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Sample records for stimulating factor-mobilised blood

  1. Stem cell collection in unmanipulated HLA-haploidentical/mismatched related transplantation with combined granulocyte-colony stimulating factor-mobilised blood and bone marrow for patients with haematologic malignancies: the impact of donor characteristics and procedural settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C; Chen, X-H; Zhang, X; Gao, L; Gao, L; Kong, P-Y; Peng, X-G; Sun, A-H; Gong, Y; Zeng, D-F; Wang, Q-Y

    2010-06-01

    Unmanipulated haploidentical/mismatched related transplantation with combined granulocyte-colony stimulating factor-mobilised peripheral blood stem cells (G-PBSCs) and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor-mobilised bone marrow (G-BM) has been developed as an alternative transplantation strategy for patients with haematologic malignancies. However, little information is available about the factors predicting the outcome of peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) collection and bone marrow (BM) harvest in this transplantation. The effects of donor characteristics and procedure factors on CD34(+) cell yield were investigated. A total of 104 related healthy donors received granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) followed by PBSC collection and BM harvest. Male donors had significantly higher yields compared with female donors. In multiple regression analysis for peripheral blood collection, age and flow rate were negatively correlated with cell yield, whereas body mass index, pre-aphaeresis white blood cell (WBC) and circulating immature cell (CIC) counts were positively correlated with cell yields. For BM harvest, age was negatively correlated with cell yields, whereas pre-BM collection CIC counts were positively correlated with cell yield. All donors achieved the final product of >or=6 x10(6) kg(-1) recipient body weight. This transplantation strategy has been shown to be a feasible approach with acceptable outcomes in stem cell collection for patients who received HLA-haploidentical/mismatched transplantation with combined G-PBSCs and G-BM. In donors with multiple high-risk characteristics for poor aphaeresis CD34(+) cell yield, BM was an alternative source.

  2. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/article/003710.htm Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) blood test measures the level of FSH in blood. FSH ...

  3. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone values from cord blood in neonates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels from cord blood in neonates and to establish the practice for possible application of congenital hypothyroidism screening in Ethiopia. Methods: TSH was measured from cord blood of 1207 consecutive new-borns in the maternal wards of St. Paul, Ghandi ...

  4. Acrolein generation stimulates hypercontraction in isolated human blood vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conklin, D.J.; Bhatnagar, A.; Cowley, H.R.; Johnson, G.H.; Wiechmann, R.J.; Sayre, L.M.; Trent, M.B.; Boor, P.J.

    2006-01-01

    Increased risk of vasospasm, a spontaneous hyperconstriction, is associated with atherosclerosis, cigarette smoking, and hypertension-all conditions involving oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, and inflammation. To test the role of the lipid peroxidation- and inflammation-derived aldehyde, acrolein, in human vasospasm, we developed an ex vivo model using human coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) blood vessels and a demonstrated acrolein precursor, allylamine. Allylamine induces hypercontraction in isolated rat coronary artery in a semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase activity (SSAO) dependent manner. Isolated human CABG blood vessels (internal mammary artery, radial artery, saphenous vein) were used to determine: (1) vessel responses and sensitivity to acrolein, allylamine, and H 2 O 2 exposure (1 μM-1 mM), (2) SSAO dependence of allylamine-induced effects using SSAO inhibitors (semicarbazide, 1 mM; MDL 72274-E, active isomer; MDL 72274-Z, inactive isomer; 100 μM), (3) the vasoactive effects of two other SSAO amine substrates, benzylamine and methylamine, and (4) the contribution of extracellular Ca 2+ to hypercontraction. Acrolein or allylamine but not H 2 O 2 , benzylamine, or methylamine stimulated spontaneous and pharmacologically intractable hypercontraction in CABG blood vessels that was similar to clinical vasospasm. Allylamine-induced hypercontraction and blood vessel SSAO activity were abolished by pretreatment with semicarbazide or MDL 72274-E but not by MDL 72274-Z. Allylamine-induced hypercontraction also was significantly attenuated in Ca 2+ -free buffer. In isolated aorta of spontaneously hypertensive rat, allylamine-induced an SSAO-dependent contraction and enhanced norepinephrine sensitivity but not in Sprague-Dawley rat aorta. We conclude that acrolein generation in the blood vessel wall increases human susceptibility to vasospasm, an event that is enhanced in hypertension

  5. Thermographic venous blood flow characterization with external cooling stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Ashish; Ng, E. Y. K.; Raman, Vignesh

    2018-05-01

    Experimental characterization of blood flow in a human forearm is done with the application of continuous external cooling based active thermography method. Qualitative and quantitative detection of the blood vessel in a thermal image is done, along with the evaluation of blood vessel diameter, blood flow direction, and velocity in the target blood vessel. Subtraction based image manipulation is performed to enhance the feature contrast of the thermal image acquired after the removal of external cooling. To demonstrate the effect of occlusion diseases (obstruction), an external cuff based occlusion is applied after the removal of cooling and its effect on the skin rewarming is studied. Using external cooling, a transit time method based blood flow velocity estimation is done. From the results obtained, it is evident that an external cooling based active thermography method can be used to develop a diagnosis tool for superficial blood vessel diseases.

  6. Effects of intermittent theta burst stimulation on cerebral blood flow and cerebral vasomotor reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichiorri, Floriana; Vicenzini, Edoardo; Gilio, Francesca; Giacomelli, Elena; Frasca, Vittorio; Cambieri, Chiara; Ceccanti, Marco; Di Piero, Vittorio; Inghilleri, Maurizio

    2012-08-01

    To determine whether intermittent theta burst stimulation influences cerebral hemodynamics, we investigated changes induced by intermittent theta burst stimulation on the middle cerebral artery cerebral blood flow velocity and vasomotor reactivity to carbon dioxide (CO(2)) in healthy participants. The middle cerebral artery flow velocity and vasomotor reactivity were monitored by continuous transcranial Doppler sonography. Changes in cortical excitability were tested by transcranial magnetic stimulation. In 11 healthy participants, before and immediately after delivering intermittent theta burst stimulation, we tested cortical excitability measured by the resting motor threshold and motor evoked potential amplitude over the stimulated hemisphere and vasomotor reactivity to CO(2) bilaterally. The blood flow velocity was monitored in both middle cerebral arteries throughout the experimental session. In a separate session, we tested the effects of sham stimulation under the same experimental conditions. Whereas the resting motor threshold remained unchanged before and after stimulation, motor evoked potential amplitudes increased significantly (P = .04). During and after stimulation, middle cerebral artery blood flow velocities also remained bilaterally unchanged, whereas vasomotor reactivity to CO(2) increased bilaterally (P = .04). The sham stimulation left all variables unchanged. The expected intermittent theta burst stimulation-induced changes in cortical excitability were not accompanied by changes in cerebral blood flow velocities; however, the bilateral increased vasomotor reactivity suggests that intermittent theta burst stimulation influences the cerebral microcirculation, possibly involving subcortical structures. These findings provide useful information on hemodynamic phenomena accompanying intermittent theta burst stimulation, which should be considered in research aimed at developing this noninvasive, low-intensity stimulation technique for safe

  7. Focal increase of blood flow in the cerebral cortex of man during vestibular stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, L; Olsen, T S; Roland, P E

    1985-01-01

    This study is an attempt to reveal projection areas for vestibular afferents to the human brain. Changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) were measured over 254 cortical regions during caloric vestibular stimulation with warm water (44 degrees C). rCBF was measured when the external auditory...... meatus was irrigated with water at body temperature as a control to vestibular stimulation. During vestibular stimulation there was only a single cortical area, located in the superior temporal region, which showed a consistent focal activation in the hemisphere contralateral to the stimulated side...... stimulation that gives rise to the associated conscious vestibular sensation of vertigo....

  8. Electromembrane extraction of stimulating drugs from undiluted whole blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamt, Ragnhild Elén Gjulem; Gjelstad, Astrid; Eibak, Lars Erik Eng

    2012-01-01

    For the first time, electromembrane extraction (EME) of six basic drugs of abuse from undiluted whole blood and post mortem blood in a totally stagnant system is reported. Cathinone, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxy-amphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphet-amine (MDMA), ketamine and 2...

  9. Renal Nerve Stimulation-Induced Blood Pressure Changes Predict Ambulatory Blood Pressure Response After Renal Denervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Mark R; Adiyaman, Ahmet; Gal, Pim; Smit, Jaap Jan J; Delnoy, Peter Paul H M; Heeg, Jan-Evert; van Hasselt, Boudewijn A A M; Lau, Elizabeth O Y; Persu, Alexandre; Staessen, Jan A; Ramdat Misier, Anand R; Steinberg, Jonathan S; Elvan, Arif

    2016-09-01

    Blood pressure (BP) response to renal denervation (RDN) is highly variable and its effectiveness debated. A procedural end point for RDN may improve consistency of response. The objective of the current analysis was to look for the association between renal nerve stimulation (RNS)-induced BP increase before and after RDN and changes in ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) after RDN. Fourteen patients with drug-resistant hypertension referred for RDN were included. RNS was performed under general anesthesia at 4 sites in the right and left renal arteries, both before and immediately after RDN. RNS-induced BP changes were monitored and correlated to changes in ambulatory BP at a follow-up of 3 to 6 months after RDN. RNS resulted in a systolic BP increase of 50±27 mm Hg before RDN and systolic BP increase of 13±16 mm Hg after RDN (Pefficacy of RDN and predict BP response to RDN. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Comparison electrical stimulation and passive stretching for blood glucose control type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsianti, Rika Wahyuni; Parman, Dewy Haryanti; Lesmana, Hendy

    2018-04-01

    Physical exercise is one of the cornerstones for management and treatment type 2 diabetes mellitus. But not all people are able to perform physical exercise because of their physical limitation condition. The strategy for those people in this study is electrical stimulation and passive stretching. The aim of this study is to find out the effect of electrical stimulation and passive stretching to lowering blood glucose level. 20 subjects is divided into electrical stimulation and passive stretching group. The provision of electrical stimulation on lower extremities muscles for 30 minutes for electrical stimulation group (N=10). And other underwent passive stretching for 30 minutes (N=10). The result shows that blood glucose level is decrease from 192.9 ± 10.7087 mg/dL to 165.3 ± 10.527 mg/dL for electrical stimulation intervention group while for the passive stretching group the blood glucose decrease from 153 ± 12.468 mg/dL to 136.1 ± 12.346 mg/dL. Both electrical stimulation and passive stretching are effective to lowering blood glucose level and can be proposed for those people restricted to perform exercise.

  11. Blood Pressure Responses to Endovascular Stimulation: A Potential Therapy for Autonomic Disorders With Vasodilatation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naksuk, Niyada; Killu, Ammar M; Yogeswaran, Vidhushei; Desimone, Christopher V; Suddendorf, Scott H; Ladewig, Dorothy J; Powers, Joanne M; Weber, Sarah; Madhavan, Malini; Cha, Yong-Mei; Kapa, Suraj; Asirvatham, Samuel J

    2016-09-01

    We have previously shown that sympathetic ganglia stimulation via the renal vein rapidly increases blood pressure. This study further investigated the optimal target sites and effective energy levels for stimulation of the renal vasculatures and nearby sympathetic ganglia for rapid increase in blood pressure. The pre-study protocol for endovascular stimulations included 2 minutes of stimulation (1-150 V and 10 pulses per second) and at least 2 minutes of rest during poststimulation. If blood pressure and/or heart rate were changed during the stimulation, time to return to baseline was allowed prior to the next stimulation. In 11 acute canine studies, we performed 85 renal artery, 30 renal vein, and 8 hepatic vasculature stimulations. The mean arterial pressure (MAP) rapidly increased during stimulation of renal artery (95 ± 18 mmHg vs. 103 ± 15 mmHg; P vein (90 ± 16 mmHg vs. 102 ± 20 mmHg; P = 0.001), and hepatic vasculatures (74 ± 8 mmHg vs. 82 ± 11 mmHg; P = 0.04). Predictors of a significant increase in MAP were energy >10 V focused on the left renal artery, bilateral renal arteries, and bilateral renal veins (especially the mid segment). Overall, heart rate was unchanged, but muscle fasciculation was observed in 22.0% with an output >10 V (range 15-150 V). Analysis after excluding the stimulations that resulted in fasciculation yielded similar results to the main findings. Stimulation of intra-abdominal vasculatures promptly increased the MAP and thus may be a potential treatment option for hypotension in autonomic disorders. Predictors of optimal stimulation include energy delivery and the site of stimulation (for the renal vasculatures), which informs the design of subsequent research. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Olfactory stimulation modulates the blood glucose level in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Tadataka; Tanaka, Susumu; Bakhshishayan, Sanam; Kogo, Mikihiko; Yamamoto, Takashi

    2018-01-01

    In both humans and animals, chemosensory stimuli, including odors and tastes, induce a variety of physiologic and mental responses related to energy homeostasis, such as glucose kinetics. The present study examined the importance of olfactory function in glucose kinetics following ingestion behavior in a simplified experimental scenario. We applied a conventional glucose tolerance test to rats with and without olfactory function and analyzed subsequent blood glucose (BG) curves in detail. The loss of olfactory input due to experimental damage to the olfactory mucosa induced a marked decrease in the area under the BG curve. Exposure to grapefruit odor and its main component, limonene, both of which activate the sympathetic nerves, before glucose loading also greatly depressed the BG curve. Pre-loading exposure to lavender odor, a parasympathetic activator, stabilized the BG level. These results suggest that olfactory function is important for proper glucose kinetics after glucose intake and that certain fragrances could be utilized as tools for controlling BG levels.

  13. Blood flow distribution in dog gastrocnemius muscle at rest and during stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piiper, J.; Pendergast, D.R.; Marconi, C.; Meyer, M.; Heisler, N.; Cerretelli, P.

    1985-01-01

    The distribution of blood flow within the isolated perfused dog gastrocnemius muscle (weight 100-240 g) was studied by intra-arterial injection of radioactively labeled microspheres (diameter 15 micron) at rest and during supramaximal stimulation to rhythmic isotonic tetanic contractions of varied frequency against varied loads. After the experiment the muscle was cut into 180-250 pieces of approximately 0.75 g each, and the blood flow to each muscle piece was determined from its radioactivity. The inhomogeneity of blood flow was represented as the frequency distribution of the ratios of regional specific blood flow, i.e., blood flow per unit tissue weight of the piece, QR, to the overall specific blood flow of the muscle, Q. The QR/Q values for the individual pieces of a muscle were found to vary widely both at rest and during stimulation. With rising work load the frequency distribution had a tendency to broaden and flatten, indicating increasing perfusion inhomogeneity. On the average of the experiments, there was no significant difference in specific blood flow between the three anatomic components of the gastrocnemius (lateral and medial heads of gastrocnemius and flexor digitorum superficialis) nor between the superficial and deep portions within these anatomic components, only the distal third of the muscle was relatively less perfused compared with the proximal two-thirds. The considerable inhomogeneity of blood flow as revealed by microsphere embolization and by other methods is expected to exert important limiting effects on local O 2 supply, particularly during exercise

  14. Blood flow variation in human muscle during electrically stimulated exercise bouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderthommen, Marc; Depresseux, Jean-Claude; Dauchat, Luc; Degueldre, Christian; Croisier, Jean-Louis; Crielaard, Jean-Michel

    2002-07-01

    To evaluate, with a high spatial resolution, the blood flow variations in human skeletal muscle during neuromuscular electric stimulation (NMES) and hence to gain better understanding of the mechanisms of muscle spatial recruitment during NMES. One thigh was submitted to 3 stimulation bouts of different durations (S1=4min, S2=8min, S3=12min) with a workload corresponding to 10% of quadriceps maximal isometric voluntary torque. A cyclotron research center at a Belgian university. Ten healthy male volunteers. Not applicable. Participants were studied with positron emission tomography and H(2)(15)O. Tissue blood flow was evaluated during the last 4 minutes of each stimulation bout in multiple regions of interest (ROIs) selected in the transverse section of the stimulated thigh. Mean tissue blood flow was significantly lower during S1 (5.9+/-1.3mL. min(-1). 100g(-1)) than during S2 (10.6+/-3.4mL. min(-1). 100g(-1)) and S3 (11.6+/-3.7mL. min(-1). 100g(-1)) (Precruited ROIs were preferentially located far from the electrode. During NMES, new muscular regions situated far from the stimulation site are recruited. These recruitment mechanisms are particular and contrast with the recruitment of motor units seen during voluntary contraction. Copyright 2002 by the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine and the American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

  15. Blood pressure control with selective vagal nerve stimulation and minimal side effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plachta, Dennis T. T.; Gierthmuehlen, Mortimer; Cota, Oscar; Espinosa, Nayeli; Boeser, Fabian; Herrera, Taliana C.; Stieglitz, Thomas; Zentner, Joseph

    2014-06-01

    Objective. Hypertension is the largest threat to patient health and a burden to health care systems. Despite various options, 30% of patients do not respond sufficiently to medical treatment. Mechanoreceptors in the aortic arch relay blood pressure (BP) levels through vagal nerve (VN) fibers to the brainstem and trigger the baroreflex, lowering the BP. Selective electrical stimulation of these nerve fibers reduced BP in rats. However, there is no technique described to localize and stimulate these fibers inside the VN without inadvertent stimulation of non-baroreceptive fibers causing side effects like bradycardia and bradypnea. Approach. We present a novel method for selective VN stimulation to reduce BP without the aforementioned side effects. Baroreceptor compound activity of rat VN (n = 5) was localized using a multichannel cuff electrode, true tripolar recording and a coherent averaging algorithm triggered by BP or electrocardiogram. Main results. Tripolar stimulation over electrodes near the barofibers reduced the BP without triggering significant bradycardia and bradypnea. The BP drop was adjusted to 60% of the initial value by varying the stimulation pulse width and duration, and lasted up to five times longer than the stimulation. Significance. The presented method is robust to impedance changes, independent of the electrode's relative position, does not compromise the nerve and can run on implantable, ultra-low power signal processors.

  16. Effect of blood vessels on light distribution in optogenetic stimulation of cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimipour, Mehdi; Atry, Farid; Pashaie, Ramin

    2015-05-15

    In this Letter, the impact of blood vessels on light distribution during photostimulation of cortical tissue in small rodents is investigated. Brain optical properties were extracted using a double-integrating sphere setup, and optical coherence tomography was used to image cortical vessels and capillaries to generate a three-dimensional angiogram of the cortex. By combining these two datasets, a complete volumetric structure of the cortical tissue was developed and linked to a Monte Carlo code which simulates light propagation in this inhomogeneous structure and illustrates the effect of blood vessels on the penetration depth and pattern preservation in optogenetic stimulation.

  17. Effect of basal forebrain stimulation on extracellular acetylcholine release and blood flow in the olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Sae; Kagitani, Fusako

    2017-05-12

    The olfactory bulb receives cholinergic basal forebrain input, as does the neocortex; however, the in vivo physiological functions regarding the release of extracellular acetylcholine and regulation of regional blood flow in the olfactory bulb are unclear. We used in vivo microdialysis to measure the extracellular acetylcholine levels in the olfactory bulb of urethane-anesthetized rats. Focal chemical stimulation by microinjection of L-glutamate into the horizontal limb of the diagonal band of Broca (HDB) in the basal forebrain, which is the main source of cholinergic input to the olfactory bulb, increased extracellular acetylcholine release in the ipsilateral olfactory bulb. When the regional cerebral blood flow was measured using laser speckle contrast imaging, the focal chemical stimulation of the HDB did not significantly alter the blood flow in the olfactory bulb, while increases were observed in the neocortex. Our results suggest a functional difference between the olfactory bulb and neocortex regarding cerebral blood flow regulation through the release of acetylcholine by cholinergic basal forebrain input.

  18. Phytohemagglutinin (PHA) stimulation of peripheral-blood lymphocytes and stem cell take

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astaldi, G [Blood Research Foundation Center, Tortona, Italy; Karanovic, D; Vettori, P P; Karanovic, J; Piletic, O

    1974-01-01

    The effect of PHA-stimulation of peripheral-blood lymphocytes on the spleen-colony formation in irradiated rats was examined. 25-day old Wistar rats underwent total-body irradiation (600 R), and they were used as recipients. On the other hand, 2 and /sup 1///sub 2/ month old untreated Wistar rats were used as donors of peripheral-blood lymphocytes, which were obtained by sedimentation with Dextraven from defibrinated blood. Four rat lots were used. The 1st one did not receive irradiation, and was kept as ''blank control.'' The 2nd one was just irradiated and kept as ''radiated control.'' The 3rd and the 4th rat lots of the series were irradiated, but the former lot was injected i.v. with 5 x 10/sup 7/ peripheral-blood untreated lymphocytes, whereas the fourth lot was injected i.v. with the same amount of lymphocytes, which were previously incubated in vitro for 24 hrs with PHA-M (Difco). The results showed that the PHA-incubation of transplanted peripheral-blood lymphocytes significantly increases the number and size of the macroscopic spleen colonies, in relationship to the colonies which occurs after transplantation of untreated lymphocytes. Histo-cytological observation clearly showed that the colonies formed after injection of mitogen-pretreated peripheral-blood lymphocytes were predominantly of erythroid type and, then, of non-differentiated cells. Only a few of them were of a mixed type, consisting of both undifferentiated cells and erythroid cells.

  19. Noninvasive MRI measurement of the absolute cerebral blood volume-cerebral blood flow relationship during visual stimulation in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciris, Pelin Aksit; Qiu, Maolin; Constable, R Todd

    2014-09-01

    The relationship between cerebral blood volume (CBV) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) underlies blood oxygenation level-dependent functional MRI signal. This study investigates the potential for improved characterization of the CBV-CBF relationship in humans, and examines sex effects as well as spatial variations in the CBV-CBF relationship. Healthy subjects were imaged noninvasively at rest and during visual stimulation, constituting the first MRI measurement of the absolute CBV-CBF relationship in humans with complete coverage of the functional areas of interest. CBV and CBF estimates were consistent with the literature, and their relationship varied both spatially and with sex. In a region of interest with stimulus-induced activation in CBV and CBF at a significance level of the P < 0.05, a power function fit resulted in CBV = 2.1 CBF(0.32) across all subjects, CBV = 0.8 CBF(0.51) in females and CBV = 4.4 CBF(0.15) in males. Exponents decreased in both sexes as ROIs were expanded to include less significantly activated regions. Consideration for potential sex-related differences, as well as regional variations under a range of physiological states, may reconcile some of the variation across literature and advance our understanding of the underlying cerebrovascular physiology. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Postvagotomy acid secretion and mucosal blood flow during beta-adrenoceptor stimulation and universal chemical sympathectomy in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovendal, C P

    1983-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of beta-adrenoceptor stimulation, alpha blockade, and elimination of the adrenergic nerve function on mucosal blood flow and acid secretion in parietal-cell-vagotomized (PCV) gastric fistula dogs. Isoprenaline inhibited pentagastrin-stimulate......The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of beta-adrenoceptor stimulation, alpha blockade, and elimination of the adrenergic nerve function on mucosal blood flow and acid secretion in parietal-cell-vagotomized (PCV) gastric fistula dogs. Isoprenaline inhibited pentagastrin...... to chemical sympathectomy with 6-hydroxy-dopamine, a false neurotransmitter that selectively destroys the adrenergic nerve terminals. Chemical sympathectomy increased the pentagastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion and stabilized the mucosal blood flow at the level before vagotomy, but with an increased...... ratio between blood flow and acid secretion. One may conclude that the sympathetic nerve system influences gastric function after vagotomy....

  1. Foot salvage and improvement of microvascular blood flow as a result of epidural spinal cord electrical stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, M. J.; Jörning, P. J.; Beckers, R. C.; Ubbink, D. T.; van Kleef, Maarten; Slaaf, D. W.; Reneman, R. S.

    1990-01-01

    Epidural spinal cord electrical stimulation has been suggested as an alternative treatment in patients with limb-threatening ischemia in whom vascular reconstructive surgery is not possible anymore. We studied the effects of epidural spinal cord electrical stimulation on microcirculatory blood flow

  2. Functioning heterotopic grey matter? Increased blood flow with voluntary movement and sensory stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimodozono, M.; Kawahira, K.; Tanaka, N.

    1995-01-01

    Heterotopic grey matter has never been reported to have any neuronal function other than as an epileptic focus. However, recent advances in measurement of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and cerebral metabolism have enabled us to assess localised function and functional changes of the brain. We saw a patient with cerebral haemorrhage with bilateral heterotopic grey matter. No neurological deficits or seizures were present before the haemorrhage. To establish the function of the heterotopic grey matter, we studied changes in their rCBF during voluntary movement and sensory stimulation of unilateral extremities using xenon-CT (Xe-CT). (orig.)

  3. Effects of spinal cord stimulation on myocardial blood flow assessed by positron emission tomography in patients with refractory angina pectoris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hautvast, RWM; Blanksma, PK; DeJongste, MJL; Pruim, J; vanderWall, EE; Vaalburg, W; Lie, KI

    1996-01-01

    Spinal cord stimulation in angina pectoris increases exercise capacity and reduces both anginal attacks and ischemic electrocardiographic signs. This suggests an anti-ischemic action, perhaps through changes in myocardial blood flow. In 9 patients, regional myocardial blood flow was studied with

  4. Phytohemagglutinin (PHA) stimulation of peripheral-blood lymphocytes and stem cell take

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astaldi, G. (Blood Research Foundation Center, Tortona, Italy); Karanovic, D.; Vettori, P.P.; Karanovic, J.; Piletic, O.

    1974-01-01

    The effect of PHA-stimulation of peripheral-blood lymphocytes on the spleen-colony formation in irradiated rats was examined. 25-day old Wistar rats underwent total-body irradiation (600 R), and they were used as recipients. On the other hand, 2 and /sup 1///sub 2/ month old untreated Wistar rats were used as donors of peripheral-blood lymphocytes, which were obtained by sedimentation with Dextraven from defibrinated blood. Four rat lots were used. The 1st one did not receive irradiation, and was kept as ''blank control.'' The 2nd one was just irradiated and kept as ''radiated control.'' The 3rd and the 4th rat lots of the series were irradiated, but the former lot was injected i.v. with 5 x 10/sup 7/ peripheral-blood untreated lymphocytes, whereas the fourth lot was injected i.v. with the same amount of lymphocytes, which were previously incubated in vitro for 24 hrs with PHA-M (Difco). The results showed that the PHA-incubation of transplanted peripheral-blood lymphocytes significantly increases the number and size of the macroscopic spleen colonies, in relationship to the colonies which occurs after transplantation of untreated lymphocytes. Histo-cytological observation clearly showed that the colonies formed after injection of mitogen-pretreated peripheral-blood lymphocytes were predominantly of erythroid type and, then, of non-differentiated cells. Only a few of them were of a mixed type, consisting of both undifferentiated cells and erythroid cells.

  5. Focal physiological uncoupling of cerebral blood flow and oxidative metabolism during somatosensory stimulation in human subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, P.T.; Raichle, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    Coupling between cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO 2 ) was studied using multiple sequential administrations of 15 O-labeled radiotracers and positron emission tomography. In the resting state an excellent correlation between CBF and CMRO 2 was found when paired measurements of CBF and CMRO 2 from multiple (30-48) brain regions were tested in each of 33 normal subjects. Regional uncoupling of CBF and CMRO 2 was found, however, during neuronal activation induced by somatosensory stimulation. Stimulus-induced focal augmentation of cerebral blood flow (29% mean) far exceeded the concomitant local increase in tissue metabolic rate (mean, 5%), when resting-state and stimulated-state measurements were obtained in each of 9 subjects. Stimulus duration had no significant effect on response magnitude or on the degree of CBF-CMRO 2 uncoupling observed. Dynamic, physiological regulation of CBF by a mechanism (neuronal or biochemical) dependent on neuronal firing per se, but independent of the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen, is hypothesized

  6. Disturbances in lipid second messengers generation by stimulated blood lymphocytes in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galstyan H. M.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The main objective of this study was the comparative investigation of diverse lipid second messenger (LSM generation by human peripheral blood lymphocytes (HPBL at different (5, 10, 30 and 60 s time points of cell co-stimulation by anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 monoclonal antibodies in norm and breast cancer (BC. Methods. Ficoll-Hypaque gradient centrifugation. Results. The data obtained indicate that some mechanisms of LSM generation/utilization in stimulated crude HPBL were significantly altered in BC compared to norm. Particularly, the reliable generation of arachidonyl-1,2-diacylglycerol (1,2-DAG at the initial step (5 s of cell stimulation observed in norm was depressed in BC and reached the value below the basal level in unstimulated cells. It is important that the disturbances in 1,2-DAG formation in HPBL obtained from patients with BC were identical with those observed earlier in other forms of cancer. Conclusions. We conclude that the regularities revealed are common characteristics for all the types of malignancy studied and can be used as additional testing parameters for cancer definition and individual correction of the chemotherapy programs for disease treatment

  7. Thyroid stimulating hormone levels in cord blood are not influenced by non-thyroidal mothers' diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Sterian Ward

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Screening programs not only offer the opportunity to trace and treat almost all cases of congenital hypothyroidism but also mean large savings to the health system. However, carefully planned strategies are necessary to extend their benefits and reduce costs. OBJECTIVE: To determine the possible influence of maternal diseases that affect maternal-fetal placenta dynamics on primary thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH screening for congenital hypothyroidism. DESIGN: Prospective non-randomized clinical trial with at least 3 months of follow-up. SETTING: A public university referral center [CAISM/Hospital das Clínicas, Faculty of Medicine, University of Campinas, Campinas, SP]. PARTICIPANTS: 415 neonates divided into 5 groups: eighty-three infants born from cardiac mothers; 98 from mothers that had toxemia; 54 of the mothers had diabetes mellitus; 40 were HIV positive and 140 had no diseases. INTERVENTION: All newborns had cord blood samples collected on filter paper at birth. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: TSH was measured from dried blood spots using a homemade immunofluorescence assay (sensitivity in dried blood spots = 0.1 mU/L. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the mean TSH levels among the 5 groups. Moreover, TSH levels were around 5 mU/L in 48% of the newborns, indicating that our region is severely deficient in iodine. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that primary TSH screening programs using cord blood are not affected by maternal diseases. We suggest that, besides its technical advantages over heel punctures with T4 primary approaches, neonatal screening using primary cord blood TSH may also be used as a monitoring tool for evaluation and control of iodine deficiency disorders (IDD.

  8. Control of cerebral cortical blood flow by stimulation of basal forebrain cholinergic areas in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, Harumi; Uchida, Sae; Kagitani, Fusako; Maruyama, Naoki

    2011-05-01

    We examined whether activity of the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM) regulates regional cerebral cortical blood flow (rCBF) in mice, using laser speckle and laser Doppler flowmetry. In anesthetized mice, unilateral focal stimulation, either electrical or chemical, of the NBM increased rCBF of the ipsilateral cerebral cortex in the frontal, parietal and occipital lobes, independent of changes in systemic blood pressure. Most of vasodilative responses to low intensity stimuli (2 times threshold intensity: 2T) were abolished by atropine (a muscarinic cholinergic blocker), whereas responses to higher intensity stimuli (3T) were abolished by atropine and mecamylamine (a nicotinic cholinergic blocker). Blood flow changes were largest when the tip of the electrode was located within the area containing cholinergic neurons shown by choline acetyltransferase-immunocytochemistry. These results suggest that cholinergic projections from basal forebrain neurons in mice cause vasodilation in the ipsilateral cerebral cortex by a combination of muscarinic and nicotinic mechanisms, as previously found in rats and cats.

  9. The effect of sensory stimulation provided by family on arterial blood oxygen saturation in critical care patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Hojatollah; Naderi, Mojgan; Daryabeigi, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Stressors in the intensive care unit (ICU) impair patients' comfort, excite the stress response, and increase oxygen consumption in their body. Non-medical interventions are recommended by several studies as a treatment to improve comfort in the ICU patients. Sensory stimulation is one of the most important interventions. Since arterial blood oxygen saturation is an important index of patients' clinical and respiratory condition, this study aimed to investigate the effect of sensory stimulation provided by family on arterial blood oxygen saturation in critical care patients. This study is a clinical trial conducted on 64 patients hospitalized in the ICU wards of Al-Zahra and Kashani hospitals in Isfahan, Iran in 2012 and 2013. The patients were selected by simple sampling method and were randomly assigned to two groups (study and control). Patients' arterial blood oxygen saturations were measured 10 min before, immediately after, 10 min and 30 min after sensory stimulation in the study group, and simultaneously in the control group without any intervention. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed a significant difference in the mean of arterial blood oxygen saturation levels 10 min before, immediately after, 10 min and 30 min after sensory stimulation in the study group (P 0.18). Application of sensory stimulations as a nursing and non-medical intervention by the family members improves comfort and increases the level of blood oxygen saturation in critical care patients.

  10. Functional response of cerebral blood flow induced by somatosensory stimulation in rats with subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiguo; Huang, Qin; Liu, Peng; Li, Pengcheng; Ma, Lianting; Lu, Jinling

    2015-09-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is often accompanied by cerebral vasospasm (CVS), which is the phenomenon of narrowing of large cerebral arteries, and then can produce delayed ischemic neurological deficit (DIND) such as lateralized sensory dysfunction. CVS was regarded as a major contributor to DIND in patients with SAH. However, therapy for preventing vasospasm after SAH to improve the outcomes may not work all the time. It is important to find answers to the relationship between CVS and DIND after SAH. How local cerebral blood flow (CBF) is regulated during functional activation after SAH still remains poorly understood, whereas, the regulation of CBF may play an important role in weakening the impact of CVS on cortex function. Therefore, it is worthwhile to evaluate the functional response of CBF in the activated cortex in an SAH animal model. Most evaluation of the effect of SAH is presently carried out by neurological behavioral scales. The functional imaging of cortical activation during sensory stimulation may help to reflect the function of the somatosensory cortex more locally than the behavioral scales do. We investigated the functional response of CBF in the somatosensory cortex induced by an electrical stimulation to contralateral forepaw via laser speckle imaging in a rat SAH model. Nineteen Sprague-Dawley rats from two groups (control group, n=10 and SAH group, n=9) were studied. SAH was induced in rats by double injection of autologous blood into the cisterna magna after CSF aspiration. The same surgical procedure was applied in the control group without CSF aspiration or blood injection. Significant CVS was found in the SAH group. Meanwhile, we observed a delayed peak of CBF response in rats with SAH compared with those in the control group, whereas no significant difference was found in magnitude, duration, and areas under curve of relative CBF changes between the two groups. The results suggest that the regulation function of local CBF during

  11. Electrical stimulation of acupuncture points and blood pressure responses to postural changes: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alice Y M; Kwan, Y L; Leung, Nathan T F; Yu, Rachel P W; Wu, Cindy M Y; Warburton, Darren E R

    2011-05-01

    Application of transcutaneous electrical stimulation over acupuncture points (Acu-TENS) facilitates heart rate recovery after exercise and restores hemodynamic stability after open heart surgery. The role of Acu-TENS on cardiovascular parameters in response to postural changes has not been reported. To investigate (1) the effect of Acu-TENS on blood pressure responses to -10º head-down postural change and (2) whether such effects were associated with modulation by the autonomic nervous system. Sixteen healthy volunteers, mean age 22.8 (SD, 3.1) years, were subjected to a -10º head-down tilt from the supine position on 3 separate occasions and received in random order the following 3 intervention protocols for 40 minutes before the postural change: Acu-TENS (over bilateral acupuncture points, PC6), sham-TENS (TENS applied to the skin over the patellae), and control (no electrical output from the TENS device applied at PC6). Mean arterial pressure, large artery elasticity index, cardiac output, and heart rate were recorded and compared at different stimulation protocols in the supine and -10º head-down tilt positions. Spectral analysis of heart rate variability was used to determine any modulation by the autonomic nervous system. Change in large artery elasticity index was observed only in the Acu-TENS group (P pressure appeared most stable during Acu-TENS. Autonomic nervous system modulation was not apparent with spectral analysis, irrespective of intervention. Sympathetic activity predominated in all positions. Acu-TENS seems to reduce blood pressure changes with -10º head-down tilt with concomitant changes in arterial vessel tone.

  12. Transcranial direct current stimulation transiently increases the blood-brain barrier solute permeability in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Da Wi; Khadka, Niranjan; Fan, Jie; Bikson, Marom; Fu, Bingmei M.

    2016-03-01

    Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive electrical stimulation technique investigated for a broad range of medical and performance indications. Whereas prior studies have focused exclusively on direct neuron polarization, our hypothesis is that tDCS directly modulates endothelial cells leading to transient changes in blood-brain-barrier (BBB) permeability (P) that are highly meaningful for neuronal activity. For this, we developed state-of-the-art imaging and animal models to quantify P to various sized solutes after tDCS treatment. tDCS was administered using a constant current stimulator to deliver a 1mA current to the right frontal cortex of rat (approximately 2 mm posterior to bregma and 2 mm right to sagittal suture) to obtain similar physiological outcome as that in the human tDCS application studies. Sodium fluorescein (MW=376), or FITC-dextrans (20K and 70K), in 1% BSA mammalian Ringer was injected into the rat (SD, 250-300g) cerebral circulation via the ipsilateral carotid artery by a syringe pump at a constant rate of ~3 ml/min. To determine P, multiphoton microscopy with 800-850 nm wavelength laser was applied to take the images from the region of interest (ROI) with proper microvessels, which are 100-200 micron below the pia mater. It shows that the relative increase in P is about 8-fold for small solute, sodium fluorescein, ~35-fold for both intermediate sized (Dex-20k) and large (Dex-70k) solutes, 10 min after 20 min tDCS pretreatment. All of the increased permeability returns to the control after 20 min post treatment. The results confirmed our hypothesis.

  13. Ex vivo stimulation of whole blood as a means to determine glucocorticoid sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burnsides C

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Christopher Burnsides,1,* Jacqueline Corry,1,* Jacob Alexander,1 Catherine Balint,1 David Cosmar,1 Gary Phillips,2 Jeanette I Webster Marketon1,31Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, 2Center for Biostatistics, 3Institute for Behavioral Medicine Research, Wexner Medical Center at The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA*JC and CB have equally contributed to this workPurpose: Glucocorticoids are commonly prescribed to treat a number of diseases including the majority of inflammatory diseases. Despite considerable interpersonal variability in response to glucocorticoids, an insensitivity rate of about 30%, and the risk of adverse side effects of glucocorticoid therapy, currently no assay is performed to determine sensitivity.Patients and methods: Here we propose a whole blood ex vivo stimulation assay to interrogate known glucocorticoid receptor (GR up- and downregulated genes to indicate glucocorticoid sensitivity. We have chosen to employ real-time PCR in order to provide a relatively fast and inexpensive assay.Results: We show that the GR-regulated genes, GILZ and FKBP51, are upregulated in whole blood by treatment with dexamethasone and that LPS-induction of cytokines (IL-6 and TNFα are repressed by dexamethasone in a dose responsive manner. There is considerable interpersonal variability in the maximum induction of these genes but little variation in the EC50 and IC50 concentrations. The regulation of the GR-induced genes differs throughout the day whereas the suppression of LPS-induced cytokines is not as sensitive to time of day.Conclusion: In all, this assay would provide a method to determine glucocorticoid receptor responsiveness in whole blood.Keywords: glucocorticoid responsiveness, gene regulation, nuclear receptor, GILZ, FKBP51, cytokines

  14. Pre-therapeutic blood dosimetry in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma using 124-iodine. Predicted blood doses correlate with changes in blood cell counts after radioiodine therapy and depend on modes of TSH stimulation and number of preceding radioiodine therapies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartung-Knemeyer, V.; Nagarajah, J.; Jentzen, W.; Ruhlmann, M.; Freudenberg, L.S.; Stahl, A.R.; Bockisch, A.; Rosenbaum-Krumme, S.J.

    2012-01-01

    Pre-therapeutic blood dosimetry prior to a high-dose radioiodine therapy (RAIT) is recommended and a blood dose of 2 Gy is considered to be safe. In this study, changes in the blood cell count after radioiodine therapy of high risk differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) were analyzed and compared with the results of the pre-therapeutic blood dosimetry using 124 I. Moreover, the influence of different modes of TSH stimulation and the number of preceding radioiodine therapies on the blood dose were assessed. 198 patients with locally advanced or metastasized DTC received a pre-therapeutic blood dosimetry using 124 I. To analyze the influence of the modes of TSH stimulation and the number of preceding RAITs on blood dose subgroups were built as follows: patients with endogenous TSH stimulation versus patients with exogenous TSH stimulation and patients with no preceding RAIT versus patients with at least one preceding RAIT. In 124/198 patients subsequent RAIT was performed. In 73/124 patients, hemograms were performed from day 2 to 12 month after RAIT. There was no high-grade bone marrow toxicity (id est (i.e.) ≥grade 3) in patients receiving less than 2 Gy blood dose-independent of the therapeutic history. Within the first month after radioiodine therapy, there was an overall decrease in the white blood cell and platelet counts. The erythrocyte count was essentially stable. There was a correlation between cell count decrease and predicted blood doses (Spearman's correlation coefficient >-0.6 each) for the white cell line and the platelets. With regard to the subgroups, the blood dose per administered 131 I activity (BDpA) was significantly higher in patients with endogenous TSH stimulation (median 0.08 Gy/GBq) than in patients with exogenous TSH stimulation (0.06 Gy/GBq) and in patients with no previous RAIT (0.08 Gy/GBq) compared to patients who had previously undergone at least one RAIT (0.07 Gy/GBq). The range of BDpA among DTC patients is rather wide. Our

  15. Effect of dopamine on bethanechol-stimulated gastric mucosal blood flow and gastric acid secretion in dogs with gastric fistula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovendal, C P; Bech, K

    1982-01-01

    of gastric mucosal blood flow, whereas stimulation of beta, muscarinic, and 'gastrinergic' receptors mainly occurs indirectly via changes in parietal cell function. The main effect of dopamine seems to be on gastric motility, whereas the effect on gastric acid secretion is of minor importance.......The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Dopamine on bethanechol-stimulated gastric acid secretion and mucosal blood flow. dopamine was used alone and in conjunction with selective blockade of the alpha, beta, and dopaminergic receptors. An increasing and dose......-dependent stimulation of gastric acid secretion was found for dopamine at 1, 5, and 10 micrograms/kg/min. A significant inhibition of gastric acid secretion was found with the highest dose of dopamine (40 micrograms/kg/min). the stimulatory effect seems to be mediated by more than one receptor, whereas the inhibition...

  16. Stimulation of the sphenopalatine ganglion induces reperfusion and blood-brain barrier protection in the photothrombotic stroke model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haviv Levi

    Full Text Available The treatment of stroke remains a challenge. Animal studies showing that electrical stimulation of the sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG exerts beneficial effects in the treatment of stroke have led to the initiation of clinical studies. However, the detailed effects of SPG stimulation on the injured brain are not known.The effect of acute SPG stimulation was studied by direct vascular imaging, fluorescent angiography and laser Doppler flowmetry in the sensory motor cortex of the anaesthetized rat. Focal cerebral ischemia was induced by the rose bengal (RB photothrombosis method. In chronic experiments, SPG stimulation, starting 15 min or 24 h after photothrombosis, was given for 3 h per day on four consecutive days. Structural damage was assessed using histological and immunohistochemical methods. Cortical functions were assessed by quantitative analysis of epidural electro-corticographic (ECoG activity continuously recorded in behaving animals.Stimulation induced intensity- and duration-dependent vasodilation and increased cerebral blood flow in both healthy and photothrombotic brains. In SPG-stimulated rats both blood brain-barrier (BBB opening, pathological brain activity and lesion volume were attenuated compared to untreated stroke animals, with no apparent difference in the glial response surrounding the necrotic lesion.SPG-stimulation in rats induces vasodilation of cortical arterioles, partial reperfusion of the ischemic lesion, and normalization of brain functions with reduced BBB dysfunction and stroke volume. These findings support the potential therapeutic effect of SPG stimulation in focal cerebral ischemia even when applied 24 h after stroke onset and thus may extend the therapeutic window of currently administered stroke medications.

  17. Low-frequency electrical stimulation induces the proliferation and differentiation of peripheral blood stem cells into Schwann cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xudong; Fu, Jianming; Bai, Jing; Zhang, Chengwen; Wang, Jing; Pan, Wenping

    2015-02-01

    Functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury remains a tough problem at present. Specifically, a type of glial cell exists in peripheral nerves that promotes axonal growth and myelin formation and secretes various active substances, such as neurotrophic factors, extracellular matrix and adherence factors. These substances have important significance for the survival, growth and regeneration of nerve fibers. Numerous recent studies have shown that electrical stimulation can increase the number of myelinated nerve fibers. However, whether electrical stimulation acts on neurons or Schwann cells has not been verified in vivo. This study investigates low-frequency electrical stimulation-induced proliferation and differentiation of peripheral blood stem cells into Schwann cells and explores possible mechanisms. Peripheral blood stem cells from Sprague-Dawley rats were primarily cultured. Cells in passage 3 were divided into 4 groups: a low-frequency electrical stimulation group (20 Hz, 100 μs, 3 V), a low-frequency electrical stimulation+PD98059 (blocking the extracellular signal-regulated kinase [ERK] signaling pathway) group, a PD98059 group and a control group (no treatment). After induction, the cells were characterized. A 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazoliumbromide assay was employed to measure the absorbance values at 570 nm in the 4 groups. A Western blot assay was used to detect the expression of cyclin D1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) in each group. No significant difference in cell viability was detected before induction. Peripheral blood stem cells from the 4 groups differentiated into Schwann cells. Phosphorylated ERK 1/2, cyclin D1 and CDK4 protein levels were highest in the low-frequency electrical stimulation group and lowest in the ERK blockage group. Phosphorylated ERK 1/2, cyclin D1 and CDK4 protein levels in the low-frequency electrical stimulation+ERK blockage group were lower than those in the low-frequency electrical

  18. Transvenous stimulation of the renal sympathetic nerves increases systemic blood pressure: a potential new treatment option for neurocardiogenic syncope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhavan, Malini; Desimone, Christopher V; Ebrille, Elisa; Mulpuru, Siva K; Mikell, Susan B; Johnson, Susan B; Suddendorf, Scott H; Ladewig, Dorothy J; Gilles, Emily J; Danielsen, Andrew J; Asirvatham, Samuel J

    2014-10-01

    Neurocardiogenic syncope (NCS) is a common and sometimes debilitating disorder, with no consistently effective treatment. NCS is due to a combination of bradycardia and vasodilation leading to syncope. Although pacemaker devices have been tried in treating the bradycardic aspect of NCS, no device-based therapy exists to treat the coexistent vasodilation that occurs. The renal sympathetic innervation has been the target of denervation to treat hypertension. We hypothesized that stimulation of the renal sympathetic nerves can increase blood pressure and counteract vasodilation in NCS. High-frequency stimulation (800-900 pps, 10 V, 30-200 seconds) was performed using a quadripolar catheter in the renal vein of 7 dogs and 1 baboon. A significant increase in blood pressure (BP; mean [SD] systolic BP 117 [±28] vs. 128 [±33], diastolic BP 75 [±19] vs. 87 [±29] mmHg) was noted during the stimulation, which returned to baseline after cessation of stimulation. The mean increase in systolic and diastolic BP was 13.0 (±3.3) (P = 0.006) and 10.2 (±4.6) (P = 0.08), respectively. We report the first ever study of feasibility and safety of high-frequency electrical stimulation of the renal sympathetic innervation to increase BP in animal models. This has potential applications in the treatment of hypotensive states such as NCS. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Regional cerebral blood flow changes associated with transcranial magnetic stimulation in refractory depressed patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, C. H.; Chung, Y. A.; Chae, J. H.; Oh, J. H.; Kim, S. H.; Sohn, H. S.; Chung, S. K.

    2005-01-01

    Imaging studies by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) demonstrates biological activities of the brain. The aim of this study was to investigate the patterns of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) after a series of therapeutic rTMS sessions. Nine patients with refractory depression who had not been responsive to appropriate pharmacotherapy over 1 year were randomly assigned to daily 1 Hz right-sided rTMS or 20 Hz left-sided rTMS sessions for over 3 weeks. Baseline and 3-week post-rTMS treatment SPECT images were obtained 40 minutes after intravenous injection of approximately 740925 MBq of Tc-99m ECD using a multi-detector scanner (ECAM plus; Siemens, Erlangen, Germany) equipped with a low-energy, fan-beam collimator. All patients showed a good clinical outcome. Statistically significant common increase in rCBF patterns was found in the fusiform gyrus of left temporal lobe, left hippocampus, left superior parietal lobule, superior frontal gyrus of right frontal lobe, right lateral globus pallidus and cingulated gyrus of both limbic lobes. And in the fusiform gyrus of left occipital lobe and middle frontal gyrus of right frontal lobe decreased uptake was seen compared to controls. Low-frequency rTMS on the right prefrontal cortex and high-frequency rTMS on the left prefrontal cortex for 3 weeks as an add-on regimen have increased activity in specific brain regions in patients with treatment refractory depression. Therapeutic TMS seems to influence distinct cortical regions, as well as different pathways, affecting rCBF in a homogeneous manner that is probably region dependent and illness related

  20. Diabetic Ephrin-B2-Stimulated Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Enhance Poststroke Recovery in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Hilal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical trials of cell therapy in stroke favor autologous cell transplantation. To date, feasibility studies have used bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells, but harvesting bone marrow cells is invasive thus complicating bedside treatment. We investigated the therapeutic potential of peripheral blood-derived mononuclear cells (PB-MNC harvested from diabetic patients and stimulated by ephrin-B2 (PB-MNC+ (500,000 cells, injected intravenously 18–24 hours after induced cerebral ischemia in mice. Infarct volume, neurological deficit, neurogenesis, angiogenesis, and inflammation were investigated as were the potential mechanisms of PB-MNC+ cells in poststroke neurorepair. At D3, infarct volume was reduced by 60% and 49% compared to unstimulated PB-MNC and PBS-treated mice, respectively. Compared to PBS, injection of PB-MNC+ increased cell proliferation in the peri-infarct area and the subventricular zone, decreased microglia/macrophage cell density, and upregulated TGF-β expression. At D14, microvessel density was decreased and functional recovery was enhanced compared to PBS-treated mice, whereas plasma levels of BDNF, a major regulator of neuroplasticity, were increased in mice treated with PB-MNC+ compared to the other two groups. Cell transcriptional analysis showed that ephrin-B2 induced phenotype switching of PB-MNC by upregulating genes controlling cell proliferation, inflammation, and angiogenesis, as confirmed by adhesion and Matrigel assays. Conclusions. This feasibility study suggests that PB-MNC+ transplantation poststroke could be a promising approach but warrants further investigation. If confirmed, this rapid, noninvasive bedside cell therapy strategy could be applied to stroke patients at the acute phase.

