mIU/L, high normal (2.46<TSH<5.2 mIU/L, elevated I (5.2≤TSH<10 mIU/L, and elevated II (TSH≥10 mIU/L. Risk of mortality was evaluated using a Cox proportional hazard regression model adjusted for sex, age, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, CKD stage, serum albumin, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, uric acid, hemoglobin, body mass index, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, smoking, alcohol consumption, and history of cardiovascular disease (coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, cerebral vascular disease, history of cancer, and history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Our results showed that compared to the reference group (middle normal TSH, the risk of all-cause mortality was increased in the elevated I group (hazard ratio [HR], 1.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.45 and elevated II group (HR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.00-1.69. We found a significant association between TSH elevation and all-cause mortality in this cohort of elderly persons with CKD. However, determining the benefit of treatment for moderately elevated TSH level (5.2-10 mIU/L in elderly patients with CKD will require a

  5. Thyroid hormone resistance may course hypotonia in infancy

    Pivkovska, Julijana; Born, Alfred Peter; Nielsen, Claus Thøger

    2014-01-01

    Allan Herndon Dudley's syndrome (AHDS) is X-linked mental retardation and hypotonia caused by mutations in a thyroid hormone transporter gene - MCT8. The typical thyreoidea AHDS profile is elevated T3, low-normal T4 and normal or elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Neonatal screening...

  6. Overnight Levels of Luteinizing Hormone, Follicle-Stimulating Hormone and Growth Hormone before and during Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Analogue Treatment in Short Boys Born Small for Gestational Age

    van der Kaay, Danielle C. M.; de Jong, Frank H.; Rose, Susan R.; Odink, Roelof J. H.; Bakker-van Waarde, Willie M.; Sulkers, Eric J.; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C. S.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate if 3 months of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue (GnRHa) treatment results in sufficient suppression of pubertal luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) profile patterns in short pubertal small for gestational age (SGA) boys. To compare growth hormone

  7. Variability of Hormonal Stress Markers Collected from a Managed Dolphin Population

    2013-09-30

    presence of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), which is a peptide hormone produced in the anterior pituitary gland . Thyroid stimulating hormone is 4...releasing hormone (TRH) challenges to characterize the activation of the hypothalamic- pituitary -adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamic- pituitary - thyroid (HPT...triiodothyronine, T3) are released from the thyroid gland and are responsible for regulating the metabolism of an animal and affect the activity of other stress

  8. Congenital hypothyroidism screening in term neonates using umbilical cord blood TSH values

    Ravi Bhatia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital hypothyroidism remains one of the most common preventable causes of mental retardation among children. Screening for congenital hypothyroidism remains one of the most cost-effective tools to prevent mental retardation in the population. Umbilical cord blood thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH levels remain an attractive and a practical step for screening for congenital hypothyroidism. The aims of this study were as follows: (1 to find normative values of cord blood TSH for the study group and (2 to use cord blood TSH levels as a marker for screening of congenital hypothyroidism. Cord blood of 1824 neonates who were of term gestation, weighed >2.5 kg at birth, whose mothers were off thyroid medication were a part of the study group. Umbilical cord blood was collected at the time of delivery and TSH was estimated. All babies who had a cord blood TSH value of >20 mIU/L were called bay on day 7 of life for a full thyroid profile. Cord blood samples of 1824 neonates were tested for TSH. Male–female ratio was 979:845 = 1.15:1. The birth weights ranged between 2.5 and 4.5 kg with an average birth weight of 2.811 kg. Mean (standard deviation TSH value was 7.725 (8.99. TSH values ranged between 1.2 and 100 mIU/ml. TSH values corresponding to the 3rd, 10th, 25th, 50th, 90th, 95th, and 97th percentile were 2.32, 4.05, 5.67, 7.5, 12, 20.63, and 30.88, respectively. Out of the 88 babies recalled for repeat testing, 80 babies only turned up; eventually one turned out to be hypothyroid on repeat testing. The incidence of congenital hypothyroidism in our study was 1 in 1824. To conclude, we can safely use a cutoff of cord blood TSH value of >20 mIU/L for the purpose of screening for congenital hypothyroidism. For logistic angles, a higher cutoff of >30 mIU/L can be used. Large population-based studies are required to establish normative values for cord blood TSH in our country.

  9. Is suppressed thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) associated with subclinical depression in the Danish General Suburban Population Study?

    Kvetny, Jan; Ellervik, Christina; Bech, Per

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The first phase of the Danish General Suburban Population Study (GESUS) including 8214 individuals was an attempt to evaluate the association between subclinical hypothyroidism without or with elevated peroxidase antibodies and depression. No such association was found. In the second...

  10. Cholinergic and VIPergic effects on thyroid hormone secretion in the mouse

    Ahren, B.

    1985-01-01

    The thyroid gland is known to harbor cholinergic and VIPergic nerves. In the present study, the influences of cholinergic stimulation by carbachol, cholinergic blockade by methylatropine and stimulation with various VIP sequences on basal, TSH-induced and VIP-induced thyroid hormone secretion were investigated in vivo in mice. The mice were pretreated with 125 I and thyroxine; the subsequent release of 125 I is an estimation of thyroid hormone secretion. It was found that basal radioiodine secretion was inhibited by both carbachol and methylatropine. Furthermore, TSH-induced radioiodine secretion was inhibited already by a low dose of carbachol. Moreover, a high dose of carbachol could inhibit VIP-induced radioiodine secretion. Methylatropine did not influence TSH- or VIP-stimulated radioiodine secretion, but counteracted the inhibitory action of carbachol on TSH- and VIP-induced radioiodine release. In addition, contrary to VIP, six various synthesized VIP fragments had no effect on basal or stimulated radioiodine release. It is concluded that basal thyroid hormone secretion is inhibited by both cholinergic activation and blockade. Furthermore, TSH-induced thyroid hormone secretion is more sensitive to inhibition with cholinergic stimulation than is VIP-induced thyroid hormone secretion. In addition, the VIP stimulation of thyroid hormone secretion seems to require the full VIP sequence

  11. TSH alone is not sufficient to exclude all patients with a functioning thyroid nodule from undergoing testing to exclude thyroid cancer

    Hurtado-Lopez, Luis-Mauricio; Monroy-Lozano, Blanca-Estela [General Hospital of Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico); Martinez-Duncker, Carlos [Hospital Infantil de Mexico Federico Gomez, Medicina Nuclear Molecular, Mexico City, DF (Mexico)

    2008-06-15

    The purpose of the study was to analyze whether the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) alone avoids tests to exclude malignancy in all patients with functional thyroid nodules (FTN). Sixty-nine patients with FTN on {sup 99m}Tc scintigraphy, radioiodine uptake test (RIU), {sup 99m}Tc thyroid uptake, TSH assay, T3, and T4 obtained within 48 h were retrospectively identified out of 2,356 thyroid scans performed from January 2000 to April 2007. FTNs were classified as causing total, partial, or no inhibition of the thyroid as group 1, 2, or 3, respectively. TSH was subnormal in 21 of 69 (30.43%) patients. In group 1 (N = 23, 33.3%), TSH was subnormal, normal, and high in eight, nine, and six patients; in group 2 (N = 17, 24.6%), TSH was subnormal, normal, and high in four, six, and seven patients, and in group 3 (N = 29, 42%), TSH was subnormal, normal, and high in 9, 13, and 7 patients, respectively. TSH was significantly lower in group 1. In T3, T4, {sup 99m}Tc thyroid uptake, and RIU, there were no differences between the three groups. Only 30.43% of patients had subnormal TSH. TSH alone cannot avoid tests to exclude malignancy in all patients with FTN. FTN existence can only be accurately assessed by thyroid scintigraphy. The current incidence of FTN may be unknown because scintigraphy is not routinely performed in all patients with thyroid nodules. Thyroid scintigraphy of patients with high TSH can detect diseases such as Hashimoto's thyroiditis and identify patients with FTN in whom no further diagnostic procedures would be needed in patients with normal TSH levels with nondiagnostic fine-needle aspiration results. (orig.)

  12. Increased follicle-stimulating hormone is associated with higher assisted reproduction use after vasectomy reversal.

    Hsiao, Wayland; Sultan, Raymond; Lee, Richard; Goldstein, Marc

    2011-06-01

    Of men with vasectomy 6% elect to have more children. When considering vasectomy reversal vs in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection, an elucidation of preoperative factors that predict surgical success would help determine appropriate management. We tested the hypothesis that preoperative follicle-stimulating hormone 10 U/l or greater predict a lower paternity rate after vasectomy reversal. Using preoperative follicle-stimulating hormone levels we retrospectively reviewed the records of patients who underwent vasectomy reversal. Follicle-stimulating hormone was measured in cases suspicious for impaired spermatogenesis. The final analysis included 206 men, who were divided by follicle-stimulating hormone less than 10 U/l (normal in 155) and 10 U/l or greater (high in 51). Nominal logistic regression was performed to evaluate assisted reproduction predictors. Mean ± SD follicle-stimulating hormone in the normal and high groups was 5.1 ± 2.2 and 16.2 ± 6.2 U/l, respectively. Postoperative semen parameters were similar. However, in the high hormone group there was greater use of any type of assisted reproduction (78.4% vs 54.8%, p = 0.0028). On multivariate analysis follicle-stimulating hormone 10 U/l or greater (OR 3.02, 95% CI 1.34-6.83) and vasoepididymostomy that was bilateral or to a solitary testis (OR 3.26, 95% CI 1.09-9.69) was associated with greater assisted reproduction use. We evaluated preoperative follicle-stimulating hormone as a predictor of reproductive outcome in men with suspected subfertility who underwent vasectomy reversal. Increased follicle-stimulating hormone was associated with a higher rate of assisted reproduction even after controlling for confounding covariates. Thus, men with increased follicle-stimulating hormone should be counseled on the increased likelihood of needing assisted reproduction to achieve pregnancy after vasectomy reversal. Copyright © 2011 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc

  13. Use of recombinant, human TSH radioiodine therapy in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma; Radioiodtherapie des differenzierten Schilddruesenkarzinoms nach Vorbehandlung mit rekombinantem, humanem TSH

    Luster, M. [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    2001-12-01

    We describe the use of recombinant human TSH (rhTSH) in conjunction with ablative radioiodine therapy (RIT) in 11 patients (16 total treatments) with advanced and/or recurrent DTC (5 papillary, 6 follicular) for whom withdrawal of thyroid hormone suppressive therapy (THST) to increase serum TSH was not an option. Indications for rhTSH use in these patients included inability to tolerate withdrawal of thyroid hormones due to poor physical condition or inability to achieve sufficient serum TSH levels after THST withdrawal. All patients had undergone thyroidectomy and most (9/11) had received prior radioablative therapy after THST withdrawal. In 7 cases (5 patients), post-therapy Tg levels assessed at a mean of 4.3 months (range 2-10 months) after I-131 therapy were decreased by at least 30% compared to pre-therapy levels. In an additional 3 patients, whole body scans performed at follow-up indicated decreased or stabilized tumor burden compared to pre-therapy scans or marked clinical improvement was found. Three patients died of progressive disease within 2 months of therapy before follow-up assessments occurred. No adverse events were reported among the 8 surviving patients. The results suggest that rhTSH offers a promising alternative to THST withdrawal to allow radioablative therapy under maximal TSH stimulation in patients with advanced recurrent DTC who would not otherwise be able to receive this treatment. This therapeutic indication extends the clinical potential of the new agent, already demonstrated to be effective for use with I-131 for diagnostic purposes. However in some patients suffering from highly aggressive tumors the poor prognosis will not be improved. (orig.) [German] An unserer Klinik liegen bislang Erfahrungen mit 16 Radioiodtherapien (RIT) (z.T. mehrfache Anwendung) unter rhTSH vor. Die ueberwiegende Mehrzahl der Patienten wurde wegen einer fortgeschrittenen Tumorerkrankung mit dem Risiko einer lebensbedrohlichen Verschlechterung in

  14. Does the intensity of diffuse thyroid gland uptake on F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan predict the severity of hypothyroidism? Correlation between maximal standardized uptake value and serum thyroid stimulating hormone levels

    Pruthi, Ankur; Choudhury, Partha Sarathi; Gupta, Manoj; Taywade, Sameer

    2015-01-01

    F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scan and hypothyroidism. The aim was to determine whether the intensity of diffuse thyroid gland uptake on F-18 FDG PET/CT scans predicts the severity of hypothyroidism. A retrospective analysis of 3868 patients who underwent F-18 FDG PET/CT scans, between October 2012 and June 2013 in our institution for various oncological indications was done. Out of them, 106 (2.7%) patients (79 females, 27 males) presented with bilateral diffuse thyroid gland uptake as an incidental finding. These patients were investigated retrospectively and various parameters such as age, sex, primary cancer site, maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax), results of thyroid function tests (TFTs) and fine-needle aspiration cytology results were noted. The SUVmax values were correlated with serum thyroid stimulating hormone (S. TSH) levels using Pearson's correlation analysis. Pearson's correlation analysis. Clinical information and TFT (serum FT3, FT4 and TSH levels) results were available for 31 of the 106 patients (27 females, 4 males; mean age 51.5 years). Twenty-six out of 31 patients (84%) were having abnormal TFTs with abnormal TSH levels in 24/31 patients (mean S. TSH: 22.35 μIU/ml, median: 7.37 μIU/ml, range: 0.074-211 μIU/ml). Among 7 patients with normal TSH levels, 2 patients demonstrated low FT3 and FT4 levels. No significant correlation was found between maximum standardized uptake value and TSH levels (r = 0.115, P > 0.05). Incidentally detected diffuse thyroid gland uptake on F-18 FDG PET/CT scan was usually associated with hypothyroidism probably caused by autoimmune thyroiditis. Patients should be investigated promptly irrespective of the intensity of FDG uptake with TFTs to initiate replacement therapy and a USG examination to look for any suspicious nodules

  15. [Alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone. From bench to bedside].

    Böhm, M; Luger, T A

    2010-06-01

    Alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) is a tridecapeptide that is produced by the skin itself from the precursor proopiomelanocortin. It crucially mediates ultraviolet light-induced tanning after binding to melanocortin-1 receptors (MC-1R) expressed on the surface of epidermal melanocytes. The potent pigment-inducing and also cytoprotective actions of alpha-MSH are the rationale for the performance of first phase II clinical trials with Nle4-D-Phe7-alpha-MSH (NDP-alpha-MSH), a subcutaneously administered synthetic and superpotent alpha-MSH analogue, in patients with photodermatoses such as erythropoietic protoporphyria. Since alpha-MSH has shown promising anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic properties in numerous preclinical studies, it will be most interesting to evaluate these effects in further clinical pilot studies with NDP-alpha-MSH. In addition to alpha-MSH analogues, truncated tripeptides such as KDPT which do not bind to MC-1R but have sustained anti-inflammatory properties are currently emerging as another novel therapeutic strategy in dermatology.

  16. Regulation of hormone release by cultured cells from a thyrotropin-growth hormone-secreting pituitary tumor. Direct inhibiting effects of 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine and dexamethasone on thyrotropin secretion.

    Lamberts, S W; Oosterom, R; Verleun, T; Krenning, E P; Assies, H

    1984-08-01

    The regulation of TSH and GH secretion was investigated in cultured tumor cells prepared from a mixed TSH/GH secreting pituitary tumor. The tumor tissue had been removed transsphenoidally from a patient with hyperthyroidism and inappropriately high serum TSH levels and acromegaly. TSH and GH secretion by cultured cells were stimulated in a parallel way by TRH (300 nM) and LHRH (50 nM), but were unaffected by bromocriptine (10 nM). Exposure of the tumor cells to dexamethasone (0.1 microM) or T3 (50 nM) had differential effects on hormone secretion. GH secretion was greatly stimulated by dexamethasone, but unaffected by T3. TSH secretion was inhibited both by T3 and by dexamethasone. So, T3 and glucocorticoids inhibit TSH release by the human pituitary tumor cells studied at least partly by means of a direct effect.

  17. Galanin does not affect the growth hormone-releasing hormone-stimulated growth hormone secretion in patients with hyperthyroidism.

    Giustina, A; Bussi, A R; Legati, F; Bossoni, S; Licini, M; Schettino, M; Zuccato, F; Wehrenberg, W B

    1992-12-01

    Patients with hyperthyroidism have reduced spontaneous and stimulated growth hormone (GH) secretion. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of galanin, a novel neuropeptide which stimulates GH secretion in man, on the GH response to GHRH in patients with hyperthyroidism. Eight untreated hyperthyroid patients with Graves' disease (6F, 2M, aged 25-50 years) and six healthy volunteers (3F, 3M, aged 27-76 years) underwent from -10 to 30 min in random order: (i) porcine galanin, iv, 500 micrograms in 100 ml saline; or (ii) saline, iv, 100 ml. A bolus of human GHRH(1-29)NH2, 100 micrograms, was injected iv at 0 min. Hyperthyroid patients showed blunted GH peaks after GHRH+saline (10.2 +/- 2.5 micrograms/l) compared to normal subjects (20.7 +/- 4.8 micrograms/l, p hyperthyroid subjects (12.5 +/- 3 micrograms/l) compared to normal subjects (43.8 +/- 6 micrograms/l, p hyperthyroidism suggests that hyperthyroxinemia may either increase the somatostatin release by the hypothalamus or directly affect the pituitary GH secretory capacity.

  18. TSH Receptor Signaling Abrogation by a Novel Small Molecule.

    Latif, Rauf; Realubit, Ronald B; Karan, Charles; Mezei, Mihaly; Davies, Terry F

    2016-01-01

    Pathological activation of the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) is caused by thyroid-stimulating antibodies in patients with Graves' disease (GD) or by somatic and rare genomic mutations that enhance constitutive activation of the receptor influencing both G protein and non-G protein signaling. Potential selective small molecule antagonists represent novel therapeutic compounds for abrogation of such abnormal TSHR signaling. In this study, we describe the identification and in vitro characterization of a novel small molecule antagonist by high-throughput screening (HTS). The identification of the TSHR antagonist was performed using a transcription-based TSH-inhibition bioassay. TSHR-expressing CHO cells, which also expressed a luciferase-tagged CRE response element, were optimized using bovine TSH as the activator, in a 384 well plate format, which had a Z score of 0.3-0.6. Using this HTS assay, we screened a diverse library of ~80,000 compounds at a final concentration of 16.7 μM. The selection criteria for a positive hit were based on a mean signal threshold of ≥50% inhibition of control TSH stimulation. The screening resulted in 450 positive hits giving a hit ratio of 0.56%. A secondary confirmation screen against TSH and forskolin - a post receptor activator of adenylyl cyclase - confirmed one TSHR-specific candidate antagonist molecule (named VA-K-14). This lead molecule had an IC 50 of 12.3 μM and a unique chemical structure. A parallel analysis for cell viability indicated that the lead inhibitor was non-cytotoxic at its effective concentrations. In silico docking studies performed using a TSHR transmembrane model showed the hydrophobic contact locations and the possible mode of inhibition of TSHR signaling. Furthermore, this molecule was capable of inhibiting TSHR stimulation by GD patient sera and monoclonal-stimulating TSHR antibodies. In conclusion, we report the identification of a novel small molecule TSHR inhibitor, which has the

  19. Neural correlates of erotic stimulation under different levels of female sexual hormones.

    Abler, Birgit; Kumpfmüller, Daniela; Grön, Georg; Walter, Martin; Stingl, Julia; Seeringer, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated variable influences of sexual hormonal states on female brain activation and the necessity to control for these in neuroimaging studies. However, systematic investigations of these influences, particularly those of hormonal contraceptives as compared to the physiological menstrual cycle are scarce. In the present study, we investigated the hormonal modulation of neural correlates of erotic processing in a group of females under hormonal contraceptives (C group; N = 12), and a different group of females (nC group; N = 12) not taking contraceptives during their mid-follicular and mid-luteal phases of the cycle. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure hemodynamic responses as an estimate of brain activation during three different experimental conditions of visual erotic stimulation: dynamic videos, static erotic pictures, and expectation of erotic pictures. Plasma estrogen and progesterone levels were assessed in all subjects. No strong hormonally modulating effect was detected upon more direct and explicit stimulation (viewing of videos or pictures) with significant activations in cortical and subcortical brain regions previously linked to erotic stimulation consistent across hormonal levels and stimulation type. Upon less direct and less explicit stimulation (expectation), activation patterns varied between the different hormonal conditions with various, predominantly frontal brain regions showing significant within- or between-group differences. Activation in the precentral gyrus during the follicular phase in the nC group was found elevated compared to the C group and positively correlated with estrogen levels. From the results we conclude that effects of hormonal influences on brain activation during erotic stimulation are weak if stimulation is direct and explicit but that female sexual hormones may modulate more subtle aspects of sexual arousal and behaviour as involved in sexual expectation. Results

  20. Neural correlates of erotic stimulation under different levels of female sexual hormones.

    Birgit Abler

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated variable influences of sexual hormonal states on female brain activation and the necessity to control for these in neuroimaging studies. However, systematic investigations of these influences, particularly those of hormonal contraceptives as compared to the physiological menstrual cycle are scarce. In the present study, we investigated the hormonal modulation of neural correlates of erotic processing in a group of females under hormonal contraceptives (C group; N = 12, and a different group of females (nC group; N = 12 not taking contraceptives during their mid-follicular and mid-luteal phases of the cycle. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure hemodynamic responses as an estimate of brain activation during three different experimental conditions of visual erotic stimulation: dynamic videos, static erotic pictures, and expectation of erotic pictures. Plasma estrogen and progesterone levels were assessed in all subjects. No strong hormonally modulating effect was detected upon more direct and explicit stimulation (viewing of videos or pictures with significant activations in cortical and subcortical brain regions previously linked to erotic stimulation consistent across hormonal levels and stimulation type. Upon less direct and less explicit stimulation (expectation, activation patterns varied between the different hormonal conditions with various, predominantly frontal brain regions showing significant within- or between-group differences. Activation in the precentral gyrus during the follicular phase in the nC group was found elevated compared to the C group and positively correlated with estrogen levels. From the results we conclude that effects of hormonal influences on brain activation during erotic stimulation are weak if stimulation is direct and explicit but that female sexual hormones may modulate more subtle aspects of sexual arousal and behaviour as involved in sexual

  1. Luteinizing hormone-follicle stimulating hormone ratio as biological predictor of post-partum depression.

    Ramachandran Pillai, R; Sharon, Leena; Premkumar, Nancy R; Kattimani, Shivanand; Sagili, Haritha; Rajendiran, Soundravally

    2017-01-01

    Post-partum depression (PPD) is the common adverse outcome of child bearing which affects the wellbeing of both mother and newborn and has long-term effects. Hence, reliable potential biological tests for early detection of PPD are essential. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) were associated with depressive disorders and the present study estimated the levels of serum FSH, LH in postpartum depression and explored them as predictive biomarkers in the development of PPD. In this nested case control study done at a tertiary care hospital in South India, 450 postpartum women were screened at 6th week post-delivery for PPD. Socio-demographic and clinical data were recorded and depressive symptoms were assessed using Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Out of 450 subjects screened, 100 women with depressive symptoms were categorized as cases and 100 controls were selected from the remaining subjects matching for age and BMI with cases. Serum levels of FSH and LH were measured using direct competitive immunoassay by chemiluminescene technology. Serum LH/FSH ratio was found to be significantly (p=0.02) low in PPD women when compared to normal postpartum subjects. We also found a significant negative correlation between LH/FSH ratio and EPDS scores. Based on the receiver operating characteristic curve, the optimal cut-off value for serum of LH/FSH levels in predicting postpartum depression was estimated to be 0.22mlU/mL with an AUC of 0.598 (95%CI, 0.291-0.859). Our study demonstrated that low LH/FSH ratio after delivery was associated with increased risk for the development of PPD. Low LH/FSH ratio at six-week post delivery can be used as a robust biochemical predictor of post-partum depression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. NR4A1 (Nur77 mediates thyrotropin-releasing hormone-induced stimulation of transcription of the thyrotropin β gene: analysis of TRH knockout mice.

    Yasuyo Nakajima

    Full Text Available Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH is a major stimulator of thyrotropin-stimulating hormone (TSH synthesis in the anterior pituitary, though precisely how TRH stimulates the TSHβ gene remains unclear. Analysis of TRH-deficient mice differing in thyroid hormone status demonstrated that TRH was critical for the basal activity and responsiveness to thyroid hormone of the TSHβ gene. cDNA microarray and K-means cluster analyses with pituitaries from wild-type mice, TRH-deficient mice and TRH-deficient mice with thyroid hormone replacement revealed that the largest and most consistent decrease in expression in the absence of TRH and on supplementation with thyroid hormone was shown by the TSHβ gene, and the NR4A1 gene belonged to the same cluster as and showed a similar expression profile to the TSHβ gene. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that NR4A1 was expressed not only in ACTH- and FSH- producing cells but also in thyrotrophs and the expression was remarkably reduced in TRH-deficient pituitary. Furthermore, experiments in vitro demonstrated that incubation with TRH in GH4C1 cells increased the endogenous NR4A1 mRNA level by approximately 50-fold within one hour, and this stimulation was inhibited by inhibitors for PKC and ERK1/2. Western blot analysis confirmed that TRH increased NR4A1 expression within 2 h. A series of deletions of the promoter demonstrated that the region between bp -138 and +37 of the TSHβ gene was responsible for the TRH-induced stimulation, and Chip analysis revealed that NR4A1 was recruited to this region. Conversely, knockdown of NR4A1 by siRNA led to a significant reduction in TRH-induced TSHβ promoter activity. Furthermore, TRH stimulated NR4A1 promoter activity through the TRH receptor. These findings demonstrated that 1 TRH is a highly specific regulator of the TSHβ gene, and 2 TRH mediated induction of the TSHβ gene, at least in part by sequential stimulation of the NR4A1-TSHβ genes through a PKC and

  3. Evaluation of TSH Levels in the Program of Congenital Hypothyroidism Newborn Screening in a Pilot Study of Preterm Newborns in Bogotá, Colombia

    Gustavo Adolfo Giraldo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Preterm infants (<37 weeks of gestation have low levels of thyroid hormones due to multiple factors. Objective: To evaluate levels of thyroid-stimulation hormone (TSH in the program congenital hypothyroidism (CH newborn screening in a sample of preterm infants in the city of Bogotá, Colombia. Methods: The Secretaría de Salud Distrital screening protocol for CH (blood sample is collected from the umbilical cord in all the newborns remeasured the serum TSH and heel TSH when preterm infants completed 37 weeks of gestation. Results: A total of 59 preterm neonates were rescreened, of which 2 neonates had elevated levels of TSH and 1 neonate had transient hypothyroxinemia. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov 2-sample/bilateral statistical test was used to compare the neonatal TSH levels of preterm and full-term newborns, which do not follow the same distribution. Conclusion: In our pilot study, 2 of the rescreened infants presented high levels of TSH and 1 had transient hyperthyrotropinemia, suggesting the need for rescreening of preterm infants. Additionally, a larger study should be performed to determine the screening cutoff values for preterm newborns.

  4. Intemational collaborative study on the preparation of 1st international standard for rhTSH for bioassay

    Huang Ying; Shen Hongzheng; Yu Ting; Xu Ligen

    2007-01-01

    The history of the international collaborative studies on the preparation of standards of TSH for bioassay and immunoassay was reviewed. The result of collaborative study on the 1st international standard for thyroid-stimulating hormone, recombinant, human, for bioassay was reported in detail in this article. Based on the results of this collaborative study, it is proposed that the candidate standard be established as the international standard for rhTSH for bioassay, and be assigned an activity of 9.5 IU per ampoule. The national standard preparation of TSH for immunoassay was also reassayed, revealing the potency to be 0.557 mIU/ampoule, i.e. 92. 8% of the labelled value of 0.600mIU/ampoule, a reasonable consistency. (authors)

  5. Atrial fibrillation associated with a thyroid stimulating hormone-secreting adenoma of the pituitary gland leading to a presentation of acute cardiac decompensation: A case report

    George Jyothis T

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Hyperthyroidism is a well established cause of atrial fibrillation (AF. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone-secreting pituitary tumours are rare causes of pituitary hyperthyroidism. Whilst pituitary causes of hyperthyroidism are much less common than primary thyroid pathology, establishing a clear aetiology is critical in minimising complications and providing appropriate treatment. Measuring Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH alone to screen for hyperthyroidism may be insufficient to appropriately evaluate the thyroid status in such cases. Case presentation A 63-year-old Caucasian man, previously fit and well, presented with a five-day history of shortness of breath associated with wheeze and dry cough. He denied symptoms of hyperthyroidism and his family, social and past history were unremarkable. Initial investigation was in keeping with a diagnosis of atrial fibrillation (AF with fast ventricular response leading to cardiac decompensation. TSH 6.2 (Normal Range = 0.40 – 4.00 mU/L, Free T3 of 12.5 (4.00 – 6.8 pmol/L and Free T4 51(10–30 pmol/L. Heterophilic antibodies were ruled out. Testosterone was elevated at 43.10 (Normal range: 10.00 – 31.00 nmol/L with an elevated FSH, 18.1 (1.0–7.0 U/L and elevated LH, 12.4 (1.0–8.0 U/L. Growth Hormone, IGF-1 and prolactin were normal. MRI showed a 2.4 cm pituitary macroadenoma. Visual field tests showed a right inferotemporal defect. While awaiting neurosurgical removal of the tumour, the patient was commenced on antithyroid medication (carbimazole and maintained on this until successful trans-sphenoidal excision of the macroadenoma had been performed. AF persisted post-operatively, but was electrically cardioverted subsequently and he remains in sinus rhythm at twelve months follow-up off all treatment. Conclusion This case reiterates the need to evaluate thyroid function in all patients presenting with atrial fibrillation. TSH-secreting pituitary adenomas must be considered

  6. Detection of thyroid stimulating hormone receptor antibodies (TRAb) by radioreceptor assay (RRA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)

    Dumrongpisutikul, S.; Tuchinda, S.

    1990-01-01

    Thyroid stimulating hormone receptor antibodies (TRAb) were determined in 100 patients using radioreceptor assay (RRA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The sensitivity of RRA and ELISA were found to be 70.6% and 88.2% respectively (n=51). The specificity of both assays were 100% (n=16). With RRA as the standard test the sensitivity and specificity of ELISA were 75.8% and 86.8%. In the untreated hyperthyroid the RRA result which expressed as % specific 125 I-TSH inhibition was 33.6% (n=51), decline to 26.9% in the treated hyperthyroid (n=33) and 14.1% in the euthyroid (n=16). The mean 0.D 492nm of TRAb-ELISA were 0.861 in untreated hyperthyroid, 0.437 in treated hyperthyroid and 0.135 in euthyroid Phi coefficient analysis show that the RRA was 60.4% correlated to hyperthyroidism where as TRAb-ELISA was 80.1%

  7. Secretion of biologically active glycoforms of bovine follicle stimulating hormone in plants

    Dirnberger, D.; Steinkellner, H.; Abdennebi, L.; Remy, J.J.; Wiel, van de D.

    2001-01-01

    We chose the follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), a pituitary heterodimeric glycoprotein hormone, as a model to assess the ability of the plant cell to express a recombinant protein that requires extensive N-glycosylation for subunit folding and assembly, intracellular trafficking, signal

  8. Do anabolic nutritional supplements stimulate human growth hormone secretion in elderly women with heart failure?

    Smeets, Ellen T.H.C.; Schutzler, Scott E.; Wei, Jeanne Y.; Azhar, Gohar; Wolfe, Robert R.

    2017-01-01

    Growth hormone treatment has gained attention over the past decade as a treatment for heart failure. Human growth hormone (HGH) must be administered by injections (usually daily), so there is considerable advantage to stimulation of endogenous secretion by amino acid-based nutritional

  9. Protocol of the PSYCHOTSH study: association between neonatal thyroid stimulating hormone concentration and intellectual, psychomotor and psychosocial development at 4-5 year of age: a retrospective cohort study.

    Trumpff, Caroline; Vanderfaeillie, Johan; Vercruysse, Nathalie; De Schepper, Jean; Tafforeau, Jean; Van Oyen, Herman; Vandevijvere, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    Several European countries, including Belgium, still suffer from mild iodine deficiency. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) concentration in whole blood measured at birth has been proposed as an indicator of maternal iodine status during the last trimester of pregnancy. It has been shown that mild iodine deficiency during pregnancy may affect the neurodevelopment of the offspring. In several studies, elevated TSH levels at birth were associated with suboptimal cognitive and psychomotor outcomes among young children. This paper describes the protocol of the PSYCHOTSH study aiming to assess the association between neonatal TSH levels and intellectual, psychomotor and psychosocial development of 4-5 year old children. The results could lead to a reassessment of the recommended cut-off levels of 5 > mU/L used for monitoring iodine status of the population. In total, 380 Belgian 4-5 year old preschool children from Brussels and Wallonia with a neonatal blood spot TSH concentration between 0 and 15 mU/L are included in the study. For each sex and TSH-interval (0-1, 1-2, 2-3, 3-4, 4-5, 5-6, 6-7, 7-8, 8-9 and 9-15 mU/L), 19 newborns were randomly selected from all newborns screened by the neonatal screening centre in Brussels in 2008-2009. Infants with congenital hypothyroidism, low birth weight and prematurity were excluded from the study. Neonatal TSH concentration was measured by the Autodelphia method in dried blood spots, collected by heel stick on filter paper 3 to 5 days after birth. Cognitive abilities and psychomotor development are assessed using the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence - third edition - and the Charlop-Atwell Scale of Motor coordination. Psychosocial development is measured using the Child Behaviour Check List for age 1½ to 5 years old. In addition, several socioeconomic, parental and child confounding factors are assessed. This study aims to clarify the effect of mild iodine deficiency during pregnancy on the

  10. Clinical application and evaluation of TSH(IRMA) determination

    Yuan Jimin; Zhu Cuiying; Cui Wenru

    1993-01-01

    The serum TSH level of 303 healthy persons ranged from 0.3-5.6 mU/l and 205 cases of hyperthyroidism, 56 cases of early stage hyperthyroidism, 67 cases of subclinical hyperthyroidism ranged 3 as far as the sensitivity for the diagnosis and prognostic monitoring of thyrotoxicosis is concerned. Comparison of TSH(64 cases) and TSH stimulating test was highly correlated, therefore the application of latter test can be greatly reduced. And also the establishment and application of TSH(IRMA) gives a strategic change of the diagnostic procedure of thyroid function test

  11. Clinical Association of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Receptor Antibody Levels with Disease Severity in the Chronic Inactive Stage of Graves' Orbitopathy.

    Woo, Young Jae; Jang, Sun Young; Lim, Tyler Hyung Taek; Yoon, Jin Sook

    2015-08-01

    To investigate associations between serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor antibody (TRAb) levels and Graves' orbitopathy (GO) activity/severity in chronic-stage GO and compare the performance of two newly-developed TRAb assays (third-generation TSH-binding inhibition immunoglobulin [TBII] assay versus Mc4 thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulin [TSI] bioassay). This study is a retrospective review of medical charts and blood tests from Korean GO patients who first visited the departments of ophthalmology and endocrinology, Yonsei University College of Medicine from January 2008 to December 2011, were diagnosed with GO and Graves' hyperthyroidism, and were followed up for ≥18 months. Third-generation M22-TBII and Mc4-TSI assays were performed in the chronic-inactive GO patients in whom euthyroidism status was restored. Patients' GO activity/severity clinical activity scores (CAS), and modified NOSPECS scores were examined for a correlation with TRAb assays. Fifty patients (mean age, 41.3 years; 41 females) were analyzed. The mean duration of Graves' hyperthyroidism symptom was 63 months (range, 18 to 401 months) and that of GO was 46 months (range, 18 to 240 months). All patients had been treated previously with anti-thyroid drugs for a median period of 52.3 months, and two patients underwent either radioiodine therapy or total thyroidectomy. Mean CAS and NOSPECS scores were 0.5 ± 0.9 (standard deviation) and 4.8 ± 3.1, respectively. Mean M22-TBII and Mc4-TSI values were 7.5 ± 10.2 IL/L and 325.9 ± 210.1 specimen-to-reference control ratio. TSI was significantly correlated with NOSPECS score (R = 0.479, p 0.05), because GO inflammatory activity subsided in the chronic stages of GO. In chronic-inactive GO after euthyroid restoration, GO activity score did not associate with serum levels of TRAb or TBII. However, levels of the functional antibody Mc4-TSI did correlate with GO severity. Therefore, the TSI bioassay is a clinically relevant measure of disease

  12. Excess Mortality in Treated and Untreated Hyperthyroidism Is Related to Cumulative Periods of Low Serum TSH.

    Lillevang-Johansen, Mads; Abrahamsen, Bo; Jørgensen, Henrik Løvendahl; Brix, Thomas Heiberg; Hegedüs, Laszlo

    2017-07-01

    Cumulative time-dependent excess mortality in hyperthyroid patients has been suggested. However, the effect of antithyroid treatment on mortality, especially in subclinical hyperthyroidism, remains unclarified. We investigated the association between hyperthyroidism and mortality in both treated and untreated hyperthyroid individuals. Register-based cohort study of 235,547 individuals who had at least one serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) measurement in the period 1995 to 2011 (7.3 years median follow-up). Hyperthyroidism was defined as at least two measurements of low serum TSH. Mortality rates for treated and untreated hyperthyroid subjects compared with euthyroid controls were calculated using multivariate Cox regression analyses, controlling for age, sex, and comorbidities. Cumulative periods of decreased serum TSH were analyzed as a time-dependent covariate. Hazard ratio (HR) for mortality was increased in untreated [1.23; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.12 to 1.37; P hyperthyroid patients. When including cumulative periods of TSH in the Cox regression analyses, HR for mortality per every 6 months of decreased TSH was 1.11 (95% CI, 1.09 to 1.13; P hyperthyroid patients (n = 1137) and 1.13 (95% CI, 1.11 to 1.15; P hyperthyroidism, respectively. Mortality is increased in hyperthyroidism. Cumulative periods of decreased TSH increased mortality in both treated and untreated hyperthyroidism, implying that excess mortality may not be driven by lack of therapy, but rather inability to keep patients euthyroid. Meticulous follow-up during treatment to maintain biochemical euthyroidism may be warranted. Copyright © 2017 by the Endocrine Society

  13. [Monosymptomatic hyperthyroidism and TSH-producing adenoma: successful therapy with octreotide].

    Mayinger, B; Axelos, D; Pavel, M; Hahn, E G; Hensen, J

    1999-01-29

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the central nervous system was performed on a 72-year-old woman who was hyperthyroid without suppression of the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and had complained of a recent onset of headaches. MRI demonstrated a space-occupying lesion, 1 cm in diameter, in the anterior pituitary. The clinical symptoms were marked by a long-standing monosymptomatic illness of rapidly changing mood swings with depressive and manic phases. Endocrinological-biochemical tests showed hyperthyroidism (fT3 10.55 pmol/l and fT4 39 pmol/l) but no TSH suppression (TSH: 2.9 microU/ml). Octreotide scintigraphy documented an activity-rich area in the anterior pituitary and the upper anterior mediastinum. Mediastinal MRI revealed a 5 cm space-occupying mass lying on the right atrium. 131I scintigraphy identified the mass as a retrosternal goitre. As an operation on the anterior pituitary would have carried a high risk for the patient who was in a poor general condition and she had refused to be operated, treatment with octreotide, a long-acting somatostatin analogue, was initiated. This achieved a euthyroid state with partly suppressed TSH, and the patient's emotional swings ceased. If hyperthyroidism coexists with non-suppressed TSH levels, a TSH-producing hypophyseal adenoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis despite its rarity. Octreotide administration is an effective and safe treatment and is the method of choice, especially when there are contraindications to surgical resection of the anterior pituitary.

  14. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Reference Range and Prevalence of Thyroid Dysfunction in the Korean Population: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2013 to 2015

    2017-01-01

    Background No nationwide epidemiological study evaluating the prevalence of subclinical and overt forms of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism has yet been conducted in Korea. This study aimed to evaluate the reference range of serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and the national prevalence of thyroid dysfunctions in Korea. Methods Nation-wide cross-sectional data were analyzed from a representative sample of the civilian, non-institutionalized Korean population (n=6,564) who underwent blood testing for thyroid function and anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) as part of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey VI (2013 to 2015). Results The reference interval of serum TSH in the Korean reference population was 0.62 to 6.68 mIU/L. Based on this reference interval, the prevalence of overt and subclinical hypothyroidism was 0.73% (males 0.40%, females 1.10%) and 3.10% (males 2.26%, females 4.04%), respectively. The prevalence of hypothyroidism increased with age until the age group between 50 to 59 years. Positive TPOAb were found in 7.30% of subjects (males 4.33%, females 10.62%). The prevalence of overt and subclinical hypothyroidism TPOAb-positive subjects was 5.16% and 10.88%, respectively. The prevalence of overt and subclinical hyperthyroidism was 0.54% (males 0.30%, females 0.81%) and 2.98% (males 2.43%, females, 3.59%), respectively. Conclusion The Serum TSH reference levels in the Korean population were higher than the corresponding levels in Western countries. Differences were found in the prevalence of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism according to age, sex, and TPOAb positivity. This study provides important baseline information for understanding patterns of thyroid dysfunction and diseases in Korea. PMID:28116874

  15. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Reference Range and Prevalence of Thyroid Dysfunction in the Korean Population: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2013 to 2015

    Won Gu Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundNo nationwide epidemiological study evaluating the prevalence of subclinical and overt forms of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism has yet been conducted in Korea. This study aimed to evaluate the reference range of serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH and the national prevalence of thyroid dysfunctions in Korea.MethodsNation-wide cross-sectional data were analyzed from a representative sample of the civilian, non-institutionalized Korean population (n=6,564 who underwent blood testing for thyroid function and anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb as part of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey VI (2013 to 2015.ResultsThe reference interval of serum TSH in the Korean reference population was 0.62 to 6.68 mIU/L. Based on this reference interval, the prevalence of overt and subclinical hypothyroidism was 0.73% (males 0.40%, females 1.10% and 3.10% (males 2.26%, females 4.04%, respectively. The prevalence of hypothyroidism increased with age until the age group between 50 to 59 years. Positive TPOAb were found in 7.30% of subjects (males 4.33%, females 10.62%. The prevalence of overt and subclinical hypothyroidism TPOAb-positive subjects was 5.16% and 10.88%, respectively. The prevalence of overt and subclinical hyperthyroidism was 0.54% (males 0.30%, females 0.81% and 2.98% (males 2.43%, females, 3.59%, respectively.ConclusionThe Serum TSH reference levels in the Korean population were higher than the corresponding levels in Western countries. Differences were found in the prevalence of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism according to age, sex, and TPOAb positivity. This study provides important baseline information for understanding patterns of thyroid dysfunction and diseases in Korea.

  16. Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Increases the Risk of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis by Stimulating Osteoclast Differentiation.

    Jie Wang

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to observe the changes in follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH and bone mineral density (BMD in postmenopausal women, to research the relationship between FSH and postmenopausal osteoporosis, and to observe the effects of FSH on osteoclast differentiation in RAW264.7 cells.We analyzed 248 postmenopausal women with normal bone metabolism. A radioimmunoassay (RIA was used to detect serum FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH, and estradiol (E2. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure forearm BMD. Then, we analyzed the age-related changes in serum FSH, LH and E2. Additionally, FSH serum concentrations were compared between a group of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and a control group. Osteoclasts were induced from RAW264.7 cells in vitro by receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL, and these cells were treated with 0, 5, 10, and 20 ng/ml FSH. After the osteoclasts matured, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP staining was used to identify osteoclasts, and the mRNA expression levels of genes involved in osteoclastic phenotypes and function, such as receptor activator of NF-κB (Rank, Trap, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (Mmp-9 and Cathepsin K, were detected in different groups using real-time PCR (polymerase chain reaction.1. FSH serum concentrations in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis increased notably compared with the control group. 2. RANKL induced RAW264.7 cell differentiation into mature osteoclasts in vitro. 3. FSH increased mRNA expression of genes involved in osteoclastic phenotypes and function, such as Rank, Trap, Mmp-9 and Cathepsin K, in a dose-dependent manner.The circulating concentration of FSH may play an important role in the acceleration of bone loss in postmenopausal women. FSH increases osteoclastogenesis in vitro.

  17. Ultradian hormone stimulation induces glucocorticoid receptor-mediated pulses of gene transcription.

    Stavreva, Diana A; Wiench, Malgorzata; John, Sam; Conway-Campbell, Becky L; McKenna, Mervyn A; Pooley, John R; Johnson, Thomas A; Voss, Ty C; Lightman, Stafford L; Hager, Gordon L

    2009-09-01

    Studies on glucocorticoid receptor (GR) action typically assess gene responses by long-term stimulation with synthetic hormones. As corticosteroids are released from adrenal glands in a circadian and high-frequency (ultradian) mode, such treatments may not provide an accurate assessment of physiological hormone action. Here we demonstrate that ultradian hormone stimulation induces cyclic GR-mediated transcriptional regulation, or gene pulsing, both in cultured cells and in animal models. Equilibrium receptor-occupancy of regulatory elements precisely tracks the ligand pulses. Nascent RNA transcripts from GR-regulated genes are released in distinct quanta, demonstrating a profound difference between the transcriptional programs induced by ultradian and constant stimulation. Gene pulsing is driven by rapid GR exchange with response elements and by GR recycling through the chaperone machinery, which promotes GR activation and reactivation in response to the ultradian hormone release, thus coupling promoter activity to the naturally occurring fluctuations in hormone levels. The GR signalling pathway has been optimized for a prompt and timely response to fluctuations in hormone levels, indicating that biologically accurate regulation of gene targets by GR requires an ultradian mode of hormone stimulation.

  18. Predicting the Probability of Abnormal Stimulated Growth Hormone Response in Children After Radiotherapy for Brain Tumors

    Hua Chiaho; Wu Shengjie; Chemaitilly, Wassim; Lukose, Renin C.; Merchant, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a mathematical model utilizing more readily available measures than stimulation tests that identifies brain tumor survivors with high likelihood of abnormal growth hormone secretion after radiotherapy (RT), to avoid late recognition and a consequent delay in growth hormone replacement therapy. Methods and Materials: We analyzed 191 prospectively collected post-RT evaluations of peak growth hormone level (arginine tolerance/levodopa stimulation test), serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), IGF-binding protein 3, height, weight, growth velocity, and body mass index in 106 children and adolescents treated for ependymoma (n = 72), low-grade glioma (n = 28) or craniopharyngioma (n = 6), who had normal growth hormone levels before RT. Normal level in this study was defined as the peak growth hormone response to the stimulation test ≥7 ng/mL. Results: Independent predictor variables identified by multivariate logistic regression with high statistical significance (p < 0.0001) included IGF-1 z score, weight z score, and hypothalamic dose. The developed predictive model demonstrated a strong discriminatory power with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.883. At a potential cutoff point of probability of 0.3 the sensitivity was 80% and specificity 78%. Conclusions: Without unpleasant and expensive frequent stimulation tests, our model provides a quantitative approach to closely follow the growth hormone secretory capacity of brain tumor survivors. It allows identification of high-risk children for subsequent confirmatory tests and in-depth workup for diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency.

