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Sample records for stimulated brillouin backscattering

  1. Effect of the stimulated Brillouin backscattering on selffocusing threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubenchik, A.M.; Shapiro, E.G.; Turitsyn, S.K.

    1994-03-01

    In many physical problems stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) and selffocusing are manifested simultaneously. We consider effect of the stimulated Brillouin backscattering (SBS) on self-focusing of laser radiation in plasmas. It was found that the self-focusing may be supressed substantionally by the SBS effect

  2. Temporal evolution of stimulated Brillouin backscatter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinkel, D.E.; Williams, E.A.; Berger, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    A qualitative understanding of the time dependence of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) provides estimates of the amount of temporal growth that occurs in current inertial confinement fusion and short laser pulse interaction experiments when the growth is limited by the length of the experiment or by motion of the ''hot spots'' of the laser intensity pattern induced by beam smoothing. In the weak coupling limit, the instantaneous growth rate depends upon the plasma initial conditions early in time, is proportional to t -1/2 later in time, and asymptotically approaches the absolute growth rate (in the absence of damping). When the instability is strongly coupled, the growth rate depends upon the plasma initial conditions early in time but is proportional to t -1/3 later in time. When the growth rate drops to a value comparable to that of the ion acoustic frequency, the instability becomes effectively weakly coupled. The effects of damping are also discussed

  3. Stimulated brillouin backscatter of a short-pulse laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinkel, D.E.; Williams, E.A.; Berger, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    Stimulated Brillouin backscattering (SBBS) from a short-pulse laser, where the pulse length is short compared to the plasma length, is found to be qualitatively different than in the long pulse regime, where the pulse length is long compared to the plasma length. We find that after an initial transient of order the laser pulse length transit time, the instability reaches a steady state in the variables x' = x - V g t, t' = t, where V g is the pulse group velocity. In contrast, SBBS in a long pulse can be absolutely unstable and grows indefinitely, or until nonlinearities intervene. We find that the motion of the laser pulse induces Doppler related effects that substantially modify the backscattered spectrum at higher intensities, where the instability is strongly coupled (i.e. , has a growth rate large compared to the ion acoustic frequency)

  4. Reduction of stimulated Brillouin backscattering with plasma beam smoothing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yahia, V.; Loisel, G.; Baccou, C.; Labaune, C. [Laboratoire pour l' Utilisation des Lasers Intenses, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France); Masson-Laborde, P.-E.; Depierreux, S.; Goyon, C.; Teychenné, D. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Borisenko, N. G.; Orekhov, A. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Science, Moscow (Russian Federation); Rienecker, T.; Rosmej, O. [GSI Helmhotzzentrum fur Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2015-04-15

    Plasma induced incoherence (PII) can strongly modify the growth rates of stimulated scattering instabilities. A special double-target design was used to quantify the effect of PII on stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS). Successive shots using all or part of these targets led to the characterization of temporal and spatial incoherence of a laser pulse after propagation through a foam plasma and to the quantification of the reduction of SBS from the second target. Numerical simulations were used to identify the main physical mechanisms in play.

  5. Stimulated Brillouin backscattering losses in weakly inhomogeneous laser-produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eidmann, K.; Brederlow, G.; Brodmann, R.; Petsch, R.; Sigel, R.; Tsarkiris, G.; Volk, R.; Witkowski, S.

    1979-02-01

    Studies of the reflection from a plane solid target plasma produced with a 1TW iodine laser (lambda = 1.3μm) at pulse durations of 300 ps are presented. The specularly reflected and the backscattered light was observed separately at different angles of incidence, intensities and spot sizes (up to 400 μm). Stimulated Brillouin scattering was identified as the main mechanism for backscattering with saturation at 20 - 30% reflection. (orig.) [de

  6. Random phase plate hot spots and their effect on stimulated Brillouin backscatter and self-focusing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, H.A.

    1995-01-01

    Laser hot spots, as determined by Random Phase Plate (RPP) hot spots, control the critical value of the average intensity, I c , at which there is a rapid onset of stimulated scatter in the strongly damped convective regime of three wave parametric instabilities. For the case of stimulated Brillouin backscatter in a long scale length plasma, nascent hot spot ponderomotive self-focusing is shown to reduce the value of I c in the regime of very strongly damped acoustic waves. RPP hot spots have two, intrinsically nonlinear, thresholds for ponderomotive self-focusing. Large intensity amplifications occur in the hot spot neighborhood when the hot spot power exceeds a certain critical power, P c , which is independent of the optic's f number, F. When the second, F-dependent, hot spot power threshold is exceeded, a filament emerges from the far side of the hot spot, whose extent grows erratically in time

  7. Dynamics of ponderomotive self-focusing and periodic bursts of stimulated Brillouin backscattering in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreev, N.E.; Gorbunov, L.M.; Tarakanov, S.V.; Zykov, A.I.

    1993-01-01

    The space--time evolution of ponderomotive self-focusing of electromagnetic beams in a plasma is investigated. The quasineutral, hydrodynamic plasma response to the ponderomotive force is considered. The set of coupled quasioptic and acoustic equations is solved both analytically and numerically for slab and cylindrical beams. It is shown that the transient process of self-focusing has the form of a nonlinear wave propagating along the beam axis from boundary into the interior of a plasma with velocity considerably higher than the ion-sound velocity. Mutual dynamics of self-focusing and stimulated Brillouin backscattering (SBBS) is computed. It is shown that self-focusing results in the high intensity periodical bursts of SBBS. However, the time average level of scattered radiation is quite low

  8. Distributed Temperature and Strain Discrimination with Stimulated Brillouin Scattering and Rayleigh Backscatter in an Optical Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyi Bao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A distributed optical fiber sensor with the capability of simultaneously measuring temperature and strain is proposed using a large effective area non-zero dispersion shifted fiber (LEAF with sub-meter spatial resolution. The Brillouin frequency shift is measured using Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (BOTDA with differential pulse-width pair technique, while the spectrum shift of the Rayleigh backscatter is measured using optical frequency-domain reflectometry (OFDR. These shifts are the functions of both temperature and strain, and can be used as two independent parameters for the discrimination of temperature and strain. A 92 m measurable range with the spatial resolution of 50 cm is demonstrated experimentally, and accuracies of ±1.2 °C in temperature and ±15 με in strain could be achieved.

  9. Threshold and maximum power evolution of stimulated Brillouin scattering and Rayleigh backscattering in a single mode fiber segment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Lara, R; Alvarez-Chavez, J A; Mendez-Martinez, F; De la Cruz-May, L; Perez-Sanchez, G G

    2015-01-01

    The behavior of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) and Rayleigh backscattering phenomena, which limit the forward transmission power in modern, ultra-long haul optical communication systems such as dense wavelength division multiplexing systems is analyzed via simulation and experimental investigation of threshold and maximum power. Evolution of SBS, Rayleigh scattering and forward powers are experimentally investigated with a 25 km segment of single mode fiber. Also, a simple algorithm to predict the generation of SBS is proposed where two criteria of power thresholds was used for comparison with experimental data. (paper)

  10. Stimulated Brillouin backscattering and magnetic field generation in laser-produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bawa'aneh, M.S.

    1999-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with aspects of laser-plasma interactions related to fusion reactions; in particular thermoelectric magnetic field generation around a hole dug in plasma by intense laser beams, and stimulated Brillouin back scattering (SBBS) from plasmas containing hot spots. A hole, of the size of the laser focal spot, is dug in the plasma when illuminated by intense laser if the laser pressure exceeds the plasma thermal pressure. This hole is found to have steep, radial density gradients. My first concern arose from the prediction that magnetic fields might be generated around the hole-plasma interface in places where the steep density gradients overlap with the non-aligned temperature gradients. When a high-power laser beam is focused on a solid pellet, plasma is formed at the surface. In order to create conditions for thermonuclear reactions in the interior of the pellet, an effective deposition of the laser energy to thermal energy of the pellet via laser-plasma coupling is necessary. When light irradiates a plasma collective processes occur, which can either enhance or reduce the light absorption. For a better understanding of the fusion problem a knowledge of the nature of these collective processes and of the fraction of light reflected from the plasma modes is required. Local hot spots seen experimentally lead to higher gain levels of scattered light. These local temperature inhomogeneities could lead to non-equilibrium distributions, which result in a free energy leading to some interesting phenomena in plasma. In the second part of the thesis stimulated Brillouin back scattering from an ion acoustic mode in a hot spot is studied. Temperature inhomogeneities lead to an ion acoustic instability, and to higher levels of SBBS gain, which leads to lower thresholds for the same electron to ion temperature ratios. This could be the answer for the observed high levels of scattering from hot spots. (author)

  11. Laser and Plasma Parameters for Laser Pulse Amplification by Stimulated Brillouin Backscattering in the Strong Coupling Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangolf, Thomas; Blecher, Marius; Bolanos, Simon; Lancia, Livia; Marques, Jean-Raphael; Cerchez, Mirela; Prasad, Rajendra; Aurand, Bastian; Loiseau, Pascal; Fuchs, Julien; Willi, Oswald

    2017-10-01

    In the ongoing quest for novel techniques to obtain ever higher laser powers, plasma amplification has drawn much attention, benefiting from the fact that a plasma can sustain much higher energy densities than a solid state amplifier. As a plasma process, Stimulated Brillouin Backscattering in the strong coupling regime (sc-SBS) can be used to transfer energy from one laser pulse (pump) to another (seed), by a nonlinear ion oscillation forced by the pump laser. Here, we report on experimental results on amplification by sc-SBS using the ARCTURUS Ti:Sapphire multi-beam laser system at the University of Duesseldorf, Germany. Counter-propagating in a supersonic Hydrogen gas jet target, an ultrashort seed pulse with a pulse duration between 30 and 160 fs and an energy between 1 and 12 mJ was amplified by a high-energy pump pulse (1.7 ps, 700 mJ). For some of the measurements, the gas was pre-ionized with a separate laser pulse (780 fs, 460 mJ). Preliminary analysis shows that the amplification was larger for the longer seed pulses, consistent with theoretical predictions.

  12. Stimulated Brillouin scattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slater, D.C.; Berger, R.L.; Busch, G.; Kinzer, C.M.; Mayer, F.J.; Powers, L.V.; Tanner, D.J.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes two experiments in which SBS would be expected to play an important role. In the first experiment, we find a clear signature of the Brillouin backscatter of a short (100 psec) pulse from a long (approx. 50 μm) gradient length gas target plasma. The second experiment used much longer (approx. 1 nsec) pulses on spherical glass shell targets. These experiments were done with both narrow ( 30A) bandwidth laser light. Using one-dimensional, spherically symmetric fluid simulations, we have attempted to model many of the laser-plasma interaction processes which combine to determine the amount of absorbed energy in the long-pulse experiments. These simulations indicate that modest laser bandwidths are successful in reducing the level of SBS at the irradiances ( 15 W/cm 2 ) used in these experiments

  13. Bursting behaviours in cascaded stimulated Brillouin scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhan-Jun; He Xian-Tu; Zheng Chun-Yang; Wang Yu-Gang

    2012-01-01

    Stimulated Brillouin scattering is studied by numerically solving the Vlasov—Maxwell system. A cascade of stimulated Brillouin scattering can occur when a linearly polarized laser pulse propagates in a plasma. It is found that a stimulated Brillouin scattering cascade can reduce the scattering and increase the transmission of light, as well as introduce a bursting behaviour in the evolution of the laser-plasma interaction. The bursting time in the reflectivity is found to be less than half the ion acoustic period. The ion temperature can affect the stimulated Brillouin scattering cascade, which can repeat several times at low ion temperatures and can be completely eliminated at high ion temperatures. For stimulated Brillouin scattering saturation, higher-harmonic generation and wave—wave interaction of the excited ion acoustic waves can restrict the amplitude of the latter. In addition, stimulated Brillouin scattering cascade can restrict the amplitude of the scattered light. (physics of gases, plasmas, and electric discharges)

  14. Stimulated Brillouin processes in crystals and glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faris, G.W.; Hickman, A.P.

    1992-02-01

    The basic physics and material properties needed to describe and predict the Brillouin gain for a variety of materials have been investigated. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has identified transverse stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) as an important limiting mechanism in high power laser fusion systems. At sufficiently high laser intensities, SBS drives acoustic vibrations that can damage optical components. SRI has performed measurements and developed the corresponding theory for stimulated Brillouin gain spectroscopy in anisotropic crystals. Absolute Brillouin steady-state gain coefficients, linewidths, and frequency shifts have been determined at 532 nm for a number of optical materials of interest to LLNL. This knowledge can be used to select optical materials and devise suppression schemes that will allow much higher laser fluences to be used in laser fusion

  15. Stimulated Brillouin scattering threshold in fiber amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Liping; Chang Liping

    2011-01-01

    Based on the wave coupling theory and the evolution model of the critical pump power (or Brillouin threshold) for stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in double-clad fiber amplifiers, the influence of signal bandwidth, fiber-core diameter and amplifier gain on SBS threshold is simulated theoretically. And experimental measurements of SBS are presented in ytterbium-doped double-clad fiber amplifiers with single-frequency hundred nanosecond pulse amplification. Under different input signal pulses, the forward amplified pulse distortion is observed when the pulse energy is up to 660 nJ and the peak power is up to 3.3 W in the pulse amplification with pulse duration of 200 ns and repetition rate of 1 Hz. And the backward SBS narrow pulse appears. The pulse peak power equals to SBS threshold. Good agreement is shown between the modeled and experimental data. (authors)

  16. Tailorable stimulated Brillouin scattering in nanoscale silicon waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Heedeuk; Qiu, Wenjun; Jarecki, Robert; Cox, Jonathan A; Olsson, Roy H; Starbuck, Andrew; Wang, Zheng; Rakich, Peter T

    2013-01-01

    Nanoscale modal confinement is known to radically enhance the effect of intrinsic Kerr and Raman nonlinearities within nanophotonic silicon waveguides. By contrast, stimulated Brillouin-scattering nonlinearities, which involve coherent coupling between guided photon and phonon modes, are stifled in conventional nanophotonics, preventing the realization of a host of Brillouin-based signal-processing technologies in silicon. Here we demonstrate stimulated Brillouin scattering in silicon waveguides, for the first time, through a new class of hybrid photonic-phononic waveguides. Tailorable travelling-wave forward-stimulated Brillouin scattering is realized-with over 1,000 times larger nonlinearity than reported in previous systems-yielding strong Brillouin coupling to phonons from 1 to 18 GHz. Experiments show that radiation pressures, produced by subwavelength modal confinement, yield enhancement of Brillouin nonlinearity beyond those of material nonlinearity alone. In addition, such enhanced and wideband coherent phonon emission paves the way towards the hybridization of silicon photonics, microelectromechanical systems and CMOS signal-processing technologies on chip.

  17. Tailorable stimulated Brillouin scattering in nanoscale silicon waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Heedeuk; Qiu, Wenjun; Jarecki, Robert; Cox, Jonathan A.; Olsson, Roy H.; Starbuck, Andrew; Wang, Zheng; Rakich, Peter T.

    2013-01-01

    Nanoscale modal confinement is known to radically enhance the effect of intrinsic Kerr and Raman nonlinearities within nanophotonic silicon waveguides. By contrast, stimulated Brillouin-scattering nonlinearities, which involve coherent coupling between guided photon and phonon modes, are stifled in conventional nanophotonics, preventing the realization of a host of Brillouin-based signal-processing technologies in silicon. Here we demonstrate stimulated Brillouin scattering in silicon waveguides, for the first time, through a new class of hybrid photonic–phononic waveguides. Tailorable travelling-wave forward-stimulated Brillouin scattering is realized—with over 1,000 times larger nonlinearity than reported in previous systems—yielding strong Brillouin coupling to phonons from 1 to 18 GHz. Experiments show that radiation pressures, produced by subwavelength modal confinement, yield enhancement of Brillouin nonlinearity beyond those of material nonlinearity alone. In addition, such enhanced and wideband coherent phonon emission paves the way towards the hybridization of silicon photonics, microelectromechanical systems and CMOS signal-processing technologies on chip. PMID:23739586

  18. Influence of chirp on laser-pulse amplification in Brillouin backscattering schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Goetz; Schluck, Friedrich; Spatschek, Karl-Heinz

    2015-11-01

    Plasma-based amplification of laser pulses is currently discussed as a key component for the next generation of high-intensity laser systems, possibly enabling the generation of ultra-short pulses in the exawatt-zetawatt regime. In these scenarios the energy of a long pump pulse (several ps to ns of duration) is transferred to a short seed pulse via a plasma oscillation. Weakly- and strongly-coupled (sc) Brillouin backscattering have been identified as potential candidates for robust amplification scenarios. With the help of three-wave interaction models, we investigate the influence of a chirp of the pump beam on the seed amplification. We show that chirp can mitigate deleterious spontaneous Raman backscattering of the pump off noise and that at the same time the amplification dynamics due to Brillouin scattering is still intact. For the experimentally very interesting case of sc-Brillouin we find a dependence of the efficiency on the sign of the chirp. Funding provided by project B10 of SFB TR18 of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG).

  19. High-speed stimulated Brillouin scattering spectroscopy at 780 nm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itay Remer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate a high-speed stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS spectroscopy system that is able to acquire stimulated Brillouin gain point-spectra in water samples and Intralipid tissue phantoms over 2 GHz within 10 ms and 100 ms, respectively, showing a 10-100 fold increase in acquisition rates over current frequency-domain SBS spectrometers. This improvement was accomplished by integrating an ultra-narrowband hot rubidium-85 vapor notch filter in a simplified frequency-domain SBS spectrometer comprising nearly counter-propagating continuous-wave pump-probe light at 780 nm and conventional single-modulation lock-in detection. The optical notch filter significantly suppressed stray pump light, enabling detection of stimulated Brillouin gain spectra with substantially improved acquisition times at adequate signal-to-noise ratios (∼25 dB in water samples and ∼15 dB in tissue phantoms. These results represent an important step towards the use of SBS spectroscopy for high-speed measurements of Brillouin gain resonances in scattering and non-scattering samples.

  20. SBS [stimulated Brillouin scattering] pulse distortion in multimode optical fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.R.; Hawkins, R.J.; Laumann, C.W.; Hatch, J.

    1989-01-01

    We have observed sever temporal-pulse-shape distortion due to stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in multimode optical fibers used to diagnose 351 m laser pulses on the Nova laser system. Our measurements can be fit by a basic model of SBS and provide a clear indication of the intensity and temporal regimes where significant SBS-induced temporal-pulse-shape distortion can be avoided. 15 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  1. Stimulated Raman backscattering at high laser intensities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skoric, M M [Vinca Inst. of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Tajima, Toshiki; Sasaki, Akira; Maluckov, A; Jovanovic, M

    1998-03-01

    Signatures of Stimulated Raman backscattering of a short-pulse high-intensity laser interacting with an underdense plasma are discussed. We introduce a nonlinear three-wave interaction model that accounts for laser pump depletion and relativistic detuning. A mechanism is revealed based on a generic route to chaos, that predicts a progressive increase of the backscatter complexity with a growing laser intensity. Importance of kinetic effects is outlined and demonstrated in fluid-hybrid and particle simulations. As an application, we show that spectral anomalies of the backscatter, predicted by the above model, are consistent with recent sub-picosecond, high-intensity laser gas-target measurements at Livermore and elsewhere. Finally, a recently proposed scheme for generation of ultra-short, low-prepulse laser pulses by Raman backscattering in a thin foil target, is shown. (author)

  2. Tunable Stimulated Brillouin Scattering in Planar Optical Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902 (2005). 4. R. Pant, M. D. Stenner , M. A. Neifeld, and D. J. Gauthier, Opt...Express 16, 2764 (2008). 5. Z. Shi, R. Pant, Z. Zhu, M. D. Stenner , M. A. Neifeld, D. J. Gauthier, and R. W. Boyd, Opt. Lett. 32, 1986 (2007). 6. K. Y...stimulated Brillouin scattering,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8285–8290 (2011). 25. R. Pant, M. D. Stenner , M. A. Neifeld, Z. M. Shi, R. W. Boyd, and D. J

  3. Stimulated brillouin scattering of electromagnetic waves in a dusty plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salimullah, M.; Sen, A.

    1991-08-01

    The stimulated Brilluoin scattering of electromagnetic waves in a homogeneous, unmagnetized and collisionless dusty plasma has been investigated theoretically. The Vlasov equation has been solved perturbatively to find the nonlinear response of the plasma particles. The presence of the dust particles introduces a background inhomogeneous electric field which significantly influences the dispersive properties of the plasma. At the ion acoustic branch we find the usual scattering slightly modified by the charged dust grains. However, at the frequency lower than the ion acoustic branch we find a new mode of the plasma arising from the oscillations of the ions in the static structure of the dust distribution. This low frequency branch causes enhanced stimulated Brillouin scattering of electromagnetic waves in a dusty plasma. (author). 15 refs

  4. Interaction between stimulated Brillouin scattering and the filamentation instability in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frycz, P.; Rozmus, W.; Samson, J.; Tikhonchuk, V.T.; Rankin, R.

    1992-01-01

    The set of equations describing Stimulated Brillouin Scattering (SBS) and the Filamentation Instability (FI) are solved numerically for a spatially periodic system. For short systems (a few wavelengths of the incident light) SBS backscatter modes and the filamentation instability are observed as expected but in addition there are some puzzling features. SBS starts after a significant time delay, is localized, and focuses during its evolution. These features disappear for a long (tens of wavelengths) system for which sidescatter modes are dominant. The energy is dispersed among many non-coherent modes in such a system and none of the modes is strong enough to drive filamentation. The analytic explanation of the ''puzzling features'' is given. (Author)

  5. Physics of the ion acoustic wave driven by the stimulated Brillouin scattering instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, C.E.

    1984-01-01

    The ion acoustic wave excited in the stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) instability is probed via collective ruby-laser Thomson scattering in order to understand the low saturation level observed in the instability. Many of the features observed in the Brillouin backscattered CO 2 laser light from the underdense gas-target plasma are also observed in the Thomson scattered ruby light - from which it is learned that the ion acoustic wave grows exponentially and then saturates as the CO 2 pump power is increased. The primary advantage of the ruby Thomson scattering diagnostic is in its capability of providing simultaneous space and time resolved measurements of the ion wave amplitude. From these first such detailed measurements, it was found that the ion wave grows exponentially in space at a rate that agrees with the linear convective SBS theory. However, at higher pump powers, the ion wave saturates at an inferred amplitude of anti-n/n 0 approx. = 5 to 10%. Further increases in the pump power appear to result in an increase in the length over which the ion wave is saturated. A nearly constant SBS reflectivity in this saturated regime, however, suggests that the saturated ion wave does not contribute as much to the scattered power as would be expected from Bragg scattering theory. This apparent contradiction can be resolved if ion trapping is responsible for the saturation of the ion wave

  6. Stimulated Brillouin scattering during electron gyro-harmonic heating at EISCAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Y. Fu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Observations of secondary radiation, stimulated electromagnetic emission (SEE, produced during ionospheric modification experiments using ground-based, high-power, high-frequency (HF radio waves are considered. The High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP facility is capable of generating narrowband SEE in the form of stimulated Brillouin scatter (SBS and stimulated ion Bernstein scatter (SIBS in the SEE spectrum. Such narrowband SEE spectral lines have not been reported using the European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT heater facility before. This work reports the first EISCAT results of narrowband SEE spectra and compares them to SEE previously observed at HAARP during electron gyro-harmonic heating. An analysis of experimental SEE data shows observations of emission lines within 100 Hz of the pump frequency, interpreted as SBS, during the 2012 July EISCAT campaign. Experimental results indicate that SBS strengthens as the pump frequency approaches the third electron gyro-harmonic. Also, for different heater antenna beam angles, the CUTLASS radar backscatter induced by HF radio pumping is suppressed near electron gyro-harmonics, whereas electron temperature enhancement weakens as measured by EISCAT/UHF radar. The main features of these new narrowband EISCAT observations are generally consistent with previous SBS measurements at HAARP.

  7. Measurement of sound velocity on metal surfaces by impulsive stimulated Brillouin scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Yukihiro; Murakami, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Akihiko

    2005-01-01

    Impulsive stimulated Brillouin Scattering (ISBS) experiment was performed in order to measure acoustic waves on metal surfaces. The ISBS technique offers robust method of obtaining acoustic velocities without physical contact. The generation and detection mechanism were discussed. (author)

  8. Controlling Stimulated Brillouin/Raman Scattering in High Power Fiber Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-09

    AFRL-RD-PS- AFRL-RD-PS- TR-2017-0043 TR-2017-0043 CONTROLLING STIMULATED BRILLOUIN/RAMAN SCATTERING IN HIGH POWER FIBER LASERS Cody Mart Ben...average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed...unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT This research addressed suppression of stimulated Brillouin/Raman scattering in high power fiber lasers

  9. Effects of pump recycling technique on stimulated Brillouin scattering threshold: a theoretical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Asadi, H A; Al-Mansoori, M H; Ajiya, M; Hitam, S; Saripan, M I; Mahdi, M A

    2010-10-11

    We develop a theoretical model that can be used to predict stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) threshold in optical fibers that arises through the effect of Brillouin pump recycling technique. Obtained simulation results from our model are in close agreement with our experimental results. The developed model utilizes single mode optical fiber of different lengths as the Brillouin gain media. For 5-km long single mode fiber, the calculated threshold power for SBS is about 16 mW for conventional technique. This value is reduced to about 8 mW when the residual Brillouin pump is recycled at the end of the fiber. The decrement of SBS threshold is due to longer interaction lengths between Brillouin pump and Stokes wave.

  10. High-resolution stimulated Brillouin gain spectroscopy in glasses and crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faris, G.W.; Jusinski, L.E.; Hickman, A.P.

    1993-01-01

    Theory and measurements are presented for stimulated Brillouin gain spectroscopy in anisotropic media. The coupling between arbitrary pump and Stokes waves and the corresponding acoustic wave is formulated in terms of the elastic displacement vector and the photoelastic tensor. A propagation equation that fully includes transient effects is obtained for the Stokes wave. In the limit of small-signal gains this propagation equation can be solved analytically, yielding expressions that relate experimentally accessible quantities to material properties. Absolute Brillouin steady-state gain coefficients, linewidths, and frequency shifts are thereby determined in a number of optical materials at 532 nm. The Brillouin gain coefficient for fused silica is measured by three techniques, providing the reference for absolute gain measurements. Quantitative agreement is found between theory and experiment for transient effects on stimulated Brillouin scattering

  11. Investigation of the Stimulated Brillouin Scattering (SBS) Gain Enhancement in Silicon Nano-Waveguides and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Taiy, Hassanain Majeed

    2017-01-01

    Stimulated Brillouin scattering is a third order non-linear effect with the lowest power threshold in standard single mode optical fiber, by which an interaction between optical and acoustic modes takes place. During the Brillouin scattering process, part of the pump wave power will be transferred to a counter propagating wave (Stokes), with a frequency shift of about 11 GHz for a telecommunication wavelength of 1550 nm in a standard single mode fiber. The frequency shift effective parameters...

  12. LASERS: Stimulated emission in a solid-state ring laser with a stimulated Brillouin scattering mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barashkov, M. S.; Bel'dyugin, Igor'M.; Zolotarev, M. V.; Krymskiĭ, M. I.; Oshkin, S. P.; Umnov, A. F.; Kharchenko, M. A.

    1990-06-01

    The results are presented of an experimental investigation of a solid-state ring laser with a stimulated Brillouin scattering mirror and lasing initiated by a series of ~ 200-300 ns pulses of 1.06 μm wavelength. It is shown that this laser may be useful for the development of a source with radiation parameters controlled by an external signal (energy, transverse and time structure) and also of a low-threshold mirror for phase self-conjugation of radiation.

  13. Stimulated Brillouin scattering of laser in semiconductor plasma embedded with nano-sized grains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Giriraj, E-mail: grsharma@gmail.com [SRJ Government Girls’ College, Neemuch (M P) (India); Dad, R. C. [Government P G College, Mandsaur (M P) (India); Ghosh, S. [School of Studies in Physics, Vikram University, Ujjain, (M P) (India)

    2015-07-31

    A high power laser propagating through semiconductor plasma undergoes Stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) from the electrostrictively generated acoustic perturbations. We have considered that nano-sized grains (NSGs) ions are embedded in semiconductor plasma by means of ion implantation. The NSGs are bombarded by the surrounding plasma particles and collect electrons. By considering a negative charge on the NSGs, we present an analytically study on the effects of NSGs on threshold field for the onset of SBS and Brillouin gain of generated Brillouin scattered mode. It is found that as the charge on the NSGs builds up, the Brillouin gain is significantly raised and the threshold pump field for the onset of SBS process is lowered.

  14. Inhibition of stimulated Raman scattering due to the excitation of stimulated Brillouin scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yao; Yu, Lu-Le; Weng, Su-Ming; Ren, Chuang; Liu, Chuan-Sheng; Sheng, Zheng-Ming

    2017-09-01

    The nonlinear coupling between stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) and stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) of intense laser in underdense plasma is studied theoretically and numerically. Based upon the fluid model, their coupling equations are derived, and a threshold condition of plasma density perturbations due to SBS for the inhibition of SRS is given. Particle-in-cell simulations show that this condition can be achieved easily by SBS in the so-called fluid regime with kLλDDebye length [Kline et al., Phys. Plasmas 13, 055906 (2006)]. SBS can reduce the saturation level of SRS and the temperature of electrons in both homogeneous and inhomogeneous plasma. Numerical simulations also show that this reduced SRS saturation is retained even if the fluid regime condition mentioned above is violated at a later time due to plasma heating.

  15. All solid-state diode pumped Nd:YAG MOPA with stimulated Brillouin phase conjugate mirror

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Offerhaus, Herman L.; Godfried, Herman; Godfried, H.P; Witteman, W.J.

    1996-01-01

    At the Nederlands Centrum voor Laser Research (NCLR) a 1 kHz diode-pumped Nd:YAG Master Oscillator Power Amplifier (MOPA) chain with a Stimulated Brillouin Scattering (SBS) Phase Conjugate mirror is designed and operated. A small Brewster angle Nd:YAG slab (2 by 2 by 20 mm) is side pumped with 200

  16. Fiber break location technique utilizing stimulated Brillouin scattering effects in optical fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakar, A A A; Al-Mansoori, M H; Mahdi, M A; Mohd Azau, M A; Zainal Abidin, M S

    2009-01-01

    A new technique of fiber break detection system in optical communication networks is proposed and experimentally demonstrated in this paper. This technique is based-on continuous wave light source rather than pulsed source that is commonly deployed in existing techniques. The nonlinear effect of stimulated Brillouin scattering is manipulated to locate the fiber-break position in optical communication networks. This technique enables the utilization of a less-sensitive photodetector to detect the Brillouin Stokes line since its intensity increases with the fiber length in the detectable region. The fiber break location can be determined with accuracy of more than 98% for fiber length less than 50 km using this technique

  17. Suppression of Stimulated Brillouin Scattering in multiple-ion species inertial confinement fusion Hohlraum Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumayer, P

    2007-01-01

    A long-standing problem in the field of laser-plasma interactions is to successfully employ multiple-ion species plasmas to reduce stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) hohlraum conditions. Multiple-ion species increase significantly the linear Landau damping for acoustic waves. Consequently, recent hohlraum designs for indirect-drive ignition on the National Ignition Facility investigate wall liner material options so that the liner gain for parametric instabilities will be below threshold for the onset SBS. Although the effect of two-ion species plasmas on Landau damping has been directly observed with Thomson scattering, early experiments on SBS in these plasmas have suffered from competing non-linear effects or laser beam filamentation. In this study, a reduction of SBS scattering to below the percent level has been observed in hohlraums at Omega that emulate the plasma conditions in an indirect drive ICF experiments. These experiments have measured the laser-plasma interaction processes in ignition-relevant high-electron temperature regime demonstrating Landau damping as a controlling process for SBS. The hohlraums have been filled with various fractions of CO 2 and C 3 H 8 varying the ratio of the light (H) to heavy (C and O) ion density from 0 to 2.6. They have been heated by 14.5 kJ of 351-nm light, thus increasing progressively Landau damping by an order of magnitude at constant electron density and temperature. A delayed 351-nm interaction beam, spatially smoothed to produce a 200-(micro)m laser spot at best focus, has propagated along the axis of the hohlraum. The backscattered light, both into the lens and outside, the transmitted light through the hohlraum plasma and the radiation temperature of the hohlraum has been measured. For ignition relevant laser intensities (3-9 10 14 Wcm -2 ), we find that the SBS reflectivity scales as predicted with Landau damping from >30% to <1%. Simultaneously, the hohlraum radiation

  18. Backscatter measurements for NIF ignition targets (invited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, J D; Datte, P; Krauter, K; Bond, E; Michel, P A; Glenzer, S H; Divol, L; Niemann, C; Suter, L; Meezan, N; MacGowan, B J; Hibbard, R; London, R; Kilkenny, J; Wallace, R; Kline, J L; Knittel, K; Frieders, G; Golick, B; Ross, G; Widmann, K; Jackson, J; Vernon, S; Clancy, T

    2010-10-01

    Backscattered light via laser-plasma instabilities has been measured in early NIF hohlraum experiments on two beam quads using a suite of detectors. A full aperture backscatter system and near backscatter imager (NBI) instrument separately measure the stimulated Brillouin and stimulated Raman scattered light. Both instruments work in conjunction to determine the total backscattered power to an accuracy of ∼15%. In order to achieve the power accuracy we have added time-resolution to the NBI for the first time. This capability provides a temporally resolved spatial image of the backscatter which can be viewed as a movie.

  19. Backscatter measurements for NIF ignition targets (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moody, J. D.; Datte, P.; Krauter, K.; Bond, E.; Michel, P. A.; Glenzer, S. H.; Divol, L.; Suter, L.; Meezan, N.; MacGowan, B. J.; Hibbard, R.; London, R.; Kilkenny, J.; Wallace, R.; Knittel, K.; Frieders, G.; Golick, B.; Ross, G.; Widmann, K.; Jackson, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); and others

    2010-10-15

    Backscattered light via laser-plasma instabilities has been measured in early NIF hohlraum experiments on two beam quads using a suite of detectors. A full aperture backscatter system and near backscatter imager (NBI) instrument separately measure the stimulated Brillouin and stimulated Raman scattered light. Both instruments work in conjunction to determine the total backscattered power to an accuracy of {approx}15%. In order to achieve the power accuracy we have added time-resolution to the NBI for the first time. This capability provides a temporally resolved spatial image of the backscatter which can be viewed as a movie.

  20. Backscatter measurements for NIF ignition targets (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moody, J. D.; Datte, P.; Krauter, K.; Bond, E.; Michel, P. A.; Glenzer, S. H.; Divol, L.; Suter, L.; Meezan, N.; MacGowan, B. J.; Hibbard, R.; London, R.; Kilkenny, J.; Wallace, R.; Knittel, K.; Frieders, G.; Golick, B.; Ross, G.; Widmann, K.; Jackson, J.

    2010-01-01

    Backscattered light via laser-plasma instabilities has been measured in early NIF hohlraum experiments on two beam quads using a suite of detectors. A full aperture backscatter system and near backscatter imager (NBI) instrument separately measure the stimulated Brillouin and stimulated Raman scattered light. Both instruments work in conjunction to determine the total backscattered power to an accuracy of ∼15%. In order to achieve the power accuracy we have added time-resolution to the NBI for the first time. This capability provides a temporally resolved spatial image of the backscatter which can be viewed as a movie.

  1. Transition to turbulence via spatiotemporal intermittency in stimulated Raman backscattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoric, M.M.; Jovanovic, M.S.; Rajkovic, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    The spatiotemporal evolution of stimulated Raman backscattering in a bounded, uniform, weakly dissipative plasma is studied. The nonlinear model of a three-wave interaction involves a quadratic coupling of slowly varying complex amplitudes of the laser pump, the backscattered and the electron plasma wave. The corresponding set of coupled partial differential equations with nonlinear phase detuning that is taken into account is solved numerically in space time with fixed nonzero source boundary conditions. The study of the above open, convective, weakly confined system reveals a quasiperiodic transition to spatiotemporal chaos via spatiotemporal intermittency. In the analysis of transitions a dual scheme borrowed from fields of nonlinear dynamics and statistical physics is applied. An introduction of a nonlinear three-wave interaction to a growing family of paradigmatic equations which exhibit a route to turbulence via spatiotemporal intermittency is outlined in this work. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  2. Effect of diffraction on stimulated Brillouin scattering from a single laser hot spot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliseev, V.V.; Rozmus, W.; Tikhonchuk, V.T.; Capjack, C.E.

    1996-01-01

    A single laser hot spot in an underdense plasma is represented as a focused Gaussian laser beam. Stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) from such a Gaussian beam with small f/numbers 2-4 has been studied in a three-dimensional slab geometry. It is shown that the SBS reflectivity from a single laser hot spot is much lower than that predicted by a simple three wave coupling model because of the diffraction of the scattered light from the spatially localized ion acoustic wave. SBS gain per one Rayleigh length of the incident laser beam is proposed as a quantitative measure of this effect. Diffraction-limited SBS from a randomized laser beam is also discussed. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  3. Stimulated Brillouin scattering continuous wave phase conjugation in step-index fiber optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Steven M; Spring, Justin B; Russell, Timothy H

    2008-07-21

    Continuous wave (CW) stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) phase conjugation in step-index optical fibers was studied experimentally and modeled as a function of fiber length. A phase conjugate fidelity over 80% was measured from SBS in a 40 m fiber using a pinhole technique. Fidelity decreases with fiber length, and a fiber with a numerical aperture (NA) of 0.06 was found to generate good phase conjugation fidelity over longer lengths than a fiber with 0.13 NA. Modeling and experiment support previous work showing the maximum interaction length which yields a high fidelity phase conjugate beam is inversely proportional to the fiber NA(2), but find that fidelity remains high over much longer fiber lengths than previous models calculated. Conditions for SBS beam cleanup in step-index fibers are discussed.

  4. Method for pulse control in a laser including a stimulated brillouin scattering mirror system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dane, C. Brent; Hackel, Lloyd; Harris, Fritz B.

    2007-10-23

    A laser system, such as a master oscillator/power amplifier system, comprises a gain medium and a stimulated Brillouin scattering SBS mirror system. The SBS mirror system includes an in situ filtered SBS medium that comprises a compound having a small negative non-linear index of refraction, such as a perfluoro compound. An SBS relay telescope having a telescope focal point includes a baffle at the telescope focal point which blocks off angle beams. A beam splitter is placed between the SBS mirror system and the SBS relay telescope, directing a fraction of the beam to an alternate beam path for an alignment fiducial. The SBS mirror system has a collimated SBS cell and a focused SBS cell. An adjustable attenuator is placed between the collimated SBS cell and the focused SBS cell, by which pulse width of the reflected beam can be adjusted.

  5. Geophysical Remote Sensing Using the HF Pumped Stimulated Brillouin Scatter (SBS) Emission Lines Produced by HAARP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, P. A.; Selcher, C. A.

    2009-12-01

    An ordinary or extraordinary mode electromagnetic wave can decay into a low frequency electrostatic wave and a scattered electromagnetic wave by a process called stimulated Brillouin scatter (SBS). The low frequency wave can be either an ion acoustic wave (IA) or an electrostatic ion cyclotron (EIC) wave. The first detection ion acoustic waves by this process during ionospheric modification with high power radio waves was reported by Norin et al. (2009) using the HAARP transmitter in Alaska. The first detection of the electrostatic ion cyclotron waves is reported here using HAARP during the March 2009 campaign. Subsequent experiments have provided additional verification of the SBS process and quantitative interpretation of the scattered wave frequency offsets to yield measurements of the electron temperatures in the heated ionosphere by Bernhardt et al. (2009). Using the SBS technique to generate ion acoustic waves, electron temperatures between 3000 and 4000 K were measured over the HAARP facility. The matching conditions for decay of the high frequency pump wave show that in addition to the production of an ion-acoustic wave, an electrostatic ion cyclotron wave can produced by the generalized SBS processes only if the pump waves makes a large angle with the magnetic field. When the EIC mode is produced, it is seen as a narrow of stimulated electromagnetic emissions at the ion cyclotron frequency. Occasionally, multiple lines are seen and analyzed to yield the relative abundance of oxygen, and molecular ions in the lower ionosphere. This ion mass spectrometer interpretation of the SBS data is new to the field of ionosphere remote sensing. In addition, based on the matching condition theory, the first profiles of the scattered wave amplitude are produced using the stimulated Brillouin scatter (SBS) matching conditions. These profiles are consistent with maximum ionospheric interactions at the upper-hybrid resonance height and at a region just below the plasma

  6. Large On-Chip Amplification in Silicon via Forward Stimulated Brillouin Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kittlaus, Eric [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Shin, Heedeuk [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Rakich, Peter [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Strong Brillouin coupling has only recently been realized in silicon using a new class of op- tomechanical waveguides that yield both optical and phononic con nement. Despite these major advances, appreciable Brillouin ampli cation has yet to be observed in silicon. Using new membrane- suspended silicon waveguide we report large Brillouin ampli cation for the rst time, reaching levels greater than 5 dB for modest pump powers, and demonstrate a record low (5 mW) threshold for net ampli cation. This work represents a crucial advance necessary to realize high-performance Brillouin lasers and ampli ers in silicon.

  7. Analytical study of nonlinear phase shift through stimulated Brillouin scattering in single mode fiber with the pump power recycling technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Asadi, H A; Mahdi, M A; Bakar, A A A; Adikan, F R Mahamd

    2011-01-01

    We present a theoretical study of nonlinear phase shift through stimulated Brillouin scattering in single mode optical fiber. Analytical expressions describing the nonlinear phase shift for the pump and Stokes waves in the pump power recycling technique have been derived. The dependence of the nonlinear phase shift on the optical fiber length, the reflectivity of the optical mirror and the frequency detuning coefficient have been analyzed for different input pump power values. We found that with the recycling pump technique, the nonlinear phase shift due to stimulated Brillouin scattering reduced to less than 0.1 rad for 5 km optical fiber length and 0.65 reflectivity of the optical mirror, respectively, at an input pump power equal to 30 mW

  8. Angular characteristics of the stimulated-Brillouin-scattering spectrum from a laser plasma with strong acoustic-wave damping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saikia, P.

    1981-01-01

    The spectrum of stimulated Brillouin scattering from an inhomogeneous moving laser plasma is analyzed. The damping of acoustic waves and scattered electromagnetic waves is taken into account. Spectra are derived for various scattering angles and for various radii of the laser beam. For all observation angles the center of the spectral line is at an unshifted frequency. As the observation angle increases, the width of the red wing in the spectrum increases. The intensity of the scattered light is very anisotropic

  9. Standard deviation index for stimulated Brillouin scattering suppression with different homogeneities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Yang; Su, Rongtao; Ma, Pengfei; Wang, Xiaolin; Zhou, Pu; Si, Lei

    2016-05-10

    We present a new quantitative index of standard deviation to measure the homogeneity of spectral lines in a fiber amplifier system so as to find the relation between the stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) threshold and the homogeneity of the corresponding spectral lines. A theoretical model is built and a simulation framework has been established to estimate the SBS threshold when input spectra with different homogeneities are set. In our experiment, by setting the phase modulation voltage to a constant value and the modulation frequency to different values, spectral lines with different homogeneities can be obtained. The experimental results show that the SBS threshold increases negatively with the standard deviation of the modulated spectrum, which is in good agreement with the theoretical results. When the phase modulation voltage is confined to 10 V and the modulation frequency is set to 80 MHz, the standard deviation of the modulated spectrum equals 0.0051, which is the lowest value in our experiment. Thus, at this time, the highest SBS threshold has been achieved. This standard deviation can be a good quantitative index in evaluating the power scaling potential in a fiber amplifier system, which is also a design guideline in suppressing the SBS to a better degree.

  10. Experimental studies with a stimulated Raman backscatter probe beam in laser-irradiated plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Z.M.; Meng, S.X.; Xu, Z.Z.

    1986-01-01

    This paper reports on the optical diagnostic experiments accomplished with a stimulated Raman backscatter probe beam set up recently in the sixbeam Nd:glass laser facility for laser fusion research at the Shanghai Insitute of Optics and Fine Mechanics

  11. Coherent Forward Stimulated-Brillouin Scattering of a Spatially Incoherent Laser Beam in a Plasma and Its Effect on Beam Spray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grech, M.; Riazuelo, G.; Pesme, D.; Weber, S.; Tikhonchuk, V. T.

    2009-01-01

    A statistical model for forward stimulated-Brillouin scattering is developed for a spatially incoherent, monochromatic, laser beam propagating in a plasma. The threshold above which the laser beam spatial incoherence cannot prevent the coherent growth of forward stimulated-Brillouin scattering is computed. It is found to be well below the threshold for self-focusing. Three-dimensional simulations confirm its existence and reveal the onset of beam spray above it. From these results, we propose a new figure of merit for the control of propagation through a plasma of a spatially incoherent laser beam

  12. Distributed Strain Measurement along a Concrete Beam via Stimulated Brillouin Scattering in Optical Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo Bernini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The structural strain measurement of tension and compression in a 4 m long concrete beam was demonstrated with a distributed fiber-optic sensor portable system based on Brillouin scattering. Strain measurements provided by the fiber-optic sensor permitted to detect the formation of a crack in the beam resulting from the external applied load. The sensor system is valuable for structural monitoring applications, enabling the long-term performance and health of structures to be efficiently monitored.

  13. Stimulated Brillouin scattering reflectivity in the case of a spatially smoothed laser beam interacting with an inhomogeneous plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tikhonchuk, V.T.; Mounaix, P.; Pesme, D.

    1997-01-01

    The stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) instability is investigated theoretically in the case of a spatially smoothed laser beam interacting with an inhomogeneous plasma in the regime of strong ion acoustic damping. The domain of parameters being considered corresponds to most of the present day experiments carried out with nanosecond laser pulses interacting with preformed plasmas: the characteristic length for convective amplification is assumed to be much shorter than the longitudinal correlation length of the laser field. The SBS reflectivity of one individual hot spot is analytically computed taking into account thermal noise emission and pump depletion within the hot spot. The SBS reflectivity of the whole beam is then obtained by summing up the individual hot spot reflectivities in accordance with their statistical distribution. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  14. Broadband true time delay for microwave signal processing, using slow light based on stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Sanghoon; Thévenaz, Luc; Sancho, Juan; Sales, Salvador; Capmany, José; Berger, Perrine; Bourderionnet, Jérôme; Dolfi, Daniel

    2010-10-11

    We experimentally demonstrate a novel technique to process broadband microwave signals, using all-optically tunable true time delay in optical fibers. The configuration to achieve true time delay basically consists of two main stages: photonic RF phase shifter and slow light, based on stimulated Brillouin scattering in fibers. Dispersion properties of fibers are controlled, separately at optical carrier frequency and in the vicinity of microwave signal bandwidth. This way time delay induced within the signal bandwidth can be manipulated to correctly act as true time delay with a proper phase compensation introduced to the optical carrier. We completely analyzed the generated true time delay as a promising solution to feed phased array antenna for radar systems and to develop dynamically reconfigurable microwave photonic filters.

  15. OPTICAL DATA PROCESSING: Realization of associative memory with the aid of a nonlinear selective stimulated-Brillouin-scattering mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matveyev, A. Z.; Pasmanik, G. A.

    1993-05-01

    An associative memory using only optical elements has been realized experimentally. The key element of the arrangement is a stimulated-Brillouin-scattering (SBS) selector consisting of a short SBS medium at the focus of a lens. The qualitative advantage of the selector over an SBS mirror is demonstrated experimentally. The response time of the arrangement is ~ 10-8 s and is determined by the duration of the SBS. Estimates show that the SBS selector is capable in practice of distinguishing a signal against background noise when the initial distortion level of the object beam is 10-3. Reliable operation of the SBS selector has been demonstrated for radiative and energy loads reaching 2 GW/cm2 and 2 J, respectively.

  16. Stimulated Brillouin scattering phase-locking using a transient acoustic standing wave excited through an optical interference field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ondrej Slezak; Milan Kalal; Hon Jin Kong

    2010-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Analytical description of an experimentally verified scheme leading to a phase-locked stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS), used in a laser beam combination systems, is presented. The essential condition for the phase-locking effect for SBS is the fixation of the starting position and time of the acoustic Brillouin wave. It is shown that the starting position fixation of this acoustic wave may have its origin in a transient acoustic standing wave initiated by an arising optical interference field produced by the back-seeding concave mirror. This interference field leads to a stationary density modulation of the medium. However, the way to the formation of this density modulation leads via the acoustic standing wave. An appropriate solution, in the form of the standing wave, was obtained from solving the acoustic wave-equation using the electrostriction as a driving force. As a consequence of the damping term included in this equation the acoustic standing wave becomes gradually attenuated and contrary to the undamped solution published earlier, thus constitutes a truly transient phenomenon. Using a mathematical formalism similar to that which is used for the SBS description in the case of a random phase, the coupled equations describing the phase-locked SBS were derived. Contrary to the case without the back-seeding mirror, where the wave chosen from the thermal noise background subsequently plays the role of a trigger of the stimulated process, in this case it is replaced by the transient standing wave produced as a consequence of the presence of an optical interference field arisen in the focal region of the back-seeding concave mirror.

  17. Performance Investigation of Millimeter Wave Generation Reliant on Stimulated Brillouin Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tickoo, Sheetal; Gupta, Amit

    2018-04-01

    In this work, photonic method of generating the millimeter waves has been done based on Brillouin scattering effect in optical fiber. Here different approaches are proposed to get maximum frequency shift in mm-wave region using only pumps, radio signals with Mach-Zehnder modulator. Moreover for generated signal validation, signals modulated and send to both wired and wireless medium in optical domain. It is observed that maximum shift of 300 GHz is realized using 60 GHz input sine wave. Basically a frequency doubler is proposed which double shift of input frequency and provide better SNR. For the future generation network system, the generation of millimeter waves makes them well reliable for the transmission of the data.

  18. Monitoring the distributed impact wave on a concrete slab due to the traffic based on polarization dependence on stimulated Brillouin scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Xiaoyi; Zhang Chunshu; Li Wenhai; Eisa, M; El-Gamal, S; Benmokrane, B

    2008-01-01

    For the first time to our knowledge, distributed impact waves due to the highway traffic on concrete slabs reinforced with FRP bars are monitored in real time using stimulated Brillouin scattering. The impact wave is caused by the traffic passing on the highway pavement at high speed (>100 km h −1 ), which induced pressure on the concrete slabs, and in turn created a local birefringence change, leading to variation of the local state of polarization change (SOP). The pump and probe waves of the stimulated Brillouin scattering 'see' the SOP change and react with a decrease of the Brillouin gain or loss signal, when the pump and probe waves have the same input polarization state. The frequency difference between the pump and probe waves are locked at the static-strain-related Brillouin frequency. Optical fiber was embedded throughout the concrete pavement continuously reinforced with FRP bars in Highway 40 East, Montréal, Quebec to detect impact waves caused by cars and trucks passing on these pavements at a sampling rate of 10 kHz. A spatial resolution of 2 m was used over a sensing length of 300 m

  19. Stimulated Brillouin scattering reduction induced by self-focusing for a single laser speckle interacting with an expanding plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masson-Laborde, P. E.; Depierreux, S.; Loiseau, P.; Hüller, S.; Pesme, D.; Labaune, Ch.; Bandulet, H.

    2014-01-01

    The origin of the low level of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) observed in laser-plasma experiments carried out with a single laser speckle is investigated by means of three-dimensional simulations and modeling in the limit when the laser beam power P is well above the critical power for ponderomotive self-focusing We find that the order of magnitude of the time averaged reflectivities, together with the temporal and spatial SBS localization observed in our simulations, are correctly reproduced by our modeling. It is observed that, after a short transient stage, SBS reaches a significant level only (i) as long as the incident laser pulse is increasing in amplitude and (ii) in a single self-focused speckle located in the low-density front part of the plasma. In order to describe self-focusing in an inhomogeneous expanding plasma, we have derived a new Lagrangian density describing this process. Using then a variational approach, our model reproduces the position and the peak intensity of the self-focusing hot spot in the front part of the plasma density profile as well as the local density depletion in this hot spot. The knowledge of these parameters then makes it possible to estimate the spatial amplification of SBS as a function of the laser beam power and consequently to explain the experimentally observed SBS reflectivity, considerably reduced with respect to standard theory in the regime of large laser beam power

  20. Pump spectral linewidth influence on stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) and self-termination behavior of SRS in liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Guang S.; Kuzmin, Andrey; Prasad, Paras N. [The Institute for Lasers, Photonics and Biophotonics, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States)

    2016-12-15

    The threshold, temporal behavior, and conversion efficiency of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) and stimulated Raman scattering (SBS) in three liquids (benzene, hexane, and dimethyl sulfoxide) and two crystals (calcite and barium nitrate) have been investigated under three largely different spectral linewidth conditions. Pumped with 532-nm and nanosecond duration laser pulses of ≤ 0.01 cm{sup -1} linewidth, only SBS can be generated in all tested liquids with a high nonlinear reflectivity. However when the pump spectral linewidth is ∝0.07 cm{sup -1} or ∝0.8 cm{sup -1}, both SBS and SRS can be observed in benzene while only SRS can be generated in dimethyl sulfoxide; in all these cases SRS is the dominant contribution to the stimulated scattering but the efficiency values are drastically decreased due to the self-termination behavior of SRS in liquids, which arises from the thermal self-defocusing of both pump beam and SRS beam owing to Stokes-shift related opto-heating effect. In contrast, for SRS process in the two crystals, the thermal self-defocusing influence is negligible benefitting from their much greater thermal conductivity, and a higher conversion efficiency of SRS generation can be retained under all three pump conditions. (copyright 2016 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. An experimental investigation of stimulated Brillouin scattering in laser-produced plasmas relevant to inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, K.S.

    1993-01-01

    Despite the apparent simplicity of controlled fusion, there are many phenomena which have prevented its achievement. One phenomenon is laser-plasma instabilities. An investigation of one such instability, stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS), is reported here. SBS is a parametric process whereby an electromagnetic wave (the parent wave) decays into another electromagnetic wave and an ion acoustic wave (the daughter waves). SBS impedes controlled fusion since it can scatter much or all of the incident laser light, resulting in poor drive symmetry and inefficient laser-plasma coupling. It is widely believed that SBS becomes convectively unstable--that is, it grows as it traverses the plasma. Though it has yet to be definitively tested, convective theory is often invoked to explain experimental observations, even when one or more of the theory's assumptions are violated. In contrast, the experiments reported here not only obeyed the assumptions of the theory, but were also conducted in plasmas with peak densities well below quarter-critical density. This prevented other competing or coexisting phenomena from occurring, thereby providing clearly interpretable results. These are the first SBS experiments that were designed to be both a clear test of linear convective theory and pertinent to controlled fusion research. A crucial part of this series of experiments was the development of a new instrument, the Multiple Angle Time Resolving Spectrometer (MATRS). MATRS has the unique capability of both spectrally and temporally resolving absolute levels of scattered light at many angles simultaneously, and is the first of its kind used in laser-plasma experiments. A detailed comparison of the theoretical predictions and the experimental observations is made

  2. Coherent beam combination using self-phase locked stimulated Brillouin scattering phase conjugate mirrors with a rotating wedge for high power laser generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sangwoo; Cha, Seongwoo; Oh, Jungsuk; Lee, Hwihyeong; Ahn, Heekyung; Churn, Kil Sung; Kong, Hong Jin

    2016-04-18

    The self-phase locking of a stimulated Brillouin scattering-phase conjugate mirror (SBS-PCM) allows a simple and scalable coherent beam combination of existing lasers. We propose a simple optical system composed of a rotating wedge and a concave mirror to overcome the power limit of the SBS-PCM. Its phase locking ability and the usefulness on the beam-combination laser are demonstrated experimentally. A four-beam combination is demonstrated using this SBS-PCM scheme. The relative phases between the beams were measured to be less than λ/24.7.

  3. Laser-induced damage of fused silica optics at 355 nm due to backward stimulated Brillouin scattering: experimental and theoretical results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamaignère, Laurent; Gaudfrin, Kévin; Donval, Thierry; Natoli, Jeanyves; Sajer, Jean-Michel; Penninckx, Denis; Courchinoux, Roger; Diaz, Romain

    2018-04-30

    Forward pump pulses with nanosecond duration are able to generate an acoustic wave via electrostriction through a few centimeters of bulk silica. Part of the incident energy is then scattered back on this sound wave, creating a backward Stokes pulse. This phenomenon known as stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) might induce first energy-loss, variable change of the temporal waveform depending on the location in the spatial profile making accurate metrology impossible, and moreover it might also initiate front surface damage making the optics unusable. Experiments performed on thick fused silica optics at 355 nm with single longitudinal mode pulses allowed us to detect, observe and quantify these backward pulses. Experimental results are first compared to theoretical calculations in order to strengthen our confidence in metrology. On this basis a phase-modulator has been implemented on the continuous-wave seeders of the lasers leading to pulses with a wide spectrum that suppress SBS and do not exhibit temporal overshoots that also reduce Kerr effects. The developed set-ups are used to check the reduction of the backward stimulated Brillouin scattering and they allow measuring with accuracy the rear surface damage of thick fused silica optics.

  4. Fine structure of the stimulated Raman spectrum in compressed hydrogen. The relaxation-oscillation mode of backscattered Stokes emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bespalov, V.G.; Efimov, Yu.N.; Staselko, D.I.

    1992-01-01

    This paper studies the emission spectra of backscattered stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) in compressed hydrogen in the relaxation-oscillation mode and the compression SRS mode for the minimum width of the spontaneous scattering spectrum (in the region of the Dicke dip). It is shown that the generation of a train of Stokes-emission subpulses results in the appearance of fine structure in the backscattered SRS spectrum. The influence of the temporal structure of reflected Stokes pulses on this spectrum and on the appearance of fine structure in it is analyzed. The conditions for generating spectrally limited (without phase modulation), extremely coherent Stokes pulses are explained. 18 refs., 3 figs

  5. Numerical study of bandwidth effect on stimulated Raman backscattering in nonlinear regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, H. Y.; Xiao, C. Z.; Zou, D. B.; Li, X. Z.; Yin, Y.; Shao, F. Q.; Zhuo, H. B.