  1. Diabetic Ephrin-B2-Stimulated Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Enhance Poststroke Recovery in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilal, Rose; Poittevin, Marine; Pasteur-Rousseau, Adrien; Cogo, Adrien; Mangin, Gabrielle; Chevauché, Marie; Ziat, Yasmine; Vilar, José; Launay, Jean-Marie; Gautier, Jean-François; Broquères-You, Dong; Levy, Bernard I; Merkulova-Rainon, Tatyana; Kubis, Nathalie

    2018-01-01

    Clinical trials of cell therapy in stroke favor autologous cell transplantation. To date, feasibility studies have used bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells, but harvesting bone marrow cells is invasive thus complicating bedside treatment. We investigated the therapeutic potential of peripheral blood-derived mononuclear cells (PB-MNC) harvested from diabetic patients and stimulated by ephrin-B2 (PB-MNC+) (500,000 cells), injected intravenously 18-24 hours after induced cerebral ischemia in mice. Infarct volume, neurological deficit, neurogenesis, angiogenesis, and inflammation were investigated as were the potential mechanisms of PB-MNC+ cells in poststroke neurorepair. At D3, infarct volume was reduced by 60% and 49% compared to unstimulated PB-MNC and PBS-treated mice, respectively. Compared to PBS, injection of PB-MNC+ increased cell proliferation in the peri-infarct area and the subventricular zone, decreased microglia/macrophage cell density, and upregulated TGF- β expression. At D14, microvessel density was decreased and functional recovery was enhanced compared to PBS-treated mice, whereas plasma levels of BDNF, a major regulator of neuroplasticity, were increased in mice treated with PB-MNC+ compared to the other two groups. Cell transcriptional analysis showed that ephrin-B2 induced phenotype switching of PB-MNC by upregulating genes controlling cell proliferation, inflammation, and angiogenesis, as confirmed by adhesion and Matrigel assays. Conclusions . This feasibility study suggests that PB-MNC+ transplantation poststroke could be a promising approach but warrants further investigation. If confirmed, this rapid, noninvasive bedside cell therapy strategy could be applied to stroke patients at the acute phase.

  2. Regional cerebral blood flow changes associated with transcranial magnetic stimulation in refractory depressed patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, C. H.; Chung, Y. A.; Chae, J. H.; Oh, J. H.; Kim, S. H.; Sohn, H. S.; Chung, S. K. [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Imaging studies by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) demonstrates biological activities of the brain. The aim of this study was to investigate the patterns of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) after a series of therapeutic rTMS sessions. Nine patients with refractory depression who had not been responsive to appropriate pharmacotherapy over 1 year were randomly assigned to daily 1 Hz right-sided rTMS or 20 Hz left-sided rTMS sessions for over 3 weeks. Baseline and 3-week post-rTMS treatment SPECT images were obtained 40 minutes after intravenous injection of approximately 740925 MBq of Tc-99m ECD using a multi-detector scanner (ECAM plus; Siemens, Erlangen, Germany) equipped with a low-energy, fan-beam collimator. All patients showed a good clinical outcome. Statistically significant common increase in rCBF patterns was found in the fusiform gyrus of left temporal lobe, left hippocampus, left superior parietal lobule, superior frontal gyrus of right frontal lobe, right lateral globus pallidus and cingulated gyrus of both limbic lobes. And in the fusiform gyrus of left occipital lobe and middle frontal gyrus of right frontal lobe decreased uptake was seen compared to controls. Low-frequency rTMS on the right prefrontal cortex and high-frequency rTMS on the left prefrontal cortex for 3 weeks as an add-on regimen have increased activity in specific brain regions in patients with treatment refractory depression. Therapeutic TMS seems to influence distinct cortical regions, as well as different pathways, affecting rCBF in a homogeneous manner that is probably region dependent and illness related.

  3. [Effects of the renal blood flow at different levels by transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation combined general anesthesia induced controlled hypotension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jian-Qiao; Zhang, Le-Le; Shao, Xiao-Mei

    2012-11-01

    To observe the intervention of transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation (TEAS) on the renal blood flow at different levels of mean arterial pressure (MAP) in controlled hypotension. Forty-two male beagle dogs were randomly divided into seven groups, i. e., the general anesthesia group, the 50% controlled group, the 40% controlled group, the 30% controlled group, the 50% experimental group, the 40% experimental group, and the 30% experimental group, 6 in each group. Beagles in the general anesthesia group were not treated with controlled hypotension, and the target MAP was achieved in those of the rest groups and maintained for 60 min. In the experimental groups, TEAS was applied to bilateral Hegu (LI4), Zusanli (ST36), Sanyinjiao (SP6), and Quchi (LI11) at 2/100 Hz with the stimulation strength of (4 +/- 1) mA starting from the stability of their physiological conditions to 60 min of maintaining the target MAP level. The changes of the renal blood flow were monitored at different time points using laser Doppler. From starting pressure control to the target MAP level, the renal blood flow was significantly lower in the 30% controlled group than in the general anesthesia group and the basic level of the same group (P blood pressure, the renal blood flow was significantly lower in the 50% controlled group, the 40% controlled group, the 30% controlled group, and the 30% experimental group than in the general anesthesia group (P blood pressure recovery, the renal blood flow restored to the basic level in the 50% controlled group, the 50% experimental group, and the 40% experimental group (P > 0.05), while it was not restored to the basic level in the 40% controlled group, the 30% controlled group, and the 30% experimental group (P renal blood flow, thus protecting the kidney.

  4. Quantitative activation patterns of cerebral blood flow during mental stimulation after intravenous injection of sup(195m)Au

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindner, P.; Nickel, O.

    1983-01-01

    A previously reported theory for quantitative cerebral blood flow measurement for nondiffusible radiotracers has been applied to patients after stroke and to volunteers undergoing a mental stimulation exercise. Quantitative measurements of cerebral blood flow pattern in p-a and lateral projections of the brain are obtained using the short lived (30s) isotope sup(195m)Au from the recently developed generator. The energy spectrum of the eluate from the generator shows two strong photon peaks, one at an energy level of 68 KeV and a second at 262 KeV. The low-energy peak is suitable for perfusion studies of the cerebral hemispheres in lateral projection, being without ''look through'' effect. The high-energy level is good for studies in p-a-projection. Studies last less than 1 min and can be repeated after 3 min. Parametric images for quantitative regional cerebral blood flow can be generated, in which the avascular region following stroke can be detected. Quantitative activation patterns of cerebral blood flow during mental stimulation can be generated. The results show that it is possible to measure cerebral blood-flow patterns not only with freely diffusible indicators like Xenon but also with nondiffusible indicators. (orig.)

  5. Interleukin-4 and interferon-¿ production by Leishmania stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells from nonexposed individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurtzhals, J A; Kemp, M; Poulsen, L K

    1995-01-01

    of antigen stimulation suggesting a response due to antigen recognition. Both IL-4 and IFN-gamma production was abrogated by depletion of CD2+ or CD4+ but not CD8+ cells. CD2+ or CD4+ but not CD8+ enriched cultures produced cytokines as unseparated PBMC. Thus, in non-exposed individuals circulating...... call for studies of the importance of cytokine production by cross-reactive T cells for the outcome of L. donovani infections in humans and show that the method for IL-4 detection is useful for this purpose.......Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) production by Leishmania reactive peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from non-exposed individuals was investigated. IFN-gamma was measured in culture supernatants after antigen stimulation. For the measurement of IL-4, antigen stimulated...

  6. Homeostatic 'bystander' proliferation of human peripheral blood B cells in response to polyclonal T-cell stimulation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasiulewicz, Aleksandra; Lisowska, Katarzyna A; Pietruczuk, Krzysztof; Frąckowiak, Joanna; Fulop, Tamas; Witkowski, Jacek M

    2015-11-01

    The mechanisms of maintenance of adequate numbers of B lymphocytes and of protective levels of immunoglobulins in the absence of antigenic (re)stimulation remain not fully understood. Meanwhile, our results presented here show that both peripheral blood naive and memory B cells can be activated strongly and non-specifically (in a mitogen-like fashion) in 5-day in vitro cultures of anti-CD3- or concanavalin A (Con A)-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy people. This polyclonal, bystander activation of the B cells includes multiple divisions of most of them (assessed here by the flow cytometric technique of dividing cell tracking) and significant antibody [immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG] secretion. Observed proliferation of the CD19(+) B cells depends on contact with stimulated T helper (Th) cells (via CD40-CD40L interaction) and on the response of B cells to secreted interleukins IL-5, IL-10 and IL-4, and is correlated with the levels of these Th-derived molecules, while it does not involve the ligation of the BCR/CD19 complex. We suggest that the effect might reflect the situation occurring in vivo as the homeostatic proliferation of otherwise non-stimulated, peripheral B lymphocytes, providing an always ready pool for efficient antibody production to any new (or cognate) antigen challenge. © The Japanese Society for Immunology. 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Laser stimulating ST36 with optical fiber induce blood component changes in mice: a Raman spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Heng; Chen, Zhenyi; Wu, Jiping; Chen, Na; Xu, Wenjie; Li, Taihao; Liu, Shupeng

    2018-02-15

    ST36 is a commonly-used acupoint in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for treatment of inflammations, pains and gastrointestinal disturbs. For decades, the low power laser acupuncture has been widely applied as an alternative therapy to traditional metal needle acupuncture and achieved relatively fine therapeutic effect for ST36-related symptoms with reduction of uncomfortableness and infection risks. However its disadvantages of low penetrativity and lack of manipulation skills limit its potential performance. An optical fiber laser acupuncture introduced by the previous study combines traditional needling acupuncture and the laser stimulation together, making a stronger therapeutic effect and showing a potential value in clinical application. To evaluate its acupunctural effect on blood, mice are taken as experimental model and Raman spectroscopic technique is used to analysis the changes of blood components after stimulating on ST36. The results show that both the traditional needling acupuncture and optical fiber acupuncture could lead to some spectral changes of blood in mice. This study explores the optical fiber acupuncture's effect on blood in mice using Raman spectroscopy technique for mechanism of acupuncture therapy. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Garlic Lowers Blood Pressure in Hypertensive Individuals, Regulates Serum Cholesterol, and Stimulates Immunity: An Updated Meta-analysis and Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ried, Karin

    2016-02-01

    Garlic has been shown to have cardiovascular protective and immunomodulatory properties. We updated a previous meta-analysis on the effect of garlic on blood pressure and reviewed the effect of garlic on cholesterol and immunity. We searched the Medline database for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published between 1955 and December 2013 on the effect of garlic preparations on blood pressure. In addition, we reviewed the effect of garlic on cholesterol and immunity. Our updated meta-analysis on the effect of garlic on blood pressure, which included 20 trials with 970 participants, showed a mean ± SE decrease in systolic blood pressure (SBP) of 5.1 ± 2.2 mm Hg (P garlic on blood lipids, which included 39 primary RCTs and 2300 adults treated for a minimum of 2 wk, suggested garlic to be effective in reducing total and LDL cholesterol by 10% if taken for >2 mo by individuals with slightly elevated concentrations [e.g., total cholesterol >200 mg/dL (>5.5 mmol/L)]. Garlic has immunomodulating effects by increasing macrophage activity, natural killer cells, and the production of T and B cells. Clinical trials have shown garlic to significantly reduce the number, duration, and severity of upper respiratory infections. Our review suggests that garlic supplements have the potential to lower blood pressure in hypertensive individuals, to regulate slightly elevated cholesterol concentrations, and to stimulate the immune system. Garlic supplements are highly tolerated and may be considered as a complementary treatment option for hypertension, slightly elevated cholesterol, and stimulation of immunity. Future long-term trials are needed to elucidate the effect of garlic on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. Porcine neonatal blood dendritic cells, but not monocytes, are more responsive to TLRs stimulation than their adult counterparts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gael Auray

    Full Text Available The neonatal immune system is often considered as immature or impaired compared to the adult immune system. This higher susceptibility to infections is partly due to the skewing of the neonatal immune response towards a Th2 response. Activation and maturation of dendritic cells (DCs play an important role in shaping the immune response, therefore, DCs are a target of choice for the development of efficient and protective vaccine formulations able to redirect the neonatal immune response to a protective Th1 response. As pigs are becoming more important for vaccine development studies due to their similarity to the human immune system, we decided to compare the activation and maturation of a subpopulation of porcine DCs in adult and neonatal pigs following stimulation with different TLR ligands, which are promising candidates for adjuvants in vaccine formulations. Porcine blood derived DCs (BDCs were directly isolated from blood and consisted of a mix of conventional and plasmacytoid DCs. Following CpG ODN (TLR9 ligand and imiquimod (TLR7 ligand stimulation, neonatal BDCs showed higher levels of expression of costimulatory molecules and similar (CpG ODN or higher (imiquimod levels of IL-12 compared to adult BDCs. Another interesting feature was that only neonatal BDCs produced IFN-α after TLR7 or TLR9 ligand stimulation. Stimulation with CpG ODN and imiquimod also induced enhanced expression of several chemokines. Moreover, in a mixed leukocyte reaction assay, neonatal BDCs displayed a greater ability to induce lymphoproliferation. These findings suggest that when stimulated via TLR7 or TLR9 porcine DCs display similar if not better response than adult porcine DCs.

  10. Endogenous pyrogen production by human blood monocytes stimulated by staphylococcal cell wall components.

    OpenAIRE

    Oken, M M; Peterson, P K; Wilkinson, B J

    1981-01-01

    To determine the properties of Staphylococcus aureus contributing to its pyrogenicity, we compared, in human monocytes, endogenous pyrogen production stimulated by heat-killed S. aureus with that stimulated by purified S. aureus cell walls or by particulate peptidoglycan prepared from the same strain. Peptidoglycan, but not the purified cell wall preparation, was found comparable to S. aureus as an endogenous pyrogen stimulus. This finding was associated with a more effective monocyte phagocy...

  11. The changes of regional cerebral blood flow: successful pain relief of intractable CRPS type II patients by motor cortex stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, J. A.; Son, H. S.; Kim, S. H.; Jung, S. G

    2004-01-01

    Authors report the effectiveness of MCS in extraordinarily extended pain due to intractable CRPS type II and rCBF study result for mechanism of pain control by MCS. A 43-year-old male presented severe spontaneous burning pain in his left hand and forearm and allodynia over the left arm and left hemibody. Authors planned MCS as a neuromodulation therapy for this intractable peripheral neuropathic pain patient because further neurodestructive procedure did not work anymore and have a potential risk of further aggrevation of neuopathic pain. We performed baseline and stimulation brain perfusion SPECT using 20 mCi of Tc-99m ECD. The baseline CBD studies were done with stimulator 'off' state and stimulation studies were done after stimulator 'on' with satisfactory pain relief. For the stimulation study, the radioisotope was injected immediately after pain-relief and the images were taken about 50 minutes after injection of radioisotope. In resting rCBF in the patient was compared with normal control datas, we found significant increase in rCBF in the bilateral prefrontal cortex, right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, right superior temporal gyrus, left temporooccipital area. When rCBF datas obtained after alleviation of pain with stimulator 'on' . there were significant increase in rCBF in bilateral prefrontal cortex and left temporoocipital area. After subtraction of ECD SPECT, we found significant increase in rCBF in the right premotor and supplementary motor cortex left sensorimotor cortex, right cingulated cortex, right posterior insular cortex, right anterior limb of internal capsule. left orbitofrontal cortex and right pyramidal tract in cerebral peduncle. Authors report exellent pain control by MCS in a case of severe CRPS type II with hemibody involvement and regional cerebral blood flow changes according to successful pain control

  12. The changes of regional cerebral blood flow: successful pain relief of intractable CRPS type II patients by motor cortex stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, J. A.; Son, H. S.; Kim, S. H.; Jung, S. G [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Authors report the effectiveness of MCS in extraordinarily extended pain due to intractable CRPS type II and rCBF study result for mechanism of pain control by MCS. A 43-year-old male presented severe spontaneous burning pain in his left hand and forearm and allodynia over the left arm and left hemibody. Authors planned MCS as a neuromodulation therapy for this intractable peripheral neuropathic pain patient because further neurodestructive procedure did not work anymore and have a potential risk of further aggrevation of neuopathic pain. We performed baseline and stimulation brain perfusion SPECT using 20 mCi of Tc-99m ECD. The baseline CBD studies were done with stimulator 'off' state and stimulation studies were done after stimulator 'on' with satisfactory pain relief. For the stimulation study, the radioisotope was injected immediately after pain-relief and the images were taken about 50 minutes after injection of radioisotope. In resting rCBF in the patient was compared with normal control datas, we found significant increase in rCBF in the bilateral prefrontal cortex, right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, right superior temporal gyrus, left temporooccipital area. When rCBF datas obtained after alleviation of pain with stimulator 'on' . there were significant increase in rCBF in bilateral prefrontal cortex and left temporoocipital area. After subtraction of ECD SPECT, we found significant increase in rCBF in the right premotor and supplementary motor cortex left sensorimotor cortex, right cingulated cortex, right posterior insular cortex, right anterior limb of internal capsule. left orbitofrontal cortex and right pyramidal tract in cerebral peduncle. Authors report exellent pain control by MCS in a case of severe CRPS type II with hemibody involvement and regional cerebral blood flow changes according to successful pain control.

  13. Quantitative evaluation of regional cerebral blood flow by visual stimulation in {sup 99m}Tc- HMPAO brain SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juh, Ra Hyeong; Suh, Tae Suk; Kwark, Chul Eun; Choe, Bo Young; Lee, Hyoung Koo; Chung, Yong An; Kim, Sung Hoon; Chung, Soo Kyo [College of Medicine, The Catholic Univ. of Seoul, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of visual activation and quantitative analysis of regional cerebral blood flow. Visual activation was known to increase regional cerebral blood flow in the visual cortex in occipital lobe. We evaluated that change in the distribution of '9{sup 9m}Tc-HMPAO (Hexamethyl propylene amine oxime) to reflect in regional cerebral blood flow. The six volunteers were injected with 925 MBq (mean ages: 26.75 years, n=6, 3men, 3women) underwent MRI and {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPECT during a rest state with closed eyes and visual stimulated with 8 Hz LED. We delineate the region of interest and calculated the mean count per voxel in each of the fifteen slices to quantitative analysis. The ROI to whole brain ratio and regional index was calculated pixel to pixel subtraction visual non-activation image from visual activation image and constructed brain map using a statistical parameter map(SPM99). The mean regional cerebral blood flow was increased due to visual stimulation. The increase rate of the mean regional cerebral blood flow which of the activation region in primary visual cortex of occipital lobe was 32.50{+-}5.67%. The significant activation sites using a statistical parameter of brain constructed a rendering image and image fusion with SPECT and MRI. Visual activation was revealed significant increase through quantitative analysis in visual cortex. Activation region was certified in Talairach coordinate and primary visual cortex (Ba17),visual association area (Ba18,19) of Brodmann.

  14. Quantitative evaluation of regional cerebral blood flow by visual stimulation in 99mTc-HMPAO brain SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juh, R. H.; Suh, T. S.; Chung, Y. A.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of visual activation and quantitative analysis of regional cerebral blood flow. Visual activation was known to increase regional cerebral blood flow in the visual cortex in occipital lobe. We evaluated that change in the distribution of 99mTc-HMPAO (Hexamethyl propylene amine oxime) to reflect in regional cerebral blood flow. The six volunteers were injected with 925 MBq (mean ages: 26.75 years, n=6, 3men, 3women) underwent MRI and 99mTc- HMPAO SPECT during a rest state with closed eyes and visual stimulated with 8 Hz LED. We delineate the region of interest and calculated the mean count per voxel in each of the fifteen slices to quantitative analysis. The ROI to whole brain ratio and regional index was calculated pixel to pixel subtraction visual non-activation image from visual activation image and constructed brain map using a statistical parameter map (SPM99). The mean regional cerebral blood flow was increased due to visual stimulation. The increase rate of the mean regional cerebral blood flow which of the activation region in primary visual cortex of occipital lobe was 32.50±5.67%. The significant activation sites using a statistical parameter of brain constructed a rendering image and image fusion with SPECT and MRI. Visual activation was revealed significant increase through quantitative analysis in visual cortex. Activation region was certified in Talairach coordinate and primary visual cortex (Ba17),visual association area (Ba18,19) of Brodmann

  15. Quantitative evaluation of regional cerebral blood flow by visual stimulation in 99mTc- HMPAO brain SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juh, Ra Hyeong; Suh, Tae Suk; Kwark, Chul Eun; Choe, Bo Young; Lee, Hyoung Koo; Chung, Yong An; Kim, Sung Hoon; Chung, Soo Kyo

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of visual activation and quantitative analysis of regional cerebral blood flow. Visual activation was known to increase regional cerebral blood flow in the visual cortex in occipital lobe. We evaluated that change in the distribution of '9 9m Tc-HMPAO (Hexamethyl propylene amine oxime) to reflect in regional cerebral blood flow. The six volunteers were injected with 925 MBq (mean ages: 26.75 years, n=6, 3men, 3women) underwent MRI and 99m Tc-HMPAO SPECT during a rest state with closed eyes and visual stimulated with 8 Hz LED. We delineate the region of interest and calculated the mean count per voxel in each of the fifteen slices to quantitative analysis. The ROI to whole brain ratio and regional index was calculated pixel to pixel subtraction visual non-activation image from visual activation image and constructed brain map using a statistical parameter map(SPM99). The mean regional cerebral blood flow was increased due to visual stimulation. The increase rate of the mean regional cerebral blood flow which of the activation region in primary visual cortex of occipital lobe was 32.50±5.67%. The significant activation sites using a statistical parameter of brain constructed a rendering image and image fusion with SPECT and MRI. Visual activation was revealed significant increase through quantitative analysis in visual cortex. Activation region was certified in Talairach coordinate and primary visual cortex (Ba17),visual association area (Ba18,19) of Brodmann

  16. Quantitative evaluation of regional cerebral blood flow by visual stimulation in {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO brain SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juh, R. H.; Suh, T. S.; Chung, Y. A. [The Catholic Univ., of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of visual activation and quantitative analysis of regional cerebral blood flow. Visual activation was known to increase regional cerebral blood flow in the visual cortex in occipital lobe. We evaluated that change in the distribution of 99mTc-HMPAO (Hexamethyl propylene amine oxime) to reflect in regional cerebral blood flow. The six volunteers were injected with 925 MBq (mean ages: 26.75 years, n=6, 3men, 3women) underwent MRI and 99mTc- HMPAO SPECT during a rest state with closed eyes and visual stimulated with 8 Hz LED. We delineate the region of interest and calculated the mean count per voxel in each of the fifteen slices to quantitative analysis. The ROI to whole brain ratio and regional index was calculated pixel to pixel subtraction visual non-activation image from visual activation image and constructed brain map using a statistical parameter map (SPM99). The mean regional cerebral blood flow was increased due to visual stimulation. The increase rate of the mean regional cerebral blood flow which of the activation region in primary visual cortex of occipital lobe was 32.50{+-}5.67%. The significant activation sites using a statistical parameter of brain constructed a rendering image and image fusion with SPECT and MRI. Visual activation was revealed significant increase through quantitative analysis in visual cortex. Activation region was certified in Talairach coordinate and primary visual cortex (Ba17),visual association area (Ba18,19) of Brodmann.

  17. The effect of combined treatment with transcranial direct current stimulation on cerebral blood flow in patients with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Yatsenko

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available There is a close link between the activity of the brain and cerebral blood supply. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS modulates the activity of the cerebral cortex and thus affects the cerebral blood flow. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of combined treatment with tDCS on cerebral blood flow in patients with cerebral palsy (CP. Materials and Methods. 60 patients with various forms of cerebral palsy were examined and received the course of treatment. The comparison group was formed from 30 children who received the course of basic medical and rehabilitation procedures. The main group included 30 children who, in addition to the same therapy, received a course of tDCS. A transcranial Doppler ultrasound examination of head blood vessels was used for the study of cerebral hemodynamics in children with cerebral palsy before and after combined treatment with tDCS. Results. tDCS reduced asymmetry coefficient of blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral arteries (MCA by 12.3 %, whereas in the comparison group only by 2.5 %; in the anterior cerebral artery (ACA – 9.5 %, while in the comparison group – 0.8 %. tDCS significantly reduced the high mean blood flow velocity per cycle (MFV in the basilar artery (BA, MCA and ACA (21.7 %, 18.3 % and 7.8 %, respectively; in the comparison group no statistically significant positive dynamics was observed. tDCS significantly increased the low MVF in the BA, MCA and ACA (29.7 %, 21.2 % and 9.7 % respectively; a statistically significant increase of MVF by 9.9 % was only in the CMA in the comparison group of patients. Conclusions. Our data indicate that the use of tDCS in the combined treatment of CP patients improves cerebral hemodynamics in 87 % of patients, in contrast to 52 % in the comparison group. The addition of transcranial direct current stimulation method to the complex treatment of patients with cerebral palsy improves the effectiveness of treatment and may also

  18. Whole blood flow cytometric analysis of Ureaplasma-stimulated monocytes from pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedland, Yael D; Lee-Pullen, Tracey F; Nathan, Elizabeth; Watts, Rory; Keelan, Jeffrey A; Payne, Matthew S; Ireland, Demelza J

    2015-06-01

    We hypothesised that circulating monocytes of women with vaginal colonisation with Ureaplasma spp., genital microorganisms known to cause inflammation-driven preterm birth, would elicit a tolerised cytokine response to subsequent in vitro Ureaplasma parvum serovar 3 (UpSV3) stimulation. Using multi-parameter flow cytometry, we found no differences with regard to maternal colonisation status in the frequency of TNF-α-, IL-6-, IL-8- and IL-1β-expressing monocytes in response to subsequent UpSV3 stimulation (P > 0.10 for all cytokines). We conclude that vaginal Ureaplasma spp. colonisation does not specifically tolerise monocytes of pregnant women towards decreased responses to subsequent stimulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Role of reduced insulin-stimulated bone blood flow in the pathogenesis of metabolic insulin resistance and diabetic bone fragility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Pamela S

    2016-08-01

    Worldwide, 387 million adults live with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and an additional 205 million cases are projected by 2035. Because T2D has numerous complications, there is significant morbidity and mortality associated with the disease. Identification of early events in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and T2D might lead to more effective treatments that would mitigate health and monetary costs. Here, we present our hypothesis that impaired bone blood flow is an early event in the pathogenesis of whole-body metabolic insulin resistance that ultimately leads to T2D. Two recent developments in different fields form the basis for this hypothesis. First, reduced vascular function has been identified as an early event in the development of T2D. In particular, before the onset of tissue or whole body metabolic insulin resistance, insulin-stimulated, endothelium-mediated skeletal muscle blood flow is impaired. Insulin resistance of the vascular endothelium reduces delivery of insulin and glucose to skeletal muscle, which leads to tissue and whole-body metabolic insulin resistance. Second is the paradigm-shifting discovery that the skeleton has an endocrine function that is essential for maintenance of whole-body glucose homeostasis. Specifically, in response to insulin signaling, osteoblasts secret osteocalcin, which stimulates pancreatic insulin production and enhances insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle, adipose, and liver. Furthermore, the skeleton is not metabolically inert, but contributes to whole-body glucose utilization, consuming 20% that of skeletal muscle and 50% that of white adipose tissue. Without insulin signaling or without osteocalcin activity, experimental animals become hyperglycemic and insulin resistant. Currently, it is not known if insulin-stimulated, endothelium-mediated blood flow to bone plays a role in the development of whole body metabolic insulin resistance. We hypothesize that it is a key, early event. Microvascular dysfunction is a

  20. Interleukin 12 in part regulates gamma interferon release in human whole blood stimulated with Leptospira interrogans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Fost, Maaike; Hartskeerl, Rudy A.; Groenendijk, Martijn R.; van der Poll, Tom

    2003-01-01

    Heat-killed pathogenic Leptospira interrogans serovar rachmati induced the production of gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) and the IFN-gamma-inducing cytokines interleukin-12p40 (IL-12p40) and tumor necrosis factor alpha in human whole blood in vitro. The production of IFN-gamma was largely dependent on

  1. Application of gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of amphetamine-type stimulants in blood and urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woźniak, Mateusz Kacper; Wiergowski, Marek; Aszyk, Justyna; Kubica, Paweł; Namieśnik, Jacek; Biziuk, Marek

    2018-01-30

    Amphetamine, methamphetamine, phentermine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine (MDEA) are the most popular amphetamine-type stimulants. The use of these substances is a serious societal problem worldwide. In this study, a method based on gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) with simple and rapid liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and derivatization was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of the six aforementioned amphetamine derivatives in blood and urine. The detection of all compounds was based on multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) transitions. The most important advantage of the method is the minimal sample volume (as low as 200μL) required for the extraction procedure. The validation parameters, i.e., the recovery (90.5-104%), inter-day accuracy (94.2-109.1%) and precision (0.5-5.8%), showed the repeatability and sensitivity of the method for both matrices and indicated that the proposed procedure fulfils internationally established acceptance criteria for bioanalytical methods The procedure was successfully applied to the analysis of real blood and urine samples examined in 22 forensic toxicological cases. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work presenting the use of GC-MS/MS for the determination of amphetamine-type stimulants in blood and urine. In view of the low limits of detection (0.09-0.81ng/mL), limits of quantification (0.26-2.4ng/mL), and high selectivity, the procedure can be applied for drug monitoring in both fatal and non-fatal intoxication cases in routine toxicology analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Blood oxygenation level dependent signal and neuronal adaptation to optogenetic and sensory stimulation in somatosensory cortex in awake animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksenov, Daniil P; Li, Limin; Miller, Michael J; Wyrwicz, Alice M

    2016-11-01

    The adaptation of neuronal responses to stimulation, in which a peak transient response is followed by a sustained plateau, has been well-studied. The blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signal has also been shown to exhibit adaptation on a longer time scale. However, some regions such as the visual and auditory cortices exhibit significant BOLD adaptation, whereas other such as the whisker barrel cortex may not adapt. In the sensory cortex a combination of thalamic inputs and intracortical activity drives hemodynamic changes, although the relative contributions of these components are not entirely understood. The aim of this study is to assess the role of thalamic inputs vs. intracortical processing in shaping BOLD adaptation during stimulation in the somatosensory cortex. Using simultaneous fMRI and electrophysiology in awake rabbits, we measured BOLD, local field potentials (LFPs), single- and multi-unit activity in the cortex during whisker and optogenetic stimulation. This design allowed us to compare BOLD and haemodynamic responses during activation of the normal thalamocortical sensory pathway (i.e., both inputs and intracortical activity) vs. the direct optical activation of intracortical circuitry alone. Our findings show that whereas LFP and multi-unit (MUA) responses adapted, neither optogenetic nor sensory stimulation produced significant BOLD adaptation. We observed for both paradigms a variety of excitatory and inhibitory single unit responses. We conclude that sensory feed-forward thalamic inputs are not primarily responsible for shaping BOLD adaptation to stimuli; but the single-unit results point to a role in this behaviour for specific excitatory and inhibitory neuronal sub-populations, which may not correlate with aggregate neuronal activity. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Zolpidem reduces the blood oxygen level-dependent signal during visual system stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Licata, Stephanie C.; Lowen, Steven B.; Trksak, George H.; MacLean, Robert R.; Lukas, Scott E.

    2011-01-01

    Zolpidem is a short-acting imidazopyridine hypnotic that binds at the benzodiazepine binding site on specific GABAA receptors to enhance fast inhibitory neurotransmission. The behavioral and receptor pharmacology of zolpidem has been studied extensively, but little is known about its neuronal substrates in vivo. In the present within-subject, double-blind, and placebo-controlled study, blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD fMRI) at 3 Tesla was used to assess...

  4. Response of Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes from RAO-affected Horses to b2-Agonist Stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Werner Becker, Marianne Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) affects middle-age horses, inducing bronchoconstriction and airway inflammation. β2-agonists like salbutamol are used as treatment, promoting airway smooth muscle (ASM) relaxation and bronchodilation. In addition to ASM, inflammatory cells express the β2-adrenoreceptors (β2-AR). In other species, β2-agonists promote peripheral blood lymphocyte (PBL) cytokine expression towards a pro-inflammatory phenotype. RAO horses are a good model for evaluating chron...

  5. Endogenous pyrogen production by human blood monocytes stimulated by staphylococcal cell wall components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oken, M M; Peterson, P K; Wilkinson, B J

    1981-01-01

    To determine the properties of Staphylococcus aureus contributing to its pyrogenicity, we compared, in human monocytes, endogenous pyrogen production stimulated by heat-killed S. aureus with that stimulated by purified S. aureus cell walls or by particulate peptidoglycan prepared from the same strain. Peptidoglycan, but not the purified cell wall preparation, was found comparable to S. aureus as an endogenous pyrogen stimulus. This finding was associated with a more effective monocyte phagocytosis of S. aureus and peptidoglycan as compared with that of purified cell walls. Lysostaphin digestion of peptidoglycan markedly reduced its pyrogenicity. To test whether the chemical composition of the ingested particles is important, latex particles were tested as possible stimuli for monocyte endogenous pyrogen release. Although 40 to 68% of monocytes ingested latex particles during the first hour, there was no evidence of endogenous pyrogen activity in the supernatant even when supernatants equivalent to 5.2 X 10(6) monocytes were tested. This study demonstrates that the pyrogenic moiety of the S. aureus cell wall resides in the peptidoglycan component. Phagocytosis is not in itself a pyrogenic stimulus, but rather serves as an effective mechanism to bring about contact between the chemical stimulus and the monocyte.

  6. Quantitative retinal and choroidal blood flow during light, dark adaptation and flicker light stimulation in rats using fluorescent microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Yen-Yu I; Wang, Lin; De La Garza, Bryan H; Li, Guang; Cull, Grant; Kiel, Jeffery W; Duong, Timothy Q

    2013-02-01

    The present study aimed to quantify retinal and choroidal blood flow (BF) during light, dark adaptation and flicker light stimulation using the microsphere technique. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized with isoflurane. Eyes were dark (Group I, n = 8), light (Group II, n = 8) adapted or stimulated with 10 Hz flicker light (Group III, n = 10). Retinal and choroidal BF were measured by a previously established method, using a mixture of 8 µm yellow-green and 10 µm red fluorescent microspheres. The microspheres were counted ex vivo in the dissected retina and choroid and in the reference arterial blood under a fluorescent microscope. The choroidal BF was 64.8 ± 29 µl/min (mean ± SD) during dark adaptation, not significantly different from that during light adaptation (66.0 ± 17.8 µl/min). The retinal BF was 13.5 ± 3.2 µl/min during 10 Hz flickering light stimulation, significantly higher than that during dark adaptation in the control fellow eyes (9.9 ± 2.9 µl/min). The choroidal BF values were not statistically different between flicker stimulation and dark adaptation. Retinal BF was 11.6 ± 2.9 µl/min during light adaptation. Dark adaptation did not increase retinal BF (Group I, 8.2 ± 2.4 µl/min; Group II, 9.9 ± 2.9 µl/min). These findings argue against a dark-induced or flicker-induced functional hyperemia in the choroid as a result of the demands of the outer retina. Retinal BF was not higher during dark adaptation. Our data support the conclusion that the inner retina has a higher energy demand in flicker conditions relative to dark.

  7. Symptomatic relief precedes improvement of myocardial blood flow in patients under spinal cord stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koulousakis Athanassios

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spinal cord electrical stimulation (SCS has shown to be a treatment option for patients suffering from angina pectoris CCS III-IV although being on optimal medication and not suitable for conventional treatment strategies, e.g. CABG or PTCA. Although many studies demonstrated a clear symptomatic relief under SCS therapy, there are only a few short-term studies that investigated alterations in cardiac ischemia. Therefore doubts remain whether SCS has a direct effect on myocardial perfusion. Methods A prospective study to investigate the short- and long-term effect of spinal cord stimulation (SCS on myocardial ischemia in patients with refractory angina pectoris and coronary multivessel disease was designed. Myocardial ischemia was measured by MIBI-SPECT scintigraphy 3 months and 12 months after the beginning of neurostimulation. To further examine the relation between cardiac perfusion and functional status of the patients we measured exercise capacity (bicycle ergometry and 6-minute walk test, symptoms and quality of life (Seattle Angina Questionnaire [SAQ], as well. Results 31 patients (65 ± 11 SEM years; 25 male, 6 female were included into the study. The average consumption of short acting nitrates (SAN decreased rapidly from 12 ± 1.6 times to 3 ± 1 times per week. The walking distance and the maximum workload increased from 143 ± 22 to 225 ± 24 meters and 68 ± 7 to 96 ± 12 watt after 3 months. Quality of life increased (SAQ significantly after 3 month compared to baseline, as well. No further improvement was observed after one year of treament. Despite the symptomatic relief and the improvement in maximal workload computer based analysis (Emory Cardiac Toolbox of the MIBI-SPECT studies after 3 months of treatment did not show significant alterations of myocardial ischemia compared to baseline (16 patients idem, 7 with increase and 6 with decrease of ischemia, 2 patients dropped out during initial test phase

  8. The effect of aroma stimulation during isotonic exercise on the rating of perceived exertion and blood fatigue factors of athletes with patellofemoral pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangsoo; Choo, JongHoo; Ju, Sungbum

    2018-02-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of aroma stimulation during isotonic exercise on the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and the blood fatigue factors of athletes who have patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS). [Subjects and Methods] The research subjects were seven athletes in their twenties who suffer from PFPS. They were divided into a control group and an aroma stimulation group and performed isotonic exercises repeatedly. After exercising, the RPE and blood fatigue factors, including creatine phosphokinase (CPK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and ammonia, were measured through blood sampling. [Results] The aroma stimulus group showed significantly lower RPE than the control group immediately after exercising, which included leg presses, leg curls, bicep curls, and leg extensions. Among the blood fatigue factors, the change in LDH indicated the effect of aroma stimulation. [Conclusion] We confirmed that aroma stimulation during isotonic exercise has the positive effect of reducing the RPE and blood fatigue factors, such as blood LDH, of the athletes with PFPS.

  9. Discovery of efficient stimulators for adult hippocampal neurogenesis based on scaffolds in dragon's blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jian-Hua; Yang, Liang; Wu, Si; Liu, Si-Si; Cushman, Mark; Tian, Jing; Li, Nuo-Min; Yang, Qing-Hu; Zhang, He-Ao; Qiu, Yun-Jie; Xiang, Lin; Ma, Cong-Xuan; Li, Xue-Meng; Qing, Hong

    2017-08-18

    Reduction of hippocampal neurogenesis caused by aging and neurological disorders would impair neural circuits and result in memory loss. A new lead compound (N-trans-3',4'-methylenedioxystilben-4-yl acetamide 27) has been discovered to efficiently stimulate adult rats' neurogenesis. In-depth structure-activity relationship studies proved the necessity of a stilbene scaffold that is absent in highly cytotoxic analogs such as chalcones and heteroaryl rings and inactive analogs such as diphenyl acetylene and diphenyl ethane, and validated the importance of an NH in the carboxamide and a methylenedioxy substituent on the benzene ring. Immunohistochemical staining and biochemical analysis indicate, in contrast to previously reported neuroprotective chemicals, N-stilbenyl carboxamides have extra capacity for neuroproliferation-type neurogenesis, thereby providing a foundation for improving the plasticity of the adult mammalian brain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Long-active granulocyte colony-stimulating factor for peripheral blood hematopoietic progenitor cell mobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Massimo; Laszlo, Daniele; Lanza, Francesco

    2014-06-01

    Peg-filgrastim (PEG-FIL), a polyethylene glycol-conjugated form of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), has been introduced in clinical practice and is effective in shortening the time of neutropenia after cytotoxic chemotherapy. G-CSF has emerged as the preferred cytokine for hematopoietic progenitor cells' (HPC) mobilization. Nevertheless, data on the ability of PEG-FIL in this field have been published. We review publications in the field with the goal of providing an overview of this approach. PEG-FIL may be able to mobilize CD34(+) cells in a more timely fashion than G-CSF, with the advantages of only a single-dose administration, an earlier start and a reduction in the number of apheresis procedures. The main controversies concern the dosage of the drug and the optimal dose. In the context of chemo-mobilization, a single dose of 6 mg PEG-FIL seems effective in terms of HPC's mobilization and there is no increase in this effect if the dose is doubled to 12 mg. Steady-state mobilization requires higher doses of PEG-FIL and this approach is not cost-effective when compared with G-CSF. The experiences with PEG-FIL in the healthy donor setting are very limited.

  11. Development of a microculture system for stimulation of chicken peripheral blood lymphocytes with concanavalin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheswaran, S K; Thies, E S

    1975-07-01

    A microculture system in conjunction with a semiautomatic multiple sample harvester (SAMSH) was used to study the in vitro properties of chicken peripheral lymphocytes. This new procedure enabled doing rapid multiple tests, using relatively few cells, and was highly reproducible. Data were presented to show many variables that are involved in studying the concanavalin A (Con A) response of chicken lymphocytes in a microculture system. Analysis indicated that the conditions for optimal Con A stimulation as measured by incorporation of 3H-TdR include: (a) use of 2 x 10(6) cells per culture in RPMI 1640 culture medium in the absence of any serum, (b) use of 0.4 mug of Con A per culture, (c) incubation at 37 degrees C for 72 hours, and (d) addition of 1 muCi of 3H-TdR to each culture 12 to 24 hours prior to termination. This technique could be used to monitor immunocompetence of the chicken.

  12. Anti-inflammatory compound resveratrol suppresses homocysteine formation in stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroecksnadel, Katharina; Winkler, Christiana; Wirleitner, Barbara; Schennach, Harald; Weiss, Günter; Fuchs, Dietmar

    2005-01-01

    Inflammation, immune activation and oxidative stress play a major role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disorders. In addition to markers of inflammation, moderate hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and there is a link between the activation of immunocompetent cells and the enhanced formation of homocysteine in vitro. Likewise, anti-inflammatory drugs and nutrients rich in antioxidant vitamins are able to reduce cardiovascular risk and to slow down the atherogenic process. Resveratrol, a phenolic antioxidant synthesized in grapes and vegetables and present in wine, has also been supposed to be beneficial for the prevention of cardiovascular events. Apart from its strong antioxidant properties, resveratrol has also been demonstrated to act as an anti-inflammatory agent. In this study the influence of resveratrol on the production of homocysteine by stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was investigated. Results were compared to earlier described effects of the anti-inflammatory compounds aspirin and salicylic acid and of the lipid-lowering drug atorvastatin. Stimulation of PBMCs with the mitogens concanavalin A and phytohemagglutinin induced significantly higher homocysteine accumulation in supernatants compared with unstimulated cells. Treatment with 10-100 muM resveratrol suppressed homocysteine formation in a dose-dependent manner. Resveratrol did not influence the release of homocysteine from resting PBMCs. The data suggest that resveratrol may prevent homocysteine accumulation in the blood by suppressing immune activation cascades and the proliferation of mitogen-driven T-cells. The effect of resveratrol to down-regulate the release of homo-cysteine was comparable to the decline of neopterin concentrations in the same experiments. The suppressive effect of resveratrol was very similar to results obtained earlier with aspirin, salicylic acid and atorvastatin; however, it appeared that doses

  13. Effects of Electroacupuncture Stimulation at “Zusanli” Acupoint on Hepatic NO Release and Blood Perfusion in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-you Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study is to observe the influence of electroacupuncture (EA stimulation at “Zusanli” (ST36 on the release of nitric oxide (NO and blood perfusion (BP in the liver and further explore whether the hepatic blood perfusion (HBP changes were regulated by EA ST36 induced NO in nitric oxide synthase inhibited mice. The HBP change of the mice was detected by laser speckle perfusion imaging (LSPI before and after being given interventions, and the NO in liver tissue was detected by nitric acid reductase in each group. The NO levels and HBP in the L-NAME group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P<0.01. The NO level and HBP increase in EA group were significantly higher than those in control group (P<0.05. The NO level in the L-NAME EA group was slightly higher than that in the L-NAME group. The HBP increase in the L-NAME EA group was not statistically significant. These results showed that EA could accelerate the synthesis of NO and thereby increase HBP via vasodilation in liver tissue.

  14. Chronic Electrical Stimulation at Acupoints Reduces Body Weight and Improves Blood Glucose in Obese Rats via Autonomic Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiemin; Jin, Haifeng; Foreman, Robert D; Lei, Yong; Xu, Xiaohong; Li, Shiying; Yin, Jieyun; Chen, Jiande D Z

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate effects and mechanisms of chronic electrical stimulation at acupoints (CEA) using surgically implanted electrodes on food intake, body weight, and metabolisms in diet-induced obese (DIO) rats. Thirty-six DIO rats were chronically implanted with electrodes at acupoints ST-36 (Zusanli). Three sets of parameters were tested: electrical acupuncture (EA) 1 (2-s on, 3-s off, 0.5 ms, 15 Hz, 6 mA), EA2 (same as EA1 but continuous pulses), and EA3 (same as EA2 but 10 mA). A chronic study was then performed to investigate the effects of CEA on body weight and mechanisms involving gastrointestinal hormones and autonomic functions. EA2 significantly reduced food intake without uncomfortable behaviors. CEA at EA2 reduced body weight and epididymal fat pad weight (P fasting plasma level of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (P < 0.05); the increase of GLP-1 was inversely correlated with postprandial blood glucose (R (2) = 0.89, P < 0.05); and the plasma ghrelin level remained unchanged. EA increased sympathetic activity (P < 0.01) and reduced vagal activity (P < 0.01). CEA at ST-36 reduces body weight and improves blood glucose possibly attributed to multiple mechanisms involving gastrointestinal motility and hormones via the autonomic pathway.

  15. Blood pressure and anthropometry in children treated with stimulants: a longitudinal cohort study with an individual approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landgren M

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Magnus Landgren,1,2 Salmir Nasic,3 Mats Johnson,1,2 Trygve Lövoll,1 Daniel Holmgren,4,5 Elisabeth Fernell2 1Department of Pediatrics, Unit of Developmental Disorders, Skaraborg’s Hospital, Mariestad, 2Gillberg Neuropsychiatry Centre, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, 3Research and Development Centre, 4Department of Pediatrics, Skaraborg’s Hospital, Skövde, 5University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden Background: Knowledge about the long-term effects on blood pressure (BP and body mass index (BMI when treating young patients for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD with stimulants is limited. Most of the studies have reported mean and not individual values for anthropometrics and BP in treatment with stimulants. This seems to be the first study of changes based on the analyses of individual data measured over time. Patients and methods: Seventy young patients (aged 8–18 years diagnosed with AD/HD and responding well to treatment with stimulants were followed for a mean period of 3 years and 3 months. BP, heart rate, height, weight, and BMI were transformed to standard deviations or z-scores from before treatment to the last registered visit. Results: The mean dose of methylphenidate was 0.95 mg/kg. The mean increase of systolic and diastolic BP was 0.4 z-score and 0.1 z-score, respectively. The systolic BP was associated with BMI; a higher BMI at baseline increased the risk for an increase in systolic BP. Ten percent of the total group had a weight at follow-up of <-1.5 standard deviation (SD and 12% had a height of <-1.5 SD. Mean height at follow-up was -0.2 SD, but 40% had a reduced height of at least 0.5 SD during the treatment period. BMI on a group level was reduced from +0.8 SD to +0.3 SD. Of the 19 patients with a BMI >+1.5 SD at baseline, 50% had a significantly reduced BMI. Conclusion: Consequences of stimulant treatment must be evaluated individually. Besides significant effects on core AD/HD symptoms, some

  16. Zolpidem reduces the blood oxygen level-dependent signal during visual system stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licata, Stephanie C; Lowen, Steven B; Trksak, George H; Maclean, Robert R; Lukas, Scott E

    2011-08-15

    Zolpidem is a short-acting imidazopyridine hypnotic that binds at the benzodiazepine binding site on specific GABA(A) receptors to enhance fast inhibitory neurotransmission. The behavioral and receptor pharmacology of zolpidem has been studied extensively, but little is known about its neuronal substrates in vivo. In the present within-subject, double-blind, and placebo-controlled study, blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD fMRI) at 3 Tesla was used to assess the effects of zolpidem within the brain. Healthy participants (n=12) were scanned 60 min after acute oral administration of zolpidem (0, 5, 10, or 20mg), and changes in BOLD signal were measured in the visual cortex during presentation of a flashing checkerboard. Heart rate and oxygen saturation were monitored continuously throughout the session. Zolpidem (10 and 20mg) reduced the robust visual system activation produced by presentation of this stimulus, but had no effects on physiological activity during the fMRI scan. Zolpidem's modulation of the BOLD signal within the visual cortex is consistent with the abundant distribution of GABA(A) receptors localized in this region, as well as previous studies showing a relationship between increased GABA-mediated neuronal inhibition and a reduction in BOLD activation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Exosomes derived from human umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stem cells stimulates rejuvenation of human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoon-Jin; Yoo, Sae Mi; Park, Hwan Hee; Lim, Hye Jin; Kim, Yu-Lee; Lee, Seunghee; Seo, Kwang-Won; Kang, Kyung-Sun

    2017-11-18

    Human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCB-MSCs) play an important role in cutaneous wound healing, and recent studies suggested that MSC-derived exosomes activate several signaling pathways, which are conducive in wound healing and cell growth. In this study, we investigated the roles of exosomes that are derived from USC-CM (USC-CM Exos) in cutaneous collagen synthesis and permeation. We found that USC-CM has various growth factors associated with skin rejuvenation. Our in vitro results showed that USC-CM Exos integrate in Human Dermal Fibroblasts (HDFs) and consequently promote cell migration and collagen synthesis of HDFs. Moreover, we evaluated skin permeation of USC-CM Exos by using human skin tissues. Results showed that Exo-Green labeled USC-CM Exos approached the outermost layer of the epidermis after 3 h and gradually approached the epidermis after 18 h. Moreover, increased expressions of Collagen I and Elastin were found after 3 days of treatment on human skin. The results showed that USC-CM Exos is absorbed into human skin, it promotes Collagen I and Elastin synthesis in the skin, which are essential to skin rejuvenation and shows the potential of USC-CM integration with the cosmetics or therapeutics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Zolpidem reduces the blood oxygen level-dependent signal during visual system stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licata, Stephanie C.; Lowen, Steven B.; Trksak, George H.; MacLean, Robert R.; Lukas, Scott E.