  19. Predicting the Probability of Abnormal Stimulated Growth Hormone Response in Children After Radiotherapy for Brain Tumors

    Hua Chiaho, E-mail: Chia-Ho.Hua@stjude.org [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Wu Shengjie [Department of Biostatistics, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Chemaitilly, Wassim [Division of Endocrinology, Department of Pediatric Medicine, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Lukose, Renin C.; Merchant, Thomas E. [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To develop a mathematical model utilizing more readily available measures than stimulation tests that identifies brain tumor survivors with high likelihood of abnormal growth hormone secretion after radiotherapy (RT), to avoid late recognition and a consequent delay in growth hormone replacement therapy. Methods and Materials: We analyzed 191 prospectively collected post-RT evaluations of peak growth hormone level (arginine tolerance/levodopa stimulation test), serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), IGF-binding protein 3, height, weight, growth velocity, and body mass index in 106 children and adolescents treated for ependymoma (n = 72), low-grade glioma (n = 28) or craniopharyngioma (n = 6), who had normal growth hormone levels before RT. Normal level in this study was defined as the peak growth hormone response to the stimulation test {>=}7 ng/mL. Results: Independent predictor variables identified by multivariate logistic regression with high statistical significance (p < 0.0001) included IGF-1 z score, weight z score, and hypothalamic dose. The developed predictive model demonstrated a strong discriminatory power with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.883. At a potential cutoff point of probability of 0.3 the sensitivity was 80% and specificity 78%. Conclusions: Without unpleasant and expensive frequent stimulation tests, our model provides a quantitative approach to closely follow the growth hormone secretory capacity of brain tumor survivors. It allows identification of high-risk children for subsequent confirmatory tests and in-depth workup for diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency.

  20. A regulator of G Protein signaling, RGS3, inhibits gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH-stimulated luteinizing hormone (LH secretion

    Musgrove Lois C

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Luteinizing hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland regulates gonadal function. Luteinizing hormone secretion is regulated both by alterations in gonadotrope responsiveness to hypothalamic gonadotropin releasing hormone and by alterations in gonadotropin releasing hormone secretion. The mechanisms that determine gonadotrope responsiveness are unknown but may involve regulators of G protein signaling (RGSs. These proteins act by antagonizing or abbreviating interaction of Gα proteins with effectors such as phospholipase Cβ. Previously, we reported that gonadotropin releasing hormone-stimulated second messenger inositol trisphosphate production was inhibited when RGS3 and gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor cDNAs were co-transfected into the COS cell line. Here, we present evidence for RGS3 inhibition of gonadotropin releasing hormone-induced luteinizing hormone secretion from cultured rat pituitary cells. Results A truncated version of RGS3 (RGS3T = RGS3 314–519 inhibited gonadotropin releasing hormone-stimulated inositol trisphosphate production more potently than did RSG3 in gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor-bearing COS cells. An RSG3/glutathione-S-transferase fusion protein bound more 35S-Gqα than any other member of the G protein family tested. Adenoviral-mediated RGS3 gene transfer in pituitary gonadotropes inhibited gonadotropin releasing hormone-stimulated luteinizing hormone secretion in a dose-related fashion. Adeno-RGS3 also inhibited gonadotropin releasing hormone stimulated 3H-inositol phosphate accumulation, consistent with a molecular site of action at the Gqα protein. Conclusions RGS3 inhibits gonadotropin releasing hormone-stimulated second messenger production (inositol trisphosphate as well as luteinizing hormone secretion from rat pituitary gonadotropes apparently by binding and suppressing the transduction properties of Gqα protein function. A version of RGS3 that is amino

  1. Glucocorticoid stimulates expression of corticotropin-releasing hormone gene in human placenta

    Robinson, B.G.; Emanuel, R.L.; Frim, D.M.; Majzoub, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    Primary cultures of purified human cytotrophoblasts have been used to examine the expression of the corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) gene in placenta. The authors report here that glucocorticoids stimulate placental CRH synthesis and secretion in primary cultures of human placenta. This stimulation is in contrast to the glucocorticoid suppression of CRH expression in hypothalamus. The positive regulation of CRH by glucocorticoids suggests that the rise in CRH preceding parturition could result from the previously described rise in fetal glucocorticoids. Furthermore, this increase in placental CRH could stimulate, via adrenocorticotropic hormone, a further rise in fetal glucocorticoids, completing a positive feedback loop that would be terminated by delivery

  2. Dose {sup 131}I radioactivity interfere with thyroglobulin measurement in patients undergoing radioactive iodine therapy with recombinant human TSH?

    Park, So Hyun; Bang, Ji In; Lee, Ho Young; Kim, Sang Eun [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH) is widely used in radioactive iodine therapy (RIT) to avoid side effects caused by hypothyroidism during the therapy. Owing to RIT with rhTSH, serum thyroglobulin (Tg) is measured with high 131I concentrations. It is of concern that the relatively high energy of 131I could interfere with Tg measurement using the immunoradiometric assay (IRMA). We investigated the effect of 131I administration on Tg measurement with IRMA after RIT. A total of 67 patients with thyroid cancer were analysed retrospectively. All patients had undergone rhTSH stimulation for RIT. The patients’ sera were sampled 2 days after 131I administration and divided into two portions: for Tg measurements on days 2 and 32 after 131I administration. The count per minute (CPM) of whole serum (200 μl) was also measured at each time point. Student’s paired t-test and Pearson’s correlation analyses were performed for statistical analysis. Serum Tg levels were significantly concordant between days 2 and 32, irrespective of the serum CPM. Subgroup analysis was performed by classification based on the 131I dose. No difference was noted between the results of the two groups. IRMA using 125I did not show interference from 131I in the serum of patients stimulated by rhTSH.

  3. Ovarian response to recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone

    Arce, Joan-Carles; Andersen, Anders Nyboe; Fernández-Sánchez, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the dose-response relationship of a novel recombinant human FSH (rhFSH; FE 999049) with respect to ovarian response in patients undergoing IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection treatment; and prospectively study the influence of initial antimüllerian hormone (AMH) concentrat......OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the dose-response relationship of a novel recombinant human FSH (rhFSH; FE 999049) with respect to ovarian response in patients undergoing IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection treatment; and prospectively study the influence of initial antimüllerian hormone (AMH...

  4. Age modifies the pituitary TSH response to thyroid failure

    Carlé, Allan; Laurberg, Peter; Pedersen, Inge B.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association between serum TSH, total T4 and various patient characteristics when hypothyroidism is diagnosed in a population, and to study how age, sex and serum T4 levels influenced pituitary TSH response. Design: A computer-based register linked to laboratory datab......, and longer time may be needed after thyroid hormone withdrawal before elderly patients with thyroid cancer reach sufficiently high TSH values to allow for an effective radio-iodine treatment....... patients. Conclusions: For the same degree of thyroid failure, the serum TSH is lower among the elderly. This is most likely caused by a decrease in the hypothalamic/pituitary response to low serum T4. A certain increase in serum TSH may indicate more severe hypothyroidism in an old than in a young patient...

  5. Kisspeptin stimulates growth hormone release by utilizing Neuropeptide Y pathways and is dependent on the presence of ghrelin

    Although kisspeptin is the primary stimulator of gonadotropin releasing hormone secretion and therefore the hypothalamic-pituitary gonadal axis, new findings suggest kisspeptin can also regulate additional neuroendocrine processes including release of growth hormone (GH). Central delivery of kisspep...

  6. Higher Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone, Triiodothyronine and Thyroxine Values Are Associated with Better Outcome in Acute Liver Failure.

    Anastasiou, Olympia; Sydor, Svenja; Sowa, Jan-Peter; Manka, Paul; Katsounas, Antonios; Syn, Wing-Kin; Führer, Dagmar; Gieseler, Robert K; Bechmann, Lars P; Gerken, Guido; Moeller, Lars C; Canbay, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Changes in thyroid hormone levels, mostly as non-thyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS), have been described in many diseases. However, the relationship between acute liver failure (ALF) and thyroid hormone levels has not yet been clarified. The present study evaluates potential correlations of select thyroid functional parameters with ALF. 84 consecutively recruited ALF patients were grouped according to the outcome of ALF (spontaneous recovery: SR; transplantation or death: NSR). TSH, free thyroxine (fT4), free triiodothyronine (fT3), T4, and T3 were determined. More than 50% of patients with ALF presented with abnormal thyroid parameters. These patients had greater risk for an adverse outcome than euthyroid patients. SR patients had significantly higher TSH, T4, and T3 concentrations than NSR patients. Albumin concentrations were significantly higher in SR than in NSR. In vitro T3 treatment was not able to rescue primary human hepatocytes from acetaminophen induced changes in mRNA expression. In patients with ALF, TSH and total thyroid hormone levels differed significantly between SR patients and NSR patients. This might be related to diminished liver-derived transport proteins, such as albumin, in more severe forms of ALF. Thyroid parameters may serve as additional indicators of ALF severity.

  7. Recent advancements in the hormonal stimulation of ovulation in swine

    Knox RV

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Robert V Knox Department of Animal Sciences, 360 Animal Sciences Laboratory, University of Illinois, Champaign Urbana, IL, USA Abstract: Induction of ovulation for controlled breeding is available for use around the world, and conditions for practical application appear promising. Many of the hormones available, such as human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH and its analogs, as well as porcine luteinizing hormone (pLH, have been shown to be effective for advancing or synchronizing ovulation in gilts and weaned sows. Each of the hormones has unique attributes with respect to the physiology of its actions, how it is administered, its efficacy, and approval for use. The timing for induction of ovulation during the follicle phase is critical as follicle maturity changes over time, and the success of the response is determined by the stage of follicle development. Female fertility is also a primary factor affecting the success of ovulation induction and fixed time insemination protocols. Approximately 80%–90% of female pigs will develop mature follicles following weaning in sows and synchronization of estrus in gilts. However, those gilts and sows with follicles that are less developed and mature, or those that develop with abnormalities, will not respond to an ovulatory surge of LH. To address this problem, some protocols induce follicle development in all females, which can improve the overall reliability of the ovulation response. Control of ovulation is practical for use with fixed time artificial insemination and should prove highly advantageous for low-dose and single-service artificial insemination and for use with frozen-thawed and sex-sorted sperm. Keywords: artificial insemination, follicle, hormone, ovulation, swine

  8. Rat TSH: Radioimmunological verification and secretion in vitro

    Rief-Mohs, G.

    1983-01-01

    The rat TSH radioimmunoassay with 125 I was worked up and validated. Measurement area: 300-10 4 ng TSH/ml, lower detection limit 200 ng/ml, intra-assay variance 3-5%, inter-assay variance 11-18%. For the study of TSH secretion in dispersed anterior pituitary cells, these cells were subjected to an one-hour incubation with a changing TRH concentration. This system, however, did not prove to be sensitive enough for a TRH-in vitro-bioassay. A culture of vital, functioning cells in micro-titer plates up to 30 days was possible. After stimulation with 10 -11 to 10 -6 M TRH over 2 hours a linear dose-dependent increased secretion of TSH with a maximum TSH response of 300% was shown. After fractionation of the anterior pituitary cells after a sedimentation over an albumin gradient it was shown that after fraction 40 there was an increase in the TSH content with a massive increase in TSH cells around fraction 60. The TSH content lay here around the factor 200 above that of the original suspension. A culture of pure TSH cells is therefore possible and for further studies accessible. (orig.) [de

  9. Oral TRH stimulation of the thyroid in patients with thyroid carcinoma

    Eissner, D.; Hahn, K.; Grimm, W.

    1983-01-01

    In patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma high serum TSH-levels enhance 131 J-uptake in thyroid remnant and/or metastases. An effective increase of TSH could be achieved by oral administration of thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) even after a short T 4 /T 3 -withdrawal period so that we recommend a TRH-stimulation in all patients before a diagnostic or therapeutic 131 J-application. Adverse reactions to TRH are infrequent and usually shorttimed so that-in contrast to TSH-stimulation - TRH can be given to outpatients without any risk. (orig.) [de

  10. Study protocol; Thyroid hormone Replacement for Untreated older adults with Subclinical hypothyroidism - a randomised placebo controlled Trial (TRUST)

    Stott, D.J.; Gussekloo, J.; Kearney, P.M.; Rodondi, N.; Westendorp, R.G.; Mooijaart, S.; Kean, S.; Quinn, T.J.; Sattar, N.; Hendry, K.; Puy, R. Du; Elzen, W.P. den; Poortvliet, R.K.; Smit, J.W.A.; Jukema, J.W.; Dekkers, O.M.; Blum, M.; Collet, T.H.; McCarthy, V.; Hurley, C.; Byrne, S.; Browne, J.; Watt, T.; Bauer, D.; Ford, I.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is a common condition in elderly people, defined as elevated serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) with normal circulating free thyroxine (fT4). Evidence is lacking about the effect of thyroid hormone treatment. We describe the protocol of a large

  11. Using an electrocautery strategy or recombinant follicle stimulating hormone to induce ovulation in polycystic ovary syndrome: randomised controlled trial

    Bayram, Neriman; van Wely, Madelon; Kaaijk, Eugenie M; Bossuyt, Patrick M M; van der Veen, Fulco

    2004-01-01

    Objective To compare the effectiveness of an electrocautery strategy with ovulation induction using recombinant follicle stimulating hormone in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. Design Randomised controlled trial. Setting Secondary and tertiary hospitals in the Netherlands. Participants 168 patients with clomiphene citrate resistant polycystic ovary syndrome: 83 were allocated electrocautery and 85 were allocated recombinant follicle stimulating hormone. Intervention Laparoscopic electrocautery of the ovaries followed by clomiphene citrate and recombinant follicle stimulating hormone if anovulation persisted, or induction of ovulation with recombinant follicle stimulating hormone. Main outcome measure Ongoing pregnancy within 12 months. Results. The cumulative rate of ongoing pregnancy after recombinant follicle stimulating hormone was 67%. With only electrocautery it was 34%, which increased to 49% after clomiphene citrate was given. Subsequent recombinant follicle stimulating hormone increased the rate to 67% at 12 months (rate ratio 1.01, 95% confidence interval 0.81 to 1.24). No complications occurred from electrocautery with or without clomiphene citrate. Patients allocated to electrocautery had a significantly lower risk of multiple pregnancy (0.11, 0.01 to 0.86). Conclusion The ongoing pregnancy rate from ovulation induction with laparoscopic electrocautery followed by clomiphene citrate and recombinant follicle stimulating hormone if anovulation persisted, or recombinant follicle stimulating hormone, seems equivalent to ovulation induction with recombinant follicle stimulating hormone, but the former procedure carries a lower risk of multiple pregnancy. PMID:14739186

  12. Growth hormone secretory in healthy aged women and men of ...

    This perturbation may be involved in aggravations of numerous abnormalities. In 64 healthy elderly, we determined the concentrations of GH in both sexes and its correlation with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), the descriptive data, BMI, electrolytic assessment and some biochemical parameters. Collected data suggest ...

  13. Thyroid hormone radioimmunoassay

    Rodriguez, S.; Richmond, M.; Quesada, S.; Lahaman, S.; Ramirez, A.; Herrera, J.F.

    1988-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (AIEA) is carrying out the ARCAL VIII Program 'Thiroid Hormone Readioimmunoassay'. The Immunoassay Laboratory of INCIENSA is in charge of this program, with the participation of four National Hospital System laboratories, which carried out Thyroxine (T4). Triodothyroxine (T3) and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) assays with NETRIA Reagents (North East Thames Region Immunoassay Unit). The variability was shown to be between 9-20 per cent for T4, 12-22 per cent for TSH and 22-36 per cent for T3. The study also evaluated the quality of a tracer (T3-l125 and T4 l125) produced at INCIENSA. In this case the intrassay variability was 8,4 per cent for T3 and 6,8 per cent for T4 in 32 determinations evaluated during 6 months. It was concluded that the T4 and TSH tests but not the T3 test are valid and reproducible when NETRIA Ragents are used. The tracer made at INCIENSA can be used up to 6 weeks after the radioiodination with l125. A successful thyroid-related hormones quality control was defined in Costa Rica by taking advantage of the support of a prestigious international agency, the IAEA. (author). 13 refs, 4 figs

  14. Diural TSH variations in hypothyroidism.

    Weeke, J; Laurberg, P

    1976-07-01

    There is a circadian variation in serum TSH in euthyroid subjects. A similar diurnal variation has been demonstrated in patients with hypothyroidism. In the present study the 24-hour pattern of serum TSH was investigated in eight patients with hypothyroidism of varying severity and in five hypothyroid patients treated with thyroxine (T4). There was a circadian variation in serum TSH in patients with hypothyroidism of moderate degree, and in patients treated for severe hypothyrodism with thyroxine. The pattern was similar to that found in normal subjects, i.e., low TSH levels in the daytime and higher levels at night. In severely hypothyroid patients, no diurnal variation in serum TSH was observed. A practical consequence is that blood samples for TSH measurements in patients with moderately elevated TSH levels are best taken after 1100 h, when the low day levels are reached.

  15. Usefulness of recombinant human TSH-aided radioiodine doses administered in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma Administración de dosis terapéuticas de radioyodo luego de TSH recombinante en pacientes con carcinoma diferenciado de tiroides

    Fabián Pitoia

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The published studies confirming the safety and efficacy of rhTSH for diagnostic purposes have led to an increased interest in its use for preparation for radioiodine (RI dose administration in patients with recurrent or persistent differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC. In order to establish the efficacy of RI therapy after rhTSH, we have reviewed 39 rhTSH-aided radioiodine treatment in a series of 28 DTC patients. Patients were divided into two groups: GI (n=17, with previous thyroid bed uptake and undetectable thyroglobulin (Tg levels under levothyroxine treatment and GII (n=11, with proven metastatic local or distant disease. Median follow-up after the first rhTSH-aided radioiodine treatment was 32 ± 13 months (range 8 to 54 months. Sixteen patients (94% in GI were rendered disease free and one patient was shown to have persistent disease. In GII, the post therapy whole body scan showed pathological uptakes in all cases: in four patients in lungs, in four in mediastinum and in three in lateral neck. In two patients with mediastinum uptake, Tg levels were undetectable after rhTSH. In the follow-up, two patients with lateral neck uptake were rendered disease free, four patients died (three due to thyroid cancer and five out of the remaining patients have persistent disease. In conclusion, rhTSH aided therapy was helpful to eliminate normal thyroid bed remnants in 16/17 (94% patients (GI. rhTSH stimulated Tg was undetectable in two patients with mediastinal metastasis. We believe that rhTSH is a good alternative to levothyroxine withdrawal for the treatment of DTC with radioactive iodine, increasing the quality of life in these patients. Caution should be recommended in the follow-up of unselected DTC patients only with stimulated Tg levels.Los estudios publicados que confirman la seguridad y eficacia de la TSH recombinante (rhTSH llevaron a un incremento en el interés para su uso como adyuvante terapéutico en el CDT (ablación o tratamiento

  16. Pituitary response to thyrotropin releasing hormone in children with overweight and obesity.

    Rijks, Jesse; Penders, Bas; Dorenbos, Elke; Straetemans, Saartje; Gerver, Willem-Jan; Vreugdenhil, Anita

    2016-08-03

    Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations in the high normal range are common in children with overweight and obesity, and associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk. Prior studies aiming at unravelling the mechanisms underlying these high TSH concentrations mainly focused on factors promoting thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) production as a cause for high TSH concentrations. However, it is unknown whether TSH release of the pituitary in response to TRH is affected in children with overweight and obesity. Here we describe TSH release of the pituitary in response to exogenous TRH in 73 euthyroid children (39% males) with overweight or (morbid) obesity. Baseline TSH concentrations (0.9-5.5 mU/L) were not associated with BMI z score, whereas these concentrations were positively associated with TSH concentrations 20 minutes after TRH administration (r(2) = 0.484, p obesity. The clinical significance and the intermediate factors contributing to pituitary TSH release need to be elucidated in future studies.

  17. 76 FR 2807 - New Animal Drugs; Change of Sponsor; Follicle Stimulating Hormone

    2011-01-18

    ... [Docket No. FDA-2010-N-0002] New Animal Drugs; Change of Sponsor; Follicle Stimulating Hormone AGENCY...) is amending the animal drug regulations to reflect a change of sponsor for a new animal drug....O. Box 324-12, Tyler, TX 75703 has informed FDA that it has transferred ownership of, and all rights...

  18. Thyroid hormone stimulation of phosphatidylcholine synthesis in cultured fetal rabbit lung.

    Ballard, P L; Hovey, M L; Gonzales, L K

    1984-01-01

    To investigate the mechanism of thyroid hormone action on pulmonary surfactant synthesis, we characterized the effect of triiodothyronine on phosphatidylcholine synthesis in cultured fetal rabbit lung. Since glucocorticoids stimulate surfactant synthesis and reduce the incidence of Respiratory Distress Syndrome in premature infants, we also examined the interaction of triiodothyronine and dexamethasone. The rate of choline incorporation into phosphatidylcholine was determined in organ culture...

  19. Follicle Stimulating Hormone is an accurate predictor of azoospermia in childhood cancer survivors.

    Thomas W Kelsey

    Full Text Available The accuracy of Follicle Stimulating Hormone as a predictor of azoospermia in adult survivors of childhood cancer is unclear, with conflicting results in the published literature. A systematic review and post hoc analysis of combined data (n = 367 were performed on all published studies containing extractable data on both serum Follicle Stimulating Hormone concentration and semen concentration in survivors of childhood cancer. PubMed and Medline databases were searched up to March 2017 by two blind investigators. Articles were included if they contained both serum FSH concentration and semen concentration, used World Health Organisation certified methods for semen analysis, and the study participants were all childhood cancer survivors. There was no evidence for either publication bias or heterogeneity for the five studies. For the combined data (n = 367 the optimal Follicle Stimulating Hormone threshold was 10.4 IU/L with specificity 81% (95% CI 76%-86% and sensitivity 83% (95% CI 76%-89%. The AUC was 0.89 (95%CI 0.86-0.93. A range of threshold FSH values for the diagnosis of azoospermia with their associated sensitivities and specificities were calculated. This study provides strong supporting evidence for the use of serum Follicle Stimulating Hormone as a surrogate biomarker for azoospermia in adult males who have been treated for childhood cancer.

  20. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), ch. 10

    Franchimont, P.

    1976-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay for FSH and LH is described. Both FSH and LH were labelled with 131 I by the Greenwood method. The FSH iodination mixture is purified by passing over a column of DEAE cellulose. The LH iodination mixture can be purified by sephadex gel filtration or by cellulose adsorption chromatography. After incubation, the bound and free-labelled hormones are separated by the double antibody technique

  1. Characterization of follicle stimulating hormone profiles in normal ovulating women.

    Ecochard, René; Guillerm, Agnes; Leiva, René; Bouchard, Thomas; Direito, Ana; Boehringer, Hans

    2014-07-01

    To describe FSH profile variants. Observational study. Multicenter collaborative study. A total of 107 women. Women collected daily first morning urine and underwent serial ovarian ultrasound. The individual FSH cyclic profiles demonstrated a significant departure from the currently accepted model. A decline in FSH levels at the end of the follicular phase was observed in only 42% of cycles. The absence of this decline was significantly associated with a shorter luteal phase and higher pregnanediol-3α-glucuronide, FSH, and LH levels at the time of ovulation. In 34% of the cycles, significant FSH variability was observed throughout the follicular phase; this variability was associated with higher body mass index and lower overall FSH and LH levels throughout the cycle. The FSH peak occurs on average 2 hours before ovulation. The FSH peak duration was shorter than the LH peak. These results suggest that average FSH profiles may not reflect the more complex dynamics of daily hormonal variations in the menstrual cycle. It is possible that discrepancies between the average normal FSH profile and the individual day-to-day variants can be used to detect abnormalities. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Radioimmunoassay of TSH subunits in thyroid diseases and endocrine opthalmopahty

    Eder, W.

    1982-01-01

    Highly sensitive radioimmunoassays of hTSH sub-units were developed. The hormone preparations were labelled with 125-iodine according to a modified chloramine -T method, and purified by chromatography using biogel P6 and P60. Rabbit antisera were used as antibodies. Separation of the antibody-bound and of the free antigens was carried out via the double antibody method. The antiserum required for this purpose was obtained from a goat. The sensitivity of the assay was influenced by changing the protein content of the buffer, the incubation volume, the tracer amounts, the incubation time and the incubation temperature. For hTSH-α, the lowest detectable limit was found to be 50 pg/ml, for hTSH-#betta# 20 pg/ml. Thus, the sub-units could be determined for 98% of the patients under review. The #betta#-TSH radioimmunoassay is largely specific, TSH cross-reacts to a degree of 5%. The computerized evoluation was carried out by means of Spline approximation using the Siemens 4004 computer. Precision and accurateness are in compliance with generally accpted criteria. The serum levels of α and #betta# sub-units showed no discordancy with regard to TSH. In all groups of patients examined, the levels of the hormone-specific #betta#-chain were found to be exclusively dependent upon the actual thyroid activity. (orig.) [de

  3. Sole validity of the radioimmunological TSH-estimate

    Mahlstedt, J.

    1982-01-01

    TSH-measurements in plasma as a single parameter for the evaluation of thyroid status need a highly sensitive radioimmunoassay, hitherto not available from commercial sources. The results, however, of such an assay allow to distinguish satisfactorily between suppressed, partially suppressed and normal regulation as well as overstimulation of the thyroid. For several indications, the TRH-test could be replaced by a basal TSH-value. Suppressed regulation without measurable TSH-levels is not to be identified automatically with clearcut hyperthyroidism because of several disturbing factors to be considered in clinical circumstances. Normally the positive TRH-test includes basal TSH-levels between 0.5 and 5 μU/ml thereby excluding significant hormone excess as a possible cause of clinical signs of hyperthyroidism; however, some exceptions do exist (TSH-secreting pineal tumors; partial TSH-resistance of the hypophysis; crossreacting immunoglobulins after microbial vaccination) and should be considered in case of conflicting results. From a clinical point of view a highly sensitive TSH-RIA would be very interesting but would require the use of most recent technologies. (orig.) [de

  4. Metilación del receptor de la hormona estimulante del tiroides: marcador diagnóstico de malignidad en cáncer de tiroides Methylation of the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor: diagnostic marker of malignity in thyroid cancer

    María Teresa Marrero Rodríguez

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó el estado de metilación del promotor del gen para el receptor de la hormona estimulante del tiroides (TSH en el diagnóstico de tumores tiroideos de origen epitelial. El estudio se realizó en tejido tiroideo obtenido de bloques de parafina de diferentes patologías tiroideas (carcinoma papilar, folicular e indiferenciado, y adenomas foliculares. El trabajo se realizó empleando la técnica de modificación del ADN con bisulfito de sodio y el análisis del estado de la metilación del gen RTSH se realizó por el método de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa específica para metilación. Encontramos metilación del promotor para el gen del receptor de TSH en los carcinomas papilares (33 de 40; 82,5 %, en los 10 carcinomas indiferenciados (100 % y en 10 de los 15 carcinomas foliculares analizados (66,6 %. En cambio, no se observó metilación en los 8 adenomas foliculares analizados. Se propone la metilación del gen para el receptor de TSH como un nuevo marcador diagnóstico de malignidad, y una base para emplear agentes desmetilantes conjuntamente con la terapia con radioyodo, en los pacientes con cáncer de tiroides de origen epitelial que no respondan a la terapia.The methylation state of the gene promoter for the receptor of the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH in the diagnosis of thyroid tumors of epithelial origin was analyzed. The study was conducted in thyroid tissue obtained from paraffin blocks of different thyroid pathologies (papillary, follicular and undifferentiated carcinoma and follicular adenomas. The work was done by using the DNA modification technique with sodium bisulfite, and polymerase chain reaction was applied to analyze the gene methylation state. Methylation of the promoter for the gene of the TSH receptor was found in the papillary carcinomas (33 of 40; 82.5 %, in 10 undifferentiated carcinomas (100 %, and in 10 of the 15 follicular carcinomas analyzed (66.6 %. No methylation was observed in the 8

  5. Some biological properties of human chorionic follicle stimulating hormone

    Tojo, Shimpei; Ashitaka, Yoshihiko; Maruo, Takeshi; Nishimoto, Hiroyuki

    1975-01-01

    The biological properties of human chorionic FSH (hCFSH) for rat ovaries were investigated. Highly purified hCFSH had similar response to the ovarian augmentation test as bovine FSH and significantly enhanced 3 H-thymidine uptake by granulosa cells and theca cells in the ovary of hypophysectomized rat. In contrast, highly purified hCG little responded to the ovarian augmentation test and had no effect on 3 H-thymidine uptake by the ovary. These results indicate that hCFSH may promote the follicular growth of ovary resulting from granulosa cell proliferation and its enlargement. In addition, freshly harvested porcine granulosa cells were employed in an in vitro system to investigate specific binding of hCFSH to ovarian receptor. Radioiodinated hCFSH ( 125 I-hCFSH) and hCG ( 125 I-hCG) were respectively incubated with cell suspensions. Binding of these hormone preparations was proportional to the cell number and increased with the time of incubation through 120 minutes. The binding ability of 125 I-hCFSH to the cells was greater than that of 125 I-hCG. Increasing concentrations of unlabeled hCFSH in the incubation mixture progressively inhibited the uptake of 125 I-hCFSH by granulosa cells. Unlabeled hCG was not able to compete with 125 I-hCFSH binding. The similar phenomenon to inhibit the binding of 125 I-hCG to the cells was also recognized in the presence of unlabeled hCG. These findings suggest that granulosa cell has at least two different types of receptor sites: one for hCFSH and the other for hCG. (auth.)

  6. Establishment of detailed reference values for luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, estradiol, and progesterone during different phases of the menstrual cycle on the Abbott ARCHITECT® analyzer

    Stricker, Reto; Eberhart, Raphael; Chevailler, Marie-Christine; Quinn, Frank A.; Bischof, Paul; Stricker, René

    2017-01-01

    During a normal menstrual cycle, serum levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol, and progesterone can vary widely between cycles for the same woman, as well as between different woman. Reliable reference values based on the local population are important for correct interpretation of laboratory results. The purpose of our study was to determine detailed reference values for these hormones throughout the menstrual cycle using the Abbott ARCHITECT system...

  7. Length and cost of hospital stay of radioiodine ablation in thyroid cancer patients: comparison between preparation with thyroid hormone withdrawal and thyrogen

    Borget, I.; Chevalier, J.; Remy, H.; Ricard, M.; Schlumberger, M.; Allyn, M.; Pouvourville, G. de

    2008-01-01

    Treatment of thyroid cancer consists of thyroidectomy and radioiodine ablation following thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) stimulation. Similar ablation rates were obtained with either thyroid hormone withdrawal (THW) or rhTSH. But with rhTSH, the elimination of radioiodine is more rapid, thus reducing its whole-body retention and potentially resulting in a shorter hospital stay. The aim of this study was to assess the financial impact of a reduced length of hospital stay with the use of rhTSH. This was a case-control study of thyroid cancer patients treated postoperatively with 3,700 MBq (100 mCi) radioiodine; 35 patients who received rhTSH were matched with 64 patients submitted to THW according to covariates influencing radioiodine retention. The length of hospitalization (LOH) was estimated for each method according to the threshold of radioiodine retention below which the patient can be discharged from the hospital. The economic analysis was conducted from a hospital perspective. Simulations were performed. For a threshold of 400 MBq, the LOH was 2.4 days and 3.5 days with rhTSH and THW, respectively, and the cost for an ablation stay was, respectively, 2,146 and 1,807 EUR. In the French context, 57% of the acquisition cost of rhTSH was compensated by the reduction of the length of hospitalization. By increasing the iodine excretion, rhTSH allows a shorter hospitalization length, which partially compensates its acquisition cost. (orig.)

  8. Hormonal, functional and genetic biomarkers in controlled ovarian stimulation: tools for matching patients and protocols

    Alviggi, Carlo; Humaidan, Peter; Ezcurra, Diego

    2012-01-01

    single patient characteristics. These could potentially be used to match patients with the right treatment options to optimise efficacy, safety and tolerability during COS. Currently, age and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) level remain the most commonly used single patient characteristics in clinical...... practice. These variables only provide a basic prognosis for success and indications for standard COS treatment based on gross patient categorisation. In contrast, the anti-Müllerian hormone level appears to be an accurate predictor of ovarian reserve and response to COS, and could be used successfully...

  9. Association between the clinical classification of hypothyroidism and reduced TSH in LT4 supplemental replacement treatment for pregnancy in China.

    Zhang, Lyu; Zhang, Zhaoyun; Ye, Hongying; Zhu, Xiaoming; Li, Yiming

    2016-01-01

    The study was aimed to evaluate the effects of levothyroxine (LT4) supplemental replacement treatment for pregnancy and analyze the associations between the clinical classification of hypothyroidism and reduced thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in LT4 therapy. Totally, 195 pregnant women with hypothyroidism receiving routine prenatal care were enrolled. They were categorized into three groups: overt hypothyroidism (OH), subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) with negative thyroperoxidase antibody (TPOAb), and SCH with positive TPOAb. The association between the clinical classification and reduced TSH in LT4 supplemental replacement treatment was assessed. The results indicated that reduced TSH was significantly different among the groups according to the clinical classifications (p = 0.043). The result was also significantly different between patients with OH and patients with SCH and negative TPOAb (p = 0.036). Similar result was reported for the comparison between patients with OH and patients with SCH and positive TPOAb (p = 0.016). Multiple variable analyses showed that LT4 supplementation, gestational age and the variable of clinical classifications were associated with reduced TSH independently. Our data suggested that the therapeutic effect of substitutive treatment with LT4 was significantly associated with different clinical classifications of hypothyroidism in pregnancy and the treatment should begin as soon as possible after diagnosis.

  10. Changes of TSH-Stimulation Blocking Antibody (TSBAb and Thyroid Stimulating Antibody (TSAb Over 10 Years in 34 TSBAb-Positive Patients with Hypothyroidism and in 98 TSAb-Positive Graves’ Patients with Hyperthyroidism: Reevaluation of TSBAb and TSAb in TSH-Receptor-Antibody (TRAb-Positive Patients

    Nobuyuki Takasu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two TRAbs: TSBAb and TSAb. TSBAb causes hypothyroidism. TSAb causes Graves’ hyperthyroidism. TSBAb and TSAb block TSH-binding to cells as TRAb, measured as TSH-binding inhibitory immunoglobulin (TBII. We reevaluate TSBAb and TSAb. We studied TSBAb, TSAb, and TBII over 10 years in 34 TSBAb-positives with hypothyroidism and in 98 TSAb-positives with hyperthyroidism. Half of the 34 TSBAb-positives with hypothyroidism continued to have persistently positive TSBAb, continued to have hypothyroidism, and did not recover from hypothyroidism. Ten of the 98 TSAb-positives with hyperthyroidism continued to have positive TSAb and continued to have hyperthyroidism. TSBAb had disappeared in 15 of the 34 TSBAb-positives with hypothyroidism. With the disappearance of TSBAb, recovery from hypothyroidism was noted in 13 (87% of the 15 patients. TSAb had disappeared in 73 of the 98 TSAb-positives with hyperthyroidism. With the disappearance of TSAb, remissions of hyperthyroidism were noted in 60 (82% of the 73. Two of the 34 TSBAb-positives with hypothyroidism developed TSAb-positive Graves’ hyperthyroidism. Two of the 98 TSAb-positive Graves’ patients with hyperthyroidism developed TSBAb-positive hypothyroidism. TSBAb and TSAb are TRAbs. TSBAb-hypothyroidism and TSAb-hyperthyroidism may be two aspects of one disease (TRAb disease. Two forms of autoimmune thyroiditis: atrophic and goitrous. We followed 34 TSBAb-positive patients with hypothyroidism (24 atrophic and 10 goitrous over 10 years. All of the 10 TSBAb-positive goitrous patients recovered from hypothyroidism and 19 (79% of the 24 TSBAb-positive atrophic patients continued to have hypothyroidism.

  11. Changes of TSH-Stimulation Blocking Antibody (TSBAb) and Thyroid Stimulating Antibody (TSAb) Over 10 Years in 34 TSBAb-Positive Patients with Hypothyroidism and in 98 TSAb-Positive Graves' Patients with Hyperthyroidism: Reevaluation of TSBAb and TSAb in TSH-Receptor-Antibody (TRAb)-Positive Patients

    Takasu, Nobuyuki; Matsushita, Mina

    2012-01-01

    Two TRAbs: TSBAb and TSAb. TSBAb causes hypothyroidism. TSAb causes Graves' hyperthyroidism. TSBAb and TSAb block TSH-binding to cells as TRAb, measured as TSH-binding inhibitory immunoglobulin (TBII). We reevaluate TSBAb and TSAb. We studied TSBAb, TSAb, and TBII over 10 years in 34 TSBAb-positives with hypothyroidism and in 98 TSAb-positives with hyperthyroidism. Half of the 34 TSBAb-positives with hypothyroidism continued to have persistently positive TSBAb, continued to have hypothyroidism, and did not recover from hypothyroidism. Ten of the 98 TSAb-positives with hyperthyroidism continued to have positive TSAb and continued to have hyperthyroidism. TSBAb had disappeared in 15 of the 34 TSBAb-positives with hypothyroidism. With the disappearance of TSBAb, recovery from hypothyroidism was noted in 13 (87%) of the 15 patients. TSAb had disappeared in 73 of the 98 TSAb-positives with hyperthyroidism. With the disappearance of TSAb, remissions of hyperthyroidism were noted in 60 (82%) of the 73. Two of the 34 TSBAb-positives with hypothyroidism developed TSAb-positive Graves' hyperthyroidism. Two of the 98 TSAb-positive Graves' patients with hyperthyroidism developed TSBAb-positive hypothyroidism. TSBAb and TSAb are TRAbs. TSBAb-hypothyroidism and TSAb-hyperthyroidism may be two aspects of one disease (TRAb disease). Two forms of autoimmune thyroiditis: atrophic and goitrous. We followed 34 TSBAb-positive patients with hypothyroidism (24 atrophic and 10 goitrous) over 10 years. All of the 10 TSBAb-positive goitrous patients recovered from hypothyroidism and 19 (79%) of the 24 TSBAb-positive atrophic patients continued to have hypothyroidism. PMID:22655217

  12. Labelling of human follicle stimulant hormone with 125I, for radioimmunoassay

    Pinto, H.; Werner, R.S.; Lerario, A.C.; Toledo e Souza, I.T. de; Wajchenberg, B.L.; Pieroni, R.R.

    1976-01-01

    An efficient labeling of human Follicle Stimulant Harmone is essential to development of sensitive radioimmunoassays. Iodination by Chloramine T method frequently is subject to severe iodination damage and some preparations are unaccetable for radioimmunoassays. Modifications to the Hunter method, changing incubation time, reaction temperature and reducing Chloramine T amount used in the reaction, were performed in obtaining a more effective labeling. FSH-125 I fraction obtained from Sephadex G-75 column purification presented excellent immunoreactivity and quality control of the steps of the reaction demonstrated a high percentage (90%) of intact Follicle Stimulant Hormone [pt

  13. Basal and Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Stimulated Plasma Cortisol Levels Among Egyptian Autistic Children: Relation to Disease Severity

    Hewedi Doaa H

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autism is a disorder of early childhood characterized by social impairment, communication abnormalities and stereotyped behaviors. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA axis deserves special attention, since it is the basis for emotions and social interactions that are affected in autism. Aim To assess basal and stimulated plasma cortisol, and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH levels in autistic children and their relationship to disease characteristics. Methods Fifty autistic children were studied in comparison to 50 healthy age-, sex- and pubertal stage- matched children. All subjects were subjected to clinical evaluation and measurement of plasma cortisol (basal and stimulated and ACTH. In addition, electroencephalography (EEG and intelligence quotient (IQ assessment were done for all autistic children. Results Sixteen% of autistic patients had high ACTH, 10% had low basal cortisol and 10% did not show adequate cortisol response to ACTH stimulation. Autistic patients had lower basal (p = 0.032 and stimulated cortisol (p = 0.04 and higher ACTH (p = 0.01 than controls. Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS score correlated positively with ACTH (r = 0.71, p = 0.02 and negatively with each of basal (r = -0.64, p = 0.04 and stimulated cortisol (r = -0.88, p Conclusions The observed hormonal changes may be due to a dysfunction in the HPA axis in autistic individuals. Further studies are warranted regarding the role of HPA axis dysfunction in the pathogenesis of autism.

  14. Thyroid hormone reduces PCSK9 and stimulates bile acid synthesis in humans[S

    Bonde, Ylva; Breuer, Olof; L?tjohann, Dieter; Sj?berg, Stefan; Angelin, Bo; Rudling, Mats

    2014-01-01

    Reduced plasma LDL-cholesterol is a hallmark of hyperthyroidism and is caused by transcriptional stimulation of LDL receptors in the liver. Here, we investigated whether thyroid hormone (TH) actions involve other mechanisms that may also account for the reduction in LDL-cholesterol, including effects on proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) and bile acid synthesis. Twenty hyperthyroid patients were studied before and after clinical normalization, and the responses to hyperthyr...

  15. Reconstitution of hormone-responsive detergent-solubilized follicle stimulating hormone receptors into liposomes

    Grasso, P.; Dattatreyamurty, B.; Reichert, L.E. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    An FSH receptor-enriched fraction that responds to exogenous FSH by activation of adenylate cyclase was prepared by ultrafiltration of sucrose density gradient-purified light membranes derived from bovine calf testes homogenates and solubilized with Triton X-100. To further confirm the functional nature of the detergent-solubilized FSH receptor, the extract was incorporated by lipid hydration into large multilamellar vesicles composed of dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol, 2:1 molar ratio. Receptor incorporation was determined by measurement of specific binding of [125I] human FSH ([125I] hFSH). Substitution of dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine with dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine or increasing the cholesterol concentration of the vesicles reduced specific binding of [125I]hFSH. Under conditions favoring optimal incorporation of the receptor, specific binding of [125I]hFSH was time and temperature dependent and saturable when increasing concentrations of radioligand were added to a constant amount of proteoliposomes. Reconstituted proteoliposomes bound 1600 fmol FSH/mg protein with an affinity of 3.54 x 10(9) M-1. Inhibition of [125I] hFSH binding by hFSH was comparable to that seen with the membrane-bound receptor (ED50 = 10 ng). Equilibrium binding studies with [3H]Gpp(NH)p indicated that a single class of high affinity GTP binding sites with an association constant (Ka) of 3.33 x 10(7) m-1 which bound 2.19 fmol [3H]Gpp(NH)p/mg protein had also been incorporated into the proteoliposomes. Addition of FSH induced a 2-fold stimulation of [3H]Gpp(NH)p binding, supporting our earlier studies suggesting that the detergent-solubilized FSH receptor is complexed to the G protein. Of particular significance in the present study was the observation that both NaF and FSH stimulated cAMP production in the reconstituted system

  16. TSH Response to the Intravenous Administration of Synthetic TRH in Various Thyroid Diseases

    Choi, Sung Jae; Kim, Kwang Won; Lee, Mun Ho

    1980-01-01

    Serum TSH levels were ,measured by radioimmunoassay before and after intravenous administration of synthetic thyrotropin-releasing hormone(TRH) to 15 normal subjects and 55 patients with primary thyroid disease (14 patients with euthyroidism, 24 patients with thyrotoxicosis and 17 patients with hypothyroidism) to evaluate pituitary TSH reserve and its diagnostic availability. The observed results were as follows. 1) In normal subjects, serum TSH responses to synthetic TRH were 3.2±1.0 at 0 min (baseline TSH level), 8.0±4.0 at 10 min, 11.7±5.0 at 20 min, 13.7±7.1 at 80 min, 9.7±5.0 at 60 min., 5.2±2.0 at 120 min. and 3.6±0.4 μU/ml at 180 min. Serum TSH peaked at 20-30 minutes and returned nearly to baseline at 180 minutes. 2) In euthyroid group, serum TSH responses to synthetic TRH were 3.3±1.6 at 0 min, 8.6±8.0 at 10 min, 10.9±8. 5 at 20 min, 12.5±8.4 at 30 min, 9.0±5.9 at 60 min, 5.6±2.6 at 120 min and 3.5±1.3 μU/ml at 180 min. No significant difference revealed between euthyroid group and normal subjects(p>0.05). 3) In hyperthyroid group, serum TSH responses to synthetic TRH were 1.5±0.6 at 0 min, 2.2±0.8 at 10 min., 2.3±1.0 at 20 min., 2.4±1.5 at 30 min., 2.1±1.1 at 60 min,, 1.9±0.2 at 120 min, and 1. 5±0.8 μU/ml, at 180 min., No response to TRH showed. 4) In hypothyroid group, mean values of serum TSH response to synthetic TRH were 42.0 at 0 min., 60.6 at 10 min., 124.8 at 20 min., 123.0 at 30 min. 101.6 at 60 min., 64.3 at 120 min. and 15.5 μU/ml at 180 min., Patients with primary hypothyroidism showed an exaggerated TSH response to synthetic TRH despite their high basal TSH. 5) Side effects attending synthetic TRH administration were transient nausea (59.0%), desire to micturate (59.0%), feeling of flushing (19.7%), dizziness (45.9%), metallic taste (9.8%) and headache (19.7%). Any side effect didn't show in 16.4%. These symptoms began almost immediately after TRH intravenous injection and lasted several minutes, and not related to

  17. TSH Response to the Intravenous Administration of Synthetic TRH in Various Thyroid Diseases

    Choi, Sung Jae; Kim, Kwang Won; Lee, Mun Ho [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1980-03-15

    Serum TSH levels were ,measured by radioimmunoassay before and after intravenous administration of synthetic thyrotropin-releasing hormone(TRH) to 15 normal subjects and 55 patients with primary thyroid disease (14 patients with euthyroidism, 24 patients with thyrotoxicosis and 17 patients with hypothyroidism) to evaluate pituitary TSH reserve and its diagnostic availability. The observed results were as follows. 1) In normal subjects, serum TSH responses to synthetic TRH were 3.2+-1.0 at 0 min (baseline TSH level), 8.0+-4.0 at 10 min, 11.7+-5.0 at 20 min, 13.7+-7.1 at 80 min, 9.7+-5.0 at 60 min., 5.2+-2.0 at 120 min. and 3.6+-0.4 muU/ml at 180 min. Serum TSH peaked at 20-30 minutes and returned nearly to baseline at 180 minutes. 2) In euthyroid group, serum TSH responses to synthetic TRH were 3.3+-1.6 at 0 min, 8.6+-8.0 at 10 min, 10.9+-8. 5 at 20 min, 12.5+-8.4 at 30 min, 9.0+-5.9 at 60 min, 5.6+-2.6 at 120 min and 3.5+-1.3 muU/ml at 180 min. No significant difference revealed between euthyroid group and normal subjects(p>0.05). 3) In hyperthyroid group, serum TSH responses to synthetic TRH were 1.5+-0.6 at 0 min, 2.2+-0.8 at 10 min., 2.3+-1.0 at 20 min., 2.4+-1.5 at 30 min., 2.1+-1.1 at 60 min,, 1.9+-0.2 at 120 min, and 1. 5+-0.8 muU/ml, at 180 min., No response to TRH showed. 4) In hypothyroid group, mean values of serum TSH response to synthetic TRH were 42.0 at 0 min., 60.6 at 10 min., 124.8 at 20 min., 123.0 at 30 min. 101.6 at 60 min., 64.3 at 120 min. and 15.5 muU/ml at 180 min., Patients with primary hypothyroidism showed an exaggerated TSH response to synthetic TRH despite their high basal TSH. 5) Side effects attending synthetic TRH administration were transient nausea (59.0%), desire to micturate (59.0%), feeling of flushing (19.7%), dizziness (45.9%), metallic taste (9.8%) and headache (19.7%). Any side effect didn't show in 16.4%. These symptoms began almost immediately after TRH intravenous injection and lasted several minutes, and not related

  18. Hypophysectomy abolishes rhythms in rat thyroid hormones but not in the thyroid clock

    Fahrenkrug, J; Georg, B; Hannibal, J

    2017-01-01

    The endocrine body rhythms including the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis seem to be regulated by the circadian timing system, and daily rhythmicity of circulating thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is well established. The circadian rhythms are generated by endogenous clocks in the central bra...