    2018-06-01

    Nonlinear behaviors of stimulated Raman scattering driven by finite bandwidth pumps are studied by one dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. The broad spectral feature of plasma waves and backscattered light reveals the different coupling and growth mechanisms, which lead to the suppression effect before the deep nonlinear stage. It causes nonperiodic plasma wave packets and reduces packet and etching velocities. Based on the negative frequency shift and electron energy distribution, the long-time evolution of instability can be divided into two stages by the relaxation time. It is a critical time after which the alleviation effects of nonlinear frequency shift and hot electrons are replaced by enhancement. Thus, the broadband pump suppresses instability at early time. However, it aggravates in the deep nonlinear stage by lifting the saturation level due to the coupling of the incident pump with each frequency shifted plasma wave. Our simulation results show that the nonlinear effects are valid in a bandwidth range from 2.25% to 3.0%, and the physics are similar within a nearby parameter space.

  6. Two-stage optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier using sub-nanosecond pump pulse generated by stimulated Brillouin scattering compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogino, Jumpei; Miyamoto, Sho; Matsuyama, Takahiro; Sueda, Keiichi; Yoshida, Hidetsugu; Tsubakimoto, Koji; Miyanaga, Noriaki

    2014-12-01

    We demonstrate optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification (OPCPA) based on two-beam pumping, using sub-nanosecond pulses generated by stimulated Brillouin scattering compression. Seed pulse energy, duration, and center wavelength were 5 nJ, 220 ps, and ˜1065 nm, respectively. The 532 nm pulse from a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser was compressed to ˜400 ps in heavy fluorocarbon FC-40 liquid. Stacking of two time-delayed pump pulses reduced the amplifier gain fluctuation. Using a walk-off-compensated two-stage OPCPA at a pump energy of 34 mJ, a total gain of 1.6 × 105 was obtained, yielding an output energy of 0.8 mJ. The amplified chirped pulse was compressed to 97 fs.

  7. Numerical investigation of the influence of the strictive self-interaction on the quality of phase conjugation in the course of stimulated Brillouin scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kir'yanov, Yu F; Kochemasov, G G; Maslov, N V; Shestakova, I V

    1999-01-01

    The influence of the strictive self-interaction on the threshold and quality of phase conjugation in the course of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) was investigated numerically in the linear approximation for steady-state linearly polarised pumping. The calculations were carried out for the three-dimensional case of a Gaussian pump beam and a beam representing a superposition of 10 x 10 Hermitian - Gaussian modes with random phases. It was found that in the case of a Gaussian beam the growth of the strictive aberrations leads to a significant reduction of the SBS threshold but has little influence on the conjugation quality. In the case of a pump beam with a divergence exceeding the diffraction limit such growth of the strictive aberrations results (on the average) in lowering the SBS threshold and in deterioration of the conjugation quality. The calculated results depend strongly on the specific phase combination of the superposed modes. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  8. Observation of narrowband intrinsic spectra of Brillouin dynamic gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kwang Yong; Yoon, Hyuk Jin

    2010-09-01

    We experimentally demonstrate that the reflection spectrum of a Brillouin dynamic grating in a polarization-maintaining fiber can be much narrower than the intrinsic linewidth of the stimulated Brillouin scattering, matching well with the theory of a fiber Bragg grating in terms of the linewidth and the reflectivity. A 3 dB bandwidth as narrow as 10.5 MHz is observed with the Brillouin dynamic grating generated in a 9 m uniform fiber.

  9. The Full Aperture Backscatter Station Measurement System on the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bower, D; McCarville, T; Alvarez, S; Ault, L; Brown, M; Chrisp, M; Damian, C; DeHope, W; Froula, D; Glenzer, S; Grace, S; Gu, K; Holdener, F; Huffer, C; Kamperschroer, J; Kelleher, T; Kimbrough, J

    2004-01-01

    A Full Aperture Backscatter Station (FABS) target diagnostic has been activated on the first four beams of the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Backscattered light from the target propagates back down the beam path into the FABS diagnostic system. FABS measures both stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) with a suite of measurement instruments. Digital cameras and spectrometers record spectrally resolved energy for both P and S polarized light. Streaked spectrometers measure the spectral and temporal behavior of the backscattered light. Calorimeters and fast photodetectors measure the integrated energy and temporal behavior of the light, respectively. This paper provides an overview of the FABS measurements system and detailed descriptions of the diagnostic instruments and the optical path

  10. Brillouin gain enhancement in nano-scale photonic waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri Jouybari, Soodabeh

    2018-05-01

    The enhancement of stimulated Brillouin scattering in nano-scale waveguides has a great contribution in the improvement of the photonic devices technology. The key factors in Brillouin gain are the electrostriction force and radiation pressure generated by optical waves in the waveguide. In this article, we have proposed a new scheme of nano-scale waveguide in which the Brillouin gain is considerably improved compared to the previously-reported schemes. The role of radiation pressure in the Brillouin gain was much higher than the role of the electrostriction force. The Brillouin gain strongly depends on the structural parameters of the waveguide and the maximum value of 12127 W-1 m-1 is obtained for the Brillouin gain.

  11. Current trends in laser fusion driver and beam combination laser system using stimulated Brillouin scattering phase conjugate mirrors for a fusion driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, Hong Jin

    2008-01-01

    Laser fusion energy (LFE) is well known as one of the promising sources if clean energy for mankind. Laser fusion researches have been actively progressed, since Japan and the Soviet Union as well as USA developed ultrahigh power lasers at the beginning of 1970s. At present in USA, NIF (National Ignition Facility), which is the largest laser fusion facility in the world, is under construction and will be completed in 2008. Japan as a leader of the laser fusion research has developed a high energy and high power laser system, Gekko XII, and is under contemplation of FIREX projects for the fast ignition. China also has SG I, II lasers for performing the fusion research, and SG III is under construction as a next step. France is also constructing LMJ (Laser countries, many other developed countries in Europe, such as Russia, Germany, UK, and so on, have their own high energy laser systems for the fusion research. In Korea, the high power laser development started with SinMyung laser in KAIST in 1994, and KLF (KAERI Laser Facility) of KAERI was recently completed in 2007. For the practical use of laser fusion energy, the laser driver should be operated with a high repetition rate around 10Hz. Yet, current high energy laser systems, Such as NIF, Gekko XII, and etc., can be operated with only several shots per day. Some researchers have developed their own techniques to reduce the thermal loads of the laser material, by using laser diodes as pump sources and ceramic laser materials with high thermal energy scaling up for the real fusion driver. For this reason, H. J. Kong et al. proposed the beam combination laser system using stimulated Brillouin scattering phase conjugate mirrors (SBS PCMs) for a fusion driver. Proposed beam combination has many advantages for energy scaling up; it is composed by simple optical systems with small amount of components, there is no interaction between neighbored sub beams, the SBS PCMs can be used for a high energy beam reflection with

  12. Dynamic stimulated Brillouin scattering analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djupsöbacka, A.; Jacobsen, Gunnar; Tromborg, Bjarne

    2000-01-01

    We present a new simple analysis - including the effect of spontaneous emission - of the (dynamic) influence of SBS on the detected receiver eye diagram. It applies in principle for general types of modulation formats such as the digital formats of ASK, FSK, and PSK. The analysis is formulated fo...

  13. Laser beam smoothing and backscatter saturation processes in plasmas relevant to national ignition facility hohlraums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacGowan, B.J.; Berger, R.L.; Cohen, B.I.

    2001-01-01

    We have used gas-filled targets irradiated by the Nova laser to simulate National Ignition Facility (NIF) hohlraum plasmas and to study the dependence of Stimulated Raman (SRS) and Brillouin (SBS) Scattering on beam smoothing at a range of laser intensities (3ω, 2-410 15 Wcm -2 ) and plasma conditions. We have demonstrated the effectiveness of polarization smoothing as a potential upgrade to the NIF. Experiments with higher intensities and higher densities characteristic of 350eV hohlraum designs indicate that with appropriate beam smoothing the backscatter from such hohlraums may be tolerable. (author)

  14. Full aperture backscatter diagnostic for the NIF laser facility (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sewall, Noel; Lewis, Izzy; Kirkwood, Robert; Moody, John; Celeste, John

    2001-01-01

    The current schemes for achieving ignition on the National Ignition Facility require efficient coupling of energy from 192 laser beams to the deuterium--tritium fuel capsule. Each laser beam must propagate through a long scalelength plasma region before being converted to x rays (indirect drive) or being absorbed on the capsule (direct drive). Laser-plasma instabilities such as stimulated Brillouin and stimulated Raman scattering (SBS and SRS) will scatter a fraction of the incident laser energy out of the target leading to an overall reduction in the coupling efficiency. It is important to measure the character of this scattered light in order to understand it and to develop methods for reducing it to acceptable levels. We are designing a system called the full aperature backscatter diagnostic with the capability to measure the time-dependent amplitude and spectral content of the light which is backscattered through the incident beam focusing optic. The backscattered light will be collected over about 85% of the full beam aperture and separated into the SBS wavelength band (348--354 nm) and the SRS wavelength band (400--700 nm). Spectrometers coupled to streak cameras will provide time-resolved spectra for both scattered light components. The scattered light amplitude will be measured with fast and slow diodes. The entire system will be routinely calibrated. Analysis of the data will provide important information for reducing scattered power, achieving power balance, and finally achieving ignition

  15. Brillouin scattering at high pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimsditch, M.; Polian, A.

    1988-02-01

    Technical advances which have made Brillouin scattering a useful tool in high pressure diamond anvil cell (DAC) studies, viz. multipassing and tandem operation of Fabry-Perot interferometers, are reviewed. Experimental aspects, such as allowed scattering geometries, are outlined and the data analysis required to transform Brillouin spectra into sound velocities and elastic constants is presented. Experimental results on H 2 , N 2 , Ar, and He are presented, and the close relationship between the Brillouin scattering results and equations of state is highlighted

  16. Brillouin Spectroscopy Data Base for Biological Threats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rubel, Glenn

    2003-01-01

    .... Brillouin scattering from DNA, ovalbumen, the Bacillus spores globigii and thuringiensis were measured to determine the feasibility of biological material discrimination using Brillouin scattering...

  17. Fiber-integrated Brillouin microspectroscopy: Towards Brillouin endoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina V. Kabakova

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Brillouin imaging (BI for micromechanical characterization of tissues and biomaterials is a fast-developing field of research with a strong potential for medical diagnosis of disease-modified tissues and cells. Although the principles of BI imply its compatibility with in vivo and in situ measurements, the integration of BI with a flexible catheter, capable of reaching the region of interest within the body, is yet to be reported. Here, for the first time, we experimentally investigate integration of the Brillouin spectroscope with standard optical fiber components to achieve a Brillouin endoscope. The performance of single-fiber and dual-fiber endoscopes are demonstrated and analyzed. We show that a major challenge in construction of Brillouin endoscopes is the strong backward Brillouin scattering in the optical fiber and we present a dual-fiber geometry as a possible solution. Measurements of Brillouin spectra in test liquids (water, ethanol and glycerol are demonstrated using the dual-fiber endoscope and its performance is analyzed numerically with the help of a beam propagation model.

  18. Self-pulsation threshold of Raman amplified Brillouin fiber cavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ott, Johan Raunkjær; Pedersen, Martin Erland Vestergaard; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2009-01-01

    An implicit equation for the oscillation threshold of stimulated Brillouin scattering from Raman amplified signals in fibers with external feedback is derived under the assumption of no depletion. This is compared to numerical investigations of Raman amplification schemes showing good agreement...

  19. Random fiber laser based on artificially controlled backscattering fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoliang; Chen, Daru; Li, Haitao; She, Lijuan; Wu, Qiong

    2018-01-10

    The random fiber laser (RFL), which is a milestone in laser physics and nonlinear optics, has attracted considerable attention recently. Most previously reported RFLs are based on distributed feedback of Rayleigh scattering amplified through the stimulated Raman-Brillouin scattering effect in single-mode fibers, which require long-distance (tens of kilometers) single-mode fibers and high threshold, up to watt level, due to the extremely small Rayleigh scattering coefficient of the fiber. We proposed and demonstrated a half-open-cavity RFL based on a segment of an artificially controlled backscattering single-mode fiber with a length of 210 m, 310 m, or 390 m. A fiber Bragg grating with a central wavelength of 1530 nm and a segment of artificially controlled backscattering single-mode fiber fabricated by using a femtosecond laser form the half-open cavity. The proposed RFL achieves thresholds of 25 mW, 30 mW, and 30 mW, respectively. Random lasing at a wavelength of 1530 nm and extinction ratio of 50 dB is achieved when a segment of 5 m erbium-doped fiber is pumped by a 980 nm laser diode in the RFL. A novel RFL with many short cavities has been achieved with low threshold.

  20. Brillouin suppression in a fiber optical parametric amplifier by combining temperature distribution and phase modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Michael Rodas; Noordegraaf, Danny; Nielsen, Carsten Vandel

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate an increased gain in optical parametric amplier through suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering by applying a temperature distribution along the fiber resulting in a reduction of the required phase modulation.......We demonstrate an increased gain in optical parametric amplier through suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering by applying a temperature distribution along the fiber resulting in a reduction of the required phase modulation....

  1. Discrimination of Temperature and Strain in Brillouin Optical Time Domain Analysis Using a Multicore Optical Fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghloul, Mohamed A S; Wang, Mohan; Milione, Giovanni; Li, Ming-Jun; Li, Shenping; Huang, Yue-Kai; Wang, Ting; Chen, Kevin P

    2018-04-12

    Brillouin optical time domain analysis is the sensing of temperature and strain changes along an optical fiber by measuring the frequency shift changes of Brillouin backscattering. Because frequency shift changes are a linear combination of temperature and strain changes, their discrimination is a challenge. Here, a multicore optical fiber that has two cores is fabricated. The differences between the cores' temperature and strain coefficients are such that temperature (strain) changes can be discriminated with error amplification factors of 4.57 °C/MHz (69.11 μ ϵ /MHz), which is 2.63 (3.67) times lower than previously demonstrated. As proof of principle, using the multicore optical fiber and a commercial Brillouin optical time domain analyzer, the temperature (strain) changes of a thermally expanding metal cylinder are discriminated with an error of 0.24% (3.7%).

  2. Discrimination of Temperature and Strain in Brillouin Optical Time Domain Analysis Using a Multicore Optical Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. S. Zaghloul

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Brillouin optical time domain analysis is the sensing of temperature and strain changes along an optical fiber by measuring the frequency shift changes of Brillouin backscattering. Because frequency shift changes are a linear combination of temperature and strain changes, their discrimination is a challenge. Here, a multicore optical fiber that has two cores is fabricated. The differences between the cores’ temperature and strain coefficients are such that temperature (strain changes can be discriminated with error amplification factors of 4.57 °C/MHz (69.11 μ ϵ /MHz, which is 2.63 (3.67 times lower than previously demonstrated. As proof of principle, using the multicore optical fiber and a commercial Brillouin optical time domain analyzer, the temperature (strain changes of a thermally expanding metal cylinder are discriminated with an error of 0.24% (3.7%.

  3. Nonlinear Brillouin amplification of finite-duration seeds in the strong coupling regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, G.; Spatschek, K. H.

    2013-01-01

    Parametric plasma processes received renewed interest in the context of generating ultra-intense and ultra-short laser pulses up to the exawatt-zetawatt regime. Both Raman as well as Brillouin amplifications of seed pulses were proposed. Here, we investigate Brillouin processes in the one-dimensional (1D) backscattering geometry with the help of numerical simulations. For optimal seed amplification, Brillouin scattering is considered in the so called strong coupling (sc) regime. Special emphasis lies on the dependence of the amplification process on the finite duration of the initial seed pulses. First, the standard plane-wave instability predictions are generalized to pulse models, and the changes of initial seed pulse forms due to parametric instabilities are investigated. Three-wave-interaction results are compared to predictions by a new (kinetic) Vlasov code. The calculations are then extended to the nonlinear region with pump depletion. Generation of different seed layers is interpreted by self-similar solutions of the three-wave interaction model. Similar to Raman amplification, shadowing of the rear layers by the leading layers of the seed occurs. The shadowing is more pronounced for initially broad seed pulses. The effect is quantified for Brillouin amplification. Kinetic Vlasov simulations agree with the three-wave interaction predictions and thereby affirm the universal validity of self-similar layer formation during Brillouin seed amplification in the strong coupling regime

  4. Highly localized distributed Brillouin scattering response in a photonic integrated circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarifi, Atiyeh; Stiller, Birgit; Merklein, Moritz; Li, Neuton; Vu, Khu; Choi, Duk-Yong; Ma, Pan; Madden, Stephen J.; Eggleton, Benjamin J.

    2018-03-01

    The interaction of optical and acoustic waves via stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) has recently reached on-chip platforms, which has opened new fields of applications ranging from integrated microwave photonics and on-chip narrow-linewidth lasers, to phonon-based optical delay and signal processing schemes. Since SBS is an effect that scales exponentially with interaction length, on-chip implementation on a short length scale is challenging, requiring carefully designed waveguides with optimized opto-acoustic overlap. In this work, we use the principle of Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis to locally measure the SBS spectrum with high spatial resolution of 800 μm and perform a distributed measurement of the Brillouin spectrum along a spiral waveguide in a photonic integrated circuit. This approach gives access to local opto-acoustic properties of the waveguides, including the Brillouin frequency shift and linewidth, essential information for the further development of high quality photonic-phononic waveguides for SBS applications.

  5. Random fiber lasers based on artificially controlled backscattering fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Daru; Wang, Xiaoliang; She, Lijuan; Qiang, Zexuan; Yu, Zhangwei

    2017-10-01

    The random fiber laser (RFL) which is a milestone in laser physics and nonlinear optics, has attracted considerable attention recently. Most previous RFLs are based on distributed feedback of Rayleigh scattering amplified through stimulated Raman/Brillouin scattering effect in single mode fibers, which required long-distance (tens of kilometers) single mode fibers and high threshold up to watt-level due to the extremely small Rayleigh scattering coefficient of the fiber. We proposed and demonstrated a half-open cavity RFL based on a segment of a artificially controlled backscattering SMF(ACB-SMF) with a length of 210m, 310m or 390m. A fiber Bragg grating with the central wavelength of 1530nm and a segment of ACB-SMF forms the half-open cavity. The proposed RFL achieves the threshold of 25mW, 30mW and 30mW, respectively. Random lasing at the wavelength of 1530nm and the extinction ratio of 50dB is achieved when a segment of 5m EDF is pumped by a 980nm LD in the RFL. Another half-open cavity RFL based on a segment of a artificially controlled backscattering EDF(ACBS-EDF) is also demonstrated without an ACB-SMF. The 3m ACB-EDF is fabricated by using the femtosecond laser with pulse energy of 0.34mJ which introduces about 50 reflectors in the EDF. Random lasing at the wavelength of 1530nm is achieved with the output power of 7.5mW and the efficiency of 1.88%. Two novel RFLs with much short cavities have been achieved with low threshold and high efficiency.

  6. Extreme temperature sensing using brillouin scattering in optical fibers

    CERN Document Server

    Fellay, Alexandre

    Stimulated Brillouin scattering in silica-based optical fibers may be considered from two different and complementary standpoints. For a physicist, this interaction of light and pressure wave in a material, or equivalently in quantum theory terms between photons and phonons, gives some glimpses of the atomic structure of the solid and of its vibration modes. For an applied engineer, the same phenomenon may be put to good use as a sensing mechanism for distributed measurements, thanks to the dependence of the scattered light on external parameters such as the temperature, the pressure or the strain applied to the fiber. As far as temperature measurements are concerned, Brillouin-based distributed sensors have progressively gained wide recognition as efficient systems, even if their rather high cost still restricts the number of their applications. Yet they are generally used in a relatively narrow temperature range around the usual ambient temperature; in this domain, the frequency of the scattered light incre...

  7. Magnetic compression into Brillouin flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, R.

    1977-01-01

    The trajectories of beam edge electrons are calculated in the transition region between an electrostatic gun and an increasing magnetic field for various field shapes, transition length, and cathode fluxes, assuming that the resultant beam is of Brillouin flow type. The results give a good physical interpretation to the axial gradient of the magnetic field being responsible for the amount of magnetic compression and also for the proper injection conditions. Therefore it becomes possible to predict from the known characteristics of any fairly laminary electrostatic gun the necessary axial gradient of the magnetic field and the axial position of the gun with respect to the field build-up. (orig.) [de

  8. Development of a sub-MeV X-ray source via Compton backscattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawase, K.; Kando, M.; Hayakawa, T.; Daito, I.; Kondo, S.; Homma, T.; Kameshima, T.; Kotaki, H.; Chen, L.-M.; Fukuda, Y.; Faenov, A.; Shizuma, T.; Shimomura, T.; Yoshida, H.; Hajima, R.; Fujiwara, M.; Bulanov, S.V.; Kimura, T.; Tajima, T.

    2011-01-01

    At the Kansai Photon Science Institute of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency, we have developed a Compton backscattered X-ray source in the energy region of a few hundred keV. The X-ray source consists of a 150-MeV electron beam, with a pulse duration of 10 ps (rms), accelerated by a Microtron accelerator and an Nd:YAG laser, with a pulse duration of 10 ns (FWHM). In the first trial experiment, the X-ray flux is estimated to be (2.2±1.0)x10 2 photons/pulse. For the actual application of an X-ray source, it is important to increase the generated X-ray flux as much as possible. Thus, for the purpose of increasing the X-ray flux, we have developed the pulse compression system for the Nd:YAG laser via stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS). The SBS pulse compression has the great advantages of a high conversion efficiency and a simple structure. In this article, we review the present status of the Compton backscattered X-ray source and describe the SBS pulse compression system.

  9. KrF laser amplifier with phase-conjugate Brillouin retroreflectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gower, M C

    1982-09-01

    We have demonstrated the use of phase-conjugate stimulated Brillouin scattering mirrors to produce high-quality, short-pulse KrF laser beams from angular multiplexed and regenerative amplifiers. The mirror was also shown to isolate systems optically from amplifier spontaneous emission. Automatic alignment of targets using this mirror as a retroreflector was also demonstrated.

  10. Brillouin scatter in laser-produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillion, D.W.; Kruer, W.L.; Rupert, V.C.

    1977-01-01

    The absorption of intense laser light is found to be reduced when targets are irradiated by 1.06 μm light with long pulse widths (150-400 psec) and large focal spots (100-250 μm). Estimates of Brillouin scatter which account for the finite heat capacity of the underdense plasma predict this reduction. Spectra of the back reflected light show red shifts indicative of Brillouin scattering

  11. Mitigation of stimulated Raman scattering in hohlraum plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kline, J L; Montgomery, D S; Rose, H A; Goldman, S R; Froula, D H; Ross, J S; Stevenson, R M; Lushnikov, P M

    2008-01-01

    One aspect of recent research to control Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS) in hohlraum plasmas is the investigation of risk mitigation strategies for indirect drive inertial confinement fusion. Experimental tests of these strategies, based on prior theoretical and experimental knowledge of SRS, are performed in hohlraum experiments. In the last year, two strategies have been investigated. The first is the use of high Z dopants to reduce SRS backscatter. Forward stimulated Brillouin scattering (FSBS) could lead to beam spray reducing SRS. Since FSBS depends on the electron temperature and thermal effects depend strongly on Z 2 , a small amount of a high Z dopant, 1-2%, can have a large effect. Experiments have been conducted at the Omega laser to test this theory by varying the amount of Xe dopant in neo-pentane gas filled hohlraums. The experimental measurements do show a decrease in SRS backscatter as Xe dopant is added. However, there are still uncertainties regarding the responsible mechanism since increases inverse-Bremsstrahlung absorption of the SRS light may play a role. The second strategy investigated is using high kλ D plasmas to reduce SRS backscatter. Experiments conducted at the Omega laser facility in hohlraum plasmas determined the critical onset intensity for a range of kλ D . A scaling of the critical onset intensity as a function of kλ D has been determined

  12. Dynamic coherent backscattering mirror

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeylikovich, I.; Xu, M., E-mail: mxu@fairfield.edu [Physics Department, Fairfield University, Fairfield, CT 06824 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The phase of multiply scattered light has recently attracted considerable interest. Coherent backscattering is a striking phenomenon of multiple scattered light in which the coherence of light survives multiple scattering in a random medium and is observable in the direction space as an enhancement of the intensity of backscattered light within a cone around the retroreflection direction. Reciprocity also leads to enhancement of backscattering light in the spatial space. The random medium behaves as a reciprocity mirror which robustly converts a diverging incident beam into a converging backscattering one focusing at a conjugate spot in space. Here we first analyze theoretically this coherent backscattering mirror (CBM) phenomenon and then demonstrate the capability of CBM compensating and correcting both static and dynamic phase distortions occurring along the optical path. CBM may offer novel approaches for high speed dynamic phase corrections in optical systems and find applications in sensing and navigation.

  13. Brillouin microscopy: assessing ocular tissue biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Seok Hyun; Chernyak, Dimitri

    2018-07-01

    Assessment of corneal biomechanics has been an unmet clinical need in ophthalmology for many years. Many researchers and clinicians have identified corneal biomechanics as source of variability in refractive procedures and one of the main factors in keratoconus. However, it has been difficult to accurately characterize corneal biomechanics in patients. The recent development of Brillouin light scattering microscopy heightens the promise of bringing biomechanics into the clinic. The aim of this review is to overview the progress and discuss prospective applications of this new technology. Brillouin microscopy uses a low-power near-infrared laser beam to determine longitudinal modulus or mechanical compressibility of tissue by analyzing the return signal spectrum. Human clinical studies have demonstrated significant difference in the elastic properties of normal corneas versus corneas diagnosed with mild and severe keratoconus. Clinical data have also shown biomechanical changes after corneal cross-linking treatment of keratoconus patients. Brillouin measurements of the crystalline lens and sclera have also been demonstrated. Brillouin microscopy is a promising technology under commercial development at present. The technique enables physicians to characterize the biomechanical properties of ocular tissues.

  14. Particle trapping in stimulated scattering processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karttunen, S.J.; Heikkinen, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Particle trapping effects on stimulated Brillouin and Raman scattering are investigated. A time and space dependent model assumes a Maxwellian plasma which is taken to be homogeneous in the interaction region. Ion trapping has a rather weak effect on stimulated Brillouin scattering and large reflectivities are obtained even in strong trapping regime. Stimulated Raman scattering is considerably reduced by electron trapping. Typically 15-20 times larger laser intensities are required to obtain same reflectivity levels than without trapping. (author)

  15. Multiwavelength ytterbium-Brillouin random Rayleigh feedback fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Han; Wang, Zinan; Fan, Mengqiu; Li, Jiaqi; Meng, Qingyang; Xu, Dangpeng; Rao, Yunjiang

    2018-03-01

    In this letter, we experimentally demonstrate the multiwavelength ytterbium-Brillouin random fiber laser for the first time, in the half-open cavity formed by a fiber loop mirror and randomly distributed Rayleigh mirrors. With a cladding-pumped ytterbium-doped fiber and a long TrueWave fiber, the narrow linewidth Brillouin pump can generate multiple Brillouin Stokes lines with hybrid ytterbium-Brillouin gain. Up to six stable channels with a spacing of about 0.06 nm are obtained. This work extends the operation wavelength of the multiwavelength Brillouin random fiber laser to the 1 µm band, and has potential in various applications.

  16. Highly localized distributed Brillouin scattering response in a photonic integrated circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atiyeh Zarifi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of optical and acoustic waves via stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS has recently reached on-chip platforms, which has opened new fields of applications ranging from integrated microwave photonics and on-chip narrow-linewidth lasers, to phonon-based optical delay and signal processing schemes. Since SBS is an effect that scales exponentially with interaction length, on-chip implementation on a short length scale is challenging, requiring carefully designed waveguides with optimized opto-acoustic overlap. In this work, we use the principle of Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis to locally measure the SBS spectrum with high spatial resolution of 800 μm and perform a distributed measurement of the Brillouin spectrum along a spiral waveguide in a photonic integrated circuit. This approach gives access to local opto-acoustic properties of the waveguides, including the Brillouin frequency shift and linewidth, essential information for the further development of high quality photonic-phononic waveguides for SBS applications.

  17. Suppression of Brillouin scattering in fibre-optical parametric amplifier by applying temperature control and phase modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Michael Rodas; Noordegraaf, Danny; Nielsen, Carsten Vandel

    2009-01-01

    An increased gain in a fibre-optical parametric amplifier through suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering is demonstrated by applying a temperature distribution along the fibre for a fixed phase modulation of the pump. The temperature distribution slightly impacts the gain spectrum....

  18. Neutron Brillouin scattering in dense fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verkerk, P [Technische Univ. Delft (Netherlands); FINGO Collaboration

    1997-04-01

    Thermal neutron scattering is a typical microscopic probe for investigating dynamics and structure in condensed matter. In contrast, light (Brillouin) scattering with its three orders of magnitude larger wavelength is a typical macroscopic probe. In a series of experiments using the improved small-angle facility of IN5 a significant step forward is made towards reducing the gap between the two. For the first time the transition from the conventional single line in the neutron spectrum scattered by a fluid to the Rayleigh-Brillouin triplet known from light-scattering experiments is clearly and unambiguously observed in the raw neutron data without applying any corrections. Results of these experiments are presented. (author).

  19. Spatially coded backscatter radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thangavelu, S.; Hussein, E.M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Conventional radiography requires access to two opposite sides of an object, which makes it unsuitable for the inspection of extended and/or thick structures (airframes, bridges, floors etc.). Backscatter imaging can overcome this problem, but the indications obtained are difficult to interpret. This paper applies the coded aperture technique to gamma-ray backscatter-radiography in order to enhance the detectability of flaws. This spatial coding method involves the positioning of a mask with closed and open holes to selectively permit or block the passage of radiation. The obtained coded-aperture indications are then mathematically decoded to detect the presence of anomalies. Indications obtained from Monte Carlo calculations were utilized in this work to simulate radiation scattering measurements. These simulated measurements were used to investigate the applicability of this technique to the detection of flaws by backscatter radiography

  20. Brillouin micro-spectroscopy through aberrations via sensorless adaptive optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edrei, Eitan; Scarcelli, Giuliano

    2018-04-01

    Brillouin spectroscopy is a powerful optical technique for non-contact viscoelastic characterizations which has recently found applications in three-dimensional mapping of biological samples. Brillouin spectroscopy performances are rapidly degraded by optical aberrations and have therefore been limited to homogenous transparent samples. In this work, we developed an adaptive optics (AO) configuration designed for Brillouin scattering spectroscopy to engineer the incident wavefront and correct for aberrations. Our configuration does not require direct wavefront sensing and the injection of a "guide-star"; hence, it can be implemented without the need for sample pre-treatment. We used our AO-Brillouin spectrometer in aberrated phantoms and biological samples and obtained improved precision and resolution of Brillouin spectral analysis; we demonstrated 2.5-fold enhancement in Brillouin signal strength and 1.4-fold improvement in axial resolution because of the correction of optical aberrations.

  1. Extracting electron backscattering coefficients from backscattered electron micrographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zupanic, F.

    2010-01-01

    Electron backscattering micrographs possess the so-called Z-contrast, carrying information about the chemical compositions of phases present in microstructures. The intensity at a particular point in the backscattered electron micrograph is proportional to the signal detected at a corresponding point in the scan raster, which is, in turn, proportional to the electron backscattering coefficient of a phase at that point. This article introduces a simple method for extracting the electron backscattering coefficients of phases present in the microstructure, from the backscattered electron micrographs. This method is able to convert the micrograph's greyscale to the backscattering-coefficient-scale. The prerequisite involves the known backscattering coefficients for two phases in the micrograph. In this way, backscattering coefficients of other phases can be determined. The method is unable to determine the chemical compositions of phases or the presence of an element only from analysing the backscattered electron micrograph. Nevertheless, this method was found to be very powerful when combined with energy dispersive spectroscopy, and the calculations of backscattering coefficients. - Research Highlights: →A simple method for extracting the electron backscattering coefficients →The prerequisite is known backscattering coefficients for two phases →The information is complementary to the EDS-results. →This method is especially useful when a phase contains a light element (H, Li, Be, and B)

  2. Reflectivity of stimulated back scattering in a homogeneous-slab medium in the case of negligible pump-wave damping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, G.S.; Cho, B.H.

    1981-01-01

    As to the backscatter instability which is one of nonlinear three-wave resonant interactions, the reflectivity(r) in the case of homogeneous-slab medium is calculated, assuming all the three wavepackets negligible damping caused by medium. The expression has turned out such that r = tanh 2 KAsub(p)L, where K, Asub(p), and L are the constant coupling coefficient, the constant pump-wave amplitude, and the thickness of the medium engaged in the interaction each. When this result is interpreted in terms of the stimulated Brillouin back-scattering in a so-called underdense plasma in controlled fusion, we find the reflectivity twice as large as that by others in the limit of large pump-wave damping, and unfitting to former experiments in the independence on the incident laser-light intensity. We see the incompatibility rise chiefly from neglecting the damping of pump-wave in the plasma. In contrast to the former results by others in the limit of large pump-wave damping, our result might be regarded as that for cases of negligible pump-wave damping, in general stimulated back-scattering phenomena. (author)

  3. Signatures of chaos in the Brillouin zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Aaron; Barr, Ariel; Porter, Max D; Reichl, Linda E

    2017-10-01

    When the classical dynamics of a particle in a finite two-dimensional billiard undergoes a transition to chaos, the quantum dynamics of the particle also shows manifestations of chaos in the form of scarring of wave functions and changes in energy level spacing distributions. If we "tile" an infinite plane with such billiards, we find that the Bloch states on the lattice undergo avoided crossings, energy level spacing statistics change from Poisson-like to Wigner-like, and energy sheets of the Brillouin zone begin to "mix" as the classical dynamics of the billiard changes from regular to chaotic behavior.

  4. On stimulated scattering of laser light in inertial fusion energy targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolic, Lj; Skoric, M.M.; Ishiguro, S.; Sato, T.

    2002-11-01

    Propagation of a laser light through regions of an underdense plasma is an active research topic in laser fusion. In particular, a large effort has been invested in studies of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) and stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) which can reflect laser energy and produce energetic particles to preheat a fusion energy target. Experiments, theory and simulations agree on a complex interplay between various laser-plasma instabilities. By particle-in-cell simulations of an underdense electron-plasma, we have found, apart from the standard SRS, a strong backscattering near the electron plasma frequency at densities beyond the quarter critical. This novel instability, recognized in recent experiments as stimulated laser scattering on a trapped electron-acoustic mode (SEAS), is absent from a classical theory of laser-parametric instabilities. A parametric excitation of SEAS instability, is explained by a three-wave resonant decay of the incident laser light into a standing backscattered wave and a slow trapped electron acoustic wave (ω p ). Large SEAS pulsations, eventually suppressed by relativistic heating of electrons, are observed in our simulations. This phenomenon seems relevant to future hohlraum target and fast ignition experiments. (author)

  5. Stochastic and Deterministic Fluctuations in Stimulated Brillouin Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-10-01

    Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY Supervised by Professor Robert W. Boyd Accessionl For isGRA&I DTIC TAB The...earned a Master of Science degree in Optics in February of 1985. His thesis work has been conducted under the supervision of Professor Robert W. Boyd...by R. W. Boyd, M. G. Raymer , and L. M. Narducci 8. H. Haken, "Analogy between higher instabilities in fluids and lasers," Phys. Lett. 53A, 77 (1975

  6. Acoustic profilometry within polymers as performed by Brillouin microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanctuary, R [Laboratoire Europeen de Recherche Universitaire Saarland-Lorraine (LERUSL) at the Centre Universitaire de Luxembourg, Departement des Sciences, Laboratoire 1.19, 162a avenue de la Faiencerie, L-1511 Luxembourg (Luxembourg); Bactavatchalou, Ravi [Universitaet des Saarlandes, Fakultaet fuer Physik und Elektrotechnik 7.2, Gebaeude 38, D-66041 Saarbruecken (Germany); Mueller, Ulrich [Universitaet des Saarlandes, Fakultaet fuer Physik und Elektrotechnik 7.2, Gebaeude 38, D-66041 Saarbruecken (Germany); Possart, W [Universitaet des Saarlandes, Fakultaet fuer Chemie, Pharmazie und Werkstoffwissenschaften 8.15, Gebaeude 22, D-66041 Saarbruecken (Germany); Alnot, P [Laboratoire de Physique des Milieux Ionises et Applications (LPMIA), UMR 7040-C.N.R.S, Universite de Nancy I, Bd des Aiguillettes, B.P. 239 F-54506 Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France); Krueger, J K [Universitaet des Saarlandes, Fakultaet fuer Physik und Elektrotechnik 7.2, Gebaeude 38, D-66041 Saarbruecken (Germany)

    2003-11-07

    Using high performance Brillouin spectroscopy we present a new technique, which enables us to perform acoustic microscopy with a spatial resolution of about 1 {mu}m. This technique, called Brillouin microscopy, is tested on several bulk- and film-like polymer samples.

  7. The electromagnetic Brillouin precursor in one-dimensional photonic crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uitham, R.; Hoenders, B. J.

    2008-01-01

    We have calculated the electromagnetic Brillouin precursor that arises in a one-dimensional photonic crystal that consists of two homogeneous slabs which each have a single electron resonance. This forerunner is compared with the Brillouin precursor that arises in a homogeneous double-electron

  8. Standards for backscattering analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, I.V.; Eschbach, H.L.

    1978-01-01

    The need for backscattering standards appears to be twofold and depends on the uses and requirements of the users. The first is as a calibrated reference by which samples of a similar nature to the standard may be absolutely compared. The second is as a means of intercomparing the relative results obtained by different laboratories using, as near as possible, identical samples. This type of comparison is of a relative nature and the absolute values are not necessarily required. In the present work the authors try to satisfy both needs by providing identical samples which have been absolutely calibrated to a high accuracy. Very thin copper and vanadium layers were evaporated onto bismuth implanted silicon crystals and on glass plates under carefully controlled conditions. The mass of the deposits was determined in situ using a sensitive UHV microbalance. In addition, two quartz oscillator monitors were used. The samples have been analysed by Rutherford backscattering and the absolute quantity of bismuth determined by a comparison with the known amounts of deposited material. (Auth.)

  9. Stability of Brillouin flow in planar, conventional, and inverted magnetrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, D. H.; Lau, Y. Y.; Greening, G.; Wong, P.; Gilgenbach, R. M.; Hoff, B. W.

    2015-01-01

    The Brillouin flow is the prevalent flow in crossed-field devices. We systematically study its stability in the conventional, planar, and inverted magnetron geometry. To investigate the intrinsic negative mass effect in Brillouin flow, we consider electrostatic modes in a nonrelativistic, smooth bore magnetron. We found that the Brillouin flow in the inverted magnetron is more unstable than that in a planar magnetron, which in turn is more unstable than that in the conventional magnetron. Thus, oscillations in the inverted magnetron may startup faster than the conventional magnetron. This result is consistent with simulations, and with the negative mass property in the inverted magnetron configuration. Inclusion of relativistic effects and electromagnetic effects does not qualitatively change these conclusions

  10. Modes of spheroidal ion plasmas at the Brillouin limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinkle, M. D.; Greaves, R. G.; Surko, C. M.

    1995-01-01

    Brillouin-density pure ion plasmas have been generated in a quadrupole Penning tray by electron-beam ionization of a low-pressure gas. Large, spheroidal, steady-state plasmas are produced that extend to one of the trap electrodes. With the density fixed at the Brillouin limit by the high ion production rate, the electrode potentials determine the plasma shape. The frequencies of azimuthally propagating cyclotron and diocotron modes are found to vary significantly with the plasma aspect ratio. For oblate plasmas, we are able to test theoretical predictions of a simple fluid model, and the frequencies are in good agreement

  11. Multibeam sonar backscatter data processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimel, Alexandre C. G.; Beaudoin, Jonathan; Parnum, Iain M.; Le Bas, Tim; Schmidt, Val; Keith, Gordon; Ierodiaconou, Daniel

    2018-06-01

    Multibeam sonar systems now routinely record seafloor backscatter data, which are processed into backscatter mosaics and angular responses, both of which can assist in identifying seafloor types and morphology. Those data products are obtained from the multibeam sonar raw data files through a sequence of data processing stages that follows a basic plan, but the implementation of which varies greatly between sonar systems and software. In this article, we provide a comprehensive review of this backscatter data processing chain, with a focus on the variability in the possible implementation of each processing stage. Our objective for undertaking this task is twofold: (1) to provide an overview of backscatter data processing for the consideration of the general user and (2) to provide suggestions to multibeam sonar manufacturers, software providers and the operators of these systems and software for eventually reducing the lack of control, uncertainty and variability associated with current data processing implementations and the resulting backscatter data products. One such suggestion is the adoption of a nomenclature for increasingly refined levels of processing, akin to the nomenclature adopted for satellite remote-sensing data deliverables.

  12. 3D Backscatter Imaging System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Ross (Inventor); Turner, D. Clark (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Systems and methods for imaging an object using backscattered radiation are described. The imaging system comprises both a radiation source for irradiating an object that is rotationally movable about the object, and a detector for detecting backscattered radiation from the object that can be disposed on substantially the same side of the object as the source and which can be rotationally movable about the object. The detector can be separated into multiple detector segments with each segment having a single line of sight projection through the object and so detects radiation along that line of sight. Thus, each detector segment can isolate the desired component of the backscattered radiation. By moving independently of each other about the object, the source and detector can collect multiple images of the object at different angles of rotation and generate a three dimensional reconstruction of the object. Other embodiments are described.

  13. On line ultrasonic integrated backscatter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landini, L.; Picano, E.; Mazzarisi, A.; Santarelli, F.; Benassi, A.; De Pieri, G.

    1988-01-01

    A new equipment for on-line evaluation of index based on two-dimensional integrated backscatter from ultrasonic images is described. The new equipment is fully integrated into a B-mode ultrasonic apparatus which provides a simultaneous display of conventional information together with parameters of tissue characterization. The system has been tested with a backscattering model of microbubbles in polysaccharide solution, characterized by a physiological exponential time decay. An exponential fitting to the experimental data was performed which yielded r=0.95

  14. Brillouin Light Scattering from Magnetic Excitations in Superparamagnetic and Ferromagnetic Co-Al-O Granular Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshihara, Akira; Maeda, Toshiteru; Kawamura, Satoshi; Nakamura, Shintaro; Nojima, Tsutomu; Takeda, Yoshihiko; Ohnuma, Shigehiro

    2018-04-01

    A systematic study of Brillouin light scattering (BLS) from superparamagnetic (SPM) and ferromagnetic (FM) Co-Al-O granular films was performed under magnetic fields of up to 4.6 kOe in the standard backscattering geometry at room temperature. The SPM and FM boundary, defined as the Co composition at which the exchange field vanishes, was found to be located at xC(Co) = 59.3 ± 1.3 at. %. From FM films we observed a pair of bulk spin-wave peaks on both the positive- and negative-frequency sides and a surface localized Damon-Eshbach peak only on the positive-frequency side under the present scattering conditions. From SPM films, a pair of broader but propagative excitation peaks with asymmetric intensity were observed on both frequency sides in a spectrum. We performed a numerical analysis of the BLS spectrum by employing the theory developed by Camley and Mills (CM) while retaining dipole and exchange couplings for FM films and only dipole coupling for SPM films. The CM theory successfully reproduced the observed spectrum for both SPM and FM films. The SPM spectrum exhibits a singlet-doublet peak structure similarly to an FM SW spectrum. The SPM peak stems from the dipole-coupled larger-amplitude precession motion of the granule magnetic moment around the external-field-induced magnetization.

  15. Analytical purpose electron backscattering system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desdin, L.; Padron, I.; Laria, J.

    1996-01-01

    In this work an analytical purposes electron backscattering system improved at the Center of Applied Studies for Nuclear Development is described. This system can be applied for fast, exact and nondestructive testing of binary and AL/Cu, AL/Ni in alloys and for other applications

  16. Nodule bottom backscattering study using multibeam echosounder

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, B.; Raju, Y.S.N.; Nair, R.R.

    A study is carried out to observe the angular dependence of backscattering strength at nodule area where grab sample and photographic data is available. Theoretical study along with the experimentally observed data shows that the backscattering...

  17. Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis in composite material beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stern, Yonatan; London, Yosef; Preter, Eyal

    2017-01-01

    Structural health monitoring is a critical requirement in many composites. Numerous monitoring strategies rely on measurements of temperature or strain (or both), however these are often restricted to point-sensing or to the coverage of small areas. Spatially-continuous data can be obtained...... with optical fiber sensors. In this work, we report high-resolution distributed Brillouin sensing over standard fibers that are embedded in composite structures. A phase-coded, Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis (B-OCDA) protocol was employed, with spatial resolution of 2 cm and sensitivity of 1 °K...... or 20 micro-strain. A portable measurement setup was designed and assembled on the premises of a composite structures manufacturer. The setup was successfully utilized in several structural health monitoring scenarios: (a) monitoring the production and curing of a composite beam over 60 h; (b...

  18. Modes of spheroidal ion plasmas at the Brillouin limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinkle, M.D.; Greaves, R.G.; Surko, C.M.

    1996-01-01

    The confinement properties and collective modes of single-component plasmas are investigated in a quadrupole Penning trap. Brillouin-density pure ion plasmas are generated by electron-beam ionization of a low-pressure gas. Large, spheroidal, steady-state plasmas are produced, extending out to contact one or more of the trap electrodes. With the density fixed at the Brillouin limit by the high ion production rate, the electrode potentials determine the plasma shape. The frequencies of azimuthally propagating cyclotron and diocotron modes are found to vary significantly with the plasma aspect ratio. For oblate plasmas, the frequencies are in good agreement with a simple fluid model. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  19. Improvements in backscatter measurement devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, J.; Hay, W.D.

    1978-01-01

    Improvements in measuring the thickness of a coating on a substrate by the technique of backscattered particles are described. These improvements enable the measurements to be carried out continuously as an integral part of the coating production line and also permit measurements where the coated elements are separated from one another by a predetermined distance. The former is achieved by situating the backscatter probe and detector on the rim of the measurement wheel and rotating this wheel at a speed such that the coated element and probe are stationary relative to one another. The latter improvement is achieved by an indexing apparatus which automatically positions the probe beside a coated element. (U.K.)

  20. Brillouin Optical Correlation Domain Analysis in Composite Material Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonatan Stern

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Structural health monitoring is a critical requirement in many composites. Numerous monitoring strategies rely on measurements of temperature or strain (or both, however these are often restricted to point-sensing or to the coverage of small areas. Spatially-continuous data can be obtained with optical fiber sensors. In this work, we report high-resolution distributed Brillouin sensing over standard fibers that are embedded in composite structures. A phase-coded, Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis (B-OCDA protocol was employed, with spatial resolution of 2 cm and sensitivity of 1 °K or 20 micro-strain. A portable measurement setup was designed and assembled on the premises of a composite structures manufacturer. The setup was successfully utilized in several structural health monitoring scenarios: (a monitoring the production and curing of a composite beam over 60 h; (b estimating the stiffness and Young’s modulus of a composite beam; and (c distributed strain measurements across the surfaces of a model wing of an unmanned aerial vehicle. The measurements are supported by the predictions of structural analysis calculations. The results illustrate the potential added values of high-resolution, distributed Brillouin sensing in the structural health monitoring of composites.

  1. Time-domain Brillouin scattering assisted by diffraction gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Osamu; Pezeril, Thomas; Chaban, Ievgeniia; Fujita, Kentaro; Gusev, Vitalyi

    2018-02-01

    Absorption of ultrashort laser pulses in a metallic grating deposited on a transparent sample launches coherent compression/dilatation acoustic pulses in directions of different orders of acoustic diffraction. Their propagation is detected by delayed laser pulses, which are also diffracted by the metallic grating, through the measurement of the transient intensity change of the first-order diffracted light. The obtained data contain multiple frequency components, which are interpreted by considering all possible angles for the Brillouin scattering of light achieved through multiplexing of the propagation directions of light and coherent sound by the metallic grating. The emitted acoustic field can be equivalently presented as a superposition of plane inhomogeneous acoustic waves, which constitute an acoustic diffraction grating for the probe light. Thus the obtained results can also be interpreted as a consequence of probe light diffraction by both metallic and acoustic gratings. The realized scheme of time-domain Brillouin scattering with metallic gratings operating in reflection mode provides access to wide range of acoustic frequencies from minimal to maximal possible values in a single experimental optical configuration for the directions of probe light incidence and scattered light detection. This is achieved by monitoring the backward and forward Brillouin scattering processes in parallel. Potential applications include measurements of the acoustic dispersion, simultaneous determination of sound velocity and optical refractive index, and evaluation of samples with a single direction of possible optical access.

  2. Brillouin Optical Correlation Domain Analysis in Composite Material Beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Yonatan; London, Yosef; Preter, Eyal; Antman, Yair; Diamandi, Hilel Hagai; Silbiger, Maayan; Adler, Gadi; Levenberg, Eyal; Shalev, Doron; Zadok, Avi

    2017-10-02

    Structural health monitoring is a critical requirement in many composites. Numerous monitoring strategies rely on measurements of temperature or strain (or both), however these are often restricted to point-sensing or to the coverage of small areas. Spatially-continuous data can be obtained with optical fiber sensors. In this work, we report high-resolution distributed Brillouin sensing over standard fibers that are embedded in composite structures. A phase-coded, Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis (B-OCDA) protocol was employed, with spatial resolution of 2 cm and sensitivity of 1 °K or 20 micro-strain. A portable measurement setup was designed and assembled on the premises of a composite structures manufacturer. The setup was successfully utilized in several structural health monitoring scenarios: (a) monitoring the production and curing of a composite beam over 60 h; (b) estimating the stiffness and Young's modulus of a composite beam; and (c) distributed strain measurements across the surfaces of a model wing of an unmanned aerial vehicle. The measurements are supported by the predictions of structural analysis calculations. The results illustrate the potential added values of high-resolution, distributed Brillouin sensing in the structural health monitoring of composites.

  3. Brillouin Scattering Spectrum Analysis Based on Auto-Regressive Spectral Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mengyun; Li, Wei; Liu, Zhangyun; Cheng, Linghao; Guan, Bai-Ou

    2018-06-01

    Auto-regressive (AR) spectral estimation technology is proposed to analyze the Brillouin scattering spectrum in Brillouin optical time-domain refelectometry. It shows that AR based method can reliably estimate the Brillouin frequency shift with an accuracy much better than fast Fourier transform (FFT) based methods provided the data length is not too short. It enables about 3 times improvement over FFT at a moderate spatial resolution.

  4. Brillouin Scattering Spectrum Analysis Based on Auto-Regressive Spectral Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mengyun; Li, Wei; Liu, Zhangyun; Cheng, Linghao; Guan, Bai-Ou

    2018-03-01

    Auto-regressive (AR) spectral estimation technology is proposed to analyze the Brillouin scattering spectrum in Brillouin optical time-domain refelectometry. It shows that AR based method can reliably estimate the Brillouin frequency shift with an accuracy much better than fast Fourier transform (FFT) based methods provided the data length is not too short. It enables about 3 times improvement over FFT at a moderate spatial resolution.

  5. Robust, Brillouin Active Embedded Fiber-Is-The-Sensor System in Smart Composite Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chung

    1996-01-01

    Extensive review of our proposed sensing scheme, based mainly on the forward Guided Acoustic Wave Brillouin Scattering (GAWBS) with backward stimulated Brillouin scattering (sBs) as an auxiliary scheme for system fault tolerance has been completed during this project period. This preliminary study is conducted for a number of reasons. The most significant reasons lie in the essential capability of the system to measure temperature and pressure. These two measurands have been proposed to be sensed by sBs in our proposal. Temperature and pressure/strain are important measurands in structural monitoring, so that the effectiveness of sensing by sBs needs to be further examined. It has been pointed out initially that sBs shift will be dependent on temperature and pressure/strain simultaneously. The shift versus temperature or strain is linear. Now, the question is how can these two measurands be separated when sBs is used to sense an environment, in which both temperature and strain are changing simultaneously. Typical sBs shift plotted versus strain and varying temperature is shown in Fig. 1. As is clear, a fiber initially stressed will relax with rising temperature. This is verified by a displacement to the right with rising temperature of the sBs shift vs strain curves in the figure. A way to circumvent this ambiguity is by employing two fibers, one pre-stressed and the other is a free fiber. The latter will measure temperature and subtracting data in the latter fiber from those of the former will give us net strain readings. This is a laborious approach, since it involves the use of two identical fibers, and this is hard to accomplish, especially when many sensors are needed. Additional multiplexing of the data stream for data subtraction becomes a necessity.

  6. A Micropulse eye-safe all-fiber molecular backscatter coherent temperature lidar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abari Cyrus F.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze the performance of an all-fiber, micropulse, 1.5 μm coherent lidar for remote sensing of atmospheric temperature. The proposed system benefits from the recent advances in optics/electronics technology, especially an all-fiber image-reject homodyne receiver, where a high resolution spectrum in the baseband can be acquired. Due to the presence of a structured spectra resulting from the spontaneous Rayleigh-Brillouine scattering, associated with the relevant operating regimes, an accurate estimation of the temperature can be carried out. One of the main advantages of this system is the removal of the contaminating Mie backscatter signal by electronic filters at the baseband (before signal conditioning and amplification. The paper presents the basic concepts as well as a Monte-Carlo system simulation as the proof of concept.

  7. Application of Coupled-Wave Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin Approximation to Ground Penetrating Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Prokopovich

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with bistatic subsurface probing of a horizontally layered dielectric half-space by means of ultra-wideband electromagnetic waves. In particular, the main objective of this work is to present a new method for the solution of the two-dimensional back-scattering problem arising when a pulsed electromagnetic signal impinges on a non-uniform dielectric half-space; this scenario is of interest for ground penetrating radar (GPR applications. For the analytical description of the signal generated by the interaction of the emitted pulse with the environment, we developed and implemented a novel time-domain version of the coupled-wave Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation. We compared our solution with finite-difference time-domain (FDTD results, achieving a very good agreement. We then applied the proposed technique to two case studies: in particular, our method was employed for the post-processing of experimental radargrams collected on Lake Chebarkul, in Russia, and for the simulation of GPR probing of the Moon surface, to detect smooth gradients of the dielectric permittivity in lunar regolith. The main conclusions resulting from our study are that our semi-analytical method is accurate, radically accelerates calculations compared to simpler mathematical formulations with a mostly numerical nature (such as the FDTD technique, and can be effectively used to aid the interpretation of GPR data. The method is capable to correctly predict the protracted return signals originated by smooth transition layers of the subsurface dielectric medium. The accuracy and numerical efficiency of our computational approach make promising its further development.

  8. Biomechanics of subcellular structures by non-invasive Brillouin microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonacci, Giuseppe; Braakman, Sietse

    2016-11-01

    Cellular biomechanics play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of several diseases. Unfortunately, current methods to measure biomechanical properties are invasive and mostly limited to the surface of a cell. As a result, the mechanical behaviour of subcellular structures and organelles remains poorly characterised. Here, we show three-dimensional biomechanical images of single cells obtained with non-invasive, non-destructive Brillouin microscopy with an unprecedented spatial resolution. Our results quantify the longitudinal elastic modulus of subcellular structures. In particular, we found the nucleoli to be stiffer than both the nuclear envelope (p biomechanics and its role in pathophysiology.

  9. Optimization of the Brillouin operator on the KNL architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dürr, Stephan

    2018-03-01

    Experiences with optimizing the matrix-times-vector application of the Brillouin operator on the Intel KNL processor are reported. Without adjustments to the memory layout, performance figures of 360 Gflop/s in single and 270 Gflop/s in double precision are observed. This is with Nc = 3 colors, Nv = 12 right-hand-sides, Nthr = 256 threads, on lattices of size 323 × 64, using exclusively OMP pragmas. Interestingly, the same routine performs quite well on Intel Core i7 architectures, too. Some observations on the much harderWilson fermion matrix-times-vector optimization problem are added.

  10. Rayleigh-Brillouin spectrum in special relativistic hydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Perciante, A. L.; Garcia-Colin, L. S.; Sandoval-Villalbazo, A.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we calculate the Rayleigh-Brillouin spectrum for a relativistic simple fluid according to three different versions available for a relativistic approach to nonequilibrium thermodynamics. An outcome of these calculations is that Eckart's version predicts that such spectrum does not exist. This provides an argument to question its validity. The remaining two results, which differ one from another, do provide a finite form for such spectrum. This raises the rather intriguing question as to which of the two theories is a better candidate to be taken as a possible version of relativistic nonequilibrium thermodynamics. The answer will clearly require deeper examination of this problem.

  11. On the stimulated Raman sidescattering in inhomogeneous plasmas: revisit of linear theory and three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, C. Z.; Zhuo, H. B.; Yin, Y.; Liu, Z. J.; Zheng, C. Y.; Zhao, Y.; He, X. T.

    2018-02-01

    Stimulated Raman sidescattering (SRSS) in inhomogeneous plasma is comprehensively revisited on both theoretical and numerical aspects due to the increasing concern of its detriments to inertial confinement fusion. Firstly, two linear mechanisms of finite beam width and collisional effects that could suppress SRSS are investigated theoretically. Thresholds for the eigenmode and wave packet in a finite-width beam are derived as a supplement to the theory proposed by Mostrom and Kaufman (1979 Phys. Rev. Lett. 42 644). Collisional absorption of SRSS is efficient at high-density plasma and high-Z material, otherwise, it allows emission of sidescattering. Secondly, we have performed the first three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations in the context of SRSS to investigate its linear and nonlinear effects. Simulation results are qualitatively agreed with the linear theory. SRSS with the maximum growth gain is excited at various densities, grows to an amplitude that is comparable with the pump laser, and evolutes to lower densities with a large angle of emergence. Competitions between SRSS and other parametric instabilities such as stimulated Raman backscattering, two-plasmon decay, and stimulated Brillouin scattering are discussed. These interaction processes are determined by gains, occurrence sites, scattering geometries of each instability, and will affect subsequent evolutions. Nonlinear effects of self-focusing and azimuthal magnetic field generation are observed to be accompanied with SRSS. In addition, it is found that SRSS is insensitive to ion motion, collision (low-Z material), and electron temperature.