    2011-01-01

    Zolpidem is a short-acting imidazopyridine hypnotic that binds at the benzodiazepine binding site on specific GABAA receptors to enhance fast inhibitory neurotransmission. The behavioral and receptor pharmacology of zolpidem has been studied extensively, but little is known about its neuronal substrates in vivo. In the present within-subject, double-blind, and placebo-controlled study, blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD fMRI) at 3 Tesla was used to assess the effects of zolpidem within the brain. Healthy participants (n=12) were scanned 60 minutes after acute oral administration of zolpidem (0, 5, 10, or 20 mg), and changes in BOLD signal were measured in the visual cortex during presentation of a flashing checkerboard. Heart rate and oxygen saturation were monitored continuously throughout the session. Zolpidem (10 and 20 mg) reduced the robust visual system activation produced by presentation of this stimulus, but had no effects on physiological activity during the fMRI scan. Zolpidem’s modulation of the BOLD signal within the visual cortex is consistent with the abundant distribution of GABAA receptors localized in this region, as well as previous studies showing a relationship between increased GABA-mediated neuronal inhibition and a reduction in BOLD activation. PMID:21640782

  19. Peripheral injection of human umbilical cord blood stimulates neurogenesis in the aged rat brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanberg Paul R

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neurogenesis continues to occur throughout life but dramatically decreases with increasing age. This decrease is mostly related to a decline in proliferative activity as a result of an impoverishment of the microenvironment of the aged brain, including a reduction in trophic factors and increased inflammation. Results We determined that human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells (UCBMC given peripherally, by an intravenous injection, could rejuvenate the proliferative activity of the aged neural stem/progenitor cells. This increase in proliferation lasted for at least 15 days after the delivery of the UCBMC. Along with the increase in proliferation following UCBMC treatment, an increase in neurogenesis was also found in the aged animals. The increase in neurogenesis as a result of UCBMC treatment seemed to be due to a decrease in inflammation, as a decrease in the number of activated microglia was found and this decrease correlated with the increase in neurogenesis. Conclusion The results demonstrate that a single intravenous injection of UCBMC in aged rats can significantly improve the microenvironment of the aged hippocampus and rejuvenate the aged neural stem/progenitor cells. Our results raise the possibility of a peripherally administered cell therapy as an effective approach to improve the microenvironment of the aged brain.

  20. Survival and PHA-stimulation of #betta#-irradiated human peripheral blood T lymphocyte subpopulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, J.L.; Darr, D.C.; Daulden, M.E.

    1983-01-01

    Human peripheral blood T lymphocyte subpopulations were identified and isolated on the basis of their ability to bind IgG (T-G), IgM (T-M), or neither immunoglobulin class (T-null). Lymphocytes were exposed to 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5 or 5.0 Gy of 60 Co #betta#-rays either as a T-cell suspension or as separated T cell subsets. Survival curves, determined 5 days after irradiation, revealed that each subset has radiosensitive and radioresistant portions, and that the T-G cell is the most sensitive subset. Mitotic indices of 48-h cultures showed that the response of unirradiated T lymphocytes to PHA varied greatly among the subsets, the highest indices being obtained for the T-M and the lowest for the T-G cells. With the possible exception of the T-G cells, the subsets are realtively resistant to mitotic effects of #betta#-rays. T-G cells suppress the PHA-induced mitotic response of the other T lymphocyte subsets, and this suppressor effect is radiosensitive, being abolished by 1.0 Gy. It is concluded that lymphocytes exposed to >= 1 Gy of #betta#-rays will have very few dividing B lymphocytes or T-G cells. This together with radiation-induced loss of T-G suppressor action means that the predominant lymphocyte types in mitosis after >=1 Gy are the radioresistant T-M and T-null cells. (orig.)

  1. SPECT-imaging of activity-dependent changes in regional cerebral blood flow induced by electrical and optogenetic self-stimulation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodziej, Angela; Lippert, Michael; Angenstein, Frank; Neubert, Jenni; Pethe, Annette; Grosser, Oliver S; Amthauer, Holger; Schroeder, Ulrich H; Reymann, Klaus G; Scheich, Henning; Ohl, Frank W; Goldschmidt, Jürgen

    2014-12-01

    Electrical and optogenetic methods for brain stimulation are widely used in rodents for manipulating behavior and analyzing functional connectivities in neuronal circuits. High-resolution in vivo imaging of the global, brain-wide, activation patterns induced by these stimulations has remained challenging, in particular in awake behaving mice. We here mapped brain activation patterns in awake, intracranially self-stimulating mice using a novel protocol for single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). Mice were implanted with either electrodes for electrical stimulation of the medial forebrain bundle (mfb-microstim) or with optical fibers for blue-light stimulation of channelrhodopsin-2 expressing neurons in the ventral tegmental area (vta-optostim). After training for self-stimulation by current or light application, respectively, mice were implanted with jugular vein catheters and intravenously injected with the flow tracer 99m-technetium hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (99mTc-HMPAO) during seven to ten minutes of intracranial self-stimulation or ongoing behavior without stimulation. The 99mTc-brain distributions were mapped in anesthetized animals after stimulation using multipinhole SPECT. Upon self-stimulation rCBF strongly increased at the electrode tip in mfb-microstim mice. In vta-optostim mice peak activations were found outside the stimulation site. Partly overlapping brain-wide networks of activations and deactivations were found in both groups. When testing all self-stimulating mice against all controls highly significant activations were found in the rostromedial nucleus accumbens shell. SPECT-imaging of rCBF using intravenous tracer-injection during ongoing behavior is a new tool for imaging regional brain activation patterns in awake behaving rodents providing higher spatial and temporal resolutions than 18F-2-fluoro-2-dexoyglucose positron emission tomography. Copyright © 2014 The Authors

  2. Sensory stimulation for lowering intraocular pressure, improving blood flow to the optic nerve and neuroprotection in primary open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rom, Edith

    2013-12-01

    Primary open-angle glaucoma is a group of optic neuropathies that can lead to irreversible blindness. Sensory stimulation in the form of acupuncture or ear acupressure may contribute to protecting patients from blindness when used as a complementary method to orthodox treatment in the form of drops, laser or surgery. The objective of this article is to provide a narrative overview of the available literature up to July 2012. It summarises reported evidence on the potential beneficial effects of sensory stimulation for glaucoma. Sensory stimulation appears to significantly enhance the pressure-lowering effect of orthodox treatments. Studies suggest that it may also improve blood flow to the eye and optic nerve head. Furthermore, it may play a role in neuroprotection through regulating nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor and their receptors, thereby encouraging the survival pathway in contrast to the pathway to apoptosis. Blood flow and neuroprotection are areas that are not directly influenced by orthodox treatment modalities. Numerous different treatment protocols were used to investigate the effect of sensory stimulation on intraocular pressure, blood flow or neuroprotection of the retina and optic nerve in the animal model and human pilot studies. Objective outcomes were reported to have been evaluated with Goldmann tonometry, Doppler ultrasound techniques and electrophysiology (pattern electroretinography, visually evoked potentials), and supported with histological studies in the animal model. Taken together, reported evidence from these studies strongly suggests that sensory stimulation is worthy of further research.

  3. Increased nuclear tri-iodothyronine binding and thyroid hormone-stimulated glucose consumption in mononuclear blood cells from patients with liver cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvetny, J; Matzen, L

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear tri-iodothyronine (T3) maximal binding capacity (MBC) and thyroxine- and T3-stimulated cellular oxygen consumption and glucose consumption were examined in mononuclear blood cells from six patients with liver cirrhosis (LC), in six patients with alcoholic hepatitis (AH), and in six healthy...

  4. Gluteal blood flow and oxygenation during electrical stimulation-induced muscle activation versus pressure relief movements in wheelchair users with a spinal cord injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, C. A. J.; Zwinkels, M.; van Dijk, T.; de Groot, S.; Stolwijk-Swuste, J. M.; Janssen, T. W. J.

    Background: Prolonged high ischial tuberosities pressure (IT pressure), decreased regional blood flow (BF) and oxygenation (%SO2) are risk factors for developing pressure ulcers (PUs) in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). Electrical stimulation (ES)-induced gluteal and hamstring muscle

  5. [The effect of isoflurane on the secretion of TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta from LPS-stimulated human peripheral blood monocytes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, W; Enzan, K; Masaki, Y; Kayaba, M; Suzuki, M

    1995-07-01

    The cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-1 secreted from macrophages/monocytes proved to play important roles in the pathogenesis of endotoxemia, severe pancreatitis and other surgical injuries. However, it is still unclear how inhalational anesthetic agents influence the secretion of these cytokines from macrophages/monocytes. We investigated the effects of isoflurane on TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta secretions from human peripheral blood monocytes stimulated by lipopolysaccharide. TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta secretions increased after LPS stimulation and this increase was inhibited by isoflurane in dose-dependent fashion. The inhibitory action of isoflurane disappeared between 1 and 3 hours after stopping isoflurane inhalation. We concluded that isoflurane could inhibit TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta secretions from peripheral blood monocytes stimulated by LPS in a dose-dependent fashion and that the inhibitory action of isoflurane was reversible.

  6. Kinetics of prostaglandin E2 and thromboxane A2 synthesis and suppression of PHA-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear leucocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awara, W; Hillier, K; Jones, D

    1986-12-01

    The immunomodulatory effects of thromboxane A2 and prostaglandin E2 on peripheral blood mononuclear leucocytes stimulated with PHA in vitro, and the relationship of this to the time-course of their synthesis in culture, were investigated using prostaglandin E2, a thromboxane A2 synthesis inhibitor (UK37248), a thromboxane A2 mimic (U46619) and a thromboxane A2 receptor blocker (EP045). The inhibitory effect of prostaglandin E2 on PHA-induced human peripheral blood mononuclear leucocyte proliferation diminishes if the addition of PGE2 is delayed. If added 4 hr after a maximum concentration of PHA (5 micrograms/ml), the effect of PGE2 was reduced by 60%. If a submaximal concentration of PHA (1 microgram/ml) was used, the effect of PGE2 was not reduced if added 4 hr later but fell by about 60% after 16 hr. UK37248 moderately inhibited PHA-induced activation while substantially inhibiting thromboxane A2 synthesis and simultaneously enhancing PGE2 synthesis. The enhanced accumulation of PGE2 occurs while sensitivity to PGE2 is dropping. U46619, exogenously applied as a thromboxane A2 mimic, inhibited PHA-induced activation at concentrations that did not significantly alter PGE2 synthesis. EP045, which may modulate the effects of endogenous thromboxane A2 by blocking receptors, did not alter PHA-induced activation. We conclude that thromboxane A2 may have a role in inhibiting PHA-induced activation on the basis of the effect of U46619. However, this study highlights difficulties in utilizing prostaglandin and thromboxane receptor and synthesis inhibitors to examine their endogenous role in the modulation of mitogen-induced activation in vitro. If sensitivity to the purported endogenous substance is limited to the early stages of culture and if only low levels are synthesized at this early stage, then blocking drugs would have little effect.

  7. Meal-stimulated glucagon release is associated with postprandial blood glucose level and does not interfere with glycemic control in children and adolescents with new-onset type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pörksen, Sven; Nielsen, Lotte B; Kaas, Anne

    2007-01-01

    The role of glucagon in hyperglycemia in type 1 diabetes is unresolved, and in vitro studies suggest that increasing blood glucose might stimulate glucagon secretion.......The role of glucagon in hyperglycemia in type 1 diabetes is unresolved, and in vitro studies suggest that increasing blood glucose might stimulate glucagon secretion....

  8. Real-time measurement of cerebral blood flow during and after repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation: A near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eunhee; Kang, Min Jae; Lee, Ahee; Chang, Won Hyuk; Shin, Yong-Il; Kim, Yun-Hee

    2017-07-13

    To confirm the interhemispheric modulation induced by low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the primary motor cortex, real-time regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was assessed using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) in the contralateral primary motor cortex (M1) and premotor cortex (PM). Ten right-handed healthy subjects completed two experimental sessions that were randomly arranged for real or sham rTMS session. In the real rTMS session, fNIRS data were acquired from the right M1 and PM area, while the motor hot spot of the left M1 was stimulated with 1Hz rTMS for 1200 pulses with two boosters. In the sham stimulation session, stimulation was delivered with a disconnected coil. During the real rTMS session, the concentration of oxyhemoglobin ([oxy-Hb]) in the right M1 increased continuously until the end of the stimulation. These changes lasted for 20min, while the right PM did not show a change in [oxy-Hb] concentration. On the other hand, the concentration of deoxy-hemoglobin ([deoxy-Hb]) decreased continuously in the right M1 and PM during the real rTMS stimulation, and this change lasted for 20min after the stimulation. The sham stimulation did not exhibit any significant change in both [oxy-Hb] and [deoxy-Hb] concentration during or after the stimulation. Application of 1Hz rTMS over M1 resulted in changes of rCBF in contralateral M1 and PM, which seemed to constitute a function of interhemispheric modulation of rTMS. The fNIRS data was able to detect this physiological change of neuromodulatory action of rTMS in real-time. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Alterations in blood glucose and plasma glucagon concentrations during deep brain stimulation in the shell region of the nucleus accumbens in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlene eDiepenbroek

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Deep brain stimulation (DBS of the nucleus accumbens (NAc is an effective therapy for obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD and is currently under investigation as a treatment for eating disorders. DBS of this area is associated with altered food intake and pharmacological treatment of OCD is associated with the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Therefore we examined if DBS of the NAc-shell (sNAc influences glucose metabolism. Male Wistar rats were subjected to DBS, or sham stimulation, for a period of one hour. To assess the effects of stimulation on blood glucose and glucoregulatory hormones, blood samples were drawn before, during and after stimulation. Subsequently, all animals were used for quantitative assessment of Fos immunoreactivity in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA using computerized image analysis. DBS of the sNAc rapidly increased plasma concentrations of glucagon and glucose while sham stimulation and DBS outside the sNAc were ineffective. In addition, the increase in glucose was dependent on DBS intensity. In contrast, the DBS-induced increase in plasma corticosterone concentrations was independent of intensity and region, indicating that the observed DBS-induced metabolic changes were not due to corticosterone release. Stimulation of the sNAc with 200 μA increased Fos immunoreactivity in the LHA compared to sham or 100 μA stimulated animals. These data show that DBS of the sNAc alters glucose metabolism in a region- and intensity dependent manner in association with neuronal activation in the LHA. Moreover, these data illustrate the need to monitor changes in glucose metabolism during DBS-treatment of OCD patients.

  10. Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor and umbilical cord blood cell transplantation: Synergistic therapies for the treatment of traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G Liska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is now characterized as a progressive, degenerative disease and continues to stand as a prevalent cause of death and disability. The pathophysiology of TBI is complex, with a variety of secondary cell death pathways occurring which may persist chronically following the initial cerebral insult. Current therapeutic options for TBI are minimal, with surgical intervention or rehabilitation therapy existing as the only viable treatments. Considering the success of stem-cell therapies in various other neurological diseases, their use has been proposed as a potential potent therapy for patients suffering TBI. Moreover, stem cells are highly amenable to adjunctive use with other therapies, providing an opportunity to overcome the inherent limitations of using a single therapeutic agent. Our research has verified this additive potential by demonstrating the efficacy of co-delivering human umbilical cord blood (hUCB cells with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF in a murine model of TBI, providing encouraging results which support the potential of this approach to treat patients suffering from TBI. These findings justify ongoing research toward uncovering the mechanisms which underlie the functional improvements exhibited by hUCB + G-CSF combination therapy, thereby facilitating its safe and effect transition into the clinic. This paper is a review article. Referred literature in this paper has been listed in the reference section. The datasets supporting the conclusions of this article are available online by searching various databases, including PubMed. Some original points in this article come from the laboratory practice in our research center and the authors' experiences.

  11. Gene expression profiling of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from Mycobacterium bovis infected cattle after in vitro antigenic stimulation with purified protein derivative of tuberculin (PPD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, Kieran G; Gormley, Eamonn; Park, Stephen D E; Fitzsimons, Tara; Rosa, Guilherme J M; Costello, Eamon; Keane, Joseph; Coussens, Paul M; MacHugh, David E

    2006-09-15

    Microarray analysis of messenger RNA (mRNA) abundance was used to investigate the gene expression program of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from cattle infected with Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis. An immunospecific bovine microarray platform (BOTL-4) with spot features representing 1336 genes was used for transcriptional profiling of PBMC from six M. bovis-infected cattle stimulated in vitro with bovine purified protein derivative of tuberculin (PPD-bovine). Cells were harvested at four time points (3 h, 6 h, 12 h and 24 h post-stimulation) and a split-plot design with pooled samples was used for the microarray experiment to compare gene expression between PPD-bovine stimulated PBMC and unstimulated controls for each time point. Statistical analyses of these data revealed 224 genes (approximately 17% of transcripts on the array) differentially expressed between stimulated and unstimulated PBMC across the 24 h time course (PPPD-bovine across the 24 h time course. However, perturbation of the PBMC transcriptome was most apparent at time points 3 h and 12 h post-stimulation, with 81 and 84 genes differentially expressed, respectively. In addition, a more stringent statistical threshold (PPPD-bovine-, PPD-avian- and Concanavalin A (ConA) stimulated PBMC, including the interferon-gamma gene (IFNG), which was upregulated in PBMC stimulated with PPD-bovine (40-fold), PPD-avian (10-fold) and ConA (8-fold) after in vitro culture for 12 h. The pattern of expression of these genes in PPD-bovine stimulated PBMC provides the first description of an M. bovis-specific signature of infection that may provide insights into the molecular basis of the host response to infection. Although the present study was carried out with mixed PBMC cell populations, it will guide future studies to dissect immune cell-specific gene expression patterns in response to M. bovis infection.

  12. Glutamine and alanine-induced differential expression of intracellular IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α in LPS-stimulated monocytes in human whole-blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspé, C; Czeslick, E; Weimann, A; Schinke, C; Leimert, A; Kellner, P; Simm, A; Bucher, M; Sablotzki, A

    2013-04-01

    To investigate the effects of the commonly-used immunomodulators l-glutamine, l-alanine, and the combination of both l-alanyl-l-glutamine (Dipeptamin(®)) on intracellular expression of IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α during endotoxemia, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human monocytes in a whole blood system were investigated by flow cytometry. Whole blood of twenty-seven healthy volunteers was stimulated with LPS and incubated with three different amino acid solutions (1. l-glutamine, 2. l-alanine, 3. l-alanyl-l-glutamine, each concentration 2 mM, 5 mM, incubation time 3 h). CD14(+) monocytes were phenotyped in whole-blood and intracellular expression of cytokines was assessed by flow cytometry. Our investigations showed for the first time in whole blood probes, imitating best physiologically present cellular interactions, that l-glutamine caused a dose-independent inhibitory effect on IL-6 and TNF-α production in human monocytes stimulated with LPS. However, l-alanine had contrary effects on IL-6 expression, significantly upregulating expression of IL-6 in LPS-treated monocytes. The impact of l-alanine on the expression of TNF-α was comparable with glutamine. Neither amino acid was able to affect IL-8 production in LPS-stimulated monocytes. The combination of both did not influence significantly IL-6 and IL-8 expression in monocytes during endotoxemia, however strongly reduced TNF-α production. For the regulation of TNF-α, l-glutamine, l-alanine and the combination of both show a congruent and exponentiated downregulating effect during endotoxemia, for the modulation of IL-6, l-glutamine and l-alanine featured opposite regulation leading to a canceling impact of each other when recombining both amino acids. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The increase in the cardiodepressant activity and vasopressin concentration in the sella turcica venous blood during vagal afferents stimulation or after angiotensin II infusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goraca, A.; Orlowska-Majdak, M.; Traczyk, W.Z.

    1996-01-01

    It has previously been demonstrated that the cardiodepressant activity is present in the bovine hypothalamic extract and in the fluid incubating the posterior pituitary lobe i n situ . The present study was an attempt to reveal if the cardiodepressant factor and vasopressin were simultaneously released from the pituitary into blood. The samples of venous blood flowing from the sella turcica and, for comparison, from the posterior paw were collected in anesthetized rats. Blood from the sella turcica was collected with a fine cannula inserted into the internal maxillary vein. The concentration of vasopressin in blood plasma was determined by radioimmunoassay and cardiodepressant activity-using a biological test on a spontaneously discharged pacemaker tissue of the right auricle of the right heart atrium. Stimulation of the central ends of the cut vagus nerves or intra-arterial infusion of angiotensin II simultaneously caused an increase in the cardiodepressant activity and vasopressin concentration in the sella turcica venous blood. The cardiodepressant activity and vasopressin concentration was also enhanced to some degree in blood outflowing from the posterior paw. Present results indicate that both vasopressin and the cardiodepressant factor are released into blood from the posterior pituitary lobe. (author). 37 refs, 4 figs

  14. The increase in the cardiodepressant activity and vasopressin concentration in the sella turcica venous blood during vagal afferents stimulation or after angiotensin II infusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goraca, A.; Orlowska-Majdak, M.; Traczyk, W.Z. [Akademia Medyczna, Lodz (Poland). Katedra Fizjologii

    1996-12-31

    It has previously been demonstrated that the cardiodepressant activity is present in the bovine hypothalamic extract and in the fluid incubating the posterior pituitary lobe {sup i}n situ{sup .} The present study was an attempt to reveal if the cardiodepressant factor and vasopressin were simultaneously released from the pituitary into blood. The samples of venous blood flowing from the sella turcica and, for comparison, from the posterior paw were collected in anesthetized rats. Blood from the sella turcica was collected with a fine cannula inserted into the internal maxillary vein. The concentration of vasopressin in blood plasma was determined by radioimmunoassay and cardiodepressant activity-using a biological test on a spontaneously discharged pacemaker tissue of the right auricle of the right heart atrium. Stimulation of the central ends of the cut vagus nerves or intra-arterial infusion of angiotensin II simultaneously caused an increase in the cardiodepressant activity and vasopressin concentration in the sella turcica venous blood. The cardiodepressant activity and vasopressin concentration was also enhanced to some degree in blood outflowing from the posterior paw. Present results indicate that both vasopressin and the cardiodepressant factor are released into blood from the posterior pituitary lobe. (author). 37 refs, 4 figs.

  15. Modulation of Cytokine Production by Drugs with Antiepileptic or Mood Stabilizer Properties in Anti-CD3- and Anti-CD40-Stimulated Blood In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubertus Himmerich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased cytokine production possibly due to oxidative stress has repeatedly been shown to play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of epilepsy and bipolar disorder. Recent in vitro and animal studies of valproic acid (VPA report antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties, and suppression of interleukin (IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α. We tested the effect of drugs with antiepileptic or mood stabilizer properties, namely, primidone (PRM, carbamazepine (CBZ, levetiracetam (LEV, lamotrigine (LTG, VPA, oxcarbazepine (OXC, topiramate (TPM, phenobarbital (PB, and lithium on the production of the following cytokines in vitro: interleukin (IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-17, IL-22, and TNF-α. We performed a whole blood assay with stimulated blood of 14 healthy female subjects. Anti-human CD3 monoclonal antibody OKT3, combined with 5C3 antibody against CD40, was used as stimulant. We found a significant reduction of IL-1 and IL-2 levels with all tested drugs other than lithium in the CD3/5C3-stimulated blood; VPA led to a decrease in IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-17, and TNF-α production, which substantiates and adds knowledge to current hypotheses on VPA’s anti-inflammatory properties.

  16. Relative changes in regional cerebral blood flow during spinal cord stimulation in patients with refractory angina pectoris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hautvast, RWM; TerHorst, GJ; DeJong, BM; DeJongste, MJL; Blanksma, PK; Paans, AMJ; Korf, J

    Spinal cord stimulation applied at thoracic level 1 (T1) has a neurally mediated anti-anginal effect based on antiischaemic action in the myocardium. Positron emission tomography was used to study which higher brain centres are influenced by spinal cord stimulation. Nine patients with a spinal cord

  17. Immunoglobulin production induced in vitro by glucocorticoid hormones: T cell-dependent stimulation of immunoglobulin production without B cell proliferation in cultures of human peripheral blood lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grayson, J.; Dooley, N.J.; Koski, I.R.; Blaese, R.M.

    1981-01-01

    The direct effects of steroid hormones on the production of immunoglobulins and DNA synthesis by human T and B lymphocytes was evaluated in cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. As detected by a reverse hemolytic plaque assay, the addition of 0.1 mM to 10 nM hydrocortisone to lymphocytes in culture in the absence of other stimulants or mitogens, resulted in the dramatic induction of immunoglobulin production with responses comparable to those seen in similar cultures stimulated with pokeweed mitogen. Steroid-stimulated immunoglobulin production was first seen after 48 h and peaked at 8-10 d of culture. The production of IgG, IgA, and IgM was induced following incubation with steroid. Glucocorticoids, but not estrogens or androgens, were capable of mediating this effect, and only compounds with affinity for the glucocorticoid receptor were active. The induction of immunoglobulin production was dependent on both T cells and monocytes; cultures depleted of either cell type did not produce immunoglobulin when stimulated with glucocorticoid hormones. Proliferation of B cells or T cells could not be detected by [/sup 3/H]thymidine incorporation or total cell recovery from steroid-stimulated cultures, even though such cultures demonstrated marked increases in immunoglobulin production. The mechanism responsible for this functional maturation of B cells to become high rate immunoglobulin producing cells is as yet undefined, although it appears to involve more than merely steroid mediated inactivation of suppressor T cells

  18. Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor Use after Autologous Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation: Comparison of Two Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amrita D; Parmar, Sapna; Patel, Khilna; Shah, Shreya; Shore, Tsiporah; Gergis, Usama; Mayer, Sebastian; Phillips, Adrienne; Hsu, Jing-Mei; Niesvizky, Ruben; Mark, Tomer M; Pearse, Roger; Rossi, Adriana; van Besien, Koen

    2018-02-01

    Administration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) after autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) is generally recommended to reduce the duration of severe neutropenia; however, data regarding the optimal timing of G-CSFs post-transplantation are limited and conflicting. This retrospective study was performed at NewYork-Presbyterian/Weill Cornell Medical Center between November 5, 2013, and August 9, 2016, of adult inpatient autologous PBSCT recipients who received G-CSF empirically starting on day +5 (early) versus on those who received G-CSF on day +12 only if absolute neutrophil count (ANC) was ANC-driven). G-CSF was dosed at 300 µg in patients weighing ANC-driven (n = 50) G-CSF regimen. Patient and transplantation characteristics were comparable in the 2 groups. In the ANC-driven group, 24% (n = 12) received G-CSF on day +12 and 60% (n = 30) started G-CSF earlier due to febrile neutropenia or at the physician's discretion, 6% (n = 3) started after day +12 at the physician's discretion, and 10% (n = 5) did not receive any G-CSF. The median start day of G-CSF therapy was day +10 in the ANC-driven group versus day +5 in the early group (P ANC-driven group (P = .07). There were no significant between-group differences in time to platelet engraftment, 1-year relapse rate, or 1-year overall survival. The incidence of febrile neutropenia was 74% in the early group versus 90% in the ANC-driven group (P = .04); however, there was no significant between-group difference in the incidence of positive bacterial cultures or transfer to the intensive care unit. The duration of G-CSF administration until neutrophil engraftment was 6 days in the early group versus 3 days in the ANC-driven group (P ANC-driven group (P = .28). Our data show that early initiation of G-CSF (on day +5) and ANC-driven initiation of G-CSF following autologous PBSCT were associated with a similar time to neutrophil engraftment

  19. The quiescent and mitogen stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells after gamma irradiation and their P53, P21 and H2AX expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilasova, Z.; Vavrova, J.; Sinkorova, Z.; Tichy, A.; Oesterreicher, J.; Rezacova, M.; Zoelzer, F.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare reaction of quiescent and proliferating PHA (mitogenic lectin phytohemagglutinin)-stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to γ-irradiation and analyze changes of proteins related to repair if DNA damage and apoptosis, such as γH2A.X, p53 and its phosphorylations on serine 15 and 392, and p21. Protein changes induced by radiation are different in quiescent and stimulated PBMCs. W e analyzed changes in proteins related to DNA damage repair and apoptosis using the western blot method in quiescent and stimulated PBMCs. Western blot technique can detect γH2A.X increase only at later times, when the phosphorylation of H2A.X is related to the onset of apoptosis (24-72 h after irradiation by the dose of 4 Gy). The level of H2A.X phosphorylation increased after stimulation of PBMC by PHA (72 h, 10 μg/ml) and as shown here it was detectable by western blot analysis. The increase in γH2A.X that we detected by western blot 4 h after irradiation of stimulated lymphocytes was dose dependent. It can be concluded that measurement of γH2A.X during the first hours after the irradiation is a good marker of the received dose of radiation. We compared the dynamics of p53 induction after irradiation by IR in both quiescent and stimulated lymphocytes. p53 increase was observed only in stimulated lymphocytes, as was p53 phosphorylation at serines-392 and -15. The increase in the amount of p53 was not dose-dependent 4 h after the irradiation. On the other hand, phosphorylation of p53 at serine-15 analyzed 4 h after the irradiation is dose-dependent over the studied dose range. Despite the fact that p53 was not detected in quiescent lymphocytes and a reaction to irradiation was not observed either, p21 levels increased after irradiation in both quiescent and stimulated lymphocytes in a dose-dependent manner. IR induces phosphorylation of p53 at both serines-15 and -392 in PHA stimulated human lymphocytes. However

  20. Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a reduced production of red blood cells, including: Iron deficiency anemia. Iron deficiency anemia is the most common type of anemia and ... inflammatory bowel disease are especially likely to have iron deficiency anemia. Anemia due to chronic disease. People with chronic ...

  1. The modulatory role of alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone administered spinally in the regulation of blood glucose level in d-glucose-fed and restraint stress mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Yun-Beom; Park, Soo-Hyun; Kim, Sung-Su; Lim, Su-Min; Jung, Jun-Sub; Suh, Hong-Won

    2014-08-01

    Alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) is known as a regulator of the blood glucose homeostasis and food intake. In the present study, the possible roles of α-MSH located in the spinal cord in the regulation of the blood glucose level were investigated in d-glucose-fed and immobilization stress (IMO) mouse models. We found in the present study that intrathecal (i.t.) injection with α-MSH alone did not affect the blood glucose level. However, i.t. administration with α-MSH reduced the blood glucose level in d-glucose-fed model. The plasma insulin level was increased in d-glucose-fed model and was further increased by α-MSH, whereas α-MSH did not affect plasma corticosterone level in d-glucose-fed model. In addition, i.t. administration with glucagon alone enhanced blood glucose level and, i.t. injection with glucagon also increased the blood glucose level in d-glucose-fed model. In contrasted to results observed in d-glucose-fed model, i.t. treatment with α-MSH caused enhancement of the blood glucose level in IMO model. The plasma insulin level was increased in IMO model. The increased plasma insulin level by IMO was reduced by i.t. treatment with α-MSH, whereas i.t. pretreatment with α-MSH did not affect plasma corticosterone level in IMO model. Taken together, although spinally located α-MSH itself does not alter the blood glucose level, our results suggest that the activation of α-MSH system located in the spinal cord play important modulatory roles for the reduction of the blood glucose level in d-glucose fed model whereas α-MSH is responsible for the up-regulation of the blood glucose level in IMO model. The enhancement of insulin release may be responsible for modulatory action of α-MSH in down-regulation of the blood glucose in d-glucose fed model whereas reduction of insulin release may be responsible for modulatory action of α-MSH in up-regulation of the blood glucose in IMO model. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Stimulating high impact HIV-related cardiovascular research: recommendations from a multidisciplinary NHLBI Working Group on HIV-related heart, lung, and blood disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Monica R; Cook, Nakela; Wong, Renee; Hsue, Priscilla; Ridker, Paul; Currier, Judith; Shurin, Susan

    2015-02-24

    The clinical challenges confronting patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have shifted from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related illnesses to chronic diseases, such as coronary artery disease, chronic lung disease, and chronic anemia. With the growing burden of HIV-related heart, lung, and blood (HLB) disease, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) recognizes it must stimulate and support HIV-related HLB research. Because HIV offers a natural, accelerated model of common pathological processes, such as inflammation, HIV-related HLB research may yield important breakthroughs for all patients with HLB disease. This paper summarizes the cardiovascular recommendations of an NHLBI Working Group, Advancing HIV/AIDS Research in Heart, Lung, and Blood Diseases, charged with identifying scientific priorities in HIV-related HLB disease and developing recommendations to promote multidisciplinary collaboration among HIV and HLB investigators. The working group included multidisciplinary sessions, as well as HLB breakout sessions for discussion of disease-specific issues, with common themes about scientific priorities and strategies to stimulate HLB research emerging in all 3 groups. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Cerebral blood flow modulation by Basal forebrain or whisker stimulation can occur independently of large cytosolic Ca2+ signaling in astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takata, Norio; Nagai, Terumi; Ozawa, Katsuya; Oe, Yuki; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko; Hirase, Hajime

    2013-01-01

    We report that a brief electrical stimulation of the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM), the primary source of cholinergic projection to the cerebral cortex, induces a biphasic cerebral cortical blood flow (CBF) response in the somatosensory cortex of C57BL/6J mice. This CBF response, measured by laser Doppler flowmetry, was attenuated by the muscarinic type acetylcholine receptor antagonist atropine, suggesting a possible involvement of astrocytes in this type of CBF modulation. However, we find that IP3R2 knockout mice, which lack cytosolic Ca2+ surges in astrocytes, show similar CBF changes. Moreover, whisker stimulation resulted in similar degrees of CBF increase in IP3R2 knockout mice and the background strain C57BL/6J. Our results show that neural activity-driven CBF modulation could occur without large cytosolic increases of Ca2+ in astrocytes.

  4. In vitro stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from HIV- and HIV+ chancroid patients by Haemophilus ducreyi antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Laer, L; Vingerhoets, J; Vanham, G; Kestens, L; Bwayo, J; Otido, J; Piot, P; Roggen, E

    1995-11-01

    The cellular immune responses to fractionated Haemophilus ducreyi antigens, coated on latex beads, were assessed in patients with chancroid and in controls, using an in vitro lymphocyte proliferation assay. Several fractions of H. ducreyi antigen revealed stimulating activity. However, only the molecular size ranges 91-78 kD, 59-29 kD, and 25-21 kD induced proliferation that may be specifically related to H. ducreyi infection. Lymphocytes from four HIV- patients, successfully treated for chancroid, were not stimulated by H. ducreyi antigen. In general, lymphocytes from HIV+ chancroid patients were less responsive to H. ducreyi antigen compared with those from HIV- chancroid patients. However, two HIV-infected patients showed exceptionally strong responses to high molecular weight fractions. To our knowledge this is the first report demonstrating that H. ducreyi contains specific T cell-stimulating antigens. Based on this work, further identification and purification of the T cell antigens is feasible.

  5. Effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on arterial stiffness and blood pressure in resistant hypertensive individuals: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela-Martin, José Fernando; Giollo-Junior, Luiz Tadeu; Chiappa, Gaspar Rogério; Cipriano-Junior, Gerson; Vieira, Paulo José Cardoso; dos Santos Ricardi, Fábio; Paz-Landim, Manoel Ildefonso; de Andrade, Days Oliveira; Cestário, Elizabeth do Espírito Santo; Cosenso-Martin, Luciana Neves; Yugar-Toledo, Juan Carlos; Cipullo, José Paulo

    2016-03-29

    Resistant hypertension (RH) treatment requires an adequate and intense therapeutic approach. However, the results are not always satisfactory despite intensive treatment. Of the different pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of RH, sympathetic overstimulation and therapies that block the sympathetic system have been widely studied. These approaches, however, are invasive and expensive. Another possible approach is by transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), a noninvasive method that modulates activity by using low-frequency transcutaneous electrical stimulation to inhibit primary afferent pathways. Thus, the current study will evaluate the effect of applying TENS in the cervicothoracic region of subjects with RH and will seek to develop a new low-cost and readily available therapy to treat this group of hypertensive individuals. This is a randomized, single blind (subject), parallel-assignment study controlled with a sham group and including participants aged 40 to 70 years with resistant hypertension. The trial has two arms: the treatment and control (sham group). The treatment group will be submitted to the stimulation procedure (TENS). The sham group will not be submitted to stimulation. The primary outcomes will be a reduction in the peripheral blood pressure and adverse events. The secondary outcomes will be a reduction the central blood pressure. The study will last 30 days. The sample size was calculated assuming an alpha error of 5 % to reject the null hypothesis with a statistical power of 80 %, thereby resulting in 28 participants per group (intervention versus sham). In recent decades, RH has become very common and costly. Adequate control requires several drugs, and in many cases, treatment is not successful. Sympathetic nervous system inhibition by renal denervation and central inhibition have significant effects in reducing BP; however, these treatments are costly and invasive. Another type of sympathetic nervous

  6. Development of a dual test procedure for DNA typing and methamphetamine detection using a trace amount of stimulant-containing blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irii, Toshiaki; Maebashi, Kyoko; Fukui, Kenji; Sohma, Ryoko; Matsumoto, Sari; Takasu, Shojiro; Iwadate, Kimiharu

    2016-05-01

    Investigation of drug-related crimes, such as violation of the Stimulant Drug Control Law, requires identifying the used drug (mainly stimulant drugs, methamphetamine hydrochloride) from a drug solution and the DNA type of the drug user from a trace of blood left in the syringe used to inject the drug. In current standard test procedures, DNA typing and methamphetamine detection are performed as independent tests that use two separate portions of a precious sample. The sample can be entirely used up by either analysis. Therefore, we developed a new procedure involving partial lysis of a stimulant-containing blood sample followed by separation of the lysate into a precipitate for DNA typing and a liquid-phase fraction for methamphetamine detection. The method enables these two tests to be run in parallel using a single portion of sample. Samples were prepared by adding methamphetamine hydrochloride water solution to blood. Samples were lysed with Proteinase K in PBS at 56°C for 20min, cooled at -20°C after adding methanol, and then centrifuged at 15,000rpm. Based on the biopolymer-precipitating ability of alcohol, the precipitate was used for DNA typing and the liquid-phase fraction for methamphetamine detection. For DNA typing, the precipitate was dissolved and DNA was extracted, quantified, and subjected to STR analysis using the AmpFℓSTR® Identifiler® Plus PCR Amplification Kit. For methamphetamine detection, the liquid-phase fraction was evaporated with N2 gas after adding 20μL acetic acid and passed through an extraction column; the substances captured in the column were eluted with a solvent, derivatized, and quantitatively detected using gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry. This method was simple and could be completed in approximately 2h. Both DNA typing and methamphetamine detection were possible, which suggests that this method may be valuable for use in criminal investigations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A descriptive pilot study of cytokine production following stimulation of ex-vivo whole blood with commercial therapeutic feline hydrolyzed diets in individual healthy immunotolerant cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathrani, Aarti; Larsen, Jennifer A; Cortopassi, Gino; Datta, Sandipan; Fascetti, Andrea J

    2017-10-06

    Hydrolyzed diets are used in companion animals for the diagnosis and treatment of adverse food reaction. Similarly, hydrolyzed formulas are used in human infants with severe inflammatory bowel disease or milk allergy, and these must meet the standard of hypoallergenicity through rigorous testing. Unfortunately, no standards are currently applied to hydrolyzed veterinary therapeutic diets, and data for the immunogenicity of feline diets is also not available. Therefore, the main aim of this pilot study was to determine if ex-vivo whole blood stimulation assays could be used to characterize the cytokine response to hydrolyzed commercial diets in a small number of individual healthy immunotolerant cats. This approach has also been used to investigate cytokine production in response to cow milk protein in humans and currently similar studies do not exist in companion animals. Nine healthy cats previously eating the same basal diet were divided into groups and fed one of three hydrolyzed diets exclusively for 6 weeks. Heparinized whole blood was collected from each cat before and after the feeding trial. Ex-vivo whole blood stimulation assays were performed using crude extracts of the basal diet as a positive control, as this diet contained the same proteins present in the hydrolyzed diet but were intact, saline as a negative control, and each cat's respective hydrolyzed diet. Supernatants were collected and analyzed for tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-10 (IL-10), and interleukin-4 using enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay. Seven cats produced detectable amounts of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 upon stimulation with the basal diet. Two cats produced detectable amounts of IL-10 upon stimulation with a hydrolyzed soy-based diet and one cat produced a detectable amount of IL-10 upon stimulation with a hydrolyzed chicken-based diet (>125 pg/mL). Results from this pilot study suggest that in some healthy immunotolerant cats, some hydrolyzed diets may elicit a

  8. The impact of donor characteristics on the immune cell composition of mixture allografts of granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor-mobilized marrow harvests and peripheral blood harvests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Tong; Zhao, Xiang-Yu; Zhao, Xiao-Su; Xu, Lan-Ping; Zhang, Xiao-Hui; Wang, Yu; Liu, Kai-Yan; Chang, Ying-Jun; Huang, Xiao-Jun

    2015-12-01

    The association of donor characteristics with immune cell composition in allografts remains poorly understood. In this retrospective study, the effects of donor characteristics on immune cell composition in allografts were investigated. The correlations of donor characteristics with the immune cell composition in mixture allografts of granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor-mobilized marrow harvests and peripheral blood harvests of 390 healthy donors (male, 240; female, 150; median age, 40 years old) were analyzed. The median doses of CD3+ T cells, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, CD3+CD4-CD8- T cells, and monocytes in mixture allografts were 160.57 × 10(6), 89.29 × 10(6), 56.16 × 10(6), 10.87 × 10(6), and 137.94 × 10(6)/kg, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that younger donor age was associated with a higher dose of CD3+ T cells (p = 0.006), CD3+CD8+ T cells (p donor weight with CD3+ T cells (p blood lymphocyte pre-peripheral blood apheresis was correlated with the yield of CD3+ T cells (p blood monocyte count before marrow harvest predicted the monocyte dose (p = 0.002). The results suggested that older and overweight donors should not be chosen. The monocyte and lymphocyte counts before harvest could predict the yield of immune cells in allografts. © 2015 AABB.

  9. Genome-wide immunity studies in the rabbit: transcriptome variations in peripheral blood mononuclear cells after in vitro stimulation by LPS or PMA-Ionomycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquier, Vincent; Estellé, Jordi; Schmaltz-Panneau, Barbara; Lecardonnel, Jérôme; Moroldo, Marco; Lemonnier, Gaëtan; Turner-Maier, Jason; Duranthon, Véronique; Oswald, Isabelle P; Gidenne, Thierry; Rogel-Gaillard, Claire

    2015-01-23

    Our purpose was to obtain genome-wide expression data for the rabbit species on the responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) after in vitro stimulation by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and ionomycin. This transcriptome profiling was carried out using microarrays enriched with immunity-related genes, and annotated with the most recent data available for the rabbit genome. The LPS affected 15 to 20 times fewer genes than PMA-Ionomycin after both 4 hours (T4) and 24 hours (T24), of in vitro stimulation, in comparison with mock-stimulated PBMCs. LPS induced an inflammatory response as shown by a significant up-regulation of IL12A and CXCL11 at T4, followed by an increased transcription of IL6, IL1B, IL1A, IL36, IL37, TNF, and CCL4 at T24. Surprisingly, we could not find an up-regulation of IL8 either at T4 or at T24, and detected a down-regulation of DEFB1 and BPI at T24. A concerted up-regulation of SAA1, S100A12 and F3 was found upon stimulation by LPS. PMA-Ionomycin induced a very early expression of Th1, Th2, Treg, and Th17 responses by PBMCs at T4. The Th1 response increased at T24 as shown by the increase of the transcription of IFNG and by contrast to other cytokines which significantly decreased from T4 to T24 (IL2, IL4, IL10, IL13, IL17A, CD69) by comparison to mock-stimulation. The granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (CSF2) was by far the most over-expressed gene at both T4 and T24 by comparison to mock-stimulated cells, confirming a major impact of PMA-Ionomycin on cell growth and proliferation. A significant down-regulation of IL16 was observed at T4 and T24, in agreement with a role of IL16 in PBMC apoptosis. We report new data on the responses of PBMCs to LPS and PMA-Ionomycin in the rabbit species, thus enlarging the set of mammalian species for which such reports exist. The availability of the rabbit genome assembly together with high throughput genomic tools should pave the way for more

  10. Culicoides antigen extract stimulates equine blood mononuclear (BMN) cell proliferation and the release of eosinophil adherence-inducing factor(s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckelvie, J; Foster, A P; Hamblin, A S; Cunningham, F M

    2001-04-01

    Intradermal injection of a Culicoides antigen extract (CAgX) induces T lymphocyte and eosinophil accumulation in the skin of horses with sweet itch. Blood mononuclear (BMN) cells from normal ponies proliferate when stimulated by mitogen (phytohaemagglutinin, PHA) or antigen (tetanus toxoid, TT) and, as shown here, release soluble factor(s) that induce eosinophil adherence. CAgX also caused concentration dependent proliferation of BMN cells from sweet itch and normal ponies [stimulation index: 29 (13) and 17 (7) for BMN cells from sweet itch and normal ponies, respectively during the active phase of disease; 4 microg protein ml(-1)CAgX; 168 h]. A heat labile factor(s) which caused eosinophil adherence was also released [sweet itch ponies: 6.0 (1.6) per cent adherence versus 1.3 (0.4) per cent; normal ponies: 6.6 (0.5) per cent adherence versus 0.9 (0.1) per cent for supernatants from CAgX (4 microg protein ml(-1); 48 hours) stimulated versus unstimulated BMN cells, respectively]. These results suggest that soluble proteins released from T lymphocytes could affect eosinophil function in the lesional skin of sweet itch horses. Copyright 2001 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  11. Naturally induced secretions of the potato cyst nematode co-stimulate the proliferation of both tobacco leaf protoplasts and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goverse, A; Rouppe van der Voort, J; Roppe van der Voort, C; Kavelaars, A; Smant, G; Schots, A; Bakker, J; Helder, J

    1999-10-01

    Naturally induced secretions from infective juveniles of the potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis co-stimulate the proliferation of tobacco leaf protoplasts in the presence of the synthetic phytohormones alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP). With the use of a protoplast-based bioassay, a low-molecular-weight peptide(s) (cyst nematode secretions also co-stimulated mitogenesis in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). The stimulation of plant cells isolated from nontarget tissue--these nematodes normally invade the roots of potato plants--suggests the activation of a general signal transduction mechanism(s) by an oligopeptide(s) secreted by the nematode. Whether a similar oligopeptide-induced mechanism underlies human PBMC activation remains to be investigated. Reactivation of the cell cycle is a crucial event in feeding cell formation by cyst nematodes. The secretion of a mitogenic low-molecular-weight peptide(s) by infective juveniles of the potato cyst nematode could contribute to the redifferentiation of plant cells into such a feeding cell.

  12. The impact of blood glucose levels on stimulated adrenocorticotropin hormone and growth hormone release in healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakobsdottir, S.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Drent, M.L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective In studies investigating the influence of glucose levels on the pituitary function the methods used have been variable and mainly focused on the change in function as a reaction to unphysiological low or high blood glucose levels. In the present study the impact of physiological and

  13. Comparison of Gene Expression by Sheep and Human Blood Stimulated with the TLR4 Agonists Lipopolysaccharide and Monophosphoryl Lipid A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perenlei Enkhbaatar

    Full Text Available Animal models that mimic human biology are important for successful translation of basic science discoveries into the clinical practice. Recent studies in rodents have demonstrated the efficacy of TLR4 agonists as immunomodulators in models of infection. However, rodent models have been criticized for not mimicking important characteristics of the human immune response to microbial products. The goal of this study was to compare genomic responses of human and sheep blood to the TLR4 agonists lipopolysaccharide (LPS and monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA.Venous blood, withdrawn from six healthy human adult volunteers (~ 28 years old and six healthy adult female sheep (~3 years old, was mixed with 30 μL of PBS, LPS (1μg/mL or MPLA (10μg/mL and incubated at room temperature for 90 minutes on a rolling rocker. After incubation, 2.5 mL of blood was transferred to Paxgene Blood RNA tubes. Gene expression analysis was performed using an Agilent Bioanalyzer with the RNA6000 Nano Lab Chip. Agilent gene expression microarrays were scanned with a G2565 Microarray Scanner. Differentially expressed genes were identified.11,431 human and 4,992 sheep probes were detected above background. Among them 1,029 human and 175 sheep genes were differentially expressed at a stringency of 1.5-fold change (p 1.5-fold changes in human samples. Genes of major inflammatory mediators, such as IL-1, IL-6 and IL-8, TNF alpha, NF-kappaB, ETS2, PTGS2, PTX3, CXCL16, KYNU, and CLEC4E were similarly (>2-fold upregulated by LPS and MPLA in both species.The genomic responses of peripheral blood to LPS and MPLA in sheep are quite similar to those observed in humans, supporting the use of the ovine model for translational studies that mimic human inflammatory diseases and the study of TLR-based immunomodulators.