  19. [Health economic consequences of the choice of follicle stimulating hormone alternatives in IVF treatment].

    Poulsen, Peter Bo; Højgaard, Astrid; Quartarolo, Jens Piero

    2007-04-02

    There is a choice between two types of hormones for stimulation of the follicles in IVF treatment - recombinant FSH and the urine-derived menotrophin. A literature review by NICE (2004) in the United Kingdom documented that the two types of hormones were equally effective and safe, which is why it was recommended to use the cheaper urine-derived hormone. Based on the EISG study (European and Israeli Study Group), the aim was to analyse the health economic consequences of the choice between the two types of hormone in IVF treatment in Denmark. In a prospective cost-effectiveness analysis (health care sector perspective), menotrophin and recombinant FSH (Gonal-F) were compared. Differences in costs were compared with differences in effects of the two alternatives. The total costs for the average patient are lower when using menotrophin compared with recombinant FSH. Furthermore, the cost per clinical pregnancy was lower with menotrophin compared with recombinant FSH hormone. Menotrophin is therefore less expensive both for the patient as well as for the health care sector. The use of menotrophin instead of recombinant FSH can result in savings of up to DKK 16 million on the drug budget--savings that could finance 1,400 additional IVF cycles. The analysis shows that urine-derived menotrophin is a cost-effective alternative to recombinant FSH with a potential for considerable savings for patients as well as the public drug budget.

  20. alpha-difluoromethylornithine modifies gonadotropin-releasing hormone release and follicle-stimulating hormone secretion in the immature female rat.

    Thyssen, S M; Becú-Villalobos, D; Lacau-Mengido, I M; Libertun, C

    1997-06-01

    Polyamines play an essential role in tissue growth and differentiation, in body weight increment, in brain organization, and in the molecular mechanisms of hormonal action, intracellular signaling, and cell-to-cell communication. In a previous study, inhibition of their synthesis by alpha-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), a specific and irreversible inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase, during development in female rats, was followed by prolonged high follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) serum level and a delayed puberty onset. Those changes were relatively independent of body mass and did not impair posterior fertility. The present work studies the mechanisms and site of action of polyamine participation in FSH secretion during development. DFMO was injected in female rats between Days 1 and 9 on alternate days. At 10 days of age, hypothalami from control and DFMO rats were perifused in vitro, and basal and potassium-induced gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) release were measured. The response to membrane depolarization was altered in DFMO hypothalami. Increased GnRH release in response to a low K+ concentration was evidenced. Adenohypophyses of the same treated prepubertal rats were perifused in vitro and the response to GnRH pulses was checked. In DFMO-treated rats, higher FSH release was observed, with no changes in LH or PRL secretion. Finally, pituitary GnRH receptor number in adenohypophyseal membranes from treated and control groups was quantified. A significant reduction in specific binding was evident in hypophyses from DFMO-treated rats when compared with binding in the control group. In summary, DFMO treatment in a critical developmental period in the female rat impacts the immature GnRH neuronal network and immature gonadotropes. A delay in maturation is evidenced by a higher sensitivity to secretagogs in both pituitary glands and hypothalamic explants. These events could explain the prolonged high FSH serum levels and delayed puberty onset seen in

  1. Using an electrocautery strategy or recombinant follicle stimulating hormone to induce ovulation in polycystic ovary syndrome: randomised controlled trial

    Bayram, Neriman; van Wely, Madelon; Kaaijk, Eugenie M.; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.; van der Veen, Fulco

    2004-01-01

    Objective To compare the effectiveness of an electrocautery strategy with ovulation induction using recombinant follicle stimulating hormone in patients with clomiphene resistant polycystic ovary syndrome. Design Randomised controlled trial. Setting Secondary and tertiary hospitals in the

  2. TSH-Mediated TNFα Production in Human Fibrocytes Is Inhibited by Teprotumumab, an IGF-1R Antagonist.

    Hong Chen

    Full Text Available Fibrocytes (FC are bone marrow-derived progenitor cells that are more abundant and infiltrate the thyroid and orbit in Graves orbitopathy (GO. FCs express high levels of thyrotropin receptor (TSHR and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R. These receptors are physically and functionally associated, but their role in GO pathogenesis is not fully delineated. Treatment of FCs with thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH or M22 (activating antibody to TSHR induces the production of numerous cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα. Teprotumumab (TMB is a human monoclonal IGF-1R blocking antibody currently in clinical trial for GO and inhibits TSHR-mediated actions in FCs.To characterize the molecular mechanisms underlying TSH-induced TNFα production by FCs, and the role of IGF-1R blockade by TMB.FCs from healthy and GD patients were treated with combinations of TSH, M22, MG132 and AKTi (inhibitors of NF-κB and Akt, respectively, and TMB. TNFα protein production was measured by Luminex and flow cytometry. Messenger RNA expression was quantified by real time PCR.Treatment with TSH/M22 induced TNFα protein and mRNA production by FCs, both of which were reduced when FCs were pretreated with MG132 and AKTi (p<0.0001. TMB decreased TSH-induced TNFα protein production in circulating FCs from mean fluorescent index (MFI value of 2.92 to 1.91, and mRNA expression in cultured FCs from 141- to 52-fold expression (p<0.0001. TMB also decreased M22-induced TNFα protein production from MFI of 1.67 to 1.12, and mRNA expression from 6- to 3-fold expression (p<0.0001.TSH/M22 stimulates FC production of TNFα mRNA and protein. This process involves the transcription factor NF-κB and its regulator Akt. Blocking IGF-1R attenuates TSH/M22-induced TNFα production. This further delineates the interaction of TSHR and IGF1-R signaling pathways. By modulating the proinflammatory properties of FCs such as TNFα production, TMB may be a promising

  3. Occurrence of postmenopausal-like acidic follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) isoforms precedes the rise of FSH before menopause.

    Thomas, C.M.G.; Span, P.N.; Smeenk, J.M.J.; Hanssen, R.G.; Braat, D.D.M.; Sweep, F.C.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the glycoform distribution patterns of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) during the menstrual cycle at different ages and FSH levels, after menopause, and with premature ovarian failure (POF). DESIGN: Controlled clinical study. SETTING: Healthy

  4. Evidence for cooperative signal triggering at the extracellular loops of the TSH receptor.

    Kleinau, Gunnar; Jaeschke, Holger; Mueller, Sandra; Raaka, Bruce M; Neumann, Susanne; Paschke, Ralf; Krause, Gerd

    2008-08-01

    The mechanisms governing transition of the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor (TSHR) from basal to active conformations are poorly understood. Considering that constitutively activating mutations (CAMs) and inactivating mutations in each of the extracellular loops (ECLs) trigger only partial TSHR activation or inactivation, respectively, we hypothesized that full signaling occurs via multiple extracellular signal propagation events. Therefore, individual CAMs in the extracellular region were combined to create double and triple mutants. In support of our hypothesis, combinations of mutants in the ECLs are in some cases additive, while in others they are even synergistic, with triple mutant I486A/I568V/V656F exhibiting a 70-fold increase in TSH-independent signaling. The proximity but likely different spatial orientation of the residues of activating and inactivating mutations in each ECL supports a dual functionality to facilitate signal induction and conduction, respectively. This is the first report for G-protein coupled receptors, suggesting that multiple and cooperative signal propagating events at all three ECLs are required for full receptor activation. Our findings provide new insights concerning molecular signal transmission from extracellular domains toward the transmembrane helix bundle of the glycoprotein hormone receptors.

  5. Alterações do TSH em pacientes com síndrome de Down: uma interpretação nem sempre fácil Alterations of TSH in Down's syndrome patients: a hard interpretation

    Renato M. Nisihara

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar as concentrações de hormônio estimulante da tireóide (TSH e a presença de anticorpos antitireoperoxidase (anti-TPO em pacientes com síndrome de Down (SD atendidos no ambulatório do Hospital de Clínicas da Universidade Federal do Paraná. MÉTODOS: Foram incluídos no estudo 72 pacientes com SD, não aparentados e selecionados consecutivamente, com média de idade de 6,15 anos. Oitenta crianças sadias, pareadas com os pacientes, foram utilizadas como controles. Em todas as amostras foram determinadas as concentrações séricas de TSH e de anti-TPO, através do método de dosagem imunométrica. RESULTADOS: Trinta pacientes com SD (42,9% apresentaram alterações nas concentrações de TSH, sendo que 4,3% tinham valores menores que 0,5µUI/ml e 38,6%, valores superiores a 5µUI/ml (5,1 a 22 (média de 5,56 ± 4,18µUI/ml. Nos controles, a concentração média de TSH foi 2,76µUI/ml (± 1,14, evidenciando-se um aumento significativo nos níveis de TSH nos pacientes com SD (p OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH levels and the presence of antithyroperoxidase antibody (anti-TPO in Down’s syndrome (DS patients from Hospital de Clínicas of Universidade Federal do Paraná (HC/UFPR. METHODS: Seventy-two DS patients, non-related and consecutively selected (mean age 6.15 were included in the study. Eighty matched healthy children were used as controls. The TSH measurement and the anti-TPO were determined by immunometric assay in all samples. RESULTS: Thirty patients with DS (42.9% presented abnormal levels of TSH; 4.3% showed values below 0.5µIU/ml and 38.6% presented values higher than 5µIU/ml (range 5.1-22; mean 5.56 ± 4.18µIU/ml. The mean concentration of TSH in the controls was 2.76 ± 1.14µIU/ml, indicating a significant increase in TSH levels in the DS patients (p < 0.001. Similarly, a significant difference was observed in the anti-TPO positivity in the patients’ group (15.4% when

  6. Improved radioimmunoassay for human TSH

    Spencer, C.A.; Nicoloff, J.T.

    1980-01-01

    This study concerns the optimization of the human TSH (h-TSH) radioimmunoassay with special emphasis on reducing the heterogeneity of the 125 I h-TSH tracer. Enzymatic iodination of h-TSH with glucose oxidase/lactoperoxidase was shown to be superior to either low or high dose chloramine-T procedures, producing a high specific activity reagent (70-150 μCi/μg) with minimal evidence of damage. Tracer purification procedures not only affected initial immunoactivity but also storage stability and heterogeneity of the resulting 125 I h-TSH. The assay developed using these technical approaches shows a sensitivity limit of 0.005+-0.001 (S.E.M.) μU/tube; 50% displacement at 0.18+-0.08 (S.E.M.) μU/tube and complete delineation between euthyroid (n=49, 2.44+-0.18 (S.E.M.) mU/l, range 1.00-6.08) and hyperthyroid (n=62, 0.34+-0.02 (S.E.M.) mU/l, range 0.10-0.85), serum h-TSH levels. (Auth.)

  7. Milrinone and thyroid hormone stimulate myocardial membrane Ca2+-ATPase activity and share structural homologies.

    Mylotte, K M; Cody, V; Davis, P J; Davis, F B; Blas, S D; Schoenl, M

    1985-01-01

    We have recently shown that thyroid hormone in physiological concentrations stimulates sarcolemma-enriched rabbit-myocardial-membrane Ca2+-ATPase in vitro. In this study, milrinone [2-methyl-5-cyano-(3,4'-bipyridin)-6(1H)-one], a cardiac inotropic agent, was thyromimetic in the same system. At clinically achievable concentrations (50-500 nM), milrinone significantly stimulated membrane Ca2+-ATPase in vitro. This action was antagonized by W-7 [N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalenesulfonamide], an agent that also blocks thyroid hormone action on the Ca2+-ATPase, at concentrations as low as 5 microM. Progressive additions of milrinone to membranes incubated with a fixed concentration of thyroxine (0.10 nM) or triiodothyronine resulted in a progressive obliteration of the thyroid hormone effect on Ca2+-ATPase. Amrinone [5-amino-(3,4'-bipyridin)-6(1H)-one], the parent bipyridine of milrinone, had no effect on myocardial Ca2+-ATPase activity. X-ray crystallographic analysis of milrinone and amrinone revealed structural homologies between the phenolic ring of thyroxine and the substituted ring of milrinone, whereas amrinone did not share these homologies. The mechanism(s) of the inotropic actions of thyroxine and of milrinone is not clearly understood, but these observations implicate Ca2+-ATPase, a calcium pump-associated enzyme, as one mediator of the effects on the heart of these two compounds. PMID:2933747

  8. Permeability of human placenta and fetal membranes to thyrotropin-stimulating hormone in vitro.

    Bajoria, R; Fisk, N M

    1998-05-01

    We determined the placental transfer of TSH in an in vitro model of dually perfused isolated lobule in 28 human term placentas by adding varying concentrations (5-60 microIU mL(-1)) of TSH as a single bolus dose to the closed maternal circulation. Transmembrane transfer of TSH was also studied by adding 45 microIU mL(-1) to the maternal or fetal compartment of a dual chamber of fetal membranes in culture. Passage of freely diffusible markers creatinine and antipyrine were also studied in this model. TSH concentration was measured by third generation chemiluminescence assay with a sensitivity of 10 mIU mL(-1). In the perfusion experiments, at physiologic concentrations the slow decline of TSH in the maternal circulation was associated with a small linear increase in fetal levels to 0.11 +/- 0.04% of initial dose at 2 h. The placental transfer rate was 0.08 microIU min(-1). Increasing maternal concentrations of TSH were associated with proportional increases in transfer rate (y = 0.002x; R2 = 0.99) and placental uptake (y = 0.01x; R2 = 0.97). The placental permeability of TSH was 2.4 x 10(-4) mL min(-1) g(-1) and was proportional to its coefficients of diffusion in water and molecular size. The transmembrane transfer and permeability of TSH was comparable to those of the placenta. We conclude that TSH crosses the human term placenta and fetal membranes sparingly.

  9. The etiologies and incidences of congenital hypothyroidism before and after neonatal TSH screening program implementation: a study in southern Thailand.

    Jaruratanasirikul, Somchit; Piriyaphan, Jutarat; Saengkaew, Tansit; Janjindamai, Waricha; Sriplung, Hutcha

    2018-05-11

    Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is one of the common causes of intellectual disability which can be prevented by early detection of an elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level in the newborn and by treatment with thyroxine. In Thailand, neonatal TSH screening was implemented nationwide in 2005. The objective of the study was to determine the etiologies and the estimated incidences of CH in southern Thailand before and after the implementation of a neonatal TSH screening program in 2005. The medical records of pediatric patients who were diagnosed with primary CH at Songklanagarind Hospital during 1995-2013 were retrospectively reviewed. The study was divided into two time periods: study period 1 (SP1) (1995-2004) and study period 2 (SP2) (2005-2013), the time before and after TSH program implementation. The most common form of CH during SP1 was overt permanent CH (66%), mostly caused by athyreosis or ectopic thyroid. In SP2, the most common form of CH was mild permanent CH (39%) (mostly due to dyshormonogenesis), followed by overt CH (32%) and transient CH (29%). The overall annual estimated incidence of CH per 10,000 live births in Songkhla Province was 1.69 (1:5021) in SP1, increasing to 4.77 (1:2238) in SP2; in all 14 provinces in southern Thailand, the estimated incidence was 1.24 (1:8094) in SP1 and 2.33 (1:4274) in SP2. Neonatal TSH screening has a significant impact on the increased detection of the mild form of permanent and transient CH cases, which may be important for the prevention of brain damage from less severe CH although this remains to be documented.

  10. Hormonal stimulation of the recovery of spermatogenesis following chemo- or radiotherapy

    Meistrich, M.L.

    1998-01-01

    Radiation and chemotherapeutic drugs produce prolonged depression of sperm counts in rodents and humans. Previously, three approaches have been developed in experimental animals that have had some success in preventing or reversing this toxicity. These approaches included pretreatment with hormones that suppress spermatogenesis, stimulation of stem cell number, and supplementation with testosterone. A different rationale for the ability of particular hormonal treatments to reverse prolonged azoospermia is presented in this review. In many cases prolonged azoospermia occurs even though the stem spermatogonia survive the toxic insult, but the differentiation of these spermatogonia to produce sperm fails. In the rat, the block appears to be at the differentiation of the A spermatogonia. Hormone treatments with testosterone or with GnRH agonists, which suppress intratesticular testosterone levels, relieve this block and result in the production of differentiating cells. When the hormone treatment is stopped the production of differentiating cells continues, mature sperm are produced, and fertility is restored. If a similar mechanism can be demonstrated to hold in humans, the fertility of men who have been rendered infertile by treatments for testicular and other cancers could be improved. (au)

  11. SIRT1 Regulates Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Release by Enhancing PIP5Kgamma Activity through Deacetylation of Specific Lysine Residues in Mammals.

    Sayaka Akieda-Asai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: SIRT1, a NAD-dependent deacetylase, has diverse roles in a variety of organs such as regulation of endocrine function and metabolism. However, it remains to be addressed how it regulates hormone release there. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we report that SIRT1 is abundantly expressed in pituitary thyrotropes and regulates thyroid hormone secretion. Manipulation of SIRT1 level revealed that SIRT1 positively regulated the exocytosis of TSH-containing granules. Using LC/MS-based interactomics, phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase (PIP5Kgamma was identified as a SIRT1 binding partner and deacetylation substrate. SIRT1 deacetylated two specific lysine residues (K265/K268 in PIP5Kgamma and enhanced PIP5Kgamma enzyme activity. SIRT1-mediated TSH secretion was abolished by PIP5Kgamma knockdown. SIRT1 knockdown decreased the levels of deacetylated PIP5Kgamma, PI(4,5P(2, and reduced the secretion of TSH from pituitary cells. These results were also observed in SIRT1-knockout mice. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings indicated that the control of TSH release by the SIRT1-PIP5Kgamma pathway is important for regulating the metabolism of the whole body.

  12. Do hormonal contraceptives stimulate growth of neurofibromas? A survey on 59 NF1 patients

    Lammert, Marge; Mautner, Victor-Felix; Kluwe, Lan

    2005-01-01

    Neurofibromas are benign tumors of the peripheral nerves and hallmark of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), a tumor suppressor gene syndrome. Neurofibromas mostly start developing at puberty and can increase in size and number during pregnancy. Expression of progesterone receptors has been found in 75% of the tumors. Many female NF1 patients are thus concerned about the possibility that hormonal contraceptives may stimulate the growth of their neurofibromas. A survey was carried out on 59 female NF1 patients who are practicing or have practiced hormonal contraception to examine the effect of the various contraceptives on the growth of neurofibromas. Majority (53 out of 58) of patients who received oral estrogen-progestogen or pure progestogen preparations reported no associated tumor growth. In contrast, significant tumor growth was reported by two patients who received depot contraceptive containing high dose of synthetic progesterone. Oral contraceptives do not seem to stimulate the growth of neurofibromas in NF1 patients. High doses of progesterone might stimulate the growth of neurofibromas and deserve more caution

  13. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Stimulate Aldosterone Production in a Subset of Aldosterone-Producing Adenoma

    Kishimoto, Rui; Oki, Kenji; Yoneda, Masayasu; Gomez-Sanchez, Celso E.; Ohno, Haruya; Kobuke, Kazuhiro; Itcho, Kiyotaka; Kohno, Nobuoki

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We aimed to detect novel genes associated with G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) and elucidate the mechanisms underlying aldosterone production. Microarray analysis targeting GPCR-associated genes was conducted using APA without known mutations (APA-WT) samples (n = 3) and APA with the KCNJ5 mutation (APA-KCNJ5; n = 3). Since gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GNRHR) was the highest expression in APA-WT by microarray analysis, we investigated the effect of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) stimulation on aldosterone production. The quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay results revealed higher GNRHR expression levels in APA-WT samples those in APA-KCNJ5 samples (P APA-WT samples, and there was a significant and positive correlation between GNRHR and LHCGR expression in all APA samples (r = 0.476, P APA-WT (n = 9), which showed higher GNRHR and LHCGR levels, had significantly higher GnRH-stimulated aldosterone response than those with APA-KCNJ5 (n = 13) (P APA-WT, and the molecular analysis including the receptor expression associated with clinical findings of GnRH stimulation. PMID:27196470

  14. Secretion of Growth Hormone in Response to Muscle Sensory Nerve Stimulation

    Grindeland, Richard E.; Roy, R. R.; Edgerton, V. R.; Gosselink, K. L.; Grossman, E. J.; Sawchenko, P. E.; Wade, Charles E. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) secretion is stimulated by aerobic and resistive exercise and inhibited by exposure to actual or simulated (bedrest, hindlimb suspension) microgravity. Moreover, hypothalamic growth hormone-releasing factor (GRF) and preproGRF mRNA are markedly decreased in spaceflight rats. These observations suggest that reduced sensory input from inactive muscles may contribute to the reduced secretion of GH seen in "0 G". Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of muscle sensory nerve stimulation on secretion of GH. Fed male Wistar rats (304 +/- 23 g) were anesthetized (pentobarbital) and the right peroneal (Pe), tibial (T), and sural (S) nerves were cut. Electrical stimulation of the distal (D) or proximal (P) ends of the nerves was implemented for 15 min. to mimic the EMG activity patterns of ankle extensor muscles of a rat walking 1.5 mph. The rats were bled by cardiac puncture and their anterior pituitaries collected. Pituitary and plasma bioactive (BGH) and immunoactive (IGH) GH were measured by bioassay and RIA.

  15. Anti-Müllerian hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, antral follicle count, and risk of menopause within 5 years.

    Kim, Catherine; Slaughter, James C; Wang, Erica T; Appiah, Duke; Schreiner, Pamela; Leader, Benjamin; Calderon-Margalit, Ronit; Sternfeld, Barbara; Siscovick, David; Wellons, Melissa

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the ability of concentration of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), antral follicle count (AFC), and concentration of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) to predict the onset of menopause. The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study (CARDIA) Women's Study was an ancillary study to CARDIA, a population-based study of adults aged 18-30 years followed for 3 decades. For this report, participants were women (n=426) who had attended the CARDIA year 15-16 (2000-2001) examination, had at least one ovary, were not pregnant, and underwent serum AMH and FSH measurement and transvaginal ultrasonography in 2002-2003. The probability of menopause in 5 years based upon AMH, FSH, and AFC. The mean age of the women at the time of AMH, FSH, and AFC assessment was 43 years. The cumulative incidence of menopause at 25 years (or follow-up) was 27% (n=426), and the incidence within 5 years was 13% (n=55). Among women aged 45-49 years, undetectable AMH concentrations were associated with a greater than 60% probability of menopause within 5 years, whereas approximately 1/3 of women with no or just one antral follicle experienced menopause within 5 years. Both low and high concentrations of FSH were associated with greater odds of menopause than intermediate concentrations. Models with multiple markers did not improve the prediction of menopause over that afforded by models with single markers. The ability to predict onset of menopause was improved with any of the three menopausal markers in addition to age. AMH concentrations were more closely associated with menopause than AFC or FSH. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Diagnosis of polycystic ovary disease in obese women with a 24-hour hormone profile after buserelin stimulation.

    Hagag, P; Ben-Shlomo, A; Herzianu, I; Weiss, M

    2000-03-01

    To evaluate the 24-hour hormone response to GnRH agonist stimulation in the diagnosis of polycystic ovary disease (PCOD) in obese women. Forty-three obese PCOD patients and 23 controls were randomized to 1 mg buserelin (BSRL) stimulation (PCOD group P-1, n = 31; control group C-1, n = 12) or 0.1 mg (PCOD group P-0.1, n = 12; control group C-0.1, n = 11). Whereas following 1 mg BSRL administration, serum levels of 17 hydroxyprogesterone (17OHP), delta 4 androstenedione, estradiol (E2) and luteinizing hormone increment (delta LH) as well as the delta LH/delta follicle stimulating hormone ratio were all higher in group P-1 than in group C-1 (P PCOD. The hormone response to BSRL administration is related to obesity, not to insulin resistance.

  17. Challenges in interpretation of thyroid hormone test results

    Lalić Tijana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In interpreting thyroid hormones results it is preferable to think of interference and changes in concentration of their carrier proteins. Outline of Cases. We present two patients with discrepancy between the results of thyroid function tests and clinical status. The first case presents a 62-year-old patient with a nodular goiter and Hashimoto thyroiditis. Thyroid function test showed low thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH and normal to low fT4. By determining thyroid status (ТSH, T4, fT4, T3, fT3 in two laboratories, basal and after dilution, as well as thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG, it was concluded that the thyroid hormone levels were normal. The results were influenced by heterophile antibodies leading to a false lower TSH level and suspected secondary hypothyroidism. The second case, a 40-year-old patient, was examined and followed because of the variable size thyroid nodule and initially borderline elevated TSH, after which thyroid status showed low level of total thyroid hormones and normal TSH. Based on additional analysis it was concluded that low T4 and T3 were a result of low TBG. It is a hereditary genetic disorder with no clinical significance. Conclusion. Erroneous diagnosis of thyroid disorders and potentially harmful treatment could be avoided by proving the interference or TBG deficiency whenever there is a discrepancy between the thyroid function results and the clinical picture.

  18. Circulating IGF-1, IGFB-3, GH and TSH levels in multiple sclerosis and their relationship with treatment.

    Akcali, Aylin; Bal, Berrin; Erbagci, Binnur

    2017-07-01

    Improving the proficiency of oligodendrocytes in their ability to repair myelin damage is one of the major goals of multiple sclerosis treatment. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is one of several polypeptides that are considered to have potential benefits in that sense. In the present study, we aimed to determine serum levels of IGF-1 and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and growth hormone (GH) among treated and non-treated patients with Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS) and a healthy control group. The study enrolled 100 RRMS patients and 100 age- and sex-matched control subjects diagnosed with definite multiple sclerosis (MS). Serum GH, IGF-1, IGFBP-3, and TSH levels were studied. The number of relapses and Expanded Disability Status Scale were negatively correlated and IGFBP-3 and GH were positively correlated with IGF-1. A statistically significant difference was not observed when patients were divided into two subgroups as patients treated with a MS-specific therapy (n = 54) and non-treated patients (n = 46). TSH and IGFBP-3 values were significantly lower in patient group vs. While no difference was determined with in IGF-1 levels, low levels of IGF-1 was in correlation with the least levels of IGFBP-3. To understand the relation between IGF-1 and IGFBP-3, the role of low levels of IGFBP-3 and TSH may be studied with clinic isolated syndrome patients and the evolution of these patients to definite MS.

  19. Calcium-independent phosphatidylinositol response in gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-stimulated pituitary cells.

    Naor, Z; Molcho, J; Zakut, H; Yavin, E

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes the effect of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH, gonadoliberin) on phospholipid metabolism in cultured rat pituitary cells. The cells were incubated with [32P]Pi to label endogenous phospholipids (10-60 min) and then stimulated with GnRH for up to 60 min. Cellular phospholipids were separated by two-dimensional t.l.c. and the radioactivity was determined. Phosphatidylinositol (PI), a minor constituent of cellular phospholipids (7.7%), was the major labelled phospholipi...

  20. A Prospective Investigation of Graves' Disease and Selenium: Thyroid Hormones, Auto-Antibodies and Self-Rated Symptoms

    Calissendorff, Jan; Mikulski, Emil; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt

    2015-01-01

    -stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), thyroid receptor antibodies and thyroid peroxidase auto-antibodies before medication and at 6, 18 and 36 weeks after commencing treatment with methimazole and levo-thyroxine, with a randomized blinded oral administration of 200 µg Se...

  1. Thyroid hormones and thyroxine-binding globulin in relation to liver function and serum testosterone in men with alcoholic cirrhosis

    Becker, U; Gluud, C; Bennett, Patrick

    1988-01-01

    concentrations of triiodothyronine (T3) decreased significantly (p less than 0.05) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) increased with progressing liver dysfunction. Serum concentrations of tetraiodothyronine (T4), TBG and T4/TBG ratio did not correlate significantly with liver function. Serum T3 concentrations...

  2. Hormones

    Hormones are your body's chemical messengers. They travel in your bloodstream to tissues or organs. They work ... glands, which are special groups of cells, make hormones. The major endocrine glands are the pituitary, pineal, ...

  3. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE HORMONAL STIMULATION STERLET (ACIPENSER RUTHENUS, LINNAEUS, 1758 USING CARP HYPOPHYSIS AND ARTIFICIAL HORMONE TYPE NERESTIN 5-5A

    R. C. DIMA

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the particular sturgeon reproductive biology, propagation of technology through artificial comprises a number of phases required including: selection, parking broodstocks cell maturation and sexual stimulation in order fertilized their conditions provided. To stimulate the process of sexual maturation of the sexual elements for sterlet could be hypophysis and also analogue gonadothropic hormone type Nerestin 5. Literature attesting to the use of sterlet dry hypophysis treated with acetone (Maria Caloianu-Iordăchel, 1973 and employing successful hormone analogue found as LHRHa (N.Patrichi and collaborators, 1989- unpublished data. Advantages and disadvantages of using hypophysis or gonadotropic hormone analogue fdhgghNerestin 5 are very important and decisive for modern aquaculture the century XXI century.

  4. TSH-induced hyperthyroidism caused by a pituitary tumor.

    Beck-Peccoz, Paolo; Persani, Luca

    2006-09-01

    A 45-year-old man presented with frontal headache and visual disturbances to our clinic. For the previous 5 years, he had been receiving treatment for long-lasting mild hyperthyroidism with antithyroid therapy, but therapy had not been carefully followed. During the last 2 years he had also complained of erectile dysfunction and loss of libido. On physical examination, he had a small goiter, normal skin, no Graves' ophthalmopathy, normal BMI, and reduced testis volume and pubic hair. Serum levels of free T3 and T4, serum prolactin, testosterone, serum gonadotropins, insulin-like growth factor 1, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and cortisol were measured. MRI scan, TSH-releasing hormone test, and T3 suppression test were carried out. Levels of pituitary glycoprotein hormone alpha-subunit and sex-hormone-binding protein were also measured. Hyperthyroidism caused by a mixed pituitary adenoma that secretes prolactin and TSH. Trans-sphenoidal resection of the pituitary tumor. After surgery, T3 suppression test failed to completely suppress TSH secretion, which suggested a persistence of residual adenomatous cells. Hyperthyroidism and hypogonadism recurred after 5 years, therefore, treatment with lanreotide was initiated, and resulted in complete resolution of signs and symptoms of the disease.

  5. Can anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) predict the outcome of intrauterine insemination with controlled ovarian stimulation?

    Bakas, Panagiotis; Boutas, Ioannis; Creatsa, Maria; Vlahos, Nicos; Gregoriou, Odysseas; Creatsas, George; Hassiakos, Dimitrios

    2015-10-01

    To assess whether the levels of anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) are related to outcome of intrauterine insemination (IUI) in patients treated with gonadotropins. A total of 195 patients underwent controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) with recombinant follicle stimulating hormone (rFSH) (50-150 IU/d). All patients were submitted upto three cycles of IUI. Primary outcome was the ability of AMH levels to predict clinical pregnancy at first attempt and the cumulative clinical pregnancy probability of upto three IUI cycles. Secondary outcomes were the relation of AMH, LH, FSH, BMI, age, parity and basic estradiol levels with each other and the outcome of IUI. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve in predicting clinical pregnancy for AMH at first attempt was 0.53 and for cumulative clinical pregnancy was 0.76. AMH levels were positively correlated with clinical pregnancy rate at first attempt and with cumulative clinical pregnancy rate, but negatively correlated with patient's age and FSH levels. Patient's FSH, LH levels were negatively correlated with cumulative clinical pregnancy rate. AMH levels seem to have a positive correlation and patient's age and LH levels had a negative correlation with the outcome of IUI and COS with gonadotropins. AMH concentration was significantly higher and LH was significantly lower in patients with a clinical pregnancy after three cycles of IUI treatment compared with those who did not achieve pregnancy.

  6. Structural studies of α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and a novel β-melanocyte-stimulating hormone from the neurointermediate lobe of the pituitary of the dogfish Squalus acanthias

    Bennett, Hugh P. J.; Lowry, Philip J.; McMartin, Colin; Scott, Alexander P.

    1974-01-01

    A melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) has been isolated from extracts of the neurointermediate lobe of the pituitary of the dogfish Squalus acanthias by gel-filtration and ion-exchange chromatography. It had approximately 1% of the potency of mammalian α-MSH on bioassays in vitro on frog skin and dogfish skin. Sequence analysis revealed it to be a hexadecapeptide with the following primary structure: Asp-Gly-Asp-Asp-Tyr-Lys-Phe-Gly-His-Phe-Arg-Trp-Ser-Val-Pro-Leu. It appears to be related to the β-MSH species of mammalian species but has only the sequence -His-Phe-Arg-Trp- in common with the heptapeptide core -Met-Glu-His-Phe-Arg-Trp-Gly- which is characteristic not only of the MSH peptides but also of the adrenocorticotrophins and lipotrophins studied so far. An α-MSH was also isolated, 50% of which was amidated at the C-terminus group. Sequence data from this study taken in conjunction with those from a previous study (Lowry & Chadwick, 1970b) revealed it to be a tridecapeptide which is identical with the N-terminal sequence of dogfish adrenocorticotrophin. PMID:4375978

  7. Basic Evaluation of Analytical Performance and Clinical Utility of Immunoradiometric TSH Assay

    Suhy, Il Kyo; Cho, Bo Youn; Lee, Hong Kyu; Koh, Chang Soon; Min, Hun Ki; Lee, Mun Ho

    1987-01-01

    To assess the analytic performance of immunoradiometric TSH assay (IRMA TSH), assay precision determined by intra and interassay variance, assay accuracy determined by dilution and recovery study, were evaluated by using two commercial kit (Abott and Daichi). Normal range of basal serum TSH and TRH stimulated TSH increment were also determined in 234 healthy subjects (male 110, female 124; age 20-70) and 30 volunteers (male 10, female 20; age 21-26). In addition, basal TSH levels of 70 patients with untreated hyperthyroidism, 50 untreated hypothyroidism, and 60 euthyroidism were measured to assess the clinical utility of IRMA TSH. The detection limit of IRMA TSH was 0.04 mU/l and 0.08 mU/l by Abott Kit and Daichi kit respectively. Using Abott kit, intraassay variance were 2.0, 3.1 and 1.4% in mean TSH concentration 2.4, 31.6 and 98.2 mU/l repectively and interassay variance were 2.0 and 3.2% in mean TSH concentration 2.3 and 31.3 mU/l. Mean recovery rate was 92.5% and dilution study showed nearly straight line. When Daichi kit was used, intrasssay variance were 5.6, 5.2 and 6.2% in mean TSH concentration of 2.4, 31.6 and 98.2 mU/1 respectively and interassay variance were 7.1 and 7.4% in mean TSH of 2.3 and 31.3 mU,/l. Mean recovery rate was 89.9%. Normal range of basal TSH and TRH stimulated peak TSH were 0.38-4.02 mU/1 and 2.85-30.8 mU/1 repectively (95% confidence interval, Abott kit used). Sensitivity and specificity of basal TSH levels for diagnosing hypothyroidism as well as specificity for diagnosing hyperthyroidism were 100% by using both kit. Sensitivity of basal TSH level for diagnosing hyperthyroidism was 100% when TSH levels were measured by Abott kit while that was 80.9% when measured by Daichi kit. These results suggest that IRMA TSH was very precise and accurate method and might be used as a first line test in the evaluation of thyroid function

  8. Thirty six treatments with radiodine after the administration of TSH recombinant in 26 patients with carcinoma differentiated from thyroid gland

    Pitoia, F.; Passerieu, M.; Bruno, O.D.; Niepomniszcze, H.

    2004-01-01

    The released studies that confirm the safety and efficacy the TSH recombinant (rhTSH) led to an increase in the interest for the use in the patients' preparation with thyroid remanents normal or differenced thyroid carcinoma persistent/recurrent, before the administration of therapeutic radioiodine doses in some situations, when it is impossible the suspension of the hormonal therapy thyroid. The objective is to evaluate the effectiveness of the administration of therapeutic doses of radioiodine after the administration of rhTSH

  9. A thyrotropin-secreting macroadenoma with positive growth hormone and prolactin immunostaining: A case report and literature review.

    Kuzu, F; Bayraktaroğlu, T; Zor, F; G N, B D; Salihoğlu, Y S; Kalaycı, M

    2015-01-01

    Thyrotropin (thyroid stimulating hormone [TSH]) secreting pituitary adenomas (TSHoma) are rare adenomas presenting with hyperthyroidism due to impaired negative feedback of thyroid hormone on the pituitary and inappropriate TSH secretion. This article presents a case of TSH-secreting macroadenoma without any clinical hyperthyroidism symptoms accompanying immunoreaction with growth hormone (GH) and prolactin. A 36-year-old female patient was admitted with complaints of irregular menses and blurred vision. On physical exam, she had bitemporal hemianopsia defect. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evaluation showed suprasellar macroadenoma measuring 33 mm × 26 mm × 28 mm was detected on pituitary MRI. She had no hyperthyroidism symptoms clinically. Although free T4 and free T3 levels were elevated, TSH level was inappropriately within the upper limit of normal. Response to T3 suppression and thyrotropin releasing hormone-stimulation test was inadequate. Other pituitary hormones were normal. Transsphenoidal adenomectomy was performed due to parasellar compression findings. Immunohistochemically widespread reaction was observed with TSH, GH and prolactin in the adenoma. The patient underwent a second surgical procedure 2 months later due to macroscopic residual tumor, bitemporal hemianopsia and a suprasellar homogenous uptake with regular borders on indium-111 octreotide scintigraphy. After second surgery; due to ongoing symptoms and residual tumor, she was managed with octreotide and cabergoline treatment. On her follow-up with medical treatment, TSH and free T4 values were within normal limits. Although silent TSHomas are rare, they may arise with compression symptoms as in our case. The differential diagnosis of secondary hyperthyroidism should include TSHomas and thyroid hormone receptor resistance syndrome.

  10. Proteomic and functional profiles of a follicle-stimulating hormone positive human nonfunctional pituitary adenoma.

    Wang, Xiaowei; Guo, Tianyao; Peng, Fang; Long, Ying; Mu, Yun; Yang, Haiyan; Ye, Ningrong; Li, Xuejun; Zhan, Xianquan

    2015-06-01

    Nonfunctional pituitary adenoma (NFPA) is highly heterogeneous with different hormone-expressed subtypes in NFPA tissues including follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) positive, luteinizing hormone-positive, FSH/luteinizing hormone-positive, and negative types. To analyze in-depth the variations in the proteomes among different NFPA subtypes for our long-term goal to clarify molecular mechanisms of NFPA and to detect tumor biomarker for personalized medicine practice, a reference map of proteome of a human FSH-expressed NFPA tissue was described here. 2DE and PDQuest image analysis were used to array each protein. MALDI-TOF PMF and human Swiss-Prot databases with MASCOT search were used to identify each protein. A good 2DE pattern with high level of between-gel reproducibility was attained with an average positional deviation 1.98 ± 0.75 mm in the IEF direction and 1.62 ± 0.68 mm in the SDS-PAGE direction. Approximately 1200 protein spots were 2DE-detected and 192 redundant proteins that were contained in 141 protein spots were PMF-identified, representing 107 nonredundant proteins. Those proteins were located in cytoplasm, nucleus, plasma membrane, extracellular space, and so on, and those functioned in transmembrane receptor, ion channel, transcription/translation regulator, transporter, enzyme, phosphatase, kinase, and so on. Several important pathway networks were characterized from those identified proteins with DAVID and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis systems, including gluconeogenesis and glycolysis, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, cell-cycle alteration, MAPKsignaling system, immune response, TP53-signaling, VEGF-signaling, and inflammation signaling pathways. Those resulting data contribute to a functional profile of the proteome of a human FSH-positive NFPA tissue, and will serve as a reference for the heterogeneity analysis of NFPA proteomes. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Modulation of cultured porcine granulosa cell responsiveness to follicle stimulating hormone and epidermal growth factor

    Buck, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    Ovarian follicular development is dependent upon the coordinated growth and differentiation of the granulosa cells which line the follicle. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) induces granulosa cell differentiation both in vivo and in vitro. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulates granulosa cell proliferation in vitro. The interaction of these two effectors upon selected parameters of growth and differentiation was examined in monolayer cultures of porcine granulose cells. Analysis of the EGF receptor by /sup 125/I-EGF binding revealed that the receptor was of high affinity with an apparent dissociation constant of 4-6 x 10/sup -10/ M. The average number of receptors per cell varied with the state of differentiation both in vivo and in vitro; highly differentiated cells bound two-fold less /sup 125/I-EGF and this effect was at least partially induced by FSH in vitro. EGF receptor function was examined by assessing EGF effects on cell number and /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation. EGF stimulated thymidine incorporation in both serum-free and serum-supplemented culture, but only in serum-supplemented conditions was cell number increased. EGF receptor function was inversely related to the state of differentiation and was attenuated by FSH. The FSH receptor was examined by /sup 125/I-FSH binding. EGF increased FSH receptor number, and lowered the affinity of the receptor. The function of these receptors was assessed by /sup 125/I-hCG binding and progesterone radioimmunoassay. If EGF was present continuously in the cultures. FSH receptor function was attenuated regardless of FSH receptor number. A preliminary effort to examine the mechanism of this interaction was performed by analyzing hormonally controlled protein synthesis with /sup 35/S-methionine labeling, SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography. FSH promoted the expression of a 27,000 dalton protein. This effect was attenuated by EGF.

  12. Preparation of high-quality iodine-125-labelled pituitary human follicle-stimulating hormone (hFSH) for radioimmunoassay

    Pinto, H.; Lerario, A.C.; Toledo e Souza, I.T. de; Wajchenberg, B.L.; Mattar, E.; Pieroni, R.R.

    1977-01-01

    A method is described for the enzymatic radioiodination of human follice-stimulating hormone (hFSH) by a system consisting of lactoperoxidase, hydrogen peroxide and Na 125 I. It is compared with the chloramine-T modified technique. A satisfactory specific activity of the labelled hormone is obtained with the enzymatic iodination, with much greater immunoreactivity and stability than with chloramine-T [pt

  13. Data on the characterization of follicle-stimulating hormone monoclonal antibodies and localization in Japanese eel pituitary

    Dae-Jung Kim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Monoclonal antibodies were generated against recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone (rec-FSH from Japanese eel Anguilla japonica; rec-FSH was produced in Escherichia coli and purified using Ni-NTA Sepharose column chromatography.In support of our recent publication, ''Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against recombinant tethered follicle-stimulating hormone from Japanese eel Anguilla japonica'' [1], it was important to characterize the specificity of eel follicle-stimulating hormone antibodies. Here, the production and ELISA system of these monoclonal antibodies are presented. The affinity-purified monoclonal antibodies specifically detected eel rec-FSH in ELISA and on western blots of rec-FSH produced from CHO cells. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that FSH staining was specifically localized in the eel pituitary. Keywords: Japanese eel, FSH, Monoclonal Antibody

  14. Thyroid-stimulating hormone elevation misdiagnosed as subclinical hypothyroidism following non-convulsive status epilepticus: a case report

    Kunii Yasuto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Non-convulsive status epilepticus is a form of epileptic seizure that occurs without convulsions. Recent reviews suggest that the diagnosis of non-convulsive status epilepticus remains difficult. Here, we report the case of a patient with thyroid-stimulating hormone elevation misdiagnosed as subclinical hypothyroidism following non-convulsive status epilepticus. Case presentation Our patient was a 68-year-old Japanese woman. The results of endocrine testing after her first episode of non-convulsive status epilepticus suggested latent subclinical hypothyroidism: she had elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone with normal levels of free tri-iodothyronine and free thyroxine. On examination, a diagnosis of thyroid disorder was not supported by other test results and our patient remained untreated. A follow-up examination revealed that her thyroid-stimulating hormone levels had spontaneously normalized. When she consulted another doctor for confusion, the transient increase in thyroid-stimulating hormone levels following non-convulsive status epilepticus was mistaken for subclinical hypothyroidism, and unfortunately treated with levothyroxine. Our patient then experienced levothyroxine-induced non-convulsive status epilepticus. Conclusions In this report, we suggested possible mechanisms for latent hypothyroid-like hormone abnormality following epileptic seizures and the possibility of provoking epileptic seizures by administering levothyroxine for misdiagnosed subclinical hypothyroidism.

  15. Establishment of reference intervals for serum thyroid-stimulating hormone, free and total thyroxine, and free and total triiodothyronine for the Beckman Coulter DxI-800 analyzers by indirect method using data obtained from Chinese population in Zhejiang Province, China.

    Wang, Yan; Zhang, Yu-Xia; Zhou, Yong-Lie; Xia, Jun

    2017-07-01

    In order to establish suitable reference intervals of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free (unbound) T4 (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), total thyroxine (T4), and total triiodothyronine (T3) for the patients collected in Zhejiang, China, an indirect method was developed using the data from the people presented for routine health check-up. Fifteen thousand nine hundred and fifty-six person's results were reviewed. Box-Cox or Case Rank was used to transform the data to normal distribution. Tukey and Box-Plot methods were used to exclude the outliers. Nonparametric method was used to establish the reference intervals following the EP28-A3c guideline. Pearson correlation was used to evaluate the correlation between hormone levels and age, while Mann-Whitney U test was employed for quantification of concentration differences on the people who are younger and older than 50 years old. Reference intervals were 0.66-4.95 mIU/L (TSH), 8.97-14.71 pmol/L (FT4), 3.75-5.81 pmol/L (FT3), 73.45-138.93 nmol/L (total T4), and 1.24-2.18 nmol/L (total T3) in male; conversely, reference intervals for female were 0.72-5.84 mIU/L (TSH), 8.62-14.35 pmol/L (FT4), 3.59-5.56 pmol/L (FT3), 73.45-138.93 nmol/L (total T4), and 1.20-2.10 nmol/L (total T3). FT4, FT3, and total T3 levels in male and FT4 level in female had an inverse correlation with age. Total T4 and TSH levels in female were directly correlated. Significant differences in these hormones were also found between younger and older than 50 years old except FT3 in female. Indirect method can be applied for establishment of reference intervals for TSH, FT4, FT3, total T4, and total T3. The reference intervals are narrower than those previously established. Age factor should also be considered. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Selective use of corifollitropin for controlled ovarian stimulation for IVF in patients with low anti-Müllerian hormone

    Nielsen, Anna Pors; Korsholm, Anne-Sofie; Lemmen, Josephine G.