  12. Phase-detected Brillouin optical correlation-domain reflectometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Yosuke; Hayashi, Neisei; Fukuda, Hideyuki; Nakamura, Kentaro

    2018-05-01

    Optical fiber sensing techniques based on Brillouin scattering have been extensively studied for structural health monitoring owing to their capability of distributed strain and temperature measurement. Although a higher signal-to-noise ratio (leading to high spatial resolution and high-speed measurement) is generally obtained for two-end-access systems, they reduce the degree of freedom in embedding the sensors into structures, and render the measurement no longer feasible when extremely high loss or breakage occurs at a point of the sensing fiber. To overcome these drawbacks, a one-end-access sensing technique called Brillouin optical correlation-domain reflectometry (BOCDR) has been developed. BOCDR has a high spatial resolution and cost efficiency, but its conventional configuration suffered from relatively low-speed operation. In this paper, we review the recently developed high-speed configurations of BOCDR, including phase-detected BOCDR, with which we demonstrate real-time distributed measurement by tracking a propagating mechanical wave. We also demonstrate breakage detection with a wide strain dynamic range.

  13. Brillouin-zone database on the Bilbao Crystallographic Server.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroyo, Mois I; Orobengoa, Danel; de la Flor, Gemma; Tasci, Emre S; Perez-Mato, J Manuel; Wondratschek, Hans

    2014-03-01

    The Brillouin-zone database of the Bilbao Crystallographic Server (http://www.cryst.ehu.es) offers k-vector tables and figures which form the background of a classification of the irreducible representations of all 230 space groups. The symmetry properties of the wavevectors are described by the so-called reciprocal-space groups and this classification scheme is compared with the classification of Cracknell et al. [Kronecker Product Tables, Vol. 1, General Introduction and Tables of Irreducible Representations of Space Groups (1979). New York: IFI/Plenum]. The compilation provides a solution to the problems of uniqueness and completeness of space-group representations by specifying the independent parameter ranges of general and special k vectors. Guides to the k-vector tables and figures explain the content and arrangement of the data. Recent improvements and modifications of the Brillouin-zone database, including new tables and figures for the trigonal, hexagonal and monoclinic space groups, are discussed in detail and illustrated by several examples.

  14. Time gated phase-correlation distributed Brillouin fibre sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisov, Andrey; Soto, Marcelo A.; Thévenaz, Luc

    2013-05-01

    A random access distributed Brillouin fibre sensor is presented, based on phase modulation using a pseudo-random bit sequence (PRBS) together with time gating. The standard phase-correlation technique is known to show a noise level increasing linearly with the number of measured points due to weak gratings generated randomly along the whole sensing fibre. Here we show how intensity modulated pump and time gated detection significantly improve the signal-tonoise ratio (SNR) of the system with no impact on the spatial resolution. A measurement with 1.1 cm spatial resolution over 3.3 km is demonstrated, representing 300'000 equivalent points. The limitations of the proposed technique are discussed through the paper.

  15. Optimized chaotic Brillouin dynamic grating with filtered optical feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianzhong; Li, Zhuping; Wu, Yuan; Zhang, Mingjiang; Liu, Yi; Li, Mengwen

    2018-01-16

    Chaotic Brillouin dynamic gratings (BDGs) have special advantages such as the creation of single, permanent and localized BDG. However, the periodic signals induced by conventional optical feedback (COF) in chaotic semiconductor lasers can lead to the generation of spurious BDGs, which will limit the application of chaotic BDGs. In this paper, filtered optical feedback (FOF) is proposed to eliminate spurious BDGs. By controlling the spectral width of the optical filter and its detuning from the laser frequency, semiconductor lasers with FOF operate in the suppression region of the time-delay signature, and chaotic outputs serving as pump waves are then utilized to generate the chaotic BDG in a polarization maintaining fiber. Through comparative analysis of the COF and FOF schemes, it has been demonstrated that spurious BDGs are effectively eliminated and that the reflection characterization of the chaotic BDG is improved. The influence of FOF on the reflection and gain spectra of the chaotic BDG is analyzed as well.

  16. Correct Brillouin zone and electronic structure of BiPd

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaresko, Alexander; Schnyder, Andreas P.; Benia, Hadj M.; Yim, Chi-Ming; Levy, Giorgio; Damascelli, Andrea; Ast, Christian R.; Peets, Darren C.; Wahl, Peter

    2018-02-01

    A promising route to the realization of Majorana fermions is in noncentrosymmetric superconductors, in which spin-orbit coupling lifts the spin degeneracy of both bulk and surface bands. A detailed assessment of the electronic structure is critical to evaluate their suitability for this through establishing the topological properties of the electronic structure. This requires correct identification of the time-reversal-invariant momenta. One such material is BiPd, a recently rediscovered noncentrosymmetric superconductor which can be grown in large, high-quality single crystals and has been studied by several groups using angular resolved photoemission to establish its surface electronic structure. Many of the published electronic structure studies on this material are based on a reciprocal unit cell which is not the actual Brillouin zone of the material. We show here the consequences of this for the electronic structures and show how the inferred topological nature of the material is affected.

  17. Wavelength dependence of the Brillouin spectral width of boron doped germanosilicate optical fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Pi-Cheng; Dragic, Peter D

    2010-08-30

    Boron co-doped germanosilicate fibers are investigated via the Brillouin light scattering technique using two wavelengths, 1534 nm and 1064 nm. Several fibers are investigated, including four drawn from the same preform but at different draw temperatures. The Stokes' shifts and the Brillouin spectral widths are found to increase with increasing fiber draw temperature. A frequency-squared law has adequately described the wavelength dependence of the Brillouin spectral width of conventional Ge-doped fibers. However, it is found that unlike conventional Ge-doped fibers these fibers do not follow the frequency-squared law. This is explained through a frequency-dependent dynamic viscosity that modifies this law.

  18. Raman backscattering of circularly polarized electromagnetic waves propagating along a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maraghechi, B.; Willett, J.e.

    1979-01-01

    The stimulated Raman backscattering of an intense electromagnetic wave propagating in the extraordinary mode along a uniform, static magnetic field is considered. The dispersion relation for a homogeneous magnetized plasma in the presence of the circularly polarized pump waves is developed in the cold-plasma approximation with the pump frequency above the plasma frequency. Formulas are derived for the threshold νsub(OT) of the parametric instability and for the growth rate γ of the backscattered extraordinary wave and Langmuir wave. The effects of the magnetic field parallel to the direction of propagation on νsub(0T) and γ are studied numerically. (author)

  19. Multi-wavelength Brillouin Raman erbium-doped fiber laser generation in a linear cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirazi, M R; Harun, S W; Ahmad, H

    2014-01-01

    A multi-wavelength Brillouin Raman erbium-doped fiber laser is proposed and demonstrated. The setup uses a 7.7 km dispersion compensating fiber simultaneously as the Brillouin and Raman nonlinear gain media and operates in conjunction with a 3 m erbium-doped fiber as the linear gain medium. At a Brillouin pump (BP) wavelength of 1530 nm, where Raman and erbium gains overlap each other, 34 Brillouin Stokes lines having line spacing of 0.075 nm are created by using a Raman pump power of only 24.1 dBm, an erbium pump power of about 22.1 dBm, and a BP power of 6.5 dBm in the proposed linear cavity. The system is highly efficient and is able to generate many comparable peak-power lines at a low pump power. (paper)

  20. Simulation of simultaneously obtaining ocean temperature and salinity using dual-wavelength Brillouin lidar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Yin; Ma, Yong; Li, Hao; Huang, Jun; Fang, Yu; Liang, Kun; Zhou, Bo

    2014-01-01

    A method for simultaneously obtaining the ocean temperature and salinity based on dual-wavelength Brillouin lidar is proposed in this letter. On the basis of the relationships between the temperature and salinity and the Brillouin shifts, a retrieval model for retrieving the temperature and salinity is established. By using the retrieval model, the ocean temperature and salinity can be simultaneously obtained through the Brillouin shifts. Simulation based on dual-wavelength Brillouin lidar is also carried out for verification of the accuracy of the retrieval model. Results show that the errors of the retrieval model for temperature and salinity are ±0.27 °C and ±0.33‰. (letter)

  1. Brillouin spectroscopy as a new method of screening for increased CSF total protein during bacterial meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steelman, Zachary; Meng, Zhaokai; Traverso, Andrew J; Yakovlev, Vladislav V

    2015-05-01

    Bacterial meningitis is a disease of pronounced clinical significance, especially in the developing world. Immediate treatment with antibiotics is essential, and no single test can provide a conclusive diagnosis. It is well established that elevated total protein in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is associated with bacterial meningitis. Brillouin spectroscopy is a widely used optical technique for noninvasive determination of the elastic moduli of materials. We found that elevated protein levels in CSF alter the fluid elasticity sufficiently to be measurable by Brillouin spectroscopy, with model healthy and diseased fluids distinguishable to marked significance (P = 0.014), which increases with sample concentration by dialysis. Typical raw output of a 2-stage VIPA Brillouin spectrometer: inelastically scattered Brillouin peaks (arrows) and elastically scattered incident radiation (center cross). © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Bi-Directional Brillouin Optical Time Domain Analyzer System for Long Range Distributed Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Nan; Wang, Liang; Wang, Jie; Jin, Chao; Tam, Hwa-Yaw; Zhang, A Ping; Lu, Chao

    2016-12-16

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel scheme of bi-directional Brillouin time domain analyzer (BD-BOTDA) to extend the sensing range. By deploying two pump-probe pairs at two different wavelengths, the Brillouin frequency shift (BFS) distribution over each half of the whole fiber can be obtained with the simultaneous detection of Brillouin signals in both channels. Compared to the conventional unidirectional BOTDA system of the same sensing range, the proposed BD-BOTDA scheme enables distributed sensing with a performance level comparable to the conventional one with half of the sensing range and a spatial resolution of 2 m, while maintaining the Brillouin signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the BFS uncertainty. Based on this technique, we have achieved distributed temperature sensing with a measurement range of 81.9 km fiber at a spatial resolution of 2 m and BFS uncertainty of ~0.44 MHz without introducing any complicated components or schemes.

  3. Bi-Directional Brillouin Optical Time Domain Analyzer System for Long Range Distributed Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Nan; Wang, Liang; Wang, Jie; Jin, Chao; Tam, Hwa-Yaw; Zhang, A. Ping; Lu, Chao

    2016-01-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel scheme of bi-directional Brillouin time domain analyzer (BD-BOTDA) to extend the sensing range. By deploying two pump-probe pairs at two different wavelengths, the Brillouin frequency shift (BFS) distribution over each half of the whole fiber can be obtained with the simultaneous detection of Brillouin signals in both channels. Compared to the conventional unidirectional BOTDA system of the same sensing range, the proposed BD-BOTDA scheme enables distributed sensing with a performance level comparable to the conventional one with half of the sensing range and a spatial resolution of 2 m, while maintaining the Brillouin signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the BFS uncertainty. Based on this technique, we have achieved distributed temperature sensing with a measurement range of 81.9 km fiber at a spatial resolution of 2 m and BFS uncertainty of ~0.44 MHz without introducing any complicated components or schemes. PMID:27999250

  4. Broadband multi-wavelength Brillouin lasers with an operating wavelength range of 1500–1600 nm generated by four-wave mixing in a dual wavelength Brillouin fiber laser cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q.; Jia, Z. X.; Weng, H. Z.; Li, Z. R.; Yang, Y. D.; Xiao, J. L.; Chen, S. W.; Huang, Y. Z.; Qin, W. P.; Qin, G. S.

    2018-05-01

    We demonstrate broadband multi-wavelength Brillouin lasers with an operating wavelength range of 1500–1600 nm and a frequency separation of ~9.28 GHz generated by four-wave mixing in a dual wavelength Brillouin fiber laser cavity. By using one continuous-wave laser as the pump source, multi-wavelength Brillouin lasers with an operating wavelength range of 1554–1574 nm were generated via cascaded Brillouin scattering and four-wave mixing. Interestingly, when pumped by two continuous-wave lasers with an appropriate frequency separation, the operating wavelength range of the multi-wavelength Brillouin lasers was increased to 1500–1600 nm due to cavity-enhanced cascaded four-wave mixing among the frequency components generated by two pump lasers in the dual wavelength Brillouin laser cavity.

  5. Phase transition in lead titanate thin films: a Brillouin study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzel, P; Dugautier, C; Moch, P; Marrec, F Le; Karkut, M G

    2002-01-01

    The elastic properties of both polycrystalline and epitaxial PbTiO 3 (PTO) thin films are studied using Brillouin scattering spectroscopy. The epitaxial PTO films were prepared by pulsed laser ablation on (1) a [0 0 1] single crystal of SrTiO 3 (STO) doped with Nb and (2) a [0 0 1] STO buffered with a layer of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 . The polycrystalline PTO films were prepared by sol-gel on a Si substrate buffered with TiO 2 and Pt layers. The data analysis takes into account the ripple and the elasto-optic contributions. The latter significantly affects the measured spectra since it gives rise to a Love mode in the p-s scattering geometry. At room temperature, the spectra of the epitaxially grown samples are interpreted using previously published elastic constants of PTO single crystals. Sol-gel samples exhibit appreciable softening of the effective elastic properties compared to PTO single crystals: this result is explained by taking into account the random orientation of the microscopic PTO grains. For both the polycrystalline and the epitaxial films we have determined that the piezoelectric terms do not contribute to the spectra. The temperature dependence of the spectra shows strong anomalies of the elastic properties near the ferroelectric phase transition. Compared to the bulk, T C is higher in the sol-gel films, while in the epitaxial films the sign of the T C shift depends on the underlying material

  6. Card controlled beta backscatter thickness measuring instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlesinger, J.

    1978-01-01

    An improved beta backscatter instrument for the nondestructive measurement of the thickness of thin coatings on a substrate is described. Included therein is the utilization of a bank of memory stored data representative of isotope, substrate, coating material and thickness range characteristics in association with a control card having predetermined indicia thereon selectively representative of a particular isotope, substrate material, coating material and thickness range for conditioning electronic circuit means by memory stored data selected in accord with the predetermined indicia on a control card for converting backscattered beta particle counts into indicia of coating thickness

  7. Investigation of nonlinear processes associated with stimulated Brillouin scattering in an underdense and extended plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizvi, S.A.H.

    1983-01-01

    In our experiment, the plasma was performed by means of a Z-pinch. Although a plasma near or above the critical density could have been produced, our experiment was deliberately restricted to underdense plasma as a) our interest was to investigate similar situations as encountered in the large extended coronal region of laser-pellet interaction which may endanger the prospects of laser fusion, b) it is readily accessible to various diagnostic methods, and, c) there is sufficient experimental data and theory availabe for comparison. After a brief introduction of the subject, the theory of laser-induced parametric instabilities, as well as various saturation mechanisms are discussed in the second chapter. The third Chapter contains the experimental details of the complete CO 2 laser system, the Z-pinch, and the laser plasma interaction experiment. Experimental results are reported in the next Chapter and are analyzed in the light of predictions discussed in the second Chapter. A comparison of our results with other experiments is made in Chapter 5, and the discrepancies are explained on the basis of a simple model. The last Chapter sums up the entire work. For a better understanding of the subject, the physics of the laser has been given in Appendix. (orig./HT)

  8. Determination of the elastic constants of portlandite by Brillouin spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Speziale, S.; Reichmann, H.J.; Schilling, F.R.; Wenk, H.R.; Monteiro, P.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    The single crystal elastic constants Cij and the shear and adiabatic bulk modulus of a natural portlandite (Ca(OH)2) crystal were determined by Brillouin spectroscopy at ambient conditions. The elastic constants, expressed in GPa, are: C11 = 102.0(± 2.0), C12 = 32.1(± 1.0), C13 = 8.4(± 0.4), C14 = 4.5(± 0.2), C33 = 33.6(± 0.7), C44 = 12.0(± 0.3), C66 = (C11-C12)/2 = 35.0(± 1.1), where the numbers in parentheses are 1σ standard deviations. The Reuss bounds of the adiabatic bulk and shear moduli are K0S = 26.0(± 0.3) GPa and G0 = 17.5(± 0.4) GPa, respectively, while the Voigt bounds of these moduli are K0S = 37.3(± 0.4) GPa and G0 = 24.4(± 0.3) GPa. The Reuss and Voigt bounds for the aggregate Young's modulus are 42.8(± 1.0) GPa and 60.0(± 0.8) GPa respectively, while the aggregate Poisson's ratio is equal to 0.23(± 0.01). Portlandite exhibits both large compressional elastic anisotropy with C11/C33 = 3.03(± 0.09) equivalent to that of the isostructural hydroxide brucite (Mg(OH)2), and large shear anisotropy with C66/C44 = 2.92(± 0.12) which is 11% larger than brucite. The comparison between the bulk modulus of portlandite and that of lime (CaO) confirms a systematic linear relationship between the bulk moduli of brucite-type simple hydroxides and the corresponding NaCl-type oxides. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Brillouin scattering, piezobirefringence, and dispersion of photoelastic coefficients of CdS and ZnO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berkowicz, R.; Skettrup, Torben

    1975-01-01

    We have measured the dispersion of the Brillouin scattering from acoustoelectrical domains in CdS and ZnO. These spectra are compared with the birefringence spectra obtained by applying uniaxial stress. The resonant cancellation of the Brillouin scattering occurs at the spectral position of the i......We have measured the dispersion of the Brillouin scattering from acoustoelectrical domains in CdS and ZnO. These spectra are compared with the birefringence spectra obtained by applying uniaxial stress. The resonant cancellation of the Brillouin scattering occurs at the spectral position...... of the isotropic point of the stress-induced birefringence. From these spectra it is concluded that the Brillouin scattering in CdS and ZnO is determined by elasto-optic effects alone. The spectra of some of the photoelastic coefficients have been determined. A model dielectric constant is derived where both....... It is found that the exchange interaction between the excitons may change the values of the photoelastic coefficients in ZnO about 10%....

  10. Influence of core diameter and length of polymer optical fiber on Brillouin scattering properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Yosuke; Ishigure, Takaaki; Nakamura, Kentaro

    2012-02-01

    Brillouin scattering in perfluorinated graded-index polymer optical fibers (PFGI-POFs) is potentially useful in developing high-accuracy distributed temperature sensors with reduced strain sensitivity. In this study, we investigate, both experimentally and theoretically, the influence of the fiber core diameter and length on the Brillouin gain spectra (BGS) in PFGI-POFs. First, we show that smaller core diameter drastically enhances the Stokes power using PFGI-POFs with 62.5-μm and 120-μm core diameters, and discuss the Brillouin threshold power. Then, we demonstrate that the PFGI-POF length has little influence on the BGS when the length is longer than 50 m. We also predict that, at 1.55-μm wavelength, it is difficult to reduce the Brillouin threshold power of PFGI-POFs below that of long silica single-mode fibers even if their core diameter is sufficiently reduced to satisfy the single-mode condition. Finally, making use of the enhanced Stokes signal, we confirm the Brillouin linewidth narrowing effect.

  11. Non-local effect in Brillouin optical time-domain analyzer based on Raman amplification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Xinhong; Rao Yunjiang; Wang Zinan; Zhang Weili; Ran Zengling; Deng Kun; Yang Zixin

    2012-01-01

    Compared with conventional Brillouin optical time-domain analyzer (BOTDA), the BOTDA based on Raman amplification allows longer sensing range, higher signal-to-noise ratio and higher measurement accuracy. However, the non-local effect induced by pump depletion significantly restricts the probe optical power injected to sensing fiber, thereby limiting the further extension for sensing distance. In this paper, the coupled equations including the interaction of probe light, Brillouin and Raman pumps are applied to the study on the non-local characteristics of BOTDA based on Raman amplification. The results show that, the system error induced by non-local effect worsens with increased powers of probe wave and Raman pump. The frequency-division-multiplexing (cascading the fibers with various Brillouin frequency shifts) and time-division-multiplexing (modulating both of the Brillouin pump and probe lights) technologies are efficient approaches to suppress the non-local effect, through shortening the effective interaction range between Brillouin pump and probe lights. (authors)

  12. The effect of pressure on spontaneous Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering spectrum in nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chuanyin; Wu, Tao; Shang, Jingcheng; Zhang, Xinyi; Hu, Rongjing; He, XingDao

    2018-05-01

    In order to study the effect of gas pressure on spontaneous Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering spectrum and verify the validity of Tenti S6 model at pressures up to 8 atm, the spontaneous Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering experiment in nitrogen was performed for a wavelength of 532 nm at the constant room temperature of 296 K and a 90° scattering angle. By comparing the experimental spectrum with the theoretical spectrum, the normalized root mean square deviation was calculated and found less than 2.2%. It is verified that Tenti S6 model can be applied to the spontaneous Rayleigh-Brillion scattering of nitrogen under higher pressures. The results of the experimental data analysis demonstrate that pressure has more effect on Brillouin peak intensity and has negligible effect on Brillouin frequency shift, and pressure retrieval based on spontaneous Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering profile is a promising method for remote of pressure, such as harsh environment applications. Some factors that caused experiment deviations are also discussed.

  13. Incidence angle normalization of radar backscatter data

    Science.gov (United States)

    NASA’s Soil Moisture Passive Active (SMAP) satellite (~2014) will include a radar system that will provide L-band multi-polarization backscatter at a constant incidence angle of 40º. During the pre-launch phase of the project there is a need for observations that will support the radar-based soil mo...

  14. Preliminary backscatter results from the hydrosweep multibeam system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Hagen, R.A.; Chakraborty, B.; Schenke, H.W.

    of Oceanography to convert the measured electrical energy into acoustic backscatter energy. This conversion includes corrections for the position, slope, and area of the scattering surface. In this paper we present backscatter data from several areas surveyed...

  15. Study of multibeam techniques for bathymetry and seabottom backscatter applications

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, R.R.; Chakraborty, B.

    Indian ocean is presented using Hydrosweep-multibeam installed onboard ORV Sagarkanya. A seabottom classification model is proposed which can be applied for multibeam backscatter data. Certain aspects of the multibeam backscatter signal data processing...

  16. Electromagnetic backscattering from one-dimensional drifting fractal sea surface II: Electromagnetic backscattering model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Tao; Zhao Shang-Zhuo; Fang He; Yu Wen-Jin; He Yi-Jun; Perrie, William

    2016-01-01

    Sea surface current has a significant influence on electromagnetic (EM) backscattering signals and may constitute a dominant synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging mechanism. An effective EM backscattering model for a one-dimensional drifting fractal sea surface is presented in this paper. This model is used to simulate EM backscattering signals from the drifting sea surface. Numerical results show that ocean currents have a significant influence on EM backscattering signals from the sea surface. The normalized radar cross section (NRCS) discrepancies between the model for a coupled wave-current fractal sea surface and the model for an uncoupled fractal sea surface increase with the increase of incidence angle, as well as with increasing ocean currents. Ocean currents that are parallel to the direction of the wave can weaken the EM backscattering signal intensity, while the EM backscattering signal is intensified by ocean currents propagating oppositely to the wave direction. The model presented in this paper can be used to study the SAR imaging mechanism for a drifting sea surface. (paper)

  17. Determination of the elastic constants of portlandite by Brillouin spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Speziale, S.

    2008-10-01

    The single crystal elastic constants Cij and the shear and adiabatic bulk modulus of a natural portlandite (Ca(OH)2) crystal were determined by Brillouin spectroscopy at ambient conditions. The elastic constants, expressed in GPa, are: C11 = 102.0(± 2.0), C12 = 32.1(± 1.0), C13 = 8.4(± 0.4), C14 = 4.5(± 0.2), C33 = 33.6(± 0.7), C44 = 12.0(± 0.3), C66 = (C11-C12)/2 = 35.0(± 1.1), where the numbers in parentheses are 1σ standard deviations. The Reuss bounds of the adiabatic bulk and shear moduli are K0S = 26.0(± 0.3) GPa and G0 = 17.5(± 0.4) GPa, respectively, while the Voigt bounds of these moduli are K0S = 37.3(± 0.4) GPa and G0 = 24.4(± 0.3) GPa. The Reuss and Voigt bounds for the aggregate Young\\'s modulus are 42.8(± 1.0) GPa and 60.0(± 0.8) GPa respectively, while the aggregate Poisson\\'s ratio is equal to 0.23(± 0.01). Portlandite exhibits both large compressional elastic anisotropy with C11/C33 = 3.03(± 0.09) equivalent to that of the isostructural hydroxide brucite (Mg(OH)2), and large shear anisotropy with C66/C44 = 2.92(± 0.12) which is 11% larger than brucite. The comparison between the bulk modulus of portlandite and that of lime (CaO) confirms a systematic linear relationship between the bulk moduli of brucite-type simple hydroxides and the corresponding NaCl-type oxides. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Guided acoustic and optical waves in silicon-on-insulator for Brillouin scattering and optomechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Sarabalis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We numerically study silicon waveguides on silica showing that it is possible to simultaneously guide optical and acoustic waves in the technologically important silicon on insulator (SOI material system. Thin waveguides, or fins, exhibit geometrically softened mechanical modes at gigahertz frequencies with phase velocities below the Rayleigh velocity in glass, eliminating acoustic radiation losses. We propose slot waveguides on glass with telecom optical frequencies and strong radiation pressure forces resulting in Brillouin gains on the order of 500 and 50 000 W−1m−1 for backward and forward Brillouin scattering, respectively.

  19. Backscattering and negative polarization of agglomerate particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubko, Evgenij; Shkuratov, Yuriy; Hart, Matthew; Eversole, Jay; Videen, Gorden

    2003-09-01

    We used the discrete dipole approximation to study the backscattering of agglomerate particles consisting of oblong monomers. We varied the aspect ratio of the monomers from approximately 1 (sphere) to 4, while we kept the total particle volume equivalent to that of an x = 10 sphere for m = 1.59 + i0 and 1.50 + i0 and considered two values of agglomerate packing density: rho = 0.25 and rho = 0.1. We found that these particles do not display a prominent brightness opposition effect but do produce significant negative polarization over a range of near-backscattering angles. Increasing the monomers' aspect ratio can make the negative polarization much more prominent. We have noted also that decreasing m and p can reduce the amplitude of the negative polarization for these particles.

  20. Optical diagnostics of CO2 laser-fusion targets using backscattered light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casperson, D.E.

    1981-01-01

    With the f/2.4 focusing optics on one of the eight Helios CO 2 laser beam lines, direct backscattered light from a variety of glass microballoon targets has been observed. The quantities that have been measured include: (1) the total backscattered energy; (2) relative amplitudes of the backscattered fundamental and low harmonics (n = 1, 2, 3) of the 10.6 μm incident light; (3) the 3/2 harmonic emission from a double pulse backscatter experiment; (4) the temporally resolved 10.6 μm light using a fast pyroelectric detector and a Los Alamos 5-GHz oscilloscope; and (5) the time-integrated spectrally resolved fundamental using a 3/4 meter spectrometer and a high resolution pyroelectric detector array (resolution approx. 40 A at 10.6 μm). The suitability of these diagnostics for evaluating the CO 2 laser plasma in terms of stimulated scattering processes, plasma density gradients, velocity of the critical surface, etc., is discussed

  1. Analytical expressions for the electron backscattering coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    August, H.J.; Wernisch, J.

    1989-01-01

    Several analytical expressions for the electron backscattering coefficient for massive homogeneous samples are compared with experimental data, directing special attention to the dependence of this quantity on the electron acceleration energy. It is shown that this dependence generally cannot be neglected. The expression proposed by Hunger and Kuechler turns out to be better than that of Love and Scott, although even the better formula can be slightly improved by a small modification. (author)

  2. Backscatter Correction Algorithm for TBI Treatment Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Nieto, B.; Sanchez-Doblado, F.; Arrans, R.; Terron, J.A. [Dpto. Fisiología Médica y Biofísica, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda. Sánchez Pizjuán, 4. E-41009, Sevilla (Spain); Errazquin, L. [Servicio Oncología Radioterápica, Hospital Univ.V. Macarena. Dr. Fedriani, s/n. E-41009, Sevilla (Spain)

    2015-01-15

    The accuracy requirements in target dose delivery is, according to ICRU, ±5%. This is so not only in standard radiotherapy but also in total body irradiation (TBI). Physical dosimetry plays an important role in achieving this recommended level. The semi-infinite phantoms, customarily used for dosimetry purposes, give scatter conditions different to those of the finite thickness of the patient. So dose calculated in patient’s points close to beam exit surface may be overestimated. It is then necessary to quantify the backscatter factor in order to decrease the uncertainty in this dose calculation. The backward scatter has been well studied at standard distances. The present work intends to evaluate the backscatter phenomenon under our particular TBI treatment conditions. As a consequence of this study, a semi-empirical expression has been derived to calculate (within 0.3% uncertainty) the backscatter factor. This factor depends lineally on the depth and exponentially on the underlying tissue. Differences found in the qualitative behavior with respect to standard distances are due to scatter in the bunker wall close to the measurement point.

  3. Backscatter and attenuation characterization of ventricular myocardium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Allyson Ann

    2009-12-01

    This Dissertation presents quantitative ultrasonic measurements of the myocardium in fetal hearts and adult human hearts with the goal of studying the physics of sound waves incident upon anisotropic and inhomogeneous materials. Ultrasound has been used as a clinical tool to assess heart structure and function for several decades. The clinical usefulness of this noninvasive approach has grown with our understanding of the physical mechanisms underlying the interaction of ultrasonic waves with the myocardium. In this Dissertation, integrated backscatter and attenuation analyses were performed on midgestational fetal hearts to assess potential differences in the left and right ventricular myocardium. The hearts were interrogated using a 50 MHz transducer that enabled finer spatial resolution than could be achieved at more typical clinical frequencies. Ultrasonic data analyses demonstrated different patterns and relative levels of backscatter and attenuation from the myocardium of the left ventricle and the right ventricle. Ultrasonic data of adult human hearts were acquired with a clinical imaging system and quantified by their magnitude and time delay of cyclic variation of myocardial backscatter. The results were analyzing using Bayes Classification and ROC analysis to quantify potential advantages of using a combination of two features of cyclic variation of myocardial backscatter over using only one or the other feature to distinguish between groups of subjects. When the subjects were classified based on hemoglobin A1c, the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and the ratio of triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, differences in the magnitude and normalized time delay of cyclic variation of myocardial backscatter were observed. The cyclic variation results also suggested a trend toward a larger area under the ROC curve when information from magnitude and time delay of cyclic variation is combined using Bayes classification than when

  4. Residual strain sensor using Al-packaged optical fiber and Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bo-Hun; Kwon, Il-Bum

    2015-03-09

    We propose a distributed residual strain sensor that uses an Al-packaged optical fiber for the first time. The residual strain which causes Brillouin frequency shifts in the optical fiber was measured using Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis with 2 cm spatial resolution. We quantified the Brillouin frequency shifts in the Al-packaged optical fiber by the tensile stress and compared them for a varying number of Al layers in the optical fiber. The Brillouin frequency shift of an optical fiber with one Al layer had a slope of 0.038 MHz/με with respect to tensile stress, which corresponds to 78% of that for an optical fiber without Al layers. After removal of the stress, 87% of the strain remained as residual strain. When different tensile stresses were randomly applied, the strain caused by the highest stress was the only one detected as residual strain. The residual strain was repeatedly measured for a time span of nine months for the purpose of reliability testing, and there was no change in the strain except for a 4% reduction, which is within the error tolerance of the experiment. A composite material plate equipped with our proposed Al-packaged optical fiber sensor was hammered for impact experiment and the residual strain in the plate was successfully detected. We suggest that the Al-packaged optical fiber can be adapted as a distributed strain sensor for smart structures, including aerospace structures.

  5. Dual Raman-Brillouin spectroscopic investigation of plant stress response and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Zachary; Troyanova-Wood, Maria; Marble, Kassie; Yakovlev, Vladislav

    2018-03-01

    Raman and Brillouin spectroscopy are powerful tools for non-invasive and non-destructive investigations of material chemical and mechanical properties. In this study, we use a newly developed custom-built dual Raman-Brillouin microspectroscopy instrument to build on previous works studying in-vivo stress response of live plants using only a Raman spectroscopy system. This dual Raman-Brillouin spectroscopy system is capable of fast simultaneous spectra acquisition from single-point locations. Shifts and changes in a samples Brillouin spectrum indicate a change in the physical characteristics of the sample, namely mechano-elasticity; in measuring this change, we can establish a relationship between the mechanical properties of a sample and known stress response agents, such as reactive oxygen species and other chemical constituents as indicated by peaks in the Raman spectra of the same acquisition point. Simultaneous application of these spectroscopic techniques offers great promise for future development and applications in agricultural and biological studies and can help to improve our understanding of mechanochemical changes of plants and other biological samples in response to environmental and chemically induced stresses at microscopic or cellular level.

  6. Spontaneous Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering of ultraviolet light in nitrogen, dry air and moist air,

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witschas, B.; Vieitez, M.O.; Duijn, van E.-J.; Reitebuch, O.; Water, van de W.; Ubachs, W.

    2010-01-01

    Atmospheric lidar techniques for the measurement of wind, temperature, and optical properties of aerosols rely on the exact knowledge of the spectral line shape of the scattered laser light on molecules. We report on spontaneous Rayleigh–Brillouin scattering measurements in the ultraviolet at a

  7. An Ultrasonic Backscatter Instrument for Cancellous Bone Evaluation in Neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengcheng Liu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic backscatter technique has shown promise as a noninvasive cancellous bone assessment tool. A novel ultrasonic backscatter bone diagnostic (UBBD instrument and an in vivo application for neonatal bone evaluation are introduced in this study. The UBBD provides several advantages, including noninvasiveness, non-ionizing radiation, portability, and simplicity. In this study, the backscatter signal could be measured within 5 s using the UBBD. Ultrasonic backscatter measurements were performed on 467 neonates (268 males and 199 females at the left calcaneus. The backscatter signal was measured at a central frequency of 3.5 MHz. The delay (T1 and duration (T2 of the backscatter signal of interest (SOI were varied, and the apparent integrated backscatter (AIB, frequency slope of apparent backscatter (FSAB, zero frequency intercept of apparent backscatter (FIAB, and spectral centroid shift (SCS were calculated. The results showed that the SOI selection had a direct influence on cancellous bone evaluation. The AIB and FIAB were positively correlated with the gestational age (|R| up to 0.45, P10 µs. Moderate positive correlations (|R| up to 0.45, P10 µs. The T2 mainly introduced fluctuations in the observed correlation coefficients. The moderate correlations observed with UBBD demonstrate the feasibility of using the backscatter signal to evaluate neonatal bone status. This study also proposes an explicit standard for in vivo SOI selection and neonatal cancellous bone assessment.

  8. pF3D Simulations of Large Outer-Beam Brillouin Scattering from NIF Rugby Hohlraums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Steven; Strozzi, David; Chapman, Thomas; Amendt, Peter

    2015-11-01

    We assess the cause of large outer-beam stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in a NIF shot with a rugby-shaped hohlraum, which has less wall surface loss and thus higher x-ray drive than a cylindrical hohlraum of the same radius. This shot differed from a prior rugby shot with low SBS in three ways: outer beam pointing, split-pointing of the four beams within each outer-beam quadruplet, and a small amount of neon added to the hohlraum helium fill gas. We use pF3D, a massively-parallel, paraxial-envelope laser plasma interaction code, with plasma profiles from the radiation-hydrodynamics code Lasnex. We determine which change between the two shots increased the SBS by adding them one at a time to the simulations. We compare the simulations to experimental data for total SBS power, its spatial distribution at the lens, and the SBS spectrum. For each shot, we use profiles from Lasnex simulations with and without a model for mix at the hohlraum wall-gas interface. Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. Release number LLNL-ABS-674893.

  9. Backscattering Moessbauer spectroscopy of Martian dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertelsen, P.; Madsen, M. B.; Binau, C. S.; Goetz, W.; Gunnlaugsson, H. P.; Hviid, S. F.; Kinch, K. M.; Klingelhoefer, G.; Leer, K.; Madsen, D. E.; Merrison, J.; Olsen, M.; Squyres, S. W.

    2005-01-01

    We report on the determination of the mineralogy of the atmospherically suspended Martian dust particles using backscattering 57 Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy on dust accumulated onto the magnets onboard the Mars Exploration Rovers. The spectra can be interpreted in terms of minerals of igneous origin, and shows only limited, if any, amounts of secondary minerals that may have formed in the presence of liquid water. These findings suggest that the dust has formed in a dry environment over long time in the history of the planet.

  10. Understanding the radar backscattering from flooded and nonflooded Amazonian forests: results from canopy backscatter modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.; Hess, L.L.; Filoso, S.; Melack, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    To understand the potential of using multiwavelength imaging radars to detect flooding in Amazonian floodplain forests, we simulated the radar backscatter from a floodplain forest with a flooded or nonflooded ground condition at C-, L-, and P-bands. Field measurements of forest structure in the Anavilhanas archipelago of the Negro River, Brazil, were used as inputs to the model. Given the same wavelength or incidence angle, the ratio of backscatter from the flooded forest to that from the nonflooded forest was higher at HH polarization than at VV polarization. Given the same wavelength or polarization, the ratio was larger at small incidence angles than at large incidence angles. Given the same polarization or incidence angle, the ratio was larger at a long wavelength than at a short wavelength. As the surface soil moisture underneath the nonflooded forest increased from 10% to 50% of volumetric moisture, the flooded/nonflooded backscatter ratio decreased; the decreases were small at C- and L-band but large at P-band. When the leaf size was comparable to or larger than the wavelength of C-band, the leaf area index (LAI) had a large effect on the simulated C-band (not L-band or P-band) backscatter from the flooded and nonflooded forests. (author)

  11. Uniqueness for the inverse backscattering problem for angularly controlled potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakesh; Uhlmann, Gunther

    2014-01-01

    We consider the problem of recovering a smooth, compactly supported potential on R 3 from its backscattering data. We show that if two such potentials have the same backscattering data and the difference of the two potentials has controlled angular derivatives, then the two potentials are identical. In particular, if two potentials differ by a finite linear combination of spherical harmonics with radial coefficients and have the same backscattering data then the two potentials are identical. (paper)

  12. Compton backscattered collmated X-ray source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, Ronald D.; Huang, Zhirong

    2000-01-01

    A high-intensity, inexpensive and collimated x-ray source for applications such as x-ray lithography is disclosed. An intense pulse from a high power laser, stored in a high-finesse resonator, repetitively collides nearly head-on with and Compton backscatters off a bunched electron beam, having relatively low energy and circulating in a compact storage ring. Both the laser and the electron beams are tightly focused and matched at the interaction region inside the optical resonator. The laser-electron interaction not only gives rise to x-rays at the desired wavelength, but also cools and stabilizes the electrons against intrabeam scattering and Coulomb repulsion with each other in the storage ring. This cooling provides a compact, intense bunch of electrons suitable for many applications. In particular, a sufficient amount of x-rays can be generated by this device to make it an excellent and flexible Compton backscattered x-ray (CBX) source for high throughput x-ray lithography and many other applications.

  13. Compton backscattered collimated x-ray source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, R.D.; Huang, Z.

    1998-10-20

    A high-intensity, inexpensive and collimated x-ray source is disclosed for applications such as x-ray lithography is disclosed. An intense pulse from a high power laser, stored in a high-finesse resonator, repetitively collides nearly head-on with and Compton backscatters off a bunched electron beam, having relatively low energy and circulating in a compact storage ring. Both the laser and the electron beams are tightly focused and matched at the interaction region inside the optical resonator. The laser-electron interaction not only gives rise to x-rays at the desired wavelength, but also cools and stabilizes the electrons against intrabeam scattering and Coulomb repulsion with each other in the storage ring. This cooling provides a compact, intense bunch of electrons suitable for many applications. In particular, a sufficient amount of x-rays can be generated by this device to make it an excellent and flexible Compton backscattered x-ray (CBX) source for high throughput x-ray lithography and many other applications. 4 figs.

  14. Backscattering position detection for photonic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volpe, Giovanni; Kozyreff, Gregory; Petrov, Dmitri

    2007-01-01

    An optically trapped particle is an extremely sensitive probe for the measurement of pico- and femto-Newton forces between the particle and its environment in microscopic systems (photonic force microscopy). A typical setup comprises an optical trap, which holds the probe, and a position sensing system, which uses the scattering of a beam illuminating the probe. Usually the position is accurately determined by measuring the deflection of the forward-scattered light transmitted through the probe. However, geometrical constraints may prevent access to this side of the trap, forcing one to make use of the backscattered light instead. A theory is presented together with numerical results that describes the use of the backscattered light for position detection. With a Mie-Debye approach, we compute the total (incident plus scattered) field and follow its evolution as it is collected by the condenser lenses and projected onto the position detectors and the responses of position sensitive detectors and quadrant photodetectors to the displacement of the probe in the optical trap, both in forward and backward configurations. We find out that in the case of backward detection, for both types of detectors the displacement sensitivity can change sign as a function of the probe size and is null for some critical sizes. In addition, we study the influence of the numerical aperture of the detection system, polarization, and the cross talk between position measurements in orthogonal directions. We finally discuss how these features should be taken into account in experimental designs

  15. Pilot study on rugged fiber optic brillouin sensors for large-strain measurements to ensure the safety of transportation structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Brillouin-scattering Optical Time Domain Reflectometry (BOTDR) is a viable technology for simultaneous, distributed : strain and temperature measurements for miles-long transportation structures. It is a promising tool to ensure the smooth : operatio...

  16. Single-mode Brillouin fiber laser passively stabilized at resonance frequency with self-injection locked pump laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spirin, V V; Lopez-Mercado, C A; Megret, P; Fotiadi, A A

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a single-mode Brillouin fiber ring laser, which is passively stabilized at pump resonance frequency by using self-injection locking of semiconductor pump laser. Resonance condition for Stokes radiation is achieved by length fitting of Brillouin laser cavity. The laser generate single-frequency Stokes wave with linewidth less than 0.5 kHz using approximately 17-m length cavity

  17. Imaging of microwave-induced acoustic fields in LiNbO{sub 3} by high-performance Brillouin microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent, B [Lab. Europeen de Recherche Univ.: Saarland-Lorraine, Univ. des Saarlandes, D-66041 Saarbruecken (Germany)]|[Lab. de Physique des Milieux Ionises et Applications, CNRS-UMR 7040, Univ. H. Poincare, Nancy I, F-54506 (France); Krueger, J K [Lab. Europeen de Recherche Univ.: Saarland-Lorraine, Univ. des Saarlandes, D-66041 Saarbruecken (Germany)]|[Fachrichtung 7.2, Experimentalphysik, Univ. des Saarlandes, Bau 38, D-66041 Saarbruecken (Germany); Elmazria, O [Laboratoire Europeen de Recherche Universitaire: Saarland-Lorraine, Universitaet des Saarlandes, D-66041 Saarbruecken (Germany)]|[Laboratoire de Physique des Milieux Ionises et Applications, CNRS-UMR 7040, Universite H. Poincare, Nancy I, F-54506 (France); Bouvot, L [Laboratoire Europeen de Recherche Universitaire: Saarland-Lorraine, Universitaet des Saarlandes, D-66041 Saarbruecken (Germany)]|[Laboratoire de Physique des Milieux Ionises et Applications, CNRS-UMR 7040, Universite H. Poincare, Nancy I, F-54506 (France); Mainka, J [Laboratoire Europeen de Recherche Universitaire: Saarland-Lorraine, Universitaet des Saarlandes, D-66041 Saarbruecken (Germany)]|[Fachrichtung 7.2, Experimentalphysik, Universitaet des Saarlandes, Bau 38, D-66041 Saarbruecken (Germany); Sanctuary, R [Laboratoire Europeen de Recherche Universitaire: Saarland-Lorraine, Universitaet des Saarlandes, D-66041 Saarbruecken (Germany)]|[Laboratoire de Physique des Materiaux, Campus Luxembourg-Limpertsberg, L-1511 Luxembourg (Luxembourg); Rouxel, D [Lab. Europeen de Recherche Univ.: Saarland-Lorraine, Univ. des Saarlandes, D-66041 Saarbruecken (Germany)]|[Lab. de Physique des Milieux Ionises et Applications, CNRS-UMR 7040, Univ. H. Poincare, Nancy I, F-54506 (France); Alnot, P [Lab. Europeen de Recherche Univ.: Saarland-Lorraine, Univ. des Saarlandes, D-66041 Saarbruecken (Germany)]|[Lab. de Physique des Milieux Ionises et Applications, CNRS-UMR 7040, Univ. H. Poincare, Nancy I, F-54506 (France)

    2005-06-21

    High performance Brillouin microscopy (BM) has been used to characterize the spatial distribution of piezoelectrically induced acoustic fields excited at microwave frequencies in a LiNbO{sub 3} single crystal. It is demonstrated that under suitable conditions BM is able to detect microwave-induced bulk as well as surface acoustic waves. Brillouin spectroscopy is able to probe sound wave intensities of induced phonons, which are as small as those of thermal phonons.

  18. Electrically tunable Brillouin fiber laser based on a metal-coated single-mode optical fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Popov

    Full Text Available We explore tunability of the Brillouin fiber laser employing Joule heating. For this purpose, 10-m-length of a metal-coated single-mode optical cavity fiber has been directly included into an electrical circuit, like a conductor wire. With the current up to ∼3.5 A the laser tuning is demonstrated over a spectrum range of ∼400 MHz. The observed laser line broadening up to ∼2 MHz is explained by frequency drift and mode-hoping in the laser caused by thermal noise. Keywords: Brillouin fiber laser, Metal-coated optical fiber, Laser tuning, Fiber sensors

  19. Brillouin scattering on TbAsO4 and GdVO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehrle, H.

    1975-01-01

    Using a two-pass interferometer the set of elastic constants in TbAsO 4 was determined. On the basis of these constants the Debye temperature was evaluated for T→0. The crystallographic phase transition could not be demonstrated in either case (TbAsO 4 and TmAsO 4 ) because of small Brillouin-line intensity in the low-temperature region. The frequency shifts of the Brillouin lines detected in the case of GdVO 4 show an increase of 5% for the temperature change from room temperature to helium temperature. Assuming this dependence for TbAsO 4 , too, the Debye temperature is changed by 5%. (HPOE) [de

  20. Practical way to avoid spurious geometrical contributions in Brillouin light scattering experiments at variable scattering angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battistoni, Andrea; Bencivenga, Filippo; Fioretto, Daniele; Masciovecchio, Claudio

    2014-10-15

    In this Letter, we present a simple method to avoid the well-known spurious contributions in the Brillouin light scattering (BLS) spectrum arising from the finite aperture of collection optics. The method relies on the use of special spatial filters able to select the scattered light with arbitrary precision around a given value of the momentum transfer (Q). We demonstrate the effectiveness of such filters by analyzing the BLS spectra of a reference sample as a function of scattering angle. This practical and inexpensive method could be an extremely useful tool to fully exploit the potentiality of Brillouin acoustic spectroscopy, as it will easily allow for effective Q-variable experiments with unparalleled luminosity and resolution.

  1. Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering in NH4Cl under hydrostatic pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hikita, Tomoyuki; Kitabatake, Makoto; Ikeda, Takuro

    1981-01-01

    Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering in NH 4 Cl has been studied under hydrostatic pressure. Brillouin shifts of the longitudinal phonons propagating along the and directions and of the transverse phonons propagating along the direction are measured as a function of temperature at four fixed pressures up to 2.3 kbar. All components increase almost linearly with decreasing temperature in the disordered phase and show incremental increases similar to the temperature dependence of the long range order parameter in the ordered phase. It was found that the longitudinal modes exhibit large despersion effect even at high pressures. On the other hand, the transverse mode appears to give no dispersion effect. The intensity of the Rayleigh component in the VV polarization condition increases as the temperature approaches the transition point, while that in the VH polarization does not show such anomalous increase. (author)

  2. Detrimental Effect Elimination of Laser Frequency Instability in Brillouin Optical Time Domain Reflectometer by Using Self-Heterodyne Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqian Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A useful method for eliminating the detrimental effect of laser frequency instability on Brillouin signals by employing the self-heterodyne detection of Rayleigh and Brillouin scattering is presented. From the analysis of Brillouin scattering spectra from fibers with different lengths measured by heterodyne detection, the maximum usable pulse width immune to laser frequency instability is obtained to be about 4 µs in a self-heterodyne detection Brillouin optical time domain reflectometer (BOTDR system using a broad-band laser with low frequency stability. Applying the self-heterodyne detection of Rayleigh and Brillouin scattering in BOTDR system, we successfully demonstrate that the detrimental effect of laser frequency instability on Brillouin signals can be eliminated effectively. Employing the broad-band laser modulated by a 130-ns wide pulse driven electro-optic modulator, the observed maximum errors in temperatures measured by the local heterodyne and self-heterodyne detection BOTDR systems are 7.9 °C and 1.2 °C, respectively.

  3. Guided Acoustic and Optical Waves in Silicon-on-Insulator for Brillouin Scattering and Optomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    APL PHOTONICS 1, 071301 (2016) Guided acoustic and optical waves in silicon-on- insulator for Brillouin scattering and optomechanics Christopher J...is possible to simultaneously guide optical and acoustic waves in the technologically important silicon on insulator (SOI) material system. Thin...high sound velocity — makes guiding acoustic waves difficult, motivating the use of soft chalcogenide glasses and partial or complete releases (removal

  4. Development of a Brillouin scattering based distributed fibre optic strain sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Anthony Wayne

    2001-07-01

    The parameters of the Brillouin spectrum of an optical fibre depend upon the strain and temperature conditions of the fibre. As a result, fibre optic distributed sensors based on Brillouin scattering can measure strain and temperature in arbitrary regions of a sensing fibre. In the past, such sensors have often been demonstrated under laboratory conditions, demonstrating the principle of operation. Although some field tests of temperature sensing have been reported, the actual deployment of such sensors in the field for strain measurements has been limited by poor spatial resolution (typically 1 m or more) and poor strain accuracy (+/-100 muepsilon). Also, cross-sensitivity of the Brillouin spectrum to temperature further reduces the accuracy of strain measurement while long acquisition times hinders field use. The high level of user knowledge and lack of automation required to operate the equipment is another limiting factor of the only commercially available unit. The potential benefits of distributed measurements are great for instrumentation of civil structures provided that the above limitations are overcome. However, before this system is used with confidence by practitioners, it is essential that it can be effectively operated in field conditions. In light of this, the fibre optics group at the University of New Brunswick has been developing an automated system for field measurement of strain in civil structures, particularly in reinforced concrete. The development of the sensing system hardware and software was the main focus of this thesis. This has been made possible, in part, by observation of the Brillouin spectrum for the case of using very short light pulses (performance to measure strain to an accuracy of 10 muepsilon; and allow the simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature to an accuracy of 204 muepsilon and 3°C are presented. Finally, the results of field measurement of strain on a concrete structure are presented.

  5. Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering in SF6 in the kinetic regime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Yuanqing; Yu, Yin; Liang, Kun; Marques, Wilson; van de Water, Willem; Ubachs, Wim

    2017-01-01

    Rayleigh-Brillouin spectral profiles are measured with a laser-based scatterometry setup for a 90° scattering angle at a high signal-to-noise ratio (r.m.s. noise below 0.15% w.r.t. peak intensity) in sulfur-hexafluoride gas for pressures in the range 0.2–5 bar and for a wavelength of λ=403.0 nm. The

  6. Brillouin Corrosion Expansion Sensors for Steel Reinforced Concrete Structures Using a Fiber Optic Coil Winding Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingjun Lv

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel kind of method to monitor corrosion expansion of steel rebars in steel reinforced concrete structures named fiber optic coil winding method is proposed, discussed and tested. It is based on the fiber optical Brillouin sensing technique. Firstly, a strain calibration experiment is designed and conducted to obtain the strain coefficient of single mode fiber optics. Results have shown that there is a good linear relationship between Brillouin frequency and applied strain. Then, three kinds of novel fiber optical Brillouin corrosion expansion sensors with different fiber optic coil winding packaging schemes are designed. Sensors were embedded into concrete specimens to monitor expansion strain caused by steel rebar corrosion, and their performance was studied in a designed electrochemical corrosion acceleration experiment. Experimental results have shown that expansion strain along the fiber optic coil winding area can be detected and measured by the three kinds of sensors with different measurement range during development the corrosion. With the assumption of uniform corrosion, diameters of corrosion steel rebars were obtained using calculated average strains. A maximum expansion strain of 6,738 με was monitored. Furthermore, the uniform corrosion analysis model was established and the evaluation formula to evaluate mass loss rate of steel rebar under a given corrosion rust expansion rate was derived. The research has shown that three kinds of Brillouin sensors can be used to monitor the steel rebar corrosion expansion of reinforced concrete structures with good sensitivity, accuracy and monitoring range, and can be applied to monitor different levels of corrosion. By means of this kind of monitoring technique, quantitative corrosion expansion monitoring can be carried out, with the virtues of long durability, real-time monitoring and quasi-distribution monitoring.

  7. Brillouin corrosion expansion sensors for steel reinforced concrete structures using a fiber optic coil winding method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xuefeng; Gong, Peng; Qiao, Guofu; Lu, Jie; Lv, Xingjun; Ou, Jinping

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a novel kind of method to monitor corrosion expansion of steel rebars in steel reinforced concrete structures named fiber optic coil winding method is proposed, discussed and tested. It is based on the fiber optical Brillouin sensing technique. Firstly, a strain calibration experiment is designed and conducted to obtain the strain coefficient of single mode fiber optics. Results have shown that there is a good linear relationship between Brillouin frequency and applied strain. Then, three kinds of novel fiber optical Brillouin corrosion expansion sensors with different fiber optic coil winding packaging schemes are designed. Sensors were embedded into concrete specimens to monitor expansion strain caused by steel rebar corrosion, and their performance was studied in a designed electrochemical corrosion acceleration experiment. Experimental results have shown that expansion strain along the fiber optic coil winding area can be detected and measured by the three kinds of sensors with different measurement range during development the corrosion. With the assumption of uniform corrosion, diameters of corrosion steel rebars were obtained using calculated average strains. A maximum expansion strain of 6,738 με was monitored. Furthermore, the uniform corrosion analysis model was established and the evaluation formula to evaluate mass loss rate of steel rebar under a given corrosion rust expansion rate was derived. The research has shown that three kinds of Brillouin sensors can be used to monitor the steel rebar corrosion expansion of reinforced concrete structures with good sensitivity, accuracy and monitoring range, and can be applied to monitor different levels of corrosion. By means of this kind of monitoring technique, quantitative corrosion expansion monitoring can be carried out, with the virtues of long durability, real-time monitoring and quasi-distribution monitoring.

  8. Enhanced performance for differential detection in coherent Brillouin optical time-domain analysis sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Liyang; Zhang, Yunpeng; Li, Zonglei; Zhang, Zhiyong; Zou, Xihua; Luo, Bin; Pan, Wei; Yan, Lianshan

    2016-11-01

    Logarithmic detectors (LogDs) have been used in coherent Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (BOTDA) sensors to reduce the effect of phase fluctuation, demodulation complexities, and measurement time. However, because of the inherent properties of LogDs, a DC component at the level of hundreds of millivolts that prohibits high-gain signal amplification (SA) could be generated, resulting in unacceptable data acquisition (DAQ) inaccuracies and decoding errors in the process of prototype integration. By generating a reference light at a level similar to the probe light, differential detection can be applied to remove the DC component automatically using a differential amplifier before the DAQ process. Therefore, high-gain SA can be employed to reduce quantization errors. The signal-to-noise ratio of the weak Brillouin gain signal is improved from ˜11.5 to ˜21.8 dB. A BOTDA prototype is implemented based on the proposed scheme. The experimental results show that the measurement accuracy of the Brillouin frequency shift (BFS) is improved from ±1.9 to ±0.8 MHz at the end of a 40-km sensing fiber.

  9. Viscoelasticity of amyloid plaques in transgenic mouse brain studied by Brillouin microspectroscopy and correlative Raman analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Mattana

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Amyloidopathy is one of the most prominent hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease (AD, the leading cause of dementia worldwide, and is characterized by the accumulation of amyloid plaques in the brain parenchyma. The plaques consist of abnormal deposits mainly composed of an aggregation-prone protein fragment, β-amyloid 1-40/1-42, into the extracellular matrix. Brillouin microspectroscopy is an all-optical contactless technique that is based on the interaction between visible light and longitudinal acoustic waves or phonons, giving access to the viscoelasticity of a sample on a subcellular scale. Here, we describe the first application of micromechanical mapping based on Brillouin scattering spectroscopy to probe the stiffness of individual amyloid plaques in the hippocampal part of the brain of a β-amyloid overexpressing transgenic mouse. Correlative analysis based on Brillouin and Raman microspectroscopy showed that amyloid plaques have a complex structure with a rigid core of β-pleated sheet conformation (β-amyloid protein surrounded by a softer ring-shaped region richer in lipids and other protein conformations. These preliminary results give a new insight into the plaque biophysics and biomechanics, and a valuable contrast mechanism for the study and diagnosis of amyloidopathy.

  10. Spontaneous Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering spectral analysis based on the Wiener filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a spontaneous Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering spectrometer is developed to measure the gaseous spontaneous Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering profiles over the pressure range from 1 to 5 atm for a wavelength of 532nm at a constant room temperature of 296K and a 90o scattering angle. In order to make a direct comparison between the experimentally obtained spectrum and the theoretical spectrum calculated from the Tenti S6 model, the measured spontaneous Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering signal is deconvolved by the Wiener filtering. The purpose is to remove the effect on the spectrum by the transmission function of the Fabry-Perrot scanning interferometer. The results of the comparison show that the deconvolved spectra are consistent with the theoretical spectra calculated from the Tenti S6 model, and thus confirm that the deconvolution based on the Wiener filter is able to process the measured spectra and improve the spectral resolution. Some factors that influence the accuracy of deconvolution are analyzed and discussed. At the same time, another comparison between the raw experimentally obtained spectra and the theoretical spectra calculated by convolving the Tenti S6 model with instrument function of the measurement system is performed in the same experimental condition. The results of the two comparisons show that, compared with the raw experimentally obtained spectrum, the deconvolved spectrum matches the theoretically calculated spectrum more accurately under lower pressure (≤2atm than under relative higher pressure (>2atm.