  14. Effect of a Rapidly Degrading Presolidified 10 kDa Chitosan/Blood Implant and Subchondral Marrow Stimulation Surgical Approach on Cartilage Resurfacing in a Sheep Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Angela D.; Hurtig, Mark B.; Quenneville, Eric; Rivard, Georges-Étienne; Hoemann, Caroline D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study tested the hypothesis that presolidified chitosan-blood implants are retained in subchondral bone channels perforated in critical-size sheep cartilage defects, and promote bone repair and hyaline-like cartilage resurfacing versus blood implant. Design Cartilage defects (10 × 10 mm) with 3 bone channels (1 drill, 2 Jamshidi biopsy, 2 mm diameter), and 6 small microfracture holes were created bilaterally in n = 11 sheep knee medial condyles. In one knee, 10 kDa chitosan–NaCl/blood implant (presolidified using recombinant factor VIIa or tissue factor), was inserted into each drill and Jamshidi hole. Contralateral knee defects received presolidified whole blood clot. Repair tissues were assessed histologically, biochemically, biomechanically, and by micro–computed tomography after 1 day (n = 1) and 6 months (n = 10). Results Day 1 defects showed a 60% loss of subchondral bone plate volume fraction along with extensive subchondral hematoma. Chitosan implant was resident at day 1, but had no effect on any subsequent repair parameter compared with blood implant controls. At 6 months, bone defects exhibited remodeling and hypomineralized bone repair and were partly resurfaced with tissues containing collagen type II and scant collagen type I, 2-fold lower glycosaminoglycan and fibril modulus, and 4.5-fold higher permeability compared with intact cartilage. Microdrill holes elicited higher histological ICRS-II overall assessment scores than Jamshidi holes (50% vs. 30%, P = 0.041). Jamshidi biopsy holes provoked sporadic osteonecrosis in n = 3 debrided condyles. Conclusions Ten kilodalton chitosan was insufficient to improve repair. Microdrilling is a feasible subchondral marrow stimulation surgical approach with the potential to elicit poroelastic tissues with at least half the compressive modulus as intact articular cartilage. PMID:28934884

  15. Effect of transcutaneous electrical muscle stimulation and passive cycling movements on blood pressure and removal of urea and phosphate during hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farese, Stefan; Budmiger, Raphael; Aregger, Fabienne; Bergmann, Ivo; Frey, Felix J; Uehlinger, Dominik E

    2008-10-01

    Intradialytic exercise has been described to improve blood pressure stability and dialysis efficacy. However, comorbid conditions in the dialysis population often preclude the widespread use of active intradialytic exercise. Therefore, we investigated the effect of intradialytic transcutaneous muscle stimulation (TEMS) and passive cycling movements (PCMs) on blood pressure and dialysis efficacy in patients. Prospective, controlled, randomized, crossover investigation. Ten patients were randomly allocated to TEMS, PCMs, or no intervention (NI) for 9 consecutive dialysis sessions. Participants were studied with NI, PCMs using a motor-driven ergometer, and bilateral TEMS of the leg musculature. Individual dialysis prescriptions were unchanged during the investigation. The effect of TEMS and PCMs on blood pressure and dialysis efficacy in patients was assessed. Mean blood pressure increased from 121/64 +/- 21/15 mm Hg with NI to 132/69 +/- 21/15 mm Hg (P TEMS. Urea and phosphate removal during dialysis were significantly (P TEMS (19.4 +/- 3.7 g/dialysis and 1,197 +/- 265 mg/dialysis) or PCMs (20.1 +/- 3.4 g/dialysis and 1,172 +/- 315 mg/dialysis) than with NI (15.1 +/- 3.9 g/dialysis and 895 +/- 202 mg/dialysis). Body weight, ultrafiltration, Kt/V, and increases in hemoglobin and albumin levels during dialysis did not differ among the NI, PCMs, and TEMS groups. The study design does not allow extension of the findings to prolonged treatment. Future studies during longer observation periods will have to prove the persistence of these acute findings. Both TEMS and PCMs deserve future investigations in dialysis patients because they increase intradialytic blood pressure and facilitate urea and phosphate removal when applied short term.

  16. Effect of a Rapidly Degrading Presolidified 10 kDa Chitosan/Blood Implant and Subchondral Marrow Stimulation Surgical Approach on Cartilage Resurfacing in a Sheep Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Angela D; Hurtig, Mark B; Quenneville, Eric; Rivard, Georges-Étienne; Hoemann, Caroline D

    2017-10-01

    Objective This study tested the hypothesis that presolidified chitosan-blood implants are retained in subchondral bone channels perforated in critical-size sheep cartilage defects, and promote bone repair and hyaline-like cartilage resurfacing versus blood implant. Design Cartilage defects (10 × 10 mm) with 3 bone channels (1 drill, 2 Jamshidi biopsy, 2 mm diameter), and 6 small microfracture holes were created bilaterally in n = 11 sheep knee medial condyles. In one knee, 10 kDa chitosan-NaCl/blood implant (presolidified using recombinant factor VIIa or tissue factor), was inserted into each drill and Jamshidi hole. Contralateral knee defects received presolidified whole blood clot. Repair tissues were assessed histologically, biochemically, biomechanically, and by micro-computed tomography after 1 day ( n = 1) and 6 months ( n = 10). Results Day 1 defects showed a 60% loss of subchondral bone plate volume fraction along with extensive subchondral hematoma. Chitosan implant was resident at day 1, but had no effect on any subsequent repair parameter compared with blood implant controls. At 6 months, bone defects exhibited remodeling and hypomineralized bone repair and were partly resurfaced with tissues containing collagen type II and scant collagen type I, 2-fold lower glycosaminoglycan and fibril modulus, and 4.5-fold higher permeability compared with intact cartilage. Microdrill holes elicited higher histological ICRS-II overall assessment scores than Jamshidi holes (50% vs. 30%, P = 0.041). Jamshidi biopsy holes provoked sporadic osteonecrosis in n = 3 debrided condyles. Conclusions Ten kilodalton chitosan was insufficient to improve repair. Microdrilling is a feasible subchondral marrow stimulation surgical approach with the potential to elicit poroelastic tissues with at least half the compressive modulus as intact articular cartilage.

  17. [Chromosome banding analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes stimulated with IL2 and CpG oligonucleotide DSP30 in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stěpanovská, K; Vaňková, G; Némethová, V; Tomášiková, L; Smuhařová, P; Divíšková, E; Vallová, V; Kuglík, P; Plevová, K; Oltová, A; Doubek, M; Pospíšilová, S; Mayer, J

    2013-01-01

    Chromosomal aberrations play an important role as prognostic factors in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). These aberrations are mostly detected by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), as chromosomal banding analysis has been scarce due to low proliferative activity of malignant B-lymphocytes in vitro. In 2006, a new method using stimulation with IL-2 and CpG oligonucleotide DSP30 for metaphase generation in CLL was published [1]. The objective of our study was to verify the efficacy of stimulation and to evaluate if the method is suitable for routine diagnostics. In total, peripheral blood samples of 369 CLL patients were analyzed in parallel by chromosomal banding analysis and by FISH probes for 13q14, 11q22-23, CEP12 and 17p13. Out of 369 patients, 307 (83%) were successfully stimulated for metaphase generation. Chromosomal aberrations were detected in 243 (79%) out of 307 patients evaluated by chromosomal banding analysis. Other aberrations that are not included into standard FISH panel were detected in patients karyotypes, e.g. del(6q), del(14q), t(14;18)(q32;q21), t(11;14)(q13;q32) and t(18;22)(q21;q11). One hundred and three (42%) patients showed complex aberrant karyotype not detected by FISH analysis. Stimulation with IL-2 and oligonucleotide DSP30 is an efficient method how to induce proliferation of malignant B-lymphocytes and allows detection of a substantial number of chromosomal aberrations in addition to those detected by standard FISH panel. Using this method in routine diagnostics is helpful particularly in identification of patients with complex aberrant karyotype.

  18. Effect of soluble factors derived from oral cancer cells on the production of interferon-γ from peripheral blood mononuclear cells following stimulation with OK-432.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohe, Go; Sasai, Akiko; Uchida, Daisuke; Tamatani, Tetsuya; Nagai, Hirokazu; Miyamoto, Youji

    2013-08-01

    The streptococcal antitumor agent OK-432 is commonly used as an immunopotentiator for immunotherapy in various types of malignant tumors including oral cancer. It has been demonstrated that OK-432 elicits an antitumor effect by stimulating immunocompetent cells, thereby inducing multiple cytokines including interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-12. Serum concentrations of IFN-γ in patients with oral cancer were examined 24 h after administration of OK-432. Serum concentrations of IFN-γ in patients with advanced cancer were significantly lower than those in patients with early cancer. These results suggested that some soluble factors produced by cancer cells may inhibit IFN-γ production with OK-432. Thus, in the present study, an in vitro simulation model was established for the immune status of patients with oral cancer by adding conditioned medium (CM) derived from oral cancer cell lines into a culture of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) derived from a healthy volunteer. We investigated whether soluble factors derived from oral cancer cells affected IFN-γ production from PBMCs following stimulation with OK-432. PBMCs stimulated with OK-432 produced a large amount of IFN-γ; however, both IFN-γ production and cytotoxic activity from PBMCs induced by OK-432 were inhibited by the addition of CM in a dose-dependent manner. In order to examine these inhibitory effects against IFN-γ production, the contribution of inhibitory cytokines such as IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, transforming growth factor-β and vascular endothelial growth factor was investigated. However, neutralization of these inhibitory cytokines did not recover IFN-γ production inhibited by CM. These results indicated that unknown molecules may inhibit IFN-γ production from PBMCs following stimulation with OK-432.

  19. Changes in cerebral blood flow during olfactory stimulation in patients with multiple chemical sensitivity: a multi-channel near-infrared spectroscopic study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichi Azuma

    Full Text Available Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS is characterized by somatic distress upon exposure to odors. Patients with MCS process odors differently from controls. This odor-processing may be associated with activation in the prefrontal area connecting to the anterior cingulate cortex, which has been suggested as an area of odorant-related activation in MCS patients. In this study, activation was defined as a significant increase in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF because of odorant stimulation. Using the well-designed card-type olfactory test kit, changes in rCBF in the prefrontal cortex (PFC were investigated after olfactory stimulation with several different odorants. Near-infrared spectroscopic (NIRS imaging was performed in 12 MCS patients and 11 controls. The olfactory stimulation test was continuously repeated 10 times. The study also included subjective assessment of physical and psychological status and the perception of irritating and hedonic odors. Significant changes in rCBF were observed in the PFC of MCS patients on both the right and left sides, as distinct from the center of the PFC, compared with controls. MCS patients adequately distinguished the non-odorant in 10 odor repetitions during the early stage of the olfactory stimulation test, but not in the late stage. In comparison to controls, autonomic perception and negative affectivity were poorer in MCS patients. These results suggest that prefrontal information processing associated with odor-processing neuronal circuits and memory and cognition processes from past experience of chemical exposure play significant roles in the pathology of this disorder.

  20. Just-in-time rescue plerixafor in combination with chemotherapy and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor for peripheral blood progenitor cell mobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Veronica R; Popat, Uday; Ciurea, Stefan; Nieto, Yago; Anderlini, Paolo; Rondon, Gabriela; Alousi, Amin; Qazilbash, Muzaffar; Kebriaei, Partow; Khouri, Issa; de Lima, Marcos; Champlin, Richard; Hosing, Chitra

    2013-09-01

    Plerixafor, a recently approved peripheral blood progenitor cell mobilizing agent, is often added to granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) to mobilize peripheral blood progenitor cells in patients with lymphoma or myeloma who cannot mobilize enough CD34+ cells with G-CSF alone to undergo autologous stem cell transplantation. However, data are lacking regarding the feasibility and efficacy of just-in-time plerixafor in combination with chemotherapy and G-CSF. We reviewed the peripheral blood stem cell collection data of 38 consecutive patients with lymphoma (Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's) and multiple myeloma who underwent chemomobilization and high-dose G-CSF and just-in-time plerixafor to evaluate the efficacy of this treatment combination. All patients with multiple myeloma and all but one patient with lymphoma collected the minimum required number of CD34+ cells to proceed with autologous stem cell transplantation (>2 × 10(6) /kg of body weight). The median CD34+ cell dose collected in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma was 4.93 × 10(6) /kg of body weight. The median CD34+ cell dose collected for patients with multiple myeloma was 8.81 × 10(6) /kg of body weight. Plerixafor was well tolerated; no grade 2 or higher non-hematologic toxic effects were observed. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Assay for Epstein--Barr virus based on stimulation of DNA systhesis in mixed leukocytes from human umbilical cord blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, J.; Miller, G.

    1975-01-01

    Relationships between the rate of DNA synthesis in cultured human umbilical cord leukocytes and the multiplicity of added Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) were studied. At low multiplicities of approximately 0.1 transforming units/cell (approximately 10 physical particles/cell), inoculated cultures demonstrated increased rates of DNA synthesis, by comparison to uninoculated cultures, 3 days after inoculation. Stimulation of DNA synthesis was evident at progressively longer intervals after inoculations of 10-fold dilutions of virus. The rate of DNA synthesis, determined by short [ 3 H]thymidine pulses, reflected as small as twofold changes in multiplicity and thus can serve as a quantitative assay for the virus. Changes in the rate of DNA synthesis were evident before increases in cell number or alteration in morphology. Stimulation of DNA synthesis in umbilical cord leukocytes was inhibited by treatment of EBV with antibody and also in graded fashion, by progressive doses of uv irradiation to the virus. Induction of DNA synthesis by EBV was serum dependent. Estimates of the number of cells transformed were obtained by extrapolation from a standard curve relating known numbers of transformed cells to [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation and also by cloning cells after exposure to virus. At the low multiplicities of infection used in these experiments approximately 0.04 to 0.002 of the total cellular population was transformed. The high efficiency of cell transformation by EBV by comparison to other DNA tumor viruses is emphasized

  2. Percutaneous implantation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells mobilized with granulocyte colony stimulating factor in osteoarthritis of the knee. First case reported in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baganet Cobas, Aymara Maria; Hernandez Ramirez, Porfirio; Fernandez Delgado, Norma

    2010-01-01

    The degenerative joint disease, also known as osteoarthrosis affects to 10% of elderlies aged 60. It is mainly characterized by pain in the involved joint, crepitation, morning stiff and a progressive limitation of movement of that joint leading to a partial or total wear of articular cartilage. The treatment of the knee osteoarthrosis is a great challenge. The recent advances in use of regenerative medicine suggest that adult stem cells could represent a promisor alternative in the treatment of this entity. In a female patient aged 61 presenting with knee osteoarthrosis authors placed a percutaneous implant of autologous mononuclear cells mobilized to peripheral blood by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor achieving a fast clinical and radiological improvement. This result suggests that the procedure used is a feasible, simple, safe and less expensive method for treatment of articular degenerative lesions

  3. Analysis of the kinetic of expression of tristetraprolin and HuR by rheumatoid arthritis patients pheripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ferraccioli

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Given the role of TNF-α in Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA we decided to define the characteristics of the TNF- α synthesis by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs obtained from active-aggressive RA patients giving a particular attention to the modulation of the expression of two fundamental proteins in TNF-α mRNA stability regulation, Tristetraprolin (TTP and HuR. Methods. 11 RA patients with active disease were enrolled in the study before their entry in 2 double blind protocols: Infliximab versus MTX and Etanercept versus MTX. 9 healthy blood donors were taken as controls. PBMNCs obtained by Ficoll centrifugation and plastic adherence were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS and TNF-α was measured in the supernatant during 8 hours by ELISA. At each time point the cells were harvested and analysed for TNF- α, TTP and HuR mRNA expression by semi-quantitative PCR. Results. MNCs TNF-α secretion after LPS stimulation did not differ significantly between RA and control subjects, even if a tendency towards a more prompt response was observed in the patients. More importantly only the DMARDs responsive patients (DAS <3.7 at the 6th month, with a minimal reduction of 1.2 points disclosed precociously (at the first month a significant change in the profile of TNF-α secretion and maintained it until the 6th month. The “normalization” of the synthetic behaviour was accompanied by the resetting in the regulation of the expression of the TTP, that appeared significantly different in the patients before and after therapy. Conclusions. Independently from the type of therapy, responsive patients demonstrate a rapid change in the cellular biology at the systemic level that might drive the resolution of the phlogistic process at the synovial level.

  4. Cardiotonic steroid ouabain stimulates expression of blood-testis barrier proteins claudin-1 and -11 and formation of tight junctions in Sertoli cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietze, Raimund; Shihan, Mazen; Stammler, Angelika; Konrad, Lutz; Scheiner-Bobis, Georgios

    2015-04-15

    The interaction of ouabain with the sodium pump induces signalling cascades resembling those triggered by hormone/receptor interactions. In the rat Sertoli cell line 93RS2, ouabain at low concentrations stimulates the c-Src/c-Raf/Erk1/2 signalling cascade via its interaction with the α4 isoform of the sodium pump expressed in these cells, leading to the activation of the transcription factor CREB. As a result of this signalling sequence, ouabain stimulates expression of claudin-1 and claudin-11, which are also controlled by a CRE promoter. Both of these proteins are known to be essential constituents of tight junctions (TJ) between Sertoli cells, and as a result of the ouabain-induced signalling TJ formation between neighbouring Sertoli cells is significantly enhanced by the steroid. Thus, ouabain-treated cell monolayers display higher transepithelial resistance and reduced free diffusion of FITC-coupled dextran in tracer diffusion assays. Taking into consideration that the formation of TJ is indispensable for the maintenance of the blood-testis barrier (BTB) and therefore for male fertility, the actions of ouabain described here and the fact that this and other related cardiotonic steroids (CTS) are produced endogenously suggest a direct influence of ouabain/sodium pump interactions on the maintenance of the BTB and thereby an effect on male fertility. Since claudin-1 and claudin-11 are also present in other blood-tissue barriers, one can speculate that ouabain and perhaps other CTS influence the dynamics of these barriers as well. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Association of Odor Thresholds and Responses in Cerebral Blood Flow of the Prefrontal Area during Olfactory Stimulation in Patients with Multiple Chemical Sensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichi Azuma

    Full Text Available Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS is a disorder characterized by nonspecific and recurrent symptoms from various organ systems associated with exposure to low levels of chemicals. Patients with MCS process odors differently than controls do. Previously, we suggested that this odor processing was associated with increased regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF in the prefrontal area during olfactory stimulation using near-infrared spectroscopic (NIRS imaging. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of odor thresholds and changes in rCBF during olfactory stimulation at odor threshold levels in patients with MCS. We investigated changes in the prefrontal area using NIRS imaging and a T&T olfactometer during olfactory stimulation with two different odorants (sweet and fecal at three concentrations (zero, odor recognition threshold, and normal perceived odor level in 10 patients with MCS and six controls. The T&T olfactometer threshold test and subjective assessment of irritating and hedonic odors were also performed. The results indicated that the scores for both unpleasant and pungent odors were significantly higher for those for sweet odors at the normal perceived level in patients with MCS than in controls. The brain responses at the recognition threshold (fecal odor and normal perceived levels (sweet and fecal odors were stronger in patients with MCS than in controls. However, significant differences in the odor detection and recognition thresholds and odor intensity score between the two groups were not observed. These brain responses may involve cognitive and memory processing systems during past exposure to chemicals. Further research regarding the cognitive features of sensory perception and memory due to past exposure to chemicals and their associations with MCS symptoms is needed.

  6. Residues 39-56 of Stem Cell Factor Protein Sequence Are Capable of Stimulating the Expansion of Cord Blood CD34+ Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bin; Jiang, Wenhong; Fan, Jie; Dai, Wei; Ding, Xinxin; Jiang, Yongping

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell factor (SCF) can stimulate hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) expansion; however, the specific structural region(s) of SCF protein that are critical for this function are still unknown. A novel monoclonal antibody (named 23C8) against recombinant human SCF (rhSCF) was previously found to inhibit the ability of rhSCF to enhance HSC expansion, making it possible to identify the relevant active region to HSC. Eleven polypeptides were synthesized, which were designed to cover the full-length of rhSCF, with overlaps that are at least 3 amino acids long. ELISA was used to identify the polypeptide(s) that specifically react with the anti-SCF. The effects of the synthetic polypeptides on human HSC expansion, or on the ability of the full-length rhSCF to stimulate cell proliferation, were evaluated ex vivo. Total cell number was monitored using hemocytometer whereas CD34+ cell number was calculated based on the proportion determined via flow cytometry on day 6 of culture. Of all polypeptides analyzed, only one, named P0, corresponding to the SCF protein sequence at residues 39-56, was recognized by 23C8 mAb during ELISA. P0 stimulated the expansion of CD34+ cells derived from human umbilical cord blood (UCB). Addition of P0 increased the numbers of total mononucleated cells and CD34+ cells, by ~2 fold on day 6. P0 also showed partial competition against full-length rhSCF in the ex vivo cell expansion assay. Residues 39-56 of rhSCF comprise a critical functional region for its ability to enhance expansion of human UCB CD34+ cells. The peptide P0 is a potential candidate for further development as a synthetic substitute for rhSCF in laboratory and clinical applications.

  7. Cord blood-derived macrophage-lineage cells rapidly stimulate osteoblastic maturation in mesenchymal stem cells in a glycoprotein-130 dependent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania J Fernandes

    Full Text Available In bone, depletion of osteoclasts reduces bone formation in vivo, as does osteal macrophage depletion. How osteoclasts and macrophages promote the action of bone forming osteoblasts is, however, unclear. Since recruitment and differentiation of multi-potential stromal cells/mesenchymal stem cells (MSC generates new active osteoblasts, we investigated whether human osteoclasts and macrophages (generated from cord blood-derived hematopoietic progenitors induce osteoblastic maturation in adipose tissue-derived MSC. When treated with an osteogenic stimulus (ascorbate, dexamethasone and β-glycerophosphate these MSC form matrix-mineralising, alkaline phosphatase-expressing osteoblastic cells. Cord blood-derived progenitors were treated with macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF to form immature proliferating macrophages, or with M-CSF plus receptor activator of NFκB ligand (RANKL to form osteoclasts; culture medium was conditioned for 3 days by these cells to study their production of osteoblastic factors. Both osteoclast- and macrophage-conditioned medium (CM greatly enhanced MSC osteoblastic differentiation in both the presence and absence of osteogenic medium, evident by increased alkaline phosphatase levels within 4 days and increased mineralisation within 14 days. These CM effects were completely ablated by antibodies blocking gp130 or oncostatin M (OSM, and OSM was detectable in both CM. Recombinant OSM very potently stimulated osteoblastic maturation of these MSC and enhanced bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2 actions on MSC. To determine the influence of macrophage activation on this OSM-dependent activity, CM was collected from macrophage populations treated with M-CSF plus IL-4 (to induce alternative activation or with GM-CSF, IFNγ and LPS to cause classical activation. CM from IL-4 treated macrophages stimulated osteoblastic maturation in MSC, while CM from classically-activated macrophages did not. Thus, macrophage-lineage cells

  8. Donor body mass index is an important factor that affects peripheral blood progenitor cell yield in healthy donors after mobilization with granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Burns, Kevin M; Babic, Aleksandar; Carrum, George; Kennedy, Martha; Segura, Francisco J; Garcia, Salvador; Potts, Sandra; Leveque, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The use of hematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC) transplantation has rapidly expanded in recent years. Currently, several sources of HPCs are available for transplantation including peripheral blood HPCs (PBPCs), cord blood cells, and marrow cells. Of these, PBPC collection has become the major source of HPCs. An important variable in PBPC collection is the response to PBPC mobilization, which varies significantly and sometime causes mobilization failure. A retrospective study of 69 healthy donors who underwent PBPC donation by leukapheresis was performed. All of these donors received 10 μg/kg/day or more granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) for 5 days before PBPC harvest. Donor factors were evaluated and correlated with mobilization responses, as indicated by the precollection CD34 count (pre-CD34). Donors with a pre-CD34 of more than 100 × 10(6) /L had higher body mass index (BMI) compared with donors whose pre-CD34 was 38 × 10(6) to 99 × 10(6) /L or less than 38 × 10(6) /L (32.0 ± 1.04 kg/m(2) vs. 28.7 ± 0.93 kg/m(2) vs. 25.9 ± 1.27 kg/m(2) , respectively; p donors with high BMIs had higher pre-CD34 on a per-kilogram-of-body-weight basis compared with donors with low BMIs. BMI is an important factor that affects donor's response to mobilization and consequently the HPC yield. This effect may be due to a relatively high dose of G-CSF administered to donors with higher BMI or due to the presence of unknown intrinsic factors affecting mobilization that correlate with the amount of adipose tissue in each donor. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

  9. Short-term exposure of umbilical cord blood CD34+ cells to granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor early in culture improves ex vivo expansion of neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marturana, Flavia; Timmins, Nicholas E; Nielsen, Lars K

    2011-03-01

    Despite the availability of modern antibiotics/antimycotics and cytokine support, neutropenic infection accounts for the majority of chemotherapy-associated deaths. While transfusion support with donor neutrophils is possible, cost and complicated logistics make such an option unrealistic on a routine basis. A manufactured neutrophil product could enable routine prophylactic administration of neutrophils, preventing the onset of neutropenia and substantially reducing the risk of infection. We examined the use of pre-culture strategies and various cytokine/modulator combinations to improve neutrophil expansion from umbilical cord blood (UCB) hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HPC). Enriched UCB HPC were cultured using either two-phase pre-culture strategies or a single phase using various cytokine/modulator combinations. Outcome was assessed with respect to numerical expansion, cell morphology, granulation and respiratory burst activity. Pre-culture in the absence of strong differentiation signals (e.g. granulocyte colony-stimulating factor; G-CSF) failed to provide any improvement to final neutrophil yields. Similarly, removal of differentiating cells during pre-culture failed to improve neutrophil yields to an appreciable extent. Of the cytokine/modulator combinations, the addition of granulocyte-macrophage (GM)-colony-stimulating factor (CSF) alone gave the greatest increase. In order to avoid production of monocytes, it was necessary to remove GM-CSF on day 5. Using this strategy, neutrophil expansion improved 2.7-fold. Although all cytokines and culture strategies employed have been reported previously to enhance HPC expansion, we found that the addition of GM-CSF alone was sufficient to improve total cell yields maximally. The need to remove GM-CSF on day 5 to avoid monocyte differentiation highlights the context and time-dependent complexity of exogenous signaling in hematopoietic cell differentiation and growth.

  10. Brief Report: Blockade of TANK-Binding Kinase 1/IKKɛ Inhibits Mutant Stimulator of Interferon Genes (STING)-Mediated Inflammatory Responses in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frémond, Marie-Louise; Uggenti, Carolina; Van Eyck, Lien; Melki, Isabelle; Bondet, Vincent; Kitabayashi, Naoki; Hertel, Christina; Hayday, Adrian; Neven, Bénédicte; Rose, Yoann; Duffy, Darragh; Crow, Yanick J; Rodero, Mathieu P

    2017-07-01

    Gain-of-function mutations in TMEM173, encoding the stimulator of interferon (IFN) genes (STING) protein, underlie a novel type I interferonopathy that is minimally responsive to conventional immunosuppressive therapies and associated with high frequency of childhood morbidity and mortality. STING gain-of-function causes constitutive oversecretion of IFN. This study was undertaken to determine the effects of a TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK-1)/IKKɛ inhibitor (BX795) on secretion and signaling of IFN in primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with mutations in STING. PBMCs from 4 patients with STING-associated disease were treated with BX795. The effect of BX795 on IFN pathways was assessed by Western blotting and an IFNβ reporter assay, as well as by quantification of IFNα in cell lysates, staining for STAT-1 phosphorylation, and measurement of IFN-stimulated gene (ISG) messenger RNA (mRNA) expression. Treatment of PBMCs with BX795 inhibited the phosphorylation of IFN regulatory factor 3 and IFNβ promoter activity induced in HEK 293T cells by cyclic GMP-AMP or by genetic activation of STING. In vitro exposure to BX795 inhibited IFNα production in PBMCs of patients with STING-associated disease without affecting cell survival. In addition, BX795 decreased STAT-1 phosphorylation and ISG mRNA expression independent of IFNα blockade. These findings demonstrate the effect of BX795 on reducing type I IFN production and IFN signaling in cells from patients with gain-of-function mutations in STING. A combined inhibition of TBK-1 and IKKɛ therefore holds potential for the treatment of patients carrying STING mutations, and may also be relevant in other type I interferonopathies. © 2017, American College of Rheumatology.

  11. Effects of gender, body weight, and blood glucose dynamics on the growth hormone response to the glucagon stimulation test in patients with pituitary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jessica R; Utz, Andrea L; Devin, Jessica K

    2016-02-01

    Body weight blunts the growth hormone (GH) response to provocative stimuli. The appropriate GH cut-off to confirm GH deficiency in obese and overweight patients undergoing the glucagon stimulation test (GST) has recently been questioned. We hypothesized that the peak GH would be inversely related to the nadir blood glucose (BG) after glucagon and that this may be a mechanism influencing peak GH in overweight patients. This retrospective study examined effects of gender, body weight, and BG dynamics on GH response to GST in patients evaluated in our Pituitary Center. Adult patients who underwent GST from September 2009-2014 were included. Continuous variable comparisons were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U-test and categorical data by Fisher's Exact Test. Spearman correlation was used to determine associations between continuous variables. 42 patients (N=28, 66.7% female) had sufficient data for analysis. Obese patients (N=26) had a reduced GH response, summarized as GH area under the curve (AUC) (p=0.03 vs. non-obese patients) and higher BG during GST, summarized as AUC (pAUC (rs=-0.45; p=0.01), peak GH response (rs=-0.42; p=0.02) and nadir BG (rs=0.48; pAUC (rs=-0.38; p=0.03) and peak GH (rs=-0.37; p=0.04) such that patients (N=32) with higher nadir BG had lower peak GH in response to glucagon. Obese patients, particularly women, do not respond as robustly to glucagon stimulation. These data suggest that there exists an altered BG profile during GST in obese individuals, and that a less robust hypoglycemic stimulus may contribute to an impaired GH response. We suggest measuring BG levels during glucagon stimulation testing to assist with clinical interpretation of GH dynamics. The diagnostic accuracy of the GST in patients with known disorders in glucose metabolism and those taking anti-diabetic medications deserves further study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Monocyte Chemotactic Protein 1 in Plasma from Soluble Leishmania Antigen-Stimulated Whole Blood as a Potential Biomarker of the Cellular Immune Response to Leishmania infantum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana V. Ibarra-Meneses

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available New biomarkers are needed to identify asymptomatic Leishmania infection as well as immunity following vaccination or treatment. With the aim of finding a robust biomarker to assess an effective cellular immune response, monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1 was examined in plasma from soluble Leishmania antigen (SLA-stimulated whole blood collected from subjects living in a Leishmania infantum-endemic area. MCP-1, expressed 110 times more strongly than IL-2, identified 87.5% of asymptomatic subjects and verified some asymptomatic subjects close to the cutoff. MCP-1 was also significantly elevated in all patients cured of visceral leishmaniasis (VL, unlike IL-2, indicating the specific memory response generated against Leishmania. These results show MCP-1 to be a robust candidate biomarker of immunity that could be used as a marker of cure and to both select and follow the population in vaccine phase I–III human clinical trials with developed rapid, easy-to-use field tools.

  13. Deficiency of vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP increases blood-brain-barrier damage and edema formation after ischemic stroke in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kraft

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Stroke-induced brain edema formation is a frequent cause of secondary infarct growth and deterioration of neurological function. The molecular mechanisms underlying edema formation after stroke are largely unknown. Vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP is an important regulator of actin dynamics and stabilizes endothelial barriers through interaction with cell-cell contacts and focal adhesion sites. Hypoxia has been shown to foster vascular leakage by downregulation of VASP in vitro but the significance of VASP for regulating vascular permeability in the hypoxic brain in vivo awaits clarification.Focal cerebral ischemia was induced in Vasp(-/- mice and wild-type (WT littermates by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO. Evan's Blue tracer was applied to visualize the extent of blood-brain-barrier (BBB damage. Brain edema formation and infarct volumes were calculated from 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC-stained brain slices. Both mouse groups were carefully controlled for anatomical and physiological parameters relevant for edema formation and stroke outcome. BBB damage (p0.05 towards worse neurological outcomes.Our study identifies VASP as critical regulator of BBB maintenance during acute ischemic stroke. Therapeutic modulation of VASP or VASP-dependent signalling pathways could become a novel strategy to combat excessive edema formation in ischemic brain damage.

  14. Lithium chloride contributes to blood-spinal cord barrier integrity and functional recovery from spinal cord injury by stimulating autophagic flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Minji; He, Zili; Lin, Xiaoxiao; Zhou, Yulong; Wang, Qingqing; Zheng, Zengming; Chen, Jian; Xu, Huazi; Tian, Naifeng

    2018-01-22

    Blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) disruption following spinal cord injury (SCI) significantly compromises functional neuronal recovery. Autophagy is a potential therapeutic target when seeking to protect the BSCB. We explored the effects of lithium chloride (LiCl) on BSCB permeability and autophagy-induced SCI both in a rat model of SCI and in endothelial cells subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation. We evaluated BSCB status using the Evans Blue dye extravasation test and measurement of tight junction (TJ) protein levels; we also assessed functional locomotor recovery. We detected autophagy-associated proteins in vivo and in vitro using both Western blotting and immunofluorescence staining. We found that, in a rat model of SCI, LiCl attenuated the elevation in BSCB permeability, improved locomotor recovery, and inhibited the degradation of TJ proteins including occludin and claudin-5. LiCl significantly induced the extent of autophagic flux after SCI by increasing LC3-II and ATG-5 levels, and abolishing p62 accumulation. In addition, a combination of LiCl and the autophagy inhibitor chloroquine not only partially eliminated the BSCB-protective effect of LiCl, but also exacerbated TJ protein degradation both in vivo and in vitro. Together, these findings suggest that LiCl treatment alleviates BSCB disruption and promotes locomotor recovery after SCI, partly by stimulating autophagic flux. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Consumption of selenium-enriched broccoli increases cytokine production in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated ex vivo, a preliminary human intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley-Hewitt, Kerry L; Chen, Ronan K-Y; Lill, Ross E; Hedderley, Duncan I; Herath, Thanuja D; Matich, Adam J; McKenzie, Marian J

    2014-12-01

    Selenium (Se) is a micronutrient essential for human health, including immune function. Previous research indicates that Se supplementation may cause a shift from T helper (Th)1- to Th2-type immune responses. We aim to test the potential health promoting effects of Se-enriched broccoli. In a human trial, 18 participants consumed control broccoli daily for 3 days. After a 3-day wash-out period, the participants were provided with Se-enriched broccoli containing 200 μg of Se per serving for 3 days. Plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples were collected at the start and end of each broccoli feeding period for analysis of total Se and measurement of cytokine production from PBMC stimulated with antigens ex vivo. Plasma Se content remained consistent throughout the control broccoli feeding period and the baseline of the Se-enriched broccoli period (1.22 μmol/L) and then significantly increased following 3 days of Se-enriched broccoli feeding. Interleukin (IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, and IL-22) production from PBMC significantly increased after 3 days of Se-enriched broccoli feeding compared with baseline. This study indicates that consumption of Se-enriched broccoli may increase immune responses toward a range of immune challenges. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Cytokine and transcription factor expression by Aspergillus fumigatus-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells in dogs with sino-nasal aspergillosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanherberghen, M; Bureau, F; Peters, I R; Day, M J; Lynch, A; Fievez, L; Billen, F; Clercx, C; Peeters, D

    2013-08-15

    The causal agent of sino-nasal aspergillosis is usually Aspergillus fumigatus, which is a saprophytic and ubiquitous fungus that causes a severe rhinosinusitis in apparent healthy dogs. Affected dogs do not have systemic immuno-suppression. It has been shown previously that dogs affected by this disease have local over-expression of interleukin (IL)-10 and Th1 cytokines in nasal mucosal tissue. The aim of the present study was to assess the response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from affected and unaffected dogs to antigen-specific stimulation with heat-inactivated Aspergillus spp. conidia, by quantifying gene expression for specific Th1, Th2, Th17 and Treg cytokines and their related transcription factors. Quantification of IL-4 and IFN-γ protein in culture supernatant was performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). PBMC from dogs with SNA produced adequate mRNA encoding IFN-γ and IFN-γ protein. The expression of IL-17A mRNA was significantly greater in PBMC of affected compared with unaffected dogs. The amount of IL-10 mRNA in PBMC from affected dogs decreased after antigen-specific challenge. These results suggest that the incapacity of affected dogs to clear these fungal infections is not related to a defect in Th1 immunity or to an overwhelming regulatory reaction, but rather to an uncontrolled pro-inflammatory reaction driven by Th17 cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Transplanted Peripheral Blood Stem Cells Mobilized by Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor Promoted Hindlimb Functional Recovery After Spinal Cord Injury in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hiroshi; Koda, Masao; Hashimoto, Masayuki; Furuya, Takeo; Sakuma, Tsuyoshi; Kato, Kei; Okawa, Akihiko; Inada, Taigo; Kamiya, Koshiro; Ota, Mitsutoshi; Maki, Satoshi; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Yamazaki, Masashi; Mannoji, Chikato

    2016-01-01

    Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) mobilizes peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs) derived from bone marrow. We hypothesized that intraspinal transplantation of PBSCs mobilized by G-CSF could promote functional recovery after spinal cord injury. Spinal cords of adult nonobese diabetes/severe immunodeficiency mice were injured using an Infinite Horizon impactor (60 kdyn). One week after the injury, 3.0 µl of G-CSF-mobilized human mononuclear cells (MNCs; 0.5 × 10(5)/µl), G-CSF-mobilized human CD34-positive PBSCs (CD34; 0.5 × 10(5)/µl), or normal saline was injected to the lesion epicenter. We performed immunohistochemistry. Locomotor recovery was assessed by Basso Mouse Scale. The number of transplanted human cells decreased according to the time course. The CD31-positive area was significantly larger in the MNC and CD34 groups compared with the vehicle group. The number of serotonin-positive fibers was significantly larger in the MNC and CD34 groups than in the vehicle group. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the number of apoptotic oligodendrocytes was significantly smaller in cell-transplanted groups, and the areas of demyelination in the MNC- and CD34-transplanted mice were smaller than that in the vehicle group, indicating that cell transplantation suppressed oligodendrocyte apoptosis and demyelination. Both the MNC and CD34 groups showed significantly better hindlimb functional recovery compared with the vehicle group. There was no significant difference between the two types of transplanted cells. Intraspinal transplantation of G-CSF-mobilized MNCs or CD34-positive cells promoted angiogenesis, serotonergic fiber regeneration/sparing, and preservation of myelin, resulting in improved hindlimb function after spinal cord injury in comparison with vehicle-treated control mice. Transplantation of G-CSF-mobilized PBSCs has advantages for treatment of spinal cord injury in the ethical and immunological viewpoints, although further exploration

  18. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor decreases the Th1/Th2 ratio in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Fei; Zhang, Zhuo; Hou, Jinxiao; Cao, Fenglin; Zhang, Yingmei; Wang, Ping; Wei, Hong; Zhou, Jin

    2016-12-01

    Chronic immune thrombocytopenia purpura (ITP) is an autoimmune disease that exhibits an abnormally high Th1/Th2 ratio. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) has been shown to decrease the Th1/Th2 ratio in healthy donors. In this study, we investigated the effects of G-CSF treatment on the Th1/Th2 cells and the underlying mechanisms in patients with ITP in vitro. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from patients with ITP and healthy controls were treated with G-CSF. Expression levels of interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, and IL-13 in supernatants were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The expression of IFN-γ, IL-4, and G-CSF receptor (G-CSFR) on Th1 and Th2 cells were examined by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. The mRNA expression of IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-13, and T-box expressed in T cells (T-bet) and GATA-binding protein 3 (GATA-3) in PBMCs was evaluated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that G-CSF could significantly reduce the Th1/Th2 ratio in PBMCs from patients with ITP in vitro. As the concentration of G-CSF increased, Th1/Th2 ([IFN-γ+IL-2]/[IL-4+IL-13]) cytokine ratios and T-bet/GATA-3 mRNA ratios decreased in a concentration-dependent manner. Th1 cells and Th2 cells both expressed G-CSFR. These results suggest that G-CSF could decrease the Th1/Th2 ratio in the context of ITP, and elucidate the direct and indirect immunomodulatory mechanisms underlying G-CSF functions in Th1/Th2 cells, thus supporting the therapeutic potential of G-CSF in the treatment of patients with ITP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Autonomic components of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) are favourably affected by Electrical Twitch-Obtaining Intramuscular Stimulation (ETOIMS): effects on blood pressure and heart rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Jennifer; Bruyninckx, Frans; Neuhauser, Duncan V

    2017-07-01

    Favourable pain relief results on evoking autonomous twitches at myofascial trigger points with Electrical Twitch Obtaining Intramuscular Stimulation (ETOIMS). To document autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) from blood pressure (BP) and pulse/heart rate changes with ETOIMS. A patient with persistent pain regularly received serial ETOIMS sessions of 60, 90, 120 or ≥150 min over 24 months. Outcome measures include BP: systolic, diastolic, pulse pressure and pulse/heart rate, pre-session/immediate-post-session summed differences (SDPPP index), and pain reduction. His results were compared with that of two other patients and one normal control. Each individual represented the following maximal elicitable twitch forces (TWF) graded 1-5: maximum TWF2: control subject; maximum TWF3: CRPS patient with suspected ANS dysfunction; and maximum TWF4 and TWF5: two patients with respective slow-fatigue and fast-fatigue twitches who during ETOIMS had autonomous twitching at local and remote myotomes simultaneously from denervation supersensitivity. ETOIMS results between TWFs were compared using one-way analysis of variance test. The patients showed immediate significant pain reduction, BP and pulse/heart rate changes/reduction(s) except for diastolic BP in the TWF5 patient. TWF2 control subject had diastolic BP reduction with ETOIMS but not with rest. Linear regression showed TWF grade to be the most significant variable in pain reduction, more so than the number of treatments, session duration and treatment interval. TWF grade was the most important variable in significantly reducing outcome measures, especially pulse/heart rate. Unlike others, the TWF3 patient had distinctive reductions in SDPPP index. Measuring BP and pulse/heart rate is clinically practical for alerting ANS dysfunction maintained CRPS. SDPPP index (≥26) and pulse/heart rate (≥8) reductions with almost every ETOIMS treatment, plus inability to evoke

  20. The role of donor characteristics and post-granulocyte colony-stimulating factor white blood cell counts in predicting the adverse events and yields of stem cell mobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-Huey; Yang, Shang-Hsien; Chu, Sung-Chao; Su, Yu-Chieh; Chang, Chu-Yu; Chiu, Ya-Wen; Kao, Ruey-Ho; Li, Dian-Kun; Yang, Kuo-Liang; Wang, Tso-Fu

    2011-05-01

    Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is now widely used for stem cell mobilization. We evaluated the role of post-G-CSF white blood cell (WBC) counts and donor factors in predicting adverse events and yields associated with mobilization. WBC counts were determined at baseline, after the third and the fifth dose of G-CSF in 476 healthy donors. Donors with WBC ≥ 50 × 10(3)/μL post the third dose of G-CSF experienced more fatigue, myalgia/arthralgia, and chills, but final post-G-CSF CD34(+) cell counts were similar. Although the final CD34(+) cell count was higher in donors with WBC ≥ 50 × 10(3)/μL post the fifth G-CSF, the incidence of side effects was similar. Females more frequently experienced headache, nausea/anorexia, vomiting, fever, and lower final CD34(+) cell count than did males. Donors with body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 showed higher incidences of sweat and insomnia as well as higher final CD34(+) cell counts. Donor receiving G-CSF ≥ 10 μg/kg tended to experience bone pain, headache and chills more frequently. Multivariate analysis indicated that female gender is an independent factor predictive of the occurrence of most side effects, except for ECOG > 1 and chills. Higher BMI was also an independent predictor for fatigue, myalgia/arthralgia, and sweat. Higher G-CSF dose was associated with bone pain, while the WBC count post the third G-CSF was associated with fatigue only. In addition, one donor in the study period did not complete the mobilization due to suspected anaphylactoid reaction. Observation for 1 h after the first injection of G-CSF is required to prevent complications from unpredictable side effects.

  1. Defibrotide in combination with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor significantly enhances the mobilization of primitive and committed peripheral blood progenitor cells in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlo-Stella, Carmelo; Di Nicola, Massimo; Magni, Michele; Longoni, Paolo; Milanesi, Marco; Stucchi, Claudio; Cleris, Loredana; Formelli, Franca; Gianni, Massimo A

    2002-11-01

    Defibrotide is a polydeoxyribonucleotide, which significantly reduces the expression of adhesion molecules on endothelial cells. We investigated the activity of Defibrotide alone or in combination with recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) to mobilize peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPCs) in BALB/c mice. A 5-day treatment with Defibrotide alone (1-15 mg/mouse/day) had no effect on WBC counts, frequencies and absolute numbers of total circulating colony-forming cells (CFCs), i.e., granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming units, erythroid burst-forming units, and multilineage colony-forming units. As compared with mock-injected mice, administration of rhG-CSF alone (5 micro g/mouse/day) for 5 days significantly (P Defibrotide (15 mg/mouse/day) and rhG-CSF significantly (P Defibrotide plus rhG-CSF resulted in a significant increase (P Defibrotide/rhG-CSF-mobilized mononuclear cells rescued 43% and 71% of recipient mice, respectively. Experiments of CFC homing performed in lethally irradiated or nonirradiated recipients showed that marrow homing of transplanted PBPCs was reduced by 3-fold in Defibrotide-treated animals as compared with mock-injected mice (P Defibrotide might be because of an effect on PBPC trafficking. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that Defibrotide synergizes with rhG-CSF and significantly increases the mobilization of a broad spectrum of PBPCs, including primitive and committed progenitor cells. These data might have relevant implications for autologous and allogeneic anticancer therapy in humans.

  2. Ex-vivo in-vitro inhibition of lipopolysaccharide stimulated tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1 beta secretion in human whole blood by extractum urticae dioicae foliorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obertreis, B; Ruttkowski, T; Teucher, T; Behnke, B; Schmitz, H

    1996-04-01

    An extract of Urtica dioica folium (IDS 23, Rheuma-Hek), monographed positively for adjuvant therapy of rheumatic diseases and with known effects in partial inhibition of prostaglandin and leukotriene synthesis in vitro, was investigated with respect to effects of the extract on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated secretion of proinflammatory cytokines in human whole blood of healthy volunteers. In the assay system used, LPS stimulated human whole blood showed a straight increase of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) secretion reaching maximum concentrations within 24 h following a plateau and slight decrease up to 65 h, respectively. The concentrations of these cytokines was strongly positively correlated with the number of monocytes/macrophages of each volunteer. TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta concentration after LPS stimulation was significantly reduced by simultaneously given IDS 23 in a strictly dose dependent manner. At time 24 h these cytokine concentrations were reduced by 50.8% and 99.7%, respectively, using the highest test IDS 23 assay concentration of 5 mg/ml (p flavonoides such as caffeic malic acid, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, quercetin and rutin did not influence LPS stimulated TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta and IL-6 secretion in tested concentrations up to 5 x 10(-5) mol/l. These further findings on the pharmacological mechanism of action of Urticae dioica folia may explain the positive effects of this extract in the treatment of rheumatic diseases.

  3. Long-term effects of stimulant exposure on cerebral blood flow response to methylphenidate and behavior in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrantee, Anouk; Bouziane, C.; Bron, E. E.; Klein, S.; Bottelier, M. A.; Kooij, J. J. S.; Rombouts, S. A. R. B.; Reneman, L.

    2017-01-01

    Stimulant prescription rates for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are increasing, even though potential long-term effects on the developing brain have not been well-studied. A previous randomized clinical trial showed short-term age-dependent effects of stimulants on the DA system. We

  4. Long-term effects of stimulant exposure on cerebral blood flow response to methylphenidate and behavior in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrantee, A. (Anouk); C. Bouziane (Cheima); E.E. Bron (Esther); S. Klein (Stefan); Bottelier, M.A.; Kooij, J.J.S.; S.A.R.B. Rombouts (Serge); L. Reneman (Liesbeth)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractStimulant prescription rates for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are increasing, even though potential long-term effects on the developing brain have not been well-studied. A previous randomized clinical trial showed short-term age-dependent effects of stimulants on the

  5. Long-term effects of stimulant exposure on cerebral blood flow response to methylphenidate and behavior in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrantee, A.; Bouziane, C.; Bron, E.E.; Klein, S.; Bottelier, M.A.; Kooij, J.J.S.; Rombouts, S.A.R.B.; Reneman, L.