    2016-01-01

    Corifollitropin, a long-acting follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) analogue used for in vitro fertilization (IVF), does not allow individualization of dosage, and the ovarian response is similar to around 300 IU of daily recombinant FSH. This has raised concerns about the risk of ovarian hyperstim......Corifollitropin, a long-acting follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) analogue used for in vitro fertilization (IVF), does not allow individualization of dosage, and the ovarian response is similar to around 300 IU of daily recombinant FSH. This has raised concerns about the risk of ovarian...

  17. Functional Evaluation of TSH Secretory Reserve Capacity in Hypothalamo pituitary Disorders

    Kim, Sun Yong; Choi, Kyoo Ok; Park, Chang Yun; Huh, Kab Bum; Ryu, Kyung Ja [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-03-15

    The TRH stimulation test was known as a highly diagnostic method in hypothalamo pituitary disorders. To evaluate the location and the extension of the lesion, we estimated TSH response to TRH test in 27 patients. Correlation between volume of sella and TSH response was also studied. The results obtained were 25 follows: 1) In Sheehan's syndrome, TSH response after TRH test were not observed in all of 12 patients. 2) All 2 acromegaly patients showed normal TSH response. 3) In 4 cases of chromophobe adenoma, 2 cases showed no TSH response. In 2 responded cases, one patient whose tumor mass extended to suprasella region was hypothyroid state. 4) In craniopharyingioma 3 cases, the tumor which extended to intrasella showed hypothyroid and no TSH response. 5) Correlation between volume of sella and TSH response were valuable in 2 cases, but no diagnostic significance. 6) In diabetes inspidus, TSH response were all absent. 7) In primary amenorrhea, TSH response observed in 1 case, which conformed with isolated FSH deficiency.

  18. Functional Evaluation of TSH Secretory Reserve Capacity in Hypothalamo pituitary Disorders

    Kim, Sun Yong; Choi, Kyoo Ok; Park, Chang Yun; Huh, Kab Bum; Ryu, Kyung Ja [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-03-15

    The TRH stimulation test was known as a highly diagnostic method in hypothalamo pituitary disorders. To evaluate the location and the extension of the lesion, we estimated TSH response to TRH test in 27 patients. Correlation between volume of sella and TSH response was also studied. The results obtained were 25 follows: 1) In Sheehan's syndrome, TSH response after TRH test were not observed in all of 12 patients. 2) All 2 acromegaly patients showed normal TSH response. 3) In 4 cases of chromophobe adenoma, 2 cases showed no TSH response. In 2 responded cases, one patient whose tumor mass extended to suprasella region was hypothyroid state. 4) In craniopharyingioma 3 cases, the tumor which extended to intrasella showed hypothyroid and no TSH response. 5) Correlation between volume of sella and TSH response were valuable in 2 cases, but no diagnostic significance. 6) In diabetes inspidus, TSH response were all absent. 7) In primary amenorrhea, TSH response observed in 1 case, which conformed with isolated FSH deficiency.

  19. Functional Evaluation of TSH Secretory Reserve Capacity in Hypothalamo pituitary Disorders

    Kim, Sun Yong; Choi, Kyoo Ok; Park, Chang Yun; Huh, Kab Bum; Ryu, Kyung Ja

    1979-01-01

    The TRH stimulation test was known as a highly diagnostic method in hypothalamo pituitary disorders. To evaluate the location and the extension of the lesion, we estimated TSH response to TRH test in 27 patients. Correlation between volume of sella and TSH response was also studied. The results obtained were 25 follows: 1) In Sheehan's syndrome, TSH response after TRH test were not observed in all of 12 patients. 2) All 2 acromegaly patients showed normal TSH response. 3) In 4 cases of chromophobe adenoma, 2 cases showed no TSH response. In 2 responded cases, one patient whose tumor mass extended to suprasella region was hypothyroid state. 4) In craniopharyingioma 3 cases, the tumor which extended to intrasella showed hypothyroid and no TSH response. 5) Correlation between volume of sella and TSH response were valuable in 2 cases, but no diagnostic significance. 6) In diabetes inspidus, TSH response were all absent. 7) In primary amenorrhea, TSH response observed in 1 case, which conformed with isolated FSH deficiency.

  20. Prostaglandin production by melanocytic cells and the effect of alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone.

    Nicolaou, Anna; Estdale, Sian E; Tsatmali, Marina; Herrero, Daniel Pascual; Thody, Anthony J

    2004-07-16

    Prostaglandins are potent mediators of the inflammatory response and are also involved in cancer development. In this study, we show that human melanocytes and FM55 melanoma cells express cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 (COX-1 and -2) and thus have the capability to produce prostaglandins. The FM55 cells produced predominantly PGE2 and PGF2alpha, whereas the HaCaT keratinocyte cell line produced mainly PGE2. The anti-inflammatory peptide, alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH), reduced prostaglandin production in FM55 and HaCaT cells and reversed the effect of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha in the former. These results indicate that melanocytes produce prostaglandins and that alpha-MSH, by inhibiting this response, may play an important role in regulating inflammatory responses in the skin.

  1. [Effect of Tribulus terrestris extract on melanocyte-stimulating hormone expression in mouse hair follicles].

    Yang, Liu; Lu, Jian-wei; An, Jing; Jiang, Xuan

    2006-12-01

    To observe the effect of Tribulus terrestris extract on melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH) expression in C57BL/6J mouse hair follicles, and investigate the role of Tribulus terrestris extract in activation, proliferation, epidermal migration of dormant hair follicle melanocytes. The aqueous extract of Tribulus terrestris was administered orally in specific pathogen-free C57BL/6J mouse at the daily dose equivalent to 1 g/1 kg in adult human, and the expression and distribution of MSH in the mouse hair follicles was observed with immunohistochemistry. The positivity rate of MSH expression in the hair follicle melanocytes was 75% in mice treated with the extract, significantly higher than the rate of only 18.75% in the control group (PTribulus terrestris can significantly increase MSH expression in the hair follicle melanocytes by activating tyrosinase activity and promoting melanocyte proliferation, melanine synthesis, and epidermal migration of dormant melanocytes.

  2. Pituitary Apoplexy After Thyrotropin-releasing Hormone Stimulation Test in a Patient with Pituitary Macroadenoma

    Huei-Fang Wang

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary apoplexy is a rare complication of pituitary tumors. We report a case of a 41-year-old female with acromegaly due to a pituitary macroadenoma, who developed pituitary apoplexy after a thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH 200 mg intravenous injection stimulation test. Neither emergency computed tomography (CT scans nor magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, performed 6 hours and 12 hours, respectively, after the active episode, disclosed the evidence of acute hemorrhage or infarction. Two days later, the pituitary mass, removed by transsphenoidal approach, showed ischemic necrosis and acute hemorrhage. The TRH test is generally safe for evaluating pituitary function, but pituitary apoplexy may occur after the procedure. CT and MRI may miss the diagnosis of pituitary apoplexy, especially if performed immediately after the acute episode.

  3. Effects of Exercise on B-Endorphin and Follicle Stimulating Hormone Levels among Female Army Officer

    Ruqaiyah Ruqaiyah

    2014-06-01

    Material and Methods: Fourty six healthy female army officer volunteered for the study. All of them gave written consent regarding their participation. The subjects were categorized in two groups: high-intensity exercise (HE, 23 subjects and non exercise (NE, 23 subjects. The inclusion criteria were amenorrhea, no consumption of reproductive hormonal, age between 21-40 years, and not involved in diet programme, while the exclusion criteria were any factors that could interfere with normality. High intensity-exercise was performed chronically by running for between 1953-3200 meter, three times per day, 6 days per weeks, for 7 months. Serum beta-endorphin was measured immunoenzymatically using an ELISA method. FSH serum was measured by chemiluminescence method. Results: Age, body weight, height and onset of menarchee were not significantly different between group (P > 0.05. High-intensity exercise significantly increase the B -endorphin level compared to the control (P 0.01. The level of FSH significantly decrease in the HE group than that the NE group (P 0.01. Conclusion: In conclusion, the high-intensitiy exercise on among female army officer can increase B-endorphin and decrease follicle stimulating hormone level. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(3.000: 496-500

  4. Ovarian stimulation with follicle-stimulating hormone under increasing or minimal concentration of progesterone in dairy cows.

    El-Sherry, T M; Matsui, M; Kida, K; Miyamoto, A; Megahed, G A; Shehata, S H; Miyake, Y-I

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the presence or absence of Corpus luteum (CL) on the follicular population during superstimulation in dairy cows (Holstein-Friesian cattle). Animals were divided into two groups as follows: (1) Growing CL group (G1): Cows (n=7) received a total dose of 28 Armour units (AU) follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) through the first 4 d (twice daily) after spontaneous ovulation (Day 0). (2) CL Absence group (G2): Cows (n=10) received prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PGF(2alpha)) at 9 or 10 d after ovulation. After 36h, all the follicles (larger than 5mm) were aspirated (Day 0). The FSH treatment started 24h after aspiration and continued for 4 d. The number of small (3 to or = 8mm) follicles was examined on Days 1, 3, and 5 in all groups. Blood samples were collected daily for 5 d, and progesterone (P(4)), estradiol (E(2)), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and growth hormone (GH) in plasma were measured by enzyme immunoassays. The results showed that in G1, the P(4) level increased gradually from 0.5 ng/mL at Day 1 to 2 ng/mL at Day 5, whereas in G2, the P(4) level was completely below 0.5 ng/mL. All cows of the G2 group showed an increase of E(2) at Day 3 or Day 4 followed by an increase of IGF-1 within 24h, while GH increased concomitantly with the E(2) increase in 8 of 10 trials. On the other hand, cows of the G1 group showed neither E(2) nor IGF-1 increase. Moreover, at the end of the treatment, the number of follicles in the G2 group was significantly increased compared with that of the G1 group (22.8+/-2.0 vs. 11.6+/-2.0). In conclusion, low P(4) level during FSH treatment enhanced multiple follicular growth and E(2) secretion, which was followed by increase of IGF-1 and GH. Therefore, the absence of the CL may play a critical role in the superovulation response by controlling the number of growing follicles. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A comparison of 1850 (50 mCi) and 3700 MBq (100 mCi) 131-iodine administered doses for recombinant thyrotropin-stimulated postoperative thyroid remnant ablation in differentiated thyroid cancer.

    Pilli, Tania; Brianzoni, Ernesto; Capoccetti, Francesca; Castagna, Maria Grazia; Fattori, Sara; Poggiu, Angela; Rossi, Gloria; Ferretti, Francesca; Guarino, Elisa; Burroni, Luca; Vattimo, Angelo; Cipri, Claudia; Pacini, Furio

    2007-09-01

    Recently, a multicenter study in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) patients showed that 3700 MBq 131-iodine ((131)I) after recombinant human TSH (rhTSH) had a successful thyroid ablation rate similar to that obtained after thyroid hormone withdrawal. We investigated whether 1850 MBq (131)I had a similar successful rate to 3700 MBq in patients prepared with rhTSH. A total of 72 patients with DTC were randomly assigned to receive 1850 (group A, n = 36) or 3700 MBq (group B, n = 36) (131)I after rhTSH. One injection of 0.9 mg rhTSH was administered for 2 consecutive days; (131)I therapy was delivered 24 h after the last injection, followed by a posttherapy whole-body scan. Successful ablation was assessed 6-8 months later. Successful ablation (no visible uptake in the diagnostic whole-body scan after rhTSH stimulation) was achieved in 88.9% of group A and B patients. Basal and rhTSH-stimulated serum thyroglobulin was undetectable (<1 ng/ml) in 78.9% of group A and 66.6% of group B patients (P = 0.46). Similar rates of ablation were obtained in both groups also in patients with node metastases. Therapeutic (131)I activities of 1850 MBq are equally effective as 3700 MBq for thyroid ablation in DTC patients prepared with rhTSH, even in the presence of node metastases.

  6. Serum corticosterone response to adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation in Florida sandhill cranes.

    Ludders, J W; Langenberg, J A; Czekala, N M; Erb, H N; McCormick, H

    1998-10-01

    Florida sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis pratensis) were conditioned to confinement in an enclosure for 7 days, 6 hr a day. On day 8, cranes were catheterized and then confined in an enclosure. Venous blood (2 ml) was collected through the catheter and an attached IV line immediately before (-60 min) and 60 min after (0 min) confinement. Using a randomization table and a restricted cross-over experimental design, cranes were injected intravenously with either saline (control) or adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH; cosyntropin, Cortrosyn; 0.25 mg). At 30, 60, 120, 180, 240 and 300 min after injection, blood samples were collected and assayed for corticosterone. The cranes receiving ACTH increased their serum corticosterone concentrations as much as fivefold above baseline concentrations. Serum corticosterone concentrations remained significantly elevated for approximately 60 min after ACTH stimulation. Physical restraint and catheterization caused an increase in serum corticosterone almost comparable to that induced by ACTH stimulation. In cranes injected with saline, serum corticosterone decreased within 1 hr after physical restraint and catheterization, and remained at lower levels throughout the remaining 5 hr of confinement.

  7. Thyroid hormone reduces PCSK9 and stimulates bile acid synthesis in humans[S

    Bonde, Ylva; Breuer, Olof; Lütjohann, Dieter; Sjöberg, Stefan; Angelin, Bo; Rudling, Mats

    2014-01-01

    Reduced plasma LDL-cholesterol is a hallmark of hyperthyroidism and is caused by transcriptional stimulation of LDL receptors in the liver. Here, we investigated whether thyroid hormone (TH) actions involve other mechanisms that may also account for the reduction in LDL-cholesterol, including effects on proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) and bile acid synthesis. Twenty hyperthyroid patients were studied before and after clinical normalization, and the responses to hyperthyroidism were compared with those in 14 healthy individuals after 14 days of treatment with the liver-selective TH analog eprotirome. Both hyperthyroidism and eprotirome treatment reduced circulating PCSK9, lipoprotein cholesterol, apoB and AI, and lipoprotein(a), while cholesterol synthesis was stable. Hyperthyroidism, but not eprotirome treatment, markedly increased bile acid synthesis and reduced fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 19 and dietary cholesterol absorption. Eprotirome treatment, but not hyperthyroidism, reduced plasma triglycerides. Neither hyperthyroidism nor eprotirome treatment altered insulin, glucose, or FGF21 levels. TH reduces circulating PSCK9, thereby likely contributing to lower plasma LDL-cholesterol in hyperthyroidism. TH also stimulates bile acid synthesis, although this response is not critical for its LDL-lowering effect. PMID:25172631

  8. Expression of G(alpha)(s) proteins and TSH receptor signalling in hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules with TSH receptor mutations.

    Holzapfel, Hans-Peter; Bergner, Beate; Wonerow, Peter; Paschke, Ralf

    2002-07-01

    Constitutively activating mutations of the thyrotrophin receptor (TSHR) are the main molecular cause of hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules (HTNs). The G protein coupling is an important and critical step in the TSHR signalling which mainly includes G(alpha)(s), G(alpha)(i) and G(alpha)(q)/11 proteins. We investigated the in vitro consequences of overexpressing G(alpha) proteins on signalling of the wild-type (WT) or mutated TSHR. Moreover, we investigated whether changes in G(alpha) protein expression are pathophysiologically relevant in HTNs or cold thyroid nodules (CTNs). Wild-type TSH receptor and mutated TSH receptors were coexpressed with G(alpha)(s), G(alpha)(i) or G(alpha)(q)/11, and cAMP and inositol phosphate (IP) production was measured after stimulation with TSH. The expression of G(alpha)(s), G(alpha)(i) and G(alpha)(q)/11 proteins was examined by Western blotting in 28 HTNs and 14 CTNs. Coexpression of G(alpha)(s) with the WT TSH receptor in COS 7 cells significantly increased the basal and TSH-stimulated cAMP accumulation while coexpression of the G(alpha)(q) or G(alpha)11 protein significantly increased the production of cAMP and inositol triphosphate (IP(3)). The coexpression of the TSH receptor mutants (I486F, DEL613-621), known to couple constitutively to G(alpha)(s) and G(alpha)(q) with G(alpha)(s) and G(alpha)(q)/11, significantly increased the basal and stimulated cAMP and IP(3) accumulation. Coexpression of the TSH receptor mutant V556F with G(alpha)(s) only increased the basal and stimulated cAMP production while its coexpression with G(alpha)(q)/11 increased the basal and stimulated IP(3) signalling. The expression of G(alpha)(s) protein subunits determined by Western blotting was significantly decreased in 14 HTNs with a constitutively activating TSH receptor mutation in comparison with the corresponding surrounding tissue, while in 14 HTNs without TSH receptor or G(alpha)(s) protein mutation and in 14 CTNs the expression of G

  9. Multiple metals predict prolactin and thyrotropin (TSH) levels in men

    Meeker, John D., E-mail: meekerj@umich.edu [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 6635 SPH Tower, 109 S. Observatory St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Rossano, Mary G. [Department of Animal and Food Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Protas, Bridget [Department of Epidemiology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States); Diamond, Michael P.; Puscheck, Elizabeth [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI (United States); Daly, Douglas [Grand Rapids Fertility and IVF, Grand Rapids, MI (United States); Paneth, Nigel [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States); Wirth, Julia J. [Department of Epidemiology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2009-10-15

    Exposure to a number of metals can affect neuroendocrine and thyroid signaling, which can result in adverse effects on development, behavior, metabolism, reproduction, and other functions. The present study assessed the relationship between metal concentrations in blood and serum prolactin (PRL) and thyrotropin (TSH) levels, markers of dopaminergic, and thyroid function, respectively, among men participating in a study of environmental influences on male reproductive health. Blood samples from 219 men were analyzed for concentrations of 11 metals and serum levels of PRL and TSH. In multiple linear regression models adjusted for age, BMI and smoking, PRL was inversely associated with arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, manganese, molybdenum, and zinc, but positively associated with chromium. Several of these associations (Cd, Pb, Mo) are consistent with limited studies in humans or animals, and a number of the relationships (Cr, Cu, Pb, Mo) remained when additionally considering multiple metals in the model. Lead and copper were associated with non-monotonic decrease in TSH, while arsenic was associated with a dose-dependent increase in TSH. For arsenic these findings were consistent with recent experimental studies where arsenic inhibited enzymes involved in thyroid hormone synthesis and signaling. More research is needed for a better understanding of the role of metals in neuroendocrine and thyroid function and related health implications.

  10. An Evaluation by TSH Radioimmunoassay on Familial Thyroid Disorders

    Kim, Ji Yeul

    1989-01-01

    The occurrence of thyroid disorders is connected with iodine deficiency, defective synthesis or releasing of thyroid hormone and endemicity. Genetic factors are known as a single gene defects, interaction of multiple genes with environmental factors, as well as chromosomal aberrations. Diofnosis thyroid disorders is enforced by 13I uptake test, thyroid scanning with 131 I or 99m Tc and serum radioimmunoassays of T3, T4, free T4 and TSH. They were largely classified as hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, simple goiter and normal. The pedigree of 58 families was drawn by propositus, and then the correlation between thyroid disorders and TSH levels was analyzed. The results are as follows: 1) The offsprings and their mothers of 15 families were hypothyroidism, THS level was 5 folds for offsprings and 4 folds for mothers in comparison with control group. 2) 13 families were hyperthyroidism in siblings but their mothers were normal in thyroid function, TSH level of the siblings was lower than control group. 3) Though the offsprings and their mothers of 10 families were similar to TSH level of control group, they are all simple goiter, familial thyroid disorders, in other thyroid function test. The familial thyroid disorders suggested that these transmitted from mothers to offsprings with X-linked dominant or autosomal dominant inheritance.

  11. Multiple metals predict prolactin and thyrotropin (TSH) levels in men

    Meeker, John D.; Rossano, Mary G.; Protas, Bridget; Diamond, Michael P.; Puscheck, Elizabeth; Daly, Douglas; Paneth, Nigel; Wirth, Julia J.

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to a number of metals can affect neuroendocrine and thyroid signaling, which can result in adverse effects on development, behavior, metabolism, reproduction, and other functions. The present study assessed the relationship between metal concentrations in blood and serum prolactin (PRL) and thyrotropin (TSH) levels, markers of dopaminergic, and thyroid function, respectively, among men participating in a study of environmental influences on male reproductive health. Blood samples from 219 men were analyzed for concentrations of 11 metals and serum levels of PRL and TSH. In multiple linear regression models adjusted for age, BMI and smoking, PRL was inversely associated with arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, manganese, molybdenum, and zinc, but positively associated with chromium. Several of these associations (Cd, Pb, Mo) are consistent with limited studies in humans or animals, and a number of the relationships (Cr, Cu, Pb, Mo) remained when additionally considering multiple metals in the model. Lead and copper were associated with non-monotonic decrease in TSH, while arsenic was associated with a dose-dependent increase in TSH. For arsenic these findings were consistent with recent experimental studies where arsenic inhibited enzymes involved in thyroid hormone synthesis and signaling. More research is needed for a better understanding of the role of metals in neuroendocrine and thyroid function and related health implications.

  12. Twice-weekly administration of kisspeptin-54 for 8 weeks stimulates release of reproductive hormones in women with hypothalamic amenorrhea.

    Jayasena, C N; Nijher, G M K; Abbara, A; Murphy, K G; Lim, A; Patel, D; Mehta, A; Todd, C; Donaldson, M; Trew, G H; Ghatei, M A; Bloom, S R; Dhillo, W S

    2010-12-01

    Kisspeptin is a novel therapeutic target for infertility. A single kisspeptin-54 (KP-54) injection acutely stimulates the release of reproductive hormones in women with hypothalamic amenorrhea (HA), a commonly occurring condition characterized by absence of menstruation; however, twice-daily administration of KP-54 results in tachyphylaxis. We determined the time course of desensitization to twice-daily KP-54 injections, compared the effects of twice-daily and twice-weekly administration regimens of KP-54, and studied the effects of long-term twice-weekly administration of KP-54 on the release of reproductive hormones in women with HA. When KP-54 was administered twice daily, responsiveness to luteinizing hormone (LH) diminished gradually, whereas responsiveness to follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) was nearly abolished by day 2. Twice-weekly KP-54 administration resulted in only partial desensitization, in contrast to the complete tolerance achieved with twice-daily administration. Women with HA who were treated with twice-weekly KP-54 injections had significantly elevated levels of reproductive hormones after 8 weeks as compared with treatment with saline. No adverse effects were observed. This study provides novel pharmacological data on the effects of KP-54 on the release of reproductive hormones in women with HA.

  13. INTERVENSI FOLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE (FSH DALAM PROSES REMATURASI INDUK IKAN GABUS HARUAN Channa Striata Blkr DIDALAM WADAH BUDIDAYA

    Akhmad Ridha Fani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Snakehead and other fish species in waters of the swamp doing spawning at the beginning or in the middle of the rainy season. Gonadal maturation process so as to return time is limited. Aquaculture development is highly dependent on the availability of seeds that meet the timeliness, quality and quantity. The seeds can be produced continuously if supported by the availability of mature broodstock with good quality eggs. Some research about the role of hormones and or the use of stimulants to the success in support of gonad development and spawning, such as; Siam Jambal fish, Pangasius hypophthalmus (Ernawati 1999, Catfish, Clarias batrachus (Zairin et al. 2001, and catfish, Hemibagrus nemurus (Supriyadi 2005. By because they were with potential memamfaatkan folicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH that serves as the control at the start of the reproductive cycle up to ovulation and spermiasi in fish. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the injection folicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH in the parent rematurisasi catfish. Results from the start 17007-52327 item, 0,63-1,07mm egg diameter, IGS range of 4, 13 to 8.50%, and ranged from 0.86 2.4% IHS. Based on the results of the study injection folicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH capable mepersingkat rematurasi processing time.

  14. Testicular development in mice lacking receptors for follicle stimulating hormone and androgen.

    Peter J O'Shaughnessy

    Full Text Available Post-natal testicular development is dependent on gonadotrophin and androgen stimulation. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH acts through receptors (FSHR on the Sertoli cell to stimulate spermatogenesis while androgens promote testis growth through receptors (AR on the Sertoli cells, Leydig cells and peritubular myoid cells. In this study we have examined the effects on testis development of ablating FSHRs (FSHRKO mice and/or ARs ubiquitously (ARKO mice or specifically on the Sertoli cells (SCARKO mice. Cell numbers were measured using stereological methods. In ARKO mice Sertoli cell numbers were reduced at all ages from birth until adulthood. FSHR ablation also caused small reductions in Sertoli cell numbers up to day 20 with more marked effects seen in the adult. Germ cell numbers were unaffected by FSHR and/or AR ablation at birth. By day 20 ubiquitous AR or FSHR ablation caused a marked reduction in germ cell numbers with a synergistic effect of losing both receptors (germ cell numbers in FSHRKO.ARKO mice were 3% of control. Germ cell numbers in SCARKO mice were less affected. By adulthood, in contrast, clear synergistic control of germ cell numbers had become established between the actions of FSH and androgen through the Sertoli cells. Leydig cell numbers were normal on day 1 and day 5 in all groups. By day 20 and in adult animals total AR or FSHR ablation significantly reduced Leydig cell numbers but Sertoli cell specific AR ablation had no effect. Results show that, prior to puberty, development of most testicular parameters is more dependent on FSH action than androgen action mediated through the Sertoli cells although androgen action through other cells types is crucial. Post-pubertally, germ cell numbers and spermatogenesis are dependent on FSH and androgen action through the Sertoli cells.

  15. TR{alpha}- and TSH-mRNA levels after temporal exposition with methimazole in zebrafish, Danio rerio

    Schulz, A.E.I.; Stocker, A.; Hollosi, L.; Schramm, K.W. [Inst. of Ecological Chemistry, GSF - National Research Center for Environment and Health (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    The group of dioxin and dioxin-like substances are highly persistent in the environment. There are evidences from present investigations that a variety of substances are capable of disrupting the endocrine system in the aquatic environment. These substances are called endocrine disruptors. Dioxin and related compounds can act as endocrine disruptors. Aquatic animals like amphibian and fish are especially affected of the impact of these compounds. Investigations concerned so far in particular the domain of reproduction biology and the thyroid axis especially. Recent investigations showed that the TR{alpha}-mRNA level change after a short temporal expression with T3, methimazole and amiodarone. The objective of the project is to identify effects of thyroid endocrine disruptors on the regulation of gene expression of the thyroid receptors TR{alpha}a, TR{beta} and thyroid stimulating hormone TSH and associated effects on other system. In preliminary studies the effects of the drug methimazole as model substance on gene expression of TR{alpha} and TSH were investigated. Methimazole is an inhibitor of the thyroid peroxidase so that the formation of thyroid hormones is disrupted.

  16. Cytogenetic and dosimetric effects of 131I in lymphocyte of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer with and without r-hTSH stimulation. Study in thyroid tumor cells (WRO) treated with 131I and 60Co in vitro

    Valgode, Flavia Gomes Silva

    2015-01-01

    Differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) represents about 90% of thyroid malignancies with increasing incidence in the recent decades. Treatment modalities include thyroidectomy, 131 I therapy (with or without r-hTSH), radio and chemotherapy. Little is known about the effects of these treatments at the cellular level. This work was proposed in order to assess to what extent radioiodine therapy can cause damage in peripheral lymphocytes of patients with DTC, preceded or not by r-hTSH, taking into account acute, slow and dosimetric effects of 131 I (in vivo study). An in vitro study was also carried out on thyroid tumor target cells (WRO) by cytotoxicity and genotoxicity analysis and radioiodine uptake. For this, blood samples from patients divided into two groups (group A, r-hTSH + 131 I and group B, 131 I only) were collected before, 24 hours, 1 week, 1 month and 1 year after 131 I administration for aberration chromosome analysis (CA). A dose-response curve for 131 I in vitro was developed for estimating the absorbed dose in patients, comparing the dicentric frequencies obtained in vitro with in vivo data by Monte Carlo program. Radioiodine therapy induced an increase in the number of CA in lymphocytes of patients peaking 24 hours after treatment, with gradual decline over time and with more chromosomal damage in group B than in group A, reaching baseline levels one year after radioiodine administration. The frequency of dicentric found inpatient lymphocytes, 24h after treatment, was equivalent to that induced in vitro (0.354 ± 0.153 MBq / mL for group A and 0.309 ± 0.154 MBq / mL for group B), which corresponds to absorbed doses of 0.8 ± 0.3 Gy and 0.7 ± 0.3 Gy for groups A and B, respectively, with no significant difference between the groups. WRO cells showed a cell cycle relatively slow: 96,3h with an unstable karyotype. The genotoxic test showed a relatively high radioresistance (0.07 to 3.70 MBq/mL), with no statistical significance, with or without r-hTSH

  17. Persistent Graves' hyperthyroidism despite rapid negative conversion of thyroid-stimulating hormone-binding inhibitory immunoglobulin assay results: a case report.

    Ohara, Nobumasa; Kaneko, Masanori; Kitazawa, Masaru; Uemura, Yasuyuki; Minagawa, Shinichi; Miyakoshi, Masashi; Kaneko, Kenzo; Kamoi, Kyuzi

    2017-02-06

    Graves' disease is an autoimmune thyroid disorder characterized by hyperthyroidism, and patients exhibit thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibody. The major methods of measuring circulating thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibody include the thyroid-stimulating hormone-binding inhibitory immunoglobulin assays. Although the diagnostic accuracy of these assays has been improved, a minority of patients with Graves' disease test negative even on second-generation and third-generation thyroid-stimulating hormone-binding inhibitory immunoglobulins. We report a rare case of a thyroid-stimulating hormone-binding inhibitory immunoglobulin-positive patient with Graves' disease who showed rapid lowering of thyroid-stimulating hormone-binding inhibitory immunoglobulin levels following administration of the anti-thyroid drug thiamazole, but still experienced Graves' hyperthyroidism. A 45-year-old Japanese man presented with severe hyperthyroidism (serum free triiodothyronine >25.0 pg/mL; reference range 1.7 to 3.7 pg/mL) and tested weakly positive for thyroid-stimulating hormone-binding inhibitory immunoglobulins on second-generation tests (2.1 IU/L; reference range hyperthyroidism for more than 8 years, requiring 15 mg/day of thiamazole to correct. During that period, he tested negative on all first-generation, second-generation, and third-generation thyroid-stimulating hormone-binding inhibitory immunoglobulin assays, but thyroid scintigraphy revealed diffuse and increased uptake, and thyroid ultrasound and color flow Doppler imaging showed typical findings of Graves' hyperthyroidism. The possible explanations for serial changes in the thyroid-stimulating hormone-binding inhibitory immunoglobulin results in our patient include the presence of thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibody, which is bioactive but less reactive on thyroid-stimulating hormone-binding inhibitory immunoglobulin assays, or the effect of reduced levels of circulating thyroid-stimulating

  18. Stable expression of human thyrotropin (hTSH) in mammalian cells (CHO) expressing α2,6 sialyltransferase

    Damiani, Renata

    2009-01-01

    A CHO cell line, previously genetically modified by the introduction of rat α2,6-sialyltransferase cDNA, generated for the first time a human-like sialylated recombinant hTSH (hlsr-hTSH) more similar to the native hormone, with 61% of α2,3- and 39% of α2,6-linked sialic acid residues. The best clone, when submitted to gene amplification with up to 8 μM methotrexate, presented a secretion level of ∼2 μg hTSH/10 6 cells/day, useful for product purification and characterization. The relative molecular masses (M r ) of the heterodimer and of the α- and β-subunits of purified hlsr-hTSH, determined by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, and the relative hydrophobicities, determined by RP-HPLC, were not remarkably different from those presented by two r-hTSH preparations secreted by normal CHO cells. Some differences were observed, though, in N-glycan composition, with more tri- and much more tetra-sialylated structures in hlsr-hTSH. When analyzed via an in vivo bioassay based on hTSH-induced T 4 release in mice, hlsr-hTSH was shown to be equipotent (p > 0.05) with the commercial preparation of r-hTSH (Thyrogen), and 1.5-fold more potent than native hTSH (p < 0.001). (author)

  19. HUBUNGAN KADAR TIROGLOBULIN, TSH DAN fT4 SERUM PADA ANAK USIA SEKOLAH DI TIGA KABUPATEN DENGAN TINGKAT ENDEMISITAS DEFISIENSI-IODIUM BERBEDA (ASSOCIATION BETWEEN THE SERUM THYROGLOBULIN, TSH, AND fT4 AMONG SCHOOL-AGED CHILDREN IN THREE DISTRICTS WITH DIF

    Agus Wibowo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Iodine deficiency lowers circulating thyroxine (T4 and raises serum Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH, where free T4 (fT4 and TSH have strong corelation with thyroglobulin (Tg. The results from population studies indicate, Tg appears to be a valuable indicator of thyroid status, but it has yet to be fully explored. This study aimed to measure the association between serum Tg with TSH and fT4 as alternatif indicators thyroid status in school-aged children. This was a cross-sectional study of sample of 398 schoolchildren aged 10-12 years in three districts with different iodine-deficiency endemicity level, i.e. Pati as a mild endemic district, Purbalingga as a moderate endemic district, and Malang as a severe endemic district. Children’s blood have taken 3 cc as a sample for the determination of Tg, TSH, and fT4. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA was used to determine Tg, TSH and fT4. Mean of serum Tg 14.3 ± 11.1 ng/mL (cut-off 2-50 ng/mL, TSH 3.7 ± 2.2 µIU/mL (cut-off 0.3-6.2, fT4 1.4 ± 0.4 ng/dL (cut-off 0.8-2.0 ng/dL. Correlation analysis was showed the significance of Tg and TSH (p< 0.05 and Tg with fT4 (p< 0.05. The significance analysis of Tg with TSH and fT4 may be evaluated as indicator  for thyroid function in school-aged children in iodine-deficiency endemic areas.   Keywords: thyroglobulin (Tg, Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH, free thyroxine (fT4, school-aged children ABSTRAK Defisiensi iodium menurunkan tiroksin (T4 yang beredar dalam darah dan meningkatkan Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH, di mana T4 bebas (fT4 dan TSH memiliki hubungan erat dengan tiroglobulin (Tg. Hasil studi populasi menunjukkan, Tg tampak menjadi indikator berharga untuk status tiroid di daerah endemik defisiensi iodium, tetapi belum sepenuhnya dieksplorasi. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengukur hubungan antara kadar Tg serum dengan kadar TSH dan fT4 sebagai indikator alternatif status tiroid pada anak usia sekolah. Ini merupakan penelitian

  20. Functional correlates of TSH, fT3 and fT4 in Alzheimer disease: a F-18 FDG PET/CT study.

    Chiaravalloti, Agostino; Ursini, Francesco; Fiorentini, Alessandro; Barbagallo, Gaetano; Martorana, Alessandro; Koch, Giacomo; Tavolozza, Mario; Schillaci, Orazio

    2017-07-24

    The present study was aimed to investigate the relationships between thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), freeT3 (fT3) and freeT4 (fT4) and brain glucose consumption as detectable by means of 2-deoxy-2-(F-18) fluoro-D-glucose (F-18 FDG) Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (PET/CT) in a selected population with Alzheimer disease (AD). We evaluated 87 subjects (37 males and 50 females, mean age 70 (±6) years old) with AD. All of them were subjected to TSH, fT3 and fT4 assay and to cerebrospinal fluid amyloid (Aβ1-42) and tau [phosphorylated-tau (p-tau) and total-tau (t-tau)] assay prior PET/CT examination. Values for TSH, fT3 and fT4 were in the normal range. The relationships were evaluated by means of statistical parametric mapping (SPM8) using age, sex, MMSE, scholarship and CSF values of amyloid and tau as covariates. We found a significant positive correlation between TSH values and cortical glucose consumption in a wide portion of the anterior cingulate cortex bilaterally (BA32) and left frontal lobe (BA25) (p FWE-corr <0.001; p FDRcorr <0.000; cluster extent 66950). No significant relationships were found between cortical F-18 FDG uptake and T3 and T4 serum levels. The results of our study suggest that a cortical dysfunction in anterior cingulate and frontal lobes may affect serum values of TSH in AD patients.

  1. Familial Longevity Is Associated With Higher TSH Secretion and Strong TSH-fT3 Relationship

    Jansen, Steffy W; Roelfsema, Ferdinand; van der Spoel, Evie

    2015-01-01

    and in their partners, ultradian and circadian rhythmicity of TSH, temporal relationship, and feedback and forward interplay between TSH and TH. METHODS: We collected blood samples every 10 minutes for 24 hours for TSH and TH profiles. We used a deconvolution analysis to estimate basal (nonpulsatile), pulsatile......, and other secretion parameters to characterize ultradian rhythmicity and locally weighted polynomial regression of TSH to assess circadian rhythmicity. A cross-correlation analysis was used to investigate the temporal relationship between TSH and TH and cross-approximate entropy to assess feedback...... TSH secretion and a strong temporal relationship between TSH and free T3 but not with differences in ultradian or circadian TSH rhythmicity or feedback and forward interplay between TSH and TH....

  2. Penggunaan Follicle Stimulating Hormone dan Pregnant Mare Serum Gonadotrophin untuk Superovulasi pada Sapi Persilangan Brahman

    Adrian

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Twenty cattle were used in this experiment to determine the effect of administration follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG hormones on superovulation of Brahman cross cattle. The experiment was designed into completely randomized design with 5 treatments as follows. Treatments 1 (T1: 4 mg of FSH was injected twice a day intra-ovary, T2: 8 mg of FSH was injected twice a day intra-ovary, T3: 300 IU of PMSG was injected single dose intra-ovary, T4: 600 IU of PMSG was injected single dose intra-ovary, T5: 40 mg of FSH was injected intramuscular. All experimental cattle were oestrus synchronized using 15 mg of PGF2α twice at 11-days intervals. Number of corpus luteum (CL was detected by rectal palpation at day-7 after artificial insemination. Results showed that 19 cattle (95% indicated oestrus sign. Eleven cattle (57.9% showed oestrus sign 2 days after PGF2α injection and the rest 8 cattle (42.1% oestrus sign was detected at 3 days after PGF2α injection. FSH and PMSG treatments increased significantly (P<0.05 number of CL. The highest CL number was found in T5, meanwhile number of CL in T2 and T4 were higher compared to T1 and T3. The average treatment effect could produce 6.8±5.42 CL with range 2–26 CL. On the other hand single dose treatment of 600 IU PMSG (T4 showed high significant number of non ovulatory (persistent follicle compared to other treatments (T1, T2, T3 and T5 on average number of persistent follicle 2.0±1.97 from 19 cattles. It is concluded that the best superovulation treatment was produced by injection 40 mg of FSH intra-musculary.

  3. Bioassays for TSH Receptor Autoantibodies, from FRTL-5 Cells to TSH Receptor-LH/CG Receptor Chimeras: The Contribution of Leonard D. Kohn.

    Giuliani, Cesidio; Saji, Motoyasu; Bucci, Ines; Napolitano, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Since the discovery 60 years ago of the "long-acting thyroid stimulator" by Adams and Purves, great progress has been made in the detection of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor (TSHR) autoantibodies (TRAbs) in Graves' disease. Today, commercial assays are available that can detect TRAbs with high accuracy and provide diagnostic and prognostic evaluation of patients with Graves' disease. The present review focuses on the development of TRAbs bioassays, and particularly on the role that Leonard D. Kohn had in this. Indeed, 30 years ago, the Kohn group developed a bioassay based on the use of FRTL-5 cells that was characterized by high reproducibility, feasibility, and diagnostic accuracy. Using this FRTL-5 bioassay, Kohn and his colleagues were the first to develop monoclonal antibodies (moAbs) against the TSHR. Furthermore, they demonstrated the multifaceted functional nature of TRAbs in patients with Graves' disease, with the identification of stimulating and blocking TRAbs, and even antibodies that activated pathways other than cAMP. After the cloning of the TSHR, the Kohn laboratory constructed human TSHR-rat luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin receptor chimeras. This paved the way to a new bioassay based on the use of non-thyroid cells transfected with the Mc4 chimera. The new Mc4 bioassay is characterized by high diagnostic and prognostic accuracy, greater than for other assays. The availability of a commercial kit based on the Mc4 chimera is spreading the use of this assay worldwide, indicating its benefits for these patients with Graves' disease. This review also describes the main contributions made by other researchers in TSHR molecular biology and TRAbs assay, especially with the development of highly potent moAbs. A comparison of the diagnostic accuracies of the main TRAbs assays, as both immunoassays and bioassays, is also provided.

  4. Thyroid-stimulating hormone, anti-thyroid antibodies, and pregnancy outcomes.

    Plowden, Torie C; Schisterman, Enrique F; Sjaarda, Lindsey A; Perkins, Neil J; Silver, Robert; Radin, Rose; Kim, Keewan; Galai, Noya; DeCherney, Alan H; Mumford, Sunni L

    2017-12-01

    Overt thyroid dysfunction has been associated with adverse obstetric outcomes. However, less is known regarding subclinical hypothyroidism or thyroid autoimmunity and their relationship to pregnancy complications. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between prepregnancy anti-thyroid antibodies and subclinical hypothyroidism and preterm delivery, gestational diabetes mellitus, and preeclampsia. We conducted a secondary analysis of a prospective cohort of 18- to 40-year-old women with 1-2 previous pregnancy losses (n=1193) who participated in a multicenter randomized, placebo-controlled trial of low-dose aspirin. Prepregnancy levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone, free thyroxine, thyroglobulin antibody, and thyroid peroxidase antibody were measured. Relative risks and 95% confidence intervals were estimated with the use of generalized linear models with adjustment for age and body mass index. Among women with an ongoing pregnancy of >20 weeks estimated gestational age, there was no association between prepregnancy thyroid-stimulating hormone level (>2.5 vs ≤2.5 mIU/L) and preterm delivery (adjusted relative risk, 0.77; 95% confidence interval, 0.40-1.47), gestational diabetes mellitus (adjusted relative risk, 1.28; 95% confidence interval, 0.54-3.04), or preeclampsia (adjusted relative risk, 1.20; 95% confidence interval, 0.71-2.04). Similarly, among women with thyroid antibodies, there was no increase in the likelihood of preterm delivery (relative risk, 1.26; 95% confidence interval, 0.65-2.45), gestational diabetes mellitus (relative risk, 1.33; 95% confidence interval, 0.51-3.49), or preeclampsia (relative risk, 1.02; 95% confidence interval, 0.54-1.92), compared with women without these antibodies. Among women with 1-2 previous pregnancy losses, subclinical hypothyroidism and thyroid autoimmunity were not associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery, gestational diabetes mellitus, or preeclampsia. These data support current

  5. Recent Advances in Thyroid Hormone Regulation: Toward a New Paradigm for Optimal Diagnosis and Treatment

    Hoermann, Rudolf; Midgley, John E. M.; Larisch, Rolf; Dietrich, Johannes W.

    2017-01-01

    In thyroid health, the pituitary hormone thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) raises glandular thyroid hormone production to a physiological level and enhances formation and conversion of T4 to the biologically more active T3. Overstimulation is limited by negative feedback control. In equilibrium defining the euthyroid state, the relationship between TSH and FT4 expresses clusters of genetically determined, interlocked TSH–FT4 pairs, which invalidates their statistical correlation within the euthyroid range. Appropriate reactions to internal or external challenges are defined by unique solutions and homeostatic equilibria. Permissible variations in an individual are much more closely constrained than over a population. Current diagnostic definitions of subclinical thyroid dysfunction are laboratory based, and do not concur with treatment recommendations. An appropriate TSH level is a homeostatic concept that cannot be reduced to a fixed range consideration. The control mode may shift from feedback to tracking where TSH becomes positively, rather than inversely related with FT4. This is obvious in pituitary disease and severe non-thyroid illness, but extends to other prevalent conditions including aging, obesity, and levothyroxine (LT4) treatment. Treatment targets must both be individualized and respect altered equilibria on LT4. To avoid amalgamation bias, clinically meaningful stratification is required in epidemiological studies. In conclusion, pituitary TSH cannot be readily interpreted as a sensitive mirror image of thyroid function because the negative TSH–FT4 correlation is frequently broken, even inverted, by common conditions. The interrelationships between TSH and thyroid hormones and the interlocking elements of the control system are individual, dynamic, and adaptive. This demands a paradigm shift of its diagnostic use. PMID:29375474

  6. Recent Advances in Thyroid Hormone Regulation: Toward a New Paradigm for Optimal Diagnosis and Treatment

    Rudolf Hoermann

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In thyroid health, the pituitary hormone thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH raises glandular thyroid hormone production to a physiological level and enhances formation and conversion of T4 to the biologically more active T3. Overstimulation is limited by negative feedback control. In equilibrium defining the euthyroid state, the relationship between TSH and FT4 expresses clusters of genetically determined, interlocked TSH–FT4 pairs, which invalidates their statistical correlation within the euthyroid range. Appropriate reactions to internal or external challenges are defined by unique solutions and homeostatic equilibria. Permissible variations in an individual are much more closely constrained than over a population. Current diagnostic definitions of subclinical thyroid dysfunction are laboratory based, and do not concur with treatment recommendations. An appropriate TSH level is a homeostatic concept that cannot be reduced to a fixed range consideration. The control mode may shift from feedback to tracking where TSH becomes positively, rather than inversely related with FT4. This is obvious in pituitary disease and severe non-thyroid illness, but extends to other prevalent conditions including aging, obesity, and levothyroxine (LT4 treatment. Treatment targets must both be individualized and respect altered equilibria on LT4. To avoid amalgamation bias, clinically meaningful stratification is required in epidemiological studies. In conclusion, pituitary TSH cannot be readily interpreted as a sensitive mirror image of thyroid function because the negative TSH–FT4 correlation is frequently broken, even inverted, by common conditions. The interrelationships between TSH and thyroid hormones and the interlocking elements of the control system are individual, dynamic, and adaptive. This demands a paradigm shift of its diagnostic use.

  7. Interleukin 1α inhibits prostaglandin E2 release to suppress pulsatile release of luteinizing hormone but not follicle-stimulating hormone

    Rettori, V.; McCann, S.M.; Gimeno, M.F.; Karara, A.; Gonzalez, M.C.