  11. Single-crystal Brillouin spectroscopy with CO{sub 2} laser heating and variable q

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jin S.; Bass, Jay D. [Department of Geology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Zhu, Gaohua [Materials Research Department, Toyota Research Institute of North America, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105 (United States)

    2015-06-15

    We describe a Brillouin spectroscopy system integrated with CO{sub 2} laser-heating and Raman spectroscopic capabilities. Temperature is determined by measurements of the grey-body thermal radiation emitted by the hot sample, with the system response calibrated relative to a standard tungsten ribbon lamp. High-pressure laser-heating Brillouin scattering measurements of acoustic velocities on liquid water and ice compressed in a diamond-anvil cell were performed at temperatures up to 2500 ± 150 K at high pressure. Single-crystal laser-heating Brillouin measurements were made on the (111) plane of San Carlos olivine at ∼13 GPa, 1300 ± 200 K. The pressure as measured by ruby fluorescence is shown to be within ±0.5 GPa of the pressure on the olivine sample during laser heating when KCl and KBr are used as pressure-transmitting media. In addition, the system is designed for continuously variable scattering angles from forward scattering (near 0° scattering angle) up to near back scattering (∼141°). This novel setup allows us to probe a wide range of wave vectors q for investigation of phonon dispersion on, for example, crystals with large unit cells (on the scale of hundreds of nm)

  12. High energy backscattering analysis using RUMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doolittle, L.R.

    1990-01-01

    A backscattering analysis program such as RUMP fundamentally requires two reference sets of data in order to accomplish anything useful: stopping powers and scattering cross sections. Users of original versions of RUMP had to be satisfied with polynomial stopping powers geared for 1 to 3 MeV, and purely Rutherford scattering cross sections. As people increasingly turn to high beam energies to solve difficult materials analysis problems, RUMP has evolved greater flexibility for its reference data. It now allows data files to be loaded describing different stopping powers and arbitrary scattering cross sections. Auxiliary programs have been written to generate the reference data files, either from a theory or from measured reference data. Descriptions are given of both the underlying physics and the operational details of the software

  13. Simulation of ultrasound backscatter images from fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pham, An Hoai

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work is to investigate ultrasound (US) backscatter in the MHz range from fis to develop a realistic and reliable simulation model. The long term objective of the work is to develop the needed signal processing for fis species differentiation using US. In in-vitro experiments...... is 10 MHz and the Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) at the focus point is 0.54 mm in the lateral direction. The transducer model in Field II was calibrated using a wire phantom to validate the simulated point spread function. The inputs to the simulation were the CT image data of the fis converted......, a cod (Gadus morhua) was scanned with both a BK Medical ProFocus 2202 ultrasound scanner and a Toshiba Aquilion ONE computed tomography (CT) scanner. The US images of the fis were compared with US images created using the ultrasound simulation program Field II. The center frequency of the transducer...

  14. The Harwell back-scattering spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Windsor, C.G.; Bunce, L.J.; Borcherds, P.H.; Cole, I.; Fitzmaurice, M.; Johnson, D.A.G.; Sinclair, R.N.

    1976-01-01

    Neutron diffraction spectra in which both high resolution (Δ Q/Q approximately equal to 0.003) and high intensity are maintained up to scattering vectors as high as 30A -1 (sin theta/lambda = 2.5) have been obtained with the back-scattering spectrometer (BSS) recently installed on the Harwell electron linac. The theory behind the spectrometer design is described, and it is shown how the above resolution requirement leads to its basic features of a 12m incident flight path, a 2m scattering flight path and a scattering angle (2theta) acceptance from 165 0 to 175 0 . Examples of the resolution, intensity and background are given. It is shown that the problem of frame overlap may be overcome by using an absorbing filter. (author)

  15. Computer simulation of backscattered alpha particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, A. Martin; Bland, C.J.; Timon, A. Fernandez

    2000-01-01

    Alpha-particle spectrometry forms an important aspect of radionuclide metrology. Accurate measurements require corrections to be made for factors such as self-absorption within the source and backscattering from the backing material. The theory of the latter phenomenon has only received limited attention. Furthermore the experimental verification of these theoretical results requires adequate counting statistics for a variety of sources with different activities. These problems could be resolved by computer simulations of the various interactions which occur as alpha-particles move through different materials. The pioneering work of Ziegler and his coworkers over several years, has provided the sophisticated software (SRIM) which has enabled us to obtain the results presented here. These results are compared with theoretical and experimental values obtained previously

  16. Beta ray backscattering studies for thickness measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, M; Sharma, K K [Punjabi Univ., Patiala (India). Nuclear Science Labs.

    1979-01-01

    Back-scattering of beta rays from /sup 204/Tl (Esub(..beta..)max = 740 keV) and /sup 90/Sr-/sup 90/Y (Esub(..beta..)max =550 and 2250 keV) has been studied in an improved reflection geometry, using annular sources, from a number of elemental targets with Z values ranging from 13 to 82. Source to target and target to detector geometry factors are 0.0225 and 0.0282 respectively. Values of saturation back scattering thickness obtained in the two cases are 72 +- 10 and 190 +- 40 mg/cm/sup 2/ respectively. It is observed that the intensity of back scattered radiation varies linearly with thickness upto a value of 12 +- 2 mg/cm/sup 2/ in /sup 204/Tl and 17 +- 3 mg/cm/sup 2/ in /sup 90/Sr-/sup 90/Y.

  17. Lidar using the backscatter amplification effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razenkov, Igor A.; Banakh, Victor A.

    2018-04-01

    Experimental data proving the possibility of lidar measurement of the refractive turbulence strength based on the effect of backscatter amplification (BSA) are reported. It is shown that the values of the amplification factor correlate with the variance of random jitter of optical image of an incoherent light source depending on the value of the structure constant of the air refractive index turbulent fluctuations averaged over the probing path. This paper presents the results of measurements of the BSA factor in comparison with the simultaneous measurements of the BSA peak, which is very narrow and only occurs on the laser beam axis. It is constructed the range-time images of the derivative of the amplification factor gives a comprehensive picture of the location of turbulent zones and their temporal dynamics.

  18. Relating P-band AIRSAR backscatter to forest stand parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Melack, John M.; Davis, Frank W.; Kasischke, Eric S.; Christensen, Norman L., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    As part of research on forest ecosystems, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and collaborating research teams have conducted multi-season airborne synthetic aperture radar (AIRSAR) experiments in three forest ecosystems including temperate pine forest (Duke, Forest, North Carolina), boreal forest (Bonanza Creek Experimental Forest, Alaska), and northern mixed hardwood-conifer forest (Michigan Biological Station, Michigan). The major research goals were to improve understanding of the relationships between radar backscatter and phenological variables (e.g. stand density, tree size, etc.), to improve radar backscatter models of tree canopy properties, and to develop a radar-based scheme for monitoring forest phenological changes. In September 1989, AIRSAR backscatter data were acquired over the Duke Forest. As the aboveground biomass of the loblolly pine forest stands at Duke Forest increased, the SAR backscatter at C-, L-, and P-bands increased and saturated at different biomass levels for the C-band, L-band, and P-band data. We only use the P-band backscatter data and ground measurements here to study the relationships between the backscatter and stand density, the backscatter and mean trunk dbh (diameter at breast height) of trees in the stands, and the backscatter and stand basal area.

  19. Strong Localization in Disordered Media: Analysis of the Backscattering Cone

    KAUST Repository

    Delgado, Edgar

    2012-06-01

    A very interesting effect in light propagation through a disordered system is Anderson localization of light, this phenomenon emerges as the result of multiple scattering of waves by electric inhomogeneities like spatial variations of index of refraction; as the amount of scattering is increased, light propagation is converted from quasi-diffusive to exponentially localized, with photons confined in a limited spatial region characterized by a fundamental quantity known as localization length. Light localization is strongly related to another interference phenomenon emerged from the multiple scattering effect: the coherent backscattering effect. In multiple scattering of waves, in fact, coherence is preserved in the backscattering direction and produces a reinforcement of the field flux originating an observable peak in the backscattered intensity, known as backscattering cone. The study of this peak provide quantitative information about the transport properties of light in the material. In this thesis we report a complete FDTD ab-initio study of light localization and coherent backscattering. In particular, we consider a supercontinuum pulse impinging on a sample composed of randomly positioned scatterers. We study coherent backscattering by averaging over several realizations of the sample properties. We study then the coherent backscattering cone properties as the relative permittivity of the sample is changed, relating the latter with the light localization inside the sample. We demonstrate important relationships between the width of the backscattering cone and the localization length, which shows a linear proportionality in the strong localization regime.

  20. Forward and backscatter dose profile to diagnostic X-rays at gold/tissue interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, Luiz A.R. da; Seidenbusch, Michael; Regulla, Dieter F.

    1997-01-01

    The radiological and clinical significance of dose distributions in the vicinity of media interfaces in radiotherapy and the complex nature of these dose distributions have long been recognised. A possible dosimetry method for dose profile assessment near interfaces is the use of the so-called thermally stimulated exoelectron emission (TSEE) dosemeter. In this work the possibility of using Be O/TSEE dosimeters to assess the forward and backscatter dose profile at the interface soft tissue/gold was investigated for diagnostic heavily filtered X-rays spectrum A-60 of ISO Standard A-quality. Dose and range profiles are presented. (author). 14 refs., 3 figs

  1. Storing, Retrieving, and Processing Optical Information by Raman Backscattering in Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodin, I.Y.; Fisch, N.J.

    2002-01-01

    By employing stimulated Raman backscattering in a plasma, information carried by a laser pulse can be captured in the form of a very slowly propagating plasma wave that persists for a time large compared with the pulse duration. If the plasma is then probed with a short laser pulse, the information stored in the plasma wave can be retrieved in a second scattered electromagnetic wave. The recording and retrieving processes can conserve robustly the pulse shape, thus enabling the recording and retrieving with fidelity of information stored in optical signals

  2. Backscattering at a pulsed neutron source, the MUSICAL instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alefeld, B.

    1995-01-01

    In the first part the principles of the neutron backscattering method are described and some simple considerations about the energy resolution and the intensity are presented. A prototype of a backscattering instrument, the first Juelich instrument, is explained in some detail and a representative measurement is shown which was performed on the backscattering instrument IN10 at the ILL in Grenoble. In the second part a backscattering instrument designed for a pulsed neutron source is proposed. It is shown that a rather simple modification, which consists in the replacement of the Doppler drive of the conventional backscattering instrument by a multi silicon monochromator crystal (MUSICAL) leads to a very effective instrument, benefitting from the peak flux of the pulsed source. ((orig.))

  3. Ocean subsurface particulate backscatter estimation from CALIPSO spaceborne lidar measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng; Pan, Delu; Wang, Tianyu; Mao, Zhihua

    2017-10-01

    A method for ocean subsurface particulate backscatter estimation from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) on the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) satellite was demonstrated. The effects of the CALIOP receiver's transient response on the attenuated backscatter profile were first removed. The two-way transmittance of the overlying atmosphere was then estimated as the ratio of the measured ocean surface attenuated backscatter to the theoretical value computed from wind driven wave slope variance. Finally, particulate backscatter was estimated from the depolarization ratio as the ratio of the column-integrated cross-polarized and co-polarized channels. Statistical results show that the derived particulate backscatter by the method based on CALIOP data agree reasonably well with chlorophyll-a concentration using MODIS data. It indicates a potential use of space-borne lidar to estimate global primary productivity and particulate carbon stock.

  4. Multi-beam backscatter image data processing techniques employed to EM 1002 system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, W.A.; Chakraborty, B.

    to compensate outer-beam backscatter strength data in such a way that the effect of angular backscatter strength is removed. In this work we have developed backscatter data processing techniques for EM1002 multi-beam system...

  5. Bulk media assay using backscattered neutron spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csikai, J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper summarized a systematic study of bulk media assay using backscattered neutron spectrometry. The source-sample-detector geometry used for the measurements of leakage and elastically backscattered (EBS) spectra of neutrons is shown. Neutrons up to about 14 MeV were produced via 2 H (d,n) and 9 Be (d,n) reactions using different deuteron beam energies between 5 and 10 MeV at the MGC-20E cyclotron of ATOMKI (Debrecen). Neutron yields of the Pu-Be and 252 Cf sources were 5.25 x 10 6 n/s and 1.8 x 10 6 n/s, respectively. Flux density distributions of thermal and primary 14 MeV neutrons were measured for graphite, water and coal samples in various moderator (M)-sample (S)-reflector (R) geometries. Relative fractions and integrated yields of 252 Cf, Pu-Be and 14 MeV neutrons above the (n,n'γ) reaction thresholds for 12 C, 16 O and 28 Si isotopes vs sample thickness have also been determined. It was found that the integrated reaction rate vs sample thickness decreasing exponentially with different attenuation coefficients depending on the neutron spectrum and the composition of the sample. The spectra of neutrons from sources passing through slabs of water, graphite, sand, Al, Fe and Pb up to 20 cm in thickness have been measured by a PHRS system in the 1.2 to 1.5 MeV range. The leakage neutron spectra from a Pu-Be source placed in the center of 30 cm diameter sphere filled with water, paraffin oil, SiO 2 , zeolite and river sand were also measured. The measured spectra have been compared with the calculated results obtained by the three dimensional Monte-Carlo code MCNP-4A and point-wise cross sections from the ENDF/B-4, ENDF/B-6, ENDF/E-1, BROND-2 and JENDL-3.1 data files. New results were obtained for validation of different data libraries from a comparison on the measured and the calculated spectra. Some typical results for water, Al, sand and Fe are shown. A combination of the backscattered neutron spectrometry with the surface gauge used both for the

  6. Interlinking backscatter, grain size and benthic community structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGonigle, Chris; Collier, Jenny S.

    2014-06-01

    The relationship between acoustic backscatter, sediment grain size and benthic community structure is examined using three different quantitative methods, covering image- and angular response-based approaches. Multibeam time-series backscatter (300 kHz) data acquired in 2008 off the coast of East Anglia (UK) are compared with grain size properties, macrofaunal abundance and biomass from 130 Hamon and 16 Clamshell grab samples. Three predictive methods are used: 1) image-based (mean backscatter intensity); 2) angular response-based (predicted mean grain size), and 3) image-based (1st principal component and classification) from Quester Tangent Corporation Multiview software. Relationships between grain size and backscatter are explored using linear regression. Differences in grain size and benthic community structure between acoustically defined groups are examined using ANOVA and PERMANOVA+. Results for the Hamon grab stations indicate significant correlations between measured mean grain size and mean backscatter intensity, angular response predicted mean grain size, and 1st principal component of QTC analysis (all p PERMANOVA for the Hamon abundance shows benthic community structure was significantly different between acoustic groups for all methods (p ≤ 0.001). Overall these results show considerable promise in that more than 60% of the variance in the mean grain size of the Clamshell grab samples can be explained by mean backscatter or acoustically-predicted grain size. These results show that there is significant predictive capacity for sediment characteristics from multibeam backscatter and that these acoustic classifications can have ecological validity.

  7. Quantitative characterization of abyssal seafloor with transit multibeam backscatter data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pockalny, R. A.; Ferrini, V. L.

    2014-12-01

    The expanding volume of deep-water multibeam echosounder data provides emerging opportunities for the improved characterization of the abyssal seafloor. Nearly 500 cruises criss-cross the oceans with modern wide-swath multibeam systems, and these cruise tracks have imaged a variety of morphologic, tectonic and magmatic environments. The qualitative analysis of the seafloor backscatter data strongly suggests a local and regional variability that correlates with sediment thickness, sediment type and/or depositional environment. We present our initial attempts to develop a method that quantifies this observed seafloor backscatter variability and to explore the causes and potential implications of this variability. Our approach is rooted in the Angular Range Analysis methodology, which utilizes changes in backscatter amplitude observed as a function of grazing angle, to characterize the seafloor. The primary difference in our approach is that we do not invert for geo-acoustical parameters, but rather explores empirical relationships between geological observations and stacked slope and y-intercept values. In addition, we also include the mean and the variance of detrended backscatter measurements. Our initial results indicate intriguing relationships between backscatter parameters and the CaCO3 content of surface sediments. Seafloor regions reported to have high manganese nodule concentrations also tend to have characteristic trends in backscatter parameters. We will present these regional correlations as well as some preliminary statistical analyses of the backscatter parameters and key environmental factors.

  8. Evidence of a tropospheric aerosol backscatter background mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothermel, Jeffry; Bowdle, David A.; Vaughan, J. Michael; Post, Madison J.

    1989-01-01

    Vertical profiles of atmospheric aerosol backscatter coefficients at 10.6 microns obtained with airborne and ground-based lidar are compared. Both sets of profiles show a high frequency of occurrence of low backscatter over a limited range of values in the middle and upper troposphere. It is suggested that this narrow range indicates a ubiquitous background mode for atmospheric backscatter around the globe. Implications of such a mode for global scale aerosol models and for the design of satellite-borne lidar-based sensors are discussed.

  9. Interference phenomena at backscattering by ice crystals of cirrus clouds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borovoi, Anatoli; Kustova, Natalia; Konoshonkin, Alexander

    2015-09-21

    It is shown that light backscattering by hexagonal ice crystals of cirrus clouds is formed within the physical-optics approximation by both diffraction and interference phenomena. Diffraction determines the angular width of the backscattering peak and interference produces the interference rings inside the peak. By use of a simple model for distortion of the pristine hexagonal shape, we show that the shape distortion leads to both oscillations of the scattering (Mueller) matrix within the backscattering peak and to a strong increase of the depolarization, color, and lidar ratios needed for interpretation of lidar signals.

  10. A fully computerized multi-pass Fabry-Perot interferometer for Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohidar, H.; Berland, T.; Boger, F.; Joessang, T.; Feder, J.

    1987-01-01

    The development of a Multipass Fabry-Perot interforometer assembly for use in Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering experiments is reported. The optical alignment and the scattered signal data acquisition have been completely computerized. Digital scanning and alignment strategies of the Fabry-Perot resonator have been incorporated, which makes this instrument quite unique in this respect. The high contrast (∼10 10 ) and finesse (∼50) offered by this instrument makes it possible to detect Brillouin peaks from samples that have a small Brillouin scattering cross-section. As part of this system a compatible and precision sample chamber has been constructed, which has been designed to operate in the pressure and temperature ranges of 1-1000B and 20-150 o C, respectively. The cell has been constructed to be small and compact, but it still has a large heat capacity (∼250J/K) which ensures easy and stable temperature control of the liquid sample volume which has a size of 40 mm 3 . The achievable temperature stability is +-1mK and +-2mK for operating temperatures below and above 100 o C, respectively. The pressure stability is in the range of +-0.05B of the set pressure for pressures below 100B and it is +-0.05% for higher pressures up to 1000B. Both pressure and temperature are remotely monitored and controlled by a ND/100 computer. Special care has been taken in designing the optics of the pressure cell to ensure that both the primary and secondary reflections from the entrance window, as well as the main beam, go out of the scattering region in order to achieve higher signal-to-noise ratio in actual experiments

  11. Probing near-normally propagating bulk acoustic waves using pseudo-reflection geometry Brillouin spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, L. C.; Andrews, G. T.

    2012-09-01

    Pseudo-reflection geometry Brillouin spectroscopy can be used to probe acoustic wave dispersion approximately along the surface normal of a material system while avoiding the difficulties associated with specularly reflected light encountered in an ideal reflection configuration. As an example of its application, we show analytically that it can be used to determine both the refractive index and bulk acoustic mode velocities of optically-isotropic non-metallic materials and confirm the utility of the approach via a series of experiments on fused quartz, gallium phosphide, water, and porous silicon films.

  12. Elastic properties of aspirin in its crystalline and glassy phases studied by micro-Brillouin scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Jae-Hyeon; Lee, Kwang-Sei; Ike, Yuji; Kojima, Seiji

    2008-11-01

    The acoustic waves propagating along the direction perpendicular to the (1 0 0) cleavage plane of aspirin crystal were investigated using micro-Brillouin spectroscopy from which C11, C55 and C66 were obtained. The temperature dependence of the longitudinal acoustic waves could be explained by normal anharmonic lattice models, while the transverse acoustic waves showed an abnormal increase in the hypersonic attenuation at low temperatures indicating their coupling to local remnant dynamics. The sound velocity as well as the attenuation of the longitudinal acoustic waves of glassy aspirin showed a substantial change at ˜235 K confirming a transition from glassy to supercooled liquid state in vitreous aspirin.

  13. Brillouin lasing in single-mode tapered optical fiber with inscribed fiber Bragg grating array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Popov

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available A tapered optical fiber has been manufactured with an array of fiber Bragg gratings (FBG inscribed during the drawing process. The total fiber peak reflectivity is 5% and the reflection bandwidth is ∼3.5 nm. A coherent frequency domain reflectometry has been applied for precise profiling of the fiber core diameter and grating reflectivity both distributed along the whole fiber length. These measurements are in a good agreement with the specific features of Brillouin lasing achieved in the semi-open fiber cavity configuration. Keywords: Tapered optical fibers, Fiber Bragg gratings, Random lasers

  14. Observation of spin-wave dispersion in Nd-Fe-B magnets using neutron Brillouin scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, K.; Inami, N.; Saito, K.; Takeichi, Y.; Kawana, D.; Yokoo, T.; Itoh, S.; Yano, M.; Shoji, T.; Manabe, A.; Kato, A.; Kaneko, Y.

    2014-01-01

    The low-energy spin-wave dispersion in polycrystalline Nd-Fe-B magnets was observed using neutron Brillouin scattering (NBS). Low-energy spin-wave excitations for the lowest acoustic spin-wave mode were clearly observed. From the spin-wave dispersion, we were able to determine the spin-wave stiffness constant D sw (100.0 ± 4.9 meV.Å 2 ) and the exchange stiffness constant A (6.6 ± 0.3 pJ/m)

  15. Brillouin lasing in single-mode tapered optical fiber with inscribed fiber Bragg grating array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, S. M.; Butov, O. V.; Chamorovskiy, Y. K.; Isaev, V. A.; Kolosovskiy, A. O.; Voloshin, V. V.; Vorob'ev, I. L.; Vyatkin, M. Yu.; Mégret, P.; Odnoblyudov, M.; Korobko, D. A.; Zolotovskii, I. O.; Fotiadi, A. A.

    2018-06-01

    A tapered optical fiber has been manufactured with an array of fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) inscribed during the drawing process. The total fiber peak reflectivity is 5% and the reflection bandwidth is ∼3.5 nm. A coherent frequency domain reflectometry has been applied for precise profiling of the fiber core diameter and grating reflectivity both distributed along the whole fiber length. These measurements are in a good agreement with the specific features of Brillouin lasing achieved in the semi-open fiber cavity configuration.

  16. Moessbauer backscatter spectrometer with full data processing capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The design and operation of a Moessbauer backscatter spectrometer with full data processing capability is described, and the investigation of the applicability of this technique to a variety of practical metallurgical problems is discussed

  17. Optimal Time Allocation in Backscatter Assisted Wireless Powered Communication Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Bin; Yang, Zhen; Gui, Guan; Sari, Hikmet

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a wireless powered communication network (WPCN) assisted by backscatter communication (BackCom). This model consists of a power station, an information receiver and multiple users that can work in either BackCom mode or harvest-then-transmit (HTT) mode. The time block is mainly divided into two parts corresponding to the data backscattering and transmission periods, respectively. The users first backscatter data to the information receiver in time division multiple access (TDMA) during the data backscattering period. When one user works in the BackCom mode, the other users harvest energy from the power station. During the data transmission period, two schemes, i.e., non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) and TDMA, are considered. To maximize the system throughput, the optimal time allocation policies are obtained. Simulation results demonstrate the superiority of the proposed model. PMID:28587171

  18. An algorithm to determine backscattering ratio and single scattering albedo

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suresh, T.; Desa, E.; Matondkar, S.G.P.; Mascarenhas, A.A.M.Q.; Nayak, S.R.; Naik, P.

    Algorithms to determine the inherent optical properties of water, backscattering probability and single scattering albedo at 490 and 676 nm from the apparent optical property, remote sensing reflectance are presented here. The measured scattering...

  19. Reson 8101 Backscatter imagery of Penguin Bank, Molokai, Hawaii, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of Penguin Bank, Molokai, Hawaii, USA. These data provide almost complete coverage between 0 and 100 meters....

  20. Optical Backscattering Measured by Airborne Lidar and Underwater Glider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James H. Churnside

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The optical backscattering from particles in the ocean is an important quantity that has been measured by remote sensing techniques and in situ instruments. In this paper, we compare estimates of this quantity from airborne lidar with those from an in situ instrument on an underwater glider. Both of these technologies allow much denser sampling of backscatter profiles than traditional ship surveys. We found a moderate correlation (R = 0.28, p < 10−5, with differences that are partially explained by spatial and temporal sampling mismatches, variability in particle composition, and lidar retrieval errors. The data suggest that there are two different regimes with different scattering properties. For backscattering coefficients below about 0.001 m−1, the lidar values were generally greater than the glider values. For larger values, the lidar was generally lower than the glider. Overall, the results are promising and suggest that airborne lidar and gliders provide comparable and complementary information on optical particulate backscattering.

  1. Simultaneous distributed strain and temperature sensing based on combined Raman–Brillouin scattering using Fabry–Perot lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolognini, Gabriele; Soto, Marcelo A; Di Pasquale, Fabrizio

    2010-01-01

    An investigation is performed of the possibility of achieving simultaneous distributed strain and temperature sensing based on hybrid Raman–Brillouin scattering with the use of multi-wavelength optical sources such as common Fabry–Perot (FP) lasers. By employing a self-heterodyne detection scheme based on a multi-wavelength optical local oscillator, the benefits of FP lasers are fully exploited, allowing for high-power Raman intensity measurements and a simultaneous high-accuracy detection of the Brillouin frequency shift parameter for each FP longitudinal mode. Experimental results point out a significant reduction of coherent Rayleigh noise, and highlight the enhanced performance in hybrid Raman–Brillouin sensing when using FP lasers; in particular using standard FP lasers at 1550 nm results in about 12 dB (7 dB) temperature (strain) accuracy improvement at 25 km sensing distance with respect to the use of standard distributed feedback lasers

  2. Principles of electron backscattering by solids and thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niedrig, H.

    1977-01-01

    The parameters concerning the electron backscattering from thin films and solids (atomic scattering cross-section, atomic number, single/multiple scattering, film thickness of self-supporting films and of surface films on bulk substrates, scattering angular distribution, angle of incidence, diffraction effects) are described. Their influence on some important contrast mechanisms in scanning electron microscopy (thickness contrast, Z/material contrast, tilting/topography contrast, orientation contrast) is discussed. The main backscattering electron detection systems are briefly described. (orig.) [de

  3. TCR backscattering characterization for microwave remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccio, Giovanni; Gennarelli, Claudio

    2014-05-01

    A Trihedral Corner Reflector (TCR) is formed by three mutually orthogonal metal plates of various shapes and is a very important scattering structure since it exhibits a high monostatic Radar Cross Section (RCS) over a wide angular range. Moreover it is a handy passive device with low manufacturing costs and robust geometric construction, the maintenance of its efficiency is not difficult and expensive, and it can be used in all weather conditions (i.e., fog, rain, smoke, and dusty environment). These characteristics make it suitable as reference target and radar enhancement device for satellite- and ground-based microwave remote sensing techniques. For instance, TCRs have been recently employed to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the backscattered signal in the case of urban ground deformation monitoring [1] and dynamic survey of civil infrastructures without natural corners as the Musmeci bridge in Basilicata, Italy [2]. The region of interest for the calculation of TCR's monostatic RCS is here confined to the first quadrant containing the boresight direction. The backscattering term is presented in closed form by evaluating the far-field scattering integral involving the contributions related to the direct illumination and the internal bouncing mechanisms. The Geometrical Optics (GO) laws allow one to determine the field incident on each TCR plate and the patch (integration domain) illuminated by it, thus enabling the use of a Physical Optics (PO) approximation for the corresponding surface current densities to consider for integration on each patch. Accordingly, five contributions are associated to each TCR plate: one contribution is due to the direct illumination of the whole internal surface; two contributions originate by the impinging rays that are simply reflected by the other two internal surfaces; and two contributions are related to the impinging rays that undergo two internal reflections. It is useful to note that the six contributions due to the

  4. Brillouin light scattering studies on the mechanical properties of ultrathin, porous low-K dielectric films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Sooryakumar, R.; King, Sean

    2010-03-01

    Low K dielectrics have predominantly replaced silicon dioxide as the interlayer dielectric material for interconnects in state of the art integrated circuits. To further reduce interconnect resistance-capacitance (RC) delays, additional reductions in the K for these low-K materials is being pursued by the introduction of controlled levels of porosity. The main challenge for porous low-K dielectrics is the substantial reduction in mechanical properties that is accompanied by the increased pore volume content needed to reduce K. We report on the application of the nondestructive Brillouin light scattering technique to monitor and characterize the mechanical properties of these porous films at thicknesses well below 200 nm that are pertinent to present applications. Observation of longitudinal and transverse standing wave acoustic resonances and the dispersion that accompany their transformation into traveling waves with finite in-plane wave vectors provides for the principal elastic constants that completely characterize the mechanical properties of these porous films. The mode amplitudes of the standing waves, their variation within the film, and the calculated Brillouin intensities account for most aspects of the spectra. The resulting elastic constants are compared with corresponding values obtained from other experimental techniques.

  5. Brillouin light scattering studies of the mechanical properties of ultrathin low-k dielectric films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, A.; Sooryakumar, R.; Bandhu, R. S.; Antonelli, G. A.

    2006-07-01

    In an effort to reduce RC time delays that accompany decreasing feature sizes, low-k dielectric films are rapidly emerging as potential replacements for silicon dioxide (SiO2) at the interconnect level in integrated circuits. The main challenge in low-k materials is their substantially weaker mechanical properties that accompany the increasing pore volume content needed to reduce k. We show that Brillouin light scattering is an excellent nondestructive technique to monitor and characterize the mechanical properties of these porous films at thicknesses well below 200nm that are pertinent to present applications. Observation of longitudinal and transverse standing wave acoustic resonances and the dispersion that accompany their transformation into traveling waves with finite in-plane wave vectors provides for a direct measure of the principal elastic constants that completely characterize the mechanical properties of these ultrathin films. The mode amplitudes of the standing waves, their variation within the film, and the calculated Brillouin intensities account for most aspects of the spectra. We further show that the values obtained by this method agree well with other experimental techniques such as nanoindentation and picosecond laser ultrasonics.

  6. Brillouin-Mandelstam spectroscopy of standing spin waves in a ferrite waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balinskiy, Michael; Kargar, Fariborz; Chiang, Howard; Balandin, Alexander A.; Khitun, Alexander G.

    2018-05-01

    This article reports results of experimental investigation of the spin wave interference over large distances in the Y3Fe2(FeO4)3 waveguide using Brillouin-Mandelstam spectroscopy. Two coherent spin waves are excited by the micro-antennas fabricated at the edges of the waveguide. The amplitudes of the input spin waves are adjusted to provide approximately the same intensity in the central region of the waveguide. The relative phase between the excited spin waves is controlled by the phase shifter. The change of the local intensity distribution in the standing spin wave is monitored using Brillouin-Mandelstam light scattering spectroscopy. Experimental data demonstrate the oscillation of the scattered light intensity depending on the relative phase of the interfering spin waves. The oscillations of the intensity, tunable via the relative phase shift, are observed as far as 7.5 mm away from the spin-wave generating antennas at room temperature. The obtained results are important for developing techniques for remote control of spin currents, with potential applications in spin-based memory and logic devices.

  7. Backscatter spectra measurements of the two beams on the same cone on Shenguang-III laser facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Weiyi; Yang, Dong; Xu, Tao; Liu, Yonggang; Wang, Feng; Peng, Xiaoshi; Li, Yulong; Wei, Huiyue; Liu, Xiangming; Mei, Yu; Yan, Yadong; He, Junhua; Li, Zhichao; Li, Sanwei; Jiang, Xiaohua; Guo, Liang; Xie, Xufei; Pan, Kaiqiang; Liu, Shenye; Jiang, Shaoen; Zhang, Baohan; Ding, Yongkun

    2018-01-01

    In laser driven hohlraums, laser beams on the same incident cone may have different beam and plasma conditions, causing beam-to-beam backscatter difference and subsequent azimuthal variations in the x-ray drive on the capsule. To elucidate the large variation of backscatter proportion from beam to beam in some gas-filled hohlraum shots on Shenguang-III, two 28.5° beams have been measured with the Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS) time-resolved spectra. A bifurcated fiber is used to sample two beams and then coupled to a spectrometer and streak camera combination to reduce the cost. The SRS spectra, characterized by a broad wavelength, were further corrected considering the temporal distortion and intensity modulation caused by components along the light path. This measurement will improve the understanding of the beam propagation inside the hohlraum and related laser plasma instabilities.

  8. Acoustic backscatter at a Red Sea whale shark aggregation site

    KAUST Repository

    Hozumi, Aya; Kaartvedt, Stein; Rø stad, Anders; Berumen, Michael L.; Cochran, Jesse E.M.; Jones, Burton

    2018-01-01

    An aggregation of sexually immature whale sharks occurs at a coastal submerged reef near the Saudi Arabian Red Sea coast each spring. We tested the hypothesis that these megaplanktivores become attracted to a prey biomass peak coinciding with their aggregation. Acoustic backscatter of the water column at 120 kHz and 333 kHz –a proxy for potential prey biomass –was continuously measured spanning the period prior to, during, and subsequent to the seasonal whale shark aggregations. No peak in acoustic backscatter was observed at the time of the aggregation. However, we observed a decrease in acoustic backscatter in the last days of deployment, which coincided the trailing end of whale shark season. Organisms forming the main scattering layer performed inverse diel vertical migration, with backscatter peaking at mid-depths during the day and in the deeper half of the water column at night. Target strength analyses suggested the backscatter was likely composed of fish larvae. Subsurface foraging behavior of the whale sharks within this aggregation has not been described, yet this study does not support the hypothesis that seasonal peaks in local whale shark abundance correspond to similar peaks in prey availability.

  9. Acoustic backscatter at a Red Sea whale shark aggregation site

    KAUST Repository

    Hozumi, Aya

    2018-03-28

    An aggregation of sexually immature whale sharks occurs at a coastal submerged reef near the Saudi Arabian Red Sea coast each spring. We tested the hypothesis that these megaplanktivores become attracted to a prey biomass peak coinciding with their aggregation. Acoustic backscatter of the water column at 120 kHz and 333 kHz –a proxy for potential prey biomass –was continuously measured spanning the period prior to, during, and subsequent to the seasonal whale shark aggregations. No peak in acoustic backscatter was observed at the time of the aggregation. However, we observed a decrease in acoustic backscatter in the last days of deployment, which coincided the trailing end of whale shark season. Organisms forming the main scattering layer performed inverse diel vertical migration, with backscatter peaking at mid-depths during the day and in the deeper half of the water column at night. Target strength analyses suggested the backscatter was likely composed of fish larvae. Subsurface foraging behavior of the whale sharks within this aggregation has not been described, yet this study does not support the hypothesis that seasonal peaks in local whale shark abundance correspond to similar peaks in prey availability.

  10. X-ray backscatter imaging with a spiral scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossi, R.H.; Cline, J.L.; Friddell, K.D.

    1989-01-01

    X-ray backscatter imaging allows radiographic inspections to be performed with access to only one side of the object. A collimated beam of radiation striking an object will scatter x-rays by Compton scatter and x-ray fluorescence. A detector located on the source side of the part will measure the backscatter signal. By plotting signal strength as gray scale intensity vs. beam position on the object, an image of the object can be constructed. A novel approach to the motion of the collimated incident beam is a spiral scanner. The spiral scanner approach, described in this paper, can image an area of an object without the synchronized motion of the object or detector, required by other backscatter imaging techniques. X-ray backscatter is particularly useful for flaw detection in light element materials such as composites. The ease of operation and the ability to operate non-contact from one side of an object make x-ray backscatter imaging of increasing interest to industrial inspection problems

  11. Evaluation of the photon monitor backscatter in medical electron accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zrenner, M.; Krieger, H.

    1999-01-01

    Background: Modern linear accelerators permit the use of irregular fields due to their flexible collimator systems with separately movable jaws or multileaf collimators. When using such irregular fields in the clinical practice output factors have to be corrected for enhanced backscatter to the dose monitor as compared with the conventional block shieldings. Methods: A method is presented to detect the monitor backscatter contributions to the output factor for irregular field settings. Results: The monitor backscatter factors have been measured using a telescopic device for 2 different treatment head geometries (Varian Clinac 2100C/D, General Electric Saturne 15) and for 3 photon radiation qualities (nominal energies X6, X18, X12). A method is introduced to calculate the monitor backscatter for arbitrary irregular treatment fields from the experimental data for square or rectangular fields. Conclusions: Besides the corrections for changes in phantom scatter and changes in the aperture, corrections for monitor backscatter have to be taken into account in many clinical cases. They can contribute up to more than 10% compared with the monitor values for free regular fields. (orig.) [de

  12. Coherent Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering measurements of bulk viscosity of polar and nonpolar gases, and kinetic theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, A.S.; Wijn, de A.S.; Peters, M.F.E.; Dam, N.J.; Water, van de W.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate coherent Rayleigh–Brillouin spectroscopy as an efficient process to measure the bulk viscosity of gases at gigahertz frequencies. Scattered spectral distributions are measured using a Fizeau spectrometer. We discuss the statistical error due to the fluctuating mode structure of the

  13. The broad Brillouin doublet and CP of KTaO3, second sound vs. Two-phonon difference scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farhi, E.; Tagantsev, A.K.; Hehlen, B.; Courtens, E.; Boatner, L.A.

    1999-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Low-T Brillouin spectra of the incipient ferroelectric KTaO 3 exhibit a broad central peak (CP) (1), and some additional broad Brillouin doublet (BD) (2), that can both relate to phonon-density fluctuations (3). Starting from extensive new high resolution neutron scattering measurements in pure crystals, low lying phonon sheets were modelled in the central part of Brillouin zone. Such a parameterisation was then used in order to analyse those up-mentioned unusual features in teens of two-phonon mechanisms (4). Numerical evaluations show that transverse acoustic (TA) phonons whose normal damping is faster than the BD frequency (Γ DB > ω DB ) may produce hydrodynamic second sound (propagation of heat). Moreover, two-phonon difference scattering from low damping thermal TA phonons ((Γ DB DB ) can contribute to the spectra with either a sharp or a broader BD, depending on the phonon group velocity and phonon-sheet anisotropy. The position of the doublet is consistent with both mechanisms, but comparing the computed anisotropies with experimental Brillouin and neutron scattering data, one favours the second process. (author)

  14. Stimulated Brillouin Scattering (SBS) Suppression and Long Delivery Fibers at the Multikilowatt Level with Chirped Seed Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-16

    an amplifier with 0.6 dB/m shows that the threshold could be raised to 2 kW in this fashion without requiring an increase in chirp (Fig. 12...characterization in optical fibres from 1 to 1000 K. 16th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors; 2003 Oct 13–17; Nara, Japan . 18

  15. Dynamics of a self-Q-switched fiber laser with a Rayleigh-stimulated Brillouin scattering ring mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotiadi, Andrei A.; Mégret, Patrice; Blondel, Michel

    2004-05-01

    Backward light scattering can cause passive Q switching in fiber lasers. We propose a self-consistent description of the laser dynamics. Our model quantitatively reproduces the temporal structure of pulsation and is also attractive for analysis of laser stability and statistics. The validity of the model is directly verified in an experiment.

  16. Signatures of the self-similar regime of strongly coupled stimulated brillouin scattering for efficient short laser pulse amplification

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lancia, L.; Giribono, A.; Vassura, L.; Chiaramello, M.; Riconda, C.; Weber, Stefan A.; Castan, A.; Chatelain, A.; Frank, A.; Gangolf, T.; Quinn, M.N.; Fuchs, J.; Marqués, J.-R.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 116, č. 7 (2016), 1-5, č. článku 075001. ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EF15_008/0000162; GA MŠk ED1.1.00/02.0061 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 284464 - LASERLAB-EUROPE Grant - others:ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15_008/0000162; ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.1.05/1.1.00/02.0061 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : light-pulses * compression * plasmas * Raman Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 8.462, year: 2016

  17. The design of an electron gun switchable between immersed and Brillouin flowa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, R.; Kester, O.

    2012-02-01

    An electron gun, which can be switched from immersed flow to Brillouin flow during operation, may have advantages for charge breeders as well as for electron beam ion sources and traps (EBISTs). For EBISTs this allows to change the current density according to the repetition frequency and charge state, for charge breeders and EBISTs a lower current density in immersed flow provides higher acceptance for injected ions, while the higher current density in Brillouin flow results in shorter breeding times and a lower emittance for the extracted beam. Therefore, we have designed such a gun for an EBIS with 5 T central magnetic field and without the use of iron and moving the gun. The gun was placed in the axial fringing field of the 5 T solenoid in such a position that a gate valve can be placed between the gun and the cryostat to allow for simple maintenance. The field at the cathode surface turned out to be only 0.05 T, which is not enough to focus 50 A/cm2 at a few kV. However, if a small normal conducting solenoid is placed over the vacuum tube in position of the gun, a field of 0.1 T may be obtained. With this the use of LaB6 as cathode material results in a magnetic compression of 44 and therewith in a focused current density in the trap region of more than 2000 A/cm2. By reversing the current in the gun solenoid the cathode field can easily compensated to zero. By proper design of the electrodes and the compression region, the gun will be able to deliver a beam in Brillouin flow. While this is interesting by itself - remember the "super-compression" reported on CRYEBIS-I - any magnetic field between zero and the value for immersed flow will result in an electron beam with a wide range of adjustable high current densities. The design tools used have been INTMAG(C) for the calculation of magnetic fields, EGN2(C) for the simulation of the gun and ANALYSE(C) for detailed analysis of the results (for more information see www.egun-igun.com).

  18. The design of an electron gun switchable between immersed and Brillouin flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, R; Kester, O

    2012-02-01

    An electron gun, which can be switched from immersed flow to Brillouin flow during operation, may have advantages for charge breeders as well as for electron beam ion sources and traps (EBISTs). For EBISTs this allows to change the current density according to the repetition frequency and charge state, for charge breeders and EBISTs a lower current density in immersed flow provides higher acceptance for injected ions, while the higher current density in Brillouin flow results in shorter breeding times and a lower emittance for the extracted beam. Therefore, we have designed such a gun for an EBIS with 5 T central magnetic field and without the use of iron and moving the gun. The gun was placed in the axial fringing field of the 5 T solenoid in such a position that a gate valve can be placed between the gun and the cryostat to allow for simple maintenance. The field at the cathode surface turned out to be only 0.05 T, which is not enough to focus 50 A∕cm(2) at a few kV. However, if a small normal conducting solenoid is placed over the vacuum tube in position of the gun, a field of 0.1 T may be obtained. With this the use of LaB(6) as cathode material results in a magnetic compression of 44 and therewith in a focused current density in the trap region of more than 2000 A∕cm(2). By reversing the current in the gun solenoid the cathode field can easily compensated to zero. By proper design of the electrodes and the compression region, the gun will be able to deliver a beam in Brillouin flow. While this is interesting by itself--remember the "super-compression" reported on CRYEBIS-I--any magnetic field between zero and the value for immersed flow will result in an electron beam with a wide range of adjustable high current densities. The design tools used have been INTMAG(C) for the calculation of magnetic fields, EGN2(C) for the simulation of the gun and ANALYSE(C) for detailed analysis of the results (for more information see www.egun-igun.com).

  19. BATS - Backscattering And Time-of-flight Spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Eijck, L.; Seydel, T.; Frick, B.; Schober, H.

    2011-01-01

    The new backscattering spectrometer IN16b will go into commissioning end 2011, providing in its final state about ten times higher count rate than its predecessor, IN16. Here we propose to increase its dynamic range by a factor of 7 with the TOF mode extension, BATS. This will make IN16b the leading high resolution backscattering spectrometer for incoherent quasi-elastic and inelastic neutron scattering; it will be competitive to the coarser resolution inverted geometry backscattering spectrometers that are being brought online at spallation sources. The increased dynamic range will extend the scope of science addressed on IN16b, generating considerable potential in fields such as the hydrogen economy (proton conduction, fuel cells, hydrogen storage), soft matter, biology and nano-science (nano-scale confinement, functionalized polymers). Such a large impact can be achieved using only a moderate investment. (authors)

  20. Angle-resolved spin wave band diagrams of square antidot lattices studied by Brillouin light scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubbiotti, G.; Tacchi, S. [Istituto Officina dei Materiali del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (IOM-CNR), Sede di Perugia, c/o Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Via A. Pascoli, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Montoncello, F.; Giovannini, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università di Ferrara, Via G. Saragat 1, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Madami, M.; Carlotti, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Università di Perugia, Via A. Pascoli, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Ding, J.; Adeyeye, A. O. [Information Storage Materials Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)

    2015-06-29

    The Brillouin light scattering technique has been exploited to study the angle-resolved spin wave band diagrams of squared Permalloy antidot lattice. Frequency dispersion of spin waves has been measured for a set of fixed wave vector magnitudes, while varying the wave vector in-plane orientation with respect to the applied magnetic field. The magnonic band gap between the two most dispersive modes exhibits a minimum value at an angular position, which exclusively depends on the product between the selected wave vector magnitude and the lattice constant of the array. The experimental data are in very good agreement with predictions obtained by dynamical matrix method calculations. The presented results are relevant for magnonic devices where the antidot lattice, acting as a diffraction grating, is exploited to achieve multidirectional spin wave emission.

  1. Digital coherent detection research on Brillouin optical time domain reflectometry with simplex pulse codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Yun-Qi; Ye Qing; Pan Zheng-Qing; Cai Hai-Wen; Qu Rong-Hui

    2014-01-01

    The digital coherent detection technique has been investigated without any frequency-scanning device in the Brillouin optical time domain reflectometry (BOTDR), where the simplex pulse codes are applied in the sensing system. The time domain signal of every code sequence is collected by the data acquisition card (DAQ). A shift-averaging technique is applied in the frequency domain for the reason that the local oscillator (LO) in the coherent detection is fix-frequency deviated from the primary source. With the 31-bit simplex code, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) has 3.5-dB enhancement with the same single pulse traces, accordant with the theoretical analysis. The frequency fluctuation for simplex codes is 14.01 MHz less than that for a single pulse as to 4-m spatial resolution. The results are believed to be beneficial for the BOTDR performance improvement. (general)

  2. A simple and convenient set-up for high-temperature Brillouin light scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerette, Michael; Huang Liping

    2012-01-01

    An emulated platelet geometry (or reflection-induced platelet geometry) is employed to collect photons scattered from both longitudinal and transverse acoustic waves travelling within a bulk transparent sample sitting on a reflective Pt plate. Temperature of the sample was controlled with a Linkam TS1500 optical furnace (maximum temperature of 1500 °C). This simple and convenient set-up allows a full determination of elastic constants of transparent materials in situ as a function of temperature from Brillouin light scattering. Structural information can be gained at the same time by guiding the scattered light into a Raman spectrometer using a flipping mirror or a beam splitter. We will demonstrate the applications of this set-up in transparent inorganic glasses, but it can be easily extended to any other transparent materials, either crystalline or amorphous in nature. (paper)

  3. Brillouin light scattering study of spin waves in NiFe/Co exchange spring bilayer films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haldar, Arabinda; Banerjee, Chandrima; Laha, Pinaki; Barman, Anjan, E-mail: abarman@bose.res.in [Thematic Unit of Excellence on Nanodevice Technology, Department of Condensed Matter Physics and Material Sciences, S. N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Kolkata 700098 (India)

    2014-04-07

    Spin waves are investigated in Permalloy(Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20})/Cobalt(Co) exchange spring bilayer thin films using Brillouin light scattering (BLS) experiment. The magnetic hysteresis loops measured by magneto-optical Kerr effect show a monotonic decrease in coercivity of the bilayer films with increasing Py thickness. BLS study shows two distinct modes, which are modelled as Damon-Eshbach and perpendicular standing wave modes. Linewidths of the frequency peaks are found to increase significantly with decreasing Py layer thickness. Interfacial roughness causes to fluctuate exchange coupling at the nanoscale regimes and the effect is stronger for thinner Py films. A quantitative analysis of the magnon linewidths shows the presence of strong local exchange coupling field which is much larger compared to macroscopic exchange field.

  4. Temperature dependence of Brillouin light scattering spectra of acoustic phonons in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, Kevin S.; Klimovich, Nikita; An, Kyongmo; Sullivan, Sean; Weathers, Annie; Shi, Li; Li, Xiaoqin

    2015-01-01

    Electrons, optical phonons, and acoustic phonons are often driven out of local equilibrium in electronic devices or during laser-material interaction processes. The need for a better understanding of such non-equilibrium transport processes has motivated the development of Raman spectroscopy as a local temperature sensor of optical phonons and intermediate frequency acoustic phonons, whereas Brillouin light scattering (BLS) has recently been explored as a temperature sensor of low-frequency acoustic phonons. Here, we report the measured BLS spectra of silicon at different temperatures. The origins of the observed temperature dependence of the BLS peak position, linewidth, and intensity are examined in order to evaluate their potential use as temperature sensors for acoustic phonons

  5. Tunable and reconfigurable multi-tap microwave photonic filter based on dynamic Brillouin gratings in fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho, J; Primerov, N; Chin, S; Antman, Y; Zadok, A; Sales, S; Thévenaz, L

    2012-03-12

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate new architectures to realize multi-tap microwave photonic filters, based on the generation of a single or multiple dynamic Brillouin gratings in polarization maintaining fibers. The spectral range and selectivity of the proposed periodic filters is extensively tunable, simply by reconfiguring the positions and the number of dynamic gratings along the fiber respectively. In this paper, we present a complete analysis of three different configurations comprising a microwave photonic filter implementation: a simple notch-type Mach-Zehnder approach with a single movable dynamic grating, a multi-tap performance based on multiple dynamic gratings and finally a stationary grating configuration based on the phase modulation of two counter-propagating optical waves by a common pseudo-random bit sequence (PRBS).

  6. Temperature Dependence of the Rayleigh Brillouin Spectrum Linewidth in Air and Nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Liang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The relation between spontaneous Rayleigh Brillouin (SRB spectrum linewidth, gas temperature, and pressure are analyzed at the temperature range from 220 to 340 K and the pressure range from 0.1 to 1 bar, covering the stratosphere and troposphere relevant for the Earth’s atmosphere and for atmospheric Lidar missions. Based on the analysis, a model retrieving gas temperature from directly measured linewidth is established and the accuracy limitations are estimated. Furthermore, some experimental data of air and nitrogen are used to verify the accuracy of the model. As the results show, the retrieved temperature shows good agreement with the reference temperature, and the absolute difference is less than 3 K, which indicates that this method provides a fruitful tool in satellite retrieval to extract the gaseous properties of atmospheres on-line by directly measuring the SRB spectrum linewidth.

  7. Acoustic profilometry of interphases in epoxy due to segregation and diffusion using Brillouin microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, U; Bactavatchalou, R; Baller, J; Philipp, M; Sanctuary, R; Zielinski, B; Krueger, J K [Laboratoire de Physique des Materiaux, Universite du Luxembourg, 162A, Avenue de la Faiencerie, L-1115 Luxembourg (Luxembourg); Alnot, P; Possart, W [Laboratoire Europeen de Recherche Universitaire Saarland-Lorraine (Germany)], E-mail: mail@tauron.de

    2008-02-15

    Reactive network forming polymer systems like epoxies are of huge technological interest because of their adhesive properties based on specific interactions with a large variety of materials. These specific interactions alter the morphology of the epoxy within areas determined by the correlation length of these interactions. The changed morphology leads to interphases with altered (mechanical) properties. Besides these surface-induced interphases, bulk interphases do occur due to segregation, crystallization, diffusion, etc. A new experimental technique to characterize such mechanical interphases is {mu}-Brillouin spectroscopy ({mu}-BS). With {mu}-BS, we studied interphases and their formation in epoxies due to segregation of the constituent components and due to selective diffusion of one component. In the latter case, we will demonstrate the influence of changing the boundary conditions of the diffusion process on the shape of the interphase.

  8. Surface acoustic waves and elastic constants of InN epilayers determined by Brillouin scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez-Rioboo, R.J.; Prieto, C. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Cusco, R.; Domenech-Amador, N.; Artus, L. [Institut Jaume Almera, Consell Superior d' Investigacions Cientifiques (CSIC), Lluis Sole i Sabaris s.n., Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Yamaguchi, T.; Nanishi, Y. [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Ritsumeikan University, Noji-Higashi, Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan)

    2012-06-15

    The surface acoustic wave velocity in InN has been experimentally determined by means of Brillouin scattering experiments on c - and m -face epilayers. From simulations based on the Green's function formalism we determine the shear elastic constants c{sub 66} and c{sub 44} and propose a complete set of elastic constants for wurtzite InN. The analysis of the sagittal and azimuthal dependence of the surface acoustic wave velocity indicates a slightly different elastic behavior of the m -face sample that basically affects the c{sub 44} elastic constant. (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  9. Light backscattering efficiency and related properties of some phytoplankters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Yu-Hwan; Bricaud, Annick; Morel, André

    1992-11-01

    By using a set-up that combines an integrating sphere with a spectroradiometer LI-1800 UW, the backscattering properties of nine different phytoplankters grown in culture have been determined experimentally for the wavelengths domain ν = 400 up to 850 nm. Simultaneously, the absorption and attenuation properties, as well as the size distribution function, have been measured. This set of measurements allowed the spectral values of refractive index, and subsequently the volume scattering functions (VSF) of the cells, to be derived, by operating a scattering model previously developed for spherical and homogeneous cells. The backscattering properties, measured within a restricted angular domain (approximately between 132 and 174°), have been compared to theoretical predictions. Although there appear some discrepancies between experimental and predicted values (probably due to experimental errors as well as deviations of actual cells from computational hypotheses), the overall agreement is good; in particular the observed interspecific variations of backscattering values, as well as the backscattering spectral variation typical of each species, are well accounted for by theory. Using the computed VSF, the measured backscattering properties can be converted (assuming spherical and homogeneous cells) into efficiency factors for backscattering ( overlineQbb) . Thhe spectral behavior of overlineQbb appears to be radically different from that for total scattering overlineQb. For small cells, overlineQ (λ) is practically constant over the spectrum, whereas overlineQb(λ) varies approximately according to a power law (λ -2). As the cell size increases, overlineQbb conversely, becomes increasingly featured, whilst overlineQb becomes spectrally flat. The chlorophyll-specific backscattering coefficients ( b b∗ appear highly variable and span nearly two orders of magnitude. The chlorophyll-specific absorption and scattering coefficients, a ∗ and b ∗, are mainly ruled by

  10. Polarization phenomena on coherent particle backscattering by random media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorodnichev, E.E.; Dudarev, S.L.; Rogozkin, D.B.

    1990-01-01

    An exact solution is found for the problem of coherent enhanced backscattering of spin 1/2 particles by random media with small-radius scatterers. The polarization features in the angular spectrum are analyzed for particles reflected by three- and two-dimensional disordered systems and by medium with Anderson disorder (periodic system of random scatterers). The analysis is carried out in the case of magnetic and spin-orbit interaction with the scattering centers. The effects predicted have not any analogues on coherent backscattering of light and scalar waves

  11. Tropospheric aerosol backscatter background mode at CO2 wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothermel, Jeffry; Bowdle, David A.; Menzies, Robert T.; Post, Madison J.; Vaughan, J. Michael

    1989-01-01

    A comparison is made between three climatologies of backscatter measurements in the troposphere and lower stratosphere at CO2 wavelengths. These were obtained from several locations using ground-based and airborne lidar systems. All three measurement sets show similar features, specifically, a high frequency of occurrence of low backscatter over a limited range of values in the middle and upper atmosphere (the 'background mode'). This background mode is important for the design and performance simulation of the prospective satellite sensors that rely on atmospheric aerosols as scattering targets.

  12. Electron backscattering for process control in electron beam welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardenne, T. von; Panzer, S.

    1983-01-01

    A number of solutions to the automation of electron beam welding is presented. On the basis of electron backscattering a complex system of process control has been developed. It allows an enlarged imaging of the material's surface, improved adjustment of the beam focusing and definite focus positioning. Furthermore, both manual and automated positioning of the electron beam before and during the welding process has become possible. Monitoring of the welding process for meeting standard welding requirements can be achieved with the aid of a control quantity derived from the results of electronic evaluation of the high-frequency electron backscattering

  13. Bayesian approach to the analysis of neutron Brillouin scattering data on liquid metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Francesco, A.; Guarini, E.; Bafile, U.; Formisano, F.; Scaccia, L.

    2016-08-01

    When the dynamics of liquids and disordered systems at mesoscopic level is investigated by means of inelastic scattering (e.g., neutron or x ray), spectra are often characterized by a poor definition of the excitation lines and spectroscopic features in general and one important issue is to establish how many of these lines need to be included in the modeling function and to estimate their parameters. Furthermore, when strongly damped excitations are present, commonly used and widespread fitting algorithms are particularly affected by the choice of initial values of the parameters. An inadequate choice may lead to an inefficient exploration of the parameter space, resulting in the algorithm getting stuck in a local minimum. In this paper, we present a Bayesian approach to the analysis of neutron Brillouin scattering data in which the number of excitation lines is treated as unknown and estimated along with the other model parameters. We propose a joint estimation procedure based on a reversible-jump Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm, which efficiently explores the parameter space, producing a probabilistic measure to quantify the uncertainty on the number of excitation lines as well as reliable parameter estimates. The method proposed could turn out of great importance in extracting physical information from experimental data, especially when the detection of spectral features is complicated not only because of the properties of the sample, but also because of the limited instrumental resolution and count statistics. The approach is tested on generated data set and then applied to real experimental spectra of neutron Brillouin scattering from a liquid metal, previously analyzed in a more traditional way.