    2017-01-01

    Stimulant prescription rates for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are increasing, even though potential long-term effects on the developing brain have not been well-studied. A previous randomized clinical trial showed short-term age-dependent effects of stimulants on the DA system. We

  6. Α-Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone Protects Early Diabetic Retina from Blood-Retinal Barrier Breakdown and Vascular Leakage via MC4R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Siwei; Yang, Qianhui; Hou, Mengzhu; Han, Qian; Zhang, Hanyu; Wang, Jiantao; Qi, Chen; Bo, Qiyu; Ru, Yusha; Yang, Wei; Gu, Zhongxiu; Wei, Ruihua; Cao, Yunshan; Li, Xiaorong; Zhang, Yan

    2018-01-01

    Blood-retinal barrier (BRB) breakdown and vascular leakage is the leading cause of blindness of diabetic retinopathy (DR). Hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress and inflammation are primary pathogenic factors of this severe DR complication. An effective interventional modality against the pathogenic factors during early DR is needed to curb BRB breakdown and vascular leakage. This study sought to examine the protective effects of α-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) on early diabetic retina against vascular hyperpermeability, electrophysiological dysfunction, and morphological deterioration in a rat model of diabetes and probe the mechanisms underlying the α-MSH's anti-hyperpermeability in both rodent retinas and simian retinal vascular endothelial cells (RF6A). Sprague Dawley rats were injected through tail vein with streptozotocin to induce diabetes. The rats were intravitreally injected with α-MSH or saline at Week 1 and 3 after hyperglycemia. In another 2 weeks, Evans blue assay, transmission electron microscopy, electroretinogram (ERG), and hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining were performed to examine the protective effects of α-MSH in diabetic retinas. The expression of pro-inflammatory factors and tight junction at mRNA and protein levels in retinas was analyzed. Finally, the α-MSH's anti-hyperpermeability was confirmed in a high glucose (HG)-treated RF6A cell monolayer transwell culture by transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) measurement and a fluorescein isothiocyanate-Dextran assay. Universal or specific melanocortin receptor (MCR) blockers were also employed to elucidate the MCR subtype mediating α-MSH's protection. Evans blue assay showed that BRB breakdown and vascular leakage was detected, and rescued by α-MSH both qualitatively and quantitatively in early diabetic retinas; electron microscopy revealed substantially improved retinal and choroidal vessel ultrastructures in α-MSH-treated diabetic retinas; scotopic ERG suggested

  7. Mobilization of peripheral blood progenitor cells by chemotherapy and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor for hematologic support after high-dose intensification for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, A D; Ayash, L; Anderson, K C; Hunt, M; Wheeler, C; Schwartz, G; Tepler, I; Mazanet, R; Lynch, C; Pap, S

    1992-06-01

    High-dose therapy with autologous marrow support results in durable complete remissions in selected patients with relapsed lymphoma and leukemia who cannot be cured with conventional dose therapy. However, substantial morbidity and mortality result from the 3- to 6-week period of marrow aplasia until the reinfused marrow recovers adequate hematopoietic function. Hematopoietic growth factors, particularly used after chemotherapy, can increase the number of peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPCs) present in systemic circulation. The reinfusion of PBPCs with marrow has recently been reported to reduce the time to recovery of adequate marrow function. This study was designed to determine whether granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-mobilized PBPCs alone (without marrow) would result in rapid and reliable hematopoietic reconstitution. Sixteen patients with metastatic breast cancer were treated with four cycles of doxorubicin, 5-fluorouracil, and methotrexate (AFM induction). Patients responding after the first two cycles were administered GM-CSF after the third and fourth cycles to recruit PBPCs for collection by two leukapheresis per cycle. These PBPCs were reinfused as the sole source of hematopoietic support after high doses of cyclophosphamide, thiotepa, and carboplatin. No marrow or hematopoietic cytokines were used after progenitor cell reinfusion. Granulocytes greater than or equal to 500/microL was observed on a median of day 14 (range, 8 to 57). Transfusion independence of platelets greater than or equal to 20,000/microL occurred on a median day of 12 (range, 8 to 134). However, three patients required the use of a reserve marrow for slow platelet engraftment. In retrospect, these patients were characterized by poor baseline bone marrow cellularity and poor platelet recovery after AFM induction therapy. When compared with 29 historical control patients who had received the same high-dose intensification chemotherapy using autologous

  8. Distinctive Steady-State Heart Rate and Blood Pressure Responses to Passive Robotic Leg Exercise and Functional Electrical Stimulation during Head-Up Tilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarabadani Tafreshi, Amirehsan; Riener, Robert; Klamroth-Marganska, Verena

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Tilt tables enable early mobilization of patients by providing verticalization. But there is a high risk of orthostatic hypotension provoked by verticalization, especially after neurological diseases such as spinal cord injury. Robot-assisted tilt tables might be an alternative as they add passive robotic leg exercise (PE) that can be enhanced with functional electrical stimulation (FES) to the verticalization, thus reducing the risk of orthostatic hypotension. We hypothesized that the influence of PE on the cardiovascular system during verticalization (i.e., head-up tilt) depends on the verticalization angle, and FES strengthens the PE influence. To test our hypotheses, we investigated the PE effects on the cardiovascular parameters heart rate (HR), and systolic and diastolic blood pressures (sBP, dBP) at different angles of verticalization in a healthy population. Methods: Ten healthy subjects on a robot-assisted tilt table underwent four different study protocols while HR, sBP, and dBP were measured: (1) head-up tilt to 60° and 71° without PE; (2) PE at 20°, 40°, and 60° of head-up tilt; (3) PE while constant FES intensity was applied to the leg muscles, at 20°, 40°, and 60° of head-up tilt; (4) PE with variation of the applied FES intensity at 0°, 20°, 40°, and 60° of head-up tilt. Linear mixed models were used to model changes in HR, sBP, and dBP responses. Results: The models show that: (1) head-up tilt alone resulted in statistically significant increases in HR and dBP, but no change in sBP. (2) PE during head-up tilt resulted in statistically significant changes in HR, sBP, and dBP, but not at each angle and not always in the same direction (i.e., increase or decrease of cardiovascular parameters). Neither adding (3) FES at constant intensity to PE nor (4) variation of FES intensity during PE had any statistically significant effects on the cardiovascular parameters. Conclusion: The effect of PE on the cardiovascular system during

  9. Distinctive Steady-State Heart Rate and Blood Pressure Responses to Passive Robotic Leg Exercise and Functional Electrical Stimulation During Head-up Tilt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirehsan Sarabadani Tafreshi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tilt tables enable early mobilization of patients by providing verticalization. But there is a high risk of orthostatic hypotension provoked by verticalization, especially after neurological diseases such as spinal cord injury. Robot-assisted tilt tables might be an alternative as they add passive robotic leg exercise (PE that can be enhanced with functional electrical stimulation (FES to the verticalization, thus reducing the risk of orthostatic hypotension. We hypothesized that the influence of PE on the cardiovascular system during verticalization depends on the verticalization angle, and FES strengthens the PE influence. To test our hypotheses, we investigated the PE effects on the cardiovascular parameters heart rate (HR, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures (sBP, dBP at different angles of verticalization in a healthy population. Ten healthy subjects on a robot-assisted tilt table underwent four different study protocols while HR, sBP and dBP were measured: (1 head-up tilt to 60° and 71° without PE; (2 PE at 20°, 40°, and 60° of head-up tilt; (3 PE while constant FES intensity was applied to the leg muscles, at 20°, 40°, and 60° of head-up tilt; (4 PE with variation of the applied FES intensity at 0°, 20°, 40°, and 60° of head-up tilt. Linear mixed models were used to model changes in HR, sBP, and dBP responses. The models show that: (1 head-up tilt alone resulted in statistically significant increases in HR and dBP, but no change in sBP. (2 PE during head-up tilt resulted in statistically significant changes in HR, sBP, and dBP, but not at each angle and not always in the same direction (i.e., increase or decrease of cardiovascular parameters. Neither adding (3 FES at constant intensity to PE nor (4 variation of FES intensity during PE had any statistically significant effects on the cardiovascular parameters.The effect of PE on the cardiovascular system during head-up tilt is strongly dependent on the verticalization

  10. Luteinizing hormone (LH) blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ICSH - blood test; Luteinizing hormone - blood test; Interstitial cell stimulating hormone - blood test ... to temporarily stop medicines that may affect the test results. Be sure to tell your provider about ...

  11. Naturally Induced Secretions of the Potato Cyst Nematode Co-stimulate the Proliferation of Both Tobacco Leaf Protoplasts and Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goverse, A.; Rouppe van der Voort, J.N.A.M.; Rouppe van der voort, C.; Kavelaars, A.; Smant, G.; Schots, A.; Bakker, J.; Helder, J.

    1999-01-01

    Naturally induced secretions from infective juveniles of the potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis co-stimulate the proliferation of tobacco leaf protoplasts in the presence of the synthetic phytohormones α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP). With the use of a

  12. CXC chemokine receptor 3 expression on CD34(+) hematopoietic progenitors from human cord blood induced by granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jinquan, T; Quan, S; Jacobi, H H

    2000-01-01

    -induced CD34(+) progenitor chemotaxis. These chemotactic attracted CD34(+) progenitors are colony-forming units-granulocyte-macrophage. gamma IP-10 and Mig also induced GM-CSF-stimulated CD34(+) progenitor adhesion and aggregation by means of CXCR3, a finding confirmed by the observation that anti-CXCR3 m......Ab blocked these functions of gammaIP-10 and Mig but not of chemokine stromal cell-derived factor 1 alpha. gamma IP-10-induced and Mig-induced up-regulation of integrins (CD49a and CD49b) was found to play a crucial role in adhesion of GM-CSF-stimulated CD34(+) progenitors. Moreover, gamma IP-10 and Mig...... stimulated CXCR3 redistribution and cellular polarization in GM-CSF-stimulated CD34(+) progenitors. These results indicate that CXCR3-gamma IP-10 and CXCR3-Mig receptor-ligand pairs, as well as the effects of GM-CSF on them, may be especially important in the cytokine/chemokine environment...

  13. CD44 antibody stimulates adhesion of peripheral blood T cells to keratinocytes through the leukocyte function-associated antigen-1/intercellular adhesion molecule-1 pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruynzeel, I.; Koopman, G.; van der Raaij, L. M.; Pals, S. T.; Willemze, R.

    1993-01-01

    Close contact between T lymphocytes and keratinocytes is an important feature of many inflammatory skin diseases. In vitro studies showed that stimulation of keratinocytes with interferon-gamma or tumor necrosis factor-alpha and of T cells with phorbol esters results in a leukocyte

  14. Porcine granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) delivered via replication-defective adenovirus induces a sustained increase in circulating peripheral blood neutrophils

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of immunomodulators is a promising area for biotherapeutic, prophylactic, and metaphylactic use to prevent and combat infectious disease, particularly during periods of peak disease incidence. Cytokines, including granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), are one class of compounds that...

  15. Distinctive Steady-State Heart Rate and Blood Pressure Responses to Passive Robotic Leg Exercise and Functional Electrical Stimulation During Head-up Tilt

    OpenAIRE

    Amirehsan Sarabadani Tafreshi; Amirehsan Sarabadani Tafreshi; Robert Riener; Robert Riener; Verena Klamroth-Marganska; Verena Klamroth-Marganska

    2016-01-01

    Tilt tables enable early mobilization of patients by providing verticalization. But there is a high risk of orthostatic hypotension provoked by verticalization, especially after neurological diseases such as spinal cord injury. Robot-assisted tilt tables might be an alternative as they add passive robotic leg exercise (PE) that can be enhanced with functional electrical stimulation (FES) to the verticalization, thus reducing the risk of orthostatic hypotension. We hypothesized that the influe...

  16. Antigen-induced cytokine and chemokine release test for tuberculosis infection using adsorption of stimulated whole blood on filter paper and multiplex analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skogstrand, Kristin; Thysen, Anna H; Jørgensen, Charlotte S

    2012-01-01

    the spotting technique can make it suitable for use in locations without facilities like a centrifuge and a refrigerator. Materials and methods: Samples from 22 individuals undergoing screening for MTI and 10 healthy controls were incubated, centrifuged and IFN-γ measured by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...... (ELISA), as described in the kit insert. In parallel, activated blood was spotted on filter paper (Schleicher & Schuell) and dried. The dried blood spot samples were analysed for 21 inflammatory markers with an in-house assay based on Luminex technology. Results: Our multiplex measurements...

  17. Rapid and preferential distribution of blood-borne αCD3εAb to the liver is followed by local stimulation of T cells and natural killer T cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingender, Gerhard; Schumak, Beatrix; Schurich, Anna; Gessner, J Engelbert; Endl, Elmar; Limmer, Andreas; Knolle, Percy A

    2006-01-01

    Dissemination of soluble molecules or antigens via the blood stream is considered to lead to a uniform distribution in the various organs of the body, but organ-specific microarchitecture and vascularization may influence this. Following intravenous injection of αCD3ε antibody (αCD3εAb) we observed clear differences in antibody binding to Fcγ receptor (FcγR)+ antigen-presenting cells (APCs) or T lymphocytes in different organs. Significant binding of blood-borne αCD3εAb was only detected in the spleen and liver and not in the thymus or lymph node. In the spleen, only 10% of dendritic cells/macrophages and 40% of T-cell receptor (TCR)-β+ cells were positive for αCD3εAb, and, dependent on FcγR-mediated cross-linking of αCD3εAb, a similar percentage of splenic TCR-β+ cells were stimulated and became CD69+. Stimulation of TCR-β+ cells in the liver was at least as efficient as in the spleen, but almost all T cells and all scavenger liver sinusoidal endothelial cells bound αCD3εAb. In contrast to CD69 up-regulation, only CD4+ natural killer T (NKT) cells and CD11ahigh CD8+ T cells were activated by αCD3εAb and expressed interferon (IFN)-γ. Again, IFN-γ release from NKT/T cells was at least as efficient in the liver as in the spleen. Taken together, our results support the notion that the combination of extensive hepatic vascularization and very high scavenger activity allows the liver to fulfill its metabolic tasks and to promote stimulation of the large but widely distributed hepatic population of NKT/T cells. PMID:16423047

  18. Inhibition of FMLP-stimulated neutrophil chemiluminescence by blood platelets increased in the presence of the serotonin-liberating drug chloroquine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jančinová, V.; Drábiková, K.; Nosáľ, R.; Petríková, M.; Číž, Milan; Lojek, Antonín; Danihelová, E.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 109, 5-6 (2003), s. 293-298 ISSN 0049-3848 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 198 Grant - others:VEGA MŠ SR(SK) 2/1012/21 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5004920 Keywords : blood platelets * neutrophils * chloroquine Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.710, year: 2003

  19. Thyroid hormone stimulated glucose uptake in human mononuclear blood cells from normal persons and from patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvetny, J; Matzen, L

    1989-01-01

    Thyroxine and T3 induced oxygen consumption and glucose uptake were studied in vitro in mononuclear blood cells isolated from patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and from non-diabetic control persons. Cellular oxygen consumption and glucose uptake were promptly increased...

  20. Mobilization and collection of CD34+ cells for autologous transplantation of peripheral blood hematopoietic progenitor cells in children: analysis of two different granulocyte-colony stimulating factor doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Aparecida de Brito Eid

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The use of peripheral hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs is the cell choice in autologous transplantation. The classic dose of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G- CSF for mobilization is a single daily dose of 10 µg/kg of patient body weight. There is a theory that higher doses of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor applied twice daily could increase the number of CD34+ cells collected in fewer leukapheresis procedures. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare a fractionated dose of 15 µg G-CSF/kg of body weight and the conventional dose of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor in respect to the number of leukapheresis procedures required to achieve a minimum collection of 3 × 106 CD34+ cells/kg body weight. Methods: Patients were divided into two groups: Group 10 - patients who received a single daily dose of 10 µg G-CSF/kg body weight and Group 15 - patients who received a fractioned dose of 15 µg G-CSF/kg body weight daily. The leukapheresis procedure was carried out in an automated cell separator. The autologous transplantation was carried out when a minimum number of 3 × 106 CD34+ cells/kg body weight was achieved. Results: Group 10 comprised 39 patients and Group 15 comprised 26 patients. A total of 146 apheresis procedures were performed: 110 (75.3% for Group 10 and 36 (24.7% for Group 15. For Group 10, a median of three (range: 1-7 leukapheresis procedures and a mean of 8.89 × 106 CD34+ cells/kg body weight (±9.59 were collected whereas for Group 15 the corresponding values were one (range: 1-3 and 5.29 × 106 cells/kg body weight (±4.95. A statistically significant difference was found in relation to the number of apheresis procedures (p-value <0.0001. Conclusions: To collect a minimum target of 3 × 106 CD34+ cells/kg body weight, the administration of a fractionated dose of 15 µg G-CSF/kg body weight significantly decreased the number of leukapheresis procedures performed.

  1. Temporal responses of cutaneous blood flow and plasma catecholamine concentrations to histamine H1- or H2-receptor stimulation in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knigge, U; Alsbjørn, B; Thuesen, B

    1988-01-01

    continuously with a laser Doppler flowmeter, and noradrenaline and adrenaline concentrations were determined in blood samples drawn every 15 min. The infusion of histamine caused an immediate and sustained vasodilatation. The Concomitant infusion of mepyramine prevented the immediate vasodilatation, but had...... noradrenaline, while the increase during concomitant H1-receptor blockade was delayed but achieved the level observed during the histamine infusion. The response to histamine during H2-receptor blockade was small and transient. The rise in plasma adrenaline was not significant. These findings suggest...

  2. Inductive potential of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor to mature neutrophils from X-irradiated human peripheral blood hematopoietic progenitor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsumori, Takeo; Yoshino, Hironori; Hayashi, Masako; Takahashi, Kenji; Kashiwakura, Ikuo

    2009-01-01

    Recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) has been used for treatment of neutropenia. Filgrastim, Nartograstim, and Lenograstim are clinically available in Japan. However, the differences in potential benefit for radiation-induced disorder between these types of rhG-CSFs remain unknown. Therefore, the effects of three different types of rhG-CSFs on granulocyte progenitor cells and expansion of neutrophils from nonirradiated or 2 Gy X-irradiated human CD34 + hematopoietic progenitor cells were examined. For analysis of granulocyte colony-forming units (CFU-G) and a surviving fraction of CFU-G, nonirradiated or X-irradiated CD34 + cells were cultured in methylcellulose containing rhG-CSF. These cells were cultured in serum-free medium supplemented with rhG-CSF, and the expansion and characteristics of neutrophils were analyzed. All three types of rhG-CSFs increased the number of CFU-G in a dose-dependent manner; however, Lenograstim is superior to others because of CFU-G-derived colony formation at relatively low doses. The surviving fraction of CFU-G was independent of the types of rhG-CSFs. Expansion of neutrophils by rhG-CSF was largely attenuated by X-irradiation, though no significant difference in neutrophil number was observed between the three types of rhG-CSFs under both nonirradiation and X-irradiation conditions. In terms of functional characteristics of neutrophils, Lenograstim-induced neutrophils produced high levels of reactive oxygen species compared to Filgrastim, when rhG-CSF was applied to nonirradiated CD34 + cells. In conclusion, different types of rhG-CSFs lead to different effects when rhG-CSF is applied to nonirradiated CD34 + cells, though Filgrastim, Nartograstim, and Lenograstim show equal effects on X-irradiated CD34 + cells. (author)

  3. Oral delivery of bioencapsulated exendin-4 expressed in chloroplasts lowers blood glucose level in mice and stimulates insulin secretion in beta-TC6 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Kwang-Chul; Nityanandam, Ramya; New, James S; Daniell, Henry

    2013-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1) increases insulin secretion but is rapidly degraded (half-life: 2 min in circulation). GLP-1 analogue, exenatide (Byetta) has a longer half-life (3.3-4 h) with potent insulinotropic effects but requires cold storage, daily abdominal injections with short shelf life. Because patients with diabetes take >60 000 injections in their life time, alternative delivery methods are highly desired. Exenatide is ideal for oral delivery because insulinotropism is glucose dependent, with reduced risk of hypoglycaemia even at higher doses. Therefore, exendin-4 (EX4) was expressed as a cholera toxin B subunit (CTB)-fusion protein in tobacco chloroplasts to facilitate bioencapsulation within plant cells and transmucosal delivery in the gut via GM1 receptors present in the intestinal epithelium. The transgene integration was confirmed by PCR and Southern blot analysis. Expression level of CTB-EX4 reached up to 14.3% of total leaf protein (TLP). Lyophilization of leaf material increased therapeutic protein concentration by 12- to 24-fold, extended their shelf life up to 15 months when stored at room temperature and eliminated microbes present in fresh leaves. The pentameric structure, disulphide bonds and functionality of CTB-EX4 were well preserved in lyophilized materials. Chloroplast-derived CTB-EX4 showed increased insulin secretion similar to the commercial EX4 in beta-TC6, a mouse pancreatic cell line. Even when 5000-fold excess dose of CTB-EX4 was orally delivered, it stimulated insulin secretion similar to the intraperitoneal injection of commercial EX4 but did not cause hypoglycaemia in mice. Oral delivery of the bioencapsulated EX4 should eliminate injections, increase patient compliance/convenience and significantly lower their cost. © 2012 The Authors Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2012 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Monocyte galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine-specific C-type lectin receptor stimulant immunotherapy of an experimental glioma. Part 1: stimulatory effects on blood monocytes and monocyte-derived cells of the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kushchayev SV

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sergiy V Kushchayev,1 Tejas Sankar,1 Laura L Eggink,4,5 Yevgeniya S Kushchayeva,5 Philip C Wiener,1,5 J Kenneth Hoober,5,6 Jennifer Eschbacher,3 Ruolan Liu,2 Fu-Dong Shi,2 Mohammed G Abdelwahab,4 Adrienne C Scheck,4 Mark C Preul11Neurosurgery Research Laboratory, 2Neuroimmunology Laboratory, 3Department of Pathology, 4Neurooncology Research, Barrow Neurological Institute, St Joseph's Hospital and Medical Center, Phoenix, 5School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, 6Susavion Biosciences, Inc, Tempe, AZ, USAObjectives: Immunotherapy with immunostimulants is an attractive therapy against gliomas. C-type lectin receptors specific for galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine (GCLR regulate cellular differentiation, recognition, and trafficking of monocyte-derived cells. A peptide mimetic of GCLR ligands (GCLRP was used to activate blood monocytes and populations of myeloid-derived cells against a murine glioblastoma.Methods: The ability of GCLRP to stimulate phagocytosis by human microglia and monocyte-derived cells of the brain (MDCB isolated from a human glioblastoma was initially assessed in vitro. Induction of activation markers on blood monocytes was assayed by flow cytometry after administration of GCLRP to naive mice. C57BL/6 mice underwent stereotactic intracranial implantation of GL261 glioma cells and were randomized for tumor size by magnetic resonance imaging, which was also used to assess increase in tumor size. Brain tumor tissues were analyzed using flow cytometry, histology, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with respect to tumor, peritumoral area, and contralateral hemisphere regions.Results: GCLRP exhibited strong stimulatory effect on MDCBs and blood monocytes in vitro and in vivo. GCLRP was associated with an increased percentage of precursors of dendritic cells in the blood (P = 0.003, which differentiated into patrolling macrophages in tumoral (P = 0.001 and peritumoral areas (P = 0.04, rather than into dendritic cells

  5. Historical clinical and economic consequences of anemia management in patients with end-stage renal disease on dialysis using erythropoietin stimulating agents versus routine blood transfusions: a retrospective cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naci, Huseyin; de Lissovoy, Gregory; Hollenbeak, Christopher; Custer, Brian; Hofmann, Axel; McClellan, William; Gitlin, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether Medicare's decision to cover routine administration of erythropoietin stimulating agents (ESAs) to treat anemia of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) has been a cost-effective policy relative to standard of care at the time. The authors used summary statistics from the actual cohort of ESRD patients receiving ESAs between 1995 and 2004 to create a simulated patient cohort, which was compared with a comparable simulated cohort assumed to rely solely on blood transfusions. Outcomes modeled from the Medicare perspective included estimated treatment costs, life-years gained, and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was calculated relative to the hypothetical reference case of no ESA use in the transfusion cohort. Sensitivity of the results to model assumptions was tested using one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Estimated total costs incurred by the ESRD population were $155.47B for the cohort receiving ESAs and $155.22B for the cohort receiving routine blood transfusions. Estimated QALYs were 2.56M and 2.29M, respectively, for the two groups. The ICER of ESAs compared to routine blood transfusions was estimated as $873 per QALY gained. The model was sensitive to a number of parameters according to one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. This model was counter-factual as the actual comparison group, whose anemia was managed via transfusion and iron supplements, rapidly disappeared following introduction of ESAs. In addition, a large number of model parameters were obtained from observational studies due to the lack of randomized trial evidence in the literature. This study indicates that Medicare's coverage of ESAs appears to have been cost effective based on commonly accepted levels of willingness-to-pay. The ESRD population achieved substantial clinical benefit at a reasonable cost to society.

  6. Interaction of rotavirus with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells: plasmacytoid dendritic cells play a role in stimulating memory rotavirus specific T cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, Martha C; Rodríguez, Luz-Stella; Franco, Manuel A; Angel, Juana

    2007-09-15

    We studied the interaction of RV with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from adult volunteers. After exposure of PBMC to rhesus RV (RRV), T and B lymphocytes, NK cells, monocytes, and myeloid and plasmacytoid dendritic cells expressed RV non-structural proteins, at variable levels. Expression of these RV proteins was abolished if infection was done in the presence of anti-VP7 neutralizing antibodies or 10% autologous serum. Supernatants of RRV exposed PBMC contained TNF-alpha, IL-6, IFN-alpha, IFN-gamma, IL-2 and IL-10. Plasmacytoid DC were found to be the main source of IFN-alpha production, and in their absence the production of IFN-gamma and the frequency of RV specific T cells that secrete IFN-gamma diminished. Finally, we could not detect RV-antigen associated with the PBMC or expression of RV non-structural proteins in PBMC of acutely RV-infected children. Thus, although PBMC are susceptible to the initial steps of RV infection, most PBMC of children with RV-gastroenteritis are not infected.

  7. Long-Term Stimulation with Electroacupuncture at DU20 and ST36 Rescues Hippocampal Neuron through Attenuating Cerebral Blood Flow in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui-Hua Tian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the effect of long-term electroacupuncture at Baihui (DU20 and Zusanli (ST36 on cerebral microvessels and neurons in CA1 region of hippocampus in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR. A total of 45 male Wistar rats and 45 SHR were randomly grouped, with or without electroacupuncture (EA at DU20 and ST36, once every other day for a period of 8 weeks. The mean arterial pressure (MAP was measured once every 2 weeks. Cerebral blood flow (CBF and the number of open microvessels in hippocampal CA1 region were detected by Laser Doppler and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Nissl staining and Western blotting were performed, respectively, to determine hippocampus morphology and proteins that were implicated in the concerning signaling pathways. The results showed that the MAP in SHR increased linearly over the observation period and was significantly reduced following electroacupuncture as compared with sham control SHR rats, while no difference was observed in Wistar rats between EA and sham control. The CBF, learning and memory capacity, and capillary rarefaction of SHR were improved by EA. The upregulation of angiotensin II type I receptor (AT1R, endothelin receptor (ETAR, and endothelin-1 (ET-1 in SHR rats was attenuated by electroacupuncture, suggesting an implication of AT1R, ETAR, and ET-1 pathway in the effect of EA.

  8. Organic extract of diesel exhaust particles stimulates expression of Ia and costimulatory molecules associated with antigen presentation in rat peripheral blood monocytes but not in alveolar macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, Eiko; Kobayashi, Takahiro

    2005-01-01

    We hypothesized that diesel exhaust particles (DEP) induce the activation of antigen-presenting cells (APC) in lung. The present study was designed to clarify the following about DEP: (1) whether it affects the expression of Ia and B7 molecules in alveolar macrophages (AM) as a mature cell or in peripheral blood monocytes (PBM) as an immature cell (2) if it affects the antigen-presenting (AP) activity of PBM (3) what component of DEP is responsible for the effects, and (4) whether the effect of DEP is related to oxidative stress. DEP was extracted with methylene chloride. Cells were exposed to whole DEP, organic extract, or residual particles for 24 h. Cell-surface molecules were measured by flow cytometry. AP activity was assessed by antigen-specific T cell proliferation. Whole DEP or organic extract significantly increased the expression of Ia and B7 molecules on PBM but not on AM. No significant effect of residual particles was observed. A low concentration of organic extract also increased the AP activity of PBM. When the induction of an antioxidative enzyme was assessed, heme oxygenase-1 protein was found to be significantly increased by exposure to whole DEP, and the organic extract was more effective than the residual particles. Furthermore, the organic extract-induced expression of Ia antigen on PBM was reduced by the addition of an antioxidative agent. These results suggest that DEP may act on immature APC and enhance their AP activity and that the action contributing to oxidative stress may be mediated by organic compounds of DEP

  9. growth stimulant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of timing and duration of supplementation of LIVFIT VET ® (growth stimulant) as substitute for fish meal on the growth performance, haematology and clinical enzymes concentration of growing pigs.

  10. Basal CD34+ Cell Count Predicts Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Mobilization in Healthy Donors after Administration of Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor: A Longitudinal, Prospective, Observational, Single-Center, Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Massimo; Gori, Mercedes; Pitino, Annalisa; Gentile, Massimo; Dattola, Antonia; Pontari, Antonella; Vigna, Ernesto; Moscato, Tiziana; Recchia, Anna Grazia; Barilla', Santina; Tripepi, Giovanni; Morabito, Fortunato

    2017-07-01

    A longitudinal, prospective, observational, single-center, cohort study on healthy donors (HDs) was designed to identify predictors of CD34 + cells on day 5 with emphasis on the predictive value of the basal CD34 + cell count. As potential predictors of mobilization, age, sex, body weight, height, blood volume as well as white blood cell count, peripheral blood (PB) mononuclear cells, platelet count, hematocrit, and hemoglobin levels were considered. Two different evaluations of CD34 + cell counts were determined for each donor: baseline (before granulocyte colony-stimulating factor [G-CSF] administration) and in PB after G-CSF administration on the morning of the fifth day (day 5). A total of 128 consecutive HDs (66 males) with a median age of 43 years were enrolled. CD34 + levels on day 5 displayed a non-normal distribution, with a median value of 75.5 cells/µL. To account for the non-normal distribution of the dependent variable, a quantile regression analysis to predict CD34 + on day 5 using the baseline value of CD34 + as the key predictor was performed. On crude analysis, a baseline value of CD34 + ranging from .5 cells/µL to 1 cells/µL predicts a median value of 50 cells/µL on day 5; a value of 2 cells/µL predicts a median value of 70.7 cells/µL; a value of 3 cells/µL to 4 cells/µL predicts a median value of 91.3 cells/µL, and a value ≥ 5 predicts a median value of 112 cells/µL. In conclusion, the baseline PB CD34 + cell count correlates with the effectiveness of allogeneic PB stem cell mobilization and could be useful to plan the collection. Copyright © 2017 The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Alterations of serum concentrations of thyroid hormones and sex hormone-binding globulin, nuclear binding of tri-iodothyronine and thyroid hormone-stimulated cellular uptake of oxygen and glucose in mononuclear blood cells from patients with non-thyroidal illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvetny, J; Matzen, L

    1990-01-01

    Nuclear tri-iodothyronine (T3) binding and thyroid hormone-stimulated oxygen consumption and glucose uptake were examined in mononuclear blood cells from patients with non-thyroidal illness (NTI) in which serum T3 was significantly (P less than 0.05) depressed (0.62 +/- 0.12 (S.D.) nmol/l) compared...

  12. Brain Stimulation Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Magnetic Seizure Therapy Deep Brain Stimulation Additional Resources Brain Stimulation Therapies Overview Brain stimulation therapies can play ... for a shorter recovery time than ECT Deep Brain Stimulation Deep brain stimulation (DBS) was first developed ...

  13. Blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normal blood pressure is important for proper blood flow to the body's organs and tissues. The force of the blood on the walls of the arteries is called blood pressure. Blood pressure is measured both as the heart ...

  14. Blood Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood, safe blood transfusions depend on careful blood typing and cross-matching. There are four major blood ... cause exceptions to the above patterns. ABO blood typing is not sufficient to prove or disprove paternity ...

  15. Early applications of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) can stabilize the blood-optic-nerve barrier and ameliorate inflammation in a rat model of anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (rAION).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yao-Tseng; Huang, Tzu-Lun; Huang, Sung-Ping; Chang, Chung-Hsing; Tsai, Rong-Kung

    2016-10-01

    Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) was reported to have a neuroprotective effect in a rat model of anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (rAION model). However, the therapeutic window and anti-inflammatory effects of G-CSF in a rAION model have yet to be elucidated. Thus, this study aimed to determine the therapeutic window of G-CSF and investigate the mechanisms of G-CSF via regulation of optic nerve (ON) inflammation in a rAION model. Rats were treated with G-CSF on day 0, 1, 2 or 7 post-rAION induction for 5 consecutive days, and a control group were treated with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Visual function was assessed by flash visual evoked potentials at 4 weeks post-rAION induction. The survival rate and apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells were determined by FluoroGold labeling and TUNEL assay, respectively. ON inflammation was evaluated by staining of ED1 and Iba1, and ON vascular permeability was determined by Evans Blue extravasation. The type of macrophage polarization was evaluated using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The protein levels of TNF-α and IL-1β were analyzed by western blotting. A therapeutic window during which G-CSF could rescue visual function and retinal ganglion cell survival was demonstrated at day 0 and day 1 post-infarct. Macrophage infiltration was reduced by 3.1- and 1.6-fold by G-CSF treatment starting on day 0 and 1 post-rAION induction, respectively, compared with the PBS-treated group (P<0.05). This was compatible with 3.3- and 1.7-fold reductions in ON vascular permeability after G-CSF treatment compared with PBS treatment (P<0.05). Microglial activation was increased by 3.8- and 3.2-fold in the early (beginning treatment at day 0 or 1) G-CSF-treated group compared with the PBS-treated group (P<0.05). Immediate (within 30 mins of infarct) treatment with G-CSF also induced M2 microglia/macrophage activation. The cytokine levels were lower in the group that received immediate G-CSF treatment compared to

  16. Biomarkers and Stimulation Algorithms for Adaptive Brain Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly B. Hoang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this review is to describe in what ways feedback or adaptive stimulation may be delivered and adjusted based on relevant biomarkers. Specific treatment mechanisms underlying therapeutic brain stimulation remain unclear, in spite of the demonstrated efficacy in a number of nervous system diseases. Brain stimulation appears to exert widespread influence over specific neural networks that are relevant to specific disease entities. In awake patients, activation or suppression of these neural networks can be assessed by either symptom alleviation (i.e., tremor, rigidity, seizures or physiological criteria, which may be predictive of expected symptomatic treatment. Secondary verification of network activation through specific biomarkers that are linked to symptomatic disease improvement may be useful for several reasons. For example, these biomarkers could aid optimal intraoperative localization, possibly improve efficacy or efficiency (i.e., reduced power needs, and provide long-term adaptive automatic adjustment of stimulation parameters. Possible biomarkers for use in portable or implanted devices span from ongoing physiological brain activity, evoked local field potentials (LFPs, and intermittent pathological activity, to wearable devices, biochemical, blood flow, optical, or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI changes, temperature changes, or optogenetic signals. First, however, potential biomarkers must be correlated directly with symptom or disease treatment and network activation. Although numerous biomarkers are under consideration for a variety of stimulation indications the feasibility of these approaches has yet to be fully determined. Particularly, there are critical questions whether the use of adaptive systems can improve efficacy over continuous stimulation, facilitate adjustment of stimulation interventions and improve our understanding of the role of abnormal network function in disease mechanisms.

  17. Donating Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The medical history includes questions that help blood bank staff decide if a person is healthy enough to donate blood. They'll ... Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates U.S. blood banks. All blood ... operating. Sometimes people who donate blood notice a few minor side ...

  18. What's Blood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Body Make Blood? It's not made in a kitchen, but blood has ingredients, just like a recipe. ... these ingredients together and you have blood — an essential part of the circulatory system. Thanks to your ...

  19. Blood typing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... detect these minor antigens. It is done before transfusions, except in emergency situations. Alternative Names Cross matching; Rh typing; ABO blood typing; Blood group; Anemia - immune hemolytic blood type; ...

  20. Blood smear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... smear URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003665.htm Blood smear To use the sharing features on this ... view of cellular parasites Malaria, photomicrograph of cellular parasites Red blood cells, sickle cells Red blood cells, sickle and ...

  1. Blood Culture (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Metabolic Panel (BMP) Blood Test: Complete Blood Count Basic Blood Chemistry Tests Getting a Blood Test (Video) Blood Test: Basic Metabolic Panel Blood Test: Comprehensive Metabolic Panel Blood ...

  2. Co-incubation with IL-18 potentiates antigen-specific IFN-γ response in a whole-blood stimulation assay for measurement of cell-mediated immune responses in pigs experimentally infected with Lawsonia intracellularis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Ulla; Boesen, Henriette Toft; Jakobsen, Jeanne Toft

    2011-01-01

    The whole-blood interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) assay is a quantitative in-vitro assay for a direct read out of Ag-specific cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses to infectious diseases. The IFN-γ assay is robust in severe intracellular infections like Brucella or mycobacteria, but more difficult to evalu......The whole-blood interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) assay is a quantitative in-vitro assay for a direct read out of Ag-specific cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses to infectious diseases. The IFN-γ assay is robust in severe intracellular infections like Brucella or mycobacteria, but more difficult...

  3. Mycobacterial antigens stimulate rheumatoid mononuclear cells to cartilage proteoglycan depletion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilbrink, B.; Bijlsma, J. W.; Huber-Bruning, O.; van Roy, J. L.; den Otter, W.; van Eden, W.

    1990-01-01

    In a coculture with porcine articular cartilage explants unstimulated blood mononuclear cells (BMC) from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but not from healthy controls, induced proteoglycan depletion of dead cartilage. Specific stimulation of the RA BMC with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MT),

  4. Spinal cord stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007560.htm Spinal cord stimulation To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Spinal cord stimulation is a treatment for pain that uses ...

  5. Feldspar, Infrared Stimulated Luminescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Mayank

    2014-01-01

    This entry primarily concerns the characteristics and the origins of infrared-stimulated luminescence in feldspars.......This entry primarily concerns the characteristics and the origins of infrared-stimulated luminescence in feldspars....

  6. Growth hormone stimulation test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003377.htm Growth hormone stimulation test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The growth hormone (GH) stimulation test measures the ability of ...

  7. Influence of erythropoiesis stimulation on 54Mn distribution in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziecik, A.

    1976-01-01

    The experiments were carried out on animals in which erythropoiesis was stimulated. The rats were anaemized by blood letting or they received subcutaneous injections of erythropoietic filtrate of anaemized sheep plasma. The investigations demonstated that enhanced 54 Mn incorporation into the erytrocytes and bone marrow is induced by stimulation of the erythropoiesis process, whereas the raised 54 Mn level in the plasma of anaemized rats is associated with blood loss and not with erythropoiesis. (author)

  8. Blood transfusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000431.htm Blood transfusions To use the sharing features on this page, ... There are many reasons you may need a blood transfusion: After knee or hip replacement surgery, or other ...

  9. Blood Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... positive or Rh-negative blood may be given to Rh-positive patients. The rules for plasma are the reverse: ... ethnic and racial groups have different frequency of the main blood types in their populations. Approximately ...

  10. Blood Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jeremiah T; Ferraris, Victor A

    2015-01-01

    Patient blood management requires multi-modality and multidisciplinary collaboration to identify patients who are at increased risk of requiring blood transfusion and therefore decrease exposure to blood products. Transfusion is associated with poor postoperative outcomes, and guidelines exist to minimize transfusion requirements. This review highlights recent studies and efforts to apply patient blood management across disease processes and health care systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Molecular signatures distinguishing active from latent tuberculosis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, after in vitro antigenic stimulation with purified protein derivative of tuberculin (PPD) or Candida: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Joel N H; Keskin, Derin B; Romero, Viviana; Zuniga, Joaquin; Encinales, Liliana; Li, Changlin; Awad, Carlos; Yunis, Edmond J

    2009-01-01

    Purified protein derivative (PPD) or tuberculin skin testing is used to identify infected individuals with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and to assess cell-mediated immunity to Mtb. In the present study, we compared PBMC cultures in the presence of tuberculin or Candida antigens using cytokine bead arrays and RNA microarrays. Measurements of different cytokines and chemokines in supernatants of PMBC cultures in the presence of PPD showed increased levels of interferon (IFN)-gamma in active tuberculosis infection (ATBI) and latent TB infected (LTBI) compared to controls, and increased levels of TNF-alpha in ATBI compared with LTBI. Also, we found increase of IL-6 in cultures of PPD positive and controls but not in the cultures with Candida. We also report the molecular signature of tuberculosis infection, in ATBI patients, the following genes were found to be up-regulated and absent in LTBI individuals: two kinases (JAK3 and p38MAPK), four interleukins (IL-7, IL-2, IL-6, and IFNbeta1), a chemokine (HCC-4) a chemokine receptor (CxCR5), two interleukin receptors (IL-1R2 and IL-18R1), and three additional ones (TRAF5, Smad2, CIITA, and NOS2A). By contrast, IL-17 and IGFBP3 were significantly up-regulated in LTBI. And, STAT4, GATA3, Fra-1, and ICOS were down-regulated in ATBI but absent in LTBI. Conversely, TLR-10, IL-15, DORA, and IKK-beta were down-regulated in LTBI but not in ATBI. Interestingly, the majority of the up-regulated genes found in ATBI were found in cultures stimulated with tuberculin (PPD) or Candida antigens, suggesting that these pathogens stimulate similar immunological pathways. We believe that the molecular signature distinguishing active from latent tuberculosis infection may require using cytokine bead arrays along with RNA microarrays testing cell cultures at different times following in vitro proliferation assays using several bacterial antigens and PPD.

  12. Vertex Stimulation as a Control Site for Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: A Concurrent TMS/fMRI Study

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, JeYoung; Bungert, Andreas; Bowtell, Richard; Jackson, Stephen R.

    2016-01-01

    Background A common control condition for transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies is to apply stimulation at the vertex. An assumption of vertex stimulation is that it has relatively little influence over on-going brain processes involved in most experimental tasks, however there has been little attempt to measure neural changes linked to vertex TMS. Here we directly test this assumption by using a concurrent TMS/fMRI paradigm in which we investigate fMRI blood-oxygenation-level-depen...

  13. Cord Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Abroun

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available   Stem cells are naïve or master cells. This means they can transform into special 200 cell types as needed by body, and each of these cells has just one function. Stem cells are found in many parts of the human body, although some sources have richer concentrations than others. Some excellent sources of stem cells, such as bone marrow, peripheral blood, cord blood, other tissue stem cells and human embryos, which last one are controversial and their use can be illegal in some countries. Cord blood is a sample of blood taken from a newborn baby's umbilical cord. It is a rich source of stem cells, umbilical cord blood and tissue are collected from material that normally has no use following a child’s birth. Umbilical cord blood and tissue cells are rich sources of stem cells, which have been used in the treatment of over 80 diseases including leukemia, lymphoma and anemia as bone marrow stem cell potency.  The most common disease category has been leukemia. The next largest group is inherited diseases. Patients with lymphoma, myelodysplasia and severe aplastic anemia have also been successfully transplanted with cord blood. Cord blood is obtained by syringing out the placenta through the umbilical cord at the time of childbirth, after the cord has been detached from the newborn. Collecting stem cells from umbilical blood and tissue is ethical, pain-free, safe and simple. When they are needed to treat your child later in life, there will be no rejection or incompatibility issues, as the procedure will be using their own cells. In contrast, stem cells from donors do have these potential problems. By consider about cord blood potency, cord blood banks (familial or public were established. In IRAN, four cord blood banks has activity, Shariati BMT center cord blood bank, Royan familial cord blood banks, Royan public cord blood banks and Iranian Blood Transfusion Organ cord blood banks. Despite 50,000 sample which storage in these banks, but the

  14. Comparison of pre-workout nitric oxide stimulating dietary supplements on skeletal muscle oxygen saturation, blood nitrate/nitrite, lipid peroxidation, and upper body exercise performance in resistance trained men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canale Robert E

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We compared Glycine Propionyl-L-Carnitine (GlycoCarn® and three different pre-workout nutritional supplements on measures of skeletal muscle oxygen saturation (StO2, blood nitrate/nitrite (NOx, lactate (HLa, malondialdehyde (MDA, and exercise performance in men. Methods Using a randomized, double-blind, cross-over design, 19 resistance trained men performed tests of muscular power (bench press throws and endurance (10 sets of bench press to muscular failure. A placebo, GlycoCarn®, or one of three dietary supplements (SUPP1, SUPP2, SUPP3 was consumed prior to exercise, with one week separating conditions. Blood was collected before receiving the condition and immediately after exercise. StO2 was measured during the endurance test using Near Infrared Spectroscopy. Heart rate (HR and rating of perceived exertion (RPE were determined at the end of each set. Results A condition effect was noted for StO2 at the start of exercise (p = 0.02, with GlycoCarn® higher than SUPP2. A condition effect was also noted for StO2 at the end of exercise (p = 0.003, with SUPP1 lower than all other conditions. No statistically significant interaction, condition, or time effects were noted for NOx or MDA (p > 0.05; however, MDA decreased 13.7% with GlycoCarn® and increased in all other conditions. Only a time effect was noted for HLa (p 0.05; however, GlycoCarn® resulted in a statistically insignificant greater total volume load compared to the placebo (3.3%, SUPP1 (4.2%, SUPP2 (2.5%, and SUPP3 (4.6%. Conclusion None of the products tested resulted in favorable changes in our chosen outcome measures, with the exception of GlycoCarn® in terms of higher StO2 at the start of exercise. GlycoCarn® resulted in a 13.7% decrease in MDA from pre- to post-exercise and yielded a non-significant but greater total volume load compared to all other conditions. These data indicate that 1 a single ingredient (GlycoCarn® can provide similar practical benefit

  15. Blood doping: risks to athletes' health and strategies for detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Carolina Dizioli Rodrigues de; Bairros, André Valle de; Yonamine, Mauricio

    2014-07-01

    Blood doping has been defined as the misuse of substances or certain techniques to optimize oxygen delivery to muscles with the aim to increase performance in sports activities. It includes blood transfusion, administration of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents or blood substitutes, and gene manipulations. The main reasons for the widespread use of blood doping include: its availability for athletes (erythropoiesis-stimulating agents and blood transfusions), its efficiency in improving performance, and its difficult detection. This article reviews and discusses the blood doping substances and methods used for in sports, the adverse effects related to this practice, and current strategies for its detection.

  16. Blood Groups in Infection and Host Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooling, Laura

    2015-07-01

    Blood group antigens represent polymorphic traits inherited among individuals and populations. At present, there are 34 recognized human blood groups and hundreds of individual blood group antigens and alleles. Differences in blood group antigen expression can increase or decrease host susceptibility to many infections. Blood groups can play a direct role in infection by serving as receptors and/or coreceptors for microorganisms, parasites, and viruses. In addition, many blood group antigens facilitate intracellular uptake, signal transduction, or adhesion through the organization of membrane microdomains. Several blood groups can modify the innate immune response to infection. Several distinct phenotypes associated with increased host resistance to malaria are overrepresented in populations living in areas where malaria is endemic, as a result of evolutionary pressures. Microorganisms can also stimulate antibodies against blood group antigens, including ABO, T, and Kell. Finally, there is a symbiotic relationship between blood group expression and maturation of the gastrointestinal microbiome. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Blood Groups in Infection and Host Susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Blood group antigens represent polymorphic traits inherited among individuals and populations. At present, there are 34 recognized human blood groups and hundreds of individual blood group antigens and alleles. Differences in blood group antigen expression can increase or decrease host susceptibility to many infections. Blood groups can play a direct role in infection by serving as receptors and/or coreceptors for microorganisms, parasites, and viruses. In addition, many blood group antigens facilitate intracellular uptake, signal transduction, or adhesion through the organization of membrane microdomains. Several blood groups can modify the innate immune response to infection. Several distinct phenotypes associated with increased host resistance to malaria are overrepresented in populations living in areas where malaria is endemic, as a result of evolutionary pressures. Microorganisms can also stimulate antibodies against blood group antigens, including ABO, T, and Kell. Finally, there is a symbiotic relationship between blood group expression and maturation of the gastrointestinal microbiome. PMID:26085552

  18. Avaliação da resposta inflamatória hematológica em cascavéis (Crotalus durissus Linnaeus, 1758 inoculadas com BCG Assessment of blood inflammatory response in BCG stimulated rattlesnakes (Crotalus durissus Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wellington Bandeira da Silva

    2009-12-01

    grandes vacúolos. De forma geral, a inoculação de BCG em cascavéis desencadeia respostas inflamatórias hematológicas caracterizadas pela participação de trombócitos, granulócitos e azurófilos.The high demand for anti-venom production in response to the increased number of cases of snakebite envenomation highlights the importance of raising and breeding venomous snakes in captivity. Knowledge of types of venoms and anti-venoms is of great interest to public health. The maintenance of venomous serpents in captivity started in the early twentieth century, but still nowadays it is a challenge to manage and prevent diseases in captive fauna. Hematology is commonly used for general health assessment and illness detection. However, data on serpent blood analysis are still scarce. Alterations in hematological parameters were experimentally induced in rattlesnakes by the inoculation of BCG. Based on this, hemograms can be used as a health auxiliary diagnosis method for bacterial diseases in this species. In this study, blood samples were taken from 10 healthy specimens of rattlesnakes (Crotalus durissus born and bred in captivity in the Herpetological Division of Vital Brazil Institute. Animals were divided into two groups (group 1 and 2 with similar live weight and sex proportion, and were then inoculated subcutaneously with BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Guérin. Blood samples were taken before and after inoculation at three experimental times (days 3, 5 and 7 for group 1 and days 11, 17 and 21 for group 2. Hematological analysis was performed through semi-direct technique, blood samples were diluted in Natt and Herrick solution and smears were stained by Giemsa. Serpents from group 1 developed discrete anemia due to the inflammatory syndrome, and showed significant decrease of MCH and MCHC. Granulocytes were characterized by the presence of rough granules. The azurophils varied in shape and size and showed large amount of cytoplasmic vacuoles. The thrombocytopenia observed

  19. Effect of Qingnao tablet on blood viscosity of rat model of blood stasis induced by epinephrine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Guoqi; Hao, Shaojun; Ma, Zhenzhen; Liu, Xiaobin; Li, Jun; Li, Wenjun; Zhang, Zhengchen

    2018-04-01

    To establish a rat model of blood stasis with adrenaline (Adr) subcutaneous injection and ice bath stimulation. The effects of different doses on the blood viscosity of blood stasis model rats were observed. The rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: blank control group (no model), model group, positive control group, high, middle and low dose group. The whole blood viscosity and plasma viscosity were detected by blood viscosity instrument. Compared with the blank group, model group, high shear, low shear whole blood viscosity and plasma viscosity were significantly increased, TT PT significantly shortened, APTT was significantly prolonged, FIB increased significantly, indicating that the model was successful. Compared with the model group, can significantly reduce the Naoluotong group (cut, low cut). Qingnaopian high dose group (low cut), middle dose group (cut, low shear blood viscosity) (Pgroup, high dose group (Pgroup (Pblood rheology of blood stasis mice abnormal index, decrease the blood viscosity, blood stasis has certain hemostatic effect.