    1991-01-01

    Interleukin 1α (IL-1α), a powerful endogenous pyrogen released from monocytes and macrophages by bacterial endotoxin, stimulates corticotropin, prolactin, and somatotropin release and inhibits thyrotropin release by hypothalamic action. The authors injected recombinant human IL-1α into the third cerebral ventricle, to study its effect on the pulsatile release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) in conscious, freely moving, ovariectomized rats. Intraventricular injection of 0.25 pmol of IL-1α caused an almost immediate reduction of plasma LH concentration. To determine the mechanism of the suppression of LH release, mediobasal hypothalamic fragments were incubated in vitro with IL-1α (10 pM) and the release of LH-releasing hormone (LHRH) and prostaglandin E 2 into the medium was measured by RIA in the presence or absence of nonrepinephrine. 1α reduced basal LHRH release and blocked LHRH release induced by nonrepinephrine. In conclusion, IL-1α suppresses LH but not FSH release by an almost complete cessation of pulsatile release of LH in the castrated rat. The mechanism of this effect appears to be by inhibition of prostaglandin E 2 -mediated release of LHRH

  8. Hypothalamic regulation of thyroid-stimulating hormone and prolactin release : the role of thyrotrophin-releasing hormone

    G.A.C. van Haasteren (Goedele)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThyrotrophin-releasing-hormone (TRH), a tripeptide, is produced by hypothalamic neurons and transported along their axons to the median eminence (ME). From there it is released at nerve terminals into hypophyseal portal blood. It is then transported to the anterior pituitary gland where

  9. Mammary tumors and serum hormones in the bitch treated with medroxyprogesterone acetate or progesterone for four years

    Frank, D.W.; Kirton, K.T.; Murchison, T.E.; Quinlan, W.J.; Coleman, M.E.; Gilbertson, T.J.; Feenstra, E.S.; Kimball, F.A.

    1978-01-01

    After four years of a long term contraceptive steroid safety study, the incidence and the histologic type of mammary dysplasia produced is similar in beagles treated with medroxyprogesterone acetate (medroxyprogesterone) or progesterone. Serum insulin, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), triiodothyronine, growth hormone, prolactin, 17..beta..-estradiol, progesterone, and cortisol were determined by radioimmunoassay on samples collected after 45 months of treatment. Serum growth hormone and insulin concentrations were elevated in a dose related manner in both treatment groups. Triiodothyronine, cortisol, and estradiol-17..beta.. (medroxyprogesterone only) were lowered. TSH and prolactin concentrations were not changed. Pituitary--gonadal hormone interaction in the pathogenesis of mammary neoplasia of the dog is discussed. Prolonged treatment of the beagle with massive doses of progesterone or medroxyprogesterone results in a dose related incidence of mammary modules.

  10. Effect of radiation on proteo-hormones activity

    Mikulaj, L.

    1975-05-01

    Samples of pituitary hormones were irradiated by a 60 Co source. A dose rate of 1.0-1.1 Mrad/hour and the doses of 0.5, 2.5 and 12.5 Mrad were used. The hormone preparations in the dry solid state or in solution were sealed into glass ampules. After sterilization they were kept at 4 0 C until the biological activity had been tested. The biological activity of thyroid stimulating hormone TSH, subjected to a sterilizing dose of 2.5 Mrad of gamma radiation, was found to have decreased when tested 3-5 months after irradiation. TSH remained fully active for up to 1 month after sterilization. The activity of vasopressin dropped off markedly during the 3-4 week period after irradiation. Biological activity of growth hormone tested shortly after irradiation was found to be unaffected. The activities of adrenocorticotropic hormone, human menopausal gonadotropin and luteinizing hormone were not affected. The experiments can be considered promising since they show that pituitary proteohorm, one preparations in the solid state may be sterilized. The stability on storage needs, however, to be carefully checked individually for every single hormone

  11. Quality of life changes and clinical outcomes in thyroid cancer patients undergoing radioiodine remnant ablation (RRA) with recombinant human TSH (rhTSH): a randomized controlled study.

    Taïeb, D; Sebag, F; Cherenko, M; Baumstarck-Barrau, K; Fortanier, C; Farman-Ara, B; De Micco, C; Vaillant, J; Thomas, S; Conte-Devolx, B; Loundou, A; Auquier, P; Henry, J F; Mundler, O

    2009-07-01

    Recombinant human TSH (rhTSH) has become the modality of choice for radioiodine remnant ablation (RRA) in low-risk thyroid cancer patients. The aims of the present prospective randomized study were to evaluate the impact of TSH stimulation procedure (hypothyroidism vs. rhTSH) on quality of life (QoL) of thyroid cancer patients undergoing RRA and to evaluate efficacy of both procedures. L-T4 was initiated in both groups after thyroidectomy. After randomization, L-T4 was discontinued in hypothyroid (hypo) group and continued in rhTSH group. A measure of 3.7 GBq of radioiodine was given to both groups. The functional assessment of chronic illness therapy-fatigue (FACIT-F) was administered from the early postoperative period to 9 months. Socio-demographic parameters, anxiety and depression scales were also evaluated (CES-D, BDI and Spielberger state-trait questionnaires). At 9 months, patients underwent an rhTSH stimulation test, diagnostic (131)I whole body scan (dxWBS) and neck ultrasonography. A total of 74 patients were enrolled for the study. There was a significant decrease in QoL from baseline (t0) to t1 (RRA period) in the hypothyroid group with significant differences in FACIT-F TOI (P hypothyrodism. However, there is a wide heterogeneity in the clinical impact of hypothyroidism.

  12. Detecting congenital hypothyroidism with newborn screening: the relevance of thyroid-stimulating hormone cutoff values.

    Silvestrin, Stela Maris; Leone, Claudio; Leone, Cléa Rodrigues

    To assess the prevalence of congenital hypothyroidism and the ability of various neonatal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSHneo) cutoff values to detect this disease. This cohort study was based on the retrospective collection of information available from the Reference Service for Newborn Screening database for all live births from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2012, assessed using the Newborn Screening Program of a Brazilian state, Brazil. The infants were divided into two groups: I - Control: infants with normal newborn screening tests and II - Study: infants with congenital hypothyroidism. Analysis included comparing the TSHneo levels from both groups. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was constructed to assess the TSHneo cutoff values. Using a TSHneo cutoff value of 5.0μIU/mL, 50 out of 111,705 screened infants had diagnosis of congenital hypothyroidism (prevalence 1:2234 live births). The ROC curve showed that TSHneo value of 5.03μIU/mL had 100% sensitivity and the greatest associated specificity (93.7%). The area under the curve was 0.9898 (pvalue of 5.0μIU/mL adopted by the Newborn Screening Program of a Brazilian state was the most appropriate for detecting congenital hypothyroidism and most likely explains the high prevalence that was found. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. Inhibition of systemic inflammation by central action of the neuropeptide alpha-melanocyte- stimulating hormone.

    Delgado Hernàndez, R; Demitri, M T; Carlin, A; Meazza, C; Villa, P; Ghezzi, P; Lipton, J M; Catania, A

    1999-01-01

    The neuropeptide alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) reduces fever and acute inflammation in the skin when administered centrally. The aim of the present research was to determine whether central alpha-MSH can also reduce signs of systemic inflammation in mice with endotoxemia. Increases in serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha and nitric oxide, induced by intraperitoneal administration of endotoxin, were modulated by central injection of a small concentration of alpha-MSH. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity and iNOS mRNA in lungs and liver were likewise modulated by central alpha-MSH. Lung myeloperoxidase activity, a marker of neutrophil infiltration, was increased in endotoxemic mice; the increase was significantly less in lungs of mice treated with central alpha-MSH. Intraperitoneal administration of the small dose of alpha-MSH that was effective centrally did not alter any of the markers of inflammation. In experiments using immunoneutralization of central alpha-MSH, we tested the idea that endogenous peptide induced within the brain during systemic inflammation modulates host responses to endotoxic challenge in peripheral tissues. The data showed that proinflammatory agents induced by endotoxin in the circulation, lungs, and liver were significantly greater after blockade of central alpha-MSH. The results suggest that anti-inflammatory influences of neural origin that are triggered by alpha-MSH could be used to treat systemic inflammation.

  14. Clinical manifestations of low bone mass in amenorrhea patients with elevated follicular stimulating hormone.

    Yu, Qi; Lin, Shouqing; He, Fangfang; Li, Baoluo; Lin, Yuan; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Ying

    2002-09-01

    To study the characteristics of low bone mass in amenorrhea patients with elevated follicular stimulating hormone (FSH). Amenorrhea patients with elevated FSH: Primary amenorrhea 18 cases, secondary amenorrhea 171 cases and age matched controls with normal menstruation, 180 cases. The descriptive parameters were: estrogen, alkaline phosphatase, urinary excretion of calcium to creatine ratio, cortical bone mineral density at the right radius measured by single photon absorptiometry and trabecular bone mineral density at the lumbar vertebra body measured by quantitative computerized tomography. Average E(2) levels in amenorrhea patients is under 150 pmol/L with significantly higher alkaline phosphatase and urine calcium to creatine ratio values than the normal menstruation group. Cortical bone mineral density in the secondary amenorrhea group (655 +/- 69 mg/cm(2)) was significantly lower than that of the normal menstruation group (677 +/- 56 mg/cm(2), P < 0.01). Trabecular bone mineral density in the secondary amenorrhea group (145 +/- 26 mg/cm(3)) was significantly lower than that of the NOR group (192 +/- 28 mg/cm(3), P < 0.001). The disparity with the normal menstruation group is even greater in the primary amenorrhea group. Bone mineral density of the amenorrhea patients was negatively correlated with duration of the menopause. Serum estrodiol levels in amenorrhea patients was so low that bone turnover was accelerated. This led to insufficient bone accumulation and a dramatically drop in trabecular bone mineral density. The extent was closely related to age of onset of amenorrhea and the duration of ovarian failure.

  15. The Alpha-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone Induces Conversion of Effector T Cells into Treg Cells

    Andrew W. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The neuropeptide alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH has an important role in modulating immunity and homeostasis. The production of IFN-γ by effector T cells is suppressed by α-MSH, while TGF-β production is promoted in the same cells. Such α-MSH-treated T cells have immune regulatory activity and suppress hypersensitivity, autoimmune diseases, and graft rejection. Previous characterizations of the α-MSH-induced Treg cells showed that the cells are CD4+ T cells expressing the same levels of CD25 as effector T cells. Therefore, we further analyzed the α-MSH-induced Treg cells for expression of effector and regulatory T-cell markers. Also, we examined the potential for α-MSH-induced Treg cells to be from the effector T-cell population. We found that the α-MSH-induced Treg cells are CD25+  CD4+ T cells that share similar surface markers as effector T cells, except that they express on their surface LAP. Also, the α-MSH treatment augments FoxP3 message in the effector T cells, and α-MSH induction of regulatory activity was limited to the effector CD25+ T-cell population. Therefore, α-MSH converts effector T cells into Treg cells, which suppress immunity targeting specific antigens and tissues.

  16. Follicle stimulating hormone increases spermatogonial stem cell colonization during in vitro co - culture

    Reza Narenji Sani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The complex process of spermatogenesis is regulated by various factors. Studies onspermatogonial stem cells(SCCshave provided very important tool to improve herd geneticand different field. 0.2 to 0.3 percent of total cells of seminiferous tubules is consist ofspermatogonial stem cells. To investigate and biomanipulation of these cells, proliferationand viability rate of cells should be increasedin vitro, at first. Follicle stimulating hormone(FSH has been suggested to play a determinant role in the survival of germ cells in additionto increasing spermatogonial proliferation. In this study, thein vitroeffects ofFSHonspermatogonial cell colony formation were investigated. Sertoli and spermatogonial cellswere isolated from 3-5 months old calves. The identity of theSertoli cells and spermatogonialstem cells were confirmed through immunocytochemistry and colony morphology,respectively. Co-cultured Sertoli and spermatogonial cells were treatedwithFSHin differentdose of10, 20 and 40 IU mL-1FSH, before colony assay.Results indicated that,FSHincreasedin vitrocolonization of spermatogonial cells in comparison with control group. In conclusion,usingFSHprovided proper bovine spermatogonial stem cell culture medium forin vitrostudy of these cells.

  17. Follicle stimulating hormone increases spermatogonial stem cell colonization during in vitro co-culture.

    Narenji Sani, Reza; Tajik, Parviz; Yousefi, Mohammad Hassan; Movahedin, Mansoureh; Qasemi-Panahi, Babak; Shafiei, Shiva; Ahmadi Hamedani, Mahmood

    2013-01-01

    The complex process of spermatogenesis is regulated by various factors. Studies on spermatogonial stem cells (SCCs) have provided very important tool to improve herd genetic and different field. 0.2 to 0.3 percent of total cells of seminiferous tubules is consist of spermatogonial stem cells. To investigate and biomanipulation of these cells, proliferation and viability rate of cells should be increased in vitro, at first. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) has been suggested to play a determinant role in the survival of germ cells in addition to increasing spermatogonial proliferation. In this study, the in vitro effects of FSH on spermatogonial cell colony formation were investigated. Sertoli and spermatogonial cells were isolated from 3-5 months old calves. The identity of the Sertoli cells and spermatogonial stem cells were confirmed through immunocytochemistry and colony morphology, respectively. Co-cultured Sertoli and spermatogonial cells were treated with FSH in different dose of 10, 20 and 40 IU mL(-1) FSH, before colony assay. Results indicated that, FSH increased in vitro colonization of spermatogonial cells in comparison with control group. In conclusion, using FSH provided proper bovine spermatogonial stem cell culture medium for in vitro study of these cells.

  18. Oral delivery of Bifidobacterium longum expressing α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone to combat ulcerative colitis.

    Wei, Pijin; Yang, Yan; Ding, Qing; Li, Xiuying; Sun, Hanxiao; Liu, Zhaobing; Huang, Junli; Gong, Yahui

    2016-02-01

    α-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) is a tridecapeptide derived from pro-opiomelanocortin that exhibits potent anti-inflammatory properties by regulating the production of inflammatory mediators. This peptide has been well established in several inflammatory models, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, its extremely short duration in vivo limits its clinical application. To address this limitation, Bifidobacterium was used here as a carrier to deliver α-MSH. We utilized α-MSH-engineered Bifidobacterium against IBD, which is closely linked to immune and intestinal microbiota dysfunction. First, we constructed a Bifidobacterium longum secreting α-MSH (B. longum-α-MSH). We then tested the recombinant α-MSH expression and determined its bioactivity in HT-29 cells. To assess its effectiveness, B. longum-α-MSH was used against an ulcerative colitis (UC) model in rats induced by dextran sulfate sodium. The data showed that α-MSH expression in B. longum-α-MSH was effective, and its biological activity was similar to the synthesized one. This UC model experiment indicated that B. longum-α-MSH successfully colonized the intestinal gut, expressed bioactive α-MSH and had a significant anti-inflammatory effect. The results demonstrate the feasibility of preventing IBD by using B. longum-α-MSH.

  19. Stimulant medication use and response to growth hormone therapy: an NCGS database analysis.

    Frindik, J Paul; Morales, Alba; Fowlkes, John; Kemp, Stephen; Thrailkill, Kathryn; Lippe, Barbara; Dana, Ken

    2009-01-01

    Determine (1) frequency of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treatment and (2) growth responses in growth hormone (GH)-treated children who are receiving ADHD medication versus GH alone. Prepubertal children with idiopathic short stature (ISS) or GH deficiency (IGHD) enrolled in Genentech's National Cooperative Growth Study. ADHD treatment was determined by documentation of psycho-stimulant medication use at enrollment. ADHD medication use increased from 0.8% (7/850) in 1985 to 5.8% (752/12,113) in 2005. First-year GH treatment response for ADHD + IGHD versus IGHD: 8.5 +/- 2.0 vs. 9.4 +/- 2.6 cm/year, but when adjusted for age, sex, and enrollment body mass index, the difference is clinically insignificant (-0.4 cm/year). First-year growth was similar in all ISS: 8.1 +/- 1.9 versus 8.6 +/- 2.1 cm/year (ADHD + ISS vs. ISS, an adjusted -0.2-cm/year difference). Increasing numbers of GH-treated children are taking ADHD medications and their growth responses during the first year of GH therapy are similar to those not taking ADHD medications. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Interesting coincidence of atypical TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Bolanowski, Marek; Zieliński, Grzegorz; Jawiarczyk-Przybyłowska, Aleksandra; Maksymowicz, Maria; Potoczek, Stanisław; Syrycka, Joanna; Podgórski, Jan K

    2014-01-01

    Thyrotropin-secreting adenomas (TSH-oma) are very rare pituitary tumours. They are macroadenomas usually presenting with signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism, and mass effects. They can co-secrete other hormones such as growth hormone or prolactin. Different malignancies, including haematological ones, are reported in patients with pituitary diseases. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) occurs mostly in older patients, more often in males. CLL is associated with increased risk of second malignancies such as other blood neoplasms, skin and solid tumours. We present a successful neurosurgical outcome in a patient with an interesting coincidence of atypical TSH-oma and asymptomatic CLL.

  1. Increased Progesterone/Estradiol Ratio on the Day of hCG Administration Adversely Affects Success of In Vitro Fertilization–Embryo Transfer in Patients Stimulated with Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone Agonist and Recombinant Follicle-stimulating Hormone

    Yu-Che Ou

    2008-06-01

    Conclusion: Premature luteinization, defined as late follicular P/E2 ratio of > 1 in long GnRHa cycles with rFSH stimulation, adversely affected ovarian responses and clinical outcomes. It seems unrelated to preovulatory luteinizing hormone (LH elevation and LH/hCG content of gonadotropins and could be associated with poor ovarian response and the presence of dysmature follicles. [Taiwan J Obstet Cynecol 2008;47(2:1 68-1 74

  2. Do IGF-I concentrations better reflect growth hormone (GH action in children with short stature than the results of GH stimulating tests? Evidence from the simultaneous assessment of thyroid function

    Smyczyńska Joanna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The diagnosis of growth hormone (GH deficiency (GHD in short children seems unquestionable when both GH peak in stimulating tests (GHST and IGF-I concentration are decreased. However, the discrepancies between the results of GHST and IGF-I secretion are observed. It seems purposeful to determine the significance of GHST and IGF-I assessment in diagnosing GHD. The relationship between GH secretion and thyroid function, as well as GH influence on the peripheral thyroxine (T4 to triiodothyronine (T3 deiodination, mediated by IGF-I, were identified. Thus, clear differences in thyroid function between GH-deficient and non-GH-deficient subjects should exist. Methods Analysis comprised 800 children (541 boys, age 11.6 ± 3.1 years (mean ± SD, with short stature, in whom two (2 standard GHST (with clonidine and with glucagon were performed and IGF-I, free T4 (FT4, free T3 (FT3 and TSH serum concentrations were assessed. The patients were qualified to the following groups: GHD - decreased GH peak in GHST and IGF-I SDS (n = 81, ISS - normal GH peak and IGF-I SDS (n = 347, low GH - normal IGF-I SDS, and decreased GH peak (n = 212, low IGF - decreased IGF-I SDS, and normal GH peak (n = 160. The relationships among the results of particular tests were evaluated. Results In the groups with decreased IGF-I concentrations (GHD Group and low IGF Group, the more severe deficit of height was observed, together with higher TSH and FT4 but lower FT3 levels than in groups with normal IGF-I concentrations (ISS Group and low GH Group, independently of the results of GHST. TSH, FT4 and FT3 concentrations were - respectively - similar in two groups with decreased IGF-I secretion, as well as in two groups with normal IGF-I levels. Significant correlations were found between patients' height SDS and IGF-I SDS, between FT3 and IGF-I SDS (positive, and between FT4 and IGF-I SDS (negative, with no correlation between GH peak and any of the parameters

  3. Mechanisms and regulation of TSH glycosylation

    Gesundheit, N.; Weintraub, B.D.

    1986-01-01

    Some differences in carbohydrate composition of secreted TSH-alpha, TSH-beta, and free alpha-subunits are examined. In order to explore whether each of the secreted TSH subunits has a distinctive carbohydrate composition, the authors incubated hypothyroid mouse tritiated sugar precursors: tritium-glucosamine; tritium-mannose; tritium-l-fucose; and tritium-N-acetylmannosamine, a specific precursor of the sialic acid tritium-N-acetylneuraminic acid. It was shown that although the two TSH subunits, alpha and beta, combine soon after synthesis and are secreted as a dimeric protein, there are notable differences in the carbohydrate processing of the two subunits

  4. [Low levels of TSH measured by a sensitive assay: do they reflect hyperthyroidism? A critical analysis of 580 cases].

    Rohmer, V; Ligeard-Ducoroy, A; Perdrisot, R; Beldent, V; Jallet, P; Bigorgne, J C

    1990-05-12

    Highly sensitive TSH assays make it easier to diagnose thyroid diseases. During one year, we performed 5,300 sensitive TSH assays (normal range: 0.15-4 mU/l) in various patients. The purpose of this work was to test the value of the low TSH plasma concentrations found in 580 patients. In 99.7 percent of the cases, low TSH levels were the consequence of a thyroid disorder or a treatment by thyroid hormones; non thyroidal illnesses were detected in only 0.3 percent. However, not all TSH values below 0.15 mU/l were associated with overt or occult thyrotoxicosis. When TSH was undetectable (less than 0.04 mU/l), and excluding thyroid hormone-treated patients, thyrotoxicosis was present in 97 percent of the cases. On the other hand, when TSH values were between 0.04 and 0.15 mU/l, 41 percent of the patients failed to show any sign or symptom of hyperthyroidism, although they had functioning thyroid nodules, multinodular goitre or iodine overload, or they received thyroid hormones.

  5. Differential regulation of thyrotropin subunit apoprotein and carbohydrate biosynthesis by thyroid hormone

    Taylor, T.; Weintraub, B.D.

    1985-01-01

    The regulation of TSH apoprotein and carbohydrate biosynthesis by thyroid hormone was studied by incubating pituitaries from normal and hypothyroid (3 weeks post-thyroidectomy) rats in medium containing [ 14 C]alanine and [ 3 H] glucosamine. After 6 h, samples were sequentially treated with anti-TSH beta to precipitate TSH and free TSH beta, anti-LH beta to clear the sample of LH and free LH beta, then anti-LH alpha to precipitate free alpha-subunit. Total proteins were acid precipitated. All precipitates were subjected to electrophoresis on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels, which were then sliced and assayed by scintillation spectrometry. In hypothyroid pituitaries plus medium, [ 14 C]alanine incorporation in combined and free beta-subunits was 26 times normal and considerably greater than the 3.4-fold increase seen in total protein; combined and free alpha-subunits showed no specific increase in apoprotein synthesis. [ 3 H]Glucosamine incorporation in combined alpha- and beta-subunits in hypothyroid samples was 13 and 21 times normal, respectively, and was greater than the 1.9-fold increase in total protein; free alpha-subunit showed no specific increase in carbohydrate synthesis. The glucosamine to alanine ratio, reflecting relative glycosylation of newly synthesized molecules, was increased in hypothyroidism for combined alpha-subunits, but not for combined beta-subunits, free alpha-subunits, or total proteins. In summary, short term hypothyroidism selectively stimulated TSH beta apoprotein synthesis and carbohydrate synthesis of combined alpha- and beta-subunits. Hypothyroidism also increased the relative glycosylation of combined alpha-subunit. Thus, thyroid hormone deficiency appears to alter the rate-limiting step in TSH assembly (i.e. beta-subunit synthesis) as well as the carbohydrate structure of TSH, which may play important roles in its biological function

  6. In vivo correlation between c-Fos expression and corticotroph stimulation by adrenocorticotrophic hormone secretagogues in rat anterior pituitary gland.

    Takigami, Shu; Fujiwara, Ken; Kikuchi, Motoshi; Yashiro, Takashi

    2008-03-01

    In the anterior pituitary gland, c-Fos expression is evoked by various stimuli. However, whether c-Fos expression is directly related to the stimulation of anterior pituitary cells by hypothalamic secretagogues is unclear. To confirm whether the reception of hormone-releasing stimuli evokes c-Fos expression in anterior pituitary cells, we have examined c-Fos expression of anterior pituitary glands in rats administered with synthetic corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) intravenously or subjected to restraint stress. Single intravenous administration of CRH increases the number of c-Fos-expressing cells, and this number does not change even if the dose is increased. Double-immunostaining has revealed that most of the c-Fos-expressing cells contain adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH); corticotrophs that do not express c-Fos in response to CRH have also been found. However, restraint stress evokes c-Fos expression in most of the corticotrophs and in a partial population of lactotrophs. These results suggest that c-Fos expression increases in corticotrophs stimulated by ACTH secretagogues, including CRH. Furthermore, we have found restricted numbers of corticotrophs expressing c-Fos in response to CRH. Although the mechanism underlying the different responses to CRH is not apparent, c-Fos is probably a useful immunohistochemical marker for corticotrophs stimulated by ACTH secretagogues.

  7. Kcne2 deletion uncovers its crucial role in thyroid hormone biosynthesis

    Roepke, Torsten K.; King, Elizabeth C.; Reyna-Neyra, Andrea; Paroder, Monika; Purtell, Kerry; Koba, Wade; Fine, Eugene; Lerner, Daniel J.; Carrasco, Nancy; Abbott, Geoffrey W.

    2009-01-01

    Thyroid dysfunction affects 1?4% of the population worldwide, causing defects including neurodevelopmental disorders, dwarfism and cardiac arrhythmia. Here, we show that KCNQ1 and KCNE2 form a TSH-stimulated, constitutively-active, thyrocyte K+ channel required for normal thyroid hormone biosynthesis. Targeted disruption of Kcne2 impaired thyroid iodide accumulation up to 8-fold, impaired maternal milk ejection and halved milk T4 content, causing hypothyroidism, 50% reduced litter size, dwarf...

  8. Targeting of follicle stimulating hormone peptide-conjugated dendrimers to ovarian cancer cells

    Modi, Dimple A.; Sunoqrot, Suhair; Bugno, Jason; Lantvit, Daniel D.; Hong, Seungpyo; Burdette, Joanna E.

    2014-02-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological malignancy. Current treatment modalities include a combination of surgery and chemotherapy, which often lead to loss of fertility in premenopausal women and a myriad of systemic side effects. To address these issues, we have designed poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers to selectively target the follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR), which is overexpressed by tumorigenic ovarian cancer cells but not by immature primordial follicles and other non-tumorigenic cells. Fluorescein-labeled generation 5 (G5) PAMAM dendrimers were conjugated with the binding peptide domain of FSH (FSH33) that has a high affinity to FSHR. The targeted dendrimers exhibited high receptor selectivity to FSHR-expressing OVCAR-3 cells, resulting in significant uptake and downregulation of an anti-apoptotic protein survivin, while showing minimal interactions with SKOV-3 cells that do not express FSHR. The selectivity of the FSH33-targeted dendrimers was further validated in 3D organ cultures of normal mouse ovaries. Immunostaining of the conjugates revealed their selective binding and uptake by ovarian surface epithelium (OSE) cells that express FSHR, while sparing the immature primordial follicles. In addition, an in vivo study monitoring tissue accumulation following a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of the conjugates showed significantly higher accumulation of FSH33-targeted dendrimers in the ovary and oviduct compared to the non-targeted conjugates. These proof-of-concept findings highlight the potential of these FSH33-targeted dendrimers to serve as a delivery platform for anti-ovarian cancer drugs, while reducing their systemic side effects by preventing nonspecific uptake by the primordial follicles.Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological malignancy. Current treatment modalities include a combination of surgery and chemotherapy, which often lead to loss of fertility in premenopausal women and a myriad of systemic side

  9. Thyroid hormone treatment among pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism: US national assessment.

    Maraka, Spyridoula; Mwangi, Raphael; McCoy, Rozalina G; Yao, Xiaoxi; Sangaralingham, Lindsey R; Singh Ospina, Naykky M; O'Keeffe, Derek T; De Ycaza, Ana E Espinosa; Rodriguez-Gutierrez, Rene; Coddington, Charles C; Stan, Marius N; Brito, Juan P; Montori, Victor M

    2017-01-25

     To estimate the effectiveness and safety of thyroid hormone treatment among pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism.  Retrospective cohort study.  Large US administrative database between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2014.  5405 pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism, defined as untreated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) concentration 2.5-10 mIU/L.  Thyroid hormone therapy.  Pregnancy loss and other pre-specified maternal and fetal pregnancy related adverse outcomes.  Among 5405 pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism, 843 with a mean pre-treatment TSH concentration of 4.8 (SD 1.7) mIU/L were treated with thyroid hormone and 4562 with a mean baseline TSH concentration of 3.3 (SD 0.9) mIU/L were not treated (Ptreatment TSH concentration was 4.1-10 mIU/L (odds ratio 0.45, 0.30 to 0.65) but not if it was 2.5-4.0 mIU/L (0.91, 0.65 to 1.23) (Ptreatment was associated with decreased risk of pregnancy loss among women with subclinical hypothyroidism, especially those with pre-treatment TSH concentrations of 4.1-10 mIU/L. However, the increased risk of other pregnancy related adverse outcomes calls for additional studies evaluating the safety of thyroid hormone treatment in this patient population. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. The effect of recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone on semen parameters after varicocelectomy in infertile men

    Atoosa Bagheri Behzad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infertility is defined as failure to achieve pregnancy after one year of unprotected sexual intercourse. Infertility can be related to male or female factors. Varicocele is the most common cause of infertility in men that is correctable with surgery. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone (rFSH on semen parameters in infertile men. Methods: This randomized clinical trial was done on 96 infertile men admitted to the Women's General Hospital Mohebe-Yas from September 2014 to September 2015. Inclusion criteria were to include varicocelectomy for unilateral idiopathic varicoceles and consent to participate in the study. Allergy to the drug combination and patient dissatisfaction were exclusion criteria. Patients participating in the study were divided into two groups randomly, one group received recombinant FSH three times a week and the other group received a placebo (normal saline in the same way. After three months, the improvement of semen parameters, including motility, morphology and sperm count as well as the complications were determined in both groups. The data were analyzed with statistical software SPSS version 13 (Chicago, IL, USA. Results: A total of 96 patients were enrolled in two groups of 48 men and women; both groups were matched in terms of underlying factors. The rate of improvement in the morphology and motility of sperm in the treated group was significantly more than the placebo group (P= 0.0001; but the changes in sperm count were not significantly different between the groups (P= 0.495. Conclusion: In summary, based on the results obtained in this study, it can be concluded that recombinant FSH is effective on improving semen parameters in infertile men after varicocelectomy compared with a placebo group and its major impact is on the morphology and motility of sperm.

  11. Isolated low follicle stimulating hormone (FSH in infertile males – a preliminary report

    Nader Salama

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: High levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH in infertile males received a significant attention and exploration. Studies investigating the isolated deficiency of FSH in males are few, and its real prevalence is still unknown. Therefore, the objectives of the current study was to report the prevalence of isolated low FSH in infertile males and highlight their demographics and standard sperm parameters. Methods: Records of 3335 infertile men were retrospectively checked. Patients with isolated low FSH were retrieved. FSH levels were categorized into 3 groups based on the number of affected sperm parameter (s. Study variables were also arranged into 2 groups in relation to smoking history. A control group was included to document the changes in sperm morphology. Results: Isolated low FSH (1.146 ± 0.219 mIU/mL was found in 29 (0.87% patients. All patients showed at least one abnormal sperm parameter. The abnormal parameters were present in different combinations within the same patient but with no significant correlations with the FSH levels. The FSH levels got lower as the number of the affected sperm parameters increased although the decline was insignificant. The most frequent abnormal parameter presented was sperm morphology (86.2%. Anomalous sperm morphology was highly and significantly demonstrated in the head; specifically in acrosome. Abnormal sperm parameters were present in both smoking and nonsmoking groups but with no significant differences in between. Conclusions: Isolated low FSH among infertile males has a low prevalence. This may be associated with abnormality in semen parameters; particularly sperm morphology. These patients are suggested to be found as a primary entity. However, an additional work-up is highly recommended to validate this hypothesis.

  12. Expression of follicle-stimulating hormone receptor by the vascular endothelium in tumor metastases

    Siraj, Ahsan; Gonin, Julie; Radu, Aurelian; Ghinea, Nicolae; Desestret, Virginie; Antoine, Martine; Fromont, Gaëlle; Huerre, Michel; Sanson, Marc; Camparo, Philippe; Pichon, Christophe; Planeix, François

    2013-01-01

    The Follicle Stimulating Hormone receptor (FSHR) is expressed by the vascular endothelium in a wide range of human tumors. It was not determined however if FSHR is present in metastases which are responsible for the terminal illness. We used immunohistochemistry based on a highly FSHR-specific monoclonal antibody to detect FSHR in cancer metastases from 6 major tumor types (lung, breast, prostate, colon, kidney, and leiomyosarcoma) to 6 frequent locations (bone, liver, lymph node, brain, lung, and pleura) of 209 patients. In 166 patients examined (79%), FSHR was expressed by blood vessels associated with metastatic tissue. FSHR-positive vessels were present in the interior of the tumors and some few millimeters outside, in the normally appearing tissue. In the interior of the metastases, the density of the FSHR-positive vessels was constant up to 7 mm, the maximum depth available in the analyzed sections. No significant differences were noticed between the density of FSHR-positive vessels inside vs. outside tumors for metastases from lung, breast, colon, and kidney cancers. In contrast, for prostate cancer metastases, the density of FSHR-positive vessels was about 3-fold higher at the exterior of the tumor compared to the interior. Among brain metastases, the density of FSHR-positive vessels was highest in lung and kidney cancer, and lowest in prostate and colon cancer. In metastases of breast cancer to the lung pleura, the percentage of blood vessels expressing FSHR was positively correlated with the progesterone receptor level, but not with either HER-2 or estrogen receptors. In normal tissues corresponding to the host organs for the analyzed metastases, obtained from patients not known to have cancer, FSHR staining was absent, with the exception of approx. 1% of the vessels in non tumoral temporal lobe epilepsy samples. FSHR is expressed by the endothelium of blood vessels in the majority of metastatic tumors

  13. Cancer risk and clinicopathological characteristics of thyroid nodules harboring thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor gene mutations.

    Mon, Sann Y; Riedlinger, Gregory; Abbott, Collette E; Seethala, Raja; Ohori, N Paul; Nikiforova, Marina N; Nikiforov, Yuri E; Hodak, Steven P

    2018-05-01

    Thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) gene mutations play a critical role in thyroid cell proliferation and function. They are found in 20%-82% of hyperfunctioning nodules, hyperfunctioning follicular thyroid cancers (FTC), and papillary thyroid cancers (PTC). The diagnostic importance of TSHR mutation testing in fine needle aspiration (FNA) specimens remains unstudied. To examine the association of TSHR mutations with the functional status and surgical outcomes of thyroid nodules, we evaluated 703 consecutive thyroid FNA samples with indeterminate cytology for TSHR mutations using next-generation sequencing. Testing for EZH1 mutations was performed in selected cases. The molecular diagnostic testing was done as part of standard of care treatment, and did not require informed consent. TSHR mutations were detected in 31 (4.4%) nodules and were located in exons 281-640, with codon 486 being the most common. Allelic frequency ranged from 3% to 45%. Of 16 cases (12 benign, 3 FTC, 1 PTC) with surgical correlation, 15 had solitary TSHR mutations and 1 PTC had comutation with BRAF V600E. Hyperthyroidism was confirmed in all 3 FTC (2 overt, 1 subclinical). Of 5 nodules with solitary TSHR mutations detected at high allelic frequency, 3 (60%) were FTC. Those at low allelic frequency (3%-22%) were benign. EZH1 mutations were detected in 2 of 4 TSHR-mutant malignant nodules and neither of 2 benign nodules. We report that TSHR mutations occur in ∼5% thyroid nodules in a large consecutive series with indeterminate cytology. TSHR mutations may be associated with an increased cancer risk when present at high allelic frequency, even when the nodule is hyperfunctioning. Benign nodules were however most strongly correlated with TSHR mutations at low allelic frequency. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Follicle stimulating hormone alleviates radiation-induced degeneration of mouse ovarian follicles

    Lee, C.J. [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J.K.; Chun, K.J.

    2000-05-01

    The present study was performed to analyze the influences of (FSH) follicle stimulating hormone and {gamma}-radiation on the morphological changes of ovarian follicles and serum concentrations of testosterone, and estradiol-17{beta} in prepubertal mice. Female mice (ICR strain, three weeks old) were irradiated with 8.33 Gy of {gamma}-ray and followed by a 5 IU i.p.-injection of FSH to know the effect of FSH on the ovarian follicles. Left ovaries were collected at 0 h, 1 d, and 2 d after irradiation or saline/ FSH injection. Another group was received 5 IU of FSH 2 hours before irradiation to analyze the changes of ovarian steroidogenic abilities. By the morphometrical analysis, the number of normal or atretic follicles was counted and the ratio of normal to atretic follicle numbers was calculated. The percentage of atretic follicles was significantly reduced by the treatment of FSH. In the case of the FSH-injected group, the cellular debris caused by radiation was engulfed by the immune cells and the neighboring granulosa cells within the follicles. In concurrence with the morphometric analysis, the changes of the serum concentrations (pg/ml) of testosterone (T) and estradiol (E{sub 2}) were determined by radioimmunoassays. The concentration of T was 336.8{+-}61.3 in the control mice. One day after irradiation, the concentration went up to 484.8{+-}80.0 in the irradiated group, and down to 243.5{+-}80.7 in the FSH-treated one. The concentration of E{sub 2} was 174.9{+-}15.0 in the control group. One day after irradiation, however, the concentration was decreased to 94.8{+-}19.8, and 155.9{+-}8.7 in the irradiated and FSH-treated group, respectively. The alleviation of the follicular degeneration by the treatment of FSH is closely related to the elimination of the cellular debris and to the activities of the steroidogenic enzymes. (Author)

  15. Factors that predict a positive response on gonadotropin-releasing hormone stimulation test for diagnosing central precocious puberty in girls

    Junghwan Suh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available PurposeThe rapid increase in the incidence of precocious puberty in Korea has clinical and social significance. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH stimulation test is required to diagnose central precocious puberty (CPP, however this test is expensive and time-consuming. This study aimed to identify factors that can predict a positive response to the GnRH stimulation test.MethodsClinical and laboratory parameters, including basal serum luteinizing hormone (LH, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, and estradiol (E2, were measured in 540 girls with clinical signs of CPP.ResultsTwo hundred twenty-nine of 540 girls with suspected CPP had a peak serum LH level higher than 5 IU/L (the CPP group. The CPP group had advanced bone age (P<0.001, accelerated yearly growth rate (P<0.001, increased basal levels of LH (P=0.02, FSH (P<0.001, E2 (P=0.001, and insulin-like growth factor-I levels (P<0.001 compared to the non-CPP group. In contrast, body weight (P<0.001 and body mass index (P<0.001 were lower in the CPP group. Although basal LH was significantly elevated in the CPP group compared to the non-CPP group, there was considerable overlap between the 2 groups. Cutoff values of basal LH (0.22 IU/L detected CPP with 87.8% sensitivity and 20.9% specificity.ConclusionNo single parameter can predict a positive response on the GnRH stimulation test with both high sensitivity and specificity. Therefore, multiple factors should be considered in evaluation of sexual precocity when deciding the timing of the GnRH stimulation test.

  16. TSH IRMA of dried blood spots

    Tojinda, N.; Pattanachak, C.; Chongchirasiri, S.; Pattanachak, S.; Putrasreni, N.; Pleehachinda, R.; Suwanik, R.

    1990-01-01

    TSH determination is most useful for screening of neonatal hypothyroid in the population in iodine deficient areas. The NETRIA IRMA method for serum TSH was applied for blood-spot TSH. Cord blood on SS No. 903 filter paper was left dry overnight. The spot of 6 mm diameter, one/tube, was mixed with an assay buffer, diluted labelled m-anti-TSH, and diluted anti-TSH-solid phase. The mixture was rotated for 22-24 hours. After washing twice with wash buffer, it was counted for 1 minute. The standard curve with 0, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, and 150 mIU/L whole blood was obtained with the maximum binding of 25%. The precision profile was satisfactory with %CV of 0 C) or 4 0 C or -20 0 C. The correlation between serum and blood-spot TSH values (n=120) showed r of 0.9541 and y=1.6123 (BS-TSH) +1.382. The mean of normal cord blood spot TSH (n=142) was 5.27 mIU/L. The technique was found to be precise, sensitive and easy to perform. Mass screening with this developed method is underway

  17. Effect of different culture systems and 3, 5, 3'-triiodothyronine/follicle-stimulating hormone on preantral follicle development in mice.

    Cheng Zhang

    Full Text Available The mechanical method to isolate preantral follicle has been reported for many years. However, the culture systems in vitro are still unstable. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of the culture system of mice preantral follicles on the follicular development in vitro. The results showed that the 96-well plate system was the most effective method for mice follicle development in vitro (volume change: 51.71%; survival rate: 89%, at day 4. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH and Thyroid hormone (TH are important for normal follicular development and dysregulation of hormones are related with impaired follicular development. To determine the effect of hormone on preantral follicular development, we cultured follicle with hormones in the 96-well plate culture system and found that FSH significantly increased preantral follicular growth on day 4. The FSH-induced growth action was markedly enhanced by T₃ although T₃ was ineffective alone. We also demonstrated by QRT-PCR that T₃ significantly enhanced FSH-induced up-regulation of Xiap mRNA level. Meanwhile, Bad, cell death inducer, was markedly down-regulated by the combination of hormones. Moreover, QRT-PCR results were also consistent with protein regulation which detected by Western Blotting analysis. Taken together, the findings of the present study demonstrate that 96-well plate system is an effective method for preantral follicle development in vitro. Moreover, these results provide insights on the role of thyroid hormone in increasing FSH-induced preantral follicular development, which mediated by up-regulating Xiap and down-regulating Bad.

  18. Growth hormone administration stimulates energy expenditure and extrathyroidal conversion of thyroxine to triiodothyronine in a dose-dependent manner and suppresses circadian thyrotrophin levels: studies in GH-deficient adults

    Laursen, Torben; Jørgensen, Jens Otto Lunde; Møller, Jens

    1994-01-01

    . CONCLUSIONS: GH administration stimulated peripheral T4 to T3 conversion in a dose-dependent manner. Serum T3 levels were subnormal despite T4 substitution when the patients were off GH but normalized with GH therapy. Energy expenditure increased with GH and correlated with free T3 levels. GH caused......Abstract OBJECTIVE: The impact of exogenous GH on thyroid function remains controversial although most data add support to a stimulation of peripheral T4 to T3 conversion. For further elucidation we evaluated iodothyronine and circadian TSH levels in GH-deficient patients as part of a GH dose...... without GH, whereas GH therapy significantly suppressed the TSH levels and blunted the circadian rhythm (mean TSH levels (mU/l) 0.546 +/- 0.246 (no GH) vs 0.066 +/- 0.031 (2 IU GH) (P

  19. Initial diagnosis and follow-up in thyroid dysfunctions by use of immunoradiometric TSH measurement

    Joseph, K.

    1985-01-01

    4.245 patient studies with a highly sensitive immunoradiometric TSH assay revealed a normal range from 0.1 to 3.5 mU/l. Hyperthyroid patients had TSH values 6.0 mU/l. The results of TRH stimulation after nasal application of 2 mg TRH are strongly related to basal TSH measurement, thus, a demand on TRH tests exists only in basal TSH concentrations 0.1 to 0.3 mU/l and 3.5 to 6.0 mU/l for latent function anomalies. During T 4 therapy basal TSH values below 0.3 mU/l are indicative for sufficient suppression, for proof of overdosage T 3 parameters have to be used. In antithyroid drug therapy basal TSH measurement is important after the initial phase of therapy for precise antithyroid drug dosage. Therefore, the highly sensitive TSH measurement is the most important initial parameter for exclusion or evidence of thyroid function anomaly. (orig.) [de

  20. Functional diagnostics for thyrotropin hormone receptor autoantibodies: bioassays prevail over binding assays.

    Lytton, Simon David; Schluter, Anke; Banga, Paul J

    2018-06-01

    Autoantibodies to the thyrotropin hormone receptor (TSH-R) are directly responsible for the hyperthyroidism in Graves' disease and mediate orbital manifestations in Graves' orbitopathy (otherwise known as thyroid eye disease). These autoantibodies are heterogeneous in their function and collectively referred to as TRAbs. Measurement of TRAbs is clinically important for diagnosis of a variety of conditions and different commercial assays with high sensitivity and specificity are available for diagnostic purposes. This review provides overwhelming evidence that the TRAbs detected in binding assays by mainly the automated electrochemical luminescence immunoassays (ECLIA) do not distinguish TRAbs that stimulate the TSH-R (called TSIs or TSAbs) and TRAbs that just inhibit the binding of TSH without stimulating the TSH-R (called TBAbs). However, TSAbs and TBAbs have divergent pathogenic roles, and depending which fraction predominates cause different clinical symptoms and engender different therapeutic regimen. Therefore, diagnostic distinction of TSAbs and TBAbs is of paramount clinical importance. To date, only bioassays such as the Mc4 TSH-R bioassay (Thyretain TM , Quidel) and the Bridge assay (Immulite 2000, Siemens) can measure TSAbs, with only the former being able to distinguish between TSAbs and TBAbs. On this note, it is strongly recommended to only use the term TSI or TSAb when reporting the results of bioassays, whereas the results of automated TRAb binding assays should be reported as TRAbs (of undetermined functional significance). This review aims to present a technical and analytical account of leading commercial diagnostic methods of anti-TSH-R antibodies, a metaanalysis of their clinical performance and a perspective for the use of cell based TSH-R bioassays in the clinical diagnostics of Graves' disease.

  1. Antitumor Responses Stimulated by Dendritic Cells Are Improved by Triiodothyronine Binding to the Thyroid Hormone Receptor β.

    Alamino, Vanina A; Mascanfroni, Iván D; Montesinos, María M; Gigena, Nicolás; Donadio, Ana C; Blidner, Ada G; Milotich, Sonia I; Cheng, Sheue-Yann; Masini-Repiso, Ana M; Rabinovich, Gabriel A; Pellizas, Claudia G

    2015-04-01

    Bidirectional cross-talk between the neuroendocrine and immune systems orchestrates immune responses in both physiologic and pathologic settings. In this study, we provide in vivo evidence of a critical role for the thyroid hormone triiodothyronine (T3) in controlling the maturation and antitumor functions of dendritic cells (DC). We used a thyroid hormone receptor (TR) β mutant mouse (TRβPV) to establish the relevance of the T3-TRβ system in vivo. In this model, TRβ signaling endowed DCs with the ability to stimulate antigen-specific cytotoxic T-cell responses during tumor development. T3 binding to TRβ increased DC viability and augmented DC migration to lymph nodes. Moreover, T3 stimulated the ability of DCs to cross-present antigens and to stimulate cytotoxic T-cell responses. In a B16-OVA mouse model of melanoma, vaccination with T3-stimulated DCs inhibited tumor growth and prolonged host survival, in part by promoting the generation of IFNγ-producing CD8(+) T cells. Overall, our results establish an adjuvant effect of T3-TRβ signaling in DCs, suggesting an immediately translatable method to empower DC vaccination approaches for cancer immunotherapy. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  2. Optimal cutoff value of basal anti-mullerian hormone in iranian infertile women for prediction of ovarian hyper-stimulation syndrome and poor response to stimulation.