  14. Application of the Tor Vergata Scattering Model to L Band Backscatter During the Corn Growth Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, A. T.; vanderVelde, R.; ONeill, P. E.; Lang, R.; Gish, T.

    2010-01-01

    At the USDA's Optimizing Production Inputs for Economic and Environmental Enhancement (OPE3) experimental site in Beltsville, Maryland, USA) a field campaign took place throughout the 2002 corn growth cycle from May 10th (emergence of corn crops) to October 2nd (harvest). One of the microwave instruments deployed was the multi-frequency (X-, C- and L-band) quad-polarized (HH, HV, VV, VH) NASA GSFC/George Washington University (GWU) truck mounted radar. During the field campaign, this radar system provided once a week fully polarized C- and L-band (4.75 and 1.6 GHz) backscatter measurements from incidence angle of 15, 35, and 55 degrees. In support of microwave observations, an extensive ground characterization took place, which included measurements of surface roughness, soil moisture, vegetation biomass and morphology. The field conditions during the campaign are characterized by several dry downs with a period of drought in the month of August. Peak biomass the corn canopies was reached on July 24th with a total biomass of approximately 6.5 kg/sq m. This dynamic range in both soil moisture and vegetation conditions within the data set is ideal for the validation of discrete medium vegetation scattering models. In this study, we compare the L band backscatter measurements with simulations by the Tor Vergata model (ferrazzoli and Guerriero 1996). The measured soil moisture, vegetation biomass and most reliably measured vegetation morphological parameters (e.g. number of leaves, number of stems and stem height) were used as input for the Tor Vergata model. The more uncertain model parameters (e.g. surface roughness, leaf thickness) and the stem diameter were optimized using a parameter estimation routine based on the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. As cost function for this optimization, the HH and VV polarized backscatter measured and stimulated by the TOR Vergata model for incidence angle of 15, 35, and 55 degrees were used (6 measurements in total). The calibrated

  15. Application of Coupled-Wave Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin Approximation to Ground Penetrating Radar

    OpenAIRE

    Igor Prokopovich; Alexei Popov; Lara Pajewski; Marian Marciniak

    2017-01-01

    This paper deals with bistatic subsurface probing of a horizontally layered dielectric half-space by means of ultra-wideband electromagnetic waves. In particular, the main objective of this work is to present a new method for the solution of the two-dimensional back-scattering problem arising when a pulsed electromagnetic signal impinges on a non-uniform dielectric half-space; this scenario is of interest for ground penetrating radar (GPR) applications. For the analytical description of the s...

  16. Lattice constant measurement from electron backscatter diffraction patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saowadee, Nath; Agersted, Karsten; Bowen, Jacob R.

    2017-01-01

    Kikuchi bands in election backscattered diffraction patterns (EBSP) contain information about lattice constants of crystallographic samples that can be extracted via the Bragg equation. An advantage of lattice constant measurement from EBSPs over diffraction (XRD) is the ability to perform local ...

  17. Simulation of Neutron Backscattering applied to organic material detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forero, N. C.; Cruz, A. H.; Cristancho, F.

    2007-01-01

    The Neutron Backscattering technique is tested when performing the task of localizing hydrogenated explosives hidden in soil. Detector system, landmine, soil and neutron source are simulated with Geant4 in order to obtain the number of neutrons detected when several parameters like mine composition, relative position mine-source and soil moisture are varied

  18. Ultrasonic characterization of cancellous bone using apparent integrated backscatter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmeister, B K [Department of Physics, Rhodes College, 2000 North Parkway, Memphis, TN 38112 (United States); III, C I Jones [Department of Physics, Rhodes College, 2000 North Parkway, Memphis, TN 38112 (United States); Caldwell, G J [Department of Physics, Rhodes College, 2000 North Parkway, Memphis, TN 38112 (United States); Kaste, S C [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, St Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38105 (United States)

    2006-06-07

    Apparent integrated backscatter (AIB) is a measure of the frequency-averaged (integrated) backscattered power contained in some portion of a backscattered ultrasonic signal. AIB has been used extensively to study soft tissues, but its usefulness as a tissue characterization technique for cancellous bone has not been demonstrated. To address this, we performed measurements on 17 specimens of cancellous bone over two different frequency ranges using a 1 MHz and 5 MHz broadband ultrasonic transducer. Specimens were obtained from bovine tibiae and prepared in the shape of cubes (15 mm side length) with faces oriented along transverse (anterior, posterior, medial and lateral) and longitudinal (superior and inferior) principal anatomic directions. A mechanical scanning system was used to acquire multiple backscatter signals from each direction for each cube. AIB demonstrated highly significant linear correlations with bone mineral density (BMD) for both the transverse (R{sup 2} = 0.817) and longitudinal (R{sup 2} = 0.488) directions using the 5 MHz transducer. In contrast, the correlations with density were much weaker for the 1 MHz transducer (R{sup 2} = 0.007 transverse, R{sup 2} = 0.228 longitudinal). In all cases where a significant correlation was observed, AIB was found to decrease with increasing BMD.

  19. Ultrasonic Characterization of Tissues via Backscatter Frequency Dependence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stetson, Paul F.; Sommer, F.G.

    1997-01-01

    , significantly lower mean frequency of ultrasound backscattered from cirrhotic, compared to normal, liver tissue was noted, Studies of benign and malignant liver tumors (hemangiomas and metastases, respectively) indicated differences in frequency content of these tumors, compared to the adjacent normal liver...

  20. Method and Apparatus for Computed Imaging Backscatter Radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shedlock, Daniel (Inventor); Meng, Christopher (Inventor); Sabri, Nissia (Inventor); Dugan, Edward T. (Inventor); Jacobs, Alan M. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Systems and methods of x-ray backscatter radiography are provided. A single-sided, non-destructive imaging technique utilizing x-ray radiation to image subsurface features is disclosed, capable of scanning a region using a fan beam aperture and gathering data using rotational motion.

  1. Power Control for Passive QAM Multisensor Backscatter Communication Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengbo Hu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To achieve good quality of service level such as throughput, power control is of great importance to passive quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM multisensor backscatter communication systems. First, we established the RF energy harvesting model and gave the energy condition. In order to minimize the interference of subcarriers and increase the spectral efficiency, then, the colocated passive QAM backscatter communication signal model is presented and the nonlinear optimization problems of power control are solved for passive QAM backscatter communication systems. Solutions include maximum and minimum access interval, the maximum and minimum duty cycle, and the minimal RF-harvested energy under the energy condition for node operating. Using the solutions above, the maximum throughput of passive QAM backscatter communication systems is analyzed and numerical calculation is made finally. Numerical calculation shows that the maximal throughput decreases with the consumed power and the number of sensors, and the maximum throughput is decreased quickly with the increase of the number of sensors. Especially, for a given consumed power of sensor, it can be seen that the throughput decreases with the duty cycle and the number of sensors has little effect on the throughput.

  2. About the information depth of backscattered electron imaging

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Piňos, Jakub; Mikmeková, Šárka; Frank, Luděk

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 266, č. 3 (2017), s. 335-342 ISSN 0022-2720 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : backscattered electrons * information depth * penetration of electrons Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering OBOR OECD: Materials engineering Impact factor: 1.692, year: 2016

  3. Simulation of multistatic and backscattering cross sections for airborne radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Albert W.

    1986-07-01

    In order to determine susceptibilities of airborne radar to electronic countermeasures and electronic counter-countermeasures simulations of multistatic and backscattering cross sections were developed as digital modules in the form of algorithms. Cross section algorithms are described for prolate (cigar shape) and oblate (disk shape) spheroids. Backscattering cross section algorithms are also described for different categories of terrain. Backscattering cross section computer programs were written for terrain categorized as vegetation, sea ice, glacial ice, geological (rocks, sand, hills, etc.), oceans, man-made structures, and water bodies. PROGRAM SIGTERRA is a file for backscattering cross section modules of terrain (TERRA) such as vegetation (AGCROP), oceans (OCEAN), Arctic sea ice (SEAICE), glacial snow (GLASNO), geological structures (GEOL), man-made structures (MAMMAD), or water bodies (WATER). AGCROP describes agricultural crops, trees or forests, prairies or grassland, and shrubs or bush cover. OCEAN has the SLAR or SAR looking downwind, upwind, and crosswind at the ocean surface. SEAICE looks at winter ice and old or polar ice. GLASNO is divided into a glacial ice and snow or snowfields. MANMAD includes buildings, houses, roads, railroad tracks, airfields and hangars, telephone and power lines, barges, trucks, trains, and automobiles. WATER has lakes, rivers, canals, and swamps. PROGRAM SIGAIR is a similar file for airborne targets such as prolate and oblate spheroids.

  4. Transport properties and superconductivity in presence of backscattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, H.; Mattis, D.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the authors achieve an exact evaluation of the Kubo formula for electrical resistivity, with a model in which random impurity scattering is parametrized by random back-scattering matrix elements. If the alloy is a superconductor, our theory allows us to correlate T c with the normal-phase resistivity. The results are in nice agreement with experiment

  5. A proportional counter for efficient backscatter Moessbauer effect spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawlowski, Z.; Marzec, J.; Cudny, W.; Holnicka, J.; Walentek, J.

    1979-01-01

    The authors present a novel gas-tight proportional counter with flat beryllium windows for backscatter Moessbauer spectroscopy. The krypton-filled counter has a geometry that approaches 2π and a resolution of 12% fwhm for the 14.4 keV line of 57 Fe, and is easy to manufacture. (Auth.)

  6. Effects of Biota on Backscatter: Experiments with the Portable Acoustic Laboratory (PAL)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    .... Monitoring showed a sudden drop in backscatter, but this was short lived. Abundant mysid shrimp appeared to have caused microtopographic changes that quickly raised backscatter intensity to near-background levels...

  7. Super-virtual Interferometric Separation and Enhancement of Back-scattered Surface Waves

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Bowen

    2015-08-19

    Back-scattered surface waves can be migrated to detect near-surface reflectors with steep dips. A robust surface-wave migration requires the prior separation of the back-scattered surface-wave events from the data. This separation is often difficult to implement because the back-scattered surface waves are masked by the incident surface waves. We mitigate this problem by using a super-virtual interferometric method to enhance and separate the back-scattered surface waves. The key idea is to calculate the virtual back-scattered surface waves by stacking the resulting virtual correlated and convolved traces associated with the incident and back-scattered waves. Stacking the virtual back-scattered surface waves improves their signal-to-noise ratio and separates the back-scattered surface-waves from the incident field. Both synthetic and field data results validate the robustness of this method.

  8. Characterizing Indian Ocean manganese nodule-bearing seafloor using multi-beam angular backscatter

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, B.; Kodagali, V.N.

    backscattering in delineating seafloor parameters characteristic of nodule-rich sediments. In this paper, processed Hydrosweep multi-beam backscatter data from 45 spot locations in the CIOB (where nodule samples are available) were analysed to estimate seafloor...

  9. Backscatter, anisotropy, and polarization of solar hard X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, T.; Ramaty, R.

    1978-01-01

    Hard X-rays incident upon the photosphere with energies > or approx. =15 keV have high probabilities of backscatter due to Compton collisions with electrons. This effect has a strong influence on the spectrum, intensity, and polarization of solar hard X-rays - especially for anisotropic models in which the primary X-rays are emitted predominantly toward the photosphere. We have carried out a detailed study of X-ray backscatter, and we have investigated the interrelated problems of anisotropy, polarization, center-to-limb variation of the X-ray spectrum, and Compton backscatter in a coherent fashion. The results of this study are compared with observational data. Because of the large contribution from backscatter, for an anisotropic primary X-ray source which is due to bremsstrahlung of accelerated electrons moving predominantly down toward the photosphere, the observed X-ray flux around 30 keV does not depend significantly on the position of flare on the Sun. For such an anisotropic source, the X-ray spectrum observed in the 15-50 keV range becomes steeper with the increasing heliocentric angle of the flare. These results are compatible with the data. The degree of polarization of the sum of the primary and reflected X-rays with energies between about 15 and 30 keV can be very large for anisotropic primary X-ray sources, but it is less than about 4% for isotropic sources. We also discuss the characteristics of the brightness distribution of the X-ray albedo patch created by the Compton backscatter. The height and anisotropy of the primary hard X-ray source might be inferred from the study of the albedo patch

  10. Remote Water Temperature Measurements Based on Brillouin Scattering with a Frequency Doubled Pulsed Yb:doped Fiber Amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Walther

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Temperature profiles of the ocean are of interest for weather forecasts, climate studies and oceanography in general. Currently, mostly in situ techniques such as fixed buoys or bathythermographs deliver oceanic temperature profiles. A LIDAR method based on Brillouin scattering is an attractive alternative for remote sensing of such water temperature profiles. It makes it possible to deliver cost-effective on-line data covering an extended region of the ocean. The temperature measurement is based on spontaneous Brillouin scattering in water. In this contribution, we present the first water temperature measurements using a Yb:doped pulsed fiber amplifier. The fiber amplifier is a custom designed device which can be operated in a vibrational environment while emitting narrow bandwidth laser pulses. The device shows promising performance and demonstrates the feasibility of this approach. Furthermore, the current status of the receiver is briefly discussed; it is based on an excited state Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter.

  11. A Brillouin scattering study of the effect of chemical passivation on the elastic properties of porous silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, H. J.; Kuok, M. H.; Ng, S. C.; Boukherroub, R.; Lockwood, D. J.

    2002-07-01

    Brillouin scattering has been performed to probe acoustic waves in porous silicon films that have been chemically modified with either 1-decene, decyl aldehyde, undecylenic acid, or ethyl undecylenate. The shift in the frequencies of acoustic modes in the passivated porous silicon samples, relative to those in freshly prepared porous silicon, is different for different chemical modifiers. The magnitude of the frequency shift is qualitatively correlated with the change, caused by the passivation, in the average densities and elastic constants of the samples.

  12. Thin-film transducers for the detection and imaging of Brillouin oscillations in transmission on cultured cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez-Cota, F; Smith, R J; Clark, M; Moradi, E; Webb, K

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical imaging and characterisation of biological cells has been a subject of interest for the last twenty years. Ultrasonic imaging based on the scanning acoustic microscope (SAM) and mechanical probing have been extensively reported. Large acoustic attenuation at high frequencies and the use of conventional piezo-electric transducers limit the operational frequency of a SAM. This limitation results in lower resolution compared to an optical microscope. Direct mechanical probing in the form of applied stress by contacting probes causes stress to cells and exhibits poor depth resolution. More recently, laser ultrasound has been reported to detect ultrasound in the GHz range via Brillouin oscillations on biological cells. This technique offers a promising new high resolution acoustic cell imaging technique. In this work, we propose, design and apply a thin-film based opto-acoustic transducer for the detection in transmission of Brillouin oscillations on cells. The transducer is used to generate acoustic waves, protect the cells from laser radiation and enhance signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Experimental traces are presented in water films as well as images of the Brillouin frequency of phantom and fixed 3T3 fibroblast cells. (paper)

  13. Experimental study on stimulated scattering of ZnO nanospheres dispersed in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Jiulin, E-mail: hyq1304@126.com; Wu, Haopeng [Nanchang Hangkong University, Jiangxi Engineering Laboratory for Optoelectronics Testing Technology (China); Yan, Feng; Yang, Junjie [Nanchang Hangkong University, School of Measuring and Optical Engineering (China); He, Xingdao, E-mail: xingdaohe@126.com [Nanchang Hangkong University, Jiangxi Engineering Laboratory for Optoelectronics Testing Technology (China)

    2016-01-15

    The backward stimulated scattering (BSS) from ZnO nanospheres dispersed in water has been investigated experimentally by employing a Nd:YAG pulse laser with ∼532 nm wavelength and ∼8 ns pulse width as the pump laser source. The present results show that the BSS effect is uniquely and unequivocally different compared to other known stimulated scattering, such as stimulated Rayleigh scattering, stimulated Brillouin scattering, and stimulated Raman scattering, and it displays the characteristics of no frequency shift and threshold dependence on initial spontaneous Mie scattering seed source. These can be understood by means of the Mie scattering theory and a laser-induced stationary Bragg grating model.

  14. Application of neutron backscatter techniques to level measurement problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonardi-Cattolica, A.M.; McMillan, D.H.; Telfer, A.; Griffin, L.H.; Hunt, R.H.

    1982-01-01

    We have designed and built portable level detectors and fixed level monitors based on neutron scattering and detection principles. The main components of these devices, which we call neutron backscatter gauges, are a neutron emitting radioisotope, a neutron detector, and a ratemeter. The gauge is a good detector for hydrogen but is much less sensitive to most other materials. This allows level measurements of hydrogen bearing materials, such as hydrocarbons, to be made through the walls of metal vessels. Measurements can be made conveniently through steel walls which are a few inches thick. We have used neutron backscatter gauges in a wide variety of level measurement applications encountered in the petrochemical industry. In a number of cases, the neutron techniques have proven to be superior to conventional level measurement methods, including gamma ray methods

  15. RFID tag modification for full depth backscatter modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jeffrey Wayne [Pasco, WA; Pratt, Richard M [Richland, WA

    2010-07-20

    A modulated backscatter radio frequency identification device includes a diode detector configured to selectively modulate a reply signal onto an incoming continuous wave; communications circuitry configured to provide a modulation control signal to the diode detector, the diode detector being configured to modulate the reply signal in response to be modulation control signal; and circuitry configured to increase impedance change at the diode detector which would otherwise not occur because the diode detector rectifies the incoming continuous wave while modulating the reply signal, whereby reducing the rectified signal increases modulation depth by removing the reverse bias effects on impedance changes. Methods of improving depth of modulation in a modulated backscatter radio frequency identification device are also provided.

  16. Measurement of the thickness of thin films by backscattered protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samaniego, L.E.Q.

    1976-07-01

    The method of backscattered protons has been used to measure the thickness of thin films. A monoenergetic beam of protons is directed on the film to be measured and the backscattered protons are detected with a particle detector. The film thickness is calculated from the energy spectrum of the protons. In the case of films consisting of several layers of elements with well separated atomic masses, it is possible to separate the spectra of protons scattered from the different elements, permitting a measurement of the thicknesses of the different layers. The method consists of calculating the energy loss of the protons throughout their trajectory, from the point of incidence on the film to the final detection. Thicknesses were measured for the following film combinations: gold on mylar, chromium on mylar, gold on chromium on mylar, and pure mylar. (Author) [pt

  17. Model for H- and D- production by hydrogen backscattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiskes, J.R.; Schneider, P.J.

    1980-01-01

    The Marlowe Monte-Carlo backscattering code has been used to calculate particle reflection coefficients and energy distributions for H, D incident upon Li, K, Ni, Cu, Mo, Ag, Cs, Hf, W, Pt, and U surfaces. The backscattered energy and angular distributions are combined with a model for formation and survival probabilities for H - , D - leaving the surface. A least-squares fit of experimental measurements of H - yields from the composite surface, Cs/Cu, has been used to obtain two semi-empirical constants, α, β which enter into the formation and survival probabilities. These probabilities are used to calculate the production probability which in turn provides an upper limit to the negative ion yield. The choice of electrode material is discussed as a function of atomic number

  18. Validation Test of Geant4 Simulation of Electron Backscattering

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Sung Hun; Basaglia, Tullio; Han, Min Cheol; Hoff, Gabriela; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Saracco, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Backscattering is a sensitive probe of the accuracy of electron scattering algorithms implemented in Monte Carlo codes. The capability of the Geant4 toolkit to describe realistically the fraction of electrons backscattered from a target volume is extensively and quantitatively evaluated in comparison with experimental data retrieved from the literature. The validation test covers the energy range between approximately 100 eV and 20 MeV, and concerns a wide set of target elements. Multiple and single electron scattering models implemented in Geant4, as well as preassembled selections of physics models distributed within Geant4, are analyzed with statistical methods. The evaluations concern Geant4 versions from 9.1 to 10.1. Significant evolutions are observed over the range of Geant4 versions, not always in the direction of better compatibility with experiment. Goodness-of-fit tests complemented by categorical analysis tests identify a configuration based on Geant4 Urban multiple scattering model in Geant4 vers...

  19. Standard-target calibration of an acoustic backscatter system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Kenneth G.; Martini, Marinna A.

    2010-01-01

    The standard-target method used to calibrate scientific echo sounders and other scientific sonars by a single, solid elastic sphere is being adapted to acoustic backscatter (ABS) systems. Its first application, to the AQUAscat 1000, is described. The on-axis sensitivity and directional properties of transducer beams at three operating frequencies, nominally 1, 2.5, and 4 MHz, have been determined using a 10-mm-diameter sphere of tungsten carbide with 6% cobalt binder. Preliminary results are reported for the 1-MHz transducer. Their application to measurements of suspended sediment made in situ with the same device is described. This will enable the data to be expressed directly in physical units of volume backscattering.

  20. Comparison of SeaWinds Backscatter Imaging Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, David G.

    2017-01-01

    This paper compares the performance and tradeoffs of various backscatter imaging algorithms for the SeaWinds scatterometer when multiple passes over a target are available. Reconstruction methods are compared with conventional gridding algorithms. In particular, the performance and tradeoffs in conventional ‘drop in the bucket’ (DIB) gridding at the intrinsic sensor resolution are compared to high-spatial-resolution imaging algorithms such as fine-resolution DIB and the scatterometer image reconstruction (SIR) that generate enhanced-resolution backscatter images. Various options for each algorithm are explored, including considering both linear and dB computation. The effects of sampling density and reconstruction quality versus time are explored. Both simulated and actual data results are considered. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of high-resolution reconstruction using SIR as well as its limitations and the limitations of DIB and fDIB. PMID:28828143

  1. Life is a Self-Organizing Machine Driven by the Informational Cycle of Brillouin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Denis

    2013-04-01

    Acquiring information is indisputably energy-consuming and conversely, the availability of information permits greater efficiency. Strangely, the scientific community long remained reluctant to establish a physical equivalence between the abstract notion of information and sensible thermodynamics. However, certain physicists such as Szilard and Brillouin proposed: (i) to give to information the status of a genuine thermodynamic entity ( k B T ln2 joules/bit) and (ii) to link the capacity of storing information inferred from correlated systems, to that of indefinitely increasing organization. This positive feedback coupled to the self-templating molecular potential could provide a universal basis for the spontaneous rise of highly organized structures, typified by the emergence of life from a prebiotic chemical soup. Once established, this mechanism ensures the longevity and robustness of life envisioned as a general system, by allowing it to accumulate and optimize microstate-reducing recipes, thereby giving rise to strong nonlinearity, decisional capacity and multistability. Mechanisms possibly involved in priming this cycle are proposed.

  2. Hemispherical Brillouin zone imaging of a diamond-type biological photonic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilts, Bodo D.; Michielsen, Kristel; De Raedt, Hans; Stavenga, Doekele G.

    2012-01-01

    The brilliant structural body colours of many animals are created by three-dimensional biological photonic crystals that act as wavelength-specific reflectors. Here, we report a study on the vividly coloured scales of the diamond weevil, Entimus imperialis. Electron microscopy identified the chitin and air assemblies inside the scales as domains of a single-network diamond (Fd3m) photonic crystal. We visualized the topology of the first Brillouin zone (FBZ) by imaging scatterometry, and we reconstructed the complete photonic band structure diagram (PBSD) of the chitinous photonic crystal from reflectance spectra. Comparison with calculated PBSDs indeed showed a perfect overlap. The unique method of non-invasive hemispherical imaging of the FBZ provides key insights for the investigation of photonic crystals in the visible wavelength range. The characterized extremely large biophotonic nanostructures of E. imperialis are structurally optimized for high reflectance and may thus be well suited for use as a template for producing novel photonic devices, e.g. through biomimicry or direct infiltration from dielectric material. PMID:22188768

  3. Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering in SF6 in the kinetic regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanqing; Yu, Yin; Liang, Kun; Marques, Wilson; van de Water, Willem; Ubachs, Wim

    2017-02-01

    Rayleigh-Brillouin spectral profiles are measured with a laser-based scatterometry setup for a 90° scattering angle at a high signal-to-noise ratio (r.m.s. noise below 0.15% w.r.t. peak intensity) in sulfur-hexafluoride gas for pressures in the range 0.2-5 bar and for a wavelength of λ = 403.0 nm. The high quality data are compared to a number of light scattering models in order to address the effects of rotational and vibrational relaxation. While the vibrational relaxation rate is so slow that vibration degrees of freedom remain frozen, rotations relax on time scales comparable to those of the density fluctuations. Therefore, the heat capacity, the thermal conductivity and the bulk viscosity are all frequency-dependent transport coefficients. This is relevant for the Tenti model that depends on the values chosen for these transport coefficients. This is not the case for the other two models considered: a kinetic model based on rough-sphere interactions, and a model based on fluctuating hydrodynamics. The deviations with the experiment are similar between the three different models, except for the hydrodynamic model at pressures p≲ 2bar . As all models are in line with the ideal gas law, we hypothesize the presence of real gas effects in the measured spectra.

  4. Brillouin spectroscopy with surface acoustic waves on intermediate valent, doped SmS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaerer, U.; Jung, A.; Wachter, P.

    1998-01-01

    Brillouin scattering on surface acoustic waves is a very powerful tool to determine the elastic constants of intermediate valent crystals, since the method is non-destructive and no mechanical contact is needed. A strong evidence for intermediate valence is a negative value of Poisson's ratio, which describes the behavior of the volume under uniaxial pressure. SmS by itself makes a semiconductor-metal transition at a pressure of more than 6.5 kbar. When substituting the divalent Sm by a trivalent cation, like Y, La or Tm, SmS can become - depending on the doping concentration - intermediate valent without any applied, external pressure. In this work, we will present measurements of the velocities of the surface acoustic waves and the calculation of the elastic constants of La- and Tm-doped SmS compounds. We found a clear dependence of Poisson's ratio on the doping concentration and on the valence of the materials. Furthermore, we will discuss the mechanism leading to intermediate valence when substituting Sm. Besides the internal, chemical pressure, which is produced by the built in trivalent cations with their smaller ionic radii, we have clear evidence, that the free electrons in the 5d band, induced by the substituting atoms, also play an important role in making doped SmS intermediate valent. (orig.)

  5. Selective two-photon collagen crosslinking in situ measured by Brillouin microscopy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Sheldon J. J.; Kuznetsov, Ivan A.; Kim, Moonseok; Choi, Myunghwan; Scarcelli, Giuliano; Yun, Seok-Hyun

    2017-02-01

    Two-photon polymerization and crosslinking are commonly used methods for microfabrication of three-dimensional structures with applications spanning from photonic microdevices, drug delivery systems, to cellular scaffolds. However, the use of two-photon processes for precise, internal modification of biological tissues has not yet been reported. One of the major challenges has been a lack of appropriate tools to monitor and characterize crosslinked regions nondestructively. Here, we demonstrate spatially selective two-photon collagen crosslinking (2P-CXL) in intact tissue for the first time. Using riboflavin photosensitizer and femtosecond laser irradiation, we crosslinked a small volume of tissue within animal corneas. Collagen fiber orientations and photobleaching were characterized by second harmonic generation and two-photon fluorescence imaging, respectively. Using confocal Brillouin microscopy, we measured local changes in longitudinal mechanical moduli and visualized the cross-linked pattern without perturbing surrounding non-irradiated regions. 2P-CXL-induced tissue stiffening was comparable to that achieved with conventional one-photon CXL. Our results demonstrate the ability to selectively stiffen biological tissue in situ at high spatial resolution, with broad implications in ophthalmology, laser surgery, and tissue engineering.

  6. Using Backscattering to Enhance Efficiency in Neutron Detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kittelmann, T.; Kanaki, K.; Klinkby, Esben Bryndt

    2017-01-01

    The principle of using strongly scattering materials to recover efficiency in detectors for neutron instruments, via backscattering of unconverted thermal neutrons, is discussed in general. The feasibility of the method is illustrated through Geant4-based simulations involving thermal neutrons im......, respectively, centimeters and tens of microseconds. Potential mitigation techniques to contain the impact on resolution are investigated and are found to alleviate the issues to some degree, at a cost of reduced gain in efficiency....

  7. High-precision thickness measurements using beta backscatter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckman, R.V.

    1978-11-01

    A two-axis, automated fixture for use with a high-intensity Pm-147 source and a photomultiplier-scintillation beta-backscatter probe for making thickness measurements has been designed and built. A custom interface was built to connect the system to a minicomputer, and software was written to position the tables, control the probe, and make the measurements. Measurements can be made in less time with much greater precision than by the method previously used

  8. Quantitative analysis of Moessbauer backscatter spectra from multilayer films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bainbridge, J.

    1975-01-01

    The quantitative interpretation of Moessbauer backscatter spectra with particular reference to internal conversion electrons has been treated assuming that electron attenuation in a surface film can be satisfactorily described by a simple exponential law. The theory of Krakowski and Miller has been extended to include multi-layer samples, and a relation between the Moessbauer spectrum area and an individual layer thickness derived. As an example, numerical results are obtained for a duplex oxide film grown on pure iron. (Auth.)

  9. Time of flight spectrometry in heavy ions backscattering analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevarier, A.; Chevarier, N.

    1983-05-01

    Time of flight spectrometry for backscattering analysis of MeV heavy ions is proposed. The capabilities and limitations of this method are investigated. Depth and mass resolution obtained in measurements of oxide films thickness as well as in GaAs layers analysis are presented. The importance of minimizing pile-up without significant loss of resolution by use of an adequate absorber set just in front of the rear detector is underlined

  10. Prediction of Backscatter and Emissivity of Snow at Millimeter Wavelengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    AD-AI16 9A MASSACHUISETTS IMST OF TECH CAMBRIDGE RESEARCH LAB OF-ETC F/6 17/9 PREDICTION OF BACKSCATTER AND EMISSIVITY OF SNOW AT MILLETER --ETC(U...emitting media such as snow. The emissivity in the Ray- leigh- Jeans approximation is then the microwave brightness tempera- ture T divided by an effective...resistivity, and thermal tempera- ture. Jean et al. (Reference 125) compared a theoretical expression for the total apparent temperature of a smooth surface

  11. Bottom Backscattering Strengths Measured in Shallow and Deep Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-18

    Reverberation Experiment 2005 (OREX-05); 0.6−5 kHz • Deep Water o Scotian Continental Rise, August 1993 (19 sites)  Low -Frequency Active 11 (LFA 11...reprocessed cross-CST- experiment results are shown (along with some physics -based model comparisons) in Figs. 9.A-2 and 9.A-3 (Gauss et al., 2008...Backscattering Measured Off the Carolina Coast During Littoral Warfare Advanced Development 98-4 Experiment ,” NRL Memorandum Report 7140- -98-8339

  12. The Backscattering of Gamma Radiation from Plane Concrete Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leimdoerfer, M

    1962-12-15

    Monte Carlo calculations have been performed for source energies from 1 to 10 MeV, and normally incident radiation, showing that 90 % of the infinite-barrier energy flux albedo is reached with a 40 cm concrete wall. The spectrum of backscattered energy flux is presented for the above sources and wall thicknesses ranging from 5 to 50 cm, An analytical expression, based on a single-scattering approximation, is shown to produce good fits to the Monte Carlo results.

  13. Distribution of uranium in kolm. Evidence from backscattered electron imagery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parnell, J [Dep. of Geology, Belfast (Northern Ireland)

    1985-02-06

    The distribution of uranium in kolm from Upper Cambriam alum shales has been studied using backscattered electron imagery, and found to be concentrated in discrete mineral phases. Authigenic minerals in kolm include pyrite, galena, and a cerium-bearing mineral referable to monazite. Uranium occurs within the monazite and generally shows a close relationship with phosphorus. Uranium bearing monazite has also been identified within the host alum shale.

  14. Users guide to the HELIOS backscattering spectrometer (BSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunce, L.J.

    1986-10-01

    The BSS is a backscattering spectrometer installed on the Harwell 136 Mev electron linear accelerator, HELIOS. A general description of the instrument is given, along with the time of flight scales, and the run and sample changer control units. The sample environment, vacuum system and detectors of the BSS are described, as well as the preparation, starting and running of an experiment using the BSS. (UK)

  15. Ion backscattering techniques applied in materials science research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sood, D.K.

    1978-01-01

    The applications of Ion Backscattering Technique (IBT) to material analysis have expanded rapidly during the last decade. It is now regarded as an analysis tool indispensable for a versatile materials research program. The technique consists of simply shooting a beam of monoenergetic ions (usually 4 He + ions at about 2 MeV) onto a target, and measuring their energy distribution after backscattering at a fixed angle. Simple Rutherford scattering analysis of the backscattered ion spectrum yields information on the mass, the absolute amount and the depth profile of elements present upto a few microns of the target surface. The technique is nondestructive, quick, quantitative and the only known method of analysis which gives quantitative results without recourse to calibration standards. Its major limitations are the inability to separate elements of similar mass and a complete absence of chemical-binding information. A typical experimental set up and spectrum analysis have been described. Examples, some of them based on the work at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay, have been given to illustrate the applications of this technique to semiconductor technology, thin film materials science and nuclear energy materials. Limitations of IBT have been illustrated and a few remedies to partly overcome these limitations are presented. (auth.)

  16. Multiple scattering wavelength dependent backscattering of kaolin dust in the IR: Measurements and theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-David, Avishai

    1992-01-01

    Knowing the optical properties of aerosol dust is important for designing electro-optical systems and for modeling the effect on propagation of light in the atmosphere. As CO2 lidar technology becomes more advanced and is used for multiwavelength measurements, information on the wavelength dependent backscattering of aerosol dust particles is required. The volume backscattering coefficient of aerosols in the IR is relatively small. Thus, only a few field measurements of backscattering, usually at only a few wavelengths, are reported in the literature. We present spectral field measurements of backscattering of kaolin dust in the 9-11 micron wavelength range. As the quantity of dust increases, multiple scattering contributes more to the measured backscattered signal. The measurements show the effect of the dust quantity of the spectral backscatter measurements. A simple analytical two stream radiative transfer model is applied to confirm the measurements and to give insight to the multiple scattering spectra of backscattering.

  17. growth stimulant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of timing and duration of supplementation of LIVFIT VET ® (growth stimulant) as substitute for fish meal on the growth performance, haematology and clinical enzymes concentration of growing pigs.

  18. HF coherent backscatter in the ionosphere: In situ measurements of SuperDARN backscatter with e-POP RRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, G. W.; James, H. G.; Hussey, G. C.; Howarth, A. D.; Yau, A. W.

    2017-12-01

    We report in situ polarimetry measurements of HF scattering obtained by the Enhanced Polar Outflow Probe (e-POP) Radio Receiver Instrument (RRI) during a coherent backscatter scattering event detected by the Saskatoon Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN). On April 1, 2015, e-POP conducted a 4 minute coordinated experiment with SuperDARN Saskatoon, starting at 3:38:44 UT (21:38:44 LT). Throughout the experiment, SuperDARN was transmitting at 17.5 MHz and e-POP's ground track moved in a northeastward direction, along SuperDARN's field-of-view, increasing in altitude from 331 to 352 km. RRI was tuned to 17.505 MHz, and recorded nearly 12,000 SuperDARN radar pulses during the experiment. In the first half of the experiment, radar pulses recorded by RRI were "well behaved": they retained their transmitted amplitude envelope, and their pulse-to-pulse polarization characteristics were coherent - Faraday rotation was easily measured. During the second half of the experiment the pulses showed clear signs of scattering: their amplitude envelopes became degraded and dispersed, and their pulse-to-pulse polarization characteristics became incoherent - Faraday rotation was difficult to quantify. While these pulses were being received by RRI, SuperDARN Saskatoon detected a latitudinal band of coherent backscatter at e-POP's location, indicating that the scattered pulses measured by RRI may be a signature of HF backscatter. In this presentation, we will outline the polarimetric details of the scattered pulses, and provide an analytic interpretation of RRI's measurements to give new insight into the nature of HF coherent backscatter mechanism taking place in the terrestrial ionosphere.

  19. Retrieving forest stand parameters from SAR backscatter data using a neural network trained by a canopy backscatter model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.; Dong, D.

    1997-01-01

    It was possible to retrieve the stand mean dbh (tree trunk diameter at breast height) and stand density from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) backscatter data by using threelayered perceptron neural networks (NNs). Two sets of NNs were trained by the Santa Barbara microwave canopy backscatter model. One set of the trained NNs was used to retrieve the stand mean dbh, and the other to retrieve the stand density. Each set of the NNs consisted of seven individual NNs for all possible combinations of one, two, and three radar wavelengths. Ground and multiple wavelength AIRSAR backscatter data from two ponderosa pine forest stands near Mt. Shasta, California (U.S.A.) were used to evaluate the accuracy of the retrievals. The r.m.s. and relative errors of the retrieval for stand mean dbh were 6.1 cm and 15.6 per cent for one stand (St2), and 3.1 cm and 6.7 per cent for the other stand (St11). The r.m.s. and relative errors of the retrieval for stand density were 71.2 treesha-1 and 23.0 per cent for St2, and 49.7 treesha-1 and 21.3 per cent for St11. (author)

  20. Does Brillouin light scattering probe the primary glass transition process at temperatures well above glass transition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voudouris, P; Gomopoulos, N; Le Grand, A; Hadjichristidis, N; Floudas, G; Ediger, M D; Fytas, G

    2010-02-21

    The primary alpha-relaxation time (tau(alpha)) for molecular and polymeric glass formers probed by dielectric spectroscopy and two light scattering techniques (depolarized light scattering and photon correlation spectroscopy) relates to the decay of the torsional autocorrelation function computed by molecular dynamics simulation. It is well known that Brillouin light scattering spectroscopy (BLS) operating in gigahertz frequencies probes a fast (10-100 ps) relaxation of the longitudinal modulus M*. The characteristic relaxation time, irrespective of the fitting procedure, is faster than the alpha-relaxation which obeys the non-Arrhenius Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann equation. Albeit, this has been noticed, it remains a puzzling finding in glass forming systems. The available knowledge is based only on temperature dependent BLS experiments performed, however, at a single wave vector (frequency). Using a new BLS spectrometer, we studied the phonon dispersion at gigahertz frequencies in molecular [o-terphenyl (OTP)] and polymeric [polyisoprene (PI) and polypropylene (PP)] glass formers. We found that the hypersonic dispersion does relate to the glass transition dynamics but the disparity between the BLS-relaxation times and tau(alpha) is system dependent. In PI and PP, the former is more than one order of magnitude faster than tau(alpha), whereas the two relaxation times become comparable in the case of OTP. The difference between the two relaxation times appears to relate to the "breadth" of the relaxation time distribution function. In OTP the alpha-relaxation process assumes a virtually single exponential decay at high temperatures well above the glass transition temperature, in clear contrast with the case of the amorphous bulk polymers.

  1. A Brillouin smart FRP material and a strain data post processing software for structural health monitoring through laboratory testing and field application on a highway bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastianini, Filippo; Matta, Fabio; Galati, Nestore; Nanni, Antonio

    2005-05-01

    Strain and temperature sensing obtained through frequency shift evaluation of Brillouin scattered light is a technology that seems extremely promising for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM). Due to the intrinsic distributed sensing capability, Brillouin can measure the deformation of any individual segment of huge lengths of inexpensive single-mode fiber. In addition, Brillouin retains other typical advantages of Fiber Optic Sensors (FOS), such as harsh environment durability and interference rejection. Despite these advantages, the diffusion of Brillouin for SHM is constrained by different factors, such as the high equipment cost, the commercial unavailability of specific SHM oriented fiber products and even some prejudices on the required sensitivity performances. In the present work, a complete SHM pilot application was developed, installed and successfully operated during a diagnostic load test on the High Performance Steel (HPS) bridge A6358 located at the Lake of the Ozarks (Miller County, MO, USA). Four out of five girders were extensively instrumented with a "smart" Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) tape having embedded fibers for strain sensing and thermal compensation. Data collected during a diagnostic load test were elaborated through a specific post-processing software, and the strain profiles retrieved were compared to traditional strain gauges and theoretical results based on the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications for structural assessment purposes. The excellent results obtained confirm the effectiveness of Brillouin SHM systems for the monitoring of real applications.

  2. Stimulated scattering of electromagnetic waves carrying orbital angular momentum in quantum plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, P K; Eliasson, B; Stenflo, L

    2012-07-01

    We investigate stimulated scattering instabilities of coherent circularly polarized electromagnetic (CPEM) waves carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) in dense quantum plasmas with degenerate electrons and nondegenerate ions. For this purpose, we employ the coupled equations for the CPEM wave vector potential and the driven (by the ponderomotive force of the CPEM waves) equations for the electron and ion plasma oscillations. The electrons are significantly affected by the quantum forces (viz., the quantum statistical pressure, the quantum Bohm potential, as well as the electron exchange and electron correlations due to electron spin), which are included in the framework of the quantum hydrodynamical description of the electrons. Furthermore, our investigation of the stimulated Brillouin instability of coherent CPEM waves uses the generalized ion momentum equation that includes strong ion coupling effects. The nonlinear equations for the coupled CPEM and quantum plasma waves are then analyzed to obtain nonlinear dispersion relations which exhibit stimulated Raman, stimulated Brillouin, and modulational instabilities of CPEM waves carrying OAM. The present results are useful for understanding the origin of scattered light off low-frequency density fluctuations in high-energy density plasmas where quantum effects are eminent.

  3. Quasimonochromatic x-rays generated from nonlinear Thomson backscattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lan Pengfei; Lu Peixiang; Cao Wei; Wang Xinlin

    2007-01-01

    The nonlinear Thomson backscattering in a circularly polarized Gaussian laser pulse is investigated and spectral characteristics of the emission are discussed. It is indicated that the frequency of the emitted light is up-shifted by the nonlinear doppler effect. By using a properly focused laser beam or putting the electron before the focus, the variety of the nonlinear Doppler shift during the interaction can be minimized and quasimonochromatic x-rays are generated. Taking into account the emission power, the optimum situations for generating quasimonochromatic x-rays are explored

  4. Application of electron back-scatter diffraction to texture research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randle, V.

    1996-01-01

    The application of electron back-scatter diffraction (EBSD) to materials research is reviewed. A brief history of the technique is given, followed by a description of present-day operation. The methodology of 'microtexture', i.e. spatially specific orientations, is described and recent examples of its application using EBSD are given, in particular to interstitial-free steel processing, growth of phases in a white iron and grain boundary phenomena in a superplastic alloy. The advantages and disadvantages of EBSD compared to use of X-rays for texture determination are discussed in detail

  5. Coherent Backscattering in the Cross-Polarized Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischenko, Michael I.; Mackowski, Daniel W.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the asymptotic behavior of the cross-polarized enhancement factor in the framework of the standard low-packing-density theory of coherent backscattering by discrete random media composed of spherically symmetric particles. It is shown that if the particles are strongly absorbing or if the smallest optical dimension of the particulate medium (i.e., the optical thickness of a plane-parallel slab or the optical diameter of a spherically symmetric volume) approaches zero, then the cross-polarized enhancement factor tends to its upper-limit value 2. This theoretical prediction is illustrated using direct computer solutions of the Maxwell equations for spherical volumes of discrete random medium.

  6. The diurnal pattern of microwave backscattering by wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brisco, B.; Brown, R.J.; Koehler, J.A.; Sofko, G.J.; McKibben, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    A truck-mounted Ku-, C-, and L-band scatterometer system was used to obtain diurnal multiparameter radar backscatter measurements of wheat in August 1987 and June and July 1988. Concurrent field measurements of plant and soil moisture content were made in support of the radar data. Analyses of these data demonstrate the sensitivity of the microwave signals to the daily movement of water in the soil/plant system. The dependence of frequency, incidence angle, and polarization are discussed in relationship to the diurnal and seasonal changes in the soil and plant water content. The results are used to identify potential agronomic applications and future research requirements. (author)

  7. Combined backscatter and transmission method for nuclear density gauge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golgoun Seyed Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the use of nuclear density gauges, due to the ability to work in harsh industrial environments, is very common. In this study, to reduce error related to the ρ of continuous measuring density, the combination of backscatter and transmission are used simultaneously. For this reason, a 137Cs source for Compton scattering dominance and two detectors are simulated by MCNP4C code for measuring the density of 3 materials. Important advantages of this combined radiometric gauge are diminished influence of μ and therefore improving linear regression.

  8. Wave propagation through disordered media without backscattering and intensity variations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Konstantinos G Makris; Andre Brandst(o)tter; Philipp Ambichl; Ziad H Musslimani; Stefan Rotter

    2017-01-01

    A fundamental manifestation of wave scattering in a disordered medium is the highly complex intensity pattern the waves acquire due to multi-path interference.Here we show that these intensity variations can be entirely suppressed by adding disorder-specific gain and loss components to the medium.The resulting constant-intensity waves in such non-Hermitian scattering landscapes are free of any backscattering and feature perfect transmission through the disorder.An experimental demonstration of these unique wave states is envisioned based on spatially modulated pump beams that can flexibly control the gain and loss components in an active medium.

  9. The Backscattering of Gamma Radiation from Spherical Concrete Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leimdoerfer, M

    1962-12-15

    The Monte Carlo technique has been applied to investigate the effect of wall curvature on the backscattering properties of concrete. The wall was considered infinitely thick and the source radiation was normally incident. Monte Carlo calculations were only performed at 1 MeV source energy but an analytical formula was derived to facilitate extrapolations to other energies as well as materials. The results show that for practical purposes the plane wall albedo is a sufficient, and conservative, approximation, 90 % of its value being reached at a concrete wall radius of about 100 cm for source energies up to 10 MeV.

  10. Backscattering measurement device for measuring the thickness of a layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinstock, J.; Lieber, D.; Hay, W.D.

    1978-01-01

    There is provided for a measuring wheel on the run of which backscattering probes are mounted, serving for irradiation and measurement of the radiation reflected from a strip of substrate tape coated e.g. with Au. The probes are of the model HH-3 of Unit Process Assemblies Inc. The material strip is guided on the outside of the wheel run. The measuring wheel is rotating with such speed that the tangential velocity of a point on the run is equal to the speed of the strip. Therefore the movement of the strip need not be stopped during measurement (on-line measurement). (DG) [de

  11. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry of thin NiCr layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anklam, H.J.

    1984-01-01

    The possibilities and problems of characterizing thin films of NiCr by means of Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) are demonstrated. Thin resistor films of NiCr (10 to 30 nm thick) are deposited on SiO 2 by sputtering in air or oxygen. The electrical properties depend both on integral chemical composition of films and on local distribution of elements. The determination of composition (Ni-Cr ratio, oxygen content) and of depth profiles of elements by the aid of RBS is described. For solving special analytical problems different substrates as amorphous SiO 2 , Si monocrystals, and glassy carbon are used

  12. Backscattering from dental restorations and splint materials during therapeutic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farman, A.G.; Sharma, S.; George, D.I.; Wilson, D.; Dodd, D.; Figa, R.; Haskell, B.

    1985-01-01

    Models were constructed to simulate as closely as possible the human oral cavity. Radiation absorbed doses were determined for controls and various test situations involving the presence of dental restorative and splint materials during cobalt-60 irradiation of the models. Adjacent gold full crowns and adjacent solid dental silver amalgam cores both increased the dose to the interproximal gingivae by 20%. Use of orthodontic full bands for splinting the jaws increased the dose to the buccal tissues by an average of 10%. Augmentation of dose through backscatter radiation was determined to be only slight for intracoronal amalgam fillings and stainless steel or plastic bracket splints

  13. External quantum efficiency enhancement by photon recycling with backscatter evasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, Koji; Perreca, Antonio; Arai, Koji; Adhikari, Rana X

    2018-05-01

    The nonunity quantum efficiency (QE) in photodiodes (PD) causes deterioration of signal quality in quantum optical experiments due to photocurrent loss as well as the introduction of vacuum fluctuations into the measurement. In this paper, we report that the external QE enhancement of a PD was demonstrated by recycling the reflected photons. The external QE for an InGaAs PD was increased by 0.01-0.06 from 0.86-0.92 over a wide range of incident angles. Moreover, we confirmed that this technique does not increase backscattered light when the recycled beam is properly misaligned.

  14. Bulk media assay using backscattered Pu-Be neutrons

    CERN Document Server

    Csikai, J

    1999-01-01

    Spectral yields of elastically backscattered Pu-Be neutrons measured for graphite, water, polyethylene, liquid nitrogen, paraffin oil, SiO sub 2 , Al, Fe, and Pb slabs show a definite correlation with the energy dependence of the elastic scattering cross sections, sigma sub E sub L (E sub n). The C, N and O can be identified by the different structures in their sigma sub E sub L (E sub n) functions. The integrated spectral yields versus thickness exhibit saturation for each sample. The interrogated volume is limited by the presence of hydrogen in the sample. (author)

  15. Oscillations in the spectrum of nonlinear Thomson-backscattered radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Brau

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available When an electron beam collides with a high-intensity laser beam, the spectrum of the nonlinear Thomson scattering in the backward direction shows strong oscillations like those in the spectrum of an optical klystron. Laser gain on the backward Thomson scattering is estimated using the Madey theorem, and the results suggest that Thomson-backscatter free-electron lasers are possible at wavelengths extending to the far uv using a terawatt laser beam from a chirped-pulse amplifier and a high-brightness electron beam from a needle cathode.

  16. DUNBID, the Delft University neutron backscattering imaging detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bom, V.R.; Eijk, C.W.E. van; Ali, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    In the search for low-metallic land mines, the neutron backscattering technique may be applied if the soil is sufficiently dry. An advantage of this method is the speed of detection: the scanning speed may be made comparable to that of a metal detector. A two-dimensional position sensitive detector is tested to obtain an image of the back scattered thermal neutron radiation. Results of experiments using a radionuclide neutron source are presented. The on-mine to no-mine signal ratio can be improved by the application of a window on the neutron time-of-flight. Results using a pulsed neutron generator are also presented

  17. Surface-coupling of Cerenkov radiation from a modified metallic metamaterial slab via Brillouin-band folding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Anirban; Barik, Ranjan Kumar; Sattorov, Matlabjon; Kwon, Ohjoon; Min, Sun-Hong; Baek, In-Keun; Kim, Seontae; So, Jin-Kyu; Park, Gun-Sik

    2014-02-10

    Metallic metamaterials with positive dielectric responses are promising as an alternative to dielectrics for the generation of Cerenkov radiation [J.-K. So et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(15), 151107 (2010)]. We propose here by theoretical analysis a mechanism to couple out Cerenkov radiation from the slab surfaces in the transverse direction. The proposed method based on Brillouin-zone folding is to periodically modify the thickness of the metamaterial slab in the axial direction. Moreover, the intensity of the surface-coupled radiation by this mechanism shows an order-of-magnitude enhancement compared to that of ordinary Smith-Purcell radiation.

  18. Quantum-Chemical Calculation and Visualization of the Vibrational Modes of Graphene in Different Points of the Brillouin Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedieva, Tetiana; Gubanov, Victor; Dovbeshko, Galyna; Pidhirnyi, Denys

    2015-12-01

    Different notations of graphene irreducible representations and optical modes could be found in the literature. The goals of this paper are to identify the correspondence between available notations, to calculate the optical modes of graphene in different points of the Brillouin zone, and to compare them with experimental data obtained by Raman and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) spectroscopy. The mechanism of the resonance enhancement of vibration modes of the molecules adsorbed on graphene in CARS experiments is proposed. The possibility of appearance of the discrete breathing modes is discussed.

  19. Experimental observation of spontaneous depolarized guided acoustic-wave Brillouin scattering in side cores of a multicore fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Neisei; Mizuno, Yosuke; Nakamura, Kentaro; Set, Sze Yun; Yamashita, Shinji

    2018-06-01

    Spontaneous depolarized guided acoustic-wave Brillouin scattering (GAWBS) was experimentally observed in one of the side cores of an uncoated multicore fiber (MCF). The frequency bandwidth in the side core was up to ∼400 MHz, which is 0.5 times that in the central core. The GAWBS spectrum of the side core of the MCF included intrinsic peaks, which had different acoustic resonance frequencies from those of the central core. In addition, the spontaneous depolarized GAWBS in the central/side core was unaffected by that in the other core. These results will lead to the development of polarization/phase modulators using an MCF.

  20. Martensitic phase transition in Cu–14%Al–4%Ni shape memory alloys studied by Brillouin light scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graczykowski, B; Mielcarek, S; Mroz, B; Breczewski, T; No, M L; San-Juan, J

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the influence of the martensitic phase transition on hypersonic thermally excited surface acoustic waves propagating in Cu–14%Al–4%Ni (wt%) shape memory alloy. Non-destructive and non-contact testing using Brillouin light scattering spectroscopy permitted determination of the elastic constants of austenite versus temperature. Experimental results obtained for martensite were interpreted using the proposed model of the cubic to orthorhombic martensitic phase transition based on the Landau model of a first-order phase transition. Additionally we adopted the approximation of the domain structure of martensite by a polycrystalline sample using the Voigt–Reuss–Hill procedure of averaging the elastic constants. (paper)

  1. Influence of KF substitution on the ferroelectric phase transition of lead titanate single crystals studied by Brillouin light scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seonhyeop Shin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The elastic properties of KF-substituted perovskite lead titanate (PbTiO3 were investigated by dielectric measurements and Brillouin light scattering. The ferroelectric phase transition occurred at substantially lower temperature due to KF substitution, which was attributed to the modification of the covalency in Pb–O and Ti–O bonds. The longitudinal acoustic (LA mode of KF-substituted PbTiO3 showed a frequency softening in the paraelectric phase, which was accompanied by increasing acoustic damping. This indicated that polarization fluctuations responsible for the acoustic anomalies were enhanced by KF substitution.

  2. Correlation and uncertainties evaluation in backscattering of entrance surface air kerma measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, G.J.; Sousa, C.H.S.; Peixoto, J.G.P., E-mail: gt@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The air kerma measurement is important to verify the applied doses in radiodiagnostic. The literature determines some methods to measure the entrance surface air kerma or entrance surface dose but some of this methods may increase the measurement with the backscattering. Were done setups of measurements to do correlations between them. The expanded uncertainty exceeded 5% for measurements with backscattering, reaching 8.36%, while in situations where the backscattering was avoided, the uncertainty was 3.43%. (author)

  3. Brain Stimulation Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Magnetic Seizure Therapy Deep Brain Stimulation Additional Resources Brain Stimulation Therapies Overview Brain stimulation therapies can play ... for a shorter recovery time than ECT Deep Brain Stimulation Deep brain stimulation (DBS) was first developed ...

  4. Transport equation theory of electron backscattering and x-ray production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fathers, D.J.; Rez, P.

    1978-02-01

    A transport equation theory of electron backscattering and x ray production is derived and applied to energy dissipation of 30-KeV electrons for copper as a function of depth and to the energy distribution of backscattered electrons for copper, aluminum, and gold. These results are plotted and compared with experiment. Plots for variations of backscattering with atomic number and with angle of incidence, and polar plots of backscattering for 30-keV electrons at normal incidence are also presented. 10 references, seven figures

  5. Three-beam aerosol backscatter correlation lidar for wind profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.; Radhakrishnan Mylapore, Anand

    2017-03-01

    The development of a three-beam aerosol backscatter correlation (ABC) light detection and ranging (lidar) to measure wind characteristics for wake vortex and plume tracking applications is discussed. This is a direct detection elastic lidar that uses three laser transceivers, operating at 1030-nm wavelength with ˜10-kHz pulse repetition frequency and nanosec class pulse widths, to directly obtain three components of wind velocities. By tracking the motion of aerosol structures along and between three near-parallel laser beams, three-component wind speed profiles along the field-of-view of laser beams are obtained. With three 8-in. transceiver modules, placed in a near-parallel configuration on a two-axis pan-tilt scanner, the lidar measures wind speeds up to 2 km away. Optical flow algorithms have been adapted to obtain the movement of aerosol structures between the beams. Aerosol density fluctuations are cross-correlated between successive scans to obtain the displacements of the aerosol features along the three axes. Using the range resolved elastic backscatter data from each laser beam, which is scanned over the volume of interest, a three-dimensional map of aerosol density can be generated in a short time span. The performance of the ABC wind lidar prototype, validated using sonic anemometer measurements, is discussed.

  6. Acoustic backscatter models of fish: Gradual or punctuated evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, John K.

    2004-05-01

    Sound-scattering characteristics of aquatic organisms are routinely investigated using theoretical and numerical models. Development of the inverse approach by van Holliday and colleagues in the 1970s catalyzed the development and validation of backscatter models for fish and zooplankton. As the understanding of biological scattering properties increased, so did the number and computational sophistication of backscatter models. The complexity of data used to represent modeled organisms has also evolved in parallel to model development. Simple geometric shapes representing body components or the whole organism have been replaced by anatomically accurate representations derived from imaging sensors such as computer-aided tomography (CAT) scans. In contrast, Medwin and Clay (1998) recommend that fish and zooplankton should be described by simple theories and models, without acoustically superfluous extensions. Since van Holliday's early work, how has data and computational complexity influenced accuracy and precision of model predictions? How has the understanding of aquatic organism scattering properties increased? Significant steps in the history of model development will be identified and changes in model results will be characterized and compared. [Work supported by ONR and the Alaska Fisheries Science Center.

  7. ILC beam energy measurement by means of laser Compton backscattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muchnoi, N. [Budker Inst. for Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Schreiber, H.J.; Viti, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)

    2008-10-15

    A novel, non-invasive method of measuring the beam energy at the International Linear Collider is proposed. Laser light collides head-on with beam particles and either the energy of the Compton scattered electrons near the kinematic end-point is measured or the positions of the Compton backscattered {gamma}-rays, the edge electrons and the unscattered beam particles are recorded. A compact layout for the Compton spectrometer is suggested. It consists of a bending magnet and position sensitive detectors operating in a large radiation environment. Several options for high spatial resolution detectors are discussed. Simulation studies support the use of an infrared or green laser and quartz fiber detectors to monitor the backscattered photons and edge electrons. Employing a cavity monitor, the beam particle position downstream of the magnet can be recorded with submicrometer precision. Such a scheme provides a feasible and promising method to access the incident beam energy with precisions of 10{sup -4} or better on a bunch-to-bunch basis while the electron and positron beams are in collision. (orig.)