  20. Blood irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandy, Mammen

    1998-01-01

    Viable lymphocytes are present in blood and cellular blood components used for transfusion. If the patient who receives a blood transfusion is immunocompetent these lymphocytes are destroyed immediately. However if the patient is immunodefficient or immunosuppressed the transfused lymphocytes survive, recognize the recipient as foreign and react producing a devastating and most often fatal syndrome of transfusion graft versus host disease [T-GVHD]. Even immunocompetent individuals can develop T-GVHD if the donor is a first degree relative since like the Trojan horse the transfused lymphocytes escape detection by the recipient's immune system, multiply and attack recipient tissues. T-GVHD can be prevented by irradiating the blood and different centers use doses ranging from 1.5 to 4.5 Gy. All transfusions where the donor is a first degree relative and transfusions to neonates, immunosuppressed patients and bone marrow transplant recipients need to be irradiated. Commercial irradiators specifically designed for irradiation of blood and cellular blood components are available: however they are expensive. India needs to have blood irradiation facilities available in all large tertiary institutions where immunosuppressed patients are treated. The Atomic Energy Commission of India needs to develop a blood irradiator which meets international standards for use in tertiary medical institutions in the country. (author)

  1. BLOOD DONATION

    CERN Document Server

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    A blood donation, organized by EFS (Etablissement Français du Sang) of Annemasse will take place On Wednesday 12 November 2008, from 8:30 to 16:00, at CERN Restaurant 2 If possible, please, bring your blood group Card.

  2. Blood donation

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2009-01-01

    A blood donation is organised by the Cantonal Hospital of Geneva On Thursday 19 March 2009 from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. CERN RESTAURANT 2 Number of donations during the last blood donations :135 donors in July 2008 122 donors in November 2008 Let’s do better in 2009 !!! Give 30 minutes of your time to save lives...

  3. [Transcranial magnetic stimulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tormos, J M; Catalá, M D; Pascual-Leone, A

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) permits stimulation of the cerebral cortex in humans without requiring open access to the brain and is one of the newest tools available in neuroscience. There are two main types of application: single-pulse TMS and repetitive TMS. The magnetic stimulator is composed of a series of capacitors that store the voltage necessary to generate a stimulus of the sufficient intensity of generate an electric field in the stimulation coil. The safety of TMS is supported by the considerable experience derived from studies involving electrical stimulation of the cortex in animals and humans, and also specific studies on the safety of TMS in humans. In this article we review historical and technical aspects of TMS, describe its adverse effects and how to avoid them, summarize the applications of TMS in the investigation of different cerebral functions, and discuss the possibility of using TMS for the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders.

  4. Are there adaptive changes in the human brain of patients with Parkinson's disease treated with long-term deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus? A 4-year follow-up study with regional cerebral blood flow SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sestini, Stelvio; Castagnoli, Antonio [Ospedale Misericordia e Dolce, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Prato (Italy); Pupi, Alberto [University of Florence, Department of Clinical Physiopathology, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Florence (Italy); Ammannati, Franco; Silvia, Ramat; Sorbi, Sandro [University of Florence, Department of Neurological and Psychiatric Sciences, Florence (Italy)

    2007-10-15

    The aim of this follow-up study was to assess persistent motor and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) changes in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) treated with high-frequency deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN). Ten PD patients with STN-DBS underwent three rCBF SPECT studies at rest, once preoperatively in the off-drug condition (T{sub 0}), and twice postoperatively in the off-drug/off-stimulation conditions at 5 {+-} 2 (T{sub 1}) and 42 {+-} 7 months (T{sub 2}). Patients were assessed using the UPDRS, H and Y and S and E scales. SPM was used to investigate baseline rCBF changes from the preoperative condition to the postoperative conditions and the relationship between rCBF and UPDRS scores used as covariate of interest. Parkinsonian patients showed a clinical improvement which was significant only on follow-up at 42 months. The main effect of treatment from T{sub 0} to T{sub 1} was to produce baseline rCBF increases in the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA), premotor cortex and somatosensory association cortex. From T{sub 1} to T{sub 2} a further baseline rCBF increase was detected in the pre-SMA (p < 0.0001). A correlation was detected between the slight improvement in motor scores and the rCBF increase in the pre-SMA (p < 0.0001), which is known to play a crucial role in clinical progression. Our study suggests the presence of adaptive functional changes in the human brain of PD patients treated with long-term STN-DBS. Such adaptive processes seem to occur in the pre-SMA and to play only a slightly beneficial role in terms of functional compensation of motor impairment. (orig.)

  5. Music acupuncture stimulation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brătilă, F; Moldovan, C

    2007-01-01

    Harmonic Medicine is the model using the theory that the body rhythms synchronize to an outer rhythm applied for therapeutic purpose, can restores the energy balance in acupuncture channels and organs and the condition of well-being. The purpose of this scientific work was to demonstrate the role played by harmonic sounds in the stimulation of the Lung (LU) Meridian (Shoutaiyin Feijing) and of the Kidney (KI) Meridian (Zushaoyin Shenjing). It was used an original method that included: measurement and electronic sound stimulation of the Meridian Entry Point, measurement of Meridian Exit Point, computer data processing, bio feed-back adjustment of the music stimulation parameters. After data processing, it was found that the sound stimulation of the Lung Meridian Frequency is optimal between 122 Hz and 128 Hz, with an average of 124 Hz (87% of the subjects) and for Kidney Meridian from 118 Hz to 121 Hz, with an average of 120 Hz (67% of the subjects). The acupuncture stimulation was more intense for female subjects (> 7%) than for the male ones. We preliminarily consider that an informational resonance phenomenon can be developed between the acupuncture music stimulation frequency and the cellular dipole frequency, being a really "resonant frequency signature" of an acupoint. The harmonic generation and the electronic excitation or low-excitation status of an acupuncture point may be considered as a resonance mechanism. By this kind of acupunctural stimulation, a symphony may act and play a healer role.

  6. Osmolality - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... water loss Poisoning from harmful substances such as ethanol , methanol , or ethylene glycol Problems producing urine In ... may be due to: Diabetes insipidus High blood sugar level ( hyperglycemia ) High level of nitrogen waste products ...

  7. Tainted blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Ida; Sheikh, Zainab Afshan; Hoeyer, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    The existing literature on donor screening in transfusion medicine tends to distinguish between social concerns about discrimination and medical concerns about safety. In this article, we argue that the bifurcation into social and medical concerns is problematic. We build our case on a qualitative...... study of the historical rise and current workings of safety practices in the Danish blood system. Here, we identify a strong focus on contamination in order to avoid 'tainted blood', at the expense of working with risks that could be avoided through enhanced blood monitoring practices. Of further...... significance to this focus are the social dynamics found at the heart of safety practices aimed at avoiding contamination. We argue that such dynamics need more attention, in order to achieve good health outcomes in transfusion medicine. Thus, we conclude that, to ensure continuously safe blood systems, we...

  8. Blood Clots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sitting for long periods. If you travel by airplane, walk the aisle periodically. For long car trips, ... Your-Risk-for-Excessive-Blood-Clotting_UCM_448771_Article.jsp. Accessed April 18, 2016. What causes excessive ...

  9. Blood Clots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pregnancy Immobility (including prolonged inactivity, long trips by plane or car ) Smoking Oral contraceptives Certain cancers Trauma Certain surgeries Age (increased risk for people over age 60) A family history of blood clots Chronic inflammatory diseases Diabetes High ...

  10. Immunomodulating effect of blood transfusion: is storage time important?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mynster, T; Dybkjoer, E; Kronborg, Gitte

    1998-01-01

    in stimulating TNF-alpha and IL-2 release in an ex vivo assay. METHODS: Supernatants of 10 units of whole blood and 10 units of SAGM blood were collected after 1, 21 and 35 days of standard blood bank storage. Heparinized blood from 20 healthy volunteers (as 'recipients'), corresponding in ABO and Rh type......OBJECTIVES: TNF-alpha and IL-2 are important cytokines in macrophage and T-lymphocyte activity against infection and dissemination of malignant cells. We studied the influence of supernatants from stored whole blood and buffy-coat-depleted SAGM (saline, adenine, glucose and mannitol) blood...... to the stored blood, were used in a culture system with LPS and PHA as stimulators of TNF-alpha and IL-2 release. The effect of added supernatants, from either stored whole blood or SAGM blood, on cytokine release was evaluated compared to saline as control. TNF-alpha concentration was analyzed by ELISA after...

  11. Moving blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelis, K

    1997-01-01

    Our internationally acclaimed journalist Sanguinia has returned safely from her historic assignment. Travelling from Homeric Greece to British Romanticism, she was witness to blood drinking, letting, bathing, and transfusion. In this report, she explores connections between the symbolic and the sadistic; the mythic and the medical--all in an effort to appreciate the layered meanings our culture has given to the movement of blood between our bodies.

  12. Investigation of nanodiamonds interactions in canine blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    WÄ sowicz, Michał; Marek, Kulka; Cićkiewicz, Maciej; Cymerman, Magdalena

    2017-02-01

    The whole blood contains red cells, white cells, and platelets suspended in plasma. In the following study we investigated an impact of nanodiamond particles on blood elements over various periods of time.The material used in the study consisted of samples taken from ten healthy canines (Canis lupus f. domestica) of various age, different blood types and both sexes. The markings were conducted by adding to the blood unmodified diamonds (SND), modified O2 (SO2) suspended in 0,9% NaCl. The blood was put under an impact of two diamond concentrations: 20μl and 100μl. The amount of abnormal cells increased with time. The percentage of echinocytes as a result of interaction with nanodiamonds in various time periods for individual specimens was scarce. In the examined microscopic image a summary was made for 100 white blood cells. Following cells were included in said group: band neutrophils, segmented neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, lymphocytes with granulates, stimulated lymphocytes, lymphocytes with vacuoles, metamielocytes and smudge cells. The impact of the three diamond types had no clinical importance on red blood cells. After the diamonds mixed with white blood cells, atypical cells came into being, in the range of agranulocytes in stimulated form or with granulates and/or vacuoles. It is supposed that as a result of longlasting exposure a stimulation and vacuolisation takes place, because of the function of the cells.

  13. Biology of Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... switch to the Professional version Home Blood Disorders Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Resources In This ... Version. DOCTORS: Click here for the Professional Version Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Components of Blood ...

  14. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding Disorders Blood Cancers Blood Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and ... Increased maternal age Other medical illness (e.g., cancer, infection) back to top How are Blood Clots ...

  15. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... all publications For Patients Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding Disorders Blood Cancers Blood Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and Travel DVT Myths vs. Facts Blood ...

  16. Performance Enhancement by Brain Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Gazerani

    2017-09-01

    address these uncertainties or providing an optical protocol. Discussing neuro-enhancement with sport bodies, athletes, and authorities seems necessary to facilitate providing a technical, ethical, or regulatory framework for further investigation (Park K, 2017. In contrast to many other substances or strategies listed in prohibited performance-enhancing drugs or strategies, neuro-enhancement cannot be detected with a simple blood test. In addition, since these techniques can be used differently for different types of sport activities, it is not easy to determine whether it must be prohibited or be given legitimacy as an aid to training and development of athletes. In short, although brain stimulation is a valuable scientific tool and a beneficial medical procedure, it does not look wise to let it be used limitlessly and for non-medical purposes at least for the time being that several points are unanswered about efficacy and safety.

  17. Managing your blood sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperglycemia - control; Hypoglycemia - control; Diabetes - blood sugar control; Blood glucose - managing ... sugar ( hypoglycemia ) Recognize and treat high blood sugar ( hyperglycemia ) Plan healthy meals Monitor your blood sugar (glucose) ...

  18. Diet, blood pressure, and multicollinearity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, D; McGee, D; Yano, K; Hankin, J

    1985-01-01

    Recent reports of an inverse association between dietary calcium intake and hypertension stimulated this analysis of the relationship of blood pressure to more than 20 dietary factors among a group of 8000 Japanese men in Hawaii. Reported intakes of potassium, calcium, protein, and milk were all inversely associated with blood pressure levels when examined one at a time while controlling for other risk factors. Alcohol intake was directly associated with blood pressure, and was treated as a confounding variable in the analysis. The association of potassium intake with blood pressure was relatively stronger than the associations for other nutrients, but the intake of potassium was so highly correlated with intakes of calcium, milk, and protein that it was not statistically possible to identify the independent association of potassium and blood pressure. Calcium intake was strongly correlated with milk and potassium intakes, and only calcium from dairy sources was associated with blood pressure. These data thus indicate that several dietary factors are inversely related to blood pressure levels independently of other risk factors such as age, body mass, and alcohol intake. The high degree of intercorrelation (multicollinearity) among these dietary factors, however, indicates that the independent role of any specific nutrient cannot be conclusively separated from the possible effects of other nutrients in this type of study.

  19. Gamma-radiation-induced chromosal aberration in human lymphocytes: dose-rate effects in stimulated and non-stimulated cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liniecki, J.; Bajerska, A.; Wyszynska, K.; Cisowska, B.

    1977-01-01

    Stimulated and non-stimulated human peripheral blood lymphocytes were irradiated acutely and chronically, over 24 h. Dose-effect relationships for dicentric chromosomes were established and various models were fitted to the data. At prolonged irradiations, the yield decreased in basic agreement with the linear-quadratic model of aberration induction. Dose-protraction experiments on PHA + and PHA - lymphocytes, irradiated under various conditions of oxygenation and suspension (culture medium, whole blood) showed that the rejoining time increased from about 3 h in non-stimulated cells to about 10 h after PHA stimulation, and that this retarded rejoining was most likely due to blastic transformation itself and not to other conditions of irradiation

  20. Gamma radiation induced chromosal aberration in human lymphocytes: dose-rate effects in stimulated and non-stimulated cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liniecki, J; Bajerska, A; Wyszynska, K [School of Medicine, Lodz (Poland). Div. of Nuclear Medicine and Radiobiology. Medical Research Center; Cisowska, B [Copernicus Municipal Hospital, Lodz (Poland). Oncology Center. Radiotherapy Dept.

    1977-05-01

    Stimulated and non-stimulated human peripheral blood lymphocytes were irradiated acutely and chronically, over 24 h. Dose-effect relationships for dicentric chromosomes were established and various models were fitted to the data. At prolonged irradiations, the yield decreased in basic agreement with the linear-quadratic model of aberration induction. Dose-protraction experiments on PHA/sup +/ and PHA/sup -/ lymphocytes, irradiated under various conditions of oxygenation and suspension (culture medium, whole blood) showed that the rejoining time increased from about 3 h in non-stimulated cells to about 10 h after PHA stimulation, and that this retarded rejoining was most likely due to blastic transformation itself and not to other conditions of irradiation.

  1. Acute and chronic changes in brain activity with deep brain stimulation for refractory depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conen, Silke; Matthews, Julian C; Patel, Nikunj K; Anton-Rodriguez, José; Talbot, Peter S

    2018-04-01

    Deep brain stimulation is a potential option for patients with treatment-refractory depression. Deep brain stimulation benefits have been reported when targeting either the subgenual cingulate or ventral anterior capsule/nucleus accumbens. However, not all patients respond and optimum stimulation-site is uncertain. We compared deep brain stimulation of the subgenual cingulate and ventral anterior capsule/nucleus accumbens separately and combined in the same seven treatment-refractory depression patients, and investigated regional cerebral blood flow changes associated with acute and chronic deep brain stimulation. Deep brain stimulation-response was defined as reduction in Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale score from baseline of ≥50%, and remission as a Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale score ≤8. Changes in regional cerebral blood flow were assessed using [ 15 O]water positron emission tomography. Remitters had higher relative regional cerebral blood flow in the prefrontal cortex at baseline and all subsequent time-points compared to non-remitters and non-responders, with prefrontal cortex regional cerebral blood flow generally increasing with chronic deep brain stimulation. These effects were consistent regardless of stimulation-site. Overall, no significant regional cerebral blood flow changes were apparent when deep brain stimulation was acutely interrupted. Deep brain stimulation improved treatment-refractory depression severity in the majority of patients, with consistent changes in local and distant brain regions regardless of target stimulation. Remission of depression was reached in patients with higher baseline prefrontal regional cerebral blood flow. Because of the small sample size these results are preliminary and further evaluation is necessary to determine whether prefrontal cortex regional cerebral blood flow could be a predictive biomarker of treatment response.

  2. Onsite-effects of dual-hemisphere versus conventional single-hemisphere transcranial direct current stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yong Hyun; Jang, Sung Ho

    2012-01-01

    We performed functional MRI examinations in six right-handed healthy subjects. During functional MRI scanning, transcranial direct current stimulation was delivered with the anode over the right primary sensorimotor cortex and the cathode over the left primary sensorimotor cortex using dual-hemispheric transcranial direct current stimulation. This was compared to a cathode over the left supraorbital area using conventional single-hemispheric transcranial direct current stimulation. Voxel counts and blood oxygenation level-dependent signal intensities in the right primary sensorimotor cortex regions were estimated and compared between the two transcranial direct current stimulation conditions. Our results showed that dual-hemispheric transcranial direct current stimulation induced greater cortical activities than single-hemispheric transcranial direct current stimulation. These findings suggest that dual-hemispheric transcranial direct current stimulation may provide more effective cortical stimulation than single-hemispheric transcranial direct current stimulation. PMID:25624815

  3. Blood Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of your immune system, which fights infections and diseases. Abnormal white blood cell levels may be a sign ... fall outside the normal range for many reasons. Abnormal results might be a sign of a disorder or disease. Other factors—such as diet, menstrual ...

  4. New York Canyon Stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raemy, Bernard

    2012-06-21

    The New York Canyon Stimulation Project was to demonstrate the commercial application of Enhanced Geothermal System techniques in Buena Vista Valley area of Pershing County, Nevada. From October 2009 to early 2012, TGP Development Company aggressively implemented Phase I of Pre-Stimulation and Site/Wellbore readiness. This included: geological studies; water studies and analyses and procurement of initial permits for drilling. Oversubscription of water rights and lack of water needed for implementation of EGS were identified and remained primary obstacles. Despite extended efforts to find alternative solutions, the water supply circumstances could not be overcome and led TGP to determine a "No Go" decision and initiate project termination in April 2012.

  5. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... For Patients Blood Disorders Blood Clots Blood Clotting & Pregnancy If you are pregnant, or you have just ... The risk of developing a blood clot during pregnancy is increased by the following: Previous blood clots ...

  6. Special Blood Donation Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood Products Special Blood Donation Procedures Precautions and Adverse Reactions During Blood Transfusion (See Overview of Blood Transfusion .) Plateletpheresis (platelet donation) In plateletpheresis, a donor gives only platelets rather than whole blood. Whole ...

  7. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Section Action Alerts Advocacy Toolkit Policy News Sickle Cell Disease Initiative Policy Statements Congressional Fellowship Testimony and ... Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding Disorders Blood Cancers Blood Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and ...

  8. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... This Section Action Alerts Advocacy Toolkit Policy News Sickle Cell Disease Initiative Policy Statements Congressional Fellowship Testimony and ... all publications For Patients Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding Disorders Blood Cancers Blood Clots Blood Clotting ...

  9. IDEA: Stimulating Oral Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easley, Jacob J.

    1995-01-01

    Presents daily activities that facilitate complete sentence response, promote oral production, and aid the learning of vocabulary in foreign-language classes. Because speech is the primary form of communication in the foreign-language classroom, it is important to stimulate students to converse as soon as possible. (Author/CK)

  10. stimulated BV2 Microglial

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-03-26

    Mar 26, 2012 ... 2), in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglial cells. The level of NO production was analyzed using Griess reaction. The release of PGE2 was determined using sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The DNA-binding activity of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) was measured by electrophoretic mobility shift assay ...

  11. Brain stimulation in migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brighina, Filippo; Cosentino, Giuseppe; Fierro, Brigida

    2013-01-01

    Migraine is a very prevalent disease with great individual disability and socioeconomic burden. Despite intensive research effort in recent years, the etiopathogenesis of the disease remains to be elucidated. Recently, much importance has been given to mechanisms underlying the cortical excitability that has been suggested to be dysfunctional in migraine. In recent years, noninvasive brain stimulation techniques based on magnetic fields (transcranial magnetic stimulation, TMS) and on direct electrical currents (transcranial direct current stimulation, tDCS) have been shown to be safe and effective tools to explore the issue of cortical excitability, activation, and plasticity in migraine. Moreover, TMS, repetitive TMS (rTMS), and tDCS, thanks to their ability to interfere with and/or modulate cortical activity inducing plastic, persistent effects, have been also explored as potential therapeutic approaches, opening an interesting perspective for noninvasive neurostimulation for both symptomatic and preventive treatment of migraine and other types of headache. In this chapter we critically review evidence regarding the role of noninvasive brain stimulation in the pathophysiology and treatment of migraine, delineating the advantages and limits of these techniques together with potential development and future application. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Blood doping at the Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, Kenneth D

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this paper was to review our knowledge of athletes who have, are believed to have or have attempted to engage in blood doping to enhance their performance at an Olympic Games. The paper focused on the Games from Munich 1972 to London 2012 and the author had a medical role at each of the Olympics that is discussed. The study revealed that Olympic athletes have benefitted from manipulating their blood by re-infusion of autologous or infusion of homologous blood and by administering erythropoiesis stimulating agents, notably the three generations of erythropoietins. Fifty seven athletes have been sanctioned with 12 athletes forfeiting 17 Olympic medals including 12 gold medals because of blood doping. Until 1986, the infusion of blood was not prohibited in sport but considered unethical. Erythropoietin was prohibited by the International Olympic Committee's Medical Commission in 1990. There has been a change as to how Olympic athletes have enhanced performance by blood doping, commencing with blood infusion and later administering erythropoiesis stimulating agents and significant advances have occurred in detecting such misuse. Currently, the hematological component of World Anti-Doping Agency's athlete biological passport is an important but not infallible mechanism to identify athletes who cheat by blood doping.

  13. Blood Glutamate Scavenging: Insight into Neuroprotection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Zlotnik

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Brain insults are characterized by a multitude of complex processes, of which glutamate release plays a major role. Deleterious excess of glutamate in the brain’s extracellular fluids stimulates glutamate receptors, which in turn lead to cell swelling, apoptosis, and neuronal death. These exacerbate neurological outcome. Approaches aimed at antagonizing the astrocytic and glial glutamate receptors have failed to demonstrate clinical benefit. Alternatively, eliminating excess glutamate from brain interstitial fluids by making use of the naturally occurring brain-to-blood glutamate efflux has been shown to be effective in various animal studies. This is facilitated by gradient driven transport across brain capillary endothelial glutamate transporters. Blood glutamate scavengers enhance this naturally occurring mechanism by reducing the blood glutamate concentration, thus increasing the rate at which excess glutamate is cleared. Blood glutamate scavenging is achieved by several mechanisms including: catalyzation of the enzymatic process involved in glutamate metabolism, redistribution of glutamate into tissue, and acute stress response. Regardless of the mechanism involved, decreased blood glutamate concentration is associated with improved neurological outcome. This review focuses on the physiological, mechanistic and clinical roles of blood glutamate scavenging, particularly in the context of acute and chronic CNS injury. We discuss the details of brain-to-blood glutamate efflux, auto-regulation mechanisms of blood glutamate, natural and exogenous blood glutamate scavenging systems, and redistribution of glutamate. We then propose different applied methodologies to reduce blood and brain glutamate concentrations and discuss the neuroprotective role of blood glutamate scavenging.

  14. [Transcranial magnetic stimulation and motor cortex stimulation in neuropathic pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylius, V; Ayache, S S; Teepker, M; Kappus, C; Kolodziej, M; Rosenow, F; Nimsky, C; Oertel, W H; Lefaucheur, J P

    2012-12-01

    Non-invasive and invasive cortical stimulation allows the modulation of therapy-refractory neuropathic pain. High-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the contralateral motor cortex yields therapeutic effects at short-term and predicts the benefits of epidural motor cortex stimulation (MCS). The present article summarizes the findings on application, mechanisms and therapeutic effects of cortical stimulation in neuropathic pain.

  15. Substances stimulating recovery for radiation injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, A; Yonezawa, M; Katoh, N [Radiation Center of Osaka Prefecture, Sakai (Japan)

    1978-11-01

    A relationship between radiation injury and its recovery (intracellular recovery, intercellular recovery, or individual recovery) was discussed. In addition to histological researches in Japan, some substances (free radicals, endotoxin, vaccine, crude drugs, tissue extracts, blood platelet, etc.) stimulating recovery for radiation injury were introduced, and the progress of the study by the authors was summarized. Effects of a root of Panax ginseng (it is believed to accelerate segmentation of marrow cells, and synthesis of DNA and protein in rats and men), methods of its extracting and administration, its influences upon hemogram and organ weight in animal experiments, exclusion of side effects, period of administration, and purification of its effective components were reported.

  16. Grating stimulated echo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubetsky, B.; Berman, P.R.; Sleator, T.

    1992-01-01

    A theory of a grating simulated echo (GTE) is developed. The GSE involves the sequential excitation of atoms by two counterpropagating traveling waves, a standing wave, and a third traveling wave. It is shown that the echo signal is very sensitive to small changes in atomic velocity, much more sensitive than the normal stimulated echo. Use of the GSE as a collisional probe or accelerometer is discussed

  17. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Tuncel

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR plays a pivotal role in thyroid hormone metabolism. It is a major controller of thyroid cell function and growth. Mutations in TSHR may lead to several thyroid diseases, most commonly hyperthyroidism. Although its genetic and epigenetic alterations do not directly lead to carcinogenesis, it has a crucial role in tumor growth, which is initiated by several oncogenes. This article will provide a brief review of TSHR and related diseases.

  18. Human abuse liability evaluation of CNS stimulant drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romach, Myroslava K; Schoedel, Kerri A; Sellers, Edward M

    2014-12-01

    Psychoactive drugs that increase alertness, attention and concentration and energy, while also elevating mood, heart rate and blood pressure are referred to as stimulants. Despite some overlapping similarities, stimulants cannot be easily categorized by their chemical structure, mechanism of action, receptor binding profile, effects on monoamine uptake, behavioral pharmacology (e.g., effects on locomotion, temperature, and blood pressure), therapeutic indication or efficacy. Because of their abuse liability, a pre-market assessment of abuse potential is required for drugs that show stimulant properties; this review article focuses on the clinical aspects of this evaluation. This includes clinical trial adverse events, evidence of diversion or tampering, overdoses and the results of a human abuse potential study. While there are different types of human experimental studies that can be employed to evaluate stimulant abuse potential (e.g., drug discrimination, self-administration), only the human abuse potential study and clinical trial adverse event data are required for drug approval. The principal advances that have improved human abuse potential studies include using study enrichment strategies (pharmacologic qualification), larger sample sizes, better selection of endpoints and measurement strategies and more carefully considered interpretation of data. Because of the methodological advances, comparisons of newer studies with historical data is problematic and may contribute to a biased regulatory framework for the evaluation of newer stimulant-like drugs, such as A2 antagonists. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'CNS Stimulants'. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Production of fibrogenic cytokines by interleukin-2-treated peripheral blood leukocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovacs, E J; Brock, B; Silber, I E

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the production of fibrogenic cytokines by interleukin-2 (IL-2)-stimulated peripheral blood leukocytes and to examine their ability to stimulate the production of connective tissue. METHODS: Culture medium from human peripheral blood leukocytes incubated with or without IL-2 w...

  20. Proinflammatory mediators stimulate neutrophil-directed angiogenesis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCourt, M

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF; vascular permeability factor) is one of the most potent proangiogenic cytokines, and it plays a central role in mediating the process of angiogenesis or new blood vessel formation. Neutrophils (PMNs) recently have been shown to produce VEGF. HYPOTHESIS: The acute inflammatory response is a potent stimulus for PMN-directed angiogenesis. METHODS: Neutrophils were isolated from healthy volunteers and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and anti-human Fas monoclonal antibody. Culture supernatants were assayed for VEGF using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Culture supernatants from LPS- and TNF-alpha-stimulated PMNs were then added to human umbilical vein endothelial cells and human microvessel endothelial cells and assessed for endothelial cell proliferation using 5-bromodeoxyuridine labeling. Tubule formation was also assessed on MATRIGEL basement membrane matrix. Neutrophils were lysed to measure total VEGF release, and VEGF expression was detected using Western blot analysis. RESULTS: Lipopolysaccharide and TNF-alpha stimulation resulted in significantly increased release of PMN VEGF (532+\\/-49 and 484+\\/-80 pg\\/mL, respectively; for all, presented as mean +\\/- SEM) compared with control experiments (32+\\/-4 pg\\/mL). Interleukin 6 and Fas had no effect. Culture supernatants from LPS- and TNF-alpha-stimulated PMNs also resulted in significant increases (P<.005) in macrovascular and microvascular endothelial cell proliferation and tubule formation. Adding anti-human VEGF-neutralizing polyclonal antibody to stimulated PMN supernatant inhibited these effects. Total VEGF release following cell lysis and Western blot analysis suggests that the VEGF is released from an intracellular store. CONCLUSION: Activated human PMNs are directly angiogenic by releasing VEGF, and this has important implications for inflammation, capillary leak syndrome

  1. Low intensity transcranial electric stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antal, Andrea; Alekseichuk, I; Bikson, M

    2017-01-01

    Low intensity transcranial electrical stimulation (TES) in humans, encompassing transcranial direct current (tDCS), transcutaneous spinal Direct Current Stimulation (tsDCS), transcranial alternating current (tACS), and transcranial random noise (tRNS) stimulation or their combinations, appears...

  2. Motor cortex stimulation suppresses cortical responses to noxious hindpaw stimulation after spinal cord lesion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li; Ji, Yadong; Voulalas, Pamela J; Keaser, Michael; Xu, Su; Gullapalli, Rao P; Greenspan, Joel; Masri, Radi

    2014-01-01

    Motor cortex stimulation (MCS) is a potentially effective treatment for chronic neuropathic pain. The neural mechanisms underlying the reduction of hyperalgesia and allodynia after MCS are not completely understood. To investigate the neural mechanisms responsible for analgesic effects after MCS. We test the hypothesis that MCS attenuates evoked blood oxygen-level dependent signals in cortical areas involved in nociceptive processing in an animal model of chronic neuropathic pain. We used adult female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 10) that received unilateral electrolytic lesions of the right spinal cord at the level of C6 (SCL animals). In these animals, we performed magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments to study the analgesic effects of MCS. On the day of fMRI experiment, 14 days after spinal cord lesion, the animals were anesthetized and epidural bipolar platinum electrodes were placed above the left primary motor cortex. Two 10-min sessions of fMRI were performed before and after a session of MCS (50 μA, 50 Hz, 300 μs, for 30 min). During each fMRI session, the right hindpaw was electrically stimulated (noxious stimulation: 5 mA, 5 Hz, 3 ms) using a block design of 20 s stimulation off and 20 s stimulation on. A general linear model-based statistical parametric analysis was used to analyze whole brain activation maps. Region of interest (ROI) analysis and paired t-test were used to compare changes in activation before and after MCS in these ROI. MCS suppressed evoked blood oxygen dependent signals significantly (Family-wise error corrected P cortex and the prefrontal cortex. These findings suggest that, in animals with SCL, MCS attenuates hypersensitivity by suppressing activity in the primary somatosensory cortex and prefrontal cortex. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Burst stimulation improves hemodynamics during resuscitation after prolonged ventricular fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walcott, Gregory; Melnick, Sharon; Killingsworth, Cheryl; Ideker, Raymond

    2009-02-01

    Although return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) is frequently achieved during resuscitation for sudden cardiac arrest, systolic blood pressure can then decrease, requiring additional myocardial support. Previous studies have shown that a series of 1-ms electrical pulses delivered through the defibrillation patches during ventricular fibrillation (VF) can stimulate the autonomic nervous system to increase myocardial function following defibrillation. We hypothesized that a similar series of electrical pulses could increase myocardial function and blood pressure during the early post-resuscitation period. Six swine were studied that underwent 6-7 min. Each animal received 5, 10, 15, or 20 pulse packets consisting of 6 10 A, 1-ms pulses every 3-4 s in random order whenever systolic blood pressure became less than 50 mmHg. All four sets of pulse packets were delivered to each animal. Systolic blood pressure and cardiac function (left ventricular +dP/dt) were increased to pre-stimulation levels or above by all four sets of pulse packets. The increases were significantly greater for the longer than the shorter number of pulse packets. The mean+/-SD duration of the time that the systolic pressure remained above 50 mmHg following pulse delivery was 4.2+/-2.5 min. Electrical stimulation during regular rhythm following prolonged VF and resuscitation can increase blood pressure and cardiac function to above prestimulation levels.

  4. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of articles from the 2017 ASH Annual Meeting Education Program Blood: How I Treat A compendium of Blood articles updated ... Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and Travel DVT Myths vs. Facts Blood ...

  5. Low Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a problem. Sometimes blood pressure that is too low can also cause problems. Blood pressure is the ... reading is 90/60 or lower, you have low blood pressure. Some people have low blood pressure ...

  6. Blood Donation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drive Biomedical Services Hospital Partners Blood Products Blood Banking Resources Order Blood Products Invoice Central Case Reports ... Speed up your donation by completing a RapidPass® online or on the Blood Donor app on the ...

  7. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Schedule & Program Registration Receipts Abstracts View all meetings Publications Blood Current Issue First Edition Abstracts Blood Advances ... reflect the most recent scientific research View all publications For Patients Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding ...

  8. Low Blood Pressure (Hypotension)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lowest at night and rises sharply on waking. Blood pressure: How low can you go? What's considered low ... low blood pressure. Medications that can cause low blood pressure Some medications can cause low blood pressure, including: ...

  9. Blood Pressure Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pressure monitors may have some limitations. Tracking your blood pressure readings It can be helpful in diagnosing or ... more Stage 2 high blood pressure (hypertension) Elevated blood pressure and stages 1 and 2 high blood pressure ( ...

  10. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood articles updated to reflect the most recent scientific research View all publications For Patients Blood Basics ... help: Results of Clinical Studies Published in Blood Search Blood , the official journal of ASH, for the ...

  11. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... scientific research View all publications For Patients Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding Disorders Blood Cancers Blood ... that provide information. back to top ASH Foundation Support the mission of ASH and help move hematology ...

  12. Haptoglobin blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    The haptoglobin blood test measures the level of haptoglobin in your blood. Haptoglobin is a protein produced by the liver. It attaches to a certain type of hemoglobin in the blood. Hemoglobin is a blood cell that carries oxygen.

  13. Porphyrins - blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003372.htm Porphyrins blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... blood or the urine . This article discusses the blood test. How the Test is Performed A blood sample ...

  14. Platelet antibodies blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    This blood test shows if you have antibodies against platelets in your blood. Platelets are a part of the blood ... Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Platelet antibody - blood. In: Chernecky ... caused by platelet destruction, hypersplenism, or hemodilution. ...

  15. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and Travel DVT Myths vs. Facts Blood Disorder Fact Sheets ... that occurs when a DVT breaks off and travels to the blood vessels of the lungs. DVT ...

  16. Blood sugar test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sugar; Blood sugar level; Fasting blood sugar; Glucose test; Diabetic screening - blood sugar test; Diabetes - blood sugar test ... The test may be done in the following ways: After you have not eaten anything for at least 8 ...

  17. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research Programs and Awards View all Blood Current Issue First Edition Abstracts Blood Advances A peer-reviewed ... Email Updates View all meetings Publications Blood Current Issue First Edition Abstracts Blood Advances A peer-reviewed, ...

  18. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research Programs and Awards View all Blood Current Issue First Edition Abstracts Blood Advances A peer-reviewed ... Receipts Abstracts View all meetings Publications Blood Current Issue First Edition Abstracts Blood Advances A peer-reviewed, ...

  19. Donating blood for research: a potential method for enhancing customer satisfaction of permanently deferred blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Daniel; Thijsen, Amanda; Garradd, Allira; Hayman, Jane; Smith, Geoff

    2017-01-01

    Each year, a large number of individuals in Australia are deferred from donating blood. A deferral may have a negative impact on donor satisfaction and subsequent word-of-mouth communication. The Australian Red Cross Blood Service (the Blood Service) is, therefore, investigating options for managing service interactions with deferred donors to maintain positive relationships. While public research institutes in Australia have established independent research donor registries, other countries provide programmes allowing deferred donors to donate blood for research via blood collection agencies. This study examined attitudes towards donating blood for research use in a sample of permanently deferred Australian donors. Donors permanently deferred because of a risk of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (n=449) completed a postal survey that examined attitudes towards research donation. The majority of participants were interested in donating blood for research (96%), and joining a registry of research donors (93%). Participants preferred to donate for transfusion or clinical research, and were willing to travel large distances. Results indicated that positive attitudes towards the Blood Service would be extended if the opportunity to donate blood was provided. These findings indicate a desire for continued engagement with the Blood Service despite deferral. Donating blood for research is a potential way of maintaining positive relationships with permanently deferred donors which also benefits the health research community. Through maintaining positive relationships with deferred donors, positive word-of-mouth activity can be stimulated. Further work is needed to determine the feasibility of implementing research donation through the Blood Service in Australia.

  20. The secondary biogenic radiation of gamma-irradiated human blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzin, A.M.; Surkenova, G.N.; Budagovskij, A.V.; Gudi, G.A.

    1997-01-01

    The sample of blood freshly taken from healthy men were gamma-irradiated with a dose of 10 Gy. It was shown that after the treatment the blood gained the capacity to emit secondary biogenic radiation. Emission lasted for some hours, passed through quartz-glass curette and was revealed by stimulating influence on biological detector (sprouting seeds)

  1. Spinal Cord Stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Kaare

    2014-01-01

    Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is a surgical treatment for chronic neuropathic pain that is refractory to other treatment. Originally described by Shealy et al. in 1967(1), it is used to treat a range of conditions such as complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS I)(2), angina pectoris(3), radicular...... pain after failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS)(4), pain due to peripheral nerve injury, stump pain(5), peripheral vascular disease(6) and diabetic neuropathy(7,8); whereas phantom pain(9), postherpetic neuralgia(10), chronic visceral pain(11), and pain after partial spinal cord injury(12) remain more...

  2. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of articles from the 2017 ASH Annual Meeting Education Program Blood: How I Treat A compendium of Blood articles updated to reflect the most recent scientific research View all publications For Patients Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding Disorders Blood Cancers Blood ...

  3. A distributed current stimulator ASIC for high density neural stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong Hoan Park; Chaebin Kim; Seung-Hee Ahn; Tae Mok Gwon; Joonsoo Jeong; Sang Beom Jun; Sung June Kim

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a novel distributed neural stimulator scheme. Instead of a single stimulator ASIC in the package, multiple ASICs are embedded at each electrode site for stimulation with a high density electrode array. This distributed architecture enables the simplification of wiring between electrodes and stimulator ASIC that otherwise could become too complex as the number of electrode increases. The individual ASIC chip is designed to have a shared data bus that independently controls multiple stimulating channels. Therefore, the number of metal lines is determined by the distributed ASICs, not by the channel number. The function of current steering is also implemented within each ASIC in order to increase the effective number of channels via pseudo channel stimulation. Therefore, the chip area can be used more efficiently. The designed chip was fabricated with area of 0.3 mm2 using 0.18 μm BCDMOS process, and the bench-top test was also conducted to validate chip performance.

  4. Computationally Developed Sham Stimulation Protocol for Multichannel Desynchronizing Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magteld Zeitler

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A characteristic pattern of abnormal brain activity is abnormally strong neuronal synchronization, as found in several brain disorders, such as tinnitus, Parkinson's disease, and epilepsy. As observed in several diseases, different therapeutic interventions may induce a placebo effect that may be strong and hinder reliable clinical evaluations. Hence, to distinguish between specific, neuromodulation-induced effects and unspecific, placebo effects, it is important to mimic the therapeutic procedure as precisely as possibly, thereby providing controls that actually lack specific effects. Coordinated Reset (CR stimulation has been developed to specifically counteract abnormally strong synchronization by desynchronization. CR is a spatio-temporally patterned multichannel stimulation which reduces the extent of coincident neuronal activity and aims at an anti-kindling, i.e., an unlearning of both synaptic connectivity and neuronal synchrony. Apart from acute desynchronizing effects, CR may cause sustained, long-lasting desynchronizing effects, as already demonstrated in pre-clinical and clinical proof of concept studies. In this computational study, we set out to computationally develop a sham stimulation protocol for multichannel desynchronizing stimulation. To this end, we compare acute effects and long-lasting effects of six different spatio-temporally patterned stimulation protocols, including three variants of CR, using a no-stimulation condition as additional control. This is to provide an inventory of different stimulation algorithms with similar fundamental stimulation parameters (e.g., mean stimulation rates but qualitatively different acute and/or long-lasting effects. Stimulation protocols sharing basic parameters, but inducing nevertheless completely different or even no acute effects and/or after-effects, might serve as controls to validate the specific effects of particular desynchronizing protocols such as CR. In particular, based on

  5. Anatomical relationship between traditional acupuncture point ST 36 and Omura's ST 36 (True ST 36) with their therapeutic effects: 1) inhibition of cancer cell division by markedly lowering cancer cell telomere while increasing normal cell telomere, 2) improving circulatory disturbances, with reduction of abnormal increase in high triglyceride, L-homocystein, CRP, or cardiac troponin I & T in blood by the stimulation of Omura's ST 36--Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, Yoshiaki; Chen, Yemeng; Lu, Dominic P; Shimotsura, Yasuhiro; Ohki, Motomu; Duvvi, Harsha

    2007-01-01

    Using Bi-Digital O-Ring Test Resonance Phenomena between 2 identical substances, Omura, Y. succeeded in making the image of the outline of internal organs without use of standard imaging devices since 1982. When he imaged the outline of the stomach on the abdominal wall, a number of the lines came out from upper and lower parts of stomach wall. When the lines were followed, they were very close to the well-known stomach meridians. Subsequently, he found a method of localizing meridians and their corresponding acupuncture points as well as shapes and diameters accurately. At the anatomical location of ST 36 described in traditional textbooks, Omura, Y. found there is no acupuncture point. However, in the close vicinity, there is an acupuncture point which he named as true ST 36 in the mid 1980s, but it is generally known as Omura's ST 36. When the effects of the acupuncture on these 2 locations were compared, Omura's ST 36 (true ST 36) produced very significant well-known acupuncture beneficial effects including improved circulation and blood chemistry, while in the traditional ST 36, the effects were small. In this article, the anatomical relationship between these two acupuncture points, with a short distance of 0.6 approximately 1.5 cm between the centers of these locations, was described. In early 2000, Omura, Y. found Press Needle Stimulation of Omura's ST 36, using "Press-Release" procedure repeated 200 times, 4 times a day to cancer patients reduced high cancer cell telomere of 600-1500ng and high Oncogen C-fos Ab2 and Integrin alpha5beta1 of 100-700ng BDORT units to close to lyg (= 10(-24) g) BDORT units. In addition there was a significant reduction of Asbestos and Hg from cancer cells, while markedly reduced normal cell telomere of lyg was increased to optimally high amounts of 500-530ng BDORTunits. Thus, cancer cells can no longer divide and cancer activity is inhibited. The authors have successfully applied this method for a variety of cancers as well as

  6. Onsite-effects of dual-hemisphere versus conventional single-hemisphere transcranial direct current stimulation: A functional MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yong Hyun; Jang, Sung Ho

    2012-08-25

    We performed functional MRI examinations in six right-handed healthy subjects. During functional MRI scanning, transcranial direct current stimulation was delivered with the anode over the right primary sensorimotor cortex and the cathode over the left primary sensorimotor cortex using dual-hemispheric transcranial direct current stimulation. This was compared to a cathode over the left supraorbital area using conventional single-hemispheric transcranial direct current stimulation. Voxel counts and blood oxygenation level-dependent signal intensities in the right primary sensorimotor cortex regions were estimated and compared between the two transcranial direct current stimulation conditions. Our results showed that dual-hemispheric transcranial direct current stimulation induced greater cortical activities than single-hemispheric transcranial direct current stimulation. These findings suggest that dual-hemispheric transcranial direct current stimulation may provide more effective cortical stimulation than single-hemispheric transcranial direct current stimulation.

  7. Stimulation of granulocytic cell iodination by pine cone antitumor substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unten, S.; Sakagami, H.; Konno, K.

    1989-01-01

    Antitumor substances (Fractions VI and VII) prepared from the NaOH extract of pine cone significantly stimulated the iodination (incorporation of radioactive iodine into an acid-insoluble fraction) of human peripheral blood adherent mononuclear cells, polymorphonuclear cells (PMN), and human promyelocytic leukemic HL-60 cells. In contrast, these fractions did not significantly increase the iodination of nonadherent mononuclear cells, red blood cells, other human leukemic cell lines (U-937, THP-1, K-562), human diploid fibroblast (UT20Lu), or mouse cell lines (L-929, J774.1). Iodination of HL-60 cells, which were induced to differentiate by treatment with either retinoic acid or tumor necrosis factor, were stimulated less than untreated cells. The stimulation of iodination of both PMN and HL-60 cells required the continuous presence of these fractions and was almost completely abolished by the presence of myeloperoxidase inhibitors. The stimulation activity of these fractions was generally higher than that of various other immunopotentiators. Possible mechanisms of extract stimulation of myeloperoxidase-containing cell iodination are discussed

  8. Stimulated Thomson scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, R.L.

    1979-03-01

    The theory of stimulated Thomson scattering is investigated both quantum mechanically and classically. Two monochromatic electromagnetic waves of like polarization travelling in opposite directions are allowed to interact for a time tau with the electrons in a collisionless plasma. The electromagnetic waves have frequencies well above the plasma frequency, and their difference frequency is allowed to range upward from the plasma frequency. With the difference frequency well above the plasma frequency, the rate at which energy is transferred from one wave to the other is calculated quantum mechanically, classically from a fluid theory, and classically from an independent electron theory. The rate is calculated in both the homogeneously broadened limit, and in the inhomogeneously broadened limit

  9. Engagement sensitive visual stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepesh Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is one of leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Early detection during golden hour and treatment of individual neurological dysfunction in stroke using easy-to-access biomarkers based on a simple-to-use, cost-effective, clinically-valid screening tool can bring a paradigm shift in healthcare, both urban and rural. In our research we have designed a quantitative automatic home-based oculomotor assessment tool that can play an important complementary role in prognosis of neurological disorders like stroke for the neurologist. Once the patient has been screened for stroke, the next step is to design proper rehabilitation platform to alleviate the disability. In addition to the screening platform, in our research, we work in designing virtual reality based rehabilitation exercise platform that has the potential to deliver visual stimulation and in turn contribute to improving one’s performance.

  10. Stimulated coherent transition radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung-chi Lihn.

    1996-03-01

    Coherent radiation emitted from a relativistic electron bunch consists of wavelengths longer than or comparable to the bunch length. The intensity of this radiation out-numbers that of its incoherent counterpart, which extends to wavelengths shorter than the bunch length, by a factor equal to the number of electrons in the bunch. In typical accelerators, this factor is about 8 to 11 orders of magnitude. The spectrum of the coherent radiation is determined by the Fourier transform of the electron bunch distribution and, therefore, contains information of the bunch distribution. Coherent transition radiation emitted from subpicosecond electron bunches at the Stanford SUNSHINE facility is observed in the far-infrared regime through a room-temperature pyroelectric bolometer and characterized through the electron bunch-length study. To measure the bunch length, a new frequency-resolved subpicosecond bunch-length measuring system is developed. This system uses a far-infrared Michelson interferometer to measure the spectrum of coherent transition radiation through optical autocorrelation with resolution far better than existing time-resolved methods. Hence, the radiation spectrum and the bunch length are deduced from the autocorrelation measurement. To study the stimulation of coherent transition radiation, a special cavity named BRAICER is invented. Far-infrared light pulses of coherent transition radiation emitted from electron bunches are delayed and circulated in the cavity to coincide with subsequent incoming electron bunches. This coincidence of light pulses with electron bunches enables the light to do work on electrons, and thus stimulates more radiated energy. The possibilities of extending the bunch-length measuring system to measure the three-dimensional bunch distribution and making the BRAICER cavity a broadband, high-intensity, coherent, far-infrared light source are also discussed

  11. Electrical stimulation of acupoint combinations against deep venous thrombosis in elderly bedridden patients after major surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Lili; Chen, Cuiping; Xu, Lei; Yin, Peihao; Peng, Wen

    2013-04-01

    To compare the effects of electrical stimulation of different acupoint combinations among postoperative bedridden elderly patients on hemorheology and deep venous blood flow velocity and investigate the.role of electrical stimulation against deep vein thrombosis (DVT). From November 2010 to October 2011, a total of 160 elderly bedridden patients after major surgery were divided into the conventional care group, invigorating and promoting Qi group, blood-activating and damp-eliminating group, and acupoint-combination stimulation group. Whole blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, D-dimer levels, lower limb skin temperature, lower limb circumference, and flow velocities of the external iliac vein, femoral vein, popliteal vein, and deep calf veins in all patients were documented and compared among the four groups. Whole blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, D-dimer levels, and lower limb circumference were significantly reduced in the blood-activating and damp-eliminating group compared with the conventional care group (P 0.05). Lower limb venous flow velocities were accelerated in the invigorating and promoting Qi group compared with the other groups, excluding the acupoint-combination stimulation group (P bedridden elderly patients were improved after combined electrical stimulation at Yinlingquan (SP 9) and Sanyinjiao (SP 6). Combined electrical stimulation at Zusanli (ST 36) and Taichong (LR 3), on the other hand, accelerated lower limb venous flow.

  12. Cord Blood and Transplants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... donate their baby’s umbilical cord blood to a public cord blood bank. We have more than 249,000 cord blood ... stored as a cord blood unit at a public cord blood bank for future use. It can then be listed ...

  13. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with Your Doctor Patient Group Links Advocacy Toolkit Home For Patients Blood Disorders Blood Clots Blood Clotting & Pregnancy If you are pregnant, or you have just had a baby, you are at greater risk of developing a blood clot. Blood clots in pregnant women tend to form in the deep veins of ...

  14. Ultrasound stimulation on bone healing. The optimization of stimulation time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosim, R.C.; Paulin, J.B.P.; Goncalves, R.P.