    Aghssa, Malek Mansour; Tarafdari, Azam Manshadi; Tehraninejad, Ensieh Shahrokh; Ezzati, Mohammad; Bagheri, Maryam; Panahi, Zahra; Mahdavi, Saeed; Abbasi, Mehrshad

    2015-09-10

    We intended to establish the threshold of Anti-Mullerian Hormone (AMH) for detection of Ovarian Hyper-Stimulation Syndrome (OHSS) and poor response to treatment in Iranian infertile women. Pre-stimulation menstrual cycle day-3 hormonal indices including basal AMH values were measured in 105 infertile women aged 32.5 ± 4.3 years. Patients underwent long GnRH agonist Controlled Ovarian Hyperstimulation (COH) in a referral infertility center (Tehran, Iran). The gonadotropin dose was determined based on the age and basal serum Follicular Stimulating Hormone (FSH) level. The IVF/ICSI cycles were followed and the clinical and sonographic data were recorded. Sixteen cases developed OHSS. The prevalence of PCOS was higher in subjects with OHSS [62.5 % (38.8-86.2) vs. 17 % (9.2-24.9)]. The patients with OHSS had higher ovarian follicular count [23.7 (3.2) vs. 9.1 (0.5); p Basal AMH level and oocyte yields (but not age, BMI, and PCOS) correlated with occurrence of OHSS; and only the AMH levels were associated with poor ovarian response (oocytes yield ≤ 4). The optimal cutoff value for the prediction of OHSS was 6.95 ng/ml (area under the receiver operating characteristics curve: 0.86; CI: 0.78-0.95; sensitivity: 75 %; specificity: 84 %; odds ratio for occurrence of OHSS: 9 and p basal AMH level > 6.95 ng/ml are at high risk of developing OHSS and those with AMH level < 1.65 ng/ml are poor responders.

  3. Growth hormone-releasing factor stimulates proliferation of somatotrophs in vitro

    Billestrup, Nils; Swanson, L W; Vale, W

    1986-01-01

    The mitogenic effect of the hypothalamic peptides growth hormone-releasing factor (GRF) and somatostatin on cultured growth hormone (GH)-producing cells (somatotrophs) was studied. Using autoradiographic detection of [3H]thymidine uptake and immunocytochemical identification of GH-producing cells...

  4. Study on changes of hypothalamus-pituitary-target axis hormones in patients with insomnia of fire-symdrome due to the stagnation

    Chen Jianfei; Yan Songqin

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of hypothalamus-pituitary-target axis hormones in patients with insomnia of fire-symdrom due to the stagnation of liver-qi. Methods: Serum thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), growth hormone (GH), free thyroxine (FT 4 ), cortisol levels were measured with immunoradioassay (IMRA) and radioimmunoassay (RIA) in 30 patients with this type of insomnia and 30 controls. Results: The serum TSH levels were significantly lower and serum TRH, GH, cortisol FT 4 levels were significantly higher in the patients than those in controls (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Conclusion: This insomnia syndrome was closely related to the dysfunction of mpothalamus-pituitary-thyroid and adrenal axis. (authors)

  5. Serum TSH, thyroglobulin, and thyroidal disorders in atomic bomb survivors exposed in youth: 30-year follow-up study

    Morimoto, I.; Yoshimoto, Y.; Sato, K.; Hamilton, H.B.; Kawamoto, S.; Izumi, M.; Nagataki, S.

    1987-01-01

    Follow-up examinations to determine the frequency of thyroidal disorders were conducted by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) on individuals in Hiroshima and Nagasaki who were less than 20 yr of age at the time of exposure to the atomic bomb. Concentrations of serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroglobulin (TG), and anti-TG antibody 30 yr after exposure were also determined. Nontoxic uninodular goiter was found in 13 cases of the 100 + rad exposed group (n = 477) and in three cases of the nonexposed group (n = 501). The prevalence in the 100+ rad exposed group was significantly higher (chi-squared = 6.584, p less than 0.01). Thyroid cancer was found in eight exposed cases, all of whom were in the 100+ rad group, and the prevalence was significantly greater (chi-squared = 7.919, p less than 0.01). Regardless of the presence or absence of thyroid disorders, serum TSH and TG levels were not statistically different between the 100 rad + exposed and nonexposed groups. Although hypothyroidism was found in 23 of the total cases, there was no correlation between its development and exposure to ionizing irradiation

  6. Physico-chemical characterization of human recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone (hFSH) and its subunits by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography ( RP-HPLC): comparison with pituitary hFSH reference preparation from 'National Hormone and Pituitary Program' from USA; Caracterizacao fisico-quimica da foliculotropina humana(hFSH) recombinabte e de suas subunidades, por cromatografia liquida de alta eficiencia (HPLC) em fase reversa: comparacao com a preparacao de referencia de hFSH de origem hipofisaria do ''National Hormone and Pituitary Program'' dos EUA

    Loureiro, Renan Fernandes

    2006-07-01

    A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of intact human folliclestimulating hormone (hFSH) was established and validated for accuracy, precision and sensitivity. Human FSH is a dimeric glycoprotein hormone widely used as a diagnostic analyte and as therapeutic product in reproductive medicine. The technique developed preserves the protein integrity, allowing the analysis of the intact heterodimeric form rather than just of its subunits, as it is the case for the majority of the conditions currently employed. This methodology has also been employed for comparing the relative hydrophobicity of pituitary, urinary and two Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-derived hFSH preparations, as well as of two other related glycoprotein hormones of the anterior pituitary: human thyroid-stimulating hormone (hTSH) and human luteinizing hormone (hLH). The least hydrophobic of the three glycohormones analyzed was hFSH, followed by hTSH and hLH. A significant difference (p<0.005) was observed in t{sub R} between the pituitary and recombinant hFSH preparations, reflecting structural differences in their carbohydrate moieties. Two main isoforms were detected in urinary hFSH, including a form which was significantly different (p<0.005) for the pituitary and recombinant preparations. The linearity of the dose-response curve (r = 0.9965, n = 15) for this RP-HPLC methodology, as well as an inter-assay precision with relative standard deviation less than 4% for the quantification of different hFSH preparations and a sensitivity of the order of 40 ng, were demonstrated. The chromatographic behavior and relative hydrophobicity of the individual subunits of the pituitary and recombinant preparations were also analyzed. Furthermore, the accurate molecular mass of the individual hFSH subunits and of the heterodimer were simultaneously determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectral

  7. Protocol for thyroid remnant ablation after recombinant TSH in thyroid carcinoma

    Pitoia, F.; Salvai, M.E.; Niepomniszcze, H.; Tamer, E. El

    2009-01-01

    In some countries, in order to perform rhTSH-aided thyroid remnant ablation (TRA) after surgery, it is generally necessary to confirm that thyroidectomy has been almost complete. Otherwise, the nuclear medicine specialist will not administer a high radioiodine dose because it might be hazardous due to the possibility of thyroid remnant actinic thyroiditis. Considering this, it would be necessary to use two rhTSH kits (one for diagnostic purposes and the other one to administer the 131 I dose). In this study, we used an alternative protocol for TRA with the use of one kit of rhTSH in twenty patients diagnosed with low risk papillary thyroid carcinoma. All patients had negative titers of anti-thyroglobulin antibodies. Successful thyroid remnant ablation was confirmed with an undetectable rhTSH stimulated thyroglobulin level ( [es

  8. Plasma concentrations of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone are elevated in patients on chronic haemodialysis.

    Airaghi, L; Garofalo, L; Cutuli, M G; Delgado, R; Carlin, A; Demitri, M T; Badalamenti, S; Graziani, G; Lipton, J M; Catania, A

    2000-08-01

    Clinical and/or laboratory signs of systemic inflammation occur frequently in patients undergoing long-term haemodialysis. It is likely, therefore, that a compensatory release of endogenous anti-inflammatory molecules occurs to limit host reactions. The aim of the present research was to determine if the potent anti-inflammatory peptide alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH), a pro-opiomelanocortin derivative, is increased in plasma of haemodialysis patients. Because endotoxin and cytokines induce alpha-MSH in vivo and in vitro, we also measured plasma concentrations of endotoxin, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), and the two circulating products of activated monocytes, nitric oxide (NO) and neopterin. Thirty-five chronic haemodialysis patients, 20 patients with chronic renal failure not yet on dialysis, and 35 normal controls were included in the study. In the haemodialysis group, blood samples were obtained before and at the end of a dialysis session. Plasma alpha-MSH was measured using a double antibody radioimmunoassay, and IL-6, TNF-alpha, and neopterin using specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Plasma nitrites were determined by a colorimetric method, and endotoxin with the quantitative chromogenic LAL (limulus amoebocyte lysate) method. Mean plasma alpha-MSH was higher in haemodialysis patients than in control subjects, with the peptide concentrations being particularly elevated in dialysed patients with detectable endotoxin. High alpha-MSH concentrations were observed in the pre-dialysis samples, with no substantial change at the end of the dialysis session. Plasma concentrations of IL-6, TNF-alpha, neopterin, and NO were generally elevated in chronic haemodialysis patients and there was a negative correlation between circulating alpha-MSH and IL-6. In patients with renal failure not yet on dialysis, mean plasma alpha-MSH was similar to that of normal subjects. alpha-MSH is increased in the circulation of

  9. Influence of commercially available follicle stimulating hormone on the in vitro maturation of bovine oocytes

    Maria Valéria de Oliveira Santos

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The work aimed (Experiment I to compare commercial representations of porcine follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, Pluset® vs. Folltropin® in concentration (10 ?g/mL and time (24 h standard (more used in protocols of in vitro maturation, IVM; (Experiment II to evaluate the best incubation time (6 h vs. 16 h vs. 24 h and, (Experiment III analyze varying concentrations (1.0 ?g/mL vs. 2.5 ?g/mL vs. 10.0 ?g/mL of representations of FSH on the IVM of bovine oocytes. Thus, oocytes were recovered and submitted to IVM under appropriate conditions. After the IVM, oocytes were evaluated for expansion of cumulus cells (CCs, presence of the first polar body (1PB and metaphase plate (MII. All the data were analyzed by the Fisher exact test (P 0.05 was observed in maturation rates of the oocytes incubated with FSH Pluset® or Folltropin®, assessed by expansion of CCs (97.6% vs. 94.3%, presence of 1PB (76.6% vs. 69.4% and MII (70.0% vs. 68.6%. In Experiment II, when the incubation time with FSH was evaluated, both Pluset® as Folltropin® showed lower rate of expansion of CCs when they were present only in the first 6 h of IVM. As for presence of 1PB, differences were observed in relation to Pluset® while Folltropin® showed similar results in all incubation times. Regarding the MII, no difference was observed between the incubation times with FSH Pluset® and Folltropin®. In Experiment III, no difference was observed in the expansion of CCs, presence of 1PB and MII for concentrations evaluated FSH Pluset® and Folltropin®. Therefore, the FSH Pluset® and Folltropin® have the same efficiency in IVM of bovine oocytes. Regarding the incubation time, it is recommended to maintain FSH (Pluset® or Folltropin® throughout the period of IVM, since there was no difference in the results of presence of MII. Furthermore, the concentration of 1.0 ?g/mL of FSH Pluset® and Folltropin® is as effective as 10 ?g/mL and can therefore be used for IVM of oocytes.

  10. Melanoma Therapy with Rhenium-Cyclized Alpha Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone Peptide Analogs

    Thomas P Quinn

    2005-11-22

    Malignant melanoma is the 6th most commonly diagnosed cancer with increasing incidence in the United States. It is estimated that 54,200 cases of malignant melanoma will be newly diagnosed and 7,600 cases of death will occur in the United States in the year 2003 (1). At the present time, more than 1.3% of Americans will develop malignant melanoma during their lifetime (2). The average survival for patients with metastatic melanoma is about 6-9 months (3). Moreover, metastatic melanoma deposits are resistant to conventional chemotherapy and external beam radiation therapy (3). Systematic chemotherapy is the primary therapeutic approach to treat patients with metastatic melanoma. Dacarbazine is the only single chemotherapy agent approved by FDA for metastatic melanoma treatment (5). However, the response rate to Dacarbazine is only approximately 20% (6). Therefore, there is a great need to develop novel treatment approaches for metastatic melanoma. The global goal of this research program is the rational design, characterization and validation of melanoma imaging and therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals. Significant progress has been made in the design and characterization of metal-cyclized radiolabeled alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone peptides. Therapy studies with {sup 188}Re-CCMSH demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of the receptor-targeted treatment in murine and human melanoma bearing mice (previous progress report). Dosimetry calculations, based on biodistribution data, indicated that a significant dose was delivered to the tumor. However, {sup 188}Re is a very energetic beta-particle emitter. The longer-range beta-particles theoretically would be better for larger tumors. In the treatment of melanoma, the larger primary tumor is usually surgically removed leaving metastatic disease as the focus of targeted radiotherapy. Isotopes with lower beta-energies and/or shorter particle lengths should be better suited for targeting metastases. The {sup 177}Lu

  11. Melanome Therapy with Rhenium Cyclized Alpha Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone Peptide Analogs. Final report

    Quinn, Thomas P.

    2005-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is the 6th most commonly diagnosed cancer with increasing incidence in the United States. It is estimated that 54,200 cases of malignant melanoma will be newly diagnosed and 7,600 cases of death will occur in the United States in the year 2003 (1). At the present time, more than 1.3% of Americans will develop malignant melanoma during their lifetime (2). The average survival for patients with metastatic melanoma is about 6-9 months (3). Moreover, metastatic melanoma deposits are resistant to conventional chemotherapy and external beam radiation therapy (3). Systematic chemotherapy is the primary therapeutic approach to treat patients with metastatic melanoma. Dacarbazine is the only single chemotherapy agent approved by FDA for metastatic melanoma treatment (5). However, the response rate to Dacarbazine is only approximately 20% (6). Therefore, there is a great need to develop novel treatment approaches for metastatic melanoma. The global goal of this research program is the rational design, characterization and validation of melanoma imaging and therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals. Significant progress has been made in the design and characterization of metal-cyclized radiolabeled alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone peptides. Therapy studies with 188 Re-CCMSH demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of the receptor-targeted treatment in murine and human melanoma bearing mice (previous progress report). Dosimetry calculations, based on biodistribution data, indicated that a significant dose was delivered to the tumor. However, 188 Re is a very energetic beta-particle emitter. The longer-range beta-particles theoretically would be better for larger tumors. In the treatment of melanoma, the larger primary tumor is usually surgically removed leaving metastatic disease as the focus of targeted radiotherapy. Isotopes with lower beta-energies and/or shorter particle lengths should be better suited for targeting metastases. The 177 Lu-DOTA-Re(Arg11)CCMSH and

  12. Effect of iodide on glucose oxidation and 32P incorporation into phospholipids stimulated by different agents in dog thyroid slices

    Tseng, F.Y.; Rani, C.S.; Field, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    Since iodide (I-) inhibits TSH stimulation of cAMP formation, which mediates most of the effects of the hormone, it has been assumed that this accounts for the inhibitory action of iodide on the thyroid. However, TSH stimulation of 32P incorporation into phospholipids and stimulation of thyroid metabolism by other agonists, such as carbachol, phorbol esters, and ionophore A23187, is not cAMP mediated. The present studies examined the effect of iodide on stimulation of glucose oxidation and 32P incorporation into phospholipids by TSH and other agonists to determine if the inhibition of cAMP formation was responsible for the action of iodide. Preincubation of dog thyroid slices for 1 h with iodide (10(-4) M) inhibited TSH-, (Bu)2cAMP-, carbachol-, methylene blue-, 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate-, ionophore A23187-, prostaglandin E1-, and cholera toxin-stimulated glucose oxidation. I- also inhibited the stimulation by TSH, 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate, carbachol, and ionophore A23187 of 32P incorporation into phospholipids. The inhibition was similar whether iodide was added 2 h before or simultaneously with the agonist. I- itself sometimes stimulated basal glucose oxidation, but had no effect on basal 32P incorporation into phospholipids. The effects of iodide on basal and agonist-stimulated thyroid metabolism were blocked by methimazole (10(-3) M). When dog thyroid slices were preloaded with 32PO4 or [1-14C]glucose, the iodide inhibition of agonist stimulation disappeared, suggesting that the effect of iodide involves the transport process. In conclusion, I- inhibited stimulation of glucose oxidation and 32P incorporation into phospholipids by all agonists, indicating that the effect is independent of the cAMP system and that iodide autoregulation does not only involve this system. Oxidation and organification of iodide are necessary for the inhibition

  13. Usefulness of recombinant human TSH aided radioiodine doses administered in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    Pitoia, Fabian; El Tamer, Elias; Schere, Daniel B.; Passerieu, Mariano; Bruno, Oscar D.; Niepominiszcze, Hugo

    2006-01-01

    The published studies confirming the safety and efficacy of rh TSH for diagnostic purposes have led to an increased interest in its use for preparation for radioiodine (RI) dose administration in patients with recurrent or persistent differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). In order to establish the efficacy of RI therapy after rh TSH, we have reviewed 39 rh TSH-aided radioiodine treatments in a series of 28 DTC patients. Patients were divided into two groups: GI (n=17), with previous thyroid bed uptake and undetectable thyroglobulin (Tg) levels under levothyroxine treatment and GII (n=11), with proven metastatic local or distant disease. Median follow-up after the first rh TSH-aided radioiodine treatment was 32 ± 13 months (range 8 to 54 months). Sixteen patients (94%) in GI were rendered disease free and one patient was shown to have persistent disease. In GII, the post therapy whole body scan showed pathological uptakes in all cases: in four patients in lungs, in four in mediastinum and in three in lateral neck. In two patients with mediastinum uptake, Tg levels were undetectable after rh TSH. In the follow-up, two patients with lateral neck uptake were rendered disease free, four patients died (three due to thyroid cancer) and five out of the remaining patients have persistent disease. In conclusion, rh TSH aided therapy was helpful to eliminate normal thyroid bed remnants in 16/17 (94%) patients (GI). rh TSH stimulated Tg was undetectable in two patients with mediastinal metastasis. We believe that rh TSH is a good alternative to levothyroxine withdrawal for the treatment of DTC with radioactive iodine, increasing the quality of life in these patients. Caution should be recommended in the follow-up of unselected DTC patients only with stimulated Tg levels. (author) [es

  14. Pituitary-hormone secretion by thyrotropinomas

    Roelfsema, Ferdinand; Kok, Simon; Kok, Petra; Pereira, Alberto M.; Biermasz, Nienke R.; Smit, Jan W.; Frolich, Marijke; Keenan, Daniel M.; Veldhuis, Johannes D.; Romijn, Johannes A.

    2008-01-01

    Hormone secretion by somatotropinomas, corticotropinomas and prolactinomas exhibits increased pulse frequency, basal and pulsatile secretion, accompanied by greater disorderliness. Increased concentrations of growth hormone (GH) or prolactin (PRL) are observed in about 30% of thyrotropinomas leading to acromegaly or disturbed sexual functions beyond thyrotropin (TSH)-induced hyperthyroidism. Regulation of non-TSH pituitary hormones in this context is not well understood. We there therefore ev...

  15. The Changes of Serum TSH in Various States of Thyroid Function

    Ro, Heung Kyu

    1975-01-01

    The serum concentrations of thyrotropin (TSH) were measured by means of radioimmunoassay, in 98 cases of normal controls, 51 cases of hyperthyroidism, 80 cases of primary hypothyroidism and 4 cases of secondary hypothyroidism to evaluate the diagnostic significance in various functional states of the thyroid. The obtained data were analyzed in correlation with other thyroid function test values in various phases of the functional thyroid diseases. The results were as follows: 1) The serum TSH concentration in normal control group was (1.3-8.0 μU/ml). 2) The measurement of serum TSH was more significant in diagnostic accuracy compared with that of serum T 4 (75.0±12.2%). Free T-4 Index (64.2±15.2%), serum T 3 (41.0±21.0%) or T 3 resin uptake (41.1±15.8%) in evaluation of primary hypothyroidism. 3) In case of overt hypothyroidism, the serum TSH and T 4 were both abnormal, compatible with the clinical diagnosis, while in case of preclinical or mild hypothyroidism, the serum T 4 (41.2±23.8% or 50.0±25.0%) was much less reliable than serum TSH. 4) In the treatment of primary hypothyroidism with desiccated thyroid, the administration of 1 grain of the hormone per day was sufficient to suppress the serum concentration of TSH to normal range. It showed that the measurement of serum TSH concentration was a significant criteria in evaluating the efficiency of the treatment of hypothyroidism. 5) The measurement of serum TSH concentration is a very significant method in the early detection of hypothyroidism induced during or after the treatment of the hyperthyroidism with antithyroid drugs or radioactive Iodine ( 131 I).

  16. Growth hormone responsiveness: peak stimulated growth hormone levels and other variables in idiopathic short stature (ISS): data from the National Cooperative Growth Study.

    Moore, Wayne V; Dana, Ken; Frane, James; Lippe, Barbara

    2008-09-01

    In children with idiopathic short stature (ISS), growth hormone (GH) response to a provocative test will be inversely related to the first year response to hGH and be a variable accounting for a degree of responsiveness. Because high levels of GH are a characteristic of GH insensitivity, such as in Laron syndrome, it is possible that a high stimulated GH is associated with a lower first year height velocity among children diagnosed as having ISS. We examined the relationship between the peak stimulated GH levels in 3 ISS groups; GH >10 -40 ng/mL and the first year growth response to rhGH therapy. We also looked at 8 other predictor variables (age, sex, height SDS, height age, body mass index (BMI), bone age, dose, and SDS deficit from target parental height. Multiple regression analysis with the first year height as the dependent variable and peak stimulated GH was the primary endpoint. The predictive value of adding each of the other variables was then assessed. Mean change in height velocity was similar among the three groups, with a maximum difference among the groups of 0.6 cm/yr. There was a small but statistically significant correlation (r=-0.12) between the stimulated GH and first year height velocity. The small correlation between first year growth response and peak GH is not clinically relevant in defining GH resistance. No cut off level by peak GH could be determined to enhance the usefulness of this measure to predict response. Baseline age was the only clinically significant predictor, R-squared, 6.4%. All other variables contributed less than an additional 2% to the R-squared.

  17. Radioiodine therapy in non-toxic multinodular goitre. The possibility of effect-amplification with recombinant human TSH (rhTSH)

    Bonnema, Steen J.; Nielsen, Viveque E.; Hegedues, Laszlo [Odense Univ. Hospital (Denmark). Dept. of Endocrinology and Metabolism

    2006-12-15

    There is no consensus regarding the optimum treatment of benign non-toxic goitre. L-thyroxine suppressive therapy is widely used, but there is poor evidence of its efficacy, and it may have serious adverse effects on health. Surgery is first choice in large goitres or if malignancy is suspected. {sup 131}I therapy results in a one-year goitre reduction of around 40% in multinodular goitres, usually with a high degree of patient satisfaction and improvement of the inspiratory capacity. The effect is attenuated with increasing goitre size. The risk of hypothyroidism is 22-58% within 5-8 years. A sufficient thyroid {sup 131}I uptake is mandatory for {sup 131}I therapy to be feasible and pre-stimulation with recombinant human TSH (rhTSH) increases this considerably. This leads to an increased absorbed thyroid dose by approx.75%, mainly in those patients with the lowest thyroid {sup 131}I uptake, and a more homogeneous intrathyroidal isotope distribution. Pre-stimulation with even a small dose of rhTSH seems to allow a reduction of the {sup 131}I activity while still achieving a mean goitre reduction of approximately 40% within a year. A significantly lower extrathyroidal radiation is achieved by this approach. With an unchanged {sup 131}I activity, rhTSH pre-stimulation improves the goitre reduction by 30-50%. However, this is at the expense of a higher rate of hypothyroidism, cervical pain and transient thyrotoxicosis. Of particular concern is the observation made in healthy persons, that rhTSH results in a transient average thyroid volume increase of 35%. A similar goitre swelling may cause problems in susceptible patients during rhTSH-augmented {sup 131}I therapy. Thus, this concept still needs a closer evaluation before routine use.

  18. The effect of follicular fluid hormones on oocyte recovery after ovarian stimulation: FSH level predicts oocyte recovery

    Rinaudo Paolo F

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ovarian stimulation for assisted reproductive technology (ART overcomes the physiologic process to develop a single dominant follicle. However, following stimulation, egg recovery rates are not 100%. The objective of this study is to determine if the follicular fluid hormonal environment is associated with oocyte recovery. Methods This is a prospective study involving patients undergoing ART by standard ovarian stimulation protocols at an urban academic medical center. A total of 143 follicular fluid aspirates were collected from 80 patients. Concentrations of FSH, hCG, estradiol, progesterone, testosterone and prolactin were determined. A multivariable regression analysis was used to investigate the relationship between the follicular fluid hormones and oocyte recovery. Results Intrafollicular FSH was significantly associated with oocyte recovery after adjustment for hCG (Adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 1.21, 95%CI 1.03–1.42. The hCG concentration alone, in the range tested, did not impact the odds of oocyte recovery (AOR = 0.99, 95%CI 0.93–1.07. Estradiol was significantly associated with oocyte recovery (AOR = 0.98, 95% CI 0.96–0.99. After adjustment for progesterone, the strength of association between FSH and oocyte recovery increased (AOR = 1.84, 95%CI 1.45–2.34. Conclusion The relationship between FSH and oocyte recovery is significant and appears to work through mechanisms independent of the sex hormones. FSH may be important for the physiologic event of separation of the cumulus-oocyte complex from the follicle wall, thereby influencing oocyte recovery. Current methods for inducing the final stages of oocyte maturation, with hCG administration alone, may not be optimal. Modifications of treatment protocols utilizing additional FSH may enhance oocyte recovery.

  19. Perbedaan Kadar Thyroid Stimulating Hormone dan Free Thyroxine pada Pasien Talasemia Β-Mayor dengan Kelasi Besi Deferasirox dan Deferiprone

    Aries - Krisbiyantoro

    2018-03-01

    Hasil. Rerata usia pasien 12,5+3,12 tahun. Rerata kadar TSH kelompok deferiprone dan deferasirox adalah 3.051,78 IU/ml dan 2.351,29 IU/ml. Sedangkan rerata kadar FT4 untuk kelompok deferiprone dan deferasirox 15.424,12 mmol/l dan 15.822,75 IU/ml. Tidak terdapat perbedaan kadar TSH dan FT4 pada kelompok yang mendapatkan deferasirox dan deferiprone berturut-turut nilai TSH (p=0,148; p>0,05 dan FT4 (p=0,836; p>0,05. Kesimpulan. Tidak terdapat perbedaan kadar TSH dan FT4 pada pasien talasemia beta mayor yang mendapatkan kelasi deferasirox maupun deferiprone.

  20. Seasonal variations in TSH serum levels in athyreotic patients under L-thyroxine replacement monotherapy.

    Gullo, Damiano; Latina, Adele; Frasca, Francesco; Squatrito, Sebastiano; Belfiore, Antonino; Vigneri, Riccardo

    2017-08-01

    Whether serum TSH undergoes seasonal fluctuations in euthyroid and hypothyroid residents of temperate climates is controversial. Monthly TSH and thyroid hormone levels were cross-sectionally analysed in a large cohort of euthyroid subjects (n=11 806) and L-thyroxine (L-T4)-treated athyreotic patients (n=3 934). Moreover, in a small group (n=119) of athyreotic patients treated with an unchanged dosage of L-T4 monotherapy, hormones were measured both in the coldest and in the hottest seasons of the same year (longitudinal study). No seasonal hormone change was observed in the euthyroid subjects except for a small FT3 increase in winter (+2.9%, P<.001). In contrast, the L-T4-treated athyreotic patients had significantly higher serum TSH values in the cold season when the FT4 values were significantly lower. The differences were more notable in the longitudinal series (TSH, 0.80 vs. 0.20 mU/L and FT4, 16.3 vs. 17.8 pmol/L in December-March vs. June-September, respectively). In these patients also serum FT3 values significantly decreased in winter (in the longitudinal series, 3.80 in winter vs 4.07 pmol/L in summer). Regression analysis showed that in athyreotic subjects, a greater FT4 change is required to obtain a TSH change similar to that of euthyroid controls and that this effect is more pronounced in the summer. Athyreotic patients undergoing L-T4 monotherapy have abnormal seasonal variations in TSH. These changes are secondary to the FT4 and FT3 serum decreases in winter, which occur in spite of the constant treatment. The underlying mechanisms are unclear, but in some cases, these changes may be clinically relevant. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Genetic Variation of Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Action Is Associated With Age at Testicular Growth in Boys

    Busch, Alexander S; Hagen, Casper P; Main, Katharina M

    2017-01-01

    Context: Although genetic factors play a pivotal role in male pubertal timing, genome-wide association studies have identified only a few loci. Genetic variation of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) action affects adult reproductive parameters and female pubertal timing. Objective: To investigate...... effective FSH action. Effects explained 1.7% (Denmark) and 1.5% (Chile) of the variance. In addition, BMI z score was negatively associated with pubertal timing (β = -0.35 years in both cohorts), explaining 17.2% (Denmark) and 7.2% (Chile) of the variance. Conclusion: In two ethnically distinct populations...

  2. TSH elevations as the first laboratory evidence for pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ib (PHP-Ib).

    Molinaro, Angelo; Tiosano, Dov; Takatani, Rieko; Chrysis, Dionisios; Russell, William; Koscielniak, Nikolas; Kottler, Marie-Laure; Agretti, Patrizia; De Marco, Giuseppina; Ahtiainen, Petteri; Christov, Marta; Mäkitie, Outi; Tonacchera, Massimo; Jüppner, Harald

    2015-05-01

    Hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia because of resistance toward parathyroid hormone (PTH) in the proximal renal tubules are the most prominent abnormalities in patients affected by pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ib (PHP-Ib). In this rare disorder, which is caused by GNAS methylation changes, resistance can occur toward other hormones, such as thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), that mediate their actions through G protein-coupled receptors. However, these additional laboratory abnormalities are usually not recognized until PTH-resistant hypocalcemia becomes clinically apparent. We now describe four pediatric patients, first diagnosed with subclinical or overt hypothyroidism between the ages of 0.2 and 15 years, who developed overt PTH-resistance 3 to 20 years later. Although anti-thyroperoxidase (anti-TPO) antibodies provided a plausible explanation for hypothyroidism in one of these patients, this and two other patients revealed broad epigenetic GNAS abnormalities, which included loss of methylation (LOM) at exons AS, XL, and A/B, and gain of methylation at exon NESP55; ie, findings consistent with PHP-Ib. LOM at GNAS exon A/B alone led in the fourth patient to the identification of a maternally inherited 3-kb STX16 deletion, a well-established cause of autosomal dominant PHP-Ib. Although GNAS methylation changes were not detected in additional pediatric and adult patients with subclinical hypothyroidism (23 pediatric and 39 adult cases), hypothyroidism can obviously be the initial finding in PHP-Ib patients. One should therefore consider measuring PTH, along with calcium and phosphate, in patients with unexplained hypothyroidism for extended periods of time to avoid hypocalcemia and associated clinical complications. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  3. TSH elevations as the first laboratory evidence for pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ib (PHP-Ib)†

    Molinaro, Angelo; Tiosano, Dov; Takatani, Rieko; Chrysis, Dionisios; Russell, William; Koscielniak, Nikolas; Kottler, Marie-Laure; Agretti, Patrizia; De Marco, Giuseppina; Ahtiainen, Petteri; Christov, Marta; Mäkitie, Outi; Tonacchera, Massimo; Jüppner, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia because of resistance towards parathyroid hormone (PTH) in the proximal renal tubules are the most prominent abnormalities in patients affected by pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ib (PHP-Ib). In this rare disorder that is caused by GNAS methylation changes, resistance can occur towards other hormones, such as thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), that mediate their actions through G protein-coupled receptors. However, these additional laboratory abnormalities are usually not recognized until PTH-resistant hypocalcemia becomes clinically apparent. We now describe four pediatric patients, first diagnosed with subclinical or overt hypothyroidism between the ages of 0.2 and 15 years, who developed overt PTH-resistance 3-20 years later. Although anti-TPO antibodies provided a plausible explanation for hypothyroidism in one of these patients, this and two other patients revealed broad epigenetic GNAS abnormalities, which included loss of methylation (LOM) at exons AS, XL and A/B, and gain of methylation at exon NESP55, i.e. findings consistent with PHP-Ib. LOM at GNAS exon A/B alone led in the fourth patient to the identification of a maternally inherited 3-kb STX16 deletion, a well-established cause of autosomal dominant PHP-Ib. Although GNAS methylation changes were not detected in additional pediatric and adult patients with subclinical hypothyroidism (23 pediatric and 39 adult cases), hypothyroidism can obviously be the initial finding in PHP-Ib patients. One should therefore consider measuring PTH, along with calcium and phosphate, in patients with unexplained hypothyroidism for extended periods of time to avoid hypocalcemia and associated clinical complications. PMID:25403028

  4. A case of methimazole-induced hypothyroidism in a patient with endemic goiter: effects of endogenous TSH hyperstimulation after discontinuation of the drug.

    Messina, M; Manieri, C; Spagnuolo, F; Sardi, E; Allegramente, L; Monaco, A; Ciccarelli, E

    1989-04-01

    Serum thyroid hormone and TSH concentrations were monitored in a patient with multinodular endemic goiter and severe methimazole (MMI) induced hypothyrodism up to 190 days after drug withdrawal. Serum concentrations of TT3, TT4 and TSH returned to normal values at the 6th., the 140th, and the 120th. day respectively. Within the first 20 days after MMI withdrawal the increase of serum T3 levels was correlated with the observed decrease of serum TSH concentrations. Successively T3 values decreased and T4 levels progressively increased. Six months after MMI withdrawal basal serum TSH concentration was normal while an exaggerated response to TRH was observed. We think that this peculiar hormone pattern is due to iodine depletion. In this case TSH hyperstimulation increases predominantly T3 secretion demonstrating the reduced thyroidal ability to produce T4 when hyperstimulated.

  5. Thyroid hormone levels in patients with chronic renal failure under haemodialysis

    Khalid, Ahmed Shukralla M.

    1998-06-01

    This study was conducted with three main objectives, to study thyroid hormones (T 4 , T 3 ) and TSH levels in patients with CRF under haemodialysis and to compare them with normal subjects, to study best means of treatment and to compare these findings with results from other parts of the world. This study was done on 61 patients with renal failure in Khartoum dialysis and kidney transplant centre U of K, 45 males and 16 females with ages ranging from 17-75 years and 42 symptoms-free subjects 14 males and 23 females with age ranging from 16-60 years. The radioimmunoassay (RIA) technique was used for the determination of serum T 4 , T 3 and TSH. By using t-test found that the mean concentrations of T 4 , T 3 of normal subjects were much higher than those of the patients (p 0.05). These results also illustrated that 45.9% of patients with renal failure of low T 4 , and 91.8%, 90.26 of patients had T 3 and TSH hormone levels in the normal range, respectively. No significant difference was observed in the mean of thyroid hormones (T 4 , T 3 ) and thyroid-stimulating hormones between males and females (p>0.05). The T 3 and T '4 concentrations in patients at all age groups (year) was less than the age groups of the control group, and this decrease was statistically significant (p 0.05).(Author)

  6. Amenorrhea secondary to a vismodegib-induced blockade of follicle-stimulating hormone-receptor activation.

    Strasswimmer, John; Latimer, Benjamin; Ory, Steven

    2014-08-01

    To report a novel mechanism suggestive of early ovarian failure secondary to the anti-tumor hedgehog-pathway inhibitor vismodegib. Case report and literature review. Academic and private dermatology and fertility practices. A 34-year-old nulliparous woman with locally advanced basal cell carcinomas who became amenorrheic while receiving oral therapy with vismodegib. Physical examination and endocrine evaluation. Elevated follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and low estrogen in the setting of a normal anti-Müllerian hormone. FSH was elevated; estrogen was low. Preantral follicles were detected and anti-Müllerian hormone activity was normal. Menses resumed 5 weeks after cessation of therapy. Vismodegib, a first-in-class inhibitor of the hedgehog signaling pathway is indicated for advanced basal cell carcinoma and is associated with amenorrhea. The mechanism is unknown; it has some features of ovarian failure but preserves ovarian potential through blockading of FSH-receptor-dependent signal transduction. This effect appears to be rapidly reversible upon cessation of therapy. Vismodegib and related compounds may have potential for a role in intervention for gynecologic and endocrine disorders and in therapy for other issues involving FSH-dependent function. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Presence of Thyroid-Stimulation Blocking Antibody Prevents High Bone Turnover in Untreated Premenopausal Patients with Graves' Disease.

    Sun Wook Cho

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis-related fractures are one of the complications of Graves' disease. This study hypothesized that the different actions of thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR antibodies, both stimulating and blocking activities in Graves' disease patients might oppositely impact bone turnover. Newly diagnosed premenopausal Graves' disease patients were enrolled (n = 93 and divided into two groups: patients with TSHR antibodies with thyroid-stimulating activity (stimulating activity group, n = 83 and patients with TSHR antibodies with thyroid-stimulating activity combined with blocking activity (blocking activity group, n = 10. From the stimulating activity group, patients who had matched values for free T4 and TSH binding inhibitor immunoglobulin (TBII to the blocking activity group were further classified as stimulating activity-matched control (n = 11. Bone turnover markers BS-ALP, Osteocalcin, and C-telopeptide were significantly lower in the blocking activity group than in the stimulating activity or stimulating activity-matched control groups. The TBII level showed positive correlations with BS-ALP and osteocalcin levels in the stimulating activity group, while it had a negative correlation with the osteocalcin level in the blocking activity group. In conclusion, the activation of TSHR antibody-activated TSH signaling contributes to high bone turnover, independent of the actions of thyroid hormone, and thyroid-stimulation blocking antibody has protective effects against bone metabolism in Graves' disease.

  8. The Presence of Thyroid-Stimulation Blocking Antibody Prevents High Bone Turnover in Untreated Premenopausal Patients with Graves' Disease.

    Cho, Sun Wook; Bae, Jae Hyun; Noh, Gyeong Woon; Kim, Ye An; Moon, Min Kyong; Park, Kyoung Un; Song, Junghan; Yi, Ka Hee; Park, Do Joon; Chung, June-Key; Cho, Bo Youn; Park, Young Joo

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis-related fractures are one of the complications of Graves' disease. This study hypothesized that the different actions of thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) antibodies, both stimulating and blocking activities in Graves' disease patients might oppositely impact bone turnover. Newly diagnosed premenopausal Graves' disease patients were enrolled (n = 93) and divided into two groups: patients with TSHR antibodies with thyroid-stimulating activity (stimulating activity group, n = 83) and patients with TSHR antibodies with thyroid-stimulating activity combined with blocking activity (blocking activity group, n = 10). From the stimulating activity group, patients who had matched values for free T4 and TSH binding inhibitor immunoglobulin (TBII) to the blocking activity group were further classified as stimulating activity-matched control (n = 11). Bone turnover markers BS-ALP, Osteocalcin, and C-telopeptide were significantly lower in the blocking activity group than in the stimulating activity or stimulating activity-matched control groups. The TBII level showed positive correlations with BS-ALP and osteocalcin levels in the stimulating activity group, while it had a negative correlation with the osteocalcin level in the blocking activity group. In conclusion, the activation of TSHR antibody-activated TSH signaling contributes to high bone turnover, independent of the actions of thyroid hormone, and thyroid-stimulation blocking antibody has protective effects against bone metabolism in Graves' disease.

  9. Investigating the association between polymorphism of follicle-stimulating hormone receptor gene and ovarian response in controlled ovarian hyperstimulation

    Mohammad Hasan Sheikhha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : The aim of the study was to investigate the association between follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR gene polymorphism at Position 680 and the outcomes of controlled ovarian hyperstimulation for in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET in infertile women. Materials and Methods : One hundred and eight patients under 35 years of age who underwent IVF-ET procedures were included in this study. The hormonal profile and treatment of all patients were analyzed and FSHR polymorphism was examined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Women from all groups were classified based on polymorphisms at Position 680, occupied either by asparagines (Asn or serine (Ser as Asn/Asn, Asn/Ser, and Ser/Ser genotype. Result : Our study showed that all patients in the Asn/Asn group were normal responders and in the Asn/Ser group 64.8% were normal responders and 21.1% and 14.1% were poor and hyper responders respectively. In the Ser/Ser group we did not have normal responders and 46.7% of these patients were poor responders and 53.3% were hyper responders. Conclusion : FSH receptor polymorphism is correlated with response to ovarian stimulation.

  10. Local administration of growth hormone stimulates tendon collagen synthesis in elderly men

    Vestergaard, P; Jørgensen, J.O.L.; Olesen, J.L.

    2012-01-01

    Tendon collagen content and circulating growth hormone (GH) are reduced in elderly. In a placebo-controlled, double-blinded study, we examined if local injections of rhGH enhance collagen synthesis in healthy elderly men (61 ± 1 yr). Two injections of rhGH or saline (control) were injected into e...

  11. Lipid mobilization and locomotor stimulation in Gryllus bimaculatus by topically applied adipokinetic hormone

    Lorenz, M. W.; Zemek, Rostislav; Kodrík, Dalibor; Socha, Radomír

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 29, - (2004), s. 146-151 ISSN 0307-6962 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6007202 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5007907 Keywords : Adipokinetic hormone * cricket * Grybi-AKH Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.352, year: 2004

  12. Serum TSH, thyroglobulin, and thyroid disorders in atomic bomb survivors exposed in youth: a study 30 years after exposure

    Morimoto, Isao; Yoshimoto, Yasuhiko; Sato, Kenshi; Hamilton, H.B.; Kawamoto, Sadahisa; Izumi, Motomori; Nagataki, Shigenobu.

    1986-08-01

    A study of individuals in Hiroshima and Nagasaki who were under 20 years of age at the time of atomic bomb exposure and who had been exposed to 100+ rad was conducted to determine the frequency of thyroid disorders as well as the levels of serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), antithyroglobulin antibody, and thyroglobulin (TG), 30 years after exposure. Thyroid disorders were detected in 56 of the 477 subjects of the 100+ rad exposed group and in 39 of the 501 subjects of the 0 rad exposed group, the prevalence being significantly higher in the former group (X 2 = 3.872, P = 0.049). This increased prevalence of thyroid disorders in the 100+ rad exposed group was due to the increased occurrence of thyroid cancer and nontoxic uninodular goiter. Thyroid cancer was found in eight exposed individuals, all of whom belonged to the 100+ rad group; statistically, the prevalence was significantly higher (X 2 = 7.919, P = 0.005). Nontoxic uninodular goiter was observed in 13 cases of the 100+ rad exposed group and 3 cases of the 0 rad exposed group, the prevalence in the 100+ rad exposed group being significantly higher (X 2 = 6.584, P = 0.010). In these cases no increase of serum TSH or TG levels was observed. Mean serum TSH levels in individuals without thyroid disorders were 1.64 ± 1.89 μU/ml (n = 421) in the 100+ rad exposed group and 1.54 ± 1.86 μU/ml (n = 462) in the 0 rad exposed group. Mean serum TG levels were 13.49 ± 13.88 ng/ml (n = 421) in the 100+ rad exposed group and 14.76 ± 15.69 ng/ml (n = 462) in the 0 rad exposed group. Thus, these differences between the two groups were not significant. Also, no significant differences were observed between the 100+ rad and 0 rad exposed groups in the mean serum TSH and TG levels of the subjects who had thyroid diseases but had not been treated for the diseases, and the subjects who had no thyroid diseases. (J.P.N.)

  13. Intrauterine Zn Deficiency Favors Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone-Increasing Effects on Thyrotropin Serum Levels and Induces Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Weaned Rats

    Viridiana Alcántara-Alonso

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Individuals who consume a diet deficient in zinc (Zn-deficient develop alterations in hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis function, i.e., a low metabolic rate and cold insensitivity. Although those disturbances are related to primary hypothyroidism, intrauterine or postnatal Zn-deficient adults have an increased thyrotropin (TSH concentration, but unchanged thyroid hormone (TH levels and decreased body weight. This does not support the view that the hypothyroidism develops due to a low Zn intake. In addition, intrauterine or postnatal Zn-deficiency in weaned and adult rats reduces the activity of pyroglutamyl aminopeptidase II (PPII in the medial-basal hypothalamus (MBH. PPII is an enzyme that degrades thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH. This hypothalamic peptide stimulates its receptor in adenohypophysis, thereby increasing TSH release. We analyzed whether earlier low TH is responsible for the high TSH levels reported in adults, or if TRH release is enhanced by Zn deficiency at weaning. Dams were fed a 2 ppm Zn-deficient diet in the period from one week prior to gestation and up to three weeks after delivery. We found a high release of hypothalamic TRH, which along with reduced MBH PPII activity, increased TSH levels in Zn-deficient pups independently of changes in TH concentration. We found that primary hypothyroidism did not develop in intrauterine Zn-deficient weaned rats and we confirmed that metal deficiency enhances TSH levels since early-life, favoring subclinical hypothyroidism development which remains into adulthood.

  14. Effect of chronic exposure to gamma radiation and of hormonal stimulation with serum gonadotropin on catecholamine levels in hypothalamus, epiphysis and adrenals of ewes

    Pastorova, B.; Arendarcik, J.

    1989-01-01

    The effects were studied of exposure to whole body continuous irradiation and of the administration of serum gonadotropin (SG) on the concentration of catecholamines (epinephrine and norepinephrine) in the hypothalamus, epiphysis and adrenal glands of ewes during the anestric period with synchronized estrus. The first group (young barren ewes) and second group (older ewes) were exposed to continuous radiation of 60 Co for five days. The radiation was applied at a rate of 0.020 Gy per hour. After the termination of irradiation the ewes were subjected to hormonal stimulation by fractionated administration of 1500 I.U. SG. The third and fourth experimental groups of ewes were stimulated with 1500 I.U. SG without irradiation. Catecholamines were separated from the tissue supernatants by adsorption chromatography and the catecholamine contents in the eluates were determined spectrofluorometrically. Chronic exposure to gamma radiation and hormonal stimulation with SG reduced the concentration of norepinephrine in the whole hypothalamus of the sheep. A statistically significant decrease (P<0.001) was recorded in the medial and caudal hypothalamus of the adult ewes and in the rostral and caudal hypothalamus regions of the young ewes. A decrease in norepinephrine concentration, statistically significant in the caudal (P<0.01) and medial hypothalamus was recorded in the group of adult ewes after hormonal stimulation with SG without irradiation. The experimental group of young ewes responded to hormonal stimulation by a greater reduction of norepinephrine contents as compared with combined exposure to radiation and hormonal stimulation. It is assumed that the decrease in catecholamine concentration after hormonal stimulation with SG is associated with the increase in the contents of estrogens which act on the adrenergic receptors of the hypothalamus. (author). 4 figs., 21 refs

  15. Does the time interval between antimüllerian hormone serum sampling and initiation of ovarian stimulation affect its predictive ability in in vitro fertilization-intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist?