  8. Rutherford backscatter measurements on tellurium and cadmium implanted gallium arsenide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, E.C.

    1979-10-01

    The primary aim of the work described in this thesis was to examine implanted layers of the dopant impurities cadmium and tellurium in gallium arsenide and to experimentally assess their potential for producing electrically active layers. 1.5 MeV Rutherford backscattering measurements of lattice disorder and atom site location have been used to assess post implantation thermal annealing and elevated temperature implantations to site the dopant impurities on either gallium or arsenic lattice positions in an otherwise undisordered lattice. Pyrolitically deposited silicon dioxide was used as an encapsulant to prevent thermal dissociation of the gallium arsenide during annealing. It has been shown that high doses of cadmium and tellurium can be implanted without forming amorphous lattice disorder by heating the gallium arsenide during implantation to relatively low temperatures. Atom site location measurements have shown that a large fraction of a tellurium dose implanted at 180 0 C is located on or near lattice sites. Channeled backscatter measurements have shown that there is residual disorder or lattice strain in gallium arsenide implanted at elevated temperatures. The extent of this disorder has been shown to depend on the implanted dose and implantation temperature. The channeling effect has been used to measure annealing of the disorder. (author)

  9. Data analysis of backscattering LIDAR system correlated with meteorological data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uehara, Sandro Toshio

    2009-01-01

    In these last years, we had an increase in the interest in the monitoring of the effect of the human activity being on the atmosphere and the climate in the planet. The remote sensing techniques has been used in many studies, also related the global changes. A backscattering LIDAR system, the first of this kind in Brazil, has been used to provide the vertical profile of the aerosol backscatter coefficient at 532 nm up to an altitude of 4-6 km above sea level. In this study, data has was collected in the year of 2005. These data had been correlated with data of solar photometer CIMEL and also with meteorological data. The main results had indicated to exist a standard in the behavior of these meteorological data and the vertical distribution of the extinction coefficient gotten through LIDAR. In favorable periods of atmospheric dispersion, that is, rise of the temperature of associated air the fall of relative humidity, increase of the atmospheric pressure and low ventilation tax, was possible to determine with good precision the height of the Planetary Boundary Layer, as much through the vertical profile of the extinction coefficient how much through the technique of the vertical profile of the potential temperature. The technique LIDAR showed to be an important tool in the determination of the thermodynamic structure of the atmosphere, assisting to characterize the evolution of the CLP throughout the day, which had its good space and secular resolution. (author)

  10. The growth and decay of equatorial backscatter plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunoda, R. T.

    1980-02-01

    During the past three years, a series of rocket experiments from the Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands, were conducted to investigate the character of intense, scintillation-producing irregularities that occur in the nighttime equatorial ionosphere. Because the source mechanism of equatorial irregularities, believed to be the Rayleigh-Taylor instability, is analogous to that which generates plasma-density striations in a nuclear-induced environment, there is considerable interest in the underlying physics that controls the characteristics of these irregularities. A primary objective of ALTAIR investigations of equatorial irregularities is to seek an understanding of the underlying physics by establishing the relationship between meter-scale irregularities (detected by ALTAIR), and the large-scale plasma-density depletions (or 'bubbles') that contain the kilometer-scale, scintillation-producing irregularities. We describe the time evolution of backscatter 'plumes' produced by one meter equatorial field-aligned irregularities. Using ALTAIR, a fully steerable backscatter radar, to repeatedly map selected plumes, we characterize the dynamic behavior of plumes in terms of growth and a decay phase. Most of the observed characteristics are found to be consistent with equatorial-irregularity generation predicted by current theories of Rayleigh-Taylor and gradient-drift instabilities. However, other characteristics have been found that suggest key roles played by the eastward neutral wind and by altitude-modulation of the bottomside F layer in establishing the initial conditions for plume growth.

  11. Measurement of Sediment Deposition Rates using an Optical Backscatter Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridd, P.; Day, G.; Thomas, S.; Harradence, J.; Fox, D.; Bunt, J.; Renagi, O.; Jago, C.

    2001-02-01

    An optical method for measuring siltation of sediment has been developed using an optical fibre backscatter (OBS) nephelometer. Sediment settling upon the optical fibre sensor causes an increase in the backscatter reading which can be related to the settled sediment surface density (SSSD) as measured in units of mg cm -2. Calibration and laboratory tests indicate that the resolution of measurements of SSSD is 0·01 mg cm -2and an accuracy of 5% in still water. In moving water it is more difficult to determine the accuracy of the method because other methods with suitable resolution are unavailable. However, indirect methods using measurements of changing suspended sediment concentration in a ring flume, indicate that the OBS method under-predicts deposition. The series of siltation from three field sites are presented. This sensor offers considerable advances over other methods of measuring settling because time series of settling may be taken and thus settling events may be related to other hydrodynamic parameters such as wave climate and currents.

  12. ILC beam energy measurement by means of laser Compton backscattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muchnoi, N.; Schreiber, H.J.; Viti, M.

    2008-10-01

    A novel, non-invasive method of measuring the beam energy at the International Linear Collider is proposed. Laser light collides head-on with beam particles and either the energy of the Compton scattered electrons near the kinematic end-point is measured or the positions of the Compton backscattered γ-rays, the edge electrons and the unscattered beam particles are recorded. A compact layout for the Compton spectrometer is suggested. It consists of a bending magnet and position sensitive detectors operating in a large radiation environment. Several options for high spatial resolution detectors are discussed. Simulation studies support the use of an infrared or green laser and quartz fiber detectors to monitor the backscattered photons and edge electrons. Employing a cavity monitor, the beam particle position downstream of the magnet can be recorded with submicrometer precision. Such a scheme provides a feasible and promising method to access the incident beam energy with precisions of 10 -4 or better on a bunch-to-bunch basis while the electron and positron beams are in collision. (orig.)

  13. Variation of backscatter as an indicator of boundary layer structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, M. [UMIST, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Manchester (United Kingdom); Hunter, G.C. [National Power, Swindon (United Kingdom)

    1997-10-01

    In this work we have developed software to display cross-sections of the variance of backscatter over a given sampling period in addition to its absolute mean. We have analyzed a series of Lidar cross-sections of elevated plumes dispersing into a convective BL and have then derived profiles both of the mean backscatter, , as a function of height and of its relative, shot-to-shot, variation, {radical} /. The latter is a measure of the homogeneity of the aerosol. There is no cheap device for measuring BL depths so we were interested in comparing depths estimated using our Lidar with those predicted by the current ADMS atmospheric dispersion model. This is based on integrating an energy budget to predict the BL development and as such relies on values for the initial lapse rate and for the surface sensible heat flux. A major shortcoming of the model appears to be that, in the absence of measurements, it must assume a default value for the former; the latter may be estimated from surface measurements but is very sensitive to the assumed availability of surface moisture. (LN)

  14. Investigation of sheared liquids by neutron backscattering and reflectivity

    CERN Document Server

    Wolff, M; Hock, R; Frick, B; Zabel, H

    2002-01-01

    We have investigated by neutron scattering structural and dynamical properties of water solutions of the triblock copolymer P85 under shear. To this end a shear cell that suits the requirements for neutron backscattering and another for reflectivity experiments have been built. In reflectivity measurements we find the polymer concentration (nominal concentration of 33% by weight) to vary right at the surface between 12% and 52% for hydrophilic or hydrophobic coated silicon wavers, for temperatures between 18 C and 73 C and for shear rates up to 2500 s sup - sup 1. Additional structural changes deeper in the bulk are also observed. On the backscattering instrument (IN10 at ILL) we find that the liquid appears to stick to the plates of the shear cell, implying an unusual macroscopic velocity distribution that differs from that found earlier for lubrication oils. We report further on changes of the quasielastic line width in the direction of the shear gradient for different temperatures and shear rates. (orig.)

  15. A Micropulse eye-safe all-fiber molecular backscatter coherent temperature lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abari, Cyrus F.; Chu, Xinzhao; Mann, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    resolution spectrum in the baseband can be acquired. Due to the presence of a structured spectra resulting from the spontaneous Rayleigh-Brillouine scattering, associated with the relevant operating regimes, an accurate estimation of the temperature can be carried out. One of the main advantages...

  16. Cost-Effective Brillouin Optical Time-Domain Analysis Sensor Using a Single Optical Source and Passive Optical Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Iribas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a simplified configuration for distributed Brillouin optical time-domain analysis sensors that aims to reduce the cost of the sensor by reducing the number of components required for the generation of the two optical waves involved in the sensing process. The technique is based on obtaining the pump and probe waves by passive optical filtering of the spectral components generated in a single optical source that is driven by a pulsed RF signal. The optical source is a compact laser with integrated electroabsorption modulator and the optical filters are based on fiber Bragg gratings. Proof-of-concept experiments demonstrate 1 m spatial resolution over a 20 km sensing fiber with a 0.9 MHz precision in the measurement of the Brillouin frequency shift, a performance similar to that of much more complex setups. Furthermore, we discuss the factors limiting the sensor performance, which are basically related to residual spectral components in the filtering process.

  17. The effect of signal to noise ratio on accuracy of temperature measurements for Brillouin lidar in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Kun; Niu, Qunjie; Wu, Xiangkui; Xu, Jiaqi; Peng, Li; Zhou, Bo

    2017-09-01

    A lidar system with Fabry-Pérot etalon and an intensified charge coupled device can be used to obtain the scattering spectrum of the ocean and retrieve oceanic temperature profiles. However, the spectrum would be polluted by noise and result in a measurement error. To analyze the effect of signal to noise ratio (SNR) on the accuracy of measurements for Brillouin lidar in water, the theory model and characteristics of SNR are researched. The noise spectrums with different SNR are repetitiously measured based on simulation and experiment. The results show that accuracy is related to SNR, and considering the balance of time consumption and quality, the average of five measurements is adapted for real remote sensing under the pulse laser conditions of wavelength 532 nm, pulse energy 650 mJ, repetition rate 10 Hz, pulse width 8 ns and linewidth 0.003 cm-1 (90 MHz). Measuring with the Brillouin linewidth has a better accuracy at a lower temperature (15 °C), based on the classical retrieval model we adopt. The experimental results show that the temperature error is 0.71 °C and 0.06 °C based on shift and linewidth respectively when the image SNR is at the range of 3.2 dB-3.9 dB.

  18. The experimental method of measurement for spatial distribution of full aperture backscatter light by circular PIN-array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xuefeng; Wang Chuanke; Hu Feng; Kuang Longyu; Wang Zhebin; Li Sanwei; Liu Shengye; Jiang Gang

    2011-01-01

    The spatial distribution of backscatter light is very important for understanding the production of backscatter light. The experimental method of spatial distribution of full aperture backscatter light is based on the circular PIN array composed of concentric orbicular multi-PIN detectors. The image of backscatter light spatial distribution of full aperture SBS is obtained by measuring spatial distribution of full aperture backscatter light using the method in the experiment of laser hohlraum targets interaction at 'Shenguang II'. A preliminary method to measure spatial distribution of full aperture backscatter light is established. (authors)

  19. Rutherford backscattering investigation of the corrosion of borosilicate glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sales, B.C.; Boatner, L.A.; Naramoto, H.; White, C.W.

    1981-10-01

    The RBS spectra from Frit 21 borosilicate glasses doped with 5 wt % UO 2 , SrO, or Cs 2 O show that: during the initial stages of leaching (0 to 3 h) there is a substantial (300 to 500%) enhancement in the concentration of U, Sr, Ca, and Ti in the outer surface layer and that this enhancement is accompanied by a large depletion of Na, Si, and Cs; and upon further leaching under static conditions (24 h) the leached surface layer composition is indistinguishable from the unleached surface. Other borosilicate glasses such as PNL 76-68 may eventually show the same behavior if the final equilibrium pH value is greater than 9. The technique of Rutherford backscattering depth profile analysis can be a powerful tool for investigating the initial stages of glass corrosion

  20. . Estimating soil contamination from oil spill using neutron backscattering technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okunade, I.O.; Jonah, S.A.; Abdulsalam, M.O.

    2009-01-01

    An analytical facility which is based on neutron backscattering technique has been adapted for monitoring oil spill. The facility which consists of 1 Ci Am-Be isotopic source and 3 He neutron detector is based on the principle of slowing down of neutrons in a given medium which is dominated by the elastic process with the hydrogen nucleus. Based on this principle, the neutron reflection parameter in the presence of hydrogenous materials such as coal, crude oil and other hydrocarbon materials depends strongly on the number of hydrogen nuclei present. Consequently, the facility has been adapted for quantification of crude oil in soil contaminated in this work. The description of the facility and analytical procedures for quantification of oil spill in soil contaminated with different amount of crude oil are provided

  1. Coherent nonlinear backscattering by laser-plasma interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.; Wilhelmsson, H.

    1974-01-01

    A theoretical analysis is carried out for the problem of coherent nonlinear backscattering of laser radiation by a high density plasma. A number of effects of direct interest to the DT-pellet fusion research is investigated. A simple physical description is introduced, which relies on a nonlinear potential formulation of the scattering equations. The simplicity and the unified nature of the approach enables one to evaluate and compare the influence on the radiation reflectivity of different effects, such as e.g. inhomogeneities, blow-off velocities, temperature gradients, laser band width and relativistic oscillatory velocities. The understanding of the role played by the various phenomena has consequently improved and it is thought that this approach should be useful for the interpretation of laser-plasma data obtained by computer simulation or laboratory experiments. The results may also be utilized to estimate how and to what extent one may avoid undesired anomalous reflection when planning new laser-plasma devices. (Auth.)

  2. Electron backscatter diffraction: Strategies for reliable data acquisition and processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randle, Valerie

    2009-01-01

    In electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) software packages there are many user choices both in data acquisition and in data processing and display. In order to extract maximum scientific value from an inquiry, it is helpful to have some guidelines for best practice in conducting an EBSD investigation. The purpose of this article therefore is to address selected topics of EBSD practice, in a tutorial manner. The topics covered are a brief summary on the principles of EBSD, specimen preparation, calibration of an EBSD system, experiment design, speed of data acquisition, data clean-up, microstructure characterisation (including grain size) and grain boundary characterisation. This list is not meant to cover exhaustively all areas where EBSD is used, but rather to provide a resource consisting of some useful strategies for novice EBSD users.

  3. Algorithms for the rapid simulation of Rutherford backscattering spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doolittle, L.R.

    1985-06-01

    A computer program which simulates Rutherford backscattering spectra is currently in use at Cornell University and other institutions. Straggling and detector resolution are among the effects included. Samples are considered to be made up of a finite number of layers, each with uniform composition. The emphasis in the mathematics is on accuracy beyond that of iterated surface approximation methods. Thicker layers can thus be analyzed without a net loss in accuracy. The mathematical description of the sample can then have fewer layers, and fewer calculations are required. This paper provides estimates of the number of arithmetic operations used by the program for any simulation to demonstrate the tradeoffs between accuracy, computation time, and algorithm sophistication.

  4. Algorithms for the rapid simulation of Rutherford backscattering spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doolittle, L.R.

    1985-01-01

    A computer program which simulates Rutherford backscattering spectra is currently in use at Cornell University and other institutions. Straggling and detector resolution are among the effects included. Samples are considered to be made up of a finite number of layers, each with uniform composition. The emphasis in the mathematics is on accuracy beyond that of iterated surface approximation methods. Thicker layers can thus be analyzed without a net loss in accuracy. The mathematical description of the sample can then have fewer layers, and fewer calculations are required. This paper provides estimates of the number of arithmetic operations used by the program for any simulation to demonstrate the tradeoffs between accuracy, computation time, and algorithm sophistication. (orig.)

  5. Using Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy to Characterize Targets for MTW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gunnar; Stockler, Barak; Ward, Ryan; Freeman, Charlie; Padalino, Stephen; Stillman, Collin; Ivancic, Steven; Reagan, S. P.; Sangster, T. C.

    2017-10-01

    A study is underway to determine the composition and thickness of targets used at the Multiterawatt (MTW) laser facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) using Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS). In RBS, an ion beam is incident on a sample and the scattered ions are detected with a surface barrier detector. The resulting energy spectra of the scattered ions can be analyzed to determine important parameters of the target including elemental composition and thickness. Proton, helium and deuterium beams from the 1.7 MV Pelletron accelerator at SUNY Geneseo have been used to characterize several different targets for MTW, including CH and aluminum foils of varying thickness. RBS spectra were also obtained for a cylindrical iron buried-layer target with aluminum dopant which was mounted on a silicon carbide stalk. The computer program SIMNRA is used to analyze the spectra. This work was funded in part by a Grant from the DOE through the Laboratory for Laser Energetics.

  6. Backscatter absorption gas imaging systems and light sources therefore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulp, Thomas Jan [Livermore, CA; Kliner, Dahv A. V. [San Ramon, CA; Sommers, Ricky [Oakley, CA; Goers, Uta-Barbara [Campbell, NY; Armstrong, Karla M [Livermore, CA

    2006-12-19

    The location of gases that are not visible to the unaided human eye can be determined using tuned light sources that spectroscopically probe the gases and cameras that can provide images corresponding to the absorption of the gases. The present invention is a light source for a backscatter absorption gas imaging (BAGI) system, and a light source incorporating the light source, that can be used to remotely detect and produce images of "invisible" gases. The inventive light source has a light producing element, an optical amplifier, and an optical parametric oscillator to generate wavelength tunable light in the IR. By using a multi-mode light source and an amplifier that operates using 915 nm pump sources, the power consumption of the light source is reduced to a level that can be operated by batteries for long periods of time. In addition, the light source is tunable over the absorption bands of many hydrocarbons, making it useful for detecting hazardous gases.

  7. Effect of the cortex on ultrasonic backscatter measurements of cancellous bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmeister, Brent K; Holt, Andrew P; Kaste, Sue C

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasonic backscatter techniques offer a promising new approach for detecting changes in bone caused by osteoporosis. However, several challenges impede clinical implementation of backscatter techniques. This study examines how the dense outer surface of bone (the cortex) affects backscatter measurements of interior regions of porous (cancellous) bone tissue. Fifty-two specimens of bone were prepared from 13 human femoral heads so that the same region of cancellous bone could be ultrasonically interrogated through the cortex or along directions that avoided the cortex. Backscatter signals were analyzed over a frequency range of 0.8-3.0 MHz to determine two ultrasonic parameters: apparent integrated backscatter (AIB) and frequency slope of apparent backscatter (FSAB). The term 'apparent' means that the parameters are sensitive to the frequency-dependent effects of diffraction and attenuation. Significant (p < 0.001) changes in AIB and FSAB indicated that measurements through the cortex decreased the apparent backscattered power and increased the frequency dependence of the power. However, the cortex did not affect the correlation of AIB and FSAB with the x-ray bone mineral density of the specimens. This suggests that results from many previous in vitro backscatter studies of specimens of purely cancellous bone may be extrapolated with greater confidence to in vivo conditions.

  8. Using multi-beam echo sounder backscatter data for sediment classification in very shallow water environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amiri-Simkooei, A.R.; Snellen, M.; Simons, D.G.

    2009-01-01

    In a recent work described in Ref. [1], an angle-independent methodology was developed to use the multi-beam echo sounder backscatter (MBES) data for the seabed sediment classification. The method employs the backscatter data at a certain angle to obtain the number of sediment classes and to

  9. Effect of the cortex on ultrasonic backscatter measurements of cancellous bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmeister, Brent K; Holt, Andrew P [Department of Physics, Rhodes College, Memphis, TN (United States); Kaste, Sue C, E-mail: hoffmeister@rhodes.edu [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, St Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States)

    2011-10-07

    Ultrasonic backscatter techniques offer a promising new approach for detecting changes in bone caused by osteoporosis. However, several challenges impede clinical implementation of backscatter techniques. This study examines how the dense outer surface of bone (the cortex) affects backscatter measurements of interior regions of porous (cancellous) bone tissue. Fifty-two specimens of bone were prepared from 13 human femoral heads so that the same region of cancellous bone could be ultrasonically interrogated through the cortex or along directions that avoided the cortex. Backscatter signals were analyzed over a frequency range of 0.8-3.0 MHz to determine two ultrasonic parameters: apparent integrated backscatter (AIB) and frequency slope of apparent backscatter (FSAB). The term 'apparent' means that the parameters are sensitive to the frequency-dependent effects of diffraction and attenuation. Significant (p < 0.001) changes in AIB and FSAB indicated that measurements through the cortex decreased the apparent backscattered power and increased the frequency dependence of the power. However, the cortex did not affect the correlation of AIB and FSAB with the x-ray bone mineral density of the specimens. This suggests that results from many previous in vitro backscatter studies of specimens of purely cancellous bone may be extrapolated with greater confidence to in vivo conditions.

  10. Identification of major backscattering sources in trees and shrubs at 10 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoughi, R.; Wu, L. K.; Moore, R. K.

    1986-01-01

    A short-range very-fine-resolution FM-CW radar scatterometer has been used to identify the primary contributors to 10-GHz radar backscatter from pine, pin oak, American sycamore and sugar maple trees, and from creeping juniper shrubs. This system provided a range resolution of 11 cm and gave a 16-cm diameter illumination area at the target range of about 4 m. For a pine tree, the needles caused the strongest backscatter as well as the strongest attenuation in the radar signal. Cones, although insignificant contributors to the total backscatter, were more important for backscattering than for attenuation. For the rest of the trees, leaves were the strongest cause of backscattering and attenuation. However, in the absence of leaves, the petioles, small twigs, and branches gave relatively strong backscatter. For American sycamore and sugar maple trees, the fruits did not affect the total backscatter unless they were packed in clusters. For creeping juniper the backscattered energy and attenuation in the radar signal were mainly due to the top two layers of the evergreen scales. The contribution of the tree trunks was not determined.

  11. Results of Monte-Carlo studies on backscattering and sputtering from 'pocket' and 'finned' structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.P.

    1978-01-01

    A Monte-Carlo computer program which has been developed for studying backscattering and sputtering processes involving high energy particles in complex vacuum structures has been used to show that useful reductions in backscattering and sputtering can be achieved by pocketing or finning the wall surfaces of plasma containment vessels. (author)

  12. Super-virtual Interferometric Separation and Enhancement of Back-scattered Surface Waves

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Bowen; Hanafy, Sherif; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2015-01-01

    Back-scattered surface waves can be migrated to detect near-surface reflectors with steep dips. A robust surface-wave migration requires the prior separation of the back-scattered surface-wave events from the data. This separation is often difficult

  13. Simulation of multiple scattering background in heavy ion backscattering spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, M.M.; O'Connor, D.J.

    1999-01-01

    With the development of heavy ion backscattering spectrometry (HIBS) for the detection of trace quantities of heavy-atom impurities on Si surfaces, it is necessary to quantify the multiple scattering contribution to the spectral background. In the present work, the Monte Carlo computer simulation program TRIM has been used to study the backscattering spectrum and the multiple scattering background features for heavy ions C, Ne, Si, Ar and Kr impinging on four types of targets: (1) a single ultra-thin (free standing) Au film of 10 A thickness, (2) a 10 A Au film on a 50 A Si surface, (3) a 10 A Au film on an Si substrate (10 000 A), and (4) a thick target (10 000 A) of pure Si. The ratio of the signal from the Au thin layer to the background due to multiple scattering has been derived by fitting the simulation results. From the simulation results, it is found that the Au film contributes to the background which the Si plays a role in developing due to the ion's multiple scattering in the substrate. Such a background is generated neither by only the Au thin layer nor by the pure Si substrate independently. The corresponding mechanism of multiple scattering in the target can be explained as one large-angle scattering in the Au layer and subsequently several small angle scatterings in the substrate. This study allows an appropriate choice of incident beam species and energy range when the HIBS is utilized to analyse low level impurities in Si wafers

  14. Backscattering and Nonparaxiality Arrest Collapse of Damped Nonlinear Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fibich, G.; Ilan, B.; Tsynkov, S.

    2002-01-01

    The critical nonlinear Schrodinger equation (NLS) models the propagation of intense laser light in Kerr media. This equation is derived from the more comprehensive nonlinear Helmholtz equation (NLH) by employing the paraxial approximation and neglecting the backscattered waves. It is known that if the input power of the laser beam (i.e., L(sub 2) norm of the initial solution) is sufficiently high, then the NLS model predicts that the beam will self-focus to a point (i.e.. collapse) at a finite propagation distance. Mathematically, this behavior corresponds to the formation of a singularity in the solution of the NLS. A key question which has been open for many years is whether the solution to the NLH, i.e., the 'parent' equation, may nonetheless exist and remain regular everywhere, in particular for those initial conditions (input powers) that lead to blowup in the NLS. In the current study, we address this question by introducing linear damping into both models and subsequently comparing the numerical solutions of the damped NLH (boundary-value problem) with the corresponding solutions of the damped NLS (initial-value problem). Linear damping is introduced in much the same way as done when analyzing the classical constant-coefficient Helmholtz equation using the limiting absorption principle. Numerically, we have found that it provides a very efficient tool for controlling the solutions of both the NLH and NHS. In particular, we have been able to identify initial conditions for which the NLS solution does become singular. whereas the NLH solution still remains regular everywhere. We believe that our finding of a larger domain of existence for the NLH than that for the NLS is accounted for by precisely those mechanisms, that have been neglected when deriving the NLS from the NLH, i.e., nonparaxiality and backscattering.

  15. THE LOW BACKSCATTERING TARGETS CLASSIFICATION IN URBAN AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Shi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The Polarimetric and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (POLINSAR is widely used in urban area nowadays. Because of the physical and geometric sensitivity, the POLINSAR is suitable for the city classification, power-lines detection, building extraction, etc. As the new X-band POLINSAR radar, the china prototype airborne system, XSAR works with high spatial resolution in azimuth (0.1 m and slant range (0.4 m. In land applications, SAR image classification is a useful tool to distinguish the interesting area and obtain the target information. The bare soil, the cement road, the water and the building shadow are common scenes in the urban area. As it always exists low backscattering sign objects (LBO with the similar scattering mechanism (all odd bounce except for shadow in the XSAR images, classes are usually confused in Wishart-H-Alpha and Freeman-Durden methods. It is very hard to distinguish those targets only using the general information. To overcome the shortage, this paper explores an improved algorithm for LBO refined classification based on the Pre-Classification in urban areas. Firstly, the Pre-Classification is applied in the polarimetric datum and the mixture class is marked which contains LBO. Then, the polarimetric covariance matrix C3 is re-estimated on the Pre-Classification results to get more reliable results. Finally, the occurrence space which combining the entropy and the phase-diff standard deviation between HH and VV channel is used to refine the Pre-Classification results. The XSAR airborne experiments show the improved method is potential to distinguish the mixture classes in the low backscattering objects.

  16. Monte Carlo simulation of Tabata's electron backscattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirihara, Y.; Namito, Y.; Iwase, H.; Hirayama, H.

    2010-01-01

    Electron backscattering coefficients, η, obtained from several targets in the MeV range were calculated by using electron-photon Monte Carlo transport calculation codes, i.e., EGS5 and ITS 3.0. These calculated values were compared with those obtained from the electron backscattering experiment performed by Tabata using an ionization chamber . We found that Tabata's estimation of the multiplication factor of the ionization chamber, f, had a non-negligible error. Then, we calculated the ionization chamber output, I, which is a product of η and f. The ratios of I between the experimental and the calculated values were within 1.5 and 1.3 for the EGS5 code and the ITS 3.0 code, respectively. The ratios of η between the experimental and the calculated values were within 2.4 and 1.5 for the EGS5 code and the ITS 3.0 code, respectively. The differences between the experimental and the calculated values of I and η are large for low-Z targets (Be and C). Here, the ratios obtained by using the ITS 3.0 code are closer to unity than those obtained by using the EGS5 code. The reason of this is the fact that the calculated value obtained by using the ITS 3.0 code is underestimated for low-Z targets; this underestimation can, in turn, be attributed to the use of the default value of the number of steps in the electron transport algorithm in the ITS 3.0 code.

  17. Particle-in-cell studies of laser-driven hot spots and a statistical model for mesoscopic properties of Raman backscatter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albright, B.J.; Yin, L.; Bowers, K.J.; Kline, J.L.; Montgomery, D.S.; Fernandez, J.C.; Daughton, W.

    2006-01-01

    The authors use explicit particle-in-cell simulations to model stimulated scattering processes in media with both solitary and multiple laser hot spots. These simulations indicate coupling among hot spots, whereby scattered light, plasma waves, and hot electrons generated in one laser hot spot may propagate to neighboring hot spots, which can be destabilized to enhanced backscatter. A nonlinear statistical model of a stochastic beam exhibiting this coupled behavior is described here. Calibration of the model using particle-in-cell simulations is performed, and a threshold is derived for 'detonation' of the beam to high reflectivity. (authors)

  18. Relating multifrequency radar backscattering to forest biomass: Modeling and AIRSAR measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guo-Qing; Ranson, K. Jon

    1992-01-01

    During the last several years, significant efforts in microwave remote sensing were devoted to relating forest parameters to radar backscattering coefficients. These and other studies showed that in most cases, the longer wavelength (i.e. P band) and cross-polarization (HV) backscattering had higher sensitivity and better correlation to forest biomass. This research examines this relationship in a northern forest area through both backscatter modeling and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data analysis. The field measurements were used to estimate stand biomass from forest weight tables. The backscatter model described by Sun et al. was modified to simulate the backscattering coefficients with respect to stand biomass. The average number of trees per square meter or radar resolution cell, and the average tree height or diameter breast height (dbh) in the forest stand are the driving parameters of the model. The rest of the soil surface, orientation, and size distributions of leaves and branches, remain unchanged in the simulations.

  19. Implementation of the multireference Brillouin-Wigner and Mukherjee's coupled cluster methods with non-iterative triple excitations utilizing reference-level parallelism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bhaskaran-Nair, Kiran; Brabec, Jiří; Apra, E.; van Dam, H. J. J.; Pittner, Jiří

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 137, č. 9 (2012), 094112 ISSN 0021-9606 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP208/11/2222 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : multireference methods * molecular applications * Brillouin-Wogner Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.164, year: 2012

  20. Irreducible Brillouin conditions and contracted Schroedinger equations for n-electron systems. IV. Perturbative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutzelnigg, Werner; Mukherjee, Debashis

    2004-01-01

    The k-particle irreducible Brillouin conditions IBC k and the k-particle irreducible contracted Schroedinger equations ICSE k for a closed-shell state are analyzed in terms of a Moeller-Plesset-type perturbation expansion. The zeroth order is Hartree-Fock. From the IBC 2 (1) , i.e., from the two-particle IBC to first order in the perturbation parameter μ, one gets the leading correction λ 2 (1) to the two-particle cumulant λ 2 correctly. However, in order to construct the second-order energy E 2 , one also needs the second-order diagonal correction γ D (2) to the one-particle density matrix γ. This can be obtained: (i) from the idempotency of the n-particle density matrix, i.e., essentially from the requirement of n-representability; (ii) from the ICSE 1 (2) ; or (iii) by means of perturbation theory via a unitary transformation in Fock space. Method (ii) is very unsatisfactory, because one must first solve the ICSE 3 (2) to get λ 3 (2) , which is needed in the ICSE 2 (2) to get λ 2 (2) , which, in turn, is needed in the ICSE 1 (2) to get γ (2) . Generally the (k+1)-particle approximation is needed to obtain E k correctly. One gains something, if one replaces the standard hierarchy, in which one solves the ICSE k , ignoring λ k+1 and λ k+2 , by a renormalized hierarchy, in which only λ k+2 is ignored, and λ k+1 is expressed in terms of the λ p of lower particle rank via the partial trace relation for λ k+2 . Then the k-particle approximation is needed to obtain E k correctly. This is still poorer than coupled-cluster theory, where the k-particle approximation yields E k+1 . We also study the possibility to use some simple necessary n-representability conditions, based on the non-negativity of γ (2) and two related matrices, in order to get estimates for γ D (2) in terms of λ 2 (1) . In general these estimates are rather weak, but they can become close to the best possible bounds in special situations characterized by a very sparse structure of λ 2

  1. The relationship between VHF radar auroral backscatter amplitude and Doppler velocity: a statistical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Shand

    Full Text Available A statistical investigation of the relationship between VHF radar auroral backscatter intensity and Doppler velocity has been undertaken with data collected from 8 years operation of the Wick site of the Sweden And Britain Radar-auroral Experiment (SABRE. The results indicate three different regimes within the statistical data set; firstly, for Doppler velocities <200 m s–1, the backscatter intensity (measured in decibels remains relatively constant. Secondly, a linear relationship is observed between the backscatter intensity (in decibels and Doppler velocity for velocities between 200 m s–1 and 700 m s–1. At velocities greater than 700 m s–1 the backscatter intensity saturates at a maximum value as the Doppler velocity increases. There are three possible geophysical mechanisms for the saturation in the backscatter intensity at high phase speeds: a saturation in the irregularity turbulence level, a maximisation of the scattering volume, and a modification of the local ambient electron density. There is also a difference in the dependence of the backscatter intensity on Doppler velocity for the flow towards and away from the radar. The results for flow towards the radar exhibit a consistent relationship between backscatter intensity and measured velocities throughout the solar cycle. For flow away from the radar, however, the relationship between backscatter intensity and Doppler velocity varies during the solar cycle. The geometry of the SABRE system ensures that flow towards the radar is predominantly associated with the eastward electrojet, and flow away is associated with the westward electrojet. The difference in the backscatter intensity variation as a function of Doppler velocity is attributed to asymmetries between the eastward and westward electrojets and the geophysical parameters controlling the backscatter amplitude.

  2. The relationship between VHF radar auroral backscatter amplitude and Doppler velocity: a statistical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Shand

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available A statistical investigation of the relationship between VHF radar auroral backscatter intensity and Doppler velocity has been undertaken with data collected from 8 years operation of the Wick site of the Sweden And Britain Radar-auroral Experiment (SABRE. The results indicate three different regimes within the statistical data set; firstly, for Doppler velocities <200 m s–1, the backscatter intensity (measured in decibels remains relatively constant. Secondly, a linear relationship is observed between the backscatter intensity (in decibels and Doppler velocity for velocities between 200 m s–1 and 700 m s–1. At velocities greater than 700 m s–1 the backscatter intensity saturates at a maximum value as the Doppler velocity increases. There are three possible geophysical mechanisms for the saturation in the backscatter intensity at high phase speeds: a saturation in the irregularity turbulence level, a maximisation of the scattering volume, and a modification of the local ambient electron density. There is also a difference in the dependence of the backscatter intensity on Doppler velocity for the flow towards and away from the radar. The results for flow towards the radar exhibit a consistent relationship between backscatter intensity and measured velocities throughout the solar cycle. For flow away from the radar, however, the relationship between backscatter intensity and Doppler velocity varies during the solar cycle. The geometry of the SABRE system ensures that flow towards the radar is predominantly associated with the eastward electrojet, and flow away is associated with the westward electrojet. The difference in the backscatter intensity variation as a function of Doppler velocity is attributed to asymmetries between the eastward and westward electrojets and the geophysical parameters controlling the backscatter amplitude.

  3. Seafloor classification of the mound and channel provinces of the Porcupine Seabight: An application of the multibeam angular backscatter data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Beyer, A.; Chakraborty, B.; Schenke, H.W.

    In this study multibeam angular backscatter data acquired in the eastern slope of the Porcupine Seabight are analysed. Processing of the angular backscatter data using the ‘NRGCOR’ software was made for 29 locations comprising different geological...

  4. Magnetic properties of exchange biased and of unbiased oxide/permalloy thin layers: a ferromagnetic resonance and Brillouin scattering study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zighem, F; Roussigne, Y; Cherif, S-M; Moch, P [Laboratoire des Proprietes Mecaniques et Thermodynamiques des Materiaux, CNRS UPR 9001, Universite Paris Nord, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Ben Youssef, J [Laboratoire de Magnetisme de Bretagne, CNRS, Universite de Bretagne Occidentale, 29285 Brest (France); Paumier, F, E-mail: fatih.zighem@cea.f [Institut Pprime, CNRS UPR 3346, Universite de Poitiers, ENSMA, 86962 Futuroscope (France)

    2010-10-13

    Microstrip ferromagnetic resonance and Brillouin scattering are used to provide a comparative determination of the magnetic parameters of thin permalloy layers interfaced with a non-magnetic (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) or with an antiferromagnetic oxide (NiO). It results from our microstructural study that no preferential texture is favoured in the observed polycrystalline sublayers. It is shown that the perpendicular anisotropy can be monitored using an interfacial surface energy term which is practically independent of the nature of the interface. In the interval of thicknesses investigated (5-25 nm) the saturation magnetization does not significantly differ from the reported one in bulk permalloy. In-plane uniaxial anisotropy and exchange bias anisotropy are also derived from the study of the dynamic magnetic excitations and compared with our independent evaluations using conventional magnetometry.

  5. Size-dependent magnetization dynamics in individual Ni80Fe20 disk using micro-focused Brillouin Light Scattering spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Shimon

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A direct and systematic investigation of the magnetization dynamics in individual circular Ni80Fe20 disk of diameter (D in the range from 300 nm to 1 μm measured using micro-focused Brillouin Light Scattering (μ-BLS spectroscopy is presented. At high field, when the disks are in a single domain state, the resonance frequency of the uniform center mode is observed to reduce with reducing disk’s diameter. For D = 300 nm, additional edge and end-domains resonant modes are observed due to size effects. At low field, when the disks are in a vortex state, a systematic increase of resonant frequency of magnetostatic modes in a vortex state with the square root of the disks’ aspect ratio (thickness divided by radius is observed. Such dependence diminishes for disks with larger aspect ratio due to an increasing exchange energy contribution. Micromagnetic simulations are in excellent agreement with the experiments.

  6. Transition from hydrodynamic to fast sound in a He-Ne mixture a neutron Brillouin scattering experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Bafile, U; Barocchi, F; Sampoli, M

    2002-01-01

    The presence of a fast-sound mode in the microscopic dynamics of the rare-gas mixture He-Ne, predicted by theoretical studies and molecular-dynamics simulations, was demonstrated by an inelastic neutron scattering experiment. In order to study the transition between the fast and the normal acoustic modes in the hydrodynamic regime, k values lower by about one order of magnitude than in the usual experiments have to be probed. We describe here the results of the first neutron Brillouin scattering experiment performed with this purpose on the same system already investigated at larger k. The results of both experiments, together with those of a new molecular-dynamics simulation, provide a complete and consistent description, still missing so far, of the onset of fast-sound propagation in a binary mixture. (orig.)

  7. Acoustic Phonons and Mechanical Properties of Ultra-Thin Porous Low-k Films: A Surface Brillouin Scattering Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zizka, J.; King, S.; Every, A.; Sooryakumar, R.

    2018-04-01

    To reduce the RC (resistance-capacitance) time delay of interconnects, a key development of the past 20 years has been the introduction of porous low-k dielectrics to replace the traditional use of SiO2. Moreover, in keeping pace with concomitant reduction in technology nodes, these low-k materials have reached thicknesses below 100 nm wherein the porosity becomes a significant fraction of the film volume. The large degree of porosity not only reduces mechanical strength of the dielectric layer but also renders a need for non-destructive approaches to measure the mechanical properties of such ultra-thin films within device configurations. In this study, surface Brillouin scattering (SBS) is utilized to determine the elastic constants, Poisson's ratio, and Young's modulus of these porous low-k SiOC:H films (˜ 25-250 nm thick) grown on Si substrates by probing surface acoustic phonons and their dispersions.

  8. Investigation on the elastic properties of Gd-Sc-Al garnet by the Mandelstam-Brillouin light scattering method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zharikov, E.V.; Zagumennyj, A.I.; Kitaeva, V.F.; Lutts, G.B.; Terskov, D.B.

    1991-01-01

    The Gd-Sc-Al garnet (GSAG) crystals grown from the melt with composition Gd 2.88 Sc 1.89 Al 3.23 O 12 , were investigated. The GSAG doped with chromium was also studied. The Mandelstam-Brillouin (MB) light scattering in the GSAG crystals was observed. The garnet elastic components were determined using the data on the MB component shifts, the products of the elastic constants by molar volume were calculated as well. The GSAG is elastically anisotropic. The doping addition introduction do not cause noticeable change in the elastic properties. The obtained values of elastic constants and their combinations for GSAG were compared with the data for aluminium and gallium garnets. The comparison has shown that the values of elastic constants for GSAG is closer to those for Gd-Sc-Ga garnet than to the corresponding values for the Y-Al one

  9. Method to map one-dimensional electronic wave function by using multiple Brillouin zone angle resolved photoemission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Wook Lee

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES is a powerful tool to investigate electronic structures in solids and has been widely used in studying various materials. The electronic structure information by ARPES is obtained in the momentum space. However, in the case of one-dimensional system, we here show that we extract the real space information from ARPES data taken over multiple Brillouin zones (BZs. Intensities in the multiple BZs are proportional to the photoemission matrix element which contains information on the coefficient of the Bloch wave function. It is shown that the Bloch wave function coefficients can be extracted from ARPES data, which allows us to construct the real space wave function. As a test, we use ARPES data from proto-typical one-dimensional system SrCuO2 and construct the real space wave function.

  10. Validation of automated supervised segmentation of multibeam backscatter data from the Chatham Rise, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Jess I. T.; Lamarche, Geoffroy; Pallentin, Arne; Pecher, Ingo A.; Gorman, Andrew R.; Schneider von Deimling, Jens

    2018-06-01

    Using automated supervised segmentation of multibeam backscatter data to delineate seafloor substrates is a relatively novel technique. Low-frequency multibeam echosounders (MBES), such as the 12-kHz EM120, present particular difficulties since the signal can penetrate several metres into the seafloor, depending on substrate type. We present a case study illustrating how a non-targeted dataset may be used to derive information from multibeam backscatter data regarding distribution of substrate types. The results allow us to assess limitations associated with low frequency MBES where sub-bottom layering is present, and test the accuracy of automated supervised segmentation performed using SonarScope® software. This is done through comparison of predicted and observed substrate from backscatter facies-derived classes and substrate data, reinforced using quantitative statistical analysis based on a confusion matrix. We use sediment samples, video transects and sub-bottom profiles acquired on the Chatham Rise, east of New Zealand. Inferences on the substrate types are made using the Generic Seafloor Acoustic Backscatter (GSAB) model, and the extents of the backscatter classes are delineated by automated supervised segmentation. Correlating substrate data to backscatter classes revealed that backscatter amplitude may correspond to lithologies up to 4 m below the seafloor. Our results emphasise several issues related to substrate characterisation using backscatter classification, primarily because the GSAB model does not only relate to grain size and roughness properties of substrate, but also accounts for other parameters that influence backscatter. Better understanding these limitations allows us to derive first-order interpretations of sediment properties from automated supervised segmentation.

  11. Numerical simulation of range and backscattering for keV protons incident on random targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, J.E.; Agamy, S.

    1975-01-01

    Using a Monte-Carlo technique, projected range distributions and backscattering coefficients have been calculated for keV protons normally incident on heavy targets. For an incident reduced energy range of 1 less than epsilon 0 less than 20, both the projected range distributions and backscattering coefficients have been found to be in good agreement with a third order Edgeworth range approximation. Backscattered energy and angular distributions have also been calculated and are compared to available theoretical and experimental data. (4 figs.) (U.S.)

  12. A multislice theory of electron scattering in crystals including backscattering and inelastic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegelberg, Jakob; Rusz, Ján

    2015-12-01

    In the framework of the slice transition operator technique, a general multislice theory for electron scattering in crystals is developed. To achieve this generalization, we combine the approaches for inelastic scattering derived by Yoshioka [J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 12, 6 (1957)] and backscattering based on the formalism of Chen and Van Dyck [Ultramicroscopy 70, 29-44 (1997)]. A computational realization of the obtained equations is suggested. The proposed computational scheme is tested on elastic backscattering of electrons, where we consider single backscattering in analogy to the computational scheme proposed by Chen and Van Dyck. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Diffuse optical microscopy for quantification of depth-dependent epithelial backscattering in the cervix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodenschatz, Nico; Lam, Sylvia; Carraro, Anita; Korbelik, Jagoda; Miller, Dianne M.; McAlpine, Jessica N.; Lee, Marette; Kienle, Alwin; MacAulay, Calum

    2016-06-01

    A fiber optic imaging approach is presented using structured illumination for quantification of almost pure epithelial backscattering. We employ multiple spatially modulated projection patterns and camera-based reflectance capture to image depth-dependent epithelial scattering. The potential diagnostic value of our approach is investigated on cervical ex vivo tissue specimens. Our study indicates a strong backscattering increase in the upper part of the cervical epithelium caused by dysplastic microstructural changes. Quantization of relative depth-dependent backscattering is confirmed as a potentially useful diagnostic feature for detection of precancerous lesions in cervical squamous epithelium.

  14. A Dictionary Approach to Electron Backscatter Diffraction Indexing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu H; Park, Se Un; Wei, Dennis; Newstadt, Greg; Jackson, Michael A; Simmons, Jeff P; De Graef, Marc; Hero, Alfred O

    2015-06-01

    We propose a framework for indexing of grain and subgrain structures in electron backscatter diffraction patterns of polycrystalline materials. We discretize the domain of a dynamical forward model onto a dense grid of orientations, producing a dictionary of patterns. For each measured pattern, we identify the most similar patterns in the dictionary, and identify boundaries, detect anomalies, and index crystal orientations. The statistical distribution of these closest matches is used in an unsupervised binary decision tree (DT) classifier to identify grain boundaries and anomalous regions. The DT classifies a pattern as an anomaly if it has an abnormally low similarity to any pattern in the dictionary. It classifies a pixel as being near a grain boundary if the highly ranked patterns in the dictionary differ significantly over the pixel's neighborhood. Indexing is accomplished by computing the mean orientation of the closest matches to each pattern. The mean orientation is estimated using a maximum likelihood approach that models the orientation distribution as a mixture of Von Mises-Fisher distributions over the quaternionic three sphere. The proposed dictionary matching approach permits segmentation, anomaly detection, and indexing to be performed in a unified manner with the additional benefit of uncertainty quantification.

  15. Bragg's Law diffraction simulations for electron backscatter diffraction analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kacher, Josh; Landon, Colin; Adams, Brent L.; Fullwood, David

    2009-01-01

    In 2006, Angus Wilkinson introduced a cross-correlation-based electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) texture analysis system capable of measuring lattice rotations and elastic strains to high resolution. A variation of the cross-correlation method is introduced using Bragg's Law-based simulated EBSD patterns as strain free reference patterns that facilitates the use of the cross-correlation method with polycrystalline materials. The lattice state is found by comparing simulated patterns to collected patterns at a number of regions on the pattern using the cross-correlation function and calculating the deformation from the measured shifts of each region. A new pattern can be simulated at the deformed state, and the process can be iterated a number of times to converge on the absolute lattice state. By analyzing an iteratively rotated single crystal silicon sample and recovering the rotation, this method is shown to have an angular resolution of ∼0.04 o and an elastic strain resolution of ∼7e-4. As an example of applications, elastic strain and curvature measurements are used to estimate the dislocation density in a single grain of a compressed polycrystalline Mg-based AZ91 alloy.

  16. Improvement of sensitivity in high-resolution Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, H.; Nakajima, K.; Suzuki, M.; Kimura, K.; Sasakawa, K.

    2011-01-01

    The sensitivity (limit of detection) of high-resolution Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (HRBS) is mainly determined by the background noise of the spectrometer. There are two major origins of the background noise in HRBS, one is the stray ions scattered from the inner wall of the vacuum chamber of the spectrometer and the other is the dark noise of the microchannel plate (MCP) detector which is commonly used as a focal plane detector of the spectrometer in HRBS. In order to reject the stray ions, several barriers are installed inside the spectrometer and a thin Mylar foil is mounted in front of the detector. The dark noise of the MCP detector is rejected by the coincidence measurement with the secondary electrons emitted from the Mylar foil upon the ion passage. After these improvements, the background noise is reduced by a factor of 200 at a maximum. The detection limit can be improved down to 10 ppm for As in Si at a measurement time of 1 h under ideal conditions.

  17. Compton Backscattering Concept for the Production of Molybdenum-99

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merminga, L.; Krafft, G.A.

    2009-01-01

    The medical isotope Molybdenum-99 is presently used for 80-85% of all nuclear medicine procedures and is produced by irradiating highly enriched uranium U-235 targets in NRU reactors. It was recently proposed that an electron linac be used for the production of 99Mo via photo-fission of a natural uranium target coming from the excitation of the giant dipole resonance around 15 MeV. The photons can be produced using the braking radiation ('bremsstrahlung') spectrum of an electron beam impinged on a high Z material. In this paper we present an alternate concept for the production of 99Mo which is also based on photo-fission of U-238, but where the ∼15 MeV gamma-rays are produced by Compton backscattering of laser photons from relativistic electrons. We assume a laser wavelength of 330 nm, resulting in 485 MeV electron beam energy, and 10 mA of average current. Because the induced energy spread on the electron beam is a few percent, one may recover most of the electron beam energy, which substantially increases the efficiency of the system. The accelerator concept, based on a three-pass recirculation system with energy recovery, is described and efficiency estimates are presented.

  18. A fluctuation relation for the probability of energy backscatter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela-Martin, Alberto; Jimenez, Javier

    2017-11-01

    We simulate the large scales of an inviscid turbulent flow in a triply periodic box using a dynamic Smagorinsky model for the sub-grid stresses. The flow, which is forced to constant kinetic energy, is fully reversible and can develop a sustained inverse energy cascade. However, due to the large number of degrees freedom, the probability of spontaneous mean inverse energy flux is negligible. In order to quantify the probability of inverse energy cascades, we test a local fluctuation relation of the form log P(A) = - c(V , t) A , where P(A) = p(| Cs|V,t = A) / p(| Cs|V , t = - A) , p is probability, and | Cs|V,t is the average of the least-squared dynamic model coefficient over volume V and time t. This is confirmed when Cs is averaged over sufficiently large domains and long times, and c is found to depend linearly on V and t. In the limit in which V 1 / 3 is of the order of the integral scale and t is of the order of the eddy-turnover time, we recover a global fluctuation relation that predicts a negligible probability of a sustained inverse energy cascade. For smaller V and t, the local fluctuation relation provides useful predictions on the occurrence of local energy backscatter. Funded by the ERC COTURB project.

  19. Orientation effects on indexing of electron backscatter diffraction patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowell, Matthew M.; Wright, Stuart I.

    2005-01-01

    Automated Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) has become a well-accepted technique for characterizing the crystallographic orientation aspects of polycrystalline microstructures. At the advent of this technique, it was observed that patterns obtained from grains in certain crystallographic orientations were more difficult for the automated indexing algorithms to accurately identify than patterns from other orientations. The origin of this problem is often similarities between the EBSD pattern of the correct orientation and patterns from other orientations or phases. While practical solutions have been found and implemented, the identification of these problem orientations generally occurs only after running an automated scan, as problem orientations are often readily apparent in the resulting orientation maps. However, such an approach only finds those problem orientations that are present in the scan area. It would be advantageous to identify all regions of orientation space that may present problems for automated indexing prior to initiating an automated scan, and to minimize this space through the optimization of acquisition and indexing parameters. This work presents new methods for identifying regions in orientation space where the reliability of the automated indexing is suspect prior to performing a scan. This methodology is used to characterize the impact of various parameters on the indexing algorithm

  20. Backscatter measurements of 11-cm equatorial spread-F irregularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsunoda, R.T.

    1980-01-01

    In the equatorial F-region ionosphere, a turbulent cascade process has been found to exist that extends from irregularity spatial wavelengths longer than tens of kilometers down to wavelengths as short as 36 cm. To investigate the small-scale regime of wavelengths less than 36 cm, an equatorial radar experiment was conducted using a frequency of 1320 MHz that corresponds to an irregularity wavelength of 11 cm. The first observations of radar backscatter from 11-cm field-aligned irregularities (FAI) are described. These measurements extend the spatial wavelength regime of F-region FAI to lengths that approach both electron gyroradius and the Debye length. Agreement of these results with the theory of high-frequency drift waves suggests that these observations may be unique to the equatorial ionosphere. That is, the requirement of low electron densities for which the theroy calls may preclude the existence of 11-cm FAI elsewhere in the F-region ionosphere, except in equatorial plasma bubbles

  1. A dynamic range upgrade for neutron backscattering spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.C.; Petry, W.; Heidemann, A.; Barthelemy, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    We report on an instrumental development of the cold neutron backscattering spectrometer IN10 at the Institut Laue-Langevin which has led to a significant increase in its dynamic range. Thermal expansion of a variety of neutron monochromator crystals is used instead of a mechanical oscillation of the monochromator, yielding an increase in the energy transfer range by nearly two orders of magnitude in an elastic wave vector transfer range of 0.07≤Q (A -1 )≤2.0. Using this new configuration, first inelastic measurements have been performed using the (200) reflections from KCl and NaCl monochromators with crystal temperatures between 80 K and 700 K. The thermal expansion of these crystals in this temperature range gives rise to energy transfer ranges (neutron energy gain) of -16<ℎω(μeV)<+83 for KCl and -530<ℎω(μeV)<-420 for NaCl with energy resolution (FWHM) of around 0.6 and 1.4 μeV for KCl and NaCl respectively. These figures represent the highest energy resolution currently available at these energy and wave vector transfers. (orig.)

  2. Temperature dependence of erythrocyte aggregation in vitro by backscattering nephelometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirko, Igor V.; Firsov, Nikolai N.; Ryaboshapka, Olga M.; Priezzhev, Alexander V.

    1997-05-01

    We apply backscattering nephelometry technique to register the alterations of the scattering signal from a whole blood sample due to appearance or disappearance of different types of erythrocyte aggregates in stasis and under controlled shear stress. The measured parameters are: the characteristic times of linear and 3D aggregates formation, and the strength of aggregates of different types. These parameters depend on the sample temperature in the range of 2 divided by 50 degrees C. Temporal parameters of the aggregation process strongly increase at temperature 45 degrees C. For samples of normal blood the aggregates strength parameters do not significantly depend on the sample temperature, whereas for blood samples from patients suffering Sjogren syndrome we observe high increase of the strength of 3D and linear aggregates and decrease of time of linear aggregates formation at low temperature of the sample. This combination of parameters is opposite to that observed in the samples of pathological blood at room temperature. Possible reasons of this behavior of aggregation state of blood and explanation of the observed effects will be discussed.

  3. Measurements of the energy spectrum of backscattered fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segal, Y.

    1976-03-01

    Experimental measurements have been made of the energy spectra of neutrons transmitted through slabs of iron, lead and perspex for incident neutron energies of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 1.8 MeV. The neutron energy measurements were made using a He-3 spectrometer. The dependence of the neutrons energy spectrum as a function of scattering thickness was determined. The neutrons source used was a 3MeV Van de Graaff accelerator with a tritium target using the H 3 (p,n) He 3 reaction. The results obtained by the investigator on energy dependence of transmitted neutrons as a function of thickness of scattering material were compared, where possible, with the results obtained by other workers. The comparisons indicated good agreement. The experiment's results are compared with MORSE Monte Carlo calculated values. It is worthwhile to note that direct comparison between measured cross section values and the recommended ones are very far from satisfactory. In almost all cases the calculated spectrum is harder than the experimental one, a situation common to the penetrating and the back-scattered flux

  4. Modification of diode characteristics by electron back-scatter from high-atomic-number anodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosher, D.; Cooperstein, G.; Rose, D.V.; Swanekamp, S.B.

    1996-01-01

    In high-power vacuum diodes with high-atomic-number anodes, back-scattered electrons alter the vacuum space charge and resulting electron and ion currents. Electron multiple back-scattering was studied through equilibrium solutions of the Poisson equation for 1-dimensional, bipolar diodes in order to predict their early-time behavior. Before ion turn-on, back-scattered electrons from high-Z anodes suppress the diode current by about 10%. After ion turn-on in the same diodes, electron back-scatter leads to substantial enhancements of both the electron and ion currents above the Child-Langmuir values. Current enhancements with ion flow from low-Z anodes are small. (author). 5 figs., 7 refs

  5. Backscatter 0.5m TIFF Mosaic of St. Thomas, US Virgin Islands, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 0.5 meter resolution backscatter mosaic of the south shore of St. Thomas, US Virgin Islands. NOAA's NOS/NCCOS/CCMA Biogeography Team and...

  6. Extracting integrated and differential cross sections in low energy heavy-ion reactions from backscattering measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sargsyan, V. V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Yerevan State University, 0025 Yerevan (Armenia); Adamian, G. G., E-mail: adamian@theor.jinr.ru [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Antonenko, N. V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Mathematical Physics Department, Tomsk Polytechnic University, 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation); Diaz-Torres, A. [European Centre for Theoretical Studies in Nuclear Physics and Related Areas, I-38123 Villazzano, Trento (Italy); Gomes, P. R. S. [de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Litorânea, s/n, Niterói, R.J. 24210-340 (Brazil); Lenske, H. [Institut für Theoretische Physik der Justus–Liebig–Universität, D–35392 Giessen (Germany)

    2016-07-07

    We suggest new methods to extract elastic (quasi-elastic) scattering angular distribution and reaction (capture) cross sections from the experimental elastic (quasi-elastic) backscattering excitation function taken at a single angle.

  7. Imaging near-surface heterogeneities by natural migration of backscattered surface waves

    KAUST Repository

    AlTheyab, Abdullah; Lin, Fan-Chi; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2016-01-01

    We present a migration method that does not require a velocity model to migrate backscattered surface waves to their projected locations on the surface. This migration method, denoted as natural migration, uses recorded Green's functions along

  8. NOAA TIFF Graphic- 0.5m Backscatter Mosaic of St. Thomas, US Virgin Islands, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 0.5 meter resolution backscatter mosaic of the south shore of St. Thomas, US Virgin Islands.NOAA's NOS/NCCOS/CCMA Biogeography Team and...