    1990-01-01

    Previous works in ultrasonic simulation of bone healing dealt with parameters optimization. Albertin (1983) studied the stimulation time and found forty minutes as ideal. However, this stimulation time was the largest one employed and remained some doubt about the most appropriated value. 30, 40, 50 and 60 minutes of stimulation time were selected, while others parameters were held constant with: pulse width in 200 μs, repetition rate in 1000 pulses per second and amplitude in 30 V. Partial incomplete transverse osteotomies were done in the middle third of radio in the right forearm of rabbits. Twenty four animals divided in four subgroups, with 6 animals each were stimulated. The daily stimulation time for each subgroup was 30, 40, 50 and minutes respectively, during 15 consecutive days. The stimulation procedure started 24 hours after surgery. After the stimulation period, radiological, histological and morphometric evaluations were done and greater bone healing was found for the 50 minutes stimulation subgroup, in them new bone was also prominent. (author)

  15. Functional MR imaging at 1.5 T. Initial results using photic and motoric stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, O; Larsson, H B; Ring, P

    1993-01-01

    A preliminary investigation of the effects of stimulation of the visual and the motor cortex was made on a conventional 1.5 T MR imaging scanner. Both types of activation gave a detectable change in the signal between rest and stimulation using a gradient echo sequence with an echo time of 60 ms....... The observed effects were assumed to be caused by variation in the amount of paramagnetic deoxyhemoglobin between stimulation and rest due to local increase of capillary blood flow in the human brain during stimulation....

  16. Functional MR imaging at 1.5 T. Initial results using photic and motoric stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, O; Larsson, H B; Ring, P

    1993-01-01

    A preliminary investigation of the effects of stimulation of the visual and the motor cortex was made on a conventional 1.5 T MR imaging scanner. Both types of activation gave a detectable change in the signal between rest and stimulation using a gradient echo sequence with an echo time of 60 ms........ The observed effects were assumed to be caused by variation in the amount of paramagnetic deoxyhemoglobin between stimulation and rest due to local increase of capillary blood flow in the human brain during stimulation....

  17. Transcranial brain stimulation: closing the loop between brain and stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karabanov, Anke; Thielscher, Axel; Siebner, Hartwig Roman

    2016-01-01

    -related and state-related variability. Fluctuations in brain-states can be traced online with functional brain imaging and inform the timing or other settings of transcranial brain stimulation. State-informed open-loop stimulation is aligned to the expression of a predefined brain state, according to prespecified......PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss recent strategies for boosting the efficacy of noninvasive transcranial brain stimulation to improve human brain function. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent research exposed substantial intra- and inter-individual variability in response to plasticity-inducing transcranial brain...... stimulation. Trait-related and state-related determinants contribute to this variability, challenging the standard approach to apply stimulation in a rigid, one-size-fits-all fashion. Several strategies have been identified to reduce variability and maximize the plasticity-inducing effects of noninvasive...

  18. Vertex Stimulation as a Control Site for Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: A Concurrent TMS/fMRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, JeYoung; Bungert, Andreas; Bowtell, Richard; Jackson, Stephen R

    2016-01-01

    A common control condition for transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies is to apply stimulation at the vertex. An assumption of vertex stimulation is that it has relatively little influence over on-going brain processes involved in most experimental tasks, however there has been little attempt to measure neural changes linked to vertex TMS. Here we directly test this assumption by using a concurrent TMS/fMRI paradigm in which we investigate fMRI blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) signal changes across the whole brain linked to vertex stimulation. Thirty-two healthy participants to part in this study. Twenty-one were stimulated at the vertex, at 120% of resting motor threshold (RMT), with short bursts of 1 Hz TMS, while functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) BOLD images were acquired. As a control condition, we delivered TMS pulses over the left primary motor cortex using identical parameters to 11 other participants. Vertex stimulation did not evoke increased BOLD activation at the stimulated site. By contrast we observed widespread BOLD deactivations across the brain, including regions within the default mode network (DMN). To examine the effects of vertex stimulation a functional connectivity analysis was conducted. The results demonstrated that stimulating the vertex with suprathreshold TMS reduced neural activity in brain regions related to the DMN but did not influence the functional connectivity of this network. Our findings provide brain imaging evidence in support of the use of vertex simulation as a control condition in TMS but confirm that vertex TMS induces regional widespread decreases in BOLD activation. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Pharmacological mechanisms in the cardiovascular effects of DCLHb, a hemoglobin based blood substitute

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Gulati (Anil)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThe search for a clinically useful blood substitute has been stimulated by the inherent limitations of the homologous blood transfusion system, particularly its sufficiency, safety and costs. Blood has been described as the "most complicated fluid in animals" (Winslow, 1992). An attempt

  20. Four experimental stimulants found in sports and weight loss supplements: 2-amino-6-methylheptane (octodrine), 1,4-dimethylamylamine (1,4-DMAA), 1,3-dimethylamylamine (1,3-DMAA) and 1,3-dimethylbutylamine (1,3-DMBA).

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Pieter A; Travis, John C; Keizers, Peter H J; Deuster, Patricia; Venhuis, Bastiaan J

    2017-01-01

    The United States Food and Drug Administration banned the stimulant 1,3-dimethylamylamine (1,3-DMAA) from dietary supplements and warned consumers that the stimulant can pose cardiovascular risks ranging from high blood pressure to heart attacks.

  1. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... symptoms include the following: High blood glucose High levels of sugar in the urine Frequent urination Increased ... you should check and what your blood glucose levels should be. Checking your blood and then treating ...

  2. Blood in Semen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms Blood in semen By Mayo Clinic Staff Blood in semen (hematospermia) can be frightening, but the cause of this uncommon condition is usually benign. Typically, blood in semen goes away on its own. If you're ...

  3. Blood in the semen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semen - bloody; Blood in ejaculation ... Most of the time, blood in the semen is caused by swelling or infection of the prostate or seminal vesicles. The problem may occur after a prostate biopsy . Blood in the ...

  4. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... can often lower your blood glucose level by exercising. However, if your blood glucose is above 240 ... ketones. If you have ketones, do not exercise. Exercising when ketones are present may make your blood ...

  5. Blood Type Puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Janet

    1997-01-01

    Presents a blood type puzzle that provides a visual, hands-on mechanism by which students can examine blood group reactions. Offers students an opportunity to construct their own knowledge about blood types. (JRH)

  6. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... these blood conditions and increase research on the causes, prevention, and treatment. Blood clots are also potentially ... Increased maternal age Other medical illness (e.g., cancer, infection) back to top How are Blood Clots ...

  7. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... If you find that you are interested in learning more about blood diseases and disorders, here are ... article in Blood may obtain a copy by e-mailing a request to the Blood Publishing Office . ...

  8. Home blood sugar testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes - home glucose testing; Diabetes - home blood sugar testing ... Usual times to test your blood sugar are before meals and at bedtime. Your provider may ask you to check your blood sugar 2 hours after a meal or ...

  9. Blood and Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drive Biomedical Services Hospital Partners Blood Products Blood Banking Resources Order Blood Products Invoice Central Case Reports ... app (over 1 million downloads and counting!) and online scheduler make it quick to set up your ...

  10. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that may be of some help: Results of Clinical Studies Published in Blood Search Blood , the official journal of ASH, for the results of the latest blood research. While recent articles generally require a subscriber login, ...

  11. Blood Transfusion and Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people in the United States receive life-saving blood transfusions. During a transfusion, you receive whole blood or ... have liver failure or a severe infection. Most blood transfusions go very smoothly. Some infectious agents, such as ...

  12. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose) Hyperglycemia is the technical term for high blood glucose (blood sugar). High ... We Are Research Leaders We Support Your Doctor Student Resources Patient Access to Research Research Resources Practice ...

  13. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day ... DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing ...

  14. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of articles from the 2017 ASH Annual Meeting Education Program Blood: How I Treat A compendium of Blood articles ... Pregnancy Clots and Travel DVT Myths vs. Facts Blood Disorder Fact Sheets ...

  15. Types of Blood Donations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Red Cell Plasma Platelets Red Cells What blood donation type is best for me? **If you do ... type, a whole blood donation is recommended** Blood Donation Types: Volunteer Donations The standard or most common ...

  16. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Carbs Count Glycemic Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type 1 Diabetes Get ... the technical term for high blood glucose (blood sugar). High blood glucose happens when the body has ...

  17. Gastrin blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peptic ulcer - gastrin blood test ... A blood sample is needed . ... in the stomach, gastrin is released into the blood. As the acid ... provider may order this test if you have signs or symptoms of a ...

  18. Catecholamine blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003561.htm Catecholamine blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... measured with a urine test than with a blood test. How the Test is Performed A blood sample ...

  19. Phosphorus blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003478.htm Phosphorus blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The phosphorus blood test measures the amount of phosphate in the blood. ...

  20. Calcium blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003477.htm Calcium blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The calcium blood test measures the level of calcium in the blood. ...

  1. Renin blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003698.htm Renin blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... renin test measures the level of renin in blood. How the Test is Performed A blood sample is needed . How ...

  2. Prolactin blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003718.htm Prolactin blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... test measures the amount of prolactin in the blood. How the Test is Performed A blood sample is needed . How ...

  3. Pyruvate kinase blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003357.htm Pyruvate kinase blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... energy when oxygen levels are low. How the Test is Performed A blood sample is needed. In the laboratory, white blood ...

  4. Ammonia blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003506.htm Ammonia blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... Encephalopathy - ammonia; Cirrhosis - ammonia; Liver failure - ammonia Images Blood test References Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Ammonia (NH3) - blood ...

  5. Antithrombin III blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003661.htm Antithrombin III blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... a protein that helps control blood clotting. A blood test can determine the amount of AT III present ...

  6. Fibrinopeptide A blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003373.htm Fibrinopeptide A blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... measure the level of this substance in your blood. How the Test is Performed A blood sample is needed. How ...

  7. Cord blood testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood culture (if an infection is suspected) Blood gases (including oxygen, carbon dioxide, and pH levels) Blood ... 2018, A.D.A.M., Inc. Duplication for commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM ...

  8. Ketones blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acetone bodies; Ketones - serum; Nitroprusside test; Ketone bodies - serum; Ketones - blood; Ketoacidosis - ketones blood test ... fat cells break down in the blood. This test is used to diagnose ketoacidosis . This is a ...

  9. Myoglobin blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serum myoglobin; Heart attack - myoglobin blood test; Myositis - myoglobin blood test; Rhabdomyolysis - myoglobin blood test ... too high, it can damage the kidneys. This test is ordered when your health care provider suspects ...

  10. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... may be of some help: Results of Clinical Studies Published in Blood Search Blood , the official journal of ASH, for the results of the latest blood research. While recent articles generally require a subscriber login, ...

  11. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... back to top How are Blood Clots in Pregnant Women Treated? Typically, blood clots are treated with ... you think you have one. If you are pregnant and have concerns about blood clots, talk with ...

  12. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood clots are treated with an anticoagulant, a medicine that prevents the blood from clotting. Certain anticoagulants are safe to use during pregnancy. back to top Are Blood Clots Preventable? There ...

  13. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... clot. Blood clots in pregnant women tend to form in the deep veins of the legs or ... potentially dangerous to your baby. Blood clots can form inside the placenta, cutting off blood flow and ...

  14. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... resource to help stay current with the latest advances in the field Hematology 2017 A collection of articles ... Disorders Blood Cancers Blood Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and ...

  15. Symptoms of Blood Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or immune system proteins can cause increased blood viscosity (thickening of the blood). Increased platelets or blood ... by anemia Pica (eating of ice, dirt, or clay) suggests iron deficiency anemia Drugs Mentioned In This ...

  16. High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... normal blood pressure 140/90 or higher is high blood pressure Between 120 and 139 for the top number, ... prehypertension. Prehypertension means you may end up with high blood pressure, unless you take steps to prevent it. High ...

  17. High Blood Pressure Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stroke Heart Disease Cholesterol Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN High Blood Pressure Facts Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... Top of Page CDC Fact Sheets Related to High Blood Pressure High Blood Pressure Pulmonary Hypertension Heart Disease Signs ...

  18. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) Nearly 1 in 3 American adults has ... weight. How Will I Know if I Have High Blood Pressure? High blood pressure is a silent problem — you ...

  19. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to Action on DVT and PE to raise public awareness of these blood conditions and increase research ... may be of some help: Results of Clinical Studies Published in Blood Search Blood , the official journal ...

  20. Blood-conservation techniques in craniofacial surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meara, John G; Smith, Ebonie M; Harshbarger, Raymond J; Farlo, Joe N; Matar, Marla M; Levy, Mike L

    2005-05-01

    Attempts at reducing exposure to allogeneic transfusions, using blood conservation techniques such as controlled hypotension and normovolemic hemodilution, have met with mixed results and are not always practical in small infants. Recombinant human erythropoietin (RHE), a hormone that stimulates RBC production, increases the hematocrit when administered to infants. A retrospective chart review of all patients undergoing fronto-orbital advancement for craniosynostosis by the same plastic surgeon between January 2002 and December 2002 was conducted. A subgroup of patients (10/19) received RHE as a blood-conservation strategy. Transfusion requirements were lower in the RHE group (5/10) versus the control group (9/9). Total volume of blood products transfused was statistically lower in the RHE group (154 mL RHE group versus 421 mL control) (P conservation techniques was associated with a decreased need for blood transfusion, thus exposing the patient to fewer risks associated with allogeneic transfusion.

  1. EOR by stimulated microflora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svarovskaya, L.I.; Altunina, L.K.; Rozhenkova, Z.A.; Bulavin, V.D. [Institute of Petroleum Chemistry, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    A combined microbiological and physico-chemical method for EOR has been developed for flooded West Siberia oil fields with formation temperature of 45{degrees}-95{degrees}C (318-365K). Formation water includes rich and various biocenoses numbering up to 2 x 10{sup 7} cells per ml. Representatives of genera, i.e, Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Actinomyces, Micrococcus, Mycobacterium, Sarcina, etc. were found to be the most widely distributed microorganisms. The method is based on injection of systems exhibiting high oil displacing capacity and at the same time being an additional nitrous nutrient for endemic populations of microorganisms. Their injection into formation water favors biomass growth by 4-6 orders and promotes syntheses of biosurfactants, biopolymers, acids, etc., and gaseous products. The features of residual oil displacement have been studied on laboratory models using a combined microbiological and physico-chemical method. A curve for the yield of residual oil is presented by two peaks. The first peak is stipulated by the washing action of oil displacement system, and the second one by the effect of metabolites produced at stimulation of biogenic processes. Oil displacement index increases by 15%-30%.

  2. Subliminal Stimulation: Hoax or Reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trank, Douglas M.

    Subliminal stimulation is defined as that which is perceived by an individual below the threshold of awareness or cognizance. This article traces the history of research in subliminal stimulation to illustrate that under certain circumstances and conditions, this behavioral phenomenon does occur. Although subliminal stimuli do affect human…

  3. Stimulating Language: Insights from TMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Joseph T.; Watkins, Kate E.

    2007-01-01

    Fifteen years ago, Pascual-Leone and colleagues used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to investigate speech production in pre-surgical epilepsy patients and in doing so, introduced a novel tool into language research. TMS can be used to non-invasively stimulate a specific cortical region and transiently disrupt information processing. These…

  4. Complete Blood Count (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids Deal With Injections and Blood Tests Blood Culture Anemia Blood Test: Basic Metabolic Panel (BMP) Blood Test: Hemoglobin Basic Blood Chemistry Tests Word! Complete Blood Count (CBC) Medical Tests and Procedures ( ...

  5. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Workshop on Genome Editing Publications Blood Blood Advances The Hematologist ASH Clinical News ... Society of Hematology Support Opportunities | Privacy Policy | Terms of Service | Contact Us

  6. Autologous Blood Transfusion in Sports: Emerging Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamin, Olivier; De Angelis, Sara; Tissot, Jean-Daniel; Saugy, Martial; Leuenberger, Nicolas

    2016-07-01

    Despite being prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency, blood doping through erythropoietin injection or blood transfusion is frequently used by athletes to increase oxygen delivery to muscles and enhance performance. In contrast with allogeneic blood transfusion and erythropoietic stimulants, there is presently no direct method of detection for autologous blood transfusion (ABT) doping. Blood reinfusion is currently monitored with individual follow-up of hematological variables via the athlete biological passport, which requires further improvement. Microdosage is undetectable, and suspicious profiles in athletes are often attributed to exposure to altitude, heat stress, or illness. Additional indirect biomarkers may increase the sensitivity and specificity of the longitudinal approach. The emergence of "-omics" strategies provides new opportunities to discover biomarkers for the indirect detection of ABT. With the development of direct quantitative methods, transcriptomics based on microRNA or messenger RNA expression is a promising approach. Because blood donation and blood reinfusion alter iron metabolism, quantification of proteins involved in metal metabolism, such as hepcidin, may be applied in an "ironomics" strategy to improve the detection of ABT. As red blood cell (RBC) storage triggers changes in membrane proteins, proteomic methods have the potential to identify the presence of stored RBCs in blood. Alternatively, urine matrix can be used for the quantification of the plasticizer di(2-ethyhexyl)phthalate and its metabolites that originate from blood storage bags, suggesting recent blood transfusion, and have an important degree of sensitivity and specificity. This review proposes that various indirect biomarkers should be applied in combination with mathematical approaches for longitudinal monitoring aimed at improving ABT detection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A multi-channel stimulator and electrode array providing a rotating current whirlpool for electrical stimulation of wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrofsky, J; Suh, H J; Fish, A; Hernandez, V; Abdo, A; Collins, K; Mendoza, E; Yang, T-N

    2008-01-01

    When electrical stimulation is used on wounds, the electrical current has difficulty penetrating areas where there is necrotic tissue. Further, for an irregularly shaped wound, current distribution is poor in some areas of the wound since conventional two-electrode delivery systems provide the greatest current in a line directly between the electrodes. A new stimulator and electrode system is described which uses three electrodes spaced around a wound to disperse current more evenly. The stimulator senses tissue impedance and then redirects current by altering its Thevenin's output impedance for each electrode; each of the three electrodes becomes the active one in sequence while the remaining are the sink electrodes. Eight subjects were examined to test the stimulator. Electrical stimulation was applied to the skin above the quadriceps muscle at currents of 15 mA in six subjects without wounds and in two subjects with wounds. The relationship between electrode position and current dispersion on the skin was examined with a two-electrode vs. a three-electrode system to set stimulation parameters for the computer. The results showed that the three-electrode system could (1) detect areas of the skin with high impedance; (2) compensate by altering the Thevenin's output impedance at each of the three electrodes to shift current to high impedance areas; (3) provide uniform current across the skin as assessed by skin current and blood flow measurements with a laser Doppler flow imager.

  8. Precautions and Adverse Reactions during Blood Transfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Professional Version Blood Transfusion Overview of Blood Transfusion Blood Donation Process Blood Products Special Blood Donation Procedures ... CORTEF, SOLU-CORTEF Blood Transfusion Overview of Blood Transfusion Blood Donation Process Blood Products Special Blood Donation Procedures ...

  9. Caloric vestibular stimulation in aphasic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eWilkinson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Caloric vestibular stimulation (CVS is commonly used to diagnose brainstem disorder but its therapeutic application is much less established. Based on the finding that CVS increases blood flow to brain structures associated with language and communication, we assessed whether the procedure has potential to relieve symptoms of post-stroke aphasia. Three participants, each presenting with chronic, unilateral lesions to the left hemisphere, were administered daily CVS for 4 consecutive weeks. Relative to their pre-treatment baseline scores, two of the three participants showed significant improvement on both picture and responsive naming at immediate and one-week follow-up. One of these participants also showed improved sentence repetition, and another showed improved auditory word discrimination. No adverse reactions were reported. These data provide the first, albeit tentative, evidence that CVS may relieve expressive and receptive symptoms of aphasia. A larger, sham-controlled study is now needed to further assess efficacy.

  10. Cell kinetic and radiosensitivity of PHA stimulated goat lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debuyst, B.; Rosenthal, M.; Leonard, A.

    1982-01-01

    The harlequin-staining method has been used to study the cell kinetic of goat peripheral blood lymphocytes stimulated by phytohemagglutinin and to assess their radiosensitivity. At 48 h, the standardized culture time employed for human lymphocytes, 71% of the goat lymphocytes are in first mitosis, 23% are in second mitosis and 5% in third. Irradiation with 200 rads X-rays induces an average of 24,5 dicentric chromosomes per hundred cells in first mitosis [fr

  11. Renal intercalated cells and blood pressure regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M. Wall

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Type B and non-A, non-B intercalated cells are found within the connecting tubule and the cortical collecting duct. Of these cell types, type B intercalated cells are known to mediate Cl⁻ absorption and HCO₃⁻ secretion largely through pendrin-dependent Cl⁻/HCO₃⁻ exchange. This exchange is stimulated by angiotensin II administration and is also stimulated in models of metabolic alkalosis, for instance after aldosterone or NaHCO₃ administration. In some rodent models, pendrin-mediated HCO₃⁻ secretion modulates acid-base balance. However, the role of pendrin in blood pressure regulation is likely of more physiological or clinical significance. Pendrin regulates blood pressure not only by mediating aldosterone-sensitive Cl⁻ absorption, but also by modulating the aldosterone response for epithelial Na⁺ channel (ENaC-mediated Na⁺ absorption. Pendrin regulates ENaC through changes in open channel of probability, channel surface density, and channels subunit total protein abundance. Thus, aldosterone stimulates ENaC activity through both direct and indirect effects, the latter occurring through its stimulation of pendrin expression and function. Therefore, pendrin contributes to the aldosterone pressor response. Pendrin may also modulate blood pressure in part through its action in the adrenal medulla, where it modulates the release of catecholamines, or through an indirect effect on vascular contractile force. This review describes how aldosterone and angiotensin II-induced signaling regulate pendrin and the contributory role of pendrin in distal nephron function and blood pressure.

  12. Vagal nerve stimulation therapy: what is being stimulated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kember, Guy; Ardell, Jeffrey L; Armour, John A; Zamir, Mair

    2014-01-01

    Vagal nerve stimulation in cardiac therapy involves delivering electrical current to the vagal sympathetic complex in patients experiencing heart failure. The therapy has shown promise but the mechanisms by which any benefit accrues is not understood. In this paper we model the response to increased levels of stimulation of individual components of the vagal sympathetic complex as a differential activation of each component in the control of heart rate. The model provides insight beyond what is available in the animal experiment in as much as allowing the simultaneous assessment of neuronal activity throughout the cardiac neural axis. The results indicate that there is sensitivity of the neural network to low level subthreshold stimulation. This leads us to propose that the chronic effects of vagal nerve stimulation therapy lie within the indirect pathways that target intrinsic cardiac local circuit neurons because they have the capacity for plasticity.

  13. Vagal nerve stimulation therapy: what is being stimulated?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Kember

    Full Text Available Vagal nerve stimulation in cardiac therapy involves delivering electrical current to the vagal sympathetic complex in patients experiencing heart failure. The therapy has shown promise but the mechanisms by which any benefit accrues is not understood. In this paper we model the response to increased levels of stimulation of individual components of the vagal sympathetic complex as a differential activation of each component in the control of heart rate. The model provides insight beyond what is available in the animal experiment in as much as allowing the simultaneous assessment of neuronal activity throughout the cardiac neural axis. The results indicate that there is sensitivity of the neural network to low level subthreshold stimulation. This leads us to propose that the chronic effects of vagal nerve stimulation therapy lie within the indirect pathways that target intrinsic cardiac local circuit neurons because they have the capacity for plasticity.

  14. Electrical foot stimulation and implications for the prevention of venous thromboembolic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Robert E; Czyrny, James J; Fung, Tat S; Unsworth, John D; Hirsh, Jack

    2002-08-01

    Venous stasis caused by immobility is an important risk factor for deep vein thrombosis following surgery and lower limb trauma, in bed-ridden medical patients, and in high-risk long distance air travelers. A safe and convenient method for reducing venous stasis would be useful in patients while in hospital and after discharge during their rehabilitation. 49 healthy subjects aged 51-76 were seated for 4 hours during which they received mild electrical stimulation of the calf, or sole of the foot (plantar muscles). Popliteal and femoral venous blood flow velocities were measured via doppler ultrasound. The non-stimulated lower extremity served as the simultaneous control. Subjects completed a questionnaire regarding their acceptance and tolerance of the electrical stimulation. There was a significant increase in venous femoral and popliteal blood flow for both calf (p < 0.035, p < 0.003), and plantar muscles (p < 0.0001, p < 0.009) on the stimulated side compared to the unstimulated side. The magnitude of the effect was similar for calf and plantar muscle stimulation. Subjects did not find the experience uncomfortable, and would use an electrical stimulator if told by their physician that they were at risk for developing blood clots. Mild electrical stimulation of the feet, as well as the calf, is a safe effective and convenient method for counteracting venous stasis and therefore has the potential to reduce the risk of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism for subjects who are immobilized.

  15. Electrical stimulation in exercise training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Walter

    1994-01-01

    Electrical stimulation has a long history of use in medicine dating back to 46 A.D. when the Roman physician Largus found the electrical discharge of torpedo fishes useful in the treatment of pain produced by headache and gout. A rival Greek physician, Dioscorides, discounted the value of the torpedo fish for headache relief but did recommend its use in the treatment of hemorrhoids. In 1745, the Leyden jar and various sized electrostatic generators were used to treat angina pectoris, epilepsy, hemiplegia, kidney stones, and sciatica. Benjamin Franklin used an electrical device to treat successfully a young woman suffering from convulsive fits. In the late 1800's battery powered hydroelectric baths were used to treat chronic inflammation of the uterus while electrified athletic supporters were advertised for the treatment of male problems. Fortunately, such an amusing early history of the simple beginnings of electrical stimulation did not prevent eventual development of a variety of useful therapeutic and rehabilitative applications of electrical stimulation. Over the centuries electrical stimulation has survived as a modality in the treatment of various medical disorders with its primary application being in the rehabilitation area. Recently, a surge of new interest in electrical stimulation has been kindled by the work of a Russian sport scientist who reported remarkable muscle strength and endurance improvements in elite athletes. Yakov Kots reported his research on electric stimulation and strength improvements in 1977 at a Canadian-Soviet Exchange Symposium held at Concordia University in Montreal. Since then an explosion of new studies has been seen in both sport science and in medicine. Based upon the reported works of Kots and the present surge of new investigations, one could be misled as to the origin of electrical stimulation as a technique to increase muscle strength. As a matter of fact, electric stimulation has been used as a technique to improve

  16. Radiolabelled cellular blood elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinzinger, H.

    1990-01-01

    This book reports on radiolabelled cellular blood elements, covering new advances made during the past several years, in particular the use of Tc-99 as a tracer for blood elements. Coverage extends to several radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies that are specific for blood components and may label blood elements in vivo

  17. Blood Transfusion (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Blood Transfusions KidsHealth / For Parents / Blood Transfusions What's in this ... and help put your child at ease. About Blood Transfusions Blood is like the body's transportation system. As ...

  18. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... how often you should check and what your blood glucose levels should be. Checking your blood and then treating ... I Treat Hyperglycemia? You can often lower your blood glucose level by exercising. However, if your blood glucose is ...

  19. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) KidsHealth / For Teens / Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) What's ... rest temperature diet emotions posture medicines Why Is High Blood Pressure Bad? High blood pressure means a person's heart ...

  20. Interferential electrical stimulation improves peripheral vasodilatation in healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco V. Santos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Interferential electrical stimulation (IES, which may be linked to greater penetration of deep tissue, may restore blood flow by sympathetic nervous modulation; however, studies have found no association between the frequency and duration of the application and blood flow. We hypothesized that 30 min of IES applied to the ganglion stellate region might improve blood flow redistribution. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of IES on metaboreflex activation in healthy individuals. METHOD: Interferential electrical stimulation or a placebo stimulus (same protocol without electrical output was applied to the stellate ganglion region in eleven healthy subjects (age 25±1.3 years prior to exercise. Mean blood pressure (MBP, heart rate (HR, calf blood flow (CBF and calf vascular resistance (CVR were measured throughout exercise protocols (submaximal static handgrip exercise and with recovery periods with or without postexercise circulatory occlusion (PECO+ and PECO -, respectively. Muscle metaboreflex control of calf vascular resistance was estimated by subtracting the area under the curve when circulation was occluded from the area under the curve from the AUC without circulatory occlusion. RESULTS: At peak exercise, increases in mean blood pressure were attenuated by IES (p<0.05, and the effect persisted under both the PECO+ and PECO- treatments. IES promoted higher CBF and lower CVR during exercise and recovery. Likewise, IES induced a reduction in the estimated muscle metaboreflex control (placebo, 21±5 units vs. IES, 6±3, p<0.01. CONCLUSION: Acute application of IES prior to exercise attenuates the increase in blood pressure and vasoconstriction during exercise and metaboreflex activation in healthy subjects.

  1. Blood lead levels and chronic blood loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manci, E.A.; Cabaniss, M.L.; Boerth, R.C.; Blackburn, W.R.

    1986-03-01

    Over 90% of lead in blood is bound to the erythrocytes. This high affinity of lead for red cells may mean that chronic blood loss is a significant means for excretion of lead. This study sought correlations between blood lead levels and clinical conditions involving chronic blood loss. During May, June and July, 146 patients with normal hematocrits and red cell indices were identified from the hospital and clinic populations. For each patient, age, race, sex and medical history were noted, and a whole blood sample was analyzed by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Age-and race-matched pairs showed a significant correlation of chronic blood loss with lead levels. Patients with the longest history of blood loss (menstruating women) had the lowest level (mean 6.13 ..mu..g/dl, range 3.6-10.3 ..mu..g/dl). Post-menopausal women had levels (7.29 ..mu..g/dl, 1.2-14 ..mu..g/dl) comparable to men with peptic ulcer disease, or colon carcinoma (7.31 ..mu..g/dl, 5.3-8.6 ..mu..g/dl). The highest levels were among men who had no history of bleeding problems (12.39 ..mu..g/dl, 2.08-39.35 ..mu..g/dl). Chronic blood loss may be a major factor responsible for sexual differences in blood lead levels. Since tissue deposition of environmental pollutants is implicated in diseases, menstruation may represent a survival advantage for women.

  2. Multielectrode intrafascicular and extraneural stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltink, Petrus H.; van Alste, Jan A.; Boom, H.B.K.

    1989-01-01

    The relationship between nerve stimulation, pulse amplitude and isometric muscle force was measured to investigate recruitment of motor units. Force addition experiments were performed to obtain insight in the intersection of motor unit groups recruited by different electrodes. Intrafascicular and

  3. Noninvasive Stimulation of the Human Brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo; Rothwell, John; Capogna, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Noninvasive brain stimulation methods, such as transcranial electric stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation are widely used tools for both basic research and clinical applications. However, the cortical circuits underlying their effects are poorly defined. Here we review the current...

  4. Economics of nuclear gas stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, G W [Austral Oil Company Incorporated, Houston, TX (United States); Coffer, H F; Luetkehans, G R [CER Geonuclear Corporation, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1970-05-01

    Nuclear stimulation of the Mesaverde Formation in the Piceance Basin appears to be the only available method that can release the contained gas economically. In the Rulison Field alone estimates show six to eight trillion cubic feet of gas may be made available by nuclear means, and possibly one hundred trillion cubic feet could be released in the Piceance Basin. Several problems remain to be solved before this tremendous gas reserve can be tapped. Among these are (1) rates of production following nuclear stimulation; (2) costs of nuclear stimulation; (3) radioactivity of the chimney gas; and (4) development of the ideal type of device to carry out the stimulations. Each of these problems is discussed in detail with possible solutions suggested. First and foremost is the rate at which gas can be delivered following nuclear stimulation. Calculations have been made for expected production behavior following a 5-kiloton device and a 40-kiloton device with different permeabilities. These are shown, along with conventional production history. The calculations show that rates of production will be sufficient if costs can be controlled. Costs of nuclear stimulation must be drastically reduced for a commercial process. Project Rulison will cost approximately $3.7 million, excluding lease costs, preliminary tests, and well costs. At such prices, nothing can possibly be commercial; however, these costs can come down in a logical step-wise fashion. Radiation contamination of the gas remains a problem. Three possible solutions to this problem are included. (author)

  5. Economics of nuclear gas stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, G.W.; Coffer, H.F.; Luetkehans, G.R.

    1970-01-01

    Nuclear stimulation of the Mesaverde Formation in the Piceance Basin appears to be the only available method that can release the contained gas economically. In the Rulison Field alone estimates show six to eight trillion cubic feet of gas may be made available by nuclear means, and possibly one hundred trillion cubic feet could be released in the Piceance Basin. Several problems remain to be solved before this tremendous gas reserve can be tapped. Among these are (1) rates of production following nuclear stimulation; (2) costs of nuclear stimulation; (3) radioactivity of the chimney gas; and (4) development of the ideal type of device to carry out the stimulations. Each of these problems is discussed in detail with possible solutions suggested. First and foremost is the rate at which gas can be delivered following nuclear stimulation. Calculations have been made for expected production behavior following a 5-kiloton device and a 40-kiloton device with different permeabilities. These are shown, along with conventional production history. The calculations show that rates of production will be sufficient if costs can be controlled. Costs of nuclear stimulation must be drastically reduced for a commercial process. Project Rulison will cost approximately $3.7 million, excluding lease costs, preliminary tests, and well costs. At such prices, nothing can possibly be commercial; however, these costs can come down in a logical step-wise fashion. Radiation contamination of the gas remains a problem. Three possible solutions to this problem are included. (author)

  6. Labor stimulation with oxytocin: effects on obstetrical and neonatal outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Hidalgo-Lopezosa

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: to evaluate the effects of labor stimulation with oxytocin on maternal and neonatal outcomes. Method: descriptive and analytical study with 338 women who gave birth at a tertiary hospital. Obstetric and neonatal variables were measured and compared in women submitted and non-submitted to stimulation with oxytocin. Statistics were performed using Chi-square test, Fisher exact test, Student t-test; and crude Odds Ratio with 95% confidence interval were calculated. A p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: stimulation with oxytocin increases the rates of cesarean sections, epidural anesthesia and intrapartum maternal fever in primiparous and multiparous women. It has also been associated with low pH values of umbilical cord blood and with a shorter duration of the first stage of labor in primiparous women. However, it did not affect the rates of 3rd and 4th degree perineal lacerations, episiotomies, advanced neonatal resuscitation, 5-minute Apgar scores and meconium. Conclusion: stimulation with oxytocin should not be used systematically, but only in specific cases. These findings provide further evidence to health professionals and midwives on the use of oxytocin during labor. Under normal conditions, women should be informed of the possible effects of labor stimulation with oxytocin.

  7. Peripheral nerve magnetic stimulation: influence of tissue non-homogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papazov Sava P

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peripheral nerves are situated in a highly non-homogeneous environment, including muscles, bones, blood vessels, etc. Time-varying magnetic field stimulation of the median and ulnar nerves in the carpal region is studied, with special consideration of the influence of non-homogeneities. Methods A detailed three-dimensional finite element model (FEM of the anatomy of the wrist region was built to assess the induced currents distribution by external magnetic stimulation. The electromagnetic field distribution in the non-homogeneous domain was defined as an internal Dirichlet problem using the finite element method. The boundary conditions were obtained by analysis of the vector potential field excited by external current-driven coils. Results The results include evaluation and graphical representation of the induced current field distribution at various stimulation coil positions. Comparative study for the real non-homogeneous structure with anisotropic conductivities of the tissues and a mock homogeneous media is also presented. The possibility of achieving selective stimulation of either of the two nerves is assessed. Conclusion The model developed could be useful in theoretical prediction of the current distribution in the nerves during diagnostic stimulation and therapeutic procedures involving electromagnetic excitation. The errors in applying homogeneous domain modeling rather than real non-homogeneous biological structures are demonstrated. The practical implications of the applied approach are valid for any arbitrary weakly conductive medium.

  8. Diurnal blood pressure changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asayama, Kei; Satoh, Michihiro; Kikuya, Masahiro

    2018-05-23

    The definition of diurnal blood pressure changes varies widely, which can be confusing. Short-term blood pressure variability during a 24-h period and the dipping status of diurnal blood pressure can be captured by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, and these metrics are reported to have prognostic significance for cardiovascular complications. Morning blood pressure surge also indicates this risk, but its effect may be limited to populations with specific conditions. Meanwhile, the combined use of conventional office blood pressure and out-of-office blood pressure allows us to identify people with white-coat and masked hypertension. Current home devices can measure nocturnal blood pressure during sleep more conveniently than ambulatory monitoring; however, we should pay attention to blood pressure measurement conditions regardless of whether they are in a home, ambulatory, or office setting. The relatively poor reproducibility of diurnal blood pressure changes, including the nocturnal fall of blood pressure, is another underestimated issue to be addressed. Although information on diurnal blood pressure changes is expected to be used more effectively in the future, we should also keep in mind that blood pressure levels have remained central to the primary and secondary prevention of blood pressure-related cardiovascular diseases in clinical practice.

  9. Red blood cell alloimmunization after blood transfusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schonewille, Henk

    2008-01-01

    Current pretransfusion policy requires the patients’ serum to be tested for the presence of irregular red blood cell antibodies. In case of an antibody, red blood cells lacking the corresponding antigen are transfused after an antiglobulin crossmatch. The aim of the studies in this thesis is

  10. Cerebral asymmetry in the control of cardiovascular functioning: evidence from lateral vibrotactile stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Paul S; Hubbard, Tyler; Yung, Raegan C; Ferguson, Brad J; Drago, Valeria; Harrison, David W

    2013-01-01

    Research has supported hemispheric specialisation in the regulation of cardiovascular functioning, with the left hemisphere being associated with parasympathetic functioning and the right hemisphere with sympathetic functioning. We sought to investigate this relationship further using vibrotactile stimulation applied to the palms. Our prediction was that vibrotactile stimulation applied to the left hand would result in increased heart rate and blood pressure, and that stimulation applied to the right hand would result in decreased heart rate and blood pressure. The results indicated significant differences in heart rate change scores in the predicted direction. No differences were noted for systolic or diastolic blood pressure. Hence the findings provide partial support for the lateralisation of autonomic functions.

  11. Variability of insulin-stimulated myocardial glucose uptake in healthy elderly subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Klaus F; Hove, Jens D; Freiberg, Jacob

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess regional and global variability of insulin-stimulated myocardial glucose uptake in healthy elderly subjects and to evaluate potentially responsible factors. Twenty men with a mean age of 64 years, no history of cardiovascular disease, and normal blood pressure...... rest and hyperaemic blood flow during dipyridamole infusion were measured with nitrogen-13 ammonia and positron emission tomography in 16 left ventricular myocardial segments. Intra-individual and inter-individual variability of insulin-stimulated myocardial glucose uptake [relative dispersion...... = (standard deviation/mean)] was 13% and 29% respectively. Although inter-individual variability of glucose uptake and blood flow at rest was of the same magnitude, no correlation was found between these measures. Regional and global insulin-stimulated myocardial glucose uptake correlated linearly with whole...

  12. Stimulation of prostacyclin synthesis in rats by phenobarbital treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pynadath, T.I.; Haghighi, A.Z.

    1986-01-01

    Prostacyclin (PGI 2 ), synthesized in the endothelial cells of arteries, is known to inhibit the aggregation of platelets and hence thrombosis in blood. Low levels of PGI 2 have been observed in coronary heart disease which is associated with low levels of HDL in blood. Recently, it has been shown that synthesis of PGI 2 in vitro, is stimulated by HDL. Hence it seems likely that higher level of HDL in blood would increase the level of PGI 2 in blood. Since phenobarbital treatment is known to increase blood HDL levels in humans and animals, this study was undertaken to determine the effect of phenobarbital treatment on the synthesis of PGI 2 . Coronary vascular microsomes were prepared from Sprague Dawley rats treated with phenobarbital for two days. The PGI 2 synthesizing activity was assayed by incubating these microsomes with 1- 14 C-arachidonic acid and by determining the 14 C-activity recovered in 6-ketoprostaglandin F/sub 1α/, the stable decomposition product of PGI 2 . Phenobarbital treatment increased the synthesis of PGI 2 nearly 2-fold. Addition of phenobarbital did not increase PGI 2 synthesis in control microsomes; however, the synthesis was increased by HDL. Thus, it appears that the observed increase in PGI 2 synthesis resulting from phenobarbital treatment was partly, if not totally, due to the increase in blood HDL level

  13. Electrical stimulation and motor recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Wise

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, several investigators have successfully regenerated axons in animal spinal cords without locomotor recovery. One explanation is that the animals were not trained to use the regenerated connections. Intensive locomotor training improves walking recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI) in people, and >90% of people with incomplete SCI recover walking with training. Although the optimal timing, duration, intensity, and type of locomotor training are still controversial, many investigators have reported beneficial effects of training on locomotor function. The mechanisms by which training improves recovery are not clear, but an attractive theory is available. In 1949, Donald Hebb proposed a famous rule that has been paraphrased as "neurons that fire together, wire together." This rule provided a theoretical basis for a widely accepted theory that homosynaptic and heterosynaptic activity facilitate synaptic formation and consolidation. In addition, the lumbar spinal cord has a locomotor center, called the central pattern generator (CPG), which can be activated nonspecifically with electrical stimulation or neurotransmitters to produce walking. The CPG is an obvious target to reconnect after SCI. Stimulating motor cortex, spinal cord, or peripheral nerves can modulate lumbar spinal cord excitability. Motor cortex stimulation causes long-term changes in spinal reflexes and synapses, increases sprouting of the corticospinal tract, and restores skilled forelimb function in rats. Long used to treat chronic pain, motor cortex stimuli modify lumbar spinal network excitability and improve lower extremity motor scores in humans. Similarly, epidural spinal cord stimulation has long been used to treat pain and spasticity. Subthreshold epidural stimulation reduces the threshold for locomotor activity. In 2011, Harkema et al. reported lumbosacral epidural stimulation restores motor control in chronic motor complete patients. Peripheral nerve or functional electrical

  14. Does bipolar pacemaker current activate blood platelets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjesdal, Grunde; Hansen, Annebirthe Bo; Brandes, Axel

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether bipolar pacemaker current lead can activate blood platelets. The null hypothesis was that 1 minute of electrical stimulation of platelets would not influence their subsequent reactivity to adenosine diphosphate (ADP). BACKGROUND: Both...... platelets and muscle cells contain actin and myosin filaments, and both cells are activated following calcium influx. Muscle cells open their calcium channels and contract when exposed to an electric current. Current through a bipolar pacemaker lead will expose a small volume of blood, including platelets......, to the depolarizing current. Platelet activation may ensue, resulting in aggregation, release reaction, and contraction. In contrast, a unipolar pacemaker system will not depolarize blood, but transmit current directly into the myocardium, and the current afterward passes through other tissues before returning...

  15. A Coherent Pattern Among Social Behavior, Blood Pressure, Corticosterone and Catecholamine Measures in Individual Male Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    FOKKEMA, DS; SMIT, K; VANDERGUGTEN, J; KOOLHAAS, JM

    1988-01-01

    Behavioral and physiological responses of 18 chronically cannulated male TMD-S3 rats were assessed during various social interactions with conspecifics, both with and without the possibility for physical contact (social vs. psychosocial stimulation). Response magnitudes (behavior, blood pressure,

  16. effects of catha edulis' leaf extract on blood chemistry and kidney

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-06

    Jun 6, 2014 ... its stimulating and euphoric effects have been shown to provide a strong inducement for .... disintegration of the active ingredients (12). The leaves were ..... products which are excreted through urine. High blood urea nitrogen ...

  17. The influence of transcutaneous electrical neurostimulation (TENS) on human cerebral blood flow velocities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Laan, Mark; van Dijk, J. Marc C.; Elting, Jan-Willem J.; Fidler, Vaclav; Staal, Michiel J.

    It has been shown that transcutaneous electrical neurostimulation (TENS) reduces sympathetic tone. Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has proven qualities to improve coronary, peripheral, and cerebral blood circulation. Therefore, we postulate that TENS and SCS affect the autonomic nervous system in

  18. Cocoa, blood pressure, and cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Claudio; Desideri, Giovambattista; Ferri, Livia; Proietti, Ilenia; Di Agostino, Stefania; Martella, Letizia; Mai, Francesca; Di Giosia, Paolo; Grassi, Davide

    2015-11-18

    High blood pressure is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular events worldwide. Clinical and epidemiological studies suggest that cocoa-rich products reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. According to this, cocoa has a high content in polyphenols, especially flavanols. Flavanols have been described to exert favorable effects on endothelium-derived vasodilation via the stimulation of nitric oxide-synthase, the increased availability of l-arginine, and the decreased degradation of NO. Cocoa may also have a beneficial effect by protecting against oxidative stress alterations and via decreased platelet aggregation, decreased lipid oxidation, and insulin resistance. These effects are associated with a decrease of blood pressure and a favorable trend toward a reduction in cardiovascular events and strokes. Previous meta-analyses have shown that cocoa-rich foods may reduce blood pressure. Long-term trials investigating the effect of cocoa products are needed to determine whether or not blood pressure is reduced on a chronic basis by daily ingestion of cocoa. Furthermore, long-term trials investigating the effect of cocoa on clinical outcomes are also needed to assess whether cocoa has an effect on cardiovascular events. A 3 mmHg systolic blood pressure reduction has been estimated to decrease the risk of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. This paper summarizes new findings concerning cocoa effects on blood pressure and cardiovascular health, focusing on putative mechanisms of action and "nutraceutical " viewpoints.

  19. A programmable and portable NMES device for drop foot correction and blood flow assist applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Paul P; Corley, Gavin J; O'Keeffe, Derek T; Conway, Richard; Olaighin, Gearóid

    2009-04-01

    The Duo-STIM, a new, programmable and portable neuromuscular stimulation system for drop foot correction and blood flow assist applications is presented. The system consists of a programmer unit and a portable, programmable stimulator unit. The portable stimulator features fully programmable, sensor-controlled, constant-voltage, dual-channel stimulation and accommodates a range of customized stimulation profiles. Trapezoidal and free-form adaptive stimulation intensity envelope algorithms are provided for drop foot correction applications, while time dependent and activity dependent algorithms are provided for blood flow assist applications. A variety of sensor types can be used with the portable unit, including force sensitive resistor-based foot switches and MEMS-based accelerometer and gyroscope devices. The paper provides a detailed description of the hardware and block-level system design for both units. The programming and operating procedures for the system are also presented. Finally, functional bench test results for the system are presented.

  20. Evoked Electromyographically Controlled Electrical Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuhiro Hayashibe

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Time-variant muscle responses under electrical stimulation (ES are often problematic for all the applications of neuroprosthetic muscle control. This situation limits the range of ES usage in relevant areas, mainly due to muscle fatigue and also to changes in stimulation electrode contact conditions, especially in transcutaneous ES. Surface electrodes are still the most widely used in noninvasive applications.Electrical field variations caused by changes in the stimulation contact condition markedly affect the resulting total muscle activation levels. Fatigue phenomena under functional electrical stimulation (FES are also well known source of time-varying characteristics coming from muscle response under ES. Therefore it is essential to monitor the actual muscle state and assess the expected muscle response by ES so as to improve the current ES system in favour of adaptive muscle-response-aware FES control. To deal with this issue, we have been studying a novel control technique using evoked electromyography (eEMG signals to compensate for these muscle time-variances under ES for stable neuroprosthetic muscle control. In this perspective article, I overview the background of this topic and highlight important points to be aware of when using ES to induce the desired muscle activation regardless of the time-variance. I also demonstrate how to deal with the common critical problem of ES to move toward robust neuroprosthetic muscle control with the Evoked Electromyographically Controlled Electrical Stimulation paradigm.

  1. Low blood sugar - newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007306.htm Low blood sugar - newborns To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A low blood sugar level in newborn babies is also ...

  2. Blood donation before surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000367.htm Blood donation before surgery To use the sharing features on ... team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Blood Transfusion and Donation Surgery Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., ...

  3. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools ...

  4. Low blood sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a medical emergency. It can cause seizures and brain damage. Severe low blood sugar that causes you to become unconscious is called hypoglycemic or insulin shock. Even one episode of severe low blood ...

  5. Understanding Blood Pressure Readings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Understanding Blood Pressure Readings Updated:Jun 1,2018 What do your blood ... and Live Our Interactive Cardiovascular Library has detailed animations and illustrations to help you learn about conditions, ...

  6. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day Diabetes Basics Home Symptoms Diagnosis America's Diabetes Challenge Type 1 Type 2 Facts About Type 2 Enroll ...

  7. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... known as venous thromboembolism, are highly preventable (see prevention tips below). The U.S. Surgeon General has issued ... blood conditions and increase research on the causes, prevention, and treatment. Blood clots are also potentially dangerous ...

  8. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... Emerging Immunotherapies Registration Schedule & Program Meeting on Lymphoma Biology Registration Schedule & Program Abstracts 60th ASH Annual Meeting & ... Malignancies Consultative Hematology Course ASH Meeting on Lymphoma Biology ASH Workshop on Genome Editing Publications Blood Blood ...

  9. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  10. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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  11. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  13. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood ... For Parents & Kids Safe at School Everyday Life Children and Type 2 Diabetes Know Your Rights Employment ...

  14. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... increased by the following: Previous blood clots A genetic predisposition to blood clots Obesity Prolonged immobility (e. ... Be aware of risk factors. Know your family history. Make sure your doctor knows about any history ...

  15. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... Be aware of risk factors. Know your family history. Make sure your doctor knows about any history of blood clots or blood clotting disorders in ... Support Opportunities | Privacy Policy | Terms of Service | Contact Us

  16. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... ASH Apps Share Your Idea Donate My Account Search Show Main Menu + About Awards Membership ASH Foundation ... help: Results of Clinical Studies Published in Blood Search Blood , the official journal of ASH, for the ...

  17. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... Hematologist Clinical Trials Talking with Your Doctor Patient Group Links Advocacy Toolkit Home For Patients Blood Disorders ... a request to the Blood Publishing Office . Patient Groups A list of Web links to patient groups ...

  18. [Prospects in blood transfusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouger, P

    2003-04-01

    What will be the evolution of blood transfusion in the next 10 years? What are the scientific and medical arguments to help the decision makers to propose the developments? Many scientific and clinical studies show that blood substitutes are not ready for use in man. So, for a long time, blood collection in man will still be a necessity to prepare cell concentrates (red blood cells and platelets) and fresh frozen plasma. During this period, blood safety will be based on development of testing technics and preparation processes of blood products. Another major point will be a better clinical use of blood derivates. Cellular therapy will be probably only a way of diversification in blood transfusion centers in partnership with hospitals.

  19. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... In This Section Agenda for Hematology Research Precision Medicine Initiative Research Registry Research Recommendations Research Programs and ... blood clots are treated with an anticoagulant, a medicine that prevents the blood from clotting. Certain anticoagulants ...