    Polyzos, Nikolaos P; Nelson, Scott M; Stoop, Dominic

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether the time interval between serum antimüllerian hormone (AMH) sampling and initiation of ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization-intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF-ICSI) may affect the predictive ability of the marker for low and excessive ovarian response.......To investigate whether the time interval between serum antimüllerian hormone (AMH) sampling and initiation of ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization-intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF-ICSI) may affect the predictive ability of the marker for low and excessive ovarian response....

  16. Increased Androgen Response to Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Administration in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Wachs, Deborah S.; Coffler, Mickey S.; Malcom, Pamela J.; Shimasaki, Shunichi; Chang, R. Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    Context: In women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), excess ovarian androgen production is driven by increased LH secretion. Studies conducted in animals suggest that the granulosa cell may influence LH-stimulated theca cell androgen production.

  17. Influence of TSH on uptake of [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose in human thyroid cells in vitro

    Deichen, J.T.; Schmidt, C.; Prante, O.; Maschauer, S.; Kuwert, T.; Papadopoulos, T.

    2004-01-01

    Recent clinical evidence suggests that positron emission tomography with fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET) is more accurate in detecting thyroid carcinomatous tissue at high than at low TSH levels. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of TSH on FDG uptake in human thyroid cells in vitro. Monolayers of human thyroid tissue were cultured after mechanical disintegration and enzymatic digestion of samples from patients undergoing surgery for nodular goitre. The purity of thyroid cell preparations was ascertained by immunohistochemical staining for the epithelial antigen KL-1, and their viability by measuring the synthesis of thyroglobulin in vitro. The cells were incubated with 0.8-1.5 MBq FDG/ml uptake medium for 1 h. FDG uptake in thyroid cells was quantified as percent of whole FDG activity per well (% ID) or as % ID in relation to total protein mass. This experimental protocol was subsequently varied to study the effect of incubation time, glucose dependency and TSH. Furthermore, radio-thin layer chromatography was used to identify intracellular FDG metabolites. FDG accumulated in the thyroid cells linearly with time, doubling roughly every 20 min. Uptake was competitively inhibited by unlabelled glucose and decreased to approximately 70% at 100 mg/dl glucose compared to the value measured in glucose-free medium. FDG was intracellularly trapped as FDG-6 phosphate and FDG-1,6-diphosphate. TSH significantly increased FDG uptake in vitro in a time- and concentration-dependent manner: Cells cultured at a TSH concentration of 50 μU/ ml doubled FDG uptake compared to TSH-free conditions, and uptake after 72 h of TSH pre-incubation was approximately 300% of that without TSH pre-incubation. TSH stimulates FDG uptake by benign thyroid cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. This supports the clinical evidence that in well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas, most of which are still TSH-sensitive, FDG-PET is more accurate at high levels of

  18. Follicle Stimulating Hormone and Anti-Müllerian Hormone among Fertile and Infertile Women in Ile-Ife, Nigeria: Is there A Difference?

    Okunola Temitope

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Reduced ovarian reserve predicts poor ovarian response and poor suc- cess rates in infertile women who undergo assisted reproductive technology (ART. Ovarian reserve also decreases with age but the rate of decline varies from one woman to another. This study aims to detect differences in ovarian reserve as measured by basal serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH between a matched cohort of fertile and infertile regularly menstruating women, 18-45 years of age. Materials and Methods This case-control study involved 64 fertile and 64 subfertile women matched by age at recruitment. Peripheral blood samples were taken from the women recruited from the Gynecological and Outpatient Clinics of Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Serum FSH and AMH were quantified using ELISA at the Metabolic Research Laboratory of LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Ogbomoso, Nigeria. Results A significant difference existed in the mean FSH of fertile (6.97 ± 3.34 and infertile (13.34 ± 5.24, P=0.013 women. We observed a significant difference in AMH between fertile (2.71 ± 1.91 and infertile (1.60 ± 2.51, P=0.029 women. There was a negative correlation between FSH and AMH in both fertile (r=-0.311, P=0.01 and infertile (r=-0.374, P=0.002 women. Conclusion The difference in ovarian reserve observed in this study suggests that reduced ovarian reserve in regularly menstruating women may be associated with early ovarian ageing or subfertility.

  19. Comparison of thyroid stimulating activities measured by cyclic AMP production, those by radioiodine uptake in FRTL-5 cells and TSH-binding inhibitory activities in patients with hyperthyroid and euthyroid Graves' diseases

    Kasagi, Kanji; Hatabu, Hiroto; Tokuda, Yasutaka; Arai, Keisuke; Iida, Yasuhiro; Konishi, Junji

    1988-01-01

    By using an assay measuring cAMP production in FRTL-5 thyroid cells, thyroid stimulating antibodies (TSab) were detected in all of 15 patients with euthyroid Graves' disease (EG) and of 26 patients with hyperthyroid Graves' disease (HG). There was no signicant difference between TSab activities in Eg and in HG. In an effort to elucidate why EG patients remain euthyroid in spite of having TSab, we investigated the effect of the patient's crude immunoglobulin fractions 125 I uptake in FRTL-5 thyroid cells, one of the indices of stimulation subsequent to cAMP production. The 125 Iuptake stimulation (IUS) activity was positive in 46,7% (7/15) of EG patients and 88.5% (23/26) of HG patients, being significantly lower in the former than in the latter (P 99m Tc thyroid uptake (r = 0.401, P 99m Tc thyroid uptake in comparison to 19 HG patients with a similar range of IUS activities. There was a good correlation between thyroid weight and 99m Tc thyroid uptake (r = 8.827, P 99m Tc and presumably radioiodine in vivo, might be a factor responsible for keeping EG patients euthyroid despite the presence of TSab. (author)

  20. An homologous radioimmunoassay for chicken follicle-stimulating hormone: observations on the ovulatory cycle

    Scanes, C.G.; Godden, P.M.M.; Sharp, P.J.

    1977-01-01

    A highly purified FSH preparation has been used to develop a specific homologous radio-immunoassay for chicken FSH which is sufficiently sensitive and precise to measure the hormone in small samples (10-100 μl) of plasma. The assay was used to measure plasma FSH in the chicken and turkey. The FSH concentration was higher in sexually mature chickens than in juvenile birds and further elevated after castration or ovariectomy. In turkeys, it was lower in birds held on a short daily photoperiod than in birds held on a long daily photoperiod. FSH rose in sexually quiescent female turkeys after injection of synthetic L-H releasing hormone and was increased in laying hens after injection of progesterone. No major changes were observed in FSH concentration during the chicken ovulatory cycle, although there was a small increase between 15 and 14 h before ovulation. (author)

  1. Cytogenetic and dosimetric effects of {sup 131}I in lymphocyte of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer with and without r-hTSH stimulation. Study in thyroid tumor cells (WRO) treated with {sup 131}I and {sup 60}Co in vitro; Efeitos citogenetico e dosimetrico do {sup 131}I em pacientes com cancer diferenciado da tireoide com e sem estimulacao com r-hTSH. Estudo em celulas tumorais tireoidianas (WRO) tratadas com {sup 131}I e {sup 60}Co in vitro

    Valgode, Flavia Gomes Silva

    2015-11-01

    Differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) represents about 90% of thyroid malignancies with increasing incidence in the recent decades. Treatment modalities include thyroidectomy, {sup 131}I therapy (with or without r-hTSH), radio and chemotherapy. Little is known about the effects of these treatments at the cellular level. This work was proposed in order to assess to what extent radioiodine therapy can cause damage in peripheral lymphocytes of patients with DTC, preceded or not by r-hTSH, taking into account acute, slow and dosimetric effects of {sup 131}I (in vivo study). An in vitro study was also carried out on thyroid tumor target cells (WRO) by cytotoxicity and genotoxicity analysis and radioiodine uptake. For this, blood samples from patients divided into two groups (group A, r-hTSH + {sup 131}I and group B,{sup 131}I only) were collected before, 24 hours, 1 week, 1 month and 1 year after {sup 131}I administration for aberration chromosome analysis (CA). A dose-response curve for {sup 131}I in vitro was developed for estimating the absorbed dose in patients, comparing the dicentric frequencies obtained in vitro with in vivo data by Monte Carlo program. Radioiodine therapy induced an increase in the number of CA in lymphocytes of patients peaking 24 hours after treatment, with gradual decline over time and with more chromosomal damage in group B than in group A, reaching baseline levels one year after radioiodine administration. The frequency of dicentric found inpatient lymphocytes, 24h after treatment, was equivalent to that induced in vitro (0.354 ± 0.153 MBq / mL for group A and 0.309 ± 0.154 MBq / mL for group B), which corresponds to absorbed doses of 0.8 ± 0.3 Gy and 0.7 ± 0.3 Gy for groups A and B, respectively, with no significant difference between the groups. WRO cells showed a cell cycle relatively slow: 96,3h with an unstable karyotype. The genotoxic test showed a relatively high radioresistance (0.07 to 3.70 MBq/mL), with no statistical

  2. Comparison level of thyroid and thyroid related hormones between sudanese males and females

    Madani, H.; Hassan, AME.; Basama, N. K.; Mohamed, W.A.S.; Eltayeb, N. H.; Elsayed, B. B.

    2012-12-01

    The function of the thyroid gland is under the control of pituitary gland through the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). It secretes the thyroid hormones tetra-iodo-thyronine (T 4 ) and Tri-iodo-thyronine (T 3 ). More secretion of thyroid hormones (hyperthyroidism) and low secretion (hypothyroidism) sometimes happen. This study was carried out to determine thyroid disorders in patients referred to radioimmunoassay (RIA) laboratory of Sudan Atomic Energy Commission (SAEC) during 2006-2010 for the thyroid function test. Disorders were detected using radioimmunoassay and Immuno radiometric assay. The total number of patients referred during these years were found to be 4700 sudanese patients, among them 4165 were females representing 88.6% compared to 535 males representing 11.4%. The total concentration of thyroid hormones thyroxine (T 4 ), tri iodine thyronine (T 3 ) and thyroid simulating stimulating hormones (TSH) were d terminated the prevalence of euthyroid was (66.5%), hypothyroidism was (11.8%) and of hyperthyroidism was (21.7%). These percentages did not vary significantly with sex. (Author)

  3. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist use in controlled ovarian stimulation and intrauterine insemination cycles in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Ertunc, Devrim; Tok, Ekrem C; Savas, Aysun; Ozturk, Ilay; Dilek, Saffet

    2010-03-01

    To observe the effects of ganirelix on controlled ovarian stimulation and intrauterine insemination (COS/IUI) cycles in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Prospective, randomized, controlled clinical study. An academic clinical research center. Women with PCOS and anovulatory infertility undergoing COS/IUI. Recombinant FSH therapy was started on day 3. In women assigned to the control group (n = 47), treatment was continued up to the day of hCG administration. In patients assigned to receive GnRH antagonist (n = 42), ganirelix was added when the leading follicle was > or =14 mm. Pregnancy rates, serum E(2), P, and LH levels, and follicle numbers at hCG day, prevalence of premature luteinization, and cost of stimulation. Serum E(2), P, and LH levels were significantly lower in the ganirelix group. Although premature luteinization and cycle cancellation was encountered less in the ganirelix group, the pregnancy rates per cycle were similar (15.4% vs. 10.7%). Patients would pay 6,153 dollars more for each pregnancy when using ganirelix. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist resulted in more monofollicular development, less premature luteinization, and less cycle cancellation in IUI cycles of patients with PCOS; however, the cost of stimulation increased without an improvement in pregnancy rates. Copyright 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects on steroid hormones secretion resulting from the acute stimulation of sectioning the superior ovarian nerve to pre-pubertal rats

    Morales-Ledesma Leticia

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the adult rat, neural signals arriving to the ovary via the superior ovarian nerve (SON modulate progesterone (P4, testosterone (T and estradiol (E2 secretion. The aims of the present study were to analyze if the SON in the pre-pubertal rat also modulates ovarian hormone secretion and the release of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and luteinizing (LH hormone. P4, T, E2, FSH and LH serum levels were measured 30 or 60 minutes after sectioning the SON of pre-pubertal female rats. Our results indicate that the effects on hormone levels resulting from unilaterally or bilaterally sectioning the SON depends on the analyzed hormone, and the time lapse between surgery and autopsy, and that the treatment yielded asymmetric results. The results also suggest that in the pre-pubertal rat the neural signals arriving to the ovaries via the SON regulate the enzymes participating in P4, T and E2 synthesis in a non-parallel way, indicating that the mechanisms regulating the synthesis of each hormone are not regulated by the same signals. Also, that the changes in the steroids hormones are not explained exclusively by the modifications in gonadotropins secretion. The observed differences in hormone levels between rats sacrificed 30 and 60 min after surgery reflect the onset of the compensatory systems regulating hormones secretion.

  5. Prospective hormone study of hypothalamic-pituitary function in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma after high dose irradiation

    Chen, Ming-Shen; Lin, Fang-Jen; Huang, Miau-Ju; Wang, Pei-Wan; Tang, Simon; Leung, Wei-Man; Leung, Wan

    1989-01-01

    With the aim of evaluating the effect of high dose irradiation (6,500 cGy/36 fractions or higher) to pituitary fossa, a prospective study was carried out in patients with nasopharyngeal cancer by a serial determination of several hormones in the serum, before and after the course of radiation therapy (RT). The radiation treatment field was at least 1 cm above the skull base with bilateral parallel opposing fields. Hormone assays were performed three times on each patient: (1)prior to, (2)one month after, (3)15-18 months after radiation therapy. The study included determination of serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), cortisol, growth hormone (GH) and prolactin concentrations and LH-releasing hormone, thyrotrophin-releasing hormone stimulation and insulin tolerance tests were also carried out. Complete profiles were obtained in 24 patients (16 males and 8 females), aged 16-67 years. The results showed a significant decrease in the level of serum peak value of LH in males 18 months after therapy, and also in GH both one month and 18 months after therapy. A significant increase in the peak value of serum TSH was observed after therapy. Decreased serum FSH, cortisol and prolactin levels were noted, but these did not reach statistical significance. The decrease in GH level appeared earlier and was more sensitive than that found for the other hormones, and could prove to be a useful parameter for clinical evaluation. None of the patients showed any clinically recognizable symptoms or signs of hormone deficiency in the 18-33 months following completion of the radiation therapy. (author)

  6. Lack of stimulation of 24-hour growth hormone release by hypocaloric diet in obesity

    Rasmussen, M H; Juul, A; Kjems, L L

    1995-01-01

    . This suggests a reversible defect in GH release, rather than a persistent preexisting disorder. It is hypothesized that enhanced bioavailability of IGF-I, acting in concert with elevated proinsulin and insulin levels, may account for the lack of stimulation of 24-hr GH release by the hypocaloric diet in obese...... subjects. We conclude that the increase in 24-h spontaneous GH release and IGFBP-1 levels observed in normal subjects during the last 24 h of a 96-h VLCD is abolished in obese subjects. The lack of short term hypocaloric stimulation of spontaneous GH release may promote the retention of body fat...

  7. Androgen Stimulates Growth of Mouse Preantral Follicles In Vitro: Interaction With Follicle-Stimulating Hormone and With Growth Factors of the TGFβ Superfamily.

    Laird, Mhairi; Thomson, Kacie; Fenwick, Mark; Mora, Jocelyn; Franks, Stephen; Hardy, Kate

    2017-04-01

    Androgens are essential for the normal function of mature antral follicles but also have a role in the early stages of follicle development. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the most common cause of anovulatory infertility, is characterized by androgen excess and aberrant follicle development that includes accelerated early follicle growth. We have examined the effects of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) on development of isolated mouse preantral follicles in culture with the specific aim of investigating interaction with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), the steroidogenic pathway, and growth factors of the TGFβ superfamily that are known to have a role in early follicle development. Both testosterone and DHT stimulated follicle growth and augmented FSH-induced growth and increased the incidence of antrum formation among the granulosa cell layers of these preantral follicles after 72 hours in culture. Effects of both androgens were reversed by the androgen receptor antagonist flutamide. FSH receptor expression was increased in response to both testosterone and DHT, as was that of Star, whereas Cyp11a1 was down-regulated. The key androgen-induced changes in the TGFβ signaling pathway were down-regulation of Amh, Bmp15, and their receptors. Inhibition of Alk6 (Bmpr1b), a putative partner for Amhr2 and Bmpr2, by dorsomorphin resulted in augmentation of androgen-stimulated growth and modification of androgen-induced gene expression. Our findings point to varied effects of androgen on preantral follicle growth and function, including interaction with FSH-activated growth and steroidogenesis, and, importantly, implicate the intrafollicular TGFβ system as a key mediator of androgen action. These findings provide insight into abnormal early follicle development in PCOS.

  8. An FSH and TSH pituitary adenoma, presenting with precocious puberty and central hyperthyroidism

    Guadalupe Vargas

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A 19-year-old woman with a history of isosexual precocious puberty and bilateral oophorectomy at age 10 years because of giant ovarian cysts, presents with headaches and mild symptoms and signs of hyperthyroidism. Hormonal evaluation revealed elevated FSH and LH levels in the postmenopausal range and free hyperthyroxinemia with an inappropriately normal TSH. Pituitary MRI showed a 2-cm macroadenoma with suprasellar extension. She underwent successful surgical resection of the pituitary tumor, which proved to be composed of two distinct populations of cells, each of them strongly immunoreactive for FSH and TSH, respectively. This mixed adenoma resulted in two different hormonal hypersecretion syndromes: the first one during childhood and consisting of central precocious puberty and ovarian hyperstimulation due to the excessive secretion of biologically active FSH and which was not investigated in detail and 10 years later, central hyperthyroidism due to inappropriate secretion of biologically active TSH. Although infrequent, two cases of isosexual central precocious puberty in girls due to biologically active FSH secreted by a pituitary adenoma have been previously reported in the literature. However, this is the first reported case of a mixed adenoma capable of secreting both, biologically active FSH and TSH.

  9. The Comparison Of TSH IRMA Serum Level With TRH Test Value In Healthy People Who Are Suspected To Have Hyperthyroidism

    Keshavarz zirak A

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sub clinical hyperthyroidism is a state of subnormal serum TSH and T3,T4 within normal range, although usually without overt clinical manifestation but many disastrous complications especially in senile patient. In Iranian people, serum TSH is generally assayed by IRMA method. This study is aimed to determine the value of low serum TSH in these patients, better management and decision when encountered. Materials and Methods: The populations under study are guys with serum TSH lower than 0.5mu/l and normal thyroid hormones without known thyroidal and non-thyroidal illness. A basal serum TSH and TSH 30 minutes after TRH injection intra venous were sampled and correlation of clinical signs and symptoms and basal TSH with sub clinical hyperthyroidism was considered. Results: The population under study was categorized into five groups and prevalence of sub clinical hyperthyroidism was noted. In patients with b.TSH equal or lower than 0.1mu/l, 100%, 0.1-0.2mu/l, 75%, 0.2-0.3mu/l, 38.5%, 0.3-0.4mu/l, 14.3% and TSH levels greater than 0.4mu/l, were all normal. After analyzing of these data and determination of sensitivity and specificity of IRMA, it was concluded that IRMA is not sufficient to distinguish sub clinical hyperthyroidism, although there is a good linear (r=0.68; P<0.001 and cubic (r=0.79; P<0.001 relationship between b.TSH and d.TSH. Conclusion: Since TRH test is not cost effective for all cases, TSH levels lower than 0.25mu/l, can be considered as sub clinical hyperthyroidism and levels more than 0.4mu/l, as normal. In cases with TSH level between 0.25 and 0.4mu/l, TRH test is needed in high-risk patients.

  10. Influence of ascorbic acid on in vivo amidation of alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone in guinea pig pituitary

    Fenger, M; Hilsted, L

    1988-01-01

    The effect of ascorbic acid depletion on the amidation of alphamelanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha MSH) was studied in vivo in guinea pig pituitary. After four weeks, the concentration of ascorbic acid was 1.20 +/- 0.11 mumol/g tissue (mean +/- SD) in the pituitary and 0.34 +/- 0.07 mumol......-39) immunoreactivity was observed in the depleted guinea pigs. Gel chromatography and reversed-phase high-performance luquid chromatography showed that the alpha MSH and ACTH (1-14) immunoreactivity was of low molecular weight and partly mono- or diacetylated. Depletion of ascorbic acid had no influence on the degree...... of acetylation of alpha MSH and ACTH (1-14). It is concluded that depletion of ascorbic acid reduces the in vivo amidation of ACTH (1-14) in the guinea pig pituitary....

  11. Ascorbic acid treatment elevates follicle stimulating hormone and testosterone plasma levels and enhances sperm quality in albino Wistar rats.

    Okon, Uduak Akpan; Utuk, Ikponoabasi Ibanga

    2016-01-01

    Infertility issues have been linked to the effect of oxidative reaction in the reproductive system. This study evaluated the effect of ascorbic acid, on fertility parameters of male albino Wistar rats was studied. Eighteen albino Wistar rats weighed between 178 g and 241 g were used, randomly assigned into three groups. Group 1 was the control group; oral gavaged 5 ml of distilled water; Groups 2 and 3 were administered medium dose (250 mg/kg) and high dose of ascorbic acid (400 mg/kg), respectively; twice daily for 21 days. Blood samples were obtained by cardiac puncture, and blood serum was obtained for hormonal assay, and the testes were harvested for sperm analysis. Follicle stimulating hormone levels significantly increased in the high-dose group as compared to both the control and medium dose groups. Luteinizing hormone levels in the medium dose group decreased significantly as compared to the control group. Testosterone significantly increased in both the medium- and high-dose groups as compared to the control group. Sperm motility increased significantly in the high-dose group as compared to both control and medium-dose groups. Percentage sperm concentration decreased significantly in the medium-dose group when compared to the control and increased significantly in the high-dose group as compared to the medium-dose group. For percentage normal morphology, there was a dose-dependent increase in the test groups when compared to control group. These results are indicative of a positive influence of ascorbic acid on male fertility modulators and may therefore, serve as a potential adjuvant treatment for male infertility cases.

  12. Low subjective socioeconomic status stimulates orexigenic hormone ghrelin - A randomised trial.

    Sim, A Y; Lim, E X; Leow, M K; Cheon, B K

    2018-03-01

    Recent evidence suggests that lower perceived socioeconomic status is linked to increased appetite and intake of greater calories. Yet, whether insecurity of socioeconomic resources directly influences regulatory systems of appetite and energy intake is not known. Considering psychological states, mindsets and beliefs have shown to meaningfully affect physiological responses to food, the present study tested the hypothesis that low subjective socioeconomic status (SSS) will have a direct influence on physiological responses, such as appetite-related hormones (ghrelin, pancreatic polypeptide and insulin). Forty-eight healthy males were randomly (crossover, counterbalanced) assigned, to two experimental conditions where participants were either experimentally induced to feel low SSS or not (control; CON). Feelings of low SSS resulted in an increase in active ghrelin (an orexigenic hormone) following the SSS manipulation compared with baseline, while no change in active ghrelin was observed in CON. Furthermore, participants reported lower fullness and satiety following low SSS compared with CON. Our findings demonstrate that SSS may influence hunger regulation and appetite, and suggest that physiological systems regulating energy balance (i.e. caloric resources) may also be sensitive to perceived deprivation or imbalances in critical non-food resources (socioeconomic resources). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of corifollitropin alfa and daily recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone in poor responder patients undergoing in vitro fertilization cycles

    Süleyman Akarsu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective The aim of this study was to compare the effect of corifollitropin alfa (CFA and recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone (rFSH in poor-responder patients undergoing antagonist cycles. Materials and Methods The study was a retrospective analysis of the treatment results of 214 poor responder patients who had been admitted to the In Vitro Fertilization Unit of İzmir Medical Park Hospital between November 2014 and November 2016. Intracytoplasmic sperm injections were performed in 38 patients (group 1 with CFA, and the remaining 176 (group 2 with rFSH for controlled ovarian hyperstimulation. Results The age, body mass index, anti-müllerian hormone level, duration of infertility, duration of induction and antral follicle number were similar in the two groups. There was no difference in the total aspirated oocyte counts, mature oocyte ratio, fertilization rate, implantation rate, and clinical pregnancy rates between the two groups. The implantation rate was 9/38 (23.6% in group 1 and 42/176 (23.8% in group 2, whereas the clinical pregnancy rates were 16.3% and 17.2%, respectively. Conclusion No difference was found in terms of oocyte count, fertilization rate, implantation rate, and clinical pregnancy rates of CFA or rFSH use in the antagonist cycles in poor-responder patients.

  14. The iodination(I-125) of follicle stimulating hormone, using N-bromosuccinimide, lactoperoxidase or iodo-beads oxidators

    Dj., Sukiyati; S., Wayan R.; M., Gina; Ariyanto, A.

    1992-01-01

    The iodination (I-125) of Follicle Stimulating Hormone, using N-bromosuccinimide, lactoperoxidase or iodo-beads oxidators. FSH 125 I is one of the FSH RIA Kit reagents utilized for the determination of FSH concentration in blood serum, to study the coordination disorder of the principal hormones, i.e. hypothalamus, pituitary and gonads. To produce a good quality of FSH 125 I as a component of FSH RIA Kit, a research on the iodination(I-125) of FSH employing mild oxidant N-bromosuccinimide, lactoperoxidase, and iodo-bead has been performed. The percentage of labelling, the immunology activity and Non Specific Binding(NSB) of the labelled products were determined. The immunology activity in (%) B/T and non specific binding (%) NSB were compared with Amersham FSH RIA Kit. By the N-bromosuccinimide method, the labelling obtained was 25%, immunology activity B/T 22% (Amersham 25%) and NSB 1.3% (Amersham 1.2%). The results of labelling employing lactoperoxidase was 8.2%, immunology activity B/T 34% (Amersham 38%) and NSB 2.6% (Amersham 0.8%). Whereas labelling with Iodo-beads method produce 18%, immunology activity B/T 25% (Amersham 35%) and NSB 0.6% (Amersham 0.7%). The labelled FSH 125 I was stable with in one month stored at 4 degrees centigrade. (authors). 7 refs., 4 tabs., 1 fig

  15. The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis and biological rhythms: The discovery of TSH's unexpected role using animal models.

    Ikegami, Keisuke; Yoshimura, Takashi

    2017-10-01

    Thyroid hormones (TH) are important for development, growth, and metabolism. It is also clear that the synthesis and secretion of TH are regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis. Animal models have helped advance our understanding of the roles and regulatory mechanisms of TH. The animals' bodies develop through coordinated timing of cell division and differentiation. Studies of frog metamorphosis led to the discovery of TH and their role in development. However, to adapt to rhythmic environmental changes, animals also developed various endocrine rhythms. Studies of rodents clarified the neural and molecular mechanisms underlying the circadian regulation of the HPT axis. Moreover, birds have a sophisticated seasonal adaptation mechanism, and recent studies of quail revealed unexpected roles for thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and TH in the seasonal regulation of reproduction. Interestingly, this mechanism is conserved in mammals. Thus, we review how animal studies have shaped our general understanding of the HPT axis in relation to biological rhythms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. RELATIONSHIPS AMONG THYROID HORMONES AND OBESITY SEVERITY, METABOLIC SYNDROME AND ITS COMPONENTS IN TURKISH CHILDREN WITH OBESITY.

    Özer, Samet; Bütün, İlknur; Sönmezgöz, Ergün; Yılmaz, Resul; Demir, Osman

    2015-08-01

    we investigated the relationships between thyroid function and obesity severity, metabolic syndrome (MS) and MS components in 260 obese children and adolescents 10-17 years of age. we aimed to determine the association of thyroid functions with obesity severity and the components of metabolic syndrome (MS) in pediatric obese patients. only obese children and adolescents were included, and divided the obese children into three groups according to body mass index (BMI)-SDS quartiles. The first quartile was group 1, the second and third quartiles were group 2, and the fourth quartile was group 3. Group 3 indicated severe obesity. The modified WHO criteria adapted for children were used to diagnose MS. We assessed anthropometric data and serum biochemical parameters, including the lipid profile and fasting glucose (FG), insulin, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (fT4), and free triiodothyronine (fT3) levels. Blood pressure (BP) was measured with a standard digital sphygmomanometer. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance was calculated to determine insulin resistance (IR). TSH level was significantly higher in obese children with MS than that in the others (p = 0.045). Mean TSH level was not different among the BMI-SDS groups (p = 0.590). TSH levels and the fT3/fT4 ratio were not different in children with dyslipidemia, IR or hypertension (p = 0.515, 0.805, 0.973, 0.750, 0.515, and 0.805, respectively). obesity severity does not affect TSH level or the fT3/fT4 ratio in obese children and adolescents. IR is in close relationship with TSH level. Elevated TSH level is a risk factor for MS. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  17. The nocturnal thyroid-stimulating hormone surge is absent in overt, present in mild primary and equivocal in central hypothyroidism

    Adriaanse, R.; Romijn, J. A.; Endert, E.; Wiersinga, W. M.

    1992-01-01

    The nocturnal TSH surge was studied in controls, in 34 patients with hypothalamic/pituitary disease and in 21 patients with primary hypothyroidism. It was absent in 5/12 hypothyroid patients and in 5/22 euthyroid patients with hypothalamic/pituitary disease (42% vs 23%, NS). Central hypothyroidism

  18. Follicular development and hormonal levels following highly purified or recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone administration in ovulatory women undergoing ovarian stimulation after pituitary suppression for in vitro fertilization: implications for implantation potential.

    Balasch, J; Fábregues, F; Creus, M; Peñarrubia, J; Vidal, E; Carmona, F; Puerto, B; Vanrell, J A

    2000-01-01

    The main goal in the present study was to compare follicular development and estradiol levels after ovarian stimulation in pituitary suppressed normally ovulating women undergoing IVF, using highly purified urinary follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) (u-FSH-HP) and recombinant FSH (rec-FSH). A secondary variable in our study was embryo implantation potential, which is closely related to appropriate follicular development and oocyte competence. For the main purpose of this study, 30 IVF patients (group 1) were treated during IVF consecutive cycles, using the same stimulation protocol, with u-FSH-HP in the first treatment study cycle and rec-FSH in the second one. As a control group (group 2) for implantation rates obtained in cycles treated with rec-FSH, 30 additional IVF patients were included who underwent a second IVF attempt again with u-FSH-HP. The total dose of FSH used and ovarian response obtained in terms of estradiol plasma levels and the total number of growing follicles on the day of human chronic gonadotropin (HCG) injection were similar in both treatment cycles in group 1 but better follicular dynamics and oocyte maturity were obtained with rec-FSH. The implantation rate was significantly higher in rec-FSH treated cycles in patients in group 1 than in control women (group 2). rec-FSH is more efficacious than u-FSH-HP when used in the same patient in inducing multiple follicular development in down-regulated cycles as indicated by ovarian performance and oocyte maturity. In addition, rec-FSH yields significantly higher implantation rates than u-FSH-HP when used in patients undergoing their second IVF attempt.

  19. The Correlations of Anti-Mullerian Hormone, Follicle-Stimulating Hormone and Antral Follicle Count in Different Age Groups of Infertile Women

    Ludmila Barbakadze

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of our study was to identify the correlations between the tests currently used in ovarian reserve assessment: anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and antral follicle count (AFC and to distinguish the most reliable markers for ovarian reserve in order to select an adequate strategy for the initial stages of infertility treatment. Materials and Methods: In this prospective study, 112 infertile women were assessed. Subjects were divided into three age groups: group I <35 years (n=39, group II 35-40 years (n=31, and group III 41-46 years (n=42. AMH, FSH and AFC were determined on days 2-3 of the patients’ menstrual cycles. Results: There was a significantly elevated negative correlation between age and AMH level (rs =-0.67, p<0.0001 and AFC (rs =-0.55, p<0.0001. We observed a significantly positive correlation between age and FSH (rs =0.38, p<0.0001. AMH negatively correlated with FSH (rs =-0.48, p<0.0001 and positively with AFC (r=- 0.71, p=0.0001. There was a moderate negative relation between FSH and AFC (r=-0.41, p=0.0001 and moderate positive relation between age and FSH (rs =0.38, p<0.0001. The correlation analysis performed in separate groups showed that AMH and AFC showed a statistically significant positive correlation for group I (r=0.57, p<0.0001, group II (r=0.69, p<0.0001 and group III (r=0.47, p<0.002. A statistically significant correlation between FSH and AMH was detected only in groups I (r=-0.41, p<0.02 and II (r=-0.55, p<0.0001. A statistically significant correlation existed between FSH and AFC only in group III (r=-0.42, p<0.006, as well as between age and AFC only in group I (r=-0.35, p<0.03. Conclusion: Currently, AMH should be considered as the more reliable of the ovarian reserve assessments tests compared to FSH. There is a strong positive correlation between serum AMH level and AFC. The use of AMH combined with AFC may improve ovarian reserve evaluation.

  20. Stimulant use and its impact on growth in children receiving growth hormone therapy: an analysis of the KIGS International Growth Database.

    Miller, Bradley S; Aydin, Ferah; Lundgren, Frida; Lindberg, Anders; Geffner, Mitchell E

    2014-01-01

    Children receiving stimulants for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently present to pediatric endocrinology clinics for evaluation and treatment of growth disorders. The worldwide prevalence of stimulant use in children with ADHD also receiving recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) and the impact on response to rhGH are unknown. Data on children enrolled in the KIGS® (Pfizer International Growth Study) registry were evaluated for the associated diagnosis of ADHD prior to initiation of Genotropin® rhGH. Concomitant stimulant medications and auxological information were captured. Response to rhGH was evaluated using established growth prediction models. The prevalence of ADHD in KIGS was 2.3% (1,748/75,251), with stimulants used in 1.8% (1,326/75,251). Children with idiopathic growth hormone deficiency (IGHD) who received stimulants grew significantly less (1.1 cm) in the first year of rhGH therapy than expected for rhGH-treated non-ADHD IGHD children. After one year of rhGH, idiopathic short stature (ISS) children with ADHD were significantly shorter [0.74 cm (with stimulants) and 0.69 cm (without stimulants)] than non-ADHD ISS children. We demonstrated an impaired response to rhGH in IGHD and ISS children with ADHD. Our findings suggest that the ADHD phenotype, alone or in conjunction with stimulant therapy, may impair the short-term growth response to rhGH.

  1. Pituitary-hormone secretion by thyrotropinomas.

    Roelfsema, Ferdinand; Kok, Simon; Kok, Petra; Pereira, Alberto M; Biermasz, Nienke R; Smit, Jan W; Frolich, Marijke; Keenan, Daniel M; Veldhuis, Johannes D; Romijn, Johannes A

    2009-01-01

    Hormone secretion by somatotropinomas, corticotropinomas and prolactinomas exhibits increased pulse frequency, basal and pulsatile secretion, accompanied by greater disorderliness. Increased concentrations of growth hormone (GH) or prolactin (PRL) are observed in about 30% of thyrotropinomas leading to acromegaly or disturbed sexual functions beyond thyrotropin (TSH)-induced hyperthyroidism. Regulation of non-TSH pituitary hormones in this context is not well understood. We there therefore evaluated TSH, GH and PRL secretion in 6 patients with up-to-date analytical and mathematical tools by 24-h blood sampling at 10-min intervals in a clinical research laboratory. The profiles were analyzed with a new deconvolution method, approximate entropy, cross-approximate entropy, cross-correlation and cosinor regression. TSH burst frequency and basal and pulsatile secretion were increased in patients compared with controls. TSH secretion patterns in patients were more irregular, but the diurnal rhythm was preserved at a higher mean with a 2.5 h phase delay. Although only one patient had clinical acromegaly, GH secretion and IGF-I levels were increased in two other patients and all three had a significant cross-correlation between the GH and TSH. PRL secretion was increased in one patient, but all patients had a significant cross-correlation with TSH and showed decreased PRL regularity. Cross-ApEn synchrony between TSH and GH did not differ between patients and controls, but TSH and PRL synchrony was reduced in patients. We conclude that TSH secretion by thyrotropinomas shares many characteristics of other pituitary hormone-secreting adenomas. In addition, abnormalities in GH and PRL secretion exist ranging from decreased (joint) regularity to overt hypersecretion, although not always clinically obvious, suggesting tumoral transformation of thyrotrope lineage cells.

  2. Anti-Mullerian hormone-tailored stimulation protocols improve outcomes whilst reducing adverse effects and costs of IVF.

    Yates, A P; Rustamov, O; Roberts, S A; Lim, H Y N; Pemberton, P W; Smith, A; Nardo, L G

    2011-09-01

    Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is increasingly used to quantify ovarian reserve, but it has not yet realized its full clinical potential in assisted reproduction technology. We investigated the possible benefits of using novel, stratified ovarian hyperstimulation protocols, tailored to individual AMH levels, compared with conventional stimulation. Retrospective data were collected from 769 women (first cycle of IVF, using fresh embryos), in a UK tertiary care unit: 346 women using conventional stimulation protocols; 423 women treated under new AMH-tailored protocols. Embryo transfer rates increased significantly (79-87%: P= 0.002) after the introduction of AMH-tailored stimulation protocols. Pregnancy rate per cycle started and live birth rate also increased significantly compared with conventionally treated women (17.9-27.7%, P= 0.002 and 15.9-23.9%, P = 0.007, respectively). Moreover, in the AMH group, the incidence of the ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) fell significantly (6.9-2.3%, P = 0.002) and failed fertilization fell from 7.8 to 4.5%. The cost of fertility drug treatment fell by 29% per patient and the overall cost of clinical management of OHSS fell by 43% in the AMH group. GnRH antagonist protocols, introduced as part of AMH-tailored treatment, may have contributed to the observed improvements: however, within the AMH-tailored group, the live birth rate was not significantly different between agonist and antagonist-treated groups. Although large, prospective, multicentre studies are indicated, we have clearly demonstrated that individualized, AMH-guided, controlled ovarian hyperstimulation protocols significantly improved positive clinical outcomes, reduced the incidence of complications and reduced the financial burden associated with assisted reproduction.

  3. Comparative Functional Alanine Positional Scanning of the α-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone and NDP-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone Demonstrates Differential Structure-Activity Relationships at the Mouse Melanocortin Receptors.

    Todorovic, Aleksandar; Ericson, Mark D; Palusak, Ryan D; Sorensen, Nicholas B; Wood, Michael S; Xiang, Zhimin; Haskell-Luevano, Carrie

    2016-07-20

    The melanocortin system has been implicated in the regulation of various physiological functions including melanogenesis, steroidogenesis, energy homeostasis, and feeding behavior. Five melanocortin receptors have been identified to date and belong to the family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR). Post-translational modification of the proopiomelanocortin (POMC) prohormone leads to the biosynthesis of the endogenous melanocortin agonists, including α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH), β-MSH, γ-MSH, and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). All the melanocortin agonists derived from the POMC prohormone contain a His-Phe-Arg-Trp tetrapeptide sequence that has been implicated in eliciting the pharmacological responses at the melanocortin receptors. Herein, an alanine (Ala) positional scan is reported for the endogenous α-MSH ligand and the synthetic, more potent, NDP-MSH peptide (Ac-Ser(1)-Tyr(2)-Ser(3)-Nle(4)-Glu(5)-His(6)-DPhe(7)-Arg(8)-Trp(9)-Gly(10)-Lys(11)-Pro(12)-Val(13)-NH2) at the cloned mouse melanocortin receptors to test the assumption that the structure-activity relationships of one ligand would apply to the other. Several residues outside of the postulated pharmacophore altered potency at the melanocortin receptors, most notably the 1560-, 37-, and 15-fold potency loss when the Glu(5) position of α-MSH was substituted with Ala at the mMC1R, mMC3R, and mMC4R, respectively. Importantly, the altered potencies due to Ala substitutions in α-MSH did not necessarily correlate with equivalent Ala substitutions in NDP-MSH, indicating that structural modifications and corresponding biological activities in one of these melanocortin ligands may not be predictive for the other agonist.

  4. Association of the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor gene (TSHR) with Graves' disease

    Brand, Oliver J; Barrett, Jeffrey C; Simmonds, Matthew J

    2009-01-01

    hormone, causing the characteristic clinical phenotype. Although early studies investigating the TSHR and GD proved inconclusive, more recently we provided convincing evidence for association of the TSHR region with disease. In the current study, we investigated a combined panel of 98 SNPs, including 70...... tag SNPs, across an extended 800 kb region of the TSHR to refine association in a cohort of 768 GD subjects and 768 matched controls. In total, 28 SNPs revealed association with GD (P associations at rs179247 (chi(2) = 32.45, P = 8.90 x 10(-8), OR = 1.53, 95% CI = 1.......32-1.78) and rs12101255 (chi(2) = 30.91, P = 1.95 x 10(-7), OR = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.33-1.81), both located in intron 1 of the TSHR. Association of the most associated SNP, rs179247, was replicated in 303 GD families (P = 7.8 x 10(-4)). In addition, we provide preliminary evidence that the disease-associated...

  5. Effects of thyroid hormone on Na+-K+ transport in resting and stimulated rat skeletal muscle

    Everts, M.E.; Clausen, T.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of hypothyroidism and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T 3 ) treatment on passive Na + -K + fluxes and Na + -K + pump concentration were investigated in isolated rat muscle. Within 12 h after a single dose of T 3 (20 μg/100 g body wt), K + efflux had increased by 21% in soleus and by 20% in extensor digitorum longus muscle. In the presence of ouabain, even larger effects were observed. These changes were associated with a 12% rise in amiloride-suppressible Na + influx but no significant increase in [ 3 H]ouabain binding site concentration. After 3 days of T 3 treatment, the stimulating effect on K + efflux and Na + influx in soleus reached a plateau ∼80 and 40% above control levels, respectively, whereas the maximum increase in [ 3 H]ouabain binding site concentration (103%) was only fully developed after 8 days. Hypothyroidism decreased 86 Rb efflux by 30%. The efflux of K + and the influx of Na + per contraction (both ∼7 nmol/g wet wt) as well as the net loss of K + induced by electrical stimulation were unaffected by T 3 treatment. The rise in resting K + efflux after 12-24 h of T 3 treatment could be partly blocked by dantrolene or trifluoroperazine, indicating that an increase in the cytoplasmic Ca 2+ concentration may contribute to the early rise in K + efflux. It is concluded that the early rise in the resting passive leaks of Na + and K + induced by T 3 is a major driving force for Na + -K + pump synthesis

  6. Liver X receptor β controls thyroid hormone feedback in the brain and regulates browning of subcutaneous white adipose tissue.

    Miao, Yifei; Wu, Wanfu; Dai, Yubing; Maneix, Laure; Huang, Bo; Warner, Margaret; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke

    2015-11-10

    The recent discovery of browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) has raised great research interest because of its significant potential in counteracting obesity and type 2 diabetes. Browning is the result of the induction in WAT of a newly discovered type of adipocyte, the beige cell. When mice are exposed to cold or several kinds of hormones or treatments with chemicals, specific depots of WAT undergo a browning process, characterized by highly activated mitochondria and increased heat production and energy expenditure. However, the mechanisms underlying browning are still poorly understood. Liver X receptors (LXRs) are one class of nuclear receptors, which play a vital role in regulating cholesterol, triglyceride, and glucose metabolism. Following our previous finding that LXRs serve as repressors of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) in classic brown adipose tissue in female mice, we found that LXRs, especially LXRβ, also repress the browning process of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) in male rodents fed a normal diet. Depletion of LXRs activated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-releasing hormone (TRH)-positive neurons in the paraventricular nucleus area of the hypothalamus and thus stimulated secretion of TSH from the pituitary. Consequently, production of thyroid hormones in the thyroid gland and circulating thyroid hormone level were increased. Moreover, the activity of thyroid signaling in SAT was markedly increased. Together, our findings have uncovered the basis of increased energy expenditure in male LXR knockout mice and provided support for targeting LXRs in treatment of obesity.

  7. Anti-mullerian hormon level and polycystic ovarian syndrome diagnosis

    Shahrzad Zadehmodarres

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS is a common endocrinopathy that accompanied with long term complications. The early diagnosis of this syndrome can prevent it. Objective: The aim was to determine the role of anti-mullerian hormon (AMH in PCOS diagnosis and to find cut off level of it. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study, 117 women between 20-40 years old were participated in two groups: 60 PCOS women (based on Rotterdam criteria consensus as the case group and 57 normal ovulatory women as the control group. In day 2-4 of cycle, transvaginal sonography was performed and serum hormonal level of AMH, luteinizing hormone (LH, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, estradiol (E2, testosterone, fasting blood sugar (FBS, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, and prolactin (PRL were measured in all of participants. For all of them score of hirsutism (base on Freeman-Galloway scoring was determined. Results: There were statistically significant in irregular pattern of menstruation, AMH and FSH level, and presence of hirsutism between two groups. But regarding mean of age, body mass index, plasma level of PRL, TSH, LH, Testosterone, FBS, and E2 differences were not significant. Construction by ROC curve present 3.15 ng/ml as AMH cut off with 70.37% sensitivity and 77.36% specificity in order to PCOS diagnosis. Conclusion: AMH with cut off level of 3.15 ng/ml with sensitivity 70.37% and specificity 77.36% could use for early diagnosis of PCOS patients.

  8. Gestational urinary bisphenol A and maternal and newborn thyroid hormone concentrations: The HOME Study

    Romano, Megan E.; Webster, Glenys M.; Vuong, Ann M.; Thomas Zoeller, R.; Chen, Aimin; Hoofnagle, Andrew N.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Karagas, Margaret R.; Yolton, Kimberly; Lanphear, Bruce P.; Braun, Joseph M.