  9. Fine scale analyses of a coralline bank mapped using multi-beam backscatter data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Menezes, A.A.A.; Naik, M.; Fernandes, W.A.; Haris, K.; Chakraborty, B.; Estiberio, S.; Lohani, R.B.

    In this work, we have developed a classification technique to characterize the seafloor of the Gaveshani (coralline) bank area using multi-beam backscatter data. Softcomputational techniques like the artificial neural networks (ANNs) based...

  10. Backscatter 0.5m TIFF Mosaic of St. Croix (Buck Island), US Virgin Islands, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 0.5 meter resolution backscatter mosaic of the north shore of Buck Island, St. Croix, US Virgin Islands. NOAA's NOS/NCCOS/CCMA Biogeography...

  11. Simrad em3002d Backscatter imagery of Penguin Bank, Molokai, Hawaii, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of Penguin Bank, Molokai, Hawaii, USA. These data provide almost complete coverage between 0 and 100 meters....

  12. CRED 1 meter resolution Reson 8101 multibeam backscatter data of Wake Island, West Central Pacific, 2007.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of Wake Island, West Central Pacific.These data provide coverage between 0 and 200m meters. The...

  13. Atmospheric aerosol load morphological classification and retrieved visibility based on lidar backscatter measurements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tesfaye, M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the tropospheric aerosol load morphological classification and its impact on temporal variation of visibility are investigated using a continuous 23-hour single channel CSIR-NLC mobile LIDAR backscatter measurement. The trajectory...

  14. Impact of sound attenuation by suspended sediment on ADCP backscatter calibrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sassi, M.G.; Hoitink, A.J.F.; Vermeulen, B.

    2012-01-01

    Although designed for velocity measurements, acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) are widely being used to monitor suspended particulate matter in rivers and in marine environments. To quantify mass concentrations of suspended matter, ADCP backscatter is generally calibrated with in situ

  15. Direct detection of near-surface faults by migration of back-scattered surface waves

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Han; Guo, Bowen; Hanafy, Sherif; Lin, Fan-Chi; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2014-01-01

    We show that diffraction stack migration can be used to estimate the distribution of near-surface faults. The assumption is that near-surface faults generate detectable back-scattered surface waves from impinging surface waves. The processing steps

  16. Modification of diode characteristics by electron back-scatter from high-atomic-number anodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosher, D; Cooperstein, G [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States); Rose, D V; Swanekamp, S B [JAYCOR, Vienna, VA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    In high-power vacuum diodes with high-atomic-number anodes, back-scattered electrons alter the vacuum space charge and resulting electron and ion currents. Electron multiple back-scattering was studied through equilibrium solutions of the Poisson equation for 1-dimensional, bipolar diodes in order to predict their early-time behavior. Before ion turn-on, back-scattered electrons from high-Z anodes suppress the diode current by about 10%. After ion turn-on in the same diodes, electron back-scatter leads to substantial enhancements of both the electron and ion currents above the Child-Langmuir values. Current enhancements with ion flow from low-Z anodes are small. (author). 5 figs., 7 refs.

  17. Backscattered Helium Spectroscopy in the Helium Ion Microscope: Principles, Resolution and Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gastel, Raoul; Hlawacek, G.; Dutta, S.; Poelsema, Bene

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate the possibilities and limitations for microstructure characterization using backscattered particles from a sharply focused helium ion beam. The interaction of helium ions with matter enables the imaging, spectroscopic characterization, as well as the nanometer scale modification of

  18. Characterization of nuclear physics targets using Rutherford backscattering and particle induced X-ray emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubehn, T.; Wozniak, G.J.; Phair, L.; Moretto, L.G.; Yu, K.M.

    1997-01-01

    Rutherford backscattering and particle induced X-ray emission have been utilized to precisely characterize targets used in nuclear fission experiments. The method allows for a fast and non-destructive determination of target thickness, homogeneity and element composition. (orig.)

  19. Analysis of a nuclear backscattering and reaction data by the method of convolution integrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, M.B.

    1979-02-01

    A quantitative description of nuclear backscattering and reaction processes is made. Various formulas pertinent to nuclear microanalysis are assembled in a manner useful for experimental application. Convolution integrals relating profiles of atoms in a metal substrate to the nuclear reaction spectra obtained in the laboratory are described and computed. Energy straggling and multiple scattering are explicitly included and shown to be important. Examples of the application of the method to simple backscattering, oxide films, and implanted gas are discussed. 7 figures, 1 table

  20. MEASURING THE PARTICULATE BACKSCATTERING OF INLAND WATERS: A COMPARISON OF TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Campbell

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to examine whether the standard particulate backscattering IOP (Inherent Optical Properties measurement method could be simplified. IOP measurements are essential for parameterising several forms of algorithms used to estimate water quality parameters from airborne and satellite images. Field measurements of the backscattering IOPs are more difficult to make than absorption measurements as correction of the raw Hydroscat-6 backscattering sensor observations is required to allow for the systematic errors associated with the water and water quality parameter absorption. The standard approach involves making simultaneous measurement of the absorption and attenuation of the water with an absorption and attenuation meter (ac-9 or making assumptions about the particulate backscattering probability. Recently, a number of papers have been published that use an alternative method to retrieve the particulate backscattering spectrum by using laboratory measured absorption values and in situ spectroradiometric observations. The alternative method inverts a model of reflectance iteratively using non-linear least squares fitting to solve for the particulate backscattering at 532 nm (bbp0(532 and the particulate backscattering spectral slope (γ. In this paper, eleven observations made at Burdekin Falls Dam, Australia are used to compare the alternative reflectance method to the conventional corrected Hydroscat-6 observations. Assessment of the alternative reflectance method showed that the result of the inversions were highly dependent on the starting conditions. To overcome this limitation, Particle Swarm Optimisation, a stochastic search technique which includes a random element in the search approach, was used. It was found that when compared to the conventionally corrected Hydroscat-6 observations, the alternative reflectance method underestimated bbp0(532 by approximately 50% and overestimated γ by approximately 40

  1. Radio-analysis of hydrogenous material using neutron back-scattering technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holly, Wiam Ahmed Alteghany

    2014-10-01

    In this work, we have explored the possibility of using neutron back-scattering technique in performing radio analysis for samples of hydrogenous materials such as explosives, drugs, crude oil and water, looking for different signals that may be used to discriminate these samples. Monte Carlo simulations were carried out to model the detection system and select the optimal geometry as well. The results were determined in terms of the energy spectra of the back-scattered neutrons.(Author)

  2. Compositional Signatures in Acoustic Backscatter Over Vegetated and Unvegetated Mixed Sand-Gravel Riverbeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscombe, D.; Grams, P. E.; Kaplinski, M. A.

    2017-10-01

    Multibeam acoustic backscatter has considerable utility for remote characterization of spatially heterogeneous bed sediment composition over vegetated and unvegetated riverbeds of mixed sand and gravel. However, the use of high-frequency, decimeter-resolution acoustic backscatter for sediment classification in shallow water is hampered by significant topographic contamination of the signal. In mixed sand-gravel riverbeds, changes in the abiotic composition of sediment (such as homogeneous sand to homogeneous gravel) tend to occur over larger spatial scales than is characteristic of small-scale bedform topography (ripples, dunes, and bars) or biota (such as vascular plants and periphyton). A two-stage method is proposed to filter out the morphological contributions to acoustic backscatter. First, the residual supragrain-scale topographic effects in acoustic backscatter with small instantaneous insonified areas, caused by ambiguity in the local (beam-to-beam) bed-sonar geometry, are removed. Then, coherent scales between high-resolution topography and backscatter are identified using cospectra, which are used to design a frequency domain filter that decomposes backscatter into the (unwanted) high-pass component associated with bedform topography (ripples, dunes, and sand waves) and vegetation, and the (desired) low-frequency component associated with the composition of sediment patches superimposed on the topography. This process strengthens relationships between backscatter and sediment composition. A probabilistic framework is presented for classifying vegetated and unvegetated substrates based on acoustic backscatter at decimeter resolution. This capability is demonstrated using data collected from diverse settings within a 386 km reach of a canyon river whose bed varies among sand, gravel, cobbles, boulders, and submerged vegetation.

  3. Seabottom characterization using multibeam echosounder angular backscatter: An application of the composite roughness theory

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, B.; Schenke, H.W.; Kodagali, V.N.; Hagen, R.

    multibeam echosounding systems reveal significant results related to seabottom geological processes ([3] and references therein). Jackson et al., [1] had proposed simultaneous application of the two backscatter theories related to the large and small-scale... to acquire multibeam deep ocean seabottom backscatter data of higher angular range (62 20 14 incidence angle). However, with the commercial availability of the multibeam-Hydrosweep system [4], which operates at a 45 14 half fan width, it has become possible...

  4. Compositional signatures in acoustic backscatter over vegetated and unvegetated mixed sand-gravel riverbeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscombe, Daniel; Grams, Paul E.; Kaplinski, Matt A.

    2017-01-01

    Multibeam acoustic backscatter has considerable utility for remote characterization of spatially heterogeneous bed sediment composition over vegetated and unvegetated riverbeds of mixed sand and gravel. However, the use of high-frequency, decimeter-resolution acoustic backscatter for sediment classification in shallow water is hampered by significant topographic contamination of the signal. In mixed sand-gravel riverbeds, changes in the abiotic composition of sediment (such as homogeneous sand to homogeneous gravel) tend to occur over larger spatial scales than is characteristic of small-scale bedform topography (ripples, dunes, and bars) or biota (such as vascular plants and periphyton). A two-stage method is proposed to filter out the morphological contributions to acoustic backscatter. First, the residual supragrain-scale topographic effects in acoustic backscatter with small instantaneous insonified areas, caused by ambiguity in the local (beam-to-beam) bed-sonar geometry, are removed. Then, coherent scales between high-resolution topography and backscatter are identified using cospectra, which are used to design a frequency domain filter that decomposes backscatter into the (unwanted) high-pass component associated with bedform topography (ripples, dunes, and sand waves) and vegetation, and the (desired) low-frequency component associated with the composition of sediment patches superimposed on the topography. This process strengthens relationships between backscatter and sediment composition. A probabilistic framework is presented for classifying vegetated and unvegetated substrates based on acoustic backscatter at decimeter resolution. This capability is demonstrated using data collected from diverse settings within a 386 km reach of a canyon river whose bed varies among sand, gravel, cobbles, boulders, and submerged vegetation.

  5. High Resolution Bathymetry and Backscatter of a High-Frequency Test Area

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Flood, Roger

    2001-01-01

    .... This is due to the presence of east-west trending wave-generated ripples with amplitudes of about 15 cm and wavelengths of about 75 cm on the ridge, with backscatter being higher when the sound beams are perpendicular to the ripples. The backscatter patterns on multi beam records may thus be used for determining the presence and orientation of small-scale topographic relief.

  6. Waterfall notch-filtering for restoration of acoustic backscatter records from Admiralty Bay, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Luciano; Hung, Edson Mintsu; Neto, Arthur Ayres; Magrani, Fábio José Guedes

    2018-06-01

    A series of multibeam sonar surveys were conducted from 2009 to 2013 around Admiralty Bay, Shetland Islands, Antarctica. These surveys provided a detailed bathymetric model that helped understand and characterize the bottom geology of this remote area. Unfortunately, the acoustic backscatter records registered during these bathymetric surveys were heavily contaminated with noise and motion artifacts. These artifacts persisted in the backscatter records despite the fact that the proper acquisition geometry and the necessary offsets and delays were applied during the survey and in post-processing. These noisy backscatter records were very difficult to interpret and to correlate with gravity-core samples acquired in the same area. In order to address this issue, a directional notch-filter was applied to the backscatter waterfall in the along-track direction. The proposed filter provided better estimates for the backscatter strength of each sample by considerably reducing residual motion artifacts. The restoration of individual samples was possible since the waterfall frame of reference preserves the acquisition geometry. Then, a remote seafloor characterization procedure based on an acoustic model inversion was applied to the restored backscatter samples, generating remote estimates of acoustic impedance. These remote estimates were compared to Multi Sensor Core Logger measurements of acoustic impedance obtained from gravity core samples. The remote estimates and the Core Logger measurements of acoustic impedance were comparable when the shallow seafloor was homogeneous. The proposed waterfall notch-filtering approach can be applied to any sonar record, provided that we know the system ping-rate and sampling frequency.

  7. Optical Modeling of Spectral Backscattering and Remote Sensing Reflectance From Emiliania huxleyi Blooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griet Neukermans

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study we develop an analytical model for spectral backscattering and ocean color remote sensing of blooms of the calcifying phytoplankton species Emiliania huxleyi. Blooms of this coccolithophore species are ubiquitous and particularly intense in temperate and subpolar ocean waters. We first present significant improvements to our previous analytical light backscattering model for E. huxleyi coccoliths and coccospheres by accounting for the elliptical shape of coccoliths and the multi-layered coccosphere architecture observed on detailed imagery of E. huxleyi liths and coccospheres. Our new model also includes a size distribution function that closely matches measured E. huxleyi size distributions. The model for spectral backscattering is then implemented in an analytical radiative transfer model to evaluate the variability of spectral remote sensing reflectance with respect to changes in the size distribution of the coccoliths and during a hypothetical E. huxleyi bloom decay event in which coccospheres shed their liths. Our modeled remote sensing reflectance spectra reproduced well the bright milky turquoise coloring of the open ocean typically associated with the final stages of E. huxleyi blooms, with peak reflectance at a wavelength of 0.49 μm. Our results also show that the magnitude of backscattering from coccoliths when attached to or freed from the coccosphere does not differ much, contrary to what is commonly assumed, and that the spectral shape of backscattering is mainly controlled by the size and morphology of the coccoliths, suggesting that they may be estimated from spectral backscattering.

  8. Analysis of seafloor backscatter strength dependence on the survey azimuth using multibeam echosounder data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurton, Xavier; Eleftherakis, Dimitrios; Augustin, Jean-Marie

    2018-06-01

    The sediment backscatter strength measured by multibeam echosounders is a key feature for seafloor mapping either qualitative (image mosaics) or quantitative (extraction of classifying features). An important phenomenon, often underestimated, is the dependence of the backscatter level on the azimuth angle imposed by the survey line directions: strong level differences at varying azimuth can be observed in case of organized roughness of the seabed, usually caused by tide currents over sandy sediments. This paper presents a number of experimental results obtained from shallow-water cruises using a 300-kHz multibeam echosounder and specially dedicated to the study of this azimuthal effect, with a specific configuration of the survey strategy involving a systematic coverage of reference areas following "compass rose" patterns. The results show for some areas a very strong dependence of the backscatter level, up to about 10-dB differences at intermediate oblique angles, although the presence of these ripples cannot be observed directly—neither from the bathymetry data nor from the sonar image, due to the insufficient resolution capability of the sonar. An elementary modeling of backscattering from rippled interfaces explains and comforts these observations. The consequences of this backscatter dependence upon survey azimuth on the current strategies of backscatter data acquisition and exploitation are discussed.

  9. Recommendations for improved and coherent acquisition and processing of backscatter data from seafloor-mapping sonars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamarche, Geoffroy; Lurton, Xavier

    2018-06-01

    Multibeam echosounders are becoming widespread for the purposes of seafloor bathymetry mapping, but the acquisition and the use of seafloor backscatter measurements, acquired simultaneously with the bathymetric data, are still insufficiently understood, controlled and standardized. This presents an obstacle to well-accepted, standardized analysis and application by end users. The Marine Geological and Biological Habitat Mapping group (Geohab.org) has long recognized the need for better coherence and common agreement on acquisition, processing and interpretation of seafloor backscatter data, and established the Backscatter Working Group (BSWG) in May 2013. This paper presents an overview of this initiative, the mandate, structure and program of the working group, and a synopsis of the BSWG Guidelines and Recommendations to date. The paper includes (1) an overview of the current status in sensors and techniques available in seafloor backscatter data from multibeam sonars; (2) the presentation of the BSWG structure and results; (3) recommendations to operators, end-users, sonar manufacturers, and software developers using sonar backscatter for seafloor-mapping applications, for best practice methods and approaches for data acquisition and processing; and (4) a discussion on the development needs for future systems and data processing. We propose for the first time a nomenclature of backscatter processing levels that affords a means to accurately and efficiently describe the data processing status, and to facilitate comparisons of final products from various origins.

  10. Multi-temporal RADARSAT-1 and ERS backscattering signatures of coastal wetlands in southeastern Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwoun, Oh-Ig; Lu, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Using multi-temporal European Remote-sensing Satellites (ERS-1/-2) and Canadian Radar Satellite (RADARSAT-1) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data over the Louisiana coastal zone, we characterize seasonal variations of radar backscat-tering according to vegetation type. Our main findings are as follows. First, ERS-1/-2 and RADARSAT-1 require careful radiometric calibration to perform multi-temporal backscattering analysis for wetland mapping. We use SAR backscattering signals from cities for the relative calibration. Second, using seasonally averaged backscattering coefficients from ERS-1/-2 and RADARSAT-1, we can differentiate most forests (bottomland and swamp forests) and marshes (freshwater, intermediate, brackish, and saline marshes) in coastal wetlands. The student t-test results support the usefulness of season-averaged backscatter data for classification. Third, combining SAR backscattering coefficients and an optical-sensor-based normalized difference vegetation index can provide further insight into vegetation type and enhance the separation between forests and marshes. Our study demonstrates that SAR can provide necessary information to characterize coastal wetlands and monitor their changes.

  11. Detection of 2-mm-long strained section in silica fiber using slope-assisted Brillouin optical correlation-domain reflectometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Heeyoung; Mizuno, Yosuke; Nakamura, Kentaro

    2018-02-01

    Slope-assisted Brillouin optical correlation-domain reflectometry is a single-end-access distributed Brillouin sensing technique with high spatial resolution and high-speed operation. We have recently discovered its unique feature, that is, strained or heated sections even shorter than nominal resolution can be detected, but its detailed characterization has not been carried out. Here, after experimentally characterizing this “beyond-nominal-resolution” effect, we show its usefulness by demonstrating the detection of a 2-mm-long strained section along a silica fiber. We also demonstrate the detection of a 5-mm-long heated section along a polymer optical fiber. The lengths of these detected sections are smaller than those of the other demonstrations reported so far.

  12. Development of in situ Brillouin spectroscopy at high pressure and high temperature with synchrotron radiation and infrared laser heating system: Application to the Earth's deep interior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Motohiko; Asahara, Yuki; Ohishi, Yasuo; Hirao, Naohisa; Hirose, Kei

    2009-05-01

    Seismic wave velocity profiles in the Earth provide one of the strongest constraints on structure, mineralogy and elastic properties of the Earth's deep interior. Accurate sound velocity data of deep Earth materials under relevant high-pressure and high-temperature conditions, therefore, are essential for interpretation of seismic data. Such information can be directly obtained from Brillouin scattering measurement. Here we describe an in situ Brillouin scattering system for measurements at high pressure and high temperature using a laser heated diamond anvil cell and synchrotron radiation for sample characterization. The system has been used with single-crystal and polycrystalline materials, and with glass and fluid phase. It provided high quality sound velocity and elastic data with X-ray diffraction data at high pressure and/or high temperature. Those combined techniques can potentially offer the essential information for resolving many remaining issues in mineral physics.

  13. Continuous Transition between Brillouin-Wigner and Rayleigh-Schrödinger Perturbation Theory, Generalized Bloch Equation, and Hilbert Space Multireference Coupled Cluster

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pittner, Jiří

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 118, č. 24 (2003), s. 10876-10889 ISSN 0021-9606 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC D23.001; GA ČR GA203/99/D009; GA AV ČR IAA4040108 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : continuous transition * Brillouin-Wigner * Rayleigh-Schrödinger Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.950, year: 2003

  14. Double peak-induced distance error in short-time-Fourier-transform-Brillouin optical time domain reflectometers event detection and the recovery method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yifei; Luo, Linqing; Li, Bo; Guo, Linfeng; Yan, Jize; Soga, Kenichi

    2015-10-01

    The measured distance error caused by double peaks in the BOTDRs (Brillouin optical time domain reflectometers) system is a kind of Brillouin scattering spectrum (BSS) deformation, discussed and simulated for the first time in the paper, to the best of the authors' knowledge. Double peak, as a kind of Brillouin spectrum deformation, is important in the enhancement of spatial resolution, measurement accuracy, and crack detection. Due to the variances of the peak powers of the BSS along the fiber, the measured starting point of a step-shape frequency transition region is shifted and results in distance errors. Zero-padded short-time-Fourier-transform (STFT) can restore the transition-induced double peaks in the asymmetric and deformed BSS, thus offering more accurate and quicker measurements than the conventional Lorentz-fitting method. The recovering method based on the double-peak detection and corresponding BSS deformation can be applied to calculate the real starting point, which can improve the distance accuracy of the STFT-based BOTDR system.

  15. Aerosol backscatter measurements at 10.6 microns with airborne and ground-based CO2 Doppler lidars over the Colorado High Plains. II - Backscatter structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowdle, David A.; Rothermel, Jeffry; Vaughan, J. Michael; Post, Madison J.

    1991-01-01

    Measurements of tropospheric aerosol volume backscatter coefficients at 10.6-microns wavelength were obtained with airborne continuous wave and ground-based pulsed CO2 Doppler lidars over the Colorado High Plains during a 20-day period in summer 1982. A persistent 'background' layer was found between 6- and 10-km altitude, with a generally uniform backscatter mixing ratio of about 10 to the -10th sq m/kg per sr. The upper boundary of this background layer varied with the tropopause height; the lower boundary varied with the strength and diurnal cycle of convective mixing in the planetary boundary layer (PBL). For quiescent meteorological conditions, the transition from the PBL to the background layer was usually very sharp, with backscatter decreases sometimes as large as 3 decades in about 70 m. Sharp gradients were also found at the boundaries of shallow (tens of meters) subvisible cirrus clouds. For less stable conditions, associated with vertical aerosol transport by deep cumuliform clouds, backscatter tended to decrease exponentially with altitude.

  16. Solar Backscatter UV (SBUV total ozone and profile algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Bhartia

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe the algorithm that has been applied to develop a 42 yr record of total ozone and ozone profiles from eight Solar Backscatter UV (SBUV instruments launched on NASA and NOAA satellites since April 1970. The Version 8 (V8 algorithm was released more than a decade ago and has been in use since then at NOAA to produce their operational ozone products. The current algorithm (V8.6 is basically the same as V8, except for updates to instrument calibration, incorporation of new ozone absorption cross-sections, and new ozone and cloud height climatologies. Since the V8 algorithm has been optimized for deriving monthly zonal mean (MZM anomalies for ozone assessment and model comparisons, our emphasis in this paper is primarily on characterizing the sources of errors that are relevant for such studies. When data are analyzed this way the effect of some errors, such as vertical smoothing of short-term variability, and noise due to clouds and aerosols diminish in importance, while the importance of others, such as errors due to vertical smoothing of the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO and other periodic and aperiodic variations, become more important. With V8.6 zonal mean data we now provide smoothing kernels that can be used to compare anomalies in SBUV profile and partial ozone columns with models. In this paper we show how to use these kernels to compare SBUV data with Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS ozone profiles. These kernels are particularly useful for comparisons in the lower stratosphere where SBUV profiles have poor vertical resolution but partial column ozone values have high accuracy. We also provide our best estimate of the smoothing errors associated with SBUV MZM profiles. Since smoothing errors are the largest source of uncertainty in these profiles, they can be treated as error bars in deriving interannual variability and trends using SBUV data and for comparing with other measurements. In the V8 and V8.6 algorithms we derive total

  17. Brillouin light scattering investigation of interfacial Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction in ultrathin Co/Pt nanostripe arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouloussa, H.; Yu, J.; Roussigné, Y.; Belmeguenai, M.; Stashkevitch, A.; Yang, H.; Chérif, S. M.

    2018-06-01

    Interface Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction (iDMI) is known to induce spinwaves non-reciprocity in ultrathin films. Indeed, Brillouin light scattering has been used to investigate how the lateral size reduction can affect the iDMI constant in Pt (6 nm)/Co (3 nm) based-nanostripe arrays. For this, 100 and 300 nm-width nanostripes have been fabricated using e-beam lithography and ion etching, and their behaviour has then been compared to the reference continuous film. The experimental data showed that the measured iDMI induced non-reciprocity is slightly different for the 100 nm-width nanostripes with respect to the other samples. This suggests that the width of the nanostripes can influence the strength of the apparent iDMI if this dimension is comparable to the spin waves attenuation length propagating within the nanostripes. Indeed, in contrast to the other samples, the linear frequency difference (non-reciprocity) behaviour versus wavenumber for the 100 nm-width nanostripes has been analysed and discussed through two approaches: either a different iDMI constant or an iDMI constant similar to one of the continuous films with a non-zero intercept for a zero wavenumber.

  18. Elastic anisotropy of polycrystalline Au films: Modeling and respective contributions of X-ray diffraction, nanoindentation and Brillouin light scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faurie, D.; Djemia, P.; Le Bourhis, E.; Renault, P.-O.; Roussigne, Y.; Cherif, S.M.; Brenner, R.; Castelnau, O.; Patriarche, G.; Goudeau, Ph.

    2010-01-01

    Elastic properties of non-textured and {1 1 1}-fiber-textured gold thin films were investigated experimentally by several complementary techniques, namely in situ tensile testing under X-ray diffraction (XRD), nanoindentation and Brillouin light scattering (BLS). Specimens were probed along different directions to reveal the strong effects of elastic anisotropy at the (local) grain and (global) film scales. XRD allows the investigation of both local and global anisotropies, while BLS and nanoindentation are limited to global analyses. A micromechanical model, based on the self-consistent scheme, and accounting for the actual microstructure of the films, is applied to interpret experimental data. Although different types of elastic constants can be determined with the used experimental techniques (static/dynamic, local/global), a good agreement is obtained, showing that comparison of these techniques is feasible when carried out carefully. In particular, the use of a micromechanical model to estimate the effects of the local elastic anisotropy at the film scale is unavoidable. The presented results show that XRD, BLS and nanoindentation should capture anisotropic texture effects on elastic constants measurements for materials with a Zener anisotropy index larger than 2. Conversely, the actual texture of a given specimen should be taken into account for a proper analysis of elastic constants measurements using those three experimental techniques.

  19. Elastic Characterization of Transparent and Opaque Films, Multilayers and Acoustic Resonators by Surface Brillouin Scattering: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Carlotti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available There is currently a renewed interest in the development of experimental methods to achieve the elastic characterization of thin films, multilayers and acoustic resonators operating in the GHz range of frequencies. The potentialities of surface Brillouin light scattering (surf-BLS for this aim are reviewed in this paper, addressing the various situations that may occur for the different types of structures. In particular, the experimental methodology and the amount of information that can be obtained depending on the transparency or opacity of the film material, as well as on the ratio between the film thickness and the light wavelength, are discussed. A generalization to the case of multilayered samples is also provided, together with an outlook on the capability of the recently developed micro-focused scanning version of the surf-BLS technique, which opens new opportunities for the imaging of the spatial profile of the acoustic field in acoustic resonators and in artificially patterned metamaterials, such as phononic crystals.

  20. Localized spin-wave modes in a triangular magnetic element studied by micro-focused Brillouin light scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, S.; Kwon, J.-H. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Gwangju 61005 (Korea, Republic of); Grünberg, P. [Grünberg Center for Magnetic Nanomaterials, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Gwangju 61005 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, B.K., E-mail: chobk@gist.ac.kr [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Gwangju 61005 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-01

    Highlights: • Direct evidence of localized mode in a triangular nano-magnet using μ-BLS. • Localized regions are identified by the internal field distribution. • The spatially resolved measurement was performed to obtain 2-D intensity map. • Spin modes in same positions can be distinguish comparing with simulated spectrum. • Localized modes were identified by comparing with the simulated spatial profiles. - Abstract: Localized spin-wave modes, which were thermally excited at a specific position in a triangular magnetic element, were investigated using micro-focused Brillouin light scattering in two saturated states, the buckle and Y-states, with an applied magnetic field of 0.24 T parallel and perpendicular to the basal edge, respectively. The measured frequency spectrum at a specific beam spot position, rather than an integrated spectrum, was analyzed by comparing it with the simulation data at a precisely selected position within the beam spot area. The analyzed results were used to plot a two-dimensional intensity map and simulation spatial profile to verify the validity of the analysis. From the analysis process, two localized spin-wave modes in a triangular magnetic element were successfully identified near the apex region in the buckle state and near the basal edge region in the Y-state.

  1. Mitigating the effect of optical back-scatter in multispectral underwater imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortazavi, Halleh; Oakley, John P; Barkat, Braham

    2013-01-01

    Multispectral imaging is a very useful technique for extracting information from the underwater world. However, optical back-scatter changes the intensity value in each spectral band and this distorts the estimated spectrum. In this work, a filter is used to detect the level of optical back-scatter in each spectral band from a set of multispectral images. Extraction of underwater object spectra can be done by subtracting the estimated level of optical back-scatter and scaling the remainder in each spectral band from the captured image in the corresponding band. An experiment has been designed to show the performance of the proposed filter for correcting the set of multispectral underwater images and recovering the pixel spectra. The multispectral images are captured by a B/W CCD digital camera with a fast tunable liquid-crystal filter in 33 narrow spectral bands in clear and different levels of turbid water. Reference estimates for the optical back-scatter spectra are found by comparing a clear and a degraded set of multispectral images. The accuracy and consistency of the proposed method, the extended Oakley–Bu cost function, is examined by comparing the estimated values with the reference level of an optical back-scatter spectrum. The same comparison is made for the simple estimation approach. The results show that the simple method is not reliable and fail to estimate the level of optical back-scatter spectrum accurately. The results from processing experimental images in turbid water show that the effect of optical back-scatter can be mitigated in the image of each spectral band and, as a result, the spectra of the object can be recovered. However, for a very high level of turbid water the recovery is limited because of the effect of extinction. (paper)

  2. Backscatter dose from metallic materials due to obliquely incident high-energy photon beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadrowitz, Roger; Feyerabend, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    If metallic material is exposed to ionizing radiation of sufficient high energy, an increase in dose due to backscatter radiation occurs in front of this material. Our purpose in this study was to quantify these doses at variable distances between scattering materials and the detector at axial beam angles between 0 deg. (zero angle in beams eye view) and 90 deg. . Copper, silver and lead sheets embedded in a phantom of perspex were exposed to 10 MV-bremsstrahlung. The detector we developed is based on the fluorescence property of pyromellitic acid (1,2,4,5 benzenetetracarboxylic acid) after exposure to ionizing radiation. Our results show that the additional doses and the corresponding dose distribution in front of the scattering materials depend quantitatively and qualitatively on the beam angle. The backscatter dose increases with varying beam angle from 0 deg. to 90 deg. up to a maximum at 55 deg. for copper and silver. At angles of 0 deg. and 55 deg. the integral backscatter doses over a tissue-equivalent depth of 2 mm are 11.2% and 21.6% for copper and 24% and 28% for silver, respectively. In contrast, in front of lead there are no obvious differences of the measured backscatter doses at angles between 0 deg. and 55 deg. With a further increase of the beam angle from 55 deg. to 90 deg. the backscatter dose decreases steeply for all three materials. In front of copper a markedly lower penetrating depth of the backscattered electrons was found for an angle of 0 deg. compared to 55 deg. This dependence from the beam angle was less pronounced in front of silver and not detectable in front of lead. In conclusion, the dependence of the backscatter dose from the angle between axial beam and scattering material must be considered, as higher scattering doses have to be considered than previously expected. This may have a clinical impact since the surface of metallic implants is usually curved

  3. Backscatter dose from metallic materials due to obliquely incident high-energy photon beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadrowitz, Roger; Feyerabend, Thomas [Medical University of Luebeck, Germany, Department of Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine, Ratzeburger Allee 160, Luebeck, D-23538 (Germany)

    2001-06-01

    If metallic material is exposed to ionizing radiation of sufficient high energy, an increase in dose due to backscatter radiation occurs in front of this material. Our purpose in this study was to quantify these doses at variable distances between scattering materials and the detector at axial beam angles between 0 deg. (zero angle in beams eye view) and 90 deg. . Copper, silver and lead sheets embedded in a phantom of perspex were exposed to 10 MV-bremsstrahlung. The detector we developed is based on the fluorescence property of pyromellitic acid (1,2,4,5 benzenetetracarboxylic acid) after exposure to ionizing radiation. Our results show that the additional doses and the corresponding dose distribution in front of the scattering materials depend quantitatively and qualitatively on the beam angle. The backscatter dose increases with varying beam angle from 0 deg. to 90 deg. up to a maximum at 55 deg. for copper and silver. At angles of 0 deg. and 55 deg. the integral backscatter doses over a tissue-equivalent depth of 2 mm are 11.2% and 21.6% for copper and 24% and 28% for silver, respectively. In contrast, in front of lead there are no obvious differences of the measured backscatter doses at angles between 0 deg. and 55 deg. With a further increase of the beam angle from 55 deg. to 90 deg. the backscatter dose decreases steeply for all three materials. In front of copper a markedly lower penetrating depth of the backscattered electrons was found for an angle of 0 deg. compared to 55 deg. This dependence from the beam angle was less pronounced in front of silver and not detectable in front of lead. In conclusion, the dependence of the backscatter dose from the angle between axial beam and scattering material must be considered, as higher scattering doses have to be considered than previously expected. This may have a clinical impact since the surface of metallic implants is usually curved.

  4. A framework to quantify uncertainties of seafloor backscatter from swath mapping echosounders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Mashkoor; Lurton, Xavier; Mayer, Larry

    2018-06-01

    Multibeam echosounders (MBES) have become a widely used acoustic remote sensing tool to map and study the seafloor, providing co-located bathymetry and seafloor backscatter. Although the uncertainty associated with MBES-derived bathymetric data has been studied extensively, the question of backscatter uncertainty has been addressed only minimally and hinders the quantitative use of MBES seafloor backscatter. This paper explores approaches to identifying uncertainty sources associated with MBES-derived backscatter measurements. The major sources of uncertainty are catalogued and the magnitudes of their relative contributions to the backscatter uncertainty budget are evaluated. These major uncertainty sources include seafloor insonified area (1-3 dB), absorption coefficient (up to > 6 dB), random fluctuations in echo level (5.5 dB for a Rayleigh distribution), and sonar calibration (device dependent). The magnitudes of these uncertainty sources vary based on how these effects are compensated for during data acquisition and processing. Various cases (no compensation, partial compensation and full compensation) for seafloor insonified area, transmission losses and random fluctuations were modeled to estimate their uncertainties in different scenarios. Uncertainty related to the seafloor insonified area can be reduced significantly by accounting for seafloor slope during backscatter processing while transmission losses can be constrained by collecting full water column absorption coefficient profiles (temperature and salinity profiles). To reduce random fluctuations to below 1 dB, at least 20 samples are recommended to be used while computing mean values. The estimation of uncertainty in backscatter measurements is constrained by the fact that not all instrumental components are characterized and documented sufficiently for commercially available MBES. Further involvement from manufacturers in providing this essential information is critically required.

  5. Interferometric evidence for the observation of ground backscatter originating behind the CUTLASS coherent HF radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milan, S. E.; Jones, T. B.; Robinson, T. R.; Thomas, E. C.; Yeoman, T. K.

    1997-01-01

    Interferometric techniques allow the SuperDARN coherent HF radars to determine the elevation angles of returned backscatter, giving information on the altitude of the scatter volume, in the case of ionospheric backscatter, or the reflection altitude, in the case of ground backscatter. Assumptions have to be made in the determination of elevation angles, including the direction of arrival, or azimuth, of the returned signals, usually taken to be the forward look-direction (north) of the radars, specified by the phasing of the antenna arrays. It is shown that this assumption is not always valid in the case of ground backscatter, and that significant returns can be detected from the backward look-direction of the radars. The response of the interferometer to backscatter from behind the radar is modelled and compared with observations. It is found that ground backscatter from a field-of-view that is the mirror image of the forward-looking field-of-view is a common feature of the observations, and this interpretation successfully explains several anomalies in the received backscatter. Acknowledgements. The authors are grateful to Prof. D. J. Southwood (Imperial College, London), J. C. Samson (University of Alberta, Edmonton), L. J. Lanzerotti (AT&T Bell Laboratories), A. Wolfe (New York City Technical College) and to Dr. M. Vellante (University of LÁquila) for helpful discussions. They also thank Dr. A. Meloni (Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica, Roma) who made available geomagnetic field observations from LÁquila Geomagnetic Observatory. This research activity at LÁquila is supported by MURST (40% and 60% contracts) and by GIFCO/CNR. Topical Editor K.-H. Glaßmeier thanks C. Waters and S. Fujita for their help in evaluating this paper.-> Correspondence to :P. Francia->

  6. Evaluating multiple causes of persistent low microwave backscatter from Amazon forests after the 2005 drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Stephen; Braswell, Bobby; Milliman, Tom; Herrick, Christina; Peterson, Seth; Roberts, Dar; Keller, Michael; Palace, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Amazonia has experienced large-scale regional droughts that affect forest productivity and biomass stocks. Space-borne remote sensing provides basin-wide data on impacts of meteorological anomalies, an important complement to relatively limited ground observations across the Amazon’s vast and remote humid tropical forests. Morning overpass QuikScat Ku-band microwave backscatter from the forest canopy was anomalously low during the 2005 drought, relative to the full instrument record of 1999–2009, and low morning backscatter persisted for 2006–2009, after which the instrument failed. The persistent low backscatter has been suggested to be indicative of increased forest vulnerability to future drought. To better ascribe the cause of the low post-drought backscatter, we analyzed multiyear, gridded remote sensing data sets of precipitation, land surface temperature, forest cover and forest cover loss, and microwave backscatter over the 2005 drought region in the southwestern Amazon Basin (4°-12°S, 66°-76°W) and in adjacent 8°x10° regions to the north and east. We found moderate to weak correlations with the spatial distribution of persistent low backscatter for variables related to three groups of forest impacts: the 2005 drought itself, loss of forest cover, and warmer and drier dry seasons in the post-drought vs. the pre-drought years. However, these variables explained only about one quarter of the variability in depressed backscatter across the southwestern drought region. Our findings indicate that drought impact is a complex phenomenon and that better understanding can only come from more extensive ground data and/or analysis of frequent, spatially-comprehensive, high-resolution data or imagery before and after droughts. PMID:28873422

  7. Effect of species structure and dielectric constant on C-band forest backscatter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, R. H.; Landry, R.; Kilic, O.; Chauhan, N.; Khadr, N.; Leckie, D.

    1993-01-01

    A joint experiment between Canadian and USA research teams was conducted early in Oct. 1992 to determine the effect of species structure and dielectric variations on forest backscatter. Two stands, one red pine and one jack pine, in the Petawawa National Forestry Institute (PNFI) were utilized for the experiment. Extensive tree architecture measurements had been taken by the Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS) several months earlier by employing a Total Station surveying instrument which provides detailed information on branch structure. A second part of the experiment consisted of cutting down several trees and using dielectric probes to measure branch and needle permittivity values at both sites. The dielectric and the tree geometry data were used in the George Washington University (GWU) Vegetation Model to determine the C band backscattering coefficients of the individual stands for VV polarization. The model results show that backscatter at C band comes mainly from the needles and small branches and the upper portion of the trunks acts only as an attenuator. A discussion of variation of backscatter with specie structure and how dielectric variations in needles for both species may affect the total backscatter returns is provided.

  8. Quantitative Analysis of Venus Radar Backscatter Data in ArcGIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, S. M.; Grosfils, E. B.

    2005-01-01

    Ongoing mapping of the Ganiki Planitia (V14) quadrangle of Venus and definition of material units has involved an integrated but qualitative analysis of Magellan radar backscatter images and topography using standard geomorphological mapping techniques. However, such analyses do not take full advantage of the quantitative information contained within the images. Analysis of the backscatter coefficient allows a much more rigorous statistical comparison between mapped units, permitting first order selfsimilarity tests of geographically separated materials assigned identical geomorphological labels. Such analyses cannot be performed directly on pixel (DN) values from Magellan backscatter images, because the pixels are scaled to the Muhleman law for radar echoes on Venus and are not corrected for latitudinal variations in incidence angle. Therefore, DN values must be converted based on pixel latitude back to their backscatter coefficient values before accurate statistical analysis can occur. Here we present a method for performing the conversions and analysis of Magellan backscatter data using commonly available ArcGIS software and illustrate the advantages of the process for geological mapping.

  9. Optimization of phantom backscatter thickness and lateral scatter volume for radiographic film dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, R.P.; De Wagter, C.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the optimal backscatter thickness and lateral phantom dimension beyond the irradiated volume for the dosimetric verification with radiographic film when applying large field sizes. Polystyrene and Virtual Water™ phantoms were used to study the influence of the phantom backscatter thickness. EDR2 and XV films were used in 6 and 18 MV photon beams. The results show 11.4% and 6.4% over-response of the XV2 film when compared to the ion chamber for 6 MV 30×30 and 10×10 cm 2 field sizes, respectively, when the phantom backscatter thickness is 5 cm. For the same setup, measurements with EDR2 films indicate 8.5% and 1.7% over-response. The XV2 film response in the polystyrene phantom is about 2.0% higher than in the Virtual Water™ phantom for the 6 MV beam and 20 cm backscatter thickness. Similar results were obtained for EDR2 film. In the lateral scatter study, film response was nearly constant within 5 cm of lateral thickness and it increases when lateral thickness increases due to more multiple scatter of low energy photons. The backscatter thickness of the phantom should be kept below 7 cm for the accuracy of the film dosimetry. The lateral extension of the phantom should not be more than 5 cm from the field boundary in case of large irradiated volumes.

  10. Forest anisotropy assessment by means of spatial variations analysis of PolSAR backscattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Dmitriev

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The possibility to synthesize polarization response from earth covers at any desired combination of transmit and receive antenna polarizations is the significant advantage of polarimetric radar. It permits better identification of dominant scattering mechanisms especially when analyzing polarization signatures. These signatures depict more details of physical information from target backscattering in various polarization bases. However, polarization signatures cannot reveal spatial variations of the radar backscattering caused by volume heterogeneity of a target. This paper proposes a new approach for estimating volume target heterogeneity from polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR images. The approach is based on the analysis of a novel type of polarization signature, which we call fractal polarization signature (FPS. This signature is a result of polarization synthesis of initial fully polarimetric data and subsequent fractal analysis of synthesized images. It is displayed as a 3D plot and can be produced for each point in an image. It is shown that FPS describes backscattering variations or image roughness at different states of polarization. Fully polarimetric data of SIR-C and ALOS PALSAR at ascending/descending orbits were used for testing the proposed approach. The azimuthal dependence of the radar backscattering variations is discovered when analyzing backscattering from a pine forest. It correlates with the results of a field survey of trees branch distribution.

  11. Modification of Spalart-Allmaras model with consideration of turbulence energy backscatter using velocity helicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yangwei; Lu, Lipeng; Fang, Le; Gao, Feng

    2011-01-01

    The correlation between the velocity helicity and the energy backscatter is proved in a DNS case of 256 3 -grid homogeneous isotropic decaying turbulence. The helicity is then proposed to be employed to improve turbulence models and SGS models. Then Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model (SA) is modified with the helicity to take account of the energy backscatter, which is significant in the region of corner separation in compressors. By comparing the numerical results with experiments, it can be concluded that the modification for SA model with helicity can appropriately represent the energy backscatter, and greatly improves the predictive accuracy for simulating the corner separation flow in compressors. -- Highlights: → We study the relativity between the velocity helicity and the energy backscatter. → Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model is modified with the velocity helicity. → The modified model is employed to simulate corner separation in compressor cascade. → The modification can greatly improve the accuracy for predicting corner separation. → The helicity can represent the energy backscatter in turbulence and SGS models.

  12. User expectations for multibeam echo sounders backscatter strength data-looking back into the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucieer, Vanessa; Roche, Marc; Degrendele, Koen; Malik, Mashkoor; Dolan, Margaret; Lamarche, Geoffroy

    2018-06-01

    With the ability of multibeam echo sounders (MBES) to measure backscatter strength (BS) as a function of true angle of insonification across the seafloor, came a new recognition of the potential of backscatter measurements to remotely characterize the properties of the seafloor. Advances in transducer design, digital electronics, signal processing capabilities, navigation, and graphic display devices, have improved the resolution and particularly the dynamic range available to sonar and processing software manufacturers. Alongside these improvements the expectations of what the data can deliver has also grown. In this paper, we identify these user-expectations and explore how MBES backscatter is utilized by different communities involved in marine seabed research at present, and the aspirations that these communities have for the data in the future. The results presented here are based on a user survey conducted by the GeoHab (Marine Geological and Biological Habitat Mapping) association. This paper summarises the different processing procedures employed to extract useful information from MBES backscatter data and the various intentions for which the user community collect the data. We show how a range of backscatter output products are generated from the different processing procedures, and how these results are taken up by different scientific disciplines, and also identify common constraints in handling MBES BS data. Finally, we outline our expectations for the future of this unique and important data source for seafloor mapping and characterisation.

  13. Response function of NaI(Tl) detectors and multiple backscattering of gamma rays in aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabharwal, Arvind D.; Singh, Manpreet; Singh, Bhajan; Sandhu, B.S.

    2008-01-01

    The response function, converting the observed pulse-height distribution of a NaI(Tl) detector to a true photon spectrum, is obtained experimentally with the help of an inverse matrix approach. The energy of gamma-ray photons continuously decreases as the number of scatterings increases in a sample having finite dimensions when one deals with the depth of the sample. The present experiments are undertaken to study the effect of target thickness on intensity distribution of gamma photons multiply backscattered from an aluminium target. A NaI(Tl) gamma-ray detector detects the photons backscattered from the aluminium target. The subtraction of analytically estimated singly scattered distribution from the observed intensity distribution (originating from interactions of primary gamma-ray photons with the target) results in multiply backscattered events. We observe that for each incident gamma photon energy, the number of multiply backscattered photons increases with increase in target thickness and then saturates at a particular target thickness called the saturation thickness (depth). Saturation thickness for multiply backscattering of gamma photons is found to decrease with increase in energy of incident gamma-ray photons

  14. Laser-based air data system for aircraft control using Raman and elastic backscatter for the measurement of temperature, density, pressure, moisture, and particle backscatter coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraczek, Michael; Behrendt, Andreas; Schmitt, Nikolaus

    2012-01-10

    Flight safety in all weather conditions demands exact and reliable determination of flight-critical air parameters. Air speed, temperature, density, and pressure are essential for aircraft control. Conventional air data systems can be impacted by probe failure caused by mechanical damage from hail, volcanic ash, and icing. While optical air speed measurement methods have been discussed elsewhere, in this paper, a new concept for optically measuring the air temperature, density, pressure, moisture, and particle backscatter is presented, being independent on assumptions on the atmospheric state and eliminating the drawbacks of conventional aircraft probes by providing a different measurement principle. The concept is based on a laser emitting laser pulses into the atmosphere through a window and detecting the signals backscattered from a fixed region just outside the disturbed area of the fuselage flows. With four receiver channels, different spectral portions of the backscattered light are extracted. The measurement principle of air temperature and density is based on extracting two signals out of the rotational Raman (RR) backscatter signal of air molecules. For measuring the water vapor mixing ratio-and thus the density of the moist air-a water vapor Raman channel is included. The fourth channel serves to detect the elastic backscatter signal, which is essential for extending the measurements into clouds. This channel contributes to the detection of aerosols, which is interesting for developing a future volcanic ash warning system for aircraft. Detailed and realistic optimization and performance calculations have been performed based on the parameters of a first prototype of such a measurement system. The impact and correction of systematic error sources, such as solar background at daytime and elastic signal cross talk appearing in optically dense clouds, have been investigated. The results of the simulations show the high potential of the proposed system for

  15. Retrieval method of aerosol extinction coefficient profile based on backscattering, side-scattering and Raman-scattering lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Huihui; Zhang, Hui; Liu, Junjian; Tao, Zongming; Wang, Shenhao; Ma, Xiaomin; Zhou, Pucheng; Yao, Ling; Liu, Dong; Xie, Chenbo; Wang, Yingjian

    2018-03-01

    Aerosol extinction coefficient profile is an essential parameter for atmospheric radiation model. It is difficult to get higher signal to noise ratio (SNR) of backscattering lidar from the ground to the tropopause especially in near range. Higher SNR problem can be solved by combining side-scattering and backscattering lidar. Using Raman-scattering lidar, aerosol extinction to backscatter ratio (lidar ratio) can be got. Based on side-scattering, backscattering and Raman-scattering lidar system, aerosol extinction coefficient is retrieved precisely from the earth's surface to the tropopause. Case studies show this method is reasonable and feasible.

  16. Direct detection of near-surface faults by migration of back-scattered surface waves

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Han

    2014-08-05

    We show that diffraction stack migration can be used to estimate the distribution of near-surface faults. The assumption is that near-surface faults generate detectable back-scattered surface waves from impinging surface waves. The processing steps are to isolate the back-scattered surface waves, and then migrate them by diffraction migration using the surface wave velocity as the migration velocity. Instead of summing events along trial quasi-hyperbolas, surface wave migration sums events along trial quasi-linear trajectories that correspond to the moveout of back-scattered surface waves. A deconvolution filter derived from the data can be used to collapse a dispersive arrival into a non-dispersive event. Results with synthetic data and field records validate the feasibility of this method. Applying this method to USArray data or passively recorded exploration data might open new opportunities in mapping tectonic features over the extent of the array.

  17. Sensitivity improvement of a laser interferometer limited by inelastic back-scattering, employing dual readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinders, Melanie; Schnabel, Roman

    2015-01-01

    Inelastic back-scattering of stray light is a long-standing and fundamental problem in high-sensitivity interferometric measurements and a potential limitation for advanced gravitational-wave (GW) detectors. The emerging parasitic interferences cannot be distinguished from a scientific signal via conventional single readout. In this work, we propose the subtraction of inelastic back-scatter signals by employing dual homodyne detection on the output light, and demonstrate it for a table-top Michelson interferometer. The additional readout contains solely parasitic signals and is used to model the scatter source. Subtraction of the scatter signal reduces the noise spectral density and thus improves the measurement sensitivity. Our scheme is qualitatively different from the previously demonstrated vetoing of scatter signals and opens a new path for improving the sensitivity of future GW detectors and other back-scatter limited devices. (paper)

  18. The Correlation Characteristics of Polarization Backscattering Matrix of Dense Chaff Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Tang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper studied the correlation characteristics of the polarization backscattering matrix of the dense chaff cloud with uniform orientation and location distributions in circular symmetry region. Based on the theoretical analysis and numerical experiments, the correlation coefficients of the four elements in the polarization backscattering matrix are obtained, and the results indicate that the cross to co-polar correlation coefficient is still zero; and that the sum of the co-polar cross-correlation coefficient and the two times of linear depolarization ratio equals one. The results are beneficial for better understanding of the backscattering characteristics of dense chaff clouds, and are useful in the application of jamming recognition in radar electronic warfare. Numerical experiments are performed by using the method of moments.

  19. Bathymetry and acoustic backscatter-outer mainland shelf, eastern Santa Barbara Channel, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dartnell, Peter; Finlayson, David P.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Erdey, Mercedes D.

    2012-01-01

    In 2010 and 2011, scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center (PCMSC), acquired bathymetry and acoustic-backscatter data from the outer shelf region of the eastern Santa Barbara Channel, California. These surveys were conducted in cooperation with the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM). BOEM is interested in maps of hard-bottom substrates, particularly natural outcrops that support reef communities in areas near oil and gas extraction activity. The surveys were conducted using the USGS R/V Parke Snavely, outfitted with an interferometric sidescan sonar for swath mapping and real-time kinematic navigation equipment. This report provides the bathymetry and backscatter data acquired during these surveys in several formats, a summary of the mapping mission, maps of bathymetry and backscatter, and Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) metadata.

  20. An analytical model for light backscattering by coccoliths and coccospheres of Emiliania huxleyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Georges; Neukermans, Griet

    2017-06-26

    We present an analytical model for light backscattering by coccoliths and coccolithophores of the marine calcifying phytoplankter Emiliania huxleyi. The model is based on the separation of the effects of diffraction, refraction, and reflection on scattering, a valid assumption for particle sizes typical of coccoliths and coccolithophores. Our model results match closely with results from an exact scattering code that uses complex particle geometry and our model also mimics well abrupt transitions in scattering magnitude. Finally, we apply our model to predict changes in the spectral backscattering coefficient during an Emiliania huxleyi bloom with results that closely match in situ measurements. Because our model captures the key features that control the light backscattering process, it can be generalized to coccoliths and coccolithophores of different morphologies which can be obtained from size-calibrated electron microphotographs. Matlab codes of this model are provided as supplementary material.

  1. Recommendations for processing atmospheric attenuated backscatter profiles from Vaisala CL31 ceilometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotthaus, Simone; O'Connor, Ewan; Münkel, Christoph; Charlton-Perez, Cristina; Haeffelin, Martial; Gabey, Andrew M.; Grimmond, C. Sue B.

    2016-08-01

    Ceilometer lidars are used for cloud base height detection, to probe aerosol layers in the atmosphere (e.g. detection of elevated layers of Saharan dust or volcanic ash), and to examine boundary layer dynamics. Sensor optics and acquisition algorithms can strongly influence the observed attenuated backscatter profiles; therefore, physical interpretation of the profiles requires careful application of corrections. This study addresses the widely deployed Vaisala CL31 ceilometer. Attenuated backscatter profiles are studied to evaluate the impact of both the hardware generation and firmware version. In response to this work and discussion within the CL31/TOPROF user community (TOPROF, European COST Action aiming to harmonise ground-based remote sensing networks across Europe), Vaisala released new firmware (versions 1.72 and 2.03) for the CL31 sensors. These firmware versions are tested against previous versions, showing that several artificial features introduced by the data processing have been removed. Hence, it is recommended to use this recent firmware for analysing attenuated backscatter profiles. To allow for consistent processing of historic data, correction procedures have been developed that account for artefacts detected in data collected with older firmware. Furthermore, a procedure is proposed to determine and account for the instrument-related background signal from electronic and optical components. This is necessary for using attenuated backscatter observations from any CL31 ceilometer. Recommendations are made for the processing of attenuated backscatter observed with Vaisala CL31 sensors, including the estimation of noise which is not provided in the standard CL31 output. After taking these aspects into account, attenuated backscatter profiles from Vaisala CL31 ceilometers are considered capable of providing valuable information for a range of applications including atmospheric boundary layer studies, detection of elevated aerosol layers, and model

  2. Long Wavelength SAR Backscatter Modelling Trends as a Consequence of the Emergent Properties of Tree Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Brolly

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the novel use of a macroecological plant and forest structure model in conjunction with a Radiative Transfer (RT model to better understand interactions between microwaves and forest canopies. Trends predicted by the RT model, resulting from interactions with mixed age, mono and multi species forests, are analysed in comparison to those predicted using a simplistic structure based scattering model. This model relates backscatter to scatterer cross sectional or volume specifications, dependent on the size. The Spatially Explicit Reiterative Algorithm (SERA model is used to provide a widely varied tree size distribution while maintaining allometric consistency to produce a natural-like forest representation. The RT model is parameterised using structural information from SERA and microwave backscatter simulations are used to analyse the impact of changes to the forest stand. Results show that the slope of the saturation curve observed in the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR backscatter-biomass relationship is sensitive to thinning and therefore forest basal area. Due to similarities displayed between the results of the RT and simplistic model, it is determined that forest SAR backscatter behaviour at long microwave wavelengths may be described generally using equations related to total stem volume and basal area. The nature of these equations is such that they describe saturating behaviour of forests in the absence of attenuation in comparable fashion to the trends exhibited using the RT model. Both modelled backscatter trends predict a   relationship to forest basal area from an early age when forest volume is increasing. When this is not the case, it is assumed to be a result of attenuation of the dominant stem-ground interaction due to the presence of excessive numbers of stems. This work shows how forest growth models can be successfully incorporated into existing independent scattering models and reveals, through the RT

  3. Anisotropy of the apparent frequency dependence of backscatter in formalin fixed human myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, C S; Verdonk, E D; Wickline, S A; Perez, J E; Miller, J G

    1997-01-01

    Measurements of the frequency dependence of ultrasonic backscatter are presented for specific angles of insonification for regions of infarcted and noninfarcted human myocardium. A 5-MHz transducer was used to insonify cylindrical cores taken from 7 noninfarcted regions and 12 infarcted regions of the left ventricular free wall of 6 formalin-fixed human hearts explanted because of ischemic cardiomyopathy. The dependence of apparent (uncompensated for diffraction effects and attenuation) backscatter on frequency was approximated by a power-law dependence, magnitude of B(f)2 = afn. Under ideal conditions in a lossless medium, the effect of not compensating for the effects of diffraction and attenuation leads to the value of n to be 2.0 for Rayleigh scatterers while the frequency dependence of the fully compensated backscatter coefficient would be f4. The value of n was determined over the frequency range, 3-7 MHz. Both nonifarcted and infarcted myocardium exhibited anisotropy of the frequency dependence of backscatter, with maxima occurring at angles that were perpendicular to the predominant myofiber direction and minima when parallel to the fibers. Perpendicular insonification yielded results for n of 1.8 +/- 0.1 for noninfarcted myocardium and 1.2 +/- 0.1 for infarcted myocardium while parallel insonification yielded results of 0.4 +/- 0.1 for noninfarcted and 0.0 +/- 0.1 for infarcted myocardium. The functional form of the angle-dependent backscatter is similar for both noninfarcted and infarcted myocardium, although the frequency dependence is clearly different for both tissue states for all angles of insonification. The results of this study indicate that the anisotropy of the frequency dependence of backscatter may play a significant role in ultrasonic imaging and is an important consideration for ultrasonic tissue characterization in myocardium.

  4. High-resolution backscatter power observations of 440-MHz E region coherent echoes at Millstone Hill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, J.C.; Tetenbaum, D.