  20. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... pregnancy: Be aware of risk factors. Know your family history. Make sure your doctor knows about any ... blood clots or blood clotting disorders in your family. Remain active, with your doctor's approval. Be aware ...

  1. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... breast cancer and AIDS combined. Your gift today will help us get closer to curing diabetes and ... blood and then treating high blood glucose early will help you avoid problems associated with hyperglycemia. How ...

  2. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... harming your baby. Jump To: Am I at Risk? The risk of developing a blood clot during pregnancy is ... prevent blood clots during pregnancy: Be aware of risk factors. Know your family history. Make sure your ...

  3. Blood Pressure Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    High blood pressure, also called hypertension, usually has no symptoms. But it can cause serious problems such as stroke, heart ... kidney failure. If you cannot control your high blood pressure through lifestyle changes such as losing weight and ...

  4. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are pregnant, or you have just had a baby, you are at greater risk of developing a ... Blood clots are also potentially dangerous to your baby. Blood clots can form inside the placenta, cutting ...

  5. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to top How are Blood Clots in Pregnant Women Treated? Typically, blood clots are treated with an ... 0544 | Fax 202-776-0545 ASH Store ASH Job Center ASH Apps Share Your Idea Donate Research ...

  6. Ethylene glycol blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003564.htm Ethylene glycol blood test To use the sharing features ... enable JavaScript. This test measures the level of ethylene glycol in the blood. Ethylene glycol is a ...

  7. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood clots A genetic predisposition to blood clots Obesity Prolonged immobility (e.g., bedrest, long distance travel) Multiple births Increased maternal age Other medical illness (e.g., cancer, infection) ...

  8. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood clots A genetic predisposition to blood clots Obesity Prolonged immobility (e.g., bedrest, long distance travel) Multiple births Increased maternal age Other medical illness (e.g., cancer, infection) ...

  9. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day Diabetes Basics Home Symptoms Diagnosis America's Diabetes Challenge Type ...

  10. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... Action on DVT and PE to raise public awareness of these blood conditions and increase research on ... Increased maternal age Other medical illness (e.g., cancer, infection) back to top How are Blood Clots ...

  11. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose ... Day in the Life of Diabetes Famous People Working to Stop Diabetes Common Terms Diabetes Statistics Infographics ...

  12. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... In This Section Agenda for Hematology Research Precision Medicine Initiative Research Registry Research Recommendations Research Programs and Awards View all Blood Current Issue First Edition Abstracts Blood Advances A peer-reviewed journal with a unique focus ...

  13. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... an immediate impact on your practice Summit on Emerging Immunotherapies Registration Schedule & Program Meeting on Lymphoma Biology ... blood clots are treated with an anticoagulant, a medicine that prevents the blood from clotting. Certain anticoagulants ...

  14. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... increased by the following: Previous blood clots A genetic predisposition to blood clots Obesity Prolonged immobility (e. ... 2018 by American Society of Hematology Support Opportunities | Privacy Policy | Terms of Service | Contact Us

  15. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A genetic predisposition to blood clots Obesity Prolonged immobility (e.g., bedrest, long distance travel) Multiple births ... treating blood conditions. back to top Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome: A Patient's Journey back to top Where Can ...

  16. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Current Issue First Edition Abstracts Blood Advances A peer-reviewed journal with a unique focus on scholarly ... Current Issue First Edition Abstracts Blood Advances A peer-reviewed, online only, open access journal with a ...

  17. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood clots A genetic predisposition to blood clots Obesity Prolonged immobility (e.g., bedrest, long distance travel) ... of practicing hematologists in your area. Learn more AMERICAN SOCIETY OF HEMATOLOGY 2021 L Street NW, Suite ...

  18. Blood Test: Bilirubin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Blood Test: Bilirubin KidsHealth / For Parents / Blood Test: Bilirubin What's in ... liver or kidneys) is working. What Is a Bilirubin Test? A bilirubin test measures how much bilirubin ...

  19. Antidiuretic hormone blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003702.htm Antidiuretic hormone blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Antidiuretic blood test measures the level of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) in ...

  20. BUN - blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003474.htm BUN - blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... for the Test Many medicines can interfere with blood test results. Your health care provider will tell you ...

  1. HCG blood test - qualitative

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003509.htm HCG blood test - qualitative To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A qualitative HCG blood test checks if there is a hormone called human ...

  2. ACE blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003567.htm ACE blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... Alternative Names Serum angiotensin-converting enzyme; SACE Images Blood test References Carty RP, Pincus MR, Sarafraz-Yazdi E. ...

  3. LDH isoenzyme blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003499.htm LDH isoenzyme blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... Names LD; LDH; Lactic (lactate) dehydrogenase isoenzymes Images Blood test References Carty RP, Pincus MR, Sarafraz-Yazdi E. ...

  4. CEA blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcinoembryonic antigen blood test ... doing so for a short time before the test. ... When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel ... may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. This soon goes away.

  5. Methylmalonic acid blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003565.htm Methylmalonic acid blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The methylmalonic acid blood test measures the amount of methylmalonic acid in the ...

  6. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health ...

  7. TBG - blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003374.htm TBG - blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The TBG blood test measures the level of a protein that moves ...

  8. Calcitonin blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003699.htm Calcitonin blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The calcitonin blood test measures the level of the hormone calcitonin in ...

  9. Aldolase blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003566.htm Aldolase blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... risk any time the skin is broken) Images Blood test References Berridge BR, Van Vleet JF, Herman E. ...

  10. Glucagon blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003716.htm Glucagon blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A glucagon blood test measures the amount of a hormone called glucagon ...

  11. Leucine aminopeptidase blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003559.htm Leucine aminopeptidase blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... Alternative Names Serum leucine aminopeptidase; LAP - serum Images Blood test References Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) - ...

  12. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in the field Hematology 2017 A collection of articles from the 2017 ASH Annual Meeting Education Program Blood: How I Treat A compendium of Blood articles updated to reflect the most recent scientific research ...

  13. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... on Lymphoma Biology ASH Workshop on Genome Editing Publications Blood Blood Advances The Hematologist ASH Clinical News ASH Self-Assessment Program Hematology , ASH Education Program About Awards Membership ASH Foundation Global Initiatives ...

  14. Blood Sugar - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mass Health Promotion Clearinghouse Massachusetts Department of Public Health Fasting Blood Sugar Test - español (Spanish) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Ukrainian (українська ) Expand Section Fasting Blood ...

  15. Blood Test: Testosterone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Test: Estradiol Precocious Puberty Understanding Puberty Endocrine System Male Reproductive System Getting a Blood Test (Video) All About Puberty Blood Test (Video) Male Reproductive System View more About Us Contact Us Partners Editorial ...

  16. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... inside the placenta, cutting off blood flow and harming your baby. Jump To: Am I at Risk? ... Blood Advances The Hematologist ASH Clinical News ASH Self-Assessment Program Hematology , ASH Education Program About Awards ...

  17. High blood sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alternative Names Hyperglycemia - self care; High blood glucose - self care; Diabetes - high blood sugar References American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes - 2017: 4. Lifestyle management and 6. Glycemic targets. Diabetes Care . 2017;40( ...

  18. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor ...

  19. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your blood and then treating high blood glucose early will help you avoid problems associated with hyperglycemia. ... to detect hyperglycemia so you can treat it early — before it gets worse. If you're new ...

  20. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To ... Email: Sign Up Thank you for signing up ' + ' '); $('.survey-form').show(); }, success: function (data) { $('#survey-errors').remove(); $('. ...

  1. High blood pressure - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007696.htm High blood pressure - children To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. High blood pressure (hypertension) is an increase in the force of ...

  2. Preventing High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Heart Disease Cholesterol Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Preventing High Blood Pressure: Healthy Living Habits Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... meal and snack options can help you avoid high blood pressure and its complications. Be sure to eat plenty ...

  3. High blood pressure - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007329.htm High blood pressure - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. High blood pressure (hypertension) is an increase in the force of ...

  4. High blood pressure medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007484.htm High blood pressure medicines To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Treating high blood pressure will help prevent problems such as heart disease, ...

  5. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to top How are Blood Clots in Pregnant Women Treated? Typically, blood clots are treated with an ... Image Bank Advocacy Action Alerts Policy News Advocacy Leadership Institute Policy Statements Testimony & Correspondence Meetings ASH Annual ...

  6. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... presentations, that can help you make an immediate impact on your practice Summit on Emerging Immunotherapies Registration ... blood clots are treated with an anticoagulant, a medicine that prevents the blood from clotting. Certain anticoagulants ...

  7. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to top How are Blood Clots in Pregnant Women Treated? Typically, blood clots are treated with an ... of Web links to patient groups and other organizations that provide information. back to top ASH Foundation ...

  8. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Section Action Alerts Advocacy Toolkit Policy News Sickle Cell Disease Initiative Policy Statements Congressional Fellowship Testimony and ... Malignancies Consultative Hematology Course ASH Meeting on Lymphoma Biology ASH Workshop on Genome Editing Publications Blood Blood ...

  9. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to top How are Blood Clots in Pregnant Women Treated? Typically, blood clots are treated with an ... Programs and Awards ASH Agenda for Hematology Research Education For Clinicians For Trainees For Educators For Patients ...

  10. Cytokine production of in vitro stimulated peripheral lymphocytes during the course of pregnancy and pseudopregnancy in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, MM; Eenling, R; van der Schaaf, G; Moes, H; Heineman, MJ; Vos, P

    Problem Does maternal lymphocyte cytokine production after in vitro stimulation vary with the stage of pregnancy in the rat? Method of study Blood samples were taken during the estrus cycle in rats (n = 11). Thereafter, rats were rendered pregnant (n = 6) or pseudopregnant (n = 5) and blood samples

  11. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Carbohydrate Counting Make Your Carbs Count Glycemic Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type ... Checking Your Blood Glucose A1C and eAG Hypoglycemia (Low blood glucose) Hyperglycemia (High blood glucose) Dawn Phenomenon ...

  12. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... copy by e-mailing a request to the Blood Publishing Office . Patient Groups A list of Web links to patient groups and other organizations that provide information. back to top ASH ... Blood Blood Advances The Hematologist ASH Clinical News ASH ...

  13. THE WHITE BLOOD ANCESTOR?

    OpenAIRE

    M.Arulmani; V.R.Hema Latha

    2014-01-01

    This scientific research article focus that “Red colour blood” of human shall be considered as the 3rd generation Blood and the Human on origin shall be considered having white colour Blood. The white colour blood of human Ancestor shall be considered composed of only ions of Photon, Electron, Proton and free from Hydrogen, Carbon, Nitrogen, Ozone.

  14. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by Mail Close www.diabetes.org > Living With Diabetes > Treatment and Care > Blood Glucose Testing Share: Print Page ... and-how-tos, . In this section Living With Diabetes Treatment and Care Blood Glucose Testing Checking Your Blood ...

  15. Blood Glucose Determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Nybo, Mads; Cadamuro, Janne

    2018-01-01

    The measurement of fasting plasma glucose may be biased by a time-dependent decrease of glucose in blood tubes, mainly attributable to blood cell metabolism when glycolysis is not rapidly inhibited or blood cells cannot be rapidly separated from plasma. Although glycolysis inhibitors such as sodium...

  16. Blood Transfusions (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Blood Transfusions KidsHealth / For Teens / Blood Transfusions What's in this ... in his or her body. What Is a Blood Transfusion? A transfusion is a simple medical procedure that ...

  17. Modelling blood safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, M.P.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis describes the development and application of methods and models to support decision making on safety measures aimed at preventing the transmission of infections by blood donors. Safety measures refer to screening tests for blood donors, quarantine periods for blood plasma, or methods for

  18. Right patient, Right blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selberg, Hanne; Madsen, Trine Stougaard

    2014-01-01

    Right patient, Right Blood Simulation based training in blood transfusion practice in nursing education Background: In spite of strict checking procedures to handling transfusion of blood severe adverse reactions are likely to happen and the major cause of morbidity occurs to be liable to human...

  19. Red blood cell production

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bone marrow of bones. Stem cells in the red bone marrow called hemocytoblasts give rise to all of the formed elements in blood. If a hemocytoblast commits to becoming a cell called a proerythroblast, it will develop into a new red blood cell. The formation of a red blood ...

  20. Centrifugal blood pump 603

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Centrifugal blood pump 603 pressure obtained for real blood, as shown in figure 6, is a little higher than that for glycerin aqua Solution with the same viscosity as blood. This may indicate the effect of slight non-. Newtonian turbulent flow. The radial whirl motion of the impeller was observed by dual laser position sensors.

  1. Blood platelet inventory management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haijema, R.; van Dijk, N. M.; van der Wal, J.; Boucherie, Richard J.; van Dijk, Nico M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper illustrates how MDP or Stochastic Dynamic Programming (SDP) can be used in practice for blood management at blood banks; both to set regular production quantities for perishable blood products (platelets) and how to do so in irregular periods (as holidays). The state space is too large to

  2. Effect of glibenclamide on insulin release at moderate and high blood glucose levels in normal man

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligtenberg, JJM; Venker, CE; Sluiter, WJ; VanHaeften, TW

    Insulin release occurs in two phases; sulphonylurea derivatives may have different potencies in stimulating first-and second-phase insulin release. We studied the effect of glibenclamide on insulin secretion at submaximally and maximally stimulating blood glucose levels with a primed hyperglycaemic

  3. Impaired production of proinflammatory cytokines in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation in elderly humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruunsgaard, H.; Pedersen, Agnes Nadelmann; Schroll, M.

    1999-01-01

    following LPS stimulation, representing an ex vivo model of sepsis. Levels of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), IL-1 beta and IL-6 in whole blood supernatants were measured after in vitro LPS stimulation for 24 h in 168 elderly humans aged 81 years from the 1914 cohort in Glostrup, Denmark and in 91...... of proinflammatory cytokines compared with young men, but this difference was blurred by ageing. No relation was found between circulating plasma levels of TNF-alpha and levels after in vitro LPS stimulation. In conclusion, decreased production of TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta after exposure to LPS may reflect impaired...

  4. Treatment of renal anemia: Erythropoiesis stimulating agents and beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Biggar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Anemia, complicating the course of chronic kidney disease, is a significant parameter, whether interpreted as subjective impairment or an objective prognostic marker. Renal anemia is predominantly due to relative erythropoietin (EPO deficiency. EPO inhibits apoptosis of erythrocyte precursors. Studies using EPO substitution have shown that increasing hemoglobin (Hb levels up to 10-11 g/dL is associated with clinical improvement. However, it has not been unequivocally proven that further intensification of erythropoiesis stimulating agent (ESA therapy actually leads to a comprehensive benefit for the patient, especially as ESAs are potentially associated with increased cerebro-cardiovascular events. Recently, new developments offer interesting options not only via stimulating erythropoeisis but also by employing additional mechanisms. The inhibition of activin, a member of the transforming growth factor superfamily, has the potential to correct anemia by stimulating liberation of mature erythrocyte forms and also to mitigate disturbed mineral and bone metabolism as well. Hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors also show pleiotropic effects, which are at the focus of present research and have the potential of reducing mortality. However, conventional ESAs offer an extensive body of safety evidence, against which the newer substances should be measured. Carbamylated EPO is devoid of Hb augmenting effects whilst exerting promising tissue protective properties. Additionally, the role of hepcidin antagonists is discussed. An innovative new hemodialysis blood tube system, reducing blood contact with air, conveys a totally different and innocuous option to improve renal anemia by reducing mechanical hemolysis.

  5. Glucose ingestion stimulates atherothrombotic inflammation in polycystic ovary syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirwan, John P.; Rote, Neal S.; Minium, Judi

    2013-01-01

    Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have chronic low-grade inflammation that can increase the risk of atherothrombosis. We performed a cross-sectional study to examine the effect of glucose ingestion on markers of atherothrombotic inflammation in mononuclear cells (MNC) of 16 women with PCOS (8 lean, 8 obese) and 16 weight-matched controls. Activator protein-1 (AP-1) activation and the protein content of early growth response-1 (EGR-1), matrix matalloproteinases-2 (MMP2), and tissue factor (TF) were quantified from MNC obtained from blood drawn fasting and 2 h after glucose ingestion. Plasma MMP9 and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured from fasting blood samples. Truncal fat was determined by DEXA. Lean women with PCOS exhibited greater AP-1 activation and MMP2 protein content after glucose ingestion and higher plasma MMP9 and CRP levels than lean controls. Obese women with PCOS exhibited greater EGR-1 and TF protein content after glucose ingestion, and plasma CRP levels were even higher compared with lean subjects regardless of PCOS status. Truncal fat correlated with MMP9 and CRP levels and glucose-stimulated increases in AP-1 activation and EGR-1 and TF protein content. Testosterone correlated with glucose-stimulated AP-1 activation, and androstenedione correlated with MMP9 and CRP levels and glucose-stimulated AP-1 activation. Thus, both PCOS and obesity contribute to an atherothrombotic state in which excess abdominal adiposity and hyperandrogenism may be specific risk factors for developing atherothrombosis. PMID:23249695

  6. Association between ambient temperature and blood pressure and blood pressure regulators: 1831 hypertensive patients followed up for three years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Chen

    Full Text Available Several studies have suggested an association between ambient air temperature and blood pressure. However, this has not been reliably confirmed by longitudinal studies. Also, whether the reaction to temperature stimulation is modified by other factors such as antihypertensive medication is rarely investigated. The present study explores the relationship between ambient temperature and blood pressure, without and with antihypertensive medication, in a study of 1,831 hypertensive patients followed up for three years, in two or four weekly check ups, accumulating 62,452 follow-up records. Both baseline and follow-up blood pressure showed an inverse association with ambient temperature, which explained 32.4% and 65.6% of variation of systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure (P<0.05 respectively. The amplitude of individual blood pressure fluctuation with temperature throughout a year (a 29 degrees centigrade range was 9.4/7.3 mmHg. Medication with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor benazepril attenuated the blood pressure fluctuation by 2.4/1.3 mmHg each year, though the inverse association of temperature and blood pressure remained. Gender, drinking behavior and body mass index were also found to modify the association between temperature and diastolic blood pressure. The results indicate that ambient temperature may negatively regulate blood pressure. Hypertensive patients should monitor and treat blood pressure more carefully in cold days, and it could be especially important for the males, thinner people and drinkers.

  7. Noninvasive Transcranial Brain Stimulation and Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Rosen, Allyson C.; Ramkumar, Mukund; Nguyen, Tam; Hoeft, Fumiko

    2009-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) are two noninvasive brain stimulation techniques that can modulate activity in specific regions of the cortex. At this point, their use in brain stimulation is primarily investigational; however, there is clear evidence that these tools can reduce pain and modify neurophysiologic correlates of the pain experience. TMS has also been used to predict response to surgically implanted stimulation for the tre...

  8. BLOOD DOPING AND RISKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Vasić

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Doping is the way in which athletes misuse of chemicals and other types of medical interventions (eg, blood replacement, try to get ahead in the results of other athletes or their performance at the expense of their own health. The aim of this work is the analysis of blood doping and the display of negative consequences that this way of increasing capabilities brings. Method: The methodological work is done descriptively. Results: Even in 1972 at the Stockholm Institute for gymnastics and sport, first Dr. Bjorn Ekblom started having blood doping. Taken from the blood, athletes through centifuge separating red blood cells from blood plasma, which is after a month of storage in the fridge, every athlete back into the bloodstream. Tests aerobic capacity thereafter showed that the concerned athletes can run longer on average for 25% of the treadmill than before. Discussion: Blood doping carries with it serious risks, excessive amount of red cells “thickens the blood,” increased hematocrit, which reduces the heart’s ability to pump blood to the periphery. All this makes it difficult for blood to flow through blood vessels, and there is a great danger that comes to a halt in the circulation, which can cause cardiac arrest, stroke, pulmonary edema, and other complications that can be fatal.

  9. Determination of stimulation effective dose of gamma ray on guinea pig to be used for antibody production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arifin, Muchson; Soewarsono, M.

    1983-01-01

    The experiment has been performed on guinea pigs which were irradiated by gamma rays with doses of 0, 150, 300 and 600 rad. Observations were carried out on peripheral blood in regard to red blood cell, white blood cell and haemoglobine, every week after irradiation. +he result obtained showed that 150 rad was the optimal stimulation effective dose for antibody production in guinea pigs. (author)

  10. Determination of stimulation effective dose of gamma ray on guinea pig to be used for antibody production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arifin, M; Soewarsono, M [National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia). Pasar Djumat Research Centre

    1983-04-01

    The experiment has been performed on guinea pigs which were irradiated by gamma rays with doses of 0, 150, 300 and 600 rad. Observations were carried out on peripheral blood in regard to red blood cell, white blood cell and haemoglobine, every week after irradiation. The result obtained showed that 150 rad was the optimal stimulation effective dose for antibody production in guinea pigs. 10 refs.

  11. Stimulating effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaworowski, Z.

    1995-01-01

    The influence of low doses on human organism is not definite known up to now. The worldwide discussion on this topic has been presented. A lot of analysed statistical data proved that the stimulating effect of low doses of ionizing radiation really exists and can have a beneficial influence on human health. 43 refs, 4 figs, 6 tabs

  12. Ovarian stimulation and embryo quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baart, Esther; Macklon, Nick S.; Fauser, Bart J. C. M.

    To Study the effects of different ovarian stimulation approaches on oocyte and embryo quality, it is imperative to assess embryo quality with a reliable and objective method. Embryos rated as high quality by standardized morphological assessment are associated with higher implantation and pregnancy

  13. Enteral feeding without pancreatic stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaushik, Neeraj; Pietraszewski, Marie; Holst, Jens Juul

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: All forms of commonly practiced enteral feeding techniques stimulate pancreatic secretion, and only intravenous feeding avoids it. In this study, we explored the possibility of more distal enteral infusions of tube feeds to see whether activation of the ileal brake mechanism can result...

  14. Transcranial magnetic stimulation in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Rashid; Thind, Dilraj; Kocmur, Marga

    2008-11-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive and painless way of stimulating the neural tissue (cerebral cortex, spinal roots, and cranial and peripheral nerves). The first attempts at stimulating the neural tissue date back to 1896 by d'Arsonval; however, it was successfully carried out by Barker and colleagues in Sheffield, UK, in 1985. It soon became a useful tool in neuroscience for neurophysiologists and neurologists and psychiatrists. The original single-pulse TMS, largely used as an investigative tool, was further refined and developed in the early 1990s into what is known as repetitive TMS (rTMS), having a frequency range of 1-60 Hz. The stimulation by both TMS and rTMS of various cortical regions displayed alteration of movement, mood, and behavior, leading researchers to investigate a number of psychiatric and neuropsychiatric disorders, as well as to explore its therapeutic potential. There is now a large amount of literature on the use of TMS/rTMS in depression; however, its use in schizophrenia, both as an investigative and certainly as a therapeutic tool is relatively recent with a limited but increasing number of publications. In this article, we will outline the principles of TMS/rTMS and critically review their use in schizophrenia both as investigative and potential therapeutic tools.

  15. Aversive Stimulation -- Criteria for Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Patrick A.; Ohlson, Glenn A.

    Criteria for applying aversive stimulation with severely handicapped children are examined, and practical and ethical issues are considered. Factors seen to influence punishment outcomes include timing, intensity, and schedule of reinforcement. Suggested is the need for further research on the comparative effectiveness of positive and negative…

  16. Thalamic stimulation in absence epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luttjohann, A.K.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The site specific effects of two different types of electrical stimulation of the thalamus on electroencephalic epileptic activity as generated in the cortico-thalamo-cortical system were investigated in genetic epileptic WAG/Rij rats, a well characterized and validated absence

  17. Stimulation of phagocytosis by sulforaphane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suganuma, Hiroyuki; Fahey, Jed W.; Bryan, Kelley E.; Healy, Zachary R.; Talalay, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Sulforaphane stimulates the phagocytosis of RAW 264.7 macrophages under conditions of serum deprivation. → This effect does not require Nrf2-dependent induction of phase 2 genes. → Inactivation of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) by sulforaphane may be involved in stimulation of phagocytosis by sulforaphane. -- Abstract: Sulforaphane, a major isothiocyanate derived from cruciferous vegetables, protects living systems against electrophile toxicity, oxidative stress, inflammation, and radiation. A major protective mechanism is the induction of a network of endogenous cytoprotective (phase 2) genes that are regulated by transcription factor Nrf2. To obtain a more detailed understanding of the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of sulforaphane, we evaluated its effect on the phagocytosis activity of RAW 264.7 murine macrophage-like cells by measuring the uptake of 2-μm diameter polystyrene beads. Sulforaphane raised the phagocytosis activity of RAW 264.7 cells but only in the absence or presence of low concentrations (1%) of fetal bovine serum. Higher serum concentrations depressed phagocytosis and abolished its stimulation by sulforaphane. This stimulation did not depend on the induction of Nrf2-regulated genes since it occurred in peritoneal macrophages of nrf2 -/- mice. Moreover, a potent triterpenoid inducer of Nrf2-dependent genes did not stimulate phagocytosis, whereas sulforaphane and another isothiocyanate (benzyl isothiocyanate) had comparable inducer potencies. It has been shown recently that sulforaphane is a potent and direct inactivator of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), an inflammatory cytokine. Moreover, the addition of recombinant MIF to RAW 264.7 cells attenuated phagocytosis, but sulforaphane-inactivated MIF did not affect phagocytosis. The inactivation of MIF may therefore be involved in the phagocytosis-enhancing activity of sulforaphane.

  18. Stimulation of phagocytosis by sulforaphane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suganuma, Hiroyuki, E-mail: hsuganu1@jhmi.edu [Lewis B. and Dorothy Cullman Cancer Chemoprotection Center, Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 725 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Fahey, Jed W., E-mail: jfahey@jhmi.edu [Lewis B. and Dorothy Cullman Cancer Chemoprotection Center, Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 725 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Bryan, Kelley E., E-mail: kbryanm1@jhmi.edu [Lewis B. and Dorothy Cullman Cancer Chemoprotection Center, Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 725 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Healy, Zachary R., E-mail: zhealy1@jhmi.edu [Lewis B. and Dorothy Cullman Cancer Chemoprotection Center, Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 725 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Talalay, Paul, E-mail: ptalalay@jhmi.edu [Lewis B. and Dorothy Cullman Cancer Chemoprotection Center, Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 725 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States)

    2011-02-04

    Research highlights: {yields} Sulforaphane stimulates the phagocytosis of RAW 264.7 macrophages under conditions of serum deprivation. {yields} This effect does not require Nrf2-dependent induction of phase 2 genes. {yields} Inactivation of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) by sulforaphane may be involved in stimulation of phagocytosis by sulforaphane. -- Abstract: Sulforaphane, a major isothiocyanate derived from cruciferous vegetables, protects living systems against electrophile toxicity, oxidative stress, inflammation, and radiation. A major protective mechanism is the induction of a network of endogenous cytoprotective (phase 2) genes that are regulated by transcription factor Nrf2. To obtain a more detailed understanding of the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of sulforaphane, we evaluated its effect on the phagocytosis activity of RAW 264.7 murine macrophage-like cells by measuring the uptake of 2-{mu}m diameter polystyrene beads. Sulforaphane raised the phagocytosis activity of RAW 264.7 cells but only in the absence or presence of low concentrations (1%) of fetal bovine serum. Higher serum concentrations depressed phagocytosis and abolished its stimulation by sulforaphane. This stimulation did not depend on the induction of Nrf2-regulated genes since it occurred in peritoneal macrophages of nrf2{sup -/-} mice. Moreover, a potent triterpenoid inducer of Nrf2-dependent genes did not stimulate phagocytosis, whereas sulforaphane and another isothiocyanate (benzyl isothiocyanate) had comparable inducer potencies. It has been shown recently that sulforaphane is a potent and direct inactivator of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), an inflammatory cytokine. Moreover, the addition of recombinant MIF to RAW 264.7 cells attenuated phagocytosis, but sulforaphane-inactivated MIF did not affect phagocytosis. The inactivation of MIF may therefore be involved in the phagocytosis-enhancing activity of sulforaphane.

  19. Transcranial focused ultrasound stimulation of human primary visual cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wonhye; Kim, Hyun-Chul; Jung, Yujin; Chung, Yong An; Song, In-Uk; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Yoo, Seung-Schik

    2016-09-01

    Transcranial focused ultrasound (FUS) is making progress as a new non-invasive mode of regional brain stimulation. Current evidence of FUS-mediated neurostimulation for humans has been limited to the observation of subjective sensory manifestations and electrophysiological responses, thus warranting the identification of stimulated brain regions. Here, we report FUS sonication of the primary visual cortex (V1) in humans, resulting in elicited activation not only from the sonicated brain area, but also from the network of regions involved in visual and higher-order cognitive processes (as revealed by simultaneous acquisition of blood-oxygenation-level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging). Accompanying phosphene perception was also reported. The electroencephalo graphic (EEG) responses showed distinct peaks associated with the stimulation. None of the participants showed any adverse effects from the sonication based on neuroimaging and neurological examinations. Retrospective numerical simulation of the acoustic profile showed the presence of individual variability in terms of the location and intensity of the acoustic focus. With exquisite spatial selectivity and capability for depth penetration, FUS may confer a unique utility in providing non-invasive stimulation of region-specific brain circuits for neuroscientific and therapeutic applications.

  20. The effect of calf neuromuscular electrical stimulation and intermittent pneumatic compression on thigh microcirculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadori, Shayan; Immins, Tikki; Wainwright, Thomas W

    2017-05-01

    This study compares the effectiveness of a neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) device and an intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) device on enhancing microcirculatory blood flow in the thigh of healthy individuals, when stimulation is carried out peripherally at the calf. Blood microcirculation of ten healthy individuals was recorded using laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) technique. A region of interest (ROI) was marked on each participant thigh. The mean flux within the ROI was calculated at four states: rest, NMES device with visible muscle actuation (VMA), NMES device with no visible muscle actuation (NVMA) and IPC device. Both NMES and IPC devices increased blood flow in the thigh when stimulation was carried out peripherally at the calf. The NMES device increased mean blood perfusion from baseline by 399.8% at the VMA state and 150.6% at the NVMA state, IPC device increased the mean blood perfusion by 117.3% from baseline. The NMES device at VMA state increased microcirculation by more than a factor of 3 in contrast to the IPC device. Even at the NVMA state, the NMES device increased blood flow by 23% more than the IPC device. Given the association between increased microcirculation and reduced oedema, NMES may be a more effective modality than IPC at reducing oedema, therefore further research is needed to explore this. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. REACTIVITY OF BLOOD LYMPHOCYTES IN PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. R. Khasanova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of proliferative and IL-2-producing activity of peripheral blood lymphocytes wasperformed, using cultural methods, in patients with drug-sensitive and drug-resistant infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis. The cell testing was performed at basal level and following in vitro stimulation with recombinant IL-2 and M. tuberculosis antigens. It was established that clinical course of infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis, independently on drug sensitivity/resistance of the infectious pathogen, is accompanied by suppression of spontaneous lymphoproliferation. The levels of induced IL-2 production in drug-sensitive tuberculosis proved to be increased, whereas a reserve of IL-2-secreting reactivity of blood lymphocytes was lower than in drugresistant infection. Also, it was revealed that the level of lymphoproliferative response induced by IL-2, does not depend on clinical variant of tuberculosis, whereas stimulation of IL-2 production in blood lymphocytes is attained only in cases of drug-resistant tuberculosis variant.

  2. MRI-induced heating of deep brain stimulation leads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohsin, Syed A; Sheikh, Noor M; Saeed, Usman

    2008-01-01

    The radiofrequency (RF) field used in magnetic resonance imaging is scattered by medical implants. The scattered field of a deep brain stimulation lead can be very intense near the electrodes stimulating the brain. The effect is more pronounced if the lead behaves as a resonant antenna. In this paper, we examine the resonant length effect. We also use the finite element method to compute the near field for (i) the lead immersed in inhomogeneous tissue (fat, muscle, and brain tissues) and (ii) the lead connected to an implantable pulse generator. Electric field, specific absorption rate and induced temperature rise distributions have been obtained in the brain tissue surrounding the electrodes. The worst-case scenario has been evaluated by neglecting the effect of blood perfusion. The computed values are in good agreement with in vitro measurements made in the laboratory.

  3. Growth stimulation of Porphyromonas endodontalis by hemoglobin and protoporphyrin IX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerr, M A; Cox, C D; Johnson, W T; Drake, D R

    2000-12-01

    Porphyromonas endodontalis, like other Porphyromonas species, has a complex set of nutritional requirements. In addition to being an obligate anaerobe, the bacterium must be grown in a complex medium consisting of amino acids, reducing agents and heme compounds. P. endodontalis accumulates high concentrations of heme pigments to the extent that colonies appear black on blood agar. This accumulation of heme and the need for these compounds has been characterized as iron requirements by these species. However, in our studies, P. endodontalis demonstrated growth dependence on hemoglobin or protoporphyrin IX but not on free iron. Iron added to other heme compounds actually decreased growth stimulation by porphyrin-containing compounds. P. endodontalis actively transported free iron, but this process did not appear to be critical for growth. The maximum stimulation of growth by protoporphyrin IX, under conditions of iron deprivation, suggests that P. endodontalis requires the porphyrin moiety as a growth factor.

  4. Low White Blood Cell Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms Low white blood cell count By Mayo Clinic Staff A low white blood cell count (leukopenia) is a decrease ... of white blood cell (neutrophil). The definition of low white blood cell count varies from one medical ...

  5. Play the Blood Typing Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nobel's Life and Work Teachers' Questionnaire The Blood Typing Game What happens if you get a blood ... learn about human blood types! Play the Blood Typing Game 28 September 2017 The mission based game ...

  6. Neural control of adrenal medullary and cortical blood flow during hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breslow, M.J.; Jordan, D.A.; Thellman, S.T.; Traystman, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    Hemorrhagic hypotension produces an increase in adrenal medullary blood flow and a decrease in adrenal cortical blood flow. To determine whether changes in adrenal blood flow during hemorrhage are neurally mediated, the authors compared blood flow responses following adrenal denervation (splanchnic nerve section) with changes in the contralateral, neurally intact adrenal. Carbonized microspheres labeled with 153 Gd, 114 In, 113 Sn, 103 Ru, 95 Nb or 46 Se were used. Blood pressure was reduced and maintained at 60 mmHg for 25 min by hemorrhage into a pressurized bottle system. Adrenal cortical blood flow decreased to 50% of control with hemorrhage in both the intact and denervated adrenal. Adrenal medullary blood flow increased to four times control levels at 15 and 25 min posthemorrhage in the intact adrenal, but was reduced to 50% of control at 3, 5, and 10 min posthemorrhage in the denervated adrenal. In a separate group of dogs, the greater splanchnic nerve on one side was electrically stimulated at 2, 5, or 15 Hz for 40 min. Adrenal medullary blood flow increased 5- to 10-fold in the stimulated adrenal but was unchanged in the contralateral, nonstimulated adrenal. Adrenal cortical blood flow was not affected by nerve stimulation. They conclude that activity of the splanchnic nerve profoundly affects adrenal medullary vessels but not adrenal cortical vessels and mediates the observed increase in adrenal medullary blood flow during hemorrhagic hypotension

  7. Adrenergic influence on gastric mucosal blood flow in gastric fistula dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovendal, C P; Bech, K; Gottrup, F

    1984-01-01

    micrograms/kg/min) induced an increase in mucosal blood flow and a similar increase in acid secretion. If the dopamine infusion was preceded by alpha-receptor blockade, a pronounced increase in mucosal blood flow was observed without a similar increase in acid secretion. beta-adrenergic stimulation...

  8. Effects of anti-malarial alkaloids on the sperm properties and blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Venous blood and masturbation specimens of semen were obtained from the subjects before treatment, immediately post-treatment and by the 65th day from commencement of treatment. Blood levels of follicle stimulating hormones, leutinizing hormone and testosterone were determined by Enzyme Linked Imuno Assay.

  9. Blood flow response to electrically induced twitch and tetanic lower-limb muscle contractions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, T.W.; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the effect of electric stimulation (ES)-induced twitch with tetanic leg muscle contractions on blood flow responses and to assess blood flow responses in the contralateral inactive leg. DESIGN: Intervention with within-subject comparisons. SETTING: University research

  10. [Blood glucose self monitoring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wascher, Thomas C; Stechemesser, Lars

    2016-04-01

    Self monitoring of blood glucose contributes to the integrated management of diabetes mellitus. It, thus, should be available for all patients with diabetes mellitus type-1 and type-2. Self monitoring of blood glucose improves patients safety, quality of life and glucose control. The current article represents the recommendations of the Austrian Diabetes Association for the use of blood glucose self monitoring according to current scientific evidence.

  11. Development of blood irradiators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    This project is designed to improve the techniques of blood irradiation through the development of improved and portable blood irradiators. A portable blood irradiator, consisting of a vitreous carbon body and thulium-170 radiation source, was attached to dogs via a carotid-jugular shunt, and its effects on the immune system measured. The device has demonstrated both significant suppression of circulating lymphocytes and prolonged retention of skin allografts

  12. Sildenafil Stimulates Aqueous Humor Turnover in Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Lawrence J.; Zamudio, Aldo C.; Candia, Oscar A.

    2013-01-01

    Sildenafil citrate increases ocular blood flow and accelerates the rate of anterior chamber refilling after paracentesis. The latter effect could have resulted from a reduction in outflow facility or from an increase in aqueous humor (AH) production. In this study, we used scanning ocular fluorophotometry to examine the effects of sildenafil on AH turnover, and thus, AH production in eyes of live normal rabbits. For this, the rate of aqueous humor flow (AHF) was quantified with a commercially available fluorophotometer that measured the rate of fluorescein clearance from the anterior segment, which predominantly occurs via the trabecular meshwork. After ≈ 2 hrs of control scans to determine the baseline rate of AHF, the rabbits were fed 33 mg of sildenafil and allowed ≈ 45 min for the drug to enter the systemic circulation. Thereafter, fluorescence scans were retaken for an additional 90–120 min. Sildenafil ingestion increased AHF by about 36%, from 2.31 μL/min to 3.14 μL/min (PViagra, Revatio), stimulates AHF in rabbits. Our results seem consistent with reports indicating that the drug dilates intraocular arteries and augments intraocular vascular flow. These physiological responses to the agent apparently led to increased fluid entry into the anterior chamber. As such, the drug might have utility in patients with ocular hypotony resulting from insufficient AH formation. PMID:23562660

  13. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Complications Neuropathy Foot Complications DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More ...

  14. Sodium blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medicines that may affect the test. These include: Antibiotics Antidepressants Some high blood pressure medicines Lithium Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) Water pills (diuretics) DO NOT stop ...

  15. Preventing Ischial Pressure Ulcers: I. Review of Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilton M. Kaplan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Pressure ulcers (PUs are common and debilitating wounds that arise when immobilized patients cannot shift their weight. Treatment is expensive and recurrence rates are high. Pathophysiological mechanisms include reduced bulk and perfusion of chronically atrophic muscles as well as prolonged occlusion of blood flow to soft tissues from lack of voluntary postural shifting of body weight. This has suggested that PUs might be prevented by reanimating the paralyzed muscles using neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES. A review of the published literature over the past 2 decades is detailed.

  16. Somato stimulation and acupuncture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing-Jun; Rong, Pei-Jing; Shi, Li; Ben, Hui; Zhu, Bing

    2016-05-01

    Acupuncture is an oldest somato stimulus medical technique. As the most representative peripheral nerve stimulation therapy, it has a complete system of theory and application and is applicable to a large population. This paper expounds the bionic origins of acupuncture and analyzes the physiological mechanism by which acupuncture works. For living creatures, functionally sound viscera and effective endurance of pain are essential for survival. This paper discusses the way in which acupuncture increases the pain threshold of living creatures and the underlying mechanism from the perspective of bionics. Acupuncture can also help to adjust visceral functions and works most effectively in facilitating the process of digestion and restraining visceral pain. This paper makes an in-depth overview of peripheral nerve stimulation therapy represented by acupuncture. We look forward to the revival of acupuncture, a long-standing somato stimulus medicine, in the modern medical systems.

  17. Femtosecond Broadband Stimulated Raman Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Soo-Y; Yoon, Sagwoon; Mathies, Richard A

    2006-01-01

    Femtosecond broadband stimulated Raman spectroscopy (FSRS) is a new technique where a narrow bandwidth picosecond Raman pump pulse and a red-shifted broadband femtosecond Stokes probe pulse (with or without time delay between the pulses) act on a sample to produce a high resolution Raman gain spectrum with high efficiency and speed, free from fluorescence background interference. It can reveal vibrational structural information and dynamics of stationary or transient states. Here, the quantum picture for femtosecond broadband stimulated Raman spectroscopy (FSRS) is used to develop the semiclassical coupled wave theory of the phenomenon and to derive an expression for the measurable Raman gain in FSRS. The semiclassical theory is applied to study the dependence of lineshapes in FSRS on the pump-probe time delay and to deduce vibrational dephasing times in cyclohexane in the ground state

  18. Vagal stimulation in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ferrari, Gaetano M

    2014-04-01

    Heart failure (HF) is accompanied by an autonomic imbalance that is almost always characterized by both increased sympathetic activity and withdrawal of vagal activity. Experimentally, vagal stimulation has been shown to exert profound antiarrhythmic activity and to improve cardiac function and survival in HF models. A open-label pilot clinical study in 32 patients with chronic HF has shown safety and tolerability of chronic vagal stimulation associated with subjective (improved quality of life and 6-min walk test) and objective improvements (reduced left ventricular systolic volumes and improved left ventricular ejection fraction). Three larger clinical studies, including a phase III trial are currently ongoing and will evaluate the clinical role of this new approach.

  19. Tactile Stimulation and Consumer Response.

    OpenAIRE

    Hornik, Jacob

    1992-01-01

    Tactile behavior is a basic communication form as well as an expression of interpersonal involvement. This article presents three studies offering evidence for the positive role of casual interpersonal touch on consumer behavior. More specifically, it provides initial support for the view that tactile stimulation in various consumer behavior situations enhances the positive feeling for and evaluation of both the external stimuli and the touching source. Further, customers touched by a request...

  20. Resonant Impulsive Stimulated Raman Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhtari, A; Chesnoy, J

    1988-03-15

    Using a femtosecond dye laser, we observe in real-time vibrational oscillations excited by impulsive stimulated Raman scattering (ISRS) close to an electronic resonance. We perform single-beam Raman excitation and probe the driven coherence by a polarization-sensitive detection. We demonstrate for the first time impulsively Raman-induced dichroism, birefringence as well as frequency and time delay shifts. We analyse the characteristics of resonant ISRS on a vibrational mode of a dye molecule (malachite green) in solution.

  1. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Garvey, Marjorie A.; Mall, Volker

    2008-01-01

    Developmental disabilities (e.g. attention deficit disorder; cerebral palsy) are frequently associated with deviations of the typical pattern of motor skill maturation. Neurophysiologic tools, such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), which probe motor cortex function, can potentially provide insights into both typical neuromotor maturation and the mechanisms underlying the motor skill deficits in children with developmental disabilities. These insights may set the stage for finding ef...

  2. Resonant Impulsive Stimulated Raman Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokhtari, A.; Chesnoy, J.

    1988-01-01

    Using a femtosecond dye laser, we observe in real-time vibrational oscillations excited by impulsive stimulated Raman scattering (ISRS) close to an electronic resonance. We perform single-beam Raman excitation and probe the driven coherence by a polarization-sensitive detection. We demonstrate for the first time impulsively Raman-induced dichroism, birefringence as well as frequency and time delay shifts. We analyse the characteristics of resonant ISRS on a vibrational mode of a dye molecule (malachite green) in solution

  3. Optical stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, D.

    1999-01-01

    Since the pioneering work by Huntley et al. (1985), optical dating is being increasingly recognised as an important technique for establishing a time frame of deposition of sediments (Aitken, 1998). Optical dating differs from thermoluminescence (TL) dating in that visible/infrared light from lasers or LEDs (light-emitting-diodes) is used as a means of stimulation, in contrast to thermal stimulation. It has several advantages over TL dating: (i) the resetting of the OSL (optically stimulated luminescence) clock is more effective than that of TL clock; for sediments transported under water or in other situations where the sediment grains have undergone inhomogeneous bleaching, this property ensures that ages based on optical dating are generally more reliable than TL ages, (ii) the optical dating technique is non-destructive, and multiple readouts of the optical signal is possible; this feature has resulted in the development of single-aliquot and single-grain protocols (Murray and Wintle, 1999; Banerjee et al. 1999), (iii) the sample is not heated as in TL; thus, spurious luminescence is avoided and there is a significant reduction in blackbody radiation. Dating of materials which change phase on heating is also practical, and finally, (iv) thermal quenching of luminescence is negligible, allowing accurate estimation of kinetic parameters using standard techniques and providing access to deep OSL traps. This characteristic may be helpful in extending the limits of optical dating beyond the last 150 ka from a global point of view

  4. Cortical stimulation and neuropathic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Cagnoni Ramos

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2015v28n2p1 This paper is a review of physiological and behavioral data on motor cortex stimulation (MCS and its role in persistent neuropathic pain. MCS has been widely used in clinical medicine as a tool for the management of pain that does not respond satisfactorily to any kind of conventional analgesia. Some important mechanisms involved in nociceptive modulation still remains unclear. The aim of this study was to describe the mechanisms involved in neuropathic pain and introduce the effectiveness of electrical stimulation of the motor cortex used in the treatment of this disease. The ascending pain pathways are activated by peripheral receptors, in which there is the transduction of a chemical, physical or mechanical stimulus as a nerve impulse, where this impulse is transmitted to the dorsal horn of the spinal cord, which connects with second-order neurons and ascends to different locations in the central nervous system where the stimulus is perceived as pain. Because MCS has been proved to modulate this pathway in the motor cortex, it has been studied to mimic its effects in clinical practice and improve the treatments used for chronic pain. MCS has gained much attention in recent years due to its action in reversing chronic neuropathic pain, this being more effective than electrical stimulation at different locations and related pain nuclei.

  5. Cortical stimulation and neuropathic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Cagnoni Ramos

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a review of physiological and behavioral data on motor cortex stimulation (MCS and its role in persistent neuropathic pain. MCS has been widely used in clinical medicine as a tool for the management of pain that does not respond satisfactorily to any kind of conventional analgesia. Some important mechanisms involved in nociceptive modulation still remains unclear. The aim of this study was to describe the mechanisms involved in neuropathic pain and introduce the effectiveness of electrical stimulation of the motor cortex used in the treatment of this disease. The ascending pain pathways are activated by peripheral receptors, in which there is the transduction of a chemical, physical or mechanical stimulus as a nerve impulse, where this impulse is transmitted to the dorsal horn of the spinal cord, which connects with second-order neurons and ascends to different locations in the central nervous system where the stimulus is perceived as pain. Because MCS has been proved to modulate this pathway in the motor cortex, it has been studied to mimic its effects in clinical practice and improve the treatments used for chronic pain. MCS has gained much attention in recent years due to its action in reversing chronic neuropathic pain, this being more effective than electrical stimulation at different locations and related pain nuclei.

  6. Vagus Nerve Stimulation for Treating Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and their FAMILIES VAGUS NERVE STIMULATION FOR TREATING EPILEPSY This information sheet is provided to help you ... how vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) may help treat epilepsy. The American Academy of Neurology (AAN) is the ...

  7. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor ... Chat Closed engagement en -- Have Type 2 Diabetes? - 2017-03-lwt2d-en.html Have Type 2 Diabetes? ...

  8. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin Pregnancy 8 Tips for ... is checking your blood glucose often. Ask your doctor how often you should ... associated with hyperglycemia. How Do I Treat Hyperglycemia? ...

  9. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are pregnant and have concerns about blood clots, talk with your doctor about your risks and prevention. Depending on your condition, your OB-GYN may refer you to a hematologist, a doctor who specializes in treating blood conditions. back to top ...

  10. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research & Practice Ways to Give Close Are You at Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose ...

  11. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Document Server

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    Tuesday 19 March 2002 in restaurant nr 2, from 9.00 to 16.30 hrs A blood donors campaign, organized by the Centre de Transfusion sanguine of Geneva If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  12. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    A blood donors campaign, organized by the Centre de Transfusion Sanguine of Geneva will be held at CERN on Tuesday 13 March 2001 in restaurant nr 2, from 9.00 to 16.30 hrs If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  13. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    Wednesday 13 November 2002 in restaurant nr 2, from 8.30 to 16.30 hrs will be held a blood donors campaign, organized by the Etablissement de Transfusion de Haute-Savoie If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  14. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    A blood donors campaign, organized by the Établissement de Transfusion de Rhône-Alpes will be held at CERN on Tuesday 14 November 2000 in restaurant nr 2, from 8.30 to 16.30 hrs If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  15. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    A blood donors campaign, organized by the Centre de Transfusion d'Annemasse will be held at CERN on Tuesday 14 November 2001 in restaurant nr 2, from 9.00 to 16.30 hrs If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  16. Give blood at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    ACCIDENTS and ILLNESSES don’t take a break! DO SOMETHING AMAZING - GIVE BLOOD! IT’S IN ALL OUR INTERESTS. 30 July 2008 from 9.30 a.m. to 4 p.m. CERN RESTAURANT NOVAE First floor - Salle des Pas Perdus After you have given blood, you are invited to partake of refreshments kindly offered by NOVAE.

  17. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... You at Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day Diabetes Basics ...

  18. Bloody Fast Blood Collection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Brummelen, Samuel Pieter Josephus

    2017-01-01

    This thesis consists of four parts: The first part contains an introduction, the second presents approaches for the evaluation of waiting times at blood collection sites, the third uses these to present approaches that improve waiting times at blood collection sites. The final part shows the

  19. Estradiol blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003711.htm Estradiol blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... of estrogens. How the Test is Performed A blood sample is needed . How to Prepare for the Test Your health care provider may tell you to ...

  20. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... other risk factors, like diabetes, you may need treatment. How does high blood pressure affect pregnant women? A few women will get ... HIV, Birth Control Heart Health for Women Pregnancy Menopause More Women's Health ... High Blood Pressure--Medicines to Help You Women and Diabetes Heart ...