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disruptor used in consumer products, may perturb thyroid function. Prenatal BPA exposure may have sex-specific effects on thyroid hormones (THs). Our objectives were to investigate whether maternal urinary BPA concentrations during pregnancy were associated with THs in maternal or cord serum, and whether these associations differed by newborn sex or maternal iodine status. We measured urinary BPA concentrations at 16 and 26 weeks gestation among pregnant women in the HOME Study (2003–2006, Cincinnati, Ohio). Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free and total thyroxine (T 4 ) and triiodothyronine (T 3 ) were measured in maternal serum at 16 weeks (n=181) and cord serum at delivery (n=249). Associations between BPA concentrations and maternal or cord serum TH levels were estimated by multivariable linear regression. Mean maternal urinary BPA was not associated with cord THs in all newborns, but a 10-fold increase in mean BPA was associated with lower cord TSH in girls (percent change=−36.0%; 95% confidence interval (CI): −58.4, −1.7%), but not boys (7.8%; 95% CI: −28.5, 62.7%; p-for-effect modification=0.09). We observed no significant associations between 16-week BPA and THs in maternal or cord serum, but 26-week maternal BPA was inversely associated with TSH in girls (−42.9%; 95% CI: −59.9, −18.5%), but not boys (7.6%; 95% CI: −17.3, 40.2%; p-for-effect modification=0.005) at birth. The inverse BPA–TSH relation among girls was stronger, but less precise, among iodine deficient versus sufficient mothers. Prenatal BPA exposure may reduce TSH among newborn girls, particularly when exposure occurs later in gestation. - Highlights: • Examined associations of BPA with thyroid hormones in pregnant women and newborns. • Assessed effect modification of BPA–thyroid hormone associations by newborn sex. • Greater BPA related to decreased thyroid stimulating hormone in girls' cord serum. • Results may suggest

  9. Gestational urinary bisphenol A and maternal and newborn thyroid hormone concentrations: The HOME Study

    Romano, Megan E., E-mail: megan_romano@brown.edu [Department of Epidemiology, Brown University School of Public Health, Providence, RI (United States); Webster, Glenys M. [Child and Family Research Institute, BC Children' s and Women' s Hospital and Faculty of Health Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Vuong, Ann M. [Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Thomas Zoeller, R. [Department of Biology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Chen, Aimin [Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Hoofnagle, Andrew N. [Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Calafat, Antonia M. [Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States); Karagas, Margaret R. [Children' s Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research Center and Department of Community and Family Medicine, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Hanover, NH (United States); Yolton, Kimberly [Division of General and Community Pediatrics, Department of Pediatrics, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Lanphear, Bruce P. [Child and Family Research Institute, BC Children' s and Women' s Hospital and Faculty of Health Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Braun, Joseph M. [Department of Epidemiology, Brown University School of Public Health, Providence, RI (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disruptor used in consumer products, may perturb thyroid function. Prenatal BPA exposure may have sex-specific effects on thyroid hormones (THs). Our objectives were to investigate whether maternal urinary BPA concentrations during pregnancy were associated with THs in maternal or cord serum, and whether these associations differed by newborn sex or maternal iodine status. We measured urinary BPA concentrations at 16 and 26 weeks gestation among pregnant women in the HOME Study (2003–2006, Cincinnati, Ohio). Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free and total thyroxine (T{sub 4}) and triiodothyronine (T{sub 3}) were measured in maternal serum at 16 weeks (n=181) and cord serum at delivery (n=249). Associations between BPA concentrations and maternal or cord serum TH levels were estimated by multivariable linear regression. Mean maternal urinary BPA was not associated with cord THs in all newborns, but a 10-fold increase in mean BPA was associated with lower cord TSH in girls (percent change=−36.0%; 95% confidence interval (CI): −58.4, −1.7%), but not boys (7.8%; 95% CI: −28.5, 62.7%; p-for-effect modification=0.09). We observed no significant associations between 16-week BPA and THs in maternal or cord serum, but 26-week maternal BPA was inversely associated with TSH in girls (−42.9%; 95% CI: −59.9, −18.5%), but not boys (7.6%; 95% CI: −17.3, 40.2%; p-for-effect modification=0.005) at birth. The inverse BPA–TSH relation among girls was stronger, but less precise, among iodine deficient versus sufficient mothers. Prenatal BPA exposure may reduce TSH among newborn girls, particularly when exposure occurs later in gestation. - Highlights: • Examined associations of BPA with thyroid hormones in pregnant women and newborns. • Assessed effect modification of BPA–thyroid hormone associations by newborn sex. • Greater BPA related to decreased thyroid stimulating hormone in girls' cord serum. • Results may

  10. New radioimmunoassay for follicle-stimulating hormone in macaques: ovulatory menstrual cycles. [/sup 125/I tracer technique

    Hodgen, G.D.; Wilks, J.W.; Vaitukaitis, J.L.; Chen, H.C.; Papkoff, H.; Ross, G.

    1976-07-01

    A sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay system for macaque follicle-stimulating hormone (mFSH) was developed utilizing an antiserum (H-31) prepared in a rabbit against purified ovine FSH as the immunogen. Sera from castrated female, adult male, and juvenile rhesus monkeys, as well as urinary extracts from castrated rhesus and bonnet monkeys, were used to demonstrate parallelism with a standard of partially purified monkey pituitary gonadotropins (LER-M-907-D). An extract of baboon pituitary tissue also showed parallelism with the reference standard. A highly purified pituitary extract (WP-X-105-28), containing approximately 75 percent macaque luteinizing hormone (mLH) and 1 percent mFSH, was used to demonstrate the specificity of this mFSH assay system. Sera and urinary extracts obtained from hypophysectomized monkeys did not show cross-reactivity in the assay. Macaque chorionic gonadotropin (mCG) did not produce an inhibition curve in the assay, as determined from serum samples and urinary extracts collected from pregnant monkeys at the time of peak mCG secretion. Serum concentrations of mFSH were suppressed in ovariectomized monkeys by the administration of ethinyl estradiol for 3 days, but returned to near pretreatment values by 96 h after the last estradiol administration. The determination of serum mFSH concentrations in daily blood samples obtained from 20 rhesus monkeys throughout ovulatory menstrual cycles revealed a pattern similar to that previously reported for the rhesus monkey and the woman. The peak value of serum mFSH during the menstrual cycle coincided with the midcycle surge of mLH in each case. The gonadotropin peaks were preceded by increasing serum concentrations of estradiol and followed by rises in the serum concentrations of progesterone.

  11. Effects of Carbaryl and Deltamethrin Pesticides on Some Pituitary Hormones of Male Albino Rats

    Abdel-Kader, S.M.; Ezz El-Arab, A.; Aly, M.A.S.

    2005-01-01

    This investigation aims to study the effects of oral administrations of 1/10 LD 5 0 of both carbaryl and deltamethrin pesticides on some pituitary hormones of male rats namely; adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), growth hormone (GH), beta-endorphin (b-end) and prolactin hormone (prol). At different time intervals of 1,3,7 and 10 days, blood samples were collected and sera were separated and analyzed for hormonal assessment using RIA technique. The data clarified that daily oral administrations of 1/10 LD 5 0 of both carbaryl (28.6 mg/kg body weight) and deltamethrin (12.8 mg/kg body weight) to male albino rats resulted in gradual and significant decreases in serum ACTH recording 70.60% and 71.75% as compared to control on the 1 0 ''th day of carbaryl and deltamethrin treatments, respectively. Similarly, serum TSH and GH levels were significantly decreased one day after treatment showing their maximum decreases on the 1 0t h day recording 30.09% and 40.25% for TSH and 43.84% and 41.47% for GH after treatment with carbaryl and deltamethrin, respectively. Moreover, serum b-endorphin level showed maximum and significant decreases of 29.47% and 33.28% on day 10 of treatment with carbaryl and deltamethrin, respectively. On the other hand, serum prolactin level was significantly increased one day after treatment showing its maximum increase at the end of the experimental period recording 92.06% and 84.52% for carbaryl and deltamethrin, respectively. From the present data, it could be suggested that the pituitary gland is a major target for the two pesticides carbaryl and deltamethrin which have the potential to influence the modulation of endocrine system via the hypothalamus pituitary axis

  12. The absorption and uptake of recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone through vaginal subcutaneous injections - a pharmacokinetic study

    Hsu, Chao-Chin; Kuo, Hsin-Chih; Hsu, Chao-Tien; Gu, Qing

    2009-01-01

    Background Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) has been routinely used for ovulation induction. Because of rapid clearance of the hormone, FSH is commonly administered by daily intramuscular or subcutaneous injections in in-vitro fertilization (IVF). To reduce the number of visits to the clinic, an intermittent vaginal injection of rhFSH every 3 days employing the concepts of mesotherapy and uterine first-pass effect was invented and has successfully been applied in women receiving IVF treatment. This study was designed to monitor the pharmacokinetic pattern of rhFSH administered vaginally. Methods Twelve healthy women with regular ovulatory cycles were recruited. All volunteers received gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist to suppress pituitary function and were assigned to receive single dose recombinant human FSH (rhFSH, Puregon 300) either using conventional abdominal subcutaneous injection or vaginal subcutaneous injection in a randomized cross-over study. Serum samples were collected at pre- scheduled time intervals after injections of rhFSH to determine immunoreactive FSH levels. Pharmacokinetic parameters characterizing rate [maximal plasma concentrations (Cmax) and time of maximal plasma concentrations (tmax)] and extent [area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) and clearance] of absorption of rhFSH were compared. Results Vaginal injection of rhFSH was well tolerated and no drug-related adverse reaction was noted. Our analysis revealed that tmax was significantly earlier (mean 6.67 versus 13.33 hours) and Cmax was significantly higher (mean 17.77 versus 13.96 IU/L) in vaginal versus abdominal injections. The AUC0-∞ was 1640 versus 1134 IU·hour/L in vaginal and abdominal injections, respectively. Smaller plasma elimination rate constant (0.011 versus 0.016 hour-1), longer mean residence time (106.58 versus 70.47 hours), and slower total body clearance (292.2 versus 400.1 mL/hour) were also found in vaginal injection. Conclusion The vaginal

  13. The absorption and uptake of recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone through vaginal subcutaneous injections - a pharmacokinetic study

    Kuo Hsin-Chih

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH has been routinely used for ovulation induction. Because of rapid clearance of the hormone, FSH is commonly administered by daily intramuscular or subcutaneous injections in in-vitro fertilization (IVF. To reduce the number of visits to the clinic, an intermittent vaginal injection of rhFSH every 3 days employing the concepts of mesotherapy and uterine first-pass effect was invented and has successfully been applied in women receiving IVF treatment. This study was designed to monitor the pharmacokinetic pattern of rhFSH administered vaginally. Methods Twelve healthy women with regular ovulatory cycles were recruited. All volunteers received gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist to suppress pituitary function and were assigned to receive single dose recombinant human FSH (rhFSH, Puregon 300 either using conventional abdominal subcutaneous injection or vaginal subcutaneous injection in a randomized cross-over study. Serum samples were collected at pre- scheduled time intervals after injections of rhFSH to determine immunoreactive FSH levels. Pharmacokinetic parameters characterizing rate [maximal plasma concentrations (Cmax and time of maximal plasma concentrations (tmax] and extent [area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC and clearance] of absorption of rhFSH were compared. Results Vaginal injection of rhFSH was well tolerated and no drug-related adverse reaction was noted. Our analysis revealed that tmax was significantly earlier (mean 6.67 versus 13.33 hours and Cmax was significantly higher (mean 17.77 versus 13.96 IU/L in vaginal versus abdominal injections. The AUC0-∞ was 1640 versus 1134 IU·hour/L in vaginal and abdominal injections, respectively. Smaller plasma elimination rate constant (0.011 versus 0.016 hour-1, longer mean residence time (106.58 versus 70.47 hours, and slower total body clearance (292.2 versus 400.1 mL/hour were also found in vaginal injection

  14. Hypothyroidism in adults. Levothyroxine if warranted by clinical and laboratory findings, not for simple TSH elevation.

    2015-10-01

    Hypothyroidism is a common disorder due to inadequate thyroid hormone secretion. When a patient has signs and symptoms suggestive of hypothyroidism, how is it determined whether thyroid hormone replacement therapy will have a favourable harm-benefit balance? How should treatment be managed? To answer these questions, we conducted a review of the literature using the standard Prescrire methodology. The symptoms of hypothyroidism are due to slow metabolism (constipation, fatigue, sensitivity to cold, weight gain, etc.) and to polysaccharide accumulation in certain tissues, leading to hoarseness, eyelid swelling, etc. A blood TSH concentration of less than 4 or 5 mlU/L rules out peripheral hypothyroidism. TSH levels increase with age. Between 30% and 60% of high TSH levels are not confirmed on a second blood test. In overt hypothyroidism, the TSH level is high and the free T4 (thyroxine) level is low. Most of these patients are symptomatic. So-called subclinical hypothyroidism, which is rarely symptomatic, is characterised by high blood TSH levels and normal free T4 levels. The natural history of hypothyroidism depends on its cause. In chronic autoimmune thyroiditis, the most common form seen in rich countries, hypothyroidism generally worsens over time. However, other situations can lead to transient hypothyroidism that may last several weeks or months. Subclinical hypothyroidism, as the name implies, is usually asymptomatic. The risk of progression to overt hypothyroidism is about 3% to 4% per year overall but increases with the initial TSH level. Treatment guidelines are mainly based on physiological and pharmacological considerations and generally recommend levothyroxine therapy. The adverse effects of levothyroxine are signs of thyrotoxicosis in case of overdose (tachycardia, tremor, sweating, etc.). Even a slight overdose carries a risk of osteoporotic fractures and atrial fibrillation, especially in the elderly. In young adults, levothyroxine is usually started

  15. [Anthology of the first clinical studies with hypothalamic hormones: a story of successful international cooperation].

    Schally, Andrew V; Gual, Carlos

    2002-01-01

    Our early pioneering clinical trials in Mexico with natural and synthetic thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) and luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LH-RH) also known as gonadotropin releasing hormone (Gn-RH), were reviewed. Highly purified TRH of porcine origin was shown to stimulate Thyrotropin (TSH) release in hypothyroid cretins. Subsequent tests with synthetic TRH also demonstrated significant increases in plasma TSH in normal men and women as well as in patients with primary hypothyroidism and other endocrine disorders. Even more extensive clinical studies were carried out with highly purified natural porcine LH-RH. Subjects with normal basal serum levels of gonadotropins, low levels (men and women pretreated with steroids) and high levels (e.g. post menopausal women) all responded to LH-RH with a release of LH and FSH. The results of these early studies with the natural LH-RH were confirmed by the use of synthetic LH-RH. These investigations made in Mexico with TRH and LH-RH preceded all other clinical studies by a wide margin. Subsequently various clinical investigations with LH-RH agonists and antagonists were also carried out. All these studies played a major role in introducing hypothalamic-releasing hormones into clinical medicine.

  16. Evaluation of Commercial TSH Immunoassay in Indonesia

    Darlina

    1998-01-01

    An evaluation and comparison of the performance of a number of commercially available TSH kits in Indonesia have been made to guide the potential users in selecting the methods and kits most suitable for their intended purpose. The kits selected for this study comprise a wide variety of immunology methodology; magnetic RIA (Amerlex-M, Amersham), IRMA coated well (Amerwell, Amersham), IRMA coated tube (DPC), microcellulose particle IRMA (Netria), and ELIA (Amerlite, Amersham). The parameters of performance evaluated are: detection limit, working range, recovery, within and between assay precision, and the capability to distinguish hypothyroid, normal and hyperthyroid subjects. Reasonable detection limits are found with all IRMA kits ( 500 mIU/L) while magnetic RIA the narrowest (3-110 mIU/L). In term of the precision, magnetic RIA and ELIA have the best value, <10% for between assay and <8% for within assay, however all other methods also have sufficiently good precision (<15% and 10% respectively for between assay and within assay). All methods have the capability to identify hypothyroid, normal, and hyperthyroid subjects except for magnetic RIA which does not clearly distinguish between normal and hyperthyroid subject. Reasonably good recovery (90% - 120%) was obtained with all methods, except for magnetic RIA with only 81% recovery. It can be concluded that except magnetic RIA, all methods evaluated give useful and reliable results for measuring very low to very high concentration without dilution of sample. Magnetic RIA TSH gives meaningful results only for normal and high TSH concentration with necessary dilution for very high TSH concentration

  17. Increased androgen response to follicle-stimulating hormone administration in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Wachs, Deborah S; Coffler, Mickey S; Malcom, Pamela J; Shimasaki, Shunichi; Chang, R Jeffrey

    2008-05-01

    In women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), excess ovarian androgen production is driven by increased LH secretion. Studies conducted in animals suggest that the granulosa cell may influence LH-stimulated theca cell androgen production. The objective of this study was to determine whether FSH enhances androgen production in women with PCOS compared with that of normal women. A prospective study was conducted to compare androgen production in response to FSH in two groups of women. The study was conducted in a General Clinical Research Center in a tertiary academic medical center. Women with PCOS, 18-35 yr (n = 20), and normal ovulatory controls, 18-35 yr (n = 10), were recruited for study. Serial blood samples were obtained over a 24-h period after an iv injection of recombinant human FSH (150 IU). The main outcome measures were serum 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), androstenedione (A), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), testosterone (T), and inhibin B (Inh B) responses after FSH administration. Basal serum 17-OHP, A, and T levels were markedly increased in women with PCOS compared with that observed in normal women. Basal DHEA and Inh B levels were similar to those of normal controls. After FSH injection, PCOS women demonstrated enhanced production of 17-OHP, A, DHEA, and Inh B, whereas in normal women no increases were observed. T levels declined slightly in both groups. These findings provide evidence that, in PCOS women, theca cell androgen production is enhanced by FSH administration and suggest a granulosa-theca cell paracrine mechanism.

  18. Associations between urinary phthalate metabolites and bisphenol A levels, and serum thyroid hormones among the Korean adult population - Korean National Environmental Health Survey (KoNEHS) 2012-2014.

    Park, Choonghee; Choi, Wookhee; Hwang, Moonyoung; Lee, Youngmee; Kim, Suejin; Yu, Seungdo; Lee, Inae; Paek, Domyung; Choi, Kyungho

    2017-04-15

    Phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA) have been used extensively in many consumer products, resulting in widespread exposure in the general population. Studies have suggested associations between exposure to phthalates and BPA, and serum thyroid hormone levels, but confirmation on larger human populations is warranted. Data obtained from nationally representative Korean adults (n=6003) recruited for the second round of the Korean National Environmental Health Survey (KoNEHS), 2012-2014, were employed. Three di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) metabolites, along with benzyl-butyl phthalate (BBzP) and di-butyl phthalate (DBP) metabolites, and BPA were measured in subjects' urine. Thyroxine (T4), total triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) were measured in serum. The associations between urinary phthalates or BPA and thyroid hormone levels were determined. Urinary phthalate metabolites were generally associated with lowered total T4 or T3, or increased TSH levels in serum. Interquartile range (IQR) increases of mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), and mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP) were associated with a 3.7% increase of TSH, and a 1.7% decrease of total T4 levels, respectively. When grouped by sex, urinary MEHHP levels were inversely associated with T4 only among males. Among females, mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP) and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) levels were inversely associated with TSH and T3, respectively. In addition, negative association between BPA and TSH was observed. Several phthalates and BPA exposures were associated with altered circulatory thyroid hormone levels among general Korean adult population. Considering the importance of thyroid hormones, public health implications of such alteration warrant further studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Preparation of radioiodinated insulin and thyroid stimulating hormone using 1,3,4,6-tetrachloro-3. cap alpha. , 6. cap alpha. -diphenylglycouril (iodogen) for radioimmunoassay

    Pillai, M R.A.; Gupte, J H; Jyotsna, T; Mani, R S

    1987-11-01

    Radioiodinated insulin and thyroid stimulating hormones were prepared using 1,3,4,6-tetrachloro-3..cap alpha.., 6..cap alpha..-diphenylglycouril (iodogen). Conditions of iodination like concentration of iodogen, reaction time, etc. were optimized to get maximum yield. Stability studies of iodogen coated tubes were carried out over a period of time. The dependence of iodination yield on varying amounts of activity and protein concentration were investigated. Iodination yield over a range of pH was also studied. The radiolabelled hormones prepared by this method were used in radioimmunoassay and compared with tracers prepared by the Chloramine-T method. (author) 16 refs.; 5 tabs.

  20. Inter-laboratory validation of the measurement of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH after various lengths of frozen storage

    Behr Barry

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH levels are used clinically to evaluate infertility, pituitary and gonadal disorders. With increased frequency of research collaborations across institutions, it is essential that inter-laboratory validation is addressed. Methods An inter-laboratory validation of three commercial FSH immunoassays was performed with human serum samples of varying frozen storage length (2 batches of 15 samples each at -25 degree C. Percentage differences and Bland-Altman limits of agreement were calculated. Results The inter- and intra-laboratory consistency of FSH values with the same assay manufacturer was much higher after shorter-term storage (frozen for less than 11 months, mean percentage degradation less than 4% than after long-term storage (2-3 years, mean percentage degradation = 23%. Comparing assay results from different manufacturers, there was similar overall long term degradation as seen with the same manufacturer (-25%, however the degradation was greater when the original FSH was greater than 20 mIU/mL relative to less than 10 mIU/mL (p Conclusion The findings suggest that degradation of serum samples stored between 11 months and 2-3 years at -25 degrees C can lead to unstable FSH measurements. Inter-laboratory variability due to frozen storage time and manufacturer differences in assay results should be accounted for when designing and implementing research or clinical quality control activities involving serum FSH at multiple study sites.

  1. Towards optimization of odonto/osteogenic bioengineering: in vitro comparison of simvastatin, sodium fluoride, melanocyte-stimulating hormone.

    Zijah, Vahid; Salehi, Roya; Aghazadeh, Marziyeh; Samiei, Mohammad; Alizadeh, Effat; Davaran, Soodabeh

    2017-06-01

    Tissue engineering has emerged as a potential therapeutic option for dental problems in recent years. One of the policies in tissue engineering is to use both scaffolds and additive factors for enhancing cell responses. This study aims to evaluate and compare the effect of three types of biofactors on poly-caprolactone-poly-ethylene glycol-poly caprolactone (PCL-PEG-PCL) nanofibrous scaffold on human dental pulp stem cell (hDPSCs) engineering. The PCL-PEG-PCL copolymer was synthesized with ring opening polymerization method, and its nanofiber scaffold was prepared by electrospinning method. Nanofibrous scaffold-seeded hDPSCs were treated with sodium fluoride (NaF), melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH), or simvastatin (SIM). Non-treated nanofiber seeded cells were utilized as control. The viability, biocompatibility, adhesion, proliferation rate, morphology, osteo/odontogenic potential, and the expression of tissue-specific genes were studied. The results showed that significant higher results demonstrated significant higher adhesive behavior, viability, alizarin red activity, and dentin specific gene expression in MSH- and SIM-treated cells (p < 0.05). This study is unique; in that, it compares the effects of different treatments for optimization of dental tissue engineering.

  2. Oxytocin, vasopressin, prostaglandin F(2alpha), luteinizing hormone, testosterone, estrone sulfate, and cortisol plasma concentrations after sexual stimulation in stallions.

    Veronesi, M C; Tosi, U; Villani, M; Govoni, N; Faustini, M; Kindahl, H; Madej, A; Carluccio, A

    2010-03-01

    This experiment was designed to determine the effects of sexual stimulation on plasma concentrations of oxytocin (OT), vasopressin (VP), 15-ketodihydro-PGF(2alpha) (PG-metabolite), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone (T), estrone sulfate (ES), and cortisol (C) in stallions. Semen samples were collected from 14 light horse stallions (Equus caballus) of proven fertility using a Missouri model artificial vagina. Blood samples were collected at 15, 12, 9, 6, and 3 min before estrous mare exposure, at erection, at ejaculation, and at 3, 6, and 9 min after ejaculation. Afterwards, blood sampling was performed every 10 min for the following 60 min. Sexual activity determined an increase in plasma concentrations of OT, VP, C, PG-metabolite, and ES and caused no changes in LH and T concentrations. The finding of a negative correlation between C and VP at erection, and between C and T before erection and at the time of erection, could be explained by a possible inhibitory role exerted by C in the mechanism of sexual arousal described for men. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Induction of puberty with human chorionic gonadotropin and follicle-stimulating hormone in adolescent males with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.

    Barrio, R; de Luis, D; Alonso, M; Lamas, A; Moreno, J C

    1999-02-01

    To evaluate the clinical and hormonal responses of adolescent males with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) in response to gonadotropin replacement with the use of long-term combined hCG and FSH therapy. Prospective clinical study. Clinical pediatric department providing tertiary care. Seven prepubertal males with isolated HH with a mean (+/-SD) age of 15.44+/-1.97 years and seven prepubertal males with panhypopituitarism-associated HH with a mean (+/-SD) age of 18.1+/-3.24 years were studied. Human chorionic gonadotropin (1,000-1,500 IU IM) and FSH (75-100 IU SC) were administered every alternate day of the week until the total induction of puberty and spermatogenesis was achieved. Serum testosterone levels, testicular volume, penis length, and sperm count were evaluated after the administration of hCG and FSH. All patients achieved normal sexual maturation and normal or nearly normal adult male levels of testosterone. The increase in testicular size was significant in both groups. Positive sperm production was assessed in four of five patients with isolated HH and in three of three patients with panhypopituitarism-associated HH. Long-term combined hCG and FSH therapy is effective in inducing puberty, increasing testicular volume, and stimulating spermatogenesis in adolescent males with isolated HH and panhypopituitarism-associated HH.

  4. Fluorine-18-labeled [Nle4,D-Phe7]-α-MSH, an α-melanocyte stimulating hormone analogue

    Vaidyanathan, Ganesan; Zalutsky, Michael R.

    1997-01-01

    The α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) analogue [N1e 4 ,D-Phe 7 ]-α-MSH was labeled with 18 F using N-succinimidyl 4-[ 18 F]fluorobenzoate ([ 18 F]SFB) in >80% radiochemical yield. The IC 50 values of [N1e 4 ,D-Phe 7 ]-α-MSH and para-fluorobenzoyl-[N1e 4 ,D-Phe 7 ]-α-MSH ([N1e 4 ,D-Phe 7 ,Lys 11 -( 18 F)PFB]-α-MSH) for inhibiting the binding of meta-[ 131 I]iodobenzoyl-[N1e 4 ,D-Phe 7 ]-α-MSH ([N1e 4 ,D-Phe 7 ,Lys 11 -( 131 I)MIB]-α-MSH) to B16-F1 murine melanoma cells were 89 ± 9 pM and 112 ± 22 pM, respectively, suggesting that addition of 4-fluorobenzoate did not compromise α-MSH receptor binding affinity. Binding of [N1e 4 ,D-Phe 7 ,Lys 11 -( 18 F)PFB]-α-MSH was influenced by the specific activity of the preparation (400-1000 Ci/mmol). The normal tissue clearance of [N1e 4 ,D-Phe 7 ,Lys 11 -( 18 F)PFB]-α-MSH in mice was quite rapid, with little evidence for defluorination

  5. Reduced Seminal Concentration of CD45pos Cells after Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Treatment in Selected Patients with Idiopathic Oligoasthenoteratozoospermia

    Rosita A. Condorelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the conventional sperm parameters and the seminal concentration of CD45pos cells (pan-leukocyte marker of infertile patients with idiopathic oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT. The patients were arbitrarily divided into three groups treated with recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone FSH: α (Group A = 20 patients, recombinant FSH-β (Group B = 20 patients, and highly purified human FSH (Group C = 14 patients. All treated groups achieved a similar improvement of the main sperm parameters (density, progressive motility, and morphology, but only the increase in the percentage of spermatozoa with normal morphology was significant compared to the baseline in all three examined groups. Moreover, all groups had a significant reduction of the seminal concentration of CD45pos cells and of the percentage of immature germ cells. Before and after the treatment, the concentration of CD45pos cells showed a positive linear correlation with the percentage of immature germ cells and a negative correlation with the percentage of spermatozoa with regular morphology. These results demonstrate that treatment with FSH is effective in patients with idiopathic OAT and that there are no significant differences between the different preparations. The novelty of this study is in the significant reduction of the concentration of CD45pos cells observed after the treatment.

  6. Serum androgen binding protein and follicle stimulating hormone as indices of Sertoli cell function in the irradiated testis

    Delic, J.I.; Hendry, J.H.; Shalet, S.M.; Morris, I.D.

    1986-01-01

    The present study presents evidence of radiation-induced Sertoli cell damage in both the pubertal and adult rat. The indirect measurement of Sertoli cell function, serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), in general mirrored the changes seen in androgen binding protein (ABP), again indicating Sertoli cell dysfunction. Although FSH remained elevated in adult rats after 5 Gy and above and in pubertal rats after 10 and 20 Gy, the elevation was not as great as that observed in castrates. This suggests that FSH secretion was still inhibited by some factor. As ABP was reduced to near 'background' (castrate) levels after these high doses, suggesting Sertoli cell dysfunction, this may indicate that serum ABP levels may not adequately reflect all Sertoli cell functions. Alternatively FSH may have been inhibited by by Leydig cell androgens, which have been demonstrated to modulate, in part, FSH secretion. Although the Leydig cells were damaged, androgen secretion was not entirely reduced during the study. In general, FSH was elevated when severe damage to spermatogenesis was noted. Whether the changes were related to the absence of a specific spermatogenic cell type could not be determined. (UK)

  7. Application of Magnetizable Cellulose Particles in Radioimmunoassay for In-Vitro Determination of Follicle Stimulating Hormone in Human Serum

    Ebeid, N.H.; El-Bayoumy, A.S.A.

    2017-01-01

    The measurement of Follicle Stimulating Hormone ( FSH) in human serum is essential for investigating fertility and especially disorders of the hypothalamic pituitary gonadal axis. Therefore, the present study aimed to prepare radioimmunoassay (RIA) system using solid phase magnetic particles for the in-vitro quantitative measurement of FSH in human serum. The preparation of polyclonal antibody (anti-FSH), "1"2"5I-FSH tracer and FSH standards was carried out. The activation of magnetic particles using 1, /1-carbonyl diimidazole (CDI) and coupling of activated particles with purified anti-FSH were carried out. Optimization and validation of the assay were undertaken. The reproducibility as measured by the intra-and inter-assay variations is acceptable. The recovery and dilution tests indicated accurate calibration and appropriate matrix. The present technique is in a good agreement well with the currently used commercial kit (Izotop, IRMA). The magnetic particles of the present system for estimation of FSH retain their characteristics during storage for 12 months at 4 °C. It can be concluded that this technique proved to be sensitive, specific, precise and accurate for routine laboratory use

  8. Reconsidering a lower level of follicle-stimulating hormone as abnormal in sub-fertile males of pakistan

    Arif, S.; Khan, A.

    2017-01-01

    To assess the association between Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) and semen parameters in order to evaluate whether the current laboratory reference for abnormal FSH levels should be readjusted. Study Design: Observational, cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Infertility Clinic of Gynecology Unit 1, Civil Hospital, Karachi, from May 2015 to April 2016. Methodology:The study included 100 sub-fertile males inducted from the clinic. Those above 45 years of age, with hypo gonadotrophic hypogonadism, and those on anabolic steroids were excluded. After history and examination, semen parameters and FSH levels were tested. Abnormal semen values were based on WHO 1999 criteria. Data was analyzed by SPSS 17 and mean, frequencies and percentages were calculated. Chi-square test was applied to check association between variables. Results: The FSH levels had a significant association with abnormal semen sperm concentration, motility and morphology but not with semen volume (p=0.246). The mean FSH level was 5.8 ±1.80 IU/L with two-thirds of individuals having value >4.5 IU/L. Frequency of semen abnormalities increased as the level of FSH increased. Conclusion: There is significantly an increased possibility of abnormal semen characteristics at FSH levels >4.5, so the current reference level should be lowered down and adjusted again. (author)

  9. Synergism between exposure to mercury and use of iodine supplements on thyroid hormones in pregnant women

    Llop, Sabrina; Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose; Murcia, Mario; Alvarez-Pedrerol, Mar; Vioque, Jesús; Aguinagalde, Xabier; Julvez, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the association between mercury exposure and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), total triiodothyronine (TT3) and free thyroxine (FT4) levels during pregnancy as well as to explore if there is any synergic action between mercury and intake of iodine from different sources. Methods: The study population was 1407 pregnant women participating in the Spanish INMA birth cohort study. Total mercury concentrations were analyzed in cord blood. Thyroid hormones (THs) were measured in serum samples collected at 13.2±1.5 weeks of gestation. The association between mercury and TH levels was evaluated with multivariate linear regression models. Effect modification caused by iodine intake from supplements and diet was also evaluated. Results: The geometric means of TSH, TT3, FT4 and mercury were 1.1 μU/L, 2.4 nmol/L, 10.5 pmol/L and 7.7 μg/L, respectively. Mercury levels were marginally significantly associated with TT3 (β: −0.05; 95%CI: −0.10, 0.01), but were neither associated with TSH nor FT4. The inverse association between mercury and TT3 levels was stronger among the iodine supplement consumers (−0.08; 95%CI: −0.15, −0.02, interaction p-value=0.07). The association with FT4 followed the same pattern, albeit not significant. Conclusion: Prenatal mercury exposure was inversely associated with TT3 levels among women who took iodine supplements during pregnancy. These results could be of public health concern, although further research is needed. - Highlights: • We studied the relationship between mercury and thyroid hormones among pregnant. • Mercury was marginally significantly associated with TT3, but not with TSH or FT4. • This association was stronger among the iodine supplement. • These results could be of public health concern, but further research is needed

  10. Thyroid hormone levels and incident chronic kidney disease in euthyroid individuals: the Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Zhang, Yiyi; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Cho, Juhee; Lee, Won-Young; Rhee, Eun-Jung; Kwon, Min-Jung; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto; Rampal, Sanjay; Han, Won Kon; Shin, Hocheol; Guallar, Eliseo

    2014-10-01

    Overt and subclinical hypothyroidism are associated with higher levels of serum creatinine and with increased risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The prospective association between thyroid hormones and kidney function in euthyroid individuals,however, is largely unexplored. We conducted a prospective cohort study in 104 633 South Korean men and women who were free of CKD and proteinuria at baseline and had normal thyroid hormone levels and no history of thyroid disease or cancer. At each annual or biennial follow-up visit, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (FT3) and free thyroxin (FT4) levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. The study outcome was incident CKD, defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)<60 ml/min/1.73 m2 based on the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration creatinine equation. After a median follow-up of 3.5 years, 1032 participants developed incident CKD.There was a positive association between high-normal levels of TSH and increased risk of incident CKD. In fully-adjusted models including baseline eGFR, the hazard ratio comparing the highest vs the lowest quintiles of TSH was 1.26 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02 to 1.55; P for linear trend=0.03]. In spline models, FT3 levels below 3 pg/ml were also associated with increased risk of incident CKD. There was no association between FT4 levels and CKD. In a large cohort of euthyroid men and women, high levels of TSH and low levels of FT3, even within the normal range, were modestly associated with an increased risk of incident CKD.

  11. Synergism between exposure to mercury and use of iodine supplements on thyroid hormones in pregnant women

    Llop, Sabrina, E-mail: llop_sab@gva.es [FISABIO–Universitat de València–Universitat Jaume I Joint Research Unit of Epidemiology and Environmental Health, Av. Catalunya 21, 46020 Valencia (Spain); Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose; Murcia, Mario [FISABIO–Universitat de València–Universitat Jaume I Joint Research Unit of Epidemiology and Environmental Health, Av. Catalunya 21, 46020 Valencia (Spain); Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Alvarez-Pedrerol, Mar [Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Doctor Aiguader 88, 08003 Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Doctor Aiguader 88, 08003 Barcelona (Spain); Vioque, Jesús [Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Universidad Miguel Hernandez, Avenida de Alicante KM 87, 03550 Sant Joan d´Alacant (Spain); Aguinagalde, Xabier [Laboratorio de Salud Pública de Alava, Santiago 11, 01002 Vitoria Gasteiz (Spain); Julvez, Jordi [Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Doctor Aiguader 88, 08003 Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Doctor Aiguader 88, 08003 Barcelona (Spain); and others

    2015-04-15

    Objective: To evaluate the association between mercury exposure and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), total triiodothyronine (TT3) and free thyroxine (FT4) levels during pregnancy as well as to explore if there is any synergic action between mercury and intake of iodine from different sources. Methods: The study population was 1407 pregnant women participating in the Spanish INMA birth cohort study. Total mercury concentrations were analyzed in cord blood. Thyroid hormones (THs) were measured in serum samples collected at 13.2±1.5 weeks of gestation. The association between mercury and TH levels was evaluated with multivariate linear regression models. Effect modification caused by iodine intake from supplements and diet was also evaluated. Results: The geometric means of TSH, TT3, FT4 and mercury were 1.1 μU/L, 2.4 nmol/L, 10.5 pmol/L and 7.7 μg/L, respectively. Mercury levels were marginally significantly associated with TT3 (β: −0.05; 95%CI: −0.10, 0.01), but were neither associated with TSH nor FT4. The inverse association between mercury and TT3 levels was stronger among the iodine supplement consumers (−0.08; 95%CI: −0.15, −0.02, interaction p-value=0.07). The association with FT4 followed the same pattern, albeit not significant. Conclusion: Prenatal mercury exposure was inversely associated with TT3 levels among women who took iodine supplements during pregnancy. These results could be of public health concern, although further research is needed. - Highlights: • We studied the relationship between mercury and thyroid hormones among pregnant. • Mercury was marginally significantly associated with TT3, but not with TSH or FT4. • This association was stronger among the iodine supplement. • These results could be of public health concern, but further research is needed.

  12. Hypermetabolic Conversion of Plant Oil into Water: Endothermic Biochemical Process Stimulated by Juvenile Hormone in the European Firebug, L.

    Karel Sláma

    2016-01-01

    difference between the warm and cold larvae of P. apterus was only some 30% (not a reported 10-fold difference, which was presumably due to their ability to drink. We conclude that a very important, though still largely neglected, epigenetic biochemical role of insect JH depends on switchover between the utilization of dietary lipid (+JH; production of metabolic water and carbohydrate (-JH; lipid storage in the fat body. The hypermetabolic water supply in insects fed on dry food, which is associated with enormous rates of O 2 consumption, liberates endothermic energy that heats the body and potentially influences the insect thermoregulation. A possibility that the JH-dependent lipolytic hormone stimulates the total metabolic breakdown of nutritional lipids may be absolutely different from the currently known adipokinetic peptides that have been emphasized.

  13. Lutropin alpha, recombinant human luteinizing hormone, for the stimulation of follicular development in profoundly LH-deficient hypogonadotropic hypogonadal women: a review

    Bernd Th Krause

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Bernd Th Krause1, Ralf Ohlinger2, Annette Haase31Center for Endocrinology and Reproductive Medicine, MVZ Uhlandstr, Berlin, Germany; 2Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Greifswald, Germany; 3Uhlandstr. 162, 10719 BerlinAbstract: Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism is defined as a medical condition with low or undetectable gonadotropin secretion, associated with a complete arrest of follicular growth and very low estradiol. The main cause can be traced back to an irregular or absent hypothalamic GnRH secretion, whereas only a minority suffers from a pituitary disorder. The choice of treatment to reverse this situation is a pulsatile GnRH application or a direct ovarian stimulation using gonadotropin injections. The goal is to achieve a proper ovarian function in these cases for a short time to allow ovulation and chance of pregnancy. Since the pulsatile GnRH treatment lost its former importance, several gonadotropins are in use to stimulate follicular growth, such as urine-derived human menopausal gonadotropin, highly purified follicle stimulating hormone (FSH or recombinant FSH, all with different success. The introduction of recombinant luteinizing hormone (LH and FSH provided an opportunity to investigate the distinct influences of LH and FSH alone and in combination on follicular growth in monofollicular ovulation induction cycles, and additionally on oocyte maturation, fertilization competence of the oocyte and embryo quality in downregulated IVF patients. Whereas FSH was known to be indispensable for normal follicular growth, the role of LH remained questionable. Downregulated IVF patients with this short-term gonadotropin depletion displayed no advance in stimulation success with the use of recombinant LH. Patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism undergoing monofollicular stimulation for ovulation induction showed clearly a specific role and need for both hormones in normal follicular growth. Therefore, a

  14. Immunoglobulin production induced in vitro by glucocorticoid hormones: T cell-dependent stimulation of immunoglobulin production without B cell proliferation in cultures of human peripheral blood lymphocytes

    Grayson, J.; Dooley, N.J.; Koski, I.R.; Blaese, R.M.

    1981-01-01

    The direct effects of steroid hormones on the production of immunoglobulins and DNA synthesis by human T and B lymphocytes was evaluated in cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. As detected by a reverse hemolytic plaque assay, the addition of 0.1 mM to 10 nM hydrocortisone to lymphocytes in culture in the absence of other stimulants or mitogens, resulted in the dramatic induction of immunoglobulin production with responses comparable to those seen in similar cultures stimulated with pokeweed mitogen. Steroid-stimulated immunoglobulin production was first seen after 48 h and peaked at 8-10 d of culture. The production of IgG, IgA, and IgM was induced following incubation with steroid. Glucocorticoids, but not estrogens or androgens, were capable of mediating this effect, and only compounds with affinity for the glucocorticoid receptor were active. The induction of immunoglobulin production was dependent on both T cells and monocytes; cultures depleted of either cell type did not produce immunoglobulin when stimulated with glucocorticoid hormones. Proliferation of B cells or T cells could not be detected by [/sup 3/H]thymidine incorporation or total cell recovery from steroid-stimulated cultures, even though such cultures demonstrated marked increases in immunoglobulin production. The mechanism responsible for this functional maturation of B cells to become high rate immunoglobulin producing cells is as yet undefined, although it appears to involve more than merely steroid mediated inactivation of suppressor T cells

  15. The value of recombinant human TSH-aided 131I treatment in differentiated thyroid carcinoma patients

    Ding Yong; Long Yahong; Tian Jiahe; Xu Baixuan; Xing Jialiu; Fang Yi; Wei Lijing; Zong Zhaoyi

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of recombinant human TSH(rhTSH)-aided 131 I treatment for DTC. Methods: A total of 144 patients with DTC who underwent total or near total thyroidectomy were retrospectively analyzed. The rhTSH-aided 131 I treatment of 3.7 GBq was performed in 72 cases (Group Ⅰ: euthyroid). Another 72 cases received radioiodine ablation treatment of 3.7 GBq after 4 to 6 weeks of thyroxine withdrawal (Group Ⅱ: hypothyroidism). Serum endogenous TSH, FT 3 , FT 4 and Tg were measured. The life qualities of both groups were observed, such as intolerance to cold, weight gain, constipation, motor retardation, skin dryness, periorbital edema and bone pain. Absence of visible uptake or uptake rate less than 1% was taken as complete ablation. The efficacy of 131 I treatment was evaluated. The life quality of both groups was evaluated by χ 2 test, and the effect of 131 I treatment was analyzed by t test. Results: Serum TSH was effectively improved in both groups before 131 I treatment. In group Ⅰ, TSH was higher than that of group Ⅱ ((141.26 ± 27.30) mU/L vs (70.57 ± 51.13) mU/L; t=2.435, P<0.05), and FT 3 , FT 4 were not significantly different before or after the injection of rhTSH. Tg was well stimulated in both groups with no statistical difference. Group Ⅱ exhibited more side effects, which included intolerance to cold 80.56% (58/72), weight gain 86.11% (62/72), constipation 15.28% (11/72), motor retardation 22.22% (16/72), skin dryness 56.94% (41/72), bone pain 2.78% (2/72), and no periorbital edema was found. Group Ⅰ had a higher quality of life than group Ⅱ, only few side effects were observed including dizziness and nausea 2.78% (2/72), bone pain 2.78% (2/72), and transient tachycardia 1.39% (1/72). The effect of 131 I treatment was evaluated by whole body scans with a diagnostic dose of 131 I. The complete ablation rate was 70.83% (51/72) in group Ⅰ and 66.67% (48/72) in group Ⅱ (χ 2 =0.58, P>0.05). Conclusion: The

  16. Molecular cloning of the cDNA encoding follicle-stimulating hormone beta subunit of the Chinese soft-shell turtle Pelodiscus sinensis, and its gene expression.

    Chien, Jung-Tsun; Shen, San-Tai; Lin, Yao-Sung; Yu, John Yuh-Lin

    2005-04-01

    Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is a member of the pituitary glycoprotein hormone family. These hormones are composed of two dissimilar subunits, alpha and beta. Very little information is available regarding the nucleotide and amino acid sequence of FSHbeta in reptilian species. For better understanding of the phylogenetic diversity and evolution of FSH molecule, we have isolated and sequenced the complementary DNA (cDNA) encoding the Chinese soft-shell turtle (Pelodiscus sinensis, Family of Trionychidae) FSHbeta precursor molecule by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA end (RACE) methods. The cloned Chinese soft-shell turtle FSHbeta cDNA consists of 602-bp nucleotides, including 34-bp nucleotides of the 5'-untranslated region (UTR), 396-bp of the open reading frame, and 3'-UTR of 206-bp nucleotides. It encodes a 131-amino acid precursor molecule of FSHbeta subunit with a signal peptide of 20 amino acids followed by a mature protein of 111 amino acids. Twelve cysteine residues, forming six disulfide bonds within beta-subunit and two putative asparagine-linked glycosylation sites, are also conserved in the Chinese soft-shell turtle FSHbeta subunit. The deduced amino acid sequence of the Chinese soft-shell turtle FSHbeta shares identities of 97% with Reeves's turtle (Family of Bataguridae), 83-89% with birds, 61-70% with mammals, 63-66% with amphibians and 40-58% with fish. By contrast, when comparing the FSHbeta with the beta-subunits of the Chinese soft-shell turtle luteinizing hormone and thyroid stimulating hormone, the homologies are as low as 38 and 39%, respectively. A phylogenetic tree including reptilian species of FSHbeta subunits, is presented for the first time. Out of various tissues examined, FSHbeta mRNA was only expressed in the pituitary gland and can be up-regulated by gonadotropin-releasing hormone in pituitary tissue culture as estimated by fluorescence real-time PCR analysis.

  17. Physiological Study on the Relation of Heart Rate Variability in Ageing and Thyroid Hormone Disorder

    Elsayed A. M. Shokr

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate whether cardiac autonomic dysfunction in aging human might be related to an underlying thyroid disturbance. ageing has been associated with hypothyroidism and cardiac autonomic dysfunction. On the basis of body mass index (BMI, 150 patients were grouped into three groups (n = 50 48 years ± 2, 55 years ± 2 and 63 years ± 2. Electrocardiogram was recorded using PowerLab system and the time and frequency domain measures of heart rate variability (HRV were calculated. Fasting blood samples were drawn for measurement of serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, total thyroxin (T4 and total triiodothyronine (T3 concentrations. The levels of TSH, T4 and T3 were not significantly different between the groups. The frequency domain HRV parameter reflecting parasympathetic tone (high-frequency normalized units, HFnu was significantly reduced in aging third groups group. The parameters which reflect sympathetic activation (Heart rate, low-frequency normalized units; LFnu and the LF/HF ratio were significantly increased in the aging group. HFnu was significantly and negatively correlated with age, whereas LFnu and LF/HF ratio were significantly and positively correlated with the above mentioned parameters. No significant relationships were noted between the HRV parameters and the levels of TSH or thyroid hormones. Cardiac autonomic dysfunction in aging human is not linked with underlying thyroid disturbance.

  18. Surface plasmon resonance immunoassay analysis of pituitary hormones in urine and serum samples.

    Treviño, Juan; Calle, Ana; Rodríguez-Frade, José Miguel; Mellado, Mario; Lechuga, Laura M

    2009-05-01

    <