    1991-01-01

    A 40-μs pulse length has been used to provide 10-s temporal and 6-km range resolution observations of E region coherent backscatter from the premidnight eastward electrojet region to the north of Millstone Hill. The observations can be divided into two categories: strong events in which the backscattered amplitude nears saturation and weak events in which spatial structure and large-amplitude variations are common. Calibrated observations find a typical volume scattering coefficient of ∼10 -11 m -1 at 440 MHz during strong events with a maximum level of 9 x 10 -10 m -1 observed for brief intervals. During less intense events the radar backscatter is modulated by ∼30dB in amplitude at Pc 5 frequencies (150-500 s) by waves with spatial wavelength 50-100 km. The observations support the premise that the weak irregularities grow linearly with electric field strength and reach a saturation amplitude beyond which the oscillating electric field of the Pc pulsation has little effect. The observed variation of backscattered power with range is interpreted using a geometrical model which accounts for the detailed antenna beam pattern, a magnetic aspect angle sensitivity of -10 dB per degree, and a thin layer of irregularities centered at 110 km altitude. For strongly driven conditions a comparison of the range variation of backscattered power with the thin layer model suggests that the signal power becomes increasingly dominated by strong scatters confined to a narrower altitude range. The apparent altitude extent of the strongest irregularities decreases by a factor of 2 as the amplitude of the backscattered signal increases by a factor of 10

  5. Cavitation inception by the backscattering of pressure waves from a bubble interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahira, Hiroyuki, E-mail: takahira@me.osakafu-u.ac.jp; Ogasawara, Toshiyuki, E-mail: oga@me.osakafu-u.ac.jp; Mori, Naoto, E-mail: su101064@edu.osakafu-u.ac.jp; Tanaka, Moe [Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai-shi, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan)

    2015-10-28

    The secondary cavitation that occurs by the backscattering of focused ultrasound from a primary cavitation bubble caused by the negative pressure part of the ultrasound (Maxwell, et al., 2011) might be useful for the energy exchange due to bubble oscillations in High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU). The present study is concerned with the cavitation inception by the backscattering of ultrasound from a bubble. In the present experiment, a laser-induced bubble which is generated by a pulsed focused laser beam with high intensity is utilized as a primary cavitation bubble. After generating the bubble, focused ultrasound is emitted to the bubble. The acoustic field and the bubble motion are observed with a high-speed video camera. It is confirmed that the secondary cavitation bubble clouds are generated by the backscattering from the laser-induced bubble. The growth of cavitation bubble clouds is analyzed with the image processing method. The experimental results show that the height and width of the bubble clouds grow in stepwise during their evolution. The direct numerical simulations are also conducted for the backscattering of incident pressure waves from a bubble in order to evaluate a pressure field near the bubble. It is shown that the ratio of a bubble collapse time t{sub 0} to a characteristic time of wave propagation t{sub S}, η = t{sub 0}/t{sub s}, is an important determinant for generating negative pressure region by backscattering. The minimum pressure location by the backscattering in simulations is in good agreement with the experiment.

  6. Interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction sign in Ir/Co2FeAl systems investigated by Brillouin light scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmeguenai, M.; Gabor, M. S.; Roussigné, Y.; Petrisor, T.; Mos, R. B.; Stashkevich, A.; Chérif, S. M.; Tiusan, C.

    2018-02-01

    C o2FeAl (CFA) ultrathin films, of various thicknesses (0.9 nm ≤tCFA≤1.8 nm ), have been grown by sputtering on Si substrates, using Ir as a buffer layer. The magnetic properties of these structures have been studied by vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), miscrostrip ferromagnetic resonance (MS-FMR), and Brillouin light scattering (BLS) in the Damon-Eshbach geometry. VSM characterizations show that films are mostly in-plane magnetized and the saturating field perpendicular to the film plane increases with decreasing CFA thickness suggesting the existence of a perpendicular interface anisotropy. The presence of a magnetic dead layer of 0.44 nm has been detected by VSM. The MS-FMR with the magnetic field applied perpendicularly to the film plane has been used to determine the gyromagnetic factor. The BLS measurements reveal a pronounced nonreciprocal spin wave propagation, due to the interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) induced by the Ir interface with CFA, which increases with decreasing CFA thickness. The DMI sign has been found to be the same (negative) as that of Pt/Co, in contrast to the ab initio calculation on Ir/Co, where it is found to be positive. The thickness dependence of the effective DMI constant shows the existence of two regimes similarly to that of the perpendicular anisotropy constant. The surface DMI constant Ds was estimated to be -0.37 pJ /m for the thickest samples, where a linear thickness dependence of the effective DMI constant has been observed.

  7. Full aperture backscatter signal analysis of laser with hohlraum on Shenguang II laser facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao Chunye; Wang Feng; Liu Shenye; Jiang Xiaohua; Li Sanwei; Liu Yonggang; Yang Jiamin; Gu Yuqiu; Wang Chuanke

    2010-01-01

    Full aperture backscatter system and experimental measurement of hohlraum with 351 nm wavelength laser on Shenguang II laser facility is reported. FABS optical path has been analyzed and the backscattering light completely entered FABS collecting optical path. FABS existed the background light when the eight beams symmetrically acted on hohlraum. The background light is composed of 526.5 nm and 1053 nm wavelength remains while the 1053 nm wavelength changes into 351 nm wavelength, according to records of laser sensitive paper and optical filter. The background light accounts for 15% of FABS energy from experimental measurement result. (authors)

  8. The anomalous depolarization anisotropy in the central backscattering area for turbid medium with Mie scatterers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuezhen; Lai, Jiancheng; Song, Yang; Li, Zhenhua

    2018-05-01

    It is generally recognized that circularly polarized light is preferentially maintained over linearly polarized light in turbid medium with Mie scatterers. However, in this work, the anomalous depolarization anisotropy is reported in the backscattering area near the point of illumination. Both experimental and Monte Carlo simulations show preferential retention of linear polarization states compared to circular polarization states in a specific backscattering area. Further analysis indicates that the anomalous depolarization behavior in the specific area is induced by lateral scattering events, which own low circular polarization memory. In addition, it is also found that the size of the anomalous depolarization area is related to the transport mean free path of the turbid medium.

  9. High-frequency attenuation and backscatter measurements of rat blood between 30 and 60 MHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Chih-Chung

    2010-01-01

    There has recently been a great deal of interest in noninvasive high-frequency ultrasound imaging of small animals such as rats due to their being the preferred animal model for gene therapy and cancer research. Improving the interpretation of the obtained images and furthering the development of the imaging devices require a detailed knowledge of the ultrasound attenuation and backscattering of biological tissue (e.g. blood) at high frequencies. In the present study, the attenuation and backscattering coefficients of the rat red blood cell (RBC) suspensions and whole blood with hematocrits ranging from 6% to 40% were measured between 30 and 60 MHz using a modified substitution approach. The acoustic parameters of porcine blood under the same conditions were also measured in order to compare differences in the blood properties between these two animals. For porcine blood, both whole blood and RBC suspension were stirred at a rotation speed of 200 rpm. Three different rotation speeds of 100, 200 and 300 rpm were carried out for rat blood experiments. The attenuation coefficients of both rat and porcine blood were found to increase linearly with frequency and hematocrit (the values of coefficients of determination (r 2 ) are around 0.82-0.97 for all cases). The average attenuation coefficient of rat whole blood with a hematocrit of 40% increased from 0.26 Nepers mm -1 at 30 MHz to 0.47 Nepers mm -1 at 60 MHz. The maximum backscattering coefficients of both rat and porcine RBC suspensions were between 10% and 15% hematocrits at all frequencies. The fourth-power dependence of backscatter on frequency was approximately valid for rat RBC suspensions with hematocrits between 6% and 40%. However, the frequency dependence of the backscatter estimate deviates from a fourth-power law for porcine RBC suspension with hematocrit higher than 20%. The backscattering coefficient plateaued for hematocrits higher than 15% in porcine blood, but for rat blood it was maximal around a

  10. A Laboratory Experiment on EM Backscatter from Farley-Buneman and Gradient Drift Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alport, M. J.; D'Angelo, N.; Pécseli, Hans

    1981-01-01

    Results are reported of a laboratory experiment on Bragg backscatter of 3-cm microwaves by turbulent waves driven by the Farley-Buneman and gradient drift instabilities. The present work is the third in a series of laboratory experiments performed to test, under controlled conditions, prevalent i...... ideas on EM scattering by equatorial and high-latitude ionospheric waves and irregularities.......Results are reported of a laboratory experiment on Bragg backscatter of 3-cm microwaves by turbulent waves driven by the Farley-Buneman and gradient drift instabilities. The present work is the third in a series of laboratory experiments performed to test, under controlled conditions, prevalent...

  11. Jet-Tagged Back-Scattering Photons for Quark Gluon Plasma Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fries, Rainer J. [Cyclotron Institute and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77845 (United States); De, Somnath; Srivastava, Dinesh K. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF, Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata – 700064 (India)

    2013-05-02

    Direct photons are important probes for quark gluon plasma created in high energy nuclear collisions. Various sources of direct photons in nuclear collisions are known, each of them endowed with characteristic information about the production process. However, it has been challenging to separate direct photon sources through measurements of single inclusive photon spectra and photon azimuthal asymmetry. Here we explore a method to identify photons created from the back-scattering of high momentum quarks off quark gluon plasma. We show that the correlation of back-scattering photons with a trigger jet leads to a signal that should be measurable at RHIC and LHC.

  12. Verification of traceability and backscattering in surface entrance air kerma measurements with detector type ionizing chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, G.J.; Peixoto, J.G.P.

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of doses in radiology services by ionizing chambers are easier than those made by TLD, however the protocols for measurements differ regarding the calibration. The objectives were to verify the traceability in the measures of ESAK corrected by the inverse square law, due to the difference in position between the source and IC and the influence of the backscattered radiation in bringing the detector to the table. Was defined a procedure practiced by the radiological services and designed experimental arrangements for the same technique. Was noted that the approximation of the detector to the table generated a significant backscattered. (author)

  13. X-ray backscatter imaging for radiography by selective detection and snapshot: Evolution, development, and optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shedlock, Daniel

    Compton backscatter imaging (CBI) is a single-sided imaging technique that uses the penetrating power of radiation and unique interaction properties of radiation with matter to image subsurface features. CBI has a variety of applications that include non-destructive interrogation, medical imaging, security and military applications. Radiography by selective detection (RSD), lateral migration radiography (LMR) and shadow aperture backscatter radiography (SABR) are different CBI techniques that are being optimized and developed. Radiography by selective detection (RSD) is a pencil beam Compton backscatter imaging technique that falls between highly collimated and uncollimated techniques. Radiography by selective detection uses a combination of single- and multiple-scatter photons from a projected area below a collimation plane to generate an image. As a result, the image has a combination of first- and multiple-scatter components. RSD techniques offer greater subsurface resolution than uncollimated techniques, at speeds at least an order of magnitude faster than highly collimated techniques. RSD scanning systems have evolved from a prototype into near market-ready scanning devices for use in a variety of single-sided imaging applications. The design has changed to incorporate state-of-the-art detectors and electronics optimized for backscatter imaging with an emphasis on versatility, efficiency and speed. The RSD system has become more stable, about 4 times faster, and 60% lighter while maintaining or improving image quality and contrast over the past 3 years. A new snapshot backscatter radiography (SBR) CBI technique, shadow aperture backscatter radiography (SABR), has been developed from concept and proof-of-principle to a functional laboratory prototype. SABR radiography uses digital detection media and shaded aperture configurations to generate near-surface Compton backscatter images without scanning, similar to how transmission radiographs are taken. Finally, a

  14. Depth distribution of damage obtained by Rutherford backscattering combined with channeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrisch, R.; Roth, J.

    1976-01-01

    The different approaches to determine depth distributions of damage in solids by Rutherford backscattering combined with channeling are reviewed. These methods are best applicable for damage introduced by ion bombardment. Most investigations up to now have been done at semiconductors where the ion damage seems to be more suited for analysis by this method than the ion damage in metals. The quantity used for getting depth profiles is mostly the increase in minimum yields in single alignment Rutherford backscattering, while only few measurements have been done at double alignment and at slight misalignment, i.e., the sides of the channeling dips

  15. Computation of Nonlinear Backscattering Using a High-Order Numerical Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fibich, G.; Ilan, B.; Tsynkov, S.

    2001-01-01

    The nonlinear Schrodinger equation (NLS) is the standard model for propagation of intense laser beams in Kerr media. The NLS is derived from the nonlinear Helmholtz equation (NLH) by employing the paraxial approximation and neglecting the backscattered waves. In this study we use a fourth-order finite-difference method supplemented by special two-way artificial boundary conditions (ABCs) to solve the NLH as a boundary value problem. Our numerical methodology allows for a direct comparison of the NLH and NLS models and for an accurate quantitative assessment of the backscattered signal.

  16. Three-dimensional imaging of hidden objects using positron emission backscatter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dongwon; Cowee, Misa; Fenimore, Ed; Galassi, Mark; Looker, Quinn; Mcneil, Wendy V.; Stonehill, Laura; Wallace, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Positron emission backscatter imaging is a technique for interrogation and three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction of hidden objects when we only have access to the objects from one side. Using time-of-flight differences in detected direct and backscattered positron-emitted photons, we construct 3-D images of target objects. Recently at Los Alamos National Laboratory, a fully three-dimensional imaging system has been built and the experimental results are discussed in this paper. Quantitative analysis of images reconstructed in both two- and three-dimensions are also presented.

  17. The laser-backscattering equations and their application to the study of the atmospheric structure

    CERN Document Server

    Castrejon, R; Castrejon, J; Morales, A

    2002-01-01

    In this work a method for interpreting backscattering signals acquired by a lidar is described. The method is based on the elastic scattering of laser radiation due to gases and particles suspended in the atmosphere (bulk effects). We propose a space-time diagram which helps to evaluate the arguments of the equation that serves to calculate the lidar signal in terms of the backscattering coefficient. We describe how the system detects gradients on this coefficient, along the laser optical path. To illustrate the method, we present some typical lidar results obtained in the neighborhood of Mexico City. (Author)

  18. Spinal cord stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007560.htm Spinal cord stimulation To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Spinal cord stimulation is a treatment for pain that uses ...

  19. Feldspar, Infrared Stimulated Luminescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Mayank

    2014-01-01

    This entry primarily concerns the characteristics and the origins of infrared-stimulated luminescence in feldspars.......This entry primarily concerns the characteristics and the origins of infrared-stimulated luminescence in feldspars....

  20. Growth hormone stimulation test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003377.htm Growth hormone stimulation test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The growth hormone (GH) stimulation test measures the ability of ...

  1. Brillouin-Wigner theory of mixed-valence impurities in BCS superconductor: Tc/TcO and ΔC/ΔCO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jun; Gong Changde.

    1986-08-01

    The (lowest order) Brillouin-Wigner perturbational expansion theory is adopted to describe the mixed-valence impurities in the BCS superconductor. Two substantial quantities characterizing the superconducting state, i.e. the reduced transition temperature T c /T cO and the reduced specific heat jump ΔC/ΔC O are calculated numerically as a function of the impurity concentration x and the energy level difference E f between two 4f configurations. A comparison with the experimental data of the Th 1-x Ce x and Th 1-x U x alloy is also included with a more reasonable fitting than Kaiser's theory. (author)

  2. Brillouin-zone integration schemes: an efficiency study for the phonon frequency moments of the harmonic, solid, one-component plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albers, R.C.; Gubernatis, J.E.

    1981-01-01

    The efficiency of four different Brillouin-zone integration schemes including the uniform mesh, special point method, special directions method, and Holas method are compared for calculating moments of the harmonic phonon frequencies of the solid one-component plasma. Very accurate values for the moments are also presented. The Holas method for which weights and integration points can easily be generated has roughly the same efficiency as the special directions method, which is much superior to the uniform mesh and special point methods for this problem

  3. A single-longitudinal-mode Brillouin fiber laser passively stabilized at the pump resonance frequency with a dynamic population inversion grating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spirin, V V; López-Mercado, C A; Kinet, D; Mégret, P; Fotiadi, A A; Zolotovskiy, I O

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate a single-longitudinal-mode Brillouin ring fiber laser passively stabilized at the resonance frequency with a 1.7 m section that is an unpumped polarization-maintaining erbium-doped fiber. The two coupled all-fiber Fabry–Perot interferometers that comprise the cavity, in combination with the dynamical population inversion gratings self-induced in the active fiber, provide adaptive pump-mode selection and Stokes wave generation at the same time. The laser is shown to emit a single-frequency Stokes wave with a linewidth narrower than 100 Hz. (letter)

  4. Brillouin scattering, DSC, dielectric and X-ray diffraction studies of phase transitions in antiferroelectric PbHfO{sub 3}:Sn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mączka, Mirosław, E-mail: m.maczka@int.pan.wroc.pl [Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1410, 50-950 Wrocław 2 (Poland); Kim, Tae Hyun [Institute of Materials Science, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Gągor, Anna [Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1410, 50-950 Wrocław 2 (Poland); Jankowska-Sumara, Irena [Institute of Physics, Pedagogical University, ul. Podchorążych 2, 30-084 Kraków (Poland); Majchrowski, Andrzej [Institute of Applied Physics, Military University of Technology, 2 Kaliskiego Str., 00-908 Warszawa (Poland); Kojima, Seiji [Institute of Materials Science, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Phase transition mechanisms were studied in antiferroelectric PbHf{sub 0.975}Sn{sub 0.025}O{sub 3.} • Acoustic phonons showed anomalies at 472 and 426 K due to phase transitions. • Brillouin data showed evidence for presence of polar clusters in paraelectric phase. • An order-disorder mechanism of the PE to AFE2 transition was proved. - Abstract: Specific heat, dielectric, powder X-ray diffraction and Brillouin scattering studies of phase transitions in antiferroelectric PbHf{sub 0.975}Sn{sub 0.025}O{sub 3} crystal were performed. The specific heat data revealed clear anomalies at T{sub 1} = 473.5 and T{sub 2} = 426.3 K on cooling, which could be attributed to onset of first order phase transitions from the paraelectric (PE) phase to an intermediate antiferroelectric phase (AFE2) and the AFE2 phase to another antiferroelectric phase (AFE1), respectively. The estimated entropy changes at T{sub 1} and T{sub 2} pointed to mainly an order-disorder and displacive character of these transitions, respectively. X-ray diffraction data showed a complex superstructure of the intermediate phase with a = 11.895(6) Å, b = 11.936(4) Å, c = 8.223(3) Å at 453 K. Brillouin studies revealed pronounced softening of longitudinal acoustic (LA) mode in the PE phase associated with its broadening. The broadening and softening exhibited maximum values at T{sub 1}. Additional acoustic anomalies, that is, abrupt frequency shifts for LA and transverse acoustic (TA) modes were also observed at T{sub 2}. Brillouin scattering data also showed presence of a broad central peak (CP) that exhibited highest intensity at T{sub 1}. The observed temperature dependences of acoustic modes and CP indicate order-disorder character of the FE to AFE2 phase transition and importance of polar precursor clusters in the PE phase. The obtained data also suggest that the intermediate antiferroelectric phases in Sn{sup 4+} doped PbHfO{sub 3} and PbZrO{sub 3} may have very similar structures

  5. A three-dimensional, two-way, parabolic equation model for acoustic backscattering in a cylindrical coordinate system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Dong; Jensen, Leif Bjørnø

    2000-01-01

    . The major drawback of using the cylindrical coordinate system, when the backscattering solution is valid within a limited area, is analyzed using a geometrical-optical interpretation. The model may be useful for studying three-dimensional backscattering phenomena comprising azimuthal diffraction effects...

  6. X-ray backscatter radiography. Intrusive instead of penetrating, X-ray shadow phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrobel, Norma; Kolkoori, Sanjeevareddy; Osterloh, Kurt; European Federation for Non-Destructive Testing

    2013-01-01

    Generally, the primary practical advantage of X-ray backscattering radiography is that there is no need to place a detector on the side of the specimen opposite to the source. Such a situation usually is encountered whenever the specimen is not only standing right in front of a wall or even inside a wall but also if the specimen is such big that radiography is not possible because of the layer thickness to be penetrated. The method used here differs fundamentally from the conventional method to interrogate the object with a scanning beam ('pencil beam') and to collect the whole backscattered radiation from the area. The object is fully illuminated by a (uncollimated) cone beam. Here, the image is recorded with a camera of absorbent material (tungsten, lead), which contains a matrix detector as the image receiver. The optical effect is generated by a special twisted slit collimator which operates according to an extended pinhole camera. The independent positioning of source and camera allows a variable irradiation geometry which causes different images as a result. As a consequence, a complex object in front of a backscattering wall appears completely different than standing alone. So X-ray backscatter images have to be interpreted according to their illumination with X-rays and their surroundings. (orig.)

  7. Designing scheme of a γ-ray ICT system using compton back-scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Jianmin

    1998-01-01

    The designing scheme of a γ ray ICT system by using Compton back-scattering is put forward. The technical norms, detector system, γ radioactive source, mechanical scanning equipment, and data acquisition and image reconstruction principle of this ICT are described

  8. A compact Compton backscatter X-ray source for mammography and coronary angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, D.C.; Kinross-Wright, J.M.; Weber, M.E.; Volz, S.K.; Gierman, S.M.; Hayes, K.; Vernon, W.; Goldstein, D.J.

    1998-01-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project objective is to generate a large flux of tunable, monochromatic x-rays for use in mammography and coronary angiography. The approach is based on Compton backscattering of an ultraviolet solid-state laser beam against the high-brightness 20-MeV electron beams from a compact linear accelerator. The direct Compton backscatter approach failed to produce a large flux of x-rays due to the low photon flux of the scattering solid-state laser. The authors have modified the design of a compact x-ray source to the new Compton backscattering geometry with use of a regenerative amplifier free-electron laser. They have successfully demonstrated the production of a large flux of infrared photons and a high-brightness electron beam focused in both dimensions for performing Compton backscattering in a regenerative amplifier geometry

  9. Analytic representation of the backscatter correction factor at the exit of high energy photon beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappas, K.; Rosenwald, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    In high-energy X-ray beams, the dose calculated near the exit surface under electronic equilibrium conditions is generally over-estimated since it is derived from measurements performed in water with large thickness of backscattering material. The resulting error depends on a number of parameters such as beam energy, field dimension, thickness of overlying and underlying material. The authors have systematically measured for 4 different energies and for different para- meters and for different combinations of the above parameters, the reduction of dose due to backscatter. This correction is expressed as a multiplicative factor, called 'Backscatter Correction Factor' (BCF). This BCF is larger for lower energies, larger field sizes and larger depths. The BCF has been represented by an analytical expression which involves an exponential function of the backscattering thickness and linear relationships with depth field size and beam quality index. Using this expression, the BCF can be calculated within 0.5% for any conditions in the energy range investigated. (author). 14 refs.; 4 figs.; 3 tabs

  10. Influence of Plastic Deformation of Steel Samples on the Fast electron Backscattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sierra Trujillo, J. X.; Herrera Palma, V.; Desdin Garcia, L. F.; Codorniu Pujals, D.

    2013-01-01

    A considerable fraction of a fast electron beam incident on a target is scattered in backward direction. It is a very complex process involving electron - nucleus and electron - electron collisions. The fraction of backscattered electrons is described by a parameterization as a function of the atomic number and energy of the incident electrons. In such approaches the possible influence of the material structure is not taken into account. In this paper, the behavior of the 90 Sr/ 90 Y backscattered electrons from 08JuA and 15GJuT steel strained samples is investigated. A clear dependence between the degree of plastic deformation and the fraction of backscattered electrons was observed. This relationship is explained by the interaction of electrons with the dislocations in the material, whose density depends on the magnitude of the strain in the plastic region. On the basis of a simple model for describing this interaction, a mathematical expression is obtained for the relationship between the fraction of backscattered electrons and the degree of deformation. (Author)

  11. Selection Algorithm for the CALIPSO Lidar Aerosol Extinction-to-Backscatter Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Ali H.; Winker, David M.; Vaughan, Mark A.

    2006-01-01

    The extinction-to-backscatter ratio (S(sub a)) is an important parameter used in the determination of the aerosol extinction and subsequently the optical depth from lidar backscatter measurements. We outline the algorithm used to determine Sa for the Cloud and Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Spaceborne Observations (CALIPSO) lidar. S(sub a) for the CALIPSO lidar will either be selected from a look-up table or calculated using the lidar measurements depending on the characteristics of aerosol layer. Whenever suitable lofted layers are encountered, S(sub a) is computed directly from the integrated backscatter and transmittance. In all other cases, the CALIPSO observables: the depolarization ratio, delta, the layer integrated attenuated backscatter, beta, and the mean layer total attenuated color ratio, gamma, together with the surface type, are used to aid in aerosol typing. Once the type is identified, a look-up-table developed primarily from worldwide observations, is used to determine the S(sub a) value. The CALIPSO aerosol models include desert dust, biomass burning, background, polluted continental, polluted dust, and marine aerosols.

  12. Backscattering analysis of high frequency ultrasonic imaging for ultrasound-guided breast biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Thomas; Akiyama, Takahiro; Lee, Changyang; Martin, Sue E.; Shung, K. Kirk

    2017-03-01

    A new ultrasound-guided breast biopsy technique is proposed. The technique utilizes conventional ultrasound guidance coupled with a high frequency embedded ultrasound array located within the biopsy needle to improve the accuracy in breast cancer diagnosis.1 The array within the needle is intended to be used to detect micro- calcifications indicative of early breast cancers such as ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Backscattering analysis has the potential to characterize tissues to improve localization of lesions. This paper describes initial results of the application of backscattering analysis of breast biopsy tissue specimens and shows the usefulness of high frequency ultrasound for the new biopsy related technique. Ultrasound echoes of ex-vivo breast biopsy tissue specimens were acquired by using a single-element transducer with a bandwidth from 41 MHz to 88 MHz utilizing a UBM methodology, and the backscattering coefficients were calculated. These values as well as B-mode image data were mapped in 2D and matched with each pathology image for the identification of tissue type for the comparison to the pathology images corresponding to each plane. Microcalcifications were significantly distinguished from normal tissue. Adenocarcinoma was also successfully differentiated from adipose tissue. These results indicate that backscattering analysis is able to quantitatively distinguish tissues into normal and abnormal, which should help radiologists locate abnormal areas during the proposed ultrasound-guided breast biopsy with high frequency ultrasound.

  13. Carbon/Hydrogen ratio determination in hydrocarbons and its mixtures by electron backscattering technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padron, I.; Desdin, L.F.; Navarro, A.; Fuentes, M.

    1996-01-01

    A method carbon/hydrogen ratio (C/H) determination in hydrocarbons and its mixtures was improved using the electron backscattering technique. Besides the hetero atoms (S,O and N) influence in petroleum is studied for being able to determinate the C/H ratio in cuban petroleum with high sulphur contents

  14. Flat ended steel wires, backscattering targets for calibrating over a large dynamic range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubbers, Jaap; Graaff, Reindert

    2006-01-01

    A series of flat ended stainless steel wires was constructed and experimentally evaluated as point targets giving a calibrated backscattering over a large range (up to 72 dB) for ultrasound frequencies in the range 2 to 10 MHz. Over a range of 36 dB, theory was strictly followed (within 1 dB),

  15. Contribution of back-scattered electromagnetic rays to the Moessbauer conversion electron spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruskov, T.; Ruskov, R.; Paneva, D.; Lefterov, D.

    1999-01-01

    The contribution of back-scattered electromagnetic rays in a 57 Fe conversion electron Moessbauer spectrum is considered using proportional counter as a detector. A simplified method for measuring this contribution is described. The experimental results show that this contribution strongly depends on the construction of the counter and the selected fraction in the pulse-height spectrum

  16. Improving retrieval of volcanic sulphur dioxide from backscattered UV satellite observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Kai; Krotkov, N.A.; Krueger, A.J.; Carn, S.A.; Bhartia, P.K.; Levelt, P.F.

    2009-01-01

    Existing algorithms that use satellite measurements of solar backscattered ultraviolet (BUV) radiances to retrieve sulfur dioxide (SO2) vertical columns underestimate the large SO2 amounts encountered in fresh volcanic eruption clouds. To eliminate this underestimation we have developed a new

  17. Time-lapse misorientation maps for the analysis of electron backscatter diffraction data from evolving microstructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wheeler, J.; Cross, A.; Drury, M.; Hough, R.M.; Mariani, E.; Piazolo, S.; Prior, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    A “time-lapse misorientation map” is defined here as a map which shows the orientation change at each point in an evolving crystalline microstructure between two different times. Electron backscatter diffraction data from in situ heating experiments can be used to produce such maps, which then

  18. Model for hydrogen isotope backscattering, trapping and depth profiles in C and a-Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, S.A.; McCracken, G.M.

    1979-03-01

    A model of low energy hydrogen trapping and backscattering in carbon and a-silicon is described. Depth profiles are calculated and numerical results presented for various incident angular and energy distributions. The calculations yield a relation between depth profiles and the incident ion energy distribution. The use of this model for tokamak plasma diagnosis is discussed

  19. Characterization of highly scattering media by measurement of diffusely backscattered polarized light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hielscher, Andreas H.; Mourant, Judith R.; Bigio, Irving J.

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus and method for recording spatially dependent intensity patterns of polarized light that is diffusely backscattered from highly scattering media are described. These intensity patterns can be used to differentiate different turbid media, such as polystyrene-sphere and biological-cell suspensions. Polarized light from a He-Ne laser (.lambda.=543 nm) is focused onto the surface of the scattering medium, and a surface area of approximately 4.times.4 cm centered on the light input point is imaged through polarization analysis optics onto a CCD camera. A variety of intensity patterns may be observed by varying the polarization state of the incident laser light and changing the analyzer configuration to detect different polarization components of the backscattered light. Experimental results for polystyrene-sphere and Intralipid suspensions demonstrate that the radial and azimuthal variations of the observed pattern depend on the concentration, size, and anisotropy factor, g, of the particles constituting the scattering medium. Measurements performed on biological cell suspensions show that intensity patterns can be used to differentiate between suspensions of cancerous and non-cancerous cells. Introduction of the Mueller-matrix for diffusely backscattered light, permits the selection of a subset of measurements which comprehensively describes the optical properties of backscattering media.

  20. The Backscattering Phase Function for a Sphere with a Two-Scale Relief of Rough Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klass, E. V.

    2017-12-01

    The backscattering of light from spherical surfaces characterized by one and two-scale roughness reliefs has been investigated. The analysis is performed using the three-dimensional Monte-Carlo program POKS-RG (geometrical-optics approximation), which makes it possible to take into account the roughness of objects under study by introducing local geometries of different levels. The geometric module of the program is aimed at describing objects by equations of second-order surfaces. One-scale roughness is set as an ensemble of geometric figures (convex or concave halves of ellipsoids or cones). The two-scale roughness is modeled by convex halves of ellipsoids, with surface containing ellipsoidal pores. It is shown that a spherical surface with one-scale convex inhomogeneities has a flatter backscattering phase function than a surface with concave inhomogeneities (pores). For a sphere with two-scale roughness, the dependence of the backscattering intensity is found to be determined mostly by the lower-level inhomogeneities. The influence of roughness on the dependence of the backscattering from different spatial regions of spherical surface is analyzed.

  1. Backscatter in a cloudy atmosphere as a lightning-threat indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocifaj, Miroslav; Videen, Gorden; Klačka, Jozef

    2015-01-01

    We present a remote-sensing method for identifying electrically charged droplets in clouds. Our methodology utilizes the electromagnetic (EM) radiation backscattered by the cloud at multiple wavelengths. In general, the backscatter from collections of charged and neutral particles differs in Rayleigh regime. While a uniformly charged sphere can resonate with an incident EM radiation depending on electrostatic potential at the particle surface, the scatter by a neutral particle is governed by the Lorenz–Mie theory, thus resulting in different surface excitations. The effects of electric charges and other microphysical parameters on the electromagnetic interactions with particles are not easily separable. Because the spectral profile of the dielectric function for liquid water (or alternatively icy grains) is known, retrieval of net charges are possible based on the optical behavior of the backscattered EM signals. Such information can be used to determine charge build-up in the atmosphere, which is a condition for lightning. A basic configuration of a measuring system for lightning threats is discussed and described schematically. - Highlights: • Electrically charged and neutral particles scatter in a different way. • Net surface charge on spherical particles is a modulator of backscatter signal. • Radar echoes are source of information on electrically charged droplets. • Remote-sensing method can be used to identify increased chance of lightning

  2. Forty-five degree backscattering-mode nonlinear absorption imaging in turbid media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Liping; Knox, Wayne H

    2010-01-01

    Two-color nonlinear absorption imaging has been previously demonstrated with endogenous contrast of hemoglobin and melanin in turbid media using transmission-mode detection and a dual-laser technology approach. For clinical applications, it would be generally preferable to use backscattering mode detection and a simpler single-laser technology. We demonstrate that imaging in backscattering mode in turbid media using nonlinear absorption can be obtained with as little as 1-mW average power per beam with a single laser source. Images have been achieved with a detector receiving backscattered light at a 45-deg angle relative to the incoming beams' direction. We obtain images of capillary tube phantoms with resolution as high as 20 microm and penetration depth up to 0.9 mm for a 300-microm tube at SNR approximately 1 in calibrated scattering solutions. Simulation results of the backscattering and detection process using nonimaging optics are demonstrated. A Monte Carlo-based method shows that the nonlinear signal drops exponentially as the depth increases, which agrees well with our experimental results. Simulation also shows that with our current detection method, only 2% of the signal is typically collected with a 5-mm-radius detector.

  3. Characterization of Rayleigh backscattering arising in various two-mode fibers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Dawei; Fu, Songnian; Cao, Zizheng; Tang, Ming; Deng, Lei; Liu, Deming; Giles, I.; Koonen, T.; Okonkwo, C.

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally characterize the mode dependent characteristics of Rayleigh backscattering (RB) arising in various two-mode fibers (TMFs). With the help of an all-fiber photonic lantern, we are able to measure the RB power at individual modes. Consequently, mode dependent power distribution of RB

  4. Probing insect backscatter cross section and melanization using kHz optical remote detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebru, Alem; Brydegaard, Mikkel; Rohwer, Erich; Neethling, Pieter

    2017-01-01

    A kHz optical remote sensing system is implemented to determine insect melanization features. This is done by measuring the backscatter signal in the visible and near-infrared (VIS-NIR) and short-wave infrared (SWIR) in situ. It is shown that backscatter cross section in the SWIR is insensitive to melanization and absolute melanization can be derived from the ratio of backscatter cross section of different bands (SWIR/VIS-NIR). We have shown that reflectance from insect is stronger in the SWIR as compared to NIR and VIS. This reveals that melanization plays a big role to determine backscatter cross section. One can use this feature as a tool to improve insect species and age classification. To support the findings, we illustrated melanization feature using three different insects [dead, dried specimens of snow white moth (Spilosoma genus), fox moth (Macrothylacia), and leather beetle (Odontotaenius genus)]. It is shown that reflectance from the leather beetle in the VIS and NIR is more affected by melanization as compared with snow white moth.

  5. Multi-angle backscatter classification and sub-bottom profiling for improved seafloor characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alevizos, Evangelos; Snellen, Mirjam; Simons, Dick; Siemes, Kerstin; Greinert, Jens

    2018-06-01

    This study applies three classification methods exploiting the angular dependence of acoustic seafloor backscatter along with high resolution sub-bottom profiling for seafloor sediment characterization in the Eckernförde Bay, Baltic Sea Germany. This area is well suited for acoustic backscatter studies due to its shallowness, its smooth bathymetry and the presence of a wide range of sediment types. Backscatter data were acquired using a Seabeam1180 (180 kHz) multibeam echosounder and sub-bottom profiler data were recorded using a SES-2000 parametric sonar transmitting 6 and 12 kHz. The high density of seafloor soundings allowed extracting backscatter layers for five beam angles over a large part of the surveyed area. A Bayesian probability method was employed for sediment classification based on the backscatter variability at a single incidence angle, whereas Maximum Likelihood Classification (MLC) and Principal Components Analysis (PCA) were applied to the multi-angle layers. The Bayesian approach was used for identifying the optimum number of acoustic classes because cluster validation is carried out prior to class assignment and class outputs are ordinal categorical values. The method is based on the principle that backscatter values from a single incidence angle express a normal distribution for a particular sediment type. The resulting Bayesian classes were well correlated to median grain sizes and the percentage of coarse material. The MLC method uses angular response information from five layers of training areas extracted from the Bayesian classification map. The subsequent PCA analysis is based on the transformation of these five layers into two principal components that comprise most of the data variability. These principal components were clustered in five classes after running an external cluster validation test. In general both methods MLC and PCA, separated the various sediment types effectively, showing good agreement (kappa >0.7) with the Bayesian

  6. Shallow water acoustic backscatter and reverberation measurements using a 68-kHz cylindrical array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallaudet, Timothy Cole

    2001-10-01

    The characterization of high frequency, shallow water acoustic backscatter and reverberation is important because acoustic systems are used in many scientific, commercial, and military applications. The approach taken is to use data collected by the Toroidal Volume Search Sonar (TVSS), a 68 kHz multibeam sonar capable of 360° imaging in a vertical plane perpendicular to its direction of travel. With this unique capability, acoustic backscatter imagery of the seafloor, sea surface, and horizontal and vertical planes in the volume are constructed from data obtained in 200m deep waters in the Northeastern Gulf of Mexico when the TVSS was towed 78m below the surface, 735m astern of a towship. The processed imagery provide a quasi-synoptic characterization of the spatial and temporal structure of boundary and volume acoustic backscatter and reverberation. Diffraction, element patterns, and high sidelobe levels are shown to be the most serious problems affecting cylindrical arrays such as the TVSS, and an amplitude shading method is presented for reducing the peak sidelobe levels of irregular-line and non-coplanar arrays. Errors in the towfish's attitude and motion sensor, and irregularities in the TVSS's transmitted beampattern produce artifacts in the TVSS-derived bathymetry and seafloor acoustic backscatter imagery. Correction strategies for these problems are described, which are unique in that they use environmental information extracted from both ocean boundaries. Sea surface and volume acoustic backscatter imagery are used to explore and characterize the structure of near-surface bubble clouds, schooling fish, and zooplankton. The simultaneous horizontal and vertical coverage provided by the TVSS is shown to be a primary advantage, motivating further use of multibeam sonars in these applications. Whereas boundary backscatter fluctuations are well described by Weibull, K, and Rayleigh mixture probability distributions, those corresponding to volume backscatter are

  7. Monte Carlo simulation of MOSFET dosimeter for electron backscatter using the GEANT4 code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, James C L; Leung, Michael K K

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of the body of the metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) dosimeter in measuring the electron backscatter from lead. The electron backscatter factor (EBF), which is defined as the ratio of dose at the tissue-lead interface to the dose at the same point without the presence of backscatter, was calculated by the Monte Carlo simulation using the GEANT4 code. Electron beams with energies of 4, 6, 9, and 12 MeV were used in the simulation. It was found that in the presence of the MOSFET body, the EBFs were underestimated by about 2%-0.9% for electron beam energies of 4-12 MeV, respectively. The trend of the decrease of EBF with an increase of electron energy can be explained by the small MOSFET dosimeter, mainly made of epoxy and silicon, not only attenuated the electron fluence of the electron beam from upstream, but also the electron backscatter generated by the lead underneath the dosimeter. However, this variation of the EBF underestimation is within the same order of the statistical uncertainties as the Monte Carlo simulations, which ranged from 1.3% to 0.8% for the electron energies of 4-12 MeV, due to the small dosimetric volume. Such small EBF deviation is therefore insignificant when the uncertainty of the Monte Carlo simulation is taken into account. Corresponding measurements were carried out and uncertainties compared to Monte Carlo results were within +/- 2%. Spectra of energy deposited by the backscattered electrons in dosimetric volumes with and without the lead and MOSFET were determined by Monte Carlo simulations. It was found that in both cases, when the MOSFET body is either present or absent in the simulation, deviations of electron energy spectra with and without the lead decrease with an increase of the electron beam energy. Moreover, the softer spectrum of the backscattered electron when lead is present can result in a reduction of the MOSFET response due to stronger

  8. Evaluation of backscatter dose from internal lead shielding in clinical electron beams using EGSnrc Monte Carlo simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vries, Rowen J; Marsh, Steven

    2015-11-08

    Internal lead shielding is utilized during superficial electron beam treatments of the head and neck, such as lip carcinoma. Methods for predicting backscattered dose include the use of empirical equations or performing physical measurements. The accuracy of these empirical equations required verification for the local electron beams. In this study, a Monte Carlo model of a Siemens Artiste linac was developed for 6, 9, 12, and 15 MeV electron beams using the EGSnrc MC package. The model was verified against physical measurements to an accuracy of better than 2% and 2mm. Multiple MC simulations of lead interfaces at different depths, corresponding to mean electron energies in the range of 0.2-14 MeV at the interfaces, were performed to calculate electron backscatter values. The simulated electron backscatter was compared with current empirical equations to ascertain their accuracy. The major finding was that the current set of backscatter equations does not accurately predict electron backscatter, particularly in the lower energies region. A new equation was derived which enables estimation of electron backscatter factor at any depth upstream from the interface for the local treatment machines. The derived equation agreed to within 1.5% of the MC simulated electron backscatter at the lead interface and upstream positions. Verification of the equation was performed by comparing to measurements of the electron backscatter factor using Gafchromic EBT2 film. These results show a mean value of 0.997 ± 0.022 to 1σ of the predicted values of electron backscatter. The new empirical equation presented can accurately estimate electron backscatter factor from lead shielding in the range of 0.2 to 14 MeV for the local linacs.

  9. Gas-filled hohlraum experiments at the national ignition facility.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández, J. C. (Juan C.); Gautier, D. C. (Donald Cort); Goldman, S. R. (Sanford R.); Grimm, B. M.; Hegelich, B. M. (Bjorn M.); Kline, J. L. (John L.); Montgomery, D. S. (David S.); Lanier, N. E. (Nicholas E.); Rose, H. A. (Harvey A.); Schmidt, D. M. (David M.); Swift, D. C.; Workman, J. B. (Jonathan B.); Alvarez, Sharon; Bower, Dan.; Braun, Dave.; Campbell, K. (Katherine); DeWald, E.; Glenzer, S. (Siegfried); Holder, J. (Joe P.); Kamperschroer, J. H. (James H.); Kimbrough, Joe (Joseph R.); Kirkwood, Robert (Bob); Landen, O. L. (Otto L.); Mccarville, Tom (Tomas J.); Macgowan, B.; Mackinnon, A.; Niemann, C.; Schein, J.; Schneider, M; Watts, Phil; Young, Ben-li [number : znumber] 194154; Young B.

    2004-01-01

    The summary of this paper is: (1) We have fielded on NIF a gas-filled hohlraum designed for future ignition experiments; (2) Wall-motion measurements are consistent with LASNEX simulations; (3) LPI back-scattering results have confounded expectations - (a) Stimulated Brillouin (SBS) dominates Raman (SRS) for any gas-fill species, (b) Measured SBS time-averaged reflectivity values are high, peak values are even higher, (c) SRS and SBS peak while laser-pulse is rising; and (4) Plasma conditions at the onset of high back-scattering yield high SBS convective linear gain - Wavelengths of the back-scattered light is predicted by linear theory.

  10. Gas-filled hohlraum experiments at the national ignition facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, J.C.; Gautier, D.C.; Goldman, S.R.; Grimm, B.M.; Hegelich, B.M.; Kline, J.L.; Montgomery, D.S.; Lanier, N.E.; Rose, H.A.; Schmidt, D.M.; Swift, D.C.; Workman, J.B.; Alvarez, Sharon; Bower, Dan; Braun, Dave; Campbell, K.; DeWald, E.; Glenzer, S.; Holder, J.; Kamperschroer, J.H.; Kimbrough, Joe; Kirkwood, Robert; Landen, O.L.; Mccarville, Tom; Macgowan, B.; Mackinnon, A.; Niemann, C.; Schein, J.; Schneider, M.; Watts, Phil; Young, Ben-li; Young B.

    2004-01-01

    The summary of this paper is: (1) We have fielded on NIF a gas-filled hohlraum designed for future ignition experiments; (2) Wall-motion measurements are consistent with LASNEX simulations; (3) LPI back-scattering results have confounded expectations - (a) Stimulated Brillouin (SBS) dominates Raman (SRS) for any gas-fill species, (b) Measured SBS time-averaged reflectivity values are high, peak values are even higher, (c) SRS and SBS peak while laser-pulse is rising; and (4) Plasma conditions at the onset of high back-scattering yield high SBS convective linear gain - Wavelengths of the back-scattered light is predicted by linear theory.

  11. Effects of Snow/ Soil Interface on Microwave Backscatter of Terrestrial Snowpack at X- and Ku- Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, D. H.; Tan, S.; Zhu, J.; Gu, W.; Tsang, L.; Kim, E. J.

    2017-12-01

    Recent advances in monitoring and modeling capabilities to support remote sensing of terrestrial snow is encouraging to develop satellite mission concept in monitoring cold-region hydrological processes on global scales. However, it is still challenging to link back the active microwave backscattering signals to physical snowpack parameters. One of the limitations resides in the ignorance of the vegetation and soil conditions beneath the snowpack in the microwave scattering/ emission modeling and the snow water equivalent (SWE) retrieval algorithm. During the SnowEx 2017 winter campaign in Grand Mesa, CO, a particular effort has been made on comprehensive measurements of the underlying vegetation and soil characteristics from the snowpit measurements. Besides conducting standard snow core sampling, we have made additional protocols to record the background information beneath the snowpack. Recent works on active SWE retrieval algorithm using backscatters at X- (9.6 GHz) and Ku- (17.2 GHz) band suggest the significant signals from the background scattering characterization. The background scattering arising from the rough snow/ soil interface and the buried vegetation inside and beneath the snowpack modifies the sensitivity of the total backscatter to SWE. In this paper, we summarize the snow/ soil interface conditions as observed in the SnowEx campaign. We also develop standards for future in-situ snowpit measurements to include regular snow/ soil interface observations to accommodate the interpretation of microwave backscatter both for modeling and observation of microwave signatures. These observations first provide inputs to the microwave scattering models to predict the backscattering contribution from background, which is one of the key factors to be included to improve the SWE retrieval performance.

  12. Variations in daily quality assurance dosimetry from device levelling, feet position and backscatter material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceylan, Abdurrahman; Cullen, Ashley; Butson, Martin; Yu, Peter K.N.; Alnawaf, Hani

    2012-01-01

    Daily quality assurance procedures are an essential part of radiotherapy medical physics. Devices such as the Sun Nuclear, DQA3 are effective tools for analysis of daily dosimetry including flatness, symmetry, energy, field size and central axis radiation dose measurement. The DQA3 can be used on the treatment couch of the linear accelerator or on a dedicated table/bed for superficial and orthovoltage x-ray machines. This device is levelled using its dedicated feet. This work has shown that depending on the quantity of backscatter material behind the DQA3 device, the position of the levelling feet can affect the measured central axis dose by up to 1.8 % (250 kVp and 6 MV) and that the introduction of more backscatter material behind the DQA3 can lead to up to 7.2 % (6 MV) variations in measured central axis dose. In conditions where no backscatter material is present, dose measurements can vary up to 1 %. As such this work has highlighted the need to keep the material behind the DQA3 device constant as well as maintaining the accuracy of the feet position on the device to effectively measure the most accurate daily constancy achievable. Results have also shown that variations in symmetry and energy calculations of up to 1 % can occur if the device is not levelled appropriately. As such, we recommend the position of the levelling feet on the device be as close as possible to the device so that a constant distance is kept between the DQA3 and the treatment couch and thus minimal levelling variations also occur. We would also recommend having no extra backscattering material behind the DQA3 device during use to minimise any variations which might occur from these backscattering effects.

  13. ISIS 1 measurements of high-frequency backscatter inside the ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, H.G.

    1989-01-01

    A study has been made of high-frequency backscatter observed by the ISIS 1 topside sounder at orbital heights from approximately 600 to 800 km. Signals are detected during high-latitude passes at radar ranges x of up to about 400 km and at frequencies from about the X mode cutoff at the spacecraft (usually around 5 MHz) up to 10 MHz typically and 18 MHz occasionally. The signals are interpreted as coherent aspect-sensitive scatter. The absolute power of return signals at high latitudes usually varies as x -2 for x ≤ 150 km. This implies that the scattering cross-section density σ is constant for all azimuths about the magnetic field and for ranges out to 150 km or, in other words, that irregularity patches have a constant σ over cross-field dimensions of 300 km. At larger ranges the signal often falls off more sharply with x, indicating azimuthal variations in σ. The cross section scaled from the data using the radar equation is found to have values centered near 10 -8 to 10 -7 m -1 for the most intense signals, referred to an assumed polar-aspect angle sensitivity. However, the magnitude of σ drops by about 2 orders of magnitude in the frequency range 5-15 MHz. Previous statistical studies have established that strong backscatter is restricted to auroral latitudes. Here the polar distribution of backscatter has been plotted for two sets of passes over the south pole, one collected during austral winter and the other during summer. The strongest backscatter is located at invariant latitudes around 80 degree. Backscatter is significantly stronger and distributed more extensively over the polar cap in winter than in summer

  14. IMPROVED PARAMETERIZATION OF WATER CLOUD MODEL FOR HYBRID-POLARIZED BACKSCATTER SIMULATION USING INTERACTION FACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Chauhan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The prime aim of this study was to assess the potential of semi-empirical water cloud model (WCM in simulating hybrid-polarized SAR backscatter signatures (RH and RV retrieved from RISAT-1 data and integrate the results into a graphical user interface (GUI to facilitate easy comprehension and interpretation. A predominant agricultural wheat growing area was selected in Mathura and Bharatpur districts located in the Indian states of Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan respectively to carry out the study. The three-date datasets were acquired covering the crucial growth stages of the wheat crop. In synchrony, the fieldwork was organized to measure crop/soil parameters. The RH and RV backscattering coefficient images were extracted from the SAR data for all the three dates. The effect of four combinations of vegetation descriptors (V1 and V2 viz., LAI-LAI, LAI-Plant water content (PWC, Leaf water area index (LWAI-LWAI, and LAI-Interaction factor (IF on the total RH and RV backscatter was analyzed. The results revealed that WCM calibrated with LAI and IF as the two vegetation descriptors simulated the total RH and RV backscatter values with highest R2 of 0.90 and 0.85 while the RMSE was lowest among the other tested models (1.18 and 1.25 dB, respectively. The theoretical considerations and interpretations have been discussed and examined in the paper. The novelty of this work emanates from the fact that it is a first step towards the modeling of hybrid-polarized backscatter data using an accurately parameterized semi-empirical approach.

  15. Multi-Polarization ASAR Backscattering from Herbaceous Wetlands in Poyang Lake Region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiyong Sang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands are one of the most important ecosystems on Earth. There is an urgent need to quantify the biophysical parameters (e.g., plant height, aboveground biomass and map total remaining areas of wetlands in order to evaluate the ecological status of wetlands. In this study, Environmental Satellite/Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ENVISAT/ASAR dual-polarization C-band data acquired in 2005 is tested to investigate radar backscattering mechanisms with the variation of hydrological conditions during the growing cycle of two types of herbaceous wetland species, which colonize lake borders with different elevation in Poyang Lake region, China. Phragmites communis (L. Trin. is semi-aquatic emergent vegetation with vertical stem and blade-like leaves, and the emergent Carex spp. has rhizome and long leaves. In this study, the potential of ASAR data in HH-, HV-, and VV-polarization in mapping different wetland types is examined, by observing their dynamic variations throughout the whole flooding cycle. The sensitivity of ASAR backscattering coefficients to vegetation parameters of plant height, fresh and dry biomass, and vegetation water content is also analyzed for Phragmites communis (L. Trin. and Carex spp. The research for Phragmites communis (L. Trin. shows that HH polarization is more sensitive to plant height and dry biomass than HV polarization. ASAR backscattering coefficients are relatively less sensitive to fresh biomass, especially in HV polarization. However, both are highly dependent on canopy water content. In contrast, the dependence of HH- and HV- backscattering from Carex community on vegetation parameters is poor, and the radar backscattering mechanism is controlled by ground water level.

  16. An ultra-wideband tunable multi-wavelength Brillouin fibre laser based on a semiconductor optical amplifier and dispersion compensating fibre in a linear cavity configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zulkifli, M Z; Ahmad, H; Hassan, N A; Jemangin, M H; Harun, S W

    2011-01-01

    A multi-wavelength Brillouin fibre laser (MBFL) with an ultra-wideband tuning range from 1420 nm to 1620 nm is demonstrated. The MBFL uses an ultra-wideband semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) and a dispersion compensating fibre (DCF) as the linear gain medium and nonlinear gain medium, respectively. The proposed MBFL has a wide tuning range covering the short (S-), conventional (C-) and long (L-) bands with a wavelength spacing of 0.08 nm, making it highly suitable for DWDM system applications. The output power of the observed Brillouin Stokes ranges approximately from -5.94 dBm to -0.41 dBm for the S-band, from -4.34 dBm to 0.02 dBm for the C-band and from -2.19 dBm to 0.39 dBm for the L-band. The spacing between each adjacent wavelengths of all the three bands is about 0.08 nm, which is approximately 10.7 GHz for the frequency domain. (lasers)

  17. A Brillouin scattering study of La0.77Ca0.23MnO3 across the metal-insulator transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seikh, Md Motin; Narayana, Chandrabhas; Sudheendra, L; Sood, A K; Rao, C N R

    2004-01-01

    Temperature-dependent Brillouin scattering studies have been carried out on La 0.77 Ca 0.23 MnO 3 across the paramagnetic insulator-ferromagnetic metal (I-M) transition (T C ∼ 230 K). The spectra show modes corresponding to a surface Rayleigh wave (SRW) and a high velocity pseudo-surface wave (HVPSAW) along with bulk acoustic waves (B1 and B2). The Brillouin shifts associated with the SRW and HVPSAW increase, whereas the B1 and B2 frequencies decrease, below T C . The temperature dependence of the SRW and HVPSAW modes is related to the increase in the elastic constant C 11 across the I-M transition. The decrease in frequency across the I-M transition of the bulk modes is understood to be due to enhanced self-energy corrections as a result of increased magnon-phonon interaction across the I-M transition. Correspondingly, these modes show a large increase in the full width at half maximum (FWHM) as the temperature decreases. We also observe a central peak whose width is maximum at T C

  18. Improved detection and mapping of deepwater hydrocarbon seeps: optimizing multibeam echosounder seafloor backscatter acquisition and processing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Garrett A.; Orange, Daniel L.; Gharib, Jamshid J.; Kennedy, Paul

    2018-02-01

    Marine seep hunting surveys are a current focus of hydrocarbon exploration surveys due to recent advances in offshore geophysical surveying, geochemical sampling, and analytical technologies. Hydrocarbon seeps are ephemeral, small, discrete, and therefore difficult to sample on the deep seafloor. Multibeam echosounders are an efficient seafloor exploration tool to remotely locate and map seep features. Geophysical signatures from hydrocarbon seeps are acoustically-evident in bathymetric, seafloor backscatter, midwater backscatter datasets. Interpretation of these signatures in backscatter datasets is a fundamental component of commercial seep hunting campaigns. Degradation of backscatter datasets resulting from environmental, geometric, and system noise can interfere with the detection and delineation of seeps. We present a relative backscatter intensity normalization method and an oversampling acquisition technique that can improve the geological resolvability of hydrocarbon seeps. We use Green Canyon (GC) Block 600 in the Northern Gulf of Mexico as a seep calibration site for a Kongsberg EM302 30 kHz MBES prior to the start of the Gigante seep hunting program to analyze these techniques. At GC600, we evaluate the results of a backscatter intensity normalization, assess the effectiveness of 2X seafloor coverage in resolving seep-related features in backscatter data, and determine the off-nadir detection limits of bubble plumes using the EM302. Incorporating these techniques into seep hunting surveys can improve the detectability and sampling of seafloor seeps.

  19. Improved detection and mapping of deepwater hydrocarbon seeps: optimizing multibeam echosounder seafloor backscatter acquisition and processing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Garrett A.; Orange, Daniel L.; Gharib, Jamshid J.; Kennedy, Paul

    2018-06-01

    Marine seep hunting surveys are a current focus of hydrocarbon exploration surveys due to recent advances in offshore geophysical surveying, geochemical sampling, and analytical technologies. Hydrocarbon seeps are ephemeral, small, discrete, and therefore difficult to sample on the deep seafloor. Multibeam echosounders are an efficient seafloor exploration tool to remotely locate and map seep features. Geophysical signatures from hydrocarbon seeps are acoustically-evident in bathymetric, seafloor backscatter, midwater backscatter datasets. Interpretation of these signatures in backscatter datasets is a fundamental component of commercial seep hunting campaigns. Degradation of backscatter datasets resulting from environmental, geometric, and system noise can interfere with the detection and delineation of seeps. We present a relative backscatter intensity normalization method and an oversampling acquisition technique that can improve the geological resolvability of hydrocarbon seeps. We use Green Canyon (GC) Block 600 in the Northern Gulf of Mexico as a seep calibration site for a Kongsberg EM302 30 kHz MBES prior to the start of the Gigante seep hunting program to analyze these techniques. At GC600, we evaluate the results of a backscatter intensity normalization, assess the effectiveness of 2X seafloor coverage in resolving seep-related features in backscatter data, and determine the off-nadir detection limits of bubble plumes using the EM302. Incorporating these techniques into seep hunting surveys can improve the detectability and sampling of seafloor seeps.

  20. Statistical properties of intensity of partially polarised semiconductor laser light backscattered by a single-mode optical fibre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, A E; Potapov, V T; Gorshkov, B G

    2015-01-01

    We report the results of studying statistical properties of the intensity of partially polarised coherent light backscattered by a single mode optical fibre. An expression is derived for the deviation of the backscattered light intensity depending on the scattering region length, the degree of the light source coherence and the degree of scattered light polarisation. It is shown that the backscattered light in a fibre scattered-light interferometer is partially polarised with the polarisation degree P = 1/3 in the case of external perturbations of the interferometer fibre. (scattering of